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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 5 - "Cat" to "Celt"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 5 - "Cat" to "Celt"" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not

(5) [oo] stands for the infinity symbol.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    Article CATALONIA: "There is much woodland, but meadows and
      pastures are rare." 'There' amended from 'These'.

    Article CATALYSIS: "It seems in this, as in other cases, that
      additional compounds are first formed which subsequently react with
      the re-formation of the catalyst." 'additional' amended from

    Article CAVALRY: "... and as this particular branch of the army was
      almost exclusively commanded by the aristocracy it suffered most in
      the early days of the Revolution." 'army' amended from 'arm'.

    Article CECILIA, SAINT: "It was long supposed that she was a noble
      lady of Rome 594 who, with her husband and other friends whom she
      had converted, suffered martyrdom, c. 230, under the emperor
      Alexander Severus." 'martyrdom' amended from 'martydom'.

    Article CELT: "Two poets of this period, whom an English writer
      describes as 'the two filthy Welshmen who first smoked publicly in
      the streets,' ..." 'as' amended from 'a'.



              ELEVENTH EDITION

            VOLUME V, SLICE V

               Cat to Celt


  CAT                                 CAUTERETS
  CATABOLISM                          CAUTIN
  CATACLYSM                           CAUTLEY, SIR PROBY THOMAS
  CATACOMB                            CAUVERY
  CATAFALQUE                          CAVA DEI TIRRENI
  CATALOGUE                           CAVAIGNAC, JEAN BAPTISTE
  CATALONIA                           CAVAIGNAC, LOUIS EUGÈNE
  CATALPA                             CAVAILLON
  CATALYSIS                           CAVALCANTI, GUIDO
  CATAMARAN                           CAVALIER, JEAN
  CATAMARCA (province of Argentine)   CAVALIER
  CATAMARCA (city of Argentine)       CAVALIERE, EMILIO DEL
  CATANIA                             CAVALLI, FRANCESCO
  CATANZARO                           CAVALLINI, PIETRO
  CATAPHYLL                           CAVALLO, TIBERIUS
  CATAPULT                            CAVALLOTTI, FELICE
  CATARACT                            CAVALRY
  CATARGIU, LASCAR                    CAVAN (county of Ireland)
  CATARRH                             CAVAN (town of Ireland)
  CATASTROPHE                         CAVATINA
  CATAUXI                             CAVE, EDWARD
  CATAWBAS                            CAVE, WILLIAM
  CATCH THE TEN                       CAVE
  CATECHISM                           CAVEA
  CATECHU                             CAVEAT
  CATECHUMEN                          CAVEDONE, JACOPO
  CATEGORY                            CAVENDISH, GEORGE
  CATENARY                            CAVENDISH, HENRY
  CATERAN                             CAVENDISH, THOMAS
  CATERHAM                            CAVENDISH, SIR WILLIAM
  CATERPILLAR                         CAVETTO
  CATESBY, ROBERT                     CAVIARE
  CAT-FISH                            CAVITE
  CATGUT                              CAVOUR, CAMILLO BENSO
  CATHA                               CAVOUR
  CATHARS                             CAVY
  CATHAY                              CAWDOR
  CATHCART                            CAYENNE
  CATHEDRAL                           CAYENNE PEPPER
  CATHERINE, SAINT                    CAYLEY, ARTHUR
  CATHERINE I                         CAYLUS, ANNE CLAUDE DE LÉVIS
  CATHERINE II                        CAYMAN ISLANDS
  CATHETUS                            CAZOTTE, JACQUES
  CATHOLIC                            CEANOTHUS
  CATILINE                            CEAWLIN
  CATINAT, NICOLAS                    CEBES
  CATLIN, GEORGE                      CEBÚ
  CATO, DIONYSIUS                     CECCO D'ASCOLI
  CATS, JACOB                         CECROPS
  CAT'S-EYE                           CEDAR
  CATSKILL                            CEDAR CREEK
  CATTANEO, CARLO                     CEDAR RAPIDS
  CATTARO                             CEFALU
  CATTEGAT                            CEHEGÍN
  CATTLE                              CEILLIER, REMY
  CATULUS                             CELANDINE
  CAUB                                CELANO
  CAUCA                               CELEBES
  CAUCASIA                            CELERY
  CAUCASUS                            CÉLESTE, MADAME
  CAUCHON, PIERRE                     CELESTINE  (popes)
  CAUCHY, AUGUSTIN LOUIS              CELESTINE (sulphate)
  CAUCUS                              CELESTINES
  CAUDEBEC-EN-CAUX                    CELIBACY
  CAUDINE FORKS                       CELL
  CAUDLE                              CELLA
  CAUL                                CELLARET
  CAULICULUS                          CELLIER, ALFRED
  CAULON                              CELLINI, BENVENUTO
  CAUSATION                           CELLULOSE
  CAUSEWAY                            CELSIUS, ANDERS
  CAUSSES                             CELSUS
  CAUSTIC                             CELT (ancient stone tools)

CAT,[1] properly the name of the well-known domesticated feline animal
usually termed by naturalists _Felis domestica_, but in a wider sense
employed to denote all the more typical members of the family _Felidae_.
According to the _New English Dictionary_, although the origin of the
word "cat" is unknown, yet the name is found in various languages as far
back as they can be traced. In old Western Germanic it occurs, for
instance, so early as from A.D. 400 to 450; in old High German it is
_chazza_ or _catero_, and in Middle German _kattaro_. Both in Gaelic and
in old French it is _cat_, although sometimes taking the form of
_chater_ in the latter; the Gaelic designation of the European wild cat
being _cat fiadhaich_. In Welsh and Cornish the name is _cath_. If
Martial's _cattae_ refer to this animal, the earliest Latin use of the
name dates from the 1st century of our era. In the work of Palladius on
agriculture, dating from about the year A.D. 350, reference is made to
an animal called _catus_ or _cattus_, as being useful in granaries for
catching mice. This usage, coupled with the existence of a distinct term
in Gaelic for the wild species, leaves little doubt that the word "cat"
properly denotes only the domesticated species. This is confirmed by the
employment in Byzantine Greek of the term [Greek: k'attos] or [Greek:
k'atta] to designate domesticated cats brought from Egypt. It should be
added that the [Greek: a'ilouros] of the Greeks, frequently translated
by the older writers as "cat," really refers to the marten-cat, which
appears to have been partially domesticated by the ancients and employed
for mousing.

As regards the origin of the domesticated cats of western Europe, it is
well known that the ancient Egyptians were in the habit of domesticating
(at least in some degree) the Egyptian race of the African wild cat
(_Felis ocreata maniculata_), and also of embalming its remains, of
which vast numbers have been found in tombs at Beni Hasan and elsewhere
in Egypt. These Egyptian cats are generally believed by naturalists to
have had a large share in the parentage of the European breeds, which
have, however, in many cases been crossed to a greater or less extent
with the European wild cat (_F. catus_).

One of the features by which the Egyptian differs from the European wild
cat is the longer and less bushy tail; and it has been very generally
considered that the same feature is characteristic of European
domesticated cats. According, however, to Dr E. Hamilton, "the
measurement of a number of tails of the [European] wild cat and of the
domestic cat gives a range between 11 in. and 14½ in., the longer length
being quite as often found in the wild cats as in the domestic. The
bushy appearance depends entirely on the length of the fur, and accords
with the thick fur of the rest of the body of the wild cat, while in the
domestic race the fur both on the body and tail is thinner and softer."

Possibly those domesticated cats with unusually short and bushy tails
may have a larger share of European wild-cat blood; while, conversely,
such wild cats as show long tails may have a cross of domesticated

More importance was attached by Dr A. Nehring of Berlin (_SB. Ges.
Naturfor._, Berlin, 1887) to the colour of the soles of the hind-feet as
a means of determining the relationship of the domesticated cat of
Europe. According to his observations, in the Egyptian wild cat the pads
of the toes are wholly black, while the black extends back either
continuously or in long stripes as far as the calcaneum or heel-bone. In
the European wild cat, on the other hand, the black is limited to a
small round spot on the pads, while the colour of the hair as far back
as the heel-bone is yellowish or yellowish-grey. Since in all
domesticated cats retaining the colouring of the wild species the soles
of the hind-feet correspond in this particular with the Egyptian rather
than with the European wild cat, the presumption is in favour of their
descent from the former rather than from the latter.

Later, Dr Nehring (_op. cit._ 1889) came to the conclusion that the
domesticated cat has a dual parentage, one stock coming from
south-eastern Asia and the other from north-eastern Africa; in other
words, from a domesticated Chinese cat (itself derived from a wild
Chinese species) on the one hand, and from the Egyptian cat on the
other. The ordinary domesticated cats of Europe are, however, mainly of
African origin, although they have largely crossed, especially in
Germany (and probably also in Great Britain), with the wild cat. The
same author was likewise of opinion that the domestication or taming of
various species of wild cats took place chiefly among nationalities of
stationary or non-nomadic habits who occupied themselves with
agricultural pursuits, since it would be of vital importance that their
stores of grain should be adequately protected from the depredations of
rats and mice.

The foregoing opinion as to the dual parentage of our domesticated cats
receives support from observations made many years ago by E. Blyth,
which have recently been endorsed and amplified by R.I. Pocock (_Proc.
Zool. Soc. London_, 1907). According to these observations, two distinct
types of so-called tabby cats are recognizable. In the one the pattern
consists of narrow vertical stripes, and in the other of longitudinal or
obliquely longitudinal stripes, which, on the sides of the body, tend
to assume a spiral or sub-circular arrangement characteristic of the
blotched tabby. This latter type appears to be the true "tabby"; since
that word denotes a pattern like that of watered silk. One or other of
these types is to be found in cats of almost all breeds, whether
Persian, short-haired or Manx; and there appear to be no intermediate
stages between them. Cats of the striped type are no doubt descended
from the European and North African wild cats; but the origin of cats
exhibiting the blotched pattern appears to be unknown. As it was to a
cat of the latter kind that Linnaeus gave the name of _Felis catus_,
Pocock urges that this title is not available for the European wild cat,
which he would call _Felis sylvestris_. Without accepting this proposed
change in nomenclature, which is liable to lead to confusion without any
compensating advantage, it may be suggested that the blotched tabby type
represents Dr Nehring's presumed Chinese element in the cat's parentage,
and that the missing wild stock may be one of the numerous phases of the
leopard-cat (_F. bengalensis_), in some of which an incipient spiral
arrangement of the markings may be noticed on the shoulder.

As to the introduction of domesticated cats into Europe, the opinion is
very generally held that tame cats from Egypt were imported at a
relatively early date into Etruria by Phoenician traders; and there is
decisive evidence that these animals were established in Italy long
before the Christian era. The progeny of these cats, more or less
crossed with the indigenous species, thence gradually spread over
Europe, to become mingled at some period, according to Dr Nehring's
hypothesis, with an Asiatic stock. The earliest written record of the
introduction of domesticated cats into Great Britain dates from about
A.D. 936, when Hywel Dda, prince of South Wales, enacted a law for their
protection. "The Romans," writes Dr Hamilton, "were probably the
original introducers of this cat, and as the final evacuation of Britain
by that nation took place under the emperor Valentinian about A.D. 436,
the period of its introduction may certainly be dated some 500 years
previous to the Welsh chronicle and even much earlier." It is added that
the remains of cats from Roman villas at Silchester and Dursley are
probably referable to the domesticated breed.

Before proceeding to notice some of the different types of domesticated
cats, a few lines may be devoted to the wild European species, _F.
catus_. Beyond stating that in colour it conforms very closely to the
striped phase of domesticated tabby, it will be unnecessary to describe
the species. Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and
included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany,
Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as
the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria,
Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia. "At the present
time," observes Dr Hamilton, "the wild cat has become almost extinct in
many of the above districts. Examples may perhaps occasionally still be
found in the uninhabited forests of Hungary and Transylvania, and
occasionally in Spain and Greece, as well as in the Caucasus and in some
of the Swiss cantons, but the original race has in most countries
interbred with the domestic cat wherever the latter has penetrated." In
Great Britain wild cats survive only in some of the Scottish forests,
and even there it is difficult to decide whether pure-bred specimens are
extant. Remains of the wild cat occur in English caverns; while from
those of Ireland (where the wild species has apparently been unknown
during the historic period) have been obtained jaws and teeth which it
has been suggested are referable to the Egyptian rather than to the
European wild cat. Such a determination is, however, extremely
hazardous, even if it be admitted that the remains of cats from the
rock-fissures of Gibraltar pertain to _Felis ocreata_.


  Plate II.)]


  ROSS-SHIRE, SCOTLAND. (Cf. Fig. 1 on Plate II.)]

  _Note_--Of the two types of colouration found in modern domestic cats,
  the striped type obviously corresponds to the original wild cat as
  seen in various parts of North Europe to-day. The origin of the
  blotched as a special type is wholly unknown.

  (Photos from Plates VIII., IX., and X., _P.Z.S._, 1907, by permission
  of the Zoological Society of London.)


  [Illustration: _Photo, W.G. Berridge_. FIG. 1.--EUROPEAN WILD CAT.]

  [Illustration: _Photo, W.G. Berridge_. FIG. 2.--PALLAS'S CAT.]

  [Illustration: _Photo, R.C. Ryan_. FIG. 3.--ROYAL SIAMESE CAT.]

  [Illustration: _Photo, Topical Press Agency_. FIG. 4.--STRIPED

  [Illustration: _Photo, Topical Press Agency_. FIG. 5.--BLOTCHED

  [Illustration: _Photo, R.C. Ryan_ FIG. 6.--TAIL-LESS CAT.]

  [Illustration: _Photo, Topical Press Agency_. FIG. 7.--WHITE PERSIAN

  [Illustration: _Photo, Topical Press Agency_. FIG. 8.--BLUE PERSIAN

  [Illustration: _Photo, Topical Press Agency_. FIG. 9.--BLACK PERSIAN

The favourite haunts of the wild cat are mountain forests where masses
or rocks or cliffs are interspersed with trees, the crevices in these
rocks or the hollow trunks of trees affording sites for the wild cat's
lair, where its young are produced and reared. In the Spanish plains,
however, the young are often produced in nests built in trees, or among
tall bamboos in cane-brakes. "To fight like a wild cat" is
proverbial, and wild cats are described as some of the most ferocious
and untamable of all animals. How far this untamable character lends
support to the view of the origin of our domesticated breeds has not yet
been determined. Hares, rabbits, field-mice, water-rats, rats,
squirrels, moles, game-birds, pigeons, and small birds, form the chief
food of the wild cat.

Apart from the above-mentioned division of the striped members of both
groups into two types according to the pattern of their markings, the
domesticated cats of western Europe are divided into a short-haired and
a long-haired group. Of these, the former is the one which bears the
closest relationship to the wild cats of Africa and of Europe, the
latter being an importation from the East. The striped (as distinct from
the blotched) short-haired tabby is probably the one most nearly allied
to the wild ancestors, the stripes being, however, to a great extent due
to the European wild cat. In one direction the tabby shows a tendency to
melanism which culminates in complete blackness, while in the other
direction there is an equally marked tendency to albinism; grey cats,
which may be regarded as tabbies whose stripes have disappeared, forming
the connecting link between the tabby and the white cat. A mixture of
the melanistic with the albinistic type will of course give rise to
parti-coloured cats. A third colour-phase, the "erythristic" or red, is
represented by the sandy cat, the female of which takes the form of the
"tortoise-shell," characterized, curiously enough, by the colour being a
blend of black, white, and sandy. The so-called orange tabby is one
phase of the erythristic type.

As to long-haired cats, there appear originally to have been two
closely-allied strains, the Angora and the Persian, of which the former
has been altogether replaced in western Europe by the latter. That these
long-haired cats have an ancestry, to some extent at any rate distinct
from the ordinary short-haired breeds, is practically certain, and it
has been suggested that they are derived from the "manul" cat, or
Pallas's cat (_Felis manul_), of the deserts of central Asia, which is a
long-haired and bushy-tailed species with comparatively slight striping.
The fact that in tabby Persians the body-markings are never so strong as
in the short-haired breeds is in some degree confirmatory of this, as
suggesting descent from a nearly whole-coloured type. At the present
day, however, Persians exhibit nearly all the colour and pattern types
of the short-haired breeds, the "orange Persian" representing the
erythristic phase.

Turning to the tailless or so-called Manx cats, in which the tail should
be represented merely by a tuft of hair without any remnant of bone, it
seems that the strain is to be met with in many parts of Russia, and
there is a very general opinion that it originally came from Japan or
some other far eastern country. Throughout Japan, China, Siam, and the
Malay countries, normal long-tailed cats are indeed seldom seen. Instead
of these are cats with more or less abbreviated tails, showing in
greater or less degree a decided kink or bend near the tip. In other
cases the tail is of the short curling type of that of a bulldog;
sometimes it starts quite straight, but divides in a fork-like manner
near the tip; and in yet other instances it is altogether wanting, as in
the typical Manx cats. These kink-tailed or tailless cats are moreover
smaller in size than the ordinary short-tailed breeds, with rather
longer hair, whose texture approaches that of rabbit-fur, and a cry said
to be like that of the jungle-cat (_F. chaus_) of India and Africa, and
more dog-like habits. Unless the jungle-cat, which is a nearly
whole-coloured species, can claim the position, the ancestry of these
Manx-Malay cats is still unknown. Kink-tailed cats, it should be added,
are also known from Madagascar.

Among the domesticated cats of India a spotted type of colouring, with a
more or less decided tendency for the spots to coalesce into stripes, is
very noticeable; and it is probable that these cats are derived from the
spotted Indian desert-cat (_F. ornata_), with a certain amount of
crossing from other species. The so-called _F. torquata_ of India is
probably based on cats of this type which have reverted to the wild
state. Other Indian cats with a tawny or fulvous type of colouring are
probably the more or less modified descendants of the jungle-cat. From
the same stock may be derived the Abyssinian breed, in which the ears
are relatively large and occasionally tipped with long hairs (thus
recalling the tufted ears of the jungle-cat). The colour is typically
reddish-brown, each individual hair being "ticked" like that of a wild
rabbit, whence the popular name of "bunny cat." Another African breed is
the Mombasa cat, in which the hair is reported to be unusually short and

By far the most remarkable of all the Old World domesticated breeds is,
however, the royal Siamese cat, which almost certainly has an origin
quite distinct from that of the ordinary European breeds; this being
rendered evident not only by the peculiar type of colouring, but
likewise by the cry, which is quite unmistakable. Siamese cats may have
the tail either straight or kinked, but whether the latter feature
belongs of right to the breed, or has been acquired by crossing with the
ordinary black and tabby kink-tailed cats of the country, is not known.
In the royal Siamese breed the head is rather long and pointed, the body
also elongated with relatively slender limbs, the coat glossy and close,
the eyes blue, and the general colour some shade of cream or pink, with
the face, ears, feet, under-parts, and tail chocolate or seal-brown.
There is however a wholly chocolate-coloured strain in which the eyes
are yellow. The most remarkable feature about the breed is that the
young are white. "The kittens," observes a lady writer, "are born
absolutely white, and in about a week a faint pencilling comes round the
ears, and gradually all the points come. At four or five months they are
lovely, as generally they retain their baby whiteness, which contrasts
well with their almost black ears, deep-brown markings, and blue eyes."
In constitution these cats are extremely delicate. The blue eyes and the
white coat of the kitten indicate that the Siamese breed is a
semi-albino, which when adult tends towards melanism, such a combination
of characters being apparently unknown in any other animal. If the
frequent presence of a kink in the tail be an inherent feature, the
breed is evidently related to the other kink-tailed Malay cats which, as
already stated, have a cry differing from that of European cats. Should
this be so, then if the ordinary Malay cats are the descendants of the
jungle-cat, we shall have to assign the same ancestry to the Siamese

Although definite information on this point is required, it seems
probable that the southern part of North America and South America
possessed certain native domesticated breeds of cats previous to the
European conquest of the country; and if this be so, it will be obvious
that these breeds must be derived from indigenous wild species. One of
these breeds is the Paraguay cat, which when adult weighs only about
three pounds, and is not more than a quarter the size of an ordinary
cat. The body is elongated, and the hair, especially on the tail, short,
shiny and close. This small size and elongated form suggest origin from
the jaguarondi (_F. jaguarondi_), a chestnut-coloured wild species; but
information appears to be lacking with regard to the colouring of the
domesticated breed. Another South American breed is said to be free from
the hideous "caterwauling" of the ordinary cat. In old days New Mexico
was the home of a breed of hairless cats, said to have been kept by the
ancient Aztecs, but now well-nigh if not completely extinct. Although
entirely naked in summer, these cats developed in winter a slight growth
of hair on the back and the ridge of the tail.

  LITERATURE.--St George Mivart, _The Cat_ (London, 1881); R. Lydekker,
  "Cats," in _Allen's Naturalists' Library_ (1888); F. Hamilton, _The
  Wild Cat of Europe_ (London. 1896); Frances Simpson, _The Book of the
  Cat_ (London, 1903).     (R. L.*)


  [1] The word "cat" is applied to various objects, in all cases an
    application of the name of the animal. In medieval siegecraft the
    "cat" (Med. Lat. _chattus_ or _gattus_, _chatta_ or _gatta_, in Fr.
    _chat_ or _chat-chasteil_) was a movable pent-house used to protect
    besiegers when approaching a wall or gateway, for the purpose of
    sapping, mining or direct attack, or to cover a ram or other
    battering-engine. The word is also sometimes applied to a heavy
    timber fitted with iron spikes or projections to be thrown down upon
    besiegers, and to the large work known as a "cavalier." "Cat" or
    "cat-head," in nautical usage, is the projecting beam on the bows of
    a ship used to clear the anchor from the sides of the vessel when
    weighed. The stock of the anchor rests on the cat-head when hung
    outside the ship. The name is also used of a type of a vessel, now
    obsolete, and formerly used in the coal and timber trade on the
    north-east coast of England; it had a deep waist and narrow stem; it
    is still applied to a small rig of sailing boats, with a single mast
    stepped far forward, with a fore and aft sail. Among other objects
    also known by the name of "cat" is the small piece of wood pointed at
    either end used in the game of tip-cat, and the instrument of
    punishment, generally known as the "cat o' nine tails." This consists
    of a handle of wood or rope, about 18 in. long, with nine knotted
    cords or thongs. The multiplication of thongs for purposes of
    flogging is found in the old Roman _flagellum_, a scourge, which had
    sometimes three thongs with bone or bronze knots fastened to them.
    The "cat" was the regular instrument with which floggings were
    performed in the British army and navy. Since the abolition of
    flogging in the services, the use of the cat is now restricted to
    certain classes of offenders in military prisons (Army Act 1881, §
    133). In the English criminal law, where corporal punishment is
    ordered by the court for certain criminal offences, the "cat" is used
    only where the prisoner is over sixteen years of age. It may not be
    used except when actually ordered in the sentence, and must be of a
    pattern approved by a secretary of state. Further floggings are
    inflicted with the "cat" upon convicted prisoners for breaches of
    discipline in prison. They must be ordered by the visitors of the
    prison and confirmed by the home secretary.

CATABOLISM, or KATABOLISM (Gr. [Greek: kata], down, [Greek: Bolê], a
throw), the biological term for the reverse of anabolism, namely the
breaking down of complex into simpler substances, destructive metabolism

CATACLYSM (Gr. [Greek: kataklusmos], a deluge), a great flood or deluge
(q.v.). The term is used in geology to denote an overwhelming
catastrophe which has produced sudden changes in the earth's surface;
and also, figuratively, of any great and violent change which sweeps
away the existing social or political order.

CATACOMB, a subterranean excavation for the interment of the dead or
burial-vault. In this sense the word "catacomb" has gained universal
acceptance, and has found a place in most modern languages. The original
term, _catacumbae_, however, had no connexion with sepulture, but was
simply the name of a particular locality in the environs of Rome. It was
derived from the Greek [Greek: kata] and [Greek: kumbê], "a hollow," and
had reference to the natural configuration of the ground. In the
district that bore this designation, lying close to the Appian Way, the
basilica of San Sebastiano was erected, and the extensive burial-vaults
beneath that church--in which, according to tradition, the bodies of the
apostles St Peter and St Paul rested for a year and seven months
previous to their removal to the basilicas which bear their names--were,
in very early times, called from it _coemeterium ad catacumbas_, or
_catacumbas_ alone. From the celebrity of this cemetery as an object of
pilgrimage its name became extensively known, and in entire
forgetfulness of the origin of the word, _catacumbae_ came to be
regarded as a generic appellation for all burial-places of the same
kind. This extension of the term to Christian burial-vaults generally
dates from the 9th century, and obtained gradual currency through the
Christian world. The original designation of these places of sepulture
is _crypta_ or _coemeterium_.

The largest number of Christian catacombs belong to the 3rd and the
early part of the 4th centuries. The custom of subterranean interment
gradually died out, and entirely ceased with the sack of Rome by Alaric,
A.D. 410. "The end of the catacomb graves," writes Mommsen (_Cont.
Rev._, May 1871), "is intimately connected with the end of the powerful
city itself.... Poverty took the place of wealth, ... the traditions of
the Christian tomb-architects sank into utter insignificance, and the
expanse of the wasted Campagna now offered room enough to bury the few
bodies, without having to descend as once far down below the surface of
the earth." The earliest account of the catacombs, that of St Jerome
narrating his visits to them when a schoolboy at Rome, about A.D. 354,
shows that interment in them was even then rare if it had not been
altogether discontinued; and the poet Prudentius's description of the
tomb of the Christian martyr Hippolytus, and the cemetery in which it
stood, leads us to the same conclusion. With the latter part of the 4th
century a new epoch in the history of the catacombs arose--that of
religious reverence. In the time of Pope Damasus, A.D. 366-384, the
catacombs had begun to be regarded with special devotion, and had become
the resort of large bands of pilgrims, for whose guidance catalogues of
the chief burial-places and the holy men buried in them were drawn up.
Some of these lists are still extant.[1] Pope Damasus himself displayed
great zeal in adapting the catacombs to their new purpose, restoring the
works of art on the walls, and renewing the epitaphs over the graves of
the martyrs. In this latter work he employed an engraver named Furius
Philocalus, the exquisite beauty of whose characters enables the
smallest fragment of his work to be recognized at a glance. This gave
rise to extensive alterations in their construction and decoration,
which has much lessened their value as authentic memorials of the
religious art of the 2nd and 3rd centuries. Subsequent popes manifested
equal ardour, with the same damaging results, in the repair and
adornment of the catacombs, and many of the paintings covering their
walls, which have been assigned to the period of their original
construction, are really the work of these later times. The catacombs
shared in the devastation of Rome by the Goths under Vitiges in the 6th
century and by the Lombards at a later period; and partly through the
spoliation of these barbarian invaders, partly through the neglect of
those who should have been their guardians, they sank into such a state
of decay and pollution that, as the only means of preserving the holy
remains they enshrined from further desecration, Pope Paul I., in the
latter part of the 8th century, and Pope Paschal, at the beginning of
the 9th, entered upon the work of the translation of the relics, which
was vigorously carried on by successive pontiffs until the crypts were
almost entirely despoiled of their dead. The relics having been removed,
the visits of pilgrims naturally ceased, and by degrees the very
existence of those wonderful subterranean cemeteries was forgotten. Six
centuries elapsed before the accidental discovery of a sepulchral
chamber by some labourers digging for _pozzolana_ earth (May 31, 1578)
revealed to the amazed inhabitants of Rome "the existence," to quote a
contemporary record, "of other cities concealed beneath their own
suburbs." Baronius, the ecclesiastical historian, was one of the first
to visit the new discovery, and his _Annals_ in more than one place
evidence his just appreciation of its importance. The true "Columbus of
this subterranean world," as he has been aptly designated, was the
indefatigable Antonio Bosio (d. 1629), who devoted his life to the
personal investigation of the catacombs, the results of which were given
to the world in 1632 in a huge folio, entitled _Roma sotterranea_,
profusely illustrated with rude but faithful plans and engravings. This
was republished in a Latin translation with considerable alterations and
omissions by Paolo Aringhi in 1651; and a century after its first
appearance the plates were reproduced by Giovanni Bottari in 1737, and
illustrated with great care and learning. Some additional discoveries
were described by Marc Antonio Boldetti in his _Osservazioni_, published
in 1720; but, writing in the interests of the Roman Church with an
apologetic, not a scientific object, truth was made to bend to polemics,
and little addition to our knowledge of the catacombs is to be gained
from his otherwise important work. The French historian of art, Seroux
d'Agincourt, 1825, by his copious illustrations, greatly facilitated the
study of the architecture of the catacombs and the works of art
contained in them. The works of Raoul Rochette display a comprehensive
knowledge of the whole subject, extensive reading, and a thorough
acquaintance with early Christian art so far as it could be gathered
from books, but he was not an original investigator. The great pioneer
in the path of independent research, which, with the intelligent use of
documentary and historical evidence, has led to so vast an increase in
our acquaintance with the Roman Catacombs, was Padre Marchi of the
Society of Jesus. His work, _Monumenti delle arti christiane primitive_,
is the first in which the strange misconception, received with
unquestioning faith by earlier writers, that the catacombs were
exhausted sand-pits adapted by the Christians to the purpose of
interment, was dispelled, and the true history of their formation
demonstrated. Marchi's line of investigation was followed by the
Commendatore De Rossi, and his brother Michele, the former of whom was
Marchi's fellow-labourer during the latter part of his explorations; and
it is to them that we owe the most exhaustive scientific examination of
the whole subject. The Catacombs of Rome are the most extensive with
which we are acquainted, and, as might be expected in the centre of the
Christian world, are in many respects the most remarkable. No others
have been so thoroughly examined and illustrated. These may, therefore,
be most appropriately selected for description as typical examples.

  Catacombs of Rome.

Our description of the Roman Catacombs cannot be more appropriately
introduced than by St Jerome's account of his visits to them in his
youth, already referred to, which, after the lapse of above fifteen
centuries, presents a most accurate picture of these wonderful
subterranean labyrinths. "When I was a boy," he writes, "receiving my
education in Rome, I and my schoolfellows used, on Sundays, to make the
circuit of the sepulchres of the apostles and martyrs. Many a time did
we go down into the catacombs. These are excavated deep in the earth,
and contain, on either hand as you enter, the bodies of the dead buried
in the wall. It is all so dark there that the language of the prophet
(Ps. lv. 15) seems to be fulfilled, 'Let them go down quick into hell.'
Only occasionally is light let in to mitigate the horror of the gloom,
and then not so much through a window as through a hole. You take each
step with caution, as, surrounded by deep night, you recall the words of

  "Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrent."[2]

[Illustration FIG. 1.--Plan of part of the Cemetery of Sant' Agnese.
(From Martigny.)

      A. Entrance from the Basilica of St Agnes.
   1, 2. Ancient staircases leading to the first storey.
      3. Corridors from the staircases.
      4. Two ruined staircases leading to the lower storey.
      5. Steps of the rock.
      6. Air-shafts, or luminaria.
      7. Ruined vault.
      8. Blind ways.
      9. Passages built up or ruined.
     10. Passages obstructed by landslips.
     11. Unfinished passage.
     12. Passages destitute of tombs.
     13. Narrow apertures between adjoining galleries.
  14-17. Arcosolia.
  18-32. Cubicula.
     33. Chapel with vestibule and apse, and two chairs.
     34. Double chapel with three chairs.
     35. Large chapel in five divisions.]

In complete agreement with Jerome's vivid picture the visitor to the
Roman Catacombs finds himself in a vast labyrinth of narrow galleries,
usually from 3 to 4 ft. in width, interspersed with small chambers, all
excavated at successive levels, in the strata of volcanic rock subjacent
to the city and its environs, and constructed originally for the
interment of the Christian dead. The galleries are not the way of access
to the cemeteries, but are themselves the cemeteries, the dead being
buried in long low horizontal recesses, excavated in the vertical walls
of the passages, rising tier above tier like the berths in a ship, from
a few inches above the floor to the springing of the arched ceiling, to
the number of five, six or even sometimes twelve ranges. These galleries
are not arranged on any definite plan, but, as will be seen from the
plan (fig. 1), they intersect one another at different angles, producing
an intricate network which it is almost impossible to reduce to any
system. They generally run in straight lines, and as a rule preserve the
same level. The different storeys of galleries lie one below the other
(fig. 2) to the number of four or five (in one part of the cemetery of
St Calixtus they reach seven storeys), and communicate with one another
by stairs cut out of the living rock. Light and air are introduced by
means of vertical shafts (_luminaria_) running up to the outer air, and
often serving for several storeys. The drawing (fig. 3) from Northcote
gives a very correct idea of these galleries, with the tiers of graves
pierced in the walls. The doorways which are seen interrupting the lines
of graves are those of the family sepulchral chambers, or _cubicula_, of
which we shall speak more particularly hereafter.

The graves, or _loculi_, as they are commonly designated, were, in the
Christian cemeteries, with only a few exceptions (Padre Marchi produces
some from the cemetery of St Ciriaca, _Monum. primitiv._ tav. xiv.
xliii. xliv.), parallel with the length of the gallery. In the pagan
cemeteries, on the other hand, the sepulchral recess as a rule entered
the rock like an oven at right angles to the corridor, the body being
introduced endways. The plan adopted by the Christians saved labour,
economized space, and consulted reverence in the deposition of the
corpse. These _loculi_ were usually constructed for a single body only.
Some, however, were formed to contain two, three, or four, or even more
corpses. Such recesses were known respectively as _bisomi, trisomi,
quadrisomi_, &c., terms which often appear in the sepulchral
inscriptions. After the introduction of the body the _loculi_ were
closed with the greatest care, either with slabs of marble the whole
length of the aperture, or with huge tiles, three being generally
employed, cemented together with great exactness so as to prevent the
escape of the products of decomposition (fig. 4). Where any epitaph was
set up--an immense number are destitute of any inscription at all--it is
always painted or engraved on these slabs or tiles. In the earlier
interments the epitaph is usually daubed on the slab in red or black
paint. In later examples it is incised in the marbles, the letters being
rendered clearer by being coloured with vermilion. The enclosing slab
very often bears one or more Christian symbols, such as the dove, the
anchor, the olive-branch, or the monogram of Christ (figs. 5, 6). The
palm branch, which is also of frequent occurrence, is not an
indisputable mark of the last resting-place of a martyr, being found in
connexion with epitaphs of persons dying natural deaths, or those
prepared by persons in their lifetime, as well as in those of little
children, and even of pagans. Another frequent concomitant of these
catacomb interments, a small glass vessel containing traces of the
sediment of a red fluid, embedded in the cement of the _loculus_ (fig.
7), has no better claim. The red matter proves to be the remains of
wine, not of blood; and the conclusion of the ablest archaeologists is
that the vessels were placed where they are found, after the eucharistic
celebration or _agape_ on the day of the funeral or its anniversary, and
contained remains of the consecrated elements as a kind of religious
charm. Not a few of the slabs, it is discovered, have done double duty,
bearing a pagan inscription on one side and a Christian one on the
other. These are known as _opisthographs_. The bodies were interred
wrapped in linen cloths, or swathed in bands, and were frequently
preserved by embalming. In the case of poorer interments the destruction
of the body was, on the contrary, often accelerated by the use of

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Section of Galleries at different levels. (From
Seroux d'Agincourt)]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--View of a Gallery.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Loculi. (From de Rossi.)]

[Illustration: FIGS. 5 and 6.--Loculi. (From de Rossi.)]

Interment in the wall-recess or _loculus_, though infinitely the most
common, was not the only mode employed in the catacombs. Other forms of
very frequent recurrence are the _table tomb_ and _arched tomb_, or
_arcosolium_. From the annexed woodcuts it will be seen that these only
differ in the form of the surmounting recess. In each case the arched
tomb was formed by an oblong chest, either hollowed out of the rock, or
built of masonry, and closed with a horizontal slab. But in the
table-tomb (fig. 8) the recess above, essential for the introduction of
the corpse, is square, while in the arcosolium (fig. 9), a form of later
date, it is semicircular. Sarcophagi are also found in the catacombs,
but are of rare occurrence. They chiefly occur in the earlier
cemeteries, and the costliness of their construction confined their use
to the wealthiest classes--e.g. in the cemetery of St Domitilla, herself
a member of the imperial house. Another unfrequent mode of interment was
in graves like those of modern times, dug in the floor of the galleries
(Marchi, _u.s._, tav. xxi. xxvi.). Table-tombs and arcosolia are by no
means rare in the corridors of the catacombs, but they belong more
generally to the _cubicula_, or family vaults, of which we now proceed
to speak.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Glass Bottles. (From Bosio.)]

These _cubicula_ are small apartments, seldom more than 12 ft. square,
usually rectangular, though sometimes circular or polygonal, opening out
of the main corridors. They are not unfrequently ranged regularly along
the sides of the galleries, the doors of entrance, as may be seen in a
previous illustration (fig. 3), following one another in as orderly
succession as the bedchamber doors in the passage of a modern house. The
roof is sometimes flat, but is more usually vaulted, and sometimes
rises into a cupola. Both the roof and the walls are almost universally
coated with stucco and covered with fresco paintings--in the earlier
works merely decorative, in the later always symbolical or historical.
Each side of the cubiculum, except that of the entrance, usually
contains a recessed tomb, either a table-tomb or an arcosolium. That
facing the entrance was the place of greatest honour, where in many
instances the remains of a martyr were deposited, whose tomb, according
to primitive usage, served as an altar for the celebration of the
eucharist. This was sometimes, as in the Papal crypt of St Calixtus
(fig. 10), protected from irreverence by lattice work (_transennae_) of
marble. The cubiculum was originally designed for the reception of a
very limited number of dead. But the natural desire to be buried near
one's relatives caused new tombs to be cut in the walls, above and
around and behind the original tombs, the walls being thus completely
honeycombed with _loculi_, sometimes as many as seventy, utterly
regardless of the paintings originally depicted on the walls. Another
motive for multiplying the number of graves operated when the cubiculum
contained the remains of any noted saint or martyr. The Christian
antiquary has cause continually to lament the destruction of works of
art due to this craving. One of the most perfect examples of early
Christian pictorial decoration, the so-called "Dispute with the
Doctors," in the catacomb of Calixtus, the "antique style of beauty" of
which is noticed by Kugler, has thus suffered irreparable mutilation,
the whole of the lower part of the picture having been destroyed by the
excavation of a fresh grave-recess (Bottari, vol. ii. tav. 15). The
plates of De Rossi, Ferret, and, indeed, all illustrations of the
catacombs, exhibit frequent examples of the same destructive
superstition. The illustrations (figs. 11 and 12), taken from De Rossi's
great work, representing two of the cubicula in the cemetery of St
Calixtus, show the general arrangement of the loculi and the character
of the frescoes which ornament the walls and roof. These paintings, it
will be seen, are simply decorative, of the same style as the
wall-paintings of the baths, and those of Pompeii.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Table-tomb.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Arcosolia. (From Bosio.)]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Restoration of the Papal Crypt, Cemetery of St
Calixtus. (From de Rossi.)]

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--Cubiculum in Cemetery of St Calixtus. (From de

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--Cubiculum in the Cemetery of St Calixtus. (From
de Rossi.)]

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--Plan of a supposed Church, Catacomb of Sant'
Agnese. (From Marchi.)]

Each _cubiculum_ was usually the burying-place of some one family, all
the members of which were interred in it, just as in the chantry-chapels
connected with medieval churches. In them was celebrated the
funeral-feast on the day of burial and on its anniversary, as well as
the eucharist, which was the invariable accompaniment of funerals in the
primitive church (Bingham, _Orig. Eccl._ bk. xxiii. c. iii. 12). The
funeral-banquet descended to the Christian church from pagan times, and
was too often profaned by heathen licence. St Augustine, in several
passages, inveighs against those who thus by "gluttony and insobriety
buried themselves over the buried," and "made themselves drunk in the
chapels of the martyrs, placing their excesses to the score of religious
reverence for the dead." (August., _De Mor. Eccl. Cathol._, c. 34,
_Contr. Faust_, lib. xx. c. 21, _Confess._, lib vi. c. 2) Some curious
frescoes representing these funeral-feasts, found in the _cubicula_
which were the scene of them, are reproduced by Bosio (pp. 355, 391)
and others. A romantic air has been thrown over these burial chapels by
the notion that they were the places of worship used by the Christians
in times of persecution. This to a certain extent is doubtless true, as
in the case of the chapel of Santa Priscilla, where the altar or stone
coffin of a martyr remains, with a small platform behind it for the
priest or bishop to stand upon. But that they can have been so used to
any large extent is rendered impossible by their limited dimensions, as
none of them could hold more than fifty or sixty persons. In some of the
catacombs, however, there are larger halls and connected suites of
chapels which may possibly have been constructed for the purpose of
congregational worship during the dark periods when the public exercise
of the Christian religion was made penal. The most remarkable of these
is in the cemetery of Sant' Agnese (see plan, fig. 13). It consists of
five rectangular compartments, three on one side of the corridor and two
on the other, connected by a passage intersecting the gallery at right
angles. Two of the five compartments are supposed to have been assigned
to male, and two to female worshippers, the fifth, at the extremity of
the whole, being reserved for the altar and its ministers. In the centre
of the end-wall stands a stone chair (fig. 14), considered to have been
the episcopal cathedra, with a bench for the clergy on each side. There
is no trace of an altar, which may, Marchi thinks, have been portable.
The walls of the compartments are occupied by arched sepulchral
recesses, above and below which are tiers of ordinary graves or
_loculi_. The arrangements are certainly such as indicate a
congregational purpose, but the extreme narrowness of the suite, and
still more of the passage which connects the two divisions, must have
rendered it difficult for any but a small number to take any intelligent
part in the services at the same time. Although the idea of the use of
the catacombs for religious worship may have been pressed too far, there
can be no doubt that the sacred rites of the church were celebrated
within them. We have already spoken of the eucharistic celebrations of
which the _cubicula_ were the scene; and still existing baptisteries
prove that the other sacrament was also administered there. The most
remarkable of these baptisteries is that in the catacomb of San
Pontianus (fig. 15). Ten steps lead down to a basin of sufficient depth
for immersion, supplied by a spring. Some of the subterranean chambers
contain armed seats and benches cut out of the tufa rock. These are
supposed by Marchi and others to indicate schoolrooms, where the
catechumens were instructed by the bishop or presbyters. But this theory
wants verification. It is impossible not to be struck with the
remarkable analogy between these rock-hewn chairs and those discovered
in the Etruscan tombs, of the purpose of which no satisfactory
explanation has been given.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.--Bishop's Chair. Catacomb of Sant' Agnese.]

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--Baptistery of San Pontianus. (From Perret.)]

  Theories of the use of the catacombs.

Very exaggerated statements have been made as to the employment of the
catacombs as dwelling-places by the Christians in times of persecution.
We have, however, sufficient evidence that they were used as places of
refuge from the fury of the heathen, in which the believers--especially
the bishops and clergy, who would naturally be the first objects of
attack--might secrete themselves until the storm had blown over. This
was a purpose for which they were admirably adapted both by the
intricacy of their labyrinthine passages, in which any one not
possessing the clue would be inevitably lost, and the numerous small
chambers and hiding-places at different levels which might be passed
unperceived in the dark by the pursuers. As a rule also the catacombs
had more than one entrance, and frequently communicated with an
_arenaria_ or sand-quarry; so that while one entrance was carefully
watched, the pursued might escape in a totally different direction by
another. But, to quote J.H. Parker, "the catacombs were never intended,
nor fit for, dwelling-places, and the stories of persons living in them
for months are probably fabulous. According to modern physicians it is
impossible to live many days in the caves of _pozzolana_ in which many
of the catacombs are excavated." Equally exaggerated are the statements
as to the linear and lateral extent of the catacombs, and their
intercommunication with one another. Without resorting to this
exaggeration, Mommsen can speak with perfect truth of the "enormous
space occupied by the burial vaults of Christian Rome, not surpassed
even by the _cloacae_ or sewers of Republican Rome," but the data are
too vague to warrant any attempt to define their dimensions. Marchi has
estimated the united length of the galleries at from 800 to 900 m., and
the number of interments at between 6,000,000 and 7,000,000; Martigny's
estimate is 587 m.; and Northcote's, lower still, at "not less than 350
m." The idea of general intercommunication is negatived by the fact that
the chief cemeteries are separated by low ground or valleys, where any
subterranean galleries would be at once filled with water.

It now remains to speak of the history of these subterranean
burial-places, together with the reasons for, and mode of, their
construction. From the period of the rediscovery of the catacombs in the
16th century till comparatively recent times a gigantic fallacy
prevailed, repeated by writer after writer, identifying the Christian
burial-places with disused sand-pits. It was accepted as an
unquestionable fact by every one who undertook to describe the
catacombs, that the Christians of Rome, finding in the labyrinthine
mazes of the exhausted _arenariae_, which abounded in the environs of
the city, whence the sand used in building had been extracted, a
suitable place for the interment of their martyred brethren, where also
the sacred rites accompanying the interment might be celebrated without
fear of interruption, took possession of them and used them as
cemeteries. It only needed a comparison of the theory with the visible
facts to refute it at once, but nearly three centuries elapsed before
the independence of the _arenariae_ and the catacombs was established.
The discovery of this independence is due to Marchi. Starting with the
firmest belief in the old traditional view, his own researches by
degrees opened his eyes to the truth, now universally recognized, that
the catacombs were exclusively the work of the Christians, and were
constructed for the interment of the dead. It is true that a catacomb is
often connected with the earlier sand-quarry, and starts from it as a
commencement, but the two are excavated in different strata, suitable to
their respective purposes, and their plan and construction are so
completely unlike as to render any confusion between them impossible.

The igneous formation of which the greater part of the Roman Campagna
is, in its superior portion, composed, contains three strata known under
the common name of _tufa_,--the "stony," "granular," and "sandy"
tufa,--the last being commonly known as _pozzolana_.[3] The _pozzolana_
is the material required for building purposes, for admixture with
mortar; and the sandpits are naturally excavated in the stratum which
supplies it. The stony tufa (_tufa litoide_) is quarried as
building-stone. The granular tufa is useless for either purpose,
containing too much earth to be employed in making mortar, and being far
too soft to be used as stone for building. Yet it is in this stratum,
and in this alone, that the catacombs are constructed; their engineers
avoiding with equal care the solid stone of the _tufa litoide_ and the
friable _pozzolana_, and selecting the stratum of medium hardness, which
enabled them to form the vertical walls of their galleries, and to
excavate the _loculi_ and _cubicula_ without severe labour and also
without fear of their falling in. The annexed illustration (fig. 16)
from Marchi's work, when compared with that of the catacomb of Sant'
Agnese already given, presents to the eye the contrast between the wide
winding irregular passages of the sand-pit, calculated for the admission
of a horse and cart, and the narrow rectilinear accurately-defined
galleries of the catacomb. The distinction between the two is also
plainly exhibited when for some local or private reasons an ancient
_arenaria_ has been transformed into a cemetery. The modifications
required to strengthen the crumbling walls to support the roof and to
facilitate the excavation of _loculi_, involved so much labour that, as
a rule, after a few attempts, the idea of utilizing an old quarry for
burial purposes was abandoned.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.--Arenaria beneath the Cemetery of Calixtus.]

Another equally erroneous idea was that these vast burial-places of the
early Christians remained entirely concealed from the eyes of their
pagan neighbours, and were constructed not only without the permission
of the municipal authorities but without their cognizance. Nothing can
be farther from the truth. Such an idea is justly stigmatized by Mommsen
as ridiculous, and reflecting a discredit as unfounded as it is unjust
on the imperial police of the capital. That such vast excavations should
have been made without attracting attention, and that such an immense
number of corpses could have been carried to burial in perfect secrecy
is utterly impossible. Nor was there any reason why secrecy should have
been desired. The decent burial of the dead was a matter especially
provided for by the Roman laws. No particular mode was prescribed.
Interment was just as legal as cremation, and had, in fact, been
universally practised by the Romans until the later days of the
republic.[4] The bodies of the Scipios and Nasos were buried in still
existing catacombs; and if the Christians preferred to adopt that which
Minucius Felix calls "the better, and more ancient custom of inhumation"
(_Octavius_, c. 2), there was absolutely nothing, to quote the words of
Northcote (_Roma sotterran_. pp. 56, 61), "either in their social or
religious position to interfere with their freedom of action. The law
left them entire liberty,... and the faithful did but use their liberty
in the way that suited them best, burying their dead according to a
fashion to which many of them had been long accustomed, and which
enabled them at the same time to follow in death the example of him who
was also their model in life." Interment in rock-hewn tombs, "as the
manner of the Jews is to bury," had been practised in Rome by the Jewish
settlers for a considerable period anterior to the rise of the Christian
Church. A Jewish catacomb, now lost, was discovered and described by
Bosio (_Rom. sott._ p. 141), and others are still accessible. They are
to be distinguished from Christian catacombs only by the character of
their decorations, the absence of Christian symbols and the language of
their inscriptions. There would, therefore, be nothing extraordinary in
the fact that a community, always identified in the popular heathen mind
with the Jewish faith, should adopt the mode of interment belonging to
that religion. Nor have we the slightest trace of any official
interference with Christian burials, such as would render secrecy
necessary or desirable. Their funerals were as much under the protection
of the law, which not only invested the tomb itself with a sacred
character, but included in its protection the area in which it stood,
and the _cella memoriae_ or chapel connected with it, as those of their
heathen fellow-citizens, while the same shield would be thrown over the
burial-clubs, which, as we learn from Tertullian (_Apolog._ c. 39),
were common among the early Christians, as over those existing among the
heathen population of Rome.

  Mode of formation.

We may then completely dismiss the notion of there being any studied
secrecy in connexion with the early Christian cemeteries, and proceed to
inquire into the mode of their formation. Almost without exception, they
had their origin in small burial areas, the property of private persons
or of families, gradually ramifying and receiving additions of one
subterranean storey after another as each was required for interments.
The first step would be the acquisition of a plot of ground either by
gift or purchase for the formation of a tomb, Christians were not beyond
the pale of the law, and their faith presented no hindrance to the
property being secured to them in perpetuity. To adapt the ground for
its purpose as a cemetery, a gallery was run all round the area in the
tufa rock at a convenient depth below the surface, reached by staircases
at the corners. In the upright walls of these galleries _loculi_ were
cut as needed to receive the dead. When these first four galleries were
full others were mined on the same level at right angles to them, thus
gradually converting the whole area into a net-work of corridors. If a
family vault was required, or a burial chapel for a martyr or person of
distinction, a small square room was excavated by the side of the
gallery and communicating with it. When the original area had been mined
in this way as far as was consistent with stability, a second storey of
galleries was begun at a lower level, reached by a new staircase. This
was succeeded by a third, or a fourth, and sometimes even by a fifth.
When adjacent burial areas belonged to members of the same Christian
confraternity, or by gift or purchase fell into the same hands,
communications were opened between the respective cemeteries, which thus
spread laterally, and gradually acquired that enormous extent which,
"even when their fabulous dimensions are reduced to their right measure,
form an immense work."[5] This could only be executed by a large and
powerful Christian community unimpeded by legal enactments or police
regulations, "a living witness of its immense development corresponding
to the importance of the capital." But although, as we have said, in
ordinary times there was no necessity for secrecy, yet when the peace of
the Church was broken by the fierce and often protracted persecutions of
the heathen emperors, it became essential to adopt precautions to
conceal the entrance to the cemeteries, which became the temporary
hiding-places of the Christian fugitives, and to baffle the search of
their pursuers. To these stormy periods we may safely assign the
alterations which may be traced in the staircases, which are sometimes
abruptly cut off, leaving a gap requiring a ladder, and the formation of
secret passages communicating with the _arenariae_, and through them
with the open country.

When the storms of persecution ceased and Christianity had become the
imperial faith, the evil fruits of prosperity were not slow to appear.
Cemetery interment became a regular trade in the hands of the
_fossores_, or grave-diggers, who appear to have established a kind of
property in the catacombs, and whose greed of gain led to that
destruction of the religious paintings with which the walls were
decorated, for the quarrying of fresh _loculi_, to which we have already
alluded. Monumental epitaphs record the purchase of a grave from the
fossores, in many cases during the lifetime of the individual, not
unfrequently stating the price. A very curious fresco, found in the
cemetery of Calixtus, preserved by the engravings of the earlier
investigators (Bottari, tom. ii. p. 126, tav. 99), represents a "fossor"
with his lamp in his hand and his pick over his shoulder, and his tools
lying about him. Above is the inscription, "Diogenes Fossor in Pace


It is unnecessary to enter on any detailed description of the frescoes
which cover the walls and ceilings of the burial-chapels in the richest
abundance. It must suffice to say that the earliest examples are only to
be distinguished from the mural decorations employed by their pagan
contemporaries (as seen at Pompeii and elsewhere) by the absence of all
that was immoral or idolatrous, and that it was only very slowly and
timidly that any distinctly religious representations were introduced.
These were at first purely symbolical, meaningless to any but a
Christian eye, such as the Vine, the Good Shepherd, the Sheep, the
Fisherman, the Fish, &c. Even the personages of ancient mythology were
pressed into the service of early Christian art, and Orpheus, taming the
wild beasts with his lyre, symbolized the peaceful sway of Christ; and
Ulysses, deaf to the Siren's song, represented the Believer triumphing
over the allurements of sensual pleasure. The person of Christ appeared
but rarely, and then commonly simply as the chief personage in an
historical picture. The events depicted from the life of Christ are but
few, and always conform rigidly to the same traditional type. The most
frequent are the miracle at Cana, the multiplication of the loaves and
fishes, the paralytic carrying his bed, the healing of the woman with
the issue of blood, the raising of Lazarus, Zacchaeus, and the triumphal
entry into Jerusalem. The Crucifixion, and subjects from the Passion,
are never represented. The cycle of Old Testament subjects is equally
limited. The most common are the history of Jonah as a type of the
Resurrection, the Fall, Noah receiving the dove with the olive branch,
Abraham's sacrifice of Isaac, Moses taking off his shoes, David with the
sling, Daniel in the lions' den, and the Three Children in the fiery
furnace. The mode of representation is always conventional, the
treatment of the subject no less than its choice being dictated by an
authority to which the artist was compelled to bow. All the more
valuable of these paintings have been produced in J.H. Parker's series
of photographs taken in the catacombs by the magnesium light.[6]
Wilpert's great work, in which these frescoes are reproduced in colours,
now enables the student even better to distinguish the styles of
different centuries and follow the course of artistic development or

[Illustration: FIG. 17.--Fresco Ceiling. (From Bosio.)

  The subjects, beginning at the top and going to the right, are--

  (1) The paralytic carrying his bed.
  (2) The seven baskets full of fragments.
  (3) Raising of Lazarus.
  (4) Daniel in the lions' den.
  (5) Jonah swallowed by the fish.
  (6) Jonah vomited forth.
  (7) Moses striking the rock.
  (8) Noah and the dove.
      In the centre, the Good Shepherd.]

  Catacombs of Naples.

Beyond Rome and its suburbs the most remarkable Christian catacombs are
those in the vicinity of Naples, described by Pelliccia (_De Christ.
Eccl. Polit._ vol. iv. Dissert. 5), and in separate treatises by
Bellerman and Schultze. Plans of them are also given by Agincourt in his
great work on Christian art. These catacombs differ materially from
those of Rome. They were certainly originally stone-quarries, and the
hardness of the rock has made the construction practicable of wide,
lofty corridors and spacious halls, very unlike the narrow galleries and
contracted chambers in the Roman cemeteries. The mode of interment,
however, is the same as that practised in Rome, and the _loculi_ and
_arcosolia_ differ by little in the two. The walls and ceilings are
covered with fresco paintings of different dates, in some cases lying
one over the other. This catacomb contains an unquestionable example of
a church, divided into a nave and chancel, with a rude stone altar and
bishop's seat behind it.

[Illustration: FIG. 18.--Fresco Ceiling. (From Bosio.)

  The subjects, beginning at the bottom and going to the right, are--

  (1) Moses striking the rock.
  (2) Noah and the dove.
  (3) The three children in the furnace.
  (4) Abraham's sacrifice.
  (5) The miracle of the loaves.]

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--Plan of the Catacombs of St John, Syracuse.]


At Syracuse also there are very extensive catacombs known as "the
Grottos of St John." They are also figured by Agincourt, and described
by Denon (_Voyage en Sicile et Malte_) and Führer. There is an entire
underground city with several storeys of larger and smaller streets,
squares and cross ways, cut out of the rock; at the intersection of the
cross ways are immense circular halls of a bottle shape, like a
glass-house furnace, lighted by air shafts. The galleries are generally
very narrow, furnished on each side with arched tombs, and communicating
with family sepulchral-chambers closed originally by locked doors, the
marks of the hinges and staples being still visible. The walls are in
many places coated with stucco adorned with frescoes, including palms,
doves, labara and other Christian symbols. The ground-plans (figs. 19,
20), from Agincourt, of the catacomb and of one of the circular halls,
show how widely this cemetery differs in arrangement from the Roman
catacombs. The frequency of blind passages and of circular chambers will
be noticed, as well as the very large number of bodies in the cruciform
recesses, apparently amounting in one instance to nineteen. Agincourt
remarks that this cemetery "gives an idea of a work executed with design
and leisure, and with means very different from those at command in
producing the catacombs of Rome."

[Illustration: Fig. 20.--Plan of Circular Hall, Catacombs of St John,
Syracuse. (From Agincourt.)]



Denon also describes catacombs at Malta near the ancient capital of the
island. The passages were all cut in a close-grained stone, and are very
narrow, with arched ceilings, running very irregularly, and ramifying in
all directions. The greater part of the tombs stand on either side of
the galleries in square recesses (like the table-tombs of the Roman
catacombs), and are rudely fashioned to imitate sarcophagi. The
interments are not nearly so numerous as in other catacombs, nor are
there any vestiges of painting, sculpture or inscriptions. At Taormina
in Sicily is a Saracenic catacomb, also figured by Agincourt. The main
corridor is 12 ft. wide, having three or more ranges of _loculi_ on
either side, running longitudinally into the rock, each originally
closed by a stone bearing an inscription.


Passing to Egypt, a small Christian catacomb at Alexandria is described
and figured by de Rossi.[7] The _loculi_ here also are set endways to
the passage. The walls are abundantly decorated with paintings, one of a
liturgical character. But the most extensive catacombs at Alexandria are
those of Egypto-Greek origin, from the largest of which, according to
Strabo (lib. xvii. p. 795), the quarter where it is placed had the name
of the Necropolis. The plan, it will be seen, is remarkable for its
regularity (figs. 21, 22). Here, too, the graves run endways into the
rock. Other catacombs in the vicinity of the same city are described by
Pocock and other travellers, and are figured by Agincourt.

[Illustration: Fig. 21--Plan of Catacomb at Alexandria. (From

[Illustration: Fig. 22.--Section of a Gallery in Catacomb at Alexandria.
(From Agincourt.)]


Subterranean cemeteries of the general character of those described are
very frequent in all southern and eastern countries. A vast necropolis
in the environs of Saida, the ancient Sidon, is described in Renan's
_Mission en Phénicie_, and figured in Thobois's plates. It consists of a
series of apartments approached by staircases, the sides pierced with
sepulchral recesses running lengthwise into the rock.

[Illustration: Fig. 23.--Plan of a Tomb at Cervetri. (From Dennis.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 24.--Section of the Tomb of the Seats and Shields,
Cervetri. (From Dennis.)]

  Rocktombs of Etruria.

The rock-hewn tombs of Etruria scarcely come under the category of
catacombs, in the usual sense, being rather independent family
burial-places, grouped together in a necropolis. They are, however, far
too remarkable to be altogether passed over. These sepulchres are
usually hollowed out of the face of low cliffs on the side of a hill.
They often rise tier above tier, and are sometimes all on the same level
"facing each other as in streets, and branching off laterally into
smaller lanes or alleys"; and occasionally forming "a spacious square or
piazza surrounded by tombs instead of houses" (Dennis, _Cities and
Cemeteries of Etruria_, ii. 31). The construction of the tombs commonly
keeps up the same analogy between the cities of the living and those of
the dead. Their plan is for the most part that of a house, with a door
of entrance and passage leading into a central chamber or _atrium_, with
others of smaller size opening from it, each having a stone-hewn bench
or _triclinium_ on three of its sides, on which the dead, frequently a
pair of corpses side by side, were laid as if at a banquet. These
benches are often hewn in the form of couches with pillows at one end,
and the legs carved in relief. The ceilings have the representation of
beams and rafters cut in the rock. In some instances arm-chairs, carved
out of the living rock, stand between the doors of the chambers, and the
walls above are decorated with the semblance of suspended shields. The
walls are often covered with paintings in a very simple archaic style,
in red and black. As a typical example of the Etruscan tombs we give the
plan and section (figs. 23, 24) of the _Grotta detta Sedia_ at Cervetri
from Dennis (pp. 32, 35). The tombs in some instances form subterranean
groups more analogous to the general idea of a catacomb. Of this nature
is the very remarkable cemetery at Poggio Gaiella, near Chiusi, the
ancient Clusium, of a portion of the principal storey of which the
woodcut (fig. 25) is a plan. The most remarkable of these sepulchral
chambers is a large circular hall about 25 ft. in diameter, supported by
a huge cylindrical pillar hewn from the rock. Opening out of this and
the other chambers, and connecting them together, are a series of low
winding passages or _cuniculi_, just large enough for a man to creep
through on all fours. No plausible suggestion has been offered as to the
purpose of these mysterious burrows, which cannot fail to remind us of
the labyrinth which, according to Varro's description as quoted by Pliny
(_Hist. Nat._ lib. xxxvi. c. 19, § 4), was the distinguishing mark of
Porsena's tomb, and which have led some adventurous archaeologists to
identify this sepulchre with that of the great king of Etruria (Dennis,
_u.s._, pp. 393 ff.). (E. V.; O. M. D.)

[Illustration: Fig. 25.--Plan of a portion of the principal storey in
the Poggio Gajella. (From Dennis.)]

_Modern Discoveries_.--In 1873 was discovered, near the cemetery of St
Domitilla, the semi-subterranean basilica of Santi Nereo ed Achilleo,
100 ft. by 60 ft. This is now covered with a roof, and the fallen
columns have been raised up. The lower part of a pillar, which once
supported a baldachino over the altar, still preserves the name
ACILLEUS, and beneath it a bas-relief of the martyr, with his hands
bound, receiving his death-blow from the executioner. The base of a
similar column has only feet in the same attitude, and probably bore the
name NEREUS. In a grave in the apse was found a large fragment of an
inscription, composed by Pope Damasus, but set up by his successor
Siricius, which, from the note-book of a Salzburg pilgrim of the 8th
century, can be completed thus:--

  Militiae nomen dederant saevum      / Q    \  ue gerebant
  Officium pariter spectantes juss    | AIYR   \  anni
  Praeceptis pulsante metu servi      | RE PAR   \  ati
  Mira fides rerum subito posue       | RE FVRORE  \  m
  Conversi fugiunt ducis impia castr  | A RELINQVVNI \
  Projiciunt clypeos faleras tel      | AQ. CRVENIA    |
  Confessi gaudent Christi portar     | E IRIVMFOS     |
  Credite per Damasum possit quid     | GLORIA CHRISTI |

Nereus (see Rom. xvi. 15) and Achilleus, said to have been baptized by
St Peter, refused to do the bidding of Domitian as praetorians, and
entering the service of Flavia Domitilla, suffered martyrdom with their
mistress Petronilla, of the Aurelian family closely connected with the
Flavii, and the spiritual daughter of St Peter, who was buried in a
sarcophagus with the inscription:--


This is now in St Peter's, but was probably originally behind the apse
of this basilica, for there is a fresco of her in an arcosolium, with a
matron named Veneranda. The original entrance to the cemetery leads
directly into a spacious corridor with no _loculi_, but recesses for
sarcophagi, and decorations of the classical style of the 2nd century.
From this a wide staircase leads directly down to a chamber, discovered
in March 1881, of a very early date. Within an arcosolium is a tablet
set up by "Aurelius Ampliatus and his son Gordian, to Aurelia Bonifatia,
his incomparable wife, a woman of true chastity, who lived 25 years, 2
months, 4 days, and 2 hours." The letters are of the 2nd century; but
above the arcosolium was found a stone with great letters, 5 or 6 in.
high: "AMPLIATI, the tomb of Ampliatus." Now Ampliatus is a servile
name: how comes it to be set up with such distinction in the sepulchre
of the Flavii? Romans xvi. 8 supplies the answer: "Salute Ampliatus,
most beloved to me in the Lord." De Rossi thinks the identification
well grounded (_Bullettino_, 1881, p. 74). Epitaphs of members of the
Flavian family have been found here, and others stating that they are
Rossi did not hesitate to complete an inscription on a broken stone

  Sepulc   / RVM |
  Flavi   / ORVM |
         / |     |

De Rossi began his excavations in the cemetery of Santa Priscilla in
1851, but for thirty years nothing but what had been described by Bosio
came to light. In 1880 he unearthed a portion near the Cappella Greca,
and found galleries that had not been touched since they were filled in
during the Diocletian persecution. The _loculi_ were intact and the
epitaphs still in their places, so that "they form a kind of museum, in
which the development, the formulae, and the symbolic figures of
Christian epigraphy, from its origin to the end of the 3rd or 4th
century, can be notified and contemplated, not in artificial specimens
as in the Lateran, but in the genuine and living reality of their
original condition." (_Bullett._, 1884, p. 68). Many of the names
mentioned in St Paul's Epistles are found here: Phoebe, Prisca,
Aquilius, Felix Ampliatus, Epenetus, Olympias, Onesimus, Philemon,
Asyncritus, Lucius, Julia, Caius, Timotheus, Tychicus, Crescens,
Urbanus, Hermogenes, Tryphaena and Trypho(sa) on the same stone. Petrus,
a very rare name in the catacombs, is found here several times, both in
Greek and in Latin. The neighbouring _Coemeterium Ostrianum_ was
anciently known as "_Fons S. Petri_," "_ubi Petrus baptizavit_," "_ubi
Petrus prius sedit_." This cemetery derives its name from Priscilla,
mother of Pudens, who is said to have given hospitality to St Peter the
Apostle. We are reminded of St Paul, and of his friends Aquila and
Prisca, by a monument erected by an imperial freedman who was
PRAEPOSITVS TABERNACVLORVM--chief tentmaker. In 1888 a corridor was
discovered which had at one time been isolated from the rest of the
cemetery. It had no _loculi_, but recesses in the wall to receive
sarcophagi. At the end of the corridor there was a large chamber, 23 ft.
by 13 ft., once lined with marble and the ceiling covered with mosaic, a
few fragments of which still remain. The only tomb here was a
sarcophagus, of which the broken front bears the letters which show it
to have been the epitaph of one of the Acilian family:--


In the vicinity are fragments of the epitaphs of Manius Acilius and
Priscilla, of Quintus Acilius and Caia Acilia in Greek, another Greek
inscription "Acilius Rufinus mayest thou live in God." After careful
examination of the nine Acilii, who were consuls, De Rossi concludes
that this was the resting-place of that Acilius Glabrio, consul with
Trajan, A.D. 91, who in the year of his consulate was compelled by
Domitian to fight with beasts in the arena, and then banished and put to
death in 95. The question of his Christianity seems settled by the
discovery of the sepulchre of these Christian Acilii. From this crypt a
staircase led up to the basilica in which Pope Silvester was buried, and
the whole plan of which was laid bare by De Rossi. The tomb of St
Silvester could be identified, and that of Pope Siricius "at his feet,"
as the pilgrim noted (_Bullett._, 1890, pp. 106-119).

Just before De Rossi's death, Mgr. Wilpert discovered in the Cappella
Greca a painting of the "Fractio Panis" or eucharistic feast, which he
cleansed from the dust with which it had been covered. The picture of
the Blessed Virgin and Child, which De Rossi ascribed to the 2nd, if not
to the 1st century, has received an unexpected proof of its antiquity.
In 1890 the floor of the gallery in which it stands was excavated, and
another floor was found to be 6 ft. below its supposed level. The
_loculi_ in this lower portion were intact, with inscriptions of the 2nd
century still in their places, proving that the niche in which that
picture was painted must have been considerably older than the lowering
of the floor. A flight of iron steps enables the visitor now to examine
this venerable specimen of early Christian art.

After the death of De Rossi, one of his pupils, H. Stevenson, since
dead, discovered in 1896 a small subterranean basilica in the catacomb
of Santi Pietro e Marcellino on the Via Labicana, with pious
acclamations on the plaster similar to those in the Papal crypt in St
Calixtus. Near the well-known subterranean chapel in the _Coemeterium
Ostrianum_ was discovered by Mgr. Crostarosa, in 1877, another chapel,
in which Signor Armellini found traces of St Emerentiana, foster-sister
of St Agnes. Near this a whole region of galleries has been brought to
light with _loculi_ intact.

Explorations conducted in the cemetery of Domitilla in 1897-1898 brought
to light a fine double crypt with frescoes representing Christ seated
between six male and female saints; also an inscription relating to a
new saint (Eulalius) in a cubiculum of the 3rd century. In 1899-1900
were discovered two opposite cubicula in the catacomb of Santi Pietro e
Marcellino. These were unknown to Bosio, and are both covered with
frescoes, the vault being in one case decorated with the scene which
represents Christ seated among the apostles and pronouncing sentence
upon the defunct. An inscription discovered in 1900 on the site of the
ancient cemetery of St Ciriaca, and dating from A.D. 405, states that
one Euryalus bought a site _ad mensam beati martyris Laurentii_ from a
certain _fossor_ whose name has been erased. This is interesting as an
example of what was known as _memoriae damnatio_ or the blotting out of
a name on account of some dishonourable action. From the end of the 4th
to the first half of the 5th century, the _fossores_ had the privilege
of selling sites, which frequently led to grave abuses. In 1901-1902
excavations in the cemetery of Santa Priscilla, near the Cappella Greca,
revealed a polygonal chamber. This may have originally been the
_nymphaeum_ of the great villa of the Acilii Glabriones, the _hypogaeum_
of which was discovered by De Rossi near this spot in 1888. It may have
been used as a burial-place for martyrs, and Professor Marucchi is
inclined to see in it the sepulchral chapel of Pope Marcellinus, who
died in A.D. 304 during the persecutions of Diocletian. In 1902, in that
part of the Via Ardeatina which passes between the cemeteries of
Calixtus and Domitilla, was discovered a crypt with frescoes and the
sanctuary of a martyr: it is thought that this, rather than a
neighbouring crypt brought to light in 1897, may prove to be the
sepulchral crypt of SS. Marcus and Marcellianus. In a cubiculum leading
out of a gallery in the vicinity there was also discovered an
interesting impression in plaster of an inscription of the mother of
Pope Damasus, beginning:


In the same year building operations in the Via di Sant' Onofrio
revealed the presence of catacombs beneath the foundations: examination
of the _loculi_ showed that no martyrs or illustrious persons were
buried here.

In 1903 a new cemetery with frescoes came to light on the Via Latina,
considered by Marucchi to have belonged to a heretical sect. In the same
year the Jewish cemetery on the Via Portuense, known to Bosio but since
forgotten, was rediscovered. The subterranean basilica of SS. Felix and
Adauctus, discovered by Boldetti and afterwards choked up with ruins,
was cleared again: the crypt, begun by Damasus and enlarged by Siricius,
contains frescoes of the 6th-7th centuries.

A good plan of the catacombs at Albano (at the 15th milestone of the
Appian way), discovered by Boldetti and described by De Rossi, has been
published by Marucchi (_Nuovo Bulletino di archeologia cristiana_, 1902,
pp. 89 ff.). In 1904 a small subterranean cemetery was discovered at
Anagnia. Catacombs have also been recently discovered on the site of
Hadrumetum near Sousse in Tunisia.     (+ W. R. B.; O. M. D.)

  AUTHORITIES.--The classical work on the catacombs of Rome is G.B. De
  Rossi's _Roma sotterranea_, on which most of the accounts in other
  languages than Italian have been based. The fine volume by Mgr.
  Wilpert, _Le Pitture delle catacombe romane_ (Rome, 1903), in which
  all the important frescoes are reproduced in colours, is to be
  regarded as an addition to the _Roma sotterranea_. All new
  discoveries made by the active _Commissione di archeologia sacra_ are
  chronicled with as little delay as possible in the _Nuovo Bulletino de
  archeologia cristiana_ published in Rome.

  The most recent accounts of the catacombs are to be found in the
  following books:--Armellini, _Gli Antichi Cimiteri cristiani di Roma e
  d' Italia_ (Rome, 1893); O. Marucchi, _Le Catacombe romane_ (Rome,
  1903; also translated into French), _Manuale di epigrafia cristiana _
  (Milan, 1904); M. Besnier, _Les Catacombes de Rome_ (Paris, 1909).

  Among the older works are: Bosio, _Roma sotterranea_, Severano's
  edition (1632), and Aringhi's edition (1651); Boldetti, _Osservazioni
  sopra i cimiteri dei santi martiri_ (Rome, 1720); Bottari, _Sculture e
  pitture sagre, &c._ (Rome, 1737-1754); Seroux d'Agincourt, _Histoire
  de l'art par les monuments_ (Paris, 1823; German ed., 1840); G.
  Marchi, _Monumenti delle arti cristiane primitive_ (Rome, 1844); Raoul
  Rochette, _Tableau des catacombes de Rome_ (2nd ed., Paris, 1853);
  Perret, _Les Catacombes de Rome_ (Paris, 1855)--a sumptuous folio
  work, but not always accurate, Roller, _Les Catacombes de Rome_
  (Paris, 1881); V. Schultze, _Die Katakomben_ (Leipzig, 1882).

  Works written in English are: Northcote and Brownlow, _Roma
  sotterranea_ (London, 1869; based upon De Rossi); Wharton Marriott,
  _The Testimony of the Catacombs_ (London, 1870); J.H. Parker, _The
  Archaeology of Rome: the Catacombs_; Smith and Cheetham, _Dictionary
  of Christian Antiquities_, s.v. "Catacombs"; R. Lanciani, _Pagan and
  Christian Rome_ (London, 1892); W. Lowry, _Christian Art and
  Archaeology_, ch. ii. (London, 1901; a useful introduction to the
  subject); H. Gee, "The Church in the Catacombs," in W. Lefroy's
  _Lectures in Ecclesiastical History_ (1896); Th. Mommsen, in the
  _Contemporary Review_, May 1871.

  Accounts of the catacombs will also be found in the encyclopaedias and
  manuals published under the following names: Martigny, Pératé, F.X.
  Kraus (_Realencyklopädie_ and _Geschichte der christlichen Kunst_),
  Reusens, V. Schultze and C.M. Kauffmann, and in the large new
  _Dictionnaire d'archéologie chrétienne et liturgie_, published at
  Paris under the editorship of Dom F. Cabrol.

  The catacombs at Naples are described in C.F. Bellermann, _Über die
  ältesten christlichen Begräbnisstätten und besonders die Katakomben zu
  Neapel_ (Hamburg, 1839); Armellini, as above, and V. Schultze, _Die
  Katakomben von San Gennaro dei Poveri in Neapel_ (Jena, 1877).

  For the catacombs in Malta, A.A. Caruana, _Ancient Pagan Tombs and
  Christian Cemeteries in the Islands of Malta_ (Malta, 1898), and A.
  Mayr, "Die altchristlichen Begräbnisstätten auf Malta," in _Römische
  Quartalschrift_, vol. xv. pp. 216 and 352 (Rome, 1901), may be

  The fullest account of the Sicilian catacombs is given by J. Führer,
  _Forschungen zur Sicilia sotterranea_ (Munich, 1897); and D.C.
  Barrecca, _Le Catacombe di San Giovanni in Siracusa_ (Syracuse, 1906).

  A catacomb of the 5th century, discovered at Kertch in South Russia,
  is described by J. Kulakovsky in _Materials for Russian Archaeology_
  (St Petersburg, 1896; a publication of the Russian Imperial
  Archaeological Commission), but it is written in Russian, as also is
  the account by V. Latyshev, in _Vizantieski Vremennik_, vol. vi. pp.
  337 ff. (St Petersburg, 1899).

  The catacombs at Hadrumetum (Sousse) are described by A.F. Leynard,
  _Les Catacombes d'Hadrumète, deuxième campagne de fouilles_
  (1904-1905). See also _Revue Tunisienne_ (1905), p. 250.

  For the catacombs of Alexandria, Neroutsos Bey, _L'Ancienne
  Alexandrie_, may be consulted in addition to De Rossi's article
  mentioned in the text.     (O. M. D.)


  [1] The most important of these lists are the two Itineraries
    belonging to the first half of the 7th century, in the Salzburg
    library. One still earlier, but less complete, appears in the
    _Notitia Urbis Romae_, under the title _Index Coemeteriorum_. Another
    Itinerary, preserved at Einsiedeln, printed by Mabillon, dates from
    the latter half of the same century. That found in the works of
    William of Malmesbury (Hardy's ed. vol. ii. pp. 539-544) appears to
    be copied from it, or both may be from the same source. De Rossi
    gives a comparative table of these Itineraries and other similar

  [2] Hieron., _Comment. in Ezech._ lib xx. c. 40. The translation is
    Dean Burgon's.

  [3] In Rome the three strata are known to geologists as _tufa
    litoide_, _tufa granolare_ and _pozzolana_.

  [4] Cicero is our authority for the burial of Marius, and for Sulla's
    being the first member of the Gens Cornelia whose dead body was burnt
    (_De Legg._ ii. 22).

  [5] Mommsen's chosen example of an ancient burial-chamber, extending
    itself into a catacomb, or gathering subterranean additions round it
    till a catacomb was established, is that of the cemetery of St
    Domitilla, traditionally identified with a granddaughter of
    Vespasian, and the catacomb of Santi Nereo ed Achilleo on the Appian
    and Ardeatine way.

  [6] Parker's invaluable series of Roman photographs may be seen at
    the library of the Victoria and Albert museum, at the Ashmolean
    museum and the Bodleian library, Oxford.

  [7] _Bulletino di archaeologia cristiana_, November 1864, August
    1865. See also _Authorities_, below.

CATAFALQUE (a word of unknown origin, occurring in various forms in many
European languages, meaning a funeral scaffold or temporary stage), a
movable structure of wood sometimes richly decorated, erected
temporarily at funeral ceremonies in a church to receive the coffin or
effigy of the deceased; also an open hearse or funeral car.

CATALANI, ANGELICA (1780-1849), Italian opera-singer, daughter of a
tradesman at Sinigaglia, was educated at the convent of Santa Lucia at
Gubbio, where her magnificent soprano voice, of extraordinary compass
and purity, soon became famous. In 1795 she made her début on the stage
at Venice, and from that moment every impresario in Europe was anxious
to engage her. For nearly thirty years she sang at all the great houses,
receiving very large fees; her first appearance in London being at the
King's theatre in 1806. She remained in England, a prima donna without a
serious rival, for seven years. Then she was given the management of the
opera in Paris, but this resulted in financial failure, owing to the
incapacity and extravagance of her husband, Captain Valabrègue, whom she
married in 1806. But her continental tours continued to be enormously
successful, until she retired in 1828. She settled at Florence in 1830,
where she founded a free singing school for girls; and her charity and
kindness were unbounded. She died of cholera in Paris on the 12th of
June 1849.

CATALEPSY (from Gr. [Greek: katalêpsis], a seizure), a term applied to a
nervous affection characterized by the sudden suspension of sensation
and volition, accompanied with a peculiar rigidity of the whole or of
certain muscles of the body. The subjects of catalepsy are in most
instances females of highly nervous temperament. The exciting cause of
an attack is usually mental emotion operating either suddenly, as in the
case of a fright, or more gradually in the way of prolonged depression.
The symptoms presented vary in different cases, and even in the same
individual in different attacks. Sometimes the typical features of the
disease are exhibited in a state of complete insensibility, together
with a statue-like appearance of the body which will retain any attitude
it may be made to assume during the continuance of the attack. In this
condition the whole organic and vital functions appear to be reduced to
the lowest possible limit consistent with life, and to such a degree as
to simulate actual death. At other times considerable mental excitement
will accompany the cataleptic symptoms, and the patient will sing or
utter passionate exclamations during the fit, being all the while quite
unconscious. The attack may be of short duration, passing off within a
few minutes. It may, however, last for many hours, and in some rare
instances persist for several days; and it is conceivable that in such
cases the appearances presented might be mistaken for real death, as is
alleged to have occasionally happened. Catalepsy belongs to the class of
functional nervous disorders (see MUSCLE AND NERVE: _Pathology_) in
which morbid physical and psychical conditions are mixed up. Although it
is said to occur in persons in perfect health, careful inquiry will
usually reveal some departure from the normal state, as is shown by the
greater number of the recorded cases. More particularly is this true of
females, in whom some form of menstrual derangement is generally found
to have preceded the cataleptic affection. Catalepsy is sometimes
associated with epilepsy and with grave forms of mental disease. In
ordinary cases, however, the mental phenomena bear close resemblance to
those witnessed in hysteria. In many of the subjects of catalepsy there
appears to be a remarkable weakness of the will, whereby the tendency to
lapse into the cataleptic state is not resisted but rather in some
measure encouraged, and attacks may thus be induced by the most trivial

CATALOGUE (a Fr. adaptation of the Gr. [Greek: katalogos], a register,
from [Greek: katalegein], to enrol or pick out), a list or enumeration,
generally in alphabetical order, of persons, things, &c., and
particularly of the contents of a museum or library. A _catalogue
raisonnée_ is such a list classified according to subjects or on some
other basis, with short explanations and notes. (See also articles

CATALONIA (_Cataluña_), a captaincy-general, and formerly a province of
Spain, formerly also a principality of the crown of Aragon; bounded on
the N. by the Pyrenees, W. by Aragon, S. by Valencia, and E. by the
Mediterranean Sea. Pop. (1900) 1,966,382; area, 12,427 sq. m. The
triangular territory of Catalonia forms the north-eastern corner of the
Iberian Peninsula. A full account of the physical features, and of the
modern development of commerce, communications, &c., in this area is
given in the articles on the four provinces Barcelona, Gerona, Lérida
and Tarragona, into which Catalonia was divided in 1833.

The coast, which is partly sandy, partly rocky, extends about 240 m.;
its chief harbours are those of the capital, Barcelona, of Mataró, of
Rosas and of Tarragona. The surface is much broken by spurs of the
Pyrenees, the direction of which is generally south. Running south-west
to north-east, and united on the north with one of the offsets of the
Pyrenees, is the range of the Sierra Llena, which bisects Catalonia, and
forms its central watershed. The principal rivers are the Ter, the
Llobrégat, and the Ebro (q.v.), which all run into the Mediterranean.
None of them is navigable. The climate, in spite of frequent mists and
rains, sudden changes of temperature, and occasional great mid-day heat,
is healthy and favourable to vegetation. The dwarf-palm, orange, lime,
and olive grow in the warmer tracts; and on the higher grounds the
thorn-apple, pomegranate, myrtle, esparto and heaths flourish. There is
much woodland, but meadows and pastures are rare. Maize, millet, rye,
flax, liquorice and fruits of all sorts--especially nuts, almonds,
oranges, figs, walnuts and chestnuts--are produced. Wheat sufficient for
one-fourth of the population is grown, and the vine is extensively
cultivated. Few cattle, but numbers of sheep, goats and swine are
reared. Game is plentiful, and the fisheries on the coast are excellent.
The wines are for the most part rough and strong, though some are very
good, especially when matured. They are much used to adulterate those of
Oporto, or, after undergoing the blending operation termed _compage_,
are passed off as Bordeaux wines in France. The best of them,
_priorato_, is chiefly known in England, under the disguise of second or
third-rate port; it was much used in the military hospitals of America
during the Civil War.

The Catalonians are a frugal, sharp-witted, and industrious people,
having much national pride, and a strong revolutionary spirit. They are
distinct in origin from the other inhabitants of Spain, from whom they
differ in their dialect and costume. In their great energy and their
love of enterprise they resemble the Basques. Irrigation, careful
husbandry and railroad communications have much developed the resources
of their country, in themselves excellent; and there are many
manufacturing towns and industrial establishments.

Catalonia was one of the first of the Roman possessions in Spain, and
formed the north-eastern portion of Hispania Tarraconensis. About 470 it
was occupied by the Alans and Goths. It was conquered by the Moors in
712, but these invaders were in turn dispossessed by the Spaniards and
the troops of Charlemagne in 788. Catalonia was subsequently ruled by
French counts, who soon, however, made themselves independent of France.
By the marriage of Count Raymond Berenger IV. of Barcelona with
Petronilla of Aragon, Catalonia became annexed to Aragon; but this union
was frequently severed. In 1640, when Philip IV. attempted to deprive
Catalonia of its rights and privileges, it gave itself up to Louis XIII.
of France. It was restored to Spain in 1659, and was once more occupied
by the French from 1694 to 1697. Under Philip V. Catalonia, in 1714, was
deprived of its cortes and liberties. From 1808 to 1813 it was held by
France. It was the scene of civil war in 1823, and of important
revolutionary operations in the Carlist wars.

  The history and literature of Catalonia have been closely studied, and
  in many cases the results of research are published in the Catalan
  language. See _Cataluña, sus monumentos y artes, su naturaleza e
  historia_ (2 vols. of the illustrated series _España_), by P.
  Pifferrer, F. Pi Margall, and A.A. Pijoan (Barcelona, 1884); _Historia
  de Cataluña_, by V. Balaguer (11 vols., Madrid, 1886, &c.); _Historia
  de Cataluña_, by A. Bori y Fontestá (Barcelona, 1898); _Origines
  históricos de Cataluña_, by J. Balari y Jovany (Barcelona, 1899);
  _Coleccio dels monografias de Catalunya_, by J. Reig y Vilardell
  (Barcelona, 1890); _Historia del derecho en Catalonia, Mallorca y
  Valencia_, by B. Oliver (Madrid, 1876-1880); and _Antigua marina
  catalana_, by F. de Bofarull y Sans (Barcelona, 1898). The _Revista
  catalana_ (Catalan Review), published at Barcelona from 1889, contains
  many valuable papers on local affairs. See also SPAIN: sections
  _Language, Literature_ and _History_, and BARCELONA.

CATALPA, in botany, a genus belonging to the family _Bignoniaceae_ and
containing about ten species in America and eastern Asia. The best known
is _Catalpa bignonioides_, a native of the eastern United States which
is often cultivated in parks and gardens. It is a stately tree with
large heart-shaped pointed leaves and panicles of white bell-shaped
flowers streaked with yellow and brown purple.

CATALYSIS (from the Gr. [Greek: kata], down, and [Greek: luein], to
loosen), in chemistry, the name given to chemical actions brought about
by a substance, termed the "catalyst," which is recovered unchanged
after the action. The term was introduced by Berzelius, who first
studied such reactions. It is convenient to divide catalytic actions
into two groups:--(1) when the catalyst first combines with one of the
reaction components to form a compound which immediately reacts with the
other components, the catalyst being simultaneously liberated, and free
to react with more of the undecomposed first component; and (2), when
the catalyst apparently reacts by mere contact. The theory of catalysis
is treated under CHEMICAL ACTION; in this article mention will be made
of some of the more interesting examples.

A familiar instance of a catalytic action is witnessed when a mixture
of potassium chlorate and manganese dioxide is heated to 350°, oxygen
being steadily liberated, and the manganese dioxide being unchanged at
the end of the reaction. The action may be explained as follows:--part
of the chlorate reacts with the manganese dioxide to form potassium
permanganate, chlorine and oxygen, the chlorine subsequently reacting
with the permanganate to produce manganese dioxide, potassium chloride
and oxygen, thus

  2KClO3 + 2MnO2 = 2KMnO4 + Cl2 + O2 = 2KCl + 2MnO2 + 3O2.

This explanation is supported by the facts that traces of chlorine are
present in the gas, and the pink permanganate can be recognized when
little dioxide is used. Other oxides bring about the same decomposition
at temperatures below that at which the chlorate yields oxygen when
heated alone; but since such substances as kaolin, platinum black and
some other finely powdered compounds exercise the same effect, it
follows that the explanation given above is not quite general. Another
example is Deacon's process for the manufacture of chlorine by passing
hydrochloric acid gas mixed with air over heated bricks which had been
previously impregnated with a copper sulphate solution. The nitrous
gases employed in the ordinary chamber process of manufacturing
sulphuric acid also act catalytically. Mention may be made of the part
played by water vapour in conditioning many chemical reactions. Thus
sodium will not react with dry chlorine or dry oxygen; carbon, sulphur
and phosphorus will not burn in perfectly dry oxygen, neither does
nitric oxide give red fumes of the peroxide. In organic chemistry many
catalytic actions are met with. In the class of reaction known as
"condensations," it may be found that the course of the reaction is
largely dependent upon the nature of some substance which acts
catalytically. One of the most important is the Friedel and Craft's
reaction, in which an aromatic compound combines with an alkyl haloid in
the presence of aluminium, zinc or ferric chloride. It seems in this, as
in other cases, that additional compounds are first formed which
subsequently react with the re-formation of the catalyst. The formation
of benzoin from benzaldehyde in the presence of potassium cyanide is
another example; this action has been investigated by G. Bredig and
Stern (_Zeit. Elektrochem._, 1904, 10, p. 582).

The second class of catalytic actions, viz. those occasioned by the
presence of a metal or some other substance which undergoes no change,
is of especial interest, and has received much attention. The
accelerating influence of a clean platinum plate on the rate of
combination of hydrogen and oxygen was studied by Faraday. He found that
with the pure gases the velocity of reaction increased until the mixture
exploded. The presence of minute quantities of carbon monoxide, carbon
disulphide, sulphuretted hydrogen and hydrochloric acid inhibited the
action; in the case of the first two gases, there is no alteration of
the platinum surface, since the plate brings about combination when
removed to an atmosphere of pure hydrogen and oxygen; with the last two
gases, however, the surface is altered, since the plate will not
occasion the combination when placed in the pure gases. M. Bodenstein
(_Zeit. phys. Chem._, 1904, 46, p. 725) showed that combination occurs
with measurable velocity at ordinary temperatures in the presence of
compact platinum. More energetic combination is observed if the metal be
finely divided, as, for instance, by immersing asbestos fibres in a
solution of platinum chloride and strongly heating. The "spongy"
platinum so formed brings about the combination of ammonia and oxygen to
form water and nitric acid, of nitric oxide and hydrogen to form ammonia
(see German Patent, 1905, 157,287), and of sulphur dioxide and oxygen to
form sulphur trioxide. The last reaction, which receives commercial
application in the contact process of sulphuric acid manufacture, was
studied by M. Bodenstein and W. Pohl (_Zeit. Elektrochem._, 1905, 11, p.
373), who found that the equilibrium followed the law of mass-action
(see also F. W. Küster, _Zeit. anorg. Chem._, 1904, 42, p. 453, R.
Lucas, _Zeit. Elektrochem._, 1905, 11, p. 457). Other metals, such as
nickel, iron, &c., can also react as catalysts. The use of finely
divided nickel (obtained by reducing the oxide in a current of pure
hydrogen at a temperature of 350°) has been carefully studied by P.
Sabatier and J.B. Senderens; a summary of their results is given in the
_Ann. Chim. Phys._, 1905 (viii.) 4, pp. 319-488. Of special interest is
the condensation of acetylene. If this gas mixed with hydrogen be passed
over the reduced nickel in the cold, the temperature may rise to as high
as 150°, the acetylene disappearing and becoming replaced by a substance
like petroleum. If the nickel be maintained at 200°, and the gases
circulated for twenty-eight hours, a product, condensible to a yellow
liquid having a beautiful fluorescence and boiling at 45°, is obtained.
This substance closely resembles ordinary Pennsylvanian petroleum. If
acetylene be passed alone over nickel heated to 200°-300°, a mixture,
boiling at 60°-70° and having a green colour by diffused and a red by
transmitted light, was obtained. This substance closely resembles
Caucasian petroleum. The decomposition of carbon monoxide according to
the reaction 2CO <=> C + CO2 is purely catalytic in the presence of nickel
and cobalt, and also in the presence of iron, so long as the amount of
carbon dioxide present does not exceed a certain amount (R. Schenck and
W. Heller, _Ber._, 1905, 38, pp. 2132, 2139). It is of interest that
finely divided aluminium and magnesium decompose methane, ethane, and
ethylene into carbon and hydrogen in the same way as nickel. Charcoal at
350° also reacts catalytically; for example, Senderens found that ethyl
alcohol was decomposed by animal charcoal into methane, ethylene,
hydrogen, carbon monoxide and a little carbon dioxide, and propyl
alcohol gave propylene, ethane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, while G.
Lemoine obtained from ethyl alcohol and wood charcoal a mixture of
acetaldehyde and hydrogen.

CATAMARAN (a Tamil word, from _catta_, to tie, and _maram_ wood), a
surf-boat or raft used by the natives of Madras and along the Coromandel
Coast in India. It is usually made of three tree trunks lashed together,
the centre trunk being the largest and longest, and having one end bent
upward to form a kind of prow. Catamarans of a larger size are in use in
the West Indies and South America. The name is also given to two boats
lashed together. Apparently through an erroneous connexion with cat, the
name has been applied to a noisy scolding woman.

CATAMARCA, an Andean province of the Argentine Republic, lying W. of
Santiago del Estero and Tucuman and extending to the Chilean frontier,
with Los Andes and Salta on the N., Cordoba on the S.E., and Rioja on
the S. Pop. (1895) 90,161; (1904, estimate) 103,082; area, 47,531 sq. m.
The surface of the province is extremely broken, the Andes forming its
western boundary, and the Aconquija, Ancaste, Ambato, Gulampaja and
other ranges traversing it from north to south. It is composed very
largely of high plateaus with a general slope southward broken by a few
fertile valleys. The greater part of the province is arid and barren,
being sheltered from the moist, eastern winds by the high mountain
barriers of Aconquija and Ancaste. The rivers are small, and some of
them are lost in the barren, sandy wastes. Others, especially in the
foothills of the high sierras, are utilized to irrigate the fertile
valleys. The climate of some of the low, sheltered valleys is extremely
hot and unhealthy, but on the open plateaus it is peculiarly dry and
bracing and is probably beneficial in the treatment of pulmonary
diseases. The mineral resources of the province include gold, silver,
copper, lead, nickel, iron, coal and malachite, but of these only copper
and silver are mined, and these chiefly in the Andalgalá district. Salt
deposits also exist, but are worked only to a limited extent. Cereals,
alfalfa and fruit are grown. Large numbers of cattle, fattened in the
alfalfa fields of Pucará, Tinogasta and Copacabana, are driven into
northern Chile across the San Francisco pass (13,124 ft. above sea
level) and mules are bred for the Bolivian market. Wine of an excellent
quality is produced and exported. Tanning leather is another industry of
the province, some of the trees growing in the Catamarca forests being
rich in tannin. Catamarca is traversed by the Northern Central railway
between Cordoba and the city of Catamarca, its capital, which passes
around the southern extremity of the Sierra de Ancaste and makes a long
detour to Chumbicha, near the Rioja frontier. The more important towns,
after Catamarca, the capital, are Andalgalá and Tinogasta with
populations (estimated, 1904) of 5000 to 6000 each. Belen is the oldest
Spanish settlement in the province and was founded in 1550, being called
Barco at first. The population is largely mixed with Indian blood.

CATAMARCA (_San Fernando de Catamarca_), capital of the above province
on the Rio del Valle de Catamarca, 230 m. (318 m. by rail) N.N.W. of
Cordoba. Pop. (1895) 7397; (1905, estimate) 8000, with a large
percentage of mestizos. Catamarca is connected by railways with Rioja
and Patquia and with Cordoba. The city stands in a narrow, picturesque
valley at the foot of the Sierra de Ambato, 1772 ft. above sea level.
The valley is highly fertile, partially wooded, and produces fruit in
abundance, wine and some cereals. In the city are flour mills and
tanneries, and among its exports are leather, fruit, wine, flour, and a
curious embroidery for which the women of Catamarca have long been
famous. There is a fine church, 220 by 90 ft., and a national college
occupies the old Merced convent. The alameda is one of the prettiest in
the Argentine Republic, having a reservoir of two acres surrounded by
shrubbery and walks. Catamarca was founded in 1685 by Fernando de
Mendoza because the town of Chacra, the former provincial capital, a few
miles north of Catamarca, had been found unhealthy and subject to
inundations. Previous to the selection of Chacra as the provincial
capital, the seat of government was at San Juan de Londres, founded in
1558 and named after the capital of England by order of Philip II. in
honour of his marriage with Queen Mary. The arid surroundings of Londres
led to its partial abandonment and it is now a mere village. Cholla, a
suburb of Catamarca, is inhabited wholly by Calchaqui Indians, a remnant
of the original inhabitants of this region.

CATANIA (Gr. _Katane_, Rom. _Catina_[1]), a city and episcopal see of
Sicily, the chief town of the province of Catania, on the east coast, 59
m. by rail S. of Messina, and 151 m. by rail S.E. of Palermo (102 m.
direct). Pop. (1881) 100,417; (1905) 157,722. The principal buildings
are handsome, and the main streets, meeting in the Piazzo del Duomo, are
fine. The cathedral of S. Agatha, containing the relics of the saint,
retains its three original Norman apses (1091), but is otherwise a large
baroque edifice. The monument of Don Ferrando d'Acunea, a Spanish
viceroy of Sicily, is a fine early Renaissance work (1494). In the west
portion of the town is the huge Benedictine abbey of S. Nicola (now
suppressed), the buildings of which occupy an area of about 21 acres and
contain the museum, a library, observatory, &c. The church, dating, like
the rest of the buildings, from 1693-1735, is the largest in Sicily, and
the organ, built in 1760 by Donato del Piano, with 72 stops and 2916
pipes, is very fine. The university, founded in 1444, has regained some
of its former importance. To the south near the harbour is the massive
Castell' Ursino, erected in 1232 by Frederick II. Remains of several
ancient buildings exist, belonging in the main to the Roman period. The
theatre, covered by a stream of lava, and built partly of small
rectangular blocks of the same material, though in the main of concrete,
has been superimposed upon the Greek building, some foundations of
which, in calcareous stone, of which the seats are also made, still
exist. It is 106 yds. in diameter, and is estimated to have accommodated
7000 spectators. Close to it are the remains of the so-called Odeum, of
similar plan to the theatre but without a stage, and to the north is the
church of S. Maria Rotonda, originally a Roman domed structure, perhaps
part of a bath. To the north, in the Piazza Stesicoro, is the
amphitheatre, a considerable portion of which has been uncovered,
including the two corridors which ran round the whole building and gave
access to the seats, while a part of the arcades of the exterior has
been excavated and left open; the pillars are made of blocks of lava,
and the arches of brick. The external diameters of the amphitheatre are
410 and 348 ft., while the corresponding diameters of the arena are 233
and 167 ft. It is thus the third largest Roman amphitheatre known, being
surpassed only by that at Verona and the Colosseum. Remains of many
other Roman buildings also exist beneath the modern town, among the best
preserved of which may be noted the public baths (_Thermae Achilleae_)
under the cathedral, and those under the church of S. Maria dell'
Indirizzo. The number of baths is remarkable, and gives some idea of the
luxury of the place in Roman times. Their excellent preservation is
accounted for by their burial under the lava. The majority were
excavated by Prince Ignazio Biscari (1719-1786), who formed an important
private collection of antiquities. Of the ancient city walls no
authenticated remains exist.

Catania has a considerable export trade in sulphur, pumice stone,
asphalt, oranges and lemons, almonds, filberts, cereals, wine (the total
production of wine in the province amounted to 28,600,000 gallons in
1905) and oil. The total value of exports in 1905 was £1,647,075, and of
imports £1,326,055, the latter including notably coal, almost entirely
from the United Kingdom, and wheat, from Russian ports. The harbour is a
good one, and has been considerably enlarged since 1872; £128,000 was
voted in 1905 towards the completion of the harbour works by the Italian
government. Sulphide of carbon is produced here; and there are large
dyeworks, and a factory for making bed-stuffing from seaweed.

The ancient Catina was founded in 729 B.C. by colonists from Naxos,
perhaps on the site of an earlier Sicel settlement--the name is entirely
un-Greek, and may be derived from [Greek: katinon], which in the Sicel
language, as _catinum_ in Latin, meant a basin, and would thus be
descriptive of the situation of the town. Charondas, a citizen of
Catina, is famous as its lawgiver, but his date and his birthplace are
alike uncertain; the fragments preserved of his laws show that they
belong to a somewhat primitive period. The poet Stesichorus of Himera
died here. Very little is heard of Catina in history until 476 B.C.,
when Hiero I. removed its inhabitants to Leontini, repeopled it with
5000 Syracusans and 5000 Peloponnesians, and changed its name to Aetna.
In 461 B.C., however, with the help of Ducetius and the Syracusans, the
former inhabitants recovered possession of their city and revived the
old name. Catina was, however, an ally of Athens during the Syracusan
expedition (415-413 B.C.), and served as the Athenian base of operations
in the early part of the war. In 403 B.C. it was taken by Dionysius of
Syracuse, who plundered the city, sold the inhabitants into slavery and
replaced them with Campanian mercenaries. In the First Punic War it was
one of the first cities of Sicily to be taken by the Romans (263 B.C.).
Marcellus constructed a gymnasium here out of the booty of Syracuse. In
123 B.C. there was an eruption of Etna so violent that the tithe on the
territory of Catina payable to Rome was remitted for ten years. It
appears to have been a flourishing city in the ist century B.C., but to
have suffered from the ravages of Sextus Pompeius. It became a Roman
_colonia_ under Augustus, and it is from this period that the fertile
plain, hitherto called the plain of Leontini, begins to be called the
plain of Catina. It seems to have been at this time the most important
city in the island, to judge from the language of Strabo and the number
of inscriptions found there. In A.D. 251 a lava stream threatened the
town and entered the amphitheatre, which in the time of Theodoric had
fallen into ruins, as is clear from the fact that he permitted the use
of its fallen stones to build the city wall. It was recovered by
Belisarius in 535, sacked by the Saracens in 902 and taken by the
Normans. The latter founded the cathedral; but the town was almost
entirely destroyed by earthquake in 1170, and devastated by Henry VI. in
1197. It became the usual residence of the Aragonese viceroys of the
13th and 14th centuries. In 1669 an eruption of Etna partly filled up
the harbour, but spared the town, which was, however, almost entirely
destroyed by the earthquake of 1693. Since that catastrophe it has been
rebuilt, and has not further suffered from its proximity to Etna.

  See A. Holm, _Das alte Catania_ (Lübeck, 1873).     (T. As.)


  [1] This is the form vouched for by the inscriptions.

CATANZARO, a town and episcopal see of Calabria, Italy, capital of the
province of Catanzaro, 1125 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901) 22,799
(town); 32,005 (commune). The station for the town (Catanzaro Sala) is
situated on a branch line connecting the two main lines along the east
and west coasts of Calabria, 6 m. N. by W. of Catanzaro Marina on the
east coast, and 20 m. E. of S. Eufemia Biforcazione, on the west coast
line. The town enjoys a comparatively cool climate in summer, and
commands fine views. Numerous wealthy families reside here, and the town
has a trade in olive-oil, silk and velvet. The castle, built by Robert
Guiscard, has been modernized, and so has the cathedral. The see was
founded in 1121. The provincial museum contains antiquities and
especially coins from the ancient cities of Magna Graecia, and a few

CATAPHYLL (Gr. [Greek: kata], down, [Greek: phullon], leaf), a botanical
term for the early leaf-forms produced in the lower part of a shoot,
such as bud-scales, or scales on underground stems.

CATAPULT (Lat. _catapulta_, Gr. [Greek: katapeltês]) a generic name for
warlike engines of the cross-bow type used by the ancients. Although
engines of war appear on Assyrian remains, and are mentioned in 2
Chronicles xxvi. 15, it appears that Greek armies, even of the 5th
century, did not possess them, and the first record of a large siege
train in classical literature is of the year 399 B.C., when Dionysius I.
of Syracuse, contemplating an expedition against Carthage, provided
himself with engines. From Sicily siege engines found their way some
years later into Greece; they were used by Philip of Macedon at the
siege of Byzantium in 340, and thereafter, as a natural consequence of
the regularizing or professionalizing of armies, artillery, as we may
call it, came into prominence and called into existence technical corps
to work it.

The war engines of the Romans, during the republic and early principate,
are of the same type as those of Alexander's successors in Greece. They
are usually classed as (a) catapults and (b) ballistae ([Greek:
lithoboloi]). The former were smaller and were used with arrows for what
is now called direct fire (i.e. at low angles of elevation); the latter
were large siege engines discharging heavy bolts or stones at a high
angle of elevation, like the modern howitzer. They were, of course,
principally siege engines, but the smaller natures of catapult appear in
field warfare from time to time, and eventually, during the early
principate, they are found as part of the regulation equipment of
infantry units. Both were constructed on the same principle.


The essential parts of the catapult (see illustration) were the frame,
the propelling gear, the trough (corresponding to the modern barrel) and
the pedestal. The frame consisted of two horizontal beams forming top
and bottom sills, and four strong upright bars mortised into them. The
three open spaces or compartments, resembling narrow windows, between
these four uprights carried the propelling and laying gear. The
propelling gear occupied the two outer "windows." In each a thick skein
of cord or sinews was fastened to the top and bottom sills and tightly
twisted. Two stiff wooden arms were inserted in the two skeins, and a
specially strong bowstring joined the tips of these arms. In the middle
compartment was the hinged fore-end of the trough, which was at right
angles to the frame and at the back of it. The trough could be laid for
elevation by a movable prop, the upper end of which was hinged to the
trough, while the lower ran up and down a sort of trail fastened to the
pedestal. The whole equipment was laid for "line" by turning the frame,
and with it the trough, prop and trail by a pivot in the head of the
pedestal. Sliding up and down in the trough was a block, fitted with a
trigger mechanism, through which passed the middle of the bowstring. The
pedestal was a strong and solid upright resting upon, and strutted to, a
framework on the ground; its upper end, as mentioned above, took the
pivot of the frame and the head of the trail.

On coming into action the machine was laid for direction and elevation.
The block and with it the bowstring was next forced back against the
resistance of the twisted skeins to the rear end of the trough, this
being effected by a windlass attachment. The trigger being then pressed
or struck with a hammer, the bowstring was released from the block, the
stiff arms were violently brought back to the frame by the untwisting of
the skeins, and the arrow was propelled through the centre "window" with
great velocity. A small machine of the type described weighed about 85
lb., and sent a "three-span" (26-in.) arrow weighing ½ lb. at an
effective man-killing velocity somewhat over 400 yds.

The ballista was considerably larger and more expensive than this. In
Scipio's siege train, at the attack of New Carthage (Livy xxvi. 47. 5),
the number of the ballistae was only one-sixth that of the catapults. In
the ballista the rear end of the trough (which projected in front of the
frame) always rested upon the ground, or rather was fixed to the
framework of the pedestal--which was a heavy trestle construction--and
the trough was thus restricted to the angle of elevation, giving the
maximum range (45°). Even so the range was not appreciably greater than
that of a catapult, and in the case of the largest ballistae
(ninety-pounder) it was much less. These enormous engines, which, once
in position, could not be laid on any fresh target, were used for
propelling beams and stones rather than for shooting arrows, that is,
more for the destruction of material than for man-killing effect. The
skeins that supplied the motive force of all these engines were made of
the sinews of animals, twisted raw hide, horsehair rope, and, in at
least one celebrated case, of women's hair. In 146 B.C., the authorities
of Carthage having surrendered their engines to the Romans in the vain
hope of staying their advance, new ones were hurriedly constructed, and
the women and virgins of the city cut off their hair to supply the
needed skeins.

The modern implement known as a "catapult" is formed by a forked stick,
to the forks of which are attached the ends of a piece of elastic. To
the middle of this elastic a pocket is fitted to contain a bullet or
small stone. In use the forked stick is held in the left hand and the
pocket drawn back with the right. Aim is taken and, the pocket being
released, the missile flies through the fork of the stick. Though
classed as a toy, this weapon can do considerable execution among birds,
&c., when skilfully used. The name of "catapult" has also been given to
a bowling machine which is used for cricket practice.

CATARACT (from the Lat. form _cataracta_ of the Gr. [Greek:
katarraktês], a floodgate, or waterfall, properly something which rushes
down), a downpour of water, a waterfall. The earliest use in English is
of a floodgate or portcullis, and this survives in the name of a disease
of the eye (see EYE: _Eye Diseases_), in which the crystalline lens
becomes opaque, and forms an apparent grating over the eye. The term is
also used of a device to regulate the strokes in certain types of

CATARGIU (or CATARGI), LASCAR (1823-1899), Rumanian statesman, was born
in Moldavia in November 1823. He belonged to an ancient Walachian
family, one of whose members had been banished in the 17th century by
Prince Matthew Bassaraba, and had settled in Moldavia. Under Prince
Gregory Ghica (1849-1856), Catargiu rose to be prefect of police at
Jassy. In 1857 he became a member of the _Divan ad hoc_ of Moldavia, a
commission elected in accordance with the treaty of Paris (1856) to vote
on the proposed union of Moldavia and Walachia. His strongly
conservative views, especially on agrarian reform, induced the
Conservatives to support him as a candidate for the throne in 1859.
During the reign of Prince Cuza (1859-1866), Catargiu was one of the
Opposition leaders, and received much assistance from his kinsman, Barbu
Catargiu (b. 1807), a noted journalist and politician, who was
assassinated at Bucharest on the 20th of June 1862. On the accession of
Prince Charles in May 1866, Lascar Catargiu became president of the
council, or prime minister; but, finding himself unable to co-operate
with his Liberal colleagues, I.C. Bratianu and C.A. Rosetti, he resigned
in July. After eight more ministerial changes, culminating in the
anti-dynastic agitation of 1870-1871, Catargiu formed, for the first
time in Rumanian history, a stable Conservative cabinet, which lasted
until 1876. His policy, which averted revolution and revived the
popularity of the crown, was regarded as unpatriotic and reactionary by
the Liberals, who resumed office in 1876; and a proposal to impeach the
whole Catargiu cabinet was only withdrawn in 1878. Catargiu remained in
opposition until 1889, when he formed another cabinet, taking the
portfolio of the Interior; but this administration fell after seven
months. In the Florescu ministry of March 1891 he occupied the same
position, and in December he again became president of the council,
retaining office until 1895. During this period he was responsible for
several useful reforms, chiefly financial and commercial. He died
suddenly at Bucharest on the 11th of April 1899.

CATARRH (from the Gr. [Greek: katarrein], to flow down), a term
principally employed to describe a state of irritation of the mucous
membrane of the respiratory passages, or what is called in popular
language a "cold." It is the result of infection by a micro-organism in
one or more of various predisposing conditions, damp, chill, fatigue,
&c. The complaint usually begins as a nasal catarrh or _coryza_ (Gr.
[Greek: korys], head), with a feeling of weight about the forehead and
some degree of difficulty in breathing through the nose, increased on
lying down. Fits of sneezing accompanied with a profuse watery discharge
from the nostrils and eyes soon follow, while the sense of smell and to
some extent that of taste become considerably impaired. There is usually
present some amount of sore throat and of bronchial irritation, causing
hoarseness and cough. Sometimes the vocal apparatus becomes so much
inflamed (laryngeal catarrh) that temporary loss of voice results. There
is always more or less feverishness and discomfort, and frequently an
extreme sensitiveness to cold. After two or three days the symptoms
begin to abate, the discharge from the nostrils and chest becoming
thicker and of purulent character, and producing when dislodged
considerable relief to the breathing. On the other hand the catarrh may
assume a more severe aspect and pass into some form of pulmonary
inflammation (see BRONCHITIS) or influenza (q.v.).

When the symptoms are first felt it is well to take a good purge, and to
encourage free perspiration by a hot bath, some diaphoretic drug, as
spirits of nitrous ether, being taken before retiring to bed. Some of
the older school of physicians still pin their faith to a dose of
Dover's powder. When the cold manifests itself by aches and pains in
back and limbs, aspirin taken three or four times in the first
twenty-four hours will often act like magic. Locally a snuff made of
menthol 1 part, ammonium chloride 3 parts and boracic acid 2 parts will
relieve the discomfort of the nose. Also, remembering the microbic
origin of the disease, gargling and nasal syringing should be repeated
at intervals. As soon as the attack shows signs of subsiding, a good
tonic and, still better, a change of air are very helpful.

The term catarrh is used in medical nomenclature in a wider sense to
describe a state of irritation of any mucous surface in the body, which
is accompanied with an abnormal discharge of its natural secretion,
hence the terms gastric catarrh, intestinal catarrh, &c.

  _Pathology of_.

CATARRHINE APE, the term used to describe those apes which have the
nostrils approximated, the aperture pointing downward, and the
intervening septum narrow; distinguishing features of both the lower
"doglike" apes (Cynomorpha) and the higher "manlike" apes
(Anthropomorpha). The Catarrhini are restricted entirely to the Old
World, and include the gorilla, the chimpanzee and orang-utan.

CATASTROPHE (Gr. [Greek: katastrophê], from [Greek: katastrephein], to
overturn), a term of the ancient Greek drama for the change in the plot
which leads up to the conclusion. The word is thus used of any sudden
change, particularly of a violent or disastrous nature, and in geology
of a cataclysm or great convulsion of the earth's surface.

CATAUXI, a numerous cannibal tribe of South American Indians of the
Purus river district, Brazil. They are a fine warlike race, with
remarkably clear complexions and handsome features; round wrists and
ankles they wear rings of twisted hair. They cultivate mandioc, and make
pottery and bark canoes.

CATAWBAS (from the Choctaw for "divided"), a tribe of North American
Indians of Siouan stock; formerly the dominant people of South Carolina.
Some of their divisions extended into North Carolina. They are now
almost extinct, but were at one time able to send nearly 2000 "braves"
into battle. In the American War of Independence they furnished a
valuable contingent to the South Carolina troops. They then occupied a
number of small towns on the Catawba river, but they afterwards leased
their land and removed to the territory of the Cherokees, with whom they
had been formerly at war. There, however, they did not long remain, but
returned to a reservation in their original district. Their affinities
have not been very clearly made out, and by Albert Gallatin they were
grouped with the Cherokees, Choctaws, Muskogees and Natchez. A
vocabulary of sixty of their words was published by Horatio Hale in vol.
ii. of the _Transactions of the American Ethnological Society_ in 1848;
and a much fuller list--about 300--collected by Oscar M. Lieber, the
geologist, in 1856, made its appearance in vol. ii. of _Collections of
the South Carolina Historical Society_, 1858. Of the one hundred
Catawbas still said to be surviving, few, if any, can claim to be
full-blooded. They are in the Catawba Reservation in York county, South
Carolina. The name is familiar in connexion with the white American
wine, the praises of which have been sung by Longfellow. The grape from
which the wine is obtained was first discovered about 1801, near the
banks of the Catawba river, and named by Major Adlum in 1828, but it is
now cultivated extensively in Illinois, Ohio and New York, and
especially on the shores of Lake Erie.

  See also _Handbook of American Indians_ (Washington, 1907).

CATCH THE TEN, sometimes Called _Scotch Whist_, a game played with a
pack of 36 cards, from ace, king, queen to six in each suit, the ace
being highest both in play and cutting. In trumps, however, the knave
ranks highest. Any number from two to eight may play. If an even number,
partners are cut for; if odd, each plays for himself. An odd number of
players sit as they like; four players sit as at whist; six playing in
two sides sit so that no two partners shall be next each other; six
playing three sides sit so that two opponents shall divide each pair;
eight are arranged in alternate pairs. After cutting, the cards are
dealt according to the number of players. The last card is turned up for
the trump. When five or seven play, the six of spades is usually
omitted; when eight play, the four sixes are thrown out. The eldest hand
leads any card he chooses and all must follow suit if able, the penalty
for a revoke being the loss of the game. The tricks are not kept
separate but gathered in by one player for his side. At the end of the
deal there are six hands of six cards on the table. The players first
play out the first two hands, next the second two and finally the last
two, the trump card remaining on the table until the first four hands
are played out. The game is 41 points, the object of the play being to
win the cards which have a special value. These are, with their values:
knave of trumps 11, ace of trumps 4, king of trumps 3, queen of trumps
2, ten of trumps 10. All other cards have no counting value. As the ten
can be taken by any other honour the object is to "catch the ten."

CATECHISM (from Gr. [Greek: katêchein], teach by word of mouth), a
compendium of instruction (particularly of religious instruction)
arranged in the form of questions and answers. The custom of
catechizing, common to all civilized antiquity, was followed in the
schools of Judaism and in the Early Church, where it helped to preserve
the Gospel narrative (see CATECHUMEN).

The catechism as we know it is intended primarily for children and
uneducated persons. Its aim is to instruct, and it differs from a creed
or confession in not being in the first instance an act of worship or a
public profession of belief. The first regular catechisms seem to have
grown out of the usual oral teaching of catechumens, and to have been
compiled in the 8th and 9th centuries. Among them the work of Notker
Labeo and of Kero, both monks of St Gall, and that of Ottfried of
Weissenburg in Alsace deserve mention. But it is not until the first
stirrings of revolt against the hierarchy, which preceded the
Reformation, that they became at all widespread or numerous. The
Waldenses of Savoy and France, the _Brethren_ (small communities of
evangelical dissenters from the medieval faith) of Germany, and the
_Unitas Fratrum_ of Bohemia all used the same catechism (one that was
first printed in 1498, and which continued to be published till 1530)
for the instruction of their children. It was based on St Augustine's
_Enchiridion_, and considers (a) Faith, i.e. the Creed, (b) Hope, i.e.
the Lord's Prayer, and (c) Love, i.e. the Decalogue.

The age of the Reformation gave a great stimulus to the production of
catechisms. This was but natural at a time when the invention of
printing had thrown the Bible open to all, and carried the war of
religious opinion from the schools into the streets. The adherents of
the "old" and the "new" religions alike had to justify their views to
the unlearned as well as to the learned, and to give in simple formulas
their reasons for the faith that was in them. Moreover, in the universal
unrest and oversetting of all authority, Christianity itself was in
danger of perishing, not only as the result of the cultured paganism of
the Renaissance, but also through the brutish ignorance of the common
folk, deprived now of their traditional religious restraints. To the
urgency of this peril the reformers were fully alive; and they sought
its remedy in education. "Let the people be taught," said Luther, "let
schools be opened for the poor, let the truth reach them in simple words
in their own mother tongue, and they will believe."

_Catechisms of the Chief Religious Communions._--(a) _Evangelical
(Lutheran and Reformed)._--It was the ignorance of the peasantry, as
revealed by the horrors of the Peasants' War of 1524-25, and his
pastoral visitation of the electorate of Saxony 1525-1527, that drew the
above exclamation from Luther, and impelled him to produce his two
famous catechisms (1529). In 1520 he had brought out a primer of
religion dealing briefly with the Decalogue, the Creed and the Lord's
Prayer; and Justus Jonas, Johannes Agricola and other leaders had done
something of the same kind. Now all these efforts were superseded by
Luther's Smaller Catechism meant for the people themselves and
especially for children, and by his Larger Catechism intended for clergy
and schoolmasters. These works, which did much to mould the character of
the German people, were set among the doctrinal standards of the
Lutheran Church and powerfully influenced other compilations. The
Smaller Catechism, with the Augsburg Confession, was made the Rule of
Faith in Denmark in 1537.

In this same year (1537) John Calvin at Geneva published his catechism
for children. It was called _Instruction and Confession of Faith for the
Use of the Church of Geneva_ (a reprint edited by A. Rilliet and T.
Dufour Was published in 1878), and explained the Decalogue, the
Apostles' Creed, the Lord's Prayer and the Sacraments. Though it was
meant, as he said, to give expression to a simple piety rather than to
exhibit a profound knowledge of religious truth, it was the work of a
man who knew little of the child mind, and, though it served as an
admirable and transparent epitome of his famous _Institutes_, it was too
long and too minute for the instruction of children. Calvin came to see
this, and in 1542, after his experience in Strassburg, drafted a new one
which was much more suitable for teaching purposes, though, judged by
modern standards, still far beyond the theological range of childhood.
It was used at the Sunday noon instruction of children, on which Calvin
laid much stress, and was adopted and similarly used by the Reformed
Church of Scotland. The Reformed churches of the Palatinate, on the
other hand, used the Heidelberg Catechism (1562-1563), "sweet-spirited,
experiential, clear, moderate and happily-phrased," mainly the work of
two of Calvin's younger disciples, Kaspar Olevianus and Zacharias
Ursinus. The Heidelberg Catechism, set forth by order of the elector, is
perhaps the most widely accepted symbol of the Calvinistic faith, and is
noteworthy for its emphasis on the less controversial aspects of the
Genevan theology. As revised by the synod of Dort in 1619, this
catechism became the standard of most of the Reformed churches of
central Europe, and in time of the Dutch and German Reformed churches of
America. Other compilations were those of Oecolampadius (Basel, 1526),
Leo Juda (Zürich, 1534), and Bullinger (Zürich, 1555). In France, after
Calvin's day, the Reformed church used besides Calvin's book the
catechisms of Louis Capell (1619), and Charles Drelincourt (1642), and
at the present time Bonnefon's _Nouveau Catéchisme élémentaire_ (14th
ed., 1900) seems most in favour. In Scotland both Calvin's Geneva
Catechism and then the Heidelberg Catechism were translated by order of
the General Assembly and annotated. In 1592 these were superseded by
that of John Craig, for a time the colleague of John Knox at the High
Church, Edinburgh.

Since 1648 the standard Presbyterian catechisms have been those compiled
by the Westminster Assembly, presented to parliament in 1647, and then
authorized by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland (July 1648)
and by the Scottish parliament (January 1649). The Larger Catechism is
"for such as have made some proficiency in the knowledge of the
Christian religion," but is too detailed and minute for memorizing, and
has never received anything like the reception accorded to the Shorter
Catechism, which is "for such as are of weaker capacity." The work was
done by a committee presided over first by Herbert Palmer, master of
Queens', Cambridge, and then by Anthony Tuckney, master of Emmanuel. The
scriptural proof texts were added at the request of the English
parliament. In his negotiations with the parliament in 1648 Charles I.
offered to license the printing of the catechism, but, as the
negotiations were broken off, this was not done. The Shorter Catechism,
after a brief introduction on the end, rule and essence of religion, is
divided into two parts:--I. The doctrines we are to believe (1)
concerning the nature of God, (2) concerning the decrees of God and
their execution--(a) in creation and providence, (b) in the covenant of
works, (c) in the covenant of grace; II. The duties we are to perform
(1) in regard to the moral law, (2) in regard to the gospel--(a) inward
duties, i.e. faith and repentance, (b) outward duties as to the Word,
the sacraments and prayer. It has 107 questions and answers, while that
of the Anglican Church has but 24, grouping as it does the ten
commandments and also the petitions of the Lord's Prayer, instead of
dealing with them singly. Though the Shorter Catechism, closely
associated as this has been from the first with Scottish public
elementary education, has had very great influence in forming and
training the character of Presbyterians in Scotland, America and the
British colonies, it is, like most other catechisms drawn up by dogmatic
theologians, more admirable as an epitome of a particular body of
divinity than as an instruction for the young and the unlearned. Its use
is now generally preceded by something more adapted to the child-mind,
and this is true also in other communions and in the case of other

(b) _Roman Catholic_.--There was no universal catechism published by the
Latin Church before the council of Trent, but several provincial
councils, e.g. in Germany and Scotland (where Archbishop Hamilton's
catechism appeared in 1552 and was ordered to be read in church by the
parish priest), moved in self-defence along the lines already adopted by
the reformers. The council of Trent in 1563 resolved on an authoritative
work which was finally carried through by two small papal commissions,
and issued in 1566 by Pius V. (Eng. trans, by Donovan, Dublin, 1829).
Being uncatechetical in form and addressed to the clergy rather than to
the people, it missed its intention, and was superseded by others of
less exalted origin, especially by those of the Jesuit Peter Canisius,
whose _Summa Doctrinae et Institutionis Christianae_ (1554) and its
shorter form (1556) were already in the field. The catechisms of
Bellarmine (1603) and Bossuet (1687) had considerable vogue, and a
summary of the former known as _Schema de Parvo_ was sanctioned by the
Vatican council of 1870. But the Roman Catholic Church as a whole has
never had any one official catechism, each bishop being allowed to
settle the matter for his own diocese. In England the Roman Catholic
bishops have agreed on the use of what is known as "The Penny
Catechism," which is very lucid and well constructed.

(c) _Orthodox Eastern Church._--Peter Mogilas, metropolitan of Kiev,
drew up in 1643 the _Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic
Eastern Church_. This bulwark against the encroachments of the Jesuits
and the Reformed Church was standardized by the synod of Jerusalem in
1672. A smaller catechism was drawn up by order of Peter the Great in
1723. The catechisms of Levshin Platon (1762) and V.D. Philaret (1839),
each in his day metropolitan of Moscow, are bulky compilations which
cannot be memorized, though there is a short introductory catechism
prefaced to Philaret's volume (Eng. trans, in Blackmore's _Doctrine of
the Russian Church_, 1845). These works are not to any extent in the
hands of the people, but are used by the Russian clergy and
schoolmasters as guides in giving instruction. The Coptic and Armenian
churches also have what H. Bonar describes as "mere pretences at

(d) _Anglican._--The catechism of the Church of England is included in
the Book of Common Prayer between the Orders for Baptism and
Confirmation. It has two parts: (i.) the baptismal covenant, the Creed,
the Decalogue and the Lord's Prayer, drawn up probably by Cranmer[1] and
Ridley in the time of Edward VI., and variously modified between then
(1549) and 1661; (ii.) the meaning of the two sacraments, written on the
suggestion of James I. at the Hampton Court Conference in 1604 by John
Overall, then dean of St Paul's, and afterwards bishop successively of
Coventry and Lichfield and of Norwich. This supplement to what had
become known as the Shorter Catechism established its use as against the
longer one, _King Edward VIth's Catechisme_, which had been drawn up in
1553 by John Ponet or Poynet, bishop of Winchester, and then revised and
enlarged in 1570 by Alexander Nowell, Overall's predecessor as dean of
St Paul's. The Anglican catechism with occasional modification,
especially in the sacramental section, is used not only in the Church of
England but in the Episcopal churches of Ireland, Scotland, the British
dominions and the United States of America. By the rubric of the Prayer
Book and by the 59th canon of 1603 the clergy are enjoined to teach the
catechism in church on Sundays and holidays after the second lesson at
Evening Prayer. This custom, long fallen into disuse, has largely been
revived during recent years, the children going to church for a special
afternoon service of which catechizing is the chief feature. Compared
with the thoroughness of most other catechisms this one seems very
scanty, but it has a better chance of being memorized, and its very
simplicity has given it a firm hold on the inner life and conscience of
devout members of the Anglican communion throughout the world.

(e) _Other Communions._--Almost every section of the church, e.g. the
Wesleyan Methodist, has its catechism or catechisms, but in addition to
those already enumerated only a few need be mentioned. The Socinians
embodied their tenets in the larger and smaller works drawn up by Fausto
Sozzini and Schmalz, and published at Rakow in Poland in 1605;[2] modern
Unitarians have modern catechisms. The Quakers or Friends possess a kind
of catechism said to have been written by George Fox in 1660, in which
father and son are respectively questioner and answerer, and an
interesting work by Robert Barclay, in which texts of Scripture form the
replies. Congregationalists for some time used Isaac Watts's _Catechisms
for Children and Youth_ (1730), since superseded by the manuals of J.H.
Stowell, J.H. Riddette and others. In 1898 the National Council of the
Evangelical Free Churches in England and Wales published an
_Evangelical Free Church Catechism_, the work of a committee (convened
by Rev. Hugh Price Hughes) comprising Congregationalists, Baptists,
Methodists (Wesleyan, Primitive and others), and Presbyterians, and thus
representing directly or indirectly the beliefs of sixty or seventy
millions of avowed Christians in all parts of the world, a striking
example of inter-denominational unity. More remarkable still in some
respects is _The School Catechism_, issued in 1907 by a conference of
members of the Reformed churches in Scotland, which met on the
invitation of the Church of Scotland. In its compilation representatives
of the Episcopal Church in Scotland co-operated, and the book though
"not designed to supersede the distinctive catechisms officially
recognized by the several churches for the instruction of their own
children," certainly "commends itself as suitable for use in schools
where children of various churches are taught together."

  Catechisms have a strong family likeness. In the main they are
  expositions of the Creed, the Lord's Prayer and the Decalogue, and
  thus follow a tradition that has come down from the days when Cyril of
  Jerusalem delivered his catechetical Lectures. Even when (as in the
  Shorter Westminster Catechism and the School Catechism) the Creed is
  simply printed as an appendix, or where (as in the Free Church
  Catechism) it is not mentioned at all, its substance is dealt with.
  The order in which these three main themes are treated is by no means
  constant. The Heidelberg and Westminster Catechisms are of a more
  logical and independent character. The former is based on the Epistle
  to the Romans, and deals with the religious life as (1) Repentance,
  (2) Faith, (3) Love. Under these heads it discusses respectively the
  sin and misery of men, the redemption wrought by Christ (here are
  included the Creed and the Sacraments), and the grateful service of
  the new life (the Decalogue).

  It may be noted that Sir Oliver Lodge has adopted the catechetical
  form in his book, _The Substance of Faith Allied with Science_ (1907),
  which is described as "a catechism for parents and teachers."

  See Ehrenfeuchter, _Geschichte des Katechismus_ (1857); P. Schaff,
  _History of the Creeds of Christendom_ (3 vols., 1876-1877); Mitchell,
  _Catechisms of the Second Reformation_ (1887); C. Achelis, _Lehrbuch
  der prakt. Theologie_ (2 vols., 1898); L. Pullan, _History of the Book
  of Common Prayer_, pp. 207-208; E.A. Knox, _Pastors and Teachers_
  (1902), chs. iii. and iv.; W. Beveridge, _A Short History of the
  Westminster Assembly_ (1904), ch. x.     (A. J. G.)


  [1] Cranmer bad published a separate and larger catechism on the
    basis of the work of Justus Jonas in 1548; note also _Allen's
    Catechisme, A Christen Instruccion of the Principall Pointes of
    Christes Religion_ (1551).

  [2] A Latin edition in 1609 was dedicated to James I. of England. The
    British Houses of Parliament passed a resolution ordering all copies
    of it to be publicly burned, and again in 1652 when another edition
    appeared. An English translation, probably by John Bidle, was printed
    in Amsterdam and widely circulated.

CATECHU, or CUTCH (Malay, _kachu_), an extract obtained from several
plants, its chief sources being the wood of two species of acacia (_A.
catechu_ and _A. suma_), both natives of India. This extract is known as
black catechu. A similar extract, known in pharmacy as pale catechu
(_Catechu pallidum_), and in general commerce as gambir, or _terra
japonica_, is produced from the leaves of _Uncaria gambir_ and _U.
acida_, cinchonaceous plants growing in the East Indian Archipelago. A
third product to which the name catechu is also applied, is obtained
from the fruits of the areca or betel palm, _Areca catechu_.

Ordinary black catechu is usually imported in three different forms. The
first and best quality, known as Pegu catechu, is obtained in blocks
externally covered with large leaves; the second and less pure variety
is in masses, which have been moulded in sand; and the third consists of
large cubes packed in coarse bags. The wood of the two species of
_Acacia_ yielding catechu is taken for the manufacture when the trees
have attained a diameter of about 1 ft. The bark is stripped off and
used for tanning, and the trunk is split up into small fragments, which
are covered with water and boiled. When the extract has become
sufficiently thick it is cast into the forms in which the catechu is
found in commerce. Catechu so prepared is a dark brown, or, in mass,
almost black, substance, brittle, and having generally a shining lustre.
It is astringent, with a sweetish taste. In cold water it disintegrates,
and in boiling water, alcohol, acetic acid and strong caustic alkali it
is completely dissolved. Chemically it consists of a mixture of a
peculiar variety of tannin termed catechu-tannic acid with catechin or
catechuic acid, and a brown substance due to the alteration of both
these principles. Catechu-tannic acid is an amorphous body soluble in
cold water, while catechin occurs in minute, white, silky, needle-shaped
crystals, which do not dissolve in cold water. A very minute proportion
of quercetin, a principle yielded by quercitron bark, has been obtained
from catechu.

Gambir, which is similar in chemical composition to ordinary catechu,
occurs in commerce in the form of cubes of about an inch in size, with a
pale brown or yellow colour, and an even earthy fracture. For the
preparation of this extract the plants above mentioned are stripped of
their leaves and young twigs, and these are boiled down in shallow pans.
The juice is strained off, evaporated, and when sufficiently
concentrated is cast into shallow boxes, where, as it hardens and dries,
it is cut into small cubes.

Gambir and catechu are extensively employed in dyeing and tanning. For
dyeing they have been in use in India from the most remote period, but
it was only during the 19th century that they were placed on the list of
European dyeing substances. Catechu is fixed by oxidation of the
colouring principle, catechin, on the cloth after dyeing or printing;
and treated thus it yields a variety of durable tints of drabs, browns
and olives with different mordants (see DYEING). The principal
consumption of catechu occurs in the preparation of fibrous substances
exposed to water, such as fishing-lines and nets, and for colouring
stout canvas used for covering boxes and portmanteaus under the name of
tanned canvas. Black catechu is official in most pharmacopoeias except
that of Great Britain, in which pale catechu is the official drug. The
actions and uses of the two are similar, but black catechu is the more
powerful. The dose is from five to twenty grains. The _pulvis catechu
compositus_ contains catechu and kino, and may be given in doses twice
as large as those named. The drug has the actions and uses of tannic
acid, but owing to the relative insolubility of catechu-tannic acid, it
is more valuable than ordinary tannic acid in diarrhoea, dysentery and
intestinal haemorrhage.

CATECHUMEN (Lat. _catechumenus_, Gr. [Greek: katêchoumenos], instructed,
from [Greek: katêchein], to teach orally), an ecclesiastical term
applied to those receiving instruction in the principles of the
Christian religion with a view to baptism. As soon as Christianity
became a missionary religion, it was found necessary to make
arrangements for giving instruction to new converts. At the beginning
the Apostles themselves seem to have undertaken this duty, and the
instruction was apparently given after baptism, for in Acts ii. 41, 42,
we are told that "they that gladly received the word were baptized ...
and they continued stedfastly in the Apostles' teaching." There are two
instances in the New Testament where reference is made to individual
instruction in this technical sense. Luke (i. 4) in dedicating the third
Gospel to Theophilus tells him that his aim in writing the book was
"that thou mightest have certainty in the things in which thou has been
instructed" ([Greek: katêchêthês]) and we are told that Apollos was
instructed ([Greek: katêchêmenos]) "in the way of the Lord" (Acts xviii.

With the development of Christianity the instruction became more
definite and formal. It is probable that the duty of instructing
converts was assigned to "the teachers," who are ranked by Paul
immediately after the Apostles and prophets (1 Cor. xii. 28), and
occupied an important position in the Christian ministry. In the
_Didache_, or Teaching of the Apostles, we have an excellent
illustration of the teaching which was given to candidates for baptism
in early times. There can be little doubt that the _Didache_ was used as
a manual for catechumens for several centuries. Athanasius (_Festal
Epistles_, 39), for instance, says that "it was appointed by the Fathers
to be read by those who are just recently coming to us, and wish to be
instructed in the word of godliness" ([Greek: katêcheisthai ton tês
eusebeias logon]). The instruction prescribed by the _Didache_ is very
largely ethical, and stands in striking contrast to the more elaborate
doctrinal teaching which came into vogue in later days. The _Shepherd of
Hermas_ too is another book which seems to have been used for the
purpose of catechesis, for Eusebius says that it "was deemed most
necessary for those who have need of elementary instruction" (_Eccles.
Hist._ iii. 3-6).

With the rise of theological controversy and the growth of heresy
catechetical instruction became of vital importance to the Church, and
much greater importance was attached to it. After the middle of the 4th
century it was regarded as essential that the candidate for baptism
should not only be acquainted with the spiritual truths and ethical
demands which form the basis of practical Christianity, but should also
be trained in theology and the interpretation of the creeds. Two books
have been preserved which throw a striking light upon the transformation
which had taken place in the conception of catechesis; (1) the
Catechetical Lectures of Cyril of Jerusalem; (2) the _De rudibus
Catechizandis_ of Augustine. Cyril's Lectures may be termed the _Pearson
on the Creed_ of the 4th century. He takes each article separately,
discusses it clause by clause, explains the meaning of each word, and
justifies each statement from Scripture. Augustine's treatise was
written at the request of a catechist, named Deogratias, who had asked
him for advice. After replying to the question of Deogratias, and giving
sundry counsels as to the best method of interesting catechumens,
Augustine concludes by giving a model catechetical lecture, in which he
covers the whole of biblical history, beginning from the opening
chapters of Genesis, and laying particular stress on the doctrinal parts
of Scripture. Cyril and Augustine differ, as we should expect, in the
doctrines which they select for emphasis, but they both agree in
requiring a knowledge of sound doctrine on the part of the candidates.

In spite of the numerous references to catechumens in Patristic
literature, our knowledge of the details of the system is often very
deficient, and upon some points there is considerable diversity of
opinion amongst experts. The following are the most important questions
which come under consideration.

  1. _The Classification of Catechumens_.--Bingham and many of the older
  writers held that there were four classes of catechumens, representing
  different stages in the process of instruction: (a) "The inquirers"
  whose interest in Christianity had been sufficiently aroused to make
  them desire further information, and who received private and
  individual instruction from the teachers before they were admitted
  into the second class, (b) "The hearers" (_audientes_), who were
  admitted into the Church for the purpose of listening to sermons and
  exhortations, (c) The _prostrati_ or _genu flectentes_, who were
  allowed also to take part in the prayers, (d) The _electi_ or
  _competentes_, who had completed the period of probation and were
  deemed ready to receive baptism. Modern scholars, however, for the
  most part, deny that there is sufficient basis to justify this
  elaborate classification, and think that its advocates have confused
  the catechumenate with the system of penance. The evidence does not
  seem to warrant more than two classes, (a) the _audientes_, who were
  in the initial stages of their training, (b) the _competentes_, who
  were qualified for baptism.

  2. _The Relation of Catechumens to the Church_.--Catechumens were
  allowed of course to attend church services, but at a certain point
  were dismissed with the words "Ite catechumeni, missa est." The moment
  at which the dismissal took place cannot be exactly determined, and it
  is not clear whether the catechumens were allowed to remain for a
  portion of the Communion service, and if so, whether as spectators or
  as partial participants. A passage in Augustine seems to imply that in
  some way they shared in the Sacrament, "that which they (the
  catechumens) receive, though it be not the Body of Christ, is yet an
  holy thing and more holy than the common food which sustains us,
  because it is a Sacrament" (_De peccatorum meritis_, ii. 42). The
  explanation of these words has occasioned considerable controversy.
  Many scholars hold (and this certainly seems the most natural
  interpretation) that consecrated bread was taken from the Eucharist
  and given to the catechumens. Bingham, however, maintains that the
  reference is not to the consecrated bread, but to salt, which was
  given to them as a symbol "that they might learn to purge and cleanse
  their souls from sin."

  3. _The Duration of the Training_.--Various statements with regard to
  the duration of the catechumenical training are found in
  ecclesiastical authorities. The Apostolical Constitutions, for
  instance, fix it at three years;[1] the synod of Elvira at two.[2] The
  references in the Fathers, however, imply that for practical purposes
  it was limited to the forty days of Lent. Very probably, however, the
  forty days of actual instruction were preceded by a period of

  4. _The Relation between the Catechumenate and Baptism_.--Catechetical
  instruction was designed as a preliminary to baptism. There were two
  directions, however, in which this purpose was enlarged: (a) We have
  no reason to suppose that when infant baptism was introduced, those
  who had been baptized in infancy were excluded from the catechetical
  training, or that instruction was deemed unnecessary in their case,
  though as a matter of fact we have no definite reference to their
  admission. The custom of postponing baptism, which was very general in
  the 4th and 5th centuries, probably made such cases more rare than is
  generally supposed, and so accounts for the absence of any allusion to
  them in connexion with the catechumenate. (b) We have no reason to
  suppose that the instruction given in the famous catechetical schools
  of Alexandria and Carthage was restricted to candidates for baptism.
  There is no doubt that "catechetical" is used in a much wider sense
  when applied to the lectures of Origen than when used of the addresses
  of Cyril of Jerusalem. The "instruction" of Origen was given to all
  classes of Christians, and not merely to those who were in the initial

  5. _Characteristics of the Catechumenical Training_.--Besides
  instruction there were some other important features connected with
  the catechumenate. (a) The duty of _confession_ was impressed on the
  candidates. (b) The ceremony of _exorcism_ was often performed in
  order to free the catechumen from evil spirits. (c) At a certain point
  in the training the creed and the doctrine of the Sacraments were
  delivered to the candidates by the bishop with much impressive
  ceremonial. This teaching constituted the "holy secret" or "mystery"
  (_disciplina arcani_) of Christianity, and could only be imparted to
  those who were qualified to receive it. The acquisition of this
  arcanum was regarded as the most essential element in the catechetical
  discipline, and marked off its possessors from the rest of the world.
  There can be little doubt that this conception of the "Holy Secret"
  came into the Church originally from the Greek mysteries, and that
  much of the ceremonial connected with the catechumenate and baptism
  was derived from the same source.

  AUTHORITIES.--Cyril, _Catecheses_; Gregory of Nyssa, _Oratio
  Catechetica_; Chrysostom, _Catecheses ad illuminandos_; Augustine, _De
  rudibus Catechizandis_; Mayer, _Geschichte des Katechumenats ... in
  den ersten sechs Jahrhunderten_ (1868); S. Cheetham, _The Mysteries,
  Pagan and Christian_.     (H. T. A.)


  [1] _Apost. Constit._ viii. 2.

  [2] Canon 42.

CATEGORY (Gr.: [Greek: katêgoria], "accusation"), a term used both in
ordinary language and in philosophy with the general significance of
"class" or "group." In popular language it is used for any large group
of similar things, and still more generally as a mere synonym for the
word "class." The word was introduced into philosophy as a technical
term by Aristotle, who, however, several times used it in its original
sense of "accusation." He also used the verb [Greek: katêgorein], to
accuse, in the specific logical sense, to predicate; [Greek: tho
katêgoroumenon] becomes the predicate; and [Greek: katêgorikhê protasis]
may be translated as affirmative proposition. But though the word thus
received a new signification from Aristotle, it is not on that account
certain that the thing it was taken to signify was equally a novelty in
philosophy. In fact we find in the records of Oriental and early Greek
thought something corresponding to the Aristotelian classification.

    Hindu philosophy.

  Our knowledge of Hindu philosophy, and of the relations in which it
  may have stood to Greek speculation, scarcely enables us to give
  decisive answers to various questions that naturally arise on
  observation of their many resemblances (see an article by Richard
  Garbe in _Monist_, iv. 176-193). Yet the similarity between the two is
  so striking that, if not historically connected, they must at least be
  regarded as expressions of similar philosophic needs. The Hindu
  classification to which we specially refer is that of Kanada, who lays
  down six categories, or classes of existence, a seventh being
  generally added by the commentators. The term employed is _Padartha_,
  meaning "signification of a word." This is in entire harmony with the
  Aristotelian doctrine, the categories of which may with truth be
  described as significations of simple terms, [Greek: tha katha
  mêdemian suêplokhên legomena]. The six categories of Kanada are
  Substance, Quality, Action, Genus, Individuality, and Concretion or
  Co-inherence. To these is added Non-Existence, Privation or Negation.
  _Substance_ is the permanent substance in which _Qualities_ exist.
  _Action_, belonging to or inhering in substances, is that which
  produces change, _Genus_ belongs to substance, qualities and actions;
  there are higher and lower genera. _Individuality_, found only in
  substance, is that by which a thing is self-existent and marked off
  from others. _Concretion_ or Co-inherence denotes inseparable or
  necessary connection, such as that between substance and quality.
  Under these six classes, [Greek: genê tou hontos], Kanada then
  proceeds to range the facts of the universe.[1]

    Greek philosophy

  Within Greek philosophy itself there were foreshadowings of the
  Aristotelian doctrine, but nothing so important as to warrant the
  conclusion that Aristotle was directly influenced by it. Doubtless the
  One and Many, Being and Non-Being, of the Eleatic dialectic, with
  their subordinate oppositions, may be called categories, but they are
  not so in the Aristotelian sense, and have little or nothing in common
  with the later system. Their starting-point and results are wholly
  diverse. Nor does it appear necessary to do more than mention the
  Pythagorean table of principles, the number of which is supposed to
  have given rise to the decuple arrangement adopted by Aristotle. The
  two classifications have nothing in common; no term in the one list
  appears in the other; and there is absolutely nothing in the
  Pythagorean principles which could have led to the theory of the


  One naturally turns to Plato when endeavouring to discover the genesis
  of any Aristotelian doctrine, and undoubtedly there are in the
  Platonic writings many detached discussions in which the matter of the
  categories is touched upon. Special terms also are anticipated at
  various times, e.g. [Greek: poiotês] in the _Theaetetus_, [Greek:
  poiein] and [Greek: paschein] in the _Gorgias_, and [Greek: pros ti]
  in the _Sophist._[3] But there does not seem to be anything in Plato
  which one could say gave occasion directly and of itself to the
  Aristotelian doctrine; and even when we take a more comprehensive view
  of the Platonic system and inquire what in it corresponds to the
  widest definition of categories, say as ultimate elements of thought
  and existence, we receive no very definite answer. The Platonic
  dialectic never worked out into system, and only in two dialogues do
  we get anything like a list of ultimate or root-notions. In the
  _Sophist_, Being, Rest and Motion ([Greek: tho on autho kahi stasis
  kahi kinêsis]) are laid down as [Greek: megista tôn genôn].[4] To
  these are presently added the Same and the Other ([Greek: tauthon kai
  thateron]), and out of the consideration of all five some light is
  cast upon the obscure notion of Non-Being [Greek: (to mhê on)]. In the
  same dialogue (262 seq.) is found the important distinction of [Greek:
  onoma] and [Greek: rhêma], noun and verb. The _Philebus_ presents us
  with a totally distinct classification into four elements--the
  Infinite, the Finite, the Mixture or Unity of both and the Cause of
  this unity ([Greek: tho apeiron, tho peras, hê summixis, hê aitia]).
  It is at once apparent that, however these classifications are related
  to one another and to the Platonic system, they lie in a different
  field from that occupied by the Aristotelian categories, and can
  hardly be said to have anything in common with them.


  The Aristotelian doctrine is most distinctly formulated in the short
  treatise [Greek: Katêgoriai], which generally occupies the first place
  among the books of the _Organon_. The authenticity of the treatise was
  doubted in early times by some of the commentators, and the doubts
  have been revived by such scholars as L. Spengel and Carl Prantl. On
  the other hand, C.A. Brandis, H. Bonitz, and Ed. Zeller are of opinion
  that the tract is substantially Aristotle's. The matter is hardly one
  that can be decided either _pro_ or _con_ with anything like
  certainty; but this is of little moment, for the doctrine of the
  categories, even of the _ten_ categories, does not stand or fall with
  only one portion of Aristotle's works.

  It is surprising that there should yet be so much uncertainty as to
  the real significance of the categories, and that we should be in
  nearly complete ignorance as to the process of thought by which,
  Aristotle was led to the doctrine. On both points It is difficult to
  extract from the matter before us anything approaching a satisfactory
  solution. The terms employed to denote the categories have been
  scrutinized with the utmost care, but they give little help. The most
  important--[Greek: k. tou ontos] or [Greek: tês ousias, genê tou
  ontos] or [Greek: tôn ontôn, genê] simply, [Greek: tha prôta] or
  [Greek: tha koina prôta, ai ptôseis], or [Greek: ai diaireseis]--only
  indicate that the categories are general classes into which Being as
  such may be divided, that they are _summa genera_. The expressions
  [Greek: genê tôn katêgoriôn] and [Greek: schêmata tôn k.], which are
  used frequently, seem to lead to another and somewhat different view.
  [Greek: katêgoria] being taken to mean that which is predicated,
  [Greek: genê tôn k.] would signify the most general classes of
  predicates, the framework into the divisions of which all predicates
  must come. To this interpretation there are objections. The categories
  must be carefully distinguished from predicables; in the scholastic
  phraseology the former refer to _first intentions_, the latter to
  _second intentions_, i.e. the one denote real, the other logical
  connexion. Further, the categories cannot without careful explanation
  be defined as predicates; they are this and something more. The most
  important category, [Greek: ousia], in one of its aspects cannot be
  predicate at all.

  In the [Greek: Katêgoriai] Aristotle prefixes to his enumeration a
  grammatico-logical disquisition on homonyms and synonyms, and on the
  elements of the proposition, i.e. subject and predicate. He draws
  attention to the fact that things are spoken of either in the
  connexion known as the proposition, e.g. "a man runs," or apart from
  such connexion, e.g. "man" and "runs." He then proceeds, "Of things
  spoken of apart from their connexion in a proposition ([Greek: tôn
  katha mêdemian sumplokhên legomenôn]), each signifies either Substance
  ([Greek: ousia]), or Quantity ([Greek: poson]), or Quality ([Greek:
  poion]), or Relation ([Greek: pros ti],) or Where (i.e. Place, [Greek:
  pou]), or When (i.e. Time, [Greek: pote]), or Position ([Greek:
  keisthai]), or Possession ([Greek: echein]), or Action ([Greek:
  poiein]), or Passion ([Greek: paschein]). [Greek: ousia], the first
  category, is subdivided into [Greek: prôtê ousia] or primary
  substance, which is defined to be [Greek: tode ti], the singular thing
  in which properties inhere, and to which predicates are attached, and
  [Greek: deuterai] [Greek: onsiai], genera or species which can be
  predicated of primary substances, and are therefore [Greek: onsia].
  only in a secondary sense. Nevertheless, they too, after a certain
  fashion, signify the singular thing, [Greek: tode ti]" (K. p. 3 b 12,
  13). It is this doctrine of [Greek: protê onsia] that has raised
  doubts with regard to the authenticity of the [Greek: Katêgoriai] But
  the tenfold classification, which has also been captiously objected
  to, is given in an acknowledged writing of Aristotle's (see Topica, i.
  9, p. 103 b 20).[5] At the same time it is at least remarkable that in
  two places where the enumeration seems intended to be complete (_Met._
  p. 1017 a 25; _An. Pos._ i. 22, p. 83 a 21), only eight are mentioned,
  [Greek: exein] and [Greek: keisthai] being omitted. In other
  passages[6] six, five, four, and three are given, frequently with some
  addition, such as [Greek: kai ai allai k]. It is also to be observed
  that, despite of this wavering, distinct intimations are given by
  Aristotle that he regarded his list as complete, and he uses phrases
  which would seem to indicate that the division had been exhaustively
  carried out. He admits certainly that some predicates which come under
  one category might be referred to another, but he declines to deduce
  all from one highest class, or to recognize any relation of
  subordination among the several classes.

  The full import of the categories will never be adequately reached
  from the point of view taken up in the [Greek: Katêgoriai], which
  bears all the marks of an early and preliminary study. For true
  understanding we must turn to the _Metaphysics_, where the doctrine is
  handled at large. The discussion of Being in that work starts with a
  distinction that at once gives us a clue. [Greek: tho on] is spoken of
  in many ways; of these four are classified--[Greek: tho on katha
  sumbebêkos, tho om hôs alêthes, tho on dunamei kai energeia], and
  [Greek: tho on kata ta schêmata tôn katêgoriôn]. It is evident from
  this that the categories can be regarded neither as purely logical nor
  as purely metaphysical elements. They indicate the general forms or
  ways in which Being can be predicated; they are determinations of
  Being regarded as an object of thought, and consequently as matter of
  speech. It becomes apparent also why the analysis of the categories
  starts from the singular thing, for it is the primary form under which
  all that is becomes object of knowledge, and the other categories
  modify or qualify this real individual. [Greek: Panta de ta gignomena
  hupo te tinos gignetai kai ek tinos kai ti. To de ti legô kath
  hekastên katêgorian ê gar tode ê poson ê poion ê pon]. (_Met._ p. 1032
  a 13-15) ... The categories, therefore, are not logical forms, but
  real predicates; they are the general modes in which Being may be
  expressed. The definite thing, that which comes forward in the process
  from potentiality to full actuality, can only appear and be spoken of
  under forms of individuality, quality, quantity and so on. The nine
  later categories all denote entity in a certain imperfect fashion.

  The categories then are not to be regarded as heads of predicates, the
  framework into which predicates can be thrown. They are real
  determinations of Being--_allgemeine Bestimmtheiten_, as Hegel calls
  them. They are not _summa genera_ of existences, still less are they
  to be explained as a classification of namable things in general. The
  objections Mill has taken to the list are entirely irrelevant, and
  would only have significance if the categories were really--what they
  are not--an exhaustive division of concrete existences. Grote's view
  (_Aristotle_, i. 108) that Aristotle drew up his list by examining
  Various popular propositions, and throwing the different predicates
  into genera, "according as they stood in different logical relation to
  the subject," has no foundation. The relation of the predicate
  category to the subject is not entirely a logical one; it is a
  relation of real existence, and wants the essential marks of the
  prepositional form. The logical relations of [Greek: to on] are
  provided for otherwise than by the categories.

  Aristotle has given no intimation of the course of thought by which he
  was led to his tenfold arrangement, and it seems hopeless to discover
  it. Trendelenburg in various essays has worked out the idea that the
  root of the matter is to be found in grammatical considerations, that
  the categories originated from investigations into grammatical
  functions, and that a correspondence will be found to obtain between
  categories and parts of speech. Thus, Substance corresponds to noun
  substantive, Quantity and Quality to the adjective, Relation partly to
  the comparative degree and perhaps to the preposition, When and Where
  to the adverbs of time and place. Action to the active, Passion to the
  passive of the verb, Position [Greek: keisthai] to the intransitive
  verb, [Greek: echein] to the peculiar Greek perfect. That there should
  be a very close correspondence between the categories and grammatical
  elements is by no means surprising; that the one were deduced from the
  other is both philosophically and historically improbable. Reference
  to the detailed criticisms of Trendelenburg by Ritter, Bonitz, and
  Zeller will be sufficient.

  Aristotle has also left us in doubt on another point. Why should there
  be only _ten_ categories? and why should these be the ten? Kant and
  Hegel, it is well known, signalize as the great defect in the
  Aristotelian categories the want of a principle, and yet some of
  Aristotle's expressions would warrant the inference that he _had_ a
  principle, and that he thought his arrangement exhaustive. The leading
  idea of all later attempts at reduction to unity of principle, the
  division into substance and accident, was undoubtedly not overlooked
  by Aristotle, and Fr. Brentano[7] has collected with great diligence
  passages which indicate how the complete list might have been deduced
  from this primary distinction. His tabular arrangements (pp. 175, 177)
  are particularly deserving of attention. The results, however, are
  hardly beyond the reach of doubt.

    Later Greek.

  There was no fundamental change in the doctrine of the categories from
  the time of Aristotle to that of Kant, and only two proposed
  reclassifications are of such importance as to require notice. The
  Stoics adopted a fivefold arrangement of highest classes, [Greek:
  genikôtata]. [Greek: to on] or [Greek: ti], Being, or somewhat in
  general, was subdivided into [Greek: hypokeimena] or subjects, [Greek:
  poia] or qualities in general, which give definiteness to the blank
  subject, [Greek: pôs echonta], modes which further determine the
  subject, and [Greek: pros ti pôs echonta], definite relative modes.
  These categories are so related that each involves the existence of
  one higher than itself, thus there cannot be a [Greek: pros ti pôs
  echon] which does not rest upon or imply a [Greek: pôs echon], but
  [Greek: pôs echon] is impossible without [Greek: poion], which only
  exists in [Greek: hypokeimenon], a form or phase of [Greek: to

  Plotinus, after a lengthy critique of Aristotle's categories, sets out
  a twofold list. [Greek: to en, kinêsis, stasis, tautotês, heterotês]
  are the primitive categories ([Greek: prôta genê]) of the intelligible
  sphere. [Greek: ousia, pros ti, poia, poson, kinêsis] are the
  categories of the sensible world. The return to the Platonic
  classification will not escape notice.

    Modern philosophy.

  Modern philosophy, neglecting altogether the dry and tasteless
  treatment of the Aristotelian doctrine by scholastic writers, gave a
  new, a wider and deeper meaning to the categories. They now appear as
  ultimate or root notions, the metaphysical or thought elements, which
  give coherence and consistency to the material of knowledge, the
  necessary and universal relations which obtain among the particulars
  of experience. There was thus to some extent a return to Platonism,
  but in reality, as might easily be shown, the new interpretation was,
  with due allowance for difference in point of view, in strict harmony
  with the true doctrine of Aristotle. The modern theory dates in
  particular from the time of Kant, who may be said to have reintroduced
  the term into philosophy. Naturally there are some anticipations in
  earlier thinkers. The Substance, Attribute and Mode of Cartesianism
  can hardly be classed among the categories; nor does Leibnitz's chance
  suggestion of a fivefold arrangement into Substance, Quantity,
  Quality, Action and Passion, and Relations, demand any particular
  notice. Locke, too, has a classification into Substances, Modes and
  Relations, but in it he has manifestly no intention of drawing up a
  table of categories. What in his system corresponds most nearly to the
  modern view of these elements is the division of kinds of real
  predication. In all judgments of knowledge we predicate either (1)
  Identity or Diversity, (2) Relation, (3) Co-existence, or necessary
  connexion, or (4) Real existence. From this the transition was easy to
  Hume's important classification of _philosophical relations_ into
  those of Resemblance, Identity, Time and Place, Quantity or Number,
  Quality, Contrariety, Cause and Effect.

  These attempts at an exhaustive distribution of the necessary
  relations of all objects of knowledge indicate the direction taken by
  modern thought, before it received its complete expression from Kant.


  The doctrine of the categories is the very kernel of the Kantian
  system, and, through it, of later German philosophy. To explain it
  fully would be to write the history of that philosophy. The categories
  are called by Kant Root-notions of the Understanding (_Stammbegriffe
  des Verstandes_), and are briefly the specific forms of the a priori
  or formal element in rational cognition. It is this distinction of
  matter and form in knowledge that marks off the Kantian from the
  Aristotelian doctrine. To Kant knowledge was only possible as the
  synthesis of the material or a posteriori with the formal or a priori.
  The material to which a priori forms of the understanding were applied
  was the sensuous content of the pure intuitions, Time and Space. This
  content could not be _known_ by sense, but only by intellectual
  function. But the understanding in the process of knowledge makes use
  of the universal form of synthesis, the judgment; intellectual
  function is essentially of the nature of judgment or the reduction of
  a manifold to unity through a conception. The specific or type forms
  of such function will, therefore, be expressed in judgments; and a
  complete classification of the forms of judgments is the key by which
  one may hope to discover the system of categories. Such a list of
  judgments Kant thought he found in ordinary logic, and from it he drew
  up his well-known scheme of the twelve categories. These forms are the
  determinations of all objects of experience, for it is only through
  them that the manifold of sense can be reduced to the unity of
  consciousness, and thereby constituted experience. They are a priori
  conditions, subjective in one sense, but objective as being universal,
  necessary and constitutive of experience.

  The table of logical judgments with corresponding categories is as

        Judgments.                               Categories.
    Universal      \        I.        / Unity.
    Particular      >  Of Quantity   <  Plurality.
    Singular       /                  \ Totality.

    Affirmative    \       II.        / Reality.
    Negative        >  Of Quality    <  Negation.
    Infinite       /                  \ Limitation.

    Categorical    \                  / Inherence and Subsistence
                   |       III.      |    (Substance and Accident).
    Hypothetical    >  Of Relation  <   Causality and Dependence
                   |                 |    (Cause and Effect).
    Disjunctive    /                  \ Community (Reciprocity).

    Problematical  \       IV.        / Possibility and Impossibility.
    Assertoric      >  Of Modality   <  Existence and Non-Existence.
    Apodictic      /                  \ Necessity and Contingency.


  Kant, it is well known, criticizes Aristotle severely for having drawn
  up his categories without a principle, and claims to have disclosed
  the only possible method by which an exhaustive classification might
  be obtained. What he criticized in Aristotle is brought against his
  own procedure by the later German thinkers, particularly Fichte and
  Hegel. And in point of fact it cannot be denied that Kant has allowed
  too much completeness to the ordinary logical distribution of
  propositions; he has given no proof that in these forms are contained
  all species of synthesis, and in consequence he has failed to show
  that in the categories, or pure conceptions, are contained all the
  modes of a priori synthesis. Further, his principle has so far the
  unity he claimed for it, the unity of a single function, but the
  specific forms in which such unity manifests itself are not themselves
  accounted for by this principle. Kant himself hints more than once at
  the possibility of a completely rational system of the categories, at
  an evolution from one single movement of thought, and in his _Remarks
  on the Table of the Categories_ gave a pregnant hint as to the method
  to be employed. From any complete realization of this suggestion Kant,
  however, was precluded by one portion of his theory. The categories,
  although the necessary conditions under which alone an object of
  experience can be thrown, are merely forms of the mind's own activity;
  they apply only to sensuous and consequently subjective material.
  Outside of and beyond them lies the thing-in-itself, which to Kant
  represented the ultimately real. This subjectivism was a distinct
  hiatus in the Kantian system, and against it principally Fichte and
  Hegel directed criticism. It was manifest that at the root of the
  whole system of categories there lay the synthetizing unity of
  self-consciousness, and it was upon this unity that Fichte fixed as
  giving the possibility of a more complete and rigorous deduction of
  the pure notions of the understanding. Without the act of the Ego,
  whereby it is self-conscious, there could be no knowledge, and this
  primitive act or function must be, he saw, the _position_ or
  affirmation of itself by the Ego. The first principle then must be
  that the Ego posits itself as the Ego, that Ego = Ego, a principle
  which is unconditioned both in form and matter, and therefore capable
  of standing absolutely first, of being the _prius_ in a system.
  Metaphysically regarded this act of self-position yields the
  categories of Reality. But, so far as matter is concerned, there
  cannot be affirmation without negation, _omnis determinatio est
  negatio_. The determination of the Ego presupposes or involves the
  Non-Ego. The form of the proposition in which this second act takes to
  itself expression, the Ego is not = Not-Ego, is unconditioned, not
  derivable from the first. It is the absolute antithesis to the
  primitive thesis. The category of Negation is the result of this
  second act. From these two propositions, involving absolutely opposed
  and mutually destructive elements, there results a third which
  reconciles both in a higher synthesis. The notion in this third is
  determination or limitation; the Ego and Non-Ego limit, and are
  opposed to one another. From these three positions Fichte proceeds to
  evolve the categories by a series of thesis, antithesis and synthesis.

  In thus seizing upon the unity of self-consciousness as the origin for
  systematic development, Fichte has clearly taken a step in advance of,
  and yet in strict harmony with, the Kantian doctrine. For, after all
  that can be said as to the demonstrated character of formal logic,
  Kant's procedure was empirical, and only after the list of categories
  had been drawn out, did he bring forward into prominence what gave
  them coherence and reality. The peculiar method of Fichte, also, was
  nothing but a consistent application of Kant's own Remark on the Table
  of the Categories. Fichte's doctrine, however, is open to some of the
  objections advanced against Kant. His method is too abstract and
  external, and wants the unity of a single principle. The first two of
  his fundamental propositions stand isolated from one another, not to
  be resolved into a primitive unity. With him, too, the whole stands
  yet on the plane of subjectivity. He speaks, indeed, of the universal
  Ego as distinct from the empirical self-consciousness; but the
  universal does not rise with him to concrete spirit. Nevertheless the
  _Wissenschaftslehre_ contains the only real advance in the treatment
  of the categories from the time of Kant to that of Hegel.[9] This, of
  course, does not imply that there were not certain elements in
  Schelling, particularly in the _Transcendental Idealism_, that are of
  value in the transition to the later system; but on the whole it is
  only in Hegel that the whole matter of the Kantian categories has been
  assimilated and carried to a higher stage. The Hegelian philosophy, in
  brief, is a system of the categories; and, as it is not intended here
  to expound that philosophy, it is impossible to give more than a few
  general and quite external observations as to the Hegelian mode of
  viewing these elements of thought. With Kant, as has been seen, the
  categories were still subjective, not as being forms of the individual
  subject, but as having over against them the world of _noumena_ to
  which they were inapplicable. Self-consciousness, which was, even with
  Kant, the _nodus_ or kernel whence the categories sprang, was nothing
  but a logical centre,--the reality was concealed. There was thus a
  dualism, to overcome which is the first step in the Hegelian system.
  The principle, if there is to be one, must be universally applicable,
  all-comprehensive. Self-consciousness is precisely the principle
  wanted; it is a unity, an identity, containing in itself a
  multiplicity. The universal in absolute self-consciousness is just
  pure thinking, which in systematic evolution is the categories; the
  particular is the natural or multiform, the external as such; the
  concrete of both is spirit, or self-consciousness come to itself. The
  same law that obtains among the categories is found adequate to an
  explanation of the external thing which had so sadly troubled Kant.
  The categories themselves are moments of the universal of thought,
  type forms, or definite aspects which thought assumes; determinations,
  _Bestimmungen_, as Hegel most frequently calls them. They evolve by
  the same law that was found to be the essence of ultimate
  reality--i.e. of self-consciousness. The complete system is pure
  thought, the Universal _par excellence_.

  After the Hegelian there can hardly be said to have been a
  philosophical treatment of the categories in Germany which is not more
  or less a criticism of that system. It does not seem necessary to
  mention the unimportant modifications introduced by Kuno Fischer, J.E.
  Erdmann, or others belonging to the school. In the strongly-opposed
  philosophy of J.F. Herbart the categories can hardly be said to hold a
  prominent place. They are, with him, the most general notions which
  are psychologically formed, and he classifies them as follows:--(1)
  Thing, either as product of thought or as given in experience; (2)
  Property, either qualitative or quantitative; (3) Relation; (4) The
  Negated. Along with these he posits as categories of inner
  process--(1) Sensation, (2) Cognition, (3) Will, (4) Action. Joh. Fr.
  L. George (1811-1873),[10] who in the main follows Schleiermacher,
  draws out a table of categories which shows, in some points, traces of
  Herbartian influence. His arrangement by enneads, or series of nine,
  is fanciful, and wanting in inner principle.


  The most imposing of more recent attempts at a reconstruction of the
  categories is that of F.A. Trendelenburg. To him the first principle,
  or primitive reality, is Motion, which is both real as external
  movement, and ideal as inner construction. The necessary conditions of
  Motion are Time and Space, which are both subjective and objective.
  From this point onwards are developed the mathematical (point, line,
  &c.) and real (causality, substance, quantity, quality, &c.)
  categories which appear as involved in the notion of motion. Matter
  cannot be regarded as a product of motion; it is the condition of
  motion, we must think something moved. All these categories, "under
  the presupposition of motion as the first energy of thought, are ideal
  and subjective relations; as also, under the presupposition of motion
  as the first energy of Being, real and objective relations."[11] A
  serious difficulty presents itself in the next category, that of End
  (_Zweck_), which can easily be thought for inner activity, but can
  hardly be reconciled with real motion. Trendelenburg solves the
  difficulty only empirically, by pointing to the insufficiency of the
  merely mechanical to account for the organic. The consideration of
  Modality effects the transition to the forms of logical thought. On
  the whole, Trendelenburg's unique fact of motion seems rather a
  blunder. There is much more involved than he is willing to allow, and
  motion _per se_ is by no means adequate to self-consciousness. His
  theory has found little favour.


  Hermann Ulrici works out a system of the categories from a
  psychological or logical point of view. To him the fundamental fact of
  philosophy is the distinguishing activity (_unterscheidende
  Tätigkeit_) of thought. Thought is only possible by distinction,
  difference. The fixed points in the relations of objects upon which
  this activity turns are the categories, which may be called the forms
  or laws of thought. They are the aspects of things, notions under
  which things must be brought, in order to become objects of thought.
  They are thus the most general predicates or heads of predicates. The
  categories cannot be completely gathered from experience, nor can they
  be evolved a priori; but, by attending to the general relations of
  thought and its purely indefinite matter, and examining what we must
  predicate in order to know Being, we may attain to a satisfactory
  list. Such a list is given in great detail in the _System der Logik_
  (1852), and in briefer, preciser form in the _Compendium der Logik_
  (2nd ed., 1872); it is in many points well deserving of attention.

    Renouvier, Cousin, Hamilton, Mill.

  The definition of the categories by the able French logician Charles
  Bernard Renouvier in some respects resembles that of Ulrici. To him
  the primitive fact is Relation, of which all the categories are but
  forms. "The categories," he says, "are the primary and irreducible
  laws of knowledge, the fundamental relations which determine its form
  and regulate its movements." His table and his criticism of the
  Kantian theory are both of interest.[12] The criticism of Kant's
  categories by Cousin and his own attempted classification are of no
  importance. Of little more value is the elaborate table drawn out by
  Sir W. Hamilton.[13] The generalized category of the _Conditioned_ has
  but little meaning, and the subordinate categories evolve themselves
  by no principle, but are arranged after a formal and quite arbitrary
  manner. They are never brought into connexion with thought itself, nor
  could they be shown to spring from its nature and relations. J.S. Mill
  presented, "as a substitute for the abortive classification of
  Existences, termed the categories of Aristotle," the following as an
  enumeration of all nameable things:--(1) Feelings, or states of
  consciousness; (2) The minds which experience these feelings; (3)
  Bodies, or external objects which excite certain of those feelings;
  (4) Successions and co-existences, likenesses and unlikenesses,
  between feelings or states of consciousness.[14] This classification
  proceeds on a quite peculiar view of the categories, and is here
  presented only for the sake of completeness.

    Modern psychologists.

  By modern psychologists the subject has been closely investigated.
  Professor G.F. Stout (_Manual of Psychology_, vol. ii. pp. 312 foll.)
  defines categories as "forms of cognitive consciousness, universal
  principles or relations presupposed either in all cognition or in all
  cognition of a certain kind." He then treats External (or Physical)
  Reality, Space, Time, Causality and "Thinghood" from the standpoint of
  the perceptual consciousness; showing in what sense the categories of
  causality, substance and the rest exist in the sphere of perception.
  As contrasted with the ideational, the perceptual consciousness is
  concerned with practice. Perception tells the child of things as
  separate entities, not in their ultimate relations as parts of a
  coherent whole. G.T. Ladd (_Psychology Descriptive and Explanatory_,
  ch. xxi., on "Space, Time and Causality") defines the categories from
  the psychological standpoint as "those highly abstract conceptions
  which the mind frames by reflection upon its own most general modes of
  behaviour. They are our own notions resulting from co-operation of
  imagination and judgment, concerning the ultimate and unanalyzable
  forms of our own existence and development." In other words, the
  categories are highly abstract, have no content, and are realized as a
  kind of thinking which has for its object all the other mental

  AUTHORITIES.--Besides those quoted above, see Eduard v. Hartmann,
  _Kategorienlehre_ (Leipzig, 1896), and "Begriff der
  Kategorialfunktion", in _Zeitschr. f. Philos. und phil. Krit._ cxv.
  (1899), pp. 9-19; E. König in the same periodical cxiii. (1889), pp.
  232-279, and cxiv. (1899), pp. 78-105; F.A. Trendelenburg, _Geschichte
  der Kategorienlehre_ (1846); P. Ragnisco _Storia critica delle
  categorie_ (2 vols., Florence, 1871); W. Windelband _Vom System der
  Kategorien_ (Tübingen, 1900); R. Eisler, _Wörterbuch der
  philospphischen Begriffe_ (Berlin, 1899), pp. 400-409; S. Joda,
  _Studio critico su le categorie_ (Naples, 1881); H. Vaihinger, _Die
  transcendentale Deduktion der Kategorien_ (Halle, 1902); H.W.B.
  Joseph, _Introduction to Logic_ (Oxford, 1906), ch. iii.; F.H.
  Bradley, _Principles of Logic_ (1883); B. Bosanquet's _Knowledge and
  Reality_ (1885, 2nd ed. 1892); histories of philosophy. For further
  authorities see works quoted under ARISTOTLE and KANT, and in J.M.
  Baldwin's _Dict. Philos. Psych._ vol. iii. pt. 2, p. 685.
       (R. Ad.; X.)


  [1] For details of this and other Hindu systems see H. T. Colebrooke,
    _Miscellaneous Essays_ (1837; new ed., E. B. Cowell, 1873); H. H.
    Wilson, _Essays and Lectures on the Religions of the Hindus_
    (1861-1862); Monier Williams, _Indian Wisdom_ (4th ed., 1893); A. E.
    Gough's _Vaiseshika-Sutras_ (Benares, 1873), and _Philosophy of the
    Upanishads_ (London, 1882, 1891); Max Müller, _Sanskrit Literature_,
    and particularly his appendix to Thomson's _Laws of Thought_.

  [2] The supposed origin of that theory in the treatise [Greek: perhi
    tou pantos], ascribed to Archytas (q.v.), has been proved to be an
    error. The treatise itself dates in all probability from the
    Neo-Pythagorean schools of the 2nd century A.D.

  [3] Prantl, _Ges. der Logik_, i. 74-75; F.A. Trendelenburg,
    _Kategorienlehre_, 209. n.

  [4] _Soph_. 254 D.

  [5] Against this passage even Prantl can raise no objection of any
    moment; see _Ges. der Logik_, i. 206. n.

  [6] See Bonitz, _Iridex Aristotelicus_, s.v., and Prantl, _Ges. der
    Logik_, i. 207.

  [7] Brentano, _Bedeutung des Seienden nach A._, pp. 148-178.

  [8] For detailed examination of the Stoic categories, see Prantl,
    _Ges. d. Logik_, i. 428 sqq.; Zeller, _Ph. d. Griech._ iii. 1, 82,
    sqq,; Trendelenburg, _Kateg._ p. 217.

  [9] It does not seem necessary to do more than refer to the slight
    alterations made on Kant's Table of Categories by J.G. von Herder (in
    the _Metakritik_), by Solomon Malmon (in the _Propadeutik zu einer
    neuen Theorie des Denkens_), by J.F. Fries (in the _Neue Kritik der
    Vernunft_), or by Schopenhauer, who desired to reduce all the
    categories to one--that of Causality. We should require a new
    philosophical vocabulary even to translate the extraordinary
    compounds in which K.C.F. Krause expounds his theory of the
    categories. Notices of the changes introduced by Antonio
    Rosmini-Serbati, and of Vincenzo Gioberti's remarkable theory, will
    be found in Ragnisco's work referred to below.

  [10] _System der Metaphysik_ (1844).

  [11] _Logische Untersuchungen_, i. 376-377.

  [12] _Essais de critique générale_ (2nd ed.), _La Logique_, i. pp.
    184, 190, 207-225.

  [13] _Discussions_, p. 577.

  [14] _Logic_, i. 83; cf. Bain, _Ded. Log._, App. C.

CATENARY (from Lat. _catena_, a chain), in mathematics, the curve
assumed by a uniform chain or string hanging freely between two
supports. It was investigated by Galileo, who erroneously determined it
to be a parabola; Jungius detected Galileo's error, but the true form
was not discovered until 1691, when James Bernoulli published it as a
problem in the _Acta Eruditorum_. Bernoulli also considered the cases
when (1) the chain was of variable density, (2) extensible, (3) acted
upon at each point by a force directed to a fixed centre. These curves
attracted much attention and were discussed by John Bernoulli, Leibnitz,
Huygens, David Gregory and others.

  The mechanical properties of the curves are treated in the article
  MECHANICS, where various forms are illustrated. The simple catenary is
  shown in the figure. The cartesian equation referred to the axis and
  directrix is y = c cosh (x/c) or y = ½c[e^(x/c) + e^(-x/c)]; other
  forms are s = c sinh (x/c) and y^2 = c^2 + s^2, s being the arc
  measured from the vertex; the intrinsic equation is s = c tan [psi].
  The radius of curvature and normal are each equal to c sec^2 [psi].


  The surface formed by revolving the catenary about its directrix is
  named the _alysseide_. It is a minimal surface, i.e. the catenary
  solves the problem: to find a curve joining two given points, which
  when revolved about a line co-planar with the points traces a surface
  of minimum area (see VARIATIONS, CALCULUS OF).

  The involute of the catenary is called the _tractory_, _tractrix_ or
  _antifriction_ curve; it has a cusp at the vertex of the catenary, and
  is asymptotic to the directrix. The cartesian equation is
                                    _                     _
                                   | c - [root](c^2 - y^2) |
    x = [root](c^2 - y^2) + ½c log |-----------------------|
                                   |_c + [root](c^2 + y^2)_|

  and the curve has the geometrical property that the length of its
  tangent is constant. It is named the tractory, since a weight placed
  on the ground and drawn along by means of a flexible string by a
  person travelling in a straight line, the weight not being in this
  line, describes the curve in question. It is named the antifriction
  curve, since a pivot and step having the form of the surface generated
  by revolving the curve about its vertical axis wear away equally (see
  MECHANICS: _Applied_).

CATERAN (from the Gaelic _ceathairne_, a collective word meaning
"peasantry"), the band of fighting men of a Highland clan; hence the
term is applied to the Highland, and later to any, marauders or

CATERHAM, an urban district in the Wimbledon parliamentary division of
Surrey, England, 20 m. S. of London by the South-Eastern & Chatham
railway. Pop. (1901) 9486. It lies in a healthy, hilly district, and has
grown in modern times from a village into a large residential town.
There are large barracks in the neighbourhood, and the Metropolitan
lunatic asylum is close to the town.

CATERPILLAR, the popular name of the larva of various insects,
particularly of butterflies and moths (see LEPIDOPTERA, HEXAPODA,
METAMORPHOSIS). The word appears first in the form _caterpyl_
(_Promptorium Parvulorum_, about the middle of the 15th century). This
may be the original form, with the addition of -ar or -er; if so, it
represents the O. Fr. _chatepelose_ or _chatepeleuse_, i.e. "hairy-cat"
(_chat_, cat, and _pelouse_, hairy, Lat. _pilosus_), a name applied to
the hairy caterpillar, and also according to Cotgrave to a weevil. The
use of "cat" in this connexion is paralleled by the Swiss name for a
caterpillar, _teufelskatz_, and the popular English name for the blossom
of the willow, "catkin," somewhat resembling a caterpillar (cf.
"palmer"); the modern French is _chenille_, Latin _canicula_, a little
dog. The termination of the word seems to have been early connected with
"piller," a robber, plunderer from the destructive habits of the larva,
cf. Joel i. 4--"That which the palmer-worm hath left, hath the locust
eaten." The spelling "caterpillar," a 17th century corruption, has been
the usual form since Johnson.

CATESBY, ROBERT (1573-1605), English conspirator, son of Sir William
Catesby of Lapworth in Warwickshire, a prominent recusant who was a
descendant of Sir William Catesby, speaker of the House of Commons in
1484, executed by Henry VII. after the battle of Bosworth, was born in
1573, and entered Gloucester Hall (now Worcester College), Oxford, in
1586. He possessed a considerable estate, and was said to be wild and
extravagant in his youth. In 1596 he was one of those arrested on
suspicion during an illness of Queen Elizabeth. In 1601 he took part in
the rebellion of Essex, was wounded in the fight and imprisoned, but
finally pardoned on the payment of an enormous fine, to obtain which he
was forced to sell a portion of his property. In 1602 he despatched
Thomas Winter and the Jesuit Tesimond _alias_ Greenway to Spain to
induce Philip III. to organize an invasion of England, and in 1603,
after James's accession, he was named as an accomplice in the "Bye
Plot." Catesby was a man of great beauty of person, "above 2 yards
high," says Father Gerard, "and though slender, yet as well-proportioned
to his height as any man one should see." He possessed a clear head and
unflinching courage, and with a strong determination and fascinating
manner mastered the minds of his associates and overpowered all
opposition. He was, however, headstrong, wilful and imprudent, fit for
action, but incapable of due deliberation, and entirely wanting in
foresight. Exasperated by his personal misfortunes and at the repressive
measures under which his co-religionists were suffering, and blinded by
a religious zeal which amounted to fanaticism, he was now to be the
chief instigator of the famous Gunpowder Plot, which must in any event
have brought disaster upon the Roman Catholic cause. The idea of some
great stroke seems to have first entered his mind in May 1603. About the
middle of January 1604 he imparted his scheme of blowing up the
Parliament House to his cousin Thomas Winter, subsequently taking in Guy
Fawkes and several other conspirators and overcoming all fears and
scruples. But it was his determination, from which he would not be
shaken, not to allow warning to be given to the Roman Catholic peers
that was the actual cause of the failure of the plot. A fatal mistake
had been made in imparting the secret to Francis Tresham (q.v.), in
order to secure his financial assistance; and there is scarcely any
doubt that he was the author of the celebrated letter to his
brother-in-law, Lord Monteagle, which betrayed the conspiracy to the
government, on the 26th of October. On receiving the news of the letter
on the 28th, Catesby exhibited extraordinary coolness and fortitude, and
refused to abandon the attempt, hoping that the government might despise
the warning and still neglect precautions; and his confidence was
strengthened by Fawkes's report that nothing in the cellar had been
touched or tampered with. On the 2nd of November his resolution was
shaken by Tresham's renewed entreaties that he would flee, and his
positive assurance that Salisbury knew everything. On the evening of the
3rd, however, he was again, through Percy's insistence, persuaded to
stand firm and hazard the great stroke. The rest of the story is told in
the article GUNPOWDER PLOT. Here it need only be said that Catesby,
after the discovery of the conspiracy, fled with his fellow-plotters,
taking refuge ultimately at Holbeche in Staffordshire, where on the
night of the 8th of November he was overtaken and killed. He had married
Catherine, daughter of Thomas Leigh of Stoneleigh, Warwickshire, and
left one son, Robert, who inherited that part of the family estate which
had been settled on Catesby's mother and was untouched by the attainder,
and who is said to have married a daughter of Thomas Percy.

CAT-FISH, the name usually applied to the fishes of the family
_Siluridae_, in allusion to the long barbels or feelers about the mouth,
which have been compared to the whiskers of a cat. The _Siluridae_ are a
large and varied group, mostly inhabitants of fresh waters; some of them
by their singular form and armature are suggestive of the Devonian
mailed fishes, and were placed at one time in their vicinity by L.
Agassiz. Even such authorities as T.H. Huxley and E.D. Cope were
inclined to ascribe ganoid affinities to the _Siluridae_; but this view
has gradually lost ground, and most modern ichthyologists, if not all,
have adopted the conclusions of M. Sagemehl, who has placed the
_Siluridae_ near the carps and Characinids in the group Ostariophysi.
The Silurids and Cyprinids may be regarded as two parallel series
derived from some common stock which cannot have been very different
from the existing Characinids. In spite of the archaic appearance of
some of its members, the family _Siluridae_ does not appear to extend
far back in time, its oldest known representative being the _Bucklandium
diluvii_ of the Lower Eocene (London Clay) of Sheppey. A great number of
forms were placed by Cuvier and his successors in the family
_Siluridae_, which has since been broken up by T. Gill and other
American authors into several families, united under the name of
Nematognathi. A middle course appears the more reasonable to the
present writer, who has divided the _Siluridae_ of Cuvier into three
families, with the following definitions:--

_Siluridae_--ribs attached to strong parapophyses; operculum well

_Loricariidae_--ribs sessile; parapophyses absent; operculum more or
less developed.

_Aspredinidae_--ribs sessile; strong parapophyses; operculum absent.

These three families may be defined among the Ostariophysi by having the
parietal bones fused with the supraoccipital, no symplectic, the body
naked or with bony scutes, the mouth usually toothed, with barbels, and
usually an adipose dorsal fin.

The _Siluridae_ embrace more than one thousand species, spread over the
fresh waters of all parts of the world, but mostly from between the
tropics. They are absent from western Europe and north-west Africa, and
from North America west of the Rocky Mountains, but this deficiency has
been made good by now, the introduction of _Amiurus nebulosus_ and
allied species in various parts of continental Europe and California
having proved a success. Only a few forms are marine (_Plotosus_,
_Arius_, _Galeichthys_).

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--The "Wels" (_Silurus glanis_).]

The species which has given the name to the whole family is the "Wels"
of the Germans, _Silurus glanis_, the largest European fresh-water fish,
inhabiting the greater part of Europe from the Rhine eastwards and north
of the Alps. Its head is large and broad, its mouth wide, furnished with
six barbels, of which those of the upper jaw are very long. Both jaws
and the palate are armed with broad bands of small closely-set teeth,
which give the bones a rasp-like appearance. The eyes are exceedingly
small. The short body terminates in a long, compressed, muscular tail,
and the whole fish is covered with a smooth, scaleless, slippery skin.
Specimens of 4 and 5 ft. in length, and of 50 to 80 lb. in weight, are
of common occurrence, and the fish grows to 10 ft., with a weight of 400
lb., in the Danube. Its food consists chiefly of other bottom-feeding
fishes, and in inland countries it is considered one of the better class
of food fishes. Stories about children having been found in the stomach
of very large individuals are probably inventions. An allied species
(_S. aristotelis_) is found in Greece.

The _Clarias_ and _Heterobranchus_ of Africa and south-eastern Asia have
an elongate, more or less eel-shaped body, with long dorsal and anal
fins, and are known to be able to live a long time out of water, being
provided with an accessory dendritic breathing organ situated above the
gills. Some species live in burrows during the dry season, crawling
about at night in search of food. The common Nile species, the "Harmoot"
(_Clarias lazera_), occurs abundantly in the Lake of Galilee and was
included in, if not chiefly aimed at, by the Mosaic law which forbade
the Jews to eat scaleless fishes, a prohibition which has been extended
to eels in spite of the obvious presence of minute scales in the latter.

The _Saccobranchus_ of India and Ceylon, a genus more nearly related to
_Silurus_, have also an accessory organ for breathing atmospheric air.
It consists of a long sac behind the gill-cavity, extending far back on
each side of the body under the muscles.

In the majority of the _Siluridae_, called by A. Gunther the
_Proteropterae_, a section extremely numerous in species, and
represented throughout the tropics, the dorsal fin consists of a
short-rayed and an adipose portion, the former belonging to the
abdominal vertebral column; the anal is always much shorter than the
tail. The gill-membranes are not confluent with the skin of the isthmus;
they have a free posterior margin. When a nasal barbel is present, it
belongs to the posterior nostril. This section includes among many
others the genus _Bagrus_, of which the bayad (_B. bayad_) and docmac
(_B. docmac_) frequently come under the notice of travellers on the
Nile; they grow to a length of 5 ft. and are eaten.

Of the "cat-fishes" of North America (_Amiurus_), locally called
"bull-heads" or "horned-pouts," with eight barbels, some twenty species
are known. Some of them are valued as food, especially one which is
abundant in the ponds of New England, and capable of easy introduction
into other localities (_A. nebulosus_). Others which inhabit the great
lakes (_A. nigricans_) and the Mississippi (_A. ponderosus_) often
exceed the weight of 100 lb. _Platystoma_ and _Pimelodus_ people the
rivers and lakes of tropical America, and many of them are conspicuous
in this fauna by the ornamentation of their body, by long spatulate
snouts, and by their great size.

The genus _Arius_ is composed of a great number of species and has the
widest distribution of all Silurids, being represented in almost all
tropical countries which are drained by large rivers. Most of the
species live in salt water. They possess six barbels, and their head is
extensively osseous on its upper surface; their dorsal and pectoral
spines are generally developed into powerful weapons. _Bagarius_, one of
the largest Silurids of the rivers of India and Java, exceeding a length
of 6 ft., differs from _Arius_ in having eight barbels and the head
covered with skin.

R. Semon has made observations in Queensland on the habits of _Arius
australis_, which builds nests in the sandy bed of the Burnett river.
These nests consist of circular basin-like excavations about 20 in. in
diameter, at the bottom of which the eggs are laid and covered over by
several layers of large stones. In the marine and estuarine species of
_Arius, Galcichthys_ and _Osteogeniosus_, the male, more rarely the
female, carries the eggs in the mouth and pharynx; these eggs, few in
number, are remarkably large, measuring as much as 17 or 18 millimetres
in diameter in _Arius commusonii_, a fish 3 or 4 ft. in length.

The common North American _Amiurus nebulosus_ also takes care of its
eggs, which are deposited beneath protecting objects at the bottom of
the water, failing which both parents join in excavating a sort of nest
in the mud. The male watches over the eggs, and later leads the young in
great schools near the shore, seemingly caring for them as the hen for
her chickens.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--_Synodonus xiphias_.]

In the _Siluridae Stenobranchiae_ of Gunther the dorsal fin consists of
an adipose portion and a short-rayed fin which belongs to the abdominal
vertebral column, and, like the adipose fin, may be sometimes absent.
The gill-membranes are confluent with the skin of the isthmus. The
Silurids belonging to this section are either South American or African.
Among the former we notice specially the genus _Doras_, which is
distinguished by having a series of bony scutes along the middle of the
side. The narrowness of their gill-openings appears to have developed in
them a habit which has excited the attention of all naturalists who have
visited the countries bordering upon the Atlantic rivers of tropical
America, viz. the habit of travelling during seasons of drought from a
piece of water about to dry up to ponds of greater capacity. These
journeys are occasionally of such a length that the fish have to travel
all night; they are so numerous that the Indians fill many baskets of
them. J. Hancock supposes that the fish carry a small supply of water
with them in their gill-cavity, which they can easily retain by closing
their branchial apertures. The same naturalist adds that they make
regular nests, in which they cover up their eggs with care and defend
them--male and female uniting in this parental duty until the eggs are
hatched. _Synodontis_ is an African genus and common in the Nile, where
the various species are known by the name of "Shal." They frequently
occur among the representations of animals left by the ancient
Egyptians. The upper part of their head is protected by strong osseous
scutes, and both the dorsal and pectoral fins are armed with powerful
spines. Their mouth is small, surrounded by six barbels, which are more
or less fringed with a membrane or with branched tentacles.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--_-Malopterurus electricus_.]

The curious fact of some species of _Synodontis_ having the lower parts
darker than the upper, some being whitish above and blackish beneath,
appears to be connected with their habit of swimming in a reversed
position, the Belly turned upwards. This habit, known to the ancient
Egyptians, who have frequently represented them in that attitude, has
been described by E. Geoffrey, who says they nearly constantly swim on
their back, moving quite freely forwards and sidewards; but if alarmed,
they revert to the normal position to escape more rapidly.

The electric cat- or sheath-fishes (_Malopterurus_) have been referred
to the same section. Externally they are at once recognized by the
absence of a rayed dorsal fin, of which only a rudiment remains as a
small interneural spine concealed below the skin. The entire fish is
covered with soft, villose skin, an osseous defensive armour having
become unnecessary in consequence of the development of a powerful
electric apparatus, the strength of which, however, is exceeded by that
of the electric eel and the large species of _Torpedo_.

The electric organ of _Malopterurus_ differs essentially from that of
other fishes provided with such batteries, being part of the tegumentary
system instead of being derived from the muscles. It consists of
rhomboidal cells of a fine gelatinous substance immediately under the
skin. It is put into action by a single ganglionic cell at the anterior
extremity of the spinal cord. Contrary to what takes place in other
electric fishes, the current proceeds from the head to the tail.

The electric cat-fish, which grows to a length of 3 ft. in the Congo,
has a wide distribution in Africa, extending from the Nile to the
Zambezi and from the Senegal to the Congo. It was well known to the
ancient Egyptians, who have depicted it in their mural paintings and
elsewhere, and an account of its electric properties was given by an
Arab physician of the 12th century; then as now the fish was known under
the suggestive name of _Raad_ or _Raash_, which means "thunder."

Günther's _Siluridae Branchicolae_ comprise the smallest and least
developed members of the family; they are referred to two genera only
from South America, _Stegophilus_ and _Vandellia_, the smallest of which
does not exceed the length of 2 in. Their body is soft, narrow,
cylindrical and elongate; the dorsal and anal fins short; the vent far
behind the middle of the length of the body; gill-membranes confluent
with the skin of the isthmus. Each maxillary is provided with a small
barbel; and the gill-covers are armed with short stiff spines. Their
small size notwithstanding, these Silurids are well known to the
Brazilians, who accuse them of entering and ascending the urethra of
persons while bathing, causing inflammation and sometimes death. Some
certainly live parasitically in the gill-cavity of large Silurids, and
F. Silvestri has observed _Stegophilus insidiosus_ to suck the blood in
the gills of _Platystoma coruscans_, a Silurid growing to a length of 6

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--_Callichthys armatus_, from the upper Amazons.]

The mailed cat-fish of the South American genus _Callichthys_ builds
regular nests of grass on leaves, sometimes placed in a hole scooped out
in the bank, in which they cover their eggs and defend them, male and
female sharing in this parental duty. In the allied _Corydoras_ a
lengthy courtship takes place, followed by an embrace, during which the
female receives the seminal fluid in a sort of pouch formed by the
folded membranes of her ventral fins; immediately after, five or six
eggs are produced and received in the pouch, to be afterwards carefully
placed in a secluded spot. This operation is repeated many times, until
the total number of eggs, about 250, have been deposited. In accordance
with these pairing habits, the pectoral spines of the male, which are
used in amplexation, are larger and stronger than those of the female.
These fish are monogamous, and both parents remain by the side of the
nest, furiously attacking any assailant.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--_Loricaria lanceolata_, from the upper Amazons.]

The allied family _Loricariidae_ is entirely confined to the fresh
waters of Central and South America. C.T. Regan, who has recently
published an elaborate monograph of them, recognizes 189 species,
referred to 17 genera. Many of them are completely mailed; but all have
in common a short-rayed dorsal fin, with the ventrals below or rarely
in front of it. Their gill-openings are reduced to a short slit. The
first group of this section comprises alpine forms of the Andes, without
any armature, and with a very broad and pendent lower lip. They have
been referred to several genera (_Stygogenes, Arges, Brontes,
Astroblepus_), but are collectively called "preñadillas" by th natives,
who state that they live in subterranean craters within the bowels of
the volcanoes of the Andes, and are ejected with streams of mud and
water during eruptions. These fishes may, however, be found in surface
waters at all times, and their appearance in great quantities in the low
country during volcanic eruptions can be accounted for by numbers being
killed by the sulphuretted gases which escape during an eruption and by
their being swept down with the torrents of water issuing from the
volcano. The lowland forms have their body encased in large scutes,
either rough, scale-like, and arranged in four or five series
(_Chaetostomus_), or polished, forming broad rings round the slender and
depressed tail (_Loricaria_, fig. 5). They are mostly of small size.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Abdomen of _Aspredo batrachus_, with the ova
attached; at a the ova are removed, to show the spongy structure of the
skin, and the processes filling the interspaces between the ova.]

In certain of the mailed genera the secondary sexual differences may be
very pronounced, and have given rise to many nominal species. The shape
of the snout may differ according to the sex, and its margin may be
beset with tentacles in the male, whilst it frequently happens that the
head of the latter is margined with spines or bristles which are either
absent or considerably shorter in the female.

The _Aspredinidae_, which are also closely related to the _Siluridae_,
are represented by four genera and eighteen species from South America.
_Aspredo batrachus_ (fig. 6), of the Guianas, the largest form, reaching
to about a foot in length, deserves notice from the manner in which the
female carries her eggs attached to the belly and paired fins, in a
single layer, each egg being connected with the skin by a cup-shaped
pedunculate base supplied with blood-vessels and coated with a layer of
epithelium, the formation of which is still unexplained.     (G. A. B.)

CATGUT, the name applied to cord of great toughness and tenacity
prepared from the intestines of sheep, or occasionally from those of the
horse, mule and ass. Those of the cat are not employed, and therefore it
is supposed that the word is properly _kitgut, kit_ meaning "fiddle,"
and that the present form has arisen through confusion with _kit_ = cat.
The substance is used for the strings of harps and violins, as well as
other stringed musical instruments, for hanging the weights of clocks,
for bow-strings, and for suturing wounds in surgery. To prepare it the
intestines are cleaned, freed from fat, and steeped for some time in
water, after which their external membrane is scraped off with a blunt
knife. They are then steeped for some time in an alkaline ley, smoothed
and equalized by drawing out, subjected to the antiseptic action of the
fumes of burning sulphur, if necessary dyed, sorted into sizes, and
twisted together into cords of various numbers of strands according to
their uses. The best strings for musical instruments are imported from
Italy ("Roman strings"); and it is found that lean and ill-fed animals
yield the toughest gut.

CATHA, the _khat_ of the Arabs, a shrub widely distributed and much
cultivated in Arabia and tropical Africa from, Abyssinia to the Cape.
The dried leaves are used for the preparation of a kind of tea and also
as tobacco. The plant is a member of the natural order _Celastraceae_, a
family of shrubs and trees found in temperate and tropical climates and
represented in Britain by the spindle-tree (_Euonymus europaeus_).

CATHARS (CATHARI or CATHARISTS), a widespread heretical sect of the
middle ages. They were the debris of an early Christianity, scattered in
the 10th to 14th centuries over East and West, having their analogues in
the Mahommedan world as well. In the East they were called Bogomils
(q.v.) and Paulicians; in the West, Patarenes, Tixerands (i.e. Weavers),
Bulgars, Concorricii, Albanenses, Albigeois, &c.; in both, Cathars and
Manicheans. This article relates to the Western Cathars, as they appear
(1) in the Cathar Ritual written in Provençal and preserved in a
13th-century MS. in Lyons, published by Clédat, Paris, 1888; (2) in
Bernard Gui's _Practica inquisitionis haereticae pravitatis_, edited by
Canon C. Douais, Paris, 1886; and (3) in the _procès verbal_ of the
inquisitors' reports. Some were downright dualists, and believed that
there are two gods or principles, one of good and the other of evil,
both eternal; but as a rule they subordinated the evil to the good. All
were universalists in so far as they believed in the ultimate salvation
of all men.[1]

Their tenets were as follows:--The evil god, Satan, who inspired the
malevolent parts of the Old Testament, is god and lord of this world, of
the things that are seen and are temporal, and especially of the outward
man which is decaying, of the earthen vessel, of the body of death, of
the flesh which takes us captive under the law of sin and desire. This
world is the only true purgatory and hell, being the antithesis of the
world eternal, of the inward man renewed day by day, of Christ's peace
and kingdom which are not of this world. Men are the result of a primal
war in heaven, when hosts of angels incited by Satan or Lucifer to
revolt were driven out, and were imprisoned in terrestrial bodies
created for them by the adversary. But there are also celestial bodies,
bodies spiritual and not natural. These the angel souls left behind in
heaven, and they are buildings from God, houses not made with hands,
tunics eternal. Imprisoned in the garment of flesh, burdened with its
sin, souls long to be clothed upon with the habitations they left in
heaven. So long as they are at home in the body, they are absent from
the Lord. They would fain be at home with the Lord, and absent from the
body, for which there is no place in heaven since flesh and blood cannot
inherit the kingdom of God, nor corruption inherit incorruption. There
is no resurrection of the flesh. The true resurrection is the spiritual
baptism bequeathed by Christ to the _boni homines_. How shall man escape
from his prison-house of flesh, and undo the effects of his fall? For
mere death brings no liberation, unless a man is become a new creation,
a new Adam, as Christ was; unless he has received the gift of the spirit
and become a vehicle of the Paraclete. If a man dies unreconciled to God
through Christ, he must pass through another cycle of imprisonment in
flesh; perhaps in a human, but with equal likelihood in an animal's
body. For when after death the powers of the air throng around and,
persecute, the soul flees into the first lodging of clay that it
finds.[2] Christ was a life-giving spirit, and the _boni homines_, the
"good men," as the Cathars called themselves, are his ambassadors. They
alone have kept the spiritual baptism with fire which Christ instituted,
and which has no connexion with the water baptism of John; for the
latter was an unregenerate soul, who failed to recognize the Christ, a
Jew whose mode of baptism with water belongs to the fleeting outward
world and is opposed to the kingdom of God. It would be interesting to
trace Bardesanes and the Syriac Hymn of the Soul in all this.

The Cathars fell into two classes, corresponding to the Baptized and the
Catechumens of the early church, namely, the Perfect, who had been
"consoled," i.e. had received the gift of the Paraclete; and the
_credentes_ or Believers. The Perfect formed the ordained priesthood,
were women no less than men, and controlled the church; they received
from the Believers unquestioning obedience, and as vessels of election
in whom the Holy Spirit already dwelt, they were adored by the faithful,
who were taught to prostrate themselves before them whenever they asked
for their prayers. For none but the Consoled had received into their
hearts the spirit of God's Son, which cries "Abba, Father." They alone
were become adopted sons, and so able to use the Lord's Prayer, which
begins, "Our Father, which art in heaven." The Perfect alone knew God
and could address him in this prayer, the only one they used in their
ceremonies. The mere _credens_ could at best invoke the living saint,
and ask him to pray for him.

All adherents of the sect seem to have kept three Lents in the year, as
also to have fasted Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays of each week; in
these fasts a diet of bread and water was usual. But a _credens_ under
probation for initiation, which lasted at least one and often several
years, fasted always. The life of a Perfect was so hard, and, thanks to
the inquisitors, so fraught with danger, that most Believers deferred
the rite until the death-bed, as in the early centuries many believers
deferred baptism. The rule imposed complete chastity. A husband at
initiation left his wife, committing her "to God and the gospel"; a wife
her husband. A male Perfect could not lay his hand on a woman without
incurring penance of a three-days' fast. All begetting of children is
evil, for Adam's chambering with Eve was the forbidden fruit. It is good
for a man not to touch a woman; a man's relations with his own wife are
merely a means of fornication, and marriage and concubinage are
indistinguishable as against the kingdom of God, in which there is no
marrying or giving in marriage. Those only have been redeemed from earth
who were virgins, undefiled with women. The passages of the New
Testament which seem to connive at the married relation were interpreted
by the Cathars as spoken in regard of Christ and the church. The Perfect
must also leave his father and mother, and his children, for a man's
foes are they of his own household. The family must be sacrificed to
the divine kinship. He that loveth father or mother more than Christ is
not worthy of him, nor he that loveth more his son or daughter. The
Perfect takes up his cross and follows after Christ.

Next he must abstain from all flesh diet except fish. He may not even
eat cheese or eggs or milk, for they, like meat, are produced _per viam
generationis seu coitus_. Everything that is sexually begotten is
impure. Fish were supposed to be born in the water without sexual
connexion, and on the basis of this old physiological fallacy the
Cathars equally with the Catholic framed their rule of fasting. And
there was yet another reason why the Perfect should not eat animals, for
a human soul might be doing time in its body. Nor might a Perfect or one
in course of probation kill anything, for the Mosaic commandment applies
to all life. He might not lie nor take an oath, for the precept "Swear
not at all" was, like the rest of the gospel, taken seriously. This was
the chief of their "anarchist doctrines."[3]

The Cathar rites, which remain to us in a manual of the sect, "recall,"
says the Abbé Guiraud, no too favourable a witness, "those of the
primitive church with a truth and precision the more striking the nearer
we go back to the apostolic age." The medieval inquisitor saw in them an
aping of the rites of the Catholic church as he knew them; but they were
really, says the same authority, "archaeological vestiges (i.e.
survivals) of the primitive Christian liturgy. In the bosom of medieval
society they were the last witness to a state of things that the regular
development of Catholic cult had amplified and modified. They resemble
the erratic blocks which lost amid alien soils recall, where we find
them, the geological conditions of earlier ages. This being so, it is of
the deepest interest to study the Cathar cult, since through its rites
we can get a glimpse of those of the primitive church, about which want
of documents leaves us too often in the dark."

The central Cathar rite was _consolamentum_, or baptism with spirit and
fire. The spirit received was the Paraclete derived from God and sent by
Christ, who said, "The Father is greater than I." Of a consubstantial
Trinity the Cathars naturally had never heard. Infant baptism they
rejected because it was unscriptural, and because all baptism with water
was an appanage of the Jewish demiurge Jehovah, and as such expressly
rejected by Christ.

The _consolamentum_ removes original sin, undoes the sad effects of the
primal fall, clothes upon us our habitation which is from heaven,
restores to us the lost tunic of immortality. A Consoled is an angel
walking in the flesh, whom the thin screen of death alone separates from
Christ and the beatific vision. The rite was appointed by Christ, and
has been handed down from generation to generation by the _boni

The long probation called "abstinence" which led up to it is a survival
of the primitive catechumenate with its scrutinies. The prostrations of
the _credens_ before the Perfect were in their manner and import
identical with the prostrations of the catechumen before the exorcist.
We find the same custom in the Celtic church of St Columba. Just as at
the third scrutiny the early catechumen passed a last examination in the
Gospels, Creed and Lord's Prayer, so after their year of abstinence the
credens receives creed and prayer; the allocution with which the elder
"handed on" this prayer is preserved, and of it the Abbé Guiraud remarks
that, if it were not in a Cathar ritual, one might believe it to be of
Catholic origin. It is so Christian in tone, he quaintly remarks
elsewhere, that an inquisitor might have used it quite as well as a
heretic. In it the Perfect addresses the postulant, as in the
corresponding Armenian rite, by the name of Peter; and explains to him
from Scripture the indwelling of the spirit in the Perfect, and his
adoption as a son by God. The Lord's Prayer is then repeated by the
postulant after the elder, who explains it clause by clause; the words
_panis superstantialis_ being interpreted not of the material but of
the spiritual bread, which consists of the Words of Life.

There followed the Renunciation, primitive enough in form, but the
postulant solemnly renounced, not Satan and his works and pomp, but the
harlot church of the persecutors, whose prayers were more deadly than
desirable. He renounced the cross which its priests had signed on him
with their chrism, their sham baptisms and other magical rites. Next
followed the spiritual baptism itself, consisting of imposition of
hands, and holding of the Gospel on the postulant's head. The elder
begins a fresh allocution by citing Matt. xxviii. 19, Mark xvi. 15, 16,
John iii. 3 (where the Cathars' text must originally have omitted in v.
5 the words "of water and," since their presence contradicts their
argument). Acts ix. 17, 18, viii. 14-17, are then cited; also John xx.
21-23, Matt. xvi. 18, 19, Matt. xviii. 18-20, for the Perfect one
receives in this rite power to bind and loose. The Perfect's vocation is
then defined: he must not commit adultery nor homicide, nor lie, nor
swear any oath, nor pick and steal, nor do unto another that which he
would not have done unto himself. He shall pardon his wrongdoers, love
his enemies, pray for them that calumniate and accuse him, offer the
other cheek to the smiter, give up his mantle to him that takes his
tunic, neither judge nor condemn. Asked if he will fulfil each of these,
the postulant answers: "I have this will and determination. Pray God for
me that he give me his strength."

The next episode of the rite exactly reproduces the Roman _confiteor_ as
it stood in the 2nd century; "the postulant says: '_Parcite nobis_. For
all the sins I have committed, in word or thought or deed, I come for
pardon to God and to the church and to you all.' And the Christians
shall say: 'By God and by us and by the church may they be pardoned
thee, and we pray God that he pardon you them.'"

There follows the act of "consoling." The elder takes the Gospel off the
white cloth, where it has lain all through the ceremony, and places it
on the postulant's head, and the other good men present place their
right hands on his head; they shall say the _parcias_ (spare), and
thrice the "Let us adore the Father and Son and Holy Spirit," and then
pray thus: "Holy Father, welcome thy servant in thy justice and send
upon him thy grace and thy holy spirit." Then they repeat the "Let us
adore," the Lord's Prayer, and read the Gospel (John i. 1-17).

This was the vital part of the whole rite. The _credens_ is now a
Perfect one. He is girt with the sacred thread round his naked body
under the breasts. Where the fear of the persecutor was absent he was
also clad in a black gown. The Perfect ones present give him the kiss of
peace, and the rite is over. This part of the rite answers partly to the
Catholic confirmation of a baptized person, partly to the ordination of
a pope of Rome or Alexandria. The latter in being ordained had the
Gospel laid on their heads, and the same feature occurs in old Gallican
and Coptic rites of ordaining a bishop.

Thus the Cathar ritual, like that of the Armenian dissenters (see
PAULICIANS), reflects an age when priestly ordination was not yet
differentiated from confirmation. "Is it not curious," says the Abbé
Guiraud, "to remark that the essential rite of the _consolamentum_ is in
effect nothing but the most ancient form of Christian ordination?"

The Cathar Eucharist was equally primitive, and is thus described by a
contemporary writer in a 13th-century MS. of the Milan Library:--"The
Benediction of bread is thus performed by the Cathars. They all, men and
women, go up to a table, and standing up say the 'Our Father.'[4] And he
who is prior among them, at the close of the Lord's Prayer, shall take
hold of the bread and say: 'Thanks be to the God of our Jesus Christ.
May the Spirit be with us all.' And after that he breaks and distributes
to all. And such bread is called bread blessed, although no one believes
that out of it is made the body of Christ. The Albanenses, however,
deny that it can be blessed or sanctified, because it is corporeal"
(i.e. material).

As Tertullian relates of his contemporaries in the 2nd century, so the
Cathars would reserve part of their bread of blessing and keep it for
years, eating of it occasionally though only after saying the
_Benedicite_. The Perfect kept it wrapped up in a bag of pure white
cloth, tied round the neck,[5] and sent it long distances to regions
which through persecution they could not enter. On the death-bed it
could even, like the Catholic _Viaticum_, take the place of the rite of
_Consolamentum_, if this could not be performed. Once a month this
solemn rite of breaking bread was held, the _credentes_ assisting. The
service was called _apparellamentum_, because a table was covered with a
white cloth and the Gospel laid on it. The Perfect were adored, and the
kiss of peace was passed round.

The influence of Catharism on the Catholic church was enormous. To
counteract it celibacy was finally imposed on the clergy, and the great
mendicant orders evolved; while the constant polemic of the Cathar
teachers against the cruelty, rapacity and irascibility of the Jewish
tribal god led the church to prohibit the circulation of the Old
Testament among laymen. The sacrament of "extreme unction" was also
evolved by way of competing with the death-bed _consolamentum_.

  AUTHORITIES--J.J.I. Döllinger, _Beiträge zur Sektengeschichte_
  (München, 1890); Jean Guiraud, _Questions d'histoire_ (Paris, 1906);
  F.C. Conybeare, _The Key of Truth_ (Oxford, 1898); Henry C. Lea,
  _History of the Inquisition_ (New York, 1888); C. Douais,
  _L'Inquisition_ (Paris, 1906), and his _Les Hérétiques du midi au
  XIIIe siècle_ (Paris, 1891); _Les Albigeois_ (Paris, 1879); also
  _Practica Inquisitionis_ (of Bernard Gui or Guidon), (Paris, 1886); L.
  Clédat, _Le Nouveau Testament, traduit au XIIIe siècle en langue
  provençale, suivi d'un rituel cathare_ (Paris, 1887); E. Cunitz in
  _Beiträge zu den theol. Wissensch._ (1852), vol. iv.; P. van Limborch,
  _Liber Sententiarum Inquis. Tholos. 1307-1323_ (Amsterdam, 1692);
  Hahn, _Gesch. der Ketzer im M.A._ (Stuttgart, 1845); Ch. Schmidt,
  _Histoire et doctrine de la secte des Cathares_ (Paris, 1849); A.
  Lombard, _Pauliciens bulgares et Bons-Hommes_ (Geneva, 1879);
  Fredericq, _Corpus documentorum haer, pravitatis Neerlandicae_ (Gent,
  1889-1896); Felix Tocco, "Nuovi documenti" in _Archiv. di studi ital._
  (1901), and his _L'Eresia nel media evo_ (Florence, 1881); P. Flade,
  _Das romische Inquisitions-verfahren in Deutschland_ (Leipzig, 1902);
  Ch. Molinier, "Rapport sur une mission en Italie," in _Archives
  scientifiques de Paris_, tom. 14 (1888); C.H. Haskins, "Robert le
  Bougre," in _American Hist. Rev._ (1902).     (F. C. C.)


  [1] A certain Peter (_Doc. Doat._, 22, p. 98) declared that could he
    but get hold of the false and perfidious God of the Catholics who
    created a thousand men in order to save a single one and damn all the
    rest, he would break him to pieces and tear him asunder with his
    nails and spit in his face.

  [2] Here we have a doctrine of metempsychosis which seems of Indian
    origin (see ASCETICISM). But Julius Caesar (_de B.G._ vi. 13) attests
    this belief among the ancient Druids of Gaul.

  [3] The Abbé Guiraud remarks that in refusing to take oaths the
    Cathars "contraried the social principles on which the constitutions
    of all states repose," and congratulates himself that society is not
    yet so thoroughly "laicized" as to have given up oaths in the most
    important acts of social life.

  [4] Cf. S. Gregorii _Ep._ ix. 12 (26): "Mos apostolorum fuit ut ad
    ipsam solummodo orationem oblationis hostiam consecrarent." ("The
    custom of the apostles was to use no other prayer but the Lord's in
    consecrating the host of the offering.")

  [5] Cf. Duchesne, _Origines_, ed. 1898, p. 177.

CATHAY, the name by which China (q.v.) was known to medieval Europe and
is still occasionally referred to in poetry, as in Tennyson's "Better
fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay." It is derived from
Khitai, or Khitat, the name which was properly that of the kingdom
established by the Khitan conquerors in the northern provinces of China
about A.D. 907, which after the fall of this dynasty in 1125 remained
attached to their former territory, and was subsequently applied by the
nations of Central Asia to the whole of China. Thus "Kitai" is still the
Russian name for China. The name penetrated to Europe in the 13th
century with the fame of the conquests of Jenghiz Khan. After the
discovery of southern China by European navigators Cathay was
erroneously believed to be a country to the north of China, and it was
the desire to reach it that sent the English adventurers of the 16th
century in search of the north-east passage.

CATHCART, SIR GEORGE (1794-1854), English soldier, third son of the 1st
Earl Cathcart, was born in London on the 12th of May 1794. He was
educated at Eton and Edinburgh University. In 1810 he entered the army,
and two years later accompanied his father to Russia as aide-de-camp.
With him he joined the Russian headquarters in March 1813; and he was
present at all the great battles of that year in Germany, and of the
following year in France, and also at the taking of Paris. The fruits of
his careful observation and critical study of these operations appeared
in the _Commentaries_ on the war in Russia and Germany 1812-1813, a
plain soldier-like history, which he published in 1850. After the peace
of 1814 he accompanied his father to the congress of Vienna. He was
present at Quatre Bras and at Waterloo, as an aide-de-camp to the duke
of Wellington, and remained on the staff till the army of occupation
quitted France. Reappointed almost immediately, he accompanied the duke
to the congresses of Aix-la-Chapelle and Verona, and in 1826 to Prussia.
Promoted lieutenant-colonel in 1826, he was placed on half-pay in 1834.
He was recalled to active service in 1838, and sent as commander of the
King's Dragoon Guards to Canada, where he played an important part in
suppressing the rebellion and pacifying the country. In 1844 he returned
to England, and two years later was appointed deputy-lieutenant of the
Tower, a post which he held up to the time of his promotion to
major-general in 1851. In March 1852 he succeeded Sir Harry Smith as
governor and commander-in-chief at the Cape, and brought the Kaffir war,
then in progress, to a successful conclusion. He promulgated the first
constitution of Cape Colony, and conducted operations against the
Basuto. Cathcart was made a K.C.B. and received the thanks of both
Houses for his services (1853). In December 1853 he was made
adjutant-general of the army, but never entered upon his duties, being
sent out to the Crimean War as soon as he arrived in England. He was
even given a dormant commission entitling him to the chief command in
case of accident to Lord Raglan, and the highest hopes were fixed on him
as a scientific and experienced soldier. But these hopes were not to be
fulfilled; for he fell at the battle of Inkerman (November 5, 1854). His
remains, with those of other officers, were buried on Cathcart's Hill.
Sir George Cathcart married in 1824 Lady Georgiana Greville, who
survived him, and by whom he had a family.

  See _Colburn's United Service Magazine_, January 1855; _Correspondence
  of the Hon. Sir George Cathcart relative to Kaffraria_ (1856); A.W.
  Kinglake's _Invasion of the Crimea_, vol. v.

CATHCART, WILLIAM SCHAW CATHCART, 1ST EARL (1755-1843), English soldier
and diplomatist, was born at Petersham on the 17th of September 1755,
and educated at Eton. In 1771 he went to St Petersburg, where his
father, Charles, 9th Baron Cathcart (1721-1776), a general in the army,
was ambassador. From 1773 to 1777 he studied law, but after succeeding
to the barony in 1776 he obtained a commission in the cavalry.
Proceeding to America in 1777, he had before the close of his first
campaign twice won promotion on the field of battle. In 1778 he further
distinguished himself in outpost work, and at the battle of Monmouth he
commanded an irregular corps, the "British Legion," with conspicuous
success; for a time also he acted as quartermaster-general to the forces
in America. He returned home in 1780, and in February 1781 was made
captain and lieutenant-colonel in the Coldstream Guards. He was elected
a representative peer for Scotland in 1788, and in 1792 he became
colonel of the 29th foot. He served with distinction in the campaigns in
the Low Countries, 1793-1795, in the course of which he was promoted
major-general; and in 1801 he was made a lieutenant-general, having in
the meanwhile received the appointments of vice-admiral of Scotland
(1795), privy councillor (1798), and colonel of the 2nd Life Guards
(1797). From 1803 to 1805 Lord Cathcart was commander-in-chief in
Ireland, and in the latter year he was sent by Pitt in command of the
British expedition to Hanover (see NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS). After the
recall of this expedition Cathcart commanded the forces in Scotland
until 1807, when he was placed in charge of the expedition to
Copenhagen, which surrendered to him on the 6th of September. Four weeks
later he was created Viscount Cathcart of Cathcart and Baron Greenock of
Greenock in the peerage of the United Kingdom, resuming the Scottish
command on his return from the front. On the 1st of January 1812 he was
promoted to the full rank of general, and a few months later he
proceeded to Russia as ambassador and military commissioner. In the
latter capacity he served with the headquarters of the allies throughout
the War of Liberation (1812-1814); his success in the delicate and
difficult task of maintaining harmony and devotion to the common cause
amongst the generals of many nationalities was recognized after the war
by his elevation to the earldom (July 1814). He then went to St
Petersburg, and continued to hold the post of ambassador until 1820,
when he returned to England. He died at his estate near Glasgow on the
16th of June 1843.

His son, CHARLES MURRAY CATHCART, 2nd earl (1783-1859), succeeded to the
title in 1843. He entered the 2nd Life Guards in 1800, and saw active
service under Sir James Craig in the Mediterranean, 1805-1806. In 1807 he
became by courtesy Lord Greenock. He took part in the Walcheren expedition
of 1809 as a major, and as a lieutenant-colonel served at Barossa,
Salamanca and Vittoria. He had already gained staff experience, and he now
served under Graham in Holland, 1814, as quartermaster-general. He was
present at Waterloo, and for his services received the C.B. and several
foreign orders. During the peace he became deeply interested in scientific
pursuits, and a new mineral discovered by him in 1841 was named
Greenockite. His later military services included the chief command in
Canada during a period of grave unrest (1846-1849). He retired from active
service in 1850, becoming a full general just before his death. The title
passed to his son and grandson as 3rd and 4th earls.

CATHCART, a parish situated partly in Renfrewshire and partly in
Lanarkshire, Scotland. The Renfrewshire portion has the larger area
(2387 acres), but the smaller population (7375), the area of the
Lanarkshire portion being 745 acres and the population (1901) 20,983.
The industries include paper-making, dyeing and sandstone quarrying, but
limestone and coal have also been worked. The parish includes the town
of Cathcart (pop. 4808), and the villages of Old and New Cathcart, but
much of it, though outside the city boundaries, is practically
continuous with some of the southern suburbs of Glasgow, with which
there is communication by electric tram and the Caledonian railway's
circular line. The White Cart flows through the parish. In the 12th
century Cathcart became a barony of the Cathcarts, who derived the title
of their lordship (1460) and earldom (1814) from it. On the Queen's
Knowe, a hillock near the ruins of Cathcart Castle, a memorial marks the
spot where Queen Mary watched the progress of the battle of Langside
(1568), the site of which lies within the parish.

CATHEDRAL, more correctly "cathedral church" (_ecclesia cathedralis_),
the church which contains the official "seat" or throne of a
bishop--_cathedra_, one of the Latin names for this, giving us the
adjective "cathedral." The adjective has gradually, for briefness of
speech, assumed the character of a substantive, but though an instance
of this (strictly incorrect) use of the word as a substantive has been
found as far back as 1587, it became common only at the end of the 18th,
or first half of the 19th, century. One of the earliest instances of the
term _ecclesia cathedralis_ is said to occur in the acts of the council
of Tarragona in 516. Another name for a cathedral church is _ecclesia
mater_, indicating that it is the mother church. As being the one
important church, it was also known as _ecclesia major_. This is the
formal expression used by Archbishop Walter Gray of York (1216-1255),
and it is preserved in modern times by the name of "_La Majeure_," by
which the old cathedral church of Marseilles is popularly known. Again,
as the chief house of God, the cathedral church was the _Domus Dei_, and
from this name the German _Domkirche_, or _Dom_, is derived, as also the
Swedish _Domkyrka_, and the Italian _Duomo_.

_History and Organization._--It was early decreed that the _cathedra_ of
a bishop was not to be placed in the church of a village, but only in
that of a city. There was no difficulty as to this on the continent of
Europe, where towns were numerous, and where the cities were the natural
centres from which Christianity was diffused among the people who
inhabited the surrounding districts. In the British islands, however,
the case was different; towns were few, and owing to other causes,
instead of exercising jurisdiction over definite areas or districts,
many of the bishops were bishops of tribes or peoples, as the bishops of
the south Saxons, the west Saxons, the Somersaetas and others. The
_cathedra_ of such a bishop was often migratory, and was at times placed
in one church, and then another, and sometimes in the church of a
village. In 1075 a council was held in London, under the presidency of
Archbishop Lanfranc, which, reciting the decrees of the council of
Sardica held in 347 and that of Laodicea held in 360 on this matter,
ordered the bishop of the south Saxons to remove his see from Selsey to
Chichester; the Wilts and Dorset bishop to remove his _cathedra_ from
Sherborne to Old Sarum, and the Mercian bishop, whose _cathedra_ was
then at Lichfield, to transfer it to Chester. Traces of the tribal and
migratory system may still be noted in the designations of the Irish see
of Meath (where the result has been that there is now no cathedral
church) and Ossory, the cathedral church of which is at Kilkenny. Some
of the Scottish sees were also migratory.

By the canon law the bishop is regarded as the pastor of the cathedral
church, the _parochia_ of which is his diocese. In view of this,
canonists speak of the cathedral church as the one church of the
diocese, and all others are deemed chapels in their relation to it.

Occasionally two churches jointly share the distinction of containing
the bishop's _cathedra_. In such case they are said to be con-cathedral
in relation to each other. Instances of this occurred in England before
the Reformation in the dioceses of Bath and Wells, and of Coventry and
Lichfield. Hence the double titles of those dioceses. In Ireland an
example occurs at Dublin, where Christ Church and St Patrick's are
jointly the cathedral churches of that diocese. In France the bishop of
Couserans (a see suppressed at the Revolution) had two con-cathedral
churches at St Lizier, and the bishop of Sisteron (a see also
suppressed) had a second throne in the church of Forcalquier which is
still called "La Con-cathédrale." Other instances might be named. In the
case of York the collegiate churches of Beverley, Ripon and Southwell
were almost in the same position, but although the archbishop had a
stall in each he had no diocesan _cathedra_ in them, and the chapters
were not united with that of the metropolitical church in the direct
government of the diocese, or the election of the archbishop, nor had
they those other rights which were held to denote the cathedral
character of a church.

Cathedral churches are reckoned as of different degrees of dignity: (1)
the simple cathedral church of a diocesan bishop, (2) the metropolitical
church to which the other diocesan cathedral churches of a province are
suffragan, (3) the primatial church under which are ranged
metropolitical churches and their provinces, (4) patriarchal churches to
which primatial, metropolitical, and simple cathedral churches alike owe
allegiance. The title of "primate" was occasionally conferred on
metropolitans of sees of great dignity or importance, such as
Canterbury, York, Rouen, &c., whose cathedral churches remained simply
metropolitical. Lyons, where the cathedral church is still known as "La
Primatiale," and Lund in Sweden, may be cited as instances of churches
which were really primatial. Lyons had the archbishops of Sens and Paris
and their provincial dioceses subject to it till the Revolution, and
Lund had the archbishop of Upsala and his province subject to it. As
with the title of primate, so also that of "patriarch" has been
conferred on sees such as Venice and Lisbon, the cathedral churches of
which are patriarchal in name alone. The cathedral church of St John
Lateran, the cathedral church of the pope as bishop of Rome and
patriarch of the West, alone in western Europe possesses potentially a
patriarchal character. Its formal designation is "_Patriarchalis
Basilica, Sacrosancta Romana Cathedralis Ecclesia Lateranensis_."

The removal of a bishop's _cathedra_ from a church deprives that church
of its cathedral dignity, although often the name clings in common
speech, as for example at Antwerp, which was deprived of its bishop at
the French Revolution.

The history of the body of clergy attached to the cathedral church is
obscure, and as in each case local considerations affected its
development, all that can be attempted is to give a general outline of
the main features which were more or less common to all. Originally the
bishop and cathedral clergy formed a kind of religious community, which,
in no true sense a monastery, was nevertheless often called a
_monasterium_. The word had not the restricted meaning which it
afterwards acquired. Hence the apparent anomaly that churches like York
and Lincoln, which never had any monks attached to them, have inherited
the name of minster or monastery. In these early communities the clergy
often lived apart in their own dwellings, and were not infrequently
married. In the 8th century, however, Chrodegang, bishop of Metz
(743-766), compiled a code of rules for the clergy of the cathedral
churches, which, though widely accepted in Germany and other parts of
the continent, gained little acceptance in England. According to
Chrodegang's rule the cathedral clergy were to live under a common roof,
occupy a common dormitory and submit to the authority of a special
officer. The rule of Chrodegang was, in fact, a modification of the
Benedictine rule. Gisa, a native of Lorraine, who was bishop of Wells
from 1061 to 1088, introduced it into England, and imposed its
observance on the clergy of his cathedral church, but it was not
followed for long there, or elsewhere in England.

During the two centuries, roughly bounded by the years 900 and 1100, the
cathedral clergy became more definitely organized, and were also divided
into two classes. One was that of a monastic establishment of some
recognized order of monks, very often that of the Benedictines, while
the other class was that of a college of clergy, living in the world,
and bound by no vows, except those of their ordination, but governed by
a code of statutes or canons. Hence the name of "canon" given to them.
In this way arose the distinction between the monastic and secular
cathedral churches. In England the monastic cathedral churches were
Bath, Canterbury, Carlisle, Coventry, Durham, Ely, Norwich, Rochester,
Winchester and Worcester, all of them Benedictine except Carlisle, which
was a church of Augustinians. The secular churches were Chichester,
Exeter, Hereford, Lichfield, Lincoln, St Paul's (London), Salisbury,
Wells, York, and the four Welsh cathedral churches. In Ireland all were
secular except Christ Church, Dublin (Augustinian), and Down
(Benedictine), and none, even in their earliest days, were ever, it is
believed, churches of recognized orders of monks, except the two named.
In Scotland St Andrew's was Augustinian, Elgin (or Moray), Glasgow and
Aberdeen were always secular, and ordered on the models of Lincoln and
Salisbury. Brechin had a community of Culdees till 1372, when a secular
chapter was constituted. The cathedral church of Galloway, at Whithorn,
of English foundation, was a church of Praemonstratensians. In Germany,
as in England, many of the cathedral churches were monastic. In Denmark
all seem to have been Benedictine at first, except Borglum, which was
Praemonstratensian till the Reformation. The others were changed to
churches of secular canons. In Sweden, Upsala was originally
Benedictine, but was secularized about 1250, and it was ordered that
each of the cathedral churches of Sweden should have a chapter of at
least fifteen secular canons. In France monastic chapters were very
common, but nearly all the monastic cathedral churches there had been
changed to churches of secular canons before the 17th century. One of
the latest to be so changed was that of Seez, in Normandy, which was
Augustinian till 1547, when Pope Paul III. dispensed the members from
their vows, and constituted them a chapter of secular canons. The
chapter of Senez was monastic till 1647, and others perhaps even later,
but the majority were secularized about the time of the Reformation.

In the case of monastic cathedral churches there were no dignitaries,
the internal government was that of the order to which the chapter
belonged, and all the members kept perpetual residence. The reverse of
this was the case with the secular chapters; the dignities of provost,
dean, precentor, chancellor, treasurer, &c., soon came into being, for
the regulation and good order of the church and its services, while the
non-residence of the canons, rather than their perpetual residence,
became the rule, and led to their duties being performed by a body of
"vicars," who officiated for them at the services of the church.

Abroad, the earliest head of a secular church seems to have been the
provost (_praepositus, Probst_, &c.), who was charged, not only with the
internal regulation of the church, and oversight of the members of the
chapter and control of the services, but was also the steward or
seneschal of the lands and possessions of the church. The latter often
mainly engaged his attention, to the neglect of his domestic and
ecclesiastical duties, and complaints were soon raised that the provost
was too much mixed in worldly affairs, and was too frequently absent
from his spiritual duties. This led, in many cases, to the institution
of a new officer called the "dean," who had charge of that portion of
the provost's duties which related to the internal discipline of the
chapter and the services of the church. In some cases the office of
provost was abolished, but in others it was continued, the provost, who
was also occasionally archdeacon as well, remaining head of the chapter.
This arrangement was most commonly followed in Germany. In England the
provost was almost unknown. Bishop Gisa introduced a provost as head of
the chapter of Wells, but the office was afterwards subordinated to the
other dignities, and the provost became simply the steward of certain of
the prebendal lands. The provost of the collegiate church of Beverley
was the most notable instance of such an officer in England, but at
Beverley he was an external officer with no authority in the government
of the church, no stall in the choir and no vote in chapter. The provost
of Eton, introduced by Henry VI., occupied a position most nearly
approaching that of a foreign cathedral provost. In Germany and in
Scandinavia, and in a few of the cathedral churches in the south of
France, the provost was the ordinary head of the cathedral chapter, but
the office was not common elsewhere. As regards France, of one hundred
and thirty-six cathedral churches existing at the Revolution,
thirty-eight only, and those either on the borders of Germany or in the
extreme south, had a provost as the head of the chapter. In others the
provost existed as a subordinate officer. There were two provosts at
Autun, and Lyons and Chartres had four each, all as subordinate

The normal constitution of the chapter of a secular cathedral church
comprised four dignitaries (there might be more), in addition to the
canons. The dean (_decanus_) seems to have derived his designation from
the Benedictine dean who had ten monks under his charge. The dean, as
already noted, came into existence to supply the place of the provost in
the internal management of the church and chapter. In England the dean
was the head of all the secular cathedral churches, and was originally
elected by the chapter and confirmed in office by the bishop. He is
president of the chapter, and in church has charge of the due
performance of the services, taking specified portions of them by
statute on the principal festivals. He sits in the chief stall in the
choir, which is usually the first on the right hand on entering the
choir at the west. Next to the dean (as a rule) is the precentor
(_primicerius, cantor_, &c.), whose special duty is that of regulating
the musical portion of the services. He presides in the dean's absence,
and occupies the corresponding stall on the left side, although there
are exceptions to this rule, where, as at St Paul's, the archdeacon of
the cathedral city ranks second and occupies what is usually the
precentor's stall. The third dignitary is the chancellor (_scholasticus,
écolâtre, capiscol, magistral_, &c.), who must not be confounded with
the chancellor of the diocese. The chancellor of the cathedral church is
charged with the oversight of its schools, ought to read divinity
lectures, and superintend the lections in the choir and correct slovenly
readers. He is often the secretary and librarian of the chapter. In the
absence of the dean and precentor he is president of the chapter. The
easternmost stall, on the dean's side of the choir, is usually assigned
to him. The fourth dignitary is the treasurer (_custos, sacrista,
cheficier_). He is guardian of the fabric, and of all the furniture and
ornaments of the church, and his duty was to provide bread and wine for
the eucharist, and candles and incense, and he regulated such matters as
the ringing of the bells. The treasurer's stall is opposite to that of
the chancellor. These four dignitaries, occupying the four corner stalls
in the choir, are called in many of the statutes the "_quatuor majores
personae_" of the church. In many cathedral churches there were
additional dignitaries, as the praelector, subdean, vice-chancellor,
succentor-canonicorum, and others, who came into existence to supply the
places of the other absent dignitaries, for non-residence was the fatal
blot of the secular churches, and in this they contrasted very badly
with the monastic churches, where all the members were in continuous
residence. Besides the dignitaries there were the ordinary canons, each
of whom, as a rule, held a separate prebend or endowment, besides
receiving his share of the common funds of the church. For the most part
the canons also speedily became non-resident, and this led to the
distinction of residentiary and non-residentiary canons, till in most
churches the number of resident canons became definitely limited in
number, and the non-residentiary canons, who no longer shared in the
common funds, became generally known as prebendaries only, although by
their non-residence they did not forfeit their position as canons, and
retained their votes in chapter like the others. This system of
non-residence led also to the institution of vicars choral, each canon
having his own vicar, who sat in his stall in his absence, and when the
canon was present, in the stall immediately below, on the second form.
The vicars had no place or vote in chapter, and, though irremovable
except for offences, were the servants of their absent canons whose
stalls they occupied, and whose duties they performed. Abroad they were
often called demi-prebendaries, and they formed the _bas choeur_ of the
French churches. As time went on the vicars were themselves often
incorporated as a kind of lesser chapter, or college, under the
supervision of the dean and chapter.

There was no distinction between the monastic cathedral chapters and
those of the secular canons, in their relation to the bishop or diocese.
In both cases the chapter was the bishop's _consilium_ which he was
bound to consult on all important matters and without doing so he could
not act. Thus, a judicial decision of a bishop needed the confirmation
of the chapter before it could be enforced. He could not change the
service books, or "use" of the church or diocese, without capitular
consent, and there are many episcopal acts, such as the appointment of a
diocesan chancellor, or vicar general, which still need confirmation by
the chapter, but the older theory of the chapter as the bishop's council
in ruling the diocese has become a thing of the past, not in England
only, but on the continent also. In its corporate capacity the chapter
takes charge _sede vacante_ of a diocese. In England, however (except as
regards Salisbury and Durham), this custom has never obtained, the two
archbishops having, from time immemorial, taken charge of the vacant
dioceses in their respective provinces. When, however, either of the
sees of Canterbury or York is vacant, the chapters of those churches
take charge, not only of the diocese, but of the province as well, and
incidentally, therefore, of any of the dioceses of the province which
may be vacant at the same time.

All the English monastic cathedral chapters were dissolved by Henry
VIII., and, except Bath and Coventry, were refounded by him as churches
of secular chapters, with a dean as the head, and a certain number of
canons ranging from twelve at Canterbury and Durham to four at Carlisle,
and with certain subordinate officers as minor canons, gospellers,
epistolers, &c. The precentorship in these churches of the "New
Foundation," as they are called, is not, as in the secular churches of
the "Old Foundation," a dignity, but is merely an office held by one of
the minor canons.

English cathedral churches, at the present day, may be classed under
four heads: (1) the old secular cathedral churches of the "Old
Foundation," enumerated in the earlier part of this article; (2) the
churches of the "New Foundation" of Henry VIII., which are the monastic
churches already specified, with the exception of Bath and Coventry; (3)
the cathedral churches of bishoprics founded by Henry VIII., viz.
Bristol, Chester, Gloucester, Oxford and Peterborough (the constitution
of the chapters of which corresponds to those of the New Foundation);
(4) modern cathedral churches of sees founded since 1836, viz. (a)
Manchester, Ripon and Southwell, formerly collegiate churches of secular
canons; (b) St Albans and Southwark, originally monastic churches; (c)
Truro, Newcastle and Wakefield, formerly parish churches, (d) Birmingham
and Liverpool, originally district churches. The ruined cathedral church
of the diocese of Sodor (i.e. the Southern Isles) and Man, at Peel in
the latter island, appears never to have had a chapter of clergy
attached to it.

  AUTHORITIES.--Frances, _De ecclesiis cathredralibus_ (Venice, 1698);
  Bordenave, _L'Estat des églises cathédrales_ (Paris, 1643); Van Espen,
  _Supplement III._, cap. 5; Hericourt, _Les Loix ecclésiastiques de
  France_ (Paris, 1756); _La France ecclésiastique_ (Paris, 1790);
  Daugaard, _Om de Danske Klostre i Middelalderen_ (Copenhagen, 1830);
  Hinschius, _Das Kirchenrecht der Katholiken u. Protestanten in
  Deutschland_, ii. (Berlin, 1878); Walcott, _Cathedralia_ (London,
  1865); Freeman, _Cathedral Church of Wells_ (London, 1870); Benson,
  _The Cathedral_ (London, 1878); Bradshaw and Wordsworth, _Lincoln
  Cathedral Statutes_ (Camb., 1894).     (T. M. F.)

_Architecture._--From the architectural point of view there is no
special treatment as regards dimensions or style for a cathedral other
than that required for a church or abbey, as there are cases when the
former are comparatively small buildings (like the old cathedral at
Athens), and some parish churches and abbeys are larger than many
cathedrals. In recent times, indeed, some English abbeys or minsters,
such as those of Ripon, Manchester, St Albans and Southwell, partly on
account of their dimensions, have been raised to the rank of cathedrals,
in consequence of the demand for additional sees; others, such as those
of Bristol, Gloucester, Oxford, Chester and Peterborough, became
cathedrals only on the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII.

the principal arrangements of the plan of a cathedral are dealt with,
and its architectural features, such as TOWER and SPIRE, PORCH,
TRIFORIUM, CLERESTORY and VAULT, are separately defined; while in the
article ARCHITECTURE the evolution of the various styles in England,
France, Germany, Italy and Spain, is set forth. It is only necessary
here to deal with the development of the eastern end of English and
foreign cathedrals, as it was in those that the greatest changes from
the middle of the 11th century to the close of the 16th century took

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Plan of Canterbury Cathedral.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Plan of Salisbury Cathedral.]

The earliest extended development of the eastern end of the cathedral is
that which was first set out in Edward the Confessor's church at
Westminster, probably borrowed from the ancient church of St Martin at
Tours; in this church, dating probably from the 10th century, two new
elements are found, (1) the carrying of the choir aisle round a circular
apse so as to provide a processional aisle round the eastern end of the
church, and (2) five apsidal chapels, constituting the germ of the
chevet, which transformed the eastern terminations of the French
cathedrals in the 12th and 13th centuries. It is only within recent
times that the foundations of the early church at Tours with its choir
aisle and chapels have been traced under the existing church. In Edward
the Confessor's church (1050) there were probably only three chapels and
a processional aisle; in the next example at Gloucester (1089) were also
three chapels, two of which, on the north and south sides of the aisle,
still remain; the same is found in Canterbury (1096-1107) and Norwich
(1089-1119), the eastern chapel in all three cases having been taken
down to make way for the Lady-chapel in Gloucester and Norwich, and for
the Trinity chapel in Canterbury cathedral (fig. 1). The semicircular
aisle is said to have existed in the Anglo-Norman cathedral of
Winchester, but the eastern end being square, two chapels were arranged
filling the north and south ends, and an apsidal chapel projecting
beyond the east wall. This semicircular processional aisle with chevet
chapels was the favourite type of plan in the Anglo-Norman cathedrals,
and was followed up to about the middle of the 12th century, when the
English builders in some cases returned to the square east end instead
of the semicircular apsidal termination. The earliest example of this
exists in Romsey Abbey (c. 1130), where the processional path crosses
behind the presbytery, there being eastern apsidal chapels in the axis
of the presbytery aisle and a central rectangular chapel beyond. A
similar arrangement is found in Hereford cathedral, and exists in
Winchester, Salisbury (fig. 2), Durham, St Albans, Exeter, Ely, Wells
and Peterborough, except that in all those cases (except Wells) the
eastern chapels are square ended; in Wells cathedral the most eastern
chapel (the Lady-chapel) has a polygonal termination; in Durham (fig.
3), the eastern chapels are all in one line, constituting the chapel of
the nine altars, which was probably borrowed from the eastern end of
Fountains Abbey. It should be noted that in some of the above the
original design has been transformed in rebuilding; thus in St Albans,
Durham, York and Exeter cathedrals, there was no eastern ambulatory but
three parallel apses, in some cases rectangular externally. In
Southwell, Rochester, Ely and Chester, there was no processional path or
ambulatory round the east end; in Carlisle no eastern chapels; and in
Oxford only one central apse. In Ely cathedral (fig. 4) the great
central tower built by the first Norman abbot (1082-1094) fell down in
1321, carrying with it portions of the adjoining bays of the nave,
transept and choir; instead of attempting to rebuild the tower, Alan of
Walsingham conceived the idea of obtaining a much larger area in the
centre of the cathedral, and instead of rebuilding the piers of the
tower he took as the base of his design a central octagonal space, the
width of which was equal to that of nave and aisles, with wide arches to
nave, transepts and choir, and smaller arches across the octagonal
sides; from shafts in the eight pier angles, ribs in wood project
forward and carry a smaller octagon on which the lantern rests.
Internally the effect of this central octagon is of great beauty and
originality, and it is the only instance of such a feature in English
Gothic architecture. (See ARCHITECTURE, Plate VIII., fig. 82.)

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Plan of Durham Cathedral.]

The earliest example of the chevet is probably to be found in the church
of St Martin at Tours; this was followed by others at Tournus,
Clermont-Ferrand, Auxerre, Chartres, Le Mans and other churches built
during the great church-building period of the 11th century. In the
still greater movement in the 12th century, when the episcopacy,
supported by the emancipated communes, undertook the erection of
cathedrals of greater dimensions and the reconstruction of others, in
some cases they utilized the old foundations, as in Chartres (fig. 5),
Coutances and Auxerre cathedrals, while in others (as at Le Mans) they
extended the eastern termination, much in the same way as in many of the
early examples in England, with this important difference, that when the
apsidal east end was given up (about the middle of the 12th century) in
favour of the square east end in England, the French, on the other hand,
developed it by doubling the choir aisles and adding to the number of
extra chapels; thus in Canterbury, Norwich and Gloucester, there were
only three apsidal chapels in the chevet, whereas in Noyon (1150),
Soissons (1190), Reims (1212), Tours, Seez, Bayeux (1230), Clermont
(1275), Senlis, Limoges, Albi and Narbonne cathedrals there were five;
in Amiens, Le Mans and Beauvais, there were seven apsidal chapels, and
in Chartres cathedral nine. Double aisles round the choir, of which
there are no examples in England, are found in the cathedrals of Paris,
Bourges and Le Mans; the cathedral of Sens (fig. 6) (1144-1168)
possesses one feature which is almost unique, viz. the coupled columns
of the alternate bays of nave and choir and of the apse; and these were
introduced into the chapel of the Trinity in Canterbury cathedral,
probably from the designs of William of Sens, by his successor William
the Englishman. The square east end found no favour in France--Laon,
Poiters and Dol being the only cathedral examples; and of the triapsal
arrangement, viz. with apses in the axes of the choir aisle and a
central apse, the only example is that of the cathedral of Autun. The
immense development given to the eastern limb of the French cathedrals
was sometimes obtained at the expense of the nave, so that,
notwithstanding the much greater dimensions compared with English
examples, in the latter the naves are much longer and consist of more
bays than those in France.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Plan of Ely Cathedral.]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Plan of Chartres Cathedral.]

In one of the French cathedrals, Bourges, there is no transept; on the
other hand there are many examples in which this part of the church is
emphasized by having aisles on each side, as at Laon, Soissons,
Chartres, Reims, Amiens, Rouen and Clermont cathedrals. Transept aisles
in England are found in Ely, York, Wells and Winchester cathedrals, in
the last being carried round the south and north ends of the transept;
aisles on the east side of the transept only, in some cases probably for
additional altars, exist in Durham, Salisbury, Lichfield, Peterborough
and Ripon cathedrals; and on the north side only in Hereford cathedral.
In Rouen cathedral, east of the transept aisles, there are apsidal
chapels, which with the three chapels in the chevet make up the usual
number. The cathedral of Poitiers has been referred to as an example of
a square east end, but a sort of compromise has been made by the
provision of three segmental apses, and there are no windows in the east
front; the most remarkable divergence from the usual design is found
here in the absence of any triforium or clerestory, owing to the fact
that the vault of the aisles is nearly as high as that of the nave, so
that it constitutes an example of what in Germany (where there are many)
are called _Hallen Kirchen_; the light being obtained through the aisle
windows only gives a gloomy effect to the nave. Another departure from
the usual plan is that found in Albi cathedral (1350), in which there
are no aisles, their place being taken by chapels between the buttresses
which were required to resist the thrust of the nave vault, the widest
in France. The cathedral is built in brick and externally has the
appearance of a fortress. In the cathedrals of the south-west of France,
where the naves are covered with a series of domes--as at Cahors,
Angoulême and St Front de Périgueux--the immense piers required to carry
them made it necessary to dispense with aisles. The cathedral of
Angoulême (fig. 7) consists of a nave covered with three domes, a
transept of great length with lofty towers over the north and south
ends, and an apsidal choir with four chevet chapels. In St Front de
Périgueux (1150), based on St Mark's at Venice, the plan consists of
nave, transept and choir, all of equal dimensions, each of them, as well
as the crossing, vaulted over with a dome, while originally there was a
simple apsidal choir.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Plan of Sens Cathedral.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Plan of Angoulême Cathedral.]

Returning now to the great cathedrals in the north of France, we give an
illustration (fig. 8) of Amiens cathedral (from Viollet le Duc's
_Dictionnaire raisonné_) which shows the disposition of a cathedral,
with its nave-arches, triforium, clerestory windows and vault, the
flying buttresses which were required to carry the thrust of the vault
to the outer buttresses which flanked the aisle walls, and the lofty
pinnacles which surmounted them. In this case there was no triforium
gallery, owing to the greater height given to the aisles. In Notre Dame
at Paris the triforium was nearly as high as the aisles; in large towns
this feature gave increased accommodation for the congregation,
especially on the occasion of great fêtes, and it is found in Noyon,
Laon, Senlis and Soissons cathedrals, built in the latter part of the
12th century; later it was omitted, and a narrow passage in the
thickness of the wall only represented the triforium; at a still later
period the aisles were covered with a stone pavement of slight fall so
as to allow of loftier clerestory windows.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Perspective of Amiens Cathedral.]

The cathedrals in Spain follow on the same lines as those in France. The
cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is virtually a copy of St Sernin at
Toulouse, consisting of nave and aisles, transepts and aisles, and a
choir with chevet of five chapels; at Leon there is a chevet with five
apsidal chapels, and at Toledo an east end with double aisles round the
apse with originally seven small apsidal chapels, two of them rebuilt at
a very late period. At Leon, Barcelona and Toledo the processional
passage round the apse with apsidal chapels recalls the French
disposition, there being a double aisle around the latter, but in Leon
and Toledo cathedrals the east end is masked externally by other
buildings, so that the beauty of the chevet is entirely lost. At Avila
and Salamanca (old cathedral) the triapsal arrangement is adopted, and
the same is found in the German cathedrals, with one important
exception, the cathedral of Cologne, which was based on that of Amiens,
the comparative height of the former, however, being so exaggerated that
scale has been lost, and externally it has the appearance of an
overgrown monster.

  TRIFORIUM, definitions are given of these chief components of a
  cathedral or church; but as their design varies materially in almost
  every example, without a very large number of drawings it would be
  impossible to treat them more in detail. The perspective view, taken
  from Viollet le Duc's dictionary, of the interior of the nave of
  Amiens cathedral illustrates the principal features, viz. the vault
  (in this case quadripartite, with flying buttresses and pinnacle), the
  triforium (in this case limited to a narrow passage in the thickness
  of the wall), and the nave-arches, with the side aisles, beneath the
  windows of which is the decorative arcade. (R. P. S.)

CATHELINEAU, JACQUES (1759-1793), French Vendean chieftain during the
Revolution, was born at Tin-en-Manges, in the country now forming the
department of Maine-et-Loire. He became well known in the country of
Anjou, over which he travelled as a pedlar and dealer in contraband
goods. His physical strength and his great piety gave him considerable
ascendancy over the peasants, who surnamed him "the saint of Anjou." In
the first years of the Revolution, Cathelineau listened to the
exhortations of Catholic priests and royalist _émigrés_, and joined the
insurrection provoked by them against the revolutionary government.
Collecting a band of peasants and smugglers, he took the chateau of
Gallais, where he captured a cannon, christened by the Vendeans the
"Missionary"; he then took the towns of Chemillé, Cholet, Vihiers and
Chalonnes (March 1793). His companions committed atrocities which
brought upon them terrible reprisals on the part of the Republicans.
Meanwhile Cathelineau's troops increased, and he combined with the other
Vendean chiefs, such as N. Stofflet and Gigot d'Elbée, taking the towns
of Beaupréau, Fontenay and Saumur. The first successes of the Vendeans
were due to the fact that the Republicans had not expected an
insurrection. When the resistance to the insurgents became more serious,
differences arose among their leaders. To avoid these rivalries, it is
thought that Cathelineau was named generalissimo of the rebels, though
his authority over the undisciplined troops was not increased by the new
office. In 1793 all the Royalist forces tried to capture Nantes.
Cathelineau entered the town in spite of the resistance of General
J.B.C. Canclaux, but he was killed, and the Vendean army broke up.
Numerous relatives of Cathelineau also perished in the war of La Vendée.
His grandson, Henri de Cathelineau, figured in the war of 1870 between
France and Germany (see also VENDÉE; CHOUANS).

  See C. Port, _Vie de J. Cathelineau_ (1882); "La Légende de
  Cathelineau" in the review _La Révolution française_, vol. xxiv.; _Les
  Origines de la Vendée_ (Paris, 1888, 2 vols.); _Dictionnaire
  historique de Maine-et-Loire_; Cretineau-Joly, _Histoire de la Vendée
  militaire_, Th. Muret, _Vie populaire de Cathelineau_ (1845).
       (R. A.*)

CATHERINE, SAINT. The Roman hagiology contains the record of six saints
of this name. 1. ST CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA, Virgin and Martyr, whose
day of commemoration recurs on the 25th of November, and in some places
on the 5th of March. 2. ST CATHERINE OF SWEDEN, a daughter of St
Bridget, who died abbess of Watzen in March 1381, and is commemorated on
the 22nd of that month. 3. ST CATHERINE OF SIENA, 1347-1380, whose
festal day is observed on the 30th of April. 4. ST CATHERINE OF BOLOGNA,
1413-1463, a visionary, abbess of the convent of the Poor Clares in
Bologna, canonized by Pope Benedict XIII., and commemorated throughout
the Franciscan order on the 9th of March. 5. ST CATHERINE OF GENOA,[1]
who belonged to the noble family of Fieschi, was born about 1447, spent
her life and her means in succouring and attending on the sick,
especially in the time of the plague which ravaged Genoa in 1497 and
1501, died in that city in 1510, was beatified by Clement V. in 1675 and
canonized by Clement XII. in 1737; her name was placed in the calendar
on the 22nd of July by Benedict XIV. 6. ST CATHERINE DE' RICCI, of
Florence, daughter of a wealthy merchant prince, was born in 1522,
became a nun in the convent of the Dominicans at Prato in 1536, and died
in 1589. She was famous during her life-time for the weekly ecstasy of
the Passion, during which in a trance she experienced the sufferings of
the Holy Virgin contemplating the Passion of her Son. She was canonized
in 1746 by Benedict XIV., who fixed her festal day on the 13th of
February. In Celtic and English martyrologies (November 25) there is
also commemorated St Catherine Audley (_c._ 1400), a recluse of Ledbury,
Hereford, who was reputed for piety and clairvoyance.

  St Catherine, virgin and martyr.

Of two of these saints, St Catherine of Alexandria, _the_ St Catherine
_par excellence_, and St Catherine of Siena, something more must be
said. Of the former history has little or nothing to tell. The Maronite
scholar, Joseph Simon Assemani (1687-1768), first identified her with
the royal and wealthy lady of Alexandria (Eusebius, _Hist. Eccl._ viii.
14) who, for refusing the solicitations of the emperor Maximinus, was
deprived of her property and banished. But Rufinus (_Hist. Eccl._ viii.
17) called this lady Dorothea, and the old Catherine legend, as recorded
in the Roman martyrology and by Simeon Metaphrastes, has quite other
features. According to it Catherine was the daughter of King Konetos,
eighteen years old, beautiful and wise. During the persecution under
Maximinus she sought an interview with the emperor, upbraided him for
his cruelties, and adjured him to give up the worship of false gods. The
angry tyrant, unable to refute her arguments himself, sent for pagan
scholars to argue with her, but they were discomfited. Catherine was
then scourged and cast into prison, and the empress was sent to reason
with her; but the dauntless virgin converted not only the empress but
the Roman general and his soldiers who had accompanied her. Maximinus
now ordered her to be broken on the wheel; but the wheel was shattered
by her touch. The headsman's axe proved more fatal, and the martyr's
body was borne by angels to Mount Sinai, where Justinian I. built the
famous monastery in her honour. Another development of the legend is
that in which, having rejected many offers of marriage, she was taken to
heaven in vision and betrothed to Christ by the Virgin Mary.

Of all these marvellous incidents very little, by the universal
admission of Catholic scholars, has survived the test of modern
criticism. That St Catherine actually existed there is, indeed, no
evidence to disprove; and it is possible that some of the elements in
her legend are due to confusion with the story of Hypatia (q.v.), the
neo-platonic philosopher of Alexandria, who was done to death by a
Christian mob. To the men of the middle ages, in any case, St Catherine
was very real; she was ranked with the fourteen most helpful saints in
heaven, and was the constant theme of preachers and of poets. Her
festival was celebrated in many places with the utmost splendour, and in
certain dioceses in France was a holy day of obligation as late as the
beginning of the 17th century. Numberless chapels were dedicated to her,
and in nearly all churches her statue was set up, the saint being
represented with a wheel, her instrument of torture, and sometimes with
a crown and a book. The wheel being her symbol she was the patron saint
of wheelwrights and mechanics; as the confounder of heathen sophistry
she was invoked by theologians, apologists, preachers and philosophers,
and was chosen as the patron saint of the university of Paris; as the
most holy and illustrious of Christian virgins she became the tutelary
saint of nuns and virgins generally. So late as the 16th century,
Bossuet delivered a panegyric upon her, and it was the action of Dom
Deforis, the Benedictine editor of his works, in criticizing the
accuracy of the data on which this was based, that first discredited the
legend. The saint's feast was removed from the Breviary at Paris about
this time, and the devotion to St Catherine has since lost its earlier
popularity. See Leon Clugnet's article in the _Catholic Encyclopaedia_,
vol. iii. (London, 1908).

  St Catherine of Siena.

St Catherine of Siena was the youngest of the twenty-five children of
Giacomo di Benincasa, a dyer, and was born, with a twin-sister who did
not survive her birth, on the 25th of March 1347. A highly sensitive and
imaginative child, she very early began to practise asceticism and see
visions, and at the age of seven solemnly dedicated her virginity to
Christ. She was attracted by what she had heard of the desert
anchorites, and in 1363-1364, after much struggle, persuaded her parents
to allow her to take the habit of the Dominican tertiaries. For a while
she led at home the life of a recluse, speaking only to her confessor,
and spending all her time in devotion and spiritual ecstasy. Her innate
humanity and sound sense, however, led her gradually to return to her
place in the family circle, and she began also to seek out and help the
poor and the sick. In 1368 her father died, and she assumed the care of
her mother Lapa. During the following years she became known to an
increasingly wide circle, especially as a peacemaker, and entered into
correspondence with many friends. Her peculiarities excited suspicion,
and charges seem to have been brought against her by some of the
Dominicans to answer which she went to Florence in 1374, soon returning
to Siena to tend the plague-stricken. Here first she met the Dominican
friar, Raimondo of Capua, her confessor and biographer.

The year 1375 found Catherine entering on a wider stage. At the
invitation of Piero Gambacorti, the ruler of the republic of Pisa, she
visited that city and there endeavoured to arouse enthusiasm for the
proposed crusade, urging princes and presidents, commanders and private
citizens alike to join in "the holy passage." To this task was added
that of trying to keep Pisa and Lucca from joining the Tuscan League
against the pope. It was at Pisa, in the church of Santa Cristina, on
the fourth Sunday in Lent (April 1), while rapt in ecstasy after the
communion, that Catherine's greatest traditional glory befell her, viz.
the _stigmata_ or impression on her hands, feet and heart, of the wounds
corresponding with those received by Christ at his crucifixion. The
marks, however, were at her prayer not made visible. There is no need to
doubt the reality of Catherine's exaltation, but it should be remembered
that she and her circle were Dominicans, and that the stigmata of St
Francis of Assisi were considered the crowning glory of the saint, and
hitherto the exclusive boast of the Franciscans. The tendency observable
in many of the austerities and miracles attributed to St Catherine to
outstrip those of other saints, particularly Francis, is especially
remarkable in this marvel of the stigmata, and so acute became the
rivalry between the two orders that Pope Sixtus IV., himself a
Franciscan, issued a decree asserting that St Francis had an exclusive
monopoly of this particular wonder, and making it a censurable offence
to represent St Catherine receiving the stigmata.

In the year 1376, the 29th of Catherine's life, Gregory XI. was living
and holding the papal court at Avignon. He was the last of seven French
popes in succession who had done so, and had perpetuated for
seventy-three years what ecclesiastical writers are fond of terming "the
Babylonian captivity of the church." To put an end to this absenteeism,
and to bring back the papacy to Italy was the cherished and anxious wish
of all good Italians, and especially of all Italian churchmen. Petrarch
had urgently pressed Urban V., Gregory's immediate predecessor, to
accomplish the desired change; and Dante had at an earlier date laboured
to bring about the same object. But these and all the other influences
which Italy had striven to bring to bear on the popes had hitherto
failed to induce them to return. In these circumstances Catherine
determined to try her powers of persuasion and argument, attempting
first by correspondence to reconcile Gregory and the Florentines, who
had been placed under an interdict, and then going in person as the
representative of the latter to Avignon, where she arrived on the 18th
of June. Gregory empowered her to treat for peace, but the Florentine
ambassadors were first tardy and then faithless. Nothing daunted,
Catherine herself besought Gregory, who, indeed, was himself so minded,
to return, and he did so, in September (taking the sea route from
Marseilles to Genoa), though perhaps intending only to make a temporary
stay in Italy. Catherine went home by land and stayed for a month in
Genoa with Madonna Orietta Scotti, a noble lady of that city, at whose
house Gregory had a long colloquy with her, which encouraged him to push
on to Rome. To this year, 1376, belongs the admission to Catherine's
circle of disciples of Stefano di Corrado Maconi, a Sienese noble
distinguished by a character full of charm and purity, and her healing
of the bitter feud between his family and the Tolomei. Another family
quarrel, that of the Salimbeni at Rocca D'Orcia, was ended by her
intervention in 1377. This year also she turned the castle of Belcaro,
which had been given to her, into a monastery.

Meanwhile the returned pope was not having an easy time. Besides
perpetuating the strife with his enemies he was alienating his friends,
and finding it increasingly difficult to pay his mercenaries. He vented
his anger upon Catherine, who reproved him for minding temporal rather
than spiritual things, but in the beginning of 1378 sent her on an
embassy to Florence and especially to the Guelph party. While she was
urging the citizens to make peace with the pope there came the news of
his death. During the troubles that ensued in Florence Catherine nearly
lost her life in a popular tumult, and sorely regretted not winning her
heart's desire, "the red rose of martyrdom." Peace was signed with the
new pope, Urban VI., and Catherine, having thus accomplished her second
great political task, went home again to Siena. Thence on the outbreak
of the schism Urban summoned her to Rome, whither, somewhat reluctantly,
she journeyed with her now large spiritual family in November. Once
arrived she gave herself heartily to Urban's cause, and wore her slender
powers out in restraining his impatient temper, quieting the revolt of
the people of Rome, and trying to win for Urban the support of Europe.
After prolonged and continual suffering she died on the 29th of April

  Catherine of Siena lived on not only in her writings but in her
  disciples. During her short course she gathered round her a devoted
  company of men and women trained to labour for the reformation of the
  individual, the church and the state. Her death naturally broke up the
  fellowship, but its members did not cease their activity and kept up
  what mutual correspondence was possible. Among them were Fra Raimondo,
  who became master-general of the Dominicans, William Flete, an
  ascetically-minded Englishman from Cambridge, Stefano Maconi, who
  joined the Carthusians and ultimately became prior-general, and the
  two secretaries, Neri di Landoccio and Francesco Malavolti. The last
  of her band, Tommaso Caffarini, died in 1434, but the work was taken
  up, though in other shape, by Savonarola, between Francis of Assisi
  and whom Catherine forms the connecting link.

  Catherine's works consist of (l) a treatise occupying a
  closely-printed quarto volume, which Fra Raimondo describes as "a
  dialogue between a soul, which asked four questions of the Lord, and
  the same Lord, who made answer and gave instruction in many most
  useful truths," (2) letters, and (3) prayers. The dialogue is
  entitled, _The Book of Divine Doctrine, given in person by God the
  Father, speaking to the mind of the most glorious and holy virgin
  Catherine of Siena, and written down as she dictated it in the vulgar
  tongue, she being the while entranced, and actually hearing what God
  spoke in her_. The work is declared to have been dictated by the saint
  in her father's house in Siena, a little before she went to Rome, and
  to have been completed on the 13th of October 1378. The book opens
  with a passage on the essence of mysticism, the union of the soul with
  God in love, and the bulk of it is a compendium of the spiritual
  teachings scattered throughout her letters. There is more monologue
  than dialogue. The book has a significant place in the history of
  Italian literature. "In a language which is singularly poor in
  mystical works it stands with the _Divina Commedia_ as one of the two
  supreme attempts to express the eternal in the symbolism of a day, to
  paint the union of the soul with the supra-sensible while still
  imprisoned in the flesh." The prayers (twenty-six in all) are mostly
  mystical outpourings repeating the aspirations found in her other
  writings. Of more interest are the letters, nearly four hundred in
  number, and addressed to kings, popes, cardinals, bishops, conventual
  bodies, political corporations and private individuals. Their
  historical importance, their spiritual fragrance and their literary
  value combine to put their author almost on a level with Petrarch as a
  14th century letter-writer. Her language is the purest Tuscan of the
  golden age of the Italian vernacular, and with spontaneous eloquence
  she passes to and fro between spiritual counsel, domestic advice and
  political guidance.

  AUTHORITIES.--The sources for the personal life of Catherine of Siena
  are (l) the _Vita_ or _Legenda_, Fra Raimondo's biography written
  1384-1395, first published in Latin at Cologne, 1553, and widely
  translated; (2) the _Processus_, a collection of testimonies and
  letters by those of her followers who survived in 1411, and had to
  justify the reverence paid to the memory of one yet uncanonized; (3)
  the _Supplementum_ to Raimondo's _Vita_, compiled by Tommaso Caffarini
  in 1414; (4) the _Legenda abbreviata_, Caffarini's summary of the
  _Vita_, translated into beautiful Italian by Stefano Maconi; (5) the
  _Letters_, of which the standard edition is that of Girolamo Gigli (2
  vols., Siena, 1713, Lucca, 1721). A selection of these has been
  published in English by V.D. Scudder (London, 1905). A complete
  bibliography is given in E.G. Gardner's _Saint Catherine of Siena_
  (London, 1907), a monumental study dealing with the religion, history
  and literature of the 14th century in Italy as they centre "in the
  work and personality of one of the most wonderful women that have ever


  [1] See the study in Baron Fr. von Hügel's _Mystical Element in
    Religion_ (1909).

CATHERINE I. (1683-1727), empress of Russia. The true character and
origin of this enigmatical woman were, until quite recently, among the
most obscure problems of Russian history. It now appears that she came
of a Lithuanian stock, and was one of the four children of a small
Catholic yeoman, Samuel Skovronsky; but her father died of the plague
while she was still a babe, the family scattered, and little Martha was
adopted by Pastor Glück, the Protestant superintendent of the Marienburg
district. Frau Glück finally rid herself of the girl by marrying her to
a Swedish dragoon called Johan. A few months later, the Swedes were
compelled by the Russians to evacuate Marienburg, and Martha became one
of the prisoners of war of Marshal Sheremetev, who sold her to Prince
Menshikov, at whose house, in the German suburb of Moscow, Peter the
Great first beheld and made love to her in his own peculiar fashion.
After the birth of their first daughter Catherine, Peter made no secret
of their relations. He had found, at last, the woman he wanted, and she
soon became so indispensable to him that it was a torment to be without
her. The situation was regulated by the reception of Martha into the
Orthodox Church, when she was rechristened under the name of Catherine
Alekseyevna, the tsarevich Alexius being her godfather, by the bestowal
upon her of the title _Gosudaruinya_ or sovereign (1710), and, finally
(1711), by her public marriage to the tsar, who divorced the tsaritsa
Eudoxia to make room for her. Henceforth the new tsaritsa was her
husband's inseparable companion. She was with him during the campaign of
the Pruth, and Peter always attributed the successful issue of that
disastrous war to the courage and sang-froid of his consort. She was
with him, too, during his earlier Caspian campaigns, and was obliged on
this occasion to shear off her beautiful hair and wear a close-fitting
fur cap to protect her from the rays of the sun.

By the _ukaz_ of 1722 Catherine was proclaimed Peter's successor, to the
exclusion of the grand-duke Peter, the only son of the tsarevich
Alexius, and on the 7th of May 1724 was solemnly crowned empress-consort
in the Uspensky cathedral at Moscow, on which occasion she wore a crown
studded with no fewer than 2564 precious stones, surmounted by a ruby,
as large as a pigeon's egg, supporting a cross of brilliants. Within a
few months of this culminating triumph, she was threatened with utter
ruin by the discovery of a supposed _liaison_ with her gentleman of the
bedchamber, William Mons, a handsome and unscrupulous upstart, and the
brother of a former mistress of Peter. A dangerously familiar but
perfectly innocent flirtation is, however, the worst that can fairly be
alleged against Catherine on this occasion. So Peter also seemed to have
thought, for though Mons was decapitated and his severed head, preserved
in spirits, was placed in the apartments of the empress, she did not
lose Peter's favour, attended him during his last illness, and closed
his eyes when he expired (January 28, 1725). She was at once raised to
the throne by the party of progress, as represented by Prince Menshikov
and Count Tolstoy, whose interests and perils were identical with those
of the empress, before the reactionary party had time to organize
opposition, her great popularity with the army powerfully contributing
to her success. The arch-prelates of the Russian church, Theodosius,
archbishop of Novgorod, and Theophanes, archbishop of Pskov, were also
on her side for very much the same reason, both of them being unpopular
innovators who felt that, at this crisis, they must stand or fall with
Tolstoy and Menshikov.

The great administrative innovation of Catherine's reign was the
establishment of the _Verkhovny Tainy Sovyet_, or supreme privy council,
by way of strengthening the executive, by concentrating affairs in the
hands of a few persons, mainly of the party of Reform (_Ukazoi_ February
26, 1726). As to the foreign policy of Catherine I. (principally
directed by the astute Andrei Osterman), if purely pacific and extremely
cautious, it was, nevertheless, dignified, consistent and independent.
Russia, by the mere force of circumstances, now found herself opposed to
England, chiefly because Catherine protected Charles Frederick, duke of
Holstein, and George I. found that the Schleswig-Holstein question might
be reopened to the detriment of his Hanoverian possessions. Things came
to such a pass that, in the spring of 1726, an English squadron was sent
to the Baltic and cast anchor before Reval. The empress vigorously
protested, and the fleet was withdrawn, but on the 6th of August
Catherine acceded to the anti-English Austro-Spanish league. Catherine
died on the 16th of May 1727. Though quite illiterate, she was an
uncommonly shrewd and sensible woman, and her imperturbable good nature
under exceptionally difficult circumstances, testifies equally to the
soundness of her head and the goodness of her heart.

  See Robert Nisbet Bain, _The Pupils of Peter the Great_, chs. ii.-iii.
  (London, 1897); _The First Romanovs_, ch. xiv. (London, 1905).
       (R. N. B.)

CATHERINE II. (1729-1796), empress of Russia, was the daughter of
Christian Augustus, prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, and his wife, Johanna
Elizabeth of Holstein-Gottorp. The exact date and place of her birth
have been disputed, but there appears to be no reason to doubt that she
was right in saying that she was born at Stettin on the 2nd of May 1729.
Her father, who succeeded to the principality of Anhalt-Zerbst in 1746
and died in 1747, was a general in the Prussian service, and, at the
time of her birth, was military commandant at Stettin. Her baptismal
name was Sophia Augusta Frederica. In accordance with the custom then
prevailing in German princely families, she was educated chiefly by
French governesses and tutors. In 1744 she was taken to Russia, to be
affianced to the grand-duke Peter, the nephew of the empress Elizabeth
(q.v.), and her recognized heir. The princess of Anhalt-Zerbst was the
daughter of Christian Albert, bishop of Lübeck, younger brother of
Frederick IV., duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Peter's paternal grandfather.
The choice of her daughter as wife of the future tsar was the result of
not a little diplomatic management in which Frederick the Great took an
active part, the object being to strengthen the friendship between
Prussia and Russia, to weaken the influence of Austria and to ruin the
chancellor Bestuzhev, on whom Elizabeth relied, and who was a known
partisan of the Austrian alliance. The diplomatic intrigue failed,
largely through the flighty intervention of the princess of
Anhalt-Zerbst, a clever but very injudicious woman. But Elizabeth took a
strong liking to the daughter, and the marriage was finally decided on.
The girl had spared no effort to ingratiate herself, not only with the
empress, but with the grand-duke and the Russian people. She applied
herself to learning the language with such zeal that she rose at night
and walked about her bedroom barefoot repeating her lessons. The result
was a severe attack of congestion of the lungs in March 1744. During the
worst period of her illness she completed her conquest of the good-will
of the Russians by declining the religious services of a Protestant
pastor, and sending for Simon Todorskiy, the orthodox priest who had
been appointed to instruct her in the Greek form of Christianity. When
she wrote her memoirs she represented herself as having made up her mind
when she came to Russia to do whatever had to be done, and to profess to
believe whatever she was required to believe, in order to be qualified
to wear the crown. The consistency of her character throughout life
makes it highly probable that even at the age of fifteen she was mature
enough to adopt this worldly-wise line of conduct. Her father, who was a
convinced Lutheran, was strongly opposed to his daughter's conversion,
and supplied her with books of controversy to protect her Protestantism.
She read them, and she listened to Todorskiy, and to other advisers who
told her that the Russian crown was well worth a mass, or that the
differences between the Greek and Lutheran churches were mere matters of
form. On the 28th of June 1744 she was received into the Orthodox Church
at Moscow, and was renamed Catherine Alexeyevna. On the following day
she was formally betrothed, and was married to the archduke on the 21st
of August 1745 at St Petersburg.

At that time Catherine was essentially what she was to remain till her
death fifty-one years later. It was her boast that she was as "frank and
original as any Englishman." If she meant that she had a compact
character, she was right. She had decided on her line in life and she
followed it whole-heartedly. It was her determination to become a
Russian in order that she might the better rule in Russia, and she
succeeded. She acquired a full command of all the resources of the
language, and a no less complete understanding of the nature of the
Russian people. It is true that she remained quite impervious to
religious influences. The circumstances of her conversion may have
helped to render her indifferent to religion, but their influence need
not be exaggerated. Her irreligion was shared by multitudes of
contemporaries who had never been called upon to renounce one form of
Christianity and profess belief in another in order to gain a crown. Her
mere actions were, like those of other and humbler people, dictated by
the conditions in which she lived. The first and the most important of
them was beyond all question the misery of her married life. Her husband
was a wretched creature. Nature had made him mean, the smallpox had made
him hideous, and his degraded habits made him loathsome. And Peter had
all the sentiments of the worst kind of small German prince of the time.
He had the conviction that his princeship entitled him to disregard
decency and the feelings of others. He planned brutal practical jokes,
in which blows had always a share. His most manly taste did not rise
above the kind of military interest which has been defined as
"corporal's mania," the passion for uniforms, pipeclay, buttons, the
"tricks of parade and the froth of discipline." He detested the
Russians, and surrounded himself with Holsteiners. For ten years the
marriage was barren, and the only reason for supposing that the future
tsar Paul (q.v.), who was born on the 2nd of October 1754, was the son
of Peter, is the strong similarity of their characters. Living in the
grossly animal court of the empress Elizabeth, bound to a husband whom
she could not but despise and detest, surrounded by suitors, and
entirely uninfluenced by religion, Catherine became and remained
perfectly immoral in her sexual relations to men. The scandalous
chronicle of her life was the commonplace of all Europe. Her male
favourites were as openly paraded as the female favourites of King Louis
XV. It may be said once and for all that her most trusted agents while
she was still grand-duchess, and her chief ministers when she became
empress, were also her lovers, and were known to be so.

For some time after the marriage, the young couple were controlled by
the empress Elizabeth, who appointed court officials to keep a watch on
their conduct; but before long these custodians themselves had become
the agents of Catherine's pleasures and ambition. After the birth of
Paul she began to take an active part in political intrigues. Her
abilities forced even her husband to rely on her judgment. When in
difficulty he ran to her and flattered her with the name of Madame La
Ressource--Madame Quick Wit--which did not prevent him from insulting
and even kicking her when the immediate need of her help was over. In
1758 he endeavoured to turn the empress Elizabeth against her, and for a
time Catherine was in danger. She faced the peril boldly, and
reconquered her influence over the sovereign, but from this time she
must have realized that when the empress was dead she would have to
defend herself against her husband. That Peter both hated and dreaded
her was notorious. The empress Elizabeth died on the 5th of January
1762. The grand duke succeeded without opposition as Peter III. His
behaviour to his wife continued to be brutal and menacing, and he went
on as before offending the national sentiment of the Russian people. In
July he committed the insane error of retiring with his Holsteiners to
Oranienbaum, leaving his wife at St Petersburg. On the 13th and 14th of
that month a "pronunciamiento" of the regiments of the guard removed him
from the throne and made Catherine empress. The history of this revolt
is still obscure. It has naturally been said that she organized the
mutiny from the first, and some plausibility is conferred on this belief
by the fact that the guards were manipulated by the four Orlov brothers.
The eldest, Gregory, was her recognized chief lover, and he was
associated with his brother Alexis in the office of favourite. On the
other hand, there does not appear to have been any need for
organization. The hatred felt for Peter III. was spontaneous, and
Catherine had no need to do more than let it be known that she was
prepared to profit by her husband's downfall. Peter, who behaved with
abject cowardice, was sent to a country house at Ropcha, where he died
on the 15th or 18th of July of official "apoplexy." The truth is not
known, and Frederick the Great at least professed long afterwards to
believe that Catherine had no immediate share in the murder. She had no
need to speak. Common-sense must have shown the leaders of the revolt
that they would never be safe while Peter lived, and they had insults to

The mere fact that Catherine II., a small German princess without
hereditary claim to the throne, ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796 amid the
loyalty of the great mass of the people, and the respect and admiration
of her neighbours, is sufficient proof of the force of her character.
Her title to be considered a great reforming ruler is by no means
equally clear. Voltaire and the encyclopaedists with whom she
corresponded, and on whom she conferred gifts and pensions, repaid her
by the grossest flattery, while doing their best to profit by her
generosity. They made her a reputation for "philosophy," and showed the
sincerity of their own love of freedom by finding excuses for the
partition of Poland. There is a very great difference between Catherine
II. as she appears in the panegyrics of the encyclopaedists and
Catherine as she appears in her correspondence and in her acts. Her
foreign admirers amused her, and were useful in spreading her
reputation. The money they cost her was a small sum in comparison to the
£12,000,000 she lavished on her long series of lovers, who began with
Soltykov and Stanislaus Poniatowski (q.v.) before she came to the
throne, and ended with the youthful Platon Zubov, who was tenant of the
post at her death. She spent money freely on purchasing works of art and
curios. Yet she confessed with her usual candour that she had no taste
for painting, sculpture or music. Her supposed love of literature does
not appear to have amounted to more than a lively curiosity, which could
be satisfied by dipping into a great number of books. She had a passion
for writing, and produced not only a mass of letters written in French,
but pamphlets and plays, comic and serious, in French and Russian. One
on the history of Oleg, the more or less legendary Varangian, who was
guardian to the son of Rurik, was described by her as an "imitation of
Shakespeare." The scheme is not unlike that of a "chronicle play." Her
letters are full of vivacity, of colour, and at times of insight and
wit, but she never learnt to write either French or German correctly.
The letters to Voltaire attributed to her are not hers, and were
probably composed for her by Andrei Shuvalov. The philosophers and
encyclopaedists who, by the mouth of Diderot, complimented Catherine on
being superior to such female affectations as modesty and chastity,
flattered her to some extent even here. She enforced outward decency in
her household, was herself temperate in eating and drinking, and was by
no means tolerant of disorderly behaviour on the part of the ladies of
her court. They flattered her much more when they dwelt on her
philanthropy and her large share of the enlightenment of the age. She
was kind to her servants, and was very fond of young children. She was
rarely angry with people who merely contradicted her or failed to
perform their service in her household. But she could order the use of
the knout and of mutilation as freely as the most barbarous of her
predecessors when she thought the authority of the state was at stake,
and she did employ them readily to suppress all opinions of a heterodox
kind, whether in matters of religion or of politics, after the beginning
of the French Revolution. Her renowned toleration stopped short of
allowing the dissenters to build chapels, and her passion for
legislative reform grew cold when she found that she must begin by the
emancipation of the serfs. There were exceptions even to her personal
kindness to those about her. She dropped her German relations. She kept
a son born to her shortly before the palace revolution of 1762, whose
paternity could not be attributed to Peter, at a distance, though she
provided for him. He was brought up in a private station under the name
of Bobrinski. She was a harsh mother to her son Paul. It seems highly
probable that she intended to exclude him from the succession, and to
leave the crown to her eldest grandson Alexander, afterwards the emperor
Alexander I. Her harshness to Paul was probably as much due to political
distrust as to what she saw of his character. Whatever else Catherine
may have been she was emphatically a sovereign and a politician who was
in the last resort guided by the reason of state. She was resolved not
to allow her authority to be disputed by her son, or shared by him.

As a ruler, Catherine professed a great contempt for system, which she
said she had been taught to despise by her master Voltaire. She declared
that in politics a capable ruler must be guided by "circumstances,
conjectures and conjunctions." Her conduct was on the surface very
unstable. In a moment of candour she confessed that she was a great
_commenceuse_--that she had a mania for beginning innumerable
enterprises which she never pursued. This, however, is chiefly true of
her internal administration, and even there it should be qualified. Many
of her beginnings were carried on by others and were not barren. Her
foreign policy was as consistent as it could be considering the forces
she had to contend against. It was steadily aimed to secure the
greatness and the safety of Russia. There can be no question, that she
loved her adopted country sincerely, and had an affection for her
people, and an opinion of their great qualities which she did not
hesitate to express in hyperbolical terms. Her zeal for the reputation
of the Russians was almost comically shown by the immense trouble she
took to compile an answer to the _Voyage en Sibêrie_ of the French
astronomer Chappe d'Auteroche. The book is in three big quartos, and
Catherine's answer--which was never finished--is still larger. Chappe
d'Auteroche had discovered that Siberia was not a paradise, and had
observed that the Russians were dirty in their habits, and that masters
whipped their servants, male and female. Her patriotism was less
innocently shown by her conquests. Yet it may be doubted whether any
capable ruler of Russia could have abstained from aggressions at the
expense of the rights of the Saxon family in Courland, of Poland, and of
Turkey (see RUSSIA: _History_). It does seem now to be clearly proved
that the partition of Poland was not suggested by her, as has been
frequently asserted. Catherine would have preferred to control the
country through a vassal sovereign of the type of Stanislaus
Poniatowski, the old lover whose election she secured in 1763. Poland
was incapable of maintaining its independence at the time of the first
partition (1772), and the division of the unhappy country was forced on
by Austria and Prussia. In the case of the second partition in 1793, she
did show herself to be very unscrupulous. Her opposition to the reform
of the Polish government was plainly due to a wish to preserve an excuse
for further spoliation, but her conduct was less cruel and base than
that of Prussia.

Catherine had adhered to her husband's policy of a Prussian alliance.
While Frederick the Great lived she was impressed by his ability. But
the Prussian alliance became hateful to her, and her later
correspondence with Grimm overflows with contempt of his successor
Frederick William II., who is always spoken of by her as "Brother Gu."
Her exasperation with the affectations of the Prussian king was
unquestionably increased by her discovery that he would not be induced
to apply himself to a crusade against the French Revolution, which by
employing all his forces would have left Russia free to annex the whole
of what remained of Poland. But at least she did not enter into a solemn
engagement to defend the Poles who were engaged in reforming their
constitution, and then throw them over in order to share in the plunder
of their country.

Catherine's Turkish policy was at first marked by a certain grandiosity.
When the Turks declared war in 1768 in order to support Poland, which
they looked upon as a necessary buffer state, she retaliated by the
great Greek scheme. For a time it was a pet idea with her to revive the
Greek empire, and to plant the cross, with the double-headed Russian
eagle, at Constantinople. She formed a corps of Greek cadets, caused her
younger grandson to be christened Constantine, and began the policy of
presenting Russia to the Christian subjects of the Porte as their
deliverer. In pursuit of this heroic enterprise, which excited the loud
admiration of Voltaire, she sent a fleet under Alexis Orlov into the
Mediterranean in 1770. Orlov tempted the Greeks of the Morea to take up
arms, and then left them in the lurch. When Catherine found herself
opposed by the policy of France and England, and threatened by the
jealousy of Prussia and Austria, she dropped the Greek design, observing
to Voltaire that the descendants of the Spartans were much degenerated.
The introduction into the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji of 1774 of a clause
by which the Porte guaranteed the rights of its Christian subjects, and
of another-giving Russia the right to interfere on behalf of a new
Russian church in Constantinople, advertised the claim of the tsars to
be the natural protectors of the Orthodox in the Ottoman dominions; but
when she took up arms again in 1788 in alliance with Joseph II. (q.v.),
it was to make a mere war of conquest and partition. The Turkish wars
show the weak side of Catherine as a ruler. Though she had mounted the
throne by a military revolt and entered on great schemes of conquest,
she never took an intelligent interest in her army. She neglected it in
peace, allowed it to be shamefully administered in war, and could never
be made to understand that it was not in her power to improvise generals
out of her favourites. It is to her credit that she saw the capacity of
Suvarov, yet she never had as much confidence in him as she had in
Potemkin, who may have been a man of genius, but was certainly no
general. She took care never to have to deal with a disciplined
opponent, except the Swedes, who beat her, but who were very few.

It was the misfortune of Catherine that she lived too long. She
disgraced herself by living with her last lover, Zubov, when she was a
woman of sixty-seven, trusting him with power and lavishing public money
on him. The outbreak of the French Revolution stripped off the varnish
of philosophy and philanthropy which she had assumed in earlier years.
She had always entertained a quiet contempt for the French writers whom
she flattered and pensioned, and who served her as an advertising agency
in the west. When the result of their teaching was seen in Paris,
good-natured contempt was turned to hatred. She then became a persecutor
in her own dominions of the very ideas she had encouraged in former
years. She scolded and preached a crusade, without, however, departing
from the steady pursuit of her own interests in Poland, while
endeavouring with transparent cunning to push Austria and Prussia into
an invasion of France with all their forces. Her health began to break
down, and it appears to be nearly certain that towards the end she
suffered from hysteria of a shameful kind. It is plain that her
intellect had begun to fail just before her death, for she allowed the
reigning favourite, Platon Zubov, to persuade her to despatch his
brother Valerian, with the rank of field marshal and an army of 20,000
men, on a crack-brained scheme to invade India by way of Persia and
Tibet. The refusal of the king of Sweden to marry into her family unless
the bride would become a Lutheran is said to have thrown her into a
convulsion of rage which hastened her death. On the 9th of November
1796, she was seized by a fit of apoplexy, and died on the evening of
the 10th.

  All other accounts of Catherine II. have been superseded by
  Waliszewski's two volumes, _Le Roman d'une impératrice_ (Paris, 1893)
  and _Autour d'un Trône: Catherine II., ses collaborateurs, ses amis,
  ses favoris_ (Paris, 1894). The original sources for the history of
  her policy and her character are to be found in the publications of
  the Imperial Russian Historical Society, vols. i.-cix. (St
  Petersburg), begun in 1867; her private and official correspondence
  will be found in vols. i., ii., iv., v., vi., vii., viii., ix., x.,
  xiii., xiv., xv., xvii., xx., xxiii., xxxii., xxxiii., xxxvi., xlii.,
  xliii., xlvii., xlviii., li., lvii., lxvii., lxviii., lxxxvii.,
  xcvii., xcviii., cvii., cxv., cxviii.

CATHERINE DE' MEDICI (1519-1589), queen of France, the wife of one
French king and the mother of three, was born at Florence in 1519. She
was a daughter of Lorenzo II. de' Medici and a French princess,
Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne. Having lost both her parents at an
early age, Catherine was sent to a convent to be educated; and she was
only fourteen when she was married (1533) at Marseilles to the duke of
Orléans, afterwards Henry II. It was her uncle, Pope Clement VII., who
arranged the marriage with Francis I. Francis, still engaged in his
lifelong task of making head against Charles V., was only too glad of
the opportunity to strengthen his influence in the Italian peninsula,
while Clement, ever needful of help against his too powerful protector,
was equally ready to hold out a bait. During the reign of Francis,
Catherine exercised no influence in France. She was young, a foreigner,
a member of a state that had almost no weight in the great world of
politics, had not given any proof of great ability, and was thrown into
the shade by more important persons. For ten years after her marriage
she had no children. In consequence, a divorce began to be talked of at
court; and it seemed not impossible that Francis, alarmed at the
possible extinction of the royal house, might listen to such a proposal.
But Catherine had the happiness of bringing him grandchildren ere he
died. During the reign of her husband, too (1547-1559), Catherine lived
a quiet and passive, but observant life. Henry being completely under
the influence of his mistress, Diane de Poitiers, she had little
authority. In 1552, when the king left the kingdom for the campaign of
Metz, she was nominated regent, but with very limited powers. This
continued even after the accession of her son Francis II. Francis was
under the spell of Mary Stuart, and she, little disposed to meddle with
politics on her own account, was managed by her uncles, the cardinal of
Lorraine and the duke of Guise. The queen-mother, however, soon grew
weary of the domination of the Guises, and entered upon a course of
secret opposition. On the 1st of April 1560 she placed in the
chancellorship Michel de l'Hôpital (q.v.), who advocated the policy of

On the death of Francis (5th of December 1560), Catherine became regent
during the minority of her second son, Charles IX., and now found before
her a career worthy of the most soaring ambition. She was then forty-one
years old, but, although she was the mother of nine children, she was
still very vigorous and active. She retained her influence for more than
twenty years in the troubled period of the wars of religion. At first
she listened to the moderate counsels of l'Hôpital in so far as to avoid
siding definitely with either party, but her character and the habits of
policy to which she had been accustomed, rendered her incapable of any
noble aim. She had only one virtue, and that was her zeal for the
interests of her children, especially of her favourite third son, the
duke of Anjou. Like so many of the Italians of that time, who were
almost destitute of a moral sense, she looked upon statesmanship in
particular as a career in which finesse, lying and assassination were
the most admirable, because the most effective weapons. By habit a
Catholic, but above all things fond of power, she was determined to
prevent the Protestants from getting the upper hand, and almost equally
resolved not to allow them to be utterly crushed, in order to use them
as a counterpoise to the Guises. This trimming policy met with little
success: rage and suspicion so possessed men's minds, that she could no
longer control the opposing parties, and one civil war followed another
to the end of her life. In 1567, after the "Enterprise of Meaux," she
dismissed l'Hôpital and joined the Catholic party. But, having failed to
crush the Protestant rebellion by arms, she resumed in 1570 the policy
of peace and negotiation. She conceived the project of marrying her
favourite son, the duke of Anjou, to Queen Elizabeth of England, and her
daughter Margaret to Henry of Navarre. To this end she became reconciled
with the Protestants, and allowed Coligny to return to court and to
re-enter the council. Of this step she quickly repented. Charles IX.
conceived a great affection for the admiral and showed signs of taking
up an independent attitude. Catherine, thinking her influence menaced,
sought to regain it, first by the murder of Coligny, and, when that had
failed, by the massacre of St Bartholomew (q.v.). The whole of the
responsibility for this crime, therefore, rests with Catherine; unlike
the populace, she had not even the excuse of fanaticism. This
responsibility, however, weighed but lightly on her; while her son was
overwhelmed with remorse, she calmly enjoyed her short-lived triumph.
After the death of Charles in 1574, and the succession of Anjou under
the name of Henry III., Catherine pursued her old policy of compromise
and concessions; but as her influence is lost in that of her son, it is
unnecessary to dwell upon it. She died on the 5th of January 1589, a
short time before the assassination of Henry, and the consequent
extinction of the House of Valois. In her taste for art and her love of
magnificence and luxury, Catherine was a true Medici; her banquets at
Fontainebleau in 1564 were famous for their sumptuousness. In
architecture especially she was well versed, and Philibert de l'Orme
relates that she discussed with him the plan and decoration of her
palace of the Tuileries. Catherine's policy provoked a crowd of
pamphlets, the most celebrated being the _Discours merveilleux de la
vie, actions et déportemens de la reine Catherine de Médicis_, in which
Henri Estienne undoubtedly collaborated.

  See _Lettres de Catherine de Médicis_, edited by Hector de la Ferrière
  (Paris, 1880, seq.), in the _Collection de documents inédits sur
  l'histoire de France_; A. von Reumont, _Die Jugend Caterinas de'
  Medici_ (1854; French translation by A. Baschet, 1866); H. Bouchot,
  _Catherine de Médicis_ (Paris, 1899). For a more complete bibliography
  see Ernest Lavisse, _Histoire de France_ (vol. v., by H. Lemonnier,
  and vol. vi., by J.H. Mariéjol, 1904-1905). See also Miss E. Sichel's
  books, _Catherine de' Medici and the French Reformation_ (1905), and
  _The Later Years of Catherine de' Medici_ (1908).

CATHERINE OF ARAGON (1485-1536), queen of Henry VIII. of England,
daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, was born on the 15th or
16th of December 1485. She left Spain in 1501 to marry Arthur, prince of
Wales, eldest son of King Henry VII., and landed at Plymouth on the 2nd
of October. The wedding took place on the 14th of November in London,
and soon afterwards Catherine accompanied her youthful husband to Wales,
where, in his sixteenth year, the prince died on the 2nd of April 1502.
On the 25th of June 1503, she was formally betrothed to the king's
second son, Henry, now prince of Wales, and a papal dispensation for the
alliance was obtained. The marriage, however, did not take place during
the lifetime of Henry VII. Ferdinand endeavoured to cheat the English
king of the marriage portion agreed upon, and Henry made use of the
presence of the unmarried princess in England to extort new conditions,
and especially to secure the marriage of his daughter Mary to the
archduke Charles, grandson of Ferdinand, and afterwards Charles V.
Catherine was thus from the first the unhappy victim of state politics.
Writing to Ferdinand on the 11th of March 1509, she describes the state
of poverty to which she was reduced, and declares the king's unkindness
impossible to be borne any longer.[1] On the old king's death, however,
a brighter prospect opened, for Henry VIII. decided immediately on
marrying her, the wedding taking place on the 11th of June and the
coronation on the 24th. Catherine now enjoyed a few years of married
happiness; Henry showed himself an affectionate husband, and the
alliance with Ferdinand was maintained against France. She was not
without some influence in state affairs. During Henry's invasion of
France in 1513 she was made regent; she showed great zeal and ardour in
the preparations for the Scottish expedition, and was riding towards the
north to put herself at the head of the troops when the victory of
Flodden Field ended the campaign. The following year an affectionate
meeting took place between the king and queen at Richmond on the return
of the former. Ferdinand's treachery, however, in making a treaty with
France roused Henry's wrath, and his angry reproaches fell upon his
unfortunate wife; but she took occasion in 1520, during the visit of her
nephew Charles V. to England, to urge the policy of gaining his alliance
rather than that of France. Immediately on his departure, on the 31st of
May 1520, she accompanied the king to France, on the celebrated visit to
Francis I., called from its splendour the Field of the Cloth of Gold;
but in 1522 war was declared against France and the emperor again
welcomed to England. In 1521 she is represented by Shakespeare as
pleading for the unfortunate duke of Buckingham.

These early years of happiness and of useful influence and activity had,
however, been gradually giving way to gloom and disappointment. Between
January 1510 and November 1518 Catherine gave birth to six children
(including two princes), who were all stillborn or died in infancy
except Mary, born in 1516, and rumour did not fail to ascribe this
series of disasters to the curse pronounced in Deuteronomy on incestuous
unions. In 1526 the condition of Catherine's health made it highly
improbable that she would have more children. No woman had ever reigned
in England, alone and in her own right, and to avoid a fresh dispute
concerning the succession, and the revival of the civil war, a male heir
to the throne was a pressing necessity. The act of marriage, which
depended for its validity on the decision of the ecclesiastical courts,
had, on account of the numerous dissolutions and dispensations granted,
not then attained the security since assured to it by the secular law.
For obtaining dissolutions of royal marriages the facilities were
especially great. Pope Clement VII. himself permitted such a dissolution
in the case of Henry's own sister Margaret, in 1528, proposed later as a
solution of the problem that Henry should be allowed two wives,[2] and
looked not unfavourably, with the same aim, on the project for marrying
the duke of Richmond to Mary, a brother to a sister.[3] In Henry's case
also the irregularity of a union, which is still generally reprobated
and forbidden in Christendom, and which it was very doubtful that the
pope had the power to legalize, provided a moral justification for a
dissolution which in other cases did not exist. It was not therefore the
immorality of the plea which obstructed the papal decree in Henry's
favour, but the unlucky imprisonment at this time of Clement VII. at the
hands of Charles V., Catherine's nephew, which obliged the pope, placed
thus "between the hammer and the anvil," to pursue a policy of delay and
hesitation. Nor was the immorality of Henry's own character the primary
cause of the project of divorce. Had this been so, a succession of
mistresses would have served as well as a series of single wives. The
real occasion was the king's desire for a male heir. But, however clear
this may be, the injustice done to Catherine was no less cruel and real.
Rumours, probably then unfounded, of an intended divorce had been heard
abroad as early as 1524. But the creation in 1525 of the king's
illegitimate son Henry, as duke of Richmond--the title borne by his
grandfather Henry VII--and the precedence granted to him over all the
peers as well as the princess Mary, together with the special honour
paid at this time by the king to his own half-sister Mary, were the
first real indications of the king's thoughts. In 1526, and perhaps
earlier, Wolsey had been making tentative inquiries at Rome on the
subject. In May 1527 a collusive and secret suit was begun before the
cardinal, who, as legate, summoned the king to defend himself from the
charge of cohabitation with his brother's wife; but these proceedings
were dropped. On the 22nd of June Henry informed Catherine that they had
been living in mortal sin and must separate. During Wolsey's absence in
July at Paris, where he had been commissioned to discuss vaguely the
divorce and Henry's marriage with Renée, daughter of Louis XII., Anne
Boleyn is first heard of in connexion with the king, his affection for
her having, however, begun probably as early as 1523, and the cardinal
on his return found her openly installed at the court. In October 1528
the pope issued a commission to Cardinal Campeggio and Wolsey to try the
cause in England, and bound himself not to revoke the case to Rome,
confirming his promise by a secret decretal commission which, however,
was destroyed by Campeggio. But the trial was a sham. Campeggio was
forbidden to pronounce sentence without further reference to Rome, and
was instructed to create delays, the pope assuring Charles V. at the
same time that the case should be ultimately revoked to Rome.[4]

The object of all parties was now to persuade Catherine to enter a
nunnery and thus relieve them of further embarrassment. While Henry's
envoys were encouraged at Rome in believing that he might then make
another marriage, Henry himself gave Catherine assurances that no other
union would be contemplated in her lifetime. But Catherine with courage
and dignity held fast to her rights, demanded a proper trial, and
appealed not only to the bull of dispensation, the validity of which was
said to be vitiated by certain irregularities, but to a brief granted
for the alliance by Pope Julius II. Henry declared the latter to be a
forgery, and endeavoured unsuccessfully to procure a declaration of its
falsity from the pope. The court of the legates accordingly opened on
the 31st of May 1529, the queen appearing before it on the 18th of June
for the purpose of denying its jurisdiction. On the 21st both Henry and
Catherine presented themselves before the tribunal, when the queen threw
herself at Henry's feet and appealed for the last time to his sense of
honour, recalling her own virtue and helplessness. Henry replied with
kindness, showing that her wish for the revocation of the cause to Rome
was unreasonable in view of the paramount influence then exercised by
Charles V. on the pope. Catherine nevertheless persisted in making
appeal to Rome, and then withdrew. After her departure Henry, according
to Cavendish, Wolsey's biographer, praised her virtues to the court.
"She is, my lords, as true, as obedient, as conformable a wife as I
could in my phantasy wish or desire. She hath all the virtues and
qualities that ought to be in a woman of her dignity or in any other of
baser estate." On her refusal to return, her plea was overruled and she
was adjudged contumacious, while the sittings of the court continued in
her absence. Subsequently the legates paid her a private visit of
advice, but were unable to move her from her resolution. Finally,
however, in July 1529, the case was, according to her wish, and as the
result of the treaty of Barcelona and the pope's complete surrender to
Charles V., revoked by the pope to Rome: a momentous act, which decided
Henry's future attitude, and occasioned the downfall of the whole papal
authority in England. On the 7th of March 1530 Pope Clement issued a
brief forbidding Henry to make a second marriage, and ordering the
restitution of Catherine to her rights till the cause was determined;
while at the same time he professed to the French ambassador, the bishop
of Tarbes, his pleasure should the marriage with Anne Boleyn have been
already made, if only it were not by his authority.[5] The same year
Henry obtained opinions favourable to the divorce from the English,
French and most of the Italian universities, but unfavourable answers
from Germany, while a large number of English peers and ecclesiastics,
including Wolsey and Archbishop Warham, joined in a memorial to the pope
in support of Henry's cause.

Meanwhile, Catherine, while the great question remained unsolved, was
still treated by Henry as his queen, and accompanied him in his visits
in the provinces and in his hunting expeditions. On the 31st of May 1531
she was visited by thirty privy councillors, who urged the trial of the
case in England, but they met only with a firm refusal. On the 14th of
July Henry left his wife at Windsor, removing himself to Woodstock, and
never saw her again. In August she was ordered to reside at the Moor in
Hertfordshire, and at the same time separated from the princess Mary,
who was taken to Richmond. In October she again received a deputation of
privy councillors, and again refused to withdraw the case from Rome. In
1532 she sent the king a gold cup as a new year's gift, which the latter
returned, and she was forbidden to hold any communication with him.
Alone and helpless in confronting Henry's absolute power, her cause
found champions and sympathizers among the people, among the court
preachers, and in the House of Commons, while Bishop Fisher had openly
taken her part in the legatine trial. Subsequently Catherine was removed
to Bishops Hatfield, while Henry and Anne Boleyn visited Francis I.
Their marriage, anticipating any sentence of the nullity of the union
with Catherine, took place after their return about the 25th of January
1533, in consequence of Anne's pregnancy. On the 10th of May Cranmer,
for whose consecration as archbishop of Canterbury Henry had obtained
bulls from Rome, opened his court, and declared on the 23rd the nullity
of Catherine's marriage and the validity of Anne's. On the 10th of
August the king caused proclamation to be made forbidding her the style
of queen; but Catherine refused resolutely to yield the title for that
of princess-dowager. Not long afterwards she was removed to Buckden in
Huntingdonshire. Here her household was considerably reduced, and she
found herself hemmed in by spies, and in fact a prisoner. In July she
had refused Henry the loan of a certain rich cloth, which had done
service at the baptism of her children, for the use of Anne Boleyn's
expected infant; and on the birth of Elizabeth and the refusal of Mary
to give up the title of princess, the latter's household was entirely
dismissed and she herself reduced to the position of attendant in
Elizabeth's retinue. A project for removing Catherine from Buckden to
Somersham, an unhealthy solitude in the isle of Ely, with a still
narrower maintenance, was only prevented by her own determined
resistance. The attempt in November to incriminate the queen in
connexion with Elizabeth Barton failed. She passed her life now in
religious devotions, taking strict precautions against the possibility
of being poisoned. On the 23rd of March 1534 the pope pronounced her
marriage valid, but by this time England had thrown off the papal
jurisdiction, the parliament had transferred Catherine's jointure to
Anne Boleyn, and the decree had no effect on Catherine's fortunes. She
refused to swear to the new act of succession, which declared her
marriage null and Anne's infant the heir to the throne, and soon
afterwards she was removed to Kimbolton, where she was well treated. On
the 21st of May she was visited by the archbishop of York and Tunstall,
bishop of Durham, who threatened her with death if she persisted in her
refusal, but only succeeded in confirming her resolution. She was kept
in strict seclusion, separated from Mary and from all outside
communications, and in December 1535 her health gave way, her death
taking place on the 8th of January 1536, not without suspicions of
poison, which, however, may be dismissed. She was buried by the king's
order in Peterborough cathedral. Before her death she dictated a last
letter to Henry, according to Polydore Vergil, expressing her
forgiveness, begging his good offices for Mary, and concluding with the
astounding assurance--"I vow that mine eyes desire you above all
things." The king himself affected no sorrow at her death, and thanked
God there was now no fear of war.

Catherine is described as "rather ugly than otherwise; of low stature
and rather stout; very good and very religious; speaks Spanish, French,
Flemish, English; more beloved by the islanders than any queen that has
ever reigned." She was a woman of considerable education and culture,
her scholarship and knowledge of the Bible being noted by Erasmus, who
dedicated to her his book on _Christian Matrimony_ in 1526. She endured
her bitter and undeserved misfortunes with extraordinary courage and
resolution, and at the same time with great womanly forbearance, of
which a striking instance was the compassion shown by her for the fallen

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See the article in _Dict. of Nat. Biog._ by J.
  Gairdner, and those on Henry VIII. and Wolsey, where the case is
  summed up very adversely to Henry, and _The Divorce of Catherine of
  Aragon_, by J.A. Froude (1891), where it is regarded from the contrary
  aspect; _Henry VIII._, by A. F. Pollard (1905); _Cambridge Mod.
  History_ (1903), ii. 416 et seq. and bibliographies, p. 789; _The
  Wives of Henry VIII._, by M. Hume (1905).     (P. C. Y.)


  [1] _Cat. of State Pap., England and Spain_, i. 469.

  [2] _Letters and Papers_, iv. 6627, 6705, and app. 261.

  [3] _Ib._ iv. 5072.

  [4] _Cal. of State Pap., England and Spain_, iii. pt. ii. 779.

  [5] _Cal. of State Pap., Foreign and Dom._, iv. 6290.

CATHERINE OF BRAGANZA (1638-1705), queen consort of Charles II. of
England, daughter of John IV. of Portugal, and of Louisa de Gusman,
daughter of the duke of Medina Sidonia, was born on the 15/25 of
November 1638 at Villia Viçosa. She was early regarded as a useful
medium for contracting an alliance with England, more necessary than
ever to Portugal after the treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 whereby
Portugal was ostensibly abandoned by France. Negotiations for the
marriage began during the reign of Charles I., were renewed immediately
after the Restoration, and on the 23rd of June, in spite of Spanish
opposition, the marriage contract was signed, England securing Tangier
and Bombay, with trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies,
religious and commercial freedom in Portugal and two million Portuguese
crowns (about £300,000); while Portugal obtained military and naval
support against Spain and liberty of worship for Catherine. She reached
England on the 13th of May 1662, but was not visited by Charles at
Portsmouth till the 20th. The next day the marriage was solemnized
twice, according to the Roman Catholic and Anglican usages. Catherine
possessed several good qualities, but had been brought up in a
conventual seclusion and was scarcely a wife Charles would have chosen
for himself. Her personal charms were not potent enough to wean Charles
away from the society of his mistresses, and in a few weeks after her
arrival she became aware of her painful and humiliating position as the
wife of the selfish and licentious king. On the first presentation to
her of Lady Castlemaine, Charles's mistress _en titre_, whom he insisted
on making lady of her bedchamber, she fainted away. She withdrew from
the king's society, and in spite of Clarendon's attempts to moderate her
resentment, declared she would return to Portugal rather than consent to
a base compliance. To overcome her resistance nearly the whole of her
Portuguese retinue was dismissed. She was helpless, and the violence of
her grief and anger soon changed to passive resistance, and then to a
complete forbearance and complaisance which gained the king's regard and
favour. In the midst of Charles's debauched and licentious court, she
lived neglected and retired, often deprived of her due allowance, having
no ambitions and taking no part in English politics, but keeping up
rather her interest in her native country.

As the prospect diminished of her bearing children to Charles, several
schemes were set on foot for procuring a divorce on various pretexts. As
a Roman Catholic and near to the king's person Catherine was the special
object of attack by the inventors of the Popish Plot. In 1678 the murder
of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey was ascribed to her servants, and Titus
Oates accused her of a design to poison the king. These charges, of
which the absurdity was soon shown by cross-examination, nevertheless
placed the queen for some time in great danger. On the 28th of November
Oates accused her of high treason, and the Commons passed an address for
her removal and that of all the Roman Catholics from Whitehall. A series
of fresh depositions were sent in against her, and in June 1679 it was
decided that she must stand her trial; but she was protected by the
king, who in this instance showed unusual chivalry and earned her
gratitude. On the 17th of November Shaftesbury moved in the House of
Lords for a divorce to enable the king to marry a Protestant and have
legitimate issue; but he received little support, and the bill was
opposed by Charles, who continued to show his wife "extraordinary
affection." During the winter the calumnies against the queen were
revived by Fitzharris, who, however, before his execution in 1681
confessed to their falsity; and after the revival of the king's
influence subsequent to the Oxford parliament, the queen's position was
no more assailed.

During Charles's last illness in 1685 she showed great anxiety for his
reconciliation with the Romish Church, and it was probably effected
largely through her influence. She exhibited great grief at his death.
She afterwards resided at Somerset House and at Hammersmith, where she
had privately founded a convent. She interceded with great generosity,
but ineffectually, for Monmouth the same year. On the 10th of June 1688
she was present at the birth of the prince of Wales and gave evidence
before the council in favour of the genuineness of the child. She was
still in England at the Revolution, having delayed her return to
Portugal to prosecute a lawsuit against the second earl of Clarendon,
formerly her chamberlain. She maintained at first good terms with
William and Mary; but the practice of her religion aroused jealousies,
while her establishment at Somerset House was said to be the home of
cabals against the government; and in 1691 she settled for a short time
at Euston. She left England finally with a train of one hundred persons
in March 1692, travelling through France and arriving at Lisbon on the
20th of January 1693. She took up her residence at the palace of
Bemposta, built by herself, near Lisbon. In 1703 she supported the
Methuen Treaty, which cemented still further the alliance between
Portugal and England, and in 1704 she was appointed regent of Portugal
during the illness of her brother King Pedro II., her administration
being distinguished by several successes gained over the Spaniards. She
died on the 31st of December 1705, bequeathing her great wealth, the
result of long hoarding, after the payment of divers charitable
legacies, to King Pedro; and was buried with great ceremony and
splendour at Belem.

  See L. C. Davidson, _Catherine of Braganza_ (1908).

CATHERINE OF VALOIS (1401-1437), queen of Henry V. of England, daughter
of Charles VI. of France by his wife Isabel of Bavaria, was born in
Paris on the 27th of October 1401. The lunacy of her father and the
depravity of her mother were serious drawbacks to Catherine, and her
only education was obtained in a convent at Poissy. About 1408 a
marriage was suggested between the princess and Henry, prince of Wales,
afterwards Henry V., who renewed this proposal after he became king in
March 1413. In addition to the hand of Catherine, however, the English
king asked for a large dowry both in money and lands, and when these
demands were rejected war broke out. Once or twice during short
intervals of peace the marriage project was revived, and was favoured by
Queen Isabel. When peace was eventually made at Troyes in May 1420 Henry
and Catherine were betrothed, and the marriage took place at Troyes on
the 2nd of June 1420. Having crossed to England with Henry, the queen
was crowned in Westminster Abbey on the 23rd of February 1421, and in
the following December gave birth to a son, afterwards King Henry VI.
She joined Henry in France in May 1422, returning to England after his
death in the succeeding August. Catherine's name soon began to be
coupled with that of Owen Tudor, a Welsh gentleman, and in 1428
Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, secured the passing of an act to prevent
her from marrying without the consent of the king and council. It
appears, however, that by this time Catherine and Tudor were already
married. They lived in obscurity till 1436, when Tudor was imprisoned,
and Catherine retired to Bermondsey Abbey, where she died on the 3rd of
January 1437. Her body was buried in the Lady chapel of Westminster
Abbey, and when the chapel was pulled down during the reign of Henry
VII., was placed in Henry V.'s tomb. It lay afterwards under the
Villiers monument, and in 1878 was re-buried in Henry V.'s chantry. By
Tudor Catherine had three sons and a daughter. Her eldest son by this
marriage, Edmund, was created earl of Richmond in 1452, and was the
father of Henry VII.

  See Agnes Strickland, _Lives of the Queens of England_, vol. iii.
  (London, 1877).

CATHETUS (Gr. [Greek: kathetos], a perpendicular line), in architecture
the eye of the volute, so termed because its position is determined, in
an Ionic or voluted capital, by a line let down from the point in which
the volute generates.

CATHOLIC (Gr. [Greek: katholikos], general, universal), a designation
adopted in the 2nd century by the Christian Church to indicate
Christendom as a whole, in contrast with individual churches. With this
idea went the notions that Christianity had been diffused throughout the
whole earth by the apostles, and that only what was found everywhere
throughout the church could be true. The term thus in time became full
of dogmatic and political meaning, connoting, when applied to the
church, a universal authoritative and orthodox society, as opposed to
Gnostic and other "sects" (cf. the famous canon of Vincent of Lerins
A.D. 434; _quod ubique, quod semper, quod ab omnibus creditum est_). The
term "Catholic" does not occur in the old Roman symbol; but Professor
Loofs includes it in his reconstruction, based on typical phrases in
common use at the time of the ante-Nicene creeds of the East. In the
original form of the Nicene creed itself it does not occur; but in the
creed of Jerusalem (348), an amplification of the Nicene symbol, we find
"one Holy Catholic Church," and in the revision by Cyril of Alexandria
(362) "Catholic and Apostolic Church" (see CREEDS). Thus, though the
word "Catholic" was late in finding its way into the formal symbols of
the church, it is clear that it had long been in use in the original
sense defined above. It must be borne in mind, however, that the
designation "Catholic" was equally claimed by all the warring parties
within the church at various times; thus, the followers of Arius and
Athanasius alike called themselves Catholics, and it was only the
ultimate victory of the latter that has reserved for them in history the
name of Catholic, and branded the former as Arian.

With the gradual development and stereotyping of the creed it was
inevitable that the term "Catholic" should come to imply a more narrowly
defined orthodoxy. In the Eastern churches, indeed, the conception of
the church as the guardian of "the faith once delivered to the saints"
soon overshadowed that of interpretation and development by catholic
consent, and, though they have throughout claimed the title of Catholic,
their chief glory is that conveyed in the name of the Holy Orthodox
Church. In the West, meanwhile, the growth of the power of the papacy
had tended more and more to the interpretation of the word "catholic" as
implying communion with, and obedience to, the see of Rome (see PAPACY);
the churches of the East, no less than the heretical sects of the West,
by repudiating this allegiance, had ceased to be Catholic. This
identification of "Catholic" with "Roman" was accentuated by the
progress of the Reformation. The Reformers themselves, indeed, like
other dissidents and reformers before them, did not necessarily
repudiate the name of Catholic; they believed, in fact, in Catholicism,
i.e. the universal sanction of their beliefs, as firmly as did the
adherents of "the old religion"; they included the Catholic creeds,
definitions formulated by the universal church, in their service books;
they too appealed, as the fathers of Basel and Constance had done, from
the papal monarchy to the great ecclesiastical republic. The Church of
England at least, emphasizing her own essential catholicity, retained in
her translations of the ancient symbols the word "catholic" instead of
replacing it by "universal." But the appeal to the verbally inspired
Bible was stronger than that to a church hopelessly divided; the Bible,
and not the consent of the universal church, became the touchstone of
the reformed orthodoxy; in the nomenclature of the time, "evangelical"
arose in contradistinction to "Catholic," while, in popular parlance,
the "protest" of the Reformers against the "corruptions of Rome" led to
the invention of the term "Protestant," which, though nowhere assumed in
the official titles of the older reformed churches, was early used as a
generic term to include them all.

"Catholic" and "Catholicism" thus again changed and narrowed their
meaning; they became, by universal usage, identified definitely with
"Romanist" and the creed and obedience of Rome. Even in England, where the
church retained most strongly the Catholic tradition, this distinction of
"Protestant" and "Catholic" was clearly maintained, at least till the
"Catholic revival" in the Church of England of the 19th century. On the
continent of Europe the equivalent words (e.g. Ger. _Katholik,
Katholizismus_; Fr. _catholique, catholicisme_) are even more definitely
associated with Rome; they have lost the sense which they still convey to
a considerable school of Anglicans. The dissident "Catholic" churches are
forced to qualify their titles: they are "Old Catholics"
(_Alt-Katholiken_) or "German Catholics" (_Deutsch-Katholiken_). The
Church of Rome alone, officially and in popular parlance, is "the Catholic
Church" (_katholische Kirche, église catholique_), a title which she
proudly claims as exclusively her own, by divine right, by the sanction of
immemorial tradition, and by reason of her perpetual protest against the
idea of "national" churches, consecrated by the Reformation (see CHURCH
HISTORY, and ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH). The additional qualification of
"Roman" she tolerates, since it proclaims her doctrine of the see of Rome
as the keystone of Catholicism; but to herself she is "the Catholic
Church," and her members are "Catholics."

Yet to concede this claim and surrender without qualification the word
"Catholic" to a connotation which is at best only universal in theory,
is to beg several very weighty questions. The doctrine of the Catholic
Church, i.e. the essential unity and interdependence of "all God's
faithful people scattered throughout the world," is common to all
sections of Christians. The creed is one; it is the interpretation that
differs. In a somewhat narrower sense, too, the Church of England at
least has never repudiated the conception of the Catholic Church as a
divinely instituted organization for the safe-guarding and proclamation
of the Christian revelation. She deliberately retained the Catholic
creeds, the Catholic ministry and the appeal to Catholic antiquity (see
ENGLAND, CHURCH OF). A large section of her members, accordingly, laying
stress on this side of her tradition, prefer to call themselves
"Catholics." But, though the invention of the terms "Roman Catholic" and
"Roman Catholicism" early implied the retention by the English Church of
her Catholic claim, her members were never, after the Reformation,
called Catholics; even the Caroline divines of the 17th century, for all
their "popish practices," styled themselves Protestants, though they
would have professed their adherence to "the Catholic faith" and their
belief in "the Holy Catholic Church."

Clearly, then, the exact meaning of the term varies according to those
who use it and those to whom it is applied. To the Romanist "Catholic"
means "Roman Catholic"; to the high Anglican it means whatever is common
to the three "historic" branches into which he conceives the church to
be divided--Roman, Anglican and Orthodox; to the Protestant pure and
simple it means either what it does to the Romanist, or, in expansive
moments, simply what is "universal" to all Christians. In a yet broader
sense it is used adjectivally of mere wideness or universality of view,
as when we speak of a man as "of catholic sympathies" or "catholic in
his tastes."

The name of _Catholic Epistles_ is given to those letters (two of Peter,
three of John, one of James, one of Jude) incorporated in the New
Testament which (except 2 and 3 John) are not, like those of St Paul,
addressed to particular individuals or churches, but to a larger and
more indefinite circle of readers. (See BIBLE: _New Testament, Canon_.)

The title of _Catholicus_ ([Greek: katholikos]) seems to have been used
under the Roman empire, though rarely, as the Greek equivalent of
_consularis_ and _praefectus_. Thus Eusebius (_Hist. eccl._ viii. 23)
speaks of the catholicus of Africa ([Greek: katholikon tês Aphrikês]).
As an ecclesiastical title it was used to imply, not universal
(ecumenical), but a great and widespread jurisdiction. Thus the bishop
of the important see of Seleucia (Bagdad), though subordinate to the
patriarch of Antioch, had the title of Catholicus and power to
consecrate even archbishops; and on the division of the see there were
two _Catholici_ under the patriarch of Antioch. In Ethiopia, too, there
were _Catholici_ with less extensive powers, subject to the patriarch of
Alexandria. The title now survives, however, only as that of the head of
the Armenian Church (q.v.). A bishop's cathedral church is, however, in
Greek the _Catholicon_.

An isolated use of the word "catholic" as a secular legal term survives
in Scots law; a _catholic creditor_ is one whose debt is secured over
several or over all of the subjects belonging to the debtor.

CATHOLIC APOSTOLIC CHURCH, THE, a religious community often called
"Irvingites," though neither actually founded nor anticipated by Edward
Irving (q.v.). Irving's relation to this community was, according to its
members, somewhat similar to that of John the Baptist to the early
Christian Church, i.e. he was the forerunner and prophet of the coming
dispensation, not the founder of a new sect; and indeed the only
connexion which Irving seems to have had with the existing organization
of the Catholic Apostolic body was in "fostering spiritual persons who
had been driven out of other congregations for the exercise of their
spiritual gifts." Shortly after Irving's trial and deposition (1831),
certain persons were, at some meetings held for prayer, designated as
"called to be apostles of the Lord" by certain others claiming prophetic
gifts. In the year 1835, six months after Irving's death, six others
were similarly designated as "called" to complete the number of the
"twelve," who were then formally "separated," by the pastors of the
local congregations to which they belonged, to their higher office in
the universal church on the 14th of July 1835. This separation is
understood by the community not as "in any sense being a schism or
separation from the one Catholic Church, but a separation to a special
work of blessing and intercession on behalf of it." The twelve were
afterwards guided to ordain others--twelve prophets, twelve evangelists,
and twelve pastors, "sharing equally with them the one Catholic
Episcopate," and also seven deacons for administering the temporal
affairs of the church catholic. The apostles were the channels of the
Holy Ghost and the mysteries of God, and the authoritative interpreters
of "prophetic utterance"; their teaching was brought home to the people
by the "evangelists." The function of the prophets was to explain
scripture and exhort to holiness, that of the "pastors" is explained by
their title. The central episcopacy of forty-eight was regarded as
"indicated by prophecy," being foreshown in the forty-eight boards of
the Mosaic tabernacle. For ecclesiastical purposes the church universal
is under their charge in twelve tribes; for Christendom is considered to
be divided into twelve portions or tribes, each tribe being under the
special charge of an apostle and his co-ministers, and the seat of the
Apostolic College being at Albury, near Guildford. This is an ideal
outline which has never been fulfilled. There has never been a "central
episcopacy" of forty-eight. The "apostles" alone always held the supreme
authority, though, as their number dwindled, "coadjutors" were appointed
to assist the survivors, and to exercise the functions of the
"apostolate." The last "apostle" died on the 3rd of February 1901.

For the service of the church a comprehensive book of liturgies and
offices was provided by the "apostles." It dates from 1842 and is based
on the Anglican, Roman and Greek liturgies. Lights, incense, vestments,
holy water, chrism, and other adjuncts of worship are in constant use.
The ceremonial in its completeness may be seen in the church in Gordon
Square, London, and elsewhere. The daily worship consists of "matins"
with "proposition" (or exposition) of the sacrament at 6 A.M., prayers
at 9 A.M. and 3 P.M., and "vespers" with "proposition" at 5 P.M. On all
Sundays and holy days there is a "solemn celebration of the eucharist"
at the high altar; on Sundays this is at 10 A.M. On other days "low
celebrations" are held in the side-chapels, which with the chancel in
all churches correctly built after apostolic directions are separated or
marked off from the nave by open screens with gates. The community has
always laid great stress on symbolism, and in the eucharist, while
rejecting both transubstantiation and consubstantiation, holds strongly
to a real (mystical) presence. It emphasizes also the "phenomena" of
Christian experience and deems miracle and mystery to be of the essence
of a spirit-filled church.

Each congregation is presided over by its "angel" or bishop (who ranks
as angel-pastor in the Universal Church), under him are four-and-twenty
priests, divided into the four ministries of "elders, prophets,
evangelists and pastors," and with these are the deacons, seven of whom
regulate the temporal affairs of the church--besides whom there are also
"sub-deacons, acolytes, singers, and door-keepers." The understanding is
that each elder, with his co-presbyters and deacons, shall have charge
of 500 adult communicants in his district; but this has been but
partially carried into practice. This is the full constitution of each
particular church or congregation as founded by the "restored apostles,"
each local church thus "reflecting in its government the government of
the church catholic by the angel or high priest Jesus Christ, and His
forty-eight presbyters in their fourfold ministry (in which apostles and
elders always rank first), and under these the deacons of the church
catholic." The priesthood is supported by tithes; it being deemed a duty
on the part of all members of the church who receive yearly incomes to
offer a tithe of their increase every week, besides the free-will
offering for the support of the place of worship, and for the relief of
distress. Each local church sends "a tithe of its tithes" to the
"Temple," by which the ministers of the Universal Church are supported
and its administrative expenses defrayed; by these offerings, too, the
needs of poorer churches are supplied. It claims to have among its
clergy many of the Roman, Anglican and other churches, the orders of
those ordained by Greek, Roman and Anglican bishops being recognized by
it with the simple confirmation of an "apostolic act." The community has
not changed recently in general constitution or doctrine. It does not
publish statistics, and its growth during late years is said to have
been more marked in the United States and in certain European countries,
such as Germany, than in Great Britain. There are nine congregations
enumerated in _The Religious Life of London_ (1904).

  For further details of doctrines, ritual, &c., see R. N. Bosworth,
  _Restoration of Apostles and Prophets, Readings on the Liturgy, The
  Church and Tabernacle_, and _The Purpose of God in Creation and
  Redemption_ (6th ed., 1888); G. Miller, _History and Doctrines of
  Irvingism_ (1878).

CATILINE [LUCIUS SERGIUS CATILINA] (c. 108-62 B.C.), a member of an
ancient but impoverished patrician family of Rome, the prime mover in
the conspiracy known by his name. He appears in history first as a
supporter of Sulla, and during the proscription he was conspicuous for
his greed and cruelty. He slew his inoffensive brother-in-law with his
own hand, and tortured and mutilated the much-loved Marius Gratidianus.
He was believed to have made away with his wife and his son to win the
profligate and wealthy Aurelia Orestilla; it was even suspected that he
had been guilty of an intrigue with the Vestal Fabia. In 77 he was
quaestor, in 68 praetor, and in 67-66 governor of Africa. His extortions
and subsequent impeachment by P. Clodius Pulcher having disqualified him
as a candidate for the consulship, he formed a conspiracy, in which he
was joined by young men of all classes, even Crassus and Caesar,
according to rumour, being implicated. The new consuls were to be
murdered on the 1st of January; but the plot--the execution of which
was deferred till the 5th of February--failed in consequence of the
impatience of Catiline, who gave the signal too hastily. Soon after,
Catiline, having bribed both judges and accuser, was acquitted in the
trial for extortion. His scheme was forthwith immensely widened. The
city was to be fired, and those who opposed the revolution were to be
slain; all debts were to be cancelled; and there was to be a
proscription of all the wealthy citizens. Among the conspirators were
many men of the first rank and influence. Arms and money were collected,
soldiers were enlisted, and the assistance of the slaves was sought. But
Catiline's hopes were again disappointed; once more he failed to obtain
the consulship (64); and, moreover, it soon became apparent that one of
the new consuls, Cicero, was mysteriously able to thwart all the schemes
of the conspirators. He was, in fact, informed of every detail, through
Fulvia, the mistress of Curius, one of the plotters, who was himself
soon persuaded to turn informer. The other consul, C. Antonius, in whom
Catiline hoped to find a supporter, was won over and got out of the way
by Cicero, who resigned the province of Macedonia in his favour. Before
the next _comitia consularia_ assembled, the orator had given so
impressive a warning of the danger which was impending, that Catiline
was once more rejected (63), and the consuls were invested with absolute
authority. Catiline now resolved upon open war; preparations were set on
foot throughout Italy, especially in Etruria, where the standard of
revolt was raised by the centurion C. Manlius (or Mallius), one of
Sulla's veterans. A plan to murder Cicero in his own house on the
morning of the 7th of November was frustrated. On the next day Cicero
attacked Catiline so vigorously in the senate (in his first Catilinarian
oration) that he fled to his army in Etruria. Next day Cicero awoke the
terror of the people by a second oration delivered in the forum, in
consequence of which Catiline and Manlius were declared public enemies,
and the consul Antonius was despatched with an army against them.
Meanwhile the imprudence of the conspirators in Rome brought about their
own destruction. Some deputies from the Allobroges, who had been sent to
Rome to obtain redress for certain grievances, were approached by P.
Lentulus Sura, the chief of the conspirators, who endeavoured to induce
them to join him. After considerable hesitation, the deputies decided to
turn informers. The plot was betrayed to Cicero, at whose instigation
documentary evidence was obtained, implicating Lentulus and others. They
were arrested, proved guilty, and on the 5th of December condemned to
death and strangled in the underground dungeon on the slope of the
Capitol. This act, which was opposed by Julius Caesar and advocated by
Cato Uticensis (and, indirectly, by Cicero), was afterwards vigorously
attacked as a violation of the constitution, on the ground that the
senate had no power of life and death over a Roman citizen. Thus a heavy
blow was dealt to the cause of Catiline, who, in the beginning of 62,
saw his legions, only partially armed and diminished by desertion, shut
in between those of Metellus Celer and C. Antonius. Near Pistoria he
hazarded battle with the forces of the latter, but was completely
defeated in a desperate encounter. He himself, fighting with the utmost
bravery, rushed into the ranks of the enemy and met his death.

Such was the conspiracy of Catiline and the character of its author, as
we find them in the speeches of Cicero, and the histories of Sallust and
Dio Cassius (see also Plutarch, _Cicero_; Vell. Pat. ii. 35; Florus iv.
1; Appian, _B.C._ ii. 6; Eutropius vi. 15). It must not be forgotten,
however, that our authorities were all members of the aristocratic
party. Some of the incidents given as facts by Dio Cassius are manifest
absurdities; and Cicero paid more regard to the effect than to the
truthfulness of an accusation. We find him at one time admitting that
Catiline had almost persuaded him of his honesty and merit, and even
seeking a political union with him; at another, when his alliance had
been rejected and an election was at hand, declaiming against him as a
murderer and a profligate. Lastly, though Sallust's vivid narrative is
consistent throughout, it is obvious that he cherished very bitter
feelings against the democratic party. Nevertheless, we cannot regard
Catiline as an honest enemy of the oligarchy, or as a disinterested
champion of the provincials. It is held by some historians that there
was at the time on the part of many of the Roman nobles a determination
to raise themselves to power, despite the opposition of the senate:
others with greater probability maintain that Catiline's object was
simply the cancelling of the huge debts which he and his friends had
accumulated. Catiline, by his bravery, his military talents, his
vigorous resolution, and his wonderful power over men, was eminently
qualified as a revolutionary leader. He is the subject of tragedies by
Ben Jonson and P. Crébillon, and of the _Rome sauvée_ of Voltaire.

  See P. Mérimée, _Études sur la guerre sociale et la conjuration de
  Catiline_ (1844); E. Hagen, _Catilina_ (1854), with introductory
  discussion of the authorities; E.S. Beesley, "Catiline as a Party
  Leader" (_Fortnightly Review_, June 1865), in defence of Catiline; C.
  John, _Die Entstehungsgeschichte der catilinarischen Verschwörung_
  (1876), a critical examination of Sallust's account; E. von Stern,
  _Catilina und die Parteikämpfe in Rom_ 66-63 (1883), with bibliography
  in preface; C. Thiaucourt, _Étude sur la conjuration de Catiline_
  (1887), a critical examination of Sallust's account and of his object
  in writing it; J.E. Blondel, _Histoire économique de la conjuration de
  Catiline_ (1893), written from the point of view of a political
  economist; Gaston Boissier, _La Conjuration de Catiline_ (1905), and
  _Cicero and his Friends_ (Eng. trans.); Tyrrell and Purser's ed. of
  Cicero's _Letters_ (index vol. s.v. "Sergius Catilina"); J.L. Strachan
  Davidson, _Cicero_ (1894), ch. v.; Warde Fowler's _Caesar_ (1892); see
  also art. ROME: _History, The Republic_.

CATINAT, NICOLAS (1637-1712), marshal of France, entered the Gardes
Françaises at an early age and distinguished himself at the siege of
Lille in 1667. He became a brigadier ten years later, _maréchal de camp_
in 1680, and lieutenant-general 1688. He served with great credit in the
campaigns of 1676-1678 in Flanders, was employed against the Vaudois in
1686, and after taking part in the siege of Philipsburg at the opening
of the War of the League of Augsburg, he was appointed to command the
French troops in the south-eastern theatre of war. In 1690 he conquered
Savoy, and in 1691 Nice; the battle of Staffarda, won by him over the
duke of Savoy in 1690, and that of Marsaglia in 1693, were amongst the
greatest victories of the time. In 1696 Catinat forced the duke to make
an alliance with France. He had in 1693 been made a marshal of France.
At the beginning of the war of the Spanish Succession, Catinat was
placed in charge of operations in Italy, but he was much hampered by the
orders of the French court and the weakness of the forces for their
task. He suffered a reverse at Carpi (1701) and was soon afterwards
superseded by Villeroy, to whom he acted as second-in-command during the
campaign of Chiari. He died at St Gratien in 1712. His memoirs were
published in 1819.

  See E. de Broglie, _Catinat, 1637-1712_ (Paris, 1902).

CATLIN, GEORGE (1796-1872), American ethnologist, was born at
Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, in 1796. He was educated as a lawyer and
practised in Philadelphia for two years; but art was his favourite
pursuit, and forsaking the law he established himself at New York as a
portrait painter. In 1832, realizing that the American Indians were
dying out, he resolved to rescue their types and customs from oblivion.
With this object he spent many years among the Indians in North and
South America. He lived with them, acquired their languages, and studied
very thoroughly their habits, customs and mode of life, making copious
notes and many studies for paintings. In 1840 he came to Europe with his
collection of paintings, most of which are now in the National Museum,
Washington, as the Catlin Gallery; and in the following year he
published the _Manners, Customs and Condition of the North American
Indians_ in two volumes, illustrated with 300 engravings. This was
followed in 1844 by _The North American Portfolio_, containing 25 plates
of hunting scenes and amusements in the Rocky Mountains and the prairies
of America, and in 1848 by _Eight Years' Travels and Residence in
Europe_. In 1861 he published a curious little volume, in "manugraph,"
entitled _The Breath of Life_, on the advantage of keeping one's mouth
habitually closed, especially during sleep; and in 1868, _Last Rambles
amongst the Indians of the Rocky Mountains and the Andes_. He died in
Jersey City, New Jersey, on the 22nd of December 1872.

CATO, DIONYSIUS, the supposed author of the _Dionysii Catonis Disticha
de Moribus ad Filium_. The name usually given is simply Cato, an
indication of the wise character of the maxims inculcated, but Dionysius
is added on the authority of a MS. declared by Scaliger to be of great
antiquity. This MS. also contains Priscian's translation of the
Periegesis of the geographer Dionysius Periegetes; this has probably led
to the _Disticha_ also being attributed to him. In the middle ages the
author on the _Disticha_ was supposed to be Cato the Elder, who wrote a
_Carmen de Moribus_, but extracts from this in Aulus Gellius show that
it was in prose. Nothing is really known of the author or date of the
_Disticha_; it can only be assigned to the 3rd or 4th century A.D. It is
a small collection of moral apophthegms, each consisting of two
hexameters, in four books. They are monotheistic in character, not
specially Christian. The diction and metre are fairly good. The book had
a great reputation in the middle ages, and was translated into many
languages; it is frequently referred to by Chaucer, and in 1483 a
translation was issued from Caxton's press at Westminster.

  Editions by F. Hauthal (1869), with full account of MSS. and early
  editions, and G. Némethy (1895), with critical notes; see also F.
  Zarncke, _Der deutsche Cato_ (1852), a history of middle age German
  translations; J. Nehab, _Der altenglische Cato_ (1879); E. Bischoff,
  _Prolegomena zum sogenannten Dionysius Cato_ (1893), in which the name
  is discussed; F. Plessis, _Poésie latine_ (1909), 663; for medieval
  translations and editions see Teuffel, _Hist. of Roman Lit._ § 398, 3.

CATO, MARCUS PORCIUS (234-149 B.C.), Roman statesman, surnamed "The
Censor," _Sapiens, Priscus_, or _Major_ (the Elder), to distinguish him
from Cato of Utica, was born at Tusculum. He came of an ancient plebeian
family, noted for some military services, but not ennobled by the
discharge of the higher civil offices. He was bred, after the manner of
his Latin forefathers, to agriculture, to which he devoted himself when
not engaged in military service. But, having attracted the notice of L.
Valerius Flaccus, he was brought to Rome, and became successively
quaestor (204), aedile (199), praetor (198), and consul (195) with his
old patron. During his term of office he vainly opposed the repeal of
the lex Oppia, passed during the Second Punic War to restrict luxury and
extravagance on the part of women. Meanwhile he served in Africa, and
took part in the crowning campaign of Zama (202). He held a command in
Sardinia, where he first showed his strict public morality, and again in
Spain, which he reduced to subjection with great cruelty, and gained
thereby the honour of a triumph (194). In the year 191 he acted as
military tribune in the war against Antiochus III. of Syria, and played
an important part in the battle of Thermopylae, which finally delivered
Greece from the encroachments of the East. His reputation as a soldier
was now established; henceforth he preferred to serve the state at home,
scrutinizing the conduct of the candidates for public honours and of
generals in the field. If he was not personally engaged in the
prosecution of the Scipios (Africanus and Asiaticus) for corruption, it
was his spirit that animated the attack upon them. Even Africanus, who
refused to reply to the charge, saying only, "Romans, this is the day on
which I conquered Hannibal," and was absolved by acclamation, found it
necessary to retire self-banished to his villa at Liternum. Cato's
enmity dated from the African campaign when he quarrelled with Scipio
for his lavish distribution of the spoil amongst the troops, and his
general luxury and extravagance.

Cato had, however, a more serious task to perform in opposing the spread
of the new Hellenic culture which threatened to destroy the rugged
simplicity of the conventional Roman type. He conceived it to be his
special mission to resist this invasion. It was in the discharge of the
censorship that this determination was most strongly exhibited, and
hence that he derived the title (the Censor) by which he is most
generally distinguished. He revised with unsparing severity the lists of
senators and knights, ejecting from either order the men whom he judged
unworthy of it, either on moral grounds or from their want of the
prescribed means. The expulsion of L. Quinctius Flamininus for wanton
cruelty was an example of his rigid justice. His regulations against
luxury were very stringent. He imposed a heavy tax upon dress and
personal adornment, especially of women, and upon young slaves purchased
as favourites. In 181 he supported the lex Orchia (according to others,
he first opposed its introduction, and subsequently its repeal), which
prescribed a limit to the number of guests at an entertainment, and in
169 the lex Voconia, one of the provisions of which was intended to
check the accumulation of an undue proportion of wealth in the hands of
women. Amongst other things he repaired the aqueducts, cleansed the
sewers, prevented private persons drawing off public water for their own
use, ordered the demolition of houses which encroached on the public
way, and built the first basilica in the forum near the curia. He raised
the amount paid by the publican for the right of farming the taxes, and
at the same time diminished the contract prices for the construction of
public works.

From the date of his censorship (184) to his death in 149, Cato held no
public office, but continued to distinguish himself in the senate as the
persistent opponent of the new ideas. He was struck with horror, along
with many other Romans of the graver stamp, at the licence of the
Bacchanalian mysteries, which he attributed to the fatal influence of
Greek manners; and he vehemently urged the dismissal of the philosophers
(Carneades, Diogenes and Critolaus), who came as ambassadors from
Athens, on account of the dangerous nature of the views expressed by
them. He had a horror of physicians, who were chiefly Greeks. He
procured the release of Polybius, the historian, and his
fellow-prisoners, contemptuously asking whether the senate had nothing
more important to do than discuss whether a few Greeks should die at
Rome or in their own land. It was not till his eightieth year that he
made his first acquaintance with Greek literature. Almost his last
public act was to urge his countrymen to the Third Punic War and the
destruction of Carthage. In 157 he was one of the deputies sent to
Carthage to arbitrate between the Carthaginians and Massinissa, king of
Numidia. The mission was unsuccessful and the commissioners returned
home. But Cato was so struck by the evidences of Carthaginian prosperity
that he was convinced that the security of Rome depended on the
annihilation of Carthage. From this time, in season and out of season,
he kept repeating the cry: "Delenda est Carthago."

To Cato the individual life was a continual discipline, and public life
was the discipline of the many. He regarded the individual householder
as the germ of the family, the family as the germ of the state. By
strict economy of time he accomplished an immense amount of work; he
exacted similar application from his dependents, and proved himself a
hard husband, a strict father, a severe and cruel master. There was
little difference apparently, in the esteem in which he held his wife
and his slaves; his pride alone induced him to take a warmer interest in
his sons. To the Romans themselves there was little in this behaviour
which seemed worthy of censure; it was respected rather as a traditional
example of the old Roman manners. In the remarkable passage (xxxix. 40)
in which Livy describes the character of Cato, there is no word of blame
for the rigid discipline of his household.

Cato perhaps deserves even more notice as a literary man than as a
statesman or a soldier. He was the first Latin prose writer of any
importance, and the first author of a history of Rome in Latin. His
treatise on agriculture (_De Agricultura_, or _De Re Rustica_) is the
only work by him that has been preserved; it is not agreed whether the
work we possess is the original or a later revision. It contains a
miscellaneous collection of rules of good husbandry, conveying much
curious information on the domestic habits of the Romans of his age. His
most important work, _Origines_, in seven books, related the history of
Rome from its earliest foundations to his own day. It was so called from
the second and third books, which described the rise of the different
Italian towns. His speeches, of which as many as 150 were collected,
were principally directed against the young free-thinking and
loose-principled nobles of the day. He also wrote a set of maxims for
the use of his son (_Praecepta ad Filium_), and some rules for everyday
life in verse (_Carmen de Moribus_). The collection of proverbs in
hexameter verse, extant under the name of Cato, probably belongs to the
4th century A.D. (See CATO, DIONYSIUS.)

  AUTHORITIES.--There are lives of Cato by Cornelius Nepos, Plutarch and
  Aurelius Victor, and many particulars of his career and character are
  to be gathered from Livy and Cicero. See also F.D. Gerlach, _Marcus
  Porcius Cato der Censor_ (Basel, 1869); G. Kurth, _Caton l'ancien_
  (Bruges, 1872); J. Cortese, _De M. Porcii Catonis vita, operibus, et
  lingua_ (Turin, 1883); F. Marcucci, _Studio critico sulle Opere di
  Catone il Maggiore_ (1902). The best edition of the _De Agricultura_
  is by H. Keil (1884-1891), of the fragments of the _Origines_ by H.
  Peter (1883) in _Historicorum Romanorum Fragmenta_, of the fragments
  generally by H. Jordan (1860); see also J. Wordsworth, _Fragments and
  Specimens of Early Latin_ (1874); M. Schanz, _Geschichte der römischen
  Litteratur_ (1898); article in Smith's _Dictionary of Greek and Roman
  Biography_, Mommsen, _Hist. of Rome_ (Eng. trans.), bk. iii. ch. xi
  and xiv.; Warde Fowler, _Social Life at Rome_ (1909).

CATO, MARCUS PORCIUS (95-46 B.C.), Roman philosopher, called _Uticensis_
to distinguish him from his great-grandfather, "the Censor." On the
death of his parents he was brought up in the house of his uncle, M.
Livius Drusus. After fighting with distinction in the ranks against
Spartacus (72 B.C.), he became a military tribune (67), and served a
campaign in Macedonia, but he never had any enthusiasm for the military
profession. On his return he became quaestor, and showed so much zeal
and integrity in the management of the public accounts that he obtained
a provincial appointment in Asia, where he strengthened his reputation.
Though filled with disgust at the corruption of the public men with whom
he came in contact, he saw much to admire in the discipline which
Lucullus had enforced in his own eastern command, and he supported his
claims to a triumph, while he opposed the inordinate pretensions of
Pompey. When the favour of the nobles gained him the tribuneship, he
exerted himself unsuccessfully to convict L. Licinius Murena (2), one of
their chief men, of bribery. Cicero, who defended Murena, was glad to
have Cato's aid when he urged the execution of the Catilinarian
conspirators. Cato's vote on this matter drew upon him the bitter
resentment of Julius Caesar, who did his utmost to save them.

Cato had now become a great power in the state. Though possessed of
little wealth and no family influence, his unflinching resolution in the
cause of the ancient free state rendered him a valuable instrument in
the hands of the nobles. He vainly opposed Caesar's candidature for the
consulship in 59, and his attempt, in conjunction with Bibulus, to
prevent the passing of Caesar's proposed agrarian law for distributing
lands amongst the Asiatic veterans, proved unsuccessful. Nevertheless,
although his efforts were ineffectual, he was still an obstacle of
sufficient importance for the triumvirs to desire to get rid of him. At
the instigation of Caesar he was sent to Cyprus (58) with a mission to
depose its king, Ptolemy (brother of Ptolemy Auletes), and annex the
island. On his return two years later he continued to struggle against
the combined powers of the triumvirs in the city, and became involved in
scenes of violence and riot. He succeeded in obtaining the praetorship
in 54, and strenuously exerted himself in the hopeless and thankless
task of suppressing bribery, in which all parties were equally
interested. He failed to attain the consulship, and had made up his mind
to retire from the arena of civic ambition when the civil war broke out
in 49. Feeling that the sole chance for the free state lay in conceding
an actual supremacy to Pompey, whom he had formerly vigorously opposed,
he did not scruple to support the unjust measures of the nobles against
Caesar. At the outset of the war he was entrusted with the defence of
Sicily, but finding it impossible to resist the superior forces of C.
Scribonius Curio, who had landed on the island, he joined Pompey at
Dyrrhachium. When his chief followed Caesar to Thessaly he was left
behind in charge of the camp, and thus was not present at the battle of
Pharsalus. After the battle, when Pompey abandoned his party, he
separated himself from the main body of the republicans, and conducted a
small remnant of their forces into Africa. After his famous march
through the Libyan deserts, he shut himself up in Utica, and even after
the decisive defeat at Thapsus (46), in spite of the wishes of his
followers, he determined to keep the gates closed till he had sent off
his adherents by sea. While the embarkation was in progress he continued
calm and dignified; when the last of the transports had left the port he
cheerfully dismissed his attendants, and soon afterwards stabbed

He had been reading, we are told, in his last moments Plato's dialogue
on the immortality of the soul, but his own philosophy had taught him to
act upon a narrow sense of immediate duty without regard to the future.
He conceived that he was placed in the world to play an active part, and
when disabled from carrying out his principles, to retire gravely from
it. He had lived for the free state, and it now seemed his duty to
perish with it. In politics he was a typical doctrinaire, abhorring
compromise and obstinately blind to the fact that his national ideal was
a hopeless anachronism. From the circumstances of his life and of his
death, he has come to be regarded as one of the most distinguished of
Roman philosophers, but he composed no works, and bequeathed to
posterity no other instruction than that of his example. The only
composition by him which we possess is a letter to Cicero (_Ad Fam._ xv.
5), a polite refusal of the orator's request that he would endeavour to
procure him the honour of a triumph. The school of the Stoics, which
took a leading part in the history of Rome under the earlier emperors,
looked to him as its saint and patron. It continued to wage war against
the empire, hardly less openly than Cato himself had done, for two
centuries, till at last it became actually seated on the imperial throne
in the person of Marcus Aurelius. Immediately after his death Cato's
character became the subject of discussion; Cicero's panegyric _Cato_
was answered by Caesar in his _Anticato_. Brutus, dissatisfied with
Cicero's work, produced another on the same subject; in Lucan Cato is
represented as a model of virtue and disinterestedness.

  See _Life_ by Plutarch, and compare Addison's tragedy. Modern
  biographies by H. Wartmann (Zürich, 1859), and F.D. Gerlach (Basel,
  1866); C.W. Oman, _Seven Roman Statesmen of the Later Republic, Cato
  ..._ (1902); Mommsen, _Hist. of Rome_ (Eng. trans.), bk. v. ch. v.;
  article in Smith's _Dictionary of Classical Biography_; Gaston
  Boissier, _Cicero and his Friends_ (Eng. trans., 1897), esp. pp. 277
  foll.; Warde Fowler, _Social Life at Rome_ (1909).

CATO, PUBLIUS VALERIUS, Roman poet and grammarian, was born about 100
B.C. He is of importance as the leader of the "new" school of poetry
(_poetae novi_, [Greek: neôteroi], as Cicero calls them). Its followers
rejected the national epic and drama in favour of the artificial
mythological epics and elegies of the Alexandrian school, and preferred
Euphorion of Chalcis to Ennius. Learning, that is, a knowledge of Greek
literature and myths, and strict adherence to metrical rules were
regarded by them as indispensable to the poet. The [Greek: neôteroi]
were also determined opponents of Pompey and Caesar. The great influence
of Cato is attested by the lines:--

  "Cato grammaticus, Latina Siren,
   Qui solus legit ac facit poetas."[1]

Our information regarding his life is derived from Suetonius (_De
Grammaticis_, 11). He was a native of Cisalpine Gaul, and lost his
property during the Sullan disturbances before he had attained his
majority. He lived to a great age, and during the latter part of his
life was in very reduced circumstances. He was at one time possessed of
considerable wealth, and owned a villa at Tusculum which he was obliged
to hand over to his creditors. In addition to grammatical treatises,
Cato wrote a number of poems, the best-known of which were the _Lydia_
and _Diana_. In the _Indignatio_ (perhaps a short poem) he defended
himself against the accusation that he was of servile birth. It is
probable that he is the Cato mentioned as a critic of Lucilius in the
lines by an unknown author prefixed to Horace, _Satires_, i. 10.

  Among the minor poems attributed to Virgil is one called _Dirae_ (or
  rather two, _Dirae_ and _Lydia_). The _Dirae_ consists of imprecations
  against the estate of which the writer has been deprived, and where he
  is obliged to leave his beloved Lydia; in the _Lydia_, on the other
  hand, the estate is regarded with envy as the possessor of his
  charmer. Joseph Justus Scaliger was the first to attribute the poem
  (divided into two by F. Jacobs) to Valerius Cato, on the ground that
  he had lost an estate and had written a _Lydia_. The question has been
  much discussed; the balance of opinion is in favour of the _Dirae_
  being assigned to the beginning of the Augustan age, although so
  distinguished a critic as O. Ribbeck supports the claims of Cato to
  the authorship. The best edition of these poems is by A.F. Näke
  (1847), with exhaustive commentary and excursuses; a clear account of
  the question will be found in M. Schanz's _Geschichte der römischen
  Litteratur_; for the "new" school of poetry see Mommsen, _Hist. of
  Rome_, bk. v. ch. xii.; F. Plessis, _Poésie latine_ (1909), 188.


  [1] "Cato, the grammarian, the Latin siren, who alone reads aloud the
    works and makes the reputation of poets."

CATS, JACOB (1577-1660), Dutch poet and humorist, was born at
Brouwershaven in Zeeland on the 10th of November 1577. Having lost his
mother at an early age, and being adopted with his three brothers by an
uncle, Cats was sent to school at Zierikzee. He then studied law at
Leiden and at Orleans, and, returning to Holland, he settled at the
Hague, where he began to practise as an advocate. His pleading in
defence of a wretched creature accused of witchcraft brought him many
clients and some reputation. He had a serious love affair about this
time, which was broken off on the very eve of marriage by his catching a
tertian fever which defied all attempts at cure for some two years. For
medical advice and change of air Cats went to England, where he
consulted the highest authorities in vain. He returned to Zeeland to
die, but was cured mysteriously by a strolling quack. He married in 1602
a lady of some property, Elisabeth von Valkenburg, and thenceforward
lived at Grypskerke in Zeeland, where he devoted himself to farming and
poetry. His best works are: _Emblemata_ or _Minnebeelden_ with
_Maegdenplicht_ (1618); _Spiegel van den ouden en nieuwen Tijt_ (1632);
_Houwelijck ..._ (1625); _Selfstrijt_ (1620); _Ouderdom, Buitem leven
... en Hofgedachten op Sorgvliet_ (1664); and _Gedachten op slapelooze
nachten_ (1661). In 1621, on the expiration of the twelve years' truce
with Spain, the breaking of the dykes drove him from his farm. He was
made pensionary (stipendiary magistrate) of Middelburg; and two years
afterwards of Dort. In 1627 Cats came to England on a mission to Charles
I., who made him a knight. In 1636 he was made grand pensionary of
Holland, and in 1648 keeper of the great seal; in 1651 he resigned his
offices, but in 1657 he was sent a second time to England on what proved
to be an unsuccessful mission to Cromwell. In the seclusion of his villa
of Sorgvliet (Fly-from-Care), near the Hague, he lived from this time
till his death, occupied in the composition of his autobiography
(_Eighty-two Years of My Life_, first printed at Leiden in 1734) and of
his poems. He died on the 12th of September 1660, and was buried by
torchlight, and with great ceremony, in the Klooster-Kerk at the Hague.
He is still spoken of as "Father Cats" by his countrymen.

Cats was contemporary with Hooft and Vondel and other distinguished
Dutch writers in the golden age of Dutch literature, but his Orangist
and Calvinistic opinions separated him from the liberal school of
Amsterdam poets. He was, however, intimate with Constantin Huygens,
whose political opinions were more nearly in agreement with his own. For
an estimate of his poetry see DUTCH LITERATURE. Hardly known outside of
Holland, among his own people for nearly two centuries he enjoyed an
enormous popularity. His diffuseness and the antiquated character of his
matter and diction, have, however, come to be regarded as difficulties
in the way of study, and he is more renowned than read. A statue to him
was erected at Brouwershaven in 1829.

  See Jacob Cats, _Complete Works_ (1790-1800, 19 vols.), later editions
  by van Vloten (Zwolle, 1858-1866; and at Schiedam, 1869-1870); Pigott,
  _Moral Emblems, with Aphorisms, &c., from Jacob Cats_ (1860); and P.C.
  Witsen Gejisbek, _Het Leven en de Verdiensten van Jacob Cats_ (1829).
  Southey has a very complimentary reference to Cats in his "Epistle to
  Allan Cunningham."

CAT'S-EYE, a name given to several distinct minerals, their common
characteristic being that when cut with a convex surface they display a
luminous band, like that seen by reflection in the eye of a cat. (1)
Precious cat's-eye, oriental cat's-eye or chrysoberyl cat's-eye. This,
the rarest of all, is a chatoyant variety of chrysoberyl (q.v.), showing
in the finest stones a very sharply defined line of light. One of the
grandest known specimens was in the Hope collection of precious stones,
exhibited for many years at the Victoria and Albert Museum. (2) Quartz
cat's-eye. This is the common form of cat's-eye, in which the effect is
due to the inclusion of parallel fibres of asbestos. Like the
chrysoberyl, it is obtained chiefly from Ceylon, but though coming from
the East it is often called "occidental cat's-eye"--a term intended
simply to distinguish it from the finer or "oriental" stone. It is
readily distinguished by its inferior density, its specific gravity
being only 2.65, whilst that of oriental cat's-eye is as high as 3.7. A
greenish fibrous quartz, cut as cat's-eye, occurs at Hof and some other
localities irr Bavaria. (3) Crocidolite cat's-eye, a beautiful golden
brown mineral, with silky fibres, found in Griqualand West, and much
used in recent years as an ornamental stone, sometimes under the name of
"South African cat's-eye." It consists of fibrous quartz, coloured with
oxide of iron, and results from the alteration of crocidolite (q.v.). It
is often distinguished as "tiger's-eye" (or more commonly "tiger-eye"),
whilst a blue variety, less altered, is known as "hawk's-eye." By the
action of hydrochloric acid the colour of tiger's-eye may to a large
extent be removed, and a greyish cat's-eye obtained. (4) Corundum
cat's-eye. In some asteriated corundum (see ASTERIA) the star is
imperfect and may be reduced to a luminous zone, producing an indistinct
cat's-eye effect. According to the colour of the corundum the stone is
known as sapphire cat's-eye, ruby cat's-eye, topaz cat's-eye, &c.
     (F. W. R.*)

CATSKILL, a village and the county-seat of Greene county, New York,
U.S.A., on the W. bank of the Hudson river, 33 m. S. of Albany. Pop.
(1890) 4920; (1900) 5484; of whom 657 were foreign-born; (1910) 5206. It
is served by the West Shore railway, by several lines of river
steamboats, and by the Catskill Mountain railway, connecting it with the
popular summer resorts in the Catskill mountains. A ferry connects with
Catskill station (Greendale) on the east side of the Hudson. The village
is in a farming country, and manufactures woollen goods and bricks, but
it is best known as a summer resort, and as the principal gateway to the
beautiful Catskill Mountain region. The _Recorder_, a weekly newspaper,
was established here in 1792 as the _Packet_. The first settler on the
present site of Catskill was Derrick Teunis van Vechten, who built a
house here in 1680. The village was not incorporated until 1806.

  See J.D. Pinckney, _Reminiscences of Catskill_ (Catskill, 1868).

CATSKILL (formerly KAATSKIL) MOUNTAINS, a group of moderate elevation
pertaining to the Alleghany Plateau, and not properly included in the
Appalachian system of North America because they lack the internal
structures and the general parallelism of topographic features which
characterize the Appalachian ranges. The group contains many summits
above 3000 ft. elevation and half a dozen approaching 4000, Slide
Mountain (4205 ft.), and Hunter Mountain (4025 ft.), being the only ones
exceeding that figure. The bottom lands along the creeks which drain the
mountains, together with rolling uplands rising to elevations of from
1500 to 2000 ft., are under cultivation, the mountain slopes being
forested or devoted to grazing. The pure and cool atmosphere attracts
summer visitors, for whose accommodation many hotels have been built,
some of which have become celebrated. Stoney Clove and Kaaterskill Clove
are picturesque gorges, the former being traversed by a rail way, and
the latter containing three cascades having a total fall of about 300
ft. The growing need of New York City for an increased water-supply has
driven her engineers to the Catskills, where several great reservoirs
have been projected to supplement those of the Croton watershed.

CATTANEO, CARLO (1801-1869), Italian philosopher and patriot. A
republican in his convictions, during his youth he had taken part in the
Carbonarist movement in Lombardy. He devoted himself to the study of
philosophy, hoping to regenerate the Italian people by withdrawing them
from romanticism and rhetoric, and turning their attention to the
positive sciences. He expounded his ideas in a review founded by him at
Milan in 1837, called _Il Politecnico_. But when the revolution of 1848
broke out he threw himself heart and soul into the fray, and became one
of the leading spirits of the insurrection against the Austrians, known
as the Five Days of Milan (March 18-22, 1848). Together with Terzaghi,
Cernuschi and Clerici he formed a council of war which, having its
headquarters at Casa Taverna, directed the operations of the insurgents.
He was second to none in self-sacrificing energy and heroic resolution.
When on the 18th of March Field Marshal Radetzky, feeling that the
position of the Austrian garrison was untenable, sounded the rebels as
to their terms, some of the leaders were inclined to agree to an
armistice which would give time for the Piedmontese troops to arrive
(Piedmont had just declared war), but Cattaneo insisted on the complete
evacuation of Lombardy. Again on the 21st, Radetzky tried to obtain an
armistice, and Durini and Borromeo were ready to grant it, for it would
have enabled them to reorganize the defences and replenish the supplies
of food and ammunition, which could only last another day. But Cattaneo
replied: "The enemy having furnished us with munitions thus far, will
continue to furnish them. Twenty-four hours of victuals and twenty-four
hours of hunger will be many more hours than we shall need. This
evening, if the plans we have just arranged should succeed, the line of
the bastions will be broken. At any rate, even though we should lack
bread, it is better to die of hunger than on the gallows." On the
expulsion of the Austrians the question arose as to the future
government of Milan and Italy. Cattaneo was an uncompromising republican
and a federalist; so violent was his dislike of the Piedmontese monarchy
that when he heard that King Charles Albert had been defeated by the
Austrians, and that Radetzky was marching back to reoccupy Milan, he
exclaimed: "Good news, the Piedmontese have been beaten. Now we shall be
our own masters; we shall fight a people's war, we shall chase the
Austrians out of Italy, and set up a Federal Republic." When the
Austrians returned Cattaneo had to flee, and took refuge at Lugano,
where he gave lessons, wrote his _Storia della Rivoluzione del 1848_,
the _Archivio triennale delle cose d' Italia_ (3 vols., 1850-1855), and
then early in 1860 he started the _Politecnico_ once more. He bitterly
attacked Cavour for his unitarian views, and for the cession of Nice and
Savoy. In 1860 Garibaldi summoned him to Naples to take part in the
government of the Neapolitan provinces, but he would not agree to the
union with Piedmont without local autonomy. After the union of Italy he
was frequently asked to stand for parliament, but always refused because
he could not conscientiously take the oath of allegiance to the
monarchy. In 1868 the pressure of friends overcame his resistance, and
he agreed to stand, but at the last moment he drew back, still unable to
take the oath, and returned to Lugano, where he died in 1869. As a
writer Cattaneo was learned and brilliant, but far too bitter a partisan
to be judicious, owing to his narrowly republican views; his ideas on
local autonomy were perhaps wise, but, at a moment when unity was the
first essential, inopportune.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--A. and J. Mario, _Carlo Cattaneo_ (Florence, 1884); E.
  Zanoni, _Carlo Cattaneo nella vita e nelle opere_ (Rome, 1898); see
  also his own _Opere edite ed inedite_ (7 vols., Florence, 1881-1892),
  _Scritti politici ed epistolari_ (3 vols., Florence, 1892-1901),
  _Scritti storici, letterari_ (Milan, 1898, &c.).

CATTARO (Serbo-Croatian _Kotor_), the chief town of an administrative
district in Dalmatia, Austria. Pop. (1900) of town, 3021; of commune,
5418. Cattaro occupies a narrow ledge between the Montenegrin Mountains
and the Bocche di Cattaro, a winding and beautiful inlet of the Adriatic
Sea. This inlet expands into five broad gulfs, united by narrower
channels, and forms one of the finest natural harbours in Europe. Teodo,
on the outermost gulf, is a small naval port. Cattaro is strongly
fortified, and about 3000 troops are stationed in its neighbourhood. On
the seaward side, the defensive works include Castelnuovo (_Erceg
Novi_), which guards the main entrance to the Bocche. On the landward
side, the long walls running from the town to the castle of San
Giovanni, far above, form a striking feature in the landscape; and the
heights of the Krivoscie or Crevoscia (_Krivosije_), a group of barren
mountains between Montenegro, Herzegovina and the sea, are crowned by
small forts. Cattaro is divided almost equally between the Roman
Catholic and Orthodox creeds. It is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop,
with a small cathedral, a collegiate church and several convents. The
transit trade with Montenegro is impeded by high tariffs on both sides
of the frontier. Foreign visitors to Montenegro usually land at Cattaro,
which is connected by steamer with Trieste and by road with Cettigne.
The railway from Ragusa terminates at Zelenika, near Castelnuovo.

There are many interesting places on the shores of the Bocche.
Castelnuovo is a picturesque town, with a dismantled 14th-century
citadel, which has, at various times, been occupied by Bosnians, Turks,
Venetians, Spaniards, Russians, French, English and Austrians. The
orthodox convent of St Sava, standing amid beautiful gardens, was
founded in the 16th century, and contains many fine specimens of
17th-century silversmiths' work. There is a Benedictine monastery on a
small island opposite to Perasto (_Perast_), 8 m. east of Castelnuovo.
Perasto itself was for a time an independent state in the 14th century.
Rhizon, the modern hamlet of Risano, close by, was a thriving "Illyrian"
city as early as 229 B.C., and gave its name to the Bocche, then known
as _Rhizonicus Sinus_. Rhizon submitted to Rome in 168 B.C., and about
the same time Ascrivium, or Ascruvium, the modern Cattaro, is first
mentioned as a neighbouring city. Justinian built a fortress above
Ascrivium in A.D. 535, after expelling the Goths, and a second town
probably grew up on the heights round it, for Constantine
Porphyrogenitus, in the 10th century, alludes to "Lower Cattaro" [Greek:
to katô Dekatera]. The city was plundered by the Saracens in 840, and by
the Bulgarians in 1102. In the next year it was ceded to Servia by the
Bulgarian tsar Samuel, but revolted, in alliance with Ragusa, and only
submitted in 1184, as a protected state, preserving intact its
republican institutions, and its right to conclude treaties and engage
in war. It was already an episcopal see, and, in the 13th century,
Dominican and Franciscan monasteries were established to check the
spread of Bogomilism. In the 14th century the commerce of Cattaro
rivalled that of Ragusa, and provoked the jealousy of Venice. The
downfall of Servia in 1389 left the city without a guardian, and, after
being seized and abandoned by Venice and Hungary in turn, it passed
under Venetian rule in 1420. It was besieged by the Turks in 1538 and
1657, visited by plague in 1572, and nearly destroyed by earthquakes in
1563 and 1667. By the treaty of Campo-Formio in 1797 it passed to
Austria; but in 1805, by the treaty of Pressburg, it was assigned to
Italy, and was united in 1810 with the French empire. In 1814 it was
restored to Austria by the congress of Vienna. The attempt to enforce
compulsory military service, made and abandoned in 1869, but finally
successful in 1881, led to two short-lived revolts among the
Krivoscians, during which Cattaro was the Austrian headquarters.

  See G. Gelcich (Gelcic), _Memorie storiche sulle Bocche di Cattaro_
  (Zara, 1880).

CATTEGAT, or KATTEGAT (Scand. "cat's-throat"), a strait forming part of
the connexion between the Baltic and the North Seas. It lies north and
south between Sweden and Denmark, and connects north with the Skagerrack
and south through the Sound, the Great Belt and the Little Belt with the
Baltic Sea. Its length is about 150 m. and its extreme breadth about 90

CATTERMOLE, GEORGE (1800-1868), English painter, chiefly in
water-colours, was born at Dickleburgh, near Diss, Norfolk, in August
1800. At the age of sixteen he began working as an architectural and
topographical draughtsman; afterwards he contributed designs to be
engraved in the annuals then so popular; thence he progressed into
water-colour painting, becoming an associate of the Water-Colour Society
in 1822, and a full member in 1833. In 1850 he withdrew from active
connexion with this society, and took to painting in oil. His most
fertile period was between 1833 and 1850. At the Paris exhibition of
1855 he received one of the five first-class gold medals awarded to
British painters. He also enjoyed professional honours in Amsterdam and
in Belgium. He died on the 24th of July 1868. Among his leading works
are "The Murder of the Bishop of Liége" (15th century), "The Armourer
relating the Story of the Sword," "The Assassination of the Regent
Murray by Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh," and (in oil) "A Terrible Secret."
He was largely employed by publishers, illustrating the _Waverley
Novels_ and the _Historical Annual_ of his brother the Rev. Richard
Cattermole (his scenes from the wars of Cavaliers and Roundheads in this
series are among his best engraved works), and many other volumes
besides. Cattermole was a painter of no inconsiderable gifts, and of
great facility in picturesque resource; he was defective in solidity of
form and texture, and in realism or richness of colour. He excelled in
rendering scenes of chivalry, of medievalism, and generally of the
romantic aspects of the past.

CATTLE (Norman Fr. _catel_, from Late Lat. _capitate_, wealth or
property, a word applied in the feudal system to movable property and
particularly to live stock, and surviving in its wider meaning as
"chattel" or "chattle"), a general term for the cows and oxen of
agricultural use. For the zoological account, see BOVIDAE, and the
subordinate articles there referred to; for details concerning
dairy-farming, see DAIRY.

Oxen appear to have been among the earliest of domesticated animals, as
they undoubtedly were among the most important agents in the growth of
early civilization. They are mentioned in the oldest written records of
the Hebrew and Hindu peoples, and are figured on Egyptian monuments
raised over 3000 years B.C.; while remains of domesticated specimens
have been found in Swiss lake-dwellings along with the stone implements
and other relics of Neolithic man. In infant communities a man's wealth
was measured by the number and size of his herds--Abraham, it is said,
was rich in cattle--and oxen for a long period formed, as they still do
among many savage or semi-savage tribes, the favourite medium of
exchange between individuals and communities. After the introduction of
a metal coinage into ancient Greece, this method of exchange was
commemorated by stamping the image of an ox on the new money; while the
connexion between cattle and coin as symbols of wealth has left its mark
on the languages of Europe, as is seen in the Latin word _pecunia_ and
the English "pecuniary," derived from _pecus_, cattle. The value
attached to cattle in ancient times is further shown by the Bull
figuring among the signs of the zodiac; in its worship by the ancient
Egyptians under the title of Apis; in the veneration which has always
been paid to it by the Hindus, according to whose sacred legends it was
the first animal created by the three divinities directed by the supreme
Deity to furnish the earth with animated beings; and in the important
part it played in Greek and Roman mythology. The Hindus were not allowed
to shed the blood of the ox, and the Egyptians could only do so in
sacrificing to their gods. Both Hindus and Jews were forbidden to muzzle
it when treading out the corn; to destroy it wantonly was a crime among
the Romans, punishable with exile.

_Breeds_.--There exist in Britain four interesting remnants of what were
at one time numerous enclosed herds of ancient forest cattle,[1] with
black or red points, in parks at Chillingham, Cadzow, Vaynol (near
Bangor, North Wales) and Chartley. A few of the last have been removed
to Woburn. Other representatives of old stock are a resuscitated white
Welsh breed with black points, derived from white specimens born of
black Welsh cows; several herds of a white polled breed with black
points; a herd of the ancient Polled Suffolk Dun, an excellent milking
breed; a White Belted Galloway and a White Belted Welsh breed; the old
Gloucester breed at Badminton, with a white rump, tail and underline,
related to the now extinct Glamorgan breed; the Shetland breed; and a
few herds of Dutch cattle preserved for their superior milking powers.

The prominent breeds of cattle in the British Isles[2] comprise the
Shorthorn, Lincolnshire Red Shorthorn, Hereford, Devon, South Devon,
Sussex, Welsh, Longhorn, Red Polled, Aberdeen-Angus, Galloway, West
Highland, Ayrshire, Jersey, Guernsey, Kerry and Dexter.

The Shorthorn, Lincolnshire Red Shorthorn, Hereford, Devon, South Devon,
Sussex, Longhorn and Red Polled breeds are native to England; the
Aberdeen-Angus, Galloway, Highland and Ayrshire breeds to Scotland; and
the Kerry and Dexter breeds to Ireland. The Jersey and Guernsey
breeds--often spoken of as Channel Islands cattle--belong to the
respective islands whose names they bear, and great care is taken to
keep them isolated from each other. The term Alderney is obsolete, the
cattle of Alderney being mainly a type of the Guernsey breed.

Among breeds well known in the United States[2] and not mentioned above,
the more important are the Holsteins, large black and white cattle
highly valued for their abundant milk production, and the Dutch Belted
breed, black with a broad white band round the body, also good milkers.

The _Shorthorn_[3] is the most widely distributed of all the breeds of
cattle both at home and abroad. No census of breeds has ever been taken
in the United Kingdom, but such an enumeration would show the Shorthorn
far to exceed in numbers any other breed, whilst the great majority of
cross-bred cattle contain Shorthorn blood. During the last quarter of
the 18th century the brothers Charles Colling (1751-1836) and Robert
Colling (1749-1820), by careful selection and breeding, improved the
cattle of the Teeswater district in the county of Durham. If the
Shorthorn did not originate thus, it is indisputable that the efforts of
the Collings[4] had a profound influence upon the fortunes of the breed.
It is still termed the Durham breed in most parts of the world except
the land of its birth, and the geographical name is far preferable, for
the term "shorthorn" is applicable to a number of other breeds. Other
skilled breeders turned their attention to the Shorthorns and
established famous strains, the descendants of which can still be
traced. By Thomas Booth, of Killerby and Warlaby in Yorkshire (1777),
the "Booth" strains of Shorthorns were originated; by Thomas Bates, of
Kirklevington in Yorkshire, the "Bates" families[5] (1800).

The Shorthorn is sometimes spoken of as the ubiquitous breed, its
striking characteristic being the ease with which it adapts itself to
varying conditions of soil, climate and management. It is also called
the "red, white and roan." The roan colour is very popular, and dark red
has its supporters, as in the case of the _Lincolnshire Red Shorthorns_;
white is not in favour, especially abroad. The Shorthorn breed is more
noted for its beef-making than for its milk-yielding properties,
although the non-pedigree milking Shorthorn of the north of England is
an excellent cow with dual-purpose qualifications of the first order. An
effort is being made to restore milking qualities to certain strains of
pedigree blood.

The culmination of what may be termed the Booth and Bates period was in
the year 1875, when the sales took place of Lord Dunmore's and William
Torr's herds, which realized extraordinary prices. In that black year of
farming, 1879, prices were declining, and they continued to do so till
within the last few years of the close of the 19th century, when there
set in a gradual revival, stimulated largely by the commercial
prosperity of the country. The result of extremely high prices when
line-bred animals were in fashion was a tendency to breed from all kinds
of animals that were of the same tribe, without selection. A
deterioration set in, which was aggravated by the overlooking of the
milking properties. Shorthorn breeders came to see that change of blood
was necessary. Meanwhile, for many years breeders in Aberdeenshire had
been holding annual sales of young bulls and heifers from their herds.
The late Amos Cruickshank began his annual sales in the 'forties, and
the late W.T. Talbot-Crosbie had annual sales from his Shorthorn herd in
the south-west of Ireland for a number of years. Many Aberdeen farmers
emigrated to Canada, and bought Shorthorn calves in their native county
to take with them. The Cruickshanks held their bull sales at that time,
and many of their animals were bought by the small breeders in Canada.
This continued until 1875, when the Cruickshanks had so much private
demand that they discontinued their public sales. Subsequently, when
Cruickshank sold his herd privately to James Nelson & Sons for
exportation, the animals could not all be shipped, and W. Duthie, of
Collynie, Aberdeenshire, bought some of the older cows, whilst J. Deane
Willis, of Bapton Monar, Wilts, bought the yearling heifers. Duthie
thereupon resumed the sales that the Cruickshanks had relinquished, his
averages being £30 in 1892, about £50 in 1893-1894, and £80 in 1895.
These prices advanced through English breeders requiring a little change
of blood, and also through the increasing tendency to exhibit animals of
great substance, or rather to feed animals for show. The success of this
movement strengthened the demand, whilst an inquiry for his line of
blood arose in the United States and Canada. A faithful contemporary
history of the Shorthorn breed is to be found in _Thornton's Circular_,
published quarterly since 1868; see also J. Sinclair, _History of
Shorthorn Cattle_ (1907); R. Bruce, _Fifty Years among Shorthorns_
(1907); A.H. Sanders, _Shorthorn Cattle_ (Chicago, 1901).

The _Lincolnshire Red Shorthorns_ are the best dual-purpose cattle--for
milk and meat--that possess a pedigree record, in the United Kingdom,
and their uniform cherry red colour has brought them into high favour in
tropical countries for crossing with the native breeds.

The _Hereford_ breed is maintained chiefly in Herefordshire and the
adjoining counties. Whilst a full red is the general colour of the body,
the Herefords are distinguished by their white face, white chest and
abdomen, and white mane. The legs up to the knee or hock are also often
white. As a protection against the sun in a hot climate dark spots on
the eyelids or round the orbits are valuable. The horns are moderately
long. Herefords, though they rear their own calves, have acquired but
little fame as dairy cattle. They are very hardy, and produce beef of
excellent quality. Being docile, they fatten easily and readily, and as
graziers' beasts they are in high favour.

When the Bates' Shorthorn bubble burst in America about 1877, the
Hereford gradually replaced the Shorthorn of the western ranches, and it
is now the most numerous ranch animal in the United States and Canada.
The bulls beat the bulls of all other breeds in "rustling" capacity.

In America the ranch-bred Herefords have got too small in the bone in
recent years, and Shorthorns, chiefly of the Scottish type, are being
introduced to increase their size by crossing. In the "feed lot" a
well-bred Hereford steer feeds more quickly than either a Shorthorn or
an Aberdeen-Angus.

In Queensland, Hereford cattle bred from the "Lord Wilton" strain by
Robert Christison of Lammermoor have for years been triumphant as
beef-producers in competition with the Shorthorn. When these are
quartered in the ordinary butchers' fashion, the hind-quarters outweigh
the fore-quarters, which is a reversal of the prevailing rule.

_North Devons_.--The "Rubies of the West," as they are termed from their
hue, are reared chiefly in Devon and Somerset. The colour is a whole
red, its depth or richness varying with the individual, and in summer
becoming mottled with darker spots. The Devons stand somewhat low; they
are neat and compact, and possess admirable symmetry. Although a smaller
breed than the Shorthorn or the Hereford, they weigh better than either.
The horns of the female are somewhat slender, and often curve neatly
upwards. Being fine-limbed, active animals, they are well adapted for
grazing the poor pastures of their native hills, and they turn their
food to the best account, yielding excellent beef. They have not yet
attained much celebrity as milch kine, for, though their milk is of
first-class quality, with a few notable exceptions, its quantity is
small. Latterly, however, the milking qualities have received more
attention from breeders, whose object is to qualify the Devon as a
dual-purpose breed.

The _South Devon_ or _South Hams_ cattle are almost restricted to that
southern part of the county of Devon known as the Hams, whence they are
also called "Hammers." With a somewhat ungainly head, lemon-yellow hair,
yellow skin, and large but hardly handsome udder, the South Devon breed
more resembles the Guernsey, with which it is supposed to be connected,
than the trim-built cattle of the hills of North Devon. The cows are
large, heavy milkers, and produce excellent butter. They are rarely
seen outside their locality except when they appear in the showyards.

The _Sussex_ breed resembles the North Devon in many respects, but it is
bigger, less refined in appearance, less graceful in outline, and of a
deeper brown-chestnut colour than the "dainty Devon," as the latter may
well be called when compared with them. As a hardy race, capable of
thriving on poor rough pastures, the Sussex are highly valued in their
native districts, where they were rapidly improved before the end of the
19th century. They are essentially a beef-producing breed, the cows
having little reputation as milkers. By stall-feeding they can be
ripened for the butcher at an early age. Sussex cattle are said to "die
well," that is, to yield a large proportion of meat in the best parts of
the carcase.

In the _Welsh_ breed of cattle black is the prevailing colour, and the
horns are fairly long. They do not mature very rapidly, but some of them
grow eventually into great ponderous beasts, and their beef is of prime
quality. The cows often possess considerable reputation as milkers. As
graziers' beasts Welsh cattle are well known in the midland counties of
England, where, under the name of "Welsh runts," large herds of bullocks
are fattened on the pastures or "topped up" in the yards in winter.

All the remaining strains of Welsh cattle were recognized as one breed
in 1904, when the Welsh Black Cattle Society united into one register
the Herd Books of North and South Wales.

The _Longhorn_ or "Dishley" breed of cattle is one of the most
interesting historically. It was with Longhorns that Robert Bakewell, of
Dishley, Leicestershire (1726-1795), showed his remarkable skill as an
improver of cattle in the middle of the 18th century.[6] At one period
Longhorns spread widely over England and Ireland, but, as the Shorthorns
extended their domain, the Longhorns made way for them. They are big,
rather clumsy animals, with long drooping horns, which are very
objectionable in these days of cattle transport by rail and sea. They
are slow in coming to maturity, but are very hardy. The bullocks feed up
to heavy weights, and the cows are fair milkers. No lover of cattle can
view these quaint creatures without a feeling of satisfaction that the
efforts made to resuscitate a breed which has many useful qualities to
commend it have been successful, and that the extinction which
threatened it in the 'eighties of last century is no longer imminent. In
1907 there were twenty-two Longhorn herds containing about four hundred
registered cattle located mainly in the English midlands and Man.

The _Red Poll_ breed, though old, has only come into prominence within
recent years. They were known as the East Anglian Polls, and later as
the Norfolk and Suffolk Polled cattle, being confined chiefly to these
two counties. They are symmetrically built, of medium size, and of
uniformly red colour. They have a tuft of hair on the poll. As dairy
cattle, they are noted for the length of the period during which they
continue in milk. Not less are they valued as beef-producers, and, as
they are hardy and docile, they fatten readily and mature fairly early.
Hence, like the Lincolnshire Red Shorthorn, they may claim to be a
dual-purpose breed. As beef cattle they are always seen to advantage at
the Norwich Christmas cattle show, held annually in November.

The _Aberdeen-Angus_, a polled, black breed, the cows of which are often
termed "Doddies," belongs to Aberdeenshire and adjacent parts of
Scotland, but many herds are maintained in England and some in Ireland.
The steers and heifers fed for the butcher attain great weight, make
first-class show beasts, and yield beef of excellent quality. The cross
between the Shorthorn and the Aberdeen-Angus is a favourite in the meat
markets and at fat-stock competitions.

The _Galloways_ are named from the district, Kirkcudbright and
Wigtonshire, in the south-west of Scotland, to which they are native.
Like the Aberdeen-Angus cattle, they are hornless, and normally of a
black colour. But, with a thicker hide and shaggy hair, suited to a wet
climate, they have a coarser appearance than the Aberdeen-Angus, the
product of a less humid region, though it approaches the latter in
size. Galloways yield superior beef, but mature less rapidly than the
Aberdeen-Angus. They make admirable beasts for the grazier, and the
cross between the Galloway and the white Shorthorn bull, known as a
"Blue Grey," is much sought after by the grazier and the butcher.


  [Illustration: SHORTHORN BULL.]

  [Illustration: DEVON BULL.]

  [Illustration: HEREFORD BULL.]

  [Illustration: SOUTH DEVON BULL.]


  [Illustration: LONGHORN BULL.]

  [Illustration: RED POLLED BULL.]

  [Illustration: WELSH BULL.]

  [Illustration: SUSSEX BULL.]

  (From photographs by F. Babbage.)


  [Illustration: ABERDEEN-ANGUS BULL.]

  [Illustration: GALLOWAY BULL.]

  [Illustration: AYRSHIRE COW.]

  [Illustration: HIGHLAND BULL.]


  [Illustration: DEXTER BULL.]

  [Illustration: KERRY COW.]

  [Illustration: GUERNSEY COW.]

  [Illustration: JERSEY COW.]

  The comparative sizes of the animals are indicated by the scale of
  reproduction of the photographs.

  (From photographs by F. Babbage.)

The _West Highland_ or Kyloe breed are perhaps the most hardy and
picturesque of British cattle. Their home is amidst the wild romantic
scenery of the Highlands and the Western Isles of Scotland, though
Highland bullocks with long, spreading curved horns may be seen in
English parks. They have not made much progress towards early maturity,
but their slowly ripened beef is of the choicest quality. The colour of
their thick shaggy hair varies from white and light dun to tawny yellow
of many shades, and black.

The _Ayrshires_ are the dairy breed of Scotland, where they have
considerably overstepped the limits of the humid western county whence
they take their name. They are usually of a white and brown colour, the
patches being well defined. The neat, shapely, upstanding horns are
characteristic. The Ayrshires are under medium size and move gracefully,
and the females display the wedge-shape typical of dairy cows. They are
a hardy breed, and, even from poor pastures, give good yields of milk,
especially useful for cheese-making purposes. The milking powers of the
breed are being improved under a system of milk-testing and records
supported by the Highland and Agricultural Society.

The _Jerseys_ are graceful, deer-like cattle, whose home is in the
island of Jersey, where, by means of stringent regulations against the
importation of cattle, the breed has been kept pure for many
generations. As its milk is especially rich in fat (so rich that it
requires to be diluted with a little water before it can be safely fed
to calves), the Jersey has attained a wide reputation as a
butter-producing breed. It is a great favourite in England, where many
pure-bred herds exist. The colours most preferred are "whole" fawns of
many shades. The light silver-grey, which was in high repute in England
in the early 'seventies of the 19th century, is out of favour. Browns
and brindles are rarely seen. The grey zone surrounding the black muzzle
gives the appearance designated "mealy-mouthed." The horns are short,
and generally artificially curved inwards; the bones are fine. The best
milch cows have a yellowish circle round the eye, and the skin at the
extremity of the tail is of a deep yellow, almost orange colour. The
cows are gentle and docile when reared in close contact with human
beings, but the bulls, despite their small size, are often fierce.

_Guernsey_ cattle are native to the islands of Guernsey, Alderney, Sark
and Herm. They are kept pure by importation restrictions. Herds of
pure-bred Guernseys also exist in the Isle of Wight and in various
counties of England and Scotland. They have not the refined and elegant
appearance of the Jerseys, which, however, they exceed in size. They are
usually of a rich yellowish-brown colour, patched with white, in some
cases their colour almost meriting the appellation of "orange and
lemon." The yellow colour inside the ears is a point always looked for
by judges. The cows, large-bellied and narrow in front, are truly
wedge-shaped, the greatly developed udder adding to the expanse of the
hinder part of the body. They yield an abundance of milk, rich in fat,
and are excellent butter-producers. The horns are yellow at the base,
curved, and not coarse. The nose is flesh-coloured and free from black

The _Canadian_ breed, black with a narrow brown stripe down the back and
a light ring round the muzzle, are descended from old Brittany cattle
imported into Canada by French settlers three hundred years ago, and are
in consequence related to the Channel Islands cattle. They are
remarkably hardy and good milkers, and it is claimed they produce butter
fat at 2 c. a lb. less cost than any other breed.

The _Kerry_ is a breed of small black cattle belonging to the south-west
of Ireland, whence they have spread into many parts, not only of their
native land, but of England as well. Although they are able to subsist
on the roughest and scantiest of fare, and are exceedingly hardy, the
cows are, nevertheless, excellent milkers, and have acquired celebrity
as a dairy breed. The colour is black, but the cows sometimes have a
little white on the udder. The horns are white, with black tips, and are
turned upwards. The Kerry is active and graceful, long and lithe in
body, and light-limbed. On the rich pastures of England it has increased
considerably in size.

The _Dexter_ breed is reputed to take its name from one Dexter, agent of
Maude, Lord Hawarden, who is credited with having established it by
selection and breeding from the best mountain types of the Kerry. Until
recently it was called the Dexter-Kerry. It is smaller and more compact
than the Kerry, shorter in the leg, and intoed before and behind. Whilst
valuable as a beef-making animal, it is equally noted for its
milk-producing capacity. Black is the usual colour, but red is also
recognized, with, in either case, a little white. When of a red colour,
the appearance of the animal has been aptly compared to that of a grand
Shorthorn viewed through the wrong end of a telescope. The Kerry and the
Dexter are readily distinguishable. The Kerry has a gay, light,
deer-like head and horn, light limbs and thin skin. The Dexter has
coarser limbs, a square body, flat back, thick shoulder, short neck, and
head and horn set on low.

A herd of _Dexter-Shorthorns_ was founded by Major Barton at Straffan,
Ireland, in 1860, in which prominent characteristics of the two breeds
have been permanently blended so that they breed true to type.

As milk-producers, and therefore as dairy cattle, certain strains of the
Shorthorn (registered as well as non-pedigree), the Lincolnshire Red
Shorthorn, South Devon, Longhorn, Red Polled, Ayrshire, Jersey,
Guernsey, Kerry and Dexter breeds have acquired eminence. Such breeds as
the Shorthorn, Lincolnshire Red Shorthorn, South Devon, Welsh, Red
Polled and Dexter are claimed as useful beef-makers as well as
milk-producers, and are classified as dual-purpose animals. The others
belong to the beef-producers. As regards colour, red is characteristic
of the Lincolnshire Shorthorn, the Hereford, Devon, Sussex and Red
Polled. Black is the dominating colour of the Welsh, Aberdeen-Angus,
Galloway, Kerry and Dexter. A yellowish hue is seen in the West
Highland, Guernsey and South Devon breeds. Various shades of fawn colour
are usual in Jersey cattle and also appear among Highlanders. The
Herefords, though with red bodies, have white faces, manes, and dewlaps,
whilst white prevails to a greater or less extent in the Shorthorn,
Longhorn and Ayrshire breeds. The Shorthorn breed is exceedingly
variable in colour; pure-bred specimens may be red, or white, or roan,
or may be marked with two or more of these colours, the roan resulting
from a blending of the white and red. Black is not seen in a pure-bred
Shorthorn. The biggest and heaviest cattle come from the beef-making
breeds, and are often cross-bred. Very large or heavy beasts, if
pure-bred, usually belong to one or other of the Shorthorn, Hereford,
Sussex, Welsh, West Highland, Aberdeen-Angus and Galloway breeds. The
Devon, Red Polled and Guernsey are medium-sized cattle; the Ayrshires
are smaller, although relatively the bullocks grow larger than bulls or
cows. The Jerseys are small, graceful cattle, but the smaller type of
Kerries, the Dexters and the Shetlanders furnish the smallest cattle of
the British Isles.

  See generally the _Herd Books_ of the various breed societies.
       (W. Fr.; R. W.)

_Rearing and Feeding._[7]--A calf at birth scales from one-twelfth to
one-fourteenth the weight of the dam. A sucking calf of one of the large
breeds should gain 3 lb. per day for the first month, 2.5 lb. for the
second, and 2 lb. during the later calf period. Colostrum, or first-day
milk after calving, contains more than five times the albuminoid
compounds found in average cows' milk. In the course of three or four
days it gradually becomes normal in composition, although the peculiar
flavour remains a few days longer. Nature has specially prepared it for
the young calf with extremely nourishing and also laxative properties,
and it is of practically no value for any other purpose. Normal cows'
milk has an albuminoid ratio slightly narrower than 1 : 4--colostrum
1 : .71. [The ratio is arrived at by adding to the percentage of
milk-sugar, possessing about the food equivalent of starch, the fat
multiplied by 2.268, and dividing by the total albuminoids--all

  Common nutrient ratios for older animals are stated in the following
  table of food standards by Dr Emil Wolff:--

    |                                   |              Food Consumed per Day.            |
    |                                   +---------------------+--------------------------+
    |                                   |         Dry.        |       Digestible.        |
    |                                   +------+-------+------+------+--------+----------+
    |                                   | Live |Organic|Albu- |      |Carbo-  |Albuminoid|
    |                                   |Weight|Matter |minoid| Fats |Hydrates|  Ratio.  |
    |                                   |  lb. |  lb.  |  lb. |  lb. |   lb.  |  lb.     |
    |Calves,    growing, 2 to  3 months |  150 |  3.3  | 0.6  | 0.30 |   2.1  | 1 : 4.7  |
    |Young cattle  "     3 to  6   "    |  300 |  7.0  | 1.0  | 0.30 |   4.1  | 1 : 5    |
    |  "           "     6 to 12   "    |  500 | 12.0  | 1.2  | 0.30 |   6.8  | 1 : 6    |
    |  "           "    12 to 18   "    |  700 | 16.8  | 1.4  | 0.28 |   9.1  | 1 : 7    |
    |  "           "    18 to 24   "    |  850 | 20.4  | 1.4  | 0.26 |  10.3  | 1 : 8    |
    |Oxen in complete rest              | 1000 | 27.5  | 0.7  | 0.15 |   8.0  | 1 : 12   |
    | "   fattening, 1st period         | 1000 | 27.0  | 2.5  | 0.50 |  15.0  | 1 : 65   |
    | "       "      2nd period         | 1000 | 26.0  | 3.0  | 0.70 |  14.8  | 1 : 5.5  |
    | "       "      3rd period         | 1000 | 25.0  | 2.7  | 0.60 |  14.8  | 1 : 6    |
    |Milch cows                         | 1000 | 24.0  | 2.5  | 0.40 |  12.5  | 1 : 5.4  |

  Digestible albuminoid nitrogen is the scarcest and consequently the
  costliest ingredient in food-stuffs, but, since the introduction of
  vegetable proteid made by Mitchell's process from the castor bean, an
  easy and inexpensive means of balancing cattle food ratios is
  available. By this means the manurial value of the excrement is
  increased. The calculations necessary in arriving at a ratio are
  simplified by the employment of Jeffers's calculator (Plainsboro,

There are three common methods of rearing calves, (1) The calf sucks its
mother or foster-mother. This is the natural method and the best for the
show-yard and for early fattening purposes; but it is the most
expensive, and the calves, if not handled, grow up wild and dangerous.
Store stock may be also raised by putting two calves to one cow and
weaning at three months old; a second pair in turn yielding place to a
single calf. (2) Full milk from the cow at about 90° F. is given alone
until the latter part of the milk period; then the calf is trained to
eat supplementary foods to preserve the calf-fat after weaning. A large
calf at first receives daily three quarts of milk at three meals. The
amount is increased to 2 gallons by the end of the fourth week, and to
2½ gallons at 3 months, when gradual weaning begins. Linseed cake meal
is specially suitable for such calves. (3) The calf receives full milk
from the mother for one to two weeks, or better, for three to four
weeks; then it is slowly transferred to fortified separated milk or milk
substitutes. Cod-liver oil, 2 oz. daily, is a good substitute for butter
fat. In America cotton-seed oil, ½ oz. to the quart of milk, or an
equivalent of oleomargarine heated to 110° F. and churned with separated
milk, has produced a live-weight-increase of 2 lb. daily. Linseed
simmered to a jelly and added to separated milk gives good results.
Moderate amounts are easily digested. Oatmeal or maize meal containing
10% of linseed meal does well, later, at less cost. Milk substitutes and
calf meals require close attention in preparation, and would not fetch
the prices they do if feeders possessed the technical knowledge
necessary to select and mix common foods. Ground cake or linseed meal
is, after a time, better given dry than cooked, being then better
masticated and not so liable to produce indigestion.

Grass or fine hay in racks is provided when the calf can chew the cud.
As cattle get older, live-weight-increase grows less. Smithfield
weights[8] show that a good bullock up to a year old will increase 2 lb.
daily, a two-year-old 1¾ lb., and a three-year-old a little over 1½ lb.

Cattle feeding on a farm consume crude produce that is inconvenient to
market, and make farmyard manure; but there is frequently no profit
left. To secure the balance on the right side the inlaid price per live
cwt. requires to be 5s. less than the sale price--say 32s. per cwt. for
lean cattle, and 37s. per cwt. for the animal when sold fat and capable
of producing 60% of dressed beef. The ordinary animal yields only about
57%. A well-bred fattening bullock begins with 2 lb. of cake and meal
per day, increasing to 8 lb. at the end of five months (6 lb. on an
average), and receives ¾ cwt. of roots and 12 lb. of straw; at an
average cost of about 4s. 3d. per imperial stone or 50s. per cwt. of
dressed carcase. Heifers feed faster than bullocks, and age tells on the
rate at which an animal will mature: a three-year-old will develop into
prime beef more quickly and easily than a two-year-old. It is difficult
to produce "baby beef" at a profit, and it can only be done with picked
animals of the best flesh-producing breeds, which cannot be bought at a
price per cwt. below the finished sale price, for animals producing baby
beef must from start to finish (under two years old) be at all times fit
to go to the fat market. It is true that a very young animal can give a
better account of food than an older one, but this advantage is
counterbalanced by the tendency to grow rather than to fatten. (See also

In cold and stormy districts cattle thrive best in covered courts, but
in a mild climate they do equally well in open yards with shelter-sheds.
The more air they get the less liable they are to tuberculosis--example
Lincolnshire and the drier south-eastern counties. The ideal method of
house-feeding cattle is singly in boxes 10 ft. square, where they are
undisturbed, and where the best manure is made because it is not washed
by rain.

On the finest British grazing lands two lots of cattle are fed in one
season. The first is finished early in July, having, without artificial
feeding, laid on eight to nine stones of beef. The second lot requires
three or four pounds of undecorticated cotton cake each towards the end
of September and in October when grass begins to fail.     (R. W.)


  [1] Rev. J. Storer, _The Wild White Cattle of Great Britain_ (1879).

  [2] See Wallace's _Farm Live Stock of Great Britain_ (1907), Low's
    _Breeds of the Domestic Animals of the British Isles_ (1842,
    illustrated, and 1845), and E.V. Wilcox's _Farm Animals_ (1907), an
    American work.

  [3] Shorthorn Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1822). Sec. E.J.
    Powell, 12 Hanover Square, London, W.

  [4] C.J. Bates, "The Brothers Colling," _Jour. Roy. Agric. Soc._

  [5] C.J. Bates, _Thomas Bates and the Kirklevington Shorthorns: a
    Contribution to the History of Pure Durham Cattle_
    (Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1897).

  [6] Housman, "Robert Bakewell," _Jour. Roy. Agric. Soc._ (1894).

  [7] See E. Wolff, _Farm Foods_, by H.H. Cousins (1895); A.D. Hall,
    _Rothamsted Experiments_ (1905); R. Warington, _Chemistry of the
    Farm_ (15th ed., 1902); W.A. Henry, _Feeds and Feeding_ (1907); H.W.
    Mumford, _Beef Production_ (1907); H.P. Armsby, _Animal Nutrition_
    (2nd ed., 1906); T. Shaw, _Animal Breeding_ (1903); R. Wallace, _Farm
    Live Stock of Great Britain_ (4th ed., 1907).

  [8] E. J. Powell, _History of the Smithfield Club from 1798 to 1900_

CATULLUS, GAIUS VALERIUS (?84-54 B.C.), the greatest lyric poet of Rome.
As regards his names and the dates of his birth and death, the most
important external witness is that of Jerome, in the continuation of the
Eusebian _Chronicle_, under the year 87 B.C., "Gaius Valerius Catullus,
scriptor lyricus Veronae nascitur," and under 57 B.C., "Catullus xxx.
aetatis anno Romae moritur." There is no controversy as to the gentile
name, _Valerius_. Suetonius, in his _Life of Julius Caesar_ (ch. 73),
mentions the poet by the names "Valerium Catullum." Other persons who
had the _cognomen_ Catullus belonged to the Valerian gens, e.g. M.
Valerius Catullus Messalinus, a _delator_ in the reign of Domitian,
mentioned in the fourth satire of Juvenal (l. 113):--

  "Et cum mortifero prudens Veiento Catullo."

Inscriptions show, further, that _Valerius_ was a common name in the
native province of Catullus, and belonged to other inhabitants of Verona
besides the poet and his family (Schwabe, _Quaestiones Catullianae_, p.
27). Scholars have been divided in opinion as to whether his _praenomen_
was _Gaius_ or _Quintus_, and in the best MSS. the volume is called
simply _Catulli Veronensis liber_. For _Gaius_ we have the undoubted
testimony, not only of Jerome, which rests on the much earlier authority
of Suetonius, but also that of Apuleius. In support of _Quintus_ a
passage was quoted from the _Natural History_ of Pliny (xxxvii. 6, 81).
But the _praenomen_ Q. is omitted in the best MSS., and in other
passages of the same author the poet is spoken of as "Catullus
Veronensis." The mistake may have arisen from confusion with Q. Catulus,
the colleague of Marius in the Cimbric War, himself also the author of
lyrical poems. Allusions in the poems show that the date of his death
given by Jerome (57 B.C.) is wrong, and that Catullus survived the
second consulship of Pompey (55 B.C.) (cf. lv. 6, cxiii. 2), and was
present in August of the following year at the prosecution of Vatinius
by Licinius Calvus (cf. liii.). The allusion in lii. 3--

  "Per consulatum peierat Vatinius,"

does not prove that Catullus must have lived to see the consulship
bestowed on Vatinius in the end of 47 B.C. but only that Vatinius, after
being praetor in 55 B.C., was in the habit of boasting of the certainty
of his attaining the consulship, as Cleopatra was in the habit of
confirming her most solemn declarations by appealing to her hope of one
day administering justice in the Capitol (cf. Haupt, "Quaestiones
Catullianae," _Opuscula_, vol. i. 1875). There is then nothing to prove
that Catullus lived beyond the month of August 54 B.C. Some of the poems
(as xxxvii. and lii.) may have been written during his last illness. If
he died in 54 B.C. or early in 53 B.C., Catullus must either have been
born later than 87 B.C., or have lived to a greater age than thirty.
Catullus is described by Ovid as "hedera iuvenalia cinctus Tempora"
(_Amor_. iii. 9. 61),--a description somewhat more suitable to a man who
dies in his thirtieth year than to one who dies three or four years
later. Further, the age at which a man dies is more likely to be
accurately remembered than the particular date either of his death or of
his birth, and the common practice of recording the age of the deceased
in sepulchral inscriptions must have rendered a mistake about this less
likely to occur. It seems, therefore, on the whole, most likely that
Jerome's words "xxx. aetatis anno" are correct, and that Catullus was
born in 84 B.C.

The statement that he was born at Verona is confirmed by passages in
Ovid and Martial. Pliny the elder, who was born at Como, speaks of
Catullus in the preface to his _Natural History_, as his "countryman"
(_conterraneus_), and the poet speaks of Verona as his home, or at least
his temporary residence, in more than one place. His occasional
residence in his native place is further attested by the statement of
Suetonius (_Julius Caesar_, 73), that "Julius Caesar accepted the poet's
apology for his scurrilous verses upon him, invited him to dine with him
on the same day, and continued his intimacy with his father as before."
As this incident could only have happened during the time that Julius
Caesar was pro-consul, the scene of it must have been in the Cisalpine
province, and at the house of the poet's father, in or near Verona. The
verses apologized for were those contained in poems xxix. and lvii., the
former of which must have been written after Caesar's invasion of
Britain, so that this interview probably took place in the winter of
55-54 B.C. The fact that his father was the host of the great
pro-consul, and lived on terms of intimacy with him, justifies the
inference, that he was, in wealth and rank, one of the principal men of
the province. The only other important statement concerning the poet's
life which rests on external authority is that of Apuleius, that the
real name of the Lesbia of the poems was Clodia. Another, which concerns
the reputation which he enjoyed after his death, is given in the _Life
of Atticus_ by Cornelius Nepos (12. 4). It is to the effect that he
regarded Lucretius and Catullus as the two greatest poets of his own

The poems of Catullus consist of 116 pieces, varying in length from 2 to
408 lines, the great mass of them being, however, short pieces, written
in lyric, iambic or elegiac metre. The arrangement cannot be the poet's;
it is neither chronological nor in accordance with the character of the
topics. The shorter poems, lyric or iambic, are placed first, next the
longer epithalamia, (most being written in hexameters) amongst which the
_Attis_ is inserted and then those written in the elegiac metre. But,
though no chronological order is observed, yet internal evidence enables
us to determine the occasions on which many of the poems were written,
and the order in which they followed one another. They give a very vivid
image of various phases of the poet's life, and of the strong feelings
with which persons and things affected him. They throw much light also
on the social life of Rome and of the provincial towns of Italy in the
years preceding the outbreak of the second civil war. In this respect
they may be compared with the letters of Cicero.

The poems extend over a period of seven or eight years, from 61 or 62
till 54 B.C. Among the earliest are those which record the various
stages of the author's passion for Lesbia. It is in connexion with this
passion that he is generally mentioned, or alluded to, by the later
Roman poets, such as Propertius, Ovid, Juvenal and Martial. Her real
name, as we learn from Apuleius, was Clodia. The admiration of Catullus
for Sappho, the Lesbian poetess, which is clearly indicated by the
imitation of her language in his fifty-first and sixty-second poems,
affords an obvious explanation of the Greek name which he gave to his
Roman mistress. Clodia was the notorious sister of Publius Clodius
Pulcher, and in the year 56 she charged M. Caelius Rufus, after tiring
of him, as she had of Catullus, with an attempt to poison her. It was in
defence of Rufus that Cicero described the spell she exercised over
young men, in language which might have been applied to her previous
relations with the youthful poet, as well as those with the youthful
orator and politician.

Poems concerning Lesbia occur among both the earliest and the latest of
those contained in the series. They record the various stages of passion
through which Catullus passed, from absolute devotion and a secure sense
of returned affection, through the various conditions of distrust and
jealousy, attempts at renunciation, and short-lived "amoris
integrationes," through the "odi et amo" state, and the later state of
savage indignation against both Lesbia and his rivals, and especially
against Caelius Rufus, till he finally attains, not without much
suffering and loss, the last state of scornful indifference. Among the
earliest of the poems connected with Lesbia, and among those written in
the happiest vein, are ii. and iii., and v. and vii. The 8th, "Miser
Catulle, desinas ineptire," perhaps the most beautiful of them all,
expresses the first awakening of the poet to a sense of her
unworthiness, before the gentler have given place to the fiercer
feelings of his nature. His final renunciation is sent in a poem written
after his return from the East, with a union of imaginative and scornful
power, to his two butts, Furius and Aurelius (xi., "Furi et Aureli,
comites Catulli"), who, to judge by the way Catullus writes of them,
appear to have been hangers-on upon him, who repaid the pecuniary and
other favours they received by giving him grounds for jealousy, and
making imputations on his character (cf. xv., xvi., xviii., xxiii.).

The intrigue of Caelius Rufus with Lesbia began in 59 or 58 B.C. It was
probably in the earlier stages of this liaison that the 68th poem was
written, from which it appears that Catullus, at the time living at
Verona, and grieving for the recent death of his brother in the Troad,
had heard of Lesbia's infidelity, and, in consideration of her previous
faithlessness in his favour, was not inclined to resent it very warmly.
Two other poems in the series express the grief which Catullus felt for
the death of his brother,--one, the 65th, addressed to the orator
Hortensius, who is there, as in some of Cicero's letters, called
Hortalus or Ortalus, and sent to him along with the _Coma Berenices_
(lxvi.), a translation of a famous elegy of Callimachus. The other poem
referring to this event (ci.) must have been composed some years later,
probably in 56 B.C., when Catullus visited his brother's tomb in the
Troad, on his return from Bithynia. Between 59 and 57 B.C. most of the
lampoons on Lesbia and her numerous lovers must have been written (e.g.
xxxvii., xxxix., &c.). Some, too, of the poems expressive of his more
tender feelings to her, such as viii. and lxxvi. belong also to these
years; and among the poems written either during this period or perhaps
in the early and happier years of his liaison, some of the most charming
of his shorter pieces, expressing the affection for his young friends
Verannius and Fabullus (ix., xii., xiii.), may be included.

In the year 57 the routine of his life was for a short time broken by
his accompanying the propraetor C. Memmius, the friend to whom Lucretius
dedicates his great poem, as one of his staff, to the province of
Bithynia. His object was probably to better his fortunes by this absence
from Rome, as humorous complaints of poverty and debt (xiii., xxvi.)
show that his ordinary means were insufficient for his mode of life. He
frankly acknowledges the disappointment of these hopes, and still more
frankly his disgust with his chief (x., xxviii.). Some of the most
charming and perfect among the shorter poems express the delight with
which the poet changed the dulness and sultry climate of the province
for the freedom and keen enjoyment of his voyage home in his yacht,
built for him at Amastris on the Euxine, and for the beauty and peace of
his villa on the shores of Lake Benacus, which welcomed him home
"wearied with foreign travel." To this period and to his first return to
Rome after his visit to his native district belong the poems xlvi., ci.,
iv., xxxi. and x., all showing by their freshness of feeling and vivid
truth of expression the gain which the poet's nature derived from his
temporary escape from the passions, distractions and animosities of
Roman society. Two poems, written in a very genial and joyous spirit,
and addressed to his younger friend Licinius Calvus (xiv. and l.), who
is ranked as second only to himself among the lyrical poets of the age,
and whose youthful promise pointed him out as likely to become one of
the greatest of Roman orators, may, indeed, with most probability be
assigned to these later years (xiv.). From the expression "Odissem te
odio Vatiniano," in the third line of xiv., it may be inferred that the
poem was written not earlier than December (the "Saturnalia") of the
year 56 B.C., as it was early in that year, as we learn from a letter of
Cicero to his brother Quintus (ii. 4. 1), that Calvus first announced
his intention of prosecuting Vatinius. The short poem numbered liii.
would be written in August 54 B.C. The poems which have left the
greatest stain on the fame of Catullus--those "referta contumeliis
Caesaris," the licentious abuse of Mamurra, and probably some of those
personal scurrilities addressed to women as well as men, or too frank
confessions, which posterity would willingly have let die, may well have
been written in the last years of his life, under the influence of the
bitterness and recklessness induced by his experience. It cannot be
determined with certainty whether the longer and more artistic pieces,
which occupy the middle of the volume--the _Epithalamium_ in celebration
of the marriage of Manlius Torquatus, the 62nd poem, written in
imitation of the Epithalamia of Sappho, "Vesper adest: iuvenes,
consurgite"; the _Attis_, and the Epic Idyll representing the marriage
festival of Peleus and Thetis--belong to the earlier or the later period
of the poet's career. If the person addressed in the first part of the
68th is the Manlius of the _Epithalamium_, and the lines from 3 to 8--

  "Naufragum ut eiectum ... pervigilat,"

refer to the death of Vinia, it would follow that the first Epithalamium
was written some time before that poem, and thus belongs to the earlier
time. While the translations of Sappho,--

  "Ille mi par esse deo videtur,"

and of Callimachus (lxvi.),--

  "Omnia qui magni dispexit lumina mundi,"

belong to the earlier period, the _Attis_ and the _Peleus and Thetis_;
although perhaps suggested by the treatment of the same or similar
subjects in Greek authors, are executed with such power and originality
as declare them to be products of the most vigorous stage in the
development of the poet's genius. That his genius came soon to maturity
is a reason for hesitation in assigning any particular time between 62
and 54 B.C. for the composition of the _Attis_ and of that part of the
_Epithalamium_ ("Peliaco quondam prognatae vertice pinus") which deals
with the main subject of the poem. But the criticism of Munro in his
edition of Lucretius, which shows similarities of expression that cannot
be mere casual coincidences, between the Ariadne-episode in the
_Epithalamium_ of Catullus (from line 52 to 266) and the poem of
Lucretius, leaves little doubt that that portion at least of the poem
was written after the publication of the _De rerum natura_, in the
winter of 55-54 B.C.

No ancient author has left a more vivid impression of himself on his
writings than Catullus. Coming to Rome in early youth from a distant
province, not at that time included within the limits of Italy, he lived
as an equal with the men of his time of most intellectual activity and
refinement, as well as of highest social and political eminence. Among
those to whom his poems are addressed, or who are mentioned in them, we
find the names of Hortensius, Cicero, Cornelius Nepos, Licinius Calvus,
Helvius Cinna and Asinius Pollio, then only a youth (xii. 8). Catullus
brought into this circle the genius of a great poet, the social
vivacity of a vigorous nature, the simplicity and sincerity of an
unambitious, and the warmth of an affectionate disposition. He betrays
all the sensitiveness of the poetic temperament, but it is never the
sensitiveness of vanity, for he is characterized by the modesty rather
than the self-confidence which accompanies genius, but the sensitiveness
of a heart which gives and expects more sympathy and loyalty in
friendship than the world either wants or cares to give in return. He
shows also in some of his lighter pieces the fastidiousness of a refined
taste, intolerant of all boorishness, pedantry, affectation and sordid
ways of life. The passionate intensity of his temperament displays
itself with similar strength in the outpourings of his animosity as of
his love and affection. It was, unfortunately, the fashion of the time
to employ in the expression of these animosities a licence of speech and
of imputation which it is difficult for men living under different
social conditions to understand, still more difficult to tolerate. Munro
has examined the 29th poem--

  "Quis hoc potest videre, quis potest pati,"

the longest and most important of the lampoons on Caesar and Mamurra,
and shown with much learning and acuteness the motives and intention of
Catullus in writing them. Had Julius Caesar really believed, as
Suetonius, writing two hundred years afterwards, says he did, that "an
eternal stigma had been cast upon him by the verses concerning Mamurra,"
we should scarcely apply the word magnanimity to his condonation of the
offence. But these verses survive as a memorial not of any scandal
affecting Julius Caesar which could possibly have been believed by his
contemporaries, but of the licence of speech which was then indulged in,
of the jealousy with which the younger members of the Roman aristocracy,
who a little later fought on the side of Pompey, at that time regarded
the ascendancy both of the "father-in-law and the son-in-law," and the
social elevation of some of their instruments, and also, to a certain
extent, of the deterioration which the frank and generous nature of
Catullus underwent from the passions which wasted, and the faithlessness
which marred his life.

The great age of Latin poetry extends from about the year 60 B.C. till
the death of Ovid in 17 A.D. There are three marked divisions in this
period, each with a distinct character of its own: the first represented
by Lucretius and Catullus, the second by Virgil and Horace, the last by
Ovid. Force and sincerity are the great characteristics of the first
period, maturity of art of the second, facility of the last. The
educating influence of Greek art on the Roman mind was first fully
experienced in the Ciceronian age, and none of his contemporaries was so
susceptible of that influence as Catullus. With the susceptibility to
art he combined a large share of the vigorous and genial qualities of
the Italian race. Like most of his younger contemporaries, he studied in
the school of the Alexandrine poets, with whom the favourite subjects of
art were the passion of love, and stories from the Greek mythology,
which admitted of being treated in a spirit similar to that in which
they celebrated their own experiences. It was under this influence that
Catullus wrote the _Coma Berenices_, the 68th poem, which, after the
manner of the Alexandrines, interweaves the old tale of Protesilaus and
Laodamia with the personal experiences of the poet himself, and the
_Epithalamium_ of Peleus and Thetis, which combines two pictures from
the Greek mythology, one of the secure happiness of marriage, the other
of the passionate despair of love betrayed. In this last poem Catullus
displays a power of creative pictorial imagination far transcending that
displayed in any of the extant poetry of Alexandria. We have no means of
determining what suggested the subject of the _Attis_ to Catullus,
whether the previous treatment of the subject by some Greek writer, some
survival of the myth which he found still existing during his residence
among the "Phrygii Campi," or the growth of various forms of Eastern
superstition and fanaticism, at Rome, in the last age of the Republic.
Whatever may have been its origin, it is the finest specimen we possess,
in either Greek or Latin literature, of that kind of short poem more
common in modern than ancient times, in which some situation or passion
entirely alien to the writer, and to his own age, is realized with
dramatic intensity. But the genius of Catullus is, perhaps, even
happier in the direct expression of personal feeling than in artistic
creation, or the reproduction of tales and situations from mythology.
The warmth, intensity and sincerity of his own nature are the sources of
the inspiration in these poems. The most elaborate and one of the finest
of them is the _Epithalamium_ in honour of the marriage of a member of
the old house of Manlius Torquatus with Vinia Aurunculeia, written in
the glyconic in combination with the pherecratean metre. To this metre
Catullus imparts a peculiar lightness and grace by making the trochee,
instead of the spondee as in Horace's glyconics and pherecrateans, the
first foot in the line. His elegiac metre is constructed with less
smoothness and regularity than that of Ovid and Tibullus or even of
Propertius, but as employed by him it gives a true echo to the serious
and plaintive feelings of some of his poems, while it adapts itself, as
it did later in the hands of Martial, to the epigrammatic terseness of
his invective. But the perfection of the art of Catullus is seen in his
employment of those metres which he adapted to the Latin tongue from the
earlier poets of Greece, the pure iambic trimeter, as in iv.--

  "Phaselus ille quem videtis hospites,"

the scazon iambic, employed in viii. and xxxi.--

  "Paeninsularum, Sirmio, insularumque,"

and the phalecian hendecasyllabic, a slight modification of the Sapphic
line, which is his favourite metre for the expression of his more joyful
moods, and of his lighter satiric vein. The Latin language never flowed
with such ease, freshness and purity as in these poems. Their perfection
consists in the entire absence of all appearance of effort or
reflection, and in the fulness of life and feeling, which gives a
lasting interest and charm to the most trivial incident of the passing
hour. In reference to these poems Munro has said with truth and force:
"A generation had yet to pass before the heroic attained to its
perfection; while he (Catullus) had already produced glyconics,
phalecians and iambics, each 'one entire and perfect chrysolite,'
'cunningest patterns' of excellence, such as Latium never saw before or
after,--Alcaeus, Sappho, and the rest then and only then having met
their match."

  The work of Catullus has not come down to us intact, as is shown by
  lacunae and quotations in ancient writers which cannot now be found in
  his poems. Out of the MSS. only three have claims to intrinsic
  importance. The oldest and best appears to be the Bodleian (Canon.
  30). But little inferior is the _Sangermanensis_ (Par. 14137). Of the
  third, the _Romanus_, we shall be better able to judge when its
  discoverer, Prof. W.G. Hale, has published his collation. None of
  these MSS. are older than the 14th century. One poem, 62, is, however,
  preserved in a MS. of the 9th century (the _Thuaneus_, Par. 8071).
  Prof. R. Ellis's discovery of the Bodleian MS. and E. Baehrens's
  recognition of its value opened a new chapter in the history of the
  text. Ellis's contributions comprise an indispensable commentary (ed.
  2, 1889), an elaborate critical edition (ed. 2, 1878) and an English
  translation (1871) in the metres of the original. The text in the
  Oxford series, published in 1905, is inferior to those specified
  below. Baehrens's edition, 2 volumes (text 1876, the second edition by
  K.P. Schulze is a misnomer; and Latin commentary 1885) is still of
  value. Amongst other editions with critical or explanatory notes or
  both may be mentioned those of A. Riese (1884), L. Schwabe (1886, with
  _index verborum_), B. Schmidt (1887), J.P. Postgate (1889, text
  differing little from that in the new _Corpus Poetarunt_), E. Benoist
  and E. Thomas, with French translation by Rostand (2 vols.,
  1882-1890), S.G. Owen (1893, an _édition de luxe_), W.T. Merrill
  (1893, Boston, U.S.A., with succinct English notes), A. Palmer (1896,
  one of the best of this scholar's works); M. Haupt's text of the three
  poets Catullus, Tibullus and Propertius, edited by J. Vahlen, reached
  its sixth edition in 1904. Of the numerous contributions to the
  textual and literary criticism of the poems may be named the papers in
  M. Haupt's _Opuscula_, L. Schwabe's _Quaestiones Catullianae_ (1862),
  B. Schmidt's _Prolegomena_, H.A.J. Munro's _Criticisms and
  Elucidations of Catullus_ (1878; second edition by J.D. Duff, 1905).
  Translations into English verse by J. Cranstoun (1867), Sir T. Martin
  (1861, 1876), R. Ellis (above); a recent version in prose with the
  Latin text by F.W. Cornish (1904). For further information see
  Teuffel's _History of Roman Literature_ (tr. by Warre), § 214, or the
  more recent accounts by M. Schanz, _Geschichte der romischen
  Litteratur_, i. §§ 102-106, and Frédéric Plessis, _La Poésie latine_
  (1909), pp. 143-173.     (W. Y. S.; X.)

CATULUS, the name of a distinguished family of ancient Rome of the gens
Lutatia. The following are its most important members.

1. GAIUS LUTATIUS CATULUS, Roman commander during the First Punic War,
consul 242 B.C. He was sent with a fleet of 200 ships to Sicilian
waters, and almost without opposition occupied the harbours of Lilybaeum
and Drepanum. A hurriedly equipped fleet sent out from Carthage under
Hanno was intercepted by the praetor Publius Valerius Falto and totally
defeated (battle of the Aegates Islands, March 10, 241). Catulus, who
had been wounded at Drepanum, took no part in the operations, but on his
return to Rome was accorded the honour of a triumph, which against his
will he shared with Valerius. (See PUNIC WARS: First, ad fin.).

2. QUINTUS LUTATIUS CATULUS, Roman general and consul with Marius in 102
B.C. In the war against the Cimbri and Teutones he was sent to defend
the passage of the Alps but found himself compelled to retreat over the
Po, his troops having been reduced to a state of panic (see MARIUS,
GAIUS). In 101 the Cimbri were defeated on the Raudine plain, near
Vercellae, by the united armies of Catulus and Marius. The chief honour
being ascribed to Marius, Catulus became his bitter opponent. He sided
with Sulla in the civil war, was included in the proscription list of
87, and when Marius declined to pardon him, committed suicide. He was
distinguished as an orator, poet and prose writer, and was well versed
in Greek literature. He is said to have written the history of his
consulship and the Cimbrian War after the manner of Xenophon; two
epigrams by him have been preserved, one on Roscius the celebrated actor
(Cicero, _De Nat. Deorum_, i. 28), the other of an erotic character,
imitated from Callimachus (Gellius xix. 9). He was a man of great
wealth, which he spent in beautifying Rome. Two buildings were known as
"Monumenta Catuli": the temple of _Fortuna hujusce diei_, to commemorate
the day of Vercellae, and the Porticus Catuli, built from the sale of
the Cimbrian spoils.

  See Plutarch, _Marius, Sulla_; Appian, _B.C._ i. 74; Vell. Pat. ii.
  21; Florus iii. 21; Val. Max. vi. 3, ix. 13; Cicero, _De Oratore_,
  iii, 3. 8, _Brutus_, 35.

3. QUINTUS LUTATIUS CATULUS (c. 120-61 B.C.), sometimes called
Capitolinus, son of the above, consul in 102. He inherited his father's
hatred of Marius, and was a consistent though moderate supporter of the
aristocracy. In 78 he was consul with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who after
the death of Sulla proposed the overthrow of his constitution, the
re-establishment of the distribution of grain, the recall of the
banished, and other democratic measures. Catulus vigorously opposed
this, and a temporary compromise was effected. But Lepidus, having
levied troops in his province of Transalpine Gaul, returned to Rome at
the head of an army. Catulus defeated him at the Mulvian bridge and near
Cosa in Etruria, and Lepidus made his escape to Sardinia, where he died
soon afterwards. In 67 and 66 Catulus unsuccessfully opposed, as
prejudicial to constitutional freedom, the Gabinian and Manilian laws,
which conferred special powers upon Pompey (q.v.). He consistently
opposed Caesar, whom he endeavoured to implicate in the Catilinarian
conspiracy. Caesar, in return, accused him of embezzling public money
during the reconstruction of the temple on the Capitol, and proposed to
obliterate his name from the inscription and deprive him of the office
of commissioner for its restoration. Catulus's supporters rallied round
him, and Caesar dropped the charge. Catulus was the last _princeps
senatus_ of republican times; he held the office of censor also, but
soon resigned, being unable to agree with his colleague Licinius
Crassus. Although not a man of great abilities, Catulus exercised
considerable influence through his political consistency and his
undoubted solicitude for the welfare of the state.

  See Sallust, _Catilina_, 35. 49; Dio Cassius xxxvi. 13; Plutarch,
  _Crassus_; Suetonius, _Caesar_, 15.

CAUB, or KAUB, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of
Hesse-Nassau, on the right bank of the Rhine, 28 m. N.W. from Wiesbaden,
on the railway from Frankfort-on-Main to Cologne. Pop. 2200. It has a
Roman Catholic and an Evangelical church, and a statue of Blücher. The
trade mainly consists of the wines of the district. On a crag above the
town stands the imposing ruin of Gutenfels, and facing it, on a rock in
the middle of the Rhine, the small castle Pfalz, or Pfalzgrafenstein,
where, according to legend, the Palatine countesses awaited their
confinement, but which in reality served as a toll-gate for merchandise
on the Rhine.

Caub, first mentioned in the year 983, originally belonged to the lords
of Falkenstein, passed in 1277 to the Rhenish Palatinate, and attained
civic rights in 1324. Here Blücher crossed the Rhine with the Prussian
and Russian armies, on New Year's night 1813-1814, in pursuit of the

CAUCA, a large coast department of Colombia, South America, lying
between the departments of Bolivar, Antioquia, Caldas and Tolima on the
E., and the Pacific Ocean and Panama on the W., and extending from the
Caribbean Sea S. to the department of Nariño. Pop. (1905, estimate)
400,000; area 26,930 sq. m. Although Cauca was deprived of extensive
territories on the upper Caquetá and Putumayo, and of a large area
bordering on Ecuador in the territorial redistribution of 1905, it
remained the largest department of the republic. The Western Cordillera,
traversing nearly its whole length from south to north, and the Central
Cordillera, forming a part of its eastern frontier, give a very
mountainous character to the region. It includes, besides, the fertile
and healthful valley of the upper Cauca, the hot, low valley of the
Atrato, and a long coastal plain on the Pacific. The region is rich in
mines and valuable forests, but its inhabitants have made very little
progress in agriculture because there are not adequate transportation
facilities. The capital of the department is Popayán at its southern
extremity, with an estimated population in 1905 of 10,000, other
important towns are Cali (16,000), Buga, Cartago and Buenaventura.

CAUCASIA, or CAUCASUS, a governor-generalship of Russia, occupying the
isthmus between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the west and the
Caspian Sea on the east, as well as portions of the Armenian highlands.
Its northern boundary is the Kuma-Manych depression, a succession of
narrow, half-desiccated lakes and river-beds, only temporarily filled
with water and connecting the Manych, a tributary of the Don, with the
Kuma, which flows into the Caspian. This depression is supposed to be a
relic of the former post-Pliocene connexion between the Black Sea and
the Caspian, and is accepted by most geographers as the natural frontier
between Europe and Asia, while others make the dividing-line coincide
with the principal water-parting of the Caucasus mountain system. The
southern boundary of Caucasia is in part coincident with the river Aras
(Araxes), in part purely conventional and political. It was shifted
several times during the 19th century, but now runs from a point on the
Black Sea, some 20 m. south of Batum, in a south-easterly and easterly
direction to Mt. Ararat, and thence along the Aras to within 30 m. of
its confluence with the Kura, where it once more turns south-east, and
eventually strikes the Caspian at Astara (30° 35' N.). This large
territory, covering an area of 180,843 sq. m., and having in 1897
9,248,695 inhabitants (51 per sq. m.), may be divided into four natural
zones or sections:--(i.) the plains north of the Caucasus mountains,
comprising the administrative division of Northern Caucasia; (ii.) the
Caucasus range and the highlands of Daghestan; (iii.) the valleys of the
Rion and the Kura, between the Caucasus range and the highlands of
Armenia; and (iv.) the highlands of Armenia.

  (i.) The _plains of Northern Caucasia_, which include most of the
  provinces of Kubañ and Terek and of the government of Stavropol, slope
  gently downwards from the foot of the Caucasus range towards the
  Kuma-Manych depression. It is only in their centre that they reach
  altitudes of as much as 2000-2500 ft. e.g. in the Stavropol "plateau,"
  which stretches northwards, separating the tributaries of the Kubañ
  from those of the Terek and the Kuma. Towards the foothills of the
  Caucasus they are clothed with thick forests, while in the west they
  merge into the steppes of south Russia or end in marshy ground, choked
  with reeds and rushes, in the delta of the Kubañ. In the north and
  east they give place, as the Manych and the coasts of the Caspian are
  approached, to arid, sandy, stony steppes. The soil of these plains is
  generally very fertile and they support a population of nearly
  2,800,000 Russians, composed of Cossacks and peasant immigrants,
  settled chiefly along the rivers and grouped in large, wealthy
  villages. They carry on agriculture--wheat-growing on a large
  scale--with the aid of modern agricultural machines, and breed cattle
  and horses. Vines are extensively cultivated on the low levels, and a
  variety of domestic trades are prosecuted in the villages. The higher
  parts of the plains, which are deeply trenched by the upper
  tributaries of the rivers, are inhabited by various Caucasian
  races--Kabardians and Cherkesses (Circassians) in the west, Ossetes in
  the middle, and several tribal elements from Daghestan, described
  under the general name of Chechens, in the east; while nomadic Nogai
  Tatars and Turkomans occupy the steppes.

  (ii.) The _Caucasus range_ runs from north-west to south-east from the
  Strait of Kerch to the Caspian Sea for a length of 900 m., with a
  varying breadth of 30 to 140 m., and covers a surface of 12,000 sq. m.
  The orographical characteristics of the Caucasus are described in
  detail under that heading.

  (iii.) The combined _valleys of the Rion and the Kura_, which
  intervene between the Caucasus and the Armenian highlands, and stretch
  their axes north-west and south-east respectively, embrace the most
  populous and most fertile parts of Caucasia. They correspond roughly
  with the governments of Kutais, Tiflis, Elisavetpol and Baku, and have
  a population of nearly 3,650,000. The two valleys are separated by the
  low ridge of the Suram or Meskes mountains.

  Spurs from the Caucasus and from the Armenian highlands fill up the
  broad latitudinal depression between them. Above (i.e. west of) Tiflis
  these spurs so far intrude into the valley that it is reduced to a
  narrow strip in breadth. But below that city it suddenly widens out,
  and the width gradually increases through the stretch of 350 m. to the
  Caspian, until in the Mugan steppe along that sea it measures 100 m.
  in width. The snow-clad peaks of the main Caucasus, descending by
  short, steep slopes, fringe the valley on the north, while an abrupt
  escarpment, having the characteristics of a border ridge of the
  Armenian highlands, fronts it on the south. The floor of the valley
  slopes gently eastwards, from 1200 ft. at Tiflis to 500 ft. in the
  middle, and to 85 ft. _below_ normal sea-level beside the Caspian. But
  the uniformity of the slope is interrupted by a plateau (2000-3000 ft.
  in altitude) along the southern foothills of the east central
  Caucasus, in the region known as Kakhetia, drained by the Alazan, a
  left-hand tributary of the Kura. The deep, short gorges and glens
  which seam the southern slopes of the Caucasus are inhabited by
  Ossetes, Tushes, Pshavs and Khevsurs in the west, and by various
  tribes of Lesghians in the east. In these high and stony valleys every
  available patch of ground is utilized for the cultivation of barley,
  even up to altitudes of 7000 and 8000 ft. above the level of the sea;
  but cattle-breeding is the principal resource of the mountaineers,
  whose little communities are often separated from one another by
  passes, few of which are lower than 10,000 ft. The steppes along the
  bottom of the principal valley are for the most part too dry to be
  cultivated without irrigation. It is only in Kakhetia, where numerous
  mountain streams supply the fields and gardens of the plateau of
  Alazan, that wheat, millet and maize are grown, and orchards,
  vineyards and mulberry plantations are possible. Lower down the valley
  cattle-breeding is the chief source of wealth, while in the small
  towns and villages of the former Georgian kingdom various petty
  trades, exhibiting a high development of artistic taste and technical
  skill, are widely diffused. The slopes of the Armenian highlands are
  clothed with fine forests, and the vine is grown at their base, while
  on the wide-stretching steppes the Turko-Tatars pasture cattle, horses
  and sheep. The lower part of the Kura valley assumes the character of
  a dry steppe, the rainfall not reaching 14 in. annually at Baku, and
  it is still less in the Mugan steppe, though quite abundant in the
  adjacent region of Lenkoran. The vegetation of the steppe is on the
  whole scanty. Trees are generally absent, except for thickets of
  poplars, dwarf oaks and tamarisks along the course of the Kura, the
  delta of which is smothered under a jungle of reeds and rushes. The
  Mugan steppe is, however, in spite of its dryness, a more fertile
  region in virtue of the irrigation practised; but the Kura has
  excavated its bed too deeply to admit of that being done along its
  course. The Lenkoran district, sometimes called Talysh, on the western
  side of the Kizil-Agach bay, is blessed with a rich vegetation, a
  fertile soil, and a moist climate.

  The inhabitants of the Kura valley consist principally of Iranian
  Tates and Talyshes, of Armenians and Lesghians, with Russians, Jews
  and Arabs. This conjoint valley of the Rion-Kura was in remote
  antiquity the site of several Greek colonial settlements, later the
  seat of successive kingdoms of the Georgians, and for centuries it has
  formed a bulwark against hostile invasions from the south and east. It
  is still inhabited chiefly by Georgian tribes--Gurians, Imeretians,
  Mingrelians, Svanetians--in the basin of the Rion, and by Georgians
  intermingled with Armenians in the valley of the Kura, while the
  steppes that stretch away from the lower course of the latter river
  are ranged over by Turko-Tatars. Mingrelia and Imeretia (valley of
  Rion) are the gardens of Caucasia, but the high valleys of Svanetia,
  farther north on the south slopes of the Caucasus mountains, are wild
  and difficult of access. In the cultivated parts the land is so
  exceedingly fertile and productive that it sells for almost fabulous
  prices, and its value is still further enhanced by the discovery of
  manganese and copper mines in the basin of the Rion, and of the almost
  inexhaustible supplies of naphtha and petroleum at Baku in the
  Apsheron peninsula. The principal products of the soil are mentioned
  lower down, while the general character of the vegetation is
  indicated under CAUCASUS: _Western Caucasus._ In the basin of the
  Rion, in that of the Chorokh (which runs off the Pontic highlands into
  the Black Sea south of Batura), and on the Black Sea littoral from
  Batum northwards to Sukhum-kaleh, and beyond, the climate is extremely
  hot and the rainfall heavy (see under _Climate_ below). It is in this
  valley that the principal towns (except Vladikavkaz at the north foot
  of the Caucasus) of Caucasia are situated, namely, Baku (179,133
  inhabitants in 1900), Tiflis (160,645 in 1897), Kutais (32,492), and
  the two Black Sea ports of Batum (28,512) and Poti (7666).

  (iv.) The _highlands of Armenia_ are sometimes designated the Minor
  Caucasus, Little Caucasus and Anti-Caucasus. But to use such terms for
  what is not only an independent, but also an older, orographical
  formation than the Caucasus tends to perpetuate confusion in
  geographical nomenclature. The Armenian highlands, which run generally
  parallel to the Caucasus, though at much lower elevations (5000-6000
  ft.), are a plateau region, sometimes quite flat, sometimes gently
  undulating, clothed with luxuriant meadows and mostly cultivable. From
  it rise double or triple ranges connected by cross-ridges and spined
  with outer spurs. These double and triple ranges, which have a general
  elevation of 8500-10,000 ft., stretch from the south-east angle of the
  Black Sea, 400 m. south-eastwards to the Kara-dagh and Salavat
  mountains in north Persia, and the latter link them on to the Elburz
  mountains that skirt the southern end of the Caspian Sea. Various
  names are given to the different parts of the constituent ranges, or,
  perhaps more correctly, elongated groups of mountains. The Ajar,
  Akhalt-sikh and Meskes or Trialety groups in the west are succeeded
  farther east by the Somkhet, Murguz, Ganji and Karabakh sections,
  forming the southern rim of the Kura basin, while parallel with them,
  but farther south, run the Mokry, Miskhan, Akmangan and Paltapin
  ranges, marking the northern edge of the Aras drainage area. These two
  sets of parallel ranges are linked together transversely by the
  cross-ridges of Bezobdal, Pambak, Shah-dagh and Gok-cha. From this
  last branches off the highest range in the entire series, namely, the
  Zangezur, which soars up to 10,000 ft. above the left bank of the
  Aras. From it again there shoot away at right angles, one on each
  side, the ranges of the Dar-alagöz and Bergushet. These highlands
  exhibit very considerable evidences of volcanic activity both in
  remote geological periods and also since the Tertiary epoch. Large
  areas are overlain with trachyte, basalt, obsidian, tuff and pumice.
  The most conspicuous features of the entire region, Mount Ararat
  (16,930 ft.) and Mount Alagöz (13,440 ft.), are both solid masses of
  trachyte; and both rise above the limits of perpetual snow. Extinct
  volcanoes are numerous in several of the ranges, e.g. Akmangan, Mokry,
  Karabakh and Egri-dagh (see below). It is in this region of the
  Armenian highlands that the largest lakes of Caucasia are situated,
  namely, the Gok-cha or Sevanga (540 sq. m. in area) at an altitude of
  6340 ft., the Chaldir-gol (33 sq. m.) at 6520 ft., and several smaller
  ones, such as the _gols_ of Khozapin, Khopchalu, Arpa, Toporavan and
  Tabiztskhur, all situated between 6500 and 7000 ft. above sea-level.
  The principal water-divide in this highland region is, however, the
  range of Egri-dagh (Ararat), which just south of 40° S. forms for 100
  m. the boundary between Russian and Turkish Armenia, having Ararat at
  its eastern extremity and the extinct volcano of Kessa-dagh (11,260
  ft.) at its western. Its importance lies in the fact that it divides
  the streams which flow into the Black Sea and Caspian from those which
  make their way into the Persian Gulf. The Egri-dagh possesses a
  sharply defined crest, ranges at a general elevation of 8000 ft., is
  bare of timber, scantily supplied with water, and rugged and deeply

  The transverse water-parting between the Black Sea and the Caspian
  begins on the south side of the main range of the Caucasus, at Mount
  Zikara (12,560 ft.), a little south-west of Kasbek, and runs
  south-west along the sinuous crests of the Racha, Suram or Meskes
  (3000-5000 ft.), Vakhan (10,000-11,000 ft.), Arzyan (7000-10,000 ft.),
  and its continuation the Soganluk, thus linking the Caucasus ranges
  with those of the Armenian highlands. This line of heights separates
  the basins of the Chorokh and the Rion (Black Sea) from those of the
  Aras and the Kura (Caspian Sea). North of the Caucasus ranges the
  water-divide between these two seas descends from Mount Elbruz along
  the Sadyrlar Mountains (11,000 ft.), and finally sinks into the
  Stavropol "plateau" (1600 ft.). But the main axis of the transverse
  upheavals would appear to be continued in a north-eastern direction in
  the Andi and other parallel ranges of Daghestan, as stated under

  The population in this region consists principally of Armenians,
  Tatars, Turks, Kurds, Ossetes, Greeks, with Persians, Tates and a few
  Russians (see particulars below).

_Climate_.--Owing in part to the great differences in altitude in
different regions of Caucasia and in part to the directions in which the
mountain ranges run, and consequently the quarters towards which their
slopes face, the climate varies very greatly according to locality.
Generally speaking, it may be characterized as a climate of extremes on
the Armenian highlands, in the Kura valley and in northern Caucasia, and
as maritime and genial in Lenkoran, on the Black Sea coastlands, and in
the valley of the Rion. The greatest recorded range of temperature is
at Erivan (altitude 3230 ft.), namely, of 64° between a January average
of 14.9° and an August average of 78.8° F. At Sukhum-kaleh, on the Black
Sea, the corresponding range is only 27.3°, between a January average of
48.8° and an August average of 76.1°. The highest mean temperatures for
the whole year are those of Lenkoran (60.3°) and of Sukhum-kaleh and
Poti (about 58°), and the lowest at Ardahan (5840 ft.), in the province
of Kars, namely, 37.9°, and at Gudaur (7245 ft.), a few miles south of
Kasbek, namely, 38.6°. The following table gives particulars of
temperature averages at a few typical places:--

  |    Place.   |   Altitude.  | Annual | January | July  |
  |             |              |  Mean. |  Mean.  | Mean. |
  | Stavropol   | 2030         | 47.0°  |  24.0°  | 70.0° |
  | Vladikavkaz | 2345         | 47.3°  |  23.4°  | 68.0° |
  | Gudaur      | 7245         | 38.6°  |  20.3°  | 57.2° |
  | Baku        | on Caspian   | 58.0°  |  38.0°  | 80.0° |
  | Tiflis      | 1490         | 55.0°  |  32.0°  | 76.5° |
  | Batum       | on Black Sea | 59.0°  |  42.0°  | 75.0° |
  | Sochi       | on Black Sea | 56.3°  |  40.3°  | 76.1° |
  | Lenkoran    | on Caspian   | 60.3°  |  39.0°  | 80.6° |
  | Erivan      | 3170         | 51.0°  |  51.0°  | 75.0° |

In respect of precipitation the entire region of Caucasia may be divided
into two strikingly contrasted regions, a wet and a dry. To the former
belong the Black Sea littoral, where the rainfall averages 59 to 93 in.
annually, and the valleys that open upon it or are exposed to winds
blowing off it, in which the rainfall varies, however, from 20 in.
(Abbas-tuman, Borzhom) to 60 (Kutais). In Lenkoran also the rainfall
averages 40 to 50 in. in the year. Between 16 and 40 in. fall as a rule
at the northern foot of the Caucasus (Mozdok, Pyatigorsk) and in the
Kura valley (Tiflis, Novo-bayazet). On the Armenian highlands and on the
steppes north of Pyatigorsk the rainfall is less than 12 in. annually,
and even in some places less than 8 in., e.g. at the foot of Ararat.
Most rain falls at Batum and at Lenkoran in the autumn, in northern
Caucasia and in Transcaucasia in spring and summer, but in the vicinity
of the Sea of Azov in winter.

_Flora and Fauna._--Plant-life, in such a mountainous country as
Caucasia, being intimately dependent upon aspect and altitude, is
treated under CAUCASUS. The wild animals of Caucasia are for the most
part the same as those which frequent the mountainous parts of central
Europe, though there is also an irruption of Asiatic forms, e.g. the
tiger (in Lenkoran only), panther, hyaena and jackal. The more important
of the carnivores which haunt the forests, valleys and mountain slopes
are the bear (_Ursus arctos_), wolf, lynx, wild cat and fox (_Vulpes
melanotus_). The wild boar occurs around Borzhom. The aurochs (_Bos
urus_) appears to exist still in the forests of the western Caucasus. Of
interest for sportsmen, as well as serving as prey for the carnivores,
are red deer, goats (_Capra pallasit_ and _C. aegagrus_), chamois,
roebuck, moufflon (_Ovis musimon_), argali or Asiatic wild sheep (_O.
Amman_), another species of sheep in _O. gmelini_, and fallow deer
(_Capreolus pigargns_) in northern Caucasus only. Rodents are numerous,
the mouse (_Mus sylvaticus_) is very destructive, and beavers are met
with in places. The birds of prey are the same as these of central
Europe, and include the sea eagle, alpine vulture (_Gyps fulvus_),
buzzard, kites (_Gypaëtus barbatus_ and _Milvus ater_), hawks (e.g.
_Astur nisus_), goshawk (_A. palumbarius_), fish-hawk (_Pandion
haliaëtus_) and owls. Among the smaller birds may be enumerated finches,
the siskin, bullfinch, pipit, titmouse, wagtail, lark, fine-crested
wren, hedge-sparrow, corn-wren, nut-hatch, starling, swallow, martin,
swift, thrush, butcher bird, shrike, dipper, yellow-hammer, ortolan and
a warbler (_Accentor alpinus_). The game birds consist of grouse,
blackcock, moorhen, quail and partridge. The pheasant derives its name
from the ancient name (_Phasis_) of the Rion.

In the seas and rivers about 190 species of fishes have been enumerated.
Of these, 115 species are Mediterranean, 30 are common to the Caspian
Sea, and the remaining species are peculiar to the Black Sea. The most
useful economically are several species of sturgeon and of herring,
trout, barbel, chubb, bream, ray, sea-dace, carp, anchovy. Insects
abound, especially Coleoptera. Flies, lice, gadflies and mosquitoes are
the worst of the insect plagues. There are several snakes, including the
viper (_Pelias berus_).

_Ethnology_.--The population of Caucasia is increasing rapidly. In 1897
it numbered 9,291,090, of whom 4,886,230 were males and 4,404,867 were
females. The most densely-peopled provinces were Kutais and Tiflis, each
with 80 inhabitants to the square mile; the thinnest the Black Sea
government (20½ per sq. m.), Terek (31), and Kars (39). Of the total
population 3,725,543 lived in northern Caucasia and 5,564,547 in
Transcaucasia (including Daghestan). In the latter territorial division
there exists a great disproportion between the sexes, namely, to every
100 males only 86 females; indeed in the Black Sea government there are
only 65.5 females to every 100 males. Ethnologically the population
belongs to a great variety of races. The older authorities asserted that
these numbered as many as 150, or even 300; the more recent researches
of Baron P.V. Uslar, F. Anton, von Schiefner, Zagursky, and others have
greatly reduced this number; but even then there are not less than fifty

According to the languages spoken the populations of Caucasia admit of
being classified as follows,[1] according to Senator N. Trointsky,
president of the Russian Census Committee for 1897.

  ARYANS                4,901,412
    _Slavs_                        3,183,870
      Great Russians                          1,829,793
      Little Russians                         1,305,463
      White Russians                             19,642
      Poles                                      25,117
    _Germans_                         47,391
    _Greeks_                         100,299
    _Rumanians_                        7,232
    _French and Italians_              1,435
    _Lithuanians_                      6,687
      Lithuanians proper                          5,121
      Letts                                       1,511
    _Iranians_                       315,695
      Persians                                   13,929
      Talyshes                                   34,994
      Tates                                      95,056
      Ossetes                                   171,716
    _Kurds_                           99,836
    _Armenians_                    1,116,461
    _Gypsies_                          3,041

  SEMITES                  46,739
    _Jews_                            40,498
    _Chaldaeans_ (Aisors)              5,353

  URAL-ALTAIANS         1,902,142
    _Finns_                            7,422
      Esthonians                                  4,281
    _Turko-Tatars_                 1,879,908
      Tatars                                  1,509,785
      Osmanli Turks                             139,419
      Nogai Tatars                               64,048
      Turkomans                                  24,522
      Bashkirs                                      953
      Chuvashes                                     411
      Kirghiz                                        98
      Sarts                                         158
      Karachais                                  27,222
      Kumyks                                     83,408
      Kara-papaks                                29,902
      Kalmucks                                   14,409

  CAUCASIANS            2,439,071
    _Georgians_ (including Imeretians,
         Gurians, Svanetians, Lazes,
         Mingrelians, &c.)         1,352,455
      Cherkesses (Adigheh) and Kabardians       144,847
      Abkhasians                                 72,103
    _Chechens_                       274,318
      Chechens proper                           226,496
      Ingushes[2]                                47,409
      Kistines                                      413
    _Lesghians_                      600,514
      Avaro-Andians                             212,692
      Darghis                                   130,209
      Kurins                                    159,213
      Udins                                       7,100
      Others                                     91,300

_Religion_.--Most of the Russians and the Georgians belong to the
Orthodox Greek Church (over 4,000,000 in all); but considerable numbers
(estimated at nearly 122,000, though in reality probably a good many
more) are Nonconformists of different denominations. The Georgian Lazes
are, however, Mussulmans. The Armenians are Christians, mostly of the
national Gregorian Church (979,566), though 34,000 are Roman Catholics.
The Caucasian races (except the Gregorians), together with the Turks and
Tatars, are Mussulmans of the Sunnite sect (2,021,300), and the Iranian
races mostly Mussulmans of the Shiite sect (884,100). The Kalmucks and
other Mongolic tribes are Lamaists (20,300), and some of the Kurds
profess the peculiar tenets of the Yezids.

_Industries_.--The principal occupation of the settled inhabitants is
agriculture and of the nomadic the breeding of live stock, including
camels. The cultivation of the soil is, however, attended in many parts
with great difficulties owing to the scanty rainfall and the very
primitive implements still in use, and in the valley of the Kura heavy
losses are frequently incurred from depredations by locusts. But where
irrigation is employed the yield of crops is excellent. Rye and wheat
are the most important crops harvested in northern Caucasia, but oats,
barley and maize are also cultivated, whereas in Transcaucasia the
principal crops are maize, rice, tobacco and cotton. The rice is grown
chiefly in the valley of the Kura and in Lenkoran; the tobacco in the
Rion valley and on the Black Sea coastlands, also to some extent in
Kubañ; and the cotton in the eastern provinces. Various kinds of fodder
crops are grown in Transcaucasia, such as hay, rye-grass and lucerne. It
is estimated that nearly 54,000 acres are under vineyards in northern
Caucasia and some 278,000 acres in Transcaucasia, the aggregate yield of
wine being 30 million gallons annually. The best wine grows in Kakhetia,
a district lying north-east and east of Tiflis; this district alone
yields nearly 8 million gallons annually. Large numbers of mulberry
trees are planted for rearing silkworms, especially in Kutais, Erivan,
Elisavetpol (Nukha) and Baku (Shemakha); the groves occupy nearly
150,000 acres, and the winding of the silk gives employment to large
numbers of the population. Melons and water-melons are also important
objects of cultivation. Sunflowers are very extensively grown for oil in
the government of Kubañ and elsewhere, and also some flax. Liquorice is
an article of export. Many varieties of fruit are grown, especially good
being the apricots, peaches, walnuts and hazel nuts. A limited area (not
more than 1150 acres) of the Black Sea coast between Sukhum-kaleh and
Batum is planted with the tea-shrub, which succeeds very well. In the
same district bamboos, ramie-fibre and attar (otto) of roses are

The _mining_ industry is growing rapidly in importance in spite of
costly and deficient means of communication, want of capital, and lack
of general initiative. So far the principal developments of the industry
have been in the governments of Kutais, Batum, Elisavetpol and Kubañ.
Copper ore is extracted above the Murgul river (some 30 m. south of
Batum), at Akhtala south of Tiflis, and at Kedabek in Elisavetpol;
manganese to a considerably greater extent (over 400,000 tons annually)
at Chiaturi in the Kvirila valley in Kutais. Steam coal of good quality
is reported to exist about 30 m. inland from the open roadstead of
Ochemchiri in Kutais, but it is not mined. About 50,000 tons of coal of
very poor quality are, however, extracted annually, and the same
quantity of salt in the Armenian highlands and in Kubañ. Small
quantities of quicksilver, sulphur and iron are obtained. But all these
are insignificant in comparison with the mineral oil industry of Baku,
which in normal times yields annually between ten and eleven million
tons of crude oil (naphtha). A good deal of this is transported by
gravitation from Baku to Batum on the Black Sea by means of a pipe laid
overland. The refined oil is exported as kerosene or petroleum, the
heavier refuse (_mazut_) is used as fuel. Naphtha is also obtained,
though in much smaller quantities, in Terek and Kubañ, in Tiflis and
Daghestan. Numerous mineral springs (chalybeate and sulphurous) exist
both north and south of the Caucasus ranges, e.g. at Pyatigorsk,
Zhelesnovodsk, Essentuki, and Kislovodsk in Terek, and at Tiflis,
Abbas-tuman and Borzhom in the government of Tiflis.

_Manufacturing_ industry is confined to a few articles and commodities,
such as cement, tea, tin cans (for oil), cotton goods, oil refineries,
tobacco factories, flour-mills, silk-winding mills (especially at Shusha
and Jebrail in the south of Elisavetpol), distilleries and breweries. On
the other hand, the domestic industries are extensively carried on and
exhibit a high degree of technical skill and artistic taste. Carpets
(especially at Shusha), silk, cotton and woollen goods, felts and fur
cloaks are made, and small arms in Daghestan and at Tiflis, Nukha and
Sukhum-kaleh; silversmiths' work at Tiflis, Akhaltsikh and Kutais;
pottery at Elisavetpol and Shusha; leather shoe-making at Alexandropol,
Nukha, Elisavetpol, Shusha and Tiflis; saddlery at Sukhum-kaleh and
Ochemchiri on the Black Sea and at Temirkhan-shura in Daghestan; and
copper work at Derbent and Alexandropol. But industries of every
description were most seriously crippled by the spirit of turbulence and
disorder which manifested itself throughout Transcaucasia in the years
1904-1906, accentuated as they were further by the outbreak of the
long-rooted racial enmities between the Armenians and the Tatars,
especially at Baku in 1905.

_Commerce_.--The exports through the Black Sea ports of Batum, Poti and
Novo-rossiysk average in value a little over £10,000,000 annually,
though showing a tendency to increase slightly. By far the most
important commodity is petroleum, fully one-half of the total value. In
addition large quantities are shipped at Baku direct for the Volga and
the Transcaspian port of Krasnovodsk. The export that comes next in
value is silk, and after it may be named wheat, barley, manganese ore,
maize, wool, oilcake, carpets, rye, oats, liquorice and timber. The
import trade reaches nothing like the same value, and what there is is
confined almost entirely to Batum. The annual average vahie may be put
at not quite £2,000,000, machinery and tin-plate being a long way the
most important items. There is further a small transit trade through
Transcaucasia from Persia to the value of less than half a million
sterling annually, and chiefly in carpets, cocoons and silk, wool, rice
and boxwood; and further a sea-borne trade between Persia and Caucasian
ports (Baku and Petrovsk) to the value of over 1½ millions sterling
in all. The very extensive internal trade with Russia can only be

_Railways_.--The principal approach to Caucasia from Russia by rail is
the line that runs from Rostov-on-Don to Vladikavkaz at the foot of the
central Caucasus range. Thence, or rather from the junction of Beslan,
14 m. north of Vladikavkaz, the main line proceeds east of Petrovsk on
the Caspian, and from Petrovsk skirts the shore southwards as far as
Baku, the distance from Vladikavkaz to Baku being 414 m. This railway,
together with the driving roads over the Caucasus mountains via the
Mamison pass (the Ossetic military road) and the Darial pass (the
Georgian military road), and the route across the Black Sea to Poti or
Batum are the chief means of communication between southern Russia and
Transcaucasia. Baku and Batum (also Poti) are connected by another main
line, 560 m. long, which traverses the valleys of the Kura and the Rion,
south of the Caucasus. From Tiflis, nearly midway on this last line, a
railway proceeds south as far as Erivan (234 m.), with a branch to Kars
(48 m.). The Erivan line is being continued into Persia, namely, to
Tabriz via Julfa on the Aras.

_History_.--To the ancient Greeks Caucasia, and the mighty range which
dominates it, were a region of mystery and romance. It was there that
they placed the scene of the sufferings of Prometheus (_vide_ Aeschylus,
_Prometheus Vinctus_), and there, in the land of Colchis, which
corresponds to the valley of the Rion, that they sent the Argonauts to
fetch the golden fleece. Outside the domain of myth, the earliest
connexion of the Greeks with that part of the world would appear to have
been through the maritime colonies, such as Dioscurias, which the
Milesians founded on the Black Sea coast in the 7th century B.C. For
more than two thousand years the most powerful state in Caucasia was
that of Georgia (q.v.), the authentic history of which begins with its
submission to Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. The southern portion of
Transcaucasia fell during the 1st century B.C. under the sway of
Armenia, and with that country passed under the dominion of Rome, and so
eventually of the Eastern empire. During the 3rd century A.D. Georgia
and Armenia were invaded and in great part occupied by the Khazars, and
then for more than a thousand years the mountain fastnesses of this
borderland between Europe and Asia were the refuge, or the
resting-place, of successive waves of migration, as people after people
and tribe after tribe was compelled to give way to the pressure of
stronger races harassing them in the rear. The Huns, for instance, and
the Avars appeared in the 6th century, and the Mongols in the 13th. In
the 10th century bands of Varangians or Russified Scandinavians sailed
out of the Volga and coasted along the Caspian until they had doubled
the Apsheron peninsula, when they landed and captured Barda, the chief
town of Caucasian Albania.

But, apart from Georgia, historical interest in Caucasia centres in the
long and persistent attempts which the Russians made to conquer it, and
the heroic, though unavailing, resistance offered by the mountain races,
more especially the Circassian and Lesghian tribes. Russian aggression
began somewhat early in the 18th century, when Peter the Great,
establishing his base at Astrakhan on the Volga, and using the Caspian
for bringing up supplies and munitions of war, captured Derbent from the
Persians in 1722, and Baku in the following year. But these conquests,
with others made at the expense of Persia, were restored to the latter
power after Peter's death, a dozen years later. At that period the
Georgians were divided into various petty principalities, the chief of
which were Imeretia and Georgia (Kharthlia), owing at times a more or
less shadowy allegiance to the sultan of the Ottoman Turks at
Constantinople. In 1770, during the course of a war between Russia and
Turkey, the Russians crossed over the Caucasus and assisted the
Imeretians to resist the Turks, and from the time of the ensuing peace
of Kuchuk-kainarji the Georgian principalities looked to their powerful
northern neighbour as their protector against the southern aggressors
the Turks. In 1783 George XIII., prince of Georgia and Mingrelia,
formally put himself under the suzerainty of Russia, and after his death
Georgia was converted (1801) into a Russian province. The same fate
overtook Imeretia, nine years later. Meanwhile the Russians had also
subdued the Ossetes (1802) and the Lesghian tribes (1803) of the middle
Caucasus. By the peace of Gulistan in 1813 Persia ceded to Russia
several districts in eastern Caucasia, from Lenkoran northwards to
Derbent. Nevertheless the mountain tribes who inhabited the higher parts
of the Caucasus were still independent, and their subjugation cost
Russia a sustained effort of thirty years, during the course of which
her military commanders were more than once brought almost to the point
of despair by the tenacity, the devotion and the adroitness and daring
which the mountaineers displayed in a harassing guerilla warfare. The
animating spirit of their resistance was Shamyl (Samuel), a chief and
priest of the Lesghians, who, a Mahommedan, proclaimed a "holy war"
against the "infidel" aggressors. At first the Russians were able to
continue their policy of conquest and annexation without serious check.
After acquiring the northern edge of the Armenian plateau, partly from
Persia in 1828 and partly from Turkey in 1829, Russia crushed a rising
which had broken out in the Caspian coast districts of Daghestan on the
north of the Caucasus. This took place during the years 1831-1832. The
next seven years were occupied with the subjugation of the Abkhasians
along the Black Sea coast, and of other Circassian tribes in the west.
Meanwhile Shamyl had roused the Lesghian tribes farther east and begun
his twenty years' struggle for freedom, a struggle which called forth
the sympathy and admiration of nearly the whole of Europe. More than
once he escaped, in a manner that seemed little short of marvellous, out
of the hands of the Russians when they held him closely invested in some
mountain fastness, as at Himry in 1831, at Akhulgo in 1839, and again at
the same stronghold in 1849. The general who at last broke the back of
the long opposition of the prophet-chief of the Lesghians was Prince
Baryatinsky, who after three years of strenuous warfare succeeded in
capturing Shamyl's stronghold of Weden, and then in surrounding that
chieftain himself on the inaccessible rocky platform of Gunib in the
heart of Daghestan. There the hitherto indomitable champion of Caucasian
independence was forced to surrender to the Russians on the 6th of
September 1859. Nevertheless the spirit of resistance in these stubborn
mountaineers was not finally broken until 1864, when the Russians
eventually stifled all opposition in the difficult valleys and glens of
the western Caucasus. But this was followed, during the next fourteen
years, by the wholesale emigration of thousands upon thousands of
Circassians, who sought an asylum in Turkish territory, leaving their
native region almost uninhabited and desolate, a condition from which it
has not recovered even at the present day. During the Russo-Turkish War
of 1877-78 the self-exiled Circassians and other Caucasian mountaineers,
supported by a force of 14,000 Turks, made a determined attempt to wrest
their native glens from the power of Russia; but, after suffering a
severe defeat at the hands of General Alkhazov, the Turks withdrew, and
were accompanied by some 30,000 Abkhasians, who settled in Asia Minor. A
few months later the Lesghians in Daghestan, who had risen in revolt,
were defeated and their country once more reduced to obedience. By the
ensuing peace of Adrianople, Russia still further enlarged her
Transcaucasian territories by the acquisition of the districts of Kars,
Batum and Ardahan. After a peaceful period of a quarter of a century the
Armenian subjects of Russia in Transcaucasia were filled with bitterness
and discontent by the confiscation of the properties of their national
(Gregorian) church by the Russian treasury. Nor were their feelings more
than half allayed by the arrangement which made their ecclesiastics
salaried officers of the Russian state. This ferment of unrest, which
was provoked in the years 1903-1904, was exacerbated in the winters that
followed by the renewed outbreak of the century-long racial feud between
the Tatars and the Armenians at Baku and other places. In fact, nearly
the whole of the region between the Caucasus and the Perso-Turkish
frontier on the south, from the Caspian Sea on the one side to the Black
Sea on the other, was embroiled in a civil war of the most sanguinary
and ruthless character, the inveterate racial animosities of the
combatants being in both cases inflamed by religious fanaticism.
Complete anarchy prevailed at the worst centres of disorder, as Baku and
Batum, the imperial authorities being more powerless to preserve even
the semblance of order than they were in the interior of Russia. Many of
the oil wells at Baku were burned, and massacres took place at that
town, at Shusha, at Erivan, at Tiflis, at Batum, at Jebrail and at other
places. An end was put to these disorders only by the mutual agreement
of the two contestants, alike horrified and exhausted by the fierce
outburst of passion, in September 1905.     (J. T. Be.)


  [1] _Premier Recensement général de la population de l'empire de
    Russie_, ed. N. Trointsky (St Petersburg, 1905, 2 vols.), in Russian
    and French.

  [2] Although the Ingushes speak a Chechen dialect, they have recently
    been proved to be, anthropologically, quite a distinct race.

CAUCASUS, a mountain range of Asia, wholly within the Russian empire,
stretching north-west to south-east from the Strait of Kerch (between
the Black Sea and Sea of Azov) to the Caspian Sea, over a length of 900
m., with a breadth varying from 30 to 140 m. In its general character
and conformation the Caucasus presents a closer analogy with the
Pyrenees than with the Alps. Its general uniformity of direction, its
comparatively narrow width, and its well-defined limits towards both
south and north are all features which it has in common with the former.
The range of the Caucasus, like that of the Pyrenees, maintains for
considerable distances a high average elevation, and is not cleft by
deep trenches, forming natural passes across the range, such as are
common in the Alps. In both ranges, too, some of the highest summits
stand on spurs of the main range, not on the main range itself; as Mont
Perdu and Maladetta lie south of the main backbone of the Pyrenees, so
Mount Elbruz and Kasbek, Dykh-tau, Koshtan-tau, Janga-tau and
Shkara--all amongst the loftiest peaks of the Caucasus--stand on a
subsidiary range north of the principal range or on spurs connecting the
two. On the other hand, it is interesting to compare the arrangement of
the drainage waters of the Caucasus with those of the Alps. In both
orographical systems the principal rivers start nearly all together from
a central nucleus, and in both cases they radiate to opposite quarters
of the compass; but whereas in the Alps the Rhone and the Rhine, flowing
south-west and north-east respectively, follow longitudinal valleys, and
the Aar and the Ticino, flowing north-west and south-east respectively,
follow transverse valleys, in the Caucasus the streams which flow
south-west and north-east, namely, the headwaters of the Rion and the
Terek, travel along transverse valleys, and those of the Kura and the
Kuban, flowing south-east and north-west respectively, traverse
longitudinal valleys. For purposes of description it is convenient to
consider the range in four sections, a western, a middle with two
subsections, and an eastern.

1. WESTERN CAUCASUS. This section, extending from the Strait of Kerch to
Mount Elbruz in 42° 40' E., is over 420 m. long, and runs parallel to
the north-east coast of the Black Sea and at only a short distance from
it. Between the main range and the sea there intervene at least two
parallel ranges separated by deep glens, and behind it a third
subsidiary parallel range, likewise separated by a deep trough-like
valley, and known as the Bokovoi Khrebet. All these ranges are shorn
through transversely by numerous glens and gorges, and, the rainfall
being heavy and the exposure favourable, they are densely clothed with
vegetation. Many of the spurs or broken segments of ranges thus formed
abut steeply upon the Black Sea, so that this littoral region is on the
whole very rugged and not readily accessible, especially as the general
elevations are considerable. The seaward flanking ranges run up to 4000
ft. and more, and in many places shoot out cliffs which overhang the
coast some 2000-3000 ft. sheer, while the main range gradually ascends
to 10,000-12,000 ft. as it advances eastwards, the principal peaks being
Fisht (8040 ft.), Oshten (9210 ft.), Shuguz (10,640 ft.), and Psysh
(12,425 ft.). And whereas the main range is built up of hard eruptive or
crystalline rocks, the subsidiary chains are composed of softer
(Cretaceous and Tertiary) laminated formations, which easily become
disintegrated and dislocated. The snow-line runs here at about 9000 ft.
on the loftiest summits, and east of Oshten the crest of the main range
is capped with perpetual snow and carries many hanging glaciers, while
larger glaciers creep down the principal valleys. The passes lie at
relatively great altitudes and are few in number, so that although the
northern versants of the various ranges all have a tolerably gentle
slope, communication between the Black Sea and the valley of the Kuban,
and the low steppe country beyond, is the reverse of easy. The more
important passes, proceeding from west to east, are Pshekh (5435 ft.)
west of Oshten, and Shetlib (6060 ft.) east of Oshten, Pscashka (6880
ft.) east of Shuguz, Sanchar (7990 ft.) west of Psysh; and between the
last-named mountain and Elbruz, facilitating communication between
Sukhum-Kaleh (and the coast as far as Poti) and the upper valley of the
Kuban, are the passes of Marukh (11,500 ft.), Klukhor (9450 ft.) and
Nakhar (9615 ft.).

_Flora._--The southern exposure of this littoral region, the shelter
afforded against the bitter winds of the north by the lofty Caucasus
range, and the copious rainfall all combine to foster a luxuriant and
abundant vegetation. The most distinguishing feature of the flora of
this region is the predominance of arborescent growths; forests cover in
fact 56% of the area, and are not only dense but laced together with
climbing and twining plants. The commonest species of trees are such as
grow in central Europe, namely, ash, fir, pine, beech, acacia, maple,
birch, box, chestnut, laurel, holm-oak, poplar, elm, lime, yew, elder,
willow, oak. The common box is especially prevalent, but the
preponderating species are _Coniferae_, including the Caucasian species
_Pinus halepensis_ and _P. insignis_. The commonest firs are _Abies
nordmannia_ and _A. orientalis_. There are two native oaks, _Quercus
ponticus_ and _Q. sessiliflora_. A great variety of shrubs grow on these
slopes of the western Caucasus, chiefly the following species, several
of which are indigenous--_Rhododendron ponticum, Azalea pontica,
Aristotelia maqui, Agave americana, Cephalaria tatarica, Coloneaster
pyracantha, Citrus aurantium, Diospyros ebenum, Ficus carica, Illicium
anisatum, Ligustrum caucasicum, Punica granatum, Philadelphus
coronarius, Pyrus salicifolia, Rhus cotinus_ and six species of
_Viburnum_. Aquatic plants thrive excellently and occur in great
variety. The following purely Caucasian species also grow on the
coast--five species of spearwort, three of saxifrage, _Aster caucasica,
Dioscorea caucasica, Echinops raddeanus, Hedera colchica, Helleborus
caucasica_ and _Peucedanum caucasicum_. Here too are found many of the
more beautiful open-air flowering plants of a shrubby character, e.g.
magnolia, azalea, camellia, begonia and paulownia. Among the cultivated
trees and shrubs the most valuable economically are the vine, peach,
pomegranate, fig, olive (up to 1500 ft. above sea-level), chestnut,
apricot, apple, pear, plum, cherry, melon, tea (on the coast between
Sukhum-Kaleh and Batum), maize (yielding the staple food of the
inhabitants), wheat (up to 6000 ft.), potatoes, peas, currants, cotton,
rice, colza and tobacco. Before the Russian conquest the native
inhabitants of this region were Kabardians, Circassians (Adigheh) and
Abkhasians, also a Circassian race. But half a million of these people
being Mahommedans, and refusing to submit to the yoke of Christian
Russia, emigrated into Turkish territory between 1864 and 1878, and the
country where they had lived remained for the most part unoccupied until
after the beginning of the 20th century. Then, however, the Russian
government held out inducements to settlers, and these have been
responded to by Russians, Greeks, Armenians and Rumanians, but the
process of repeopling the long deserted territory is slow and difficult.
The coast-line is remarkably regular, there being no deep bays and few
seaports. The best accommodation that these latter afford consists of
more or less open roadsteads, e.g. Novo-rossiysk, Gelenjik, Anapa,
Sukhum-Kaleh, Poti and Batum. Along the coast a string of summer bathing
resorts is springing up similar to those that dot the south-east coast
of the Crimea. The most promising of these little seaside places are
Anapa, Gelenjik and Gagry.

2. MIDDLE CAUCASUS: (a) _Western Half._--This sub-section, with a length
of 200 m., reaches from Mount Elbruz to Kasbek and the Pass of Darial.
It contains the loftiest summits of the entire range, fully a dozen
exceeding Mont Blanc in altitude (see table below).

  _List of Peaks in the west central Caucasus, with their altitudes,
  names and dates of mountaineers who have climbed them._

  |   Name of Peak.    |Altitude|             By whom ascended.            |Date|
  |                    |in Feet.|                                          |    |
  |Elbruz, E. peak     | 18,345 |D.W. Freshfield, A.W. Moore and C. Tucker |1868|
  |Elbruz, W. peak     | 18,465 |F.C. Grove, H. Walker and F. Gardiner     |1874|
  |  "       "         |   "    |H. Woolley                                |1889|
  |Donguz-orun         | 14,600 |G. Merzbacher and L. Purtscheller         |1890|
  |    "               |   "    |Donkin and H. Fox                         |1888|
  |    "               |   "    |Helbling, Reichert and Weber              |1903|
  |Shtavler            | 13,105 |Ficker, W.R. Rickmers, Scheck and Wigner  |1903|
  |Ledosht-tau         | 12,580 |Schuster and Wigner                       |1903|
  |Hevai               | 13,055 |Schuster and Wigner                       |1903|
  |Lakra-tau           | 12,185 |Rolleston and Longstaff                   |1903|
  |Ushba, N.E. peak    | 15,400 |Cockin                                    |1888|
  |Ushba, S.W. peak    | 15,410 |Helbling, Schulze, Reichert, Schuster and |1903|
  |                    |        |  Weber                                   |    |
  |Ushba, both peaks   |        |Distel, Leuchs and Pfann                  |1903|
  |Sultran-kol-bashi   | 12,495 |Grove, Walker and Gardiner                |1874|
  |Bak                 | 11,739 |Collier, Solly and Newmarch               |1894|
  |Gulba               | 12,500 |Freshfield                                |1887|
  |Salynan-bashi       | 14,700 |Cockin and H.W. Holder                    |1888|
  |Shikildi-tau        | 14,170 |Helbling, Reichert, Schulze and Weber     |1903|
  |Bshedukh            | 14,010 |Distel, Leuchs and Pfann                  |1903|
  |Ullu-tau-chana      | 13,800 |Rolleston and Longstaff                   |1903|
  |Adyr-su-bashi       | 14,335 |Holder, Cockin and Woolley                |1896|
  |Sullu-kol-bashi     | 13,970 |Merzbacher and Purtscheller               |1890|
  |Tikhtengen          | 15,135 |Rolleston and Longstaff                   |1903|
  |Gestola             | 15,940 |C.T. Dent and Donkin                      |1886|
  |Tetnuld             | 15,920 |Freshfield                                |1887|
  |   "                |   "    |Merzbacher and Purtscheller               |1890|
  |Adish or Katuyn-tau | 16,295 |Holder and Woolley                        |1888|
  |Janga-tau, E. peak  | 16,525 |Cockin                                    |1888|
  |  "      "          |   "    |Merzbacher and Purtscheller               |1890|
  |Janga-tau, E. and W.| W. peak|                                          |    |
  |  peaks             | 16,660 |Helbling, Reichert, Schulze and Weber     |1903|
  |Shkara              | 17,040 |Cockin                                    |1888|
  |Ailama              | 14,855 |Woolley                                   |1889|
  |Ullu-auz            | 15,350 |V. Sella                                  |1888|
  |Dykh-tau *          | 17,050 |Cockin, Holder and Woolley                |1888|
  |Koshtan-tau **      | 16,875 |Woolley                                   |1888|
  |Mishirghi-tau       |        |                                          |    |
  |  E. peak           | 16,350 |Woolley                                   |1889|
  |Laboda              | 14,170 |Dent and Woolley                          |1895|
  |Tsikhvarga, E. peak | 13,575 |V. Sella                                  |1890|
  |    "       W. peak | 13,575 |Holder and Cockin                         |1890|
  |Karagom-khokh or    |        |                                          |    |
  | Burdshula          | 14,295 |Holder and Cockin                         |1890|
  |Adai-khokh          | 15,275 |Holder and Cockin                         |1890|
  |Tepli               | 14,510 |V. Sella                                  |1896|
  |Kasbek              | 16,545 |Freshfield, Moore and Tucker              |1868|
  |  "                 |   "    |Woolley                                   |1889|
  |  "                 |   "    |Merzbacher                                |1890|
  |  "                 |   "    |V. Sella                                  |1896|
  |Gimarai-khokh       | 15,670 |Merzbacher                                |1890|
  |Laila, N. peak      | 13,045 |Freshfield and Powell                     |1889|
  |Laila, middle peak  | 13,155 |V. Sella                                  |1889|
  |Laila, S. peak      | 13,105 |Merzbacher and Purtscheller               |1890|
  |Khamkhakhi-khokh    | 14,065 |M. de Déchy                               |1884|

     * Formerly the Koshtan-tau.
    ** Formerly the Dykh-tau.

  In addition to the peaks enumerated in the table, the following also
  exist between Elbruz and Kasbek all exceeding 13,000 ft. in altitude:
  Dong-osenghi, 14,265 ft.; Kurmychi, 13,310 ft.; Ullu-kara-tau, 14,070
  ft.; Jailyk, 17,780 ft.; Sarikol-bashi, 13,965 ft.; Dumala-tau, 14,950
  ft.; Sugan-tau, 14,730 ft.; Tiutiu-bashi, 14,500 ft.; Nuamkuam, 13,975
  ft.; Zurungal, 13,915 ft.; Mala-tau, 14,950 ft.; Tiutiun-tau, 15,115
  ft.; Khrumkol-tau, 14,653 ft.; Bubis-khokh, 14,500 ft.; Giulchi,
  14,680 ft.; Doppakh, 14,240 ft.; Nakhashbita-khokh, 14,405 ft.;
  Shan-khokh, 14,335 ft.; Mishirghi-tau (W. peak), 16,410 ft.;
  Fytnargyn-tau, 13,790 ft.; Gezeh-tau, 14,140 ft.; and Kaltber, 14,460

The crest of the main range runs continuously at an altitude exceeding
10,000 ft., but even it is surpassed in elevation by the secondary range
to the north, the Bokovoi Khrebet. These two ranges are connected by
more than half a dozen short transverse spurs or necks, inclosing as
many cirques or high cauldron glens. Besides the Bokovoi Khrebet several
other short subsidiary ranges branch off from the main range at acute
angles, lifting up high montane glens between them; for instance, the
two ranges in Svanetia, which divide, the one the river (glen) Ingur
from the river (glen) Tskhenis-Tskhali, and the other the river (glen)
Tskhenis-Tskhali from the rivers (glens) Lechkhum and Racha. Down all
these glens glacier streams descend, until they find an opportunity to
pierce through the flanking ranges, which they do in deep and
picturesque gorges, and then race down the northern slopes of the
mountains to enter the Terek or the Kuban, or down the southern versant
to join the Rion or the Kura. Amongst all these high glens there is a
remarkable absence of lakes and waterfalls; nor are there down in the
lower valleys at the foot of the mountains, as one would naturally
expect in a region so extensively glaciated, any sheets of water
corresponding to the Swiss lakes. In this section of the Caucasus the
loftiest peaks do not as a rule rise on the main range, but in many
cases on the short spurs that link it with the Bokovoi Khrebet and other
subsidiary ranges.

  "The central chain of the Caucasus," writes Mr Douglas W.
  Freshfield,[1] "consists of a number of short parallel or curved
  horseshoe ridges, crowned with rocky peaks and enclosing basins filled
  by the _névés_ of great glaciers.... On either side of the main chain
  the same succession is repeated, with one important difference. On the
  north the schists come first, sometimes rising into peaks and ridges
  in a state of ruin ... but more often worn to rolling downs; then the
  limestone range--writing-desk mountains that turn their steep fronts
  to the central snows; lastly low Cretaceous foothills, that sink
  softly into the steppe. But on the south side the crystalline rocks
  are succeeded by a broad belt of slates, as to the age of which the
  evidence is at present conflicting and the opinion of geologists
  divided. East of Adai-khokh, by what seems a strange freak of nature,
  the granitic [main] range is rent over and over again to its base by
  gorges, the watershed being transferred to the parallel chain of clay
  slates ... which has followed it from the Black Sea, attaining on its
  way the height of 13,400 ft. in the Laila, and limiting the great
  parallel basins of the Rion, Ingur and Skenis Shali
  [= Tskhenis-Tskhali]...." "At the base of the central core of the chain
  spread (to the north) broad, smooth, grassy downs, the pastures of the
  Turk and the Ossete.... Their ridges attain to 9000 to 10,000 ft. They
  are composed of friable crystalline schists.... Beyond these schists
  rises a broken wall of limestone, cleft to the base by gorges, through
  which flow the mountain torrents, and capped by pale precipitous
  battlements, which face the central chain at a height of 11,000 to
  12,000 ft. Beyond, again, lies a broad furrow, or 'longitudinal fold,'
  as geologists call it, parallel to the ridges, and then rises the last
  elevation, a belt of low calcareous hills, on which, here and there
  among the waves of beech forest, purple or blue with distance, a white
  cliff retains its local colour and shines like a patch of fresh snow.
  Beyond, once more beyond, spreads the Scythian steppe, not the dead
  level of Lombardy, but an expanse of long low modulations, which would
  be reckoned hills in our home counties, seamed by long shining
  ribbons, which mark the courses of the tributaries of the Terek....
  Southwards too, immediately under the snows, we find 'crystalline
  schists,' smooth grassy heights, separated by shallow trenches, which
  form the lesser undulations of the three basins, the _drei
  Langenhochthäler Imeritiens_ of Dr Radde. These basins or
  'longitudinal folds' are enclosed on the south by the long high ridge
  of dark slates, which extends parallel to the crystalline [main] chain
  from the neighbourhood of Sukhum-Kale to the Krestovaya Gora [pass of
  Darial.] Behind this slate crest spreads a confused multitude of
  hills, Jurassic and Cretaceous in their formation.... Their outer
  edge, distant some 30 to 40 m. from the snows, is marked by a
  limestone belt, lower and less continuous than that on the north,
  which frames the gorges of the Rion, and rises in the Kuamli (6352
  ft.) and Nakarala (4774 ft.) near Kutais, its best known
  elevations."[2] It may be added that, south of the central watershed,
  the strata, both Mesozoic and Palaeozoic, are compressed, crumpled,
  faulted and frequently overfolded, with their apices pointing to the

_Glaciers._--As a rule the snow-line runs at 9500 to 10,000 ft. on the
northern face and 1000 ft. higher on the southern face. It is estimated
that there are in all over nine hundred glaciers in this section of the
range, and although they often rival those of the Alps in size, they do
not descend generally to such low altitudes as the latter. The best
known are the Bezingi or Ullu, between Dykh-tau and Janga-tau, 10½ m.
long, covering an area of 31 sq.m., and descending to 6535 ft. above
sea-level; Leksyr, situated south of Adyr-su-bashi, 7½ m. long, 19 sq.m.
in area, and creeping down to as low as 5690 ft., this being the lowest
point to which any glacier descends on the south side of the range;
Tseya or Zea, descending 6 m. from the Adai-khokh to an altitude of 6730
ft.; Karagom, from the same mountain, 9½ m. long, 14 sq.m. in area and
reaching down to 5790 ft., the lowest on the north side; Dyevdorak or
Devdorak, from Kasbek, 2½ m. long, its lower end at 7530 ft.; Khaldeh or
Geresho 4¼ m. long, from Shkara and Janga-tau; Tuyber from Tetnuld, 6½
m. long, area 21 sq.m., and reaching down to 6565 ft.; Tsanner or
Zanner, the same length and the same area, but stopping short 240 ft.
higher, likewise given off by Tetnuld; while between that peak, Adish
and Gestola originates the Adish or Lardkhat glacier, 5 m. long and
terminating at 7450 ft. The total area covered by glaciers in the
central Caucasus is estimated at 625 to 650 sq.m., the longest being the
Maliev on Kasbek, 36 m. long; but according to the investigations of M.
Rossikov several of the largest glaciers are shrinking or retreating,
the Tseya at the rate of something like 40-45 ft. per annum.

_Passes._--It is in this section that the entire mountain system is
narrowest, and here it is that (apart from the "gate" at Derbent close
beside the Caspian) the principal means of communication exist between
north and south, between the steppes of southern Russia and the
highlands of Armenia and Asia Minor. These means of communication are
the passes of Darial and Mamison. Over the former, which lies
immediately east of Kasbek, runs the Georgian military road (made
1811-1864) from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis, cutting through the mountains by
a gorge (8 m. long) of singular beauty, shut in by precipitous mountain
walls nearly 6000 ft. high, and so narrow that there is only just room
for the carriage-road and the brawling river Terek side by side. The
pass by which this road crosses the main range, farther south, is known
as the Krestovaya Gora (Mountain of the Cross) and lies 7805 ft. above
sea-level. The Mamison Pass, over which runs the Ossetic military road
(made passable for vehicles in 1889) from the Terek (below Vladikavkaz)
to Kutais in the valley of the Rion, skirting the eastern foot of the
Adai-khokh, lies at an altitude of 9270 ft. and is situated a little
south of the main range. Scarce any of the remaining passes in this
west-central region are better than mountain paths; horses can traverse
the best of them only during a few weeks in the height of summer. They
mostly range at altitudes of 9000-12,500 ft., and between the pass of
Nakhar in the west and that of Mamison in the east there is not a single
pass below 10,000 ft. The best known in this section are the three
Baksan passes of Chiper (10,800 and 10,720 ft.), Bassa (9950 ft.) and
Donguz-orun (10,490 ft.), south of Elbruz; those of Becho (11,070 ft.),
Akh-su (12,465 ft.), Bak (10,220 ft.), Adyr-su (12,305 ft.) and Bezingi
(10,090 ft.), between Elbruz and Dykh-tau; and those of Shari-vizk
(11,560 ft.), Edena, Pasis-mta or Godivizk (11,270 ft.), Shtulu-vizk
(10,860 ft.), Fytnargyn (11,130 ft.), between Dykh-tau and Adai-khokh;
the Bakh-fandak (9570 ft.), between Adai-khohk and Kasbek; and the two
Karaul passes (11,680 and 11,270 ft.) and Gurdzi-vizk (10,970 ft.),
connecting the valley of the Urukh with that of the Rion. The most
frequented pass in Svanetia is that of Latpari (9260 ft.), situated in
the first of the southern subsidiary ranges mentioned above, and thus
connecting the valley of the Ingur with the valley of the

_Flora._--In this section of the range again the southern slopes are
clothed with vegetation of remarkable luxuriance and richness, more
especially in the region of Svanetia (42°-43° E.). Not only are the
plants bigger than they grow in the Alps, but the blossoms are more
abundant. Here again forests of _Coniferae_ predominate, especially on
the northern and eastern slopes; and the other distinguishing features
of the flora are gigantic male ferns (_Aspidium filix-mas_), _Paris
incompleta_ (a member of the Trilliaceae), _Usnea_ or tree-moss, box,
holly (_Ilex aquifolium_), _Lilium monadelphum_ and many of the familiar
herbaceous plants which flower in English gardens, though here they grow
to an altogether extraordinary size--"monkshoods, _Cephalaria_,
_Mulgedia_ and groundsels, among which men on horseback might play at
hide and seek without stooping" (E. Levier). Other prominent species are
_Campanula_, _Pyrethrum_, aconite, _Cephaelis_, speedwell, _Alchemilla
sericea_, _Centaurea macrocephala_, _Primula grandis_ and a species of
primrose. And the great height (13,000 ft.) at which the flowering
plants blossom is not less remarkable than the great beauty and
abundance of the flowers. Species which grow on both the northern and
the southern slopes ascend 2000 ft. higher on the latter than on the
former. Walnuts grow up to an altitude of 5400 ft., the vine and
mulberry up to 3250 ft., the lime and ash to 4000 ft. The forests extend
to the upper end of the limestone gorges. Above that the crystalline
schists are bare of tree vegetation. The upper limit of arborescent
vegetation is considered to run at 7000-7500 ft., of shrubs such as
rhododendrons at 8500 ft., and of pasture-lands up to 9000 ft. The
principal cultivated varieties of plants in this section are wheat, rye,
oats, barley, beans, millet and tobacco.

3. MIDDLE CAUCASUS: (b) _Eastern Part._--In this sub-section, which
stretches from Kasbek and the Darial gorge eastwards to the Baba-dagh
in 48° 25' E., a distance of 230 m., the Caucasus attains its greatest
breadth. For the whole of that distance the main range keeps at an
average elevation of 10,000 ft., though the peaks in many instances
tower up 2000 to nearly 5000 ft. higher, the altitudes increasing
towards the east. As the main range approaches the Caspian its granite
core gradually disappears, giving place to Palaeozoic schists, which
spread down both the northern and the southern slopes. The glaciers too
decrease in the same proportion both in magnitude and in extent. Here
the principal peaks, again found for the most part on the spurs and
subsidiary ranges, are the Tsmiakom-khokh (13,570 ft.), Shan-tau (14,530
ft.), Kidenais-magali (13,840 ft.), Zilga-khokh (12,645 ft), Zikari
(12,565 ft.), Choukhi (12,110 ft.), Julti-dagh (12,430 ft.),
Alakhun-dagh (12,690 ft.) and Maghi-dagh (12,445 ft.). On the main range
itself stand Borbalo (10,175 ft.), Great Shavi-kildeh (12,325 ft.),
Murov (11,110 ft.), Ansal (11,740 ft.), Ginor-roso (11,120 ft), while
farther east come Trfan-dagh (13,765 ft.) and Bazardyuz or Kichen
(14,727 ft.). In the same direction, but again outside the main range,
lie Shah-dagh (13,955 ft.), Shalbuz (13,675 ft.) and Malkamud (12,750

But the most noteworthy feature of this section is the broad _highland
region of Daghestan_, which flanks the main range on the north, and
sinks down both eastwards to the Black Sea and northwards to the valley
of the Terek. On the north-west this rugged highland region is well
defined by the distinctive transverse ridge of Andi, which to the east
of Kasbek strikes off from the Caucasus range almost at right angles.
The rest of the Daghestan region consists of a series of roughly
parallel folds, of Jurassic or Cretaceous age, ranging in altitudes from
7500 up to 12,500 ft., separated from one another by deep gorge-like
river glens which cut it up into a number of arid, treeless plateaus
which have something of the appearance of independent ranges, or rather
elongated tablelands of a mountainous character. The most prominent of
these tablelands is Bash-lam, which stretches east and west between the
Chanti Argun and the Andian Koisu, both tributaries of the Terek. Upon
it rise the conspicuous peaks of Tebulos-mta (14,775 ft.), Tugo-mta
(13,795 ft.), Komito-tavi or Kachu (14,010 ft.), Donos-mta (13,560 ft.),
Diklos-mta (13,740 ft.), Kvavlos-mta or Kolos-mta (13,080 ft.),
Motshekh-tsferi (13,140 ft.) and Galavanas-tsferi (13,260 ft.). Farther
east come the Bogos tableland, stretching from south-south-west to
east-north-east between the Andian Koisu and the Avarian Koisu and
rising to over 13,400 ft. in several peaks, e.g. Antshovala (13,440
ft.), Botshokh-meër (13,515 ft.), Kosara-ku (13,420 ft.) and
Addala-shuogchol-meër (13,580 ft.); and the Dyulty tableland, reaching
12,400 ft. between the Kara Koisu and the Kazikumukh Koisu. On some of
these peaks again there is a considerable amount of glaciation, more
particularly on the slopes of Diklos-mta, where the glaciers descend to
7700 ft. on the north side and to 8350 ft. on the south side. In this
section of the Caucasus the passes run somewhat lower than those between
Elbruz and Kasbek, though still at appreciable heights, fully equal to
those that lead up from the Black Sea to the valley of the Kuban in the
western section of the range. The best known are the Krestovaya Gora
(7805 ft.) on the Georgian military road, south of Darial; Kodor (9300
ft.) and Satskheni, leading up from Telav in the upper valley of the
Alazan; and Gudur (10,120 ft.) and Salavat (9280 ft.), carrying the
Akhty military road from the valley of the Samur up past the Shah-dagh
and the Bazar-dyusi to the valley of the Alazan.

The _flora_ of this section bears a general resemblance to that farther
west. Ample details will be found in Dr G. Radde's (1831-1903)
monographs on Daghestan, quoted at the end of the present article.

4. The EASTERN SECTION of the Caucasus gradually dies away east of
Baba-dagh (11,930 ft.) towards the Caspian, terminating finally in the
peninsula of Apsheron. It is, however, continued under the waters of the
Caspian, as stated in the article on that sea, and reappears on its
eastern side in the Kopet-dagh, which skirts the north-east frontier of
Persia. In this section of the Caucasus no peak exceeds 9000 ft. in
altitude and the crest of the main range retains no snow. The most
frequented pass, that of Alty-agach, necessitates a climb of not more
than 4355 ft.

_Slopes of Range._--Between the northern and the southern sides of the
range there is quite as great a difference in climate, productions and
scenery as there is between the Swiss and the Italian sides of the Alps.
In the south-western valleys and on the south-western slopes of the
Caucasus, where a heavy rainfall is combined with a warm temperature,
magnificent forests clothe the mountain-sides and dip their skirts into
the waters of the Black Sea. There not only the littoral from (say)
Sukhum-Kaleh to Batum but the inland parts of the basin of the Rion will
bear comparison with any of the provinces of Italy in point of
fertility, and in richness and variety of products. But farther inland,
upon proceeding eastwards towards Tiflis, a great change becomes
noticeable on the other side of the transverse ridge of the Suram or
Meskes mountains. Arid upland plains and parched hillsides take the
place of the rich verdure and luxuriant arborescent growth of Imeretia,
Svanetia and Mingrelia, the districts which occupy the valleys of the
Ingur and Rion and the tributaries of the latter. A very similar change
likewise becomes noticeable in the higher regions of the Caucasus
Mountains upon proceeding north of the pass of Mamison, which separates
the head-waters of the Rion from those of the Ardon, an important
tributary of the Terek. The valleys of the two streams last mentioned,
and of others that flow in the same direction, are almost wholly
destitute of trees, but where the bare rock does not prevail, the
mountain slopes are carpeted with grass. Freshfield's description of the
valley of the Terek above Kasbek will apply pretty generally to all the
valleys that descend on that face of the range: "treeless valleys, bold
rocks, slopes of forbidding steepness (even to eyes accustomed to those
of the Alps), and stonebuilt villages, scarcely distinguishable from the
neighbouring crags." But, austere and unattractive though these valleys
are, the same epithets cannot be applied to the deep gorges by which in
most cases the streams make their escape through the northern subsidiary
range. These defiles are declared to be superior in grandeur to anything
of the kind in the Alps. That of Darial (the Terek) is fairly well
known, but those of the Cherek and the Urukh, farther west, are stated
to be still more magnificent. And not only do the snow-clad ranges and
the ice-panoplied peaks which tower up above them surpass the loftiest
summits of the Alps in altitude; they also in many cases excel them in
boldness and picturesqueness of outline, and equal the most difficult of
them in steepness and relative inaccessibility.

_Hydrography._--Nearly all the larger rivers of Caucasia have their
sources in the central parts of the Caucasus range. The short, steep,
torrential streams of Mdzimta, Pzou, Bzyb and Kodor drain the country
west of Elbruz. The Ingur, Tskhenis-Tskhali, Rion and its tributaries
(e.g. the Kvirila) are longer, but also in part torrential; they drain
the great glacier region between Elbruz and Kasbek. The Rion is the
_Phasis_ of the ancients and flows through the classic land of Colchis,
associated with the legends of Medea and the Argonauts. The Lyakhva and
Aragva, tributaries of the Kura, carry off the waters of the main range
south of Kasbek, and other tributaries, such as the Yora and the Alazan,
collect the surplus drainage of the main Caucasus range farther east.
The other large river of this region, the Aras, has its sources, not in
the Caucasus range, but on the Armenian highlands a long way south-west
of Ararat. The rivers which go down from the central Caucasus northwards
have considerably longer courses than those on the south side of the
range, partly as a consequence of the gentler versant and partly also
because of the great distances to which the steppes extend across which
they make their way to the sea. The most important of these are the
Kubañ and the Terek; but it is the latter that picks up most of the
streams which have their sources among the central glaciers, e.g. the
Malka, Baksan, Chegem, Cherek, Urukh, Ardon, all confined to deep narrow
glens until they quit the mountains. The Kuma, which alone pursues an
independent course through the steppes, farther north than the Terek,
has its sources, not in the main ranges of the Caucasus, but in an
outlying group of mountains near Pyatigorsk, the highest summit of
which, Besh-tau, does not exceed 4600 ft. But its waters become absorbed
in the sands of the desert steppes before they reach the Caspian. Of the
streams that carve into chequers the elevated plateau or highland region
of Daghestan four are known by the common name of the Koisu, being
distinguished _inter se_ as the Andian Koisu, the Avarian Koisu, the
Kara Koisu and the Kazikumukh Koisu, which all unite to form the Sulak.
The only other stream deserving of mention in this province is the
Samur. Both rivers discharge their waters into the Caspian; as also does
the Zumgail, a small stream which drains the eastern extremity of the
Caucasus range in the government of Baku.

_Volcanic Evidences._--Ancient, but now extinct, volcanic upheavals are
pretty common at the intersections of the main range with the transverse
ranges; of these the most noteworthy are Elbruz and Kasbek. The town of
Shemakha, near the eastern end of the system, was the scene of volcanic
outbreaks as late as 1859, 1872 and 1902; while in the adjacent
peninsula of Apsheron mud volcanoes exist in large numbers. All along
the northern foot of the system hot mineral springs gush out at various
places, such as Pyatigorsk, Zhelesnovodsk, Essentuki and Kislovodsk; and
the series is continued along the north-eastern foot of the highlands of
Daghestan, e.g. Isti-su, Eskiendery, Akhta. In this connexion it may
also be mentioned that similar evidences of volcanic activity
characterize the northern border of the Armenian highlands on the
southern side of the Rion-Kura depression, in the mountains of Ararat,
Alagöz, Akmangan, Samsar, Godoreby, Great and Little Abull, and in the
mineral springs of Borzhom, Abbas-tuman, Sleptzov, Mikhailovsk and
Tiflis.     (J. T. Be.; P. A. K.)

  _Geology._--The general structure of the Caucasus is comparatively
  simple. The strata are folded so as to form a fan. In the centre of
  the fan lies a band of crystalline rocks which disappears towards the
  east. Beneath it, on both sides, plunge the strongly folded Palaeozoic
  and Jurassic schists. On the northern flank the folded beds are
  followed by a zone of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds which rapidly
  assume a gentle inclination towards the plain. On the south the
  corresponding zone is affected by numerous secondary folds which
  involve the Sarmatian or Upper Miocene deposits. In the eastern part
  of the chain the structure is somewhat modified. The crystalline band
  is lost. The northern Mesozoic zone is very much broader, and is
  thrown into simple folds like those of the Jura. The southern Mesozoic
  zone is absent, and the Palaeozoic zone sinks abruptly in a series of
  faulted steps to the plain of the Kura, beneath which no doubt the
  continuation of the Mesozoic zone is concealed.


  The geological sequence begins with the granite and schists of the
  central zone, which form a band extending from Fisht on the west to a
  point some distance beyond Kasbek on the east. Then follow the
  Palaeozoic schists and slates. Fossils are extremely rare in these
  beds; _Buthotrephis_ has long been known, and doubtful traces of
  _Calamites_ and ferns have been found, but it was not until 1897 that
  undoubted Palaeozoic fossils were obtained. They appear to indicate a
  Devonian age. Upon the Palaeozoic beds rest a series of Mesozoic
  deposits, beginning with the Lias and ending with the Upper
  Cretaceous. Whether the series is continuous or not is a matter of
  controversy. F. Loewinson-Lessing states that there is a more or less
  marked discordance between the Lias and the Upper Jurassic and between
  the latter and the Cretaceous; E. Fournier asserts that there exists a
  very strongly marked unconformity at the base of the Tithonian, and
  other writers have expressed other views. In general the Upper
  ajurassic beds are much more calcareous on the north flank of the
  chain than they are on the south. The Mesozoic beds are followed by
  the Tertiary deposits, which on the north are nearly horizontal but on
  the south are in part included in the folds--the Eocene and Miocene
  being folded, while the later beds, though sometimes elevated, are not
  affected by the folding. The final folding of the chain undoubtedly
  occurred at the close of the Miocene period. That there were earlier
  periods of folding is almost equally certain, but there is
  considerable difference of opinion as to their dates. The difference
  in character of the Jurassic beds on the two sides of the chain
  appears to indicate that a ridge existed in that period. The last
  phase in the history of the Caucasus was marked by the growth of the
  great volcanoes of Elbruz and Kasbek, which stand upon the old rocks
  of the central zone, and by the outflow of sheets of lava upon the
  sides of the chain. The cones themselves are composed largely of acid
  andesites, but many of the lavas are augite andesites and basalts.
  There seem to have been two periods of eruption, and as some of the
  lavas have flowed over Quaternary gravels, the latest outbursts must
  have been of very recent date.


  Near the northern foot of the Caucasus, especially in the
  neighbourhood of the hot mineral springs of Pyatigorsk, a group of
  hills of igneous rocks rises above the plain. They are laccolites of
  trachytic rock, and raised the Tertiary beds above them in the form of
  blisters. Subsequent denudation has removed the sedimentary covering
  and exposed the igneous core. (P. La.)

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Of the older works the following are still useful: A.
  von Haxthausen, _Transkaukasia_ (2 vols., Leipzig, 1856); A.
  Petzholdt, _Der Kaukasus_ (2 vols., Leipzig, 1866-1867); M.G. von
  Thielmann, _Travels in the Caucasus_ (Eng. trans., 2 vols., London,
  1875); F.C. Grove, _The Frosty Caucasus_ (London, 1875); G. Radde,
  _Reisen im mingrelischen Hochgebirge_ (Tiflis, 1866) and _Vier
  Vorträge uber den Kaukasus_ (Gotha, 1874); E. Favre, _Recherches
  géologiques dans la partie centrale de la chaîne du Caucase_ (Geneva,
  1875); Batsevich, Simonovich and others, _Mat. dlya geologiy Kavkaza_
  (Tiflis, 1873 seq.); O. Schneider, _Naturwissenschaftliche Beitrage
  zur Kenntnis der Kaukasuslander_ (Dresden, 1879), and J. Bryce,
  _Transcaucasia_ (London, 1878). The more important amongst the more
  recent books are D.W. Freshfield, _Exploration of the Caucasus_ (2nd
  ed., 1902, 2 vols., London); A.F. Mummery, _My Climbs in the Alps and
  Caucasus_ (London, 1895); H. Abich, _Geologische Forschungen in den
  kaukasischen Landern_ (3 vols., Vienna, 1878-1887), _Aus kaukasischen
  Landern_ (2 vols., Vienna, 1896), and "Vergleichende Grundzuge des
  Kaukasus wie der armenischen und nordpersischen Gebirge," in _Mém.
  Acad. Sc. St-Pétersb._ (sér. 6, _Math. et Phys._, vii. 359-534); R.
  von Erckert, _Der Kaukasus und seine Volker_ (Leipzig, 1887); E.
  Chantre, _Recherches anthropologiques dans le Caucase_ (4 vols., Lyons
  and Paris, 1885-1887); C. von Hahn, _Aus dem Kaukasus_ (Leipzig,
  1892), _Kaukasische Reisen und Studien_ (Leipzig, 1896), and _Bilder
  aus dem Kaukasus_ (Leipzig 1900); V. Sella and D. Vallino, _Nel
  Caucaso Centrale_ (Turin, 1890); K. Koch, _Der Kaukasus_ (Berlin,
  1882); C. Phillipps Woolley, _Savage Svanetia_ (2 vols., London,
  1883); E. Levier, _À travers le Caucase_ (Paris, ed. 1905), especially
  valuable for botany; G. Merzbacher, _Aus den Hochregionen des
  Kaukasus_ (2 vols., Leipzig, 1901); A. Fischer, _Zwei Kaukasische
  Expeditionen_ (Berne, 1891); E. Fournier, _Description géologique du
  Caucase central_ (Marseilles, 1896); G. Radde, _Reisen an der
  persisch-russischen Grenze. Talysch und seine Bewohner_ (Leipzig,
  1886), _Die Fauna und Flora des südwestlichen Kaspigebiets_ (Leipzig,
  1886), _Karabagh_ (Gotha, 1890), and _Aus den daghestanischen
  Hochalpen_ (Gotha, 1887); and Count J. Zichy, _Voyages au Caucase_ (2
  vols., Budapest, 1897). F. Loewinson-Lessing has an account of the
  geology of the district along the military road from Vladikavkaz to
  Tiflis in the _Guide des Excursions du VII^e Congrès géol. internat_.
  (St Petersburg, 1897). N.Y. Dinnik writes on the fauna in _Bull. Soc.
  Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou_ (1901); J. Mourier on the
  folk-tales in _Contes et légendes du Caucase_ (1888); and on modern
  history G. Baumgarten, _Sechzig Jahre des kaukasischen Krieges_
  (Leipzig, 1861). But a very great amount of most valuable information
  about the Caucasus is preserved in articles in encyclopaedias and
  scientific periodicals, especially the _Izvestia_ and _Zapiski_ of the
  Russian and Caucasian geographical societies, in P.P. Semenov's
  _Geographical Dictionary_ (in Russian, 5 vols., St Petersburg,
  1863-1884), and in the _Russkiy encyklopedicheskiy slovar_ (1894), and
  in the _Kavkazskiy kalendar_ (annually at Tiflis). See also G. Radde
  and E. Koenig, "Der Nordfuss des Daghestan und das vorlagernde
  Tiefland bis zur Kuma" (Ergänzungsheft No. 117 to _Petermanns
  Mitteilungen_), and "Das Ostufer des Pontus und seine kulturelle
  Entwickelung im Verlaufe der letzten 30 Jahre" (Ergänzungsheft No. 112
  of the same); by V. Dingelstedt in _Scot. Geog. Mag_.--"Geography of
  the Caucasus" (July 1889); "The Caucasian Highlands" (June 1895); "The
  Hydrography of the Caucasus" (June 1899); "The Riviera of Russia"
  (June 1904), "The Small Trades of the Caucasus" (March 1892); and
  "Caucasian Idioms" (June 1888). The best map is that of the Russian
  General Staff on the scale of 1:210,000 (ed. 1895-1901).
       (J. T. Be.; P. A. K.)


  [1] _Exploration of the Caucasus_ (2nd ed., 1902), i. 30-31.

  [2] Op. cit. i. 35-36.

CAUCHOIS-LEMAIRE, LOUIS FRANÇOIS AUGUSTE (1789-1861), French journalist,
was born in Paris on the 28th of August 1789. Towards the end of the
First Empire he was proprietor of the _Journal de la littérature et des
arts_, which he transformed at the Restoration into a political journal
of Liberal tendencies, the _Nain jaune_, in which Louis XVIII. himself
had little satirical articles secretly inserted. After the return from
Elba the _Nain jaune_ became Bonapartist and fell into discredit. It was
suppressed at the second Restoration. Cauchois-Lemaire then threw
himself impetuously into the Liberal agitation, and had to take refuge
in Brussels in 1816, and in the following year at the Hague, whence he
was expelled for publishing an _Appel à l'opinion publique et aux États
Généraux en faveur des patriotes français_. Returning to France in 1819,
he resumed the struggle against the ultra-royalist party with such
temerity that he was condemned to one year's imprisonment in 1821 and
fifteen months' imprisonment in 1827. After the revolution of July 1830
he refused a pension of 6000 francs offered to him by King Louis
Philippe, on the ground that he wished to retain his independence even
in his relations with a government which he had helped to establish. He
made a bitter attack upon the Périer ministry in his journal _Bon sens_,
and in 1836 was one of the founders of a new opposition journal, the
_Siècle_. He soon, however, abandoned journalism for history and, having
no private means, in 1840 accepted the post of head of a department in
the Royal Archives. Of a _Histoire de la Révolution de Juillet_, which
he then undertook, he published only the first volume (1842), which
contains a historical summary of the Restoration and a preliminary
sketch of the democratic movement. He died in Paris on the 9th of August

CAUCHON, PIERRE (d. 1442), French bishop, was born near Reims in the
latter half of the 14th century. We find him rector of the university of
Paris in October 1397. In 1413 he joined the Burgundian faction, and was
exiled by the parlement of Paris. But on the triumph of his party this
decree was annulled, and Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, gave him a
canonry at Beauvais, sent him to the council of Constance, procured him
the post of _maître des requêtes_ in 1418, and finally in 1420 had him
made bishop of Beauvais. But the people were hostile to him, and he was
driven from his bishopric in 1429; whereupon he attached himself to the
English court, and in 1431 endeavoured to procure the surrender of Reims
to the English, so that Henry VI. might be crowned there. In this he
failed, and Henry was crowned in Paris on the 17th of December 1431 by
Henry Beaufort, cardinal bishop of Winchester, assisted by the bishops
of Beauvais and Noyon. On the 24th of May 1430, Joan of Arc having been
taken prisoner at Compiègne, within the limits of his diocese, Cauchon
acted as her accuser, and demanded the right of judging her. Joan was
taken to Rouen, whither Cauchon followed her, having been driven from
Beauvais. He conducted the trial with marked partiality and malevolence,
condemned the maid to imprisonment for life, and then, under pressure
from the populace and the English, had recourse to fresh perfidies,
declared Joan a relapsed heretic, excommunicated her, and handed her
over to the secular arm on the 30th of May 1431. As, in consequence of
this, it was impossible for him to return to his own diocese, he
obtained the bishopric of Lisieux in 1432 by favour of the king of
England. He assisted at the council of Basel in 1435, and died suddenly
on the 18th of December 1442. Excommunicated posthumously by Pope
Calixtus IV., his body was exhumed and thrown in the common sewer.

  See Cerf, "Pierre Cauchon de Sommièvre, chanoine de Reims et de
  Beauvais, évêque de Beauvais et de Lisieux, son origine, ses dignités,
  sa mort et sa sépulture," in the _Transactions_ of the Academy of
  Reims (1896-1898).

CAUCHY, AUGUSTIN LOUIS, BARON (1789-1857), French mathematician, was
born at Paris on the 21st of August 1789, and died at Sceaux (Seine) on
the 23rd of May 1857. Having received his early education from his
father Louis François Cauchy (1760-1848), who held several minor public
appointments and counted Lagrange and Laplace among his friends, Cauchy
entered École Centrale du Panthéon in 1802, and proceeded to the École
Polytechnique in 1805, and to the École des Ponts et Chaussées in 1807.
Having adopted the profession of an engineer, he left Paris for
Cherbourg in 1810, but returned in 1813 on account of his health,
whereupon Lagrange and Laplace persuaded him to renounce engineering and
to devote himself to mathematics. He obtained an appointment at the
École Polytechnique, which, however, he relinquished in 1830 on the
accession of Louis Philippe, finding it impossible to take the necessary
oaths. A short sojourn at Freiburg in Switzerland was followed by his
appointment in 1831 to the newly-created chair of mathematical physics
at the university of Turin. In 1833 the deposed king Charles X. summoned
him to be tutor to his grandson, the duke of Bordeaux, an appointment
which enabled Cauchy to travel and thereby become acquainted with the
favourable impression which his investigations had made. Charles created
him a baron in return for his services. Returning to Paris in 1838, he
refused a proffered chair at the Collège de France, but in 1848, the
oath having been suspended, he resumed his post at the École
Polytechnique, and when the oath was reinstituted after the _coup
d'état_ of 1851, Cauchy and Arago were exempted from it. A profound
mathematician, Cauchy exercised by his perspicuous and rigorous methods
a great influence over his contemporaries and successors. His writings
cover the entire range of mathematics and mathematical physics.

Cauchy had two brothers: ALEXANDRE LAURENT (1792-1857), who became a
president of a division of the court of appeal in 1847, and a judge of
the court of cassation in 1849; and EUGÈNE FRANÇOIS (1802-1877), a
publicist who also wrote several mathematical works.

  The genius of Cauchy was promised in his simple solution of the
  problem of Apollonius, i.e. to describe a circle touching three given
  circles, which he discovered in 1805, his generalization of Euler's
  theorem on polyhedra in 1811, and in several other elegant problems.
  More important is his memoir on wave-propagation which obtained the
  _Grand Prix_ of the Institut in 1816. His greatest contributions to
  mathematical science are enveloped in the rigorous methods which he
  introduced. These are mainly embodied in his three great treatises,
  _Cours d'analyse de l'École Polytechnique_ (1821); _Le Calcul
  infinitésimal_ (1823); _Leçons sur les applications du calcul
  infinitésimal à la géométrie_ (1826-1828); and also in his courses of
  mechanics (for the École Polytechnique), higher algebra (for the
  Faculté des Sciences), and of mathematical physics (for the Collège de
  France). His treatises and contributions to scientific journals (to
  the number of 789) contain investigations on the theory of series
  (where he developed with perspicuous skill the notion of convergency),
  on the theory of numbers and complex quantities, the theory of groups
  and substitutions, the theory of functions, differential equations
  and determinants. He clarified the principles of the calculus by
  developing them with the aid of limits and continuity, and was the
  first to prove Taylor's theorem rigorously, establishing his
  well-known form of the remainder. In mechanics, he made many
  researches, substituting the notion of the continuity of geometrical
  displacements for the principle of the continuity of matter. In
  optics, he developed the wave theory, and his name is associated with
  the simple dispersion formula. In elasticity, he originated the theory
  of stress, and his results are nearly as valuable as those of S.D.
  Poisson. His collected works, _OEuvres complètes d'Augustin Cauchy_,
  have been published in 27 volumes.

  See C.A. Valson, _Le Baron Augustin Cauchy: sa vie et ses travaux_
  (Paris, 1868).

CAUCUS, a political term used in America of a special form of party
meeting, and in Great Britain of a system of party organization. The
word originated in Boston, Massachusetts, in the early part of the 18th
century, when it was used as the name of a political club, the "Caucus"
or "Caucas" club. Here public matters were discussed, and arrangements
made for local elections and the choosing of candidates for offices. The
first mention of the club in contemporary documents occurs in the diary
of John Adams in 1763, but William Gordon (_History of the Independence
of the United States of America_, 1788) speaks of the Caucus as having
been in existence some fifty years before the time of writing (1774),
and describes the methods used for securing the election of the
candidates the club had selected. The derivation of the word has been
much disputed. It was early connected with "caulkers," and it was
supposed referred to meetings of the caulkers in the dockyard at Boston
in 1770, to protest against the action of the British troops, or with a
contemptuous allusion to the lower class of workmen frequenting the
club. This is, however, a mere guess, and does not agree with the
earlier date at which the club is known to have existed, nor with the
accounts given of it. That it was a fanciful classical name for a
convivial club, derived from the late Greek [Greek: kaukos], a cup, is
far-fetched, and the most plausible origin is an Algonquin word
_kaw-kaw-was_, meaning to talk. Indian words and names have been popular
in America as titles for societies and clubs; cf. "Tammany" (see _Notes
and Queries._ sixth series, vols. xi. and xii.). In the United States
"caucus" is used strictly of a meeting either of party managers or of
party voters. Such might be a "nominating caucus," either for nominating
candidates for office or for selecting delegates for a nominating
convention. The caucus of the party in Congress nominated the candidates
for the offices of president and vice-president from 1800 till 1824,
when the convention system was adopted, and the place of the local
"nominating caucus" is taken by the "primaries" and conventions. The
word is used in America of the meetings of a party in Congress and other
legislative bodies and elsewhere which decide matters of policy and plan
campaigns. "Caucus" came first into use in Great Britain in 1878. The
Liberal Association of Birmingham (see LIBERAL PARTY) was organized by
Mr Joseph Chamberlain and Mr F. Schnadhorst on strict disciplinary
lines, more particularly with a view to election management and the
control of voters on the principle of "vote as you are told." This
managing body of the association, known locally as the "Six Hundred,"
became the model for other Liberal associations throughout the country,
and the Federation of Liberal Associations was organized on the same
plan. It was to this supposed imitation of the American political
"machine" that Lord Beaconsfield gave the name "caucus," and the name
came to be used, not in the American sense of a meeting, but of a
closely disciplined system of party organization, chiefly used as a
stock term of abuse applied by opponents to each other's party

CAUDEBEC-EN-CAUX, a town of France, in the department of
Seine-Inférieure, 27 m. W.N.W. of Rouen by the Ouest-État railway. Pop.
(1906) 2141. It is situated on the right bank of the Seine, the tidal
wave of which (_mascaret_) can be well seen at this point. The chief
interest of the town lies in its church, a building of the 15th and the
early 16th centuries. Round its top run balustrades formed of Gothic
letters, which read as part of the Magnificat. Its west portal, the
decoration of the spire of the tower, and its stained glass are among
the features which make it one of the finest churches of the Rouen
diocese. The town also possesses several old houses. Its industries
include tanning and leather-currying, and there is trade in grain. The
port has a small trade in coal, live-stock and farm produce.

CAUDINE FORKS (_Furculae Caudinae_), a pass in Samnium, famous for the
disaster which befell the Roman army in the second Samnite War (321
B.C.). Livy (ix, 2) describes it as formed by two narrow wooded gorges,
between which lay a plain, grassy and well-watered, but entirely
enclosed by mountains. Through this plain the road (later the Via Appia)
led. The Romans, marching from Calatia to the relief of Luceria, entered
the valley unopposed, but found the exit blocked by the enemy; on
marching back they saw that the entrance and the hills surrounding the
plain were also occupied, and there was no way of escape. The plain
which lies west of Caudium (Montesarchio) seems, despite the older
views, to be the only possible site for such a disaster to an army of as
many as 40,000 men; and there is no doubt that the Romans wished to
leave it by the defile on the east, through which later ran the Via
Appia to Beneventum. The existence of three ancient bridges on the line
of the modern road renders it impossible to suppose that its course can
be essentially different from that of the ancient, though Hülsen makes
the two diverge considerably after passing Montesarchio. There are,
however, two possible entrances--one on the north by Moiano, and one on
the west by Arpaia; the former seems to answer better to Livy's
description (_via alia per cavam rupem_), while the latter is the
shortest route, having been, later on, followed by the Via Appia, and
bore the name Furculae Caudinae in the middle ages.

  See C. Hülsen in Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencyclopädie_, iii. (1802).
       (T. As.)

CAUDLE (through the O. Fr. _caudel_, from the Med. Lat. _caldellum_, a
diminutive of _caldum_, a warm drink, from _calidus_, hot), a drink of
warm gruel, mixed with spice and wine, formerly given to women in

CAUL (from O. Eng. _calle_, Fr. _cale_, a cap), a close-fitting woman's
cap, especially one made of network worn in the 16th and 17th centuries;
hence the membranous covering to the heart or brain, the _omentum_, or
the similar covering to the intestines, and particularly, a portion of
the _amnion_, which is sometimes found remaining round the head of a
child after birth. To this, called in Scotland "sely how," holy or lucky
hood, many superstitions have been attached; it was looked on as a sign
of good luck, and when preserved, was kept as a protection against

general and diplomatist, was born of a noble family. He early entered
the army, did not emigrate in the revolution, but was deprived of his
grade as captain in 1793 and served in the ranks. In 1795, through the
protection of L. Hoche, he became captain again, was colonel in the Army
of the Rhine in 1799-1800, and after the peace of Lunéville (1801) was
sent to St Petersburg to negotiate an understanding between Russia and
France. On his return he was named aide-de-camp of the First Consul. He
was employed to seize some agents of the English government in Baden in
1804, which led to the accusation that he was concerned in the arrest of
the due d'Enghien, an accusation against which he never ceased to
protest. After the establishment of the empire he received various
honours and the title of duke of Vicenza (1808). Napoleon sent him in
1807 as ambassador to St Petersburg, where Caulaincourt tried to
maintain the alliance of Tilsit, and although Napoleon's ambition made
the task a difficult one, Caulaincourt succeeded in it for some years.
In 1811 he strongly advised Napoleon to renounce his proposed expedition
to Russia. During the war he accompanied the emperor, and was one of
those whom Napoleon took along with him when he suddenly abandoned his
army in Poland to return to Paris (December 1812). During the last years
of the empire, Caulaincourt was charged with all the diplomatic
negotiations. He signed the armistice of Pleswitz, June 1813,
represented France at the congress of Prague, in August 1813, at the
congress of Chatillon, in February 1814, and concluded the treaty of
Fontainebleau on the 10th of April 1814. During the first Restoration,
Caulaincourt lived in obscure retirement. When Napoleon returned from
Elba, he became minister of foreign affairs, and tried to persuade
Europe of the emperor's peaceful intentions. After the second
Restoration, Caulaincourt's name was on the list of those proscribed,
but it was erased on the personal intervention of Alexander I. with
Louis XVIII.

  Caulaincourt's memoirs appeared under the title _Souvenirs du duc de
  Vicence_ in 1837-1840. See A. Vandal, _Napoléon et Alexandre_ (Paris,
  1891-1895); Tatischeff, _Alexandre I^er et Napoleon_ (Paris, 1892); H.
  Houssaye, 1814 (Paris, 1888), and 1815 (Paris, 1893).

CAULICULUS (from Lat. _caulis_, a stalk), in architecture, the Stalks
(eight in number) with two leaves from which rise the helices or spiral
scrolls of the Corinthian capital to support the abacus.

CAULON (Gr. [Greek: Kaulônia]), a town of the district of the Bruttii,
Italy, on the east coast. Its exact site is uncertain (though the name
has been given to a modern village), and depends on the identification
of the river Sagras. It was the southernmost of the Achaean colonies,
founded either by Croton or direct from Greece itself. In the 7th
century it was allied with Croton and Sybaris, and its coins, which go
back to 550 B.C., prove its importance. It took the side of Athens in
the Peloponnesian War. In 388 B.C. it was destroyed by Dionysius, but
soon afterwards restored. It was captured during the invasion of Pyrrhus
by Campanian troops. Strabo speaks of it as deserted in his time. The
erection of the lighthouse at Capo Stilo, on the site of one of the
medieval guard towers of the coast, led to the discovery of a wall of
Greek origin, and close by of a number of terra-cottas, belonging
perhaps to a temple erected in honour of the deities of the sea. Other
remains were found at Fontanelle, 2½ m. away, including the fragment of
a capital of an archaic Greek temple (P. Orsi in _Notizie degli Scavi_,
1891, 61). These buildings may be connected with the Caulon or a village
dependent on it.     (T. As.)

CAUSATION or CAUSALITY (Lat. _causa_, derived perhaps from the root
_cav-_, as in _caveo_, and meaning something taken care of;
corresponding to Gr. [Greek: aitia]), a philosophical term for the
operation of causes and for the mental conception of cause as operative
throughout the universe. The word "cause" is correlative to "effect."
Thus when one thing B is regarded as taking place in consequence of the
action of another thing A, then A is said to be the cause of B, and B
the effect of A. The philosophical problems connected with causation are
both metaphysical and psychological. The metaphysical problem is part of
the whole theory of existence. If everything is to be regarded as
causally related with simultaneous and prior things or actions, it
follows logically that the investigation of existence must, by
hypothesis, be a regress to infinity, i.e. that we cannot conceive a
beginning to existence. This explanation has led to the postulate of a
First Cause, the nature of which is variously explained. The empirical
school sees no difficulty in assuming a single event; but such a theory
seems to deny the validity of the original hypothesis. Theologians
assert a divine origin in the form of a personal self-existent creator,
while some metaphysical schools, preferring an impersonal First Cause,
substitute the doctrine of the Absolute (q.v.). All the explanations are
alike in this respect, that at a certain point they pass from the sphere
of the senses, the physical world, to a metaphysical sphere in which the
data and the intellectual operation of cognizing them are of a totally
different quality. For example, the causal connexion between drunkenness
and alcohol is not of the same observable character as that which is
inferred between the infinite First Cause and the whole domain of
sense-given phenomena.

A second metaphysical problem connected with causation arises when we
consider the nature of necessity. It is generally assumed when two
things are spoken of as cause and effect that their relation is a
necessary one, or, in other words, that given the cause the effect must
follow. The arguments connected with this problem belong to
psychological discussions of causation. It is sufficient here to state
that, in so far as causation is regarded as necessary connexion, it can
form no part of a purely empirical theory of existence. The senses can
say only that in all observed cases B has followed A, and this does not
establish necessary connexion. The idea of causation is a purely
intellectual (a priori) one.

The psychological problems connected with causation refer (1) to the
origin of the conception in our minds; (2) to the validity of the
conception. As regards the origin of the conception modern psychological
analysis does not carry us beyond the doctrine of Locke contained in his
chapter on "Power" (_Essay_, bk. ii. ch. 21), wherein he shows that the
idea of power is got from the knowledge of our own activity. "Bodies by
their causes," he says, "do not afford us so clear and distinct an idea
of active power as we have from reflection on the operation of our
minds." Putting Locke's doctrine into modern language, we may say that a
man has the conception of cause primarily because he himself is a cause.
The conception thus obtained we "project," that is, transfer to external
objects, so far as we may find it useful to do so. Thus it is by a sort
of analogy that we say that the sun is the "cause" of daylight. The
rival theory to Locke's is that of Hume (_Treatise_, bk. i.), who
derives the conception from the unaided operation of custom. When one
object, A, has been noticed frequently to precede another object, B, an
association between A and B is generated; and by virtue of this
association, according to Hume, we say that A is the cause of B. The
weakness of this account is that many invariable successions, such as
day and night, do not make us regard the earlier members of the
successions as causing the later; while in numberless cases we assert a
causal connexion between two objects from a single experience of them.

We may proceed now to consider the validity of the conception of
causation, which has been attacked from two sides. From the side of
absolute idealism it is argued that the conception of cause, as
involving a transition in time, cannot be ultimately valid, since the
time-relation is not ultimately real. Upon this view (ably stated in
Professor Bosanquet's _Logic_, bk. i. ch. 6) the more we know of causes
and effects the less relevant becomes the time-relation and the nearer
does the conception of cause and effect approach to another conception
which is truly valid, the conception of ground and consequence. This
means that, viewed from the standpoint of science, a draught of alcohol
_causes_ intoxication in no other sense than the triangularity of a
triangle causes the interior angles to be equal to two right angles.
This argument ceases to have cogency so soon as we deny its fundamental
proposition that the time-relation is not ultimately real, but is
irrelevant from the standpoint of science. This is a sheer assertion,
contrary to all ordinary experience, which we have as much right to deny
as the absolute idealists to affirm. It is only plausible to those who
are committed to the Hegelian view of reality as consisting of a static
system of universals, a view which has long been discredited in Germany,
its native land, and is fast losing ground in England. Against the
Hegelians we must maintain that the common distinction between "ground"
and "cause" is perfectly justifiable. Whereas "ground" is an appropriate
term for the relations within a static, simultaneous system, "cause" is
appropriate to the relations within a dynamic, successive system.

From the other side the validity of causation has been attacked in the
interests of the naturalism of the mechanical sciences. J.S. Mill argues
that, scientifically, the cause of anything is the total assemblage of
the conditions that precede its appearance, and that we have no right to
give the name of cause to one of them exclusively of the others. The
answer to this is that Mill fails to recognize that cause is a
conception which we find useful in our dealings with nature, and that
whatever conceptions we find useful we are justified in using. Among the
conditions of an event there are always one or two that stand in
specially close relation to it from our point of view; e.g. the draught
of alcoholic liquor is more closely related to the man's drunkenness
than is the attraction of the earth's gravity, though that also must
co-operate in producing the effect. Such closely related conditions we
find it convenient to single out by a term which expresses their analogy
to the cause of causes, human volition.

These are the questions respecting causation which are matters of
present controversy; there are in addition many other points which
belong to the controversies of the past. Among the most important are
Aristotle's classification of causes into material, formal, efficient
and final, set forth in his _Physics_ and elsewhere, and known as his
doctrine of the Four Causes; Geulincx's Occasional Causes, meant as a
solution of certain difficulties in the cosmology of Descartes;
Leibnitz's law of Sufficient Reason; and Kant's explanation of cause and
effect as an a priori category of the understanding, intended as an
answer to Hume's scepticism, but very much less effective than the line
of explanation suggested by Locke.

The following is a list of the various technical terms connected with
causation which have been distinguished by logicians and psychologists.

The four Aristotelian causes are: (1) _Material cause_ ([Greek: ylê])
the material out of which a thing is made; the material cause of a house
is the bricks and mortar of which it is composed. (2) _Formal cause_
([Greek: eidos, logos, to ti ên einai]), the general external
appearance, shape, form of a thing; the formal cause of a triangle is
its triangularity. (3) _Efficient cause_ ([Greek: archê tês kinêseôs]),
the alcohol which makes a man drunk, the pistol-bullet which kills. This
is the cause as generally understood in modern usage. (4) _Final cause_
([Greek: telos, to ou eneka]), the object for which an action is done or
a thing produced; the final cause of a commercial man's enterprise is to
make his livelihood (see TELEOLOGY). This last cause was rejected by
Bacon, Descartes and Spinoza, and indeed in ordinary usage the cause of
an action in relation to its effect is the desire for, and expectation
of, that effect on the part of the agent, not the effect itself. The
_Proximate cause_ of a phenomenon is the immediate or superficial as
opposed to the _Remote_ or _Primary cause_. Plurality of Causes is the
much criticized doctrine of J.S. Mill that a fact may be the uniform
consequent of several different antecedents. _Causa essendi_ means the
cause whereby a change is what it is, as opposed to the _causa
cognoscendi_, the cause of our knowledge of the event; the two causes
evidently need not be the same. An object is called _causa immanens_
when it produces its changes by its own activity; a _causa transiens_
produces changes in some other object. _Causa sui_ is a term applied to
God by Spinoza to denote that he is dependent on nothing and has no need
of any external thing for his existence. _Vera causa_ is a term used by
Newton in his _Principia_, where he says, "No more causes of natural
things are to be admitted than such as are both true and sufficient to
explain the phenomena of those things"; _verae causae_ must be such as
we have good inductive grounds to believe do exist in nature, and do
perform a part in phenomena analogous to those we would render an
account of.

CAUSEWAY, a path on a raised dam or mound across marshes or low-lying
ground; the word is also used of old paved highways, such as the Roman
military roads. "Causey" is still used dialectically in England for a
paved or cobbled footpath. The word is properly "causey-way," from
_causey_, a mound or dam, which is derived, through the Norman-French
_caucie_ (cf. modern _chaussée_), from the late Latin _via calciata_, a
road stamped firm with the feet (_calcare_, to tread).

CAUSSES (from Lat. _calx_ through local Fr. _caous_, meaning "lime"),
the name given to the table-lands lying to the south of the central
plateau of France and sloping westward from the Cévennes. They form
parts of the departments of Lozère, Aveyron, Card, Hérault, Lot and
Tarn-et-Garonne. They are of limestone formation, dry, sterile and
treeless. These characteristics are most marked in the east of the
region, where the Causse de Sauveterre, the Causse Méjan, the Causse
Noir and the Larzac flank the Cévennes. Here the Causse Méjan, the most
deserted and arid of all, reaches an altitude of nearly 4200 ft. Towards
the west the lesser causses of Rouergue and Quercy attain respectively
2950 ft. and 1470 ft. Once an uninterrupted table-land, the causses are
now isolated from one another by deep rifts through which run the Tarn,
the Dourbie, the Jonte and other rivers. The summits are destitute of
running water, since the rain as it falls either sinks through the
permeable surface soil or runs into the fissures and chasms, some of
great depth, which are peculiar to the region. The inhabitants
(_Caussenards_) of the higher causses cultivate hollows in the ground
which are protected from the violent winds, and the scanty herbage
permits of the raising of sheep, from the milk of which Roquefort
cheeses are made. In the west, where the rigours of the weather are less
severe, agriculture is more easily carried on.

CAUSSIN DE PERCEVAL, ARMAND-PIERRE (1795-1871), French orientalist, was
born in Paris on the 13th of January 1795. His father, Jean Jacques
Antoine Caussin de Perceval (1759-1835), was professor of Arabic in the
Collège de France. In 1814 he went to Constantinople as a student
interpreter, and afterwards travelled in Asiatic Turkey, spending a year
with the Maronites in the Lebanon, and finally becoming dragoman at
Aleppo. Returning to Paris, he became professor of vulgar Arabic in the
school of living Oriental languages in 1821, and also professor of
Arabic in the College de France in 1833. In 1849 he was elected to the
Academy of Inscriptions. He died at Paris during the siege on the 15th
of January 1871.

Caussin de Perceval published (1828) a useful _Grammaire arabe
vulgaire_, which passed through several editions (4th ed., 1858), and
edited and enlarged Élie Bocthor's[1] _Dictionnaire français-arabe_ (2
vols., 1828; 3rd ed., 1864); but his great reputation rests almost
entirely on one book, the _Essai sur l'histoire des Arabes avant
l'Islamisme, pendant l'époque de Mahomet_ (3 vols., 1847-1849), in which
the native traditions as to the early history of the Arabs, down to the
death of Mahommed and the complete subjection of all the tribes to
Islam, are brought together with wonderful industry and set forth with
much learning and lucidity. One of the principal MS. sources used is the
great _Kitáb al-Agháni_ (Book of Songs) of Abu Faraj, which has since
been published (20 vols., Boulak, 1868) in Egypt; but no publication of
texts can deprive the _Essai_, which is now very rare, of its value as a
trustworthy guide through a tangled mass of tradition.

CAUSTIC (Gr. [Greek: kaustikos], burning), that which burns. In surgery,
the term is given to substances used to destroy living tissues and so
inhibit the action of organic poisons, as in bites, malignant disease
and gangrenous processes. Such substances are silver nitrate (lunar
caustic), the caustic alkalis (potassium and sodium hydrates), zinc
chloride, an acid solution of mercuric nitrate, and pure carbolic acid.
In mathematics, the "caustic surfaces" of a given surface are the
envelopes of the normals to the surface, or the loci of its centres of
principal curvature.

In optics, the term _caustic_ is given to the envelope of luminous rays
after reflection or refraction; in the first case the envelope is termed
a catacaustic, in the second a diacaustic. Catacaustics are to be
observed as bright curves when light is allowed to fall upon a polished
riband of steel, such as a watch-spring, placed on a table, and by
varying the form of the spring and moving the source of light, a variety
of patterns may be obtained. The investigation of caustics, being based
on the assumption of the rectilinear propagation of light, and the
validity of the experimental laws of reflection and refraction, is
essentially of a geometrical nature, and as such it attracted the
attention of the mathematicians of the 17th and succeeding centuries,
more notably John Bernoulli, G.F. de l'Hôpital, E.W. Tschirnhausen and
Louis Carré.

    Caustics by reflection.

  The simplest case of a caustic curve is when the reflecting surface is
  a circle, and the luminous rays emanate from a point on the
  circumference. If in fig. 1 AQP be the reflecting circle having C as
  centre, P the luminous point, and PQ any incident ray, and we join CQ
  it follows, by the law of the equality of the angles of incidence and
  reflection, that the reflected ray QR is such that the angles RQC and
  CQP are equal; to determine the caustic, it is necessary to determine
  the envelope of this line. This may be readily accomplished
  geometrically or analytically, and it will be found that the envelope
  is a cardioid (q.v.), i.e. an epicycloid in which the radii of the
  fixed and rolling circles are equal. When the rays are parallel, the
  reflecting surface remaining circular, the question can be similarly
  treated, and it is found that the caustic is an epicycloid in which
  the radius of the fixed circle is twice that of the rolling circle
  (fig. 2). The geometrical method is also applicable when it is
  required to determine the caustic after any number of reflections at a
  spherical surface of rays, which are either parallel or diverge from a
  point on the circumference. In both cases the curves are epicycloids;
  in the first case the radii of the rolling and the fixed circles are
  a(2n - 1)/4n and a/2n, and in the second, an/(2n + 1) and a/(2n + 1),
  where a is the radius of the mirror and n the number of reflections.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1. c = a]

  [Illustration: FIG. 2. c = [oo]]

  [Illustration: FIG. 3. c = (1/3)a]

  The Cartesian equation to the caustic produced by reflection at a
  circle of rays diverging from any point was obtained by Joseph Louis
  Lagrange; it may be expressed in the form

    {(4c^2 - a^2)(x^2 + y^2) - 2a^2 cx - a^2 c^2 }^3 =
           = 27a^4 c^2 y^2 (x^2 + y^2 - c^2)^2,

  where a is the radius of the reflecting circle, and c the distance of
  the luminous point from the centre of the circle. The polar form is
  {(u + p) cos ½[theta]}^2/3 + {(u - p) sin ½[theta]}^2/3 = (2k)^2/3,
  where p and k are the reciprocals of c and a, and u the reciprocal of
  the radius vector of any point on the caustic. When c = a or = [oo]
  the curve reduces to the cardioid or the two cusped epicycloid
  previously discussed. Other forms are shown in figs. 3, 4, 5, 6. These
  curves were traced by the Rev. Hammet Holditch (_Quart. Jour. Math._
  vol. i.).

  [Illustration: FIG. 4. c = ½a]

  [Illustration: FIG. 5. c > a]

  _Secondary caustics_ are orthotomic curves having the reflected or
  refracted rays as normals, and consequently the proper caustic curve,
  being the envelope of the normals, is their evolute. It is usually the
  case that the secondary caustic is easier to determine than the
  caustic, and hence, when determined, it affords a ready means for
  deducing the primary caustic. It may be shown by geometrical
  considerations that the secondary caustic is a curve similar to the
  first positive pedal of the reflecting curve, of twice the linear
  dimensions, with respect to the luminous point. For a circle, when the
  rays emanate from any point, the secondary caustic is a limaçon, and
  hence the primary caustic is the evolute of this curve.

  [Illustration: FIG. 6. a > c > ½a]

    Caustics by refraction.

  The simplest instance of a caustic by refraction (or diacaustic) is
  when luminous rays issuing from a point are refracted at a straight
  line. It may be shown geometrically that the secondary caustic, if the
  second medium be less refractive than the first, is an ellipse having
  the luminous point for a focus, and its centre at the foot of the
  perpendicular from the luminous point to the refracting line. The
  evolute of this ellipse is the caustic required. If the second medium
  be more highly refractive than the first, the secondary caustic is a
  hyperbola having the same focus and centre as before, and the caustic
  is the evolute of this curve. When the refracting curve is a circle
  and the rays emanate from any point, the locus of the secondary
  caustic is a Cartesian oval, and the evolute of this curve is the
  required diacaustic. These curves appear to have been first discussed
  by Gergonne. For the caustic by refraction of parallel rays at a
  circle reference should be made to the memoirs by Arthur Cayley.

  REFERENCES.--Arthur Cayley's "Memoirs on Caustics" in the _Phil.
  Trans._ for 1857, vol. 147, and 1867, vol. 157, are especially to be
  consulted. Reference may also be made to R.S. Heath's _Geometrical
  Optics_ and R.A. Herman's _Geometrical Optics_ (1900).


  [1] Élie Bocthor (1784-1821) was a French orientalist of Coptic
    origin. He was the author of a _Traité des conjugaisons_ written in
    Arabic, and left his Dictionary in MS.

CAUTERETS, a watering-place of south-western France in the department of
Hautes-Pyrénées, 20 m. S. by W. of Lourdes by rail. Pop. (1906) 1030. It
lies in the beautiful valley of the Gave de Cauterets, and is well known
for its copious thermal springs. They are chiefly characterized by the
presence of sulphur and silicate of soda, and are used in the treatment
of diseases of the respiratory organs, rheumatism, skin diseases and
many other maladies. Their temperature varies between 75° and 137° F.
The springs number twenty-four, and there are nine bathing
establishments. Cauterets is a centre for excursions, the Monné (8935
ft.), the Cabaliros (7655 ft.), the Pic de Chabarrou (9550 ft.), the
Vignemale (10,820 ft.), and other summits being in its neighbourhood.

CAUTIN, a province of southern Chile, bounded N. by Arauco, Malleco and
Bio-Bio, E. by Argentina, S. by Valdivia, and W. by the Pacific. Its
area is officially estimated at 5832 sq. m. Cautin lies within the
temperate agricultural and forest region of the south, and produces
wheat, cattle, lumber, tan-bark and fruit. The state central railway
from Santiago to Puerto Montt crosses the province from north to south,
and the Cautin, or Imperial, and Tolten rivers (the latter forming its
southern boundary) cross from east to west, both affording excellent
transportation facilities. The province once formed part of the
territory occupied by the Araucanian Indians, and its present political
existence dates from 1887. Its population (1905) was 96,139, of whom a
large percentage were European immigrants, principally Germans. The
capital is Temuco, on the Rio Cautin; pop. (1895) 7078. The principal
towns besides Temuco are Lautaro (3139) and Nueva Imperial (2179), both
of historic interest because they were fortified Spanish outposts in the
long struggle with the Araucanians.

CAUTLEY, SIR PROBY THOMAS (1802-1871), English engineer and
palaeontologist, was born in Suffolk in 1802. After some years' service
in the Bengal artillery, which he joined in 1819, he was engaged on the
reconstruction of the Doab canal, of which, after it was opened, he had
charge for twelve years (1831-1843). In 1840 he reported on the proposed
Ganges canal, for the irrigation of the country between the rivers
Ganges, Hindan and Jumna, which was his most important work. This
project was sanctioned in 1841, but the work was not begun till 1843,
and even then Cautley found himself hampered in its execution by the
opposition of Lord Ellenborough. From 1845 to 1848 he was absent in
England owing to ill-health, and on his return to India he was appointed
director of canals in the North-Western Provinces. After the Ganges
canal was opened in 1854 he went back to England, where he was made
K.C.B., and from 1858 to 1868 he occupied a seat on the council of
India. He died at Sydenham, near London, on the 25th of January 1871. In
1860 he published a full account of the making of the Ganges canal, and
he also contributed numerous memoirs, some written in collaboration with
Dr Hugh Falconer, to the _Proceedings_ of the Bengal Asiatic Society and
the Geological Society of London on the geology and fossil remains of
the Sivalik Hills.

CAUVERY, or KAVERI, a river of southern India. Rising in Coorg, high up
amid the Western Ghats, in 12° 25' N. lat. and 75° 34' E. long., it
flows with a general south-eastern direction across the plateau of
Mysore, and finally pours itself into the Bay of Bengal through two
principal mouths in Tanjore district. Its total length is 472 m., the
estimated area of its basin 27,700 sq.m. The course of the river in
Coorg is very tortuous. Its bed is generally rocky; its banks are high
and covered with luxuriant vegetation. On entering Mysore it passes
through a narrow gorge, but presently widens to an average breadth of
300 to 400 yds. Its bed continues rocky, so as to forbid all navigation;
but its banks are here bordered with a rich strip of cultivation. In its
course through Mysore the channel is interrupted by twelve anicuts or
dams for the purpose of irrigation. From the most important of these,
known as the Madadkatte, an artificial channel is led to a distance of
72 m., irrigating an area of 10,000 acres, and ultimately bringing a
water-supply into the town of Mysore. In Mysore state the Cauvery forms
the two islands of Seringapatam and Sivasamudram, which vie in sanctity
with the island of Seringam lower down in Trichinopoly district. Around
the island of Sivasamudram are the celebrated falls of the Cauvery,
unrivalled for romantic beauty. The river here branches into two
channels, each of which makes a descent of about 200 m. in a succession
of rapids and broken cascades. After entering the Madras presidency, the
Cauvery forms the boundary between the Coimbatore and Salem districts,
until it strikes into Trichinopoly district. Sweeping past the historic
rock of Trichinopoly, it breaks at the island of Seringam into two
channels, which enclose between them the delta of Tanjore, the garden of
southern India. The northern channel is called the Coleroon (Kolidam);
the other preserves the name of Cauvery. On the seaward face of its
delta are the open roadsteads of Negapatam and French Karikal. The only
navigation on any portion of its course is carried on in boats of
basket-work. It is in the delta that the real value of the river for
irrigation becomes conspicuous. This is the largest delta system, and
the most profitable of all the works in India. The most ancient
irrigation work is a massive dam of unhewn stone, 1080 ft. long, and
from 40 to 60 ft. broad, across the stream of the Cauvery proper, which
is supposed to date back to the 4th century, is still in excellent
repair, and has supplied a model to British engineers. The area of the
ancient system was 669,000 acres, the modern about 1,000,000 acres. The
chief modern work is the anicut across the Coleroon, 2250 ft. long,
constructed by Sir Arthur Cotton between 1836 and 1838. The Cauvery
Falls have been utilized for an electric installation, which supplies
power to the Kolar gold-mines and light to the city of Mysore.

The Cauvery is known to devout Hindus as Dakshini Ganga, or the Ganges
of the south, and the whole of its course is holy ground. According to
the legend there was once born upon earth a girl named Vishnumaya or
Lopamudra, the daughter of Brahma; but her divine father permitted her
to be regarded as the child of a mortal, called Kavera-muni. In order to
obtain beatitude for her adoptive father, she resolved to become a river
whose waters should purify from all sin. Hence it is that even the holy
Ganges resorts underground once in the year to the source of the
Cauvery, to purge herself from the pollution contracted from the crowd
of sinners who have bathed in her waters.

CAVA DEI TIRRENI, a town and episcopal see of Campania, Italy, in the
province of Salerno, 6 m. N.W. by rail from the town of Salerno. Pop.
(1901) town, 7611; commune, 23,415. It lies fairly high in a richly
cultivated valley, surrounded by wooded hills, and is a favourite resort
of foreigners in spring and autumn, and of the Neapolitans in summer. A
mile to the south-west is the village of Corpo di Cava (1970 ft.), with
the Benedictine abbey of La Trinità della Cava, founded in 1025 by St
Alferius. The church and the greater part of the buildings were entirely
modernized in 1796. The old Gothic cloisters are preserved. The church
contains a fine organ and several ancient sarcophagi. The archives, now
national property, include documents and MSS. of great value (e.g. the
_Codex Legum Longobardorum_ of 1004) and fine _incunabula_. The abbot is
keeper, and also head of a boarding school.

  See M. Morcaldi, _Codex Diplomaticus Cavensis_ ( Naples and Milan,

CAVAEDIUM, in architecture, the Latin name for the central hall or court
within a Roman house, of which five species are described by Vitruvius.
(1) The _Tuscanicum_ responds to the greater number apparently of those
at Pompeii, in which the timbers of the roof are framed together, so as
to leave an open space in the centre, known as the compluvium; it was
through this opening that all the light was received, not only in the
hall itself, but in the rooms round. The rain from the roof was
collected in gutters round the compluvium, and discharged from thence
into a tank or open basin in the floor called the impluvium. (2) In the
_tetrastylon_ additional support was required in consequence of the
dimensions of the hall; this was given by columns placed at the four
angles of the impluvium. (3) _Corinthian_ is the term given to the
species where additional columns were required. (4) In the
_displuviatum_ the roofs, instead of sloping down towards the
compluvium, sloped outwards, the gutters being on the outer walls; there
was still an opening in the roof, and an impluvium to catch the rain
falling through. This species of roof, Vitruvius states, is constantly
in want of repair, as the water does not easily run away, owing to the
stoppage in the rain-water pipes. (5) The _testudinatum_ was employed
when the hall was small and another floor was built over it; no example
of this type has been found at Pompeii, and only one of the cavaedium

CAVAGNARI, SIR PIERRE LOUIS NAPOLEON (1841-1879), British military
administrator, the son of a French general by his marriage with an Irish
lady, was born at Stenay, in the department of the Meuse, on the 4th of
July 1841. He nevertheless obtained naturalization as an Englishman, and
entered the military service of the East India Company. After passing
through the college at Addiscombe, he served through the Oudh campaign
against the mutineers in 1858 and 1859. In 1861 he was appointed an
assistant commissioner in the Punjab, and in 1877 became deputy
commissioner of Peshawar and took part in several expeditions against
the hill tribes. In 1878 he was attached to the staff of the British
mission to Kabul, which the Afghans refused to allow to proceed. In May
1879, after the death of the amir Shere Ali, Cavagnari negotiated and
signed the treaty of Gandamak with his successor, Yakub Khan. By this
the Afghans agreed to admit a British resident at Kabul, and the post
was conferred on Cavagnari, who also received the Star of India and was
made a K.C.B. He took up his residence in July, and for a time all
seemed to go well, but on the 3rd of September Cavagnari and the other
European members of the mission were massacred in a sudden rising of
mutinous Afghan troops. (See AFGHANISTAN.)

CAVAIGNAC, JEAN BAPTISTE (1762-1829), French politician, was born at
Gourdon (Lot). He was sent by his department as deputy to the
Convention, where he associated himself with the party of the Mountain
and voted for the death of Louis XVI. He was constantly employed on
missions in the provinces, and distinguished himself by his rigorous
repression of opponents of the revolution in the departments of Landes,
Basses-Pyrénées and Gers. With his colleague Jacques Pinet (1754-1844)
he established at Bayonne a revolutionary tribunal with authority in the
neighbouring towns. Charges of cruelty were preferred against him by a
local society before the Convention in 1795, but were dismissed. He had
represented the Convention in the armies of Brest and of the Eastern
Pyrenees in 1793, and in 1795 he was sent to the armies of the Moselle
and the Rhine. He filled various minor administrative offices, and in
1806 became an official at Naples in Murat's government. During the
Hundred Days he was prefect of the Somme. At the restoration he was
proscribed as a regicide, and spent the last years of his life at
Brussels, where he died on the 24th of March 1829. His second son was
General Eugène Cavaignac (q.v.).

The eldest son, ELÉONORE LOUIS GODEFROI CAVAIGNAC (1801-1845), was, like
his father, a republican of the _intransigeant_ type. He was bitterly
disappointed at the triumph of the monarchical principle after the
revolution of July 1830, in which he had taken part. He took part in the
Parisian risings of October 1830, 1832 and 1834. On the third occasion
he was imprisoned, but escaped to England in 1835. When he returned to
France in 1841 he worked on the staff of _La Réforme_, and carried on an
energetic republican propaganda. In 1843 he became president of the
Society of the Rights of Man, of which he had been one of the founders
in 1832. He died on the 5th of May 1845. The recumbent statue (1847) of
Godefroi Cavaignac on his tomb at Montmartre (Paris) is one of the
masterpieces of the sculptor Francois Rude.

Jean Baptiste's brother, JACQUES-MARIE, VICOMTE CAVAIGNAC (1773-1855),
French general, served with distinction in the army under the republic
and successive governments. He commanded the cavalry of the XI. corps in
the retreat from Moscow, and eventually became Vicomte Cavaignac and
inspector-general of cavalry.

CAVAIGNAC, LOUIS EUGÈNE (1802-1857), French general, son of J.B.
Cavaignac, was born at Paris on the 15th of October 1802. After going
through the usual course of study for the military profession, he
entered the army as an engineer officer in 1824, and served in the Morea
in 1828, becoming captain in the following year. When the revolution of
1830 broke out he was stationed at Arras, and was the first officer of
his regiment to declare for the new order of things. In 1831 he was
removed from active duty in consequence of his declared republicanism,
but in 1832 he was recalled to the service and sent to Algeria. This
continued to be the main sphere of his activity for sixteen years, and
he won especial distinction in his fifteen months' command of the
exposed garrison of Tlemçen, a command for which he was selected by
Marshal Clausel (1836-1837), and in the defence of Cherchel (1840).
Almost every step of his promotion was gained on the field of battle,
and in 1844 the duc d'Aumale himself asked for Cavaignac's promotion to
the rank of _maréchal de camp_. This was made in the same year, and he
held various district commands in Algeria up to 1848, when the
provisional government appointed him governor-general of the province
with the rank of general of division. The post of minister of war was
also offered to Cavaignac, but he refused it owing to the unwillingness
of the government to quarter troops in Paris, a measure which the
general held to be necessary for the stability of the new régime. On his
election to the National Assembly, however, Cavaignac returned to Paris.
When he arrived on the 17th of May he found the capital in an extremely
critical state. Several _émeutes_ had already taken place, and by the
22nd of June 1848 a formidable insurrection had been organized. The only
course now open to the National Assembly was to assert its authority by
force. Cavaignac, first as minister of war and then as dictator, was
called to the task of suppressing the revolt. It was no light task, as
the national guard was untrustworthy, regular troops were not at hand in
sufficient numbers, and the insurgents had abundant time to prepare
themselves. Variously estimated at from 30,000 to 60,000 men, well armed
and organized, they had entrenched themselves at every step behind
formidable barricades, and were ready to avail themselves of every
advantage that ferocity and despair could suggest to them. Cavaignac
failed perhaps to appreciate the political exigencies of the moment; as
a soldier he would not strike his blow until his plans were matured and
his forces sufficiently prepared. When the troops at last advanced in
three strong columns, every inch of ground was disputed, and the
government troops were frequently repulsed, till, fresh regiments
arriving, he forced his way to the Place de la Bastille and crushed the
insurrection in its headquarters. The contest, which raged from the 23rd
to the morning of the 26th of June, was without doubt the bloodiest and
most resolute the streets of Paris have ever seen, and the general did
not hesitate to inflict the severest punishment on the rebels.

Cavaignac was censured by some for having, by his delay, allowed the
insurrection to gather head; but in the chamber he was declared by a
unanimous vote to have deserved well of his country. After laying down
his dictatorial powers, he continued to preside over the Executive
Committee till the election of a regular president of the republic. It
was expected that the suffrages of France would raise Cavaignac to that
position. But the mass of the people, and especially the rural
population, sick of revolution, and weary even of the moderate
republicanism of Cavaignac, were anxious for a stable government.
Against the five and a half million votes recorded for Louis Napoleon,
Cavaignac received only a million and a half. Not without chagrin at his
defeat, he withdrew into the ranks of the opposition. He continued to
serve as a representative during the short remainder of the republic. At
the _coup d'état_ of the 2nd December 1851 he was arrested along with
the other members of the opposition; but after a short imprisonment at
Ham he was released, and, with his newly-married wife, lived in
retirement till his death, which took place at Ourne (Sarthe) on the
28th of October 1857.

politician, was born in Paris on the 21st of May 1853. He made public
profession of his republican principles as a schoolboy at the Lycée
Charlemagne by refusing in 1867 to receive a prize at the Sorbonne from
the hand of the prince imperial. He received the military medal for
service in the Franco-Prussian War, and in 1872 entered the École
Polytechnique. He served as a civil engineer in Angoulême until 1881,
when he became master of requests in the council of state. In the next
year he was elected deputy for the arrondissement of Saint-Calais
(Sarthe) in the republican interest. In 1885-1886 he was under-secretary
for war in the Henri Brisson ministry, and he served in the cabinet of
Émile Loubet (1892) as minister of marine and of the colonies. He had
exchanged his moderate republicanism for radical views before he became
war minister in the cabinet of Léon Bourgeois (1895-1896). He was again
minister of war in the Brisson sabinet in July 1898, when he read in the
chamber a document which definitely incriminated Captain Alfred Dreyfus.
On the 30th of August, however, he stated that this had been discovered
to be a forgery by Colonel Henry, but he refused to concur with his
colleagues in a revision of the Dreyfus prosecution, which was the
logical outcome of his own exposure of the forgery. Resigning his
portfolio, he continued to declare his conviction of Dreyfus's guilt,
and joined the Nationalist group in the chamber, of which he became one
of the leaders. He also was an energetic supporter of the Ligue de la
Patrie Française. In 1899 Cavaignac was an unsuccessful candidate for
the presidency of the republic. He had announced his intention of
retiring from political life when he died at his country-seat near Flée
(Sarthe) on the 25th of September 1905. He wrote an important book on
the _Formation de la Prusse contemporaine_ (2 vols., 1891-1898), dealing
with the events of 1806-1813.

CAVAILLON, a town of south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse,
20 m. S.E. of Avignon by rail. Pop. (1906) town, 5760; commune, 9952.
Cavaillon lies at the southern base of Mont St Jacques on the right bank
of the Durance above its confluence with the Coulon. It has a hôtel de
ville of the 18th century, a church of the 12th century, dedicated to St
Véran, and the mutilated remains of a triumphal arch of the Roman
period. The town is an important railway junction and the commercial
centre of a rich and well-irrigated plain, which produces melons and
other fruits, early vegetables (artichokes, tomatoes, celery, potatoes),
and other products in profusion. Silk-worms are reared, and silk is an
important article of trade. The preparation of preserved vegetables,
fruits and other provisions, distilling, and the manufacture of straw
hats and leather are carried on. Numerous minor relics of the Roman
period have been found to the south of the present town, on the site of
the ancient _Cabellio_, a place of some note in the territory of the
Cavares. In medieval and modern history the town has for the most part
followed the fortunes of the Comtat Venaissin, in which it was included.
Till the time of the Revolution it was the see of a bishop, and had a
large number of monastic establishments.

CAVALCANTI, GUIDO (c. 1250-1300), Italian poet and philosopher, was the
son of a philosopher whom Dante, in the _Inferno_, condemns to torment
among the Epicureans and Atheists; but he himself was a friend of the
great poet. By marriage with Beatrice, daughter of Farinata Uberti, he
became head of the Ghibellines; and when the people, weary of continual
brawls, aroused themselves, and sought peace by banishing the leaders of
the rival parties, he was sent to Sarzana, where he caught a fever, of
which he died. Cavalcanti has left a number of love sonnets and canzoni,
which were honoured by the praise of Dante. Some are simple and
graceful, but many are spoiled by a mixture of metaphysics borrowed from
Plato, Aristotle and the Christian Fathers. They are mostly in honour of
a French lady, whom he calls Mandetta. His _Canzone d'Amore_ was
extremely popular, and was frequently published; and his complete
poetical works are contained in Giunti's collection (Florence, 1527;
Venice, 1531-1532). He also wrote in prose on philosophy and oratory.

  See D.G. Rossetti, _Dante and his Circle_ (1874).

CAVALIER, JEAN (1681-1740), the famous chief of the Camisards (q.v.),
was born at Mas Roux, a small hamlet in the commune of Ribaute near
Anduze (Gard), on the 28th of November 1681. His father, an illiterate
peasant, had been compelled by persecution to become a Roman Catholic
along with his family, but his mother brought him up secretly in the
Protestant faith. In his boyhood he became a shepherd, and about his
twentieth year he was apprenticed to a baker. Threatened with
prosecution for his religious opinions he went to Geneva, where he
passed the year 1701; he returned to the Cévennes on the eve of the
rebellion of the Camisards, who by the murder of the Abbé du Chayla at
Pont-de-Monvert on the night of the 24th of July 1702 raised the
standard of revolt. Some months later he became their leader. He showed
himself possessed of an extraordinary genius for war, and Marshal
Villars paid him the high compliment of saying that he was as courageous
in attack as he was prudent in retreat, and that by his extraordinary
knowledge of the country he displayed in the management of his troops a
skill as great as that of the ablest officers. Within a period of two
years he was to hold in check Count Victor Maurice de Broglie and
Marshal Montrevel, generals of Louis XIV., and to carry on one of the
most terrible partisan wars in French history.

He organized the Camisard forces and maintained the most severe
discipline. As an orator he derived his inspiration from the prophets of
Israel, and raised the enthusiasm of his rude mountaineers to a pitch so
high that they were ready to die with their young leader for the sake of
liberty of conscience. Each battle increased the terror of his name. On
Christmas day 1702 he dared to hold a religious assembly at the very
gates of Alais, and put to flight the local militia which came forth to
attack him. At Vagnas, on the 10th of February 1703, he routed the royal
troops, but, defeated in his turn, he was compelled to find safety in
flight. But he reappeared, was again defeated at Tour de Bellot (April
30), and again recovered himself, recruits flocking to him to fill up
the places of the slain. By a long series of successes he raised his
reputation to the highest pitch, and gained the full confidence of the
people. It was in vain that more rigorous measures were adopted against
the Camisards. Cavalier boldly carried the war into the plain, made
terrible reprisals, and threatened even Nîmes itself. On the 16th of
April 1704 he encountered Marshal Montrevel himself at the bridge of
Nages, with 1000 men against 5000, and, though defeated after a
desperate conflict, he made a successful retreat with two-thirds of his
men. It was at this moment that Marshal Villars, wishing to put an end
to the terrible struggle, opened negotiations, and Cavalier was induced
to attend a conference at Pont d'Avène near Alais on the 11th of May
1704, and on the 16th of May he made submission at Nîmes. These
negotiations, with the proudest monarch in Europe, he carried on, not as
a rebel, but as the leader of an army which had waged an honourable war.
Louis XIV. gave him a commission as colonel, which Villars presented to
him personally, and a pension of 1200 livres. At the same time he
authorized the formation of a Camisard regiment for service in Spain
under his command.

Before leaving the Cévennes for the last time he went to Alais and to
Ribaute, followed by an immense concourse of people. But Cavalier had
not been able to obtain liberty of conscience, and his Camisards almost
to a man broke forth in wrath against him, reproaching him for what they
described as his treacherous desertion. On the 21st of June 1704, with a
hundred Camisards who were still faithful to him, he departed from Nîmes
and came to Neu-Brisach (Alsace), where he was to be quartered. From
Dijon he went on to Paris, where Louis XIV. gave him audience and heard
his explanation of the revolt of the Cévennes. Returning to Dijon,
fearing to be imprisoned in the fortress of Neu-Brisach, he escaped with
his troop near Montbéliard and took refuge at Lausanne. But he was too
much of a soldier to abandon the career of arms. He offered his services
to the duke of Savoy, and with his Camisards made war in the Val
d'Aosta. After the peace he crossed to England, where he formed a
regiment of refugees which took part in the Spanish expedition under the
earl of Peterborough and Sir Cloudesley Shovel in May 1705. At the
battle of Almansa the Camisards found themselves opposed to a French
regiment, and without firing the two bodies rushed one upon the other.
Cavalier wrote later (July 10, 1707): "The only consolation that
remains to me is that the regiment I had the honour to command never
looked back, but sold its life dearly on the field of battle. I fought
as long as a man stood beside me and until numbers overpowered me,
losing also an immense quantity of blood from a dozen wounds which I
received." Marshal Berwick never spoke of this tragic event without
visible emotion.

On his return to England a small pension was given him and he settled at
Dublin, where he published _Memoirs of the Wars of the Cévennes under
Col. Cavalier_, written in French and translated into English with a
dedication to Lord Carteret (1726). Though Cavalier received, no doubt,
assistance in the publication of the Memoirs, it is none the less true
that he provided the materials, and that his work is the most valuable
source for the history of his life. He was made a general on the 27th of
October 1735, and on the 25th of May 1738 was appointed
lieutenant-governor of Jersey. Writing in the following year (August 26,
1739) he says: "I am overworked and weary; I am going to take the waters
in England so as to be in a fit condition for the war against the
Spaniards if they reject counsels of prudence." He was promoted to the
rank of major-general on the 2nd of July 1739, and died in the following
year. In the parochial register of St Luke's, Chelsea, there is an
entry: "Burial A.D. 1740, May 18, Brigadier John Cavalier."

There is a story which represents him as the fortunate rival of Voltaire
for the hand of Olympe, daughter of Madame Dunoyer, author of the
_Lettres galantes_. During his stay in England he married the daughter
of Captain de Ponthieu and Marguerite de la Rochefoucauld, refugees
living at Portarlington. Malesherbes, the courageous defender of Louis
XVI., bears the following eloquent testimony to this young hero of the
Cévennes:--"I confess," he says, "that this warrior, who, without ever
having served, found himself by the mere gift of nature a great
general,--this Camisard who was bold to punish a crime in the presence
of a fierce troop which maintained itself by little crimes--this coarse
peasant who, when admitted at twenty years of age into the society of
cultivated people, caught their manners and won their love and esteem,
this man who, though accustomed to a stormy life, and having just cause
to be proud of his success, had yet enough philosophy in him by nature
to enjoy for thirty-five years a tranquil private life--appears to me to
be one of the rarest characters to be found in history."

  For a more detailed account see F. Puaux, _Vie de Jean Cavalier_
  (1868); David C.A. Agnew, _Protestant Exiles from France_, ii. 54-66
  (Lond., 1871); Charvey, _Jean Cavalier: nouveaux documents inédits_
  (1884). Eugène Sue popularized the name of the Camisard chief in _Jean
  Cavalier ou les fanatiques des Cévennes_ (1840).     (F. Px.)

CAVALIER, a horseman, particularly a horse-soldier or one of gentle
birth trained in knightly exercises. The word is taken from one of the
French words which derived ultimately from the Late Lat. _caballarius_,
a horseman, from Lat. _caballus_, properly a pack-horse, which gave the
Fr. _cheval._ a _chevalier_. This last word is the regular French for
"knight," and is chiefly used in English for a member of certain foreign
military or other orders, particularly of the Legion of Honour. Cavalier
in English was early applied in a contemptuous sense to an overbearing
swashbuckler--a roisterer or swaggering gallant. In Shakespeare (_2
Henry IV._ v. iii. 62) Shallow calls Bardolph's companions "cavaleros."
"Cavalier" is chiefly associated with the Royalists, the supporters of
Charles I. in the struggle with the Parliament in the Great Rebellion.
Here again it first appears as a term of reproach and contempt, applied
by the opponents of the king. Charles in the _Answer to the Petition_
(June 13, 1642) speaks of cavaliers as a "word by what mistake soever it
seemes much in disfavour." Further quotations of the use of the word by
the Parliamentary party are given in the _New English Dictionary_. It
was soon adopted (as a title of honour) by the king's party, who in
return applied Roundhead to their opponents, and at the Restoration the
court party preserved the name, which survived till the rise of the term
Tory (see WHIG AND TORY). The term "cavalier" has been adopted from the
French as a term in fortification for a work of great command
constructed in the interior of a fort, bastion or other defence, so as
to fire over the main parapet without interfering with the fire of the
latter. A greater volume of fire can thus be obtained, but the great
height of the cavalier makes it an easy target for a besieger's guns.

CAVALIERE, EMILIO DEL, 16th-century Italian musical composer, was born
in Rome about 1550 of a noble family. He held a post at the court of
Ferdinand I. of Tuscany from 1588 to 1597, and during his residence at
Florence was on terms of intimacy with J. Peri, O. Rinuccini, G. Caccini
and the rest of the Bardi circle. In 1597 he returned to Rome, and
became connected with the Congregation of the Oratory founded by St
Philip Neri. Here in 1600 was performed Cavaliere's contribution to the
musical reformation initiated by his circle of friends in Florence--_La
Rappresentazione di Anima e di Corpo_, a sacred drama, which is regarded
as the first example of what is now called oratorio. It is generally
supposed that he was no longer living when the work was performed, but
some authorities assign 1602 as the date of his death.

Cavaliere's style is more facile than that of Peri and Caccini, but he
is inferior to them in depth of musical expression. He is, however,
important as being the first to apply the new monodic style to sacred
music, and as the founder of the Roman school of the 17th century which
included Mazzocchi, Carissimi and Alessandro Scarlatti.

  See also H. Goldschmidt, _Studien zur Geschichte der italienischen
  Oper im 17. Jahrhundert_, Band i.

CAVALLI, FRANCESCO (1599?-1676), Italian musical composer, was born at
Crema in 1599 or 1600. His real name was Pier Francesco Caletti-Bruni,
but he is better known by that of Cavalli, the name of his patron, a
Venetian nobleman. He became a singer at St Mark's in Venice in 1617,
second organist in 1639, first organist in 1665, and in 1668 _maestro di
cappella_. He is, however, chiefly important for his operas. He began to
write for the stage in 1639 (_Le Nozze di Teti e di Peleo_), and soon
established so great a reputation that he was summoned to Paris in 1660
to produce an opera (_Serse_) at the Louvre in honour of the marriage of
Louis XIV. He visited Paris again in 1662, bringing out his _Ercole
Amante_. His death occurred in Venice on the 14th of January 1676.
Twenty-seven operas of Cavalli are still extant, most of them being
preserved in the library of St Mark at Venice. Monteverde had found
opera a musico-literary experiment, and left it a magnificent dramatic
spectacle. Cavalli succeeded in making opera a popular entertainment. He
reduced Monteverde's extravagant orchestra to more practical limits,
introduced melodious arias into his music and popular types into his
_libretti_. His operas have all the characteristic exaggerations and
absurdities of the 17th century, but they have also a remarkably strong
sense of dramatic effect as well as a great musical facility, and a
grotesque humour which was characteristic of Italian grand opera down to
the death of Alessandro Scarlatti.

CAVALLINI, PIETRO (c. 1259-1344), Italian painter, born in Rome, was an
artist of the earliest epoch of the modern Roman school, and was taught
painting and mosaic by Giotto while employed at Rome; it is believed
that he assisted his master in the mosaic of the Navicella or ship of St
Peter, in the porch of the church of that saint. He also studied under
the Cosmati. Lanzi describes him as an adept in both arts, and mentions
with approbation his grand fresco of a Crucifixion at Assisi, still in
tolerable preservation; he was, moreover, versed in architecture and in
sculpture. According to George Vertue, it is highly probable that
Cavallini executed, in 1279, the mosaics and other ornaments of the tomb
of Edward the Confessor in Westminster Abbey. He would thus be the
"Petrus Civis Romanus" whose name is inscribed on the shrine; but a
comparison of dates invalidates this surmise. He died in 1344, at the
age of eighty-five, in the odour of sanctity, having in his later years
been a man of eminent piety. He is said to have carved for the Basilica
of San Paolo fuori le Mura, close to Rome, a crucifix which spoke in
1370 to a female saint. Some highly important works by Cavallini in the
church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome, have been recently

CAVALLO, TIBERIUS (1749-1809), Anglo-Italian electrician and natural
philosopher, was born on the 30th of March 1749 at Naples, where his
father was a physician. In 1771 he came to England with the intention of
pursuing a mercantile career, but he soon turned his attention to
scientific work. Although he made several ingenious improvements in
scientific instruments, his mind was rather imitative and critical than
creative. He published numerous works on different branches of physics,
including _A Complete Treatise on Electricity_ (1777), _Treatise on the
Nature and Properties of Air and other permanently Elastic Fluids_
(1781), _History and Practice of Aerostation_ (1785), _Treatise on
Magnetism_ (1787), _Elements of Natural and Experimental Philosophy_
(1803), _Theory and Practice of Medical Electricity_ (1780), and
_Medical Properties of Factitious Air_ (1798). He died in London on the
21st of December 1809.

CAVALLOTTI, FELICE (1842-1898), Italian politician, poet and dramatic
author, was born at Milan on the 6th of November 1842. In 1860 and 1866
he fought with the Garibaldian Corps, but first attained notoriety by
his anti-monarchical lampoons in the _Gazzetta di Milano_ and in the
_Gazzettina Rosa_ between 1866 and 1872. Elected to parliament as deputy
for Corteolona in the latter year, he took the oath of allegiance after
having publicly impugned its validity. Eloquence and turbulent,
combativeness in and out of parliament secured for him the leadership of
the extreme Left on the death of Bertani in 1886. During his twelve
years' leadership his party increased in number from twenty to seventy,
and at the time of his death his parliamentary influence was greater
than ever before. Though ambitious and addicted to defamatory methods of
personal attack which sometimes savoured of political blackmail,
Cavallotti's eloquent advocacy of democratic reform, and apparent
generosity of sentiment, secured for him a popularity surpassed by that
of no contemporary save Crispi. Services rendered in the cholera
epidemic of 1885, his numerous lawsuits and thirty-three duels, his
bitter campaign against Crispi, and his championship of French
interests, combined to enhance his notoriety and to increase his
political influence. By skilful alliances with the marquis di Rudini he
more than once obtained practical control of the Italian government, and
exacted notable concessions to Radical demands. He was killed on the 6th
of March 1898 in a duel with Count Macola, editor of the conservative
_Gazetta di Venezia_, whom he had assailed with characteristic
intemperance of language. By his death the house of Savoy lost a
relentless foe, and the revolutionary elements in Italy a gifted, if not
entirely trustworthy, leader.     (H. W. S.)

CAVALRY (Fr. _cavalerie_, Ger. _Kavallerie_ or _Reiterei_, derived
ultimately from late Lat. _caballus_, horse), a word which came into use
in military literature about the middle of the 16th century as applied
to mounted men of all kinds employed for combatant purposes, whether
intended primarily for charging in masses, in small bodies, or for
dismounted fighting. By degrees, as greater refinement of terminology
has become desirable, the idea has been narrowed down until it includes
only "horsemen trained to achieve the purpose of their commander by the
combined action of man and horse," and this definition will be found to
cover the whole field of cavalry activity, from the tasks entrusted to
the cavalry "corps" of 10,000 sabres down to the missions devolving on
isolated squadrons and even troops.

  Early use of mounted warriors.

_History_--The evolution of the cavalry arm has never been uniform at
any one time over the surface of the globe, but has always been locally
modified by the conditions of each community and the stage of
intellectual development to which at any given moment each had attained.
The first condition for the existence of the arm being the existence of
the horse itself, its relative scarcity or the reverse and its
adaptability to its environment in each particular district have always
exercised a preponderating influence on the development of cavalry
organization and tactics. The indigenous horses of Europe and Asia being
very small, the first application of their capabilities for war purposes
seems everywhere to have been as draught animals for chariots, the
construction of which implies not only the existence of level surfaces,
perhaps of actual roads, but a very considerable degree of mechanical
skill in those who designed and employed them. The whole of the
classical and Oriental mythologies, together with the earliest monuments
of Egypt, Assyria and India, are convincing on this point. Nowhere can
we find a trace either of description or delineation of animals
physically capable of carrying on their backs the armed men of the
period. All the earliest allusions to the use of the horse in war either
point directly to the employment as a draught animal, or where not
specific, as in the description of the war-horse in Job, they would
apply equally well to one harnessed to a chariot as to one ridden under
the saddle.

The first trace of change is to be found, according to Prof. Wm.
Ridgeway (_Origin and Influence of the Thoroughbred Horse_, p. 243), in
an Egyptian relief showing Nubians mounted on horses of an entirely
different breed, taller and more powerful than any which had gone before
them. These horses appear to have come from the vicinity of Dongola, and
the strain still survives in the Sudan. The breed is traced into Arabia,
where only second-rate horses had been reared hitherto, and thence to
different parts of Europe, where eventually centres of cavalry activity
developed. The first detailed evidence of the existence of organized
bodies of mounted men is to be found in Xenophon, whose instructions for
the breaking, training and command of a squadron remain almost as a
model for modern practice. Their tactical employment, however, seems
still to have been relatively insignificant, for the horses were still
far too small and too few to deliver a charge with sufficient momentum
to break the heavy armed and disciplined hoplites. The strain of ancient
battle was of an entirely different order to that of modern fighting. In
the absence of projectiles of sufficient range and power to sweep a
whole area, the fighting was entirely between the front ranks of the
opposing forces. When a front rank fighter fell, his place was
immediately taken by his comrade in the rear, who took up the individual
combat, excited by his comrade's fate but relatively fresh in mind and
muscle. This process of feeding the fight from the rear could be
protracted almost indefinitely. If then, as a consequence of a charge, a
few mounted men did penetrate the ranks, they encountered such a crowd
of well-protected and fresh swordsmen that they were soon pulled off
their ponies and despatched. Now and again great leaders, Alexander,
Hannibal and Scipio Africanus, for instance, succeeded in riding down
their opponents, but in the main, and as against the Roman infantry in
particular, mounted troops proved of very little service on the

It was, however, otherwise in the sphere of strategy. There, information
was of even greater importance, because harder to obtain, than it is
nowadays, and the army which could push out its feelers to the greater
distance, surround its enemy and intercept his communications, derived
nearly the same advantages as it does at present. Hence both sides
provided themselves with horsemen, and when these met, each in the
performance of their several duties, charges of masses naturally ensued.
This explains the value attaching in the old days to the possession of
horse-flesh and the rapid spread of the relatively new Dongola or
African strain over the then known world.

The primitive instinct of aboriginal man is to throw stones or other
missiles for purposes of defence (apes will throw anything they can
find, but they never use sticks); hence, as the Romans penetrated ever
farther amongst the barbarian tribes, their horsemen in first line found
ever-increasing need for protection against projectiles. But the greater
the weight of armour carried, the greater the demands upon the endurance
of the horse. Then, as the weight-carrying breed was expensive and, with
the decay of the Roman Empire, corruption and peculation spread, a limit
was soon placed on the multiplication of charging cavalry, and it became
necessary to fall back on the indigenous pony, which could only carry a
rider from place to place, not charge. Thus there was a gradual
levelling down of the mounted arms, the heavy cavalry becoming too heavy
to gallop and the light not good enough for united action. Against such
opponents, the lighter and better mounted tribesmen of Asia found their
task easy. They cut off the supplies of the marching infantry, filled up
or destroyed the wells, &c., and thus demonstrated the strategic
necessity of superior mobility.

With the decay of civilization discipline also disappeared, and, as
discipline consists essentially in the spirit of self-sacrifice for the
good of the community, its opposite, self-preservation, became the
guiding principle. This in turn led to the increase of armour carried,
and thence to the demand for heavier horses, and this demand working
through several centuries led ultimately to the breeding of the great
weight-carrying animals on whose existence that of medieval chivalry
depended. These horses, however, being very costly and practically
useless for general purposes, could only become the property of the
wealthy, who were too independent to feel the need of combination, and
preferred to live on the spoliation and taxation of the weak. This
spoliation eventually impelled the weaker men to combine, and at first
their combination took the form of the construction of fortified places,
against which mounted men were powerless. On the other hand, expense put
a limit to the area which fortifications could enclose, and this again
limited the supplies for the garrison. Horsemen sweeping the country for
miles around had no difficulty in feeding themselves, and the surrender
of all beleaguered places through starvation was ultimately inevitable,
unless food could be introduced from allied towns in the vicinity. It
was of no use to introduce fighting men only into a place which
primarily required food (cf. Lucknow, 1857) to protract its resistance.
Hence some means had to be found to surround the supply-convoys with a
physically impenetrable shield, and eighteen-foot pikes in the hands of
powerful disciplined soldiers met the requirements. Against eight to ten
ranks of such men the best cavalry in the world, relying only on their
swords, were helpless, and for the time (towards the close of the 15th
century) infantry remained masters of the field on the continent of

England meanwhile had developed on lines of her own. Thanks to her
longbowmen and the military genius of her leaders, she might have
retained indefinitely the command of the continent had it not been for
the invention of gunpowder, which, though readily accepted by the
English for sieges in France, proved the ultimate cause of their
undoing. It was the French who developed the use of siege artillery most
rapidly, and their cavalry were not slow to take the hint; unlike the
longbow and the crossbow, the pistol could be used effectively from
horseback, and presently the knights and their retainers, having the
deepest purses, provided themselves with long pistols in addition to
their lances and swords. These weapons sent a bullet through any armour
which a foot-soldier could conveniently carry, or his commander afford,
and if anything went wrong with their mechanism (which was complicated
and uncertain) the speed of his horse soon carried the rider out of
danger. A new form of attack against infantry, introduced by the French
at Cerisoles, 1544, thus developed itself. A troop or squadron, formed
in from twelve to sixteen ranks, trotted up to within pistol shot of the
angle of the square to be attacked and halted; then each rank in
succession cantered off man by man to the left, discharging his pistol
at the square as he passed, and riding back to his place behind the
column to reload. This could be prolonged indefinitely, and against such
tactics the infantry were powerless. The stakes carried by English
archers to check the direct charge of horsemen became useless, as did
also _chevaux de frise_, though the latter (which originated in the 14th
century) continued to be employed by the Austrians against the
swiftly-charging Turks till the close of the 17th century. Thus it
became necessary to devise some new impediment which, whilst remaining
mobile, would also give cover and an advantage in the final hand-to-hand
shock. The problem was solved in Bohemia, Poland and Moravia (Hussite
wars, about 1420), where, distances being great and the country open,
greater mobility and capacity in the convoys became essential. Great
trains of wagons were placed in charge of an infantry escort, of which a
part had become possessed of firearms, and these moved across country in
as many as twelve parallel lines drilled to form _laagers_, as nowadays
in South Africa. Again the cavalry proved helpless, and for nearly a
century in central Europe the word "_Wagenburg_" (wagon-fortress) became
synonymous with "army." Then an unfortunate inspiration came to the
wagon-men. A large gun was relatively cheaper to manufacture, and more
effective than a small one. To keep their assailants at a distance, they
mounted wall-pieces of about one-inch bore on their wagons. For a moment
the balance inclined in their favour, but the cavalry were quick to see
their advantage in this new idea, and they immediately followed suit.
They, too, mounted guns on wheels, and, as their mobility gave them
choice of position, they were able to concentrate their fire against any
side of the laager, and again ultimate surrender was the only way out of
the defenders' dilemma.

The interesting problem thus raised was never finally solved, for the
scene of action now shifted to western Europe, to the valley of the Po,
and more particularly to the Netherlands, where fortresses were closer
together and the clayey nature of the Rhine delta had already made paved
roads necessary. Then, the _Wagenburg_ being no longer needed for the
short transits between one fortified town and another, the infantry
reasserted themselves. Firearms having been much improved in the
interval the spearmen (pikemen) had already (about 1515) learnt to
protect themselves by musketeers trained to take advantage of cover and
ground somewhat in the same fashion as the modern skirmisher. These
musketeers kept light guns at a distance from their pikemen, but dared
not venture far out, as their fire was altogether inadequate to stop a
rush of horsemen; when the latter threatened to intervene, they had to
run for safety to the squares of pikemen, whom they assisted in turn by
keeping the cavalry beyond pistol range. Hence the horsemen had to fall
back upon more powerful guns, and these, being slow and requiring more
train, could be most economically protected by infantry (see also

  17th-century progress.

Thus about the close of the 16th century western armies differentiated
themselves out into the still existing three types--cavalry, artillery
and infantry. Moreover, each type was subdivided, the cavalry becoming
heavy, medium and dragoons. At this period there was nothing to disturb
the equilibrium of two contending forces except the characters of their
respective leaders. The mercenary element had triumphed everywhere over
the feudal levies. The moral qualities of all were on the same
indifferent level, and battles in the open followed one recognized
course. Neither army being able to outmarch the other, both drew up
masses of pikes in parallel lines. The musketeers covered the deployment
of the heavy guns on either side, the cavalry drew up on the wings and a
strictly parallel fight ensued, for in the absence of a common cause for
which men were willing to die, plunder was the ruling motive, and all
control and discipline melted in the excitement of the contest.

It is to the growth of Protestantism that cavalry owes its next great
forward leap. To sweep the battlefield, it was absolutely essential that
men should be ready to subordinate selfish considerations to the triumph
of their cause. The Roman Catholicism of the day gave many loopholes for
the evasion of clear duty, but from these the reformed faith was free,
and it is to the reawakened sense of duty that Gustavus Adolphus
appealed. This alone rendered combination amongst his subordinate
leaders possible, and on this power of combination all his victories
depended. Other cavalry soldiers, once let loose in the charge, could
never be trusted to return to the field, the prospective plunder of the
enemy's baggage being too strong a temptation; but the king's men could
be depended on, and once brought back in formed bodies, they rode over
the enemy's skirmishers and captured his batteries. Then the equilibrium
of force was destroyed, and all arms combined made short work of the
opposing infantry alone (Breitenfeld, 1631). But the Swedish king
perished with his work half done, and matters reverted to their former
condition until the appearance of Cromwell, another great leader capable
of animating his men with the spirit of devotion, again rendered the
cavalry arm supreme. The essence of his success lay in this, that his
men were ready everywhere and always to lay down their lives for their
common cause. Whether scouting 70 m. to the front of their army, or
fighting dismounted to delay the enemy at defiles or to storm fortified
strongholds, or charging home on the battlefield, their will power,
focused on, and in turn dependent on, the personality of their great
leader, dominated all human instincts of fear, rapacity or selfishness.
It is true that they had not to ride against the modern rifle, but it is
equally true that there was no quick-firing artillery to carry terror
through the enemy's army, and it was against masses of spearmen and
musketeers, not then subjected to bursting shells or the lash of
shrapnel and rifle bullets, that the final charges had always to be
ridden home.

Each succeeding decade thereafter has seen a steady diminution in the
ultimate power of resistance of the infantry, and a corresponding
increase in the power of fire preparation at the disposal of the supreme
leader; and the chances of cavalry have fluctuated with the genius of
that leader in the employment of the means at his disposal, and the
topographical conditions existing within each theatre of war. During the
campaigns in Flanders, with its multiplicity of fortresses and clayey
soil, cavalry rapidly degenerated into mounted infantry, throwing aside
sword and lance-proof armour, and adopting long muskets and heavier
ammunition. Presently they abandoned the charge at a gallop and reverted
to an approach at the trot, and if (as at Blenheim) their influence
proved decisive on the field of battle, this was because the conditions
were common to both combatants, and the personal influence of "Corporal
John," as his soldiers called Marlborough, ensured greater steadiness
and better co-operation.

  Frederick II.; reform of the Prussian cavalry.

When Frederick II. became king of Prussia (1740), he found his cavalry
almost at the nadir of efficiency; even his cuirassiers drilled
principally on foot. "They can manoeuvre," on foot, "with the same
precision as my grenadiers, but unfortunately they are equally slow."
His enemies the Austrians, thanks to their wars against the Turks who
always charged at a gallop, had maintained greater dash and mobility,
and at Mollwitz the Prussians only escaped disaster by the astounding
rapidity of their infantry fire. In disgust the king then wrote, "Die
Cavallerie is nicht einmal werth dasz sie der Teufel weck holet," and he
immediately set about their reform with his usual energy and
thoroughness. Three years after Mollwitz, the result of his exertions
was apparent in the greatly increased importance the arm acquired on the
battlefield, and the charge of the Bayreuth dragoons at Hohenfriedberg
(June 4, 1745), who with 1500 horses rode over and dispersed 20 Austrian
battalions, bringing in 2500 prisoners and 67 colours, will always rank
as one of the most brilliant feats in military history.[1] The following
years of peace (1745-1756) were devoted to the methodical preparation of
the cavalry to meet the requirements that Frederick's methods of war
would make upon them, and it is to this period that the student should
devote special attention. From the very outbreak of the Seven Years' War
(1756) this training asserted its influence, and Rossbach (1757) and
Zorndorf (1758) are the principal examples of what cavalry handled in
masses can effect. At Rossbach General v. Seydlitz, at the head of 38
squadrons, practically began and ended the destruction of the French
army, and at Zorndorf he saved the day for the Prussians by a series of
the most brilliant charges, which successively destroyed the Russian
right wing and centre. These battles so conclusively demonstrated the
superiority of the Prussian cavalry that their enemies completely
altered their tactical procedure. They now utilized their enormous
numerical superiority by working in two separate armies, each almost as
strong as the whole Prussian force. When the latter moved against
either, the one threatened immediately threw up heavy entrenchments,
against which cavalry were, of course, ineffective, whilst the other
pursued its march. When Frederick, having more or less beaten his
immediate opponent, began to threaten the other army it entrenched
likewise. Against these methods the Prussian army soon wore itself out,
and though from time to time the cavalry locally distinguished itself,
no further opportunities for great decisive blows presented themselves.

The increased demands made upon the mobility of the Prussian horsemen
naturally resulted in the gradual rejection of everything which was not
essential to their striking power. The long muskets and bayonets were
laid aside, but the cuirass was retained for the mêlée, and by the close
of the great struggle the various branches of the arm had differentiated
themselves out into the types still adhered to, heavy cavalry, dragoons,
hussars, whose equipment as regards essentials thenceforward hardly
varied up to the latter years of the 19th century. The only striking
difference lies in the entire rejection of the lance in the armament of
the charging squadrons, and the reason is characteristic of the
principles of the day. The Prussian cavalry had realized that success
was decided, not primarily by actual collision, but by the moral effect
of the appearance of an absolutely closed wall of horsemen approaching
the adversary at full speed. If the necessary degree of cohesion was
attained, the other side was morally beaten before collision took place,
and either turned to flight, or met the shock with so little resolution
that it was ridden over without difficulty. In the former case any
weapon was good enough to kill a flying enemy; in the latter, in the
mêlée which then ensued, the crush in the ranks of the victors was still
so great that the lance was a hindrance rather than a help.

In the years succeeding the war the efficiency of the Prussian cavalry
sank very rapidly, the initial cause being the death of Seydlitz at the
early age of fifty-two. His personality had alone dominated the
discontent, lethargy and hopelessness created by ruthless financial
economies. When he was gone, as always in the absence of a great leader,
men adapted their lives to the line of least resistance. In thirty years
the wreck was complete, and within the splendid squadrons which had been
accustomed to manoeuvre with perfect precision at the highest speed,
there were (as F.A. von der Marwitz in his _Nachlass_ clearly shows) not
more than seven thoroughly trained men and horses to each, the remainder
being trained for little longer and receiving less attention than is the
case with modern 2nd line or auxiliary cavalry.

  Cavalry in the revolutionary wars.

For the generation preceding the outbreak of the French Revolution,
Frederick the Great's army, and especially his cavalry, had become the
model for all Europe, but the mainspring of the excellence of his
squadrons was everywhere overlooked. Seydlitz had manoeuvred great
masses of horsemen, therefore every one else must have great masses
also; but no nation grasped the secret, viz. the unconditional obedience
of the horse to its rider, on which his success had depended. Neither
was it possible under the prevailing social conditions to secure the old
stamp of horse, or the former attention to detail on the part of men and
officers. In France, owing to the agricultural decay of the country,
suitable remounts for charging cavalry were almost unobtainable, and as
this particular branch of the army was almost exclusively commanded by
the aristocracy it suffered most in the early days of the Revolution.
The hussars, being chiefly recruited and officered by Alsatians and
Germans from the Rhine provinces, retained their individuality and
traditions much longer than the dragoons and cuirassiers, and, to the
very close of the great wars, we find them always ready to charge at a
gallop; but the unsteadiness and poor horsemanship of the other branches
was so great that up to 1812, the year of their destruction, they always
charged at a trot only, considering that the advantage of superior
cohesion thus gained more than balanced the loss of momentum due to the
slower pace.

Generally, the growth of the French cavalry service followed the
universal law. The best big horses went to the heavy charging cavalry,
viz. the cuirassiers, the best light horses to the hussars, and the
dragoons received the remainder, for in principle they were only
infantry placed on horseback for convenience of locomotion, and were not
primarily intended for combined mounted action. Fortunately for them,
their principal adversaries, the Austrians, had altogether failed to
grasp the lesson of the Seven Years' War. Writing in 1780 Colonel Mack,
a very capable officer, said, "Even in 1769, the cavalry could not ride,
could not manage to control their horses. Not a single squadron could
keep its dressing at a gallop, and before they had gone fifty yards at
least ten out of forty horses in the first rank would break out to the
front," and though the veteran field marshal Lacy issued new
regulations, their spirit seems always to have escaped the executive
officers. The British cavalry was almost worse off, for economy had
reduced its squadrons to mere skeletons, and the traditional British
style of horsemanship, radically different from that in vogue in France,
made their training for combined action even more difficult than
elsewhere. Hence the history of cavalry during the earlier campaigns of
the Revolution is marked by no decisive triumphs, the results are always
inadequate when judged by the magnitude of the forces employed, and only
the brilliant exploit of the 15th Light Dragoons (now Hussars) at
Villers en Couché (April 24, 1794) deserves to be cited as an instance
of the extraordinary influence which even a few horsemen can exercise
over a demoralized or untrained mob of infantry.

Up to the campaign of Poland (see NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS) French victories
were won chiefly by the brilliant infantry fighting, cavalry only
intervening (as at Jena) to charge a beaten enemy and complete his
destruction by pursuit. But after the terrible waste of life in the
winter of 1806-7, and the appalling losses in battle, Napoleon
introduced a new form of attack. The case-shot preparation of his
artillery (see ARTILLERY) sowed confusion and terror in the enemy's
ranks, and the opportunity was used by masses of cavalry. Henceforward
this method dominated the Napoleonic tactics and strategy. The essential
difference between this system and the Frederician lies in this, that
with the artillery available in the former period it was not possible to
say in advance at what point the intervention of cavalry would be
necessary, hence the need for speed and precision of manoeuvre to ensure
their arrival at the right time and place. Napoleon now selected
beforehand the point he meant to overwhelm and could bring his cavalry
masses within striking distance at leisure. Once placed, it was only
necessary to induce them to run away in the required direction to
overwhelm everything by sheer weight of men and horses. This method
failed at Waterloo because the ground was too heavy, the slope of it
against the charge, and the whole condition of the horses too low for
the exertion demanded of them.

The British cavalry from 1793 to 1815 suffered from the same causes
which at the beginning of the 20th century brought about its breakdown
in the South African War. Over-sea transport brought the horses to land
in poor condition, and it was rarely possible to afford them sufficient
time to recover and become accustomed to the change in forage, the
conditions of the particular theatre of operations, &c., before they had
to be led against the enemy--hence a heavy casualty roll and the
introduction into the ranks of raw unbroken horses which interfered with
the precision of manoeuvre of the remainder. Their losses (about 13% per
annum) were small as compared with those of South Africa, but this is
mainly accounted for by the fact that, operations being generally in the
northern hemisphere, the change of climate was never so severe.
Tactically, they suffered, like the Austrians and Prussians, from the
absence of any conception of the Napoleonic strategy amongst their
principal leaders. As it was not known where the great blow was to fall,
they were distributed along the whole line, and thus became habituated
to the idea of operating in relatively small bodies. This is the worst
school for the cavalry soldier, because it is only when working in
masses of forty to sixty squadrons that the cumulative consequences of
small errors of detail become so apparent as to convince all ranks of
the necessity of conforming accurately to established prescriptions.
Nevertheless, they still retained the practice of charging at a gallop,
and as a whole were by far the most efficient body of horsemen who
survived at the close of the great wars.

  Later 19th century.

In the reaction that then ensued all over Europe, cavalry practically
ceased to exist. The financial and agricultural exhaustion of all
countries, and of Prussia in particular, was so complete that money was
nowhere to be found for the great concentrations and manoeuvre practices
which are more essential to the efficiency of the cavalry than to that
of the other arms. Hence a whole generation of officers grew up in
ignorance of the fundamental principles which govern the employment of
their arm. It was not till 1848 that the Prussians began again to unite
whole cavalry divisions for drill and manoeuvre, and the soldiers of the
older generation had not yet passed away when the campaigns of 1866 and
1870 brought up again the realities of the battle-field. Meanwhile the
introduction of long-range artillery and small arms had entirely
destroyed the tactical relation of the three arms on which the
Napoleonic tactics and strategy had been based, and the idea gained
ground that the battle-field would no longer afford the same
opportunities to cavalry as before. The experiences gained by the
Americans in the Civil War helped to confirm this preconception. If in
battles waged between infantries armed only with muzzle-loading rifles,
cavalry could find no opportunity to repeat past exploits, it was argued
that its chances could not fail to be still further reduced by the
breech-loader. But this reasoning ignored the principal factors of
former successes. The mounted men in America failed not as a consequence
of the armament they encountered, but because the war brought out no
Napoleon to create by his skill the opportunity for decisive cavalry
action, and to mass his men beforehand in confident anticipation. The
same reasoning applies to the European campaigns of 1866 and 1870, and
the results obtained by the arm were so small, in proportion to the
numbers of squadrons available and to their cost of maintenance as
compared with the other arms, that a strong reaction set in everywhere
against the existing institutions, and the re-creation of the dragoon,
under the new name of mounted rifleman, was advocated in the hope of
obtaining a cheap and efficient substitute for the cavalryman.

Later events in South Africa and in Manchuria again brought this
question prominently to the front, but the essential difference between
the old and new schools of thought has not been generally realized. The
"mounted rifle" adherents base their arguments on the greatly increased
efficiency of the rifle itself. The "cavalry" school, on the other hand,
maintains that, the weapons themselves being everywhere substantially
equal in efficiency, the advantage rests with the side which can create
the most favourable conditions for their employment, and that,
fundamentally, superior mobility will always confer upon its possessor
the choice of the circumstances under which he will elect to engage.
Where the two sides are nearly equally matched in mobility, neither side
can afford the time to dismount, for the other will utilize that time to
manoeuvre into a position which gives him a relative superiority for
whichever form of attack he may elect to adopt, and this relative
superiority will always more than suffice to eliminate any advantage in
accuracy of fire that his opponent may have obtained by devoting his
principal attention to training his men on the range instead of on the
mounted manoeuvre ground.

Finally, the "cavalry" school reasons that in no single campaign since
Napoleon's time have the conditions governing encounters been normal.
Either the roadless and barren nature of the country has precluded of
itself the rapid marching which forms the basis of all modern strategy,
as in America, Turkey, South Africa and Manchuria, or the relative power
of the infantry and artillery weapons, as in Bohemia (1866) and in
France (1870), has rendered wholly impossible the creation of the great
tactical opportunity characteristic of Napoleon's later method, for
there then existed no means of overwhelming the enemy with a sufficient
hail of projectiles to render the penetration of the cavalry feasible.
The latest improvement in artillery, viz. the perfected shrapnel and the
quick-firing guns, have, however, enormously facilitated the attainment
of this primary fire superiority, and, moreover, it has simplified the
procedure to such a degree that Napoleon is no longer needed to direct.
The battles of the future will thus, in civilized countries, revert to
the Napoleonic type, and the side which possesses the most highly
trained and mobile force of cavalry will enjoy a greater relative
superiority over its adversary than at any period since the days of

The whole experience of the past thus goes to show that no nation in
peace has ever yet succeeded in maintaining a highly trained cavalry
sufficiently numerous to meet all the demands of a great war. Hence at
the outbreak of hostilities there has always been a demand for some kind
of supplementary force which can relieve the regular squadrons of those
duties of observation and exploration which wear down the horses most
rapidly and thus render the squadrons ineffective for their culminating
duty on the battle-field. This demand has been met by the enrolment of
men willing to fight and rendered mobile by mounts of an inferior
description, and the greater the urgency the greater has been the
tendency to give them arms which they can quickly learn to use. To make
a man an expert swordsman or lancer has always taken years, but he can
be taught to use a musket or rifle sufficiently for his immediate
purpose in a very short time. Hence, to begin with, arms of this
description have invariably been issued to him. But once these bodies
have been formed, and they have come into collision with trained
cavalry, the advantages of mobility, combined with the power of shock,
have become so apparent to all, that insensibly the "dragoon" has
developed into the cavalry soldier, the rate of this evolution being
conditioned by the nature of the country in which the fighting took

This evolution is best seen in the American Civil War. The men of the
mounted forces engaged had been trained to the use of the rifle from
childhood, while the vast majority had never seen a sword, hence the
formation of "mounted rifles"; and these "mounted rifles" developed
precisely in accordance with the nature of their surroundings. In
districts of virgin forests and marshland they remained "mounted
rifles," in the open prairie country of the west they became cavalry
pure and simple, though for want of time they never rivalled the
precision of manoeuvre and endurance of modern Prussian or Austrian
horse. In South Africa the same sequence was followed, and had the Boer
War lasted longer it is certain that such Boer leaders as de Wet and de
la Rey would have reverted to cavalry tactics of shock and cold steel at
the earliest possible opportunity.

Therefore when we find, extending over a cycle of ages, the same causes
producing the same effects, the natural conclusion is that the evolution
of the cavalry arm is subject to a universal law which persists in spite
of all changes of armament.

_Employment of Cavalry._--It is a fundamental axiom of all military
action that the officer commanding the cavalry of any force comprising
the three arms of the service is in the strictest sense an executive
officer under the officer commanding that particular force as a whole.
The latter again is himself responsible to the political power he
represents. When intricate political problems are at stake, it may be,
and generally is, quite impracticable that any subordinate can share the
secret knowledge of the power to which he owes his allegiance.

The essence of the value of the cavalry soldier's services lies in this,
that the demand is never made upon him in its supremest form until the
instinct of the real commander realizes that the time has come. Whether
it be to cover a retreat, and by the loss of hundreds to save the lives
of tens of thousands, or to complete a victory with commensurate results
in the opposite direction, the obligation remains the same--to stake the
last man and horse in the attainment of the immediate object in view,
the defeat of the enemy. This at once places the leader of cavalry in
face of his principal problem. It is a matter of experience that the
broader the front on which he can deliver a charge, the greater the
chances of success. However strong the bonds of discipline may be, the
line is ultimately, and at a certain nervous tension, only a number of
men on horses, acting and reacting on one another in various ways. When
therefore, of two lines, moving to meet one another at speed, one sees
itself overlapped to either hand, the men in the line thus overlapped
invariably and inevitably tend to open outwards, so as at least to meet
their enemy on an equal frontage. Hence every cavalry commander tries
to strike at the flank of his enemy, and the latter manoeuvres to meet
him, and if both have equal mobility, local collision must ensue on an
equal and parallel front. Therefore both strive to put every available
man and horse in their first line, and if men and horses were
invulnerable such a line would sweep over the ground like a scythe and
nothing could withstand it. Since, however, bullets kill at a distance,
and inequalities and unforeseen difficulties of the ground may throw
hundreds of horses and riders, a working compromise has to be found to
meet eventualities, and, other things being equal, victory inclines to
the leader who best measures the risks and uncertainties of his
undertaking, and keeps in hand a sufficient reserve to meet all chances.

Thus there has arisen a saying, which is sometimes regarded as
axiomatic, that in cavalry encounters the last closed reserve always
wins. The truth is really that he who has best judged the situation and
the men on both sides finds himself in possession of the last reserve at
the critical moment. The next point is, how to ensure the presence of
this reserve, and what is the critical moment. The battle-field is the
critical moment in each phase of every campaign--not the mere chance
locality on which a combat takes place, but the decisive arena on which
the strategic consequences of all pre-existing conditions of national
cohesion, national organization and of civilization are focussed. It is
indeed the judgment-seat of nature, on which the right of the race to
survive in the struggle for existence is weighed and measured in the
most impartial scales.

Before, however, the final decision of the battle-field can be attained,
a whole series of subordinate decisions have to be fought out, success
in each of which conditions the result of the next series of encounters.
Every commanding officer of cavalry thus finds himself successively
called on to win a victory locally at any cost, and the question of
economy of force does not concern him at all. Hence the same fundamental
rules apply to all cavalry combats, of whatever magnitude, and condition
the whole of cavalry tactics. Broadly speaking, if two cavalries of
approximately equal mobility manoeuvre against each other in open
country, neither side can afford the loss of time that dismounting to
fight on foot entails. Hence, assuming that at the outset of a campaign
each side aims at securing a decisive success, both seek out an open
plain and a mounted charge, sword in hand, for the decision. When the
speed and skill of the combatants are approximately equal, collision
ensues simultaneously along parallel fronts, and the threat of the
overlapping line is the principal factor in the decision. The better the
individual training of man and horse the less will be the chances of
unsteadiness or local failures in execution, and the less the need of
reserves; hence the force which feels itself the most perfect in the
individual efficiency of both man and horse (on which therefore the
whole ultimately depends) can afford to keep fewer men in reserve and
can thus increase the width of its first line for the direct collision.
Careful preparation in peace is therefore the first guarantee of success
in action. This means that cavalry, unlike infantry, cannot be expanded
by the absorption of reserve men and horses on the outbreak of
hostilities, but must be maintained at war strength in peace, ready to
take the field at a moment's notice, and this is actually the standard
of readiness attained on the continent of Europe at the present day.

Further, uniformity of speed is the essential condition for the
execution of closed charges, and this obviously cannot be assured if big
men on little horses and small men on big horses are indiscriminately
mixed up in the same units. Horses and men have therefore been sorted
out everywhere into three categories, _light_, _medium_ and _heavy_, and
in periods when war was practically chronic, suitable duties have been
allotted to each. It is clear, on purely mechanical grounds, that the
greater the velocity of motion at the moment of collision the greater
will be the chances of success, and this greater speed will be on the
side of the bigger horses as a consequence of their longer stride. On
the other hand, these horses, by reason of their greater weight, are
used up much more rapidly than small ones. Hence, to ensure the greater
speed at the moment of contact, it is necessary to save them as much as
possible to keep them fresh for the shock only, and this has been the
practice of all great cavalry leaders all over the world, and has only
been departed from under special circumstances, as by the Germans in
France in 1870, when their cavalry practically rode everywhere

Collisions, however, must be expected by every body of troops large or
small; hence each regiment--ultimately each squadron--endeavours to save
its horses as far as this is compatible with the attainment of the
special object in view, and this has led everywhere and always to a
demand for some intermediate arm, less expensive to raise and maintain
than cavalry proper, and able to cover the ground with sufficient
rapidity and collect the information necessary to ensure the proper
direction of the cavalry commands. Originally this intermediate force
received the designation of dragoons; but since under pressure of
circumstances during long periods of war these invariably improved
themselves into cavalry and became permanent units in the army
organization, fresh names have had to be invented for them, of which
Mounted Infantry and Mounted Rifles are the latest, and every
improvement in firearms has led to an increased demand for their

It is now relatively easy to trace out the considerations which should
govern the employment of his cavalry by the officer commanding a force
of the three arms. Assuming for purposes of illustration an army
numerically weak in cavalry, what course will best ensure the presence
of the greatest number of sabres at the decisive point, i.e. on the
battle-field? To push out cavalry screens far to the front will be to
court destruction, nor is the information they obtain of much real
service unless the means to act upon it at once is at hand. This can
only be supplied economically by the use of strong advanced guards of
infantry, and such supplementary security and information as these may
require will be best supplied by mounted infantry, the sacrifice of whom
will disturb least the fighting integrity of the whole army.

Imagine an army of 300,000 men advancing by five parallel roads on a
front of 50 m., each column (60,000 men, 2 army corps) being covered by
a strong advance guard, coming in contact with a similarly constituted
army moving in an opposite direction. A series of engagements will
ensue, in each of which the object of the local commander will be to
paralyse his opponent's will-power by a most vigorous attack, so that
his superior officer following him on the same road will be free to act
as he chooses. The front of the two armies will now be defined by a line
of combats localized each about a comparatively small area, and between
them will be wide gaps which it will be the chief business of the
directing minds on either side to close by other troops as soon as
possible. Generally the call will be made upon the artillery for this
purpose, since they can cover the required distances far more rapidly
than infantry. Now, as artillery is powerless when limbered up and
always very vulnerable on the flanks of the long lines, a strong cavalry
escort will have to be assigned to them which, trotting forward to
screen the march, will either come in contact with the enemy's cavalry
advancing with a similar object, or themselves find an opportunity to
catch the enemy's guns at a disadvantage. These are opportunities for
the cavalry, and if necessary it must sacrifice itself to turn them to
the best account. The whole course of the battle depends on success or
failure in the early formation of great lines of guns, for ultimately
the victor in the artillery duel finds himself in command of the
necessary balance of guns which are needed to prepare the way for his
final decisive infantry attack. If this latter succeeds, then any
mounted men who can gallop and shoot will suffice for pursuit. If it
fails, no cavalry, however gallant, has any hope of definitely restoring
the combat, for against victorious infantry, cavalry, now as in the
past, can but gain a little time. This time may indeed be worth the
price at which it can be bought, but it will always be more economical
to concentrate all efforts to prevent the emergency arising.

After the Franco-German War much was written about the possibility of
vast cavalry encounters to be fought far in advance of the main armies,
for the purpose of obtaining information, and ideas were freely mooted
of wide-flung raids traversing the enemy's communications, breaking up
his depots, reserve formations, &c. But riper consideration has
relegated these suggestions to the background, for it is now evident
that such expeditions involve the dissemination of force, not its
concentration. Austria and France for example would scarcely throw their
numerically inferior cavalry against the Germans, and nothing would suit
them better than that the latter should hurl their squadrons against the
frontier guards, advanced posts, and, generally, against unbeaten
infantry; nor indeed would the Germans stultify their whole strategic
teaching by weakening themselves for the decisive struggle. It follows
therefore that cavalry reconnaissance duties will be strictly local and
tactical, and that arrangements will be made for procuring strategical
information by wireless telegraphy, balloons, motor cars, bicycles, &c.,
and that on the whole that nation will be best served in war which has
provided in peace a nucleus of mounted infantry capable of rapid
expansion to fill the gap which history shows always to have existed
between the infantry and the cavalry. Such troops need not be organized
in large bodies, for their mission is to act by "slimness," not by
violence. They must be the old "verlorene Haufe" (_anglice_, "forlorn
hope") of former days, men whose individual bravery and decision is of
the highest order. But they can never become a "decision-compelling
arm," though by their devotion they may well hope to obtain the grand
opportunity for their cavalry, and share with them in harvesting the
fruits of victory.

The great cavalry encounters of forty to sixty squadrons on either side,
which it has been shown must arise from the necessity of screening or
preventing the formation of the all-important artillery lines, will take
their form mainly from the topographical conditions of the district, and
since on a front of 60 to 100 m. these may vary indefinitely, cavalry
must be trained, as indeed it always has been, to fight either on foot
or on horseback as occasion requires. In either case, thoroughness of
preparation in horsemanship (which, be it observed, includes
horsemastership) is the first essential, for in the end victory will
rest with the side which can put in the right place with the greatest
rapidity the greatest number of sabres or rifles. In the case of rifles
there is a greater margin of time available and an initial failure is
not irremediable, but the underlying principle is the same in either
case; and since it is impossible to foretell exactly the conditions of
the collision, all alike, according to the class to which they belong,
must be brought up to the highest standard, for this alone guarantees
the smooth and rhythmical motion required for covering long distances
with the least expenditure of physical and nervous strength on the part
both of horse and rider. As a consequence of successes gained in these
preliminary encounters, opportunities will subsequently arise for the
balance of fresh or rallied squadrons in hand to ride home upon masses
of infantry disorganized and demoralized by the combined fire of
infantry and artillery, and such opportunities are likely to be much
more numerous at the outbreak of future wars than they have been in the
past, because the enormous gain in range and rapidity of fire enables a
far greater weight of metal to be concentrated on any chosen area within
a given time. It cannot be too often reiterated that cavalry never has
ridden over unshaken infantry of average quality by reason of its
momentum alone, but that every successful cavalry charge has always owed
its issue to a previously acquired moral superiority which has prevented
the infantry from making adequate use of their means of defence. Nor
will such charges entail greater losses than in the past, for, great
though the increase of range of modern infantry weapons has been, the
speed and endurance of cavalry has increased in a yet higher ratio;
whereas in Napoleon's days, with an extreme range for musketry of 1000
yds., cavalry were expected only to trot 800 yds. and gallop for 200,
nowadays with an extreme infantry range of under 4000 yds., the cavalry
are trained to trot for 8000 yds. and gallop for 2000.

Neither the experiences in South Africa nor those in Manchuria seriously
influenced the views of the leading cavalry experts as above outlined,
for the conditions of both cases were entirely abnormal. No nation in
western Europe can afford to mount the whole of its able-bodied
manhood, nor, with the restricted area of its possessions, could repeat
the Boer tactics with useful effect; in Manchuria, the theatre of
operation was so far roadless, and the motives of both combatants so
distinct from any conceivable as a basis for European strategy, that
time was always available to construct entrenchments and obstacles
physically insuperable to mounted arms. In western Europe, with its
extreme development of communications, such tactics are impracticable,
and under the system of compulsory service which is in force in all
nations, an early decision must be sought at any cost. This motive
imposes a rapid-marching campaign in the Napoleonic style, and in such
warfare there is neither time nor energy available for the erection of
extemporised fortresses. Victory must therefore fall to the side that
can develop the greatest fire power in the shortest time. The greatest
factor of fire power is the long artillery lines, and as cavalry is the
one arm which by its mobility can hamper or prevent the formation of
such lines, on its success in this task all else must depend. Hence both
sides will concentrate every available horse and man for this special
purpose, and on the issue of the collisions this mutual concentration
must entail will hang the fate of the battle, and ultimately of the
nation. But the cavalry which will succeed in this task will be the one
in which the spirit of duty burns brightest, and the oath of allegiance,
renewed daily on the cross of the sword, is held in the highest esteem.

_Organization._--The existing organization of cavalry throughout the
civilized world is an instance of the "survival of the fittest" in an
extreme form. The execution of the many manoeuvres with the speed and
precision which condition success is only possible by a force in which,
as Frederick the Great said, "every horse and trooper has been finished
with the same care that a watchmaker bestows upon each wheel of the
watch mechanism." Uniformity of excellence is in fact the keystone of
success, and this is only attainable where the mass is subdivided into
groups, each of which requires superintendence enough to absorb the
whole energy of an average commander. Thus it has been found by ages of
experiment that an average officer, with the assistance of certain
subordinates to whom he delegates as much or as little responsibility as
he pleases, finds his time fully occupied by the care of about one
hundred and fifty men and horses, each individual of which he must
understand intimately, in character, physical strength and temper, for
horse and man must be matched with the utmost care and judgment if the
best that each is capable of is to be attained. The fundamental secret
of the exceptional efficiency attained by the Prussian cavalry lies in
the fact that they were the first to realize what the above implies.
After the close of the Napoleonic Wars they made their squadron
commanders responsible, not only for the training of the combatants of
their unit, but also for the breaking in of remounts and the elementary
teaching of recruits as well, and in this manner they obtained an
intimate knowledge of their material which is almost unattainable by
British officers owing to the conditions entailed by foreign service and
frequent changes of garrisons.

Further, to obtain the maximum celerity of manoeuvre with the minimum
exertion of the horses, the squadron requires to be subdivided into
smaller units, generally known as _troops_, and experience has shown
that with 128 sabres in the ranks (the average strength on parade, after
deducting sick and young horses, and the N.C. officers required as troop
guides, &c.) four troops best satisfy all conditions; as, with this
number, the squadron will, under all circumstances of ground and
surroundings, make any change of formation in less time and with greater
accuracy than with any other number of subdivisions. The size of the
unit next above the squadron, the _regiment_, is again fixed by the
number of subordinates that an average commander can control, and the
universal experience of all arms has settled this as not less than four
and not more than eight. Experiments with eight and even ten squadrons
have been tried both in Austria and Prussia, but only exceptional men
have succeeded in controlling such large bodies effectively, and in the
end the normal has been fixed at four or five squadrons in quarters, and
three or four in the field. Of these, the larger number is undoubtedly
preferable, for, with the work of the quartermaster and the adjutant to
supervise, in addition, the regimental commander is economically applied
to the best advantage. The essential point, however, is that the officer
commanding the regiment does not interfere in details, but commands his
four squadron commanders, his quartermaster, and his adjutant, and holds
them absolutely responsible for results.

There is no unity of practice in the constitution of larger units.
Brigades vary according to circumstances from two regiments to four, and
the composition of divisions fluctuates similarly. The custom in the
German cavalry has been to form brigades of two regiments and divisions
of three brigades, but this practice arose primarily from the system of
recruiting and has no tactical advantage. The territory assigned to each
army corps provides men and horses for two regiments of cuirassiers or
lancers (classed as heavy in Germany), two of dragoons, and two of
hussars, and since it is clearly essential to ensure uniformity of speed
and endurance within those units most likely to have to work together,
it was impossible to mix the different classes. But the views now
current as to the tactical employment of cavalry contemplate the
employment not only of divisions but of whole cavalry corps, forty to
sixty squadrons strong, and these may be called on to fulfil the most
various missions. The farthest and swiftest reconnaissances are the
province of light cavalry, i.e. hussars, the most obstinate attack and
defence of localities the task of dragoons, and the decisive charges on
the battle-field essentially the duty of the heavy cavalry. It seems
probable then that the brigade will become the highest unit the
composition of which is fixed in peace, and that divisions and corps
will be put together by brigades of uniform composition, and assigned to
the several sections of the theatre of war in which each is likely to
find the most suitable field for its special character. This was the
case in the Frederician and Napoleonic epochs, when efficiency and
experience in the field far outweighed considerations of administration
and convenience in quarters.

Hitherto, horse artillery in Europe has always formed an integral
portion of the divisional organization, but the system has never worked
well, and in view of the technical evolution of artillery material is no
longer considered desirable. As it is always possible to assign one or
more batteries to any particular brigade whose line of march will bring
it across villages, defiles, &c. (where the support of its fire will be
essential), and on the battle-field itself responsibility for the guns
is likely to prove more of a hindrance than a help to the cavalry
commander, it is probable that horse artillery will revert to the
inspection of its own technical officers, and that the sole tie which
will be retained between it and the cavalry will be in the batteries
being informed as to the cavalry units they are likely to serve with in
war, so that the officers may make themselves acquainted with the
idiosyncrasies of their future commanders. The same course will be
pursued with the engineers and technical troops required for the
cavalry, but it seems probable that, in accordance with a suggestion
made by Moltke after the 1866 campaign, the supply columns for one or
more cavalry corps will be held ready in peace, and specially organized
to attain the highest possible mobility which modern technical progress
can ensure.

The general causes which have led to the differentiation of cavalry into
the three types--hussars, dragoons and heavy--have already been dealt
with. Obviously big men on little horses cannot manoeuvre side by side
with light men on big horses. Also, since uniformity of excellence
within the unit is the prime condition of efficiency, and the greatest
personal dexterity is required for the management of sword or lance on
horseback, a further sorting out became necessary, and the best light
weights were put on the best light horses and called hussars, the best
heavy weights on the best heavy horses and called lancers, the average
of either type becoming dragoons and cuirassiers. In England, the lance
not being indigenous and the conditions of foreign service making
adherence to a logical system impossible, lancers are medium cavalry,
but the difference of weights carried and type of horses is too small to
render these distinctions of practical moment. In Germany, where every
suitable horse finds its place in the ranks and men have no right of
individual selection, the distinctions are still maintained, and there
is a very marked difference between the weights carried and the types of
men and horses in each branch, though the dead weight which it is still
considered necessary to carry in cavalries likely to manoeuvre in large
masses hardly varies with the weight of the man or size of the horse.

Where small units only are required to march and scout, the kit can be
reduced to a minimum, everything superfluous for the moment being
carried on hired transport, as in South Africa. But when 10,000 horsemen
have to move by a single road all transport must be left miles to the
rear, and greater mobility for the whole is attained by carrying upon
the horse itself the essentials for a period of some weeks. Still, even
allowing for this, it is impossible to account for the extraordinary
load that is still considered necessary. In India, the British lancer,
averaging 11 st. per man, could turn out in marching order at 17 st. 8
lb. (less forage nets). In Germany, the hussar, averaging 10 st. 6 lb.,
rode at 18 st., also without forage, and the cuirassier at 21 st. to 22
st. Cavalry equipment is, in fact, far too heavy, for in the interests
of the budgets of the departments which supply saddlery, harness, &c.,
everything is made so as to last for many years. Cavalry saddles fifty
years old frequently remain in good condition, but the losses in
horse-flesh this excessive solidity entails are ignored. The remount
accounts are kept separately, and few realize that in war it is cheaper
to replace a horse than a saddle. In any case, the armament alone of the
cavalry soldier makes great demands on the horses. His sword and
scabbard weigh about 4 lb., carbine or rifle 7 lb. to 9 lb., 120 rounds
of ammunition with pouches and belts about 12 lb., lance about 5 lb.,
and two days' forage and hay at the lowest 40 lb., or a gross total of
70 lb. or 5 st., which with 11 st. for the man brings the total to 16
st.; add to this the lightest possible saddle, bridle, cloak and
blanket, and 17 st. 8 lb. is approximately the irreducible minimum. It
may be imagined what care and management of the horses is required to
enable them under such loads to manoeuvre in masses at a trot, and
gallop for distances of 5 m. and upwards without a moment for

_Reconnaissance and Scouting._--After 1870 public opinion, misled by the
performances of the "ubiquitous Uhlan" and disappointed by the absence
of great cavalry charges on the field of battle, came somewhat hastily
to the conclusion that the day of "shock tactics" was past and the
future of cavalry lay in acting as the eyes and ears of the following
armies. But, as often happens, the fact was overlooked that the German
cavalry screen was entirely unopposed in its reconnoitring expeditions,
and it was not till long afterwards that it became apparent how very
little these far-flung reconnaissances had contributed to the total

It has been calculated by German cavalry experts that not 1% of the
reports sent in by the scouts during the advance from the Saar to the
Meuse, August 1870, were of appreciable importance to the headquarters,
and that before the orders based upon this evidence reached the front,
events frequently anticipated them. Generally the conviction has
asserted itself, that it is impossible to train the short-service
soldiers of civilized nations sufficiently to render their reports worth
the trouble of collating, and if a few cases of natural aptitude do
exist nothing can ensure that these particular men should be
sufficiently well mounted to transmit their information with sufficient
celerity to be of importance. It is of little value to a commander to
know that the enemy was at a given spot forty-eight hours previously,
unless the sender of the report has a sufficient force at his disposal
to compel the enemy to remain there; in other words, to attack and hold
him. Cavalry and horse artillery alone, however, cannot economically
exert this holding power, for, whatever their effect against worn-out
men at the close of a great battle, against fresh infantry they are
relatively powerless. Hence, it is probable that we shall see a revival
of the strategic advanced guard of all arms, as in the Napoleonic days,
which will not only reconnoitre, but fix the enemy until the army itself
can execute the manoeuvre designed to effect his destruction. The
general situation of the enemy's masses will, in western Europe,
always be sufficiently fixed by the trend of his railway communications,
checked by reports of spies, newspapers, &c., for, with neutral
frontiers everywhere within a few hours' ride for a motor cyclist,
anything approaching the secrecy of the Japanese in Manchuria is quite
unattainable, and, once the great masses begin to move, the only
"shadowing" which holds out any hope of usefulness is that undertaken by
very small selected parties of officers, perfectly mounted, daring
riders, and accustomed to cover distances of 100 m. and upwards. These
will be supported by motor cars and advanced feelers from the field
telegraphs, though probably the motor car would carry the eye-witness to
his destination in less time than it would take to draft and signal a
complete report.



  (Walthausen's _Art militaire de la cavalerie_, circa 1600.)]


  [Illustration: BATTLE OF STAFFARDA, 1690. (_From a contemporary

  [Illustration: ACTION ON THE BULGANAK, 1854. (_From a lithograph by W.

  [Illustration: GERMAN GUARD DRAGOONS. (_Photo, Gebruder Haeckel._)]

Tactical scouting, now as always, is invaluable for securing the safety
of the marching and sleeping troops, and brigade, divisional and corps
commanders will remain dependent upon their own squadrons for the
solution of the immediate tactical problem before them; but, since both
sides will employ mounted men to screen their operations, intelligence
will generally only be won by fighting, and the side which can locally
develop a marked fire superiority will be the more likely to obtain the
information it requires. In this direction the introduction of the motor
car and of cyclists is likely to exercise a most important influence,
but, whatever may be the conveyance, it must be looked upon as a means
of advance only, never of retreat. The troops thus conveyed must be used
to seize villages or defiles about which the cavalry and guns can

_Formations and Drill._--Cavalry, when mounted, act exclusively by
"shock" or more precisely by "the threat of their shock," for the
immediate result of collision is actually decided some instants before
this collision takes place. Experience has shown that the best guarantee
for success in this shock is afforded by a two-deep line, the men riding
knee to knee within each squadron at least. Perfect cavalry can charge
in larger bodies without intervals between the squadrons, but,
ordinarily, intervals of about 10 yds. between adjacent squadrons are
kept to localize any partial unsteadiness due to difficulties of ground,
casualties, &c. The obvious drawbacks of a two-deep line are that it
halves the possible extent of front, and that if a front-rank horse
falls the rear-rank horse generally tumbles over it also. To minimize
the latter evil, the charge in two successive lines, 150 to 200 yds.
apart, has often been advocated, but this has never stood the test of
serious cavalry fighting; first, because when squadrons are galloping
fast and always striving to keep the touch to the centre, if a horse
falls the adjacent horses close in with such force that their sidelong
collision may throw down more and always creates violent oscillation;
and secondly, because owing to the dust raised by the first rank the
following one can never maintain its true direction. It is primarily to
avoid the danger and difficulty arising from the dust that the ranks in
manoeuvre are closed to within one horse's length, as, when moving at
speed, the rear rank is past before the dust has time to rise.

Of all formations, the line is the most difficult to handle, and,
particularly, to conceal--hence various formations in column are
necessary for the preliminary manoeuvres requisite to place the
squadrons in position for the final deployment previous to the charge.
Many forms of these columns have been tried, but, setting aside the
columns intended exclusively for marching along roads, of which
"sections" (four men abreast) is most usual in England, only these

  Squadron column.
  Double column of squadrons.
  Half column.

In _squadron column_, the troops of the squadron formed are in line one
behind the other at a distance equal to the front of the troop in line.
The ideal squadron consists of 128 men formed in two ranks giving 64
files, and divided into four troops of 16 files--a larger number of
troops makes the drill too complicated, a smaller number makes each
troop slow and unhandy. When the squadron is weak, therefore, the troop
should still be maintained as near 16 files as possible, the number of
troops being if necessary reduced. Thus with only 32 files, two troops
of 16 files would be better than four of only 8 files.

All other formations of the regiment or brigade are fundamentally
derived from the squadron column, only varying with the order in which
the squadrons are grouped, and the intervals which separate them. Thus
the regiment may move in _line of squadron columns_ at close interval,
i.e. 11 paces apart or in _double column_ as in the diagram. To form
_line_ for the charge, the squadrons open out, still in column, to full
interval, i.e. the width they occupy when in line; and then on the
command "Line to the front," each troop moves up to its place in line as
shown in the diagram. When in line a large body of cavalry can no longer
vary its direction without sacrificing its appearance of order, and as
above pointed out, it is this appearance of order which really decides
the result of the charge before the actual collision. Since, however,
the enemy's movements may compel a change, an intermediate formation is
provided, known as the "half column." When this formation is ordered,
the troops within each squadron wheel half right or left, and each
squadron is then able to form into column or line to the front as
circumstances demand, or the whole line can be formed into column of
troops by continuing the wheel and in this formation gallop out into a
fresh direction, re-forming line by a simple wheel in the shortest
possible time.

[Illustration: Formations]

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--G.H. Elliot, _Cavalry Literature_ (1893); v. Bismarck,
  _Uses and Application of Cavalry in War_ (1818, English translation by
  Lieut.-Col. Beamish, 1855); G.T. Denison, _A History of Cavalry_
  (1877); Prince Kraft zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, _Letters on Cavalry_
  and _Conversations on Cavalry_ (English translations, 1880 and 1892);
  Colonel Mitchell, _Considerations on Tactics_ (1854) and _Thoughts on
  Tactics and Organization_ (1838); E. Nolan, _Cavalry, its History and
  Tactics_ (1855); Roemer, _Cavalry, its History, Management and Uses_
  (New York, 1863); Maitland, _Notes on Cavalry_ (1878); F.N. Maude,
  _Cavalry versus Infantry and Cavalry, its Past and Future_; C. von
  Schmidt, _Instructions for the Training, Employment and Leading of
  Cavalry_ (English translation, 1881); V. Verdy du Vernois, _The
  Cavalry Division_ (1873); Maj.-Gen. Walker, _The Organization and
  Tactics of the Cavalry Division_ (1876); C.W. Bowdler Bell, _Notes on
  the German Cavalry Regulations of 1886_; F. de Brack, _Light Cavalry
  Outposts_ (English translation); Dwyer, _Seats and Saddles_ (1869); J.
  Jacob, _Views and Opinions_ (1857); F. Hoenig, _Die Kavallerie als
  Schlachtenkörper_ (1884); Sir Evelyn Wood, _Achievements of Cavalry_
  (1893); H.T. Siborne, _Waterloo Letters_; Desbrière and Sautai, _La
  Cavalerie de 1740 à 1789_ (1806); Warnery, _Remarques sur la
  cavalerie_ (1781); v. Canitz, _Histoire des exploits et des
  vicissitudes de la cavalerie prussienne dans les campagnes de Frédéric
  II_ (1849); Cherfils, _Cavalerie en campagne_ (1888), _Service de
  sûreté stratégique de la cavalerie_ (1874); Bonie, _Tactique
  française, cavalerie en campagne, cavalerie au combat_ (1887-1888);
  Foucart, _Campagne de Pologne, opérations de la cavalerie, nov.
  1806-jan. 1807_ (1882), _La Cavalerie pendant la campagne de Prusse_
  (1880); De Galliffet, _Projet d'instruction sur l'emploi de la
  cavalerie en liaison avec les autres armes_ (1880), _Rapport sur les
  grandes manoeuvres de cavalerie de 1879_; Kaehler, _Die preussische
  Reiterei 1806-1876_ (French translation, _La Cavalerie prussienne de
  1806 à 1876_); _Cavalry Studies_ (translated from the French of Bonie
  and the German of Kaehler, with a paper on U.S. cavalry in the Civil
  War); v. Bernhardi, _Cavalry in Future Wars_ (English translation,
  1906); P.S., _Cavalry in the Wars of the Future_ (translated from the
  French by T. Formby, 1905); D. Haig, _Cavalry Studies_ (1907); v.
  Pelet Narbonne, _Die Kavalleriedienst_ (1901). _Cavalry on Service_
  (English translation, 1906); _Erziehung und Führung von Kavallerie_.
  The principal cavalry periodicals are the _Revue de cavalerie_, the
  _Kavalleristische Monatshefte_ (Austrian), the _Cavalry Journal_
  (British), and the _Journal of the U.S. Cavalry Association_.
       (F. N. M.)


  [1] The loss of the regiment was twenty-eight killed and sixty-six

CAVAN, a county in the province of Ulster, Ireland, bounded N. by
Fermanagh and Monaghan, E. by Monaghan and Meath, S. by Meath, Westmeath
and Longford, and W. by Longford and Leitrim. The area is 477,399 acres,
or about 746 sq. m. The surface of the county is uneven, consisting of
hill and dale, without any great extent of level ground, but only in its
northern extremity attaining a mountainous elevation. The barony of
Tullyhaw, bordering on Fermanagh, a wild dreary mountain district, known
as the kingdom of Glan or Glengavlin, contains the highest land in the
county, reaching 2188 ft. in Cuilcagh, the place of inauguration for the
Maguires, chieftains of Fermanagh, held in veneration by the peasantry,
in connexion with legends and ancient superstitions. The remainder of
the county is not deficient in wood, and contains numerous lakes,
generally of small dimensions, but of much beauty, especially Lough
Oughter, with its many inlets and islands formed by the Erne river,
between the towns of Cavan and Killashandra. The county also shares with
other counties the waters of Lough Gowna and Lough Sheelin, in which, as
elsewhere in the county, the fishing is good. The chief river in the
county is the Erne, which originates in Lough Scrabby, one of the minor
sheets of water communicating with Lough Gowna on the borders of
Longford. The river takes a northerly direction by Killashandra and
Belturbet, being enlarged during its course by the Annalee and other
smaller streams, and finally enters Lough Erne near the northern limit
of the county. The other waters, consisting of numerous lakes and their
connecting streams, are mostly tributary to the Erne. A copious spring
called the Shannon Pot, at the foot of the Cuilcagh Mountain, in the
barony of Tullyhaw, is regarded as the source of the river Shannon. The
Blackwater, a tributary of the Boyne, also rises in this county, near
Bailieborough. Several mineral springs exist in this county, the chief
of which is near the once frequented village of Swanlinbar. In the
neighbourhood of Belturbet, near the small lake of Annagh, is a
carbonated chalybeate spring. There are several other springs of less
importance; and the small Lough Leighs, or Lough-an-Leighaghs, which
signifies the healing lake, on the summit of a mountain between
Bailieborough and Kingscourt, is celebrated for its antiscorbutic
properties. The level of this lake never varies. It has no visible
supply nor vent for its discharge; nor is it ever frozen during the
severest winters.

  _Geology_.--This elongated county includes on the north-west some of
  the highland of Millstone Grit and Coal-Measures that rises above
  Lough Allen. The beds below these are referred to the English Yoredale
  series, and include some flaggy sandstones. It is on this series that
  the Shannon rises, under the high outlier of grit on Cuilcagh. The
  Carboniferous Limestone then stretches down to Cavan town, a bold
  outlier of the higher strata being left above Ballyconnell. The river
  Erne forms, in the limestone area, a characteristic series of
  expansions and loops, with islands between them, known as Lough
  Oughter. At this point we pass on to the axis of underlying Silurian
  strata that runs from Longford to Donaghadee in Co. Down, and the
  country becomes hilly and irregular, culminating about Cross Keys on
  the old Dublin coach-road. A patch of granite, indicating doubtless a
  core like that exposed at Newry, is seen in a hollow at Crossdoney. On
  the south side of this axis of older rocks, we reach Carboniferous
  shale and limestone at Lough Sheelin, and here enter on the great
  central plain. The extreme south-east of the county includes part of
  the Triassic outlier of Kingscourt. The coal-seams and concretions of
  clay-ironstone in the north-west area resemble those mentioned under
  the head of Co. Roscommon. Anthracite, probably of inorganic origin,
  has been mined without permanent success in the Silurian beds near
  Kilnaleck, and is traceable freely, associated with veins of quartz
  and haematite, at Ballyjamesduff a little farther east.

_Climate and Industries._--The climate suffers from the dampness arising
from the numerous lakes and the nature of the soil, and from the
boisterous winds which frequently prevail, more especially in the higher
districts. The soil is generally a stiff clay, cold and watery, but
capable of much improvement by drainage, for which its undulating
surface affords facilities. Only about one-sixteenth of the total area
is quite barren. Agriculture makes little progress; the extent of the
farms being generally small. Oats and potatoes are the principal crops.
Flax, once of some importance, is almost neglected. In the mountainous
parts, however, where the land is chiefly under grazing, the farms are
larger, and in stock-raising the county is progressing.

Cavan is not a manufacturing county. The bleaching of linen and the
distillation of whisky are both carried on to a small extent, but the
people are chiefly employed in agricultural pursuits and in the sale of
home produce. The soil in those districts not well adapted for tillage
is peculiarly favourable for trees. The woods were formerly very
considerable, and the timber found in the bogs is of large dimensions;
but plantations are now chiefly found in demesnes, where they are

The county is not well served by railways. The Great Northern from
Clones to Cavan, and the Midland Great Western from Mullingar in
Westmeath to Cavan, form a through line from north to south. The Great
Northern has branches to Belturbet from Ballyhaise, and to Cootehill
from Ballybay; the Midland Great Western has a branch to Killashandra,
and from Navan in Meath to Kingscourt, just within Cavan. The Cavan &
Leitrim railway starts from Belturbet and soon leaves the county to the

_Population and Administration._--The population (111,917 in 1891;
97,541 in 1901), of which about 80% are Roman Catholics, shows a
decrease among the most serious of the Irish counties, and emigration
returns are among the heaviest. The population is almost wholly rural,
the only towns being the small ones of Cavan (pop. 2822, the county
town), Cootehill (1509), Belturbet (1587) and Bailieborough (1004). The
county is divided into eight baronies, and contains thirty-two parishes
and parts of parishes. It is almost entirely within the Protestant and
Roman Catholic dioceses of Kilmore. The assizes are held at Cavan, and
quarter sessions are held at Cavan, Bailieborough, Cootehill and
Ballyconnell. Before the Union the county returned six members to the
Irish parliament, two for the county at large, and two for each of the
boroughs of Cavan and Belturbet; but since that period it has been
represented in the imperial parliament by two members only, for the east
and west divisions.

_History and Antiquities._--At the period of the English settlement, and
for some centuries afterwards, this district was known as the Brenny,
being divided between the families of O'Rourke and O'Reilly; and its
inhabitants, protected by the nature of the country, long maintained
their independence. In 1579 Cavan was made shire ground as part of
Connaught, and in 1584 it was formed into a county of Ulster by Sir John
Perrott, and subdivided into seven baronies, two of which were assigned
to Sir John O'Reilly and three to other members of the family; while the
two remaining, possessed by the septs of Mackernon and Magauran, and
situated in the mountains bordering on O'Rourke's country, were left
subject to their ancient tenures and the exactions of their Irish lord.
The county subsequently came within the scheme for the plantation of
Ulster under James I. The population is less mixed in race than in most
parts of Ulster, being generally of Celtic extraction. Some few remains
of antiquity remain in the shape of cairns, raths and the ruins of small
castles, such as Cloughoughter Castle on an island (an ancient crannog)
of Lough Oughter. Three miles from the town of Cavan is Kilmore, with
its cathedral, a plain erection containing a Romanesque doorway brought
from the abbey of Trinity Island, Lough Oughter. The bishopric dates
from about 1450. A portion of a round tower is seen in the churchyard
of the parish of Drumlane at Belturbet.

CAVAN, a market-town and the county town of Co. Cavan, Ireland, near the
centre of the county, in the west parliamentary division, 85½ m. N.W. of
Dublin by the Midland Great Western railway, and the terminus of a
branch of the Great Northern railway from Clones. Pop. of urban district
(1901), 2822. It is on one of the tributary streams of the Annalee
river, in a broad valley surrounded on every side by elevated ground,
with picturesque environs, notably the demesnes of Farnham and of
Kilmore, which belongs to the bishops of that diocese. Cavan has no
buildings of antiquarian interest, but the principal county institutions
are here, and the most conspicuous building is the grammar school,
founded by Charles I. It was rebuilt in 1819 on an eminence overlooking
one of the main entrances into the town, and is capable of accommodating
100 resident pupils. The college of St Patrick is near the town. Cavan
has some linen trade, and a considerable retail business is transacted
in the town. A monastery of Dominican friars, founded by O'Reilly,
chieftain of the Brenny, formerly existed here, and became the
burial-place of the celebrated Irish general, Owen O'Neill, who died as
is supposed by poison, in 1649, at Cloughoughter. There was also the
castle of the O'Reillys, but this and all other antiquities of the town
were swept away during the violent and continuous feuds to which the
country was subjected. In 1690 the chief portion of the town was burned
by the Enniskilleners under General Wolseley, when they routed a body of
James II.'s troops under the duke of Berwick.

CAVANILLES, ANTONIO JOSÉ (1745-1804), Spanish botanist, was born at
Valencia on the 16th of January 1745. He was educated at the university
of that town, and in 1777 went to Paris, where he resided twelve years,
engaged in the study of botany. In 1801 he became director of the
botanic gardens at Madrid, where he died on the 4th of May 1804. In
1785-1786 he published _Monadelphiae Classis Dissertationes X._, and in
1791 he began to issue _Icones et descriptiones plantarum Hispaniae_.

His nephew, ANTONIO CAVANILLES (1805-1864), was a distinguished
advocate, and the author of a history of Spain, published at Madrid in

CAVATINA (Ital. diminutive of _cavata_, the producing of tone from an
instrument, plural _cavatine_), originally a short song of simple
character, without a second strain or any repetition of the air. It is
now frequently applied to a simple melodious air, as distinguished from
a brilliant aria, recitative, &c., and often forms part of a large
movement or _scena_ in oratorio or opera.

CAVE, EDWARD (1691-1754), English printer, was born at Newton,
Warwickshire, on the 27th of February 1691. His father, Joseph Cave, was
of good family, but the entail of the family estate being cut off, he
was reduced to becoming a cobbler at Rugby. Edward Cave entered the
grammar school of that town, but was expelled for robbing the master's
hen-roost. After many vicissitudes he became apprentice to a London
printer, and after two years was sent to Norwich to conduct a printing
house and publish a weekly paper. While still a printer he obtained a
place in the post office, and was promoted to be clerk of the franks. He
was at this time engaged in supplying London newsletters to various
country papers; and his enemies, who had twice summoned him before the
House of Commons for breach of privilege, now accused him of opening
letters to obtain his news, and he was dismissed the service. With the
capital which he had saved, he set up a small printing office at St
John's Gate, Clerkenwell, which he carried on under the name of R.
Newton. He had long formed a scheme of a magazine "to contain the essays
and intelligence which appeared in the two hundred half-sheets which the
London press then threw off monthly," and had tried in vain to persuade
some publisher to take it up. In 1731 he himself put it into execution,
and began the _Gentleman's Magazine_ (see PERIODICALS), of which he was
the editor, under the pseudonym "Sylvanus Urban, Gent." The magazine had
a large circulation and brought a fortune to the projector. In 1732 he
began to issue reports of the debates in both Houses of Parliament. He
commissioned friends to note the speeches, which he published with the
initial and final letters of personal names. In 1738 Cave was censured
by parliament for printing the king's answer to an address before it had
been announced by the speaker. From that time he called his reports the
debates of a "parliament in the empire of Lilliput" (see REPORTING). To
piece together and write out the speeches for this publication was
Samuel Johnson's first literary employment. In 1747 Cave was reprimanded
for publishing an account of the trial of Lord Lovat, and the reports
were discontinued till 1752. He died on the 10th of January 1754. Cave
published Dr Johnson's _Rambler_, and his _Irene, London_ and _Life of
Savage_, and was the subject of a short biography by him.

CAVE, WILLIAM (1637-1713), English divine, was born at Pickwell in
Leicestershire. He was educated at St John's College, Cambridge, and
successively held the livings of Islington (1662), of All-Hallows the
Great, Thames Street, London (1679), and of Isleworth in Middlesex
(1690). Dr Cave was chaplain to Charles II., and in 1684 became a canon
of Windsor. The two works on which his reputation principally rests are
the _Apostolici_, or History of Apostles and Fathers in the first three
centuries of the Church (1677), and _Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum
Historia Literaria_ (1688). The best edition of the latter is the
Clarendon Press, 1740-1743, which contains additions by the author and
others. In both works he was drawn into controversy with Jean le Clerc,
who was then writing his _Bibliothèque universelle_, and who accused him
of partiality. He wrote several other works of the same nature which
exhibit scholarly research and lucid arrangement. He is said to have
been a good talker and an eloquent preacher. His death occurred at
Windsor on the 4th of July 1713.

CAVE (Lat. _cavea_, from _cavus_, hollow), a hollow extending beneath
the surface of the earth. The word "cavern" (Lat. _caverna_) is
practically a synonym, though a distinction is sometimes drawn between
sea caves and inland caverns, but the term "cave" is used here as a
general description. Caves have excited the awe and wonder of mankind in
all ages, and have been the centres round which have clustered many
legends and superstitions. They were the abode of the sibyls and the
nymphs in Roman mythology, and in Greece they were the temples of Zeus,
Pan, Dionysus, Pluto and the Moon, as well as the places where the
oracles were delivered at Delphi, Corinth and Mount Cithaeron. In Persia
they were connected with the obscure worship of Mithras. Their names
frequently are survivals of the superstitious ideas of antiquity, as,
for example, the Fairy, Dragon's, or Devil's Caves of France and
Germany. Long after the Fairies and Little Men had forsaken the forests
and glens of Germany, they dwelt in their palaces deep in the Harz
Mountains, in the Dwarfholes, &c., whence they came from time to time
into the upper air.

The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus slept their long sleep in a cave. The
hills of Granada are still believed by the Moorish children to contain
the great Boabdil and his sleeping host, who will awake, when an
adventurous mortal invades their repose, to restore the glory of the
Moors in Spain.

Caves have been used in all ages by mankind for habitation, refuge and
burial. In the Old Testament we read that when Lot went up out of Zoar
he dwelt in a cave with his two daughters. The five kings of the
Canaanites took refuge from Joshua, and David from Saul, in the caves of
Palestine, just as the Aquitani fled from Caesar to those of Auvergne,
and the Arabs of Algeria to those of Dahra, where they were suffocated
by Marshal Pelissier in 1845. In Central Africa David Livingstone
discovered vast caves in which whole tribes found security with their
cattle and household stuff.

The cave of Machpelah may be quoted as an example of their use as
sepulchres, and the rock-hewn tombs of Palestine and of Egypt and the
Catacombs of Rome probably owe their existence to the ancient practice
of burial in natural hollows in the rock. We might therefore expect to
find in them most important evidence as to the ancient history of
mankind, which would reach long beyond written record; and since they
have always been used by wild beasts as lairs we might reasonably
believe also that their exploration would throw light upon the animals
which have in many cases disappeared from the countries which they
formerly inhabited. The labours of Buckland, Pengelly, Falconer, Lartet
and Christy, and Boyd Dawkins have added an entirely new chapter to the
history of man in Europe, as well as established the changes that have
taken place in the European fauna. The physical history of caves will be
taken first, and we shall then pass on to the discoveries relating to
man and the lower animals which have been made in them of late years.

_Physical History._--The most obvious agent in hollowing out caves is
the sea. The set of the currents, the force of the breakers, the
grinding of the shingle inevitably discover the weak places in the
cliff, and leave caves as one of the results of their work, modified in
each case by the local conditions of the rock. Those formed in this
manner are easily recognized from their floors being rarely much out of
the horizontal; their entrances are all in the same plane, or in a
succession of horizontal and parallel planes, if the land has been
elevated at successive times. From their inaccessible position they have
been rarely occupied by man. Among them Fingal's Cave, on the island of
Staffa, off the south-west coast of Scotland, hollowed out of columnar
basalt, is perhaps the most remarkable in Europe. In volcanic regions
also there are caves formed by the passage of lava to the surface of the
ground, or by the expansion of steam and gases in the lava while it was
in a molten state. They have been observed in the regions round Vesuvius
and Etna, in Iceland and Teneriffe. We may take as an example the Grotto
del Cane ("cave of the dog"), near Pozzuoli, a few miles to the
south-west of Naples, remarkable for the flow of carbonic acid from
crevices in the floor, which fills the lower part of the cave and
suffocates any small animal, such as a dog, immersed long enough in it.

The most important class of caves, however, and that which immediately
demands our notice, is that composed of those which have been cut out of
calcareous rocks by the action of carbonic acid in the rain-water,
combined with the mechanical friction of the sand and stones set in
motion by the streams which have, at one time or another, flowed through
them. They occur at various levels, and are to be met with wherever the
strata are sufficiently compact to support a roof. Those of Brixham and
Torquay and of the Eifel are in the Devonian limestone; those of Wales,
Somerset, the Pennine chain, Ireland, the central and northern counties
of Belgium, Saxony, and Westphalia, of Maine and Anjou, of Virginia and
Kentucky, are in that of the Carboniferous age. The cave of Kirkdale in
Yorkshire, and most of those in Franconia and Bavaria, penetrate
Jurassic limestones. The Neocomian and Cretaceous limestones contain
most of the caverns of France, rendered famous by the discovery of the
remains of the cave-men along with the animals which they hunted; as
well as those of the Pyrenees, the Alps, Sicily, Greece, Dalmatia,
Carniola and Palestine. The cave of Lunelviel near Montpellier is the
most important of those which have been hollowed in limestones of the
Tertiary age. They are also met with in rocks composed of gypsum; in
Thuringia, for example, they occur in the saliferous and gypseous strata
of the Zechstein, and in the gypseous Tertiary rocks of the
neighbourhood of Paris, as, for example, at Montmorency.

Caves formed by the action of carbonic acid and the action of water are
distinguished from others by the following characters. They open on the
abrupt sides of valleys and ravines at various levels, and are arranged
round the main axes of erosion, just as the branches are arranged round
the trunk of a tree. In a great many cases the relation of the valley to
the ravine, and of the ravine to the cave, is so intimate that it is
impossible to deny that all three have been produced by the same causes.
The caves themselves ramify in the same irregular fashion as the
valleys, and are to be viewed merely as the capillaries in the general
valley system through which the rain passes to join the main channels.
Sometimes, as in the famous caves of Adelsberg, Kentucky, Wookey Hole in
Somersetshire, the Peak in Derbyshire, and in many in the Jura, they are
still the passages of subterranean streams; but very frequently the
drainage has found an outlet at a lower level, and the ancient
watercourses have been deserted. These in every case present
unmistakable proof that they have been traversed by water in the sand,
gravel and clay which they contain, as well as in the worn surfaces of
the sides and bottom. In all districts where there are caves there are
funnel-shaped depressions of various sizes called pot-holes or
swallow-holes, or bêtoires, "chaldrons du diable," "marmites des
géants," or "katavothra," in which the rain is collected before it
disappears into the subterranean passages. They are to be seen in all
stages, some being mere hollows which only contain water after excessive
rain, while others are profound vertical shafts into which the water is
continually falling. Gaping Ghyl, 330 ft., and Helln Pot in Yorkshire,
300 ft. deep, are examples of the latter class. The _cirques_ described
by M. Desnoyers belong to the same class as the swallow-holes.

The history of swallow-holes, caves, ravines and valleys in calcareous
strata may be summed up as follows:--The calcareous rocks are invariably
traversed by joints or lines of shrinkage, which are lines of weakness
by which the direction of the drainage is determined; and they are
composed to a large extent of carbonate of lime, which is readily
exchanged into soluble bicarbonate by the addition of carbonic acid. The
rain in its passage through the air takes up carbonic acid, and it is
still further charged with it in percolating through the surface soil in
which there is decomposing vegetable matter. As the raindrops converge
towards some one point, determined by some local accident on the
surface, and always in a line of joint, the carbonic acid attacks the
carbonate of lime with which it comes into contact, and thus a funnel is
gradually formed ending in the vertical joint below. Both funnel and
vertical joint below are being continually enlarged by this process.
This chemical action goes on until the free carbonic acid is used up.
The subterranean passages are enlarged in this manner, and what was
originally an insignificant network of fissures is developed into a
series of halls, sometimes as much as from 80 to 100 ft. high. These
results are considerably furthered by the mechanical friction of the
pebbles and sand hurried along by the current, and by falls of rock from
the roof produced by the removal of the underlying strata. In many cases
the results of this action have produced a regular subterranean river
system. The thick limestones of Kentucky, for example, are traversed by
subterranean waters which collect in large rivers, and ultimately appear
at the surface in full power. The river Axe, near Wells, the stream
flowing out of the Peak Cavern at Castleton, Derbyshire, that at
Adelsberg in Carniola, flow out of caverns in full volume. The river
Styx and the waters of Acheron disappear in a series of caverns which
were supposed to lead down to the infernal regions.

If the direction of the drainage in the rock has been altered, either by
elevations such as those with which the geologist is familiar, or by the
opening out of new passages at a lower level, these watercourses become
dry, and present us with the caves which have afforded shelter to man
and the wild animals from the remotest ages, sometimes high up on the
side of a ravine, at other times close to the level of the stream at the

Caves, as a general rule, are as little effected by disturbances of the
rock as the ravines and valleys, which have been formed, in the main,
irrespective of the lines of fault or dislocation.

We must now examine what happens to the bicarbonate of lime which has
been formed by the action of the acid on the limestone. If a current of
air play upon the surface of the water, the carbonic acid, which floats
up the lime, so to speak, is given off and the insoluble carbonate is
deposited, and as a result of this action we have the elaborate and
fantastic stony incrustations termed stalactites and stalagmites. The
water percolating through the rock covers the sides of the cavern with a
stalactitic drapery, and if a line of drops persistently falls from the
same point to the floor, the calcareous deposit gradually descends from
the roof, forming in some cases stony tassels, and in others long
columns which are ultimately united to the calcareous boss formed by the
plash of the water on the floor. The surface also of the pools is
sometimes covered over with an ice-like sheet of stalagmite, which
shoots from the sides, and sometimes forms a solid and firm floor when
the water on which it was supported has disappeared. Sometimes the drops
form a little calcareous basin, beautifully polished inside, which
contains small pearl-like particles of carbonate of lime, polished by
friction one against the other. The most beautiful stalactitic caves in
Great Britain are those of Cheddar in Somerset, Caldy Island and Poole's
Cavern at Buxton. A portion only of the carbonate of lime is thus
deposited in the hollows of the rock from which it was taken; the rest
is carried into the open air by the streams, in part deposited on the
sides and bottom, forming tufa and the so-called petrifications, and
partly being conveyed down to the sea to be ultimately secreted in the
tissues of the Mollusca, Echinodermata and Foraminifera. Through these
it is again collected in a solid form, and in the long course of ages it
is again lifted up above the level of the water as limestone rock, and
again undergoes the same series of changes. Thus the cycle of carbonate
of lime is a neverending one from the land to the ocean, from the ocean
to the land, and so it has been ever since the first stratum of
limestone was formed out of the remains of the animals and plants of the
sea. The rate of the accumulation of stalagmite in caverns is
necessarily variable, since it is determined by the presence of varying
currents of air. In the Ingleborough cavern a stalagmite, measured in
1839 and in 1873, is growing at the rate of .2946 in. per annum. It is
obvious, therefore, that the vast antiquity of deposits containing
remains of man underneath layers of stalagmite cannot be inferred from a
thickness of a few inches or even of a few feet.

The intimate relation which exists between caves and ravines renders it
extremely probable that many of the latter have been originally
subterranean watercourses, which have been unroofed by the degradation
of the rock. In all limestone districts ravines are to be found
continued in the same direction as the caves, and the process of
atmospheric erosion may be seen in the fallen blocks of stone which
generally are to be met with at the mouths of the caverns. In
illustration of this the valley and caves of Weathercote, in Yorkshire,
may be quoted, or the source of the Axe at Wookey; and the ravine formed
in this way has very frequently been widened out into a valley by the
action of subaerial waste, or by the grinding of glaciers through it
during the glacial stage of the Pleistocene period.

  For further details as to the physical history of caverns we must
  refer the reader to the works quoted at the end of this article, by
  E.A. Martel, the intrepid explorer of most of the large European
  caves, including those of Great Britain and Ireland. The history of
  the _Glacières_ or Ice-caves will be found in Browne's _Ice Caves in
  France and Switzerland_.

_Classification._--The caves which have offered shelter to the
_mammalia_ are classified according to their contents, and are of
various ages, ranging from the Pliocene to the present day. (1) Those
containing the Pliocene _mammalia_ belong to that age. (2) Those with
the remains of the mammoth, woolly rhinoceros and other extinct species,
or with paleolithic man (see ARCHAEOLOGY), are termed Pleistocene. These
are sometimes called Quaternary, under the mistaken idea that they
belong to an age succeeding the Tertiary period. (3) Those which contain
the remains of the domestic animals in association with the remains of
man either in the Neolithic, Bronze or Iron stages of civilization are
termed Prehistoric. (4) The fourth group consists of those which can be
brought into relation with the historic period, and are therefore termed

_The Pliocene Caves._--It is a singular fact, only to be explained by
the vast denudation of the earth's surface since the Pliocene Age, that
only one cave referable to that age has as yet been discovered, that at
Doveholes near Buxton, Derbyshire, described by Boyd Dawkins in 1903
(_Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc._). The cave consists of a large horizontal
chamber and a small passage, connected with a swallow-hole close by, and
exposed in the working face of a quarry in 1901, at a depth of about 40
ft. from the surface. The locality is in the limestone plateau, 1158 ft.
high, which forms the divide between the waters flowing into the Mersey
on the west and the Humber on the east. Both swallow-hole and cave were
completely blocked up with débris, and the latter was filled with red
and yellow clay, horizontally stratified and containing pebbles of
sandstone from the neighbouring ridge of Axe Edge, and bones and teeth
of fossil mammals, some waterworn and others without traces of transport
by water. All the mammals belong to well-known species found in the
Pliocene strata of East Anglia, and in Auvergne and Italy. Among them
were the sabre-toothed lion (_Machairodus crenatidens_), the hyena of
Auvergne, the mastodon, and the southern elephant (_E. meridionalis_),
and rhinoceros (_R. Etruscus_), and Steno's horse. Most of the bones had
evidently been gnawed by hyenas and accumulated in one of their dens,
and had afterwards been carried by water into the chambers deep down in
the rock, where they were found. Since that time the general level of
the district has been lowered by denudation to an extent of more than
230 ft., and all the hyena dens destroyed with the Pliocene surface not
only in this district but generally over the world. In this case a
covering of limestone some 270 ft. thick, including the depth from the
present surface, protected the remains from the denuding forces.

_The Pleistocene Caves._--The search after _ebur fossile_ or unicorns'
horn, or in other words the fossil bones which ranked high in the
_materia medica_ of the 16th and 17th centuries, led to the discovery of
the ossiferous caverns of the Harz Mountains, and of Hungary and
Franconia. The famous cave of Gailenreuth in the last of these districts
was explored by Goldfuss in 1810. The bones of the hyena, lion, wolf,
fox and stag, which it contained, were identified by Baron Cuvier, and
some of the skulls have been proved by Busk to belong to the grizzly
bear. They were associated with the bones of the reindeer, horse and
bison, as well as with those of the great cave bear. These discoveries
were of very great interest, because they established the fact that the
above animals had lived in Germany in ancient times. The first bone cave
systematically explored in England was one at Oreston near Plymouth in
1816, which proved that an extinct species of rhinoceros (_R.
leptorhinus_) lived in that district. Four years later the famous hyena
den at Kirkdale in Yorkshire was explored by Buckland. He brought
forward proof that it had been inhabited by hyenas, and that the broken
and gnawed bones of the mammoth, rhinoceros, stag, bison and horse
belonged to animals which had been dragged in for food. He pointed out
that all these animals had lived in Yorkshire in ancient times, and that
it was impossible for the carcases of the rhinoceros, hyena and mammoth
to have been floated from tropical regions into the places where he
found their bones. He subsequently investigated bone caves in
Derbyshire, South Wales and Somerset, as well as in Germany, and
published his _Reliquiae Diluvianae_ in 1822, a work which laid the
foundations of the new science of cavehunting in this country. The
well-known cave of Kent's Hole near Torquay furnished McEnery, between
the years 1825 and 1841, with the first flint implements discovered in
intimate association with the bones of extinct animals. He recognized
the fact that they proved the existence of man in Devonshire while those
animals were alive, but the idea was too novel to be accepted by his
contemporaries. His discoveries have since been verified by the
subsequent investigations carried on by Godwin Austen, and ultimately by
the committee of the British Association, which worked for several years
under the guidance of Pengelly. There are four distinct strata in the
cave. 1st, The surface is composed of dark earth, and contains medieval
remains, Roman pottery and articles which prove that it was in use
during the Iron, Bronze and Neolithic Ages. 2nd, Below this is a
stalagmite floor, varying in thickness from 1 to 3 ft., and covering
(3rd) the red earth, which contained bones of the hyena, lion, mammoth,
rhinoceros and other animals, in association with flint implements and
an engraved antler, which proved man to have been an inhabitant of the
cavern during the time of its deposition. 4th, Filling the bottom of the
cave is a hard breccia, with the remains of bears and flint implements,
in the main ruder than those found above; in some places it was no less
than 12 ft. thick. The most remarkable animal found in Kent's Hole is
the sabre-toothed carnivore, _Machairodus latidens_ of Owen. While the
value of McEnery's discoveries was in dispute the exploration of the
cave of Brixham near Torquay in 1858 proved that man was coeval with the
extinct mammalia, and in the following year additional proof was offered
by the implements that were found in Wookey Hole. Similar remains have
been met with in the caves explored since that time in Wales, and in
England as far north as Derbyshire (Creswell), proving that palaeolithic
man hunted the mammoth and rhinoceros and other extinct animals over the
whole of southern and middle England.

The discoveries in Kent's Hole and in the Creswell caves prove further
that palaeolithic man was in two stages of civilization--the ruder or
riverdrift man, with implements of the type found in the river gravels
(see ARCHAEOLOGY; and PALAEOLITHIC) being the older; and the more highly
advanced, or the cave-man, mainly characterized by the better
implements, and a singular facility in depicting animal life (as shown
by the figure of a horse incised on the fragment of a bone found in the
Creswell caves), being the newer. We may also conclude from the absence
of palaeolithic implements from the glaciated regions in which most of
these caves occur, that both riverdrift and cave-men dwelt in middle and
northern Britain in the pre-glacial age, their remains being protected
in the caverns from the denuding forces that removed all traces of their
existence from the surface of the ground in glacial and post-glacial
times. The riverdrift man is, however, proved to be post-glacial in
southern and eastern England, by the occurrence of his implements in the
river gravels of that age. Both these peoples inhabited southern England
and the continent before and after the glacial period. The riverdrift
man, whose implements occur in river deposits in middle and southern
Europe, in Africa, Palestine and Hindustan, is everywhere in the same
age of primitive barbarism, and has not as yet been identified with any
living race. The cave-men are in a higher and more advanced stage, and
led a life in Europe identical with that of the Eskimos in the Arctic

_The Pleistocene Caves of the European Continent._--The researches of
Mortillet have proved that the same two groups of cave-dwellers occur in
the caves of France, the older being represented by the Chelléen and
Moustérien sections, and the newer by that of Solutré and La Madelaine.
To the former belong the human remains found in the caverns of Spy and
Neanderthal, which prove that the riverdrift man had "the most brutal of
all known human skulls." To the latter we must assign all the caves and
rock-shelters of Périgord, with the better implements, explored by
Lartet and Christy in 1863-1864 in the valleys of the Vézère and
Dordogne. These offer as vivid a picture of the life of the cave-men as
that revealed of Italian manners in the 1st century by the buried cities
of Herculaneum and Pompeii. The old floors of human occupation consist
of broken bones of animals killed in the chase, mingled with rude
implements and weapons of bone and unpolished stone, and with charcoal
and burnt stones, which indicate the position of the hearths. Flakes
without number, awls, lance-heads, hammers and saws made of flint rest
_pêle-mêle_ with bone needles, sculptured reindeer antlers, arrowheads
and harpoons, and bones of the reindeer, bison, horse, ibex, Saiga
antelope and musk sheep. These singular accumulations of débris mark the
places where the ancient hunters lived, and are merely the refuse cast
aside. The reindeer formed by far the greater portion of the food, and
must have lived in enormous herds at that time in the centre of France.
From this, as well as from the presence of the most arctic of the
herbivores, the musk sheep, we may infer the severe climate of that
portion of France at that time. Besides these animals the cave bear and
lion have been met with in one, and the mammoth in five localities, and
their remains bear marks of cutting or scraping which showed they fell a
prey to the hunters. The most remarkable remains left behind in these
refuse heaps are the sculptured reindeer antlers and figures engraved on
fragments of schist and on ivory. A well-defined outline of an ox stands
out boldly from one piece of antler; a second represents a reindeer
kneeling down in an easy attitude with his head thrown up in the air so
that the antlers rest on the shoulders, and the back forms an even
surface for a handle, which is too small to be grasped by an ordinary
European hand; in a third a man stands close to a horse's head, and on
the other side of the same cylinder are two heads of bisons drawn with
sufficient clearness to ensure recognition by any one who has seen that
animal. On a fourth the natural curvature of one of the tines has been
taken advantage of by the artist to engrave the head and the
characteristic recurved horns of the ibex; and on a fifth horses are
represented with large heads, upright dishevelled manes and shaggy
ungroomed tails. The most striking figure is that of the mammoth
engraved on a fragment of its own tusk; the peculiar spiral curvature of
the tusk and the long mane, which are now not to be found in any living
elephant, prove that the original was familiar to the eye of the artist.
These drawings probably employed the idle hours of the hunter, and hand
down to us the scenes which he witnessed in the chase. They are full of
artistic feeling and are evidently drawn from life. The mammoth is
engraved in its own ivory, and the reindeer and the stag on their
respective antlers. Further researches have revealed the fact that in
Auvergne and in the Pyrenees the cave-men ornamented some of their caves
with incised figures and polychrome frescoes of the wild animals.
Rivière has discovered on the walls of the grotto of La Mouthe
(Dordogne) three large hunting scenes, one with bisons and horses, a
second representing a primitive hut, a bison, reindeer, ibex and
mammoth, and a third with a mammoth, hinds and horses. In the Pyrenees
similar frescoes have been described by Cartailhac and Breuil. They are
on the walls of the cavern and roof of Altamira, and on the walls of
Marsoulas. The outlines have been engraved first, and afterwards filled
in with colour in brown and red ochre and black oxide of manganese.

The cave-men ranged over middle Europe as far south as the Pyrenees and
the Alps, and inhabited the caverns of Belgium and Germany, Hungary and
Switzerland. Their remains have not as yet been met with in southern
Europe. They lived by hunting and fishing, they were fire users, and lit
up the darkness of their caves with stone lamps filled with fat
(Altamira). They were clad in skins sewn together with sinews of
reindeer or strips of intestines. They used huts as well as caves for
habitation. They had a marvellous facility for drawing animal figures.
They possessed no domestic animals, nor were they acquainted with
spinning or with the potter's art. We have no evidence that they buried
their dead--the interments, such as those of Aurignac, Les Eyzies and
Mentone, most probably belonging to a later age.

If these remains be compared with those of existing races, it will be
found that the cave-men were in the same hunter stage of civilization as
the Eskimos, and that they are unlike any other races of hunters. If
they were not allied to the Eskimos by blood, there can be no doubt that
they handed down to the latter their art and their manner of life. The
bone needles, and many of the harpoons, as well as the flint spearheads,
arrowheads and scrapers, are of precisely the same form as those now in
use amongst the Eskimos. The artistic designs from the caves of France,
Belgium and Switzerland, are identical in plan and workmanship with
those of the Eskimos, with this difference only, that the hunting scenes
familiar to the Palaeolithic cave-dwellers were not the same as those
familiar to the inhabitants of the shores of the Arctic Ocean. Each
represented the animals which he knew, and the whale, walrus and seal
were unknown to the inland dwellers of Aquitaine, just as the mammoth,
bison and wild horse are unknown to the Eskimos. The reindeer, which
they both knew, is represented in the same way by both. The practice of
accumulating large quantities of the bones of animals round their
dwelling-places, and the habit of splitting the bones for the sake of
the marrow, are the same in both. The hides were prepared with the same
sort of instruments, and the needles with which they were sewn together
are of the same pattern. The stone lamps were used by both. In both
there was the same disregard of sepulture. All these facts can hardly be
mere coincidences caused by both peoples leading a savage life under
similar conditions. The conclusion, therefore, seems inevitable that, so
far as we have any evidence of the race to which the cave-dwellers
belong, that evidence points only in the direction of the Eskimos. It
is to a considerable extent confirmed by a consideration of the animals
found in the caves. The reindeer and musk sheep afford food to the
Eskimos now in the Arctic Circle, just as they afforded it to the
cave-men in Europe; and both these animals have been traced by their
remains from the Pyrenees to the north-east through Europe and Asia as
far as the very regions in which they now live. The mammoth and bison
also have been tracked by their remains in the frozen river gravels and
morasses through Siberia as far as the American side of Bering Strait.
Palaeolithic man appeared in Europe with the arctic mammalia, lived in
Europe with them, and in all human probability retreated to the
north-east along with them.

There are refuse heaps in north-eastern Siberia containing the remains
of the mammoth and woolly rhinoceros as well as the reindeer and musk
sheep, which may be referred with equal justice to the cave-men or to
the Eskimos.

_Ancient Geography of Europe._--The remains of man and the animals
described in the preceding paragraphs have been introduced into the
caves either by man or the wild beasts, or by streams of water, which
may or may not now occupy their ancient courses; and the fact that the
same species are to be met with in the caves of France, Switzerland and
Britain implies that our island formed part of the continent, and that
there were no physical barriers to prevent their migration from the Alps
as far to the north-west as Ireland.

The same conclusion may be gathered from the exploration of caves in the
south of Europe, which has resulted in the discovery of African species,
in Gibraltar, Sicily and Malta. In the first of these the spotted hyena,
the serval and Kaffre cat lie side by side with the horse, grizzly bear
and slender rhinoceros (_R. leptorhinus_)--see Falconer's
_Palaeontographical Memoirs_. To these African animals inhabiting the
Iberian peninsula in the Pleistocene age, Lartet has added the African
elephant and striped hyena, found in a stratum of gravel near Madrid,
along with flint implements. The hippopotamus, spotted hyena and African
elephant occur in the caves of Sicily, and imply that in ancient times
there was a continuity of land between that spot and Africa, just as the
presence of the _Elephas antiquus_ proves the non-existence of the
Straits of Messina during a portion, to say the least, of the
Pleistocene age. A small species of hippopotamus (_H. Pentlandi_) occurs
in incredible abundance in the Sicilian caves. It has also been found in
those of Malta along with an extinct pigmy elephant species (_E.
Melitensis_). It has also been discovered in Candia and in the
Peloponnese. For these animals to have found their way to these regions,
a continuity of land is necessary. The view advanced by Dr Falconer and
Admiral Spratt, that Europe was formerly connected with Africa by a
bridge of land extending southwards from Sicily, is fully borne out by
these considerations. The present physical geography of the
Mediterranean has been produced by a depression of land to the amount of
about 400 fathoms, by which the Sicilo-African and Ibero-African
barriers have been submerged, and Crete and Malta separated from the
South-European continent. It is extremely probable that this submergence
took place at the same time that the adjoining sea-bottom was elevated
to about the same amount so as to constitute that region now known as
the Sahara.

_Pleistocene Caves of the Americas and Australia._--The Pleistocene
caverns of the Euro-Asiatic continent contain the progenitors of the
animals now alive in some parts of the Old World, the extinct forms
being closely allied to those now living in the same geographical
provinces. Those of Brazil and of Pennsylvania present us with animals
whose nearest analogues are to be found in North and South America, such
as sloths, armadillos and agoutis. Those, again, of Australia present us
with marsupials (_metatheria_) only, allied to, or identical with, those
of that most ancient continent. The extinct forms in each case are
mainly those of the larger animals, which, from their large size, and
low fecundity, would be specially liable to be beaten in the battle for
life by their smaller and more fertile contemporaries, and less likely
to survive those changes in their environment which have undoubtedly
taken place in the long lapse of ages. It is, therefore, certain that
the mammalian life in the Old, New and Australian worlds, was as well
marked out into geographical provinces in the Pleistocene age as at the
present time, and that it has been continuous in these areas from that
remote time to the present day.

_Prehistoric Caves of Neolithic Age in Europe._--The prehistoric caves
are distinguished from Pleistocene by their containing the remains of
domestic animals, and by the wild animals to which they have afforded
shelter belonging to living species. They are divisible into three
groups according to the traces of man which occur in them--into the
Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages.

The Neolithic caves are widely spread throughout Europe, and have been
used as the habitations and tombs of the early races who invaded Europe
from the East with their flocks and herds. The first of these
systematically explored was at Perthi Chwareu, near the village of
Llandegla, Denbighshire, in 1869. In the following years five others
were discovered close by, as well as a second group in the neighbourhood
of Cefn on the banks of the Elwy. They contained polished celts, flint
flakes, rude pottery and human skeletons, along with the broken bones of
the pig, dog, horse, Celtic shorthorn and goat. The remains of the wild
animals belong to the wolf, fox, badger, bear, wild boar, stag, roe,
hare and rabbit. Most of the bones were broken or cut, and the whole
group was obviously an accumulation which resulted from these caves
having been used as dwellings. They had subsequently been used for
burial. The human skeletons in them were of all ages, from infancy to
old age; and the interments had been successive until each became
filled. The bodies were buried in the contracted posture which is so
characteristic of Neolithic interments generally. The men to whom these
skeletons belonged were a short race, the tallest being about 5 ft. 6
in., and the shortest 4 ft. 10 in.; their skulls are orthognathic, or
not presenting jaws advancing beyond a vertical line dropped from the
forehead, in shape long or oval, and of fair average capacity. The face
was oval, and the cheek bones were not prominent. Some of the
individuals were characterized by a peculiar flattening of the shinbone
(platycnemism), which probably stood in relation to the free action of
the foot that was not hampered by the use of a rigid sole or sandal.
This, however, cannot be looked upon as a race character, or as a
tendency towards a simian type of leg. These Neolithic cave-dwellers
have been proved to be identical in physique with the builders of the
cairns and tumuli which lie scattered over the face of Great Britain and
Ireland. (See Thurnam, _Crania Britannica_.) They have also been met
with abundantly in France. In the Caverne de l'Homme Mort, for example,
in the department of Lozère, explored in 1871, the association of
remains was of precisely the same nature as those mentioned above, and
the human skeletons were of the same small type. The same class of
remains has also been discovered in Gibraltar, in the caves of Windmill
Hill, and some others. The human remains examined by Busk are of
precisely the same type as those of Denbighshire. In the work of Don
Manuel Gongora J. Martinez (_Antiguedades prehistoricas de Andalusia_,
1868), several interments are described in the cave of Murcielagos,
which penetrates the limestone out of which the grand scenery of the
southern Sierra Nevada has been to a great extent carved. In one place a
group of three skeletons was met with, one of which was adorned with a
plain coronet of gold, and clad in a tunic made of esparto grass finely
plaited, so as to form a pattern like that on some of the gold ornaments
in Etruscan tombs. In a second spot farther within, twelve skeletons
formed a semicircle round one covered with a tunic of skin, and wearing
a necklace of esparto grass, ear-rings of black stone, and ornaments of
shell and wild boar tusk. There were other articles of plaited esparto
grass, such as baskets and sandals. There were also flint flakes,
polished-stone axes, implements of bone and wood, together with pottery
of the same type as that from Gibraltar. The same class of remains have
been discovered in the Woman's Cave, near Alhama de Granada. From the
physical identity of the human remains in all these cases it maybe
inferred that in the Neolithic Age a long-headed, small race inhabited
the Iberian peninsula, extending through France, as far north as
Britain, and to the north-west as far as Ireland--a race considered by
Professor Busk "to be at the present day represented by at any rate a
part of the population now inhabiting the Basque provinces." This
identification of the ancient Neolithic cave-dwellers with the modern
Basque-speaking inhabitant of the western Pyrenees is corroborated by
the elaborate researches of Broca, Virchow and Thurnam on modern Basque
skulls. It may, therefore, be concluded that in the Neolithic Age an
Iberian population occupied the whole of the area mentioned above,
inhabiting caves and burying their dead in caves and chambered tombs,
and possessed of the same habits of life. The remains of the same small,
oval-featured, long-headed race have been found in Belgium in the cave
of Chauvaux, and they have been described by Sergi in southern Europe
under the name of the Mediterranean race.

There is no evidence that any other race except the Iberic buried their
dead in the caves of Britain in the Neolithic Age. In Belgium, however,
the exploration of the cave of Sclaigneaux by Soreil proves that
broad-headed men of the type defined by Huxley and Thurnam as
brachycephalic, and characterized by high cheek-bones, projecting
muscles and large stature, the average height being 5 ft. 8.4 in.
(Thurnam), inhabited and buried their dead in the caves of that region.
In France they occur in the sepulchral cave of Orrouy (Oise) in
association with those of the Iberic type. They have also been met with
in Gibraltar. This type is undistinguishable from the Celtic (Goidelic)
or Gaulish, found so abundantly in the chambered tombs of the Neolithic
Age in France. Both these ancient races are represented at the present
day by the Basques and Aquitanians of France and Spain, and by the Celts
or Gauls of France, Britain and the Mediterranean border of Spain, their
relative antiquity being proved by an appeal to their history and
geographical distribution. For just as the earliest records show that
the Iberic power extended as far north as the Loire, and as far east as
the Rhone, so we have proof of the gradual retrocession of the Iberic
frontier southwards, under the attacks of the successive Celtic hordes,
until ultimately we find the latter in possession of a considerable part
of southern Spain, forming by their union with the conquered the
powerful nation of Celt-Iberi. The Iberians were in possession of the
continent before they were dispossessed by the Goidels, and at a later
time by the Brythons. They are recognized by Tacitus in Britain in the
Silures of Wales; and they are still to be seen in the small, dark,
lithe inhabitants of North Wales. The discovery of the characteristic
skulls of both these races in the same family vault in the cave of Gop
near Prestatyn, Flintshire, proves that the two races were mingled
together in Britain as far back as the Bronze Age.

From the present distribution of this non-Aryan race it is obvious that
they were gradually pushed back westward by the advance of tribes coming
from the East, and following those routes which were subsequently taken
by the Low and High Germans.

The exploration of the Grotta dei Colombi, in the island of Palmaria,
overlooking the Gulf of Spezzia, in 1873, proves that the stories
scattered through the classical writers, that the caves on the
Mediterranean shores were inhabited by cannibals, are not altogether
without foundation. In it broken and cut bones of children and young
adults were found along with those of the goat, hog, fox, wolf,
wild-cat, flint flakes, bone implements and shells perforated for

_Prehistoric Caves of Bronze and Iron Ages._--The extreme rarity of
articles of bronze in the European caves implies that they were rarely
used by the Bronze folk for habitation or burial. Bronze weapons mingled
with gold ornaments have, however, been discovered in the Heatheryburn
cave near Stanhope, Durham, as well as in those of Kirkhead in Cartmell,
in Thor's cave in Staffordshire, and the Cat Hole in Gower in
Glamorganshire. In the Iberian peninsula the cave of Cesareda, explored
by Signor Delgado, in the valley of the Tagus, contained bronze
articles, associated with broken and cut human bones, as well as those
of domestic animals, rendering it probable that cannibalism was
practised in early times in that region. Busk believes, however, that
the facts are insufficient to support the charge of cannibalism against
the ancient Portuguese.

Caves containing articles of iron, and therefore belonging to that
division of the prehistoric age, are so unimportant that they do not
deserve notice in this place. As man increased in civilization he
preferred to live in houses of his own building, and he no longer buried
his dead in the natural sepulchres provided for him in the rock.

Prehistoric caves have been rarely explored in extra-European areas.
Among those which abound in Palestine, one in Mount Lebanon, examined by
Canon Tristram, contained flint implements along with charcoal and
broken bones and teeth, some of which may be referred to a small ox,
undistinguishable from the small short-horn, _Bos longifrons_. In North
America the remains found by F.W. Putnam in the caves of Kentucky,
consisting of moccasins, rudely-plaited cloth, and other articles, may
be referred to the same division.

_Historic Caves in Britain._--The historic caves have only attracted
notice in fairly recent years, and in Britain alone, principally through
the labours of the Settle Cave Committee from the year 1869 to the
present day. To them is due the exploration of the Victoria cave, which
had been discovered and partially investigated as early as the year
1838. It consists of three large ill-defined chambers opening on the
face of the cliff, 1450 ft. above the sea, and filled with debris very
nearly up to the roof. It presented three distinct eras of
occupation--one by hyenas, which dragged into it rhinoceroses, bisons,
mammoths, horses, reindeer and bears. This was defined from the next
occupation, which is probably of the Neolithic Age, by a layer of grey
clay, on the surface of which rested a bone harpoon and a few flint
flakes and bones. Then after an interval of débris at the entrance was a
layer of charcoal, broken bones, fragments of old hearths, and numerous
instruments of savage life associated with broken pottery, Roman coins,
and the rude British imitations of them, various articles of iron, and
elaborate personal ornaments, which implied a considerable development
of the arts. The evidence of the coins stamps the date of the occupation
of the cave to be between the first half of the 5th century and the
English conquest. Some of the brooches present a peculiar flamboyant and
spiral pattern in relief, of the same character as the art of some of
the illuminated manuscripts, as for example one of the Anglo-Saxon
gospels at Stockholm, and of the gospels of St Columban in Trinity
College, Dublin. It is mostly allied to that work which is termed by
Franks late Celtic. From its localization in Britain and Ireland, it
seems to be probable that it is of Celtic derivation; and if this view
be accepted, there is nothing at all extraordinary in its being
recognized in the illuminated Irish gospels. Ireland, in the 6th and 7th
centuries, was the great centre of art, civilization and literature; and
it is only reasonable to suppose that there would be intercourse between
the Irish Christians and those of the west of Britain, during the time
that the Romano-Celts, or Brit-Welsh, were being slowly pushed westwards
by the heathen English invader. Proof of such an intercourse we find in
the brief notice of the _Annales Cambriae_, in which Gildas, the
Brit-Welsh historian, is stated to have sailed over to Ireland in the
year A.D. 565. It is by no means improbable that about this time there
was a Brit-Welsh migration into Ireland, as well as into Brittany.
Objects with these designs found in Germany are probably directly or
indirectly due to the Irish missionaries, who spread Christianity
through those regions. The early Christian art in Ireland grew out of
the late Celtic, and is to a great extent free from the influence of
Rome, which is stamped on the Brit-Welsh art of the same age in this

Several other ornaments with enamel deserve especial notice. The enamel,
composed of red, blue and yellow, has been inserted into the hollows in
the bronze, and then heated so as to form a close union with it. They
are of the same design as those which have been met with in late Roman
tumuli in this country, and in places which are mainly in the north.
They all belong to a class named late Celtic by Franks, and are
considered by him to be of British manufacture. This view is supported
by the only reference to the art of enamelling furnished by the
classical writers. Philostratus, a Greek sophist in the court of Julia
Domna, the wife of the emperor Severus, writes, "It is said that the
barbarians living in the ocean pour these colours (those of
horse-trappings) on heated bronze, and that these adhere, grow as hard
as stone, and preserve the designs that are made in them." It is worthy
of remark that, since the emperor Severus built the wall which bears his
name, marched in person against the Caledonians, and died at York, the
account of the enamels may have reached Philostratus from the very
district in which the Victoria Cave is situated.

Associated with these were bronze ornaments inlaid with silver, and
miscellaneous iron articles, among which was a Roman key. Remains of
this kind have been met with in the Albert and Kelko caves in the
neighbourhood, in that of Dowkerbottom near Arncliffe, in that of
Kirkhead on the northern shore of Morecambe Bay, in Poole's Cavern near
Buxton, and in Thor's Cave near Ashbourne, and over a wide area ranging
from Yorkshire and the Lake district southwards into Somerset and Devon.

  _List of Principal Animals and Objects found in Brit-Welsh
  Strata in Caves._

                              Thor's Cave.----------------------+
                           Poole's Cavern.------------------+   |
                                 Kirkhead.--------------+   |   |
                             Dowkerbottom.----------+   |   |   |
                                    Kelko.------+   |   |   |   |
                                 Victoria.--+   |   |   |   |   |
                                            |   |   |   |   |   |
  |            Animals.                   | v | v | v | v | v | v |
  |DOMESTIC--                             |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  |  _Canis familiaris_. Dog              | × | × | × | × | × | ? |
  |  _Sus scrofa_. Pig                    | × | × | × | × | × | ? |
  |  _Equus caballus_. Horse              | × | × | × | × | × | ? |
  |  _Bos longifrons_. Celtic short-horn  | × | × | × | × | × | ? |
  |  _Capra hircus_. Goat                 | × | × | × | × | × | ? |
  |                                       |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  |WILD--                                 |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  |  _Canis vulpes_. Fox                  | × |   | × | × | × | ? |
  |  _Meles taxus_. Badger                | × |   | × |   |   | × |
  |  _Cervus elaphus_. Stag               | × |   | × | × | × | ? |
  |  _Cervus capreolus_. Roe              | × |   | × | × |   | ? |
  |                                       |   |   |   |   |   |   |
  |  Roman coins, or imitations           | × | × | × | × | × | × |
  |  Enamelled ornaments, in bronze       | × | × | × | × |   |   |
  |  Bronze ornaments, inlaid with silver | × | × | × |   | × |   |
  |  Iron articles                        | × | × | × |   | × | × |
  |  Samian ware                          | × |   | × |   | × | × |
  |  Black ware                           | × | × | × |   | × | × |
  |  Bone spoon fibulae                   | × | × | × |   |   |   |
  |  Bone combs                           | × | × | × |   |   | × |

It is obvious in all these cases that men accustomed to luxury and
refinement were compelled, by the pressure of some great calamity, to
flee for refuge to caves with whatever they could transport thither of
their property. The number of spindle-whorls and personal ornaments
imply that they were accompanied by their families. We may also infer
that they were cut off from the civilization to which they had been
accustomed, because in some cases they extemporized spindle-whorls out
of fragments of Samian ware, instead of using those which were expressly
manufactured for the purpose. Why the caves were inhabited is
satisfactorily explained by an appeal to contemporary history. In the
pages of Gildas, in the _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_, and in the _Annales
Cambriae_, we have a graphic picture of that long war of invasion by
which the inhabitants of the old Roman province of Britannia were driven
back by the Jutes, Angles and Saxons, who crossed over with their
families and household stuff. Slowly, and in the chances of a war which
extended through three centuries, they were gradually pushed back into
Cumberland, Wales and West Somerset, Devon and Cornwall. While this war
was going on the coinage became debased and Roman coins afforded the
patterns for the small bronze minimi, which are to be met with equally
in these caves and in the ruins of Roman cities. As the tide of war
rolled to the west, the English tongue and, until towards the close of
the struggle, the worship of Thor and Odin supplanted the British tongue
and the Christian faith, and a rude barbarism replaced what was left of
the Roman civilization in the island. It is to this period that relics
of this kind in the caves must be assigned. They are traces of the
anarchy of those times, and complete the picture of the desolation of
Britain, revealed by the ashes of the cities and villas that were burnt
by the invader. They prove that the vivid account given by Gildas of the
straits to which his countrymen were reduced was literally true.

The shrines of Zeus in the Idaean and Dictaean caves have been explored
by Halbher and Orsi (_Antichità dell' antro de Zeus Ideo_) and by Arthur
Evans and Hogarth (_Journal of Hellenic Studies_). These discoveries
prove that the cult of Zeus began among the Mycenaean peoples some 2000
years B.C. according to Evans, and was practised far down into the later
Greek times. They show that the Greeks are indebted to the Mycenaean
peoples not only for their art, but for the chief of their divinities.

  AUTHORITIES.--1. Britain: Boyd Dawkins, _Cave-hunting_ (1874); _Early
  Man_ (1880); Mattel, _Irlande et cavernes anglaises_ (1897); Buckland,
  _Reliquiae Diluvianae_ (1821); _Brit. Assoc. Reports_ (1860-1875);
  _Journ. Anthrop. Inst._ (1870-1876); _Quart. Geol. Journ._
  (1860-1875); Pengelly, _Trans. Devonshire Association_. 2. The
  European Continent: Martel, _Les Abîmes_ (1894); Cartailhac and
  Breuil, _L'Anthropologie_, xv., xvi.; Lartet and Christy, _Reliquiae
  Aquitanicae; Internat. Congress of Prehistoric Archaeology_; Marcel de
  Serres, _Les Ossemens fossiles de Lunel Viel_; Dupont, _L'Homme
  pendant les âges de la pierre dans les environs de Dinant-sur-Meuse_;
  Schmerling, _Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles découverts dans les
  cavernes de Liége_; Merk, _Excavations at Kesserloch_, transl. J.E.
  Lee (1876). For the chief American caves, see LURAY CAVERN, MAMMOTH

CAVEA, the Latin name given to the subterranean cells in which the wild
beasts were confined prior to the combats in the Roman arena. The term
is sometimes applied to the amphitheatre (q.v.) itself.

CAVEAT (Latin for "let him beware," from _cavere_), in law, a notice
given by the party interested (caveator) to the proper officer of a
court of justice to prevent the taking of a certain step without
warning. It is entered in connexion with dealings in land registered in
the land registry, with the grant of marriage licences, to prevent the
issuing of a lunacy commission, to stay the probate of a will, letters
of administration, &c. Caveat is also a term used in United States
patent law (see PATENTS).

_Caveat emptor_ ("let the buyer beware") is a maxim which implies that
the responsibility for making a bad bargain over a purchase rests on the
purchaser. In an ordinary contract for the sale of goods, there is no
implied warranty or condition as to the quality or fitness for any
particular purpose of the goods supplied, with certain exceptions, and,
therefore, the buyer takes at his own risk. The maxim does not apply (a)
where the buyer, expressly or by implication, makes known to the seller
the particular purpose for which the goods are required, so as to show
that the buyer relies on the seller's skill or judgment, and that the
goods are of a description which it is in the course of the seller's
business to supply; (b) where goods are bought by description from a
seller who deals in goods of that description, for there is an implied
condition that the goods are of merchantable quality, though if the
buyer has actually examined the goods, there is no implied condition as
regards defects which the examination ought to have revealed; (c) where
the usage of trade annexes an implied warranty or condition to the goods
as to their quality or fitness for a particular purpose. The maxim of
_caveat emptor_ is said to owe its origin to the fact that in early
times sales of goods took place principally in market overt. (See
further SALE OF GOODS.)

CAVEDONE, JACOPO (1577-1660), Italian painter, born at Sassuolo in the
Modenese, was educated in the school of the Caracci, and under them
painted in the churches of Bologna. His principal works are the
"Adoration of the Magi," the "Four Doctors," and the "Last Supper"; and
more especially the "Virgin and Child in Glory," with San Petronio and
other saints, painted in 1614, and now in the Bolognese Academy.
Cavedone became an assistant to Guido Reni in Rome; his art was
generally of a subdued undemonstrative character, with rich Titianesque
colouring. In his declining years his energies broke down after his wife
had been accused of witchcraft, and after the death of a cherished son.
He died in extreme poverty, in a stable at Bologna.

CAVENDISH, GEORGE (1500-1562?), English writer, the biographer of
Cardinal Wolsey, was the elder son of Thomas Cavendish, clerk of the
pipe in the exchequer, and his wife, Alice Smith of Padbrook Hall. He
was probably born at his father's manor of Cavendish, in Suffolk. Later
the family resided in London, in the parish of St Alban's, Wood Street,
where Thomas Cavendish died in 1524. Shortly after this event George
married Margery Kemp, of Spains Hall, an heiress, and the niece of Sir
Thomas More. About 1527 he entered the service of Cardinal Wolsey as
gentleman-usher, and for the next three years he was divided from his
wife, children and estates, in the closest personal attendance on the
great man. Cavendish was wholly devoted to Wolsey's interests, and also
he saw in this appointment an opportunity to gratify his master-passion,
a craving "to see and be acquainted with strangers, in especial with men
in honour and authority." He was faithful to his master in disgrace, and
showed the courage of the "loyal servitor." It is plain that he enjoyed
Wolsey's closest confidence to the end, for after the cardinal's death
George Cavendish was called before the privy council and closely
examined as to Wolsey's latest acts and words. He gave his evidence so
clearly and with so much natural dignity, that he won the applause of
the hostile council, and the praise of being "a just and diligent
servant." He was not allowed to suffer in pocket by his fidelity to his
master, but retired, as it would seem, a wealthy man to his estate of
Glemsford, in West Suffolk, in 1530. He was only thirty years of age,
but his appetite for being acquainted with strange acts and persons was
apparently sated, for we do not hear of his engaging in any more
adventures. It is not to be doubted that Cavendish had taken down notes
of Wolsey's conversation and movements, for many years passed before his
biography was composed. At length, in 1557, he wrote it out in its final
form. It was not, however, possible to publish it in the author's
lifetime, but it was widely circulated in MS. Evidently one of these
MSS. fell into Shakespeare's hands, for that poet made use of it in his
_King Henry VIII._, although it is excessive to say, as Singer has done,
that Shakespeare "merely put Cavendish's language into verse." The book
was first printed in 1641, in a garbled text, and under the title of
_The Negotiations of Thomas Wolsey_. The genuine text, from contemporary
MSS., was given to the world in 1810, and more fully in 1815. Until that
time it was believed that the book was the composition of George
Cavendish's younger brother William, the founder of Chatsworth, who also
was attached to Wolsey. Joseph Hunter proved this to be impossible, and
definitely asserted the claim of George. The latter is believed to have
died at Glemsford in or about 1562. The intrinsic value of Cavendish's
_Life of Cardinal Wolsey_ has long been perceived, for it is the sole
authentic record of a multitude of events highly important in a
particularly interesting section of the history of England. Its
importance as a product of biographical literature was first emphasized
by Bishop Creighton, who insisted over and over again on the claim of
Cavendish to be recognized as the earliest of the great English
biographers and an individual writer of particular charm and
originality. He writes with simplicity and with a certain vivid
picturesqueness, rarely yielding to the rhetorical impulses which
governed the ordinary prose of his age.     (E. G.)

CAVENDISH, HENRY (1731-1810), English chemist and physicist, elder son
of Lord Charles Cavendish, brother of the 3rd duke of Devonshire, and
Lady Anne Grey, daughter of the duke of Kent, was born at Nice in
October 1731. He was sent to school at Hackney in 1742, and in 1749
entered Peterhouse, Cambridge, which he left in 1753, without taking a
degree. Until he was about forty he seems to have enjoyed a very
moderate allowance from his father, but in the latter part of his life
he was left a fortune which made him one of the richest men of his time.
He lived principally at Clapham Common, but he had also a town-house in
Bloomsbury, while his library was in a house in Dean Street, Soho; and
there he used to attend on appointed days to lend the books to men who
were properly vouched for. So methodical was he that he never took down
a volume for his own use without entering it in the loan-book. He was a
regular attendant at the meetings of the Royal Society, of which he
became a fellow in 1760, and he dined every Thursday with the club
composed of its members. Otherwise he had little intercourse with
society; indeed, his chief object in life seems to have been to avoid
the attention of his fellows. With his relatives he had little
intercourse, and even Lord George Cavendish, whom he made his principal
heir, he saw only for a few minutes once a year. His dinner was ordered
daily by a note placed on the hall-table, and his women servants were
instructed to keep out of his sight on pain of dismissal. In person he
was tall and rather thin; his dress was old-fashioned and singularly
uniform, and was inclined to be shabby about the times when the
precisely arranged visits of his tailor were due. He had a slight
hesitation in his speech, and his air of timidity and reserve was almost
ludicrous. He was never married. He died at Clapham on the 24th of
February 1810, leaving funded property worth £700,000, and a landed
estate of £8000 a year, together with canal and other property, and
£50,000 at his bankers.

Cavendish's scientific work is distinguished for the wideness of its
range and for its extraordinary exactness and accuracy. The papers he
himself published form an incomplete record of his researches, for many
of the results he obtained only became generally known years after his
death; yet in spite of the absence of anything approaching
self-advertisement he acquired a very high reputation within his own
country and abroad, recognized by the Institute of France in 1803 when
it chose him as one of its eight foreign associates. Arsenic formed the
subject of his first recorded investigation, on which he was engaged at
least as early as 1764, and in 1766 he began those communications to the
Royal Society on the chemistry of gases, which are among his chief
titles to fame. The first (_Phil. Trans._, 1766) consists of "Three
papers containing experiments on Factitious Airs," dealing mostly with
"inflammable air" (hydrogen), which he was the first to recognize as a
distinct substance, and "fixed air" (carbon dioxide). He determined the
specific gravity of these gases with reference to common air,
investigated the extent to which they are absorbed by various liquids,
and noted that common air containing one part in nine by volume of fixed
air is no longer able to support combustion, and that the air produced
by fermentation and putrefaction has properties identical with those of
fixed air obtained from marble. In the following year he published a
paper on the analysis of one of the London pump-waters (from Rathbone
Place, Oxford Street), which is closely connected with the memoirs just
mentioned, since it shows that the calcareous matter in that water is
held in solution by the "fixed air" present and can be precipitated by
lime. Electrical studies seem next to have engaged his attention, and in
1771 and 1772 he read to the Royal Society his "Attempt to explain some
of the principal phenomena of electricity by an elastic fluid," which
was followed in 1775 by an "Attempt to imitate the effects of the
Torpedo (a fish allied to the ray)" (_Phil. Trans._, 1776). But these
two memoirs contain only a part of the electrical researches he carried
out between 1771 and 1781, and many more were found after his death in a
number of sealed packets of papers. The contents of these for a long
time remained unknown, but ultimately by permission of the duke of
Devonshire, to whom they belonged, they were edited by James Clerk
Maxwell and published in 1879 by the Cambridge University Press as the
_Electrical Researches of the Hon. Henry Cavendish_. About 1777 or 1778
he resumed his pneumatic inquiries, though he published nothing on the
subject till 1783. In that year he described a new eudiometer to the
Royal Society and detailed observations he had made to determine whether
or not the atmosphere is constant in composition; after testing the air
on nearly 60 different days in 1781 he could find in the proportion of
oxygen no difference of which he could be sure, nor could he detect any
sensible variation at different places. Two papers on "Experiments with
Airs," printed in the _Phil. Trans._ for 1784 and 1785, contain his
great discoveries of the compound nature of water and the composition of
nitric acid. Starting from an experiment, narrated by Priestley, in
which John Warltire fired a mixture of common air and hydrogen by
electricity, with the result that there was a diminution of volume and a
deposition of moisture, Cavendish burnt about two parts of hydrogen
with five of common air, and noticed that almost all the hydrogen and
about one-fifth of the common air lost their elasticity and were
condensed into a dew which lined the inside of the vessel employed. This
dew he judged to be pure water. In another experiment he fired, by the
electric spark, a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen (dephlogisticated air),
and found that the resulting water contained nitric acid, which he
argued must be due to the nitrogen present as an impurity in the oxygen
("phlogisticated air with which it [the dephlogisticated air] is
debased"). In the 1785 paper he proved the correctness of this
supposition by showing that when electric sparks are passed through
common air there is a shrinkage of volume owing to the nitrogen uniting
with the oxygen to form nitric acid. Further, remarking that little was
known of the phlogisticated part of our atmosphere, and thinking it
might fairly be doubted "whether there are not in reality many different
substances confounded together by us under the name of phlogisticated
air," he made an experiment to determine whether the whole of a given
portion of nitrogen (phlogisticated air) of the atmosphere could be
reduced to nitric acid. He found that a small fraction, not more than
1/120th part, resisted the change, and in this residue he doubtless had
a sample of the inert gas argon which was only recognized as a distinct
entity more than a hundred years later. His last chemical paper,
published in 1788, on the "Conversion of a mixture of dephlogisticated
and phlogisticated air into nitrous acid by the electric spark,"
describes measures he took to authenticate the truth of the experiment
described in the 1785 paper, which had "since been tried by persons of
distinguished ability in such pursuits without success." It may be noted
here that, while Cavendish adhered to the phlogistic doctrine, he did
not hold it with anything like the tenacity that characterized
Priestley; thus, in his 1784 paper on "Experiments on Air," he remarks
that not only the experiments he is describing, but also "most other
phenomena of nature seem explicable as well, or nearly as well," upon
the Lavoisierian view as upon the commonly believed principle of
phlogiston, and he goes on to give an explanation in terms of the
antiphlogistic hypothesis.

Early in his career Cavendish took up the study of heat, and had he
promptly published his results he might have anticipated Joseph Black as
the discoverer of latent heat and of specific heat. But he made no
reference to his work till 1783, when he presented to the Royal Society
some "Observations on Mr Hutchins's experiments for determining the
degree of cold at which quicksilver freezes." This paper, with others
published in 1786 and 1788, is concerned with the phenomena attending
the freezing of various substances, and is noteworthy because in it he
expresses doubt of the supposition that "the heat of bodies is owing to
their containing more or less of a substance called the matter of heat,"
and inclines to Newton's opinion that it "consists in the internal
motion of the particles of bodies." His "Account of the Meteorological
Apparatus used at the Royal Society's House" (_Phil. Trans._, 1776)
contains remarks on the precautions necessary in making and using
thermometers, a subject which is continued in the following year in a
report signed by him and six others.

Cavendish's last great achievement was his famous series of experiments
to determine the density of the earth (_Phil. Trans._, 1798). The
apparatus he employed was devised by the Rev. John Michell, though he
had the most important parts reconstructed to his own designs; it
depended on measuring the attraction exercised on a horizontal bar,
suspended by a vertical wire and bearing a small lead ball at each end,
by two large masses of lead. (See GRAVITATION.) The figure he gives for
the specific gravity of the earth is 5.48, water being 1, but in fact
the mean of the 29 results he records works out at 5.448. Other
publications of his later years dealt with the height of an aurora seen
in 1784 (_Phil. Trans._, 1790), the civil year of the Hindus (_Id._,
1792), and an improved method of graduating astronomical instruments
(_Id._, 1809). Cavendish also had a taste for geology, and made several
tours in England for the purpose of gratifying it.

  A life by George Wilson (1818-1859), printed for the Cavendish Society
  in 1851, contains an account of his writings, both published and
  unpublished, together with a critical inquiry into the claims of all
  the alleged discoverers of the composition of water. Some of his
  instruments are preserved in the Royal Institution, London, and his
  name is commemorated in the Cavendish Physical Laboratory at
  Cambridge, which was built by his kinsman the 7th duke of Devonshire.

CAVENDISH [CANDISH], THOMAS (1555?-1592), the third circumnavigator of
the globe, was born at Trimley St Martin, Suffolk. On quitting Corpus
Christi College, Cambridge (without a degree), he almost ruined himself
by his extravagance as a courtier. To repair his fortune he turned to
maritime and colonial enterprise, and in 1585 accompanied Sir Richard
Grenville to America. Soon returning to England, he undertook an
elaborate imitation of Drake's great voyage. On the 21st of July 1586,
he sailed from Plymouth with 123 men in three vessels, only one of which
(the "Desire," of 140 tons) came home. By way of Sierra Leone, the Cape
Verde Islands and C. Frio in Brazil, he coasted down to Patagonia (where
he discovered "Port Desire," his only important contribution to
knowledge), and passing through Magellan's Straits, fell upon the
Spanish settlements and shipping on the west coast of South and Central
America and of Mexico. Among his prizes were nineteen vessels of worth,
and especially the treasure-galleon, the "Great St Anne," which he
captured off Cape St Lucas, the southern extremity of California
(November 14, 1587). After this success he struck across the Pacific for
home; touched at the Ladrones, Philippines, Moluccas and Java; rounded
the Cape of Good Hope; and arrived again at Plymouth (September 9-10,
1588), having circumnavigated the globe in two years and fifty days. It
is said that his sailors were clothed in silk, his sails were damask,
and his top-mast covered with cloth of gold. Yet by 1591 he was again in
difficulties, and planned a fresh American and Pacific venture. John
Davis (q.v.) accompanied him, but the voyage (undertaken with five
vessels) was an utter failure, much of the fault lying with Cavendish
himself, who falsely accused Davis, with his last breath, of deserting
him (May 20, 1592). He died and was buried at sea, on the way home, in
the summer of 1592.

  See Hakluyt's _Principal Navigations_, (a) edition of 1589, p. 809
  (N.H.'s narrative of the voyage of 1586-1588); (b) edition of
  1599-1600, vol. iii. pp. 803-825 (Francis Pretty's narrative of the
  same); (c) edition of 1599-1600, vol. iii. pp. 251-253 (on the venture
  of 1585); (d) edition of 1599-1600, vol. iii. pp. 845-852 (John Lane's
  narrative of the last voyage, of 1591-1592); also _Stationers'
  Registers_ (Arber), vol. ii. pp. 505-509; the Molyneux Globe of 1592,
  in the library of the Middle Temple, London, and the Ballads in _Biog.
  Brit._, vol. i. p. 1196.

CAVENDISH, SIR WILLIAM (c. 1505-1557), founder of the English noble
house of Cavendish, was the younger brother of George Cavendish (q.v.).
His father, Thomas, was a descendant of Sir John Cavendish, the judge,
who in 1381 was murdered by Jack Straw's insurgent peasants at Bury St
Edmunds. Of William's education nothing seems known, but in 1530 he was
appointed one of the commissioners for visiting monasteries; he worked
directly under Thomas Cromwell, whom he calls "master" and to whom many
of his extant letters are addressed. In 1541 he was auditor of the court
of augmentations, in 1546 treasurer of the king's chamber, and was
knighted and sworn of the privy council. Under Edward VI. and Mary he
continued in favour at court; during the latter's reign he partially
conformed, but on the occasion of the war with France he with other
Derbyshire gentlemen refused the loan of £100 demanded by the queen. He
died in 1557. Cavendish acquired large properties from the spoils of the
monasteries, but in accordance with the wish of his third wife Elizabeth
he sold them to purchase land in Derbyshire. This wife was the
celebrated "building Bess of Hardwick," daughter of John Hardwicke, of
Hardwicke, Derbyshire; she completed the original building of Chatsworth
House,--begun in 1553 by her husband,--of which nothing now remains. Her
fourth husband was George Talbot, 6th earl of Shrewsbury. By her
Cavendish had six children; an elder son who died without issue;
William, who in 1618 was created earl of Devonshire; Charles, whose son
William became 1st duke of Newcastle; Frances, who married Sir Henry
Pierpont, and was the ancestress of the dukes of Kingston; Elizabeth,
who married Charles Stuart, earl of Lennox, and was the mother of
Arabella Stuart; and Mary, who married Gilbert Talbot, 7th earl of

CAVETTO (Ital. diminutive of _cavo_, hollow), in architecture, the term
given to a hollow concave moulding sometimes employed in the place of
the cymatium of a cornice, as in that of the Doric order of the theatre
of Marcellus. It forms the crowning feature of the Egyptian temples, and
took the place of the cymatium in many of the Etruscan temples.

CAVIARE, or CAVIAR, the roe of various species of _Acipenser_ or
sturgeon (q.v.), prepared, in several qualities, as an article of food.
The word is common to most European languages and supposed to be of Turk
or Tatar origin, but the Turk word _khavyah_ is probably derived from
the Ital. _caviale_; the word does not appear in Russian. The best
caviare, which can only be made in winter and is difficult to preserve,
is the loosely granulated, almost liquid, kind, known in Russia as
_ikra_. It is prepared by beating the ovaries and straining through a
sieve to clear the eggs of the membranes, fibres and fatty matter; it is
then salted with from 4-6% of salt. The difficulty of preparation and of
transport has made it a table delicacy in western Europe, where it has
been known since the 16th century, as is evidenced by Hamlet's "His play
... pleased not the million, 'twas caviare to the general." It is eaten
either as an _hors d'oeuvre_, particularly in Russia and northern Europe
with kummel or other liqueurs, or as a savoury, or as a flavouring to
other dishes. The coarser quality, in Russia known as _pájusnaya_ (from
_pajus_, the adherent skin of the ovaries), is more strongly salted in
brine and is pressed into a more solid form than the _ikra_; it is then
packed in small barrels or hermetically-sealed tins. This forms a staple
article of food in Russia and eastern Europe. Though the best forms of
caviare are still made in Russia, and the greater quantity of the
coarser kinds are exported from Astrakhan, the centre of the trade,
larger amounts are made each year for export in America and also in
Germany, Norway and Sweden. The roe of tunny and mullet, pickled in
brine and vinegar, is used, under the name of "Botargo," along the
Mediterranean littoral and in the Levant.

CAVITE, a fortified seaport, the capital of the province of Cavite,
Luzon, Philippine Islands, and the seat of the principal Asiatic naval
station of the United States, on a forked tongue of land in Manila Bay,
8 m. S. of the city of Manila. Pop. (1903) 4494; with the barrios of San
Roque and Caridad (on the main peninsula), which are under the municipal
government of Cavite (15,630). Cavite is the terminus of a railway which
follows the shore of the bay from Manila. The northern part of the town,
Sangley Point (one of the two forks of the main peninsula), is the
principal coaling station of the U.S. fleet in Asiatic waters. The naval
station proper and the old town of Cavite are on the south fork of the
peninsula. Cavite's buildings are mostly of stone, with upper storeys of
wood; its streets are narrow and crooked. It has five churches (one of
these is an independent Filipino church), and is the seat of a
provincial high school. Cavite has long been the principal naval base of
the Philippine Islands, and one of the four Spanish penitentiaries in
the Islands was here. During the 19th century Cavite was the centre of
political disturbances in the Philippines; in 1896 on the parade ground
thirteen political prisoners were executed, and to their memory a
monument was erected in 1906 at the head of the isthmus connecting with
the main peninsula. The town was nearly destroyed by an earthquake in
1880. It was taken from the Spanish by an American squadron under
Commodore George Dewey in May 1898.

CAVOUR, CAMILLO BENSO, COUNT (1810-1861), Italian statesman, was born at
Turin on the 1st of August 1810. The Bensos, who belonged to the old
Piedmontese feudal aristocracy, were a very ancient house, said to be
descended from a Saxon warrior who settled at Santena in the 12th
century and married a Piedmontese heiress; Camillo's father, the marquis
Michele, married a noble Genevese lady, and both he and his wife held
offices in the household of Prince Borghese, the governor of Piedmont
under Napoleon, and husband of the latter's sister, Pauline Bonaparte.
Being a younger son (his brother Gustavo was the eldest) Cavour was
destined for the army, and when ten years old he entered the military
academy at Turin. On leaving the college at the age of sixteen he was
first of his class, and received a commission in the engineers. He spent
the next five years in the army, residing at Ventimiglia, Genoa, and
various Alpine fortresses to superintend defence works; but he spent his
leisure hours in study, especially of the English language. He soon
developed strongly marked Liberal tendencies and an uncompromising
dislike for absolutism and clericalism, which, as he had not acquired
the art of reticence, made him a suspect in the eyes of the police and
of the reactionaries; at the same time he does not seem to have joined
any secret society, for he was too loyal to conspire against the king
whose uniform he wore, and he did not believe that the time was yet ripe
for a revolution. But after the accession to the throne of Charles
Albert, whom he always distrusted, he felt that his position in the army
was intolerable, and resigned his commission (1831). From that moment we
find him in the ranks of the opponents of the government, although his
was always a loyal and straightforward opposition which held aloof from
conspiracies. During the next few years he devoted himself to the study
of political and social problems, to foreign travel, and to acquiring a
thorough knowledge of practical agriculture. Cavour's political ideas
were greatly influenced by the July revolution of 1830 in France, which
proved that an historic monarchy was not incompatible with Liberal
principles, and he became more than ever convinced of the benefits of a
constitutional monarchy as opposed both to despotism and to
republicanism. But he was not affected by the doctrinaire Liberalism of
the time, and his views were strengthened by his studies of the British
constitution, of which he was a great admirer; he was even nicknamed
"Milord Camillo." He frequently visited Paris and London, where he
plunged into the political and social questions of the day, and
contributed among other essays two admirable and prophetic articles, one
on the Irish question, in which he strongly defended the Union, and
another on the Corn Laws. He applied his knowledge of agriculture to the
management of his father's estate at Leri, which he greatly improved, he
founded the Piedmontese Agricultural Society, and took the lead in
promoting the introduction of steam navigation, railways and factories
into the country.

Thus his mind gradually evolved, and he began to dream dreams of a
united Italy free of foreign influence, but owing to the reactionary
policy of the Piedmontese government he was unable to take any active
part in politics. In 1847, however, the psychological moment seemed to
have arrived, for the new pope, Pius IX., showed marked Liberal
tendencies and seemed ready to lead all the forces of Italian patriotism
against the Austrian domination. The hopes of the Italian Liberals rose
high and the so-called neo-Guelph party, represented by such men as
Vincenzo Gioberti and Cesare Balbo, believed that an Italian
confederation might be formed under the presidency of the pope. Cavour,
although he realized that a really Liberal pope was an impossibility,
saw the importance of the movement and the necessity of profiting by it.
Together with Balbo, P. di Santa Rosa, and M. Castelli, he founded a
newspaper at Turin called _Il Risorgimento_, which advocated the ideas
of constitutional reform in Piedmont, with a view to preparing that
country for an important role in the upheaval which seemed imminent. In
January 1848 the revolution first broke out in Sicily. Cavour, in a
speech before a delegation of journalists, declared that the king must
take a decided line and grant his people a constitution. Strong pressure
was brought to bear on Charles Albert, and after much hesitation he was
induced to grant a charter of liberties (February 8, 1848). Cesare Balbo
was called upon to form the first constitutional ministry; but Cavour
was not offered a seat in it, being suspected by Liberals and
Conservatives alike. He continued his journalistic activity, and his
articles in the _Risorgimento_ came to exercise great influence both on
the king and on public opinion. When the news of the revolt of the
Milanese against the Austrians, known as the Five Days, reached Turin on
the 19th of March, Cavour felt that the time for Piedmont to act with
energy had come, and advocated war against Austria. "After deliberately
weighing each word," he wrote, "we are bound in conscience to declare
that only one path is open to the nation, the government, and the king:
war, immediate war!" Piedmont was the only part of Italy enjoying a
government at once national and independent, and if it did not hasten to
the assistance of the Milanese in their desperate struggle, if possible
before the Austrians were expelled, the monarchy could not survive. The
situation was most critical, and even the British government was not
friendly to Piedmont; but Cavour was prepared to face any danger rather
than see his country inactive. In an article in the _Risorgimento_ he
declared that, while he never believed that material help was to be
expected from England, he was convinced that she would not actively help
Austria to crush the revolution, but that if she did "she would have
against her a coalition not of princes, but of peoples." Cavour's
article made such an impression that it put an end to the king's
vacillations, and a few days after its appearance war was declared
(March 25).

For a few months patriotic and revolutionary enthusiasm carried all
before it. In Hungary, in Germany, in Paris, in Vienna itself the
revolution was triumphant; constitutions were granted, dynasties
tottered and fell, and provisional governments were set up. In all parts
of Italy, too, revolts broke out against the established order. But the
Piedmontese army, although the troops behaved with gallantry, was no
match for Austria's veteran legions, and except in a few minor
engagements, in one of which Cavour's nephew Gustavo was killed, it was
generally unsuccessful, and an armistice was concluded in the summer. In
the meanwhile the elections were being held in Piedmont. Cavour himself
was not returned until the supplementary elections in June, and he took
his seat in parliament on the right as a Conservative. His parliamentary
career was not at first very successful; he was not a ready speaker; his
habit of talking French made Italian difficult for him, and, although
French was at that time allowed in the chamber, he preferred to speak
Italian. But he gradually developed a strong argumentative power, his
speeches became models of concise reasoning, and he rose at times to the
highest level of an eloquence which was never rhetorical. After the
dissolution in January 1849, Cavour was not re-elected. The new
parliament had to discuss, in the first instance, the all-important
question of whether the campaign should be continued now that the
armistice was about to expire. The king decided on a last desperate
throw, and recommenced hostilities. On the 23rd of March the Piedmontese
were totally defeated at Novara, a disaster which was followed
immediately by the abdication of Charles Albert in favour of his son
Victor Emmanuel II.

Although the new king was obliged to conclude peace with Austria and the
Italian revolution was crushed, Cavour nevertheless did not despair; he
believed that so long as the constitution was maintained in Piedmont,
the Italian cause was safe. There were fresh elections in July, and this
time Cavour was returned. He was still in the difficult position of a
moderate Liberal at a time when there seemed to be room for none but
reactionaries and conspirators, but by his consummate ability he
convinced men that his attitude was the right one, and he made it
triumph. His speech on the 7th of March 1850, in which he said that,
"Piedmont, gathering to itself all the living forces of Italy, would be
soon in a position to lead our mother-country to the high destinies to
which she is called," made a deep impression, for it struck the first
note of encouragement after the dark days of the preceding year. He
supported the ministry of which Massimo d' Azeglio was president in its
work of reform and restoration, and in October of the same year, on the
death of Santa Rosa, he himself was appointed minister of agriculture,
industry and commerce. In 1851 he also assumed the portfolio of finance,
and devoted himself to the task of reorganizing the Piedmontese
finances. By far the ablest man in the cabinet, he soon came to dominate
it, and, in his anxiety to dominate the chamber as well, he negotiated
the union of the Right Centre with the Left Centre (a manoeuvre known as
the _connubio_), and promoted the election of Urbano Rattazzi to the
presidency of the chamber. This, which he accomplished without d'
Azeglio's knowledge, led to a split between that statesman and Cavour,
and to the latter's resignation. Cavour has been blamed for not
informing his colleagues of the compact, but for public reasons it was
not desirable that the _connubio_ should be discussed before it was
consummated. D' Azeglio indeed bore no malice, and remained Cavour's
friend. Cavour made use of his freedom to visit England and France
again, in order to sound public opinion on the Italian question. In
London he found the leaders of both parties friendly, and Lord
Palmerston told him that if the constitutional experiment in Piedmont
succeeded the Italian despots were doomed. At this time Sir James Hudson
was appointed British minister at Turin, where he became the intimate
friend of Cavour and gave him valuable assistance. In Paris, Cavour had
a long interview with Prince Louis Napoleon, then president of the
republic, and he already foresaw the great part which that ruler was
destined to play in Italian affairs. He also met several Italian exiles
in France.

On Cavour's return he found the country in the throes of a new cabinet
crisis, in consequence of which, on d' Azeglio's recommendation, he was
invited to form a ministry. By the 4th of November he was prime
minister, a position which he held with two short interruptions until
his death. He devoted the first years of his premiership to developing
the economic resources of the country; but in preparing it for greater
destinies, he had to meet the heavy expenditure by increased taxation,
and some of his measures made him the object of hostile demonstrations,
although he soon outlived his unpopularity. Cavour's first international
difficulty was with Austria; after the abortive rising at Milan in
February 1853, the Austrian government, in addition to other measures of
repression, confiscated the estates of those Lombards who had become
naturalized Piedmontese, although they had nothing to do with the
outbreak. Cavour took a strong line on this question, and on Austria's
refusal to withdraw the obnoxious decree, he recalled the Piedmontese
minister from Vienna, thus by his very audacity winning the sympathy of
the Western powers.

Then followed the Crimean War, in which Cavour first showed his
extraoidinary political insight and diplomatic genius. The first
suggestion of Piedmontese co-operation is usually believed to have come
from England, who desired the Italian contingent, not only as material
assistance, but also in order to reduce the overwhelming French
preponderance. From the Piedmontese point of view there were several
reasons why Cavour should desire his country to participate in the
campaign. Firstly, it was advisable to use every opportunity of making
the Italian question an international one; secondly, by joining the
alliance Piedmont would place the Western powers under an obligation;
thirdly, Cavour, like Balbo, believed that the Italian question was
bound up with the Eastern problem, and as Austria was demanding the
permission of the powers to occupy Alessandria, as a guarantee that
Piedmont would not profit by the war in the East to create trouble in
Italy, Piedmontese participation would in itself prove the best
guarantee; and finally, as he always looked to Italy and not merely to
Piedmont, he felt that, having proved to Europe that Italians could
combine order with liberty, it remained to show that they were capable
of fighting as well. But there were serious difficulties in the way. Had
Austria joined the allies, as at one time seemed probable, Sardinia's
position fighting by her side would have been an impossible one. On the
other hand, Piedmont could not demand definite promises of future aid
from the Western powers as some politicians desired, because these would
never have been given, lest Austria should be offended and driven into
the arms of Russia. Then, both the extreme Conservatives and the extreme
Radicals were opposed to expenditure on foreign adventures for which
they could see no use. In all these difficulties, however, Cavour was
loyally supported by the king, who saw the advantages of Piedmontese
participation, even if unattended by definite promises. General
Dabormida, the minister of foreign affairs, disapproved of this policy
and resigned. The vacant portfolio was offered to d' Azeglio, who
refused it; whereupon Cavour assumed it himself. On the same day
(January 10, 1855) the treaty with France and England was signed, and
shortly afterwards 15,000 Piedmontese troops under General La Marmora
were despatched to the Crimea.

Events at first seemed to justify the fears of Cavour's opponents.
Cholera attacked the Piedmontese soldiers, who for a long time had no
occasion to distinguish themselves in action; public opinion became
despondent and began to blame Cavour, and even he himself lost heart.
Then came the news of the battle of the Tchernaya, fought and won by the
Italians, which turned sadness and doubt into jubilation. Joy was felt
throughout Italy, especially at Milan, where the victory was the first
sign of daylight amid the gloom caused by the return of the Austrians.
Everyone realized that the Piedmontese contingent was fighting Italy's
battles. But to Cavour the announcement that Russia had accepted
Austrian mediation (January 16, 1856) was a great disappointment. He had
always hoped that if the war continued Austria would be forced to side
with Russia in return for the aid given by the emperor Nicholas in
suppressing the Hungarian revolt in 1849, and the Western powers would
then have an opportunity of helping the Italian cause. He sent a
memorandum, at Napoleon's request, to Count Walewski, the French
minister of foreign affairs, setting forth a kind of minimum programme
of Piedmont's claims. On the summoning of the congress of Paris at the
conclusion of the war, Cavour first proposed that d' Azeglio should
represent Piedmont, and on the latter's refusal decided to go himself.
After much discussion, and in spite of the opposition of Austria, who as
mediator occupied a predominant position, behaving "as though she had
taken Sevastopol," Cavour obtained that Piedmont should be treated as
one of the great powers. Although he did not expect that the congress
would liberate Italy, yet by his marvellous diplomatic skill, far
superior to that of his colleagues, he first succeeded in isolating
Austria, secondly in indirectly compromising Napoleon in the Italian
question, and thirdly in getting the wretched conditions of Italy
discussed by the representatives of the great powers, who declared that
some remedy to that state of things was necessary, not in the interests
of Italy alone, but of all Europe. A scheme of reform proposed by Count
Walewski gave Cavour the opportunity to plead the Italian cause, and
from that moment it was manifest to all that the liberation of Italy was
personified in him, the statesman who came to hold all the strings of
European politics in his hands.

Cavour's chief measure of internal reform during this period was a bill
for suppressing all monastic orders unconnected with education,
preaching or charity; this aroused strong opposition from the extremists
of both parties and also from the king, and led to the minister's
resignation. But he was soon recalled, for the country could not do
without him, and the bill was passed (May 29, 1855).

Cavour now saw that war with Austria was merely a question of time, and
he began to establish connexions with the revolutionists of all parts of
Italy, largely by means of La Farina; but it was necessary that this
policy should not be advertised to Europe, and he strongly
discountenanced Mazzini's abortive revolutionary attempts. He continued
to strengthen Piedmont's military resources, and the army soon grew too
large for the country and was obviously destined for more than merely
defensive purposes. But he well knew that although Piedmont must be made
as efficient as possible from the military point of view, it could not
defeat Austria single-handed. He would have preferred an alliance with
Great Britain, who would never demand territorial compensation; but
although British sympathies were wholly Italian, the government was
desperately anxious to avoid war. From Napoleon more was to be hoped,
for the emperor still preserved some of his revolutionary instincts,
while the insecurity of his situation at home made him eager to gain
popularity by winning military glory abroad; but he still hesitated, and
Cavour devoted the whole of his ability to overcoming his doubts. In the
midst of these negotiations came Orsini's attempt on Napoleon's life
(January 14, 1858), which threatened to alienate his Italian sympathies
and cause serious embarrassments to Piedmont. But after some
remonstrances to Piedmont for not acting with sufficient energy against
the revolutionists, the incident was settled: and Napoleon was, in fact,
afraid that if he did not help the Italian cause more such attempts
would be made. A month after the Orsini outrage he laid before Cavour a
proposal for a Franco-Piedmontese alliance and the marriage of Prince
Jerome Bonaparte with Princess Clothilde, the daughter of Victor

An "accidental" meeting between Napoleon and Cavour was arranged and
took place at Plombières in July, and although no one knew what passed,
the news of it fell like a bombshell on the diplomatic world. No
definite treaty was signed, but the basis of an agreement was laid,
whereby France and Piedmont were to declare war against Austria with the
object of expelling her from Italy, and a north Italian state was to be
formed; in exchange for this help France was to receive Savoy and
possibly Nice. But the emperor still hesitated, and refused to decide on
war unless Austria attacked Piedmont; the British government, too, in
its anxiety to preserve peace, was not very friendly to the Italian
cause. Cavour saw that the only way to overcome all these obstacles was
to force Austria's hand. Then there was the danger lest an Italy freed
by French arms should be overwhelmed under French predominance; for this
reason Cavour was determined to secure the co-operation of volunteers
from other parts of Italy, and that the war should be accompanied by a
series of risings against Austria and the local despots. It was also
necessary that the risings should break out in the various provinces
_before_ the Piedmontese and French troops arrived, so that the latter
should not appear as invaders and conquerors, but merely as liberators.

The moment war was seen to be imminent, parties of Italians of all
classes, especially Lombards, poured into Piedmont to enlist in the
army. Cavour also had a secret interview with Garibaldi, with whom he
arranged to organize volunteer corps so that the army should be not
merely that of Piedmont, but of all Italy. Every day the situation grew
more critical, and on the 10th of January 1859 the king in his speech
from the throne pronounced the memorable words "that he could not remain
deaf to the cry of pain (_il grido di dolore_) that reached him from all
parts of Italy"--words which, although actually suggested by Napoleon,
rang like a trumpet-call throughout the land. In the meanwhile the
marriage negotiations were concluded, and during the emperor's visit to
Turin a military convention was signed between the two states, and Savoy
and Nice were promised to France as a reward for the expulsion of the
Austrians from Italy. But the British government was still unfavourable,
and Napoleon, ever hesitating, again sought an excuse for backing out of
his engagements; he jumped at the Russian proposal to settle the Italian
question by means of his own favourite expedient, a congress. To this
Austria agreed on condition that Piedmont should disarm and should be
excluded from the congress; England supported the scheme, but desired
that all the Italian states should be represented. Cavour was in despair
at the turn events were taking, and appealed to Napoleon, actually
threatening to emigrate to America and publish all his correspondence
with the emperor if the latter did not keep his engagements. He decided
at last most reluctantly to accept the English proposal, lest Piedmont
should be abandoned by all, but clung to the hope that Austria would
reject it. On the 19th of April the Austrian emperor, on the advice of
the military party, did reject it; and on the 23rd, to Cavour's
inexpressible joy, Austria sent an ultimatum demanding the disarmament
of Piedmont. Cavour replied that his government had agreed to the
congress proposed by the powers and that it had nothing more to say. On
quitting the chamber that day he said to a friend: "I am leaving the
last sitting of the last Piedmontese parliament"--the next would
represent united Italy. France now allied herself definitely with
Piedmont, and England, delighted at Cavour's acquiescence to her own
proposal and enraged by Austria's ultimatum, became wholly friendly to
the Italian cause. A few days later Austria declared war.

As La Marmora now took the chief command of the army, Cavour added the
ministry of war to the others he already held. His activity at this time
was astounding, for he was virtually dictator and controlled
single-handed nearly all the chief offices of the state. The French
troops entered Piedmont, where they were received with enthusiasm, and
the allies marched into Lombardy; the victory of Magenta, which opened
the gates of Milan to them, was shortly followed by that of Solferino.
The people rose in arms at Parma, Modena, Florence and Bologna, which
had been occupied by Austria for the pope since 1849; the local princes
were expelled and provisional governments set up. Cavour sent special
commissioners to take charge of the various provinces in Victor
Emmanuel's name. But these events, together with Prussia's menacing
attitude, began to alarm Napoleon, who, although he wished to destroy
Austrian influence in Italy, was afraid of a large and powerful Italian
state. Consequently, after Solferino, he concluded an armistice with
Austria at Villafranca on the 8th of July, without previously informing
Cavour. When Cavour heard of it he was thunderstruck; he immediately
interviewed the king at Monzambano, and in violent, almost disrespectful
language implored him not to make peace until Venice was free. But
Victor Emmanuel saw that nothing was to be gained by a refusal, and much
against his own inclination, signed the peace preliminaries at
Villafranca, adding the phrase, "pour ce qui me concerne," which meant
that he was not responsible for what the people of other parts of Italy
might do (July 12). Lombardy was to be ceded to Piedmont, Venetia to
remain Austrian, the deposed princes to be reinstated, and the pope made
president of an Italian confederation.

The cabinet resigned the next day, but remained in office provisionally,
and Cavour privately advised the revolutionists of central Italy to
resist the return of the princes, by force if necessary: "for we must
now become conspirators ourselves," he said. His policy was thus
continued after he left office, and Palmerston, who had meanwhile
succeeded Malmesbury as foreign minister, informed France and Austria
that Great Britain would never tolerate their armed intervention in
favour of the central Italian despots. The new Piedmontese ministry, of
which La Marmora was the president, but Rattazzi the leading spirit,
hesitated between annexing central Italy and agreeing to the terms of
peace, but on the 10th of November peace was signed at Zürich. Napoleon
proposed a new congress, which never met, and on the fall of the
Rattazzi-La Marmora cabinet the king, in spite of the quarrel at
Monzambano, asked Cavour to take office again. By January he was once
more premier, as well as minister for foreign affairs and of the
interior. His first act was to invite the people of Italy to declare
their own wishes with regard to annexation to Piedmont; but Napoleon
still refused to consent to the union of Tuscany with Piedmont, for he
contemplated placing one of his own relatives on the throne of the
grand-duchy. Cavour now saw that Napoleon might be ready to deal, and,
although the bargain of the preceding year had not been exactly
fulfilled, as the Austrians were still in Venice, he again brought
forward the question of Nice and Savoy. To Cavour no less than to the
king the loss of these two provinces was a cruel wrench, but it was a
choice between them and central Italy. The plebiscites in the latter
region had unanimously declared in favour of union with Piedmont, and
Napoleon became more pressing, going so far as to threaten that unless
the cession were made, the French troops would leave Lombardy at the
mercy of Austria and occupy Bologna and Florence. On the 24th of March
the treaty was signed and the emperor's opposition to the annexation of
central Italy withdrawn. On the 2nd of April the parliament representing
Piedmont, the duchies of Parma and Modena, Tuscany and Romagna, met, and
Cavour had the difficult and ungrateful task of explaining the cession
of Nice and Savoy. In spite of some opposition, the agreement was
ratified by a large majority.

The situation in the kingdom of Naples was now becoming critical, but
there seemed as yet little chance of union with upper Italy, for the
Bourbon government was a more or less regular one, and, although risings
had broken out, there was no general revolution. Cavour therefore had
to follow a somewhat double-faced policy, on the one hand negotiating
with the Bourbon king (Francis II.), suggesting a division of Italy
between him and Victor Emmanuel, and on the other secretly backing up
the revolutionary agitation. Having now learnt that Garibaldi was
planning an expedition to Sicily with his volunteers, he decided, after
some hesitation, not to oppose its departure; on the 5th of May it
sailed from Quarto near Genoa, and Cavour was only deterred from
declaring war on Naples by the fear of foreign complications. Garibaldi
with his immortal Thousand landed at Marsala, and the whole rotten
fabric of the Bourbon government collapsed. At Palermo they were
welcomed by the Piedmontese admiral Persano, and soon the whole island
was occupied and Garibaldi proclaimed dictator. The general now proposed
to cross over to the mainland, and this placed Cavour in a serious
dilemma; Russia and Austria protested against the expedition, France and
Prussia were unfriendly, Great Britain alone remained warmly
pro-Italian. He still hoped for a revolution in Naples, so that King
Victor's authority might be established before Garibaldi's arrival, but
this proved impossible. When Garibaldi crossed the straits of Messina
the Neapolitan government fell, and he entered Naples in triumph. But
there was still danger that he might be subsequently defeated, for the
Neapolitan army was still a force in being, and Cavour feared, moreover,
that, although Garibaldi himself had always loyally acted in the king of
Italy's name, the red republicans around him might lead him to commit
some imprudence and plunge the country into anarchy. The cession of
Nice, Garibaldi's birthplace, had made an impassable gulf between the
two men, and neither quite trusted the other. Cavour also feared that
Garibaldi might invade the papal states, which would have led to further
international complications. In any case, Rome must not be touched for
the present, since Napoleon was pledged to protect the pope; but as the
latter had made large armaments, and his forces, consisting largely of
brigands and foreigners under the French general Lamoricière, were in a
menacing attitude on the frontier, Cavour decided on the momentous step
of annexing the papal states with the exception of the Roman province.
The Italian army crossed the frontier from Romagna on the 11th of
September, whereupon every power, except Great Britain and Sweden,
withdrew its minister from Turin. But the troops advanced and were
everywhere received with open arms by the people; Ancona was taken,
Lamoricière was defeated and captured at the battle of Castelfidardo,
and on the 20th King Victor marched into the Neapolitan kingdom. On the
1st of October Garibaldi defeated the Neapolitan troops on the Volturno,
and Gaeta alone, where King Francis of Naples had retired, still held

New difficulties with Garibaldi arose, for he would not resign his
dictatorship of the southern provinces, and wished to march on Rome.
Cavour had to use all his tact to restrain him and at the same time not
to appear ungrateful. He refused to act despotically, but he summoned
parliament to vote on the annexation, which it did on the 11th. Two days
later Garibaldi magnanimously gave in to the nation's will and handed
his conquests over to King Victor as a free gift. Gaeta was invested,
and after a siege prolonged through the action of Napoleon, who for some
reason unknown kept his fleet before the town, preventing any attack by
sea until England induced him to withdraw it, the garrison surrendered
on the 13th of February, and King Francis retired to Rome. Parliament
was dissolved once more; the new chamber showed an overwhelming majority
in favour of Cavour, and Victor Emmanuel was proclaimed king of Italy.

The last question with which Cavour had to deal was that of Rome. For
some years past the pope had only been able to maintain his authority by
the help of foreign troops, and Cavour saw that as long as this state of
things lasted there could be no united Italy. In October he declared in
parliament that Rome must be the capital of Italy, for no other city was
recognized as such by the whole country, and in January 1861 a
resolution to that effect was passed. But owing to Napoleon's attitude
he had to proceed warily, and made no attempt for the present to carry
out the nation's Wishes. At the same time he was anxious that the church
should preserve the fullest liberty, and he believed in the principle of
"a free church in a free state." His great dream, save for Rome and
Venice, was now realized, and Italy was free and united. But the wear
and tear of these last years had been almost unbearable, and at last
began to tell; the negotiations with Garibaldi were particularly trying,
for while the great statesman wished to treat the hero and his
volunteers generously, far more so than seemed wise to the Conservatives
and the strictly military party, he did not wish the Italian cause to be
endangered by their imprudences, and could not permit all the
Garibaldian officers to be received into the regular army with the same
grades they held in the volunteer forces. This question, together with
that of Nice, led to a painful scene in the chamber between the two men,
although they were formally reconciled a few days later. For some time
past Cavour had been unwell and irritable, and the scene with Garibaldi
undoubtedly hastened his end. A fever set in, and after a short illness
he passed away on the 6th of June 1861. He was buried at his ancestral
castle of Santena.

The death of Cavour was a terrible loss to Italy; there remained many
problems to be solved in which his genius and personality were urgently
needed. But the great work had been carried to such a point that lesser
men might now complete the structure. He is undoubtedly the greatest
figure of the _Risorgimento_, and although other men and other forces
co-operated in the movement, it was Cavour who organized it and
skilfully conducted the negotiations which overcame all, apparently
insuperable, obstacles. "That which in Alfieri and Gioberti was
lacking," wrote T. Artom, his private secretary, "a deep and lively
sense of reality, Cavour possessed to a supreme degree. He was not a
_littérateur_; he was never a political dreamer. His views broadened
progressively; at each stage he discovered a new horizon, and he
followed his path without ever seeking anything save what was real and
possible." He was gifted with pronounced political genius and with an
astounding power of foresight. In his ideas he was always a moderate
Liberal, and although he disapproved of republicanism, he was an ardent
constitutionalist, ever refusing to resort to arbitrary methods, for he
felt that, the Italian character being what it is, Italian unity could
not last if unsupported by popular feeling. In meeting opposition he
could not, like Bismarck, rely on a great military power, for the
Piedmontese army was a small one; Austria must first be isolated and
then an alliance had to be obtained with some other power. Some of his
acts, especially his policy towards the Neapolitan kingdom, have been
criticized as politically immoral; but apart from the fact that few
revolutions--and Cavour, after all, was a revolutionist--can be
conducted without attacking vested rights, it is hard to see that any
policy which led to the destruction of a government, rightly described
as the "negation of God on earth," could be deemed immoral. He has been
accused of changing his views, but what statesman has not? Moreover, in
the extremely complicated and difficult diplomatic situations which he
had to face, what was impossible or dangerous one day became possible
and desirable the next. This was particularly the case with the
Neapolitan question. Cavour's one absorbing passion was the liberation
and regeneration of Italy, and to this he devoted his whole life and

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--G. Buzziconi, _Bibliografia Cavouriana_ (Turin, 1898);
  Countess Evelyn Martinengo Cesaresco, _Cavour_ (London, 1898), an
  excellent and handy little monograph which brings out the chief points
  of Cavour's life in the right light; G. Massari, _Il Conte di Cavour_
  (Turin, 1873); W. de la Rive, _Le Comte de Cavour_ (Paris, 1862),
  interesting and valuable as the work of a contemporary and intimate
  friend of Cavour; L. Chiala, _Lettere edite ed inedite del Conte di
  Cavour_ (7 vols., Turin, 1883-1887); D. Zanichelli, _Gli Scritti del
  Conte di Cavour_ (Bologna, 1892), and _Cavour_ (Florence, 1905); H.
  von Treitschke, "Cavour," in his _Historische und politische Aufsatze_
  (Leipzig, 1871); E. Dicey, _A Memoir of Cavour_ (London, 1861); Conte
  C. di Cavour, _Discorsi parlamentari_ (8 vols., Turin, 1863-1872),
  _Opere politico-economiche_ (Cuneo, 1855); F.X. Krauss, _Cavour_
  (Mainz, 1902); E. Artom, _L'Opere politica del Senatore T. Artom nel
  Risorgimento Italano _ (Bologna, 1906), a biography of Cavour's
  devoted private secretary, containing new material.     ( L. V.*)

CAVOUR (anc. _Caburrum_ or _Forum Vibii_), a town of Piedmont, Italy, in
the province of Turin, 32 m. S.W. by rail and steam tram (via Pinerolo
from the town of Turin). Pop. (1901) town, 2091; commune, 6843. It lies
on the north side of a huge isolated mass of granite (the Rocca di
Cavour) which rises from the plain. On the summit was the Roman village,
which belonged to the province of the Alpes Cottiae. There are some
ruins of medieval fortifications. The town gave its name to the Benso
family of Chieri, who were raised to the marquisate in 1771, and of
which the statesman Cavour was a member.

  For the ancient name see Th. Mommsen in _Corp. Inscrip. Lat._ v.
  (Berlin, 1877), p. 825.

CAVY, a name commonly applied to several South American rodent animals
included in the family _Caviidae_ (see RODENTIA), but perhaps properly
applicable only to those belonging to the typical genus _Cavia_, of
which the most familiar representative is the domesticated guinea-pig.
Cavies in general, the more typical representatives of the _Caviidae_,
are rodents with hoof-like nails, four front and three hind toes,
imperfect collar-bones, and the cheek-teeth divided by folds of enamel
into transverse plates. The tail is short or rudimentary, the incisors
are short, and the outer surface of the lower jaw is marked by a
distinct ridge.

True cavies, or couies (_Cavia_), are best known by the guinea-pig, a
domesticated and parti-coloured race derived from one of the wild
species, all of which are uniformly coloured. They are comparatively
small and stoutly built animals, with short, rounded ears and no tail.
In habits they are partly diurnal; and live either in burrows among the
crevices of rocks, beneath the leaves of aquatic plants in marshy
districts, or underneath the floors of outbuildings. Their cries are
faint squeaks and grunts. They feed upon nearly all vegetable
substances, but drink little. Generally they associate in small
societies, and seldom wander far from home. Although the guinea-pig is a
fertile breeder, the wild species only produce one or two young at a
birth, and this but once in a year. The young come into the world in a
highly developed condition, being able to feed themselves the day
following their birth. Cavies are widely distributed in South America,
and are represented by several species. Among them may be mentioned the
aperea or restless cavy (_C. porcellus_ or _C. aperea_) of Brazil; the
Bolivian _C. boliviensis_, found at great elevations in the Andes; the
Brazilian rock-cavy (_C. rupestris_), characterized by its short blunt
claws; and the Peruvian _C. cutleri_. The latter was tamed by the Incas,
and is the ancestor of the guinea-pig. As to the origin of that name,
some writers consider it a corruption of Guiana-pig, but it is more
probable that the word "Guinea" merely signifies foreign. The guinea-pig
is a singularly inoffensive and defenceless creature, of a restless
disposition, and wanting in that intelligence which usually
characterizes domestic pets, although said to show some discrimination.
It is of no particular service to man, neither its flesh nor its fur
being generally put to use, while the statement that its presence is
sufficient to drive off rats and mice appears to be without foundation.
It is exceedingly prolific, beginning to breed at the age of two months;
the number of young varying, according to the age of the parent, from
four to twelve. It has been calculated that a single pair of guinea-pigs
may prove the parent stock of a thousand individuals in a single year.

A very different animal is the Patagonian cavy, or mara (_Dolichotis
patachonica_), the typical representative of a genus characterized by
long limbs, comparatively large ears, and a short tail. The animal is
about the size of a hare, to which it approximates in form and habits.
It is most abundant in the open districts of Patagonia, but also ranges
on to the Argentina Pampas, where it is now scarce. Although
occasionally seen in large flocks, the mara is more commonly found in
small parties or in pairs, the parties commonly moving in single file.
It has a peculiar kind of hopping gait; and is mainly diurnal, in
accordance with which habit its eyes are protected by lashes. It lives
in a burrow, generally excavated by itself; but when pursued, seeks
safety in flight, rather than by a retreat to its hole. From two to five
young are produced twice a year. A much smaller species, _D.
salinicola_, without the characteristic black band above the tail,
inhabits the salt-plains of Argentina. Maras have been introduced into
several British parks. Fossil species of _Dolichotis_ occur in the
caverns of Brazil, and also in the superficial deposits of Argentina.
     (R. L.*)

CAWDOR, a village and parish of Nairnshire, Scotland. Pop. of parish
(1901) 925. The village is situated 5 m. S.S.W. of Nairn and 3 m. from
Gollanfield Junction on the Highland railway. The castle was the scene,
according to the tradition which Shakespeare has perpetuated, of the
murder of King Duncan by Macbeth, thane of Cawdor (or Calder), in 1040.
Since the oldest part of the structure dates from 1454, however, and
seemingly had no predecessor, the tradition has no foundation in fact.
The building stands on the rocky bank of Cawdor Burn, a right-hand
tributary of the Nairn. The massive keep with small turrets is the
original portion of the castle, and to it were added, in the 17th
century, the modern buildings forming two sides of a square.

Kilravock (pronounced _Kilrawk_) Castle, 1½ m. W. of Cawdor, occupies a
commanding site on the left bank of the Nairn. Its keep dates from 1460,
and the later buildings belong to the 17th century. It has been
continuously tenanted by the Roses, one of the most remarkable families
in Scotland. They came over with William the Conqueror and settled at
Kilravock in 1293, since which date son has succeeded father without the
interposition of a collateral heir, an instance of direct descent unique
in Scottish history. Moreover, nearly every Rose has borne the Christian
name of Hugh, and only one attained to a higher social rank than that of
laird. Queen Mary was received at the castle in 1562, and Prince Charles
Edward was entertained four days before the battle of Culloden. The
gardens are remarkable for their beauty.

CAWNPORE, or KANPUR, a city and district of British India in the
Allahabad division of the United Provinces. The city is situated on the
south bank of the Ganges, 40 m. south-west of Lucknow, and formed from
early times a frontier outpost of the people of Oudh and Bengal against
their northern neighbours. Clive selected it, on account of its
commanding position, as the cantonment for the brigade of troops lent
him by the nawab of Oudh. In 1801, when the Ceded Provinces were
acquired by the East India Company, it became the chief British frontier
station. But by the time of the Mutiny the frontier had left it behind,
and it was denuded of troops. Now it is chiefly known as the junction of
four railways, the East Indian, Oudh & Rohilkand, Rajputana and Indian
Midland, and as a great emporium for harness, shoes and other
leather-work. In 1901 the population was 197,170, showing an increase of
4% in the decade. In 1903 the city was devastated by an epidemic of

The name of Cawnpore is indelibly connected with the blackest episode in
the history of the Indian Mutiny--the massacre here in July 1857 of
hundreds of women and children by the Nana Sahib. The full details of
the siege and massacre will be found under INDIAN MUTINY, and here it
will suffice to refer to the local memorials of that evil time. The
entrenchment, where General Sir H.M. Wheeler with his small band of
soldiers and the European and Eurasian residents were exposed for 21
days to the fire of the mutineers, is merely a bare field, containing
the well where many women and children were shot while getting water.
This well is now surrounded by an enclosure with an inscription upon its
cross. About three-quarters of a mile away, on the banks of the river
Ganges, is the Massacre Ghat. A grassy road between banks 10 to 12 ft.
high leads down to the river, and it was among the trees on these banks
that the murderers concealed themselves who shot down the little
garrison as soon as they were embarked in the boats which were to take
them to safety. On the river bank is a temple to Siva, of hexagonal
shape, old and going to ruin. Steps lead from this temple to an enclosed
flight of stairs, which in the cold season descend to the water, but in
the rains are covered almost to the top. This is the ghat where some 600
helpless people were slain, in spite of a promise of safe-conduct from
the Nana. The remaining 200 victims, who had escaped the bullets of the
siege and survived the butchery of the river bank, were massacred
afterwards and cast down the famous well of Cawnpore, which is now
marked by a memorial and surrounded by gardens. The memorial is crowned
by the figure of an angel in white marble, and on the wall of the well
itself is the following inscription:--

  Sacred to the perpetual Memory of a great company of
  Christian people, chiefly Women and Children, who near this
  spot were cruelly murdered by the followers of the rebel
  Nana Dhundu Pant, of Bithur, and cast, the dying with the
  dead, into the well below, on the xvth day of July, MDCCCLVII.

The DISTRICT or CAWNPORE is situated between the Ganges and Jumna
rivers, and is a portion of the well-watered and fertile tract known as
the Doab, the total area being 2384 sq. m. The general inclination of
the country is from north to south. Besides the two great rivers, the
principal streams are the Arand or Rhind, the Kavan or Singar, the Isan
and the Pandu. The district is watered by four branches of the Ganges
canal, and traversed by two lines of railway. It used to be a great
centre of the indigo industry, which has now declined. The population in
1901 was 1,258,868, showing an increase of 4% during the decade.

CAXTON, WILLIAM (c. 1422-1491), the first English printer, was born
somewhere in the Weald of Kent, perhaps at Tenterden. The name, which
was apparently pronounced Cauxton, is identical with Causton, the name
of a manor in the parish of Hadlow, and was a fairly common surname in
the 15th century. The date of Caxton's birth was arbitrarily fixed in
1748 by Oldys as 1412. Blades, however, inferred that in 1438, when he
was apprenticed to Robert Large, he would not have been more than
sixteen years of age. This would place his birth in 1422-1423. Robert
Large was a rich silk mercer who became sheriff in 1430 and lord mayor
of London in 1439, and the fact of Caxton's apprenticeship to him argues
that Caxton's own parents were in a good position. Large died in 1441,
leaving a small bequest to Caxton, and his executors would be bound to
place the young man where he could finish his term. He was probably sent
direct to Bruges, then the central foreign market of the Anglo-Flemish
trade, for he presently entered business there on his own account. In
1450 his name appears in the Bruges records as standing joint surety for
the sum of £100; and in 1463 he was acting governor of the company of
Merchant Adventurers in the Low Countries. This association, sometimes
known as the "English Nation," was dominated by the Mercers' Company, to
the livery of which Caxton had been formally admitted in London in 1453.
The first governor, appointed in terms of a charter granted by Edward
IV. in 1462, was W. Obray, but Caxton's position is definitely asserted
in 1464. In that year he was appointed, together with Sir Richard
Whitehill, to negotiate with Philip, duke of Burgundy, the renewal of a
treaty concerning the wool trade, which was about to expire. These
attempts failed, but he was again employed, with two other members of
the Mercers' Company, in a similar but successful mission in October
1468 to the new duke, Charles the Bold, who earlier in the year had
married Princess Margaret of York, sister of Edward IV. The last mention
of Caxton in the capacity of governor of the "English Nation" is on the
13th of August 1469, and it was probably about that time that he entered
the household of the duchess Margaret, possibly in the position of
commercial adviser. In his diplomatic mission in 1468 he had been
associated with Lord Scales, afterwards Earl Rivers and one of his chief
patrons, and at the Burgundian court he must have come in touch with
Edward IV. during his brief exile in 1470.

He had begun his translation of the popular medieval romance of Troy,
_The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye_, from the French of Raoul le
Fèvre, early in 1469; and, after laying it aside for some time, he
resumed it at the wish of the duchess Margaret, to whom the MS. was
presented in September 1471. During his thirty-three years' residence in
Bruges Caxton would have access to the rich libraries of the duke of
Burgundy and other nobles, and about this time he learned the art of
printing. His disciple, Wynkyn de Worde, says that he was taught at
Cologne, probably during a visit there in 1471, recorded in the preface
to the _Recuyell_; Blades suggests that he learnt from Colard Mansion,
but there is no evidence that Mansion set up his press at Bruges before
1474. He ceased to be a member of the gild of St John (a gild of
illuminators) in 1473, and the first dated book he is known to have
printed is dated 1476. Mansion and Caxton were partners or associates at
Bruges, where Caxton printed his _Recuyell_ in 1474 or 1475. His second
book, _The Game and Playe of Chesse_, from the _Liber de ludo
scacchorum_ of Jacobus de Cessolis through the French of Jehan de
Vignay, was finished in 1474, and printed soon after; the last book
printed by Mansion and Caxton at Bruges was the _Quatre derrenieres
choses_, an anonymous treatise usually known as _De quattuor
novissimis_. Other books in the same type were printed by Mansion at
Bruges after Caxton's departure.

By September 1476 Caxton had established himself in the almonry at
Westminster at the sign of the Red Pale. Robert Copland the printer, who
was afterwards one of Caxton's assistants, states that Caxton began by
printing small pamphlets. The first dated book printed in England was
Lord Rivers's translation (revised by Caxton) of _The Dictes or sayengis
of the philosophres_ (1477). From this time until his death in 1401
Caxton was busy writing and printing. His services to English
literature, apart from his work as a printer (see TYPOGRAPHY), are very
considerable. His most important original work is an eighth book added
to the _Polychronicon_ (vol. viii. in the Rolls Series edition) of Ralph
Higden. Caxton revised and printed John of Trevisa's work, and brought
down the narrative himself from 1358 to 1460, using as his authorities
_Fasciculus temporum_, a popular work in the 15th century, and an
unknown _Aureus de universo_. In the year before his death he complained
in the preface to his _Eneydos_ of the changing state of the English
language, a condition of things which he did as much as any man to
remedy. He printed Chaucer's _Canterbury Tales_ (1478? and 1483),
_Troilus and Creseide_ (1483?), the _House of Fame_ (1483?), and the
translation of Boethius (1478?); Gower's _Confessio Amantis_ (1483), and
many poems of Lydgate. His press was, however, not worked for purely
literary ends, but was a commercial speculation. For the many
service-books which he printed there was no doubt a sure sale, and he
met the taste of the upper classes by the tales of chivalry which issued
regularly from his press. He printed Malory's _Morte d'Arthur_, and
himself translated from the French the _Boke of Histories of Jason_
(1477?), _The Historye of Reynart the Foxe_ (from the Dutch, 1481 and
1489?), _Godfrey of Boloyne_ or _The Siege and Conqueste of Jherusalem_
(1481), _The Lyf of Charles the Grete_ (1485), _The Knyght Parys and the
Fayr Vyenne_ (1485), _Blanchardyn and Eglantine_ (1489?), _The Foure
Sonnes of Aymon_ (1489?); also the _Morale Proverbs_ (1478), and the
_Fayttes of Armes and of Chyualrye_ (1489) of Christine de Pisan. The
most ambitious production of his press was perhaps his version of the
_Golden Legend_, the translation of which he finished in November 1483.
It is based on the lives of the saints as given in the 13th century
_Legenda aurea_ of Jacobus de Voragine, but Caxton chiefly used existing
French and English versions for his compilation. The book is illustrated
by seventy woodcuts, and Caxton says he was only encouraged to persevere
in his laborious and expensive task by the liberality of William, earl
of Arundel. The idleness which he so often deprecates in his prefaces
was no vice of his, for in addition to his voluminous translations his
output as a printer was over 18,000 pages, and he published ninety-six
separate works or editions of works, with apparently little skilled
assistance, though later printers, Wynkyn de Worde, Robert Copland and
possibly Richard Pynson, were trained under him.

The different founts of type used by Caxton are illustrated by Blades
and Duff, and there is an excellent selection of Caxtons in the British
Museum, in the University library at Cambridge, besides those in private
hands. A record price for a Caxton was reached in 1902 when Mr Bernard
Quaritch paid £2225 for _The Royal Book_ (1487?), a translation of the
popular _Somme des vices et des vertus_. His books have no title-pages,
and from 1487 onwards are usually adorned with a curious device,
consisting of the letters W.C. separated by a trade mark, with an
elaborate border above and below. The flourishes on the trade mark have
been fancifully interpreted as S.C. for Sancta Colonia, implying that
Caxton learnt his art at Cologne, and the whole mark has been read as
74, for 1474, the date of his first printed book. This device was first
used in an edition of the Sarum missal, printed for Caxton by George
Maynial in Paris, and was subsequently adopted with small alterations by
his successor at the Westminster press, Wynkyn de Worde. The first of
his books containing woodcut illustrations was his _Myrrour of the
World_ (1481), translated from Vincent de Beauvais, which has diagrams
and pictures for the assistance of young students. He had used a woodcut
initial letter in his broadside _Indulgence_ printed in 1480.


No record of Caxton's marriage or of the birth of his children has been
found, but Gerard Croppe was separated from his wife Elizabeth, daughter
of William Caxton, before 1496, when Croppe made certain claims in
connexion with his father-in-law's will.

  AUTHORITIES.--Earlier biographies of Caxton were superseded by the
  work of William Blades, whose _Life and Typography of William Caxton_
  (2 vols., 1861-1863) remains the standard authority. It contains a
  bibliography of each of the works issued from Caxton's press. For
  later discoveries see George Bullen's _Catalogue_ of the Caxton
  celebration loan collection exhibited at South Kensington in 1877;
  articles by E.J.L. Scott in the _Athenaeum_ (Feb. 10, 1900; May 21 and
  June 8, 1892); articles in _Notes and Queries_ (April 21, 1900; Feb.
  24, 1906), and the publications of the Caxton Club, Chicago, notably
  _William Caxton_, by E. Gordon Duff (1905). See also _Census of
  Caxtons_, by Seymour de Ricci, No. xv. of the illustrated monographs
  of the Bibliographical Society, 1909. Many of Caxton's translations
  are available in modern reprints; the _Golden Legend_, the _Recuyell_
  and _Godeffroy of Boloyne_, were printed by William Morris at the
  Kelmscott Press in 1892-1893; the _Boke of Curtesye_ (1868), the _Lyf
  of Charles the Crete_ (1880), Alain Chartier's _Curial_ (1888), _Foure
  Sonnes of Aymon_ (1884), _Eneydos_ (1890), _Blanchardyn and Eglantine_
  (1890), and others, by the Early English Text Society. For modern
  editions of _Reynart_ see REYNARD THE FOX. No authentic portrait of
  Caxton is known, but a MS. at Magdalene College, Cambridge, of the
  last six books of the _Metamorphoses of Ovid_, translated by Caxton,
  is probably in his handwriting.

CAYENNE, a seaport and the capital of French Guiana, on the N.W.
extremity of the island of Cayenne, and near the mouth of the river of
that name, in 4° 56' 28" N., and 52° 20' 36" W. Pop. about 12,600. The
town forms an almost perfect square, and has clean and well-macadamized
streets. The houses, mostly of two storeys, are of wood, strengthened on
the first and ground floors by brickwork. In the old town, which
contains the government-house and Jesuits' College, the streets are not
so regularly and well built as in the new. The Place d'Armes, a fine
quadrangular space, lies between them. To the right of the governor's
house is Mount Cépéron, on which stand Fort St Michel, the marine
barracks, the signal station and the lighthouse. Here, too, are the
capacious reservoirs for the water-supply of the town, the source of
which is a lake to the south of the island. The harbour is shallow at
its entrance, and craft drawing more than 14 ft. are obliged to anchor 6
m. from the town. There is no dock for the repair of vessels; but there
are two quays at the town. The principal exports of Cayenne are gold,
cocoa, phosphates, hides, woods and spices. The imports are French
wines, spirits and liqueurs; silk and cotton stuffs, tobacco, hardware,
glass, earthenware, clothing, preserved meat, fish, and vegetables,
maize, flour, hay, bran, oils and cattle. There is a regular mail
service between Cayenne and Martinique once a month. Cayenne is the seat
of the government of French Guiana, and was formerly a penal settlement
for political offenders. Food as well as clothing is exorbitantly dear,
the only cheap articles of consumption being bread and French wines. The
temperature of Cayenne is between 76° and 88° Fahr. throughout the year;
but the heat is tempered by easterly winds. Between December and March a
north wind blows, unfavourable to weak constitutions. Yellow and other
fevers often attack the inhabitants of the town, but the climate,
though moist, is as a whole healthy. (See GUIANA.)

from the dried fruit of various species of _Capsicum_, a genus of the
natural order Solanaceae. The true peppers are members of a totally
distinct order, Piperaceae. The fruits of plants of the genus _Capsicum_
have all a strong, pungent flavour. The capsicums bear a greenish-white
flower, with a star-shaped corolla and five anthers standing up in the
centre of the flower like a tube, through which projects the slender
style. The pod-like fruit consists of an envelope at first fleshy and
afterwards leathery, within which are the spongy pulp and several seeds.
The plants are herbaceous or shrubby; the leaves are entire, and
alternate, or in pairs near one another; the flowers are solitary and do
not arise in the leaf-axils. There are about thirty species, natives of
Central and South America. They are now grown in various parts of the
world, both for the sake of the fruit and for ornament. In England the
annual sorts are sown from March to the middle of April under a frame.
They can be planted out when 2 or 3 in. high, and in June may be
transferred to a light rich soil in the open garden. They flower in July
or August, and produce pods from August till the end of September. The
perennial and shrubby kinds may be wintered in a conservatory. Several
species or varieties are used to make cayenne pepper. The annual or
common capsicum (_C. annuum_), the Guinea pepper plant, was brought to
Europe by the Spaniards, and was grown in England in 1548. It is
indigenous to South America, but is now cultivated in India, Hungary,
Italy, Spain and Turkey, with the other species of capsicum. It is a
hardy herbaceous plant, which attains a height of 2 or 3 ft. There are
numerous cultivated forms, differing in the shape and colour of the pod,
which varies from more or less roundish to narrow-conical, with a smooth
or wrinkled coat, and white, yellow, red or black in colour. The
principal source of cayenne pepper is _C. frutescens_, the spur or goat
pepper, a dwarf shrub, a native of South America, but commonly
cultivated in the East Indies. It produces a small, narrow, bright red
pod, having very pungent properties. _C. tetragonum_, or bonnet pepper,
is a species much esteemed in Jamaica; it bears very fleshy fruits.
Other well-known kinds of capsicum are the cherry pepper (_C.
cerasiforme_), with small berries; bell pepper (_C. grossum_), which has
thick and pulpy fruit, well adapted for pickling; and berry or bird
pepper (_C. baccatum_). The last mentioned has been grown in England
since 1731; its fruit is globular, and about the size of a cherry. The
West Indian stomachic _man-dram_ is prepared by mashing a few pods of
bird pepper and mixing them with sliced cucumber and shallots, to which
have been added a little lime-juice and Madeira wine. Chillies, the
dried ripe or unripe fruit of capsicums, especially _C. annuum_ and _C.
frutescens_, are used to make chilly-vinegar, as well as for pickles.
Cayenne pepper is manufactured from the ripe fruits, which are dried,
ground, mixed with wheat flour, and made into cakes with yeast; the
cakes are baked till hard like biscuit, and then ground and sifted. The
pepper is sometimes prepared by simply drying the pods and pounding them
fine in a mortar. Cayenne pepper is occasionally adulterated with red
lead, vermilion, ochre, salt, ground-rice and turmeric. The taste of the
pepper is impaired by exposure to damp and the heat of the sun. Chillies
have been in use from time immemorial; they are eaten in great quantity
by the people of Guiana and other warm countries, and in Europe are
largely consumed both as a spice and as medicine.

The dried ripe fruit of _Capsicum frutescens_ from Zanzibar, known as
pod pepper and Guinea pepper, is official in the British Pharmacopoeia
under the name _Capsici Fructus_. The fruit has a characteristic,
pungent odour and an intensely bitter taste. The chief constituents are
a crystallizable resin, capsaicin, a volatile alkaloid, capsicine and a
volatile oil. The dose is ½-1 grain. The British Pharmacopoeia
contains two preparations of capsicum, a tincture (dose 5-15 minims) and
an ointment. Externally the drug has the usual action of a volatile oil,
being a very powerful counter-irritant. It does not, however, cause
pustulation. Its internal action is also that of its class, but its
marked contact properties make it specially useful in gastriatony and
flatulence, and sometimes in hysteria.

CAYEY, an inland district and mountain town of the department of
Guayama, Porto Rico, celebrated for its cool, invigorating climate and
the beauty of its scenery. Pop. (1899) of the town, 3763; of the
district, 14,442. The town is surrounded by mountain summits, the
highest of which, El Torito, rises to an elevation of 2362 ft. above
sea-level. It was made a military post by the Spaniards and used as an
acclimatizing station. The old Spanish barracks have been enlarged and
improved by the American military authorities and, under the name of
"Henry Barracks," are used for the same purpose. The town is a popular
summer resort for residents of the coast cities. The surrounding country
is wooded and very fertile, being especially noted for its coffee and
tobacco. The town has large cigar factories. Cayey is connected with
Guayama by an excellent military road.

CAYLEY, ARTHUR (1821-1895), English mathematician, was born at Richmond,
in Surrey, on the 16th of August 1821, the second son of Henry Cayley, a
Russian merchant, and Maria Antonia Doughty. His father, Henry Cayley,
retired from business in 1829 and settled in Blackheath, where Arthur
was sent to a private school kept by the Rev. G.B.F. Potticary; at the
age of fourteen he was transferred to King's College school, London. He
soon showed that he was a boy of great capacity, and in particular that
he was possessed of remarkable mathematical ability. On the advice of
the school authorities he was entered at Trinity College, Cambridge, as
a pensioner. He was there coached by William Hopkins of Peterhouse, was
admitted a scholar of the college in May 1840, and graduated as senior
wrangler in 1842, and obtained the first Smith's Prize at the next
examination. In 1842, also, he was elected a fellow of Trinity, and
became a major fellow in 1845, the year in which he proceeded to the
M.A. degree. He was assistant tutor of Trinity for three years. In 1846,
having decided to adopt the law as a profession, he left Cambridge,
entered at Lincoln's Inn, and became a pupil of the conveyancer Mr
Christie. He was called to the bar in 1849, and remained at the bar
fourteen years, till 1863, when he was elected to the new Sadlerian
chair of pure mathematics in the university of Cambridge. He settled at
Cambridge in the same year, and married Susan, daughter of Robert Moline
of Greenwich. He continued to reside in Cambridge and to hold the
professorship till his death, which occurred on the 26th of January
1895. From the time he went first to Cambridge till his death he was
constantly engaged in mathematical investigation. The number of his
papers and memoirs, some of them of considerable length, exceeds 800;
they were published, at the time they were composed, in various
scientific journals in Europe and America, and are now embodied, through
the enterprise of the syndics of the Cambridge University Press, in
thirteen large quarto volumes. These form an enduring monument to his
fame. He wrote upon nearly every subject of pure mathematics, and also
upon theoretical dynamics and spherical and physical astronomy. He was
quite as much a geometrician as he was an analyst. Among his most
remarkable works may be mentioned his ten memoirs on quantics, commenced
in 1854 and completed in 1878; his creation of the theory of matrices;
his researches on the theory of groups; his memoir on abstract geometry,
a subject which he created; his introduction into geometry of the
"absolute"; his researches on the higher singularities of curves and
surfaces; the classification of cubic curves; additions to the theories
of rational transformation and correspondence; the theory of the
twenty-seven lines that lie on a cubic surface; the theory of elliptic
functions; the attraction of ellipsoids; the British Association
Reports, 1857 and 1862, on recent progress in general and special
theoretical dynamics, and on the secular acceleration of the moon's mean
motion. He is justly regarded as one of the greatest of mathematicians.
Competent judges have compared him to Leonhard Euler for his range,
analytical power and introduction of new and fertile theories. He was
the recipient of nearly every academic distinction that can be conferred
upon an eminent man of science. Amongst others may be noted honorary
degrees by the universities of Oxford, Dublin, Edinburgh, Göttingen,
Heidelberg, Leiden and Bologna. He was fellow or foreign corresponding
member of the French Institute, the academies of Berlin, Göttingen, St
Petersburg, Milan, Rome, Leiden, Upsala and Hungary; and he was
nominated an officer of the Legion of Honour by President Carnot. At
various times he was president of the Cambridge Philosophical Society,
of the London Mathematical Society and of the Royal Astronomical
Society. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1852, and
received from that body a Royal medal in 1859 and the Copley medal in
1882. He also received the De Morgan medal from the London Mathematical
Society, and the Huygens medal from Leiden. His nature was noble and
generous, and the universal appreciation of this fact gave him great
influence in his university. His portrait, by Lowes Dickinson, was
placed in the hall of Trinity College in 1874, and his bust, by Henry
Wiles, in the library of the same college in 1888.     (P. A. M.)

LÉVIS, COMTE DE, Marquis d'Esternay, baron de Bransac (1692-1765),
French archaeologist and man of letters, was born at Paris on the 31st
of October 1692. He was the eldest son of Lieutenant-General Count de
Caylus. His mother, Marthe Marguerite le Valois de Vilette de Murçay,
comtesse de Caylus (1673-1729), was a cousin of Mme de Maintenon, who
brought her up like her own daughter. She wrote valuable memoirs of the
court of Louis XIV. entitled _Souvenirs_; these were edited by Voltaire
(1770), and by many later editors, notably Renouard (1806), Ch.
Asselineau (1860), M. de Lescure (1874), M.E. Raunié (1881), J. Soury
(1883). While a young man Caylus distinguished himself in the campaigns
of the French army, from 1709 to 1714. After the peace of Rastadt he
spent some time in travelling in Italy, Greece, the East, England and
Germany, and devoted much attention to the study and collection of
antiquities. He became an active member of the Academy of Painting and
Sculpture and of the Academy of Inscriptions. Among his antiquarian
works are _Recueil d'antiquités égyptiennes, étrusques, grecques,
romaines, et gauloises_ (6 vols., Paris, 1752-1755), _Numismata Aurea
Imperatorum Romanorum_, and a _Mémoire_ (1755) on the method of
encaustic painting with wax mentioned by Pliny, which he claimed to have
rediscovered. Diderot, who was no friend to Caylus, maintained that the
proper method had been found by J.J. Bachelier. Caylus was an admirable
engraver, and copied many of the paintings of the great masters. He
caused engravings to be made, at his own expense, of Bartoli's copies
from ancient pictures and published _Nouveaux sujets de peinture et de
sculpture_ (1755) and _Tableaux tirés de l'Iliade, de l'Odysse, et de
l'Enéide_ (1757). He encouraged artists whose reputations were still in
the making, but his patronage was somewhat capricious. Diderot expressed
this fact in an epigram in his _Salon_ of 1765: "La mort nous a délivrés
du plus cruel des amateurs." Caylus had quite another side to his
character. He had a thorough acquaintance with the gayest and most
disreputable sides of Parisian life, and left a number of more or less
witty stories dealing with it. These were collected (Amsterdam, 1787) as
his _Oeuvres badines complètes_. The best of them is the _Histoire de M.
Guillaume, cocher_ (c. 1730).

  The _Souvenirs du comte de Caylus_, published in 1805, is of very
  doubtful authenticity. See also A. and J. de Goncourt, _Portraits
  intimes du XVIII^e siècle_; Ch. Nisard's edition of the
  _Correspondance du comte de Caylus avec le père Paciaudi_ (1877); and
  a notice by O. Uzanne prefixed to a volume of his _Facéties_ (1879).

CAYMAN ISLANDS, a group of three low-lying islands in the West Indies.
They consist of Grand Cayman, Little Cayman and Cayman Brac, and are
situated between 79° 44' and 80° 26' W. and 19° 44' and 19° 46' N.,
forming a dependency of Jamaica, which lies 178 m. E.S.E. Grand Cayman,
a rock-bound island protected by coral reefs, is 17 m. long and varies
from 4 m. to 7 m. in breadth. It has two towns, Georgetown and
Boddentown. Little Cayman and Cayman Brac are both about 70 m. E.N.E. of
Grand Cayman. Excepting near the rocky coast, the islands are fruitful,
mahogany and other valuable timbers with some dyewood are grown, and
large quantities of coco-nuts are produced by the two smaller islands.
Phosphate deposits of considerable value are worked, but the principal
occupation of the inhabitants is catching turtles for export to Jamaica.
The people are excellent shipwrights and do a considerable trade in
schooners built of native wood. The islands are governed by a
commissioner, and the laws passed by the local legislative assembly are
subject to the assent of the governor of Jamaica. The population of the
group is about 5000. The islands were discovered by Columbus, who named
them Tortugas from the turtles with which the surrounding sea abounds.
They were never occupied by the Spaniards and were colonized from
Jamaica by the British.

CAZALÈS, JACQUES ANTOINE MARIE DE (1758-1805), French orator and
politician, was born at Grenade in Languedoc, of a family of the lower
nobility. Before 1789 he was a cavalry officer, but in that year was
returned as deputy to the states general. In the Constituent Assembly he
belonged to the section of moderate royalists who sought to set up a
constitution on the English model, and his speeches in favour of
retaining the right of war and peace in the king's hands and on the
organization of the judiciary gained the applause even of his opponents.
Apart from his eloquence, which gave him a place among the finest
orators of the Assembly, Cazalès is mainly remembered for a duel fought
with Barnave. After the insurrection of the 10th of August 1792, which
led to the downfall of royalty, Cazalès emigrated. He fought in the army
of the _émigrés_ against revolutionary France, lived in Switzerland and
in England, and did not return to France until 1803. He died on the 24th
of November 1805. His son, Edmond de Cazalès, wrote philosophical and
religious studies.

  See _Discours de Cazalès_, edited by Chare (Paris, 1821), with an
  introduction; F.A. Aulard, _Les Orateurs de la Constituante_ (2nd ed.,
  Paris, 1905.)

CAZALIS, HENRI (1840-1909), French poet and man of letters, was born at
Cormeilles-en-Parisis (Seine-et-Oise) in 1840. He wrote under the
pseudonyms of Jean Caselli and Jean Lahor. His works include: _Chants
populaires de l'Italie_ (1865); _Vita tristis_, _Réveries fantastiques_,
_Romances sans musique_ (1865); _Le Livre du néant_ (1872); _Henry
Regnault, sa vie et son oeuvre_ (1872); _L'Illusion_ (1875-1893);
_Melancholia_ (1878); _Cantique des cantiques_ (1885); _Les Quatrains
d'Al-Gazali_ (1896); _William Morris_ (1897). The author of the _Livre
du néant_ has a predilection for gloomy subjects and especially for
pictures of death. His oriental habits of thought earned for him the
title of the "Hindou du Parnasse contemporain." He died in July 1909.

  See a notice by P. Bourget in _Anthologie des poètes fr. du XIX^e
  siècle_ (1887-1888); J. Lemaître, _Les Contemporains_ (1889); E.
  Faguet in the _Revue bleue_ (October 1893).

CAZEMBE, the hereditary name of an African chief, whose territory was
situated south of Lake Mweru and north of Bangweulu, between 9° and
11°S. In the end of the 18th century the authority of the Cazembe was
recognized over a very extensive district. The kingdom, known also as
the Cazembe, continued to exist, though with gradually diminishing power
and extent, until the last quarter of the 19th century, when the Cazembe
sank to the rank of a petty chief. The country is now divided between
Great Britain and Belgian Congo. The British half, lying east of the
Luapula, forms part of Rhodesia, and the chief town in it is called
Kazembe. The native state, ruled by a negro race who overcame the
aboriginals, had attained a certain degree of civilization. Agriculture
was diligently followed, and cotton cloth, earthenware and iron goods
manufactured. The country contains rich deposits of copper, and copper
ore was one of the principal articles of export. The Cazembe had
despotic power and used it in barbarous fashion. He had hundreds of
wives, and his chiefs imitated his example according to their means. On
his accession every new Cazembe chose a new site for his residence. In
1796 the Cazembe was visited by Manoel Caetano Pereira, a Portuguese
merchant; and in 1798 a more important journey to the same region was
undertaken by Dr Francisco José Maria de Lacerda. He died in that
country on the 18th of October that year, but left behind him a
valuable journal. In 1802 two native traders or _pombeiros_, Pedro João
Baptista and Amaro José, were sent by the Portuguese on a visit to the
Cazembe; and in 1831 a more extensive mission was despatched by the
Portuguese governor of Sena. It consisted of Major José Monteiro and
Antonio Gamitto, with an escort of 20 soldiers and 120 negro slaves as
porters; but its reception by the Cazembe was not altogether
satisfactory. In 1868 David Livingstone visited the Cazembe, whose
capital at that time numbered no more than 1000 souls. Since 1894, when
the country was divided between Britain and the Congo State, it has been
thoroughly explored. An important copper mining industry is carried on
in the Congo division of the territory.

  See _The Lands of the Cazembe_, published by the Royal Geographical
  Society in 1873, containing translations of Lacerda and Baptista's
  journals, and a résumé of Gamitto's _O Muata Cazembe_ (Lisbon, 1854);
  also Livingstone's _Last Journals_ (London, 1874).

CAZIN, JEAN CHARLES (1840-1901), French landscape-painter, son of a
well-known doctor, F.J. Cazin (1788-1864), was born at Samer,
Pas-de-Calais. After studying in France, he went to England, where he
was strongly influenced by the pre-Raphaelite movement. His chief
earlier pictures have a religious interest, shown in such examples as
"The Flight into Egypt" (1877), or "Hagar and Ishmael" (1880,
Luxembourg); and afterwards his combination of luminous landscape with
figure-subjects ("Souvenir de fête," 1881; "Journée faite," 1888) gave
him a wide repute, and made him the leader of a new school of idealistic
subject-painting in France. He was made an officer of the Legion of
Honour in 1889. His charming and poetical treatment of landscape is the
feature in his painting which in later years has given them an
increasing value among connoisseurs. His wife, Marie Cazin, who was his
pupil and exhibited her first picture at the Salon in 1876, the same
year in which Cazin himself made his début there, was also a well-known
artist and sculptor.

CAZOTTE, JACQUES (1719-1792), French author, was born at Dijon, on the
17th of October 1719. He was educated by the Jesuits, and at
twenty-seven he obtained a public office at Martinique, but it was not
till his return to Paris in 1760 with the rank of commissioner-general
that he made a public appearance as an author. His first attempts, a
mock romance, and a coarse song, gained so much popularity, both in the
Court and among the people, that he was encouraged to essay something
more ambitious. He accordingly produced his romance, _Les Prouesses
inimitables d'Ollivier, marquis d'Édesse_. He also wrote a number of
fantastic oriental tales, such as his _Mille et une fadaises, Contes à
dormir debout_ (1742). His first success was with a "poem" in twelve
cantos, and in prose intermixed with verse, entitled _Ollivier_ (2
vols., 1762), followed in 1771 by another romance, the _Lord Impromptu_.
But the most popular of his works was the _Diable amoureux_ (1772), a
fantastic tale in which the hero raises the devil. The value of the
story lies in the picturesque setting, and the skill with which its
details are carried out. Cazotte possessed extreme facility and is said
to have turned off a seventh canto of Voltaire's _Guerre civile de
Genève_ in a single night. About 1775 Cazotte embraced the views of the
Illuminati, declaring himself possessed of the power of prophecy. It was
upon this fact that La Harpe based his famous _jeu d'esprit_, in which
he represents Cazotte as prophesying the most minute events of the
Revolution. On the discovery of some of his letters in August 1792,
Cazotte was arrested; and though he escaped for a time through the love
and courage of his daughter, he was executed on the 25th of the
following month.

  The only complete edition is the _OEuvres badines et morales,
  historiques et philosophiques de Jacques Cazotte_ (4 vols.,
  1816-1817), though more than one collection appeared during his
  lifetime. An édition de luxe of the _Diable amoureux_ was edited
  (1878) by A.J. Pons, and a selection of Cazotte's _Contes_, edited
  (1880) by Octave Uzanne, is included in the series of _Petits Conteurs
  du XVIII^e siècle_. The best notice of Cazotte is in the _Illuminés_
  (1852) of Gérard de Nerval.

CEANOTHUS, in botany, a genus of the natural order Rhamnaceae,
containing about forty species of shrubs or small trees, natives of
North America. They are very attractive from their dense panicles of
white or blue flowers, and several species are known as garden plants.
The leaves of one of these, _C. americanus_, New Jersey tea, or
red-root, are used instead of the true tea; the root, which contains a
red colouring matter, has long been employed by the Indians as a

CEARÁ, a northern maritime state of Brazil, bounded N. by the Atlantic,
E. by the Atlantic and the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Parahyba,
S. by Pernambuco, and W. by Piauhy; and having an area of 40,253 sq. m.
It lies partly upon the north-east slope of the great Brazilian plateau,
and partly upon the sandy coastal plain. Its surface is a succession of
great terraces, facing north and north-east, formed by the denudation of
the ancient sandstone plateau which once covered this part of the
continent; the terraces are seamed by watercourses, and their valleys
are broken by hills and ranges of highlands. The latter are usually
described as mountain ranges, but they are, in fact, only the remains of
the ancient plateau, capped with horizontal strata of sandstone, and
having a remarkably uniform altitude of 2000 to 2400 ft. The flat top of
such a range is called a _chapada_ or _taboleira_, and its width in
places is from 32 to 56 m. The boundary line with Piauhy follows one of
these ranges, the Serra de Ibiapaba, which unites with another range on
the southern boundary of the state, known as the Serra do Araripe.
Another range, or escarpment, crosses the state from east to west, but
is broken into two principal divisions, each having several local names.
These ranges are not continuous, the breaking down of the ancient
plateau having been irregular and uneven. The higher ranges intercept
considerable moisture from the prevailing trade winds, and their flanks
and valleys are covered with forest, but the plateaus are either thinly
wooded or open campo. These upland forests are of a scrubby character
and are called _catingas_.

The sandy, coastal plain, with a width of 12 to 18 m., is nearly bare of
vegetation. The rivers of the state are small and, with one or two
exceptions, become completely dry in the dry season. The largest is the
Jaguaribe, which flows entirely across the state in a north-east
direction with an estimated length of 210 to 465 m. The year is divided
into a rainy and dry season, the rains beginning in January to March and
lasting until June. The dry season, July to December, is sometimes
broken by slight showers in September and October, but these are of very
slight importance. The soil is thin and porous and does not retain
moisture, consequently the long, dry season turns the country into a
barren desert, relieved only by vegetation along the river courses and
mountain ranges, and by the hardy, widely-distributed carnahuba palm
(_Copernicia cerifera_), which in places forms groves of considerable
extent. Sometimes the rains fail altogether, and then a drought
(_sêcca_) ensues, causing famine and pestilence throughout the entire
region. The most destructive droughts recorded are those of 1711, 1723,
1777-1778, 1790, 1825, 1844-1845, and 1877-1878, the last-mentioned
destroying nearly all the live-stock in the state, and causing the death
through starvation and pestilence of nearly half-a-million people, or
over half the population. The climate, which is generally described as
healthful, is hot and humid on the coast, tempered by the cool trade
winds; but in the more elevated regions it is very hot and dry, although
the nights are cool. The sandy zone along the coast is nearly barren,
but behind this is a more elevated region with broken surfaces and sandy
soil which is amenable to cultivation and produces fruit and most
tropical products when conditions are favourable.

The higher plateau is devoted almost exclusively to cattle-raising, once
the principal industry of the state, though recurring sêccas have been
an insuperable obstacle to its profitable development. There is still a
considerable export of cattle, hides and skins, but no effort is made to
develop the production of jerked beef on a large scale. Horses are
raised to a limited extent; also goats, sheep and swine. The principal
agricultural products are cotton, coffee, sugar, mandioca and tropical
fruits. The production of cotton has increased largely since the
development of cotton manufactures in Brazil. The natural vegetable
productions are important, and include _maniçoba_ or Ceará rubber,
carnahuba wax and fibre, cajú wine and ipecacuanha.

There are two lines of railway running inland from the coast: the
Baturité line from Fortaleza to Senador Pompeu, 179 m., and the Sobral
line from Camocim (a small port) to Ipú, 134 m. These railways were
built by the national government after the drought of 1877-1878 to give
work to the starving refugees, and are now operated under leases. Great
dams were also begun for irrigation purposes.

The misfortunes and poverty of the people have hindered their material
development to a large extent, but another obstacle is to be found in
their racial and social composition. Only a very small percentage of the
population which numbered 805,687 in 1890, and 849,127 in 1900, is of
pure European origin, the great majority being of the coloured races and
their mixtures with the whites. The number of landed proprietors,
professional men, merchants, &c., is comparatively small (about
one-sixth), and a part of these are of mixed blood; the remaining
five-sixths own no property, pay no taxes, and derive no benefits from
the social and political institutions about them beyond the protection
of the proprietors upon whose estates they live, the nominal protection
of the state, and an occasional day's wage. Education has made no
impression upon such people, and is confined almost exclusively to the
upper classes, from which some of the most prominent men in Brazilian
politics and literature have come. The state of Ceará has formed a
bishopric of the Roman Catholic Church since 1853, the bishop having his
residence at Fortaleza. The state is represented in the national
congress by three senators and ten deputies. Its local government is
vested in a president and legislative assembly of one chamber elected
for a period of four years. Three vice-presidents are elected at the
same time who succeed to the presidency in case of a vacancy according
to the number of votes received. The judicial organization consists of
the tribunal da Relaçãó at the state capital and subordinate courts in
the _comarcas_ and _termos_. The judges of the higher courts are
appointed for life. The capital of the state is Fortaleza, sometimes
called Ceará, which is also the principal commercial centre and shipping
port. The principal towns are Aracaty, Baturité, Acarahú, Crato,
Maranguape and Sobral.

The territory of Ceará includes three of the _capitanias_ originally
granted by the Portuguese crown in 1534. The first attempts to settle
the territory failed, and the earliest Portuguese settlement was made
near the mouth of the Rio Camocim in 1604. The French were already
established on the coast, with their headquarters at Saint Louis, now
Maranhão. Ceará was occupied by the Dutch from 1637 to 1654, and became
a dependency of Pernambuco in 1680; this relationship lasted until 1799,
when the _capitania_ of Ceará was made independent. The _capitania_
became a province in 1822 under Dom Pedro I. A revolution followed in
1824, the president of the province was deposed fifteen days after his
arrival, and a republic was proclaimed. Internal dissensions immediately
broke out, the new president was assassinated, and after a brief reign
of terror the province resumed its allegiance to the empire. Ceará was
one of the first provinces of Brazil to abolish slavery.

  See Rodolpho Theophilo, _Historia da Secca do Ceará, 1877 a 1880_
  (Fortaleza, 1883); Professor and Mrs Louis Agassiz, _A Journey in
  Brazil_ (Boston, 1869); George Gardiner, _Travels in the Interior of
  Brazil_ (London, 1846); C.F. Hartt, _Geology and Physical Geography of
  Brazil_ (Boston, 1870); and H.H. Smith, _Brazil: the Amazon and the
  Coast_ (New York, 1879).

CEAWLIN (d. 593), king of the West Saxons, first mentioned in the
_Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_ under the date 556 as fighting with his father
Cynric against the Britons at the battle of Beranbyrig or Barbury Hill.
Becoming king in 560, he began a career of conquest. Silchester was
taken, and moving eastwards Ceawlin and his brother Cutha defeated the
forces of Æthelberht, king of Kent, at the battle of Wibbandun in 568.
In 577 he led the West Saxons from Winchester towards the Severn valley;
gained an important victory over some British kings at Deorham, and
added the district round Gloucester, Bath and Cirencester to his
kingdom. A further advance was begun in 583. Uriconium, a town near the
Wrekin, and Pengwyrn, the modern Shrewsbury, were destroyed; but soon
Ceawlin was defeated by the Britons at Fethanleag or Faddiley, near
Nantwich, and his progress was effectually checked. Intestine strife
among the West Saxons followed. In 591 Ceawlin lost the western part of
his kingdom, and in 592 Was defeated by his nephew, Ceolric, at
Wanborough, and driven from Wessex. He was killed in 593, possibly in an
attempt to regain his kingdom. Ceawlin is included in the _Chronicle_
among the Bretwaldas.

  See _Two of the Saxon Chronicles_, ed. by C. Plummer (Oxford, 1892);
  _Dictionary of National Biography_, vol. ix (London, 1887); E. Guest,
  _Origines Celticae_, vol. ii. (London, 1883).

CEBES, the name of two Greek philosophers, (1) CEBES OF CYZICUS,
mentioned in Athenaeus (iv. 156 D), seems to have been a Stoic, who
lived during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Some would attribute to him
the _Tabula Cebetis_ (see below), but as that work was well known in the
time of Lucian, it is probably to be placed earlier. (2) CEBES OF
THEBES, a disciple of Socrates and Philolaus. He is one of the speakers
in the _Phaedo_ of Plato, in which he is represented as an earnest
seeker after virtue and truth, keen in argument and cautious in
decision. Three dialogues, the [Greek: Hebdomê], the [Greek: Phrynichos]
and the [Greek: Pinax] or _Tabula_, are attributed to him by Suidas and
Diogenes Laërtius. The two former are lost, and most scholars deny the
authenticity of the _Tabula_ on the ground of material and verbal
anachronisms. They attribute it either to Cebes of Cyzicus (above) or to
an anonymous author, of the 1st century A.D., who assumed the character
of Cebes of Thebes. The work professes to be an interpretation of an
allegorical picture in the temple of Cronus at Athens or Thebes. The
author develops the Platonic theory of pre-existence, and shows that
true education consists not in mere erudition, but rather in the
formation of character.

  The _Tabula_ has been widely translated both into European languages
  and into Arabic (the latter version published with the Greek text and
  Latin translation by Salmasius in 1640). It is usually printed
  together with Epictetus. Separate editions by C.S. Jerram (with
  introduction and notes, 1878), C. Prächter (1893), and many others.
  See Zeller's _History of Greek Philosophy_; F. Klopfer, _De Cebetis
  Tabula_ (1818-1822); C. Prächter, _Cebetis Tabula quanam aetate
  conscripta esse videatur_ (1885).

CEBÚ, a city and municipality, port of entry, and the capital of the
province of Cebú, island of Cebú, Philippine Islands, on the E. coast, a
little N. of the centre. Pop. (1903) of the city proper, 18,330; of the
municipality, 31,079; in the same year, after the census enumeration,
the neighbouring municipalities of Mabolo (pop. 1903, 8454) and El Pardo
(pop. 6461) were added to the municipality of Cebú. The surrounding
country, which is level and fertile, is traversed by several good
carriage roads. The port, formed by the north-west shore of the island
of Mactán, is well protected from violent winds, and in front of it
stands a picturesque Spanish fort. The streets are wide and regularly
laid out. The government buildings are fairly good, and the church
buildings very fine. Cebú is an episcopal see, and the palace of the
bishop, although small, is widely known for its interior decorations.
The Augustinian church is famous for its so-called miraculous image of
Santo Niño. The Recoleto monastery and the seminary of San Carlos are
worthy of mention. The cathedral was finished toward the end of the
eighteenth century. The San José hospital here was founded by one of the
religious orders. There was a leper hospital in the outskirts of the
city until 1906, when a leper colony was established on the island of
Culión. Commercially, Cebú is the second city of the Philippines. Hemp,
tobacco, sugar and copra are the most important exports. In addition to
the trade with foreign ports, an important domestic commerce is carried
on with Manila, Bohol, Negros and northern Mindanao. Salt, pottery and
fabrics of silk, sinamay, hemp and cotton are manufactured, and sugar
sacks are woven in considerable quantity. The island of Cebú is known
for its excellent mangoes and for the rare cornucopia-shaped sponges,
called Venus's flower basket (_Euplectella aspergillum_), found here.
Historically Cebú is famous as the scene of Magellan's landing in 1521.
A cross, said to be the one first erected by him, is still preserved in
the cathedral. The great explorer lost his life in the neighbouring
island of Mactán; a monument marks the place where he was killed. The
first Spanish settlement in the Philippines was established at Cebú in
1565, and from that year to 1571 it was the capital of the colony. The
city is unincorporated. The language is Cebú-Visayan.

CECCO D'ASCOLI (1257-1327), the popular name of FRANCESCO DEGLI STABILI,
a famous Italian encyclopaedist and poet--Cecco being the diminutive of
Francesco, and Ascoli, in the marshes of Ancona, the place of the
philosopher's birth. He devoted himself to the study of mathematics and
astrology, and in 1322 was made professor of the latter science at the
university of Bologna. It is alleged that he entered the service of Pope
John XXII. at Avignon, and that he cultivated the acquaintance of Dante
only to quarrel with the great poet afterwards; but of this there is no
evidence. It is certain, however, that, having published a commentary on
the sphere of John de Sacrobosco, in which he propounded audacious
theories concerning the employment and agency of demons, he got into
difficulties with the clerical party, and was condemned in 1324 to
certain fasts and prayers, and to the payment of a fine of seventy
crowns. To elude this sentence he betook himself to Florence, where he
was attached to the household of Carlo di Calabria. But his
free-thinking and plain speaking had got him many enemies; he had
attacked the _Commedia_ of Dante, and the _Canzone d'Amore_ of Guido
Cavalcanti; and his fate was sealed. Dino di Garbo, the physician, was
indefatigable in pursuit of him; and the old accusation of impiety being
renewed, Cecco was again tried and sentenced, this time to the stake. He
was burned at Florence the day after sentence, in the seventieth year of
his age.

Cecco d'Ascoli left many works in manuscript, most of which have never
been given to the world. The book by which he achieved his renown and
which led to his death was the _Acerba_ (from _acervus_), an
encyclopaedic poem, of which in 1546, the date of the last reprint, more
than twenty editions had been issued. It is unfinished, and consists of
four books in _sesta rima_. The first book treats of astronomy and
meteorology; the second of stellar influences, of physiognomy, and of
the vices and virtues; the third of minerals and of the love of animals;
while the fourth propounds and solves a number of moral and physical
problems. Of a fifth book, on theology, the initial chapter alone was
completed. A man of immense erudition and of great and varied abilities,
Cecco, whose knowledge was based on experiment and observation (a fact
that of itself is enough to distinguish him from the crowd of savants of
that age), had outstripped his contemporaries in many things. He knew of
metallic aerolites and shooting stars; the mystery of the dew was plain
to him; fossil plants were accounted for by him through terrene
revolutions which had resulted in the formation of mountains; he is even
said to have divined the circulation of the blood. Altogether a
remarkable man, he may be described as one of the many Cassandras of the
middle ages--one of the many prophets who spoke of coming light, and
were listened to but to have their words cast back at them in
accusations of impiety and sentences of death.

  The least faulty of the many editions of the _Acerba_ is that of
  Venice, dated 1510. The earliest known, which has become excessively
  rare, is that of Brescia, which has no date, but is ascribed to 1473
  or thereabouts.

CECIL, the name of a famous English family. This house, whose two
branches hold each a marquessate, had a great statesman and
administrator to establish and enrich it. The first Lord Burghley's many
inquiries concerning the origin of his family created for it more than
one splendid and improbable genealogy, although his grandfather is the
first ascertained ancestor. In the latter half of the 15th century a
family of yeomen or small gentry with the surname of Seyceld, whose
descendants were accepted by Lord Burghley as his kinsmen, lived on
their lands at Allt yr Ynys in Walterstone, a Herefordshire parish on
the Welsh marches. Of the will of Richard ap Philip Seyceld of Allt yr
Ynys, made in 1508, one David ap Richard Seyceld, apparently his younger
son, was overseer. This David seems identical with David Cyssell,
Scisseld or Cecill, a yeoman admitted in 1494 to the freedom of Stamford
in Lincolnshire. He may well have been one of those men from the Welsh
border who fought at Bosworth, for at the funeral of Henry VII. he
appears as a yeoman of the guard and is given a livery of black cloth.
At Stamford he prospered, being three times mayor and three times member
of parliament for the borough, and he served as sheriff of
Northamptonshire in 1532-1533. Remaining in the service of Henry VIII.
he was advanced to be yeoman of the chamber and sergeant-at-arms, being
rewarded with several profitable leases and offices. His first wife was
the daughter of a Stamford alderman, and his second the already twice
widowed heir of a Lincolnshire squire. By the first marriage David Cecil
left at his death in 1536 a son and heir, Richard Cecil, who enjoyed a
place at court as yeoman of the king's wardrobe under Henry VIII. and
Edward VI. A gentleman of the privy chamber and sometime sheriff of
Rutland, Richard Cecil had his share at the distribution of abbey lands,
St Michael's priory in Stamford being among the grants made to him.
William Cecil, only son of Richard, was born, by his own account, in
1520, at Bourne in Lincolnshire. He advanced himself first in the
service of the protector Somerset, after whose fall, his great abilities
being necessary to the council, he was made a secretary of state and
sworn of the privy council. In 1571 he was created Lord Burghley, and
from 1572, when he was given the Garter, he was lord high treasurer and
principal minister to Queen Elizabeth. By his first wife, Mary Cheke,
sister of the scholar Sir John Cheke, tutor to Edward VI., he was father
to Thomas, first earl of Exeter. By a second wife, Mildred Cooke, the
most learned lady of her time, he had an only surviving son, Robert
Cecil, ancestor of the house of Salisbury.

Created earl of Exeter by James I., the second Lord Burghley was more
soldier than statesman, and from his death to the present day the elder
line of the Cecils has taken small part in public affairs. William
Cecil, 2nd earl of Exeter, took as his first wife the Lady Roos,
daughter and heir of the 3rd earl of Rutland of the Manners family. The
son of this marriage inherited the barony of Roos as heir general, and
died as a Roman Catholic at Naples in 1618 leaving no issue. A third son
of the 1st earl was Edward Cecil, a somewhat incompetent military
commander, created in 1625 Lord Cecil of Putney and Viscount Wimbledon,
titles that died with him in 1638, although he was thrice married. In
1801 a marquessate was given to the 10th earl of Exeter, the story of
whose marriage with Sarah Hoggins, daughter of a Shropshire husbandman,
has been refined by Tennyson into the romance of "The Lord of Burleigh."
This elder line is still seated at Burghley, the great mansion built by
their ancestor, the first lord.

The younger or Hatfield line was founded by Robert Cecil, the only
surviving son of the great Burghley's second marriage. As a secretary of
state he followed in his father's steps, and on the death of Elizabeth
he may be said to have secured the accession of King James, who created
him Lord Cecil of Essendine (1603), Viscount Cranborne (1604), and earl
of Salisbury (1605). Forced by the king to exchange his house of
Theobalds for Hatfield, he died in 1612, worn out with incessant labour,
before he could inhabit the house which he built upon his new
Hertfordshire estate. Of Burghley and his son Salisbury, "great
ministers of state in the eyes of Christendom," Clarendon writes that
"their wisdom and virtues died with them." The 2nd earl of Salisbury, "a
man of no words, except in hunting and hawking," was at first remarked
for his obsequiousness to the court party, but taking no part in the
Civil War came at last to sit in the Protector's parliament. After the
Restoration, Pepys saw him, old and discredited, at Hatfield, and notes
him as "my simple Lord Salisbury." The 7th earl was created marquess of
Salisbury in 1789.

Hatfield House, a great Jacobean mansion which has suffered much from
restoration and rebuilding, contains in its library the famous series of
state papers which passed through the hands of Burghley and his son
Salisbury, invaluable sources for the history of their period. (O. Ba.)

CECILIA, SAINT, in the Catholic Church the patron saint of music and of
the blind. Her festival falls on the 22nd of November. It was long
supposed that she was a noble lady of Rome who, with her husband and
other friends whom she had converted, suffered martyrdom, c. 230, under
the emperor Alexander Severus. The researches of de Rossi, however
(_Rom. sott._ ii. 147), go to confirm the statement of Fortunatus,
bishop of Poitiers (d. 600), that she perished in Sicily under Marcus
Aurelius between 176 and 180. A church in her honour existed in Rome
from about the 4th century, and was rebuilt with much splendour by Pope
Paschal I. about the year 820, and again by Cardinal Sfondrati in 1599.
It is situated in the Trastevere near the Ripa Grande quay, where in
earlier days the Ghetto was located, and gives a "title" to a cardinal
priest. Cecilia, whose musical fame rests on a passing notice in her
legend that she praised God by instrumental as well as vocal music, has
inspired many a masterpiece in art, including the Raphael at Bologna,
the Rubens in Berlin, the Domenichino in Paris, and in literature, where
she is commemorated especially by Chaucer's "Seconde Nonnes Tale," and
by Dryden's famous ode, set to music by Handel in 1736, and later by Sir
Hubert Parry (1889).

Another St Cecilia, who suffered in Africa in the persecution of
Diocletian (303-304), is commemorated on the 11th of February.

  See U. Chevalier, _Répertoire des sources historiques_ (1905), i. 826

CECROPIA, in botany, a genus of trees (natural order Moraceae), native
of tropical America. They are of very rapid growth, affording a light
wood used for making floats. _C. peltata_ is the trumpet tree, so-called
from the use made of its hollow stems by the Uaupé Indians as a musical
instrument. It is a tree reaching about 50 ft. in height with a large
spreading head, and deeply lobed leaves 12 in. or more in diameter. The
hollows of the stem and branches are inhabited by ants, which in return
for the shelter thus afforded, and food in the form of succulent growths
on the base of the leaf-stalks, repel the attacks of leaf-cutting ants
which would otherwise strip the tree of its leaves. This is an instance
of "myrmecophily," i.e. a living together for mutual benefit of the ants
and the plant.

CECROPS ([Greek: Kekrops]), traditionally the first king of Attica, and
the founder of its political life (Pausanias ix. 33). He was said to
have divided the inhabitants into twelve communities, to have instituted
the laws of marriage and property, and a new form of worship. The
introduction of bloodless sacrifice, the burial of the dead, and the
invention of writing were also attributed to him. He is said to have
acted as umpire during the dispute of Poseidon and Athena for the
possession of Attica. He decided in favour of the goddess, who planted
the first olive tree, which he adjudged to be more useful than the horse
(or water) which Poseidon caused to spring forth from the Acropolis rock
with a blow of his trident (Herodotus viii. 55; Apollodorus iii. 14). As
one of the autochthones of Attica, Cecrops is represented as human in
the upper part of his body, while the lower part is shaped like a dragon
(hence he is sometimes called [Greek: diphuês] or _geminus_, Diod. Sic.
i. 28; Ovid, _Metam_. ii. 555). Miss J. E. Harrison (in _Classical
Review_, January 1895) endeavours to show that Cecrops is the husband of
Athene, identical with the snake-like Zeus Soter or Sosipolis, and the
father of Erechtheus-Erichthonius.

CEDAR (Lat. _cedrus_, Gr. [Greek: kedros]), a name applied to several
members of the natural order Coniferae. The word has been derived from
the Arabic _Kedr_, worth or value, or from _Kedrat_, strong, and has
been supposed by some to have taken its origin from the brook Kedron, in

_Cedrus Libani_, the far-famed Cedar of Lebanon, is a tree which, on
account of its beauty, stateliness and strength, has always been a
favourite with poets and painters, and which, in the figurative language
of prophecy, is frequently employed in the Scriptures as a symbol of
power, prosperity and longevity. It grows to a vertical height of from
50 to 80 ft.--"exalted above all trees of the field"--and at an
elevation of about 6000 ft. above sea-level. In the young tree, the bole
is straight and upright, and one or two leading branches rise above the
rest. As the tree increases in size, however, the upper branches become
mingled together, and the tree is then clump-headed. Numerous lateral
ramifying branches spread out from the main trunk in a horizontal
direction, tier upon tier, covering a compass of ground the diameter of
which is often greater than the height of the tree. William Gilpin, in
his _Forest Scenery_, describes a cedar which, at an age of about 118
years, had attained to a height of 53 ft. and had a horizontal expanse
of 96 ft. The branchlets of the cedar take the same direction as the
branches, and the foliage is very dense. The tree, as with the rest of
the fir-tribe, except the larch, is evergreen; new leaves are developed
every spring, but their fall is gradual. In shape the leaves are
straight, tapering, cylindrical and pointed; they are about 1 in. long
and of a dark green colour, and grow in alternate tufts of about thirty
in number. The male and female flowers grow on the same tree, but are
separate. The cones, which are on the upper side of the branches, are
flattened at the ends and are 4 to 5 in. in length and 2 in. wide; they
take two years to come to perfection and while growing exude much resin.
The scales are close pressed to one another and are reddish in colour.
The seeds are provided with a long membranous wing. The root of the tree
is very strong and ramifying. The cedar flourishes best on sandy, loamy
soils. It still grows on Lebanon, though for several centuries it was
believed to be restricted to a small grove in the Kadisha valley at 6000
ft. elevation, about 15 m. from Beyrout. The number of trees in this
grove has been gradually diminishing, and as no young trees or seedlings
occur, the grove will probably become extinct in course of time. Cedars
are now known to occur in great numbers on Mt. Lebanon, chiefly on the
western slopes, not forming a continuous forest, but in groves, some of
which contain several thousands of trees. There are also large forests
on the higher slopes of the Taurus and Anti-Taurus mountains. Lamartine
tells us that the Arabs regard the trees as endowed with the principles
of continual existence, and with reasoning and prescient powers, which
enable them to prepare for the changes of the seasons.

The wood of the cedar of Lebanon is fragrant, though not so strongly
scented as that of the juniper or red-cedar of America. The wood is
generally reddish-brown, light and of a coarse grain and spongy texture,
easy to work, but liable to shrink and warp. Mountain-grown wood is
harder, stronger, less liable to warp and more durable.

The cedar of Lebanon is cultivated in Europe for ornament only. It can
be grown in parks and gardens, and thrives well; but the young plants
are unable to bear great variations of temperature. The cedar is not
mentioned in Evelyn's _Silva_ (1664), but it must have been introduced
shortly afterwards. The famous Enfield cedar was planted by Dr Robert
Uvedale, (1642-1722), a noted schoolmaster and horticulturist, between
1662-1670, and an old cedar at Bretby Park in Derbyshire is known to
have been planted in 1676. Some very old cedars exist also at Syon
House, Woburn Abbey, Warwick Castle and elsewhere, which presumably date
from the 17th century. The first cedars in Scotland were planted at
Hopetoun House in 1740; and the first one said to have been introduced
into France was brought from England by Bernard de Jussieu in 1734, and
placed in the Jardin des Plantes. Cedar-wood is earliest noticed in
Leviticus xiv. 4, 6, where it is prescribed among the materials to be
used for the cleansing of leprosy; but the wood there spoken of was
probably that of the juniper. The term _Eres_ (cedar) of Scripture does
not apply strictly to one kind of plant, but was used indefinitely in
ancient times, as is the word cedar at present. The term _arz_ is
applied by the Arabs to the cedar of Lebanon, to the common pine-tree,
and to the juniper; and certainly the "cedars" for masts, mentioned in
Ezek. xxvii. 5, must have been pine-trees. It seems very probable that
the fourscore thousand hewers employed by Solomon for cutting timber did
not confine their operations simply to what would now be termed cedars
and fir-trees. Dr John Lindley considered that some of the cedar-trees
sent by Hiram, king of Tyre, to Jerusalem might have been procured from
Mount Atlas, and have been identical with _Callitris quadrivalvis_, or
arar-tree, the wood of which is hard and durable, and was much in
request in former times for the building of temples. The timber-work of
the roof of Cordova cathedral, built eleven centuries ago, is composed
of it. In the time of Vitruvius "cedars" were growing in Crete, Africa
and Syria. Pliny says that their wood was everlasting, and therefore
images of the gods were made of it; he makes mention also of the oil of
cedar, or _cedrium_, distilled from the wood, and used by the ancients
for preserving their books from moths and damp; papyri anointed or
rubbed with cedrium were on this account called _ced ati libri_. Drawers
of cedar or chips of the wood are now employed to protect furs and
woollen stuffs from injury by moths. Cedar-wood, however, is said to be
injurious to natural history objects, and to instruments placed in
cabinets made of it, as the resinous matter of the wood becomes
deposited upon them. _Cedria_, or cedar resin, is a substance similar to
mastic, that flows from incisions in the tree; and cedar manna is a
sweet exudation from its branches.

The genus _Cedrus_ contains two other species closely allied to _C.
Libani_--_Cedrus Deodara_, the deodar, or "god tree" of the Himalayas,
and _Cedrus atlantica_, of the Atlas range, North Africa. The deodar
forms forests on the mountains of Afghanistan, North Beluchistan and the
north-west Himalayas, flourishing in all the higher mountains from Nepal
up to Kashmir, at an elevation of from 5500 to 12,000 ft.; on the peaks
to the northern side of the Boorung Pass it grows to a height of 60 to
70 ft. before branching. The wood is close-grained, long-fibred,
perfumed and highly resinous, and resists the action of water. The
foliage is of a paler green, the leaves are slender and longer, and the
twigs are thinner than those of _C. Libani_. The tree is employed for a
variety of useful purposes, especially in building. It is now much
cultivated in England as an ornamental plant. _C. atlantica_, the Atlas
cedar, has shorter and denser leaves than _C. Libani_; the leaves are
glaucous, sometimes of a silvery whiteness, and the cones smaller than
in the other two forms; its wood also is hard, and more rapid in growth
than is that of the ordinary cedar. It is found at an altitude above the
sea of from 4000 to 6000 ft.

The name cedar is applied to a variety of trees, including species of
several genera of Conifers, _Juniperus_, _Thuja_, _Libocedrus_ and
_Cupressus_. _Thuja gigantea_ of western North America is known in the
United States as White (or Yellow) cedar, and the same name is applied
to _Cupressus Lawsoniana_, the Port Orford or Oregon cedar, a native of
the north-west States, and one of the most valuable juniper trees of
North America. The Bermuda cedar (_Juniperus bermudiana_) and the red or
American cedar (_J. virginiana_) are both much used in joinery and in
the manufacture of pencils; though other woods are now superseding them
for pencil-making. The Japanese cedar (_Cryptomeria japonica_) is a kind
of cypress, the wood of which is very durable. Another species of
cypress (_Cupressus thyoides_, also known as _Chamaecyparis thyoides_ or
_sphaeroidea_), found in swamps in the south of Ohio and Massachusetts,
is known as the American white cedar. It has small leaves and fibrous
bark, the wood is light, soft and easily-worked, and very durable in
contact with the soil, and is much used for boat-building and for making
fences and coopers' staves. The Spanish cedar is a name applied to
_Juniperus thurifera_, a native of the western Mediterranean region, and
also to another species, _J. Oxycedrus_, a common plant in the
Mediterranean region, forming a shrub or low tree with spreading
branches and short, stiff, prickly leaves. The latter was much used by
the Greeks for making images; and its empyreumatic oil, Huile de Cade,
is used medicinally for skin-diseases. A species of cypress, _Cupressus
lusitanica_, which has been naturalized in the neighbourhood of Cintra
is known as the cedar of Goa. The genus _Widdringtonia_ of tropical and
South Africa is also known locally as cedar. _W. juniperoides_ is the
characteristic tree of the Cederberg range in Cape Colony, while _W.
Whytei_, recently discovered in Nyasaland and Rhodesia (the Mlanje
cedar) is a fine tree reaching 150 ft. in height, and yielding an
ornamental light yellow-brown wood, suitable for building. The order
Cedrelaceae (which is entirely distinct from the Conifers) includes,
along with the mahoganies and other valuable timber-trees, the Jamaica
and the Australian red cedars, _Cedrela odorata_, and _C. Toona_
respectively. The cedar-wood of Guiana, used for making canoes, is a
species of the natural order Burseraceae, _Icica altissima_. It is a
large tree, reaching 100 ft. in height, the wood is easily worked,
fragrant and durable.

  See Gordon's _Pinetum_; Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, _Histoire du cèdre du
  Liban_ (Paris, 1838); Loudon, _Arboretum Britannicum_, vol. iv. pp.
  2404-2432 (London, 1839); Marquis de Chambray, _Traité pratique des
  arbres résineux conifères_ (Paris, 1845); J.D. Hooker, _Nat. Hist.
  Review_ (January, 1862), pp. 11-18; Brandis, _Forest Flora of
  North-west and Central India_, pp. 516-525 (London, 1874); Veitch,
  _Manual of Coniferae_ (2nd ed., London, 1900).

CEDAR CREEK, a small branch of the North Fork of the Shenandoah river,
Virginia, U.S.A. It is known in American history as the scene of a
memorable battle, which took place on the 19th of October 1864, between
the Union army under Major-General P.H. Sheridan and the Confederates
under Lieut.-General J.A. Early. (See SHENANDOAH VALLEY CAMPAIGNS.)

CEDAR FALLS, a city of Black Hawk county, Iowa, U.S.A., on the Cedar
river, about 100 m. W. of Dubuque. Pop. (1890) 3459; (1900) 5319; (1905,
state census) 5329 (872 being foreign-born); (1910) 5012. It is served
by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Illinois Central, the Chicago
Great Western, and the Waterloo, Cedar Falls & Northern railways. Its
manufactures include flour, ground feed, other cereal preparations,
hardware specialties, canned vegetables (especially Indian corn), and
planing-mill products. It is the seat of the state normal school (1876),
and has a public library. The settlement of the place, the oldest in the
county, was begun in 1847; it was laid out as a town in 1851,
incorporated as a village in 1857, chartered as a city in 1865, and for
a short time in 1853 was the county-seat.

CEDAR RAPIDS, a city of Linn county, Iowa, U.S.A., on the Cedar river,
in the east central part of the state. Pop. (1890) 18,020; (1900)
25,656, of whom 4478 were foreign-born, an unusually large and
influential part being Bohemians; (1910 census) 32,811. It is served by
the Chicago, Milwaukee & Saint Paul, the Chicago & North-Western, the
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific (which has repair shops here), and the
Illinois Central railways, and by interurban electric lines. The city
has an air of substantial prosperity; its principal streets are from 80
ft. to 120 ft. wide, paved with brick and asphalt, and well shaded.
Prominent among its buildings are the federal building, the auditorium,
the public library and the Masonic library, which contains one of the
best collections of Masonic literature in the world. The city has two
well-equipped hospitals, a home for aged women, a home for the
friendless, and four parks. The grounds of the Cedar Rapids country club
comprise 180 acres. Cedar Rapids is in a rich agricultural country. The
name of the city was suggested from the rapids in the river, which
afford abundant water power and have enabled the city to take first rank
in Iowa (1905) as a manufacturing centre. From 1900 to 1905 there was an
increase in the value of its manufactured products from $11,135,435 to
$16,279,706, or 46.2%. More than one-fourth of the value of its
manufactures is in Quaker Oats and other food preparations; among those
of less importance are lumber and planing-mill products, foundry and
machine-shop products, furniture, patent medicines, pumps, carriages and
waggons, packed meats and agricultural implements. Cedar Rapids has also
a large grain trade and a large jobbing business, especially in dry
goods, millinery, groceries, paper and drugs. At Cedar Rapids are Coe
College (co-educational; Presbyterian), which grew out of the Cedar
Rapids Collegiate Institute (1851), was named in honour of Daniel Coe, a
benefactor, and was chartered under its present name and opened in 1881;
the Interstate Correspondence schools, and the Cedar Rapids business
college. The first settlers came in 1838; but the city's early growth
was slow, and it was not incorporated until 1856. It has been governed
by commission since 1908.

CEFALU (anc. _Cephaloedium_), a seaport and episcopal see of the
province of Palermo, Sicily, 42 m. E. of Palermo by rail. Pop. (1901)
13,273. The ancient town (of Sicel origin, probably, despite its Greek
name) takes its name from the headland ([Greek: kephalê], head) upon
which it stood (1233 ft.); its fortifications extended to the shore, on
the side where the modern town now is, in the form of two long walls
protecting the port. There are remains of a wall of massive rectangular
blocks of stone at the modern Porta Garibaldi on the south. It does not
appear in history before 396 B.C., and seems to have owed its importance
mainly to its naturally strong position. The only ancient remains on the
mountain are those of a small building in good polygonal work (a style
of construction very rare in Sicily), consisting of a passage on each
side of which a chamber opens. The doorways are of finely-cut stone, and
of Greek type, and the date, though uncertain, cannot, from the careful
jointing of the blocks, be very early. On the summit of the promontory
are extensive remains of a Saracenic castle. The new town was founded at
the foot of the mountain, by the shore, by Roger II. in 1131, and the
cathedral was begun in the same year. The exterior is well preserved,
and is largely decorated with interlacing pointed arches; the windows
also are pointed. On each side of the façade is a massive tower of four
storeys. The round-headed Norman portal is worthy of note. The interior
was restored in 1559, though the pointed arches of the nave, borne by
ancient granite columns, are still visible: and the only mosaics
preserved are those of the apse and the last bay of the choir: they are
remarkably fine specimens of the art of the period (1148) and, though
restored in 1859-1862, have suffered much less than those at Palermo and
Monreale from the process. The figure of the Saviour is especially fine.
The groined vaulting of the roof is visible in the choir and the right
transept, while the rest of the church has a wooden roof. Fine
cloisters, coeval with the cathedral, adjoin it. (See G. Hubbard in
_Journal of the R.I.B.A._ xv. 333 sqq., 1908.) The harbour is
comparatively small.     (T. As.)

CEHEGÍN, a town of south-eastern Spain, in the province of Murcia, on
the right bank of the river Caravaca, a small tributary of the Segura.
Pop. (1900) 11,601. Cehegín has a thriving trade in farm produce,
especially wine, olive oil and hemp; and various kinds of marble are
obtained from quarries near the town. Some of the older houses, however,
as well as the parish church and the convent of San Francisco, which
still has well-defined Roman inscriptions on its walls, are built of
stone from the ruins of _Begastri_, a Roman colony which stood on a
small adjacent hill known as the Cabecico de Roenas. The name _Cehegín_
is sometimes connected by Spanish antiquaries with that of the _Zenaga_,
_Senhaja_ or _Senajeh_, a North African tribe, which invaded Spain in
the 11th century.

CEILING (from a verb "to ceil," i.e. to line or cover; of disputed
etymology, but apparently connected with Fr. _ciel_, Lat. _caelum_,
sky), in architecture, the upper covering of a church, hall or room.
Ceilings are now usually formed of plaster, but in former times they
were commonly either boarded (of which St Albans cathedral is perhaps
the earliest example), or showed the beams and joists, which in England
were moulded and carved, and in France and Italy were richly painted and
gilded. Sometimes the ceilings were horizontal, sometimes canted on two
sides, and sometimes they take the form of a barrel-vault. Ribs are
sometimes planted on the boarding to divide up the surface, and their
intersections are enriched with bosses. About the middle of the 16th
century the ceilings were formed in plaster with projecting ribs,
interlaced ornament and pendants, and the characteristics of the
Elizabethan style. At Bramall Hall, Broughton Castle, Hatfield, Knowle,
Sizergh and Levens in Westmorland, and Dorfold in Cheshire, are numerous
examples, some with pendants. In Italy, at the same period, the plaster
ceilings were based on the forms taken by vaulting; they were of
infinite variety and were richly decorated with sunk panels containing
the Roman conventional foliage. Raphael, about 1520, reproduced in the
Vatican some of the stucco-duro ornament which he had studied in the
Golden House of Nero, excavated under his directions. Later, about the
middle of the 16th century, great coves were formed round the room,
which were decorated with cartouches and figures in relief, garlands and
swags. The great halls of the Ducal Palace at Venice and the galleries
of the Pitti Palace at Florence were ceiled in this way. These coved
ceilings were introduced into England in the middle of the 17th century.
In Holyrood Palace at Edinburgh there is a fine ceiling of 1671, with
figures (probably executed by Italian craftsmen) and floral wreaths.

At Coleshill, Berkshire, a ceiling by Inigo Jones (1650) shows a type
which became more or less universal for a century, viz. deeply sunk
panels with modillions round, and bands enriched with foliage, fruit,
&c., in bold relief. Wren, Nicholas Hawksmoor, James Gibbs, John Webb
and other architects continued on the same lines, and in 1760 Robert
Adam introduced his type of ceiling, sometimes horizontal, and sometimes
segmental, in which panels are suggested only, with slight projecting
lines and rings of leaves, swags and arabesque work, which, like
Raphael's, was found on the ceilings of the Roman tombs and baths in
Rome and Pompeii. George Richardson followed with similar work, and Sir
W. Chambers, in the rooms originally occupied by the Royal Academy and
the learned societies in Somerset House, designed many admirable
ceilings. The moulds of all the ornamental devices of Robert Adam are
preserved and are still utilized for many modern ceilings.
     (R. P. S.)

CEILLIER, REMY (1688-1761), Benedictine monk of the Lorraine
congregation of St Vannes. He was the compiler of an immense Patrology,
_Histoire générale des auteurs sacrés et ecclésiastiques_ (23 vols.,
Paris, 1720-1763), being a history and analysis of the writings of all
the ecclesiastical writers of the first thirteen centuries. He put
infinite trouble and time into the work, and many portions of it are
exceedingly well done. A later and improved edition was produced in
Paris, 1858, in 14 vols. Ceillier's other work, _Apologie de la morale
des pères de l'église_ (Paris, 1718), also won some celebrity.

CELAENAE, an ancient city of Phrygia, situated on the great trade route
to the East. Its acropolis long held out against Alexander in 333 and
surrendered to him at last by arrangement. His successor, Eumenes, made
it for some time his headquarters, as did Antigonus until 301. From
Lysimachus it passed to Seleucus, whose son Antiochus, seeing its
geographical importance, refounded it on a more open site as Apamea
(q.v.). West of the acropolis were the palace of Xerxes and the Agora,
in or near which is the cavern whence the Marsyas, one of the sources of
the Maeander, issues. According to Xenophon, Cyrus had a palace and
large park full of wild animals at Celaenae.

  See G. Weber, _Dineir-Celènes_ (1892).

CELANDINE, _Chelidonium majus_, a member of the poppy family, an erect
branched herb from 1 to 2 ft. high with a yellow juice, much divided
leaves, and yellow flowers nearly an inch across, succeeded by a narrow
thin pod opening by a pair of thin valves, separating upwards. The plant
grows in waste places and hedgerows, and is probably an escape from
cultivation. The lesser celandine is a species of _Ranunculus_ (_R.
Ficaria_), a small low-growing herb with smooth heart-shaped leaves and
bright yellow flowers about an inch across, borne each on a stout stalk
springing from a leaf-axil. It flowers in early spring, in pastures and

CELANO, a town of the Abruzzi, Italy, in the province of Aquila, 73 m.
E. of Rome by rail. Pop. (1901) 9725. It is finely situated on a hill
above the Lago Fucino, and is dominated by a square castle, with round
towers at the angles, erected in its present form in 1450. It contains
three churches with 13th century façades in the style of those of
Aquila. The origin of the town goes back to Lombard times. A count of
Celano is first mentioned in 1178. It was the birthplace of Thomas of
Celano, the author of the _Dies Irae_.

CELEBES,[1] one of the four Great Sunda Islands in the Dutch East
Indies. Its general outline is extremely irregular, and has been
compared to that of a starfish with the rays torn off from one side,
corresponding to the west side of the island. It consists of four great
peninsulas, extending from a comparatively small nucleus towards the
north-east, east, south-east and south, and separated by the three large
gulfs of Tomini or Gorontalo, Tolo or Tomaiki, and Boni. Of these gulfs
the first is by far the largest, the other two having much wider
entrances and not extending so far inwards. Most important among the
smaller inlets are the bays of Amurang, Kwandang and Tontoli on the
north coast, Palos and Pare-Pare on the west, and Kendari or Vosmaer on
the east. Of the numerous considerable islands which lie north-east,
east and south of Celebes (those off the west coast are few and small),
the chief are prolongations of the four great peninsulas--the Sangir and
Talaut islands off the north-east, the Banggai and Sula off the east,
Wuna and Buton off the south-east, and Saleyer off the south. Including
the adjacent islands, the area of Celebes is estimated at 77,855 sq. m.,
and the population at 2,000,000; without them the area is 69,255 sq. m.
and the population 1,250,000.

The scenery in Celebes is most varied and picturesque. "Nowhere in the
archipelago," wrote A. R. Wallace, "have I seen such gorges, chasms and
precipices as abound in the district of Maros" (in the southern
peninsula); "in many parts there are vertical or even overhanging
precipices five or six hundred feet high, yet completely clothed with a
tapestry of vegetation." Much of the country, especially round the Gulf
of Tolo, is covered with primeval forests and thickets, traversed by
scarcely perceptible paths, or broken with a few clearings and villages.
A considerable part of the island has been little explored, but the
general character seems to be mountainous. Well-defined ranges prolong
themselves through each of the peninsulas, rising in many places to a
considerable elevation. Naturally there are no great river-basins or
extensive plains, but one of the features of the island is the frequent
occurrence, not only along the coasts, but at various heights inland, of
beautiful stretches of level ground often covered with the richest
pastures. Minahassa, the north-eastern extremity, consists of a plateau
divided into sections by volcanoes (Klabat, 6620 ft., being the
highest). Sulphur springs occur here. In the west of the northern
peninsula the interior consists in part of plateaus of considerable
extent enclosed by the coast ranges. Near Lake Posso, in the centre of
the island, the mountains are higher; the Tampiko massif has a height of
nearly 5000 ft., the chains south and west of the lake have a general
altitude of about 5450 ft., with peaks still loftier. In the southern
peninsula two chains stretch parallel with the west and east coasts; the
former is the higher, with a general altitude of 3200 ft. In the south
it joins the Peak of Bonthain, or Lompo-battang, a great volcanic mass
10,088 ft. high. In the east central part of the island the mountain
Koruve exceeds 10,000 ft., and is supposed to be the highest in the
island. An alluvial coast plain, 7 to 9 m. wide, stretches along the
foot of the western chain, and between the two chains is the basin of
the Walannaë river, draining northward into Lake Tempe. Little is known
of the orography of the eastern peninsula. At the base of the
south-eastern there is another large lake, Tovieti. In this peninsula
there are parallel ranges on the east and west flanks. The trench
between them is partly occupied by the vast swamp of Lake Opa.

The rivers of the narrow mountainous peninsulas form many rapids and
cataracts; as the Tondano, draining the lake of the same name to the
north-west coast of Minahassa at Menado; the Rano-i-Apo, flowing over
the plateau of Mongondo to the Gulf of Amurang; the Poigar, issuing from
a little-known lake of that plateau; the Lombagin, traversing narrow
cañons; and the river of Boni, which has its outfall in the plain of
Gorontalo, near the mouth of the Bolango or Tapa, the latter connected
by a canal with the Lake of Limbotto. All these rivers are navigable by
praus or rafts for only a few miles above the mouth. In central Celebes,
the Kodina flows into Lake Posso, and the Kalaëna discharges to the Gulf
of Boni; the Posso, navigable by _blottos_ (canoes formed of hollowed
tree-trunks), is the only river flowing from the lake to the Gulf of
Tomini. The rivers of the southern peninsula, owing to the relief of the
surface, are navigable to a somewhat greater extent. The Walannaë flows
into Lake Tempe, and, continued by the Jenrana (Tienrana), which
discharges into the Gulf of Boni, is navigable for small boats; the
Sadang, with many affluents, flows to the west coast, and is navigable
by _sanpans_. The Jenemaja is a broad river, navigable far from the
mouth. The coasts of Celebes are often fertile and well populated; but,
as shown by the marine charts, many sand, mud and stone banks lie near
the shore, and consequently there are few accessible or natural ports
or good roadsteads.

  _Geology._--The geological observations on Celebes are too scattered
  to reveal its structure. The greater part of the island seems to be
  formed of gneiss and other crystalline rocks. These are overlaid by
  conglomerates, limestones and clay slates of very doubtful age, the
  most interesting being a radiolarian clay which occurs on the south
  side of the Matinang Mountains, at the north end of Lake Posso, &c.;
  it may correspond with the radiolarian cherts of Borneo. Tertiary beds
  are found, especially near the coast. The Eocene includes a series of
  sandstones and marls with lignite, and these are overlaid by nummulite
  limestones. The Miocene contains an _Orbitoides_ limestone. Intrusive
  and volcanic rocks of great variety and of various ages occur.
  Peridotite and gabbro form much of the eastern peninsula (Banggai).
  Leucite and nepheline rocks have been found in various parts of the
  island, especially in the south-west. In Minahassa, at the northern
  extremity, there is a large area of tuffs and agglomerates consisting
  chiefly of augite andesite, and in this area there are many recent
  volcanic cones. Eruptions still take place at intervals, but the
  volcanoes for the most part seem to have reached the solfataric stage.

_Climate._--The climate of the island, everywhere accessible to the
influence of the sea, is maritime-tropical, the temperature ranging
generally between 77° and 80° F., the extremes being about 90° and 70°
F., only on the higher mountains falling during the night to 54° or 55°
F. The rainfall in the northern peninsula (north of the equator) differs
from that of the southern; the former has rains (not caused by the
monsoon), and of smaller amount, 102 in. annually; the latter has a
greater rainfall, 157 in., brought by the north-western monsoon, and of
which the west coast receives a much larger share than the east.

_Fauna and Flora._--In spite of its situation in the centre of the
archipelago, Celebes possesses a fauna of a very distinctive kind. The
number of species is small, but in many cases they are peculiar to the
island. Of land birds, for example, about 160 species are known, and of
these not less than about 90 are peculiar, the majority of the remainder
being Asiatic in distinction from Australian. Mammals are few in
species, but remarkable, especially _Macacus niger_, an ape found
nowhere else but in Bachian; _Anoa depressicornis_, a small ox-like
quadruped which inhabits the mountainous districts; and the babirusa or
pig-deer of the Malays. Some of the animals are probably descendants of
specimens introduced by man; others are allied in species, but not
identical, with mammals of Java and Borneo; others again, including the
three just mentioned, are wholly or practically confined to Celebes.
There are no large beasts of prey, and neither the elephant, the
rhinoceros nor the tapir is represented. Wild-buffaloes, swine and goats
are pretty common; and most of the usual domestic animals are kept. The
horses are in high repute in the archipelago; formerly about 700 were
yearly exported to Java, but the supply has considerably diminished.

The same peculiarity of species holds in regard to the insects of the
Celebes (so far as they are known) as to the mammals and birds. Out of
118 species of butterflies, belonging to four important classes, no
fewer than 86 are peculiar; while among the rose-chafers or _Cetoniinae_
the same is the case in 19 out of 30. Equally remarkable with this
presence of peculiar species is the absence of many kinds that are
common in the rest of the archipelago; and these facts have been
considered to indicate connexion with a larger land-mass at a very
distant geological epoch, and the subsequent continuous isolation of
Celebes. This view, however, has been controverted. It is held that in
the Miocene and Pliocene periods there were land connexions with the
Philippines, Java and the Moluccas, and through the last with
Australasian lands to the east and south-east. Migration of species took
place along these lines in both directions. Those immigrants which
remained in what is now Celebes may have developed new species.
Moreover, while Celebes has species which are peculiar to itself and one
other of the islands just mentioned, it has none which it shares
exclusively with Borneo, and thus the importance of the Macassar Strait
as a biological division is indicated.

Vegetation is extremely rich; but there are fewer large trees than in
the other islands of the archipelago. Of plants that furnish food for
man the most important are rice, maize and millet, coffee, the coco-nut
tree, sago-palm, the obi or native potato, the bread-fruit and the
tamarind; with lemons, oranges, mangosteens, wild-plums, Spanish pepper,
beans, melons and sugar-cane. The shaddock is to be found only in the
lower plains. Indigo, cotton and tobacco are grown; the bamboo and the
ratan-palm are common in the woods; and among the larger trees are
sandal-wood, ebony, sapan and teak. The palm, _Arenga saccharifera_,
furnishes _gemuti_ fibres for ropes; its juice is manufactured into
sugar and a beverage called sagueir; and intoxicating drinks are
prepared from several other palms.

_Products._--As in natural vegetation and fauna, so in cultivated
products, Celebes, apart from its peculiarities, presents the
transitional link between the Asiatic and the Australian regions of the
Malayan province. For example, rice is produced here in smaller quantity
and of inferior quality to that in the western part of the archipelago,
but superior to that in the eastern section, where sago and sorghum form
the staple articles of food. The products of the forests supply about
half the total exports. The fisheries include trepang, turtle and pearl
oysters. Gold is worked under European direction in the district of
Gorontalo, but with only partial success; the search for coal in the
southern peninsula has yielded no satisfactory results; tin, iron and
copper, found in the eastern peninsula and elsewhere, are utilized only
for native industries.

_Natives._--The native population of the island is all of Malayan stock.
The three most important peoples are the Bugis (q.v.) the Macassars and
the Mandars. The medley of other Malayan tribes, of a more or less
savage type, living in the island, are known under the collective name
of Alfuros (q.v.). The Macassars are well-built and muscular, and have
in general a dark-brown complexion, a broad and expressive face, black
and sparkling eyes, a high forehead, a flattish nose, a large mouth and
long black soft hair. The women are sprightly, clever and amiable. The
men are brave and not treacherous, but ambitious, jealous and extremely
revengeful. Drunkenness is rare, but they are passionate, and running
amuck is frequent among them. In all sorts of bodily exercises, as
swinging, wrestling, dancing, riding and hunting, they take great
pleasure. Though they call themselves Mahommedans, their religion is
largely mingled with pagan superstitions; they worship animals, and a
certain divinity called Karaeng Lové, who has power over their fortune
and health. Except where Dutch influence has made itself felt, little
attention has been paid by the native races to agriculture; and their
manufacturing industries are few and limited. The weaving of cotton
cloth is principally carried on by women; and the process, at least for
the finer description, is tedious in the extreme. The houses are built
of wood and bamboo; and as the use of diagonal struts is not practised,
the walls soon lean over from the force of the winds. The Macassar
language, which belongs to the Malayo-Javanese group, is spoken in many
parts of the southern peninsula; but it has a much smaller area than the
Buginese, which is the language of Boni. It is deficient in
generalizations; thus, for example, it has words for the idea of
carrying in the hand, carrying on the head, carrying on the shoulder,
and so on, but has no word for carrying simply. It has adopted a certain
number of vocables from Sanskrit, Malay, Javanese and Portuguese, but on
the whole is remarkably pure, and has undergone comparatively few recent
changes. It is written in a peculiar character, which has displaced, and
probably been corrupted from, an old form employed as late as the 17th
century. Neither bears any trace of derivation from the Sanskrit
alphabet. The priests affect the use of the Arabic letters. The
literature is poor, and consists largely of romantic stories from the
Malay, and religious treatises from the Arabic. Of the few original
pieces the most important are the early histories of Goa, Tello and some
other states of Celebes, and the _Rapang_, or collection of the decrees
and maxims of the old princes and sages. The more modern productions are
letters, laws and poems, many of the last of considerable beauty.

_Divisions, Towns, Population._--Celebes is divided by the Dutch, for
administrative purposes, into the government of Celebes with
dependencies (south-eastern and southern peninsulas and all west coast),
and the residency of Menado (north-eastern peninsula and coast of Gulf
of Tomini). The eastern peninsula and coast of the Gulf of Tolo belong
politically to the residency of Ternate (q.v.). The following table
shows approximately the distribution and composition of the

  |                       |          |        |      |  Other    |         |         |
  |                       |Europeans.|Chinese.|Arabs.| Oriental  | Natives.|  Total. |
  |                       |          |        |      |Foreigners.|         |         |
  | Government of Celebes |          |        |      |           |         |         |
  |   and Dependencies    |  1414    |  3738  |  554 |     54    | 409,739 | 415,499 |
  | Residency of Menado-- |          |        |      |           |         |         |
  |   Minahassa           |   836    |  3574  |  286 |     16    |\430,941 | 436,406 |
  |   Gorontalo           |   115    |   505  |  133 |    · ·    |/        |         |

  The _Government of Celebes and Dependencies_ is subdivided into the
  government territory, the vassal states (Boni, q.v., and Ternate), and
  the federal countries. The density of population for the whole
  government is estimated as 3.7 or 4 per sq. m., varying from 2.2 in
  the vassal and federated states to 14.7 to 18.4 for Macassar and the
  districts directly governed by the Dutch. The density of population in
  districts outside the influence of European government sinks to 1 and
  less per sq. m. As in the case of Minahassa, the difference must be
  explained by physical and moral conditions. Two-thirds of the natives
  live by agriculture, and one-third by trade, navigation, shipbuilding
  and other industries. In agreement with these principal occupations,
  the centres of population are found in southern Celebes, on the coast
  (not in the interior plains or on the lake, as in Menado). Palos
  (3000), with good port; Pare-Pare, connected by road with Lake Tempe;
  and Macassar (17,925), the seat of the governor and the centre of
  trade for the eastern part of the archipelago. On the south coast must
  also be named Bonthain (4000); on the east coast, Balong-Nipa; and
  Buton and Saleyer, seats of administration and ports of call on the
  island groups of the same names.

  The _Residency of Menado_ comprises three districts: Minahassa, the
  little states along the north coast west of Minahassa, and Gorontalo,
  including the other states of the northern peninsula lying along the
  Gulf of Tomini. The density of population being calculated at about
  2.7 to 3 per sq. m. for Celebes, is 16.2 for Minahassa, but only 1.5
  to 2 for the Residency of Menado. Centres of population in Menado are
  Amurang (3000), the seat of a Dutch controller, and a calling place
  for the steamers of the Indian Packet Company; Menado (10,000), the
  chief town of the residency, the principal station of the Dutch
  missionaries, with a fair amount of trade, but an unsafe roadstead;
  Tondano (12,000), near the lake and river of the same name, at an
  altitude of nearly 2000 ft., and one of the chief centres; Gorontalo,
  one of the most important towns of Celebes, carrying on direct trade
  with Singapore and Europe. All the other coast places have some
  importance as chief villages of the little states and as ports of call
  for the vessels of the steam packet company, but have only from 500 to
  1000 inhabitants.

_History._--Celebes was first discovered by the Portuguese in the early
part of the 16th century, the exact date assigned by some authorities
being 1512. The name is not used by the natives, and is apparently of
foreign origin, but has been variously derived, e.g. from the mountain
of Klabat or Kalabat, or from _Seli Besi_, an iron kris carried by the
natives, of whom those who were first asked for the name of the island
were conceived, according to this theory, to have misunderstood their
questioners. At the time of the Portuguese discovery, the Macassars were
the most powerful people in the island, having successfully defended
themselves against the king of the Moluccas and the sultan of Ternate.
In 1609 the British attempted to gain a footing. At what time the Dutch
first arrived is not certainly known, but it was probably in the end of
the 16th or beginning of the 17th century, since in 1607 they formed a
connexion with Macassar. In 1611 the Dutch East Indian Company obtained
the monopoly of trade on the island of Buton; and in 1618 an
insurrection in Macassar gave them an opportunity of obtaining a
definite establishment there. In 1660 the kingdom was subjugated, but in
1666 the war broke out anew. It was brought to an end in the following
year, and the treaty of Bonga or Banga was signed, by which the Dutch
were recognized as protectors. In 1683 the north-eastern part of the
island was conquered by Robert Paddenburg and placed under the command
of the governor of the Moluccas. In 1703 a fort was erected at Menado.
The kingdom of Boni was successfully attacked in 1824, and in August of
that year the Bonga treaty was renewed in a greatly modified form. Since
then the principal military event is the Boni insurrection which was
quelled in 1859, but this was far from pacifying the country
permanently. A series of revolts of various chiefs in 1905-6 was not
arrested without considerable fighting, but after this the whole island
was brought under Dutch authority, even where native rule survived.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--In P. J. Veth's _Woordenboek van Nederlandsch Indie_
  there will be found an extensive bibliography of Celebes drawn up by
  H. C. Millies. For additional bibliography and data for the island and
  its population, see C. M. Kan, "Celebes," in the _Encyclopaedie van
  Nederlandsch Indie_, ed. by P.A. van der Lith and A. H. Spaan (The
  Hague, 1895), &c., vol. i. p. 314. See P. and F. Sarasin (who have
  carried out extensive explorations in the island), "Berichte aus
  Celebes," _Zeitschr. der Ges. f. Erdk._ xxix. 351; _Entwurf einer
  geographisch-geologischen Beschreibung der Insel Celebes_ (Wiesbaden,
  1901); _Reisen in Celebes, 1893-1896, 1902-1903_ (Wiesbaden, 1905);
  _Versuch einer Anthropologie der Insel Celebes_ (Wiesbaden, 1906); C.
  van der Hart, _Reize rondon het Eiland Celebes_ (The Hague, 1853);
  Capt. R. Mundy, _Narrative of Events in Borneo and Celebes_ (London,
  1848); P. J. Veth, _Een Nederlandsch reiziger op Zuid Celebes_
  (Amsterdam, 1875); J. G. F. Riedel, _Het landschap Boeool, Noord
  Selebes_ (1872); and "Die Landschaften Holontalo, Limoeto," &c., in
  _Zeitschr. fur Ethnologie_ (1871); H. Bücking, "Beiträge zur Geologie
  von Celebes," _Samml. geol. Reichsmus. Leiden_, vol. vii. pp. 29-205
  (1902), pp. 221-224 (1904); and various articles in _Tijdschrift v. h.
  Aardrijkskundig Genootschap_ and _Tijdsch. v. h. Batavian. Gen._


  [1] The second syllable is accented.

CELERY (_Apium graveolens_), a biennial plant belonging to the natural
order Umbelliferae, which, in its wild state, occurs in England by the
sides of ditches and in marshy places, especially near the sea,
producing a furrowed stalk and compound leaves with wedge-shaped
leaflets, the whole plant having a coarse, rank taste and a peculiar
smell. It is also widely distributed in the north temperate region of
the Old World. By cultivation and blanching the stalks lose their acrid
qualities and assume the mild sweetish aromatic taste peculiar to celery
as a salad plant. The plants are raised from seed, sown either in a hot
bed or in the open garden, according to the season of the year, and
after one or two thinnings out and transplantings, they are, on
attaining a height of 6 or 8 in., planted out in deep trenches for
convenience of blanching, which is effected by earthing up and so
excluding the stems from the influence of light. A large number of
varieties are cultivated by gardeners, which are ranged under two
classes, white and red,--the white varieties being generally the best
flavoured and most crisp and tender. As a salad plant, celery,
especially if at all "stringy," is difficult of digestion. Both blanched
and green it is stewed and used in soups, the seeds also being used as a
flavouring ingredient. In the south of Europe celery is seldom blanched,
but is much used in its natural condition.

_Celeriac_, or turnip-rooted celery (_Apium graveolens_ var.
_rapaceum_), is a variety cultivated more on account of its roots than
for the stalks, although both are edible and are used for salads and in
soups. It is chiefly grown in the north of Europe. As the tops are not
required, trenching is unnecessary, otherwise the cultivation is the
same as for celery.

CÉLESTE, MADAME (1815-1882), French dancer and actress, was born in
Paris on the 16th of August 1815. As a little girl she was a pupil in
the ballet class at the Opéra. When fifteen, she had an offer from the
United States, and made her début at the Bowery theatre, New York.
Returning to England, she appeared at Liverpool as Fenella in
_Masaniello_, and also in London (1831). In 1834 she aroused such
enthusiasm in America that her admirers carried her on their shoulders
and took the horses out of her carriage in order to pull it themselves.
It is even said that President Jackson introduced her to his cabinet as
an adopted citizen of the Union. Having made a large fortune, she
returned to England in 1837. She now gave up dancing, and appeared as an
actress, first at Drury Lane and then at the Haymarket. In 1844 she
joined Benjamin Webster in the management of the Adelphi, and afterwards
took the sole management of the Lyceum till 1861. She made a third
visit to the United States from 1865 to 1868, and retired in 1870. Her
favourite part was Miami in Buckstone's _Green Bushes_. She died in
Paris on the 12th of February 1882.

CELESTINA, LA, the popular alternative title attached from 1519 (or
earlier) to the anonymous _Comedia de Caliste y Melibea_, a Spanish
novel in dialogue which was celebrated throughout Europe during the 16th
century. In the two earliest known editions (Burgos, 1499, and Seville,
1501) the _Comedia_ consists of sixteen acts; the reprints issued after
1501 are entitled _Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea_, and contain
twenty-one acts. Three of these reprints include a twenty-second act
which is admittedly spurious, and the authenticity of Acts XVII.-XXI. is
disputed. The authorship of the _Celestina_ and the date of its
composition are doubtful. An anonymous prefatory letter in the editions
subsequent to 1501 attributes the book to Juan de Mena or Rodrigo Cota,
but this ascription is universally rejected. The prevailing opinion is
that the author of the twenty-one acts was Fernando de Rojas, apparently
a Spanish Jew resident at the Puebla de Montalban in the province of
Toledo; R. Foulché-Delbose, however, maintains that the original sixteen
acts are by an unknown writer who had no part in the five supplementary
acts. Some scholars give 1483 as the date of composition; others hold
that the book was written in 1497. These questions are still unsettled.
Though profoundly original in treatment, the _Celestina_ has points of
analogy with the work of earlier writers, such as Juan Ruiz (q.v.), the
archpriest of Hita; his rapid sketches of Trota-conventas, Melón and
Endrina no doubt suggested the finished portraits of Celestina, Calisto
and Melibea, and the closing scene in the _Celestina_ recalls the
suicide in Diego Fernandez de San Pedro's _Cárcel de Amor_. Allowing for
these and other debts of the same kind, it cannot be denied that the
_Celestina_ excels all earlier Spanish works in tragic force, in
impressive conception, and in the realistic rendering of characters
drawn from all classes of society. It passed through innumerable
editions in Spain, and was the first Spanish book to find acceptance
throughout western Europe. At least twenty works by well-known Spanish
authors are derived from it; it was adapted for the English stage as
early as 1525-1530, and was translated into Italian (1505), French
(1527) and other European languages. A Latin version by Caspar Barth was
issued under the title of _Pornoboscodidascalus latinus_ (1624) with all
the critical apparatus of a recognized classic. James Mabbe's English
rendering (1631) is one of the best translations ever published. The
original edition of 1499 has been reprinted by R. Foulché-Delbose in the
_Bibliotheca Hispanica_ (1902), vol. xii.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--R. Foulché-Delbose, "Observations sur la Célestine" in
  the _Revue hispanique_ (Paris, 1900), vol. vii. pp. 28-80 and (Paris.
  1902) vol. ix. pp. 171-199; K. Haebler, "Bemerkungen zur Celestina" in
  the _Revue hispanique_ (Paris, 1902), vol. ix. pp. 139-170; and M.
  Menéndez y Pelayo's introduction to the _Celestina_ (Vigo, 1899-1900)
       (J. F.-K.)

CELESTINE (CAELESTINUS), the name of five popes.

CELESTINE I., pope from 422 to 432. At his accession the dissensions
caused by the faction of Eulalius (see BONIFACE I.) had not yet abated.
He, however, triumphed over them, and his episcopate was peaceful. When
the doctrines of Nestorius were denounced to him, he instructed Cyril,
bishop of Alexandria, to follow up the matter. The emperor Theodosius
II. convoked an ecumenical council at Ephesus, to which Celestine sent
his legates. He had some difficulties with the bishops in Africa on the
question of appeals to Rome, and with the bishops of Provence with
regard to the doctrines of St Augustine. To expedite the extirpation of
Pelagianism, he sent to Britain a deacon called Palladius, at whose
instigation St Germanus of Auxerre crossed the English Channel, as
delegate of the pope and bishops of Gaul, to inculcate orthodox
principles upon the clergy of Britain. He also commissioned Palladius to
preach the gospel in Ireland which was beginning to rally to
Christianity. Celestine was the first pope who is known to have taken a
direct interest in the churches of Britain and Ireland.     (L. D.*)

CELESTINE II., pope in 1143-1144. Guido of Città di Castello (Tiferno),
born of noble Tuscan family, able and learned, studied under Abelard
and became a cardinal priest. Elected the successor of Innocent II. on
the 26th of September 1143, he died on the 8th of March following. He
removed the interdict which Innocent had employed against Louis VII. of
France. At the time of his death he was on the verge of a controversy
with Roger of Sicily.

  See A. Certini, _Vita_ (Foligno, 1716); M. Bouquet, _Recueil des
  historiens des Gaules_ (Paris, 1738 ff.), tome 15, 408-411; Migne,
  _Patrologiae cursus completus_, 179, 765-820; P. Jaffé, _Regesta
  Pontificum Romanorum_, 2nd ed. vol. ii. (Lipsiae, 1888), 1 ff.; Wetzer
  und Welte, _Kirchenlexikon_, 2nd ed. vol. iii. (Freiburg, 1884), 578
  ff.; Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopadie_, 3rd ed. vol. iv. (Leipzig,
  1898), 201.

CELESTINE III. (Giacinto Bobo), pope from 1191 to 1198, was cardinal
deacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin as early as 1144, and had reached the
age of eighty-five when chosen on the 30th of March 1191 to succeed
Clement III. The first pope of the house of the Orsini, his policy was
marked by mildness and indecision. Henry VI. of Germany at once forced
the pontiff to crown him emperor, and three or four years later took
possession of the Norman kingdom of Sicily; he refused tribute and the
oath of allegiance, and even appointed bishops subject to his own
jurisdiction; moreover, he gave his brother in fief the estates which
had belonged to the countess Matilda of Tuscany. Celestine did not dare
so much as to threaten him with excommunication. It was Celestine's
purpose to lay England under the interdict; but Prince John and the
barons still refused to recognize the papal legate, the bishop of Ely.
Richard I. had been set free before the dilatory pope put Leopold of
Austria under the ban. In his last sickness Celestine wished to resign
his office, but the cardinals protested. Death released him from his
perplexities on the 8th of January 1198.

  See "Epistolae Coelestini III. Papae," in M. Bouquet, _Receuil des
  historiens des Gaules et de la France_, tome 19 (Paris, 1738 ff.);
  J.P. Migne, _Patrologiae cursus completus_, tome 206 (Paris, 1855),
  867 ff.; further sources in _Neues Archiv für die ältere deutsche
  Geschichtskunde_, 2. 218; 11. 398 f.; 12.411-414; P. Jaffé, _Regesta
  Pontificum Romanorum_, vol. ii. (2nd ed.. Leipzig, 1888), 577 ff.
       (W. W. R.*)

CELESTINE IV. (Godfrey Castiglione), pope in 1241, son of a sister of
Urban III. (1185-1187), was archpriest and chancellor at Milan. After
Urban's death he entered the Cistercian monastery at Hautecombe in
Savoy. In 1227 Gregory IX. created him cardinal priest of St Mark's, and
in 1233 made him cardinal bishop of Sabina. Elected to succeed Gregory
on the 25th of October 1241, he died on the 10th of November, before
consecration, and was buried in St Peter's.

  See A. Potthast, _Regesta Pontificum Romanorum_, vol. i. (Berlin,
  1874), 940 f.

CELESTINE V. (St Peter Celestine), pope in 1294, was born of poor
parents at Isernia about 1215, and early entered the Benedictine order.
Living as a hermit on Monte Morrone near Sulmone in the Abruzzi, he
attracted other ascetics about him and organized them into a
congregation of the Benedictines which was later called the Celestines
(q.v.). The assistance of a vicar enabled him to escape from the growing
administrative cares and devote himself solely to asceticism, apparently
the only field of human activity in which he excelled. His _Opuscula_,
published by Telera at Naples in 1640, are probably not genuine; he was
_indoctus libris_. A fight between the Colonna and the Orsini, as well
as hopeless dissensions among the cardinals, prevented a papal election
for two years and three months after the death of Nicholas IV. Charles
II. of Naples, needing a pope in order that he might regain Sicily,
brought about a conclave. As the election of any cardinal seemed
impossible, on the 5th of July 1294 the Sacred College united on Pietro
di Morrone; the cardinals expected to rule in the name of the celebrated
but incapable ascetic. Apocalyptic notions then current doubtless aided
his election, for Joachim of Floris and his school looked to monasticism
to furnish deliverance to the church and to the world. Multitudes came
to Celestine's coronation at Aquila, and he began his reign the idol of
visionaries, of extremists and of the populace. But the pope was in the
power of Charles II. of Naples, and became his tool against Aragon. The
king's son Louis, a layman of twenty-one, was made archbishop of Lyons.
The cardinals, scarcely consulted at all, were discontented. The pope,
who wanted more time for his devotions, offered to leave three cardinals
in charge of affairs; but his proposition was rejected. He then wished
to abdicate, and at length Benedetto Gaetano, destined to succeed him as
Boniface VIII., removed all scruples against this unheard-of procedure
by finding a precedent in the case of Clement I. Celestine abdicated on
the 13th of December 1294. There is no sufficient ground for finding an
allusion to this act in the noted line of Dante, "Che fece per viltate
il gran rifiuto" ("who made from cowardice the great refusal,"
_Inferno_, 3, 60). Boniface at length put him in prison for safe
keeping; he died in a monastic cell in the castle of Fumone near Anagni
on the 19th of May 1296. He was canonized by Clement V. in 1313.

  See Wetzer und Welte and Herzog-Hauck (with excellent bibliography) as
  above; Jean Aurélien, Supérieur de la Congrégation des Célestins, _La
  Vie admirable de ... Saint Pierre Célestin_ (Bar-le-Duc, 1873); H.
  Finke, _Aus den Tagen Bonifaz VIII._ (Münster, 1902), pp. 24-43.
       (W. W. R.*)

CELESTINE, or CELESTITE, a name applied to native strontium sulphate
(SrSO4), having been suggested by the celestial blue colour which it
occasionally presents. This colour has been referred to a trace of iron
phosphate, but in some cases such an explanation appears doubtful. The
mineral is usually colourless, or has only a delicate shade of blue.
Celestine crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, being isomorphous
with barytes (q.v.). The angle between the prism faces is 76° 17'. The
cleavage is perfect parallel to the basal pinacoid, and less marked
parallel to the prism. Although celestine much resembles barytes in its
physical properties, having for example the same degree of hardness (3),
it is less dense, its specific gravity being 3.9. Celestine is a less
abundant mineral than barytes. It is, however, much more soluble, and
occurs frequently in mineral waters. W.W. Stoddart showed that many
plants growing on Keuper marls containing celestine near Bristol
appropriated the strontium salt, and the metal could be detected
spectroscopically in their ashes.

Celestine occurs in the Triassic rocks of Britain, especially in veins
and geodes in the Keuper marl in the neighbourhood of Bristol. At
Wickwar and Yate in Gloucestershire it is worked for industrial
purposes. Colourless crystals, of great beauty, occur in association
with calcite and native sulphur in the sulphur deposits of Sicily, as at
Girgenti. Fine blue crystals are yielded by the copper mines of
Herrengrund, in Hungary; a dark blue fibrous form is known from Jena;
and small crystals occur in flint at Meudon near Paris. Very large
tabular crystals are found in limestone on Strontian Island in Lake
Erie; and a blue fibrous variety from near Frankstown, Blair Co., Penn.,
is notable as having been the original celestine on which the species
was founded by A.G. Werner in 1798.

Celestine is much used for the preparation of strontium hydrate, which
is employed in refining beetroot sugar in Germany. The mineral is used
also as a source of various salts of strontium such as the nitrate,
which finds application in pyrotechny for the production of red fire.
     (F. W. R.*)

CELESTINES, a religious order founded about 1260 by Peter of Morrone,
afterwards Pope Celestine V. (1294). It was an attempt to unite the
eremitical and cenobitical modes of life. Peter's first disciples lived
as hermits on Mount Majella in the Abruzzi. The Benedictine rule was
taken as the basis of the life, but was supplemented by regulations
notably increasing the austerities practised. The form of government was
borrowed largely from those prevailing in the mendicant orders. Indeed,
though the Celestines are reckoned as a branch of the Benedictines,
there is little in common between them. For all that, St Celestine,
during his brief tenure of the papacy, tried to spread his ideas among
the Benedictines, and induced the monks of Monte Cassino to adopt his
idea of the monastic life instead of St Benedict's; for this purpose
fifty Celestine monks were introduced into Monte Cassino, but on
Celestine's abdication of the papacy the project fortunately was at once
abandoned. During the founder's lifetime the order spread rapidly, and
eventually there were about 150 monasteries in Italy, and others in
France, Bohemia and the Netherlands. The French houses, twenty-one in
number, formed a separate congregation, the head-house being in Paris.
The French Revolution and those of the 19th century destroyed their
houses, and the Celestine order seems no longer to exist.

Peter of Morrone was in close contact with the Franciscan Spirituals of
the extreme type (see FRANCISCANS), and he endeavoured to form an
amalgamation between them and his hermits, under the title "Poor Hermits
of Celestine." On his abdication the amalgamation was dissolved, and the
Franciscan element fled to the East and was finally suppressed by
Boniface VIII. and compelled to re-enter the Franciscan order. The habit
of the Celestines was black.

  See Helyot, _Histoire des ordres religieux_ (1792), vi. c. 23; Max
  Heimbucher, _Orden und Kongregationen_ (1896), i. § 22, p. 134; the
  art. "Cölestiner" in Wetzer und Welte, _Kirchenlexicon_ (ed. 2), and
  Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (ed. 3).     (E. C. B.)

CELIBACY (Lat. _caelibatus_, from _caelebs_, unmarried), the state of
being unmarried, a term now commonly used in the sense of complete
abstinence from marriage; it originally included the state of widowhood
also, and any one was strictly a _caelebs_ who had no existing spouse.
Physicians and physiologists have frequently discussed celibacy from
their professional point of view; but it will be sufficient to note here
the results of statistical inquiries. It has been established by the
calculations of actuaries that married persons--women in a considerable,
but men in a much greater degree---have at all periods of life a greater
probability of living than the single. From the point of view of public
utility, the state has sometimes attempted to discourage celibacy. The
best-known enactment of this kind is that of the emperor Augustus, best
known as _Lex Julia et Papia Poppaea_. This disabled _caelibes_ from
receiving an inheritance unless the testator were related to them within
the sixth degree; it limited the amount which a wife could take by a
husband's will, or the husband by the wife's, unless they had children;
and preference was given to candidates for office in proportion to the
number of their children.[1] Ecclesiastical legislators, on the other
hand, have frequently favoured the unmarried state; and celibacy,
partial or complete, has been more or less stringently enforced upon the
ministers of different religions; many instances are quoted by H.C. Lea.
The best known, of course, are the Roman Vestals; though here even the
great honours and privileges accorded to these maidens were often
insufficient to keep the ranks filled. In the East, however, this and
other forms of asceticism have always flourished more freely; and the
Buddhist monastic system is not only far older than that of Christendom,
but also proportionately more extensive.[2] In early Judaism, chastity
was indeed enjoined upon the priests at certain solemn seasons; but
there was no attempt to enforce celibacy upon the sacerdotal caste. On
the contrary, all priests were the sons of priests, and the case of
Elizabeth shows that here, as throughout the Jewish people, barrenness
was considered a disgrace. But Alexander's conquests brought the Jews
into contact with Hindu and Greek mysticism; and this probably explains
the growth of the ascetic Essenes some two centuries before the
Christian era. The adherents of this sect, unlike the Pharisees and
Sadducees, were never denounced by Christ, who seems on the contrary to
have had real sympathy with the voluntary celibacy of an exceptional few
(Matt. xix. 12). St Paul's utterances on this subject, though they go
somewhat further, amount only to the assertion that a struggling
missionary body will find more freedom in its work in the absence of
wives and children. At the same time, St Paul claimed emphatically for
himself and the other apostles the right of leading about a wife; and he
names among the qualifications for a bishop, an elder and a deacon,
that he should be "the husband of one wife." Indeed it was freely
admitted by the most learned men of the middle ages and Renaissance that
celibacy had been no rule of the apostolic church; and, though writers
of ability have attempted to maintain the contrary even in modern times,
their contentions are unhesitatingly rejected by the latest Roman
Catholic authority.[3]

The gradual growth of clerical celibacy, first as a custom and then as a
rule of discipline, can be traced clearly enough even through the scanty
records of the first few centuries. The most ascetic Christians began to
question the legality of second marriages on the part of either sex, as
even paganism had often reprobated second marriages of women. Though
these extremists were presently branded as heretics for their eccentric
ultra-ascetic tenets (Montanists, Cathari), yet as early as Tertullian's
time (c. A.D. 220) the right of second marriages was theoretically
denied to the priesthood. This was logically followed by a revival of
the old Levitical rule which required that priests should marry none but
virgins (Lev. xxi. 7, 13). Both these rules, however, proved difficult
of enforcement and seem to have rested only on a vague basis of public
opinion; twice-married men (_digami_) were admitted to the priesthood by
Pope Calixtus I. (219-222), and even as late as the beginning of the 5th
century we find husbands of widows consecrated to the episcopate. The
so-called Apostolical Constitutions and Canons, the latter of which were
compiled in the 4th century, give us the first clear and fairly general
rules on the subject. Here we find "bishops and priests allowed to
retain the wives whom they may have had before ordination, but not to
marry in orders; the lower grades, deacons, subdeacons, &c., allowed to
marry after entering the church; but all were to be husbands of but one
wife, who must be neither a widow, a divorced woman nor a concubine"
(Lea i. 28). Many causes, however, were already at work to carry public
feeling beyond this stage. Quite apart from the few enthusiasts who
would have given a literal interpretation to the text in Matt, xix. 12,
vows of virginity became more and more frequent as the virtue itself was
lauded by ecclesiastical writers in language of increasing fervour.
These vows were at first purely voluntary and temporary; but public
opinion naturally grew less and less tolerant of those who, having once
formed and published so solemn a resolution, broke it afterwards. Again
not only was the church doctrine itself more or less consciously
influenced by the Manichaean tenet of the diabolical origin of all
matter, including the human body, but churchmen were also naturally
tempted to compete in asceticism with the many heretics who held this
tenet, and whose abstinence brought them so much popular consideration.
Moreover, in proportion as the clergy, no longer mere ringleaders of a
despised and persecuted sect, became beneficiaries and administrators of
rich endowments--and this at a time when the external safeguards against
embezzlement were comparatively weak--a strong feeling grew up among the
laity that church revenues should not go to support the priest's
family.[4] Lastly, such partial attempts as we have already described to
enforce upon the clergy a special rule of continence, by their very
failure, suggested more heroic measures. Therefore, side by side with
the evidence for difficult enforcement of the old rules, we find an
equally constant series of new and more stringent enactments.

The first church council which definitely forbade marriage to the higher
clergy was the local Spanish synod of Elvira (A.D. 305). A similar
interpretation has sometimes been claimed for the third canon of that
general council of Nicaea to which we owe the Nicene creed (325), but
this is now abandoned by the best authorities on all sides. There can be
no doubt, however, that the 4th century opened a wide breach in this
respect between the Eastern and Western churches. The modern Greek
custom is "(a) that most candidates for Holy Orders are dismissed from
the episcopal seminaries shortly before being ordained deacons, in order
that they may marry (their partners being in fact mostly daughters of
clergymen), and after their marriage, return to the seminaries in order
to take the higher orders; (b) that, as priests, they still continue the
marriages thus contracted, but may not remarry on the death of their
wife; and (c) that the Greek bishops, who may not continue their married
life, are commonly not chosen out of the ranks of the married secular
clergy, but from among the monks."[5] The Eastern Church, therefore,
still adheres fairly closely to the rules laid down by the Apostolical
Canons in the 4th century. In the West, however, a decisive forward step
was taken by Popes Damasus and Siricius during the last quarter of that
century. The famous decretal of Siricius (385) not only enjoined strict
celibacy on bishops, priests and deacons, but insisted on the instant
separation of those who had already married, and prescribed the
punishment of expulsion for disobedience (Siric. _Ep._ i. c. 7; Migne,
_P.L._ xiii. col. 1138). Although we find Siricius a year later writing
to the African Church on this same subject in tones rather of persuasion
than of command, yet the beginning of compulsory sacerdotal celibacy in
the Western Church may be conveniently dated from his decretal of A.D.
385. Leo the Great (d. 461) and Gregory the Great (d. 604) further
extended the rule of celibacy to subdeacons.

For the next three or four centuries there is little to note but the
continual evidence of open or secret resistance to these decrees, and
the parallel frequency and stringency of ecclesiastical legislation,
which by its very monotony bears witness to its own want of success. At
least seven episcopal constitutions of the 8th and 9th centuries forbade
the priest to have even his mother or his sister in the house.[6] Nor
did the only difficulty lie in such secret breaches of the law; in many
districts the priesthood tended to become a mere hereditary caste, to
the disadvantage of church and state alike. In northern and southern
Italy public clerical marriages were extremely frequent, whether with or
without regular forms.[7] The see of Rouen was held for more than a
century (942-1054) by three successive bishops who were family men and
two of whom were openly married.[8] In England St Swithun (d. 862) was
married, though very likely by special papal dispensation; and the
married clergy were apparently predominant in Alfred's time. In spite of
Dunstan's reforms at the end of the 10th century, the Norman Lanfranc
found so many wedded priests that he dared not decree their separation;
and when his successor St Anselm attempted to go further, this seemed a
perilous novelty even to so distinguished an ecclesiastic as Henry of
Huntingdon, who wrote: "About Michaelmas of this same year (1102)
Archbishop Anselm held a council in London, wherein he forbade wives to
the English priesthood, heretofore not forbidden; which seemed to some a
matter of great purity, but to others a perilous thing, lest the clergy,
in striving after a purity too great for human strength, should fall
into horrible impurity, to the extreme dishonour of the Christian name"
(lib. vii.; Migne, _P.L._ cxcv. col. 944). Yet this was at a time when
the decisive and continued action of two great popes ought to have left
no possible doubt as to the law of the church.

The growing tendency of the clergy to look upon their endowments as
hereditary fiefs, their consequent worldliness and (it must be added)
their vices, aroused the indignation of two very remarkable men in the
latter half of the 11th century. St Pietro Damiani (988-1072) was a
scholar, hermit and reformer, who did more perhaps than any one else to
combat the open marriages of the clergy. He complained that exhortation
was wasted even on the bishops, "because they despair of attaining to
the pinnacle of chastity, and have no fear of condemnation in open synod
for the vice of lechery.... If this evil were secret [he adds], it might
perhaps be borne."[9] His _Liber Gomorrhianus_, addressed to and
approved by St Leo IX., is sufficient in itself to explain the vehemence
of his crusade, though it emphasizes even more strongly the impolicy of
proceeding more severely against the open marriages of the clergy than
against concubinage and other less public vices.[10] Damiani found a
powerful ally in the equally ascetic but far more imperious and
statesmanlike Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory VII. Under the
influence of these two men, five successive popes between 1045 and 1073
attempted a radical reform; and when, in this latter year, Hildebrand
himself became pope, he took measures so stringent that he has sometimes
been erroneously represented not merely as the most uncompromising
champion, but actually as the author of the strict rule of celibacy for
all clerics in sacred orders. His mind, strongly imbued with the
theocratic ideal, saw more clearly than any other the enormous increase
of influence which would accrue to a strictly celibate body of clergy,
separated by their very ordination from the strongest earthly ties; and
no statesman has ever pursued with greater energy and resolution a plan
once formulated. In order to break down the desperate, and in many
places organized, resistance of the clergy, he did not shrink from the
perilous course, so contrary to his general policy, of subjecting them
to the judgment of the laity. Not only were concubinary priests--a term
which was now made to include also those who had openly
married--forbidden to serve at the altar and threatened with actual
deposition in cases of contumacy, but the laity were warned against
attending mass said by "any priest certainly known to keep a concubine
or _subintroducta_."[11]

But these heroic measures soon caused serious embarrassment. If the
laity were to stand aloof from all incontinent priests, while (as the
most orthodox churchmen constantly complained) many priests were still
incontinent, then this could only result in estranging large bodies of
the laity from the sacraments of the church. It became necessary,
therefore, to soften a policy which to the lay mind might imply that the
virtue of a sacrament was weakened by the vices of its ministers; and,
whereas Peter Lombard (d. 1160) concludes that no excommunicated priest
can effect transubstantiation, St Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274) agrees with
all the later Schoolmen in granting him that power, though to the peril
of his own soul.[12] For, by the last quarter of the 13th century, the
struggle had entered upon a new phase. The severest measures had been
tried, especially against the priests' unhappy partners. As early as the
council of Augsburg (952) these were condemned to be scourged, while Leo
II. and Urban II., at the councils of Rome and Amalfi (1051, 1089),
adjudged them to actual slavery.[13] Such enactments naturally defeated
their own purpose. More was done by the gentler missionary zeal of the
Franciscans and Dominicans in the early 13th century; but St Thomas
Aquinas had seen half a century of that reform and had recognized its
limitations; he therefore attenuated as much as possible the decree of
Nicholas II. His contemporary St Bonaventura complained publicly that he
himself and his fellow-friars were often compelled to hold their tongues
about the evil clergy; partly because, even if one were expelled,
another equally worthless would probably take his place, but "perhaps
principally lest, if the people altogether lost faith in the clergy,
heretics should arise and draw the people to themselves as sheep that
have no shepherd, and make heretics of them, boasting that, as it were
by our own testimony, the clergy were so vile that none need obey them
or care for their teaching."[14] In other passages of his works St
Bonaventura tells us plainly how little had as yet been gained by
suppressing clerical marriages; and the evidence of orthodox and
distinguished churchmen for the next three centuries is equally
decisive. Alvarez Pelayo, a Spanish bishop and papal penitentiary, wrote
in 1322 "The clergy sin commonly in these following ways ... fourthly,
in that they live very incontinently, and would that they had never
promised continence! especially in Spain and southern Italy, in which
provinces the sons of the laity are scarcely more numerous than those of
the clergy." Cardinal Pierre d'Ailly pleaded before the council of
Constance in 1415 for the reform of "that most scandalous custom, or
rather abuse, whereby many [clergy] fear not to keep concubines in

Meanwhile, as has been said above, the custom of open marriage among
clergy in holy orders (priests, deacons and subdeacons) was gradually
stamped out. A series of synods, from the early 12th century onwards,
declared such marriages to be not only unlawful, but null and void in
themselves. Yet the custom lingered sporadically in Germany and England
until the last few years of the 13th century, though it seems to have
died out earlier in France and Italy. There was also a short-lived
attempt to declare that even a clerk in lower orders should lose his
clerical privileges on his marriage; but Boniface VIII. in 1300
definitely permitted such marriages under the already-quoted conditions
of the Apostolic Canons; in these cases, however, a bishop's licence was
required to enable the cleric to officiate in church, and the episcopal
registers show that the diocesans frequently insisted on the celibacy of
parish-clerks. As the middle ages drew to a close, earnest churchmen
were compelled to ask themselves whether it would not be better to let
the priests marry than to continue a system under which concubinage was
even licensed in some districts.[16] Serious proposals were made to
reintroduce clerical marriage at the great reforming councils of
Constance (1415) and Basel (1432); but the overwhelming majority of
orthodox churchmen were unwilling to abandon a rule for which the saints
had fought during so many centuries, and to which many of them probably
attributed an apostolic origin.[17] This conservative attitude was
inevitably strengthened by the attacks first of Lollard and then, of
Lutheran heretics; and Sir Thomas More was driven to declare, in answer
to Tyndale, that the marriage of priests, being essentially null and
void, "defileth the priest more than double or treble whoredom." It is
well known that this became one of the most violently disputed questions
at the Reformation, and that for eight years it was felony in England to
defend sacerdotal marriage as permissible by the law of God (Statute of
the Six Articles, 31 Hen. VIII. c. 14). The diversity of practice on
this point drew one of the sharpest lines between reformers and
orthodox, until the disorders introduced by these religious wars tempted
the latter to imitate in considerable numbers the licence of their
rivals.[18] This moved the emperor Charles V. to obtain from Paul III.
dispensations for married priests in his dominions; and his successor
Ferdinand, with the equally Catholic sovereigns of France, Bavaria and
Poland, pleaded strongly at the council of Trent (1545) for permissive
marriage. The council, after some hesitation, took the contrary course,
and in the 9th canon of its 24th session it erected sacerdotal celibacy
practically, if not formally, into an article of faith. In spite of
this, the emperor Joseph II. reopened the question in 1783. In France
the revolutionary constitution of 1791 abolished all restrictions on
marriage, and during the Terror celibacy often exposed a priest to
suspicion as an enemy to the Republic; but the better part of the clergy
steadily resisted this innovation, and it is estimated that only about
2% were married. The Old Catholics adopted the principle of sacerdotal
marriage in 1875.

The working of the system in modern times is perhaps too controversial a
question to be discussed here; but one or two points may be noted on
which all fairly well informed writers would probably agree. It can
scarcely be denied that the Roman Catholic clergy have always owed much
of their influence to their celibacy, and that in many cases this
influence has been most justly earned by the celibate's devotion to an
unworldly ideal. Again, the most adverse critics would admit that much
was done by the counter-Reformation, and that modern ecclesiastical
discipline on this point is considerably superior to that of the middle
ages; while, on the other hand, many authorities of undoubted orthodoxy
are ready to confess that it is not free from serious risks even in
these days of easy publicity and stringent civil discipline.[19] Lastly,
statistical research has shown that the children of the married British
clergy have been distinguished far beyond their mere numerical

  AUTHORITIES.--Henry Charles Lea, _History of Sacerdotal Celibacy_ (3rd
  ed., 1907, 2 vols), is by far the fullest and best work on this
  subject, though a good deal of important matter omitted by Dr Lea may
  be found in _Die Einfuhrung der erzwungenen Ehelosigkeit_ by the
  brothers Johann Anton and Augustin Theiner, which was put on the Roman
  _Index_, though Augustin afterwards became archivist at the Vatican
  (Altenburg, 1828, 2 vols.). The history of monastic celibacy has not
  yet been fully treated anywhere; the most important evidence of the
  episcopal registers is either still in MS. or has been published only
  in comparatively recent years. The most learned work on clerical
  celibacy from the strictly conservative point of view is that of
  Francesco Antonio Zaccaria, _Storia Polemica del celibato sacro_
  (Rome, 1774); but many of his most important conclusions are set
  aside by the abbé E. Vacandard in his contribution to the
  _Dictionnaire de théologie catholique_ (vol. ii. art. "Célibat
  ecclésiastique").     (G. G. Co.)


  [1] W. Smith, _Dict. of Greek and Roman Antiquities_ (3rd ed.), vol.
    ii. p. 44.

  [2] "In the 14th century, the city of Ilchi, in Chinese Tartary,
    possessed 14 monasteries, averaging 3000 devotees in each; while in
    Tibet, at the present time, there are in the vicinity of Lhassa 12
    great monasteries, containing a population of 18,500 lamas. In Ladak
    the proportion of lamas to the laity is as 1 to 13, in Spiti 1 to 7,
    and in Burmah 1 to 30" (Lea i. 103).

  [3] 1 Cor. vii. 25 sq., ix. 5; 1 Tim. iii. 2, 11, 12; Titus i. 6; E.
    Vacandard in _Dict. de Théol. Cath._, s.v. "Célibat."

  [4] This was a natural argument for the defenders of clerical
    celibacy even in far later times. St Bonaventura (d. 1274) puts this
    very strongly: "For if archbishops and bishops now had children, they
    would rob and plunder all the goods of the Church so that little or
    nothing would be left for the poor. For since they now heap up wealth
    and enrich nephews removed from them by almost incalculable degrees
    of affinity, what would they do if they had legitimate children?...
    Therefore the Holy Ghost in His providence hath removed this
    stumbling-block," &c. &c. (_In Sent._ lib. iv. dist. xxxvii art. i.
    quaest. 3).

  [5] Hefele, _Beitrage zur Kirchengesch. u.s.w._ i. 139.

  [6] See the quotations in Lea i. 156. These prohibitions were renewed
    in the 13th and 14th centuries (ibid. i. 410).

  [7] Ratherius, _Itinerarium_, c. 5 (Migne, _P.L._ cxxxvi. col. 585).
    Gulielmus Apulus writes of southern Italy in 1059: "In these parts
    priests, deacons and the whole clergy were publicly married" (_De
    Normann._ lib. ii.).

  [8] Dom Pommeraye, _S. Rotomag. Eccl. Concilia_, pp. 56, 65; cf.
    similar instances on p. 315 of Dr A. Dresdner's _Kultur-und
    Sittengeschichte d. italienischen Geistlichkeit im 10. und 11. Jhdt._
    (Breslau, 1890).

  [9] _Opusc._ xvii. praef. The saint's evidence is carefully weighed
    by Dresdner (l.c.), especially on pp. 309 ff. and 321 ff.

  [10] Even Pope Innocent III. was compelled to decide that priests who
    had kept two or more concubines, successively or simultaneously, did
    not thereby incur the disabilities which attended digamists; or, in
    other words, that a layman who had contracted two lawful marriages
    and then proceeded to ordination on the death of his second wife,
    could be absolved only by the pope; whereas the concubinary priest,
    "as a man branded with simple fornication," might receive a valid
    dispensation from his own bishop (Letter to archbishop of Lund in
    1212. _Regest._ lib. xvi. ep. 118; Migne, _P.L._ ccxvi. col. 914). As
    the great canonist Gratian remarked on a similar decretal of Pope
    Pelagius, "Here is a case where lechery has more rights at law than
    has chastity" (_Decret._ p. i. dist. xxxiv. c. vii. note a).

  [11] The actual originator of this policy was Nicholas II., probably
    at Hildebrand's suggestion; but the decree remained practically a
    dead letter until Gregory's accession.

  [12] Peter Lombard, _Sentent._ lib. iv. dist. 13; Aquinas, _Summa
    Theol._ pars iii. Q. lxxxiii. art. 7, 9.

  [13] Labbe-Mansi, _Concilia_, vol. xix. col. 796 and xx. col. 724. Dr
    Lea is probably right in suggesting that it was a confused
    recollection of these decrees which prompted one of Cranmer's judges
    to assure him that "his children were bondmen to the see of
    Canterbury." Strype, _Memorials of Cranmer_, bk iii. c. 28 (ed. 1812,
    vol. i. p. 601).

  [14] Bonaventura, _Libell. Apologet._ quaest. i.; cf. his parallel
    treatise _Quare Fratres Minores praedicent_. The first visitation of
    his friend Odo Rigaldi, archbishop of Rouen, shows that about 15% of
    the parish clergy in that diocese were notoriously incontinent
    (_Regestrum Visitationum_, ed. Bonnin, Rouen, 1852, pp. 17 ff.).
    Vacandard (loc. cit. p. 2087) appeals rather misleadingly to this
    record as proving the progress made during the half-century before
    Odo's time. It is probable that there were many more offenders than
    these 15% known to the archbishop.

  [15] Alvarus Pelagius, _De Planctu Ecclesiae_, ed. 1517, f. 131a,
    col. 2; cf. f. 102b, col. 2; Hermann von der Hardt, _Constantiensis
    Concilii_, &c. vol. i. pars. viii. col. 428.

  [16] This more or less regular sale of licences by bishops and
    archdeacons flourished from the days of Gregory VII. to the 16th
    century; see index to Lea, s.v. "Licences." Dr Lea has, however,
    omitted the most striking authority of all. Gascoigne, the most
    distinguished Oxford chancellor of his day, writing about 1450 of
    John de la Bere, then bishop of St David's, says that he had refused
    to separate the clergy of his diocese from their concubines, giving
    publicly as his reason, "for then I your bishop should lose the 400
    marks which I receive yearly in my diocese for the priests' lemans"
    (Gascoigne, _Lib. Ver._ ed. Rogers, p. 36). Even Sir Thomas More, in
    his polemic against the Reformers, admitted that this concubinage was
    too often tolerated in Wales (_English Works_, ed. 1557, p. 231, cf.

  [17] One of Dr Lea's few serious mistakes is his acceptance of the
    spurious pamphlet in favour of priestly marriage which was attributed
    in the 11th century to St Ulrich of Augsburg (i. 171).

  [18] Janssen, _Gesch. d. deutschen Volkes_, 13th ed., vol. viii. pp.
    423, 4, 9; 434; Lea ii. 195, 204. ff.

  [19] Lea (ii. 339. ff.) gives a long series of quotations to this
    effect from church synods and orthodox disciplinary writers of modern

  [20] Havelock Ellis, _A Study of British Genius_ (London, 1904, p.
    80), "Even if we compare the church with the other professions with
    which it is most usually classed, we find that the eminent children
    of the clergy considerably outnumber those of lawyers, doctors and
    army officers put together." Mr Ellis points put, however, that "the
    clerical profession ... also produces more idiots than any other

CELL (from Lat. _cella_, probably from an Indo-European _kal_--seen in
Lat. _celare_, to hide; another suggestion connects the word with Lat.
_cera_, wax, taking the original meaning to refer to the honeycomb), in
its earliest application a small detached room in a building,
particularly a small monastic house (see ABBEY), generally in the
country, belonging to large conventual buildings, and intended for
change of air for the monks, as well as places to reside in to look
after the lands, vassals, &c. Thus Tynemouth was a cell to St Albans;
Ashwell, Herts, to Westminster Abbey. The term was also used of the
small sleeping apartments of the monks, or a small apartment used by the
anchorite or hermit. This use still survives in the application to the
small separate chambers in a prison (q.v.) in which prisoners are
confined. The word is applied to various small compartments which build
up a compound structure such as a honeycomb, to the minute compartments
in a tissue, &c. More particularly the word is used, in electrical
science, of the single constituent compartments of a voltaic battery
(q.v.), and in biology of the living units of protoplasm of which plants
and animals are composed (see CYTOLOGY).

CELLA, in architecture, the Latin name for the sanctuary of a Roman
temple, corresponding with the naos of the Greek temple. In the Etruscan
temples, according to Vitruvius, there were three cellas, side by side;
and in the temple of Venus built by Hadrian at Rome there were two
cellas, both enclosed, however, in a single peristyle.

CELLARET (i.e. little cellar), strictly that portion of a sideboard
which is used for holding bottles and decanters, so called from a cellar
(which in general may be any underground unlighted apartment) being
commonly used for keeping wine. Sometimes it is a drawer, divided into
compartments lined with zinc, and sometimes a cupboard, but still an
integral part of the sideboard. In the latter part of the 18th century,
when the sideboard was in process of evolution from a side-table with
drawers into the large and important piece of furniture which it
eventually became, the cellaret was a detached receptacle. It was most
commonly of mahogany or rosewood, many-sided or even octagonal, and
occasionally oval, bound with broad bands of brass and lined with zinc
partitions to hold the ice for cooling wine. Sometimes a tap was fixed
in the lower part for drawing off the water from the melted ice.
Cellarets were usually placed under the sideboard, and were, as a rule,
handsome and well-proportioned; but as the artistic impulse which
created the great 18th-century English school of furniture died away,
their form grew debased, and under the influence of the English Empire
fashion, which drew its inspiration from a bastard classicism, they
assumed the shape of sarcophagi incongruously mounted with lions' heads
and claw-feet. Hepplewhite called them "gardes du vin"; they are now
nearly always known as "wine-coolers."

CELLE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, on the
left bank of the navigable Aller, near its junction with the Fuse and
the Lachte, 23 m. N.E. of Hanover, on the main Lehrte-Hamburg railway.
Pop. (1905) 21,400. The town has a Roman Catholic and five Protestant
churches, among the latter the town-church with the burial vault of the
dukes of Lüneburg-Celle. Here rest the remains of Sophia Dorothea, wife
of the elector George of Hanover, afterwards George I. of England, and
those of Caroline Matilda, the divorced wife of Christian VII. of
Denmark and sister of George III. of England, who resided here from 1772
until her death in 1775. The most interesting building in Celle is the
former ducal palace, begun in 1485 in Late Gothic style, but with
extensive Renaissance additions of the close of the 17th century. The
building of the court of appeal (_Oberlandesgericht_), with a valuable
library of 60,000 volumes and many MSS., including a priceless copy of
the _Sachsenspiegel_, the museum and the hall of the estates
(_Landschaftshaus_) are also worthy of notice. There are manufactures of
woollen yarn, tobacco, biscuits, umbrellas and printers' ink, and a
lively trade is carried on in wax, honey, wool and timber. Celle is the
seat of the court of appeal from the superior courts of Aurich, Detmold,
Göttingen, Hanover, Hildesheim, Lüneburg, Osnabrück, Stade and Verden.
Founded in 1292, the town was the residence of the dukes of
Lüneburg-Celle, a cadet branch of the ducal house of Brunswick, from the
14th century until 1705.

  See Dehning, _Geschichte der Stadt Celle_ (Celle, 1891).

CELLIER, ALFRED (1844-1891), English musical composer, was born at
Hackney on the 1st of December 1844. From 1855 to 1860 he was a
chorister at the Chapel Royal, St James's, under the Rev. Thomas
Helmore, where Arthur Sullivan was one of his youthful colleagues. His
first appointment was that of organist at All Saints' church, Blackheath
(1862). In 1866 he succeeded Dr Chipp as director of the Ulster Hall
concerts, Belfast, at the same time acting as conductor of the Belfast
Philharmonic Society. In 1868 he returned to London as organist of St
Alban's, Holborn. From 1871 to 1875 he was conductor at the Prince's
theatre, Manchester; and from 1877 to 1879 at various London theatres.
During this period he composed many comic operas and operettas, of which
the most successful was _The Sultan of Mocha_, which was produced at
Manchester in 1874, in London at the St James's theatre in 1876, and
revived at the Strand theatre in 1887. In 1880 Cellier visited America,
producing a musical version of Longfellow's _Masque of Pandora_ at
Boston (1881). In 1883 his setting of Gray's _Elegy_ in the form of a
cantata was produced at the Leeds Festival. In 1886 he won the great
success of his life in _Dorothy_, a comic opera written to a libretto by
B.C. Stephenson, which was produced at the Gaiety theatre on the 25th of
September 1886, and, transferred first to the Prince of Wales theatre
and subsequently to the Lyric theatre, ran until April 1889. _Doris_
(1889), and _The Mountebanks_, which was produced in January 1892, a few
days after the composer's death, were less successful. Cellier owed much
to the influence of Sir Arthur Sullivan. He had little of the latter's
humour and vivacity, but he was a fertile melodist, and his writing is
invariably distinguished by elegance and refinement. He died in London
on the 28th of December 1891.

CELLINI, BENVENUTO (1500-1571), Italian artist, metal worker and
sculptor, was born in Florence, where his family, originally landowners
in the Val d'Ambra, had for three generations been settled. His father,
Giovanni Cellini, was a musician and artificer of musical instruments;
he married Maria Lisabetta Granacci, and eighteen years elapsed before
they had any progeny. Benvenuto (meaning "Welcome") was the third child.
The father destined him for the same profession as himself, and
endeavoured to thwart his inclination for design and metal work. When he
had reached the age of fifteen his youthful predilection had become too
strong to be resisted, and his father reluctantly gave consent to his
being apprenticed to a goldsmith, Antonio di Sandro, named Marcone. He
had already attracted some notice in his native place, when, being
implicated in a fray with some of his companions, he was banished for
six months to Siena, where he work