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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 7 - "Cerargyrite" to "Charing Cross"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 7 - "Cerargyrite" to "Charing Cross"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE CHALCIS: "Chalcis subsequently became a member of both the
      Delian Leagues. In the Hellenistic period it gained importance as a
      fortress by which the Macedonian rulers controlled central Greece".
      'importance' amended from 'inportance'.

    ARTICLE CHAMISSO, ADELBERT VON: "He often deals with gloomy and
      sometimes with ghastly and repulsive subjects; and even in his
      lighter and gayer productions there is an undertone of sadness or
      of satire". 'productions' Amended from 'proudctions'.

    ARTICLE CHANNEL ISLANDS: "... Burhou and Ortach, and numerous other
      islets west of it, and west again the notorious Casquets, an angry
      group of jagged rocks, on the largest of which is a powerful
      lighthouse". 'an' amended from 'and'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME V, SLICE VII

        Cerargyrite to Charing Cross



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  CERARGYRITE                     CHAMBERS
  CERBERUS                        CHAMBERSBURG
  CERDIC                          CHAMBÉRY
  CERDONIANS                      CHAMBORD, HENRI CHARLES DIEUDONNÉ
  CEREALIS, PETILLIUS             CHAMBORD
  CERES                           CHAMBRE ARDENTE
  CERIGNOLA                       CHAMELEON
  CERIGOTTO                       CHAMFER
  CERINTHUS                       CHAMFORT, SEBASTIEN ROCH NICOLAS
  CERIUM                          CHAMIER, FREDERICK
  CERNUSCHI, HENRI                CHAMILLART, MICHEL
  CEROGRAPHY                      CHAMINADE, CÉCILE
  CERRO DE PASCO                  CHAMISSO, ADELBERT VON
  CERTALDO                        CHAMKANNI
  CERUSSITE                       CHAMOIS
  CERUTTI, GIUSEPPE GIACHIMO      CHAMOMILE
  CERVANTES SAAVEDRA, MIGUEL DE   CHAMONIX
  CERVERA, PASCUAL TOPETE         CHAMPAGNE
  CESAREVICH                      CHAMPAGNY, JEAN BAPTISTE NOMPÈRE DE
  CESARI, GIUSEPPE                CHAMPAIGN
  CESAROTTI, MELCHIORE            CHAMPAIGNE, PHILIPPE DE
  CESENA                          CHAMPARAN
  CESNOLA, LUIGI PALMA DI         CHAMPEAUX, WILLIAM OF
  CESPEDES, PABLO DE              CHAMPERTY
  CÉSPEDES Y MENESES, GONZALO DE  CHAMPION
  CESS                            CHAMPIONNET, JEAN ÉTIENNE
  CESSIO BONORUM                  CHAMPLAIN, SAMUEL DE
  CESTI, MARC' ANTONIO            CHAMPLAIN
  CESTIUS, LUCIUS                 CHAMPMESLÉ, MARIE
  CESTUI, CESTUY                  CHAMPOLLION, JEAN FRANÇOIS
  CETACEA                         CHAMPOLLION-FIGEAC, JACQUES JOSEPH
  CETHEGUS                        CHANCE
  CETINA, GUTIERRE DE             CHANCEL
  CETTE                           CHANCELLOR
  CETTIGNE                        CHANCELLORSVILLE
  CETUS                           CHANCE-MEDLEY
  CETYWAYO                        CHANCERY
  CEUTA                           CHANDA
  CEVA                            CHANDAUSI
  CÉVENNES                        CHAND BARDAI
  CEYLON                          CHANDELIER
  CHABAZITE                       CHANDERNAGORE
  CHABLIS                         CHANDLER, HENRY WILLIAM
  CHABOT, FRANÇOIS                CHANDLER, RICHARD
  CHABOT, GEORGES ANTOINE         CHANDLER, SAMUEL
  CHABOT, PHILIPPE DE             CHANDLER, ZACHARIAH
  CHABRIAS                        CHANDOS, BARONS AND DUKES OF
  CHABRIER, ALEXIS EMMANUEL       CHANDOS, SIR JOHN
  CHACMA                          CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA
  CHACO                           CHANGARNIER, NICOLAS ANNE THÉODULE
  CHACONNE                        CHANG-CHOW
  CHAD, SAINT                     CHANG CHUN, KIU
  CHAD                            CHANGE
  CHADDERTON                      CHANGELING
  CHADERTON, LAURENCE             CHANGOS
  CHADWICK, SIR EDWIN             CHANGRA
  CHAEREMON (Athenian dramatist)  CHANNEL ISLANDS
  CHAEREMON (Stoic philosopher)   CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY
  CHAERONEIA                      CHANSONS DE GESTE
  CHAETOGNATHA                    CHANT
  CHAETOPODA                      CHANTABUN
  CHAETOSOMATIDA                  CHANTADA
  CHAFER                          CHANTAGE
  CHAFF                           CHANTARELLE
  CHAFFARINAS                     CHANTAVOINE, HENRI
  CHAFFEE, ADNA ROMANZA           CHANTILLY
  CHAFFINCH                       CHANTREY, SIR FRANCIS LEGATT
  CHAFING-DISH                    CHANT ROYAL
  CHAGOS                          CHANTRY
  CHAGRES                         CHANUTE
  CHAIN                           CHANZY, ANTOINE EUGÈNE ALFRED
  CHAIR                           CHAOS
  CHAISE                          CHAPBOOK
  CHAKRATA                        CHAPE
  CHALCEDON                       CHAPEL
  CHALCEDON, COUNCIL OF           CHAPELAIN, JEAN
  CHALCEDONY                      CHAPEL-EN-LE-FRITH
  CHALCIDICUM                     CHAPEL HILL
  CHALCIS                         CHAPELLE ARDENTE
  CHALCONDYLES                    CHAPERON
  CHALDAEA                        CHAPLAIN
  CHALDEE                         CHAPLIN, HENRY
  CHALICE                         CHAPMAN, GEORGE
  CHALIER, JOSEPH                 CHAPMAN
  CHALK                           CHAPONE, HESTER
  CHALKHILL, JOHN                 CHAPPE, CLAUDE
  CHALKING THE DOOR               CHAPPELL, WILLIAM
  CHALLAMEL, JEAN AUGUSTIN        CHAPRA
  CHALLEMEL-LACOUR, PAUL AMAND    CHAPTAL, JEAN ANTOINE CLAUDE
  CHALLENGE                       CHAPTER
  "CHALLENGER" EXPEDITION         CHAPTER-HOUSE
  CHALLONER, RICHARD              CHAPU
  CHALMERS, ALEXANDER             CHAR
  CHALMERS, GEORGE                CHAR-À-BANC
  CHALMERS, GEORGE PAUL           CHARACTER
  CHALMERS, JAMES                 CHARADE
  CHALMERS, THOMAS                CHARCOAL
  CHALONER, SIR THOMAS            CHARCOT, JEAN MARTIN
  CHÂLONS-SUR-MARNE               CHARD, JOHN ROUSE MERRIOTT
  CHALON-SUR-SAÔNE                CHARD
  CHALUKYA                        CHARDIN, JEAN SIMÉON
  CHALYBÄUS, HEINRICH MORITZ      CHARDIN, SIR JOHN
  CHALYBITE                       CHARENTE
  CHAMBA                          CHARENTE-INFÉRIEURE
  CHAMBAL                         CHARENTON-LE-PONT
  CHAMBERLAIN, JOSEPH             CHARES
  CHAMBERLAIN, JOSHUA LAWRENCE    CHARES
  CHAMBERLAIN, SIR NEVILLE BOWLES CHARES
  CHAMBERLAIN                     CHARGE
  CHAMBERLAYNE, WILLIAM           CHARGÉ D'AFFAIRES
  CHAMBERS, EPHRAIM               CHARGING ORDER
  CHAMBERS, GEORGE                CHARIBERT
  CHAMBERS, ROBERT                CHARIDEMUS
  CHAMBERS, SIR WILLIAM           CHARING CROSS



CERARGYRITE, a mineral species consisting of silver chloride; an
important ore of silver. The name cerargyrite is a Greek form (from
[Greek: keras], horn, and [Greek: argyros], silver) of the older name
hornsilver, which was used by K. Gesner as far back as 1565. The
chloro-bromide and bromide of silver were also included under this term
until they were distinguished chemically in 1841 and 1842, and described
under the names embolite and bromargyrite (or bromyrite) respectively;
the chloride then came to be distinguished as chlorargyrite, though the
name cerargyrite is often now applied to this alone. Chloro-bromo-iodide
of silver has also been recognized as a mineral and called iodembolite.
All these are strikingly alike in appearance and general characters,
differing essentially only in chemical composition, and it would seem
better to reserve the name cerargyrite for the whole group, using the
names chlorargyrite (AgCl), embolite (Ag(Cl, Bl)), bromargyrite (AgBr)
and iodembolite (Ag(Cl, Br, I)) for the different isomorphous members of
the group. They are cubic in crystallization, with the cube and the
octahedron as prominent forms, but crystals are small and usually
indistinct; there is no cleavage. They are soft (H = 2½) and sectile to
a high degree, being readily cut with a knife like horn. With their
resinous to adamantine lustre and their translucency they also present
somewhat the appearance of horn; hence the name hornsilver. The colour
varies somewhat with the chemical composition, being grey or colourless
in chlorargyrite, greenish-grey in embolite and bromargyrite, and
greenish-yellow to orange-yellow in iodembolite. On exposure to light
the colour quickly darkens. The specific gravity also varies with the
composition: for the pure chloride it is 5.55, and the highest recorded
for an iodembolite is 6.3.

The hornsilvers all occur under similar conditions and are often
associated together; they are found in metalliferous veins with native
silver and ores of silver, and are usually confined to the upper
oxidized parts of the lodes. They are important ores of silver (the pure
chloride contains 75.3% of silver), and have been extensively mined at
several places in Chile, also in Mexico, and at Broken Hill in New South
Wales. The chloride and chloro-bromide have been found in several
Cornish mines, but never in very large amounts.     (L. J. S.)



CERBERUS, in Greek mythology, the dog who guarded the entrance to the
lower world. He allowed all to enter, but seized those who attempted to
escape. According to Hesiod (_Theog._ 311), he was a fifty-headed
monster with a fearful bark, the offspring of Typhon and Echidna. He was
variously represented with one, two or (usually) three heads, often
with the tail of a snake or with snakes growing from his head or twined
round his body. One of the tasks imposed upon Heracles was to fetch
Cerberus from below to the upper world, a favourite subject of ancient
vase-paintings.



CERDIC (d. 534), founder of the West Saxon kingdom, is described as an
ealdorman who in 495 landed with his son Cynric in Hampshire, where he
was attacked at once by the Britons. Nothing more is heard of him until
508, when he defeated the Britons with great slaughter. Strengthened by
fresh arrivals of Saxons, he gained another victory in 519 at
Certicesford, a spot which has been identified with the modern Charford,
and in this year took the title of king. Turning westward, Cerdic
appears to have been defeated by the Britons in 520 at Badbury or Mount
Badon, in Dorset, and in 527 yet another fight with the Britons is
recorded. His last work was the conquest of the Isle of Wight, probably
in the interest of some Jutish allies. All the sovereigns of England,
except Canute, Hardicanute, the two Harolds and William the Conqueror,
are said to be descended from Cerdic.

  See _Anglo-Saxon Chronicle_, edited by C. Plummer (Oxford, 1892-1899);
  Gildas, _De excidio Britanniae_, edited by Th. Mommsen (Berlin, 1898);
  Nennius, _Historia, Brittonum_, edited by Th. Mommsen (Berlin, 1898);
  Bede, _Historiae ecclesiasticae gentis Anglorum libri v._, ed. C.
  Plummer (Oxford, 1896); E. Guest, _Origines Celticae_ (London, 1883);
  J.R. Green, _The Making of England_ (London, 1897).



CERDONIANS, a Gnostic sect, founded by Cerdo, a Syrian, who came to Rome
about 137, but concerning whose history little is known. They held that
there are two first causes--the perfectly good and the perfectly evil.
The latter is also the creator of the world, the god of the Jews, and
the author of the Old Testament. Jesus Christ is the son of the good
deity; he was sent into the world to oppose the evil; but his
incarnation, and therefore his sufferings, were a mere appearance.
Regarding the body as the work of the evil deity, the Cerdonians formed
a moral system of great severity, prohibiting marriage, wine and the
eating of flesh, and advocating fasting and other austerities. Most of
what the Fathers narrate of Cerdo's tenets has probably been transferred
to him from his famous pupil Marcion, like whom he is said to have
rejected the Old Testament and the New, except part of Luke's Gospel and
of Paul's Epistles. (See MARCION, and GNOSTICISM.)



CEREALIS (CERIALIS), PETILLIUS (1st century A.D.), Roman general, a near
relative of the emperor Vespasian. He is first heard of during the reign
of Nero in Britain, where he was completely defeated (A.D. 61) by
Boadicea. Eight years later he played an important part in the capture
of Rome by the supporters of Vespasian. In 70 he put down the revolt of
Civilis (q.v.). In 71, as governor of Britain, where he had as a
subordinate the famous Agricola, he inflicted severe defeats upon the
Brigantes, the most powerful of the tribes of Britain. Tacitus says that
he was a bold soldier rather than a careful general, and preferred to
stake everything on the issue of a single engagement. He possessed
natural eloquence of a kind that readily appealed to his soldiers. His
loyalty towards his superiors was unshakable.

  Tacitus, _Annals_, xiv. 32; _Histories_, iii. 59, 78, iv. 71, 75, 86,
  v. 21; _Agricola_, 8, 17.



CERES, an old Italian goddess of agriculture. The name probably means
the "creator" or "created," connected with _crescere_ and _creare_. But
when Greek deities were introduced into Rome on the advice of the
Sibylline books (in 495 B.C., on the occasion of a severe drought),
Demeter, the Greek goddess of seed and harvest, whose worship was
already common in Sicily and Lower Italy, usurped the place of Ceres in
Rome, or rather, to Ceres were added the religious rites which the
Greeks paid to Demeter, and the mythological incidents which originated
with her. At the same time the cult of Dionysus and Persephone (see
LIBER AND LIBERA) was introduced. The rites of Ceres were Greek in
language and form. Her priestesses were Italian Greeks and her temple
was Greek in its architecture and built by Greek artists. She was
worshipped almost exclusively by plebeians, and her temple near the
Circus Maximus was under the care of the plebeian aediles, one of whose
duties was the superintendence of the corn-market. Her chief festivals
were the _ludi Cereris_ or _Cerealia_ (more correctly, _Cerialia_),
games held annually from April 12-19 (Ovid, _Fasti_, iv. 392 ff.); a
second festival, in August, to celebrate the reunion of Ceres and
Proserpine, in which women, dressed in white, after a fast of nine days
offered the goddess the first-fruits of the harvest (Livy xxii. 56); and
the _Jejunium Cereris_, a fast also introduced (191 B.C.) by command of
the Sibylline books (Livy xxvi. 37), at first held only every four
years, then annually on the 4th of October. In later times Ceres was
confused with Tellus. (See also DEMETER.)



CERIGNOLA, a town of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Foggia, 26 m.
S.E. by rail from the town of Foggia. Pop. (1901) 34,195. It was rebuilt
after a great earthquake in 1731, and has a considerable agricultural
trade. In 1503 the Spaniards under Gonzalo de Cordoba defeated the
French under the duc de Nemours below the town--a victory which made the
kingdom of Naples into a Spanish province in Italy. Cerignola occupies
the site of Furfane, a station on the Via Traiana between Canusium and
Herdoniae.



CERIGOTTO, called locally LIUS (anc. _Aegilia_ or _Ogylos_; mod. Gr.
officially _Antikythera_), an island of Greece, belonging to the Ionian
group, and situated between Cythera (Cerigo) and Crete, about 20 m. from
each. Some raised beaches testify to an upheaval in comparatively recent
times. With an area of about 10 sq. m. it supports a population of about
300, who are mainly Cretan refugees, and in favourable seasons exports a
quantity of good wheat. It was long a favourite resort of Greek pirates.
It is famous for the discovery in 1900, close to its coast, of the wreck
of an ancient ship with a cargo of bronze and marble statues.



CERINTHUS (c. A.D. 100), an early Christian heretic, contemporary with
the closing years of the apostle John, who, according to the well-known
story of Polycarp, reported by Irenaeus (iii. 3) and twice recorded in
Eusebius (_Hist. Eccl._ iii. 28, iv. 14), made a hasty exit from a bath
in Ephesus on learning that Cerinthus was within. Other early accounts
agree in making the province of Asia the scene of his activity, and
Hippolytus (_Haer_. vii. 33) credits him with an Egyptian training.
There can be no truth in the notice given by Epiphanius (_Haer_. xxviii.
4) that Cerinthus had in earlier days at Jerusalem led the judaizing
opposition against Paul.

The difficulty of defining Cerinthus's theological position is due not
only to the paucity of our sources but to the fact that the witness of
the two principal authorities, Irenaeus (1. 26, iii. 11) and Hippolytus
(_Syntagma_), does not agree. Further, Irenaeus himself in one passage
fails to distinguish between Cerinthian and Valentinian doctrines. It
would appear, however, that Cerinthus laid stress on the rite of
circumcision and on the observance of the Sabbath. He taught that the
world had been made by angels, from one of whom, the god of the Jews,
the people of Israel had received their Law, which was not perfect. The
only New Testament writing which he accepted was a mutilated Gospel of
Matthew. Jesus was the offspring of Joseph and Mary, and on him at the
baptism descended the Christ,[1] revealing the hitherto unknown Father,
and endowing him with miraculous power. This Christ left Jesus again
before the Passion, and the resurrection of Jesus was still in the
future. Together with these somewhat gnostic ideas, Cerinthus, if we may
trust the notices of Gaius the Roman presbyter (c. 290) and Dionysius of
Alexandria (c. 340), held a violent and crude form of chiliasm. But the
chief significance of the man is his "combination of zeal for legal
observances with bold criticism of the Law itself as a whole and of its
origin," which reminds us of the Clementine _Recognitions_. Cerinthus is
a blend of judaizing christian and gnostic.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] So Irenaeus. According to Hippolytus and Epiphanius it was the
    Holy Ghost that thus descended.



CERIUM (symbol Ce, atomic weight 140.25), a metallic chemical element
which occurs with the rare earths in the minerals cerite, samarskite,
euxenite, monazite, parisite and many yttrium minerals. The particular
earth containing cerium was discovered by M.H. Klaproth in 1803, whilst
J. Berzelius at about the same time also examined it and came to the
conclusion that it was the oxide of a new metal, which he termed
cerium. The crude oxide of the metal is obtained from cerite, by
evaporating the mineral with strong sulphuric acid, removing excess of
acid and dissolving the residue in ice-cold water; sulphuretted hydrogen
is passed through the solution, which is then filtered, acidified with
hydrochloric acid, and precipitated as oxalate by oxalic acid; the
oxalate is then converted into oxide by ignition. From the crude oxide
so obtained (which contains lanthanum and didymium oxides) the cerium
may be separated by conversion into its double sulphate on the addition
of potassium sulphate, the sulphates of the cerium group being insoluble
in a saturated solution of potassium sulphate. The sulphate is
subsequently boiled with water, when a basic sulphate is precipitated.
For the preparation of pure cerium compounds see Auer v. Welsbach,
_Monatshefte_, 1884, v. 508.

The metal was first obtained, in an impure state, by C.G. Mosander, by
fusing its chloride with sodium. W.F. Hillebrand and T. Norton have
prepared it by the electrolysis of the melted chloride (_Pogg. Ann._,
1875, 156, p. 466); and C. Winkler (_Berichte_, 1891, xxiv. 884)
obtained it by heating the dioxide with magnesium powder. The metal has
somewhat the appearance of iron, and has a specific gravity of 6.628,
which, after melting, is increased to 6.728. Its specific heat is
0.04479 (W.F. Hillebrand). It is permanent in dry air, but tarnishes in
moist air; it can be hammered and rolled; it melts at 623° C. It burns
readily on heating, with a brilliant flame; and it also combines with
chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus and cyanogen. In the case
of the two former elements the combination is accompanied by combustion
of the metal. With water it is slowly converted into the dioxide. Cold
concentrated nitric and sulphuric acids are without action on the metal,
but it reacts rapidly with dilute nitric and hydrochloric acids. The
dioxide is used in incandescent gas mantles (see LIGHTING).

  Three oxides of cerium are known. The sesquioxide, Ce2O3, is obtained
  by heating the carbonate in a current of hydrogen. It is a
  bluish-green powder, which on exposure rapidly combines with the
  oxygen of the air. By the addition of caustic soda to cerous salts, a
  white precipitate of cerous hydroxide is formed. Cerium dioxide, CeO2,
  is produced when cerium carbonate, nitrate, sulphate or oxalate is
  heated in air. It is a white or pale yellow compound, which becomes
  reddish on heating. Its specific gravity is 6.739, and its specific
  heat 0.0877. It is not reduced to the metallic condition on heating
  with carbon. Concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves this oxide, forming
  a yellowish solution and ozone. By suspending the precipitated cerous
  hydroxide in water and passing chlorine through the solution, a
  hydrated form of the dioxide, 2CeO2·3H2O, is obtained, which is
  readily soluble in nitric and sulphuric acids, forming ceric salts,
  and in hydrochloric acid, where it forms cerous chloride, with
  liberation of chlorine. A higher hydrated oxide, CeO3·xH2O, is formed
  by the interaction of cerous sulphate with sodium acetate and hydrogen
  peroxide (Lecoq de Boisbaudran, _Comptes rendus_, 1885, 100, p. 605).

  Cerous chloride, CeCl3, is obtained when the metal is burned in
  chlorine; when a mixture of cerous oxide and carbon is heated in
  chlorine; or by rapid heating of the dioxide in a stream of carbon
  monoxide and chlorine. It is a colourless substance, which is easily
  fusible. A hydrated chloride of composition 2CeCl3·15H2O is also
  known, and is obtained when a solution of cerous oxide in hydrochloric
  acid is evaporated over sulphuric acid. Double salts of cerous
  chloride with stannic chloride, mercuric chloride, and platinic
  chloride are also known. Cerous bromide, 2CeBr3·3H2O, and iodide,
  CeI3·9H2O, are known. Cerous sulphide, Ce2S3, results on heating
  cerium with sulphur or cerium oxide in carbon bisulphide vapour. It is
  a red infusible mass of specific gravity 5.1, and is slowly decomposed
  by warm water. The sulphate, Ce2(SO4)3, is formed on dissolving the
  carbonate in sulphuric acid, or on dissolving the basic sulphate in
  sulphuric acid, in the presence of sulphur dioxide, evaporating the
  solution, and drying the product obtained, at high temperature (B.
  Brauner, _Monatshefte_, 1885, vi. 793). It is a white powder of
  specific gravity 3.912, easily soluble in cold water. Many hydrated
  forms of the sulphate are known, as are also double salts of the
  sulphate with potassium, sodium, ammonium, thallium and cadmium
  sulphates. Ceric fluoride, CeF4·H2O, is obtained when the hydrated
  dioxide is dissolved in hydrofluoric acid and the solution evaporated
  on the water bath (B. Brauner). The sulphate, Ce(SO4)2·4H2O, is formed
  when the basic sulphate is dissolved in sulphuric acid; or when the
  dioxide is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, and evaporated _in
  vacuo_ over sulphuric acid. It forms yellow crystals soluble in water;
  the aqueous solution on standing gradually depositing a basic salt.
  Double sulphates of composition 2Ce(SO4)2·2K2SO4·2H2O,
  Ce(SO4)2·3(NH4)2SO4·4H2O are known. Nitrates of cerium have been
  described, as have also phosphates, carbonates and a carbide.

  Cerium compounds may be recognized by the red precipitate of ceric
  hydroxide, which is formed when sodium hypochlorite is added to a
  colourless cerous salt. For the quantitative determination of the
  metal, the salts are precipitated by caustic potash, the precipitate
  washed, dried and heated, and finally weighed as the dioxide.

  The atomic weight of cerium has been determined by B. Brauner (_Chem.
  News_, 1895, lxxi. 283) from the analysis of the oxalate; the values
  obtained varying from 140.07 to 140.35.



CERNUSCHI, HENRI (1821-1896), Italian politician and economist, was born
of wealthy parents at Milan in 1821, and was destined for the legal
profession. During his studies he became involved in the revolutionary
movement. He played a conspicuous part in the insurrection at Milan in
1848, and also at Rome in 1849, where he had a seat in the National
Assembly. On the collapse of the revolutionary government he was
arrested (1850), but managed to escape to France, where he engaged in
commerce and banking, became naturalized, and acquired a large fortune.
He took a prominent part in opposing the Socialist movement, and in
April 1870, having subscribed a large sum to the funds of a committee
formed to combat the Napoleonic plebiscite, had to leave the country. In
September the formation of the Third Republic enabled him to return, but
he soon left Paris to travel in the East, whence he returned with a fine
art collection, particularly of Japanese objects. Cernuschi is best
known for his publications on financial questions, more especially
bimetallism. Of the latter he was an ardent champion, and the word
itself is commonly supposed to have originated with him--at least in its
English form it is first found in his _Silver Vindicated_ (1876). Among
his other works may be mentioned: _Mécanique de l'échange_ (1861);
_Illusion des sociétés coopératives_ (1886); _Le Bimétallisme en
Angleterre_ (1879); _Le Grand Procès de l'Union latine_ (1884). He died
at Mentone on the 12th of May 1896.



CEROGRAPHY (from the Gr. [Greek: kêros], wax, and [Greek: graphein], to
write), the art of painting in wax. (See ENCAUSTIC PAINTING.)



CERRO DE PASCO, or PASCO, a mining town of Peru, capital of the
department of Junin, 107 m. (221 m. by rail, via Oroya) N.E. of Lima.
Pop. (1907 est.) 10,000. It is situated on the plateau of Bombon, 14,280
ft. above sea-level, and in the midst of one of the oldest and richest
silver-mining districts of Peru. There were 342 silver mines in this
district in 1890, and at the end of the 19th century the average annual
output since the discovery of the mines in 1630 was estimated at
1,600,000 oz. A decline in the silver production having set in, the
American company which had become owners of three-fourths of the mining
properties in the district turned its attention to the extensive copper
deposits there, built a railway to Oroya 83 m. distant, another, 25 m.
long, to the coal-fields of Gollarisquisga, north of Pasco, and then
erected large smelting works (in which 2500 men were regularly employed
in 1907) 8 m. out of town and 4 m. from limestone beds. The railway to
Oroya was completed in 1903, the coal mine branch and smelter later on,
and in 1907 the copper output was 20,152,000 lb. The town of Pasco is
badly built and unattractive, and is inhabited chiefly by mining
labourers and their families. Its population is increased 50% in times
of great mining activity. The name Cerro de Pasco is that of a "knot" of
mountains uniting the two great ranges of the Andes at this point.



CERTALDO, a town of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Florence, 35 m.
S.S.W. by rail and 18 m. direct from the town of Florence. Pop. (1901)
town, 4552; commune, 9120. It was the home of the family of Giovanni
Boccaccio, who died and was buried here in 1375. His house (of red
brick, like the other old houses of the town) was restored in 1823 and
fitted up with old furniture. A statue of him was erected in the
principal square in 1875. The Palazzo Pretorio, or Vicariale, the
residence of the Florentine governors, recently restored to its original
condition, has a picturesque facade and court adorned with coats of
arms, and in the interior are various frescoes dating from the 13th to
the 16th century. The town as a whole is picturesque, and lies on a hill
426 ft. above sea-level.

  See R. Pantini, _S. Gimignano e Certaldo_ (Bergamo, 1904), p. 101 seq.



CERUSSITE, a mineral consisting of lead carbonate (PbCO3), and an
important ore of lead. The name (sometimes erroneously spelt cerusite)
is from the Lat. _cerussa_, "white lead." "Cerussa nativa" was mentioned
by K. Gesner in 1565, and in 1832 F.S. Beudant applied the name céruse
to the mineral, whilst the present form, cerussite, is due to W.
Haidinger (1845). Popular names in early use were lead-spar and
white-lead-ore.

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

Cerussite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system and is isomorphous
with aragonite. Like aragonite it is very frequently twinned, the
compound crystals being pseudo-hexagonal in form. Three crystals are
usually twinned together on two faces of the prism m{110}, producing
six-rayed stellate groups (figs, 1 and 2) with the individual crystals
intercrossing at angles of nearly 60°. Twinning on the faces of the
prism r{130}, the angles of which are also nearly 60°, produces a
similar kind of grouping, but is much less common. Crystals are of
frequent occurrence, and they usually have very bright and smooth faces.
The mineral also occurs in compact granular masses, and sometimes in
fibrous forms. It is usually colourless or white, sometimes grey or
greenish in tint; it varies from transparent to translucent, and has an
adamantine lustre. It is very brittle, and has a conchoidal fracture.
Hardness 3-3½; sp. gr. 6.5. A variety containing 7% of zinc carbonate,
replacing lead carbonate, is known as iglesiasite, from Iglesias in
Sardinia, where it is found.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

The mineral may be readily recognized by its characteristic twinning, in
conjunction with the adamantine lustre and high specific gravity. It
dissolves with effervescence in dilute nitric acid. Before the blow-pipe
it fuses very readily, and gives reactions for lead. Cerussite occurs in
metalliferous veins in association with galena, and has been formed by
the action of carbonated waters on the galena; it is therefore found in
the upper parts of the lodes together with other secondary minerals,
such as limonite. Finely crystallized specimens have been obtained from
the Friedrichssegen mine near Ems in Nassau, Johanngeorgenstadt in
Saxony, Mies in Bohemia, Phenixville in Pennsylvania, Broken Hill in New
South Wales, and several other localities. Delicate acicular crystals of
considerable length were found long ago in the Pentire Glaze mine near
St Minver in Cornwall. It is often found in considerable quantities, and
contains as much as 77½% of lead.     (L. J. S.)



CERUTTI, GIUSEPPE ANTONIO GIACHIMO (1738-1792), French author and
politician, was born at Turin on the 13th of June 1738. He joined the
Society of Jesus and became professor at the Jesuit college at Lyons. In
1762, in reply to the attacks on his order, he published an _Apologie
générale de l'institut et de la doctrine des Jésuites_, which won him
much fame and some exalted patronage; notably that of the ex-king
Stanislaus of Poland and of his grandson the dauphin. During the
agitations that preceded the Revolution Cerutti took the popular side,
and in 1788 published a pamphlet, _Mémoire pour le peuple français_, in
which in a clear and trenchant style he advocated the claims of the
_tiers état_. In May 1789 he presided over the electors of Paris, by
whom in January 1791 he was chosen member of the administration of the
department and afterwards deputy to the Legislative Assembly. He was a
friend of Mirabeau, whose policy he supported and whose funeral oration
he pronounced. He himself died on the 3rd of February 1792. Of Cerutti's
literary enterprises the most interesting, and probably the most
influential, was the popular newspaper founded by him, on the 30th of
September 1790, in collaboration with Rabaut Saint-Étienne and Philippe
Antoine Grouvelle. Its character and objects are explained by its
title: _La Feuille villageoise, adressée chaque semaine à tous les
villages de France pour les instruire des lois, des événements, des
découvertes qui interessent tout ban citoyen, &c._ It was continued by
Grouvelle after Cerutti's death, the last number appearing on the 2nd of
August 1795.

  Cerutti's works were published in 1793 in 3 volumes. On the _Mémoire
  pour le peuple français_, see F.A. Aulard in _La Révolution
  française_, tom. xv. (1888).



CERVANTES SAAVEDRA, MIGUEL DE (1547-1616), Spanish novelist, playwright
and poet, was born at Alcalá de Henares in 1547. The attempts of
biographers to provide him with an illustrious genealogy are
unsuccessful. The family history begins with the author's grandfather,
Juan de Cervantes (b. 1490), a lawyer who at one time (1545-6)
administered the estates of the duke de Osuna, and resided later at
Cordova, where he died about 1555. Cervantes' father was Rodrigo de
Cervantes, an apothecary-surgeon, who married Leonor de Cortinas in 1540
or 1541. The children of this marriage were Andrés (b. 1543), Andrea (b.
1544), Luisa (b. 1546), Miguel, Rodrigo (b. 1550), Magdalena (b. 1554)
and Juan (of whom nothing is known beyond the mention of him in his
father's will).

The exact date of Cervantes' birth is not recorded: he was baptized on
the 9th of October 1547, in the church of Santa Maria la Mayor at
Alcalá. There are indications that Rodrigo de Cervantes resided at
Valladolid in 1554, at Madrid in 1561, at Seville in 1564-1565, and at
Madrid from 1566 onwards. It may be assumed that his family accompanied
him, and it seems likely that either at Valladolid or at Madrid
Cervantes saw the famous actor-manager and dramatist, Lope de Rueda, of
whose performances he speaks enthusiastically in the preface to his
plays. In 1569 a Madrid schoolmaster, Juan Lopez de Hoyos, issued a work
commemorative of Philip II.'s third wife, Isabel de Valois, who had died
on the 3rd of October 1568. This volume, entitled _Historia y relación
verdadera de la enfermedad, felicisimo tránsito y sumptuosas exequias
fúnebres de la Serenisima Reyna de Españia Doña Isabel de Valoys_,
contains six contributions by Cervantes: a sonnet, four _redondillas_,
and an elegy. Lopez de Hoyos introduces Cervantes as "our dear and
beloved pupil," and the elegy is dedicated to Cardinal Espinosa "in the
name of the whole school." It has been inferred that Cervantes was
educated by Lopez de Hoyos, but this conclusion is untenable, for Lopez
de Hoyos' school was not opened till 1567. On the 13th of October 1568,
Giulio Acquaviva reached Madrid charged with a special mission to Philip
II.; he left for Rome on the 2nd of December, and Cervantes is supposed
to have accompanied him. This conjecture is based solely on a passage in
the dedication of the _Galatea_, where the writer speaks of having been
"_camarero_ to Cardinal Acquaviva at Rome." There is, however, no reason
to think that Cervantes met Acquaviva in Madrid; the probability is that
he enlisted as a supernumerary towards the end of 1568, that he served
in Italy, and there entered the household of Acquaviva, who had been
raised to the cardinalate on the 17th of May 1570. There exists a
warrant (dated September 15, 1569) for the arrest of one Miguel de
Cervantes, who had wounded Antonio de Sigura, and had been condemned in
absence to have his right hand cut off and to be exiled from the capital
for ten years; and it has been sought to identify the offender with the
future author of _Don Quixote_. No evidence is available. All that is
known with certainty is that Cervantes was in Rome at the end of 1569,
for on the 22nd of December of that year the fact was recorded in an
official information lodged by Rodrigo de Cervantes with a view to
proving his son's legitimacy and untainted Christian descent.

If it is difficult to say precisely when Cervantes was in Acquaviva's
service, it is no less difficult to say when he left it to join the
regular army. There is evidence, more or less satisfactory, that his
enlistment took place in 1570; in 1571 he was serving as a private in
the company commanded by Captain Diego de Urbina which formed part of
Miguel de Moncada's famous regiment, and on the 16th of September he
sailed from Messina on board the "Marquesa," which formed part of the
armada under Don John of Austria. At the battle of Lepanto (October 7,
1571) the "Marquesa" was in the thickest of the conflict. As the fleet
came into action Cervantes lay below, ill with fever; but, despite the
remonstrances of his comrades, he vehemently insisted on rising to take
his share in the fighting, and was posted with twelve men under him in a
boat by the galley's side. He received three gunshot wounds, two in the
chest, and one which permanently maimed his right hand--"for the greater
glory of the right," in his own phrase. On the 30th of October the fleet
returned to Messina, where Cervantes went into hospital, and during his
convalescence received grants-in-aid amounting to eighty-two ducats. On
the 29th of April 1572 he was transferred to Captain Manuel Ponce de
León's company in Lope de Figueroa's regiment; he shared in the
indecisive naval engagement off Navarino on the 7th of October 1572, in
the capture of Tunis on the 10th of October 1573, and in the
unsuccessful expedition to relieve the Goletta in the autumn of 1574.
The rest of his military service was spent in garrison at Palermo and
Naples, and shortly after the arrival of Don John at Naples on the 18th
of June 1575, Cervantes was granted leave to return to Spain; he
received a recommendatory letter from Don John to Philip II., and a
similar testimonial from the duke de Sessa, viceroy of Sicily. Armed
with these credentials, Cervantes embarked on the "Sol" to push his
claim for promotion in Spain.

On the 26th of September 1575, near Les Trois Maries off the coast of
Marseilles, the "Sol" and its companion ships the "Mendoza" and the
"Higuera" encountered a squadron of Barbary corsairs under Arnaut Mami;
Cervantes, his brother Rodrigo and other Spaniards were captured, and
were taken as prisoners to Algiers. Cervantes became the slave of a
Greek renegade named Dali Mami, and, as the letters found on him were
taken to prove that he was a man of importance in a position to pay a
high ransom, he was put under special surveillance. With undaunted
courage and persistence he organized plans of escape. In 1576 he induced
a Moor to guide him and other Christian captives to Oran; the Moor
deserted them on the road, the baffled fugitives returned to Algiers,
and Cervantes was treated with additional severity. In the spring of
1577 two priests of the Order of Mercy arrived in Algiers with a sum of
three hundred crowns entrusted to them by Cervantes' parents; the amount
was insufficient to free him, and was spent in ransoming his brother
Rodrigo. Cervantes made another attempt to escape in September 1577, but
was betrayed by the renegade whose services he had enlisted. On being
brought before Hassan Pasha, the viceroy of Algiers, he took the blame
on himself, and was threatened with death; struck, however, by the
heroic bearing of the prisoner, Hassan remitted the sentence, and bought
Cervantes from Dali Mami for five hundred crowns. In 1577 the captive
addressed to the Spanish secretary of state, Mateo Vazquez, a versified
letter suggesting that an expedition should be fitted out to seize
Algiers; the project, though practicable, was not entertained. In 1578
Cervantes was sentenced to two thousand strokes for sending a letter
begging help from Martín de Córdoba, governor of Oran; the punishment
was not, however, inflicted on him. Meanwhile his family were not idle.
In March 1578 his father presented a petition to the king setting forth
Cervantes' services; the duke de Sessa repeated his testimony to the
captive's merits; in the spring of 1579 Cervantes' mother applied for
leave to export two thousand ducats' worth of goods from Valencia to
Algiers, and on the 31st of July 1579 she gave the Trinitarian monks,
Juan Gil and Antón de la Bella, a sum of two hundred and fifty ducats to
be applied to her son's ransom. On his side Cervantes was indefatigable,
and towards the end of 1579 he arranged to secure a frigate; but the
plot was revealed to Hassan by Juan Blanco de Paz, a Dominican monk, who
appears to have conceived an unaccountable hatred of Cervantes. Once
more the conspirator's life was spared by Hassan who, it is recorded,
declared that "so long as he had the maimed Spaniard in safe keeping,
his Christians, ships and city were secure." On the 29th of May 1580 the
two Trinitarians arrived in Algiers: they were barely in time, for
Hassan's term of office was drawing to a close, and the arrangement of
any ransom was a slow process, involving much patient bargaining. Hassan
refused to accept less than five hundred gold ducats for his slave; the
available funds fell short of this amount, and the balance was collected
from the Christian traders of Algiers. Cervantes was already embarked
for Constantinople when the money was paid on the 19th of September
1580. The first use that he made of his liberty was to cause affidavits
of his proceedings at Algiers to be drawn up; he sailed for Spain
towards the end of October, landed at Denia in November, and made his
way to Madrid. He signed an information before a notary in that city on
the 18th of December 1580.

These dates prove that he cannot, as is often alleged, have served under
Alva in the Portuguese campaign of 1580: that campaign ended with the
battle of Alcántara on the 25th of August 1580. It seems certain,
however, that he visited Portugal soon after his return from Algiers,
and in May 1581 he was sent from Thomar on a mission to Oran. Construed
literally, a formal statement of his services, signed by Cervantes on
the 21st of May 1590, makes it appear that he served in the Azores
campaigns of 1582-83; but the wording of the document is involved, the
claims of Cervantes are confused with those of his brother Rodrigo (who
was promoted ensign at the Azores), and on the whole it is doubtful if
he took part in either of the expeditions under Santa Cruz. In any case,
the stories of his residence in Portugal, and of his love affairs with a
noble Portuguese lady who bore him a daughter, are simple inventions.
From 1582-3 to 1587 Cervantes seems to have written copiously for the
stage, and in the _Adjunta al Parnaso_ he mentions several of his plays
as "worthy of praise"; these were _Los Tratos de Argel, La Numancia, La
Gran Turquesa, La Batalla naval, La Jerusalem, La Amaranta ó la de Mayo,
El Bosque amoroso, La Unica y Bizarra Ársinda_--"and many others which I
do not remember, but that which I most prize and pique myself on was,
and is, one called _La Confusa_ which, with all respect to as many
sword-and-cloak plays as have been staged up to the present, may take a
prominent place as being good among the best." Of these only _Los Tratos
de Argel_ (or _El Trato de Argel_) and _La Numancia_ have survived, and,
though _La Numancia_ contains many fine rhetorical passages, both plays
go to prove that the author's genius was not essentially dramatic. In
February 1584 he obtained a licence to print a pastoral novel entitled
_Primera parte de la Galatea_, the copyright of which he sold on the
14th of June to Blas de Robles, a bookseller at Alcalá de Henares, for
1336 _reales_. On the 12th of December he married Catalina de Palacios
Salazar y Vozmediano of Esquivias, eighteen years his junior. The
_Galatea_ was published in the spring of 1585, and is frequently said to
relate the story of Cervantes' courtship, and to introduce various
distinguished writers under pastoral names. These assertions must be
received with great reserve. The birth of an illegitimate daughter,
borne to Cervantes by a certain Ana Francisca de Rojas, is referred to
1584, and earlier in that same year the _Galatea_ had passed the censor;
with few exceptions, the identifications of the characters in the book
with personages in real life are purely conjectural. These
circumstances, together with the internal evidence of the work, point to
the conclusion that the _Galatea_ was begun and completed before 1583.
It was only twice reprinted--once at Lisbon (1590), and once at Paris
(1611)--during the author's lifetime; but it won him a measure of
repute, it was his favourite among his books, and during the thirty
years that remained to him he repeatedly announced the second part which
is promised conditionally in the text. However, it is not greatly to be
regretted that the continuation was never published; though the
_Galatea_ is interesting as the first deliberate bid for fame on the
part of a great genius, it is an exercise in the pseudo-classic
literature introduced into Italy by Sannazaro, and transplanted to Spain
by the Portuguese Montemõr; and, ingenious or eloquent as the
Renaissance prose-pastoral may be, its innate artificiality stifles
Cervantes' rich and glowing realism. He himself recognized its defects;
with all his weakness for the _Galatea_, he ruefully allows that "it
proposes something and concludes nothing." Its comparative failure was
a serious matter for Cervantes who had no other resource but his pen;
his plays were probably less successful than his account of them would
imply, and at any rate play-writing was not at this time a lucrative
occupation in Spain. No doubt the death of his father on the 13th of
June 1585 increased the burden of Cervantes' responsibilities; and the
dowry of his wife, as appears from a document dated the 9th of August
1586, consisted of nothing more valuable than five vines, an orchard,
some household furniture, four beehives, forty-five hens and chickens,
one cock and a crucible.

It had become evident that Cervantes could not gain his bread by
literature, and in 1587 he went to Seville to seek employment in
connexion with the provisioning of the Invincible Armada. He was placed
under the orders of Antonio de Guevara, and before the 24th of February
was excommunicated for excessive zeal in collecting wheat at Écija.
During the next few months he was engaged in gathering stores at Seville
and the adjacent district, and after the defeat of the Armada he was
retained as commissary to the galleys. Tired of the drudgery, and
without any prospect of advancement, on the 21st of May 1590 Cervantes
drew up a petition to the king, recording his services and applying for
one of four posts then vacant in the American colonies: a place in the
department of public accounts in New Granada, the governorship of
Soconusco in Guatemala, the position of auditor to the galleys at
Cartagena, or that of _corregidor_ in the city of La Paz. The petition
was referred to the Council of the Indies, and was annotated with the
words:--"Let him look for something nearer home." Cervantes perforce
remained at his post; the work was hard, uncongenial and ill-paid, and
the salary was in constant arrears. In November 1590 he was in such
straits that he borrowed money to buy himself a suit of clothes, and in
August 1592 his sureties were called upon to make good a deficiency of
795 _reales_ in his accounts. His thoughts turned to literature once
more, and on the 5th of September 1592, he signed a contract with
Rodrigo Osorio undertaking to write six plays at fifty ducats each, no
payment to be made unless Osorio considered that each of these pieces
was "one of the best ever produced in Spain." Nothing came of this
agreement, and it appears that, between the date of signing it and the
19th of September, Cervantes was imprisoned (for reasons unknown to us)
at Castro del Río. He was speedily released, and continued to
perquisition as before in Andalusia; but his literary ambitions were not
dead, and in May 1595 he won the first prize--three silver spoons--at a
poetical tourney held in honour of St Hyacinth at Saragossa. Shortly
afterwards Cervantes found himself in difficulties with the exchequer
officials. He entrusted a sum of 7400 _reales_ to a merchant named Simón
Freire de Lima with instructions to pay the amount into the treasury at
Madrid; the agent became bankrupt and absconded, leaving Cervantes
responsible for the deficit. By some means the money was raised, and the
debt was liquidated on the 21st of January 1597. But Cervantes' position
was shaken, and his unbusinesslike habits lent themselves to
misinterpretation. On the 6th of September 1597 he was ordered to find
sureties that he would present himself at Madrid within twenty days, and
there submit to the exchequer vouchers for all official moneys collected
by him in Granada and elsewhere. No such sureties being available, he
was committed to Seville jail, but was released on the 1st of December
on condition that he complied with the original order of the court
within thirty days. He was apparently unable to find bail, was dismissed
from the public service, and sank into extreme poverty. During a
momentary absence from Seville in February 1590, he was again summoned
to Madrid by the treasury, but does not appear to have obeyed: it is
only too likely that he had not the money to pay for the journey. There
is some reason to think that he was imprisoned at Seville in 1602, but
nothing positive is known of his existence between 1600 and the 8th of
February 1603: at the latter date he seems to have been at Valladolid,
to which city Philip III. had removed the court in 1601.

Since the publication of the _Galatea_ in 1585 Cervantes' contributions
to literature had been limited to occasional poems. In 1591 he published
a ballad in Andrés de Villalta's _Flor de varios y nuevos romances_; in
1595 he composed a poem, already mentioned, to celebrate the
canonization of St Hyacinth; in 1596 he wrote a sonnet ridiculing Medina
Sidonia's tardy entry into Cadiz after the English invaders had retired,
and in the same year his sonnet lauding Santa Cruz was printed in
Cristóbal. Mosquera de Figueroa's _Comentario en breve compendio de
disciplina militar_; to 1597 is assigned a sonnet (the authenticity of
which is disputed) commemorative of the poet Herrera; in 1598 he wrote
two sonnets and a copy of _quintillas_ on the death of Philip II.; and
in 1602 a complimentary sonnet from his pen appeared in the second
edition of Lope de Vega's _Dragontea_. Curiously enough, it is by Lope
de Vega that _Don Quixote_ is first mentioned. Writing to an unknown
correspondent (apparently a physician) on the 14th of August 1604, Lope
de Vega says that "no poet is as bad as Cervantes, nor so foolish as to
praise _Don Quixote_," and he goes on to speak of his own plays as being
odious to Cervantes. It is obvious that the two men had quarrelled since
1602, and that Lope de Vega smarted under the satire of himself and his
works in Cervantes' forthcoming book; _Don Quixote_ may have been
circulated in manuscript, or may even have been printed before the
official licence was granted on the 26th of September 1604. It was
published early in 1605, and was dedicated to the seventh duke de Béjar
in phrases largely borrowed from the dedication in Herrera's edition
(1580) of Garcilaso de la Vega, and from Francisco de Medina's preface
to that work.

The mention of Bernardo de la Vega's _Pastor de Iberia_ shows that the
sixth chapter of _Don Quixote_ cannot have been written before 1591. In
the prologue Cervantes describes his masterpiece as being "just what
might be begotten in a jail"; on the strength of this passage, it has
been thought that he conceived the story, and perhaps began writing it,
during one of his terms of imprisonment at Seville between 1597 and
1602. Within a few weeks of its publication at Madrid, three pirated
editions of _Don Quixote_ were issued at Lisbon; a second authorized
edition, imperfectly revised, was hurried out at Madrid; and another
reprint appeared at Valencia with an _aprobación_ dated 18th July 1605.
With the exception of Alemán's _Guzmán de Alfarache_, no Spanish book of
the period was more successful. Modern criticism is prone to regard _Don
Quixote_ as a symbolic, didactic or controversial work intended to bring
about radical reforms in church and state. Such interpretations did not
occur to Cervantes' contemporaries, nor to Cervantes himself. There is
no reason for rejecting his plain statement that his main object was to
ridicule the romances of chivalry, which in their latest developments
had become a tissue of tiresome absurdities. It seems clear that his
first intention was merely to parody these extravagances in a short
story; but as he proceeded the immense possibilities of the subject
became more evident to him, and he ended by expanding his work into a
brilliant panorama of Spanish society as it existed during the 16th
century. Nobles, knights, poets, courtly gentlemen, priests, traders,
farmers, barbers, muleteers, scullions and convicts; accomplished
ladies, impassioned damsels, Moorish beauties, simple-hearted
country-girls and kindly kitchen-wenches of questionable morals--all
these are presented with the genial fidelity which comes of sympathetic
insight. The immediate vogue of _Don Quixote_ was due chiefly to its
variety of incident, to its wealth of comedy bordering on farce, and
perhaps also to its keen thrusts at eminent contemporaries; its reticent
pathos, its large humanity, and its penetrating criticism of life were
less speedily appreciated.

Meanwhile, on the 12th of April 1605, Cervantes authorized his publisher
to proceed against the Lisbon booksellers who threatened to introduce
their piratical reprints into Castile. By June the citizens of
Valladolid already regarded Don Quixote and Sancho Panza as proverbial
types. Less gratifying experiences awaited the popular author. On the
27th of June 1605 Gaspar de Ezpeleta, a Navarrese gentleman of dissolute
life, was wounded outside the lodging-house in which Cervantes and his
family lived; he was taken indoors, was nursed by Cervantes' sister
Magdalena, and died on the 29th of June. That same day Cervantes, his
natural daughter (Isabel de Saavedra), his sister Andrea and her
daughter were lodged in jail on suspicion of being indirectly concerned
in Ezpeleta's death; one of the witnesses made damaging charges against
Cervantes' daughter, but no substantial evidence was produced, and the
prisoners were released. Little is known of Cervantes' life between 1605
and 1608. A _Relación_ of the festivities held to celebrate the birth of
Philip IV., and a certain _Carta á don Diego Astudillo Carrillo_ have
been erroneously ascribed to him; during these three years he apparently
wrote nothing beyond three sonnets, and one of these is of doubtful
authenticity. The depositions of the Valladolid enquiry show that he was
living in poverty five months after the appearance of _Don Quixote_, and
the fact that he borrowed 450 _reales_ from his publisher before
November 1607 would convey the idea that his position improved slowly,
if at all. But it is difficult to reconcile this view of his
circumstances with the details concerning his illegitimate daughter
revealed in documents recently discovered. Isabel de Saavedra was stated
to be a spinster when arrested at Valladolid in June 1605; the
settlement of her marriage with Luis de Molina in 1608 describes her as
the widow of Diego Sanz, as the mother of a daughter eight months old,
and as owning house-property of some value. These particulars are
perplexing, and the situation is further complicated by the publication
of a deed in which Cervantes declares that he himself is the real owner
of this house-property, and that his daughter has merely a life-interest
in it. This claim may be regarded as a legal fiction; it cannot easily
be reconciled with Cervantes' statement towards the end of his life,
that he was dependent on the bounty of the count de Lemos and of
Bernardo de Sandoval, cardinal-archbishop of Toledo. In 1609 he joined
the newly founded confraternity of the Slaves of the Most Blessed
Sacrament; in 1610 Lemos was appointed viceroy of Naples, and Cervantes
was keenly disappointed at not being chosen to accompany his patron. In
1611 he lost his sister Magdalena, who was buried by the charity of the
Tertiaries of Saint Francis; in 1612 he joined the Academia Selvaje, and
there appears to have renewed his former friendly relations with Lope de
Vega; in 1613 he dedicated his _Novelas exemplares_ to the count de
Lemos, and disposed of his rights for 1600 _reales_ and twenty-four
copies of the book. The twelve tales in this volume, some of them
written very much later than others, are of unequal merit, but they
contain some of the writer's best work, and the two picaresque
stories--_Rinconete y Cortadillo_ and the _Coloquio de los perros_--are
superb examples of their kind, and would alone entitle Cervantes to take
rank with the greatest masters of Spanish prose. In 1614 he published
the _Viage del Parnaso_, a burlesque poem suggested by the _Viaggio in
Parnaso_ (1582) of the Perugian poet Cesare Caporali. It contains some
interesting autobiographical passages, much flattery of contemporary
poetasters, and a few happy satirical touches; but, though it is
Cervantes' most serious bid for fame as a poet, it has seldom been
reprinted, and would probably have been forgotten but for an admirably
humorous postscript in prose which is worthy of the author at his best.
In the preface to his _Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses nuevos_ (1615) he
good-humouredly admits that his dramatic works found no favour with
managers, and, when this collection was first reprinted (1749), the
editor advanced the fantastic theory that the _comedias_ were deliberate
exercises in absurdity, intended to parody the popular dramas of the
day. This view cannot be maintained, but a sharp distinction must be
drawn between the eight set plays and the eight interludes; with one or
two exceptions, the _comedias_ or set plays are unsuccessful experiments
in Lope de Vega's manner, while the _entremeses_ or _interludes_,
particularly those in prose, are models of spontaneous gaiety and
ingenious wit.

In the preface to the _Novelas exemplares_ Cervantes had announced the
speedy appearance of the sequel to _Don Quixote_ which he had vaguely
promised at the end of the first part. He was at work on the fifty-ninth
chapter of his continuation when he learned that he had been anticipated
by Alonso Fernandez de Avellaneda of Tordesillas, whose _Segunde tamo
del ingenioso hidalgo don Quixote de la Mancha_ was published at
Tarragona in 1614. On the assumption that Fernandez de Avellaneda is a
pseudonym, this spurious sequel has been ascribed to the king's
confessor, Luis de Aliaga, to Cervantes' old enemy, Blanco de Paz, to
his old friend, Bartolomé Leonardo de Argensola, to the three great
dramatists, Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina and Ruiz de Alarcón, to Alonso
Fernandez, to Juan José Martí, to Alfonso Lamberto, to Luis de Granada,
and probably to others. Some of these attributions are manifestly
absurd--for example, Luis de Granada died seventeen years before the
first part of _Don Quixote_ was published--and all of them are
improbable conjectures; if Avellaneda be not the real name of the
author, his identity is still undiscovered. His book is not devoid of
literary talent and robust humour, and possibly he began it under the
impression that Cervantes was no more likely to finish _Don Quixote_
than to finish the _Galatea_. He should, however, have abandoned his
project on reading the announcement in the preface to the _Novelas
exemplares_; what he actually did was to disgrace himself by writing an
insolent preface taunting Cervantes with his physical defects, his moral
infirmities, his age, loneliness and experiences in jail. He was too
intelligent to imagine that his continuation could hold its own against
the authentic sequel, and malignantly avowed his intention of being
first in the field and so spoiling Cervantes' market. It is quite
possible that _Don Quixote_ might have been left incomplete but for this
insulting intrusion; Cervantes was a leisurely writer and was, as he
states, engaged on _El Engaño à los ojos, Las Semanas del Jardín_ and
_El Famoso Bernardo_, none of which have been preserved. Avellaneda
forced him to concentrate his attention on his masterpiece, and the
authentic second part of _Don Quixote_ appeared towards the end of 1615.
No book more signally contradicts the maxim, quoted by the Bachelor
Carrasco, that "no second part was ever good." It is true that the last
fourteen chapters are damaged by undignified denunciations of
Avellaneda; but, apart from this, the second part of _Don Quixote_ is an
improvement on the first. The humour is more subtle and mature; the
style is of more even excellence; and the characters of the bachelor and
of the physician, Pedro Recio de Agüero, are presented with a more vivid
effect than any of the secondary characters in the first part. Cervantes
had clearly profited by the criticism of those who objected to "the
countless cudgellings inflicted on Señor Don Quixote," and to the
irrelevant interpolation of extraneous stories in the text. Don Quixote
moves through the second part with unruffled dignity; Sancho Panza loses
something of his rustic cunning, but he gains in wit, sense and manners.
The original conception is unchanged in essentials, but it is more
logically developed, and there is a notable progress in construction.
Cervantes had grown to love his knight and squire, and he understood his
own creations better than at the outset; more completely master of his
craft, he wrote his sequel with the unfaltering confidence of a renowned
artist bent on sustaining his reputation.

The first part of _Don Quixote_ had been reprinted at Madrid in 1608; it
had been produced at Brussels in 1607 and 1611, and at Milan in 1610; it
had been translated into English in 1612 and into French in 1614.
Cervantes was celebrated in and out of Spain, but his celebrity had not
brought him wealth. The members of the French special embassy, sent to
Madrid in February 1615, under the Commandeur de Sillery, heard with
amazement that the author of the _Galatea_, the _Novelas exemplares_ and
_Don Quixote_ was "old, a soldier, a gentleman and poor." But his trials
were almost at an end. Though failing in health, he worked assiduously
at _Los Trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda_, which, as he had jocosely
prophesied in the preface to the second part of _Don Quixote_, would be
"either the worst or the best book ever written in our tongue." It is
the most carefully written of his prose works, and the least animated or
attractive of them; signs of fatigue and of waning powers are
unmistakably visible. Cervantes was not destined to see it in print. He
was attacked by dropsy, and, on the 18th of April 1616, received the
sacrament of extreme unction; next day he wrote the dedication of
_Persiles y Sigismunda_ to the count de Lemos--the most moving and
gallant of farewells. He died at Madrid in the Calle del León on the
23rd of April; he was borne from his house "with his face uncovered,"
according to the rule of the Tertiaries of St Francis, and on the 24th
of April was buried in the church attached to the convent of the
Trinitarian nuns in the Calle de Cantarranas. There he rests--the story
of his remains being removed in 1633 to the Calle del Humilladero has no
foundation in fact--but the exact position of his grave is unknown.
Early in 1617 _Persiles y Sigismunda_ was published, and passed through
eight editions within two years; but the interest in it soon died away,
and it was not reprinted between 1625 and 1719. Cervantes' wife died
without issue on the 31st of October 1626; his natural daughter, who
survived both the child of her first marriage and her second husband,
died on the 20th of September 1652. Cervantes is represented solely by
his works. The _Novelas exemplares_ alone would give him the foremost
place among Spanish novelists; _Don Quixote_ entitles him to rank with
the greatest writers of all time: "children turn its leaves, young
people read it, grown men understand it, old folk praise it." It has
outlived all changes of literary taste, and is even more popular to-day
than it was three centuries ago.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Leopold Rius, _Bibliografía crítica de las obras de
  Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra_ (Madrid, 1895-1905, 3 vols.); _Obras
  completas_ (Madrid, 1863-1864, 12 vols.), edited by Juan Eugenio
  Hartzenbusch; _Complete Works_ (Glasgow, 1901-1906, 8 vols. in
  progress), edited by James Fitzmaurice-Kelly; _Don Quijote_ (Madrid,
  1833-1839, 6 vols.), edited by Diego Clemencíu; _Don Quixote_ (London,
  1899-1900, 2 vols.), edited by James Fitzmaurice-Kelly and John
  Ormsby; _Don Quijote_ (Madrid, 1905-1906, 2 vols. in progress), edited
  by Clemente Cortejón; _Rinconete y Cortadillo_ (Sevilla, 1905), edited
  by Francisco Rodriguez Marín; _Epístola á Mateo Vázquez_ (Madrid,
  1905), edited by E[milio] C[otarelo]; Julián Apráiz, _Estudio
  histórico-crítico sobre las Novelas ejemplares de Cervantes_ (Madrid,
  1901); Francisco A. de Icaza, _Las Novelas ejemplares de Cervantes_
  (Madrid, 1901); Francisco Rodríguez Marín, _El Loaysa de "El Celoso
  Extremeño"_ (Sevilla, 1901); Narciso Díaz de Escovar, _Apuntes
  escénicos cervantinos_ (Madrid, 1905); Manuel José García, _Estudio
  crítico acerca del entremés "El Vizcaino fingido"_ (Madrid, 1905);
  Alfred Morel-Fatio, _L'Espagne de Don Quichotte_ in _Études sur
  l'Espagne_ (Paris, 1895, 2me série); Julio Puyol y Alonso, _Estado
  social que refleja "El Quijote"_ (Madrid, 1905); James
  Fitzmaurice-Kelly, _Cervantes in England_ (London, 1905); Raymond
  Foulché-Delbose, _Étude sur "La tia fingida,"_ in the _Revue
  hispanique_ (Paris, 1899), vol. vi. pp. 256-306; Benedetto Croce, _Due
  illustrazioni al "Viage del Parnaso,"_ in the _Homenaje á Menéndez y
  Pelayo_ (Madrid, 1899), vol. i. pp. 161-193; Paul Groussac, _Une
  Énigme littéraire: le Don Quichotte d'Avellaneda_ (Paris, 1903);
  Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, _El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quixote de
  la Mancha_ (Barcelona, [1905]), edited by Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo;
  Julio Cejador y Franca, _La Lengua de Cervantes_ (Madrid, 1905, &c.);
  Martin Fernández de Navarrete, _Vida de Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra_
  (Madrid, 1819); Cristóbal Perez Pastor, _Documentos Cervantinos hasta
  ahora inéditos_ (Madrid, 1897-1902, 2 vols.); Emilio Cotardo y Mori,
  _Efemérides Cervantinas_ (Madrid, 1905); Francisco Rodríguez Marín,
  _Cervantes estudió en Sevilla, 1564-1565_ (Seville, 1905).
       (J. F.-K.)



CERVERA, PASCUAL CERVERA Y TOPETE (1839-1909), Spanish admiral, was born
at Medina Sidonia on the 18th of February 1839. He showed an early
inclination for the sea, and his family sent him to the naval cadet
school at the age of twelve. As a sub-lieutenant he took part in the
naval operations on the coast of Morocco during the campaign of 1859-60.
Then he was for some time engaged in operations in the Sulu Islands and
the Philippines. Afterwards he was on the West Indian station during the
early part of the first Cuban War (1868-78), returning to Spain in 1873
to serve on the Basque coast against the Carlists. He distinguished
himself in defending the Carraca arsenal near Cadiz against the Federals
in 1873. He won each step in his promotion up to flag-rank through his
steadiness and brilliant conduct in action, and was awarded the crosses
of the Orders of Military and Naval Merit, Isabella the Catholic, and St
Hermengilde, besides several medals. Cervera had a great reputation for
decision, unbending temper and honesty, before he was placed at the head
of the Bilbao building-yards. This post he resigned after a few months
in order to become minister of marine in 1892, in a cabinet presided
over by Sagasta. He withdrew from the cabinet when he found that his
colleagues, from political motives, declined to support him in making
reforms and, on the other hand, unwisely cut down the naval estimates.
When in 1898 the Spanish-American War (q.v.) broke out, he was chosen to
command a squadron composed of four first-class cruisers, the "Maria
Theresa," his flagship, "Oquendo," "Vizcaya," and "Columbus," and
several destroyers. This ill-fated squadron only started upon its
reckless cruise across the ocean after its gallant commander had
repeatedly warned both the minister of marine and the prime minister,
Sagasta, in despatches from Cadiz and from the Canary and Cape Verde
Islands, that the ships were insufficiently provided with coal and
ammunition. Some of them, indeed, even lacked proper guns. In compliance
with the instructions of the government, Admiral Cervera made for the
landlocked harbour of Santiago de Cuba, where he co-operated in the
defence, landing some guns and a naval brigade. In spite of his
energetic representations, Cervera received an order from Madrid,
dictated by political considerations, to sally forth. It meant certain
destruction. The gallant squadron met forces trebly superior to it, and
was totally destroyed. The admiral, three of his captains, and 1800
sailors and marines were taken by the victors to Portsmouth, New
Hampshire, U.S.A. After the war, Cervera and his captains were tried
before the supreme naval and military court of the realm, which
honourably acquitted them all. In 1901 he became vice-admiral, in 1902
was appointed chief of staff of the Spanish navy, and in 1903 was made
life senator. He died at Puerto Real on the 3rd of April 1909.



CESAREVICH, or more properly TSESAREVICH, the title of the heir-apparent
to the Russian throne. The full official title is _Nasliednik
Tsesarevich_, i.e. "heir of Caesar," and in Russia the heir to the
throne is commonly called simply _Nasliednik_, the word _Tsesarevich_
never being used alone. _Tsarevich_, a form now much used in England,
means simply any "king's son"; it is an antiquated term now out of use
in Russia, and was last borne as heir to the throne by the unfortunate
Alexius, son of Peter the Great. The style of the wife of the
tsesarevich is _Tsesarevna_. The Cesarewitch handicap race at Newmarket,
founded in 1839, was named after the prince who was afterwards Alexander
II. of Russia, who paid a state visit to England that year.



CESARI, GIUSEPPE, called Il Cavaliere d' Arpino (born in or about 1568
and created a "Cavaliere di Cristo" by Pope Clement VIII.), also named
Il Giuseppino, an Italian painter, much encouraged at Rome and
munificently rewarded. His father had been a native of Arpino, but
Giuseppe himself was born in Rome. Cesari is stigmatized by Lanzi as not
less the corrupter of taste in painting than Marino was in poetry;
indeed, another of the nicknames of Cesari is "Il Marino de' Pittori"
(the pictorial Marino). There was spirit in Cesari's heads of men and
horses, and his frescoes in the Capitol (story of Romulus and Remus,
&c.), which occupied him at intervals during forty years, are well
coloured; but he drew the human form ill. His perspective is faulty, his
extremities monotonous, and his chiaroscuro defective. He died in 1640,
at the age of seventy-two, or perhaps of eighty, at Rome. Cesari ranks
as the head of the "Idealists" of his period, as opposed to the
"Naturalists," of whom Michelangelo da Caravaggio was the leading
champion,--the so-called "idealism" consisting more in reckless
facility, and disregard of the common facts and common-sense of nature,
than in anything to which so lofty a name could be properly accorded. He
was a man of touchy and irascible character, and rose from penury to the
height of opulence. His brother Bernardino assisted in many of his
works.



CESAROTTI, MELCHIORE (1730-1808), Italian poet, was born at Padua in
1730, of a noble but impoverished family. At the university of his
native place his literary progress procured for him at a very early age
the chair of rhetoric, and in 1768 the professorship of Greek and
Hebrew. On the invasion of Italy by the French, he gave his pen to their
cause, received a pension, and was made knight of the iron crown by
Napoleon I., to whom, in consequence, he addressed a bombastic and
extravagantly flattering poem called _Pronea_. Cesarotti is best known
as the translator of Homer and Ossian. Much praise cannot be given to
his version of the _Iliad_, for he has not scrupled to add, omit and
modernize. Ossian, which he held to be the finest of poems, he has, on
the other hand, considerably improved in translation; and the appearance
of his version attracted much attention in Italy and France, and raised
up many imitators of the Ossianic style. Cesarotti also produced a
number of works in prose, including a _Course of Greek Literature_, and
essays _On the Origin and Progress of the Poetic Art_, _On the Sources
of the Pleasure derived from Tragedy_, _On the Philosophy of Language_
and _On the Philosophy of Taste_, the last being a defence of his own
great eccentricities in criticism. His weakness was a straining after
novelty. His style is forcible, but full of Gallicisms.

  A complete edition of his works, in 42 vols. 8vo. began to appear at
  Pisa in 1800, and was completed in 1813, after his death. See
  _Memoirs_, by Barbieri (Padua, 1810), and _Un Filosofo delle lettere_,
  by Alemanni (Turin, 1894).



CESENA (anc. _Caesena_), a town and episcopal see of Emilia, Italy, in
the province of Forlì, 12 m. S.E. by rail from the town of Forlì, on the
line between Bologna and Rimini, 144 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1905)
12,245 (town); 43,468 (commune). The town is picturesquely situated at
the foot of the slopes of the Apennines, and is crowned by a medieval
fortress (Rocca), begun by the emperor Frederick I. (Barbarossa)
probably, but altered and added to later. The cathedral has two fine
marble altars by the Lombardi of Venice (or their school). The library,
built for Domenico Malatesta in 1452 by Matteo Nuzio, is a fine early
Renaissance building, and its internal arrangements, with the original
desks to which the books are still chained, are especially well
preserved (see J.W. Clark, _The Care of Books_, Cambridge, 1901, p.
199). In it are valuable MSS., many of which were used by Aldus
Manutius. It also contains a picture gallery with a good "Presentation
in the Temple" by Francesco Francia. There are some fine palaces in the
town. Three-quarters of a mile south-east on the hill stands the
handsome church of S. Maria del Monte, after the style of Bramante, with
carved stalls of the 16th century. Wine, hemp and silk are the main
articles of trade. About the ancient Caesena little is said in classical
authors: it is mentioned as a station on the Via Aemilia and as a
fortress in the wars of Theodoric and Narses. During the middle ages it
was at first independent. In 1357 it was unsuccessfully defended by the
wife of Francesco Ordelaffi, lord of Forlì, against the papal troops
under Albornoz. In 1377 it was sacked by Cardinal Robert of Geneva
(afterwards Clement VII., antipope). It was then held by the Malatesta
of Rimini until 1465, when it came under the dominion of the church.
Both Pius VI. (1717) and Pius VII. (1742) were born at Cesena.
     (T. As.)



CESNOLA, LUIGI PALMA DI (1832-1904), Italian-American soldier and
archaeologist, was born near Turin on the 29th of July 1832. Having
served in the Austrian and Crimean Wars, in 1860 he went to New York,
where he taught Italian and French and founded a military school for
officers. He took part in the American Civil War as colonel of a cavalry
regiment, and at Aldie (June 1863) was wounded and taken prisoner. He
was released from Libby prison early in 1864, served in the Wilderness
and Petersburg campaigns (1864-65) as a brigadier of cavalry, and at the
close of the war was breveted brigadier-general. He was then appointed
United States consul at Larnaca in Cyprus (1865-1877). During his stay
in the island he carried on excavations, which resulted in the discovery
of a large number of antiquities. The collection was purchased by the
Metropolitan Museum of New York, and Cesnola became director in 1879.
Doubt having been thrown by Gaston L. Feuerdant, in an article in the
New York _Herald_ (August 1880), upon the genuineness of his
restorations, the matter was referred to a special committee, which
pronounced in his favour.[1] He is the author of _Cyprus, its ancient
Cities, Tombs and Temples_ (1877), an interesting book of travel and of
considerable service to the practical antiquary; and of a _Descriptive
Atlas of the Cesnola Collection of Cypriote Antiquities_ (3 vols.,
1884-6). He died in New York on the 21st of November 1904. He was a
member of several learned societies in Europe and America, and in 1897
he received a Congressional medal of honour for conspicuous military
services.

His brother, ALESSANDRO PALMA DI CESNOLA, born in 1839, conducted
excavations at Paphos (where he was U.S. vice-consul) and Salamis on
behalf of the British government. The results of these are described in
_Salaminia_ (1882).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] For the Cesnola controversy see C.D. Cobham's _Attempt at a
    Bibliography of Cyprus_ (4th ed., 1900). See also article CYPRUS.



CESPEDES (in Ital. CEDASPE), PABLO DE (1538-1608), Spanish poet,
painter, sculptor and architect, was born at Cordova, and was educated
at Alcalá de Henares, where he studied theology and Oriental languages.
On leaving the university, he went to Rome, where he became the pupil
and friend of Federigo Zuccaro, under whose direction he studied
particularly the works of Raphael and of Michelangelo. In 1560, while
yet in Rome, proceedings were taken against him by the Inquisition at
Valladolid on account of a letter which, found among the papers of the
archbishop of Toledo, had been written by Cespedes during the preceding
year, and in which he had spoken with great freedom against the holy
office and the inquisitor-general, Fernando de Valdés. Cespedes remained
in Rome at this critical moment, and he appears rightly to have treated
the prosecution with derision. It is not known how he contrived to bring
the proceedings to an end; he returned, however, to Spain a little
before 1577, and in that year was installed in a prebend of the
cathedral at Cordova, where he resided till his death. Pablo de Cespedes
has been called the most _savant_ of Spanish artists. According to his
friend Francisco Pacheco, to whom posterity is indebted for the
preservation of all of Cespedes's verse that is extant, the school of
Seville owes to him its introduction to the practice of chiaroscuro. He
was a bold and correct draughtsman, a skilful anatomist, a master of
colour and composition; and the influence he exerted to the advantage of
early Spanish art was considerable. Cristobal de Vera, Juan de Peñalosa
and Zambrano were among his pupils. His best picture is a Last Supper at
Cordova, but there are good examples of his work at Seville and at
Madrid. Cespedes was author of several opuscules in prose on subjects
connected with his profession. Of his poem on _The Art of Painting_
enough was preserved by Pacheco to enable us to form an opinion of the
whole. It is esteemed the best didactic verse in Spanish; and it has
been compared, not disadvantageously, with the _Georgics_. It is written
in strong and sonorous octaves, in the majestic declamatory vein of
Fernando Herrera, and is not altogether so dull and lifeless as is most
didactic verse. It contains a glowing eulogy of Michelangelo, and some
excellent advice to young painters, insisting particularly on hard work
and on the study of nature. The few fragments yet remaining, amounting
in all to some six hundred lines, were first printed by Pacheco in his
treatise _Del arte de la pintura_, in 1649.



CÉSPEDES Y MENESES, GONZALO DE (1585?-1638), Spanish novelist, was born
at Madrid about 1585. Nothing positive is known of him before the
publication of his celebrated romance, the _Poema trágico del Español
Gerardo, y desengaño del amor lascivo_ (1615-1617); there is evidence
that he had been sentenced to eight years at the galleys previous to the
1st of January 1620, and that the penalty had been remitted; but the
nature of his offence is not stated. His treatment of political
questions in the _Historia apologética en los sucesos del reyno de
Aragón, y su ciudad de Zaragoza, años de 91 y 92_ (1622), having led to
the confiscation of the book, Céspedes took up his residence at
Saragossa and Lisbon. While in exile he issued a collection of short
stories entitled _Historias peregrinas y exemplares_ (1623), the
unfinished romance _Varia fortuna del soldado Píndaro_ (1626), and the
first part of his _Historia de Felipe IV._ (1631), a fulsome eulogy
which was rewarded by the author's appointment as official
historiographer to the Spanish king. Céspedes died on the 27th of
January 1638. His novels, though written in a ponderous, affected style,
display considerable imagination and insight into character. The _Poema
trágico_ has been utilized by Fletcher in _The Spanish Curate_ and in
_The Maid of the Mill_.

  The _Historias peregrinas_ has been reprinted (1906) with a valuable
  introduction by Sr. Cotarelo y Mori.



CESS (a shortened form of "assess"; the spelling is due to a mistaken
connexion with "census"), a tax; a term formerly more particularly
applied to local taxation, in which sense it still is used in Ireland;
otherwise it has been superseded by "rate." In India it is applied, with
the qualifying word prefixed, to any taxation, such as "irrigation-cess"
and the like, and in Scotland to the land-tax.



CESSIO BONORUM (Latin for a "surrender of goods"), in Roman law, a
voluntary surrender of goods by a debtor to his creditors. It did not
amount to a discharge unless the property ceded was sufficient for the
purpose, but it secured the debtor from personal arrest. The creditors
sold the goods in satisfaction, _pro tanto_, of their claims. The
procedure of _cessio bonorum_ avoided infamy, and the debtor, though his
after-acquired property might be proceeded against, could not be
deprived of the bare necessaries of life. The main features of the Roman
law of _cessio bonorum_ were adopted in Scots law, and also in the
French legal system. (See further BANKRUPTCY.)



CESTI, MARC' ANTONIO (1620?-1669?), Italian musical composer, was born
at Florence about 1620. He was a pupil of Carissimi, and after holding a
post somewhere in Florence as _maestro di cappella_ entered the papal
chapel in 1660. In 1666 he became _Vice-Kapellmeister_ at Vienna, and
died at Venice in 1669. Cesti is known principally as a composer of
operas, the most celebrated of which were _La Dori_ (Venice, 1663) and
_Il Pomo d' oro_ (Vienna, 1668). He was also a composer of
chamber-cantatas, and his operas are notable for the pure and delicate
style of their airs, more suited to the chamber than to the stage.



CESTIUS, LUCIUS, surnamed Pius, Latin rhetorician, flourished during the
reign of Augustus. He was a native of Smyrna, a Greek by birth.
According to Jerome, he was teaching Latin at Rome in the year 13 B.C.
He must have been living after A.D. 9, since we are told that he taunted
the son of Quintilius Varus with his father's defeat in the Teutoburgian
forest (Seneca, _Controv._ i. 3, 10). Cestius was a man of great
ability, but vain, quarrelsome and sarcastic. Before he left Asia, he
was invited to dinner by Cicero's son, then governor of the province.
His host, being uncertain as to his identity, asked a slave who Cestius
was; and on receiving the answer, "he is the man who said your father
was illiterate," ordered him to be flogged (Seneca, _Suasoriae_, vii.
13). As an orator in the schools Cestius enjoyed a great reputation, and
was worshipped by his youthful pupils, one of whom imitated him so
slavishly that he was nicknamed "my monkey" by his teacher (Seneca,
_Controv._ ix. 3, 12). As a public orator, on the other hand, he was a
failure. Although a Greek, he always used Latin in his declamations,
and, although he was sometimes at a loss for Latin words, he never
suffered from lack of ideas. Numerous specimens of his declamations will
be found in the works of Seneca the rhetorician.

  See the monograph _De Lucio Cestio Pio_, by F.G. Lindner (1858); T.
  Brzoska in Pauly-Wissowa's _Realencyclopadie_, iii. 2 (1899);
  Teuffel-Schwabe, _Hist, of Roman Lit._ (Eng. tr.), § 268, 6; M.
  Schanz, _Geschichte der romischen Litteratur_, ii.



CESTUI, CESTUY, an Anglo-French word, meaning "that person," which
appears in the legal phrases _cestui que trust_, _use_, or _vie_. It is
usually pronounced as "cetty." _Cestui que trust_ means literally "the
person for whose benefit the trust" is created. The _cestui que trust_
is the person entitled to the equitable, as opposed to the legal,
estate. Thus, if land be granted unto, and to the use of A. in trust for
B., B. is _cestui que trust_, and A. trustee. The term, principally
owing to its cumbersomeness, is being gradually superseded in modern law
by that of "beneficiary." _Cestui que use_ (sometimes _cestui à que
use_) means "the person for whose benefit a use" is created (see TRUST).
_Cestui que vie_ is "the person for whose life" lands are held by
another (see REMAINDER).



CETACEA (from the Gr. [Greek: ketos], a whale), the name of the
mammalian order represented by whales, dolphins, porpoises, &c. From
their fish-like form, which is manifestly merely an adaptation to their
purely aquatic life, these creatures are often regarded as fishes,
although they are true mammals, with warm blood, and suckle their young.

The general form is essentially fish-like, the spindle-shaped body
passing anteriorly into the head without any distinct neck, and
posteriorly tapering gradually towards the extremity of the tail, which
is provided with a pair of lateral, pointed expansions of skin supported
by fibrous tissue, called "flukes," forming a horizontal triangular
propelling organ, notched behind in the middle line. The head is
generally large, in some cases attaining more than one-third the entire
length; and the mouth is wide, and bounded by stiff, immobile lips. The
fore-limbs are reduced to flattened paddles, encased in a continuous
skin, showing no external sign of division, and without trace of nails.
There are no signs of hind-limbs visible externally. The surface of the
skin is smooth and glistening, and devoid of hair, although in many
species there are a few bristles in the neighbourhood of the mouth which
may persist through life or be present only in the young state.
Immediately beneath the skin is a thick layer of fat, held together by a
mesh of tissue, constituting the "blubber," which retains the heat of
the body. In nearly all species a compressed dorsal fin is present. The
eye is small, and not provided with a true lacrymal apparatus. The
external ear is a minute aperture in the skin situated at a short
distance behind the eye. The nostrils open separately or by a single
crescentic aperture, near the vertex of the head.

  The bones generally are spongy in texture, the cavities being filled
  with oil. In the vertebral column, the cervical region is short and
  immobile, and the vertebrae, always seven in number, are in many
  species more or less fused together into a solid mass. The odontoid
  process of the second cervical vertebra, when that bone is free, is
  usually very obtuse, or even obsolete. In a paper on the form and
  function of the cervical vertebrae published in the _Jenaische
  Zeitschrift_ for 1905, Dr O. Reche points out that the shortening and
  soldering is most pronounced in species which, like the right-whales,
  live entirely on minute organisms, to capture which there is no
  necessity to turn the head at all. Accordingly we find that in these
  whales the whole seven cervical vertebrae are fused into an immovable
  solid mass, of which the compound elements, with the exception of the
  first and second, are but little thicker than plates. On the other
  hand, in the finner-whales, several of which live exclusively on fish,
  and thus require a certain amount of mobility in the head and neck, we
  find all the cervical vertebrae much thicker and entirely separate
  from one another. Among the dolphin group the narwhal and the white
  whale, or beluga, are distinguished from all other cetaceans by the
  great comparative length of their cervical vertebrae, all of which are
  completely free. In the case of the narwhal such an abnormal structure
  is easily accounted for, seeing that to use effectively the long tusk
  with which the male is armed a considerable amount of mobility in the
  neck is absolutely essential. The beluga, too, which is believed to
  feed on large and active fishes, would likewise seem to require
  mobility in the same region in order to effect their capture. On the
  other hand, the porpoise preys on herrings, pilchards and mackerel,
  which in their densely packed shoals must apparently fall an easy prey
  with but little exertion on the part of their captor, and we
  accordingly find all the neck-vertebrae very short, and at least six
  out of the seven coalesced into a solid immovable mass. None of the
  vertebrae are united to form a sacrum. The lumbar and caudal vertebrae
  are numerous and large, and, as their arches are not connected by
  articular processes (zygapophyses), they are capable of free motion in
  all directions. The caps, or epiphyses, at the end of the vertebral
  bodies are flattened disks, not uniting until after the animal has
  attained its full dimensions. There are largely developed
  chevron-bones on the under side of the tail, the presence of which
  indicates the distinction between caudal and lumbar vertebrae.

  In the skull, the brain-case is short, broad and high, almost
  spherical, in fact (fig. 1). The supra-occipital bone rises upwards
  and forwards from the foramen magnum, to meet the frontals at the
  vertex, completely excluding the parietals from the upper region; and
  the frontals are expanded laterally to form the roof of the orbits.
  The nasal aperture opens upwards, and has in front of it a more or
  less horizontally prolonged beak, formed of the maxillae, premaxillae,
  vomer, and mesethmoid cartilage, extending forwards to form the upper
  jaw or roof of the mouth.

  There are no clavicles. The humerus is freely movable on the scapula
  at the shoulder-joint, but beyond this the articulations of the limb
  are imperfect; the flattened ends of the bones coming in contact, with
  fibrous tissue interposed, allowing of scarcely any motion. The radius
  and ulna are distinct, and about equally developed, and much
  flattened, as are all the bones of the flippers. There are four, or
  more commonly five, digits, and the number of the phalanges of the
  second and third always exceeds the normal number in mammals,
  sometimes considerably; they present the exceptional character of
  having epiphyses at both ends. The pelvis is represented by a pair of
  small rod-like bones placed longitudinally, suspended below and at
  some distance from the vertebral column at the commencement of the
  tail. In some species, to the outer surface of these are fixed other
  small bones or cartilages, the rudiments of the hind-limb.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.--A Section of the Skull of a Black-Fish
  (_Globicephalus melas_).

    PMx, Premaxilla.
    Mx, Maxilla.
    ME, Ossified portion of the mesethmoid.
    an, Nostrils.
    Na, Nasal.
    IP, Inter-parietal.
    Fr, Frontal.
    Pa, Parietal.
    SO, Supra-occipital.
    ExO, Ex-occipital.
    BO, Basi-occipital.
    Sq, Squamosal.
    Per, Periotic.
    AS, Alisphenoid.
    PS, Presphenoid.
    Pt, Pterygoid.
    pn, Posterior nares.
    Pl, Palatine.
    Vo, Vomer.
    s, Symphysis of lower jaw.
    id, Inferior dental canal.
    cp, Coronoid process of lower jaw.
    cd, Condyle.
    a, Angle.
    sh, Stylo-hyal.
    bh, Basi-hyal.
    th, Thyro-hyal.]

  Teeth are generally present, but exceedingly variable in number. In
  existing species, they are of simple, uniform character, with conical
  or compressed crowns and single roots, and are never preceded by
  milk-teeth. In the whalebone whales teeth are absent (except in the
  foetal condition), and the palate is provided with numerous
  transversely placed horny plates, forming the "whalebone." Salivary
  glands are rudimentary or absent. The stomach is complex, and the
  intestine simple, and only in some species provided with a small
  caecum. The liver is little fissured, and there is no gall-bladder.
  The blood-vascular system is complicated by net-like expansions of
  both arteries and veins, or _retia mirabilia_, The larynx is of
  peculiar shape, the arytenoid cartilages and the epiglottis being
  elongated, and forming a tubular prolongation, which projects into the
  posterior nares, and when embraced by the soft palate forms a
  continuous passage between the nostrils and the trachea, or wind-pipe,
  in a more perfect manner. The brain is relatively large, round in
  form, with its surface divided into numerous and complex convolutions.
  The kidneys are deeply lobulated; the testes are abdominal; and there
  are no vesiculae seminales nor an os penis. The uterus is bicornuate;
  the placenta non-deciduate and diffuse. The two teats are placed in
  depressions on each side of the genital aperture. The ducts of the
  milk-glands are dilated during suckling into large reservoirs, into
  which the milk collects, and from which it is injected by the action
  of a muscle into the mouth of the young animal, so that sucking under
  water is greatly facilitated.

Whales and porpoises are found in all seas, and some dolphins and
porpoises are inhabitants of the larger rivers of South America and
Asia. Their organization necessitates their passing their life entirely
in the water, as on land they are absolutely helpless. They have,
however, to rise very frequently to the surface for the purpose of
respiration; and, in relation to the upward and downward movement in the
water thus necessitated, the principal instrument of motion, the tail,
is expanded horizontally. The position of the nostril on the highest
part of the head is important for this mode of life, as it is the only
part of the body the exposure of which above the surface is absolutely
necessary. Of numerous erroneous ideas connected with natural history,
few are so widespread as that whales spout through their blow-holes
water taken in at the mouth. But the "spouting," or "blowing," of whales
is nothing more than the ordinary act of expiration, which, taking place
at longer intervals than land-animals, is performed with a greater
emphasis. The moment the animal rises to the surface it forcibly expels
from its lungs the air taken in at the last inspiration, which is
charged with vapour in consequence of the respiratory changes. This
rapidly condensing in the cold atmosphere in which the phenomenon is
often observed, forms a column of steam or spray, which has been taken
for water. It happens, however, especially when the surface of the ocean
is agitated into waves, that the animal commences its expiratory puff
before the orifice has cleared the top of the water, some of which may
thus be driven upwards with the blast, tending to complete the illusion.
From photographs of spouting rorquals, it appears that the height and
volume of the "spout" of all the species is much less than was supposed
to be the case by the older observers; even that of the huge
"sulphur-bottom" (_Balaenoptera sibbaldi_) averaging only about 14 ft.
in height, although it may occasionally reach 20 ft.

As regards their powers of hearing, the capacity of cetaceans for
receiving (and acting upon) sound-waves is demonstrated by the practice
of shouting on the part of the fishermen when engaged in driving a shoal
of porpoises or black-fish into shallow water, for the purpose of
frightening their intended victims. As regards the possession of a voice
by cetaceans, it is stated that one species, the "buckelwal" of the
Germans, utters during the breeding-season a prolonged scream,
comparable to the scream of a steam-siren, and embracing the whole
musical scale, from base to treble. In respect of anatomical
considerations, it is true that the external ear is much reduced, the
"pinna" being absent, and the tube or "meatus" of very small calibre. On
the other hand, the internal auditory organs are developed on the plan
of those of ordinary mammals, but display certain peculiar modifications
(notably the remarkable shell-like form of the tympanic bone) for
intensifying and strengthening the sound-waves as they are received from
the water. It seems, therefore, perfectly evident that whales must hear
when in the water. This inference is confirmed by the comparatively
small development of the other sense-organs. The eye, for instance, is
very small, and can be of little use even at the comparatively small
depths to which whales are now believed to descend. Again, the sense of
smell, judging from the rudimentary condition of the olfactory organs,
must be in abeyance; and whales have no sense-organs comparable to the
lateral-line-system of fishes. Consequently, it would seem that when
below the surface of the water they must depend chiefly upon the sense
of hearing. Probably this sense is so highly developed as to enable the
animals, in the midst of the vibrations made by the screw-like movements
of the tail, or flukes, to distinguish the sound (or the vibrations)
made by the impact of water against rocks, even in a dead calm, and, in
the case of piscivorous species, to recognize by the pulse in the water
the presence of a shoal of fish. Failing this explanation, it is
difficult to imagine how whales can find their way about in the
semi-darkness, and avoid collisions with rocks and rock-bound coasts.

  In the Christiania _Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne_, vol.
  xxxviii., Dr G. Guldberg has published some observations on the
  body-temperature of the Cetacea, in which he shows how extremely
  imperfect is our knowledge of this subject. As he remarks, it is a
  matter of extreme difficulty to obtain the temperature of living
  cetaceans, although this has been taken in the case of a white-whale
  and a dolphin, which some years ago were kept in confinement in a pond
  in the United States. With the larger whales such a mode of procedure
  is, however, obviously quite impracticable, and we have, accordingly,
  to rely on _post-mortem_ observations. The layer of blubber by which
  all cetaceans are protected from cold renders the _post-mortem_
  refrigeration of the blood a much slower process than in most mammals,
  so that such observations have a much higher value than might at first
  be supposed to be the case. Indeed, the blood-temperature of a
  specimen of Sibbald's rorqual three days after death still stood at
  34° C. The various observations that have been taken have afforded the
  following results in individual cases: Sperm-whale, 40° C.; Greenland
  right-whale, 38.8° C.; porpoise, 35.6° C.; liver of a second
  individual, 37.8° C.; common rorqual, 35.4° C.; dolphin, 35.6° C. The
  average blood-temperature of man is 37° C., and that of other mammals
  39° C.; while that of birds is 42 C. The record of 40° C. in the case
  of the sperm-whale seems to indicate that at least some cetaceans have
  a relatively high temperature.

With the possible exception of one West African dolphin, all the Cetacea
are predaceous, subsisting on living animal food of some kind. One kind
alone (_Orca_) eats other warm-blooded animals, as seals, and even
members of its own order, both large and small. Many feed on fish,
others on small floating crustaceans, pteropods and jelly-fishes, while
the principal staple of the food of many is constituted by cuttle-fishes
and squids. In size cetaceans vary much, some of the smaller dolphins
scarcely exceeding 4 ft. in length, while whales are the most colossal
of all animals. It is true that many statements of their bulk are
exaggerated, but the actual dimensions of the larger species exceed
those of all other animals, not even excluding the extinct dinosaurian
reptiles. With some exceptions, cetaceans are generally timid,
inoffensive animals, active in their movements and affectionate in their
disposition towards one another, especially the mother towards the
young, of which there is usually but one, or at most two at a time. They
are generally gregarious, swimming in herds or "schools," sometimes
amounting to many thousands in number; though some species are met with
either singly or in pairs.

Commercially these animals are of importance on account of the oil
yielded by the blubber of all of them; while whalebone, spermaceti and
ambergris are still more valuable products yielded by certain species.
Within the last few years whalebone has been sold in America for £2900
per ton, while it is also asserted that £3000 per ton has been paid for
two and a quarter tons at Aberdeen, although there seems to be some
degree of doubt attaching to the statement. Soon after the middle of the
last century, the price of this commodity was as low as £150 per ton,
but, according to Mr Frank Buckland, it suddenly leapt up to £620 with
the introduction of "crinoline" into ladies' costume, and it has
apparently been on the rise ever since. Ambergris, which is very largely
used in perfumery, is solely a product of the sperm-whale, and appears
to be a kind of biliary calculus. It generally contains a number of the
horny beaks of the cuttle-fishes and squids upon which these whales
chiefly feed. Its market-price is subject to considerable variation, but
from £3 to £4 per oz. is the usual average for samples of good quality.
In 1898 a merchant in Mincing Lane was the owner of a lump of ambergris
weighing 270 lb., which was sold in Paris for about 85 s. per oz., or
£18,360.

  _Whalebone Whales_.--Existing Cetacea are divisible into two sections,
  or suborders, the relationships of which are by no means clearly
  apparent. The first section is that of the whalebone whales, or
  Mystacoceti, in which no functional teeth are developed, although
  there are tooth-germs during foetal life. The palate is furnished with
  plates of baleen or whalebone; the skull is symmetrical; and the nasal
  bones form a roof to the nasal passages, which are directed upwards
  and forwards. The maxilla is produced in front of, but not over, the
  orbital process of the frontal. The lacrymal is small and distinct
  from the jugal. The tympanic is welded with the periotic, which is
  attached to the base of the skull by two strong diverging processes.
  The olfactory organ is distinctly developed. The two halves of the
  lower jaw are arched outwards, their anterior ends meeting at an
  angle, and connected by fibrous tissue without any symphysis. All the
  ribs at their upper extremity articulate only with the transverse
  processes of the vertebrae; their capitular processes when present not
  articulating directly with the bodies of the vertebrae. The sternum is
  composed of a single piece, and articulates only with a single pair of
  ribs; and there are no ossified sternal ribs. External openings of
  nostrils distinct from each other, longitudinal. A short conical
  caecum.

  When in the foetal state these whales have numerous minute teeth lying
  in the dental groove of both upper and lower jaws. They are best
  developed about the middle of foetal life, after which they are
  absorbed, and no trace of them remains at the time of birth. The
  whalebone does not make its appearance until after birth; and consists
  of a series of flattened horny plates, between three and four hundred
  in number, on each side of the palate, with a bare interval along the
  middle line. The plates are placed transversely to the long axis of
  the palate, with short intervals between them. Each plate or blade is
  somewhat triangular in form, with the base attached to the palate and
  the apex hanging downwards. The outer edge of the blade is hard and
  smooth, but the inner edge and apex fray out into long bristly fibres,
  so that the roof of the whale's mouth looks as if covered with hair,
  as described by Aristotle. At the inner edge of each principal blade
  are two or three much smaller or subsidiary blades. The principal
  blades are longest near the middle of the series, and gradually
  diminish towards the front and back of the mouth. The horny plates
  grow from a fibrous and vascular matrix, which covers the palatal
  surface of the maxillae, and sends out plate-like processes, one of
  which penetrates the base of each blade. Moreover, the free edges of
  these processes are covered with long vascular thread-like papillae,
  one of which forms the central axis of each of the hair-like fibres
  mainly composing the blade. A transverse section of fresh whalebone
  shows that it is made up of numbers of these soft vascular papillae,
  circular in outline, and surrounded by concentrically arranged
  epidermic cells, the whole bound together by other epidermic cells,
  that constitute the smooth (so-called "enamel") surface of the blade,
  which, disintegrating at the free edge, allows the individual fibres
  to become loose and assume a hair-like appearance.

  Whalebone really consists of modified papillae of the mucous membrane
  of the mouth, with an excessive and horny epithelial development. The
  blades are supported and bound together for a certain distance from
  their base, by a mass of less hardened epithelium, secreted by the
  surface of the palatal membrane or matrix of the whalebone in the
  intervals of the plate-like processes. This is the "gum" of the
  whalers. Whalebone varies much in colour in different species; in some
  it is almost jet black, in others slate colour, horn colour, yellow,
  or even creamy-white. In some descriptions the blades are variegated
  with longitudinal stripes of different hues. It differs also greatly
  in other respects, being short, thick, coarse, and stiff in some
  cases, and greatly elongated and highly elastic in those species in
  which it has attained its fullest development. Its function is to
  strain the water from the small marine molluscs, crustaceans, or fish
  upon which the whales subsist. In feeding, whales fill the immense
  mouth with water containing shoals of these small creatures, and then,
  on closing the jaws and raising the tongue, so as to diminish the
  cavity of the mouth, the water streams out through the narrow
  intervals between the hairy fringe of the whalebone blades, and
  escapes through the lips, leaving the living prey to be swallowed.

  Although sometimes divided into two families, _Balaenidae_ and
  _Balaenopteridae_, whalebone-whales are best included in a single
  family group under the former name. The typical members of this family
  are the so-called right-whales, forming the genus _Balaena_, in which
  there are no folds on the throat and chest, and no back-fin; while the
  cervical vertebrae are fused into a single mass. The flippers are
  short and broad, with five digits; the head is very large and the
  whalebone very long and narrow, highly elastic and black; while the
  scapula is high, with a distinct coracoid and coronoid process. This
  genus contains the well-known Greenland right-whale (_B. mysticetus_)
  of the Arctic seas, the whalebone and oil of which are so much valued
  in commerce, and also other whales, distinguished by having the head
  somewhat smaller in proportion to the body, with shorter whalebone and
  a larger number of vertebrae. These inhabit the temperate seas of both
  northern and southern hemispheres, and have been divided into species
  in accordance with their geographical distribution, such as _B.
  biscayensis_ of the North Atlantic, _B. japonica_ of the North
  Pacific, _B. australis_ of the South Atlantic, and _B. antipodarum_
  and _novae-zelandiae_ of the South Pacific; but the differences
  between them are so small that they may probably be regarded as races
  of a single species, the black whale (_B. australis_). On the head
  these whales carry a peculiar structure which is known to whalers as
  the "bonnet." This is a large horny excrescence, worn into hollows
  like a much-denuded piece of limestone rock, growing probably in the
  neighbourhood of the blow-hole. More than one theory has been
  suggested to account for its presence. One suggestion is that it
  indicates the descent of whales from rhinoceros-like mammals; another
  that this species of whale is in the habit of rubbing against rocks in
  order to free itself from barnacles, and thus produces a kind of
  corn--although why on the nose alone is not stated. Dr W.G. Ridewood,
  however, considers that the structure is due to the fact that the
  horny layers which are produced all over the skin are not shed on this
  particular spot.

  The pigmy whale (_Neobalaena marginata_) represents a genus agreeing
  with the right-whales in the absence of throat-flutings, and with the
  rorquals in the presence of a dorsal fin. The cervical vertebrae are
  united, and there are only 43 vertebrae altogether. The flippers are
  small, narrow, and with only four digits. The ribs remarkably expanded
  and flattened; the scapula low and broad, with completely developed
  acromion and coracoid processes. The whalebone is long, slender,
  elastic and white. The species which inhabits the South American,
  Australian and New Zealand seas is the smallest of the
  whalebone-whales, being not more than 20 ft. in length.

  In contrast to the preceding is the great grey whale (_Rachianectes
  glaucus_) of the North Pacific, which combines the relatively small
  head, elongated shape, and narrow flippers of the fin-whales, with the
  smooth throat and absence of a back-fin distinctive of the
  right-whales. The whalebone is shorter and coarser than in any other
  species. In the skeleton the cervical vertebrae are free, and the
  first two ribs on each side expanded and united to form a large bony
  shield. In the humpback-whale (_Megaptera longimana_ or _boops_) the
  head is of moderate size, the whalebone-plates are short and wide, and
  the cervical vertebrae free. The skin of the throat is fluted so as to
  form an expansible pouch; there is a low back-fin; and the flippers,
  which have four digits each, are extremely long, equalling about
  one-fourth the total length of the animal. The acromion and coracoid
  processes of the scapula are rudimentary. See HUMPBACK-WHALE.

  The right-whales are built for cruising slowly about in search of the
  shoals of small floating invertebrates which form their food, and are
  consequently broad in beam, with a float-shaped body and immovable
  neck. The humpback is of somewhat similar build, but with a smaller
  head, and probably attains considerable speed owing to the length of
  its flippers. The finners, or rorquals (_Balaenoptera_), which prey
  largely on fish, are built entirely for speed, and are the ocean
  greyhounds of the group. Their bodies are consequently long and
  attenuated, and their necks are partially mobile; while they are
  furnished with capacious pouches for storing their food. They chiefly
  differ from the humpback by the smaller head, long and slender build,
  small, narrow, and pointed flippers, each containing four digits, and
  the large acromion and coracoid processes to the low and broad
  scapula. Rorquals are found in almost every sea. Among them are the
  most gigantic of all animals, _B. sibbaldi_, which attains the length
  of 80 ft., and the small _B. rostrata_, which does not exceed 30.
  There are certainly four distinct modifications of this genus,
  represented by the two just mentioned, and by _B. musculus_ and _B.
  borealis_, all inhabitants of British seas, but the question whether
  almost identical forms found in the Indian, Southern and Pacific
  Oceans are to be regarded as specifically identical or as distinct
  awaits future researches, although some of these have already received
  distinct names. See RORQUAL.

  In the report on the zoology of the "Discovery" expedition, published
  in 1907 by the British Museum, E.A. Wilson describes a whale
  frequenting the fringe of the Antarctic ice which indicates a new
  generic type. Mainly black in colour, these whales measure about 20 or
  30 ft. in length, and have a tall dorsal fin like that of a killer.

  _Toothed Whales._--The second suborder is represented by the toothed
  whales, or Odontoceti, in which there is no whalebone, and teeth,
  generally numerous, though sometimes reduced to a single pair, and
  occasionally wanting, are normally developed. Unlike that of the
  whalebone-whales, the upper surface of the skull is more or less
  unsymmetrical. The nasal bones are in the form of nodules or flattened
  plates, applied closely to the frontals, and not forming any part of
  the roof to the nasal passage, which is directed upwards and
  backwards. The olfactory organ is rudimentary or absent. Hinder end of
  the maxilla expanded and covering the greater part of the orbital
  plate of the frontal bone. Lacrymal bone either inseparable from the
  jugal, or, if distinct, large, and forming part of the roof of the
  orbit. Tympanic bone not welded with the periotic, which is usually
  only attached to the rest of the skull by ligament. Two halves of the
  lower jaw nearly straight, expanded in height posteriorly, with a wide
  funnel-shaped aperture to the dental canal, and coming in contact in
  front by a flat surface of variable length, but constituting a
  symphysis. Several of the anterior ribs with well-developed capitular
  processes, which articulate with the bodies of the vertebrae. Sternum
  almost always composed of several pieces, placed one behind the other,
  with which several pairs of ribs are connected by well-developed
  cartilaginous or ossified sternal ribs. External respiratory aperture
  single, the two nostrils uniting before they reach the surface,
  usually in the form of a transverse sub-crescentic valvular aperture,
  situated on the top of the head. Flippers with five digits, though the
  first and fifth are usually little developed. No caecum, except in
  _Platanista_.

  The first family, _Physeteridae_, is typified by the sperm-whale, and
  characterized by the absence of functional teeth in the upper jaw; the
  lower teeth being various, and often much reduced in number. Bones of
  the skull raised so as to form an elevated prominence or crest behind
  the nostrils. Pterygoid bones thick, produced backwards, meeting in
  the middle line, and not involuted to form the outer wall of the
  post-palatine air-sinuses, but simply hollowed on their outer side.
  Transverse processes of the arches of the dorsal vertebrae, to which
  the tubercles of the ribs are attached, ceasing abruptly near the end
  of the series, and replaced by processes on the body at a lower level,
  and serially homologous anteriorly with the heads of the ribs, and
  posteriorly with the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae.
  Costal cartilages not ossified.

  The first group, or _Physeterinae_, includes the sperm-whale itself
  and is characterized by the presence of a full series of lower teeth,
  which are set in a groove in place of sockets, the groove being
  imperfectly divided by partial septa, and the teeth held in place by
  the strong, fibrous gum. No distinct lacrymal bone. Skull strikingly
  asymmetrical in the region of the nasal apertures, in consequence of
  the left opening greatly exceeding the right in size.

  In the sperm-whale (_Physeter macrocephalus_) the upper teeth are
  apparently of uncertain number, rudimentary and functionless, being
  embedded in the gum. Lower jaw with from 20 to 25 teeth on each side,
  stout, conical, recurved and pointed at the apex until they are worn,
  without enamel. Upper surface of the skull concave; its posterior and
  lateral edges raised into a very high and greatly compressed
  semicircular crest or wall (fig. 2). Zygomatic processes of jugal
  bones thick and massive. Muzzle greatly elongated, broad at the base,
  and gradually tapering to the apex. Lower jaw exceedingly long and
  narrow, the symphysis being more than half the length. Vertebrae: C 7,
  D 11, L 8, Ca 24; total 50. Atlas, or first vertebra, free; all the
  other cervical vertebrae united by their bodies and spines into a
  single mass. Eleventh pair of ribs rudimentary. Head about one-third
  the length of the body; very massive, high and truncated, and rather
  compressed in front; owing its huge size and form mainly to the
  accumulation of a mass of fatty tissue filling the large hollow on the
  upper surface of the skull and overlying the long muzzle. The single
  blow-hole is longitudinal, slightly S-shaped, and placed at the upper
  and anterior extremity of the head to the left side of the middle
  line. The opening of the mouth is on the under side of the head,
  considerably behind the end of the snout. Flippers short, broad and
  truncated. Dorsal fin represented by a low protuberance. See
  SPERM-WHALE.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.--Skull of Sperm-Whale (_Physeter
  macrocephalus_).]

  In the lesser or pigmy sperm-whale (_Cogia breviceps_) there may be a
  pair of rudimentary teeth in the upper jaw, while on each side of the
  lower jaw there are from 9 to 12 rather long, slender, pointed and
  curved teeth, with a coating of enamel. Upper surface of the skull
  concave, with thick, raised, posterior and lateral margins, massive
  and rounded at their anterior terminations above the orbits. Muzzle
  not longer than the cranial position of the skull, broad at the base,
  and rapidly tapering to the apex. Zygomatic process of the jugal
  rod-like. Lower jaw with symphysis less than half its length.
  Vertebrae: C 7, D 13 or 14, L and Ca 30; total 50 or 51. All the
  cervical vertebrae united by their bodies and arches. The head is
  about one-sixth of the length of the body, and obtusely pointed in
  front; the mouth small and placed far below the apex of the snout; the
  blow-hole crescentic, and placed obliquely on the crown of the head in
  advance of the eyes and to the left of the middle line; while the
  flippers are bluntly sickle-shaped, and the back-fin triangular. This
  species attains a length of from 9 to 13 ft.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--Bottle-nose (_Hyperoödon rostratus_). From a
  specimen taken off the coast of Scotland, 1882.]

  A second subfamily is represented by the bottle-noses and beaked
  whales, and known as the _Ziphiinae_. In this group the lower teeth
  are rudimentary and concealed in the gum, except one, or rarely two,
  pairs which may be largely developed, especially in the male. There is
  a distinct lacrymal bone. Externally the mouth is produced into a
  slender rostrum or beak, from above which the rounded eminence formed
  by a cushion of fat resting on the cranium in front of the blow-hole
  rises somewhat abruptly. The blow-hole is single, crescentic and
  median, as in the _Delphinidae_. Flippers small, ovate, with five
  digits moderately well developed. A small obtuse dorsal fin situated
  considerably behind the middle of the back. Longitudinal grooves on
  each side of the skin of the throat, diverging posteriorly, and nearly
  meeting in front. In external characters and habits the whales of this
  group closely resemble each other. They appear to be almost
  exclusively feeders on cuttle-fishes, and occur either singly, in
  pairs, or in small herds. By their dental and osteological characters
  they are easily separated into four genera.

  In the first of these, _Hyperoödon_, or bottle-nose, there is a small
  conical pointed tooth at the apex of each half of the lower jaw,
  concealed by the gum during life. Skull with the upper ends of the
  premaxillae rising suddenly behind the nostrils to the vertex and
  expanded laterally, their outer edges curving backwards and their
  anterior surfaces arching forwards and overhanging the nostrils; the
  right larger than the left. Nasal bones lying in the hollow between
  the upper extremities of the premaxillae, strongly concave in the
  middle line and in front; their outer edges, especially that of the
  right, expanded over the front of the inner border of the maxilla.
  Very high longitudinal crests on the maxillae at the base of the beak,
  extending backwards almost to the nostrils, approaching each other in
  the middle line above; sometimes compressed and sometimes so massive
  that their inner edges come almost in contact. Preorbital notch
  distinct, and mesethmoid cartilage slightly ossified. Vertebrae: C 7,
  D 9, L 10, Ca 19; total 45. All the cervical vertebrae united. Upper
  surface of the head in front of the blow-hole very prominent and
  rounded, rising abruptly from above the small, distinct snout. Two
  species are known. See BOTTLE-NOSE WHALE.

  The typical representative of the beaked whales is _Ziphius cuvieri_,
  in which there is a single conical tooth of moderate size on each side
  close to the anterior extremity of the lower jaw, directed forwards
  and upwards. Skull with the premaxillae immediately in front and at
  the sides of the nostrils expanded, hollowed, with elevated lateral
  margins, the posterior ends rising to the vertex and curving forwards,
  the right being considerably more developed than the left. The
  conjoint nasals form a pronounced symmetrical eminence at the top of
  the skull, projecting forwards over the nostrils, flat above,
  prominent and rounded in the middle line in front, and separated by a
  notch on each side from the premaxillae. Preorbital notch not
  distinct. Rostrum (seen from above) triangular, tapering from the base
  to the apex; upper and outer edges of maxillae at base of rostrum
  raised into low roughened tuberosities. Mesethmoid cartilage densely
  ossified in adult age, and coalescing with the surrounding bones of
  the rostrum. Vertebrae: C 7, D 10, L 10, Ca 22; total 49. The three
  anterior cervical vertebrae united, the rest free.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--Sowerby's Beaked Whale (_Mesoplodon bidens_).]

  In the numerous species of the allied genus _Mesoplodon_ there is a
  much-compressed and pointed tooth in each half of the lower jaw,
  variously situated, but generally at some distance behind the apex;
  its point directed upwards, and often somewhat backwards, occasionally
  developed to a great size. In the skull the region round the nostrils
  is as in _Hyperoödon_, except that the nasals are narrow and more sunk
  between the upper ends of the premaxillae; like those of _Hyperoödon_,
  they are concave in the middle line in front and above. No maxillary
  tuberosities. Preorbital notch not very distinct. Rostrum long and
  narrow. Mesethmoid in the adult ossified in its entire length, and
  coalescing with the surrounding bones. Vertebrae: C 7, D 10, L 10 or
  11, Ca 19 or 20; total 46 to 48. Two or three anterior cervicals
  united, the rest usually free.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--Skull of a Beaked Whale (_Mesoplodon
  densirostris_).]

  Though varying in form, the lower teeth of the different members of
  this genus agree in their essential structure, having a small and
  pointed enamel-covered crown, composed of dentine, which, instead of
  surmounting a root of the ordinary character, is raised upon a solid
  mass of osteo-dentine, the continuous growth of which greatly alters
  the form and general appearance of the tooth as age advances, as in
  the case of _M. layardi_, where the long, narrow, flat, strap-like
  teeth, curving inwards at their extremities, meet over the rostrum,
  and interfere with the movements of the jaw. In one species (_M.
  grayi_) a row of minute, conical, pointed teeth, like those of
  ordinary Dolphins, 17 to 19 in number, is present even in the adults,
  on each side of the middle part of the upper jaw, but embedded by
  their roots only in the gum, and not in bony sockets. This, with the
  frequent presence of rudimentary teeth in other species of this genus,
  indicates that the beaked whales are derived from ancestral forms with
  teeth of normal character in both jaws. The species are distributed in
  both northern and southern hemispheres, but most frequent in the
  latter. Among them are _M. bidens_, _M. europaeas_, _M. densirostris_,
  _M. layardi_, _M. grayi_ and _M. hectori_; but there is still much to
  be learned with regard to their characters and distribution. This
  group was abundant in the Pliocene age, as attested by the frequency
  with which the imperishable long, cylindrical rostrum of the skull, of
  more than ivory denseness, is found among the rolled and waterworn
  animal remains which compose the "bone-bed" at the base of the Red
  Crag of Suffolk.

  Finally, in Arnoux's beaked whale (_Berardius arnouxi_), of New
  Zealand, which grows to a length of 30 ft., there are two
  moderate-sized, compressed, pointed teeth, on each side of the
  symphysis of the lower jaw, with their summits directed forwards, the
  anterior being the larger of the two and close to the front of the
  jaw. Upper ends of the premaxillae nearly symmetrical, moderately
  elevated, slightly expanded, and not curved forward over the nostrils.
  Nasals broad, massive and rounded, of nearly equal size, forming the
  vertex of the skull, flattened in front, most prominent in the middle
  line. Preorbital notch distinct. Rostrum long and narrow. Mesethmoid
  partially ossified. Small rough eminences on the outer edge of the
  upper surface of the maxillae at base of rostrum. Vertebrae: C 7, D
  10, L 12, Ca 19; total 48. The three anterior cervicals welded, the
  rest free and well developed. Apparently this whale has the power of
  thrusting its teeth up and down, exposing them to view when attacked.

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.--The Susu, or Ganges Dolphin (_Platanista
  gangetica_).]

  In a family by themselves--the _Platinistidae_--are placed three
  cetaceans which differ from the members of the preceding and the
  following groups in the mode of articulation of the ribs with the
  vertebrae, as the tubercular and capitular articulations, distinct at
  the commencement of the series, gradually blend together, as in most
  mammals. The cervical vertebrae are all free. The lacrymal bone is not
  distinct from the jugal. The jaws are long and narrow, with numerous
  teeth in both; the symphysis of the lower one exceeding half its
  length. Externally the head is divided from the body by a slightly
  constricted neck. Pectoral limbs broad and truncated. Dorsal fin small
  or obsolete. In habits these dolphins are fluviatile or estuarine. In
  the Indian susu, or Ganges dolphin (_Platanista gangetica_), the teeth
  number about 30/30 on each side, are set near together, are rather
  large, cylindrical, and sharp-pointed in the young, but in old animals
  acquire a large laterally compressed base, which in the posterior part
  of the series becomes irregularly divided into roots. As the conical
  enamel-covered crown wears away, the teeth of the young and old
  animals have a totally different appearance. The beak and
  tooth-bearing portion of the lower jaw are so narrow that the teeth of
  the two sides are almost in contact. Maxillae supporting large,
  incurved, compressed bony crests, which overarch the nostrils and base
  of the rostrum, and almost meet in the middle line above. Orbits very
  small and eyes rudimentary, without crystalline lens. Blow-hole
  longitudinal, linear. Vertebrae: C 7, D 11, L 8, Ca 25; total 51. A
  small caecum. No pelvic bones. Dorsal fin represented by a low ridge.

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.--River Plate Dolphin (_Stenodelphis
  blainvillei_).]

  The second genus is represented by _Inia geoffroyi_, of the Amazon, in
  which the teeth vary from 26 to 33 pairs in each jaw; those at the
  posterior part with a distinct tubercle at the inner side of the base
  of the crown. Vertebrae: C 7, D 13, L 3, Ca 18; total 41. Transverse
  processes of lumbar vertebrae very broad. Sternum short and broad, and
  consisting of a single segment only. Dorsal fin a mere ridge. The long
  cylindrical rostrum externally furnished with scattered, stout and
  crisp hairs. The third type is _Stenodelphis blainvillei_, the River
  Plate dolphin, a small brown species (fig. 7), with from 50 to 60
  pairs of teeth in each jaw, furnished with a cingulum at the base of
  the crown. Jaws very long and slender. Vertebrae: C 7, D 10, L 5, Ca
  19; total 41. Transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae extremely
  broad. Sternum elongated, composed of two segments, with four sternal
  ribs attached. Dorsal fin rather small, triangular, pointed. Blow-hole
  transverse. In several respects this species connects the two
  preceding ones with the _Delphinidae_ (see DOLPHIN).

  The last family of existing cetaceans is the above-mentioned
  _Delphinidae_, which includes the true dolphins, porpoises, grampuses
  and their relatives. As a rule there are numerous teeth in both jaws;
  and the pterygoid bones of the skull are short, thin and involuted to
  form with a process of the palate bone the outer wall of the
  post-palatine air-sinus. Symphysis of lower jaw short, or moderate,
  never exceeding one-third the length of the jaw. Lacrymal bone not
  distinct from the jugal. Transverse processes of the dorsal vertebrae
  gradually transferred from the arches to the bodies of the vertebrae
  without any sudden break, and becoming posteriorly continuous serially
  with the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. Anterior ribs
  attached to the transverse process by the tubercle, and to the body of
  the vertebra by the head; the latter attachment lost in the posterior
  ribs. Sternal ribs ossified. The blow-hole is transverse, crescentic,
  with the horns of the crescent pointing forwards.

  First on the long list is the narwhal, _Monodon monoceros_, in which,
  apart from some irregular rudimentary teeth, the dentition is reduced
  to a single pair of teeth which lie horizontally in the maxilla, and
  in the female remain permanently concealed within the socket, so that
  this sex is practically toothless, while in the male (fig. 8), the
  right tooth usually remains similarly concealed while the left is
  immensely developed, attaining a length equal to more than half that
  of the entire animal, projecting horizontally from the head in the
  form of a cylindrical, or slightly tapering, pointed tusk, without
  enamel, and with the surface marked by spiral grooves and ridges,
  running in a sinistral direction. Vertebrae: C 7, D 11, L 6, Ca 26;
  total 50. Cervical region comparatively long, and all the vertebrae
  distinct, or with irregular unions towards the middle of the series,
  the atlas and axis being usually free. Flipper small, short and broad,
  with the second and third digits nearly equal, the fourth slightly
  shorter. No dorsal fin. See NARWHAL.

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.--Upper surface of the Skull of male Narwhal
  (_Monodon monoceros_), with the whole of both teeth exposed by removal
  of the upper wall of their alveolar cavities.]

  Closely allied is the beluga or white-whale (_Delphinapterus leucas_),
  of the Arctic seas, in which, however, there are from eight to ten
  pairs of teeth in each jaw, occupying the anterior three-fourths of
  the rostrum and corresponding portion of the lower jaw, rather small,
  conical, and pointed when unworn, but usually become obliquely
  truncated, separated by intervals considerably wider than the diameter
  of the tooth, and implanted obliquely, the crowns inclining forwards
  especially in the upper jaw. Skull rather narrow and elongated,
  depressed. Premaxillae convex in front of the nostrils. Rostrum about
  equal in length to the cranial portion of the skull, triangular, broad
  at the base, and gradually contracting towards the apex, where it is
  somewhat curved downwards. Vertebrae: C 7, D 11, L 9, Ca 23; total 50.
  Cervical vertebrae free. Flippers broad, short and rounded, all the
  digits being tolerably well developed, except the first. Anterior part
  of head rounded; no distinct snout. No dorsal fin, but a low ridge in
  its place. See BELUGA.

  In all the remaining genera of _Delphinidae_ the cervical region of
  the vertebral column is very short, and the first two, and usually
  more, of the vertebrae are firmly united. The common porpoise
  (_Phocaena communis_, or _P. phocaena_) is the typical representative
  of the first genus, in which the teeth vary from 18/18 to 25/25, are
  small, and occupy nearly the whole length of the rostrum, with
  compressed, spade-shaped crowns, separated from the root by a
  constricted neck. Rostrum rather shorter than the cranium proper,
  broad at the base and tapering towards the apex. Premaxillae raised
  into tuberosities in front of the nostrils. The frontal bones form a
  somewhat square elevated protuberance in the middle line of the skull
  behind the nostrils, rising above the flattened nasals. Symphysis of
  lower jaw very short. Vertebrae: C 7, D 13, L 14, Ca 30; total 64.
  First to sixth cervical vertebrae and sometimes the seventh also,
  coalesced. Flippers of moderate size, oval, slightly sickle-shaped,
  with the second and third digits nearly equal in length, and the
  fourth and fifth well developed, but shorter. Head short, moderately
  rounded in front of the blow-hole. Dorsal fin near the middle of the
  back, triangular; its height considerably less than the length of the
  base; its anterior edge frequently furnished with one or more rows of
  conical horny tubercles.

  The porpoise, which is so common in British waters and the Atlantic,
  seldom enters the Mediterranean, and apparently never resides there.
  There is, however, a porpoise in the Black Sea, which, according to Dr
  O. Abel, is entitled to rank as a distinct species, with the name of
  _Phocaena relicta_. This Black Sea porpoise is readily distinguished
  from the Atlantic species by the contour of the profile of the head,
  which, in place of forming a continuous curve from the muzzle to what
  represents the neck, has a marked prominence above the angle of the
  mouth, followed by an equally marked depression. The teeth are also
  different in form and number. The absence of porpoises from the
  Mediterranean is explained by Dr Abel on account of the greater
  saltness of that sea as compared with the ocean in general; his idea
  being that these cetaceans are near akin to fresh-water members of the
  group, and therefore unsuited to withstand an excessively saline
  medium. From the Taman Peninsula, on the north shore of the Black Sea,
  the same writer has described an extinct type of ancestral porpoise,
  under the name of _Palaeophocaena andrussowi_. Another species is the
  wholly black _P. spinipennis_, typically from South America. Black is
  also the hue of the Indian porpoise (_Neophocaena phocaenoides_),
  which wants a dorsal fin, and has eighteen pairs of teeth rather
  larger than those of the ordinary porpoise. (See PORPOISE.)

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.--Beluga or White-Whale (_Delphinapterus
  leucas_). From a specimen taken in the river St Lawrence and exhibited
  in London, 1877.]

  Next comes the Indo-Malay genus _Orcella_, in which the 12/12 to
  14/14, small, conical teeth are pointed, rather closely set, and
  occupy nearly the whole length of the rostrum. Skull sub-globular,
  high. Rostrum nearly equal in length to the cranial portion of the
  skull, tapering. Flippers of moderate size, not elongated, but
  somewhat pointed, with all the bones of the digits broader than long,
  except the first phalanges of the index and third fingers. Head
  globular in front. Dorsal fin rather small, placed behind the middle
  of the body. Two species, both of small size--_O. brevirostris_, from
  the Bay of Bengal, and _O. fluminalis_, from the Irrawaddy river, from
  300 to 900 m. from the sea.

  In the grampus, or killer, _Orca gladiator_ (or _O. orca_) the teeth
  form about twenty pairs, above and below, occupying nearly the whole
  length of the rostrum, very large and stout, with conical recurved
  crowns and large roots, expanded laterally and flattened, or rather
  hollowed, on the anterior and posterior surfaces. Rostrum about equal
  in length to the cranial part of the skull, broad and flattened above,
  rounded in front; premaxillae broad and rather concave in front of the
  nostrils, contracted at the middle of the rostrum, and expanding again
  towards the apex. Vertebrae: C 7, D 11-12, L 10, Ca 23; total 51 or
  52; bodies of the first and second and sometimes the third cervical
  vertebrae united; the rest free. Flippers very large, ovate, nearly as
  broad as long, with all the phalanges and metacarpals broader than
  long. General form of body robust. Face short and rounded. Dorsal fin
  near the middle of the back, very high and pointed. See GRAMPUS.

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.--The Grampus or Killer (_Orca gladiator_).]

  The lesser killer or black killer, _Pseudorca crassidens_, has its
  8-12/8-12 teeth confined to the anterior half of the rostrum and
  corresponding part of the lower jaw; they are small, conical, curved
  and sharp-pointed when unworn, but sometimes deciduous in old age.
  Skull broad and depressed; with the rostrum and cranial portions about
  equal in length. Upper surface of rostrum broad and flat. Premaxillae
  concave in front of the nostrils, as wide at the middle of the rostrum
  as at the base, and nearly or completely concealing the maxillae in
  the anterior half of this region. Vertebrae: C 7, D II, L 12-14, Ca
  28-29; total 58 or 59. Bodies of the anterior five or six cervical
  vertebrae united. Length of the bodies of the lumbar and anterior
  caudal vertebrae about equal to their width. Flippers very long and
  narrow, with the second digit the longest, and having as many as 12 or
  13 phalanges, the third shorter (with 9 phalanges), the first, fourth
  and fifth very short. Fore part of the head round, in consequence of
  the great development of a cushion of fat, placed on the rostrum of
  the skull in front of the blow-hole. Dorsal fin low and triangular,
  the length of its base considerably exceeding its vertical height.

  Next comes the ca'ing whale, or black-fish (_Globicephalus melas_),
  with about ten pairs of upper and lower teeth. Cranial and dental
  characters generally like those of _Orca_, except that the roots of
  the teeth are cylindrical. Vertebrae: C 7, D 10, L 9, Ca 24; total 50;
  first to sixth or seventh cervical vertebrae united; bodies of the
  lumbar vertebrae distinguished from those of the preceding genera by
  being more elongated, the length being to the width as 3 to 2.
  Flippers of moderate size, narrow and pointed. Dorsal fin situated
  near the middle of the back, of moderate size, and sickle-shaped. Head
  in front of the blow-hole high, and compressed anteriorly, the snout
  truncated. See CA'ING WHALE.

  Risso's dolphin, _Grampus griseus_, represents another genus,
  characterized by the absence of teeth in the upper and the small
  number of these in the lower jaw (3 to 7 on each side, and confined to
  the region of the symphysis). Vertebrae: C 7, D 12, L 19, Ca 30; total
  68. General external characters much as in _Globicephalus_, but the
  fore part of the head less rounded, and the flippers less elongated.
  _G. griseus_ is about 13 ft. long, and remarkable for its great
  variability of colour. It has been found, though rarely, in the North
  Atlantic and Mediterranean.

  The common dolphin (_Delphinus delphis_) is the typical representative
  of a large group of relatively small species, some of which are wholly
  marine, while others are more or less completely fluviatile. They are
  divided into a number of genera, such as _Prodelphinus_, _Steno_,
  _Lagenorhynchus_, _Cephalorhynchus_, _Tursiops_, &c., best
  distinguished from one another by the number and size of the teeth,
  the form and relations of the bones on the hinder part of the palate,
  the length of the beak and of the union of the two halves of the lower
  jaw, and the number of vertebrae. For the distinctive characters of
  these genera the reader may refer to one of the works mentioned below;
  and it must suffice to state that, collectively, all these dolphins
  are characterized by the following features. The teeth are numerous in
  both jaws, and more than 20/20 in number, occupying nearly the whole
  length of the rostrum, and small, close-set, conical, pointed and
  slightly curved. Rostrum more or less elongated, and pointed in front,
  usually considerably longer than the cranial portion of the skull.
  Vertebrae: C 7, D 12-14, L and Ca variable; total 51 to 90. Flippers
  of moderate size, narrow, pointed, somewhat sickle-shaped, with the
  first digit rudimentary, the second longest, third nearly equal, and
  the fourth and fifth extremely short. Externally the head shows a
  distinct beak or pointed snout, marked off from the antenasal fatty
  elevation by a V-shaped groove. Dorsal fin rather large, triangular or
  sickle-shaped, rarely wanting. A curiously marked brown and white
  species, perhaps referable to _Lagenorhynchus_ is found on the fringe
  of the Antarctic ice (see report on the zoology of the "Discovery,"
  published in 1907 by the British Museum). See DOLPHIN.


  _Extinct Cetacea._

  At present we are totally in the dark as to the origin of the
  whalebone-whales, not being even assured that they are derived from
  the same stock as the toothed whales. It is noteworthy, however, that
  some of the fossil representatives of the latter have nasal bones of a
  type recalling those of the former. Such fossil whalebone-whales as
  are known occur in Pliocene, and Miocene formations are either
  referable to existing genera, or to more or less nearly related
  extinct ones, such as _Plesiocetus_, _Herpetocetus_ and _Cetotherium_.

  The toothed whales, on the other hand, are very largely represented in
  a fossil state, reaching as low in the geological series as the upper
  Cretaceous. Many of these present much more generalized characters
  than their modern representatives, while others indicate apparently a
  transition towards the still more primitive zeuglodonts, which, as
  will be shown later, are themselves derived from the creodont
  Carnivora. In the Pliocene deposits of Belgium and England are
  preserved the teeth and other remains of a number of cetaceans, such
  as _Physodon_, _Encetus_, _Dinoziphius_, _Hoplocetus_, _Balaenodon_
  and _Scaldicetus_, more or less nearly related to the sperm-whale, but
  presenting several primitive characters. A complete skull of a member
  of this group from the Tertiary deposits of Patagonia, at first
  referred to _Physodon_, but subsequently to _Scaldicetus_, has a full
  series of enamelled teeth in the upper jaw; and it is probable that
  the same was the case in other forms. This entails either a
  modification of the definition of the _Physeteridae_ as given above,
  or the creation of a separate family for these primitive sperm-whales.
  In other cases, however, as in the Miocene _Prophyseter_ and
  _Placoziphius_, the anterior portion or the whole of the upper jaw had
  already become toothless; and these forms are regarded as indicating
  the descent of the sperm-whales from the under-mentioned _Squalodon_.
  The beaked whales, again, are believed to be independently descended
  from the latter type, _Berardius_ being traced into the Miocene
  _Mioziphius_, _Anoplonassa_ and _Palaeoziphius_, the last of which
  shows signs in its dentition of approximating to the complicated
  tooth-structure of the squalodonts.

  Another line of descent from the latter, apparently culminating in the
  modern _Platanistidae_, is represented by the family
  _Eurhinodelphidae_, typified by the European Miocene
  _Eurhinodelphis_, but also including the contemporary Patagonian
  _Argyrocetus_ and the nearly allied European _Cyrtodelphis_. All these
  were very long-beaked dolphins; and in _Argyrocetus_, at all events,
  the occipital condyles, instead of being closely pressed to the skull,
  are as prominent as in ordinary mammals, while the nasal bones,
  instead of forming mere rudimentary nodules, were squared and roofed
  over the hind part of the nasal chamber.

  In the Miocene _Squalodon_, representing the family _Squalodontidae_,
  the dentition is differentiated into incisors, canines and
  cheek-teeth, the hinder ones of the latter series having double roots
  and compressed crowns carrying serrations on the hinder edge;
  generally the dental formula has been given as i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. 4/4,
  m. 7/7, the single-rooted cheek-teeth being regarded as premolars and
  those with double roots as molars. Dr Abel is, however, of opinion
  that the formula is better represented as i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. (8 or
  9)/9, m. 3/2; the teeth reckoned as molars corresponding to those of
  the creodont Carnivora. The single-rooted cheek-teeth are regarded as
  due, not to the division of double-rooted ones, but to the fusion of
  the two roots of teeth of the latter type. In _Squalodon_ the nasal
  bones were of the modern nodular type, but in the Miocene Patagonian
  _Prosqualodon_ they partially covered the nasal chamber.

  At present there is a gap between the most primitive squalodonts and
  the Eocene zeuglodonts (_Zeuglodontidae_), which are regarded by
  Messrs Max Weber, O. Abel and C.W. Andrews as the direct forerunners
  of the modern-toothed whales, forming the suborder _Archaeoceti_. It
  is, however, right to mention that some authorities refuse to admit
  the relation of the Archaeoceti to the whales.

  In the typical zeuglodonts the long and flat skull has large temporal
  fossae, a strong sagittal crest, a long beak formed mainly by the
  premaxillae (in place of the maxillae, as in modern whales), and long
  nasal bones covering over the nasal chamber, so that the nostrils
  opened about half-way down the beak. All the cervical vertebrae were
  free. Normally the dentition in the typical genus _Zeuglodon_ (which
  is common to the Eocene of North America and Egypt) is i. 3/3, c. 1/1,
  p. 4/4, m. 3/3; the cheek-teeth being two-rooted, with compressed
  pointed crowns, of which the fore-and-aft edges are coarsely serrated.
  In the Egyptian _Zeuglodon osiris_ the number of the molars is,
  however, reduced to 2/3, while some of the earlier cheek-teeth have
  become single-rooted, as in the squalodonts. The probable transitional
  form between the latter and the zeuglodonts is the small
  _Microzeuglodon caucasicus_ described by the present writer, from the
  Caucasus. As regards the origin of the zeuglodonts themselves, remains
  discovered in the Eocene formations of Egypt indicate a practically
  complete transition, so far at least as dental characters are
  concerned, from these whale-like creatures to the creodont Carnivora.
  In the earliest type, _Protocetus_, the skull is practically that of a
  zeuglodont, the snout being in fact more elongated than in some of the
  earliest representatives of the latter, although the nostrils are
  placed nearer the tip. The incisors are unknown, but the cheek-teeth
  are essentially those of a creodont, none of them having acquired the
  serrated edges distinctive of the typical zeuglodonts; and the hinder
  premolars and molars retaining the three roots of the creodonts. In
  the somewhat later _Prozeuglodon_ the skull is likewise essentially of
  the zeuglodont type, although the nostrils have shifted a little more
  backwards; as regards the cheek-teeth, which have acquired serrated
  crowns, the premolars at any rate retain the inner buttress supported
  by a distinct third root, so that they are precisely intermediate
  between _Protocetus_ and _Zeuglodon_. Yet another connecting form is
  _Eocetus_, a very large animal from nearly the same horizon as
  _Prozeuglodon_; its skull approaching that of _Zeuglodon_ as regards
  the backward position of the nostrils, although the cheek-teeth are of
  the creodont type, having inner, or third, roots. It is noteworthy
  that _Zeuglodon_ apparently occurs in the same beds as these
  intermediate types.

  It follows from the foregoing that if zeuglodonts are the ancestors of
  the true Cetacea--and the probability that they are so is very
  great--the latter are derived from primitive Carnivora, and not, as
  has been suggested, from herbivorous Ungulata. The idea that the
  zeuglodonts were provided with a bony armour does not appear to be
  supported by recent discoveries.

  AUTHORITIES.--The above article is based on that by Sir W.H. Flower in
  the 9th edition of this work. See also W.H. Flower, "On the Characters
  and Divisions of the Family Delphinidae," _Proc. Zool. Soc._ (London,
  1883); F.W. True, "Review of the Family Delphinidae," _Proc. U.S.
  Museum_, No. 36 (1889); R. Lydekker, "Cetacean Skulls from Patagonia,"
  _Palaeontol. Argentina_, vol. ii: _An. Mus. La Plata_ (1893); W.
  Dames, "Über Zeuglodonten aus Ägypten," _Paläontol. Abhandlungen_,
  vol. i. (1894); F.E. Beddard, _A Book of Whales_ (London, 1900); O.
  Abel, "Untersuchungen über die fossilen Platanistiden des Wiener
  Beckens," _Denks. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien._, vol. lxviii. (1899); "Les
  Dauphins longirostres du Bolérien," _Mém. musée d'hist. nat. belgique_
  (1901 and 1902); "Die phylogenetische Entwickelung des
  Cetaceengebisses und die systematische Stellung der Physeteriden,"
  _Verhandl. deutsch. zool. Gesellschaft_ (1905); E. Fraas, "Neue
  Zeuglodonten aus dem unteren Mittelocean vom Mokattam bei Cairo,"
  _Geol. und paläontol. Abhandl._ ser. 2, vol. vi. (1904); C.W.
  Andrews, "Descriptive Catalogue of the Tertiary Vertebrata of the
  Fayum" (British Museum, 1906).     (R. L.*)



CETHEGUS, the name of a Roman patrician family of the Cornelian gens.
Like the younger Cato its members kept up the old Roman fashion of
dispensing with the tunic and leaving the arms bare (Horace, _Ars
Poëtica_, 50; Lucan, _Pharsalia_, ii. 543). Two individuals are of some
importance:--

(1) MARCUS CORNELIUS CETHEGUS, pontifex maximus and curule aedile, 213
B.C. In 211, as praetor, he had charge of Apulia; later, he was sent to
Sicily, where he proved a successful administrator. In 209 he was
censor, and in 204 consul. In 203 he was proconsul in Upper Italy,
where, in conjunction with the praetor P. Quintilius Varus, he gained a
hard-won victory over Mago, Hannibal's brother, in Insubrian territory,
and obliged him to leave Italy. He died in 196. He had a great
reputation as an orator, and is characterized by Ennius as "the
quintessence of persuasiveness" (_suadae medulla_). Horace (_Ars Poët._
50; _Epistles_, ii. 2. 117) calls him an authority on the use of Latin
words.

  Livy xxv. 2, 41, xxvii. 11, xxix. 11, xxx. 18.

(2) GAIUS CORNELIUS CETHEGUS, the boldest and most dangerous of
Catiline's associates. Like many other youthful profligates, he joined
the conspiracy in the hope of getting his debts cancelled. When Catiline
left Rome in 63 B.C., after Cicero's first speech, Cethegus remained
behind as leader of the conspirators with P. Lentulus Sura. He himself
undertook to murder Cicero and other prominent men, but was hampered by
the dilatoriness of Sura, whose age and rank entitled him to the chief
consideration. The discovery of arms in Cethegus's house, and of the
letter which he had given to the ambassadors of the Allobroges, who had
been invited to co-operate, led to his arrest. He was condemned to
death, and executed, with Sura and others, on the night of the 5th of
December.

  Sallust, _Catilina_, 46-55; Cicero, _In Cat._ iii. 5-7; Appian, _Bell.
  Civ._ ii. 2-5; see CATILINE.



CETINA, GUTIERRE DE (1518?-1572?), Spanish poet and soldier, was born at
Seville shortly before 1520. He served under Charles V. in Italy and
Germany, but retired from the army in 1545 to settle in Seville. Soon
afterwards, however, he sailed for Mexico, where he resided for some ten
years; he appears to have visited Seville in 1557, and to have returned
to Mexico, where he died at some date previous to 1575. A follower of
Boscan and Garcilaso de la Vega, a friend of Jerónimo de Urrea and
Baltavar del Alcázar, Cetina adopted the doctrines of the Italian school
and, under the name of Vandalio, wrote an extensive series of poems in
the newly introduced metres; his sonnets are remarkable for elegance of
form and sincerity of sentiment, his other productions being in great
part adaptations from Petrarch, Ariosto and Ludovico Dolce. His patrons
were Antonio de Leyva, prince of Ascoli, Hurtado de Mendoza, and Alva's
grandson, the duke de Sessa, but he seems to have profited little by
their protection. His works have been well edited by Joaquín Hazañas y
la Rúa in two volumes published at Seville (1895).



CETTE, a seaport of southern France in the department of Hérault, 18 m.
S.W. of Montpellier by the Southern railway. Pop. (1906) 32,659. After
Marseilles it is the principal commercial port on the south coast of
France. The older part of Cette occupies the foot and slope of the Mont
St Clair (the ancient _Mons Setius_), a hill 590 ft. in height, situated
on a tongue of land that lies between the Mediterranean and the lagoon
of Thau. This quarter with its wide streets and lofty stone buildings is
bounded on the east by the Canal de Cette, which leads from the lagoon
of Thau to the Old Basin and the outer harbour. Across the canal lie the
newer quarters, which chiefly occupy two islands separated from each
other by a wet dock and limited on the east by the Canal Maritime,
parallel to the Canal de Cette. A lateral canal unites the northern ends
of the two main canals. A breakwater running W.S.W. and E.N.E. protects
the entrance to the harbour, which is one of the safest in France. The
outer port and the Old Basin are enclosed by a mole to the south and by
a jetty to the east. Behind the outer port lies an inner and more recent
basin which communicates with the Canal Maritime. The entire area of the
harbour, including the canals, is 111 acres with a quayage length of
over 8000 yds. The public institutions of Cette include tribunals of
commerce and of maritime commerce, councils of arbitration in commercial
and fishing affairs, an exchange and chamber of commerce, a branch of
the Bank of France and a large hospital. There are also a communal
college, a naval school, and schools of music, commerce and industry,
and navigation. Cette is much resorted to for sea-bathing. The town is
connected with Lyons by the canal from the Rhone to Cette, and with
Bordeaux by the Canal du Midi, and is a junction of the Southern and
Paris-Lyon railways. The shipping trade is carried on with South
America, the chief ports of the Mediterranean, and especially with
Spain. The chief exports are wines and brandy, chemical products, skins
and soap; the chief imports are wine, cereals, coal, timber, petroleum,
sulphur, tar and chemical substances. In the five years 1901-1905 the
average annual value of imports was £3,720,000 (£4,980,000 in years
1896-1900), of exports £1,427,000 (£1,237,000 in 1896-1900). More than
400 small craft are employed in the sardine, tunny, cod and other
fisheries. Large quantities of shell-fish are obtained from the lagoon
of Thau. There are factories for the pickling of sardines, for the
manufacture of liqueurs and casks, and for the treatment of sulphur,
phosphates, and nitrate of soda. The Schneider Company of Creusot also
have metallurgical works at Cette, and the establishments for making
wine give employment to thousands. The port of Cette was created in 1666
by the agency of Colbert, minister of Louis XIV., and according to the
plans of Vauban; toward the end of the 17th century its development was
aided by the opening of the Canal du Midi.



CETTIGNE (Servian, _Tsetinye_; also written _Cettinje_, _Tzetinje_, and
_Tsettinye_), the capital of Montenegro; in a narrow plain deeply sunk
in the heart of the limestone mountains, at a height of 2093 ft. above
the sea. Pop. (1900) about 3200. The surrounding country is bare and
stony, with carefully cultivated patches of rich red soil among the
crevices of the rock. In winter it is often so deeply covered with snow
as to be well-nigh inaccessible, while in spring and autumn it is
frequently flooded by the waters of a small brook which becomes a
torrent after rain or a thaw. Cettigne itself is little more than a
walled village, consisting of a cluster of whitewashed cottages and some
unadorned public buildings. These include a church; a fortified
monastery which was founded in 1478, but so often burned and rebuilt as
to seem quite modern, and which is visited by pilgrims to the tomb of
Peter I. (1782-1830); residences for the archimandrite and the _vladika_
or metropolitan of Cettigne; a palace built in 1863, which accommodates
the ministries; the court of appeal, and a school modelled on the
gymnasia of Germany and Austria; the newer palaces of the prince and his
heir; foreign legations; barracks; a seminary for priests and teachers,
established by the tsar Alexander II. (1855-1881), with a very
successful girls' school founded and endowed by the tsaritsa Marie; a
library and reading-room; a theatre, a museum and a hospital. In an open
space near the old palace stood the celebrated plane tree, beneath which
Prince Nicholas gave audience to his subjects, and administered justice
until the closing years of the 19th century. A zigzag highway, regarded
as a triumph of engineering, winds through the mountain passes between
Cettigne and the Austrian seaport of Cattaro; and other good roads give
access to the richest parts of the interior. There is, however, little
trade, though mineral waters are manufactured.

Cettigne owes its origin to Ivan the Black, who was forced, towards the
end of the 15th century, to withdraw from Zhabliak, his former capital.
It has often been taken and sacked by the Turks, but has seldom been
occupied by them for long.



CETUS ("The Whale"), in astronomy, a constellation of the southern
hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd
century B.C.), and fabled by the Greeks to be the monster sent by
Neptune to devour Andromeda, but which was slain by Perseus. Ptolemy
catalogued 22 stars in this constellation; Tycho Brahe, 21; and
Hevelius, 45. The most remarkable star of this constellation is
_o-(Mira) Ceti_, a long-period variable, discovered by the German
astronomer Fabricius; its magnitude varies between about 3 to 9, and its
period is 331 days. _[tau]-Ceti_ is an irregular variable, its extreme
magnitudes being 5 and 7; _[gamma]-Ceti_ is a beautiful double star,
consisting of a yellow star of magnitude 3 and a blue of magnitude 6.8;
_[nu]-Ceti_ is also a double star.



CETYWAYO (  ?-1884), king of the Zulus, was the eldest son of King
Umpande or Panda, and a nephew of the two previous kings, Dingaan and
Chaka. Cetywayo was a young man when in 1840 his father was placed on
the throne by the aid of the Natal Boers; and three years later Natal
became a British colony. Cetywayo had inherited much of the military
talent of his uncle Chaka, the organizer of the Zulu military system,
and chafed under his father's peaceful policy towards his British and
Boer neighbours. Suspecting Panda of favouring a younger son, Umbulazi,
as his successor, Cetywayo made war on his brother, whom he defeated and
slew at a great battle on the banks of the Tugela in December 1856. In
the following year, at an assembly of the Zulus, it was resolved that
Panda should retire from the management of the affairs of the nation,
which were entrusted to Cetywayo, though the old chief kept the title of
king. Cetywayo was, however, suspicious of the Natal government, which
afforded protection to two of his brothers. The feeling of distrust was
removed in 1861 by a visit from Mr (afterwards Sir) Theophilus
Shepstone, secretary for native affairs in Natal, who induced Panda to
proclaim Cetywayo publicly as the future king. Friendly relations were
then maintained between the Zulus and Natal for many years. In 1872
Panda died, and Cetywayo was declared king, August 1873, in the presence
of Shepstone, to whom he made solemn promises to live at peace with his
neighbours and to govern his people more humanely. These promises were
not kept. Not only were numbers of his own people wantonly slain
(Cetywayo returning defiant messages to the governor of Natal when
remonstrated with), and the military system of Chaka and Dingaan
strengthened, but he had a feud with the Transvaal Boers as to the
possession of the territory between the Buffalo and Pongola rivers, and
encouraged the chief Sikukuni (Secocoeni) in his struggle against the
Boers. This feud with the Boers was inherited by the British government
on the annexation of the Transvaal in 1877. Cetywayo's attitude became
menacing; he allowed a minor chief to make raids into the Transvaal, and
seized natives within the Natal border.

Sir Bartle Frere, who became high commissioner of South Africa in March
1877, found evidence which convinced him that the Kaffir revolt of that
year on the eastern border of Cape Colony was part of a design or desire
"for a general and simultaneous rising of Kaffirdom against white
civilization"; and the Kaffirs undoubtedly looked to Cetywayo and the
Zulus as the most redoubtable of their champions. In December 1878 Frere
sent the Zulu king an ultimatum, which, while awarding him the territory
he claimed from the Boers, required him to make reparation for the
outrages committed within the British borders, to receive a British
resident, to disband his regiments, and to allow his young men to marry
without the necessity of having first "washed their spears." Cetywayo,
who had found a defender in Bishop Colenso, vouchsafed no reply, and
Lord Chelmsford entered Zululand, at the head of 13,000 troops, on the
11th of January 1879 to enforce the British demands. The disaster of
Isandhlwana and the defence of Rorke's Drift signalized the commencement
of the campaign, but on the 4th of July the Zulus were utterly routed at
Ulundi. Cetywayo became a fugitive, but was captured on the 28th of
August. His kingdom was divided among thirteen chiefs and he himself
taken to Cape Town, whence he was brought to London in August 1882. He
remained in England less than a month, during which time the government
(the second Gladstone administration) announced that they had decided
upon his restoration. To his great disappointment, however, restoration
proved to refer only to a portion of his old kingdom. Even there one of
his kinsmen and chief enemies, Usibepu, was allowed to retain the
territory allotted to him in 1879. Cetywayo was reinstalled on the 29th
of January 1883 by Shepstone, but his enemies, headed by Usibepu,
attacked him within a week, and after a struggle of nearly a year's
duration he was defeated and his kraal destroyed. He then took refuge in
the Native Reserve, where he died on the 8th of February 1884. For a
quarter of a century he had been the most conspicuous native figure in
South Africa, and had been the cause of long and bitter political
controversy in Great Britain.

His son DINIZULU afterwards attempted to become king, was exiled (1889)
to St Helena, permitted to return (1898), and granted the position of a
chief. In December 1907 Dinizulu was imprisoned at Maritzburg, being
suspected of complicity in the revolt which had occurred in Zululand the
previous year. He was kept many months waiting trial, there being
considerable friction between the colonial government and the British
government over the incident. He was eventually brought to trial in
November 1908 before a special court, his defence (to the cost of which
the British government contributed £2000) being undertaken by Mr W.P.
Schreiner. The trial was not concluded until March 1909. The charge of
high treason was not proved, but Dinizulu was convicted of harbouring
rebels and was sentenced to four years' imprisonment.

  _The Life of Sir Bartle Frere_, by John Martineau, vol. ii. chaps. 18
  to 21, contains much information concerning Cetywayo.



CEUTA (Arabic _Sebta_), a Spanish military and convict station and
seaport on the north coast of Morocco, in 35° 54' N., 5° 18' W. Pop.
about 13,000. It is situated on a promontory connected with the mainland
by a narrow isthmus. This promontory marks the south-eastern end of the
straits of Gibraltar, which between Ceuta and Gibraltar have a width of
14 m. The promontory terminates in a bold headland, the Montagne des
Singes, with seven distinct peaks. Of these the highest is the Monte del
Hacko, the ancient _Abyla_, one of the "Pillars of Hercules," which
faces Gibraltar and rises 636 ft. above the sea. On the westernmost
point--Almina, 476 ft. high--is a lighthouse with a light visible for 23
m. Ceuta consists of two quarters, the old town, covering the low ground
of the isthmus, and the modern town, built on the hills forming the
north and west faces of the peninsula. Between the old and new quarters
and on the north side of the isthmus lies the port. The public buildings
in the town, thoroughly Spanish in its character, are not striking: they
include the cathedral (formerly a mosque), the governor's palace, the
town hall, barracks, and the convict prison in the old convent of San
Francisco. Ceuta has been fortified seaward, the works being furnished
with modern artillery intended to command the entrance to the
Mediterranean. Landward are three lines of defence, the inner line
stretching completely across the isthmus. These fortifications, which
date from the time of the Portuguese occupation, have been partly
modernized. The citadel, El Hacho, built on the neck of the isthmus,
dates from the 15th century. The garrison consists of between 3000 and
4000 men, inclusive of a disciplinary corps of military convicts. Of the
rest of the population about 2000 are civilian convicts; and there are
colonies of Jews, negroes and Moors, the last including descendants of
Moors transferred to Ceuta from Oran when Spain abandoned that city in
1796.

Ceuta occupies in part the site of a Carthaginian colony, which was
succeeded by a Roman colony said to have been called _Ad Septem Fratres_
and also _Exilissa_ or _Lissa Civitas_. From the Romans the town passed
to the Vandals and afterwards to Byzantium, the emperor Justinian
restoring its fortifications in 535. In 618 the town, then known as
_Septon_, fell into the hands of the Visigoths. It was the last
stronghold in North Africa which held out against the Arabs. At that
date (A.D. 711) the governor of the town was the Count Julian who, in
revenge for the betrayal of his daughter by King Roderick of Toledo,
invited the Arabs to cross the straits under Tarik and conquer Spain for
Islam. By the Arabs the town was called _Cibta_ or _Sebta_, hence the
Spanish form _Ceuta_. From the date of its occupation by the Arabs the
town had a stormy history, being repeatedly captured by rival Berber and
Spanish-Moorish dynasties. It became nevertheless an important
commercial and industrial city, being noted for its brass ware, its
trade in ivory, gold and slaves. It is said to have been the first place
in the West where a paper manufactory was established. In 1415 the town
was captured by the Portuguese under John I., among those taking part in
the attack being Prince Henry "the Navigator" and two of his brothers,
who were knighted on the day following in the mosque (hastily dedicated
as a Christian church). Ceuta passed to Spain in 1580 on the subjugation
of Portugal by Philip II., and was definitely assigned to the Spanish
crown by the treaty of Lisbon in 1688. The town has been several times
unsuccessfully besieged by the Moors--one siege, under Mulai Ismail,
lasting twenty-six years (1694-1720). In 1810, with the consent of
Spain, it was occupied by British troops under General Sir J.F. Fraser.
The town was restored to Spain by the British at the close of the
Napoleonic Wars. As the result of the war between Spain and Morocco in
1860 the area of Spanish territory around the town was increased. The
military governor of the town also commands the troops in the other
Spanish stations on the coast of Morocco. For civil purposes Ceuta is
attached to the province of Cadiz. It is a free port, but does little
trade.

  See de Prado, _Recuerdos de Africa; historia de la plaza de Ceuta_
  (Madrid, 1859-1860); Budgett Meakin, _The Land of the Moors_ (London,
  1901), chap, xix., where many works dealing with Spanish Morocco are
  cited.



CEVA, a town of Piedmont, Italy, in the province of Cuneo, 33 m. E. by
rail from the town of Cuneo, 1270 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901) 2703.
In the middle ages it was a strong fortress defending the confines of
Piedmont towards Liguria, but the fortifications on the rock above the
town were demolished in 1800 by the French, to whom it had been ceded in
1796. Its cheese (_caseus cebanus_) was famous in Roman times, but it
does not seem ever to have been a Roman town. It lay on the road between
Augusta Taurinorum and Vada Sabatia. A branch railway runs from Ceva
through Garessio, with its marble quarries, to Ormea (2398 ft.), 22 m.
to the south through the upper valley of the Tanaro, which in Roman
times was under Albingaunum (Th. Mommsen in _Corp. Inscr. Lat._ v.
(Berlin, 1877), p. 898). From Ormea a road runs south to (31 m.) Oneglia
on the Ligurian coast.



CÉVENNES (Lat. _Cebenna_ or _Gebenna_), a mountain range of southern
France, forming the southern and eastern fringe of the central plateau
and part of the watershed between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins.
It consists of a narrow ridge some 320 m. long, with numerous lofty
plateaus and secondary ranges branching from it. The northern division
of the range, which nowhere exceeds 3320 ft. in height, extends, under
the name of the mountains of Charolais, Beaujolais and Lyonnais, from
the Col de Longpendu (west of Chalon-sur-Saône) in a southerly direction
to the Col de Gier. The central Cévennes, comprising the volcanic chain
of Vivarais, incline south-east and extend as far as the Lozère group.
The northern portion of this chain forms the Boutières range. Farther
south it includes the Gerbier des Joncs (5089 ft.), the Mont de Mézenc
(5755 ft.), the culminating point of the entire range, and the Tanargue
group. South of the Mont Lozère, where the Pic Finiels reaches 5584 ft.,
lies that portion of the range to which the name Cévennes is most
strictly applied. This region, now embraced in the departments of Lozère
and Gard, stretches south to include the Aigoual and Espérou groups.
Under various local names (the Garrigues, the mountains of Espinouse and
Lacaune) and with numerous offshoots the range extends south-east and
then east to the Montagne Noire, which runs parallel to the Canal du
Midi and comes to an end some 25 m. east of Toulouse. In the south the
Cévennes separate the cold and barren table-lands known as the Causses
from the sunny region of Languedoc, where the olive, vine and mulberry
flourish. Northwards the contrast between the two slopes is less
striking.

The Cévennes proper are formed by a folded belt of Palaeozoic rocks
which lies along the south-east border of the central plateau of France.
Concealed in part by later deposits, this ancient mountain chain extends
from Castelnaudary to the neighbourhood of Valence, where it sinks
suddenly beneath the Tertiary and recent deposits of the valley of the
Rhone. It is in the Montagne Noire rather than in the Cévennes proper
that the structure of the chain has been most fully investigated. All
the geological systems from the Cambrian to the Carboniferous are
included in the folded belt, and J. Bergeron has shown that the gneiss
and schist which form so much of the chain consist, in part at least, of
metamorphosed Cambrian beds. The direction of the folds is about N. 60°
E., and the structure is complicated by overthrusting on an extensive
scale. The overthrust came from the south-east, and the Palaeozoic beds
were crushed and crumpled against the ancient massif of the central
plateau. The principal folding took place at the close of the
Carboniferous period, and was contemporaneous with that of the old
Hercynian chain of Belgium, &c. The Permian and later beds lie
unconformably upon the denuded folds, and in the space between the
Montagne Noire and the Cévennes proper the folded belt is buried beneath
the horizontal Jurassic strata of the Causses. Although the chain was
completed in Palaeozoic times, a second folding took place along its
south-east margin at the close of the Eocene period. The Secondary and
Tertiary beds of the Languedoc were crushed against the central plateau
and were frequently overfolded. But by this time the ancient Palaeozoic
chain had become a part of the unyielding massif, and the folding did
not extend beyond its foot.

As the division between the basins of the Loire and the Garonne to the
west and those of the Saône and Rhone to the east, the Cévennes send
many affluents to those rivers. In the south the Orb, the Hérault and
the Vidourle are independent rivers flowing to the Golfe du Lion;
farther north, the Gard--formed by the union of several streams named
Gardon--the Cèze and the Ardèche flow to the Rhone. The Vivarais
mountains and the northern Cévennes approach the right banks of the
Rhone and Saône closely, and on that side send their waters by way of
short torrents to those rivers; on the west side the streams are
tributaries of the Loire, which rises at the foot of Mont Mézenc. A
short distance to the south on the same side are the sources of the
Allier and Lot. The waters of the north-western slope of the southern
Cévennes drain into the Tarn either directly or by way of the Aveyron,
which rises in the outlying chain of the Lévezou, and, in the extreme
south, the Agout. The Tarn itself rises on the southern slope of the
Mont Lozère.

In the Lozère group and the southern Cévennes generally, good pasturage
is found, and huge flocks spend the summer there. Silkworm-rearing and
the cultivation of peaches, chestnuts and other fruits are also carried
on. In the Vivarais cattle are reared, while on the slopes of the
Beaujolais excellent wines are grown.

The chief historical event in the history of the Cévennes is the revolt
of the Camisards in the early years of the 18th century (see CAMISARDS).



CEYLON, a large island and British colony in the Indian Ocean, separated
on the N.W. from India by the Gulf of Manaar and Palk Strait. It lies
between 5° 55' and 9° 51' N. and between 79° 41' and 81° 54' E. Its
extreme length from north to south is 271½ m.; its greatest width is
137½ m.; and its area amounts to 25,481 sq. m., or about five-sixths of
that of Ireland. In its general outline the island resembles a pear, the
apex of which points towards the north.


  Coast.

The coast is beset on the N.W. with numberless sandbanks, rocks and
shoals, and may be said to be almost connected with India by the island
of Rameswaram and Adam's Bridge, a succession of bold rocks reaching
almost across the gulf at its narrowest point. Between the island and
the opposite coast there exist two open channels of varying depth and
width, beset by rocks and shoals. One of these, the Manaar Passage, is
only navigable by very small craft. The other, called the Paumben
Passage, lying between Rameswaram and the mainland, has been deepened at
considerable outlay, and is used by large vessels in passing from the
Malabar to the Coromandel coast, which were formerly compelled in doing
so to make the circuit of the island. The west and south coasts, which
are uniformly low, are fringed their entire length by coco-nut trees,
which grow to the water's edge in great luxuriance, and give the island
a most picturesque appearance. Along these shores there are numerous
inlets and backwaters of the sea, some of which are available as
harbours for small native craft. The east coast from Point de Galle to
Trincomalee is of an entirely opposite character, wanting the ample
vegetation of the other, and being at the same time of a bold
precipitous character. The largest ships may freely approach this side
of the island, provided they take care to avoid a few dangerous rocks,
whose localities, however, are well known to navigators.

Seen from a distance at sea this "utmost Indian isle" of the old
geographers wears a truly beautiful appearance. The remarkable elevation
known as "Adam's Peak," the most prominent, though not the loftiest, of
the hilly ranges of the interior, towers like a mountain monarch amongst
an assemblage of picturesque hills, and is a sure landmark for the
navigator when as yet the Colombo lighthouse is hidden from sight amid
the green groves of palms that seem to be springing from the waters of
the ocean. The low coast-line encircles the mountain zone of the
interior on the east, south and west, forming a belt which extends
inland to a varying distance of from 30 to 80 m.; but on the north the
whole breadth of the island from Kalpitiya to Batticaloa is an almost
unbroken plain, containing magnificent forests of great extent.


  Mountains.

The mountain zone is towards the south of the island, and covers an area
of about 4212 sq. m. The uplifting force seems to have been exerted from
south-west to north-east, and although there is much confusion in many
of the intersecting ridges, and spurs of great size and extent are sent
off in many directions, the lower ranges manifest a remarkable tendency
to run in parallel ridges in a direction from south-east to north-west.
Towards the north the offsets of the mountain system radiate to short
distances and speedily sink to the level of the plain. Detached hills
are rare; the most celebrated of these are Mihintale (anc. _Missïaka_),
which overlooks the sacred city of Anuradhapura, and Sigiri. The latter
is the only example in Ceylon of those solitary acclivities which form
so remarkable a feature in the tableland of the Deccan--which, starting
abruptly from the plain, with scarped and perpendicular sides, are
frequently converted into strongholds accessible only by precipitous
pathways or by steps hewn in the solid rock.

For a long period Adam's Peak was supposed to be the highest mountain in
Ceylon, but actual survey makes it only 7353 ft. above sea-level. This
elevation is chiefly remarkable as the resort of pilgrims from all parts
of the East. The hollow in the lofty rock that crowns the summit is said
by the Brahmans to be the footstep of Siva, by the Buddhists of Buddha,
by the Mahommedans of Adam, whilst the Portuguese Christians were
divided between the conflicting claims of St Thomas and the eunuch of
Candace, queen of Ethiopia. The footstep is covered by a handsome roof,
and is guarded by the priests of a rich monastery half-way up the
mountain, who maintain a shrine on the summit of the peak. The highest
mountains in Ceylon are Pidurutalagala, 8296 ft. in altitude;
Kirigalpota, 7836 ft.; and Totapelakanda, 7746 ft.

The summits of the highest ridges are clothed with verdure, and along
their base, in the beautiful valleys which intersect them in every
direction, the slopes were formerly covered with forests of gigantic and
valuable trees, which, however, have disappeared under the axe of the
planter, who felled and burnt the timber on all the finest slopes at an
elevation of 2000 to 4500 ft., and converted the hillsides into highly
cultivated coffee and afterwards tea estates.

The plain of Nuwara Eliya, the sanatorium of the island, is at an
elevation of 6200 ft., and possesses many of the attributes of an alpine
country. The climate of the Horton plains, at an elevation of 7000 ft.,
is still finer than that of Nuwara Eliya, but they are difficult of
access, and are but little known to Europeans. The town of Kandy, in the
Central Province, formerly the capital of the native sovereigns of the
interior, is situated 1727 ft. above sea-level.


  Rivers.

The island, though completely within the influence of oceanic
evaporation, and possessing an elevated tableland of considerable
extent, does not boast of any rivers of great volume. The rains which
usher in each monsoon or change of season are indeed heavy, and during
their fall swell the streams to torrents and impetuous rivers. But when
these cease the water-courses fall back to their original state, and
there are few of the rivers which cannot generally be passed on
horseback. The largest river, the Mahaweliganga, has a course of 206 m.,
draining about one-sixth of the area of the island before it reaches the
sea at Trincomalee on the east coast. There are twelve other
considerable rivers, running to the west, east and south, but none of
these exceeds 90 m. in length. The rivers are not favourable for
navigation, except near the sea, where they expand into backwaters,
which were used by the Dutch for the construction of their system of
canals all round the western and southern coasts. Steamers ply between
Colombo and Negombo along this narrow canal and lake. A similar service
on the Kaluganga did not prove a success. There are no inland lakes
except the remains of magnificent artificial lakes in the north and east
of the island, and the backwaters on the coast. The lakes which add to
the beauty of Colombo, Kandy, Lake Gregory, Nuwara Eliya and Kurunegala
are artificial or partly so. Giant's Tank is said to have an area of
6380 acres, and Minneri and Kalawewa each exceed 4000 acres.

The magnificent basin of Trincomalee, situated on the east coast of
Ceylon, is perhaps unsurpassed in extent, security and beauty by any
haven in the world. The admiralty had a dockyard here which was closed
in 1905.

_Geology._--Ceylon may be said to have been for ages slowly rising from
the sea, as appears from the terraces abounding in marine shells, which
occur in situations far above high-water mark, and at some miles
distance from the sea. A great portion of the north of the island may be
regarded as the joint production of the coral polyps and the currents,
which for the greater part of the year set impetuously towards the
south; coming laden with alluvial matter collected along the coast of
Coromandel, and meeting with obstacles south of Point Calimere, they
have deposited their burdens on the coral reefs round Point Pedro; and
these, raised above the sea-level and covered deeply by sand drifts,
have formed the peninsula of Jaffna, and the plains that trend westward
till they unite with the narrow causeway of Adam's Bridge. Tertiary
rocks are almost unknown. The great geological feature of the island is
the profusion of gneiss, overlaid in many places in the interior by
extensive beds of dolomitic limestone. This formation appears to be of
great thickness; and when, as is not often the case, the under-surface
of the gneiss series is exposed, it is invariably found resting on
granite. Veins of pure quartz and felspar of considerable extent have
been frequently met with in the gneiss; while in the elevated lands of
the interior in the Galle districts may be seen copious deposits of
disintegrated felspar, or _kaolin_, commonly known as porcelain clay. At
various elevations the gneiss may be found intersected by veins of trap
rock, upheaved whilst in a state of fusion subsequent to the
consolidation of the former. In some localities on the seashore these
veins assume the character of pitch-stone porphyry highly impregnated
with iron. Hornblende and primitive greenstone are found in the vicinity
of Adam's Peak and in the Pussellava district. Laterite, known in Ceylon
as _kabuk_, a product of disintegrated gneiss, exists in vast quantities
in many parts, and is quarried for building purposes.

_Climate._--The seasons in Ceylon differ very slightly from those
prevailing along the coasts of the Indian peninsula. The two
distinctive monsoons of the year are called, from the winds which
accompany them, the south-west and the north-east. The former is very
regular in its approach, and may be looked for along the south-west
coast between the 10th and 20th of May; the latter reaches the
north-east coast between the end of October and the middle of November.
There is a striking contrast in the influence which the south-west
monsoon exerts on the one side of the island and on the other. The
clouds are driven against the lofty mountains that overhang the western
and southern coasts, and their condensed vapours descend there in
copious showers. But the rains do not reach the opposite side of the
island: while the south-west is deluged, the east and north are
sometimes exhausted with dryness; and it not unfrequently happens that
different sides of the same mountain present at the same moment the
opposite extreme of droughts and moisture. The influence of the
north-east monsoon is more general. The mountains which face the
north-east are lower and more remote from the sea than those on the
south-west; the clouds are carried farther inland, and it rains
simultaneously on both sides of the island.

The length of the day, owing to the proximity of the island to the
equator, does not vary more than an hour at any season. The mean time of
the rising of the sun's centre at Colombo on February 1st is 6^h 23^m
A.M., and of its setting 6^h 5^m P.M. On August 15th its rising is at
5^h 45^m A.M., and its setting at 6^h 7^m P.M. It is mid-day in Colombo
when it is morning in England. Colombo is situated in 79° 50' 45" E.,
and the day is further advanced there than at Greenwich by 5^h 19^m
23^s.

  _Flora_.--The characteristics of the low-growing plants of Ceylon
  approach nearly to those of the coasts of southern India. The
  _Rhizophoreae_ are numerous along the low muddy shores of salt lakes
  and stagnant pools; and the acacias are equally abundant. The list
  comprises _Aegiceras fragrans_, _Epithinia malayana_, _Thespesia
  populnea_, _Feronia elephantum_, _Salvadora persica_ (the true mustard
  tree of Scripture), _Eugenia bracteata_, _Elaeodendron Roxburghii_,
  _Cassia Fistula_, _Cassia Roxburghii_, &c. The herbaceous plants of
  the low country belong mostly to the natural orders _Compositae_,
  _Leguminosae_, _Rubiaceae_, _Scrophulariaceae_ and _Euphorbiaceae_.

  Leaving the plains of the maritime country and ascending a height of
  4000 ft. in the central districts, we find both herbage and trees
  assume an altered character. The foliage of the latter is larger and
  deeper coloured, and they attain a height unknown in the hot low
  country. The herbaceous vegetation is there made up of ferns,
  _Cyrtandreae_, _Compositae_, _Scitamineae_ and _Urticaceae_. The dense
  masses of lofty forest at that altitude are interspersed with large
  open tracts of coarse wiry grass, called by the natives _patanas_, and
  of value to them as affording pasturage for their cattle.

  Between the altitudes of 4000 and 8000 ft., many plants are to be met
  with partaking of European forms, yet blended with tropical
  characteristics. The guelder rose, St John's wort, the _Nepenthes
  distillatoria_ or pitcher plant, violets, geraniums, buttercups,
  sundews, ladies' mantles and campanulas thrive by the side of
  _Magnoliaceae_, _Ranunculaceae_, _Elaeocarpeae_, &c. The most
  beautiful flowering shrub of this truly alpine region is the
  rhododendron, which in many instances grows to the height of 70 ft. It
  is met with in great abundance in the moist plains of the elevated
  land above Nuwara Eliya, flowering abundantly in June and July. There
  are two distinct varieties, one similar to the Nilgiri plant, having
  its leaves broad and cordate, and of a rusty colour on the under side;
  the other, peculiar to Ceylon, is found only in forests at the
  loftiest elevations; it has narrow rounded leaves, silvery on the
  under side, and grows to enormous heights, frequently measuring 3 ft.
  round the stem. At these altitudes English flowers, herbs and
  vegetables have been cultivated with perfect success, as also wheat,
  oats and barley. English fruit-trees grow, but rarely bear. Grapes are
  grown successfully in the north of the island. The vines were
  introduced by the Dutch, who overcame the difficulty of perpetual
  summer by exposing the roots, and thus giving the plants an artificial
  winter.

  The timber trees indigenous to Ceylon are met with at every altitude
  from the sea-beach to the loftiest mountain peak. They vary much in
  their hardiness and durability, from the common cashew-nut tree, which
  when felled decays in a month, to the ebony and satinwood, which for
  many years resist the attacks of insects and climate. Many of the
  woods are valuable for furniture, and house and shipbuilding, and are
  capable of standing long exposure to weather. The most beautiful woods
  adapted to furniture work are the calamander, ebony, flowered
  satinwood, tamarind, nedun, dell, kadomberiya, kitul, coco-nut, &c.;
  the sack-yielding tree (_Antiaris saccidora_), for a long time
  confounded with the far-famed upas tree of Java (_Antiaris
  toxicaria_), grows in the Kurunegala district of the island. The
  _Cocos nucifera_, or coco-nut palm, is a native of the island, and may
  justly be considered the most valuable of its trees. It grows in vast
  abundance alone the entire sea-coast of the west and south sides of
  the island, and furnishes almost all that a Sinhalese villager
  requires. Its fruit, when green, supplies food and drink; when ripe,
  it yields oil. The juice of the unopened flower gives him toddy and
  arrack. The fibrous casing of the fruit when woven makes him ropes,
  nets, matting. The nut-shells form drinking-vessels, spoons, &c. The
  plaited leaves serve as plates and dishes, and as thatch for his
  cottage. The dried leaves are used as torches, the large leaf-stalks
  as garden fences. The trunk of the tree sawn up is employed for every
  possible purpose, from knife-handles to door-posts; hollowed out it
  forms a canoe or a coffin. There are four kinds of this palm--the
  common, the king, the dwarf and the Maldive. The Palmyra and Areca
  palms grow luxuriantly and abundantly, the former in the northern, the
  latter in the western and central districts. The one is valuable
  chiefly for its timber, of which large quantities are exported to the
  Indian coasts; the other supplies the betel-nut in common use amongst
  natives of the eastern tropics as a masticatory. The export trade in
  the latter to India and eastern ports is very considerable. Next in
  importance to the coco-nut palm among the indigenous products of
  Ceylon is the cinnamon plant, yielding the well-known spice of that
  name.

  _Fauna_.--Foremost among the animals of Ceylon is the elephant, which,
  though far inferior to those of Africa and the Indian continent, is
  nevertheless of considerable value when tamed, on account of its
  strength, sagacity and docility. They are to be met with in greater or
  less numbers throughout most unfrequented parts of the interior.
  Occasionally they make inroads in herds upon the cultivated grounds
  and plantations, committing great damage. In order to protect these
  lands, and at the same time keep up the government stud of draught
  elephants, "kraals" or traps on a large scale are erected in the
  forests, into which the wild herds are driven; and once secured they
  are soon tamed and fit for service. The oxen are of small size, but
  hardy, and capable of drawing heavy loads. Buffaloes exist in great
  numbers throughout the interior, where they are employed in a
  half-tame state for ploughing rice-fields and treading out the corn.
  They feed upon any coarse grass, and can therefore be maintained on
  the village pasture-lands where oxen would not find support. Of deer,
  Ceylon possesses the spotted kind (_Axis maculata_), the muntjac
  (_Stylocerus muntjac_), a red deer (the Sambur of India), popularly
  called the Ceylon elk (_Musa Aristotelis_), and the small musk
  (_Moschus minima_). There are five species of monkeys, one the small
  rilawa (_Macacus pileatus_), and four known in Ceylon by the name of
  "wandaru" (_Presbytes ursinus_, _P. Thersites_, _P. cephalopterus_,
  _P. Priamus_), and the small quadrumanous animal, the loris (_Loris
  gracilis_), known as the "Ceylon sloth." Of the Cheiroptera sixteen
  species have been identified; amongst them is the rousette or flying
  fox (_Pteropus Edwardsii_). Of the Carnivora the only one dangerous to
  man is the small black bear (_Prochilus labiatus_). The tiger is not
  known in Ceylon, but the true panther (_Felis pardus_) is common, as
  is the jackal (_Canis aureus_) and the mongoose or ichneumon
  (_Herpestes vitticollis_). Rats are numerous, as are the squirrel and
  the porcupine, and the pig-rat or bandicoot (_Mus bandicota_), while
  the scaly ant-eater (_Manis pentedactyla_), locally known by the Malay
  name of pangolin, is occasionally found. The dugong (_Halicore
  dugong_), is frequently seen on various points of the coast. A game
  preservation society and the judicious action of government have done
  much to prevent the wanton destruction of Ceylon deer, elephants, &c.,
  by establishing a close season. It is estimated that there must be
  5000 wild elephants in the Ceylon forests. A licence to shoot or
  capture and an export royalty are now levied by government.

  Captain V. Legge includes 371 species of birds in Ceylon, and many of
  them have splendid plumage, but in this respect they are surpassed by
  the birds of South America and Northern India. The eagles are small
  and rare, but hawks and owls are numerous; among the latter is a
  remarkable brown species, the cry of which has earned for it the name
  of the "devil-bird." The esculent swift, which furnishes in its edible
  nest the celebrated Chinese dainty, builds in caves in Ceylon. Crows
  of various species are numerous, and in the wilder parts pea-fowl are
  abundant. There are also to be mentioned king-fishers, sun-birds,
  several beautiful fly-catchers and snatchers, the golden oriole,
  parroquets and numerous pigeons, of which there are at least a dozen
  species. The Ceylon jungle-fowl (_Gallus Lafayetti_) is distinct from
  the Indian species. Ceylon is singularly rich in wading and water
  birds--ibises, storks, egrets, spoonbills and herons being frequently
  seen on the wet sands, while flamingoes line the beach in long files,
  and on the deeper waters inland are found teal and a countless variety
  of ducks and smaller fowl. Of the birds familiar to European sportsmen
  there are partridge, quail and snipe in abundance, and the woodcock
  has been seen.

  The poisonous snakes of Ceylon are not numerous. Four species have
  been enumerated--the ticpolonga (_Daboia elegans_), the cobra di
  capello (_Naja tripudians_), the carawilla (_Trigonocephalus
  hypnale_), and the _Trigonocephalus nigromarginatus_, which is so rare
  that it has no popular name. The largest snake in Ceylon is the "boa,"
  or "anaconda" of Eastern story (_Python reticulatus_); it is from 20
  to 30 ft. in length, and preys on hog-deer and other smaller animals.
  Crocodiles infest the rivers and estuaries, and the large fresh-water
  reservoirs which supply the rice-fields; there are two species (_C.
  biporcatus_ and _C. palustris_). Of lizards the most noteworthy are
  the iguana, several bloodsuckers, the chameleon and the familiar
  geckoes, which are furnished with pads to each toe, by which they are
  enabled to ascend perpendicular walls and adhere to glass and
  ceilings.

  Insects exist in great numbers. The leaf and stick insects are of
  great variety and beauty. Ceylon has four species of the ant-lion,
  renowned for the predaceous ingenuity of its larvae; and the white
  ants or termites, the ravages of which are most destructive, are at
  once ubiquitous and innumerable in every place where the climate is
  not too chilly or the soil too sandy for them to construct their domed
  dwellings. They make their way through walls and floors, and in a few
  hours destroy every vegetable substance within their reach. Of all the
  insect pests that beset an unseasoned European the most annoying are
  the mosquitoes. Ticks are also an intolerable nuisance; they are
  exceedingly minute, and burrow under the skin. In the lower ranges of
  the hill country land leeches are found in tormenting profusion. But
  insects and reptiles do not trouble European residents so much as in
  early years--at any rate in the towns, while in the higher planting
  districts there is almost complete exemption from their unwelcome
  attentions. Bungalows are more carefully built to resist white ants,
  drainage and cleanliness prevent mosquitoes and ticks from
  multiplying, while snakes and leeches avoid cultivated, occupied
  ground.

  Of the fish in ordinary use for the table the finest is the seir, a
  species of scomber (_Cybium guttatum_). Mackerel, dories, carp,
  whitings, mullet (red and striped), soles and sardines are abundant.
  Sharks appear on all parts of the coast, and the huge saw fish
  (_Pristis antiquorum_) infests the eastern coast of the island, where
  it attains a length of 12 to 15 ft. There are also several fishes
  remarkable for the brilliancy of their colouring; e.g. the Red Sea
  perch (_Holocentrum rubrum_), of the deepest scarlet, and the great
  fire fish (_Scorpaena miles_), of a brilliant red. Some are purple,
  others yellow, and numbers with scales of a lustrous green are called
  "parrots" by the natives; of these one (_Sparus Hardwickii_) is called
  the "flower parrot," from its exquisite colouring--irregular bands of
  blue, crimson and purple, green, yellow and grey, crossed by
  perpendicular stripes of black. The pearl fishery, as indicated below,
  is of great importance.

  _Population_.--The total population of Ceylon in 1901, inclusive of
  military, shipping and 4914 prisoners of war, was 3,578,333, showing
  an increase of 18.8% in the decade. The population of Colombo was
  158,228.

  The population and area of the nine provinces was as follows:--

    +--------------------------+-------------+----------------+
    |  District.               | Population. | Area in sq. m. |
    +--------------------------+-------------+----------------+
    |                          |             |                |
    | Western Province         |   925,342   |     1,432      |
    | Central Province         |   623,011   |     2,299½     |
    | Northern Province        |   341,985   |     3,363¼     |
    | Southern Province        |   566,925   |     2,146¼     |
    | Eastern Province         |   174,288   |     4,036½     |
    | North-Western Province   |   353,845   |     2,996-7/8  |
    | North Central Province   |    79,110   |     4,002¼     |
    | Province of Uva          |   192,072   |     3,154½     |
    | Province of Sabaragamuwa |   321,755   |     1,901-1/8  |
    |                          +-------------+----------------+
    |                          | 3,578,333   |    25,332      |
    +--------------------------+-------------+----------------+

  The table of nationality gives the principal groups as follows:--

    Europeans                     9,509
    Burghers and Eurasians       23,539
    Low-country Sinhalese     1,458,320
    Kandyan Sinhalese           872,487
    Tamils                      953,535
    Moors (Mahommedan)          228,706
    Malays                       11,963
    Veddahs (Aborigines)          3,971

  Altogether there are representatives of some seventy races in Ceylon.
  The Veddahs, who run wild in the woods, are the aborigines of the
  island.

  _Language_.--The language of nearly 70% of the population is
  Sinhalese, which is nearly allied to Pali (q.v.); of the remaining
  30%, with the exception of Europeans, the language is Tamil. A corrupt
  form of Portuguese is spoken by some natives of European descent. The
  Veddahs, a small forest tribe, speak a distinct language, and the
  Rodiyas, an outcast tribe, possess a large vocabulary of their own.
  The Sinhalese possess several original poems of some merit, and an
  extensive and most interesting series of native chronicles, but their
  most valuable literature is written in Pali, though the greater
  portion of it has been translated into Sinhalese, and is best known to
  the people through these Sinhalese translations.

  _Religion_.--The principal religions may be distributed as
  follows:--Christians, 349,239; Buddhists, 2,141,404; Hindus, 826,826;
  Mahommedans, 246,118. Of the Christians, 287,419 are Roman Catholics,
  and 61,820 are Protestants of various denominations; and of these
  Christians 319,001 are natives, and 30,238 Europeans. The Mahommedans
  are the descendants of Arabs (locally termed Moormen) and the Malays.
  The Tamils, both the inhabitants of the island and the immigrants from
  India, are Hindus, with the exception of 93,000 Christians. The
  Sinhalese, numbering 70% of the whole population, are, with the
  exception of 180,000 Christians, Buddhists. Ceylon may properly be
  called a Buddhist country, and it is here that Buddhism is found
  almost in its pristine purity. Ceylon was converted to Buddhism in the
  3rd century B.C. by the great Augustine of Buddhism, Mahinda, son of
  the Indian king Asoka; and the extensive ruins throughout Ceylon,
  especially in the ancient cities of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa, bear
  witness to the sacrifices which kings and people joined in making to
  create lasting monuments of their faith. The Buddhist temples in the
  Kandyan country possess valuable lands, the greater portion of which
  is held by hereditary tenants on the tenure of service. These lands
  were given out with much care to provide for all that was necessary to
  maintain the temple and its connected monastery. Some tenants had to
  do the blacksmiths' work, others the carpenters', while another set of
  tenants had to cultivate the land reserved for supplying the
  monastery; others again had to attend at the festivals, and prepare
  decorations, and carry lamps and banners. In course of time
  difficulties arose; the English courts were averse to a system under
  which the rent of lands was paid by hereditary service, and a
  commission was issued by Sir Hercules Robinson (afterwards Lord
  Rosmead) when governor, to deal with the whole question, to define the
  services and to enable the tenants to commute these for a money
  payment. The result of the inquiry was to show that the services,
  except in a few instances, were not onerous, and that almost without
  an exception the tenants were willing to continue the system. The
  anomaly of an ecclesiastical establishment of Anglican and
  Presbyterian chaplains with a bishop of Colombo paid out of the
  general revenues has now been abolished in Ceylon, and only the bishop
  and two or three incumbents remain on the list for life, or till they
  retire on pension.

  _Education_.--There has been a great advance in public instruction
  since 1875, through the multiplication of vernacular, Anglo-vernacular
  and English schools by government, by the different Christian missions
  and by the Buddhists and Hindus who have come forward to claim the
  government grant. The government has also started a technical college,
  and an agricultural school has been reorganized. An agricultural
  department, recommended by a commission, should profit by the services
  of the entomologist, mycologist and chemical analyst added by the
  governor to the staff of the royal botanic gardens at Peradeniya.
  There are industrial and reformatory schools, which are partially
  supported by government. In spite of the great advance that has been
  made, however, at the census of 1901 no fewer than 2,790,235 of the
  total population were entered as unable to read or write their own
  tongue. Of this number 1,553,078 were females, showing a very
  unsatisfactory state of things.


    Soil.

  _Agriculture._--The natural soils of Ceylon are composed of quartzose
  gravel, felspathic clay and sand often of a pure white, blended with
  or overlaid by brown and red loams, resulting; from the decay of
  vegetable matter, or the disintegration of the gneiss and hornblende
  formations. The whole of the great northern extremity of the island
  consists of a sandy and calcareous admixture, made to yield productive
  crops of grain, tobacco, cotton and vegetables by the careful industry
  of the Tamil population, who spare no pains in irrigating and manuring
  their lands. Between the northern districts and the elevated mountain
  ranges which overlook the Bintenne and Uva countries are extensive
  plains of alluvial soil washed down from the table-lands above, where
  once a teeming population produced large quantities of grain. The
  remains of ancient works of irrigation bear testimony to the bygone
  agriculture of these extensive regions now covered by swamps or dense
  jungle.

  The general character of the soil in the maritime provinces to the
  east, south and west is sandy. Large tracts of quartzose sand spread
  along the whole line of sea-coast, some of which, of a pure white, and
  very deficient in vegetable matter, is admirably adapted to the growth
  of the cinnamon plant. In the light sandy districts where the soil is
  perfectly free, and contains a portion of vegetable and mineral loam,
  the coco-nut palm flourishes in great luxuriance. This is the case
  along the entire coast line from Kalpitiya to Point de Galle, and
  farther eastward and northward to Matara, stretching to a distance
  inland varying from 100 yds. to 3 m. From this light sandy belt as far
  as the mountain-zone of the Kandyan country the land is mainly
  composed of low hilly undulations of sandstone and ferruginous clay,
  incapable of almost any cultivation, but intersected in every
  direction with extensive valleys and wide plains of a more generous
  soil, not highly fertile, but still capable, with a little industry,
  of yielding ample crops of rice.

  The soil of the central province, although frequently containing great
  quantities of quartzose sand and ferruginous clay, is in many of the
  more elevated districts of a fine loamy character. Sand sufficiently
  vegetable and light for rice culture may be seen at all elevations in
  the hill districts; but the fine chocolate and brown loams overlying
  gneiss or limestone formations, so admirably adapted for coffee
  cultivation, are only to be found on the steep sides or along the base
  of mountain ranges at an elevation varying from 2000 to 4000 ft. Such
  land, well-timbered, contains in its elements the decomposed particles
  of the rocks above, blended with the decayed vegetable matter of
  forests that have for centuries scattered beneath them the germs of
  fertility. The quantity of really rich coffee land in these districts
  is but small as compared with the extent of country--vast tracts of
  open valleys consisting of an indifferent yellow tenacious soil
  interspersed with many low ranges of quartz rock, but tea is a much
  hardier plant than coffee, and grows on poorer soil.

  _Irrigation_.--The native rulers covered the whole face of the country
  with a network of irrigation reservoirs, by which Ceylon was enabled
  in ancient times to be the great granary of southern Asia. Wars, and
  the want of a strong hand to guide the agriculture of the country, led
  to the decay of these ancient works, and large tracts of land, which
  were formerly highly productive, became swampy wastes or dense
  forests. The remains of some of the larger irrigation works are
  amongst the most interesting of the memorials of Ceylon's former
  greatness. Some of the artificial lakes were of great size. Minneri,
  formed by damming across the valleys between the low hills which
  surround it with an embankment 60 ft. wide at the top, is at this day
  20 m. in circumference. It has recently been restored by government,
  and is capable of irrigating 15,000 acres; while the Giant's Tank,
  which has also been restored, irrigates 20,000 acres. Another lake,
  with an embankment several miles in length, the Kalawewa, was formed
  by damming back the waters of the Kalaoya, but they have forced their
  way through the embankment, and in the ancient bed of the lake, or
  tank, are now many small villages. In connexion with these large tanks
  were numerous canals and channels for supplying smaller tanks, or for
  irrigating large tracts of fields. Throughout the district of
  Nuwarakalawiya every village has its tank. The embankments have been
  formed with great skill, and advantage has been taken to the utmost of
  the slightest fall in the land; but they in common with the larger
  works had been allowed to fall into decay, and were being brought to
  destruction by the evil practice of cutting them every year to
  irrigate the fields. The work of restoring these embankments was
  undertaken by the government, and 100 village tanks were repaired
  every year, besides eighteen larger works. In 1900 a sum of five
  million rupees was set apart for these larger undertakings.

  _Cultivation and Products._--The area of uncultivated land is little
  over 3½ million acres, whereas fully four times that amount is capable
  of cultivation. A great deal is waste, besides lagoons, tanks,
  backwaters, &c. Thick forest land does not cover more than 5000 sq. m.
  Scrub, or chena, and patana grass cover a very great area. Tea, cacao,
  cardamoms, cinchona, coffee and indiarubber are the products
  cultivated by European and an increasing number of native planters in
  the hill country and part of the low country of Ceylon. A great change
  has been effected in the appearance of the country by the introduction
  of the tea plant in place of the coffee plant, after the total failure
  of the latter owing to disease. For some time coffee had been the most
  important crop. In the old days it grew wild like cinnamon, and was
  exported so far back as the time of the Portuguese, but was lightly
  esteemed as an article of European commerce, as the berry was gathered
  unripe, was imperfectly cured and had little flavour. In 1824 the
  governor, Sir E. Barnes, introduced coffee cultivation on the West
  Indian plan; in 1834 the falling off of other sources of supply drew
  general attention to Ceylon, and by 1841 the Ceylon output had become
  considerable, and grew steadily (with an interval in 1847 due to a
  commercial crisis) till 1877 when 272,000 acres were under coffee
  cultivation, the total export amounting to 103,000,000 lb. Then owing
  to disease came a crisis, and a rapid decline, and now only a few
  thousand acres are left. On the failure of the coffee crops planters
  began extensively to grow the tea plant, which had already been known
  in the island for several years. By 1882 over 20,000 acres had been
  planted with tea, but the export that year was under 700,000 lb. Five
  years later the area planted was 170,000 acres, while the export had
  risen to nearly 14,000,000 lb. By 1892 there were 262,000 acres
  covered with tea, and 71,000,000 lb. were that year exported. In 1897,
  350,000 acres were planted, and the export was 116,000,000 lb. By the
  beginning of the 20th century, the total area cultivated with tea was
  not under 390,000 acres, while the estimate of shipments was put at
  146,000,000 lb. annually. Nearly every plantation has its factory,
  with the machinery necessary to prepare the leaf as brought in from
  the bushes until it becomes the tea of commerce. The total amount of
  capital now invested in the tea industry in Ceylon cannot be less than
  £10,000,000. The tea-planting industry more than anything else has
  raised Ceylon from the depressed state to which it fell in 1882.

  Before tea was proved a success, however, _cinchona_ cultivation was
  found a useful bridge from coffee to the Ceylon planter, who, however,
  grew it so freely that in one year 15,000,000 lb. bark was shipped,
  bringing the price of quinine down from 16s. to 1s. 6d. an ounce.

  In a few places, where the rainfall is abundant, rice cultivation is
  allowed to depend on the natural supply of water, but in most parts
  the cultivation is not attempted unless there is secured beforehand a
  certain and sufficient supply, by means of canals or reservoirs. In
  the hill country every valley and open plain capable of tillage is
  made to yield its crops of grain, and the steep sides of the hills are
  cut into terraces, on which are seen waving patches of green rice
  watered by mountain streams, which are conducted by means of channels
  ingeniously carried round the spurs of the hills and along the face of
  acclivities, by earthen water-courses and bamboo aqueducts, so as to
  fertilize the fields below. These works bear witness to the patience,
  industry and skill of the Kandyan villagers. In the low country to the
  north and east and north-west of the hills, irrigation works of a
  more expensive kind are necessary. In January 1892, the immemorial
  rent or tax on fields of _paddy_ (rice in the husk) was removed, but
  not the customs duty on imported rice. But even with the advantage of
  protection to the extent of 10% in the local markets, there has been
  no extension of paddy cultivation; on the contrary, the import of
  grain from India has grown larger year by year. Through the
  multiplication of irrigation works and the northern railway, rice
  culture may be sufficiently extended to save some of the large imports
  (8,000,000 to 9,000,000 bushels annually) now required from India.

  Tobacco is extensively cultivated in various parts of the island, and
  the growth of particular places, such as Dumbara and Uva, is much
  prized for local consumption. The tobacco of export is grown in the
  peninsula of Jaffna. The exports of this article in 1850 were 22,176
  cwts., valued at £20,698. The cultivation of the plant has not greatly
  increased of recent years, and is almost entirely in the hands of
  natives in the northern and parts of the central Province.

  Ceylon has been celebrated since the middle of the 14th century for
  its cinnamon, and during the period of the Dutch occupation this spice
  was the principal article of commerce; under their rule and up to 1832
  its cultivation was a government monopoly. With the abolition of the
  monopoly the quantity exported increased, but the value declined.

  Unlike the coffee plant, the hardy tea plant grows from sea-level to
  7000 ft. altitude; but crown forest-lands above 5000 ft. are no longer
  sold, so that a very large area on the highest mountain ranges and
  plateaus is still under forest. Moreover, on the tea plantations
  arboriculture is attended to in a way unknown in 1875; the Australian
  eucalypts, acacias and grevilleas, Indian and Japanese conifers, and
  other trees of different lands, are now freely planted for ornament,
  for protection from wind, for firewood or for timber. A great advance
  has been made at Hakgalla and Nuwara Eliya, in Upper Uva, and other
  high districts, in naturalizing English fruits and vegetables. The
  calamander tree is nearly extinct, and ebony and other fine cabinet
  woods are getting scarce; but the conservation of forests after the
  Indian system has been taken in hand under a director and trained
  officers, and much good has been done. The cinnamon tree (wild in the
  jungles, cultivated as a shrub in plantations) is almost the only one
  yielding a trade product which is indigenous to the island. The
  coco-nut and nearly all other palms have been introduced.

  Among other agricultural products mention must be made of _cacao_, the
  growth and export of which have steadily extended since coffee failed.
  Important also is the spice or aromatic product of cardamoms.

  The culture of _indiarubber_ was begun on low-country plantations, and
  Ceylon rubber is of the best quality in the market. The area of
  cultivation of the coco-nut palm has been greatly extended since 1875
  by natives as well as by Europeans. The products of this palm that are
  exported, apart from those so extensively used in the island itself,
  exceed in a good year £1,000,000 sterling in value. Viticulture and
  cotton cultivation, as well as tobacco growing, are being developed
  along the course of the new northern railway.

  Taking the trade in the products mentioned as a whole, no country can
  compete with the United Kingdom as a customer of Ceylon. But there is
  a considerable trade in nearly all products with Germany and America;
  in cardamoms with India; in cinnamon with Spain, Italy, Belgium,
  Australia, Austria and France; and in one or other of the products of
  the coco-nut palm (coco-nuts, coco-nut oil, copra, desiccated
  coco-nut, poonac, coir) with Belgium, Russia, France, Austria,
  Australia and Holland.

  _Pearl Fishery._--Pearl oysters are found in the Tambalagam bay, near
  Trincomalee, but the great banks on which these oysters are usually
  found lie near Arippu, off the northern part of the west coast of
  Ceylon, at a distance of from 16 to 20 m. from the shore. They extend
  for many miles north and south, varying considerably in their size and
  productiveness. It is generally believed that the oyster arrives at
  maturity in its seventh year, that the pearl is then of full size and
  perfect lustre, and that if the oyster be not then secured it will
  shortly die, and the pearl be lost. It is certain that from some
  unexplained cause the oysters disappear from their known beds for
  years together. The Dutch had no fishery from 1732 to 1746, and it
  failed them again for twenty-seven years from 1768 to 1796. The
  fishery was again interrupted between 1820 and 1828, also from 1833 to
  1854, from 1864 to 1873, and again from 1892 to 1900. The fishery of
  1903 was the first since 1891, and produced a revenue of Rs.829,348,
  being the third largest on record. In 1797 and 1798 the government
  sold the privilege of fishing the oyster-beds for £123,982 and
  £142,780 respectively. From that time the fishery was conducted by the
  government itself until 1906, when it was leased to the Ceylon Pearl
  Fisheries Company for twenty years at a rent of £20,000 a year.
  Professor Herdman, F.R.S., was appointed to inquire and report on the
  conservation and cultivation of the Ceylon pearl-oyster, and visited
  Ceylon in January 1902. In consequence of his report, a marine
  laboratory for the culture of the pearl oysters was established in
  Galle harbour under the care of Mr Hornell.

  _Mineral Industries._--Commercially there are two established mineral
  industries:--(1) that of digging for precious stones; and (2) the much
  more important industry of digging for plumbago or graphite, the one
  mineral of commercial importance found. Further developments may
  result in the shipment of the exceptionally pure iron ore found in
  different parts of Ceylon, though still no coal has been found to be
  utilized with it. Several places, too--Ruanwella, Rangalla, Rangbodde,
  &c.--indicate where gold was found in the time of the Kandyan kings;
  and geologists might possibly indicate a paying quartz reef, as in
  Mysore. Owing to the greatly increased demand in Europe and America,
  plumbago in 1899 more than doubled in price, rising from £40 to £80,
  and even £100 a ton for the finest. Latterly there has been a
  considerable fall, but the permanent demand is likely to continue keen
  in consequence mainly of the Ceylon kind being the best for making
  crucibles. The trade with Great Britain and the United States has
  slightly decreased, but there has been a rapid expansion in the
  exports to Belgium and Holland, Russia, Japan and Victoria; and the
  industry seems to be established on a sound basis. One consequence of
  its development has been to bring European and American capitalists
  and Cornish and Italian miners into a field hitherto almost entirely
  worked by Sinhalese. Though some of the mines were carried to a depth
  of 1000 ft., the work was generally very primitive in character, and
  Western methods of working are sure to lead to greater safety and
  economy. Besides a royalty or customs duty of 5 rupees (about 6s. 8d.)
  per ton on all plumbago exported, the government issue licenses at
  moderate rates for the digging of plumbago on crown lands, a certain
  share of the resulting mineral also going to government. The plumbago
  industry, in all its departments of mining, carting, preparing,
  packing and shipping, gives employment to fully 100,000 men and women,
  still almost entirely Sinhalese. The wealthiest mine-owners, too, are
  Sinhalese land-owners or merchants.

  As regards _gems_, there are perhaps 500 gem pits or quarries worked
  in the island during the dry season from November to June in the
  Ratnapura, Rakwane and Matara districts. Some of these are on a small
  scale; but altogether several thousands of Sinhalese find a precarious
  existence in digging for gems. Rich finds of a valuable ruby,
  sapphire, cat's-eye, amethyst, alexandrite or star stone, are
  comparatively rare; it is only of the commoner gems, such as
  moonstone, garnet, spinels, that a steady supply is obtained. The
  cat's-eye in its finer qualities is peculiar to Ceylon, and is
  occasionally in great demand, according to the fashion. The obstacle
  to the investment of European capital in "gemming" has always been the
  difficulty of preventing the native labourers in the pits---even if
  practically naked--from concealing and stealing gems. A Chamber of
  Mines, with a suitable library, was established in Colombo during
  1899.

  _Manufactures._--Little is done save in the preparation in factories
  and stores, in Colombo or on the plantations, of the several products
  exported. The manufacture of jewellery and preparation of precious
  stones, and, among native women and children, of pillow lace, give
  employment to several thousands. Iron and engineering works are
  numerous in Colombo and in the planting districts. The Sinhalese are
  skilful cabinetmakers and carpenters. The Moormen and Tamils furnish
  good masons and builders.

  _Commerce._--There has been rapid development since 1882, and the
  returns for 1903 showed a total value of 22½ millions sterling. The
  principal imports were articles of food and drink (chiefly rice from
  India) manufactured metals (with specie), coal, cotton yarns and piece
  goods from Manchester, machinery and millwork and apparel. The Ceylon
  customs tariff for imports is one of 6½% _ad valorem_, save in the
  case of intoxicating drinks, arms, ammunition, opium, &c. The chief
  export is tea.

  _Roads._--The policy of the Sinhalese rulers of the interior was to
  exclude strangers from the hill country. Prior to the British
  occupation of the Kandyan territory in 1815, the only means of access
  from one district to another was by footpaths through the forests. The
  Portuguese do not appear to have attempted to open up the country
  below the hills, and the Dutch confined themselves to the improvement
  of the inland water-communications. The British government saw from
  the first the necessity of making roads into the interior for military
  purposes, and, more recently, for developing the resources of the
  country. The credit of opening up the country is due mainly to the
  governor, Sir Edward Barnes, by whose direction the great military
  road from Colombo to Kandy was made. Gradually all the military
  stations were connected by broad tracks, which by degrees were bridged
  and converted into good carriage roads. The governors Sir Henry Ward
  and Sir Hercules Robinson recognized the importance of giving the
  coffee planters every assistance in opening up the country, and the
  result of their policy is that the whole of the hill country is now
  intersected by a vast number of splendid roads, made at a cost of
  upwards of £2000 per mile. In 1848 an ordinance was passed to levy
  from every adult male in the colony (except Buddhist priests and
  British soldiers) six days' labour on the roads, or an equivalent in
  money. The labour and money obtained by this wise measure have enabled
  the local authorities to connect the government highways by minor
  roads, which bring every village of importance into communication with
  the principal towns.

  _Railways._--After repeated vain attempts by successive governors to
  connect Colombo with the interior by railways, Sir Charles MacCarthy
  successfully set on foot a railway of 75 m. in length from Colombo to
  Kandy. The railway mileage had developed to 563 m. in 1908, including
  one of the finest mountain lines in the world--over 160 m. long,
  rising to 6200 ft. above sea-level, and falling at the terminus to
  4000 ft. The towns of Kandy, Matale, Gampola, Nawalapitiya, Hatton and
  Haputale (and practically Nuwara Eliya) in the hills, are thus
  connected by rail, and in the low country the towns of Kurunegala,
  Galle, Matara, Kalutara, &c. Most of the debt on the railways (all
  government lines) is paid off, and the traffic receipts now make up
  nearly one-third of the general revenue. An Indo-Ceylon railway to
  connect the Indian and Ceylon systems has been the subject of separate
  reports and estimates by engineers serving the Ceylon and Indian
  governments, who have pronounced the work across the coral reef
  between Manaar and Rameswaram quite feasible. A commission sat in 1903
  to consider the gauge of an Indo-Ceylon railway. Such a line promised
  to serve strategic as well as commercial purposes, and to make Colombo
  more than ever the port for southern India. The headquarters of the
  mail steamers have been removed from Galle to Colombo, where the
  colonial government have constructed a magnificent breakwater, and
  undertaken other harbour works which have greatly augmented both the
  external trade and the coasting trade of the island.

  _Government._--Ceylon is a crown colony, that is, a possession of the
  British crown acquired by conquest or cession, the affairs of which
  are administered by a governor, who receives his appointment from the
  crown, generally for a term of six years. He is assisted by an
  executive and a legislative council. The executive council acts as the
  cabinet of the governor, and consists of the attorney-general, the
  three principal officers of the colony (namely, the colonial
  secretary, the treasurer and the auditor-general), and the general in
  command of the forces. The legislative council includes, besides the
  governor as president and nine official members, eight unofficial
  members--one for the Kandyan Sinhalese (or Highlanders) and one for
  the "Moormen" having been added in 1890. The term of office for the
  unofficial members is limited to five years, though the governor may
  reappoint if he choose. The king's advocate, the deputy-advocate, and
  the surveyor-general are now respectively styled attorney-general,
  solicitor-general, and director of public works. The civil service has
  been reconstituted into five classes, not including the colonial
  secretary as a staff appointment, nor ten cadets; these five classes
  number seventy officers. The district judges can punish up to two
  years' imprisonment, and impose fines up to Rs.1000. The police
  magistrates can pass sentences up to six months' imprisonment, and
  impose fines of Rs.150. The criminal law has since 1890 been codified
  on the model of the Indian penal code; criminal and civil procedure
  have also been the subject of codification. There are twenty-three
  prisons in the island, mostly small; but convict establishments in and
  near the capital take all long-sentence prisoners.

  _Banks and Currency._--Ceylon has agencies of the National Bank of
  India, Bank of Madras, Mercantile Bank of India, Chartered Bank of
  India, Australia and China, and of the Hong-kong and Shanghai Bank,
  besides mercantile agencies of other banks, also a government savings
  bank at Colombo, and post-office savings banks all over the island. In
  1884, on the failure of the Oriental Bank, the notes in currency were
  guaranteed by government, and a government note currency was started
  in supersession of bank notes. The coin currency of Ceylon is in
  rupees and decimals of a rupee, the value of the standard following
  that fixed for the Indian rupee, about 1s. 4d. per rupee.

  _Finance._--With the disease of the coffee plant the general revenue
  fell from Rs.1,70,00,000 in 1877 to Rs.1,20,00,000 in 1882, when
  trade was in a very depressed state, and the general prosperity of the
  island was seriously affected. Since then, however, the revenue has
  steadily risen with the growing export of tea, cocoa-nut produce,
  plumbago, &c., and in 1902 it reached a total of 28 millions of
  rupees.     (J. F. D.; C. L.)

_History._--The island of Ceylon was known to the Greeks and Romans
under the name of _Taprobane_, and in later times Serendib, Sirinduil
and Zeylan have been employed to designate it by writers of the Western
and Eastern worlds. Serendib is a corruption of the Sanskrit
_Sinhaladvïpa_. Like most oriental countries, Ceylon possesses a great
mass of ancient records, in which fact is so confused with fable that
they are difficult to distinguish. The labours of George Turnour
(1799-1843), however, helped to dissipate much of this obscurity, and
his admirable edition (1836) of the _Mahavamsa_ first made it possible
to trace the main lines of Sinhalese history.

The Sinhalese inscriptional records, to which George Turnour first
called attention, and which, through the activity of Sir William Gregory
in 1874, began to be accurately transcribed and translated, extend from
the 2nd century B.C. onwards. Among the oldest inscriptions discovered
are those on the rock cells of the Vessagiri Vihara of Anuradhapura, cut
in the old Brahma-lipi character. The inscriptions show how powerful was
the Buddhist hierarchy which dominated the government and national life.
The royal decrees of successive rulers are mainly concerned with the
safeguarding of the rights of the hierarchy, but a few contain
references to executive acts of the kings, as in a slab inscription of
Kassapa V. (c. A.D. 929-939). In an edict ascribed to Mahinda IV. (c.
A.D. 975-991) reference is made to the Sinhalese palladium, the famous
tooth-relic of Buddha, now enshrined at Kandy, and the decree confirms
tradition as to the identity of the fine stone temple, east of the
Thuparama at Anuradhapura, with the shrine in which the tooth was first
deposited when brought from Kalinga in the reign of Kirti Sri Meghavarna
(A.D. 304-324).

The earliest inhabitants of Ceylon were probably the ancestors of the
modern Veddahs, a small tribe of primitive hunters who inhabit the
eastern jungles; and the discovery of palaeolithic stone implements
buried in some of their caves points to the fact that they represent a
race which has been in the island for untold ages. As to subsequent
immigrations, the great Hindu epic, the _Ramayana_, tells the story of
the conquest of part of the island by the hero Rama and his followers,
who took the capital of its king Rawana. Whatever element of truth there
may be in this fable, it certainly represents no permanent occupation.
The authentic history of Ceylon, so far as it can be traced, begins with
the landing in 543 B.C. of Vijaya, the founder of the Sinhalese dynasty,
with a small band of Aryan-speaking followers from the mainland of
India. Vijaya married the daughter of a native chief, with whose aid he
proceeded to master the whole island, which he parcelled out among his
followers, some of whom formed petty kingdoms. The Sinhalese introduced
from the mainland a comparatively high type of civilization, notably
agriculture. The earliest of the great irrigation tanks, near
Anuradhapura, was opened about 504 B.C. by the successor of Vijaya; and
about this time was established that system of village communities which
still obtains over a large part of Ceylon.

The island was converted to Buddhism at the beginning of the 3rd century
B.C. by the preaching of Mahinda, a son of the great Buddhist emperor
Asoka; a conversion that was followed by an immense multiplication of
_daghobas_, curious bell-shaped reliquaries of solid stone, and of
Buddhist monasteries. For the rest, the history of ancient Ceylon is
largely a monotonous record of Malabar or Tamil invasions, conquests and
usurpations. Of these latter the first was in 237 B.C. when two officers
in the cavalry and fleet revolted, overthrew the Sinhalese ruler with
the aid of his own Tamil mercenaries, and reigned jointly, as Sena I.
and Guptika, until 215. The Sinhalese Asela then ruled till 205, when he
was overthrown by a Tamil from Tanjore, Elala, who held the reins of
power for 44 years. In 161 B.C. Elala was defeated and slain by
Dutegemunu, still remembered as one of the great Sinhalese heroes of
Ceylon. The ruins of the great monastery, known as the Brazen Palace, at
Anuradhapura, remain a memorial of King Dutegemunu's splendour and
religious zeal. He died in 137 B.C., and thenceforth the history of
Ceylon is mainly that of further Tamil invasions, of the construction of
irrigation tanks, and of the immense development of the Buddhist
monastic system. A tragic episode in the royal family in the 5th century
A.D. is, however, worthy of notice as connected with one of Ceylon's
most interesting remains, the Sigiri rock and tank (see SIGIRI). In A.D.
477 King Datu Sen was murdered by his son, who mounted the throne as
Kasyapa I., and when he was driven from the capital by the inhabitants,
infuriated by his crime, built himself a stronghold on the inaccessible
Sigiri rock, whence he ruled the country until in 495 he was overthrown
and slain by his brother Mugallana (495-513), who at the time of his
father's murder had escaped to India.

Towards the close of the 10th century Ceylon was invaded by Rajaraja the
Great, the Chola king, and after a series of protracted campaigns was
annexed to his empire in 1005. The island, did not, however, remain long
under Tamil domination. In 1071 Vijaya Bahu succeeded in re-establishing
the Sinhalese dynasty, and for a while Ceylon was freed from foreign
intervention. The most notable of the successors of Vijaya Bahu, and
indeed of all the long line of Sinhalese rulers, was Parakrama Bahu I.
(1155-1180), whose colossal statue still stands near Polonnaruwa. He not
only took advantage of the unaccustomed tranquillity of the country to
restore the irrigation tanks and the monasteries, but he availed himself
of a disputed succession to the Pandya throne of Madura to turn the
tables on his Tamil enemies by invading India. According to the
_Mahavamsa_ his generals met with immediate and unbroken success;
according to the more probable account preserved in a long Chola
inscription at Arpakkam near Kanchi, they were, though at first
successful, ultimately driven out by a coalition of the southern princes
(V.A. Smith, _Early History of India_, ed. 1908, p. 411). In any case,
within thirty years of Parakrama Bahu's death his work was undone; the
Malabar invaders were once more able to effect a settlement in the
island, and the Sinhalese capital was moved farther and farther south,
till in 1410 it had become established at Kotta, now a suburb of
Colombo. In 1408 a new misfortune had befallen the Sinhalese dynasty; in
revenge for an insult offered to a Chinese envoy, a Chinese army invaded
the island and carried away King Vijaya Bahu IV. into captivity. For
thirty years from this date the Sinhalese kings of Ceylon were tributary
to China.

When, in 1505, the Portuguese Francisco de Almeida landed in Ceylon, he
found the island divided into seven kingdoms. Twelve years later the
viceroy of Goa ordered the erection of a fort at Colombo, for which
permission was obtained from the king of Kotta; and from this time until
the advent of the Dutch in the 17th century the Portuguese endeavoured,
amid perpetual wars with the native kings, who were assisted by Arab and
other traders jealous of European rivalry, to establish their control
over the island. They ultimately succeeded so far as the coast was
concerned, though their dominion scarcely penetrated inland. Materially
their gain was but small, for the trade of Ceylon was quite
insignificant; but they had the spiritual satisfaction of prosecuting a
vigorous propaganda of Catholicism, St Francis Xavier being the most
notable of the missionaries who at this time laboured in the island.

The fanatical zeal and the masterful attitude of the Portuguese were a
constant source of dissension with the native rulers, and when the
Dutch, under Admiral Spilberg, landed on the east coast in 1602 and
sought the alliance of the king of Kandy in the interior of the island,
every inducement was held out to them to aid in expelling the
Portuguese. Nothing seems to have come of this until 1638-1639, when a
Dutch expedition attacked and razed the Portuguese forts on the east
coast. In the following year they landed at Negombo, without however
establishing themselves in any strong post. In 1644 Negombo was captured
and fortified by the Dutch, while in 1656 they took Colombo, and in 1658
they drove the Portuguese from Jaffna, their last stronghold in Ceylon.

Pursuing a wiser policy than their predecessors, the Dutch lost no
opportunity of improving that portion of the country which owned their
supremacy, and of opening a trade with the interior. More tolerant and
less disposed to stand upon their dignity than the Portuguese, they
subordinated political to commercial ends, flattered the native rulers
by a show of deference, and so far succeeded in their object as to
render their trade between the island and Holland a source of great
profit. Many new branches of industry were developed. Public works were
undertaken on a large scale, and education, if not universally placed
within the reach of the inhabitants of the maritime provinces, was at
least well cared for on a broad plan of government supervision. That
which they had so much improved by policy, they were, however, unable to
defend by force when the British turned their arms against them. A
century and a half had wrought great changes in the physical and mental
status of the Dutch colonists. The territory which in 1658 they had
slowly gained by undaunted and obstinate bravery, they as rapidly lost
in 1796 by imbecility and cowardice.

The first intercourse of the English with Ceylon was as far back as
1763, when an embassy was despatched from Madras to the king of Kandy,
without, however, leading to any result. On the rupture between Great
Britain and Holland in 1795, a force was sent against the Dutch
possessions in Ceylon, where the opposition offered was so slight that
by the following year the whole of their forts were in the hands of the
English commander.

The abiding results of the occupation of Ceylon by the Portuguese and
Dutch is described by Sir Emerson Tennent (_Ceylon_) as follows:

  "The dominion of the Netherlands in Ceylon was nearly equal in
  duration with that of Portugal, about 140 years; but the policies of
  the two countries have left a very different impress on the character
  and institutions of the people amongst whom they lived. The most
  important bequest left by the utilitarian genius of Holland is the
  code of Roman Dutch law, which still prevails in the supreme courts of
  justice, whilst the fanatical propagandism of the Portuguese has
  reared for itself a monument in the abiding and expanding influence of
  the Roman Catholic faith. This flourishes in every hamlet and province
  where it was implanted by the Franciscans, whilst the doctrines of the
  reformed church of Holland, never preached beyond the walls of the
  fortresses, are already almost forgotten throughout the island, with
  the exception of an expiring community at Colombo. Already the
  language of the Dutch, which they sought to extend by penal
  enactments, has ceased to be spoken even by their direct descendants,
  whilst a corrupted Portuguese is to the present day the vernacular of
  the lower classes in every town of importance. As the practical and
  sordid government of the Netherlands only recognized the interest of
  the native population in so far as they were essential to uphold their
  trading monopolies, their memory was recalled by no agreeable
  associations: whilst the Portuguese, who, in spite of their cruelties,
  were identified with the people by the bond of a common faith, excited
  a feeling of admiration by the boldness of their conflicts with the
  Kandyans, and the chivalrous though ineffectual defence of their
  beleaguered fortresses. The Dutch and their proceedings have almost
  ceased to be remembered by the lowland Sinhalese; but the chiefs of
  the south and west perpetuate with pride the honorific title Don,
  accorded to them by their first European conquerors, and still prefix
  to their ancient patronymics the sonorous Christian names of the
  Portuguese."

The British forces by which the island had been conquered were those of
the East India Company, and Ceylon was therefore at first placed under
its jurisdiction and administered from Madras. The introduction of the
Madras revenue system, however, together with a host of Malabar
collectors, led to much discontent, which culminated in rebellion; and
in 1798 the colony was placed directly under the crown. By the treaty of
Amiens, in 1803, this situation was regularized, from the international
point of view, by the formal cession to Great Britain of the former
Dutch possessions in the island. For a while the British dominion was
confined to the coast. The central tract of hilly country, hedged in by
impenetrable forests and precipitous mountain ranges, remained in
possession of Sri Vikrama Raja Sinha, the last of the Sinhalese dynasty,
who showed no signs of encouraging communication with his European
neighbours.

Minor differences led in 1803 to an invasion of the Kandyan territory;
but sickness, desertion and fatigue proved more formidable adversaries
to the British forces than the troops of the Sinhalese monarch, and
peace was eventually concluded upon terms by no means favourable to the
English. The cruelty and oppression of the king now became so
intolerable to his subjects that disaffection spread rapidly amongst
them. Punishments of the most horrible kinds were inflicted, but failed
to repress the popular indignation; and in 1815 the British, at the
urgent request of many of the Adigars and other native chiefs, proceeded
against the tyrant, who was captured near Kandy, and subsequently ended
his days in exile. With him ended a long line of sovereigns, whose
pedigree may be traced through upwards of two thousand years.

By a convention entered into with the Kandyan chiefs on the 2nd of March
1815, the entire sovereignty of the island passed into the hands of the
British, who in return guaranteed to the inhabitants civil and religious
liberty. The religion of Buddha was declared inviolable, and its rights,
ministers and places of worship were to be maintained and protected; the
laws of the country were to be preserved and administered according to
established forms; and the royal dues and revenues were to be levied as
before for the support of government.

With the exception of a serious outbreak in some parts of the interior
in 1817, which lasted for upwards of a year, and of two minor attempts
at rebellion easily put down, in 1843 and 1848, the political
atmosphere of Ceylon has remained undisturbed since the deportation of
the last king of Kandy.

  AUTHORITIES.--Major Thomas Skinner, _Fifty Years in Ceylon_, edited by
  his son, A. Skinner (London, 1891); Constance F. Gordon Gumming, _Two
  Happy Years in Ceylon_ (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1892); H.W. Cave, _The
  Ruined Cities of Ceylon_ (London, 1897), and _The Book of Ceylon_
  (London, 1908); Sir Emerson Tennent, _Ceylon_ (2 vols. 4th ed., 1860);
  J. Ferguson, _Ceylon in 1903_ (Colombo); J.C. Willis, _Ceylon_
  (Colombo, 1907). See also E. Müller, _Ancient Inscriptions in Ceylon_,
  published for the government (1883-1884), and the important
  archaeological survey in _Epigraphia Zeylonica_, part i., 1904, ii.,
  1907, iii., 1907, by Don Martino de Silva Wickremasinghe, who in 1899
  was appointed epigraphist to the Ceylon government. Among other works
  on special subjects may be mentioned H. Trimen, F.R.S., director of
  Ceylon Botanic Gardens, _Ceylon Flora_, in 5 vols., completed by Sir
  Joseph Hooker; Captain V. Legge, F.Z.S., _History of the Birds of
  Ceylon_ (London, 1870); Dr Copleston, bishop of Colombo, _Buddhism,
  Primitive and Present, in Magadha and in Ceylon_ (London, 1892);
  review by Sir West Ridgeway, _Administration of Ceylon, 1896-1903_;
  Professor W.A. Herdman, _Report on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries,
  1903-1904_.



CHABAZITE, a mineral species belonging to the group of zeolites. It
occurs as white to flesh-red crystals which vary from transparent to
translucent and have a vitreous lustre. The crystals are rhombohedral,
and the predominating form is often a rhombohedron (r) with interfacial
angles of 85° 14'; they therefore closely resemble cubes in appearance,
and the mineral was in fact early (in 1772) described as a cubic
zeolite. A characteristic feature is the twinning, the crystals being
frequently interpenetration twins with the principal axis as twin-axis
(figs, 1, 2). The appearance shown in fig. 1, with the corners of small
crystals in twinned position projecting from the faces r of the main
crystal, is especially characteristic of chabazite. Such groups resemble
the interpenetrating twinned cubes of fluorspar, but the two minerals
are readily distinguished by their cleavage, fluorspar having a perfect
octahedral cleavage truncating the corners of the cube, whilst in
chabazite there are less distinct cleavages parallel to the rhombohedral
(cube-like) faces. Another type of twinned crystal is represented in
fig. 2, in which the predominating form is an obtuse hexagonal pyramid
(t); the faces of these flatter crystals are often rounded, giving rise
to lenticular shapes, hence the name phacolite (from [Greek: phakos], a
lentil) for this variety of chabazite.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. FIG. 2. Twinned Crystals of Chabazite.]

The hardness of chabazite is 4½, and the specific gravity 2.08-2.16. As
first noticed by Sir David Brewster in 1830, the crystals often exhibit
anomalous optical characters: instead of being uniaxial, a basal section
may be divided into sharply-defined biaxial sectors. Heating of the
crystals is attended by a loss of water and a change in their optical
characters; it is probable therefore that the anomalous optical
characters are dependent on the amount of water present.

Besides phacolite, mentioned above, other varieties of chabazite are
distinguished. Herschelite and seebachite are essentially the same as
phacolite. Haydenite is the name given to small yellowish crystals,
twinned on a rhombohedron plane r, from Jones's Falls near Baltimore in
Maryland. Acadialite is a reddish chabazite from Nova Scotia (the old
French name of which is Acadie).

Chemically, chabazite is a complex hydrated calcium and sodium silicate,
with a small proportion of the sodium replaced by potassium, and
sometimes a small amount of the calcium replaced by barium and
strontium. The composition is however variable, and is best expressed
as an isomorphous mixture of the molecules (Ca, Na2) Al2(SiO4)2 + 4H2O
and (Ca, Na2) Al2(Si3O8)2 + 8H2O, which are analogous to the felspars.
Most analyses correspond with a formula midway between these extremes,
namely, (Ca, Na2)Al2(SiO3)4 + 6H2O.

Chabazite occurs with other zeolites in the amygdaloidal cavities of
basaltic rocks; occasionally it has been found in gneisses and schists.
Well-formed crystals are known from many localities; for example,
Kilmalcolm in Renfrewshire, the Giant's Causeway in Co. Antrim, and
Oberstein in Germany. Beautiful, clear glassy crystals of the phacolite
("seebachite") variety occur with phillipsite and radiating bundles of
brown calcite in cavities in compact basalt near Richmond, Melbourne,
Victoria. Small crystals have been observed lining the cavities of
fossil shells from Iceland, and in the recent deposits of the hot
springs of Plombières and Bourbonne-les-Bains in France.

Gmelinite and levynite are other species of zeolites which may be
mentioned here, since they are closely related to chabazite, and like it
are rhombohedral and frequently twinned. Gmelinite forms large flesh-red
crystals usually of hexagonal habit, and was early known as
soda-chabazite, it having the composition of chabazite but with sodium
predominating over calcium (Na2, Ca)Al2(SiO3)46H2O. The formula of
levynite is CaAl2Si3O10 + 5H2O.     (L. J. S.)



CHABLIS, a town of north-central France, in the department of Yonne, on
the left bank of the Serein, 14 m. E. by N. of Auxerre by road. Pop.
(1906) 2227. Its church of St Martin belongs to the end of the 12th
century. The town gives its name to a well-known white wine produced in
the neighbouring vineyards, of which the most esteemed are Clos,
Bouguerots, Moutonne, Grenouille, Montmaires, Lys and Vaux-Désirs. There
are manufactures of biscuits.



CHABOT, FRANÇOIS (1757-1794), French revolutionist, had been a
Franciscan friar before the Revolution, and after the civil constitution
of the clergy continued to act as "constitutional" priest, becoming
grand vicar of Henri Grégoire, bishop of Blois. Then he was elected to
the Legislative Assembly, sitting at the extreme left, and forming with
C. Bazire and Merlin de Thionville the "Cordelier trio." Re-elected to
the Convention he voted for the death of Louis XVI., and opposed the
proposal to prosecute the authors of the massacre of September, "because
among them there are heroes of Jemmapes." Some of his sayings are well
known, such as that Christ was the first "_sans-culotte_." Compromised
in the falsification of a decree suppressing the India Company and in a
plot to bribe certain members of the Convention, especially Fabre
d'Eglantine and C. Bazire, he was arrested, brought before the
Revolutionary Tribunal, and was condemned and executed at the same time
as the Dantonists, who protested against being associated with such a
"_fripon_."



CHABOT, GEORGES ANTOINE, known as CHABOT DE L'ALLIER (1758-1819), French
jurist and statesman, was president of the tribunal of Montluçon when he
was elected as a deputy _suppléant_ to the National Convention. A member
of the council of the Ancients, then of the Tribunate, he was president
of the latter when the peace of Amiens was signed. He had a resolution
adopted, tending to give Napoleon Bonaparte the consulship for life; and
in 1804 supported the proposal to establish a hereditary monarchy.
Napoleon named him inspector-general of the law schools, then judge of
the court of cassation. He published various legal works, e.g. _Tableau
de la législation ancienne sur les successions et de la législation
nouvelle établie par le code civil_ (Paris, 1804), and _Questions
fransitoires sur le code Napoléon_ (Paris, 1809).



CHABOT, PHILIPPE DE, SEIGNEUR DE BRION, COUNT OF CHARNY AND BUZANÇAIS
(c. 1492-1543), admiral of France. The Chabot family was one of the
oldest and most powerful in Poitou. Philippe was a cadet of the Jarnac
branch. He was a companion of Francis I. as a child, and on that king's
accession was loaded with honours and estates. After the battle of Pavia
he was made admiral of France and governor of Burgundy (1526), and
shared with Anne de Montmorency the direction of affairs. He was at the
height of his power in 1535, and commanded the army for the invasion of
the states of the duke of Savoy; but in the campaigns of 1536 and 1537
he was eclipsed by Montmorency, and from that moment his influence began
to wane. He was accused by his enemies of peculation, and condemned on
the 10th of February 1541 to a fine of 1,500,000 livres, to banishment,
and to the confiscation of his estates. Through the good offices of
Madam d'Étampes, however, he obtained the king's pardon almost
immediately (March 1541), was reinstated in his posts, and regained his
estates and even his influence, while Montmorency in his turn was
disgraced. But his health was affected by these troubles, and he died
soon afterwards on the 1st of June 1543. His tomb in the Louvre, by an
unknown sculptor, is a fine example of French Renaissance work. It was
his nephew, Guy Chabot, seigneur de Jarnac, who fought the famous duel
with François de Vivonne, seigneur de la Châtaigneraie, in 1547, at the
beginning of the reign of Henry II.

  The main authorities for Chabot's life are his MS. correspondence in
  the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, and contemporary memoirs. See also
  E de Barthélemy, "Chabot de Brion," in the _Revue des questions
  historiques_ (vol. xx. 1876); Martineau, "L'Amiral Chabot," in the
  _Positions des thèses de l'École des Chartes_ (1883).



CHABRIAS (4th century B.C.), a celebrated Athenian general. In 388 B.C.
he defeated the Spartans at Aegina and commanded the fleet sent to
assist Evagoras, king of Cyprus, against the Persians. In 378, when
Athens entered into an alliance with, Thebes against Sparta, he defeated
Agesilaus near Thebes. On this occasion he invented a manoeuvre, which
consisted in receiving a charge on the left knee, with shields resting
on the ground and spears pointed against the enemy. In 376 he gained a
decisive victory over the Spartan fleet off Naxos, but, when he might
have destroyed the Spartan fleet, remembering the fate of the generals
at Arginusae, he delayed to pick up the bodies of his dead. Later, when
the Athenians changed sides and joined the Spartans, he repulsed
Epaminondas before the walls of Corinth. In 366, together with
Callistratus, he was accused of treachery in advising the surrender of
Oropus to the Thebans. He was acquitted, and soon after he accepted a
command under Tachos, king of Egypt, who had revolted against Persia.
But on the outbreak of the Social War (357) he joined Chares in the
command of the Athenian fleet. He lost his life in an attack on the
island of Chios.

  See Cornelius Nepos, _Chabrias_; Xenophon, _Hellenica_, v. 1-4; Diod.
  Sic. xv. 29-34; and C. Rehdantz, _Vitae Iphicratis, Chabriae, et
  Timothei_ (1845); art. DELIAN LEAGUE, section B, and authorities there
  quoted.



CHABRIER, ALEXIS EMMANUEL (1841-1894), French composer, was born at
Ambert, Puy de Dôme, on the 18th of January 1841. At first he only
cultivated music as an amateur, and it was not until 1879 that he threw
up an administration appointment in order to devote himself entirely to
the art. He had two years previously written an _opéra bouffe_ entitled
_L'Étoile_, which was performed at the Bouffes Parisiens. In 1881 he was
appointed chorus-master of the concerts then recently established by
Lamoureux. In 1883 he composed the brilliant orchestral rhapsody
entitled _España_, the themes of which he had jotted down when
travelling in Spain. His opera _Gwendoline_ was brought out with
considerable success at Brussels on the 10th of April 1886, and was
given later at the Paris Grand Opéra. The following year 1887, _Le Roi
malgré lui_, an opera of a lighter description, was produced in Paris at
the Opéra Comique, its run being interrupted by the terrible fire by
which this theatre was destroyed. His last opera, _Briseis_, was left
unfinished, and performed in a fragmentary condition at the Paris Opéra,
after the composer's death in Paris on the 13th of September 1894.
Chabrier was also the author of a set of piano pieces entitled _Pièces
pittoresques, Valses romantiques_, for two pianos, a fantasia for horn
and piano, &c. His great admiration for Wagner asserted itself in
_Gwendoline_, a work which, in spite of inequalities due to want of
experience, is animated by a high artistic ideal, is poetically
conceived, and shows considerable harmonic originality, besides a
thorough mastery over the treatment of the orchestra. The
characteristics of _Le Roi malgré lui_ have been well summed up by M.
Joncières when he alludes to "cette verve inépuisable, ces rythmes
endiablés, cette exubérance de gaieté et de vigueur, à laquelle venait
se joindre la note mélancolique et émue." Chabrier's premature death
prevented him from giving the full measure of his worth.



CHACMA, the Hottentot name of the Cape baboon, _Papio porcarius_, a
species inhabiting the mountains of South Africa as far north as the
Zambezi. Of the approximate size of an English mastiff, this powerful
baboon is blackish grey in colour with a tinge of green due to the
yellow rings on most of the hairs. Unlike most of its tribe, it is a
good climber; and where wooded cliffs are not available, will take up
its quarters in tall trees. Chacmas frequently strip orchards and
fruit-gardens, break and devour ostrich eggs, and kill lambs and kids
for the sake of the milk in their stomachs.



CHACO, a territory of northern Argentina, part of a large district known
as the Gran Chaco, bounded N. by the territory of Formosa, E. by
Paraguay and Corrientes, S. by Santa Fé, and W. by Santiago del Estero
and Salta. The Bermejo river forms its northern boundary, and the
Paraguay and Paraná rivers its eastern; these rivers are its only means
of communication. Pop. (1895) 10,422; (1904, est.) 13,937; area, 52,741
sq. m. The northern part consists of a vast plain filled with numberless
lagoons; the southern part is slightly higher and is covered with dense
forests, occasionally broken by open grassy spaces. Its forests contain
many species of trees of great economic value; among them is the
_quebracho_, which is exported for the tannin which it contains. The
capital, Resistencia, with an estimated population of 3500 in 1904, is
situated on the Paraná river opposite the city of Corrientes. There is
railway communication between Santa Fé and La Sabana, an insignificant
timber-cutting village on the southern frontier. In the territory there
are still several tribes of uncivilized Indians, who occasionally raid
the neighbouring settlements of Santa Fé.



CHACONNE (Span. _chacona_), a slow dance, introduced into Spain by the
Moors, now obsolete. It resembles the Passacaglia. The word is used also
of the music composed for this dance--a slow stately movement in ¾ time.
Such a movement was often introduced into a sonata, and formed the
conventional finale to an opera or ballet until the time of Gluck.



CHAD [CEADDA], SAINT (d. 672), brother of Cedd, whom he succeeded as
abbot at Lastingham, was consecrated bishop of the Northumbrians by
Wine, the West Saxon bishop, at the request of Oswio in 664. On the
return of Wilfrid from France, where he had been sent to be consecrated
to the same see, a dispute of course arose, which was settled by
Theodore in favour of Wilfrid after three years had passed. Chad
thereupon retired to Lastingham, whence with the permission of Oswio he
was summoned by Wulfhere of Mercia to succeed his bishop Jaruman, who
died 667. Chad built a monastery at Barrow in Lincolnshire and fixed his
see at Lichfield. He died after he had held his bishopric in Mercia two
and a half years, and was succeeded by Wynfrith. Bede gives a beautiful
character of Chad.

  See Bede's _Hist. Eccl._ edited by C. Plummer, iii. 23, 24, 28; iv. 2,
  3 (Oxford, 1896); Eddius, _Vita Wilfridi_, xiv., xv. edited by J.
  Raine, Rolls Series (London, 1879).



CHAD, a lake of northern Central Africa lying between 12° 50' and 14°
10' N. and 13° and 15° E. The lake is situated about 850 ft. above the
sea in the borderland between the fertile and wooded regions of the
Sudan on the south and the arid steppes which merge into the Sahara on
the north. The area of the lake is shrinking owing to the progressive
desiccation of the country, Saharan climate and conditions replacing
those of the Sudan. The drying-up process has been comparatively rapid
since the middle of the 19th century, a town which in 1850 was on the
southern margin of the lake being in 1905 over 20 m. from it. On the
west the shore is perfectly flat, so that a slight rise in the water
causes the inundation of a considerable area--a fact not without its
influence on the estimates made at varying periods as to the size of the
lake. Around the north-west and north shores is a continuous chain of
gently sloping sand-hills covered with bush. This region abounds in big
game and birds are plentiful. In the east, the country of Kanem, the
desiccation has been most marked. Along this coast is a continuous chain
of islands running from north-west to south-east. But what were islands
when viewed by Overweg in 1851, formed in 1903 part of the mainland and
new islands had arisen in the lake. They are generally low, being
composed of sand and clay, and lie from 5 to 20 m. from the shore, which
throughout its eastern side nowhere faces open water. The channels
between the islands do not exceed 2 m. in width. Two principal groups
are distinguished, the Kuri archipelago in the south, and the Buduma in
the north. The inhabitants of the last-named islands were noted pirates
until reduced to order by the French. The coast-line is, in general,
undefined and marshy, and broken into numerous bays and peninsulas. It
is also, especially on the east, lined by lagoons which communicate with
the lake by intricate channels. The lake is nowhere of great depth, and
about midway numerous mud-banks, marshes, islands and dense growths of
aqueous plants stretch across its surface. Another stretch of marsh
usually cuts off the northernmost part of the lake from the central
sections. The open water varies in depth from 3 ft. in the north-west to
over 20 in the south, where desiccation is less apparent. Fed by the
Shari (q.v.) and other rivers, the lake has no outlet and its area
varies according to the season. The flood water brought down by the
Shari in December and January causes the lake to rise to a maximum of 24
ft., the water spreading over low-lying ground, left dry again in May or
June. But after several seasons of heavy rainfall the waters have
remained for years beyond their low-water level. Nevertheless the
secular shrinking goes on, the loss by evaporation and percolation
exceeding the amount of water received; whilst, on the average, the
rainfall is diminishing. In 1870 the lake rose to an exceptional height,
but since then, save in 1897, there has been only the normal seasonal
rise. The prevalent north-east wind causes at times a heavy swell on the
lake. Fish abound in its waters, which are sweet, save at low-level,
when they become brackish. The lagoons are believed to act as purifying
pans in which the greater part of the salt in the water is precipitated.
In the south-west end of the lake the water is yellow, caused by banks
of clay; elsewhere it is clear.

[Illustration: Lake Chad]

The southern basin of Chad is described under the Shari, which empties
its waters into the lake about the middle of the southern shore, forming
a delta of considerable extent. Beyond the south-east corner of the lake
is a depression known as the Bahr-el-Ghazal (not to be confounded with
the Nile affluent of the same name). This depression is the termination
of what is in all probability the bed of one of the dried-up Saharan
rivers. Coming from the Tibesti highlands the Bahr-el-Ghazal has a
south-westerly trend to Lake Chad. Near the lake the valley was formerly
swampy, and at high-water the lake overflowed into it. There was also at
one time communication between the Shari and the Bahr-el-Ghazal, so that
the water of the first-named stream reached Chad by way of the
Bahr-el-Ghazal. There is now neither inlet nor outlet to the lake in
this direction, the mouth of the Ghazal having become a fertile millet
field. There is still, however, a distinct current from the Shari delta
to the east end of the lake--known to the natives, like the depression
beyond, as the Bahr-el-Ghazal--indicative of the former overflow outlet.

Besides the Shari, the only important stream entering Lake Chad is the
Waube or Yo (otherwise the Komadugu Yobe), which rises near Kano, and
flowing eastward enters the lake on its western side 40 m. north of
Kuka. In the rains the Waube carries down a considerable body of water
to the lake.

Lake Chad is supposed to have been known by report to Ptolemy, and is
identified by some writers with the Kura lake of the middle ages. It was
first seen by white men in 1823 when it was reached by way of Tripoli by
the British expedition under Dr Walter Oudney, R.N., the other members
being Captain Hugh Clapperton and Major (afterwards Lieut.-Colonel)
Dixon Denham. By them the lake was named Waterloo. In 1850 James
Richardson, accompanied by Heinrich Barth and Adolf Overweg, reached the
lake, also via Tripoli, and Overweg was the first European to navigate
its waters (1851). The lake was visited by Eduard Vogel (1855) and by
Gustav Nachtigal (1870), the last-named investigating its hydrography in
some detail. In 1890-1893 its shores were divided by treaty between
Great Britain, France and Germany. The first of these nations to make
good its footing in the region was France. A small steamer, brought from
the Congo by Emile Gentil, was in 1897 launched on the Shari, and
reaching the Chad, navigated the southern part of the lake.
Communication between Algeria and Lake Chad by way of the Sahara was
opened, after repeated failures, by the French explorer F. Foureau in
1899-1900. At the same time a French officer, Lieut. Joalland, reached
the lake from the middle Niger, continuing his journey round the north
end to Kanem. A British force under Colonel T.L.N. Morland visited the
lake at the beginning of 1902, and in May of the same year the Germans
first reached it from Cameroon. In 1902-1903 French officers under
Colonel Destenave made detailed surveys of the south-eastern and eastern
shores and the adjacent islands. In 1903 Captain E. Lenfant, also a
French officer, succeeded in reaching the lake (which he
circumnavigated) via the Benue, proving the existence of water
communication between the Shari and the Niger. In 1905 Lieut. Boyd
Alexander, a British officer, further explored the lake, which then
contained few stretches of open water. The lake is bordered W. and S.W.
by Bornu, which is partly in the British protectorate of Nigeria and
partly in the German protectorate of Cameroon. Bagirmi to the S.E. of
the lake and Kanem to the N.E. are both French possessions. The north
and north-west shores also belong to France. One of the ancient trade
routes across the Sahara--that from Tripoli to Kuka in Bornu--strikes
the lake at its north-west corner, but this has lost much of its former
importance.

  See the works of Denham, Clapperton, Barth and Nachtigal cited in the
  biographical notices; _Geog. Journal_, vol. xxiv. (1904); Capt. Tilho
  in _La Géographie_ (March 1906); Boyd Alexander, _From the Niger to
  the Nile_, vol. i. (London, 1907); A. Chevalier, _Mission Chari-Lac
  Tchad 1902-1904_ (Paris 1908); E. Lenfant, _La Grande Route du Tchad_
  (Paris, 1905); H. Freydenberg, _Étude sur le Tchad et le bassin du
  Chari_ (Paris, 1908).



CHADDERTON, an urban district of Lancashire, England, within the
parliamentary borough of Oldham (q.v.). Pop. (1901) 24,892. Cotton and
chemical works, and the coal-mines of the neighbourhood, employ the
large industrial population.



CHADERTON, LAURENCE (?1536-1640), Puritan divine, was born at Lees Hall,
in the parish of Oldham, Lancashire, probably in September 1536, being
the second son of Edmund Chaderton, a gentleman of an ancient and
wealthy family, and a zealous Catholic. Under the tuition of Laurence
Vaux, a priest, he became an able scholar. In 1564 he entered Christ's
College, Cambridge, where, after a short time, he formally adopted the
reformed doctrines and was in consequence disinherited by his father. In
1567 he was elected a fellow of his college, and subsequently was chosen
lecturer of St Clement's church, Cambridge, where he preached to
admiring audiences for many years. He was a man of moderate views,
though numbering among his friends extremists like Cartwright and
Perkins. So great was his reputation that when Sir Walter Mildmay
founded Emmanuel College in 1584 he chose Chaderton for the first
master, and on his expressing some reluctance, declared that if he would
not accept the office the foundation should not go on. In 1604 Chaderton
was appointed one of the four divines for managing the cause of the
Puritans at the Hampton Court conference; and he was also one of the
translators of the Bible. In 1578 he had taken the degree of B.D., and
in 1613 he was created D.D. At this period he made provision for twelve
fellows and above forty scholars in Emmanuel College. Fearing that he
might have a successor who held Arminian doctrines, he resigned the
mastership in favour of John Preston, but survived him, and lived also
to see the college presided over successively by William Sancroft (or
Sandcroft) and Richard Holdsworth. He died on the 13th of November 1640
at the age of about 103, preserving his bodily and mental faculties to
the end.

  Chaderton published a sermon preached at St Paul's Cross about 1580,
  and a treatise of his _On Justification_ was printed by Anthony
  Thysius, professor of divinity at Leiden. Some other works by him on
  theological subjects remain in manuscript.



CHADWICK, SIR EDWIN (1800-1890), English sanitary reformer, was born at
Longsight, near Manchester, on the 24th of January 1800. Called to the
bar without any independent means, he sought to support himself by
literary work, and his essays in the _Westminster Review_ (mainly on
different methods of applying scientific knowledge to the business of
government) introduced him to the notice of Jeremy Bentham, who engaged
him as a literary assistant and left him a handsome legacy. In 1832 he
was employed by the royal commission appointed to inquire into the
operation of the poor laws, and in 1833 he was made a full member of
that body. In conjunction with Nassau W. Senior he drafted the
celebrated report of 1834 which procured the reform of the old poor law.
His special contribution was the institution of the union as the area of
administration. He favoured, however, a much more centralized system of
administration than was adopted, and he never ceased to complain that
the reform of 1834 was fatally marred by the rejection of his views,
which contemplated the management of poor-law relief by salaried
officers controlled from a central board, the boards of guardians acting
merely as inspectors. In 1834 he was appointed secretary to the poor law
commissioners. Finding himself unable to administer in accordance with
his own views an act of which he was largely the author, his relations
with his official chiefs became much strained, and the disagreement led,
among other causes, to the dissolution of the poor law commission in
1846. Chadwick's chief contribution to political controversy was his
constant advocacy of entrusting certain departments of local affairs to
trained and selected experts, instead of to representatives elected on
the principle of local self-government. While still officially connected
with the poor law he had taken up the question of sanitation in
conjunction with Dr Southwood Smith, and their joint labours produced a
most salutary improvement in the public health. His report on "The
Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population" (1842) is a valuable
historical document. He was a commissioner of the Board of Health from
its establishment in 1848 to its abolition in 1854, when he retired upon
a pension, and occupied the remainder of his life in voluntary
contributions to sanitary and economical questions. He died at East
Sheen, Surrey, on the 6th of July 1890. He had been made K.C.B. in 1889.

  See a volume on _The Evils of Disunity in Central and Local
  Administration ... and the New Centralization for the People_, by
  Edwin Chadwick (1885); also _The Health of Nations, a Review of the
  Works of Edwin Chadwick, with a Biographical Introduction_, by Sir B.
  W. Richardson (1887).



CHAEREMON, Athenian dramatist of the first half of the 4th century B.C.
He is generally considered a tragic poet. Aristotle (_Rhetoric_, iii.
12) says his works were intended for reading, not for representation.
According to Suidas, he was also a comic poet, and the title of at least
one of his plays (_Achilles Slayer of Thersites_) seems to indicate that
it was a satyric drama. His _Centaurus_ is described by Aristotle
(_Poet._ i. 12) as a rhapsody in all kinds of metres. The fragments of
Chaeremon are distinguished by correctness of form and facility of
rhythm, but marred by a florid and affected style reminiscent of
Agathon. He especially excelled in descriptions (irrelevantly
introduced) dealing with such subjects as flowers and female beauty. It
is not agreed whether he is the author of three epigrams in the Greek
Anthology (Palatine vii. 469, 720, 721) which bear his name.

  See H. Bartsch, _De Chaeremone Poëta tragico_ (1843); fragments in A.
  Nauck, _Fragmenta Tragicorum Graecorum_.



CHAEREMON, of Alexandria (1st century A.D.), Stoic philosopher and
grammarian. He was superintendent of the portion of the Alexandrian
library that was kept in the temple of Serapis, and as custodian and
expounder of the sacred books ([Greek: ierogrammateus] sacred scribe)
belonged to the higher ranks of the priesthood. In A.D. 49 he was
summoned to Rome, with Alexander of Aegae, to become tutor to the
youthful Nero. He was the author of a _History of Egypt_; of works on
_Comets, Egyptian Astrology_, and _Hieroglyphics_; and of a grammatical
treatise on _Expletive Conjunctions_ ([Greek: syndesmoi
paraplêrôpaeromatikoi]). Chaeremon was the chief of the party which
explained the Egyptian religious system as a mere allegory of the
worship of nature. His books were not intended to represent the ideas of
his Egyptian contemporaries; their chief object was to give a
description of the sanctity and symbolical secrets of ancient Egypt. He
can hardly be identical with the Chaeremon who accompanied (c. 26 B.C.;
Strabo xvii. p. 806) Aelius Gallus, praefect of Egypt, on a journey into
the interior of the country.

  Fragments in C. Müller, _Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum_, iii.
  495-499.



CHAERONEIA, or CHAERONEA, an ancient town of Boeotia, said by some to be
the Homeric Arne, situated about 7 m. W. of Orchomenus. Until the 4th
century B.C. it was a dependency of Orchomenus, and at all times it
played but a subordinate part in Boeotian politics. Its importance lay
in its strategic position near the head of the defile which presents the
last serious obstacle to an invader in central Greece. Two great battles
were fought on this site in antiquity. In 338 B.C. Philip II. and
Alexander of Macedon were confronted by a confederate host from central
Greece and Peloponnese under the leadership of Thebes and Athens, which
here made the last stand on behalf of Greek liberty. A hard-fought
conflict, in which the Greek infantry displayed admirable firmness, was
decided in favour of Philip through the superior organization of his
army. In 86 B.C. the Roman general L. Cornelius Sulla defeated the army
of Mithradates VI., king of Pontus, near Chaeroneia. The latter's
enormous numerical superiority was neutralized by Sulla's judicious
choice of ground and the steadiness of his legionaries; the Asiatics
after the failure of their attack were worn down and almost annihilated.
Chaeroneia is also notable as the birthplace of Plutarch, who returned
to his native town in old age, and was held in honour by its citizens
for many successive generations. Pausanias (ix. 40) mentions the divine
honours accorded at Chaeroneia to the sceptre of Agamemnon, the work of
Hephaestus (cf. _Iliad_, ii. 101). The site of the town is partly
occupied by the village of Kapraena; the ancient citadel was known as
the Petrachus, and there is a theatre cut in the rock. A colossal seated
lion a little to the S.E. of the site marks the grave of the Boeotians
who fell fighting against Philip; this lion was found broken to pieces;
the tradition that it was blown up by Odysseus Androutsos is incorrect
(see Murray, _Handbook for Greece_, ed. 5, 1884, p. 409). It has now
been restored and re-erected (1905).

  AUTHORITIES.--Thucydides iv. 76; Diodorus xvi. 85-86; Plutarch,
  _Alexander_, ch. 9; _Sulla_, chs. 16-19; Appian, _Mithradatica_, chs.
  42-45; W.M. Leake, _Travels in Northern Greece_ (London, 1835), ii.
  112-117, 192-201; B.V. Head, _Historia Numorum_ (Oxford, 1887), p.
  292; J. Kromayer, _Antike Schlachtfelder in Griechenland_ (Berlin,
  1903), pp. 127-195; G. Sotiriades in _Athen. Mitteil._ 1903, pp. 301
  ff.; 1905, p. 120; 1906, p. 396; [Greek: Ephêm. Archaiol.], 1908, p.
  65.



CHAETOGNATHA, the name given by R. Leuckhart to a small group of
transparent and for the most part pelagic organisms, whose position in
the animal kingdom is a very isolated one. Only three genera, _Sagitta_,
_Spadella_ and _Krohnia_, are recognised, and the number of species is
small. Nevertheless these animals exist in extraordinary quantities, so
that at certain seasons and under certain conditions the surface of the
sea seems almost stiff with the incredible multitude of organisms which
pervade it. Rough seas, &c., cause them to seek safety in dropping into
deeper water. Deep-sea forms also occur, but in spite of this the group
is essentially pelagic.

[Illustration: _Spadella cephaloptera_ (Busch).

  St, Septa dividing body-cavity transversely.
  g², Cerebral ganglia.
  n¹, Commissure uniting this with ventral ganglion (not shown in fig.).
  n², Nerve uniting cerebral ganglia with small ganglia on head.
  nr, Olfactory nerve.
  d, Alimentary canal.
  r, Olfactory organ.
  te, Tentacle.
  t, Tactile hairs springing from surface of body.
  e, Ovary.
  el, Oviduct.
  ho, Testes.
  sg, Vas deferens.
  f², f³, Lateral and caudal fins.
  sb, Seminal pouch.

  The eyes are indicated as black dots behind the cerebral ganglia.]

  As a rule the body is some 1 to 2 or 3 cm. in length, though some
  species are larger, by 4 or 5 mm. in breadth, and it is shaped
  something like a torpedo with side flanges and a slightly swollen,
  rounded head. It can be divided into three regions--(i.) head, (ii.)
  trunk, and (iii.) tail, separated from one another by two transverse
  septa. The almost spherical head is covered by a hood which can be
  retracted; it bears upon its side a number of sickle-shaped, chitinous
  hooks and one or more short rows of low spines--both of these features
  are used in characterizing the various species. A pair of eyes lie
  dorsally and behind them is a closed circlet, often pulled out into
  various shapes, of modified epidermis, to which an olfactory function
  has been attributed. The interior of the head is filled up with masses
  of muscle fibres which are mainly occupied with moving the
  sickle-shaped hooks. The trunk contains a spacious body-cavity filled
  during the breeding season by the swollen ovaries, and the same is
  true of the tail if we substitute testes for ovaries.

  The skin consists of a transparent cuticle excreted by the underlying
  ectoderm, the cells of which though usually one-layered may be heaped
  up into several layers in the head; beneath this is a basement
  membrane, and then a layer of longitudinal muscle fibres which are
  limited inside by a layer of peritoneal cells. The muscles are
  striated and arranged in four quadrants, two dorso-lateral and two
  ventro-lateral, an arrangement which recalls that of the Nematoda,
  whilst in their histology they somewhat resemble the muscles of the
  Oligochaeta. Along each side of the body stretches a horizontal fin
  and a similar flange surrounds the tail. Into these fins, which are
  largely cuticular and strengthened by radiating bars, a single layer
  of ectoderm cells projects.

  The mouth, a longitudinal slit, opens on to the ventral surface of the
  head. It leads into a straight alimentary canal whose walls consist of
  a layer of ciliated cells ensheathed in a thin layer of peritoneal
  cells. There is no armature, and no glands, and the whole tract can
  only be divided into an oesophagus and an intestine. The latter runs
  with no twists or coils straight to the anus, which is situated at the
  junction of the trunk with the tail. A median mesentery running
  dorso-ventrally supports the alimentary canal and is continued behind
  it into the tail, thus dividing the body cavity into two lateral
  halves.

  There are no specialized circulatory, respiratory or excretory organs.

  The nervous system consists of a cerebral ganglion in the head, a
  conspicuous ventral ganglion in the trunk, and of lateral commissures
  uniting these ganglia on each side. The whole of this system has
  retained its primitive connexion with the ectoderm. The cerebral
  ganglion also gives off a nerve on each side to a pair of
  small-ganglia, united by a median commissure, which have sunk into and
  control the muscles of the head. As in other animals there is a minute
  but extensive nervous plexus, which permeates the whole body and takes
  its origin from the chief ganglia. In addition to the eyes and the
  olfactory circle on the head scattered tactile papillae are found on
  the ectoderm.

  Chaetognatha are hermaphrodite. The ovaries are attached to the side
  walls of the trunk region; between them and the body wall lie the two
  oviducts whose inner and anterior end is described as closed, their
  outer ends opening one on each side of the anus, where the trunk joins
  the tail. According to Miss N.M. Stevens the so-called oviduct acts
  only as a "sperm-duct" or receptaculum seminis. The spermatozoa enter
  it and pass through its walls and traverse a minute duct formed of two
  accessory cells, and finally enter the ripe ovum. Temporary oviducts
  are formed between the "sperm-duct" and the germinal epithelium at
  each oviposition. A number of ova ripen simultaneously. The two testes
  lie in the tail and are formed by lateral proliferations of the living
  peritoneal cells. These break off and, lying in the coelomic fluid,
  break up into spermatozoa. They pass out through short vasa deferentia
  with internal ciliated funnels, sometimes an enlargement on their
  course--the seminal vesicles--and a minute external pore situated on
  the side of the tail.

  With hardly an exception the transparent eggs are laid into the sea
  and float on its surface. The development is direct and there is no
  larval stage. The segmentation is complete; one side of the hollow
  blastosphere invaginates and forms a gastrula. The blastopore closes,
  a new mouth and a new anus subsequently arising. The archenteron gives
  off two lateral pounchs and thus becomes trilobed. The middle lobe
  forms the alimentary canal; it closes behind and opens to the exterior
  anteriorly and so makes the mouth. The two lateral lobes contain the
  coelom; each separates off in front a segment which forms the head and
  presumably then divides again to form anteriorly the trunk, and
  posteriorly the tail regions. An interesting feature of the
  development of Chaetognaths is that, as in some insects, the cells
  destined to form the reproductive organs are differentiated at a very
  early period, being apparent even in the gastrula stage.

  The great bulk of the group is pelagic, as the transparent nature of
  all their tissues indicates. They move by flexing their bodies.
  _Spadella cephaloptera_ is, however, littoral and oviposits on
  seaweed, and the "Valdivia" brought home a deep-sea species.

  The three genera are differentiated as follows:--

  _Sagitta_ M. Slabber, with two pairs of lateral fins. This genus was
  named as long ago as 1775.

  _Krohnia_ P. Langerhans, with one lateral fin on each side, extending
  on to the tail.

  _Spadella_ P. Langerhans, with a pair of lateral fins on the tail and
  a thickened ectodermic ridge running back on each side from the head
  to the anterior end of the fin.

  The group is an isolated one and should probably be regarded as a
  separate phylum. It has certain histological resemblances with the
  Nematoda and certain primitive Annelids, but little stress must be
  laid on these. The most that can be said is that the Chaetognaths
  begin life with three segments, a feature they share with such
  widely-differing groups as the Brachiopoda, the Echinoderma and the
  Enteropneusta, and probably Vertebrata generally.

  See O. Hertwig, _Die Chaetognathen, eine Monographie_ (Jena, 1880);
  B.J. Grassi, _Chetognathi: Flora u. Fauna d. Golfes von Neapel_
  (1883); S. Strodtman, _Arch. Naturg._ lviii., 1892; N.M. Stevens,
  _Zool. Jahrb. Anat._ xviii., 1903, and xxi., 1905.     (A. E. S.)



CHAETOPODA (Gr. [Greek: chaitê], hair, [Greek: pous], foot), a
zoological class, including the majority of the Annelida (q.v.), and
indeed, save for the Echiuroidea (q.v.), co-extensive with that group as
usually accepted. They are divisible into the Haplodrili (q.v.) or
Archiannelida, the Polychaeta containing the marine worms, the
Oligochaeta or terrestrial and fresh-water annelids (see EARTHWORM), the
Hirudinea or leeches (see LEECH), and a small group of parasitic worms,
the Myzostomida (q.v.).

The distinctive characters of the class Chaetopoda as a whole are partly
embodied in the name. They possess (save for certain Archiannelida, most
Hirudinea, and other very rare exceptions) setae or chaetae implanted in
epidermal pits. The setae are implanted metamerically in accordance with
the metamerism of the body, which consists of a prostomium followed by a
number of segments. The number of segments in an individual is
frequently more or less definite. The anterior end of body always shows
some "cephalization." The internal organs are largely repeated
metamerically, in correspondence with the external metamerism. Thus the
body cavity is divided into a sequence of chambers by transverse septa;
and even among the Hirudinea, where this condition is usually not to be
observed, there is embryological evidence that the existing state of
affairs is derived from this. Commonly the nephridia are strictly paired
a single pair to each segment, while the branches of the blood vascular
system are similarly metameric. The alimentary canal is nearly always a
straight tube running from the mouth, which is surrounded by the first
segment of the body and overhung by the prostomium, to the anus, which
is then either surrounded by the last segment of the body or opens
dorsally a little way in front of this.

THE CLASS AS A WHOLE.--The Chaetopoda are with but few exceptions
(Myzostomida in part, _Sternaspis_) elongated worms, flattened or, more
usually, cylindrical, and bilaterally symmetrical. The body consists of
a number of exactly similar or closely similar segments, which are never
fused and metamorphosed, as in the Arthropoda, to form specialized
regions of the body. It is, however, always possible to recognize a
head, which consists at least of the peristomial segment with a forward
projection of the same, the prostomium. A thorax also is sometimes to be
distinguished from an abdomen. Where locomotive appendages (the
parapodia of the Polychaeta) exist, they are never jointed, as always in
the Arthropoda; nor are they modified anteriorly to form jaws, as in
that group.

[Illustration: FIG 1.--A, side view of the head region of _Nereis
cultrifera_; B, dorsal view of the same.

  E,    Eye.
  M,     Mouth.
  d.c,   Dorcal cirrus.
  per,   Peristomium, probably equal to two segments,
  per.c, Peristomial cirri.
  pl,   Prostomial palp.
  pp,   Parapodium.
  pr,   Prostomium.
  pr.t, Prostomial tentacle.
  t.s, Trunk segment.
  v.c, Ventral cirrus.]

  The prostomium overhangs the mouth, and is often of considerable size
  and, as a rule, quite distinct from the segment following, being
  separated by an external groove, and containing, at least temporarily,
  the brain, which always arises there. Its cavity also is at first
  independent of the coelom though later invaded by the latter. In any
  case the cavity of the prostomium is single, and not formed, as is the
  cavity of the segments of the body, by paired coelomic chambers. It
  has, however, been alleged that this cavity is formed by a pair of
  mesoblastic somites (N. Kleinenberg), in which case there is more
  reason for favouring the view that would assign an equality between
  the prostomium and the (in that case) other segments of the body. The
  peculiar prostomium of _Tomopteris_ is described below. The body wall
  of the Chaetopoda consists of a "dermo-muscular" tube which is
  separated from the gut by the coelom and its peritoneal walls, except
  in most leeches. A single layer of epidermic cells, some of which are
  glandular, forms the outer layer. Rarely are these ciliated, and then
  only in limited tracts. They secrete a cuticle which never approaches
  in thickness the often calcified cuticle of Arthropods. Below this is
  a circular, and below that again a longitudinal, layer of muscle
  fibres. These muscles are not striated, as they are in the Arthropoda.

  _Setae_.--These chitinous, rod-like, rarely squat and then hook-like
  structures are found in the majority of the Chaetopoda, being absent
  only in certain Archiannelida, most leeches, and a very few
  Oligochaeta. They exist in the Brachiopoda (which are probably not
  unrelated to the Chaetopoda), but otherwise are absolutely distinctive
  of the Chaetopods. The setae are invariably formed each within an
  epidermic cell, and they are sheathed in involutions of the epidermis.
  Their shape and size varies greatly and is often of use in
  classification. The setae are organs of locomotion, though their large
  size and occasionally jagged edges in some of the Polychaeta suggest
  an aggressive function. They are disposed in two groups on either
  side, corresponding in the Polychaeta to the parapodia; the two
  bundles are commonly reduced among the earthworms to two pairs of
  setae or even to a single seta. On the other hand, in certain
  Polychaeta the bundles of setae are so extensive that they nearly form
  a complete circle surrounding the body; and in the Oligochaet genus
  _Perichaeta_ (= _Pheretima_), and some allies, there is actually a
  complete circle of setae in each segment broken only by minute gaps,
  one dorsal, the other ventral.

  _Coelom_.--The Chaetopoda are characterized by a spacious coelom,
  which is divided into a series of chambers in accordance with the
  general metamerism of the body. This is the typical arrangement, which
  is exhibited in the majority of the Polychaeta and Oligochaeta; in
  these the successive chambers of the coelom are separated by the
  intersegmental septa, sheets of muscle fibres extending from the body
  wall to the gut and thus forming partitions across the body. The
  successive cavities are not, however, completely closed from each
  other; there is some communication between adjoining segments, and the
  septa are sometimes deficient here and there. Thus in the Chaetopoda
  the perivisceral cavity is coelomic; in this respect the group
  contrasts with the Arthropoda and Molluscs, where the perivisceral
  cavity is, mainly at least, part of the vascular or haemal system, and
  agrees with the Vertebrata. The coelom is lined throughout by cells,
  which upon the intestine become large and loaded with excretory
  granules, and are known as chloragogen cells. Several forms of cells
  float freely in the fluid of the coelom. In another sense also the
  coelom is not a closed cavity, for it communicates in several ways
  with the external medium. Thus, among the Oligochaeta there are often
  a series of dorsal pores, or a single head pore, present also among
  the Polychaeta (in _Ammochares_). In these and other Chaetopods the
  coelom is also put into indirect relations with the outside world by
  the nephridia and by the gonad ducts. In these features, and in the
  fact that the gonads are local proliferations of the coelomic
  epithelium, which have undergone no further changes in the simpler
  forms, the coelom of this group shows in a particularly clear fashion
  the general characters of the coelom in the higher Metazoa. It has
  been indeed largely upon the conditions characterizing the Chaetopoda
  that the conception of the coelom in the Coelomocoela has been based.

  Among the simpler Chaetopoda the coelom retains the character of a
  series of paired chambers, showing the above relations to the exterior
  and to the gonads. There are, however, further complications in some
  forms. Especially are these to be seen in the more modified
  Oligochaeta and in the much more modified Hirudinea. In the
  Polychaeta, which are to be regarded as structurally simpler forms
  than the two groups just referred to, there is but little subdivision
  of the coelom of the segments, indeed a tendency in the reverse
  direction, owing to the suppression of septa. Among the Oligochaeta
  the dorsal vessel in _Dinodrilus_ and _Megascolides_ is enclosed in a
  separate coelomic chamber which may or may not communicate with the
  main coelomic cavity. To this pericardial coelom is frequently added a
  gonocoel enclosing the gonads and the funnels of their ducts. This
  condition is more fully dealt with below in the description of the
  Oligochaeta. The division and, indeed, partial suppression of the
  coelom culminates in the leeches, which in this, as in some other
  respects, are the most modified of Annelids.

  _Nervous System._--In all Chaetopods this system consists of cerebral
  ganglia connected by a circumoesophageal commissure with a ventral
  ganglionated cord. The plan of the central nervous system is therefore
  that of the Arthropoda. Among the Archiannelida, in _Aeolosoma_ and
  some Polychaetes, the whole central nervous system remains imbedded in
  the epidermis. In others, it lies in the coelom, often surrounded by a
  special and occasionally rather thick sheath. The cerebral ganglia
  constitute an archicerebrum for the most part, there being no evidence
  that, as in the Arthropoda, a movement forward of post-oral ganglia
  has taken place. In the leeches, however, there seems to be the
  commencement of the formation of a syncerebrum. In the latter, the
  segmentally arranged ganglia are more sharply marked off from the
  connectives than in other Chaetopods, where nerve cells exist along
  the whole ventral chain, though more numerous in segmentally disposed
  swellings.

  _Vascular System._--In addition to the coelom, another system of
  fluid-holding spaces lies between the body wall and the gut in the
  Chaetopoda. This is the vascular or haemal system (formerly and
  unnecessarily termed pseudhaemal). With a few exceptions among the
  Polychaeta the vascular system is always present among the Chaetopoda,
  and always consists of a system of vessels with definite walls, which
  rarely communicate with the coelom. It is in fact typically a closed
  system. The larger trunks open into each other either directly by
  cross branches, or a capillary system is formed. There are no lacunar
  blood spaces with ill-defined or absent walls except for a sinus
  surrounding the intestine, which is at least frequently present. The
  principal trunks consist of a dorsal vessel lying above the gut, and a
  ventral vessel below the gut but above the nervous cord. These two
  vessels in the Oligochaeta are united in the anterior region of the
  body by a smaller or greater number of branches which surround the
  oesophagus and are, some of them at least, contractile and in that
  case wider than the rest. The dorsal vessel also communicates with the
  ventral vessel indirectly by the intestinal sinus, which gives off
  branches to both the longitudinal trunks, and by tegementary vessels
  and capillaries which supply the skin and the nephridia. In the
  smaller and simpler forms the capillary networks are much reduced, but
  the dorsal and ventral vessels are usually present. The former,
  however, is frequently developed only in the anterior region of the
  body where it emerges from the peri-intestinal blood sinus. On the
  other hand, additional longitudinal trunks are sometimes developed,
  the chief one of which is a supra-intestinal vessel lying below the
  dorsal vessel and closely adherent to the walls of the oesophagus in
  which region it appears. The capillaries sometimes (in many leeches
  and Oligochaeta) extend into the epidermis itself. Usually they do not
  extend outwards of the muscular layers of the body wall. The main
  trunks of the vascular system often possess valves at the origin of
  branches which regulate the direction of the blood flow. Among many
  Oligochaeta the dorsal blood-vessel is partly or entirely a double
  tube, which is a retention of a character shown by F. Vezhdovský to
  exist in the embryo of certain forms. The blood in the Chaetopoda
  consists of a plasma in which float a few corpuscles. The plasma is
  coloured red by haemoglobin: it is sometimes (in _Sabella_ and a few
  other Polychaeta) green, which tint is due to another respiratory
  pigment. The plasma may be pink (_Magelona_) or yellow (_Aphrodite_)
  in which cases the colour is owing to another pigment. In _Aeolosoma_
  it is usually colourless. The vascular system is in the majority of
  Chaetopods a closed system. It has been asserted (and denied) that the
  cellular rod which is known as the "Heart-body" (_Herzkorper_), and is
  to be found in the dorsal vessel of many Oligochaeta and Polychaeta,
  is formed of cells which are continuous with the chloragogen cells,
  thus implying the existence of apertures of communication with the
  coelom. The statement has been often made and denied, but it now seems
  to have been placed on a firm basis (E.S. Goodrich), that among the
  Hirudinea the coelom, which is largely broken up into narrow tubes,
  may be confluent with the tubes of the vascular system. This state of
  affairs has no antecedent improbability about it, since in the
  Vertebrata the coelom is unquestionably confluent with the haemal
  system through the lymphatic vessels. Finally, there are certain
  Polychaeta, _e g._ the _Capitellidae_, in which the vascular system
  has vanished altogether, leaving a coelom containing
  haemoglobin-impregnated corpuscles. It has been suggested (E. Ray
  Lankester) that this condition has been arrived at through some such
  intermediate stage as that offered by Polychaet _Magelona_. In this
  worm the ventral blood-vessel is so swollen as to occupy nearly the
  whole of the available coelom. Carry the process but a little farther
  and the coelom disappears and its place is taken by a blood space or
  haemocoel. It has been held that the condition shown in certain
  leeches tend to prove that the coelom and haemocoel are primitively
  one series of spaces which have been gradually differentiated. The
  facts of development, however, prove their distinctness, though those
  same facts do not speak clearly as to the true nature of the blood
  system. One view of the origin of the latter (largely based upon
  observations upon the development of _Polygordius_) sees in the blood
  system a persistent blastocoel. F. Vezhdovský has lately seen reasons
  for regarding the blood system as originating entirely from the
  hypoblast by the secretion of fluid, the blood, from particular
  intestinal cells and the consequent formation of spaces through
  pressure, which become lined with these cells.

  _Nephridia and Coelomoducts_.--The name "Nephridium" was originally
  given by Sir E. Ray Lankester to the members of a series of tubes,
  proved in some cases to be excretory in nature, which exist typically
  to the number of a single pair in most of the segments of the
  Chaetopod body, and open each by a ciliated orifice into the coelom on
  the one hand, and by a pore on to the exterior of the body on the
  other. In its earlier conception, this view embraced as homologous
  organs (so far as the present group is concerned) not only the
  nephridia of Oligochaeta and Hirudinea, which are obviously closely
  similar, but the wide tubes with an intercellular lumen and large
  funnels of certain Polychaeta, and (though with less assurance) the
  gonad ducts in Oligochaeta and Hirudinea. The function of nitrogenous
  excretion was not therefore a necessary part of the view--though it
  may be pointed out that there are grounds for believing that the gonad
  ducts are to some extent also organs of excretion (see below). Later,
  the investigations of E. Meyer and E.S. Goodrich, endorsed by
  Lankester, led to the opinion that under the general morphological
  conception of "nephridium" were included two distinct sets of organs,
  viz. nephridia and coelomoducts. The former (represented by, e.g. the
  "segmental organs" of _Lumbricus_) have been asserted to be
  "ultimately, though not always, actually traceable to the ectoderm";
  the latter (represented by, e.g. the oviduct of _Lumbricus_) are parts
  of the coelomic wall itself, which have grown out to the exterior. The
  nephridia, in fact, on this view, are _ectodermic ingrowths_, the
  coelomoducts _coelomic outgrowths_. The cavity of the former has
  nothing to do with coelom. The cavity of the latter is coelom.

  The embryological facts upon which this view has been based, however,
  have been differently interpreted. According to C.O. Whitman the
  entire nephridial system (in the leech _Clepsine_) is formed by the
  differentiation of a continuous epiblastic band on each side. The
  exact opposite is maintained by R.S. Bergh (for _Lumbricus_ and
  _Criodrilus_), whose figures show a derivation of the entire
  nephridium from mesoblast, and an absence of any connexion between
  successive nephridia by any continuous band, epiblastic or
  mesoblastic. A midway position is taken up by Wilson, who asserts the
  mesoblastic formation of the funnel, but also asserts the presence of
  a continuous band of epiblast from which certainly the terminal
  vesicle of the nephridium, and doubtfully the glandular part of the
  tube is derived. Vezhdovský's figures of _Rhynchelmis_ agree with
  those of Bergh in showing the backward growth of the nephridium from
  the funnel cell. There are thus substantial reasons for believing that
  the nephridium grows backwards from a funnel as does the coelomoduct.
  It is therefore by no means certain that so profound a difference
  embryologically can be asserted to exist between the excretory
  nephridia and the ducts leading from the coelom to the exterior, which
  are usually associated with the extrusion of the genital products
  among the Chaetopoda.

  There are, however, anatomical and histological differences to be seen
  at any rate at the extremes between the undoubted nephridia of
  Goodrich, Meyer and Lankester, and the coelomoducts of the same
  authors.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2. (from Goodrich).

    A, Diagram of the nephridium of _Nereis diversicolor_.
    B, Diagram of the nephridium of _Alciope_, into which opens the large
      genital funnel (coelomostome).
    C, Small portion of the nephridium of _Glycera siphonostoma_, showing
      the canal cut through, and the solenocytes on the outer surface.
    D, Optical section of a branch of the nephridium of _Nephthys
      scolopendroides_.
    c.s, Cut surface.
    cst, Coelomostome.
    f, Flagellum.
    g.f, Genital funnel.
    n, Neck of solenocyte.
    n.c, Nephridial canal.
    n.p, Nephridiopore.
    nst, Nephridiostome.
    nu, Nucleus of solenocyte.
    s, Solenocytes.
    t, Tube.]

  I. _Nephridia_.--Excretory organs which are undisputed nephridia are
  practically universal among the Oligochaeta, Hirudinea and
  Archiannelida, and occur in many Polychaeta. Their total absence has
  been asserted definitely only in _Paranais littoralis_. Usually these
  organs are present to the number of a single pair per somite, and are
  commonly present in the majority of the segments of the body, failing
  often among the Oligochaeta in a varying number of the anterior
  segments. They are considerably reduced in number in certain
  Polychaeta. Essentially, a nephridium is a tube, generally very long
  and much folded upon itself, composed of a string of cells placed end
  to end in which the continuous lumen is excavated. Such cells are
  termed "drain pipe" cells. Frequently the lumen is branched and may
  form a complicated anastomosing network in these cells. Externally,
  the nephridium opens by a straight part of the tube, which is often
  very wide, and here the intracellular lumen becomes intercellular.
  Rarely the nephridium does not communicate with the coelom; in such
  cases the nephridium ends in a single cell, like the "flame cell" of a
  Platyhelminth worm, in which there is a lumen blocked at the coelomic
  end by a tuft of fine cilia projecting into the lumen. This is so with
  _Aeolosoma_ (Vezhdovský). The condition is interesting as a
  persistence of the conditions obtaining in the provisional nephridia
  of e.g. _Rhynchelmis_, which afterwards become by an enlargement and
  opening up of the funnel the permanent nephridia of the adult worm. In
  some Polychaets (e.g. _Glycera_, see fig. 2) there are many of these
  flame cells to a single nephridium which are specialized in form, and
  have been termed "solenocytes" (Goodrich). They are repeated in
  _Polygordius_, and are exactly to be compared with similarly-placed
  cells in the nephridia of _Amphioxus_.

  More usually, and indeed in nearly every other case among the
  Oligochaeta and Hirudinea, the coelomic aperture of the nephridium
  consists of several cells, ciliated like the nephridium itself for a
  greater or less extent, forming a funnel. The funnel varies greatly in
  size and number of its component cells. There are so many differences
  of detail that no line can be drawn between the one-celled funnel of
  _Aeolosoma_ and the extraordinarily large and folded funnel of the
  posterior nephridia in the Oligochaete _Thamnodrilus_. In the
  last-mentioned worm the funnels of the anterior nephridia are small
  and but few celled; it is only the nephridia in and behind the 17th
  segment of the body which are particularly large and with a sinuous
  margin, which recall the funnels of the gonad ducts (i.e.
  coelomoducts).

  Among the Polychaeta the nephridium of _Nereis_ (see fig. 2) is like
  that of the Oligochaeta and Hirudinea in that the coiled glandular
  tube has an intracellular duct which is ciliated in the same way in
  parts. The Polychaeta, however, present us with another form of
  nephridium seen, for example, in _Arenicola_, where a large funnel
  leads into a short and wide excretory tube whose lumen is
  intercellular. In the young stages of this worm which have been
  investigated by W.B. Benham, the tube, though smaller, and with a but
  little pronounced funnel, has still an intercellular duct. That these
  organs in Polychaeta serve for the removal of the generative products
  to the exterior is proved not only by the correspondence in number to
  them of the gonads, but by actual observation of the generative
  products in transit. This form of nephridia leads to the shorter but
  essentially similar organs in the Polychaete _Sternaspis_, and to
  those of the Echiuroidea (q.v.) and of the Gephyrea (q.v.).

  Though the paired arrangement of the nephridia is the prevalent one in
  the Chaetopoda, there are many examples, among the Oligochaeta, of
  species and genera in which there are several, even many, nephridia in
  each segment of the body, which may or may not be connected among
  themselves, but have in any case separate orifices on to the exterior.

  2. _Coelomoducis._--In this category are included (by Goodrich and
  Lankester) the gonad ducts of the Oligochaeta, certain funnels without
  any aperture to the exterior that have been detected in _Nereis_, &c.,
  funnels with wide and short ducts attached to nephridia in other
  Polychaeta, gonad ducts in the _Capitellidae_, the gonad ducts of the
  leeches. In all these cases we have a duct which has a usually wide,
  always intercellular, lumen, generally, if not always, ciliated, which
  opens directly into the coelom on the one hand and on to the exterior
  of the body on the other. These characters are plain in all the cases
  cited, excepting only the leeches which will be considered separately.

  There is not a great deal of difference between most of these
  structures and true nephridia. It is not clear, for example, to which
  category it is necessary to refer the excretory organs of _Arenicola_,
  or _Polynoe_. Both series of organs consist essentially of a ciliated
  tube leading from the coelom to the exterior. Both series of organs
  grow back centrifugally from the funnel. In both the cavity originally
  or immediately continuous with the coelom appears first in the funnel
  and grows backwards. In some cases, e.g. oviducts of Oligochaeta,
  sperm ducts of _Phreoryctes_, the coelomoducts occupy, like the
  nephridia, two segments, the funnel opening into that in front of the
  segment which carries the external pore. It is by no means certain
  that a hard and fast line can be drawn between intra- and
  intercellular lumina. Finally, in function there are some points of
  likeness. The gonad ducts of _Lumbricus_, &c., must perform one
  function of nephridia; they must convey to the exterior some of the
  coelomic fluid with its disintegrated products of waste. There is no
  possibility that sperm and ova can escape by these tubes not in
  company with coelomic fluid. In the case of many Oligochaeta where
  there is no vascular network surrounding the nephridium, this function
  must be the chief one of those glands, the more elaborate process of
  excretion taking place in the case of nephridia surrounded by a rich
  plexus of blood capillaries. A consideration of the mode of
  development and appearance of the coelomoducts that have thus far been
  enumerated (with the possible exception of those of the leeches) seems
  to show that there is a distinct though varying relation between them
  and the nephridia. It has been shown that in _Tubifex_, and some other
  aquatic Oligochaeta, the genital segments are at first provided with
  nephridia, and that these disappear on the appearance of the
  generative ducts, which are coelomoducts. In _Lumbricus_ the connexion
  is a little closer; the funnel of the nephridium, in the segments in
  which the funnels of the gonad ducts are to be developed, persists and
  is continuous with the gonad duct funnels on their first appearance.
  In the development of the Acanthodrilid earthworm _Octochaetus_ (F.E.
  Beddard) the funnels of the pronephridia disappear except in the
  genital segments, where they seem to be actually converted into the
  genital funnels. At the least there is no doubt that the genital
  funnels are developed precisely where the nephridial funnels formerly
  existed. If the genital funnels are not wholly or partly formed out of
  the nephridial funnels they have replaced them. In the genital
  segments of _Eudrilus_ the nephridia are present, but the funnels have
  not been found though they are obvious in other segments. Here also
  the genital funnels have either replaced or been formed out of
  nephridial funnels. In _Haplotaxis heterogyne_ (W.B. Benham) the
  sperm ducts are hardly to be distinguished from nephridia; they are
  sinuous tubes with an intra-cellular duct. But the funnel is large and
  thus differs from the funnels of the nephridia in adjoining segments.
  Here again the nephridial funnel seems to have been converted into or
  certainly replaced by a secondarily developed funnel. This example is
  similar to cases among the Polychaeta where a true nephridium is
  provided with a large funnel, coelomostome, according to the
  nomenclature of Lankester. The whole organ, having, as is thought but
  not known, this double origin, is termed a nephromixium. The various
  facts, however, seem to be susceptible of another interpretation. It
  may be pointed out that the several examples described recall a
  phenomenon which is not uncommon and is well known to anatomists. That
  is the replacement of an organ by, sometimes coupled with its partial
  conversion into, a similar or slightly different organ performing the
  same or an analogous function. Thus the postcaval vein of the higher
  vertebrata is partly a new structure altogether, and is partly formed
  out of the pre-existing posterior cardinals. The more complete
  replacements, such as the nephridia of the genital segment of
  _Tubifex_ by a subsequently formed genital duct, may be compared with
  the succession of the nesonephros to the pronephros in vertebrates,
  and of the metanephros to the mesonephros in the higher vertebrates.
  It might be well to term these structures, mostly serving as gonad
  ducts, which have an undoubted resemblance to nephridia, and for the
  most part an undoubted connexion with nephridia, "Nephrodinia," to
  distinguish them from another category of "ducts" which are
  communications between the coelom and the exterior, and which have no
  relation whatever to nephridia or to the organs just discussed. For
  these latter, the term coelomoducts might well be reserved. To this
  category belong certain sacs and pouches in many, perhaps most, genera
  of the Oligochaeta family, _Eudrilidae_, and possibly the gonad ducts
  in the Hirudinea. As an example of the former it has been shown
  (Beddard) that a large median sac in _Lybiodrilus_ is at first freely
  open to the coelom, that it later becomes shut off from the same, that
  it then acquires an external orifice, and, finally, that it encloses
  the ovary or ovaries, between which and the exterior a passage is thus
  effected. To this category will belong the oviducts in Teleostean
  fishes and probably the gonad ducts in several groups of
  invertebrates.

POLYCHAETA.--This group may be thus defined and the definition
contrasted and compared with those of the other divisions of the
Chaetopoda. Setae always present and often very large, much varied in
form and very numerous, borne by the dorsal and ventral parapodia (when
present). The prostomium and the segments generally often bear processes
sensory and branchial. Eyes often present and comparatively complicated
in structure. Clitellum not present as a definite organ, as in
Oligochaeta. The anus is mostly terminal, and there are no anterior and
posterior suckers. Nervous system often imbedded in the epidermis.
Vascular system generally present forming a closed system of tubes.
Alimentary canal rarely coiled, occasionally with glands which are
simple caeca and sometimes serve as air reservoirs; jaws often present
and an eversible pharynx. Nephridia sometimes of the type of those of
the Oligochaeta; in other cases short, wide tubes with a large funnel
serving also entirely or in part as gonad ducts. Frequently reduced in
number of pairs; rarely (_Capitellidae_) more than one pair per segment.
Gonads not so restricted in position as in Oligochaets, and often more
abundant; the individuals usually unisexual. No specialized system of
spermathecae, sperm reservoirs, and copulatory apparatus, as in
Oligochaeta; development generally through a larval form; reproduction
by budding also occurs. Marine (rarely fresh-water) in habit.

The Polychaeta contrast with the Oligochaeta by the great variety of
outward form and by the frequency of specialization of different regions
of the body. The head is always recognizable and much more conspicuous
than in other Chaetopoda. As in the Oligochaeta the peristomial segment
is often without setae, but this character is not by any means so
constant as in the Oligochaeta. The prostomium bears often processes,
both dorsal and ventral, which in the Sabellids are split into the
circle of branchial plumes, which surround or nearly surround the mouth
in those tube-dwelling Annelids. _Tomopteris_ is remarkable for the fact
that the hammer-shaped prostomium has paired ventral processes each with
a single seta. It is held, however, that these are a pair of parapodia
which have shifted forwards. The presence of parapodia distinguish this
from other groups of Chaetopoda. Typically, the parapodium consists of
two processes of the body on each side, each of which bears a bundle of
setae; these two divisions of the "limb" are termed respectively
notopodium and neuropodium. The notopodium may be rudimentary or absent
and the entire parapodium reduced to the merest ridge or even completely
unrepresented. Naturally, it is among the free living forms that the
parapodium is best developed, and least developed among the tubicolous
Polychaeta. To each division of the parapodium belongs typically a long
tentacle, the cirrus, which may be defective upon one or other of the
notopodium or neuropodium, and may be developed into an arborescent gill
or into a flat scale-like process, the elytron (in _Polynoe_, &c.).
There are other gills developed in addition to those which represent the
cirri.

  _Setae_.--The setae of the Polychaeta are disposed in two bundles in
  many genera, but in only one bundle in such forms as have no
  notopodium (e.g. _Syllis_). In some genera the setae are in vertical
  rows, and in certain _Capitellidae_ these rows so nearly meet that an
  arrangement occurs reminiscent of the continuous circle of setae in
  the perichaetous Oligochaeta. The setae vary much in form and are
  often longer and stronger than in the Oligochaetes. Jointed setae and
  very short hooks or "uncini" (see fig. 3) are among the most
  remarkable forms. Simple bifid setae, such as those of Oligochaetes,
  are also present in certain forms.

  [Illustration: Fig. 3.--a, Bristle of _Pionosyllis Malmgreni_; b, Hook
  of _Terebella_.]

  Among the burrowing and tubicolous forms it is not uncommon for the
  body to be distinguishable into two or more regions; a "thorax," for
  example, is sharply marked off from an "abdomen" in the Sabellids. In
  these forms the bundles of setae are either capilliform or uncinate,
  and the dorsal setae of the thorax are like the ventral setae of the
  abdomen. It is a remarkable and newly-ascertained fact that in
  regeneration (in _Potamilla_) the thorax is not replaced by the growth
  of uninjured thoracic segments; but that the anterior segments of the
  abdomen take on the same characters, the setae dropping out and being
  replaced in accordance with the plan of the setae in the thorax of
  uninjured worms. Among the Oligochaeta the sexually mature worm is
  distinguished from the immature worm by the clitellum and by the
  development of genital setae. Among the Polychaeta the sexual worm is
  often more marked from the asexual form, so much so that these latter
  have been placed in different species or even genera. The alteration
  in form does not only affect structures used in generation; but the
  form of the parapodia, &c., alter. There are even dimorphic forms
  among the Syllids where the sexes are, as in many Polychaets,
  separate.

  _Nephridia_.--The nephridia of the Polychaeta have been generally
  dealt with above in considering the nephridial system of the
  Chaetopoda as a whole. They contrast with those of the Oligochaeta and
  Hirudinea by reason of their frequently close association with the
  gonads, the same organ sometimes serving the two functions of
  excretion and conveyance of the ova and spermatozoa out of the body.
  On the hypothesis that such a form as _Dinophilus_ (see Haplodrili)
  has preserved the characters of the primitive Chaetopod more nearly
  than any existing Polychaet or Oligochaet, it is clear that the
  nephridia in the Oligochaeta have preserved the original features of
  those organs more nearly than most Polychaeta. Thus _Nereis_ among the
  latter worms, from the resemblance which its excretory system bears to
  that of the Oligochaeta, may be made the starting-point of a series.
  In this worm the paired nephridia exist in most of the segments of the
  body, and their form (see fig. 2) is much like that of the nephridia
  in the _Enchytraeidae_. The funnel, which is not large, appears to
  open, as a rule at least, into the segment in front of that which
  bears the external orifice. Quite independent of these are certain
  large dorsally situate funnel-like folds of the coelomic epithelium,
  ciliated, but of which no duct has been discovered leading to the
  exterior. It is possible that we have here gonad ducts distinct from
  nephridia which at the time of sexual maturity do open on to the
  exterior.

  In _Polynoe_ the nephridia are short tubes with a slightly folded
  funnel whose lumen is intercellular, and this intercellular lumen is
  characteristic of the Polychaetes as contrasted with leeches and
  Oligochaetes. Among the Terebelloidea there is a remarkable
  differentiation of the nephridia into two series. One set lies in
  front of the diaphragm, which is the most anterior and complete
  septum, the rest having disappeared or being much less developed. The
  anterior nephridia, of which there are one to three pairs, contrast
  with the posterior series by their small funnels and large size, the
  posterior nephridia having a large funnel followed by a short tube. In
  _Chaetozone setosa_ the anterior nephridia occupy five segments. There
  is usually a gap between the two series, several segments being
  without nephridia. It seems that the posterior nephridia are mainly
  gonad ducts, and the gonads are developed in close association with
  the funnels. The same arrangement is found in some other Polychaetes;
  for instance, in _Sabellaria_ there is a single pair of large anterior
  nephridia, which open by a common pore, followed after an interval by
  large-funnelled and short nephridia. This differentiation is not,
  however, peculiar to the Polychaetes; for in several Oligochaetes the
  anterior nephridia are of large size, and opening as they do into the
  buccal cavity clearly play a different function to those which follow.
  In _Thamnodrilus_, as has been pointed out, there are two series of
  nephridia which resemble those of the Terebelloidea in the different
  sizes of their funnels. In _Lanice conchilega_ the posterior series of
  nephridia are connected by a thick longitudinal duct, which seems to
  be seen in its most reduced form in _Owenia_, where a duct on each
  side runs in the epidermis, being in parts a groove, and receives one
  short tubular nephridium only and occupies only one segment. This
  connexion of successive nephridia (in _Lanice_) has its counterpart in
  _Allolobophora, Lybiodrilus_, and apparently in the Lumbriculids
  _Teleuscolex_ and _Styloscolex_, among the Oligochaeta. Among the
  _Capitellidae_, which in several respects resemble the Oligochaeta,
  wide and short gonad ducts coexist in the same segments with
  nephridia, the latter being narrower and longer. It is noteworthy that
  in this family only among the Polychaeta, the nephridia are not
  restricted to a single pair in each segment; so that the older view
  that the gonad ducts are metamorphosed nephridia is not at variance
  with the anatomical facts which have been just stated.

  _Alimentary Canal._--The alimentary canal of Polychaetes is usually a
  straight tube running from the anterior mouth to the posterior anus.
  But in some forms, e.g. _Sternaspis_, the gut is coiled. In others,
  again, e.g. _Cobangia_, the anus is anterior and ventral. A gizzard is
  present in a few forms. The buccal cavity is sometimes armed with
  jaws. The oesophagus is provided often with caeca which in Syllids and
  _Hesionidae_ have been found to contain air, and possibly therefore
  perform the function of the fish's air-bladder. In other Polychaetes
  one or more pairs of similar outgrowths are glandular. The intestine
  is provided with numerous branched caeca in _Aphrodite_.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--_Dasychone infracta_, Kr. (After Malmgren.)]

  _Reproduction._--As is the case with the Oligochaeta, the Polychaeta
  furnish examples of species which multiply asexually by budding. There
  is a further resemblance between the two orders of Chaetopoda in that
  this budding is not a general phenomenon, but confined to a few forms
  only. Budding, in fact, among the Polychaetes is limited to the family
  _Syllidae_. In the Oligochaetes it is only the families
  _Aeolosomatidae_ and _Naididae_ that show the same phenomenon. It has
  been mentioned that in the Nereids a sexual form occurs which differs
  structurally from the asexual worms, and was originally placed in a
  separate genus, _Heteronereis_; hence the name "Heteronereid" for the
  sexual worm. In _Syllis_ there is also a "Heterosyllid" form in which
  the gonads are limited to a posterior region of the body which is
  further marked off from the anterior non-sexual segments by the
  oak-like setae. In some Syllids this posterior region separates off
  from the rest, producing a new head; thus a process of fission occurs
  which has been termed schizogamy. A similar life history distinguishes
  certain Sabellid worms, e.g. _Filigrana_. Among the Syllids this
  simple state of affairs is further complicated. In _Autolytus_ there
  is, to begin with, a conversion of the posterior half of the body to
  form a sexual zooid. But before this separates off a number of other
  zooids are formed from a zone of budding which appears between the two
  first-formed individuals. Ultimately, a chain of sexual zooids is thus
  formed. A given stock only produces zooids of one sex. In _Myrianida_
  there is a further development of this process. The conversion of the
  posterior end of the simple individual into a sexual region is
  dispensed with; but from a preanal budding segment a series of sexual
  buds are produced. The well-known Syllid, discovered during the voyage
  of the "Challenger," shows a modification of this form of budding.
  Here, however, the buds are lateral, though produced from a budding
  zone, and they themselves produce other buds, so that a ramifying
  colony is created.

  Quite recently, another mode of budding has been described in
  _Trypanosyllis gemmipara_, where a crowd of some fifty buds arising
  symmetrically are produced at the tail end of the worm. In some
  Syllids, such as _Pionosyllis gestans_, the ova are attached to the
  body of the parent in a regular line, and develop in situ; this
  process, which has been attributed to budding, is an "external
  gestation," and occurs in a number of species.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--A, _Autolytus_ (after Mensch) with numerous
  buds. B, Portion of a colony of _Syllis ramosa_ (from M'Intosh).
  _b.z_, Budding zone; p, anterior region of the parent worm; 1-5,
  buds.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.--A, Side view of the larva of _Lopadorhynchus_
  (from Kleinenberg), showing the developing trunk region. B, Side view
  of the trochophore larva of _Eupomatus uncinatus_ (from Hatschek).

    A, Anus.
    E, Eye.
    M, Mouth.
    ap, Apical organ.
    h, "Head Kidney."
    i, Intestine.
    me, Mesoblast.
    ms, Larval muscle.
    o, Otocyst.
    pp, Parapodium.
    pr, Praeoral ciliated ring, or prototroch.]

  As is very frequently the case with marine forms, as compared with
  their fresh-water and terrestrial allies, the Polychaeta differ from
  the Oligochaeta and Hirudinea in possessing a free living larval form
  which is hatched at an early stage in development. This larva is
  termed the Trochosphere larva, and typically (as it is held) is an
  egg-shaped larva with two bands of cilia, one preoral and one
  postoral, with an apical nervous plate surmounted by a tuft of longer
  cilia, and with a simple bent alimentary canal, with lateral mouth and
  posterior anus, between which and the ectoderm is a spacious cavity
  (blastocoel) traversed by muscular strands and often containing a
  larval kidney. The segmentation is of the mesoblast to begin with,
  and appears later behind the mouth, the part anterior to this becoming
  the prostomium of the adult. The chief modifications of this form are
  seen in the _Mitraria_ larva of _Ammochares_ with only the preoral
  band, which is much folded and which has provisional and long setae;
  the atrochous larva, where the covering of cilia is uniform and not
  split into bands; and the polytrochous larva where there are several
  bands surrounding the body. There are also other modifications.

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.--_Nereis pelagica_, L. (After Oersted.)]

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.--_Sabella vesiculosa_, Mont. (After Montagu.)]

  [Illustration: FIG. 9. _Arenicola marina_, L.]

  _Classification_.--The older arrangement of the Polychaeta into
  Errantia or free living and Tubicola or tube-dwelling forms will
  hardly fit the much increased knowledge of the group. W.B. Benham's
  division into Phanerocephala in which the prostomium is plain, and
  Crytocephala in which the prostomium is hidden by the peristomium
  adopted by Sedgwick, can only be justified by the character used; for
  the Terebellids, though phanerocephalous, have many of the features of
  the Sabellids. It is perhaps safer to subdivide the Order into 6
  Suborders (in the number of these following Benham, except in
  combining the Sabelliformia and Hermelliformia). Of these 6, the two
  first to be considered are very plainly separable and represent the
  extremes of Polychaete organization, (1) _Nereidiformia_.--"Errant"
  Polychaetes with well-marked prostomium possessing tentacles and palps
  with evident and locomotor parapodia, supported (with few exceptions)
  by strong spines, the aciculi; muscular pharynx usually armed with
  jaws; septa and nephridia regularly metameric and similar throughout
  body; free living and predaceous. (2) _Cryptocephala_.--Tube-dwelling
  with body divided into thorax and abdomen marked by the setae, which
  are reversed in position in the neuropodium and notopodium
  respectively in the two regions. Parapodia hardly projecting; palps of
  prosomium forming branched gills; no pharynx or eversible buccal
  region; no septa in thorax, septa in abdomen regularly disposed.
  Nephridia in two series; large, anterior nephridia followed by small,
  short tubes in abdomen. The remaining groups are harder to define,
  with the exception of the (3) _Capitelliformia_, which are mud-living
  worms of an "oligochaetous" appearance, and with some affinities to
  that order. The peristomium has no setae, and the setae generally are
  hair-like or uncinate, often forming almost complete rings. The
  genital ducts are limited to one segment (the 8th in _Capitella
  capitata_), and there are genital setae on this and the next segment.
  In other forms genital ducts and nephridia coexist in the same
  segment. The nephridia are sometimes numerous in each segment. There
  is no blood system, and the coelomic corpuscles contain haemoglobin.
  (4) _Terebelliformia_. These worms are in some respects like the
  Sabellids (Cryptocephala). The parapodia, as in the Capitellidae, are
  hardly developed. The buccal region is unarmed and not eversible. The
  prostomium has many long filaments which recall the gills of the
  Sabellids, &c. The nephridia are specialized into two series, as in
  the last-mentioned worms. (5) _Spioniformia_ (including
  _Chaetopterus_, _Spio_, &c.) and (6) _Scoleciformia_ (_Arenicola_,
  _Chloraema_, _Sternaspis_) are the remaining groups. In both, the
  nephridia are all alike; there are no jaws; the prostomium rarely has
  processes. The body is often divisible into regions.

  LITERATURE.--W.B. Benham, "Polychaeta" in _Cambridge Natural History_;
  E. Claparède, _Annélides chétopodes du golfe de Naples_ (1868 and
  1870); E. Ehlers, _Die Börstenwürmer_ (1868); H. Eisig, _Die
  Capitelliden_ (Naples Monographs), and development of do. in _Mitth.
  d. zool. Stat. Neapel_ (1898); W.C. M'Intosh, _"Challenger" Reports_
  (1885); E.R. Lankester, Introductory Chapter in _A Treatise on
  Zoology_; E.S. Goodrich, _Quart. Journ. Mic. Sci._ (1897-1900); E.
  Meyer, _Mitth. d. zool. Stat. Neapel_ (1887, 1888), as well as
  numerous other memoirs by the above and by J.T. Cunningham, de St
  Joseph, A. Malaquin, A. Agassiz, A.T. Watson, Malmgren, Bobretsky and
  A.F. Marion, E.A. Andrews, L.C. Cosmovici, R. Horst, W. Michaelsen, G.
  Gilson, F. Buchanan, H. Levinsen, Joyeux-Laffuie, F.W. Gamble, &c.

OLIGOCHAETA.--As contrasted with the other subdivisions of the
Chaetopoda, the Oligochaeta may be thus defined. Setae very rarely
absent (genus _Achaeta_) and as a rule not so large or so numerous in
each segment as in the Polychaeta, and different in shape. Eyes rarely
present and then rudimentary. Prostomium generally small, sometimes
prolonged, but never bearing tentacles or processes. Appendages of body
reduced to branchiae, present only in four species, and to the ventral
copulatory appendages of _Alma_ and _Criodrilus_. Clitellum always
present, extending over two (many limicolous forms) to forty-five
segments (_Alma_). Segments of body numerous and not distinctive of
species, being irregular and not fixed in numbers. In terrestrial forms
dorsal pores are usually present; in aquatic forms a head pore only.
Anus nearly always terminal, rarely dorsal, at a little distance from
end of body. Suckers absent. Nervous system rarely (_Aeolosoma_) in
continuity with epidermis. Vascular system always present, forming a
closed system, more complicated in the larger forms than in the aquatic
genera. Several specially large contractile trunks in the anterior
segments uniting the dorsal and ventral vessels. Nephridia generally
paired, often very numerous in each segment, in the form of long,
much-coiled tubes with intracellular lumen. Gonads limited in number of
pairs, testes and ovaries always present in the same individual. Special
sacs developed from the intersegmental septa lodge the developing ova
and sperm. Special gonad ducts always present. Male ducts often open on
to exterior through a terminal chamber which is variously specialized,
and sometimes with a penis.

[Illustration:

FIG. 10.--Diagrams of various Earthworms, to illustrate external
characters. A, B, C, anterior segments from the ventral surface; D,
hinder end of body of _Urochaeta_.

  A, _Lumbricus_: 9, 10, segments containing spermathecae, the orifices
  of which are indicated; 14, segment bearing oviducal pores; 15,
  segment bearing male pores; 32, 37, first and last segments of
  clitellum.

  B, _Acanthodrilus_: cp, orifices of spermathecae; [Female], oviducal
  pores; [Male], male pores; on 17th and 19th segments are the apertures
  of the atria.

  C, _Perichaeta_: the spermathecal pores are between segments 6 and 7,
  7 and 8, 8 and 9, the oviducal pores upon the 14th and the male pores
  upon the 18th segment.

  In all the figures the nephridial pores are indicated by dots and the
  setae by strokes.]

Generative pores usually paired, sometimes single and median.
Spermathecae nearly always present. Alimentary canal straight, often
with appended glands of complicated or simpler structure; no jaws. Eggs
deposited in a cocoon after copulation. Development direct. Reproduction
by budding also occurs. Fresh-water (rarely marine) and terrestrial.

The Oligochaeta show a greater variety of size than any other group of
the Chaetopoda. They range from a millimetre or so (smaller species of
_Aeolosoma_) to 6 ft. or even rather more (_Microchaeta rappi_, &c.) in
length.

  _Setae._--The setae, which are always absent from the peristomial
  segment, are also sometimes absent from a greater number of the
  anterior segments of the body, and have completely disappeared in
  _Achaeta cameranoi._ When present they are either arranged in four
  bundles of from one to ten or even more setae, or are disposed in
  continuous lines completely encircling each segment of the body. This
  latter arrangement characterizes many genera of the family
  _Megascolicidae_ and one genus (_Periscolex_) of the
  _Glossoscolicidae._ It has been shown (Bourne) that the "perichaetous"
  condition is probably secondary, inasmuch as in worms which are, when
  adult, "perichaetous" the setae develop in pairs so that the embryo
  passes through a stage in which it has four bundles of setae, two to
  each bundle, the prevalent condition in the group. Rarely there is an
  irregular disposition of the setae which are not paired, though the
  total number is eight to a segment (fig. 10), e.g. _Pontoscolex._ The
  varying forms of the setae are illustrated in fig. 11.

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.--Setae of _Oligochaeta_.

    a, Penial seta of _Perichaeta ceylonica._
    b, Extremity of penial seta of _Acanthodrilus_ (after Horst).
    c, Seta of _Urochaeta_ (Perier).
    d, Seta of _Lumbricus._
    e, Seta of _Criodrilus._
    f, g, Setae of _Bohemilla comata._
    h, i, j, Setae of _Psammoryctes barbatus_ (f to j after Vezhdovský).]

  _Structure._--The body wall consists of an epidermis which secretes a
  delicate cuticle and is only ciliated in _Aeolosoma_, and in that
  genus only on the under surface of the prostomium. The epidermis
  contains numerous groups of sense cells; beneath the epidermis there
  is rarely (_Kynotus_) an extensive connective tissue dermis. Usually
  the epidermis is immediately followed by the circular layer of
  muscles, and this by the longitudinal coat. Beneath this again is a
  distinct peritoneum lining the coelom, which appears to be wanting as
  a special layer in some Polychaetes (Benham, Gilson). The muscular
  layers are thinner in the aquatic forms, which possess only a single
  row of longitudinal fibres, or (_Enchytracidae_) two layers. In the
  earthworms, on the other hand, this coat is thick and composed of many
  layers.

  The clitellum consists of a thickening of the epidermis, and is of two
  forms among the Oligochaeta. In the aquatic genera the epidermis comes
  to consist entirely of glandular cells, which are, however, arranged
  in a single layer. In the earthworms, on the other hand, the epidermis
  becomes specialized into several layers of cells, all of which are
  glandular. It is therefore obviously much thicker than the clitellum
  in the limicolous forms. The position of the clitellum, which is
  universal in occurrence, varies much as does the number of component
  segments. As a rule--to which, however, there are exceptions--the
  clitellum consists of two or three segments only in the small aquatic
  Oligochaeta, while in the terrestrial forms it is as a general rule,
  to which again there are exceptions, a more extensive, sometimes much
  more extensive, region.

  In the Oligochaeta there is a closer correspondence between external
  metamerism and the divisions of the coelom than is apparent in some
  Chaetopods. The external segments are usually definable by the setae;
  and if the setae are absent, as in the anterior segments of several
  _Geoscolicidae_, the nephridiopores indicate the segments; to each
  segment corresponds internally a chamber of the coelom which is
  separated from adjacent segments by transverse septa, which are only
  unrecognizable in the genus _Aeolosoma_ and in the head region of
  other Oligochaeta. In the latter case, the numerous bands of muscle
  attaching the pharynx to the parietes have obliterated the regular
  partition by means of septa.

  _Nephridia_.--The nephridia in this group are invariably coiled tubes
  with an intracellular lumen and nearly invariably open into the coelom
  by a funnel. There are no renal organs with a wide intercellular
  lumen, such as occur in the Polychaeta, nor is there ever any
  permanent association between nephridia and ducts connected with the
  evacuation of the generative products, such as occur in _Alciope_,
  _Saccocirrus_, &c. In these points the Oligochaeta agree with the
  Hirudinea. They also agree in the general structure of the nephridia.
  It has been ascertained that the nephridia of Oligochaeta are preceded
  in the embryo by a pair of delicate and sinuous tubes, also found in
  the Hirudinea and Polychaeta, which are larval excretory organs. It is
  not quite certain whether these are to be regarded as the remnant of
  an earlier excretory system, replaced among the Oligochaeta by the
  subsequently developed paired structures, or whether these "head
  kidneys" are the first pair of nephridia precociously developed. The
  former view has been extensively held, and it is supported by the fact
  that in _Octochaetus_ the first segment of the body has a pair of
  nephridia which is exactly like those which follow, and, like them,
  persists. On the other hand, in most Oligochaeta the first segment has
  in the adult no nephridium, and in the case of _Octochaetus_ the
  existence of a "head kidney" antedating the subsequently developed
  nephridia of the first and other segments has neither been seen nor
  proved to be absent. In any case the nephridia which occupy the
  segments of the body generally are first of all represented by paired
  structures, the "pronephridia," in which the funnel is composed of but
  one cell, which is flagellate. This stage has at any rate been
  observed in _Rhynchelmis_ and _Lumbricus_ (in its widest sense) by
  Vezhdovský. It is further noticeable that in _Rhynchelmis_ the
  covering of vesicular cells which clothes the drain-pipe cells of the
  adult nephridium is cut off from the nephridial cells themselves and
  is not a peritoneal layer surrounding the nephridium. Thus the
  nephridia, in this case at least, are a part of the coelom and are not
  shut off from it by a layer of peritoneum, as are other organs which
  lie in it, e.g. the gut. A growth both of the funnel, which becomes
  multicellular, and of the rest of the nephridium produces the adult
  nephridia of the genera mentioned. The paired disposition of these
  organs is the prevalent one among the Oligochaeta, and occurs in all
  of twelve out of the thirteen families into which the group is
  divided.

  Among the _Megascolicidae_, however, which in number of genera and
  species nearly equals the remaining families taken together, another
  form of the excretory system occurs. In the genera _Pheretima,
  Megascolex_, _Dichogaster_, &c., each segment contains a large number
  of nephridia, which, on account of the fact that they are necessarily
  smaller than the paired nephridia of e.g. _Lumbricus_, have been
  termed micronephridia, as opposed to meganephridia; there is, however,
  no essential difference in structure, though micronephridia are not
  uncommonly (e.g. _Megascolides_, _Octochaetus_) unprovided with
  funnels. It is disputed whether these micronephridia are or are not
  connected together in each segment and from segment to segment. In any
  case they have been shown in three genera to develop by the growth and
  splitting into a series of original paired pronephridia. A complex
  network, however, does occur in _Lybiodrilus_ and certain other
  _Eudrilidae_, where the paired nephridia possess ducts leading to the
  exterior which ramify and anastomose on the thickness of the body
  wall. The network is, however, of the duct of the nephridium, possibly
  ectodermic in origin, and does not affect the glandular tubes which
  remain undivided and with one coelomic funnel each.

  The Oligochaeta are the only Chaetopods in which undoubted nephridia
  may possess a relationship with the alimentary canal. Thus, in
  _Octochaetus multiporus_ a large nephridium opens anteriorly into the
  buccal cavity, and numerous nephridia in the same worm evacuate their
  contents into the rectum. The anteriorly-opening and usually very
  large nephridia are not uncommon, and have been termed
  "peptonephridia."

  _Gonads and Gonad Ducts_.--The Oligochaeta agree with the leeches and
  differ from most Polychaeta in that they are hermaphrodite. There is
  no exception to this generalization. The gonads are, moreover, limited
  and fixed in numbers, and are practically invariably attached to the
  intersegmental septa, usually to the front septum of a segment, more
  rarely to the posterior septum. The prevalent number of testes is one
  pair in the aquatic genera and two pairs in earthworms. But there are
  exceptions; thus a species of _Lamprodrilus_ has four pairs of testes.
  The ovaries are more usually one pair, but two are sometimes present.
  The segments occupied by the gonads are fixed, and are for earthworms
  invariably X, XI, or one of them for the testes, and XIII for the
  ovaries The position varies in the aquatic Oligochaeta. The
  Oligochaeta contrast with the Polychaeta in the general presence of
  outgrowths of the septa in the genital segments, which are either
  close to, or actually involve, the gonads, and into which may also
  open the funnels of the gonad ducts. These sacs contain the developing
  sperm cells or eggs, and are with very few exceptions universal in
  the group. The testes are more commonly thus involved than are the
  ovaries. It is indeed only among the _Eudrilidae_ that the enclosure
  of the ovaries in septal sacs is at all general. Recently the same
  thing has been recorded in a few species of _Pheretima_ (=
  _Perichaeta_), but details are as yet wanting. We can thus speak in
  these worms of _gonocoels_, i.e. coelomic cavities connected only with
  the generative system. These cavities communicate with the exterior
  through the gonad ducts, which have nothing to do with them, but whose
  coelomic funnels are taken up by them in the course of their growth.
  There are, however, in the _Eudrilidae_, as already mentioned, sacs
  envolving the ovaries which bore their own way to the exterior, and
  thus may be termed coelomoducts. These sacs are dealt with later under
  the description of the spermathecae, which function they appear to
  perform. The gonad ducts are male and female, and open opposite to or,
  rarely, alongside of the gonads, whose products they convey to the
  exterior. The oviducts are always short trumpet-shaped tubes and are
  sometimes reduced (_Enchytraeidae_) to merely the external orifices.
  It is possible, however, that those oviducts belong to a separate
  morphological category, more comparable to the dorsal pores and to
  abdominal pores in some fishes. The sperm ducts are usually longer
  than the oviducts; but in Limicolae both series of tubes opening by
  the funnel into one segment and on to the exterior in the following
  segment. While the oviducts always open directly on to the exterior,
  it is the rule for the sperm ducts to open on to the exterior near to
  or through certain terminal chambers, which have been variously termed
  atrium and prostate, or spermiducal gland. The distal extremity of
  this apparatus is sometimes eversible as a penis. Associated with
  these glands are frequently to be found bundles or pairs of long and
  variously modified setae which are termed penial setae, to distinguish
  them from other setae sometimes but not always associated with rather
  similar glands which are found anteriorly to these, and often in the
  immediate neighbourhood of the spermathecae; the latter are spoken of
  as genital setae.

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.--Female reproductive system of
  _Heliodrilus_.--XI-XIV, eleventh to fourteenth segments, sperm,
  spermatheca; sp.o, its external orifice; sp.sac, spermathecal sac; ov,
  sac containing ovary; r.o, egg sac; od, oviduct.]

  _Spermathecae._--These structures appear to be absolutely distinctive
  of the Oligochaeta, unless the sacs which contain sperm and open in
  common with the nephridia of _Saccocirrus_ (see HAPLODRILI) are
  similar. Spermathecae are generally present in the Oligochaeta and are
  absent only in comparatively few genera and species. Their position
  varies, but is constant for the species, and they are rarely found
  behind the gonads. They are essentially spherical, pear-shaped or oval
  sacs opening on to the exterior but closed at the coelomic end. In a
  few _Enchytraeidae_ and _Lumbriculidae_ the spermathecae open at the
  distal extremity into the oesophagus, which is a fact difficult of
  explanation. Among the aquatic Oligochaeta and many earthworms (the
  families _Lunibricidae_, _Geoscolicidae_ and a few other genera) the
  spermathecae are simple structures, as has been described. In the
  majority of the _Megascolicidae_ each sac is provided with one or more
  diverticula, tubular or oval in form, of a slightly different
  histological character in the lining epithelium, and in them is
  invariably lodged the sperm.

  The spermathecae are usually paired structures, one pair to each of
  the segments where they occur. In many _Geoscolicidae_, however, and
  certain _Lumbricidae_ and _Perichaetidae_, there are several, even a
  large number, of pairs of very small spermathecae to each of the
  segments which contain them.

  In the _Eudrilidae_ there are spermathecae of different morphological
  value. In figs. 12 and 13 are shown the spermathecae of the genera
  _Hyperiodrilus_ and _Heliodrilus_, which are simple sacs ending
  blindly as in other earthworms, but of which there is only one median
  opening in the thirteenth segment or in the eleventh. In _Heliodrilus_
  the blind extremity of the spermatheca is enclosed in a coelomic sac
  which is in connexion with the sacs envolving the ovaries and
  oviducts. In _Hyperiodrilus_ the whole spermatheca is thus included in
  a corresponding sac, which is of great extent. In such other genera of
  the family as have been examined, the true spermatheca has entirely
  disappeared, and the sac which contains it in _Hyperiodrilus_ alone
  remains. This sac has been already referred to as a coelomoduct. Its
  orifice on to the exterior is formed by an involution (as it appears)
  of the epidermis, and that it performs the function of a spermatheca
  is shown by its containing spermatozoa, or, in _Stuhlmannia_, a
  spermatophore. In _Polytoreutus_, also, spermatophores have been found
  in these spermathecal sacs. We have thus the replacement of a
  spermatheca, corresponding to those of the remaining families of
  Oligochaeta, and derived, as is believed, from the epidermis, by a
  structure performing the same function, but derived from the
  mesoblastic tissues, and with a cavity which is coelom.

  _Alimentary Canal._--The alimentary canal is always a straight tube,
  and the anus, save in the genera _Criodrilus_ and _Dero_, is
  completely terminal. A buccal cavity, a pharynx, an oesophagus and an
  intestine are always distinguishable. Commonly among the terrestrial
  forms there is a gizzard, or two gizzards, or a larger number, in the
  oesophageal region. There is no armed protrusible pharynx, such as
  exists in some other Chaetopods. This may be associated with
  mud-eating habits; but it is not wholly certain that this is the case;
  for in _Chaetogaster_ and _Agriodrilus_, which are predaceous worms,
  there is no protrusible pharynx, though in the latter the oesophagus
  is thickened through its extent with muscular fibres. The oesophagus
  is often furnished with glandular diverticula, the "glands of Morren,"
  which are often of complex structure through the folding of their
  walls. Among the purely aquatic families such structures are very
  rare, and are represented by two caeca in the genus _Limnodriloides_.
  It is a remarkable fact, not yet understood, that in certain
  _Enchytraeidae_ and _Lumbriculidae_ the spermathecae open into the
  oesophagus as well as on to the exterior. The only comparable fact
  among other worms is the Laurer's canal or genito-intestinal canal in
  the Trematoda. The intestine is usually in the higher forms provided
  with a typhlosole, in which, in _Pontoscolex_, runs a ciliated canal
  or canals communicating with the intestine. It is possible that this
  represents the syphon or supplementary intestine of _Capitellidae_,
  which has been shown to develop as a grooving of the intestine
  ultimately cut off from it. The intestine has a pair of caeca or two
  or three pairs (but all lie in one segment) in the genus _Pheretima_
  and in one species of _Rhinodrilus_. In _Typhoeus_ and _Megascolex_
  there are complex glands appended to the intestine.

  [Illustration: FIG. 13.--Female reproductive system of
  _Hyperiodrilus_.--XIII, XIV, thirteenth and fourteenth segments.

    sp, Spermatheca.
    sp', Spermathecal sac involving the last.
    ov, Ovary.
    r.o, Egg sac.
    od, Oviduct.]

  In _Benhamia caecifera_ and at least one other earthworm there are
  numerous caeca, one pair to each segment.

  _Classification._--The classifications of Adolf Eduard, Grube and
  Claparède separated into two subdivisions the aquatic and the
  terrestrial forms. This scheme, opposed by many, has been reinstated
  by Sedgwick. The chief difficulty in this scheme is offered by the
  Moniligastridae, which in some degree combine the characters of both
  the suborders, into neither of which will they fit accurately. The
  following arrangement is a compromise:--

  Group I. _Aphaneura._--This group is referred by A. Sedgwick to the
  Archiannelida. It is, however, though doubtless near to the base of
  the Oligochaetous series, most nearly allied in the reproductive
  system to the Oligochaeta. It contains but one family,
  _Aeolosomatidae_. There are three pairs of spermathecae situated in
  segments III-V, a testis in V and an ovary in VI. There are a
  clitellum and sperm ducts which though like nephridia have a larger
  funnel and a less complexly wound duct. This family consists of only
  one well-known genus, _Aeolosoma_, which contains several species.
  They are minute worms with coloured oil drops (green, olive green or
  orange) contained in the epidermis. The nervous system is embedded in
  the epidermis, and the pairs of ganglia are separated as in _Serpula_,
  &c.; each pair has a longish commissure between its two ganglia. The
  intersegmental septa are absent save for the division of the first
  segment. The large prostomium is ciliated ventrally. The setae are
  either entirely capillary or there are in addition some sigmoid setae
  even with bifid free extremities. This genus also propagates
  asexually, like _Ctenodrilus_, which may possibly belong to the same
  family. Asexual reproduction universal.

  Group II. _Limicolae._--With a few exceptions the Limicolae are, as
  the name denotes, aquatic in habit. They are small to moderate-sized
  Oligochaeta, with a smaller number of segments than in the Terricolae.
  The alimentary canal is simple and a gizzard or oesophageal
  diverticula rarely developed. The vascular system is simple with as a
  rule direct communication between dorsal and ventral vessels in each
  segment. Nerve cord lies in coelom; brain in first segment or
  prostomium in many forms. Clitellum generally only two or three
  segments and more anterior in position than in Terricolae. Nephridia
  always paired and without plexus of blood capillaries. Spermatheca
  rarely with diverticula; sperm ducts as a rule occupying two segments
  only, usually opening by means of an atrium. Sperm sacs generally
  occupying a good many segments and with simple interior undivided by a
  network of trabeculae. Ova large and with much yolk. Asexual
  reproduction only in Naids. Egg sacs as large or nearly so as sperm
  sacs. Testes and ovaries always free. The following families
  constitute the group, viz. _Naididae_, _Enchytraeidae_, _Tubificidae_,
  _Lumbriculidae_, _Phreoryctidae_, _Phreodrilidae_, _Alluroididae_, the
  latter possibly not referable to this group.

  Group III. _Moniligastres._--Moderate-sized to very large Oligochaeta,
  terrestrial in habit, with the appearance of Terricolae. Generative
  organs anterior in position as in Limicolae. Sperm ducts and atria as
  in Limicolae; egg sacs large; body wall thick; vascular system and
  nephridia as in Terricolae. Only one family, _Moniligastridae_.

  Group IV. _Terricolae._--Earthworms, rarely aquatic in habit. Of small
  to very large size. Clitellum commonly extensive and more posterior in
  position than in other groups. Vascular system complicated without
  regular connexion between dorsal and ventral vessels, except in
  anterior segments. Nephridia as a rule with abundant vascular supply.
  Testes, and occasionally ovaries, enclosed in sacs. Sperm sacs
  generally limited to one or two segments with interior subdivided by
  trabeculae. Sperm ducts traverse several segments on their way to
  exterior. They open in common with, or near to, or, more rarely, into,
  glands which are not certainly comparable to the atria of the
  Limicolae. Egg sacs minute and functionless(?). Eggs minute with
  little yolk. Nephridia sometimes very numerous in each segment.
  Spermathecae often with diverticula.

  Earthworms are divided into the following families, viz.
  _Megascolicidae_, _Geoscolicidae_, _Eudrilidae_, _Lumbricidae_.

  As an appendix to the Oligochaeta, and possibly referable to that
  group, though their systematic position cannot at present be
  determined with certainty, are to be placed the _Bdellodrilidae_
  (_Discodrilidae_ auct.), which are small parasites upon crayfish.
  These worms lay cocoons like the Oligochaeta and leeches, and where
  they depart from the structure of the Oligochaeta agree with that of
  leeches. The body is composed of a small and limited number of
  segments (not more than fourteen), and there is a sucker at each end
  of the body. There are no setae and apparently only two pairs of
  nephridia, of which the anterior pair open commonly by a common pore
  on the third segment after the head, whose segments have not been
  accurately enumerated. The intervening segments contain the genitalia,
  which are on the Oligochaeta plan in that the gonads are independent
  of their ducts and that there are special spermathecae, one pair. The
  male ducts are either one pair or two pairs, which open by a common
  and complicated efferent terminal apparatus furnished with a
  protrusible penis. The ganglia are crowded at the posterior end of the
  body as in leeches, and there is much tendency to the obliteration of
  the coelom as in that group. _Pterodrilus_ and _Cirrodrilus_ bear a
  few, or circles of, external processes which may be branchiae;
  _Bdellodrilus_ and _Astacobdella_ have none. The vascular system is as
  in the lower Oligochaeta. There are two chitinous jaws in the buccal
  cavity, a dorsal and a ventral, which are of specially complicated
  structure in _Cirrodrilus_.

  LITERATURE.--F.E. Beddard, _A Monograph of the Oligochaeta_ (Oxford,
  1895), also _Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci._, 1886-1895, and _Proc. Zool.
  Soc._, 1885-1906; W.B. Benham, _Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci._, 1886-1905;
  W. Michaelsen, "Oligochaeta" in _Das Tierreich_, 1900, and _Mitth.
  Mus._ (Hamburg, 1890-1906); A.G. Bourne, _Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci._,
  1894; H.J. Moore, _Journ. Morph._, 1895; F. Vezhdovský, _System d.
  Oligochaeten_ (Prague, 1884), and _Entwicklungsgeschichtliche
  Untersuchungen_; and numerous papers by the above and by G. Eisen, E.
  Perrier, D. Rosa, R. Horst, L. Cognetti, U. Pierantoni, W. Baldwin
  Spencer, H. Ude, &c., and embryological memoirs by R.S. Bergh, E.B.
  Wilson, N. Kleinenberg, &c.

HIRUDINEA.--The leeches are more particularly to be compared with the
Oligochaeta, and the following definition embraces the main features in
which they agree and disagree with that group. Setae are only present in
the genus _Acanthobdella_. Eyes are present, but hardly so complex as in
certain genera of Polychaetes. The appendages of the body are reduced to
branchiae, present in certain forms. A clitellum is present. The
segments of body are few (not more than thirty-four) and fixed in
number. The anus is dorsal. One or two (anterior and posterior) suckers
always present. Nervous system always in coelom. Coelom generally
reduced to a system of tubes, sometimes communicating with vascular
system; in _Acanthobdella_ and _Ozobranchus_ a series of metamerically
arranged chambers as in Oligochaeta. Nephridia always paired, rarely
(_Pontobdella_) forming a network communicating from segment to segment;
lumen of nephridia always intracellular, funnels pervious or impervious.
Alimentary canal sometimes with protrusible proboscis; never with
gizzard or oesophageal glands; intestine with caeca as a rule. Jaws
often present. Testes several pairs, rarely one pair, continuous with
sperm ducts; ovaries, one pair, continuous with oviducts; generative
pores single and median. No separate spermathecae or septal chambers for
the development of the ova and sperm. Eggs deposited in a cocoon.
Development direct. No asexual generation. Fresh-water, marine and
terrestrial. Parasitic or carnivorous.

  In external characters the Hirudinea are unmistakable and not to be
  confused with other Annelids, except perhaps with the
  _Bdellodrilidae_, which resemble them in certain particulars. The
  absence of setae--save in _Acanthobdella_, where five of the anterior
  segments possess each four pairs of setae with reserve setae placed
  close behind them (fig. 14), and the presence of an anterior and
  posterior sucker, produce a looping mode of progression similar to
  that of a Geometrid larva. The absence of setae and the great
  secondary annulation render the mapping of the segments a subject of
  some difficulty. The most reliable test appears to be the nerve
  ganglia, which are more distinct from the intervening connectives than
  in other Annelids.

  [Illustration: FIG. 14.--_Acanthobdella_, from the ventral surface,
  showing the five sets of setae (S1 to S5) and the replacing setae (Sr)
  behind them. The three pairs of pigmented spots show the position of
  the eyes on the dorsal surface. (After Kovalevsky.)]

  In the middle of the body, where the limits of the somites can be
  checked by a comparison with the arrangement of the nephridia and the
  gonads, and where the ganglia are quite distinct and separated by long
  connectives, each ganglion is seen to consist of six masses of cells
  enclosed by capsules and to give off three nerves on each side. This
  corresponds to the usual presence (in the _Rhynchobdellidae_) of three
  annuli to each segment. Anteriorly and posteriorly separate ganglia
  have fused. The brain consists not only of a group of six capsules
  corresponding to the archicerebrum of the Oligochaeta, but of a
  further mass of cells surrounding and existing below the alimentary
  canal, which can be analysed into five or six more separate ganglia.
  The whole mass lies in the seventh or eighth segment. At the posterior
  end of the body there are likewise seven separate ganglia partially
  fused to form a single ganglionic mass, which innervates the segments
  lying behind the anus and corresponding to the posterior sucker. So
  that a leech in which only twenty-seven segments are apparent by the
  enumeration of the annuli, separate ganglia, nephridia, lines of
  sensillae upon the body, really possesses an additional seven lying
  behind that which is apparently the last of the series and crowded
  together into a minute space. The annuli into which segments are
  externally divided are so deeply incised as to render it impossible to
  distinguish, as can be readily done in the Oligochaeta as a rule, the
  limits of an annulus from that of a true segment. As remarked, the
  prevalent number of annuli to a segment is three in the
  _Rhynchobdellidae_. But in that group (_Cystobranchus_) there may be
  as many as eight annuli. In the _Gnathobdellidae_ the prevailing
  number of annuli to a segment is five; but here again the number is
  often increased, and _Trocheta_ has no less than eleven. The reason
  for this excessive annulation has been seen in the limited number of
  segments (thirty-four) of which the body is composed, which are laid
  down early and do not increase. In the Oligochaeta, on the other hand,
  there is growth of new segments. It is important to notice that the
  metameric plan of growth of Chaetopods is still preserved.

  The nephridia are like those of the Oligochaeta in general structure;
  that is to say, they consist of drain-pipe cells which are placed end
  to end and are perforated by their duct. The internal funnel varies in
  the same way as in the Oligochaeta in the number of cells which form
  it. In _Clepsine_ (_Glossiphonia_) there are only three cells, and in
  _Nephelis_ five to eight cells. In _Hirudo_ the funnel is not pervious
  and is composed of a large number of cells. Externally, the nephridium
  opens by a vesicle, as in many Oligochaetes whose lumen is
  intercellular. In _Pontobdella_ and _Branchellion_ the nephridia form
  a network extending from segment to segment, but there is only one
  pair of funnels in each segment. Slight differences in form have been
  noted between nephridia of different segments; but the Hirudinea do
  not show the marked differentiation that is to be seen in some other
  Chaetopods; nor do the nephridia ever acquire any relations to the
  alimentary canal.

  [Illustration: FIG. 15.--Section of _Acanthobdella_ (after
  Kovalevsky).

    c, Coelom.
    c.ch, Coelomic epithelium (yellow-cells).
    cg, Glandular cells.
    cl, Muscle cells of lateral line.
    cp, Pigment cells.
    ep, Ectoderm.
    g, Nerve cord.
    m, Intestine.
    mc, Circular muscle.
    ml, Longitudinal muscle.
    vd, Dorsal vessel.
    vv, Ventral vessel.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 16.--Section of _Acanthobdella_ (after
  Kovalevsky). Identical letters as in fig. 2; in addition, cn, nerve
  cord; in, intestine; nf, parts of nephridium; on, external opening of
  nephridium; ov, ova; t, testis.]

  _Coelom._--The coelom of the Hirudinea differs in most genera from
  that of the Oligochaeta and Polychaeta. The difference is that it is
  broken up into a complex sinus system. The least modified type is
  shown by _Acanthobdella_, a leech, parasitic upon fishes, in which
  transverse sections (see figs. 15 and 16) show the gut, the nervous
  system, &c., lying in a spacious chamber which is the coelom. This
  coelom is lined by peritoneal cells and is divided into a series of
  metameres by septa which correspond to the segmentation of the body,
  the arrangement being thus precisely like that of typical Chaetopoda.
  Moreover, upon the intestine the coelomic cells are modified into
  chloragogen cells. In _Acanthobdella_ the testes are, however, not
  contained in the general coelom, and the nephridia lie in the septa.
  It is remarkable, in view of the spaciousness of the coelom, that the
  funnels of the latter have not been seen. _Ozobranchus_ possesses a
  coelom which is less typically chaetopodous than that of
  _Acanthobdella_, but more so than in other leeches. There is a
  spacious cavity surrounding the gut and containing also blood-vessels,
  and to some extent the generative organs, and the nervous cord.
  Furthermore, in the mid region of the body this coelom is broken up by
  metamerically arranged septa, as in _Acanthobdella_. These septa are,
  however, rather incomplete and are not fastened to the gut; and, as in
  _Acanthobdella_, the nephridia are embedded in them. In addition to
  the median lacuna there are two lateral lacunae, one upon each side.
  These regions of the coelom end at the ends of the body and
  communicate with each other by means of a branched system of coelomic
  sinuses, which are in places very fine tubes. Neither in this genus
  nor in the last is there any communication between coelom and vascular
  system. In _Clepsine_ (_Glossiphonia_) there is a further breaking up
  of the coelom. The median lacuna no longer exists, but is represented
  by a dorsal and ventral sinus. The former lodges the dorsal, the
  latter the ventral, blood-vessel. The gut has no coelomic space
  surrounding it. A complex network places these sinuses and the
  lateral sinuses in communication. Here also the blood system has no
  communication with the sinus system of the coelom. In _Hirudo_ and the
  _Gnathobdellidae_ there is only one system of cavities which consist
  of four principal longitudinal trunks, of which the two lateral are
  contractile, which communicate with a network ramifying everywhere,
  even among the cells of the epidermis. The network is partly formed
  out of pigmented cells which are excavated and join to form tubes, the
  so-called botryoidal tissue, not found among the _Rhynchobdellidae_ at
  all. It seems clear from the recent investigations of A.G. Bourne and
  E.S. Goodrich that the vascular system and the coelom are in
  communication (as in vertebrates by means of the lymph system). On the
  other hand, it has been held that in these leeches there is no
  vascular system at all and that the entire system of spaces is coelom.
  In favour of regarding the vascular system as totally absent, is the
  fact that the median coelomic channels contain no dorsal and ventral
  vessel. In favour of seeing in the lateral trunks and their branches a
  vascular system, is the contractility of the former, and the fact of
  the intrusion of the latter into the epidermis, matched among the
  Oligochaeta, where undoubted blood capillaries perforate the
  epidermis. A further fact must be considered in deciding this
  question, which is the discovery of ramifying coelomic tubes,
  approaching close to, but not entering, the epidermis in the
  Polychaete _Arenicola_. These tubes are lined by flattened epithelium
  and often contain blood capillaries; they communicate with the coelom
  and are to be regarded as prolongation of it into the thickness of the
  body wall.

  _Gonads and Gonad Ducts._--The gonads and their ducts in the Hirudinea
  invariably form a closed system of cavities entirely shut off from the
  coelom in which they lie. There is thus a broad resemblance to the
  _Eudrilidae_, to which group of Oligochaeta the Hirudinea are further
  akin by reason of the invariably unpaired condition of the generative
  apertures, and the existence of a copulatory apparatus (both of which
  characters, however, are present occasionally in other Oligochaeta).

  The testes are more numerous than the ovaries, of which latter there
  are never more than one pair. The testes vary in numbers of pairs.
  Four (_Ozobranchus_) to six (_Glossiphonia_) or ten (_Philaemon_) are
  common numbers. In _Acanthobdella_, however, the testes of each side
  of the body have grown together to form a continuous band, which
  extends in front of external pore. Each testis communicates by means
  of an efferent duct with a common collecting duct of its side of the
  body, which opens on to the exterior by means of a protrusible penis,
  and to which is sometimes appended a seminal vesicle. The efferent
  ducts are ciliated, and there is a patch of cilia at the point where
  they communicate with the cavity of each testis. The ovaries are more
  extensive in some forms (e.g. _Ozobranchus_) than in others, where
  they are small rounded bodies. The two ducts continuous with the
  gonads open by a common vagina on to the exterior behind the male
  pores. This "vagina" is sometimes of exaggerated size. Thus, in
  _Philaemon pungens_ (Lambert) it has the form of a large sac, into
  which open by a single orifice the conjoined oviducts. From this
  vagina arises a narrow duct leading to the exterior. In _Ozobranchus_
  the structures in question are still more complicated. The two long
  ovarian sacs communicate with each other by a transverse bridge before
  uniting to form the terminal canal. Into each ovarian sac behind the
  transverse junction opens a slender tube, which is greatly coiled,
  and, in its turn, opens into a spherical "spermathecal sac." From this
  an equally slender tube proceeds, which joins its fellow of the
  opposite side, and the two form a thick, walled tube, which opens on
  to the exterior within the bursa copulatrix through which the penis
  protrudes. These two last-mentioned types show features which can be,
  as it seems, matched in the Eudrilidae.

  The gonads develop (O. Bürger) in coelomic spaces close to nephridial
  funnels, which have, however, no relation to the gonad ducts. The
  ovaries are solid bodies, of which the outer layer becomes separated
  from the plug of cells lying within; thus a cavity is formed which is
  clearly coelom. This cavity and its walls becomes prolonged to form
  the oviducts. A stage exactly comparable to the stage in the leeches,
  where the ovary is surrounded by a closed sac, has been observed in
  _Eudrilus_. In this Annelid later the sac in question joins its
  fellow, passing beneath the nerve cord exactly as in the leech, and
  also grows out to reach the exterior. The sole difference is therefore
  that in _Eudrilus_ the ovarian sac gives rise to a tube which
  bifurcates, one branch meeting a corresponding branch of the other
  ovary of the pair, while the second branch reaches the exterior. In
  the leech the two branches are fused into one. We have here clearly a
  case of a true coelomoduct performing the function of an oviduct in
  both leeches and _Eudrilidae_. The facts just referred to suggest
  further comparisons between the Hirudinea and _Eudrilidae_. The large
  sacs which have been termed vagina are suggestive of the large
  coelomic spermathecae in Eudrilids, a comparison which needs, however,
  embryological data, not at present forthcoming, for its justification.
  It is at least clear that in _Ozobranchus_ this comparison is
  justifiable; but only probable, or perhaps possible, in the case of
  _Philaemon_. In the former, the duct, leading from the ovarian sac,
  and swelling along its course into the spherical sac, the
  "spermatheca," is highly suggestive of the oviduct and receptaculum of
  the _Eudrilidae_.

  The testes during development become hollowed out and are prolonged
  into the vasa efferentia. These ducts therefore have not their exact
  counterparts in the Oligochaeta, unless we are to assume that they
  collectively are represented by the seminal vesicles of earthworms and
  the vasa deferentia. It is to be noted that the Hirudinea differ from
  the Oligochaeta in that the male pore is in advance of the gonads
  (except in _Acanthobdella_, which here, as in so many points,
  approximates to the Oligochaeta), whereas in Oligochaeta that pore is
  behind the gonads (again with an exception, _Allurus_).

  _Classification_.--The Hirudinea may be divided into three families:--

  (i.) _Rhynchobdellidae_.--A protrusible proboscis exists, but there
  are no jaws. The blood is colourless. _Pontobdella_, _Glossiphonia_,
  &c.

  (ii.) _Gnathobdellidae_.--A proboscis absent, but jaws usually
  present. Blood coloured red with haemoglobin. _Hirudo_, _Nephelis_,
  &c.

  (iii.) _Acanthobdellidae_.--Proboscis present, but short. Paired setae
  of Oligochaetous pattern present in anterior segments. Blood red.
  _Acanthobdella_.

  LITERATURE.--A.O. Kovalevsky, _Bull. Imp. Sci._ (St Petersburg,
  November 1896) (_Acanthobdella_); A.G. Bourne, _Quart. Journ. Micr.
  Sci._, 1884; A. Oka, _Zeitschr. wiss. Zool._, 1894; E.S. Goodrich,
  _Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci._, 1899; W.E. Castle, _Bull. Mus. Comp.
  Zool._, 1900; A.M. Lambert, _Proc. Roy. Soc._ (Victoria, 1897); C.O.
  Whitman, _Journ. Morph._, 1889 and 1891; O. Bürger, _Zeitschr. wiss.
  Zool._, 1902, and other memoirs by the above, and by St V. Apáthy, R.
  Blanchard, H. Bolsius, A. Dendy, R.S. Bergh, &c.     (F. E. B.)



CHAETOSOMATIDA, a small group of minute, free-living, aquatic organisms
which are usually placed as an annex to the Nematoda. Indeed Mechnikov,
to whom we owe much of our knowledge of these forms, calls them
"creeping Nematoda." They are usually found amongst seaweed in temperate
seas, but they are probably widely distributed; some are fresh-water.
The genus _Chaetosoma_, with the two species _Ch. claparedii_ and _Ch.
ophicephalum_ and the genus _Tristicochaeta_, have swollen heads. The
third genus _Rhabdogaster_ has no such distinct head, though the body
may be swollen anteriorly. The mouth is terminal and anterior and
surrounded by a ring of spicules or a half-ring of hooks. Scattered
hairs cover the body. Just in front of the anus there is in _Chaetosoma_
a double, and in _Tristicochaeta_ a triple row of about fifteen stout
cylindrical projections upon which the animals creep. The females are a
little larger than the males; in _Ch. claparedii_ the former attain a
length of 1.5 mm., the latter of 1.12 mm. The mouth opens into an
oesophagus which passes into an intestine; this opens by a ventral anus
situated a little in front of the posterior end. The testis is single,
and its duct opens with the anus, and is provided with a couple of
spicules. The ovary is double, and the oviducts open by a median ventral
pore about the middle of the body; in this region there is a second
swelling both in _Chaetosoma_ and in _Rhabdogaster_. The last-named form
is in the female 0.36 mm. in length. In it the hairs are confined to the
dorsal middle line and the creeping setae are hooked, of a finer
structure than in _Chaetosoma_, and situated so far forward that the
vagina opens amongst them. _Ch. ophicephalum_ has been taken in the
English Channel.

[Illustration: From _Cambridge Natural History_, vol. ii. "Worms." by
permission of Macmillan & Co., Ltd.

Mature female of _Chaetosoma daparedii_, (From Mechnikov.) a,
Oesophagus; b, intestine; c, anus; d, ovary; e, generative pore; f,
ventral bristles.]

  See E. Mechnikov, _Zeitschr. wiss. Zool._ xvii., 1867, p. 537;
  Panceri, _Atti Acc. Napoli_, vii., 1878, p. 7.     (A. E. S.)



CHAFER, a word used in modern speech to distinguish the beetles of the
family _Scarabaeidae_, and more especially those species which feed on
leaves in the adult state. The word is derived from the O. Eng.
_ceafor_, and it is interesting to note that the cognate Ger. _Käfer_ is
applied to beetles of all kinds. For the characters of the
_Scarabaeidae_ see COLEOPTERA. This family includes a large number of
beetles, some of which feed on dung and others on vegetable tissues.
The cockchafers and their near allies belong to the subfamily
_Melolonthinae_, and the rose-chafers to the _Cetoniinae_; in both the
beetles eat leaves, and their grubs spend a long life underground
devouring roots. In Britain the Melolonthines that are usually noted as
injurious are the two species of cockchafer (_Melolontha vulgaris_ and
_M. hippocastani_), large heavy beetles with black pubescent pro-thorax,
brown elytra and an elongated pointed tail-process; the summer-chafer
(_Rhizotrogus solstitialis_), a smaller pale brown chafer; and the still
smaller garden-chafer or "cocker-bundy" (_Phyllopertha horticola_),
which has a dark green pro-thorax and brown elytra. Of the Cetoniines,
the beautiful metallic green rose-chafer, _Cetonia aurata_, sometimes
causes damage, especially in gardens. The larvae of the chafers are
heavy, soft-skinned grubs, with hard brown heads provided with powerful
mandibles, three pairs of well-developed legs, and a swollen abdomen. As
they grow, the larvae become strongly flexed towards the ventral
surface, and lie curled up in their earthen cells, feeding on roots. The
larval life lasts several years, and in hard frosts the grubs go deep
down away from the surface. Pupation takes place in the autumn, and
though the perfect insect emerges from the cuticle very soon afterwards,
it remains in its underground cell for several months, not making its
way to the upper air until the ensuing summer. After pairing, the female
crawls down into the soil to lay her eggs. The grubs of chafers, when
turned up by the plough, are greedily devoured by poultry, pigs and
various wild birds. When the beetles become so numerous as to call for
destruction, they are usually shaken off the trees where they rest on to
sheets or tarred boards. On the continent of Europe chafers are far more
numerous than in the United Kingdom, and the rural governments in France
give rewards for their destruction. D. Sharp states that in the
department of Seine-inférieure 867,173,000 cockchafers and 647,000,000
larvae were killed in the four years preceding 1870.

  The anatomy of _Melolontha_ is very fully described in a classical
  memoir by H.E. Strauss-Dürckheim (Paris, 1828).     (G. H. C.)



CHAFF (from the A.S. _ceaf_, allied to the O. High Ger. _cheva_, a husk
or pod), the husks left after threshing grain, and also hay and straw
chopped fine as food for cattle; hence, figuratively, the refuse or
worthless part of anything. The colloquial use of the word, to chaff, in
the sense of to banter or to make fun of a person, may be derived from
this figurative sense, or from "to chafe," meaning to vex or irritate.



CHAFFARINAS, or ZAITARINES, a group of islands belonging to Spain off
the north coast of Morocco, near the Algerian frontier, 2½ m. to the
north of Cape del Agna. The largest of these isles, Del Congreso, is
rocky and hilly. It has a watch-house on the coast nearest to Morocco.
Isabella II., the central island, contains several batteries, barracks
and a penal convict settlement. The Spanish government has undertaken
the construction of breakwaters to unite this island with the
neighbouring islet of El Rey, with a view to enclose a deep and already
sheltered anchorage. This roadstead affords a safe refuge for many large
vessels. The Chaffarinas, which are the _Tres Insulae_ of the Romans and
the _Zafran_ of the Arabs, were occupied by Spain in 1848. The Spanish
occupation anticipated by a few days a French expedition sent from Oran
to annex the islands to Algeria. The population of the islands is under
1000.



CHAFFEE, ADNA ROMANZA (1842-   ), American general, was born at Orwell,
Ohio, on the 14th of April 1842. At the outbreak of the Civil War he
entered the United States cavalry as a private, and he rose to
commissioned rank in 1863, becoming brevet captain in 1865. He remained
in the army after the war and took part with distinction in many Indian
campaigns. His promotion was, however, slow, and he was at the age of
fifty-six still a lieutenant-colonel of cavalry. But in 1898, at the
outbreak of the Spanish-American War, he was made brigadier-general and
soon afterwards major-general of volunteers. In the Cuban campaign he won
particular distinction, and the victory of the Americans in the action of
El Caney was in large measure due to his careful personal reconnaissances
of the ground to be attacked and to the endurance of his own brigade.
After reverting for a time to the rank of brigadier-general, he was made
a major-general U.S.V. again in 1900 and was appointed to command the
United States contingent in China. He took a brilliant and successful
part in the advance on Peking and the relief of the Legations. In 1901 he
became a major-general in the regular army, and in 1901-1902 commanded
the Division of the Philippines. In 1902-1903 he commanded the Department
of the East, and from 1904 to 1906 was chief of the general staff of the
army. In 1904 he received the rank of lieutenant-general in the United
States army, being the first enlisted man of the regular army to attain
this, the highest rank in the service. He was retired at his own request
on the 1st of February 1906, after more than forty years' service.



CHAFFINCH (_Fringilla coelebs_), the common English name of a bird
belonging to the family _Fringillidae_ (see FINCH), and distinguished,
in the male sex, by the deep greyish blue of its crown feathers, the
yellowish green of its rump, the white of the wing coverts, so disposed
as to form two conspicuous bars, and the reddish brown passing into
vinous red of the throat and breast. The female is drab, but shows the
same white markings as the male, and the young males resemble the
females until after the first autumn moult, when they gradually assume
the plumage of their sex. The chaffinch breeds early in the season, and
its song may often be heard in February. Its nest, which is a model of
neatness and symmetry, it builds on trees and bushes, preferring such as
are overgrown with moss and lichens. It is chiefly composed of moss and
wool, lined internally with grass, wool, feathers, and whatever soft
material the locality affords. The outside consists of moss and lichens,
and according to Selby, "is always accordant with the particular colour
of its situation." When built in the neighbourhood of towns the nest is
somewhat slovenly and untidy, being often composed of bits of dirty
straw, pieces of paper and blackened moss; in one instance, near
Glasgow, the author of the _Birds of the West of Scotland_ found several
postage-stamps thus employed. It lays four or five eggs of a pale
purplish buff, streaked and spotted with purplish red. In spring the
chaffinch is destructive to early flowers, and to young radishes and
turnips just as they appear above the surface; in summer, however, it
feeds principally on insects and their larvae, while in autumn and
winter its food consists of grain and other seeds. On the continent of
Europe the chaffinch is a favourite song-bird, especially in Germany,
where great attention is paid to its training.



CHAFING-DISH (from the O. Fr. _chaufer_, to make warm), a kind of
portable grate heated with charcoal, and used for cooking or keeping
food warm. In a light form, and heated over a spirit lamp, it is also
used for cooking various dainty dishes at table. The employment of the
chafing-dish for the latter purpose has been largely restored in modern
cookery.



CHAGOS, a group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, belonging to Britain,
disposed in circular form round the Chagos bank, in 4° 44' to 7° 39' S.,
and 70° 55' to 72° 52' E. The atolls on the south and east side of the
bank, which has a circumference of about 270 m., have disappeared
through subsidence; a few--Egmont, Danger, Eagle, and Three
Brothers--still remain on the east side, but most of the population
(about 700) is centred on Diego Garcia, which lies on the south-east
side, and is nearly 13 m. long by 6 m. wide. The lagoon, which is
enclosed by two coral barriers and accessible to the largest vessels on
the north side, forms one of the finest natural harbours in the world.
The group, which has a total land area of 76 sq. m., is dependent for
administrative purposes on Mauritius, and is regularly visited by
vessels from that colony. The only product is cocoa-nut oil, of which
about 106,000 gallons are annually exported. The French occupied the
islands in 1791 from Mauritius, and the oil industry (from which the
group is sometimes called the Oil Islands) came into the hands of French
Creoles.



CHAGRES, a village of the Republic of Panama, on the Atlantic coast of
the Isthmus, at the mouth of the Chagres river, and about 8 m. W. of
Colon. It has a harbour from 10 to 12 ft. deep, which is difficult to
enter, however, on account of bars at its mouth. The port was discovered
by Columbus in 1502, and was opened for traffic with Panama, on the
Pacific coast, by way of the Chagres river, in the 16th century. With
the decline of Porto Bello in the 18th century Chagres became the chief
Atlantic port of the Isthmus, and was at the height of its importance
during the great rush of gold-hunters across the Isthmus to California
in 1849 and the years immediately following. With the completion of the
Panama railway in 1855, however, travel was diverted to Colon, and
Chagres soon became a village of miserable huts, with no evidence of its
former importance. On a high rock at the mouth of the river stands the
castle of Lorenzo, which was destroyed by Sir Henry Morgan when he
captured the town in 1671, but was rebuilt soon afterwards by the
Spaniards. Chagres was again captured in 1740 by British forces under
Admiral Edward Vernon.



CHAIN (through the O. Fr. _choeine_, _choene_, &c., from Lat. _catena_),
a series of links of metal or other material so connected together that
the whole forms a flexible band or cord. Chains are used for a variety
of purposes, such as fastening, securing, or connecting together two or
more objects, supporting or lifting weights, transmitting mechanical
power, &c.; or as an ornament to serve as a collar, as a symbol of
office or state, or as part of the insignia of an order of knighthood;
or as a device from which to hang a jewelled or other pendant, a watch,
&c. (see COLLAR). Ornamental chains are made with a great variety of
links, but those intended for utilitarian purposes are mostly of two
types. In stud chains a stud or brace is inserted across each link to
prevent its sides from collapsing inwards under strain, whereas in open
link chains the links have no studs. The addition of studs is reckoned
to increase the load which the chain can safely bear by 50%. Small
chains of the open-link type are to a great extent made by machinery.
For larger sizes the smith cuts off a length of iron rod of suitable
diameter, forms it while hot to the shape of the link by repeated blows
of his hammer, and welds together the two ends of the link, previously
slipped inside its fellow, by the aid of the same tool; in some cases
the bending is done in a mechanical press and the welding under a power
hammer (see also CABLE). Weldless chains are also made; in A.G.
Strathern's process, for instance, cruciform steel bars are pressed,
while hot, into links, each without join and engaging with its
neighbours. Chains used for transmitting power are known as
pitch-chains; the chain of a bicycle (q.v.) is an example.

From the use of the chain as employed to bind or fetter a prisoner or
slave, comes the figurative application to anything which serves as a
constraining or restraining force; and from its series of connected
links, to any series of objects, events, arguments, &c., connected by
succession, logical sequence or reasoning. Specific uses are for a
measuring line in land-surveying, consisting of 100 links, i.e. iron
rods, 7.92 in. in length, making 22 yds. in all, hence a lineal measure
of that length; and, as a nautical term, for the contrivance by which
the lower shrouds of a mast are extended and secured to the ship's
sides, consisting of dead-eyes, chain-plates, and chain-wale or
"channel."



CHAIR (in. Mid. Eng. _choere_, through O. Fr. _chaëre_ or _chaiere_,
from Lat. _cathedra_, later _caledra_, Gr. [Greek: kathedra], seat, cf.
"cathedral"; the modern Fr. form _chaise_, a chair, has been adopted in
English with a particular meaning as a form of carriage; _chaire_ in
French is still used of a professorial or ecclesiastical "chair," or
_cathedra_), a movable seat, usually with four legs, for a single
person, the most varied and familiar article of domestic furniture. The
chair is of extreme antiquity, although for many centuries and indeed
for thousands of years it was an appanage of state and dignity rather
than an article of ordinary use. "The chair" is still extensively used
as the emblem of authority in the House of Commons and in public
meetings. It was not, in fact, until the 16th century that it became
common anywhere. The chest, the bench and the stool were until then the
ordinary seats of everyday life, and the number of chairs which have
survived from an earlier date is exceedingly limited; most of such
examples are of ecclesiastical or seigneurial origin. Our knowledge of
the chairs of remote antiquity is derived almost entirely from
monuments, sculpture and paintings. A few actual examples exist in the
British Museum, in the Egyptian museum at Cairo, and elsewhere. In
ancient Egypt they appear to have been of great richness and splendour.
Fashioned of ebony and ivory, or of carved and gilded wood, they were
covered with costly stuffs and supported upon representations of the
legs of beasts of the chase or the figures of captives. An arm-chair in
fine preservation found in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings is
astonishingly similar, even in small details, to that "Empire" style
which followed Napoleon's campaign in Egypt. The earliest monuments of
Nineveh represent a chair without a back but with tastefully carved legs
ending in lions' claws or bulls' hoofs; others are supported by figures
in the nature of caryatides or by animals. The earliest known form of
Greek chair, going back to five or six centuries before Christ, had a
back but stood straight up, front and back. On the frieze of the
Parthenon Zeus occupies a square seat with a bar-back and thick turned
legs; it is ornamented with winged sphinxes and the feet of beasts. The
characteristic Roman chairs were of marble, also adorned with sphinxes;
the curule chair was originally very similar in form to the modern
folding chair, but eventually received a good deal of ornament.

The most famous of the very few chairs which have come down from a
remote antiquity is the reputed chair of St Peter in St Peter's at Rome.
The wooden portions are much decayed, but it would appear to be
Byzantine work of the 6th century, and to be really an ancient _sedia
gestatoria_. It has ivory carvings representing the labours of Hercules.
A few pieces of an earlier oaken chair have been let in; the existing
one, Gregorovius says, is of acacia wood. The legend that this was the
curule chair of the senator Pudens is necessarily apocryphal. It is not,
as is popularly supposed, enclosed in Bernini's bronze chair, but is
kept under triple lock and exhibited only once in a century. Byzantium,
like Greece and Rome, affected the curule form of chair, and in addition
to lions' heads and winged figures of Victory and dolphin-shaped arms
used also the lyre-back which has been made familiar by the
pseudo-classical revival of the end of the 18th century. The chair of
Maximian in the cathedral of Ravenna is believed to date from the middle
of the 6th century. It is of marble, round, with a high back, and is
carved in high relief with figures of saints and scenes from the
Gospels--the Annunciation, the Adoration of the Magi, the flight into
Egypt and the baptism of Christ. The smaller spaces are filled with
carvings of animals, birds, flowers and foliated ornament. Another very
ancient seat is the so-called "Chair of Dagobert" in the Louvre. It is
of cast bronze, sharpened with the chisel and partially gilt; it is of
the curule or faldstool type and supported upon legs terminating in the
heads and feet of animals. The seat, which was probably of leather, has
disappeared. Its attribution depends entirely upon the statement of
Suger, abbot of St Denis in the 12th century, who added a back and arms.
Its age has been much discussed, but Viollet-le-Duc dated it to early
Merovingian times, and it may in any case be taken as the oldest
faldstool in existence. To the same generic type belongs the famous
abbots' chair of Glastonbury; such chairs might readily be taken to
pieces when their owners travelled. The _faldisterium_ in time acquired
arms and a back, while retaining its folding shape. The most famous, as
well as the most ancient, English chair is that made at the end of the
13th century for Edward I., in which most subsequent monarchs have been
crowned. It is of an architectural type and of oak, and was covered with
gilded _gesso_ which long since disappeared.

Passing from these historic examples we find the chair monopolized by
the ruler, lay or ecclesiastical, to a comparatively late date. As the
seat of authority it stood at the head of the lord's table, on his dais,
by the side of his bed. The seigneurial chair, commoner in France and
the Netherlands than in England, is a very interesting type,
approximating in many respects to the episcopal or abbatial throne or
stall. It early acquired a very high back and sometimes had a canopy.
Arms were invariable, and the lower part was closed in with panelled or
carved front and sides--the seat, indeed, was often hinged and
sometimes closed with a key. That we are still said to sit "in" an
arm-chair and "on" other kinds of chairs is a reminiscence of the time
when the lord or seigneur sat "in his chair." These throne-like seats
were always architectural in character, and as Gothic feeling waned took
the distinctive characteristics of Renaissance work. It was owing in
great measure to the Renaissance that the chair ceased to be an appanage
of state, and became the customary companion of whomsoever could afford
to buy it. Once the idea of privilege faded the chair speedily came into
general use, and almost at once began to reflect the fashions of the
hour. No piece of furniture has ever been so close an index to sumptuary
changes. It has varied in size, shape and sturdiness with the fashion
not only of women's dress but of men's also. Thus the chair which was
not, even with its arms purposely suppressed, too ample during the
several reigns of some form or other of hoops and farthingale, became
monstrous when these protuberances disappeared. Again, the costly laced
coats of the dandy of the 18th and early 19th centuries were so
threatened by the ordinary form of seat that a "conversation chair" was
devised, which enabled the buck and the ruffler to sit with his face to
the back, his valuable tails hanging unimpeded over the front. The early
chair almost invariably had arms, and it was not until towards the close
of the 16th century that the smaller form grew common.

The majority of the chairs of all countries until the middle of the 17th
century were of oak without upholstery, and when it became customary to
cushion them, leather was sometimes employed; subsequently velvet and
silk were extensively used, and at a later period cheaper and often more
durable materials. Leather was not infrequently used even for the costly
and elaborate chairs of the faldstool form--occasionally sheathed in
thin plates of silver--which Venice sent all over Europe. To this day,
indeed, leather is one of the most frequently employed materials for
chair covering. The outstanding characteristic of most chairs until the
middle of the 17th century was massiveness and solidity. Being usually
made of oak, they were of considerable weight, and it was not until the
introduction of the handsome Louis XIII. chairs with cane backs and
seats that either weight or solidity was reduced. Although English
furniture derives so extensively from foreign and especially French and
Italian models, the earlier forms of English chairs owed but little to
exotic influences. This was especially the case down to the end of the
Tudor period, after which France began to set her mark upon the British
chair. The squat variety, with heavy and sombre back, carved like a
piece of panelling, gave place to a taller, more slender, and more
elegant form, in which the framework only was carved, and attempts were
made at ornament in new directions. The stretcher especially offered
opportunities which were not lost upon the cabinet-makers of the
Restoration. From a mere uncompromising cross-bar intended to strengthen
the construction it blossomed, almost suddenly, into an elaborate
scroll-work or an exceedingly graceful semicircular ornament connecting
all four legs, with a vase-shaped knob in the centre. The arms and legs
of chairs of this period were scrolled, the splats of the back often
showing a rich arrangement of spirals and scrolls. This most decorative
of all types appears to have been popularized in England by the
cavaliers who had been in exile with Charles II. and had become familiar
with it in the north-western parts of the European continent. During he
reign of William and Mary these charming forms degenerated into
something much stiffer and more rectangular, with a solid, more or less
fiddle-shaped splat and a cabriole leg with pad feet. The more
ornamental examples had cane seats and ill-proportioned cane backs. From
these forms was gradually developed the Chippendale chair, with its
elaborately interlaced back, its graceful arms and square or cabriole
legs, the latter terminating in the claw and ball or the pad foot.
Hepplewhite, Sheraton and Adam all aimed at lightening the chair, which,
even in the master hands of Chippendale, remained comparatively heavy.
The endeavour succeeded, and the modern chair is everywhere
comparatively slight. Chippendale and Hepplewhite between them
determined what appears to be the final form of the chair, for since
their time practically no new type has lasted, and in its main
characteristics the chair of the 20th century is the direct derivative
of that of the later 18th.

The 18th century was, indeed, the golden age of the chair, especially in
France and England, between which there was considerable give and take
of ideas. Even Diderot could not refrain from writing of them in his
_Encyclopédie_. The typical Louis Seize chair, oval-backed and ample of
seat, with descending arms and round-reeded legs, covered in Beauvais or
some such gay tapestry woven with Boucher or Watteau-like scenes, is a
very gracious object, in which the period reached its high-water mark.
The Empire brought in squat and squabby shapes, comfortable enough no
doubt, but entirely destitute of inspiration. English Empire chairs were
often heavier and more sombre than those of French design. Thenceforward
the chair in all countries ceased to attract the artist. The _art
nouveau_ school has occasionally produced something of not unpleasing
simplicity; but more often its efforts have been frankly ugly or even
grotesque. There have been practically no novelties, with the exception
perhaps of the basket-chair and such like, which have been made possible
by modern command over material. So much, indeed, is the present
indebted to the past in this matter that even the revolving chair, now
so familiar in offices, has a pedigree of something like four centuries
(see also SEDAN-CHAIR).     (J. P.-B.)



CHAISE (the French for "chair," through a transference from a
"sedan-chair" to a wheeled vehicle), a light two- or four-wheeled
carriage with a movable hood or "calash"; the "post-chaise" was the
fast-travelling carriage of the 18th and early 19th centuries. It was
closed and four-wheeled for two or four horses and with the driver
riding postillion.



CHAKRATA, a mountain cantonment in the Dehra Dun district of the United
Provinces of India, on the range of hills overlooking the valleys of the
Jumna and the Tons, at an elevation of 7000 ft. It was founded in 1866
and first occupied in April 1869.



CHALCEDON, more correctly CALCHEDON (mod. _Kadikeui_), an ancient
maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite
Byzantium, south of Scutari. It was a Megarian colony founded on a site
so obviously inferior to that which was within view on the opposite
shore, that it received from the oracle the name of "the City of the
Blind." In its early history it shared the fortunes of Byzantium, was
taken by the satrap Otanes, vacillated long between the Lacedaemonian
and the Athenian interests, and was at last bequeathed to the Romans by
Attalus III. of Pergamum (133 B.C.). It was partly destroyed by
Mithradates, but recovered during the Empire, and in A.D. 451 was the
seat of the Fourth General Council. It fell under the repeated attacks
of the barbarian hordes who crossed over after having ravaged Byzantium,
and furnished an encampment to the Persians under Chosroes, c. 616-626.
The Turks used it as a quarry for building materials for Constantinople.
The site is now occupied by the village of Kadikeui ("Village of the
Judge"), which forms the tenth "cercle" of the municipality of
Constantinople. Pop. about 33,000, of whom 8000 are Moslems. There is a
large British colony with a church, and also Greek and Armenian churches
and schools, and a training college for Roman Catholic Armenians. To the
S. are the ruins of Panteichion (mod. _Pendik_), where Belisarius is
said to have lived in retirement.

  See J. von Hammer, _Constantinopolis_ (Pesth, 1822); Murray's
  _Handbook for Constantinople_ (London, 1900).



CHALCEDON, COUNCIL OF, the fourth ecumenical council of the Catholic
Church, was held in 451, its occasion being the Eutychian heresy and the
notorious "Robber Synod" (see EUTYCHES and EPHESUS, COUNCIL OF), which
called forth vigorous protests both in the East and in the West, and a
loud demand for a new general council, a demand that was ignored by the
Eutychian Theodosius II., but speedily granted by his successor,
Marcian, a "Flavianist." In response to the imperial summons, five to
six hundred bishops, all Eastern, except the Roman legates and two
Africans, assembled in Chalcedon on the 8th of October 451. The bishop
of Rome claimed for his legates the right to preside, and insisted that
any act that failed to receive their approval would be invalid. The
first session was tumultuous; party feeling ran high, and scurrilous and
vulgar epithets were bandied to and fro. The acts of the Robber Synod
were examined; fraud, violence and coercion were charged against it; its
entire proceedings were annulled, and, at the third session, its leader,
Dioscurus, was deposed and degraded. The emperor requested a declaration
of the true faith; but the sentiment of the council was opposed to a new
symbol. It contented itself with reaffirming the Nicene and
Constantinopolitan creeds and the Ephesine formula of 431, and
accepting, only after examination, the Christological statement
contained in the _Epistola Dogmatica_ of Leo I. (q.v.) to Flavianus.
Thus the council rejected both Nestorianism and Eutychianism, and stood
upon the doctrine that Christ had two natures, each perfect in itself
and each distinct from the other, yet perfectly united in one person,
who was at once both God and man. With this statement, which was
formally subscribed in the presence of the emperor, the development of
the Christological doctrine was completed, but not in a manner to
obviate further controversy (see MONOPHYSITES and MONOTHELITES).

The remaining sessions, vii.-xvi., were occupied with matters of
discipline, complaints, claims, controversies and the like. Canons were
adopted, thirty according to the generally received tradition, although
the most ancient texts contain but twenty-eight, and, as Hefele points
out, the so-called twenty-ninth and thirtieth are properly not canons,
but repetitions of proposals made in a previous session.

The most important enactments of the council of Chalcedon were the
following: (1) the approval of the canons of the first three ecumenical
councils and of the synods of Ancyra, Neo-Caesarea, Changra, Antioch and
Laodicea; (2) forbidding trade, secular pursuits and war to the clergy,
bishops not even being allowed to administer the property of their
dioceses; (3) forbidding monks and nuns to marry or to return to the
world; likewise forbidding the establishment of a monastery in any
diocese without the consent of the bishop, or the disestablishment of a
monastery once consecrated; (4) punishing with deposition an ordination
or clerical appointment made for money; forbidding "absolute ordination"
(i.e. without assignment to a particular charge), the translation of
clerics except for good cause, the enrolment of a cleric in two churches
at once, and the performance of sacerdotal functions outside of one's
diocese without letters of commendation from one's bishop; (5)
confirming the jurisdiction of bishops over all clerics, regular and
secular alike, and punishing with deposition any conspiracy against
episcopal authority; (6) establishing a gradation of ecclesiastical
tribunals, viz. bishop, provincial synod, exarch of the diocese,
patriarch of Constantinople (obviously the council could not here have
been legislating for the entire church); forbidding clerics to be
running to Constantinople with complaints, without the consent of their
respective bishops; (7) confirming the possession of rural parishes to
those who had actually administered them for thirty years, providing for
the adjudication of conflicting claims, and guaranteeing the integrity
of metropolitan provinces; (8) confirming the third canon of the second
ecumenical council, which accorded to Constantinople equal privileges
([Greek: isa presbeia]) with Rome, and the second rank among the
patriarchates, and, in addition, granting to Constantinople patriarchal
jurisdiction over Pontus, Asia and Thrace.

The Roman legates, who were absent (designedly?) when this famous
twenty-eighth canon was adopted, protested against it, but in vain, the
imperial commissioners deciding in favour of its regularity and
validity. Leo I., although he recognized the council as ecumenical and
confirmed its doctrinal decrees, rejected canon xxviii. on the ground
that it contravened the sixth canon of Nicaea and infringed the rights
of Alexandria and Antioch. In what proportion zeal for the ancient
canons and the rights of others, and jealous fear of encroachment upon
his own jurisdiction, were mixed in the motives of Leo, it would be
interesting to know. The canon was universally received in the East,
and was expressly confirmed by the Quinisext Council, 692 (see
CONSTANTINOPLE, COUNCILS OF).

The emperor Marcian approved the doctrinal decrees of the council and
enjoined silence in regard to theological questions. Eutyches and
Dioscurus and their followers were deposed and banished. But harmony was
not thus to be restored; hardly had the council dissolved when the
church was plunged into the Monophysite controversy.

  See Mansi vi. pp. 529-1102, vii. pp. 1-868; Hardouin ii. pp. 1-772;
  Hefele (2nd ed.) ii. pp. 394-578 (English translation, iii. pp.
  268-464); also extended bibliographies in Herzog-Hauck,
  _Realencyklopädie_, 3rd ed., s.v. "Eutyches" (by Loofs) and s.v.
  "Nestorianer" (by Kessler).     (T. F. C.)



CHALCEDONY, or CALCEDONY (sometimes called by old writers cassidoine), a
variety of native silica, often used as an ornamental stone. The present
application of the term is comparatively modern. The "chalcedonius" of
Pliny was quite a different mineral, being a green stone from the
copper-mines of Chalcedon, in Asia Minor, whence the name. There has
been some confusion between chalcedony and the ancient "carcedonia," a
stone which seems to have been a carbuncle from Africa, brought by way
of Carthage ([Greek: Karchêdôn]). Our chalcedony was probably included
by the ancients among the various kinds of jasper and agate, especially
the varieties termed "leucachates" and "cerachates."

By modern mineralogists the name chalcedony is restricted to those kinds
of silica which occur not in distinct crystals like ordinary quartz, but
in concretionary, mammillated or stalactitic forms, which break with a
fine splintery fracture, and display a delicate fibrous structure.
Chalcedony may be regarded as a micro-crystalline form of quartz. It is
rather softer and less dense than crystallized quartz, its hardness
being about 6.5 and its specific gravity 2.6, the difference being
probably due to the presence of a small amount of opaline silica between
the fibres. Chalcedony is a translucent substance of rather waxy lustre,
presenting great variety of colours, though usually white, grey, yellow
or brown. A rare blue chalcedony is sometimes polished under the name of
"sapphirine"--a term applied also to a distinct mineral (an
aluminium-magnesium silicate) from Greenland.

Chalcedony occurs as a secondary mineral in volcanic rocks, representing
usually the silica set free by the decomposition of various silicates,
and deposited in cracks, forming veins, or in vesicular hollows, forming
amygdales. Its occurrence gives the name to Chalcedony Park, Arizona. It
is found in the basalts of N. Ireland, the Faroe Isles and Iceland: it
is common in the traps of the Deccan in India, and in volcanic rocks in
Uruguay and Brazil. Certain flat oval nodules from a decomposed lava
(augite-andesite) in Uruguay present a cavity lined with quartz crystals
and enclosing liquid (a weak saline solution), with a movable
air-bubble, whence they are called "enhydros" or water-stones. Very fine
examples of stalactitic chalcedony, in whimsical forms, have been
yielded by some of the Cornish copper-mines. The surface of chalcedony
is occasionally coated with a delicate bluish bloom. A chalcedonic
deposit in the form of concentric rings, on fossils and fragments of
limestone in S. Devon, is known as "orbicular silica" or "beekite,"
having been named after Dr Henry Beeke, dean of Bristol, who first
directed attention to such deposits. Certain pseudomorphs of chalcedony
after datolite, from Haytor in Devonshire, have received the name of
"haytorite." Optical examination of many chalcedonic minerals by French
mineralogists has shown that they are aggregates of various fibrous
crystalline bodies differing from each other in certain optical
characters, whence they are distinguished as separate minerals under
such names as calcedonite, pseudocalcedonite, quartzine, lutecite and
lussatite. Many coloured and variegated chalcedonies are cut and
polished as ornamental stones, and are described under special headings.
Chalcedony has been in all ages the commonest of the stones used by the
gem-engraver.

  See AGATE, BLOODSTONE, CARNELIAN, CHRYSOPRASE, HELIOTROPE, MOCHA
  STONE, ONYX, SARD and SARDONYX.     (F. W. R.*)



CHALCIDICUM, in Roman architecture, the vestibule or portico of a public
building opening on to the forum; as in the basilica of Eumactria at
Pompeii, and the basilica of Constantine at Rome, where it was placed at
one end.



CHALCIS, the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on
the strait of the Euripus at its narrowest point. The name is preserved
from antiquity and is derived from the Greek [Greek: chalkos] (copper,
bronze), though there is no trace of any mines in the neighbourhood.
Chalcis was peopled by an Ionic stock which early developed great
industrial and colonizing activity. In the 8th and 7th centuries it
founded thirty town-ships on the peninsula of Chalcidice, and several
important cities in Sicily (q.v.). Its mineral produce, metal-work,
purple and pottery not only found markets among these settlements, but
were distributed over the Mediterranean in the ships of Corinth and
Samos. With the help of these allies Chalcis engaged the rival league of
its neighbour Eretria (q.v.) in the so-called Lelantine War, by which it
acquired the best agricultural district of Euboea and became the chief
city of the island. Early in the 6th century its prosperity was broken
by a disastrous war with the Athenians, who expelled the ruling
aristocracy and settled a cleruchy on the site. Chalcis subsequently
became a member of both the Delian Leagues. In the Hellenistic period it
gained importance as a fortress by which the Macedonian rulers
controlled central Greece. It was used by kings Antiochus III. of Syria
(192) and Mithradates VI. of Pontus (88) as a base for invading Greece.
Under Roman rule Chalcis retained a measure of commercial prosperity;
since the 6th century A.D. it again served as a fortress for the
protection of central Greece against northern invaders. From 1209 it
stood under Venetian control; in 1470 it passed to the Ottomans, who
made it the seat of a pasha. In 1688 it was successfully held against a
strong Venetian attack. The modern town has about 10,000 inhabitants,
and maintains a considerable export trade which received an impetus from
the establishment of railway connexion with Athens and Peiraeus (1904).
It is composed of two parts--the old walled town towards the Euripus,
called the Castro, where the Jewish and Turkish families who have
remained there mostly dwell; and the more modern suburb that lies
outside it, which is chiefly occupied by the Greeks. A part of the walls
of the Castro and many of the houses within it were shaken down by the
earthquake of 1894; part has been demolished in the widening of the
Euripus. The most interesting object is the church of St Paraskeve,
which was once the chief church of the Venetians; it dates from the
Byzantine period, though many of its architectural features are Western.
There is also a Turkish mosque, which is now used as a guard-house.

  AUTHORITIES.--Strabo vii. fr. 11, x. p. 447; Herodotus v. 77;
  Thucydides i. 15; _Corpus Inscr. Atticarum_, iv. (1) 27a, iv. (2) 10,
  iv. (2) p. 22; W.M. Leake, _Travels in Northern Greece_ (London,
  1835), ii. 254-270; E. Curtius in _Hermes_, x. (1876), p. 220 sqq.; A.
  Holm, _Lange Fehde_ (Berlin, 1884); H. Dondorff, _De Rebus
  Chalcidensium_ (Göttingen, 1869); for coinage, B.V. Head, _Historia
  Numorum_ (Oxford, 1887), pp. 303-5; and art. NUMISMATICS: _Greek_ §
  Euboea.



CHALCONDYLES[1] (or CHALCOCONDYLAS), LAONICUS, the only Athenian
Byzantine writer. Hardly anything is known of his life. He wrote a
history, in ten books, of the period from 1298-1463, describing the fall
of the Greek empire and the rise of the Ottoman Turks, which forms the
centre of the narrative, down to the conquest of the Venetians and
Mathias, king of Hungary, by Mahommed II. The capture of Constantinople
he rightly regarded as an historical event of far-reaching importance,
although the comparison of it to the fall of Troy is hardly appropriate.
The work incidentally gives a quaint and interesting sketch of the
manners and civilization of England, France and Germany, whose
assistance the Greeks sought to obtain against the Turks. Like that of
other Byzantine writers, Chalcondyles' chronology is defective, and his
adherence to the old Greek geographical nomenclature is a source of
confusion. For his account of earlier events he was able to obtain
information from his father, who was one of the most prominent men in
Athens during the struggles between the Greek and Frankish nobles. His
model is Thucydides (according to Bekker, Herodotus); his language is
tolerably pure and correct, his style simple and clear. The text,
however, is in a very corrupt state.

  _Editio princeps_, ed. J.B. Baumbach (1615); in Bonn _Corpus
  Scriptorum Hist. Byz._ ed. I. Bekker (1843); Migne, _Patrologia
  Graeca_, clix. There is a French translation by Blaise de Vigenère
  (1577, later ed. by Artus Thomas with valuable illustrations on
  Turkish matters); see also F. Gregorovius, _Geschichte der Stadt Athen
  im Mittelalter_, ii. (1889); Gibbon, _Decline and Fall_, ch. 66; C.
  Krumbacher, _Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur_ (1897). There
  is a biographical sketch of Laonicus and his brother in Greek by
  Antonius Calosynas, a physician of Toledo, who lived in the latter
  part of the 16th century (see C. Hopf, _Chroniques gréco-romanes_,
  1873).

His brother, DEMETRIUS CHALCONDYLES (1424-1511), was born in Athens. In
1447 he migrated to Italy, where Cardinal Bessarion gave him his
patronage. He became famous as a teacher of Greek letters and the
Platonic philosophy; in 1463 he was made professor at Padua, and in 1479
he was summoned by Lorenzo de' Medici to Florence to fill the
professorship vacated by John Argyropoulos. In 1492 he removed to Milan,
where he died in 1511. He was associated with Marsilius Ficinus, Angelus
Politianus, and Theodorus Gaza, in the revival of letters in the western
world. One of his pupils at Florence was the famous John Reuchlin.
Demetrius Chalcondyles published the editio princeps of Homer,
Isocrates, and Suidas, and a Greek grammar (_Erotemata_) in the form of
question and answer.

  See H. Hody, _De Graecis illustribus_ (1742); C. Hopf, _Chroniques
  gréco-romanes_ (1873); E. Legrand, _Bibliographic hellénique_, i.
  (1885).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] A shortened form of Chalcocondyles, from [Greek: chalkos],
    copper, and [Greek: kondylos], knuckle.



CHALDAEA. The expressions "Chaldaea" and "Chaldaeans" are frequently
used in the Old Testament as equivalents for "Babylonia" and
"Babylonians." Chaldaea was really the name of a country, used in two
senses. It was first applied to the extreme southern district, whose
ancient capital was the city of _Bit Yakin_, the chief seat of the
renowned Chaldaean rebel Merodach-baladan, who harassed the Assyrian
kings Sargon and Sennacherib. It is not as yet possible to fix the exact
boundaries of the original home of the Chaldaeans, but it may be
regarded as having been the long stretch of alluvial land situated at
the then separate mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates, which rivers now
combine to flow into the Persian Gulf in the waters of the majestic
_Shatt el 'Arab_.

The name "Chaldaea," however, soon came to have a more extensive
application. In the days of the Assyrian king Ramman-nirari III.
(812-783 B.C.), the term _mat Kaldu_ covered practically all Babylonia.
Furthermore, Merodach-baladan was called by Sargon II. (722-705 B.C.)
"king of the land of the Chaldaeans" and "king of the land of Bit Yakin"
after the old capital city, but there is no satisfactory evidence that
Merodach-baladan had the right to the title "Babylonian." The racial
distinction between the Chaldaeans and the Babylonians proper seems to
have existed until a much later date, although it is almost certain that
the former were originally a Semitic people. That they differed from the
Arabs and Aramaeans is also seen from the distinction made by
Sennacherib (705-681 B.C.) between the Chaldaeans and these races.
Later, during the period covering the fall of Assyria and the rise of
the Neo-Babylonian empire, the term _mat Kaldu_ was not only applied to
all Babylonia, but also embraced the territory of certain foreign
nations who were later included by Ezekiel (xxiii. 23) under the
expression "Chaldaeans."

As already indicated, the Chaldaeans were most probably a Semitic
people. It is likely that they first came from Arabia, the supposed
original home of the Semitic races, at a very early date along the coast
of the Persian Gulf and settled in the neighbourhood of Ur ("Ur of the
Chaldees," Gen. xi. 28), whence they began a series of encroachments,
partly by warfare and partly by immigration, against the other Semitic
Babylonians. These aggressions after many centuries ended in the
Chaldaean supremacy of Nabopolassar and his successors (c. 626 ff.),
although there is no positive proof that Nabopolassar was purely
Chaldaean in blood. The sudden rise of the later Babylonian empire under
Nebuchadrezzar, the son of Nabopolassar, must have tended to produce so
thorough an amalgamation of the Chaldaeans and Babylonians, who had
theretofore been considered as two kindred branches of the same original
Semite stock, that in the course of time no perceptible differences
existed between them. A similar amalgamation, although in this case of
two peoples originally racially distinct, has taken place in modern
times between the Manchu Tatars and the Chinese. It is quite evident,
for example, from the Semitic character of the Chaldaean king-names,
that the language of these Chaldaeans differed in no way from the
ordinary Semitic Babylonian idiom which was practically identical with
that of Assyria. Consequently, the term "Chaldaean" came quite naturally
to be used in later days as synonymous with "Babylonian." When
subsequently the Babylonian language went out of use and Aramaic took
its place, the latter tongue was wrongly termed "Chaldee" by Jerome,
because it was the only language known to him used in Babylonia. This
error was followed until a very recent date by many scholars.

The derivation of the name "Chaldaean" is extremely uncertain. Peter
Jensen has conjectured with slight probability that the Chaldaeans were
Semitized Sumerians, i.e. a non-Semitic tribe which by contact with
Semitic influences had lost its original character. There seems to be
little or no evidence to support such a view. Friedrich Delitzsch
derived the name "Chaldaean" =_Kasdim_ from the non-Semitic Kassites who
held the supremacy over practically all Babylonia during an extended
period (c. 1783-1200 B.C.). This theory seems also to be extremely
improbable. It is much more likely that the name "Chaldaean" is
connected with the Semitic stem _kasadu_ (conquer), in which case
_Kaldi-Kasdi_, with the well-known interchange of l and _s_, would mean
"conquerors." It is also possible that _Kasdu-Kaldu_ is connected with
the proper name Chesed, who is represented as having been the nephew of
Abraham (Gen. xxii. 22). There is no connexion whatever between the
Black Sea peoples called "Chaldaeans" by Xenophon (_Anab_. vii. 25) and
the Chaldaeans of Babylonia.

In Daniel, the term "Chaldaeans" is very commonly employed with the
meaning "astrologers, astronomers," which sense also appears in the
classical authors, notably in Herodotus, Strabo and Diodorus. In Daniel
i. 4, by the expression "tongue of the Chaldaeans," the writer evidently
meant the language in which the celebrated Babylonian works on astrology
and divination were composed. It is now known that the literary idiom of
the Babylonian wise men was the non-Semitic Sumerian; but it is not
probable that the late author of Daniel (c. 168 B.C.) was aware of this
fact.

The word "Chaldaean" is used in Daniel in two senses. It is applied as
elsewhere in the Old Testament as a race-name to the Babylonians (Dan.
iii. 8, v. 30, ix. 1); but the expression is used oftener, either as a
name for some special class of magicians, or as a term for magicians in
general (ix. 1). The transfer of the name of the people to a special
class is perhaps to be explained in the following manner. As just shown,
"Chaldaean" and "Babylonian" had become in later times practically
synonymous, but the term "Chaldaean" had lived on in the secondary
restricted sense of "wise men." The early _Kaldi_ had seized and held
from very ancient times the region of old Sumer, which was the centre of
the primitive non-Semitic culture. It seems extremely probable that
these Chaldaean Semites were so strongly influenced by the foreign
civilization as to adopt it eventually as their own. Then, as the
Chaldaeans soon became the dominant people, the priestly caste of that
region developed into a Chaldaean institution. It is reasonable to
conjecture that southern Babylonia, the home of the old culture,
supplied Babylon and other important cities with priests, who from their
descent were correctly called "Chaldaeans." This name in later times,
owing to the racial amalgamation of the Chaldaeans and Babylonians, lost
its former national force, and became, as it occurs in Daniel, a
distinctive appellation of the Babylonian priestly class. It is
possible, though not certain, that the occurrence of the word _kalu_
(priest) in Babylonian, which has no etymological connexion with
_Kaldu_, may have contributed paronomastically towards the popular use
of the term "Chaldaeans" for the Babylonian Magi. (See also ASTROLOGY.)

  LITERATURE.--Delattre, _Les Chaldéens jusqu'à la fond. de l'emp. de
  Nebuch._ (1889); Winckler, _Untersuchungen zur altor. Gesch._ (1889),
  pp. 49 ff.; _Gesch. Bab. u. Assyr._ (1892), pp. 111 ff.; Prince,
  _Commentary on Daniel_ (1899), pp. 59-61; see also BABYLONIA AND
  ASSYRIA and SUMER AND SUMERIAN.     (J. D. Pr.)



CHALDEE, a term sometimes applied to the Aramaic portions of the
biblical books of Ezra and Daniel or to the vernacular paraphrases of
the Old Testament (see TARGUM). The explanation formerly adopted and
embodied in the name Chaldee is that the change took place in Babylon.
That the so-called Biblical Chaldee, in which considerable portions of
the books of Ezra and Daniel are written, was really the language of
Babylon was supposed to be clear from Dan. ii. 4, where the Chaldaeans
are said to have spoken to the king in Aramaic. But the cuneiform
inscriptions show that the language of the Chaldaeans was Assyrian; and
an examination of the very large part of the Hebrew Old Testament
written later than the exile proves conclusively that the substitution
of Aramaic for Hebrew as the vernacular of Palestine took place very
gradually. Hence scholars are now agreed that the term "Chaldee" is a
misnomer, and that the dialect so called is really the language of the
South-Western Arameans, who were the immediate neighbours of the Jews
(W. Wright, _Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages_, p. 16). (See
SEMITIC LANGUAGES.)



CHALICE (through a central O. Fr. form of the Lat. _calix_, _calicis_,
cup), a drinking-vessel of the cup or goblet form, now only used of the
cup used in the celebration of the Eucharist (q.v.). For the various
forms which the "chalice" so used has taken, see DRINKING-VESSELS and
PLATE. When, in the eucharistic service, water is mixed with the wine,
the "chalice" is known as the "mixed chalice." This has been customary
both in the Eastern and Western Churches from early times. The Armenian
Church does not use the "mixed chalice." It was used in the English
Church before the Reformation. According to the present law of the
English Church, the mixing of the water with wine is lawful, if this is
not done as part of or during the services, i.e. if it is not done
ceremonially (_Martin_ v. _Mackonochie_, 1868, L.R. 2 P.C. 365; _Read_
v. _Bp. of Lincoln_, 1892, A.C. 664).



CHALIER, JOSEPH (1747-1793), French Revolutionist. He was destined by
his family for the church, but entered business, and became a partner in
a firm at Lyons for which he travelled in the Levant, in Italy, Spain
and Portugal. He was in Paris in 1789, and entered into relations with
Marat, Camille Desmoulins and Robespierre. On his return to Lyons,
Chalier was the first to be named member of the municipal bureau. He
organized the national guard, applied the civil constitution of the
clergy, and regulated the finances of the city so as to tax the rich
heavily and spare the poor. Denounced to the Legislative Assembly by the
directory of the department of Rhone-et-Loire for having made a
nocturnal domiciliary perquisition, he was sent to the bar of the
Assembly, which approved of his conduct. In the election for mayor of
Lyons, in November 1792, he was defeated by a Royalist. Then Chalier
became the orator and leader of the Jacobins of Lyons, and induced the
other revolutionary clubs and the commune of his city to arrest a great
number of Royalists in the night of the 5th and 6th of February 1793.
The mayor, supported by the national guard, opposed this project.
Chalier demanded of the Convention the establishment of a revolutionary
tribunal and the levy of a revolutionary army at Lyons. The Convention
refused, and the anti-revolutionary party, encouraged by this refusal,
took action. On the 29th and 30th of May 1793 the sections rose; the
Jacobins were dispossessed of the municipality and Chalier arrested. On
the 15th of July, in spite of the order of the Convention, he was
brought before the criminal tribunal of the Rhone-et-Loire, condemned to
death, and guillotined the next day. The Terrorists paid a veritable
worship to his memory, as to a martyr of Liberty.

  See N. Wahl, "Étude sur Chalier," in _Revue historique_, t. xxxiv.;
  and _Les Premières Années de la Révolution à Lyon_ (Paris, 1894).



CHALK, the name given to any soft, pulverulent, pure white limestone.
The word is an old one, having its origin in the Saxon _cealc_, and the
hard form "kalk" is still in use amongst the country folk of
Lincolnshire. The German _Kalk_ comprehends all forms of limestone;
therefore a special term, _Kreide_, is employed for chalk--French
_craie_. From being used as a common name, denoting a particular
material, the word was subsequently utilized by geologists as an
appellation for the _Chalk formation_; and so prominent was this
formation in the eyes of the earlier workers that it imposed its name
upon a whole system of rocks, the Cretaceous (Lat. _creta_, chalk),
although this rock itself is by no means generally characteristic of the
system as a whole.

The Chalk formation, in addition to the typical chalk material--_creta
scriptoria_--comprises several variations; argillaceous kinds--_creta
marga_ of Linnaeus--known locally as malm, marl, clunch, &c.; and
harder, more stony kinds, called rag, freestone, rock, hurlock or
harrock in different districts. In certain parts of the formation layers
of nodular flints (q.v.) abound; in parts, it is inclined to be sandy,
or to contain grains of glauconite which was originally confounded with
another green mineral, chlorite, hence the name "chloritic marl" applied
to one of the subdivisions of the chalk. In its purest form chalk
consists of from 95 to 99% of calcium carbonate (carbonate of lime); in
this condition it is composed of a mass of fine granular particles held
together by a somewhat feeble calcareous cement. The particles are
mostly the broken tests of foraminifera, along with the débris of
echinoderm and molluscan shells, and many minute bodies, like
coccoliths, of somewhat obscure nature.

  The earliest attempts at subdivision of the Chalk formation initiated
  by Wm. Phillips were based upon lithological characters, and such a
  classification as "Upper Chalk with Flints," "Lower Chalk without
  Flints," "Chalk marl or Grey chalk," was generally in use in England
  until W. Whitaker established the following order in 1865:--

    Upper Chalk, with flints

                 / chalk rock
    Lower Chalk <  chalk with few flints
                 \ chalk without flints

    Chalk Marl   / Totternhoe stone
                 \     "      marl

  In France, a similar system of classification was in vogue, the
  subdivisions being _craie blanche_, _craie tufan_, _craie chloritée_,
  until 1843 when d'Orbigny proposed the term _Senonien_ for the Upper
  Chalk and _Turonien_ for the Lower; later he divided the _Turonien_,
  giving the name _Cénomanien_ to the lower portion. The subdivisions of
  d'Orbigny were based upon the fossil contents and not upon the
  lithological characters of the rocks. In 1876 Prof. Ch. Barrois showed
  how d'Orbigny's classification might be applied to the British chalk
  rocks; and this scheme has been generally adopted by geologists,
  although there is some divergence of opinion as to the exact position
  of the base line of the Cenomanian.

  The accompanying table shows the classification now adopted in
  England, with the zonal fossils and the continental names of the  substages:--

    +-----------------------------------------------+---------------------+----------+-----------+
    |                                               |                     |N. France |  S.E. and |
    |        Zonal fossils used in Britain.         |       Stages.       |   and    | S. France.|
    |                                               |                     | Belgium.*|           |
    +-----------------------------------------------+---------------------+----------+-----------+
    |   / _Ostrea lunata_ (Norfolk)                 | Danian?             |          |           |
    |   |                                           | (Trimingham)        |          |           |
    |   | _Belemnitella mucronata_                  |                     |          |           |
    |A.<  _Actinocamax quadratus_                   | Upper Chalk         |          |           |
    |   | = _Inoceramus lingua_ in Yorkshire        | Senonian            | Flint-   |           |
    |   |                            / _Marsupites_,| _Craie blanche_     | bearing  |           |
    |   \ _Marsupites testudinarium_ \ _Uintacrinus_|                     | chalk.   |           |
    |                                               |                     |          | Marls,    |
    |   / _Micraster cor-anguinum_                  |                     |          | sandstones|
    |B.<      "     _cor-testudinarium_             |                     |          | and       |
    |   \ _Holaster planus_, Chalk rock             |                     |          | limestones|
    +-----------------------------------------------+---------------------+          | (not      |
    | _Terebratulina gracilis_                      | Middle Chalk        |          | chalky)   |
    |                                               | Turonian            |          | with      |
    | _Rhynchonella Cuvieri_, Melbourne rock        | _Craie marneuse_    |          | _Hippur-  |
    +-----------------------------------------------+---------------------+          |   ites_.  |
    |                                               | Lower Chalk,        |          |           |
    |                                               | Chalk Marl and      |          |           |
    |                                               | Cambridge Greensand | Marly    |           |
    | _Actinocamax plenus_                          | Cenomanian          | chalk.   |           |
    | _Holaster subglobosus_, Totternhoe stone.     |                     |          |           |
    | _Schloenbachia varians_.                      | _Craie glauconieuse_|          |           |
    +-----------------------------------------------+---------------------+----------+-----------+
  * (See table in article CRETACEOUS SYSTEM,)

Since Prof. Barrois introduced the zonal system of subdivision (C. Evans
had used a similar scheme six years earlier), our knowledge of the
English chalk has been greatly increased by the work of Jukes-Browne and
William Hill, and particularly by the laborious studies of Dr A.W. Rowe.
Instead of employing the mixed assemblage of animals indicated as zone
fossils in the table, A. de Grossouvre proposed a scheme for the north
of France based upon ammonite faunas alone, which he contended would be
of more general applicability (_Recherches sur la Craie Supérieure_,
Paris, 1901).

The Upper Chalk has a maximum thickness in England of about 1000 ft.,
but post-cretaceous erosion has removed much of it in many districts. It
is more constant in character, and more typically chalky than the lower
stages; flints are abundant, and harder nodular beds are limited to the
lower portions, where some of the compact limestones are known as "chalk
rock." The thickness of the Middle Chalk varies from about 100 to 240
ft.; flints become scarcer in descending from the upper to the lower
portions. The whole is more compact than the upper stage, and nodular
layers are more frequent--the "chalk rock" of Dorset and the Isle of
Wight belong to this stage. At the base is the hard "Melbourne rock."
The thickness of the Lower Chalk in England varies from 60 to 240 ft.
This stage includes part of the "white chalk without flints," the "chalk
marl," and the "grey chalk." The Totternhoe stone is a hard freestone
found locally in this stage. The basement bed in Norfolk is a pure
limestone, but very frequently it is marly with grains of sand and
glauconite, and often contains phosphatic nodules; this facies is
equivalent to the "Cambridge Greensand" of some districts and the
"chloritic marl" of others. In Devonshire the Lower Chalk has become
thin sandy calcareous series.

The chalk can be traced in England from Flamborough Head in Yorkshire,
in a south-westerly direction, to the coast of Dorset; and it not only
underlies the whole of the S.E. corner, where it is often obscured by
Tertiary deposits, but it can be followed across the Channel into
northern France. Rocks of the same age as the chalk are widespread (see
CRETACEOUS SYSTEM); but the variety of limestone properly called by this
name is almost confined to the Anglo-Parisian basin. Some chalk occurs
in the great Cretaceous deposits of Russia, and in Kansas, Iowa,
Nebraska and S. Dakota in the United States. Hard white chalk occurs in
Ireland in Antrim, and on the opposite shore of Scotland in Mull and
Morven.

_Economic Products of the Chalk._--Common chalk has been frequently used
for rough building purposes, but the more important building stones are
"Beer stone," from Beer Head in Devonshire, "Sutton stone" from a little
north of Beer, and the "Totternhoe stone." It is burned for lime, and
when mixed with some form of clay is used for the manufacture of cement;
chalk marl has been used alone for this purpose. As a manure, it has
been much used as a dressing for clayey land. Flints from the chalk are
used for road metal and concrete, and have been employed in building as
a facing for walls. Phosphatic nodules for manure have been worked from
the chloritic marl and Cambridge Greensand, and to some extent from the
Middle Chalk. The same material is worked at Ciply in Belgium and
Picardy in France. Chalk is employed in the manufacture of carbonate of
soda, in the preparation of carbon dioxide, and in many other chemical
processes; also for making paints, crayons and tooth-powder. _Whiting_
or _Spanish white_, used to polish glass and metal, is purified chalk
prepared by triturating common chalk with a large quantity of water,
which is then decanted and allowed to deposit the finely-divided
particles it holds in suspension.

_Chalk Scenery._--Where exposed at the surface, chalk produces rounded,
smooth, grass-covered hills as in the Downs of southern England and the
Wolds of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. The hills are often intersected by
clean-cut dry valleys. It forms fine cliffs on the coast of Kent,
Yorkshire and Devonshire.

Chalk is employed medicinally as a very mild astringent either alone or
more usually with other astringents. It is more often used, however, for
a purely mechanical action, as in the preparation hydrargyrum cum creta.
As an antacid its use has been replaced by other drugs.

_Black chalk_ or _drawing slate_ is a soft carbonaceous schist, which
gives a black streak, so that it can be used for drawing or writing.
_Brown chalk_ is a kind of umber. _Red chalk_ or _reddle_ is an impure
earthy variety of haematite. _French chalk_ is a soft variety of
steatite, a hydrated magnesium silicate.

  The most comprehensive account of the British chalk is contained in
  the _Memoirs of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom_, "The
  Cretaceous Rocks of Britain," vol. ii. 1903, vol. iii. 1904 (with
  bibliography), by Jukes-Browne and Hill. See also "The White Chalk of
  the English Coast," several papers in the _Proceedings of the
  Geologists' Association_, London, (1) Kent and Sussex, xvi. 1900, (2)
  Dorset, xvii., 1901, (3) Devon, xviii., 1903, (4) Yorkshire, xviii.,
  1904.     (J. A. H.)



CHALKHILL, JOHN (fl. 1600?), English poet. Two songs by him are included
in Izaak Walton's _Compleat Angler_, and in 1683 appeared "Thealma and
Clearchus. A Pastoral History in smooth and easie Verse. Written long
since by John Chalkhill, Esq., an Acquaintant and Friend of Edmund
Spencer" (1683), with a preface written five years earlier by Walton.
Another poem, "Alcilia, Philoparthens Loving Follie" (1595, reprinted in
vol. x. of the _Jahrbuch des deutschen Shakespeare-Vereins_), was at one
time attributed to him. Nothing further is known of the poet, but a
person of his name occurs as one of the coroners for Middlesex in the
later years of Queen Elizabeth's reign. Professor Saintsbury, who
included _Thealma and Clearchus_ in vol. ii. of his _Minor Poets of the
Caroline Period_ (Oxford, 1906), points out a marked resemblance between
his work and that of William Chamberlayne.



CHALKING THE DOOR, a Scottish custom of landlord and tenant law. In
former days the law was that "a burgh officer, in presence of witnesses,
chalks the most patent door forty days before Whit Sunday, having made
out an execution of 'chalking,' in which his name must be inserted, and
which must be subscribed by himself and two witnesses." This ceremony
now proceeds simply on the verbal order of the proprietor. The execution
of chalking is a warrant under which decree of removal will be
pronounced by the burgh court, in virtue of which the tenant may be
ejected on the expiration of a charge of six days.



CHALLAMEL, JEAN BAPTISTE MARIUS AUGUSTIN (1818-1894), French historian,
was born in Paris on the 18th of March 1818. His writings consist
chiefly of popular works, which enjoyed great success. The value of some
of his books is enhanced by numerous illustrations, e.g. _Histoire-museé
de la Révolution française_, which appeared in 50 numbers in 1841-1842
(3rd ed., in 72 numbers, 1857-1858); _Histoire de la mode en France; la
toilette des femmes depuis l'époque gallo-romaine jusqu'à nos jours_
(1874, with 12 plates; new ed., 1880, with 21 coloured plates). His
_Mémoires du peuple française_ (1865-1873) and _La France et les
Français a travers les siécles_ (1882) at least have the merit of being
among the first books written on the social history of France. In this
sense Challamel was a pioneer, of no great originality, it is true, but
at any rate of fairly wide information. He died on the 20th of October
1894.



CHALLEMEL-LACOUR, PAUL AMAND (1827-1896), French statesman, was born at
Avranches on the 19th of May 1827. After passing through the École
Normale Supérieure he became professor of philosophy successively at Pau
and at Limoges. The _coup d'état_ of 1851 caused his expulsion from
France for his republican opinions. He travelled on the continent, and
in 1856 settled down as professor of French literature at the
Polytechnic of Zürich. The amnesty of 1859 enabled him to return to
France, but a projected course of lectures on history and art was
immediately suppressed. He now supported himself by his pen, and became
a regular contributor to the reviews. On the fall of the Second Empire
in September 1870 the government of national defence appointed him
prefect of the department of the Rhone, in which capacity he had to
suppress the Communist rising at Lyons. Resigning his post on the 5th of
February 1871, he was in January 1872 elected to the National Assembly,
and in 1876 to the Senate. He sat at first on the Extreme Left; but his
philosophic and critical temperament was not in harmony with the
recklessness of French radicalism, and his attitude towards political
questions underwent a steady modification, till the close of his life
saw him the foremost representative of moderate republicanism. During
Gambetta's lifetime, however, Challemel-Lacour was one of his warmest
supporters, and he was for a time editor of Gambetta's organ, the
_République française_. In 1879 he was appointed French ambassador at
Bern, and in 1880 was transferred to London; but he lacked the
suppleness and command of temper necessary to a successful diplomatist.
He resigned in 1882, and in February 1883 became minister of foreign
affairs in the Jules Ferry cabinet, but retired in November of the same
year. In 1890 he was elected vice-president of the Senate, and in 1893
succeeded Jules Ferry as its president. His influence over that body was
largely due to his clear and reasoned eloquence, which placed him at the
head of contemporary French orators. In 1893 he also became a member of
the French Academy. He distinguished himself by the vigour with which he
upheld the Senate against the encroachments of the chamber, but in 1895
failing health forced him to resign, and he died in Paris on the 26th of
October 1896. He published a translation of A. Heinrich Ritter's
_Geschichte der Philosophie_ (1861); _La Philosophie individualiste:
étude sur Guillaume de Humboldt_ (1864); and an edition of the works of
Madame d'Épinay (1869).

  In 1897 appeared Joseph Reinach's edition of the _OEuvres oratoires
  de Challemel-Lacour_.



CHALLENGE (O. Fr. _chalonge, calenge_, &c., from Lat. _calumnia_,
originally meaning trickery, from _calvi_, to deceive, hence a false
accusation, a "calumny"), originally a charge against a person or a
claim to anything, a defiance. The term is now particularly used of an
invitation to a trial of skill in any contest, or to a trial by combat
as a vindication of personal honour (see DUEL), and, in law, of the
objection to the members of a jury allowed in a civil action or in a
criminal trial (see JURY).



"CHALLENGER" EXPEDITION. The scientific results of several short
expeditions between 1860 and 1870 encouraged the council of the Royal
Society to approach the British government, on the suggestion of Sir
George Richards, hydrographer to the admiralty, with a view to
commissioning a vessel for a prolonged cruise for oceanic exploration.
The government detailed H.M.S. "Challenger," a wooden corvette of 2306
tons, for the purpose. Captain (afterwards Sir) George Nares was placed
in command, with a naval crew; and a scientific staff was selected by
the society with Professor (afterwards Sir) C. Wyville Thomson as
director. The staff included Mr (afterwards Sir) John Murray and Mr H.N.
Moseley, biologists; Dr von Willemoes-Suhm, Commander Tizard, and Mr
J.Y. Buchanan, chemist and geologist. A complete scheme of instructions
was drawn up by the society. The "Challenger" sailed from Portsmouth in
December 1872. For nearly a year the work of the expedition lay in the
Atlantic, which was crossed several times. Teneriffe, the Bermudas, the
Azores, Madeira, the Cape Verd Islands, Bahia and Tristan da Cunha were
successively visited, and in October 1873 the ship reached Cape Town.
Steering then south-east and east she visited the various islands
between 45° and 50° S., and reached Kerguelen Island in January 1874.
She next proceeded southward about the meridian of 80° E. She was the
first steamship to cross the Antarctic circle, but the attainment of a
high southerly latitude was not an object of the voyage, and early in
March the ship left the south polar regions and made for Melbourne.
Extensive researches were now made in the Pacific. The route led by New
Zealand, the Fiji Islands, Torres Strait, the Banda Sea, and the China
Sea to Hong Kong. The western Pacific was then explored northward to
Yokohama, after which the "Challenger" struck across the ocean by
Honolulu and Tahiti to Valparaiso. She then coasted southward,
penetrated the Straits of Magellan, touched at Montevideo, recrossed the
Atlantic by Ascension and the Azores, and reached Sheerness in May 1876.
This voyage is without parallel in the history of scientific research.
The _"Challenger" Report_ was issued in fifty volumes (London,
1880-1895), mainly under the direction of Sir John Murray, who succeeded
Wyville Thomson in this work in 1882. Specialists in every branch of
science assisted in its production. The zoological collections alone
formed the basis for the majority of the volumes; the deep-sea soundings
and samples of the deposits, the chemical analysis of water samples, the
meteorological, water-temperature, magnetic, geological, and botanical
observations were fully worked out, and a summary of the scientific
results, narrative of the cruise and indices were also provided.

  See also Lord G. Campbell, _Log Letters from the "Challenger"_,
  (1876); W.J.J. Spry, _Cruise of H.M.S. "Challenger"_ (1876); Sir C.
  Wyville Thomson, _Voyage of the "Challenger," The Atlantic,
  Preliminary Account of General Results_ (1877); J.J. Wild, _At Anchor;
  Narrative of Experiences afloat and ashore during the Voyage of H.M.S.
  "Challenger"_ (1878); H.N. Moseley, _Notes by a Naturalist on the
  "Challenger"_ (1879).



CHALLONER, RICHARD (1691-1781), English Roman Catholic prelate, was born
at Lewes, Sussex, on the 29th of September 1691. After the death of his
father, who was a rigid Dissenter, his mother, left in poverty, lived
with some Roman Catholic families. Thus it came about that he was
brought up as a Roman Catholic, chiefly at the seat of Mr Holman at
Warkworth, Northamptonshire, where the Rev. John Gother, a celebrated
controversialist, officiated as chaplain. In 1704 he was sent to the
English College at Douai, where he was ordained a priest in 1716, took
his degrees in divinity, and was appointed professor in that faculty. In
1730 he was sent on the English mission and stationed in London. The
controversial treatises which he published in rapid succession attracted
much attention, particularly his _Catholic Christian Instructed_ (1737),
which was prefaced by a witty reply to Dr Conyers Middleton's _Letters
from Rome, showing an Exact Conformity between Popery and Paganism_.
Middleton is said to have been so irritated that he endeavoured to put
the penal laws in force against his antagonist, who prudently withdrew
from London. In 1741 Challoner was raised to the episcopal dignity at
Hammersmith, and nominated co-adjutor with right of succession to Bishop
Benjamin Petre, vicar-apostolic of the London district, whom he
succeeded in 1758. He resided principally in London, but was obliged to
retire into the country during the "No Popery" riots of 1780. He died on
the 12th of January 1781, and was buried at Milton, Berkshire. Bishop
Challoner was the author of numerous controversial and devotional works,
which have been frequently reprinted and translated into various
languages. He compiled the _Garden of the Soul_ (1740 ?), which
continues to be the most popular manual of devotion among
English-speaking Roman Catholics, and he revised an edition of the Douai
version of the Scriptures (1749-1750), correcting the language and
orthography, which in many places had become obsolete. Of his historical
works the most valuable is one which was intended to be a Roman Catholic
antidote to Foxe's well-known martyrology. It is entitled _Memoirs of
Missionary Priests and other Catholicks of both Sexes who suffered Death
or Imprisonment in England on account of their Religion, from the year
1577 till the end of the reign of Charles II._ (2 vols. 1741, frequently
reprinted). He also published anonymously, in 1745, the lives of
English, Scotch and Irish saints, under the title of _Britannia Sancta_,
an interesting work which has, however, been superseded by that of Alban
Butler.

  For a complete list of his writings see J. Gillow's _Bibl. Dict. of
  Eng. Cath._ i. 452-458; Barnard, _Life of R. Challoner_ (1784);
  Flanagan, _History of the Catholic Church in England_ (1857); there is
  also a critical history of Challoner by Rev. E. Burton.



CHALMERS, ALEXANDER (1750-1834), Scottish writer, was born in Aberdeen
on the 29th of March 1759. He was educated as a doctor, but gave up this
profession for journalism, and he was for some time editor of the
_Morning Herald_. Besides editions of the works of Shakespeare, Beattie,
Fielding, Johnson, Warton, Pope, Gibbon, Bolingbroke, he published _A
General Biographical Dictionary_ in 32 vols.(1812-1817); a _Glossary to
Shakspeare_ (1797); an edition of Steevens's Shakespeare (1809); and the
_British Essayists_, beginning with the _Tatler_ and ending with the
_Observer_, with biographical and historical prefaces and a general
index. He died in London on the 19th of December 1834.



CHALMERS, GEORGE (1742-1825), Scottish antiquarian and political writer,
was born at Fochabers, a village in the county of Moray, in 1742. His
father, James Chalmers, was a grandson of George Chalmers of Pittensear,
a small estate in the parish of Lhanbryde, now St Andrews-Lhanbryde, in
the same county, possessed by the main line of the family from about the
beginning of the 17th to the middle of the 18th century. After
completing the usual course at King's College, Aberdeen, young Chalmers
studied law in Edinburgh for several years. Two uncles on the father's
side having settled in America, he visited Maryland in 1763, with the
view, it is said, of assisting to recover a tract of land of some extent
about which a dispute had arisen, and was in this way induced to
commence practice as a lawyer at Baltimore, where for a time he met with
much success. Having, however, espoused the cause of the Royalist party
on the breaking out of the American War of Independence, he found it
expedient to abandon his professional prospects in the New World, and
return to his native country. For the losses he had sustained as a
colonist he received no compensation, and several years elapsed before
he obtained an appointment that placed him in a state of comfort and
independence.

In the meantime Chalmers applied himself with great diligence and
assiduity to the investigation of the history and establishment of the
English colonies in North America; and enjoying free access to the state
papers and other documents preserved among what were then termed the
plantation records, he became possessed of much important information.
His work entitled _Political Annals of the present United Colonies from
their Settlement to the Peace of 1763_, 4to, London, 1780, was to have
formed two volumes; but the second, which should have contained the
period between 1688 and 1763, never appeared. The first volume, however,
is complete in itself, and traces the original settlement of the
different American colonies, and the progressive changes in their
constitutions and forms of government as affected by the state of public
affairs in the parent kingdom. Independently of its value as being
compiled from original documents, it bears evidence of great research,
and has been of essential benefit to later writers. Continuing his
researches, he next gave to the world _An Estimate of the Comparative
Strength of Britain during the Present and Four Preceding Reigns_,
London, 1782, which passed through several editions. At length, in
August 1786, Chalmers, whose sufferings as a Royalist must have strongly
recommended him to the government of the day, was appointed chief clerk
to the committee of privy council on matters relating to trade, a
situation which he retained till his death in 1825, a period of nearly
forty years. As his official duties made no great demands on his time,
he had abundant leisure to devote to his favourite studies,--the
antiquities and topography of Scotland having thenceforth special
attractions for his busy pen.

Besides biographical sketches of Defoe, Sir John Davies, Allan Ramsay,
Sir David Lyndsay, Churchyard and others, prefixed to editions of their
respective works, Chalmers wrote a life of Thomas Paine, the author of
the _Rights of Man_, which he published under the assumed name of
Francis Oldys, A.M., of the University of Pennsylvania; and a life of
Ruddiman, in which considerable light is thrown on the state of
literature in Scotland during the earlier part of the last century. His
life of Mary, Queen of Scots, in two 4to vols., was first published in
1818. It is founded on a MS. left by John Whitaker, the historian of
Manchester; but Chalmers informs us that he found it necessary to
rewrite the whole. The history of that ill-fated queen occupied much of
his attention, and his last work, _A Detection of the Love-Letters
lately attributed in Hugh Campbell's work to Mary Queen of Scots_, is an
exposure of an attempt to represent as genuine some fictitious letters
said to have passed between Mary and Bothwell which had fallen into
deserved oblivion. In 1797 appeared his _Apology for the Believers in
the Shakespeare Papers which were exhibited in Norfolk Street_, followed
by other tracts on the same subject. These contributions to the
literature of Shakespeare are full of curious matter, but on the whole
display a great waste of erudition, in seeking to show that papers which
had been proved forgeries might nevertheless have been genuine. Chalmers
also took part in the Junius controversy, and in _The Author of Junius
Ascertained, from a Concatenation of Circumstances amounting to Moral
Demonstration_, Lond. 1817, 8vo, sought to fix the authorship of the
celebrated letters on Hugh Boyd. In 1824 he published _The Poetical
Remains of some of the Scottish Kings, now first collected_; and in the
same year he edited and presented as a contribution to the Bannatyne
Club _Robene and Makyne and the Testament of Cresseid, by Robert
Henryson_. His political writings are equally numerous. Among them may
be mentioned _Collection of Treaties between Great Britain and other
Powers_, Lond. 1790, 2 vols. 8vo; _Vindication of the Privileges of the
People in respect to the Constitutional Right of Free Discussion_, &c.,
Lond. 1796, 8vo, published anonymously; _A Chronological Account of
Commerce and Coinage in Great Britain from the Restoration till 1810_,
Lond. 1810, 8vo; _Opinions of Eminent Lawyers on various points of
English Jurisprudence, chiefly concerning the Colonies, Fisheries, and
Commerce of Great Britain_, Lond. 1814, 2 vols. 8vo; _Comparative Views
of the State of Great Britain before and since the War_, Lond. 1817,
8vo.

But Chalmers's greatest work is his _Caledonia_, which, however, he did
not live to complete. The first volume appeared in 1807, and is
introductory to the others. It is divided into four books, treating
successively of the Roman, the Pictish, the Scottish and the Scoto-Saxon
periods, from 80 to 1306 A.D. In these we are presented, in a condensed
form, with an account of the people, the language and the civil and
ecclesiastical history, as well as the agricultural and commercial state
of Scotland during the first thirteen centuries of our era.
Unfortunately the chapters on the Roman period are entirely marred by
the author's having accepted as genuine Bertram's forgery _De Situ
Britanniae_; but otherwise his opinions on controverted topics are
worthy of much respect, being founded on a laborious investigation of
all the original authorities that were accessible to him. The second
volume, published in 1810, gives an account of the seven south-eastern
counties of Scotland--Roxburgh, Berwick, Haddington, Edinburgh,
Linlithgow, Peebles and Selkirk--each of them being treated of as
regards name, situation and extent, natural objects, antiquities,
establishment as shires, civil history, agriculture, manufactures and
trade, and ecclesiastical history. In 1824, after an interval of
fourteen years, the third volume appeared, giving, under the same
headings, a description of the seven south-western counties--Dumfries,
Kirkcudbright, Wigtown, Ayr, Lanark, Renfrew and Dumbarton. In the
preface to this volume the author states that the materials for the
history of the central and northern counties were collected, and that he
expected the work would be completed in two years, but this expectation
was not destined to be realized. He had also been engaged on a history
of Scottish poetry and a history of printing in Scotland. Each of them
he thought likely to extend to two large quarto volumes, and on both he
expended an unusual amount of enthusiasm and energy. He had also
prepared for the press an elaborate history of the life and reign of
David I. In his later researches he was assisted by his nephew James,
son of Alexander Chalmers, writer in Elgin.

George Chalmers died in London on the 31st of May 1825. His valuable and
extensive library he bequeathed to his nephew, at whose death in 1841 it
was sold and dispersed. Chalmers was a member of the Royal and
Antiquarian Societies of London, an honorary member of the Antiquarian
Society of Scotland, and a member of other learned societies. In private
life he was undoubtedly an amiable man, although the dogmatic tone that
disfigures portions of his writings procured him many opponents. Among
his avowed antagonists in literary warfare the most distinguished were
Malone and Steevens, the Shakespeare editors; Mathias, the author of the
_Pursuits of Literature_; Dr Jamieson, the Scottish lexicographer;
Pinkerton, the historian; Dr Irving, the biographer of the Scottish
poets; and Dr Currie of Liverpool, But with all his failings in judgment
Chalmers was a valuable writer. He uniformly had recourse to original
sources of information; and he is entitled to great praise for his
patriotic and self-sacrificing endeavours to illustrate the history,
literature and antiquities of his native country.     (J. M'D.)



CHALMERS, GEORGE PAUL (1836-1878), Scottish painter, was born at
Montrose, and studied at Edinburgh. His landscapes are now more valued
than the portraits which formed his earlier work. The best of these are
"The End of the Harvest" (1873), "Running Water" (1875), and "The
Legend" (in the National Gallery, Edinburgh). He became an associate
(1867) and a full member (1871) of the Scottish Academy.



CHALMERS, JAMES (1841-1901), Scottish missionary to New Guinea, was born
at Ardrishaig in Argyll. After serving in the Glasgow City Mission he
passed through Cheshunt College, and, being accepted by the London
Missionary Society, was appointed to Rarotonga in the South Pacific in
1866. Here the natives gave him the well-known name "Tamate." After ten
years' service, especially in training native evangelists, he was
transferred to New Guinea. In addition to his enthusiastic but sane
missionary work, Chalmers did much to open up the island, and, with his
colleague W.G. Lawes, gave valuable aid in the British annexation of the
south-east coast of the island. On the 8th of April 1901, in company
with a brother missionary, Oliver Tomkins, he was killed by cannibals at
Goaribari Island. R.L. Stevenson has left on record his high
appreciation of Chalmers's character and work.

  Chalmers's _Autobiography and Letters_ were edited by Richard Lovett
  in 1902, who also wrote a popular life called _Tamate_.



CHALMERS, THOMAS (1780-1847), Scottish divine, was born at Anstruther in
Fifeshire, on the 17th of March 1780. At the age of eleven he was
entered as a student at St Andrews, where he devoted himself almost
exclusively to mathematics. In January 1799 he was licensed as a
preacher of the Gospel by the St Andrews presbytery. In May 1803, after
attending further courses of lectures in Edinburgh, and acting as
assistant to the professor of mathematics at St Andrews, he was ordained
as minister of Kilmany in Fifeshire, about 9 m. from the university
town, where he continued to lecture. His mathematical lectures roused so
much enthusiasm that they were discontinued by order of the authorities,
who disliked the disturbance of the university routine which they
involved. Chalmers then opened mathematical classes on his own account
which attracted many students; at the same time he delivered a course of
lectures on chemistry, and ministered to his parish at Kilmany. In 1805
he became a candidate for the vacant professorship of mathematics at
Edinburgh, but was unsuccessful. In 1808 he published an _Inquiry into
the Extent and Stability of National Resources_, a contribution to the
discussion created by Bonaparte's commercial policy. Domestic
bereavements and a severe illness then turned his thoughts in another
direction. At his own request the article on Christianity was assigned
to him in Dr Brewster's _Edinburgh Encyclopaedia_, and in studying the
credentials of Christianity he received a new impression of its
contents. His journal and letters show how he was led from a sustained
effort to attain the morality of the Gospel to a profound spiritual
revolution. After this his ministry was marked by a zeal which made it
famous. The separate publication of his article in the _Edinburgh
Encyclopaedia_, and contributions to the _Edinburgh Christian
Instructor_ and the _Eclectic Review_, enhanced his reputation as an
author. In 1815 he became minister of the Tron Church, Glasgow, in spite
of determined opposition to him in the town council on the ground of his
evangelical teaching. From Glasgow his repute as a preacher spread
throughout the United Kingdom. A series of sermons on the relation
between the discoveries of astronomy and the Christian revelation was
published in January 1817, and within a year nine editions and 20,000
copies were in circulation. When he visited London Wilberforce wrote,
"all the world is wild about Dr Chalmers."

In Glasgow Chalmers made one of his greatest contributions to the life
of his own time by his experiments in parochial organization. His parish
contained about 11,000 persons, and of these about one-third were
unconnected with any church. He diagnosed this evil as being due to the
absence of personal influence, spiritual oversight, and the want of
parochial organizations which had not kept pace in the city, as they had
done in rural parishes, with the growing population. He declared that
twenty new churches, with parishes, should be erected in Glasgow, and he
set to work to revivify, remodel and extend the old parochial economy of
Scotland. The town council consented to build one new church, attaching
to it a parish of 10,000 persons, mostly weavers, labourers and factory
workers, and this church was offered to Dr Chalmers that he might have a
fair opportunity of testing his system.

In September 1819 he became minister of the church and parish of St
John, where of 2000 families more than 800 had no connexion with any
Christian church. He first addressed himself to providing schools for
the children. Two school-houses with four endowed teachers were
established, where 700 children were taught at the moderate fees of 2s.
and 3s. per quarter. Between 40 and 50 local Sabbath schools were
opened, where more than 1000 children were taught the elements of
secular and religious education. The parish was divided into 25
districts embracing from 60 to 100 families, over each of which an elder
and a deacon were placed, the former taking oversight of their
spiritual, the latter of their physical needs. Chalmers was the
mainspring of the whole system, not merely superintending the
visitation, but personally visiting all the families, and holding
evening meetings, when he addressed those whom he had visited. This
parochial machinery enabled him to make a singularly successful
experiment in dealing with the problem of poverty. At this time there
were not more than 20 parishes north of the Forth and Clyde where there
was a compulsory assessment for the poor, but the English method of
assessment was rapidly spreading. Chalmers believed that compulsory
assessment ended by swelling the evil it was intended to mitigate, and
that relief should be raised and administered by voluntary means. His
critics replied that this was impossible in large cities. When he
undertook the management of the parish of St John's, the poor of the
parish cost the city £1400 per annum, and in four years, by the adoption
of his method, the pauper expenditure was reduced to £280 per annum. The
investigation of all new applications for relief was committed to the
deacon of the district, and every effort was made to enable the poor to
help themselves. When once the system was in operation it was found that
a deacon, by spending an hour a week among the families committed to his
charge, could keep himself acquainted with their character and
condition.

In 1823, after eight years of work at high pressure, he was glad to
accept the chair of moral philosophy at St Andrews, the seventh academic
offer made to him during his eight years in Glasgow. In his lectures he
excluded mental philosophy and included the whole sphere of moral
obligation, dealing with man's duty to God and to his fellow-men in the
light of Christian teaching. Many of his lectures are printed in the
first and second volumes of his published works. In ethics he made
contributions to the science in regard to the place and functions of
volition and attention, the separate and underived character of the
moral sentiments, and the distinction between the virtues of perfect and
imperfect obligation. His lectures kindled the religious spirit among
his students, and led some of them to devote themselves to missionary
effort. In November 1828 he was transferred to the chair of theology in
Edinburgh. He then introduced the practice of following the lecture with
a viva voce examination on what had been delivered. He also introduced
text-books, and came into stimulating contact with his people; perhaps
no one has ever succeeded as he did by the use of these methods in
communicating intellectual, moral and religious impulse to so many
students.

These academic years were prolific also in a literature of various
kinds. In 1826 he published a third volume of the _Christian and Civic
Economy of Large Towns_, a continuation of work begun at St John's,
Glasgow. In 1832 he published a _Political Economy_, the chief purpose
of which was to enforce the truth that the right economic condition of
the masses is dependent on their right moral condition, that character
is the parent of comfort, not vice versa. In 1833 appeared a treatise on
_The Adaptation of External Nature to the Moral and Intellectual
Constitution of Man_. In 1834 Dr Chalmers was elected fellow of the
Royal Society of Edinburgh, and in the same year he became corresponding
member of the Institute of France; in 1835 Oxford conferred on him the
degree of D.C.L. In 1834 he became leader of the evangelical section of
the Scottish Church in the General Assembly. He was appointed chairman
of a committee for church extension, and in that capacity made a tour
through a large part of Scotland, addressing presbyteries and holding
public meetings. He also issued numerous appeals, with the result that
in 1841, when he resigned his office as convener of the church extension
committee, he was able to announce that in seven years upwards of
£300,000 had been contributed, and 220 new churches had been built. His
efforts to induce the Whig government to assist in this effort were
unsuccessful.

In 1841 the movement which ended in the Disruption was rapidly
culminating, and Dr Chalmers found himself at the head of the party
which stood for the principle that "no minister shall be intruded into
any parish contrary to the will of the congregation" (see FREE CHURCH OF
SCOTLAND). Cases of conflict between the church and the civil power
arose in Auchterarder, Dunkeld and Marnoch; and when the courts made it
clear that the church, in their opinion, held its temporalities on
condition of rendering such obedience as the courts required, the church
appealed to the government for relief. In January 1843 the government
put a final and peremptory negative on the church's claims for spiritual
independence. On the 18th of May 1843 470 clergymen withdrew from the
general assembly and constituted themselves the Free Church of Scotland,
with Dr Chalmers as moderator. He had prepared a sustentation fund
scheme for the support of the seceding ministers, and this was at once
put into successful operation. On the 30th of May 1847, immediately
after his return from the House of Commons, where he had given evidence
as to the refusal of sites for Free Churches by Scottish landowners, he
was found dead in bed.

Dr Chalmers' action throughout the Free Church controversy was so
consistent in its application of Christian principle and so free from
personal or party animus, that his writings are a valuable source for
argument and illustration on the question of Establishment. "I have no
veneration," he said to the royal commissioners in St Andrews, before
either the voluntary or the non-intrusive controversies had arisen, "for
the Church of Scotland _qua_ an establishment, but I have the utmost
veneration for it _qua_ an instrument of Christian good." He was
transparent in character, chivalrous, kindly, firm, eloquent and
sagacious; his purity of motive and unselfishness commanded absolute
confidence; he had originality and initiative in dealing with new and
difficult circumstances, and great aptitude for business details.

During a life of incessant activity Chalmers scarcely ever allowed a day
to pass without its modicum of composition; at the most unseasonable
times, and in the most unlikely places, he would occupy himself with
literary work. His writings occupy more than 30 volumes. He would have
stood higher as an author had he written less, or had he indulged less
in that practice of reiteration into which he was constantly betrayed by
his anxiety to impress his ideas upon others. As a political economist
he was the first to unfold the connexion that subsists between the
degree of the fertility of the soil and the social condition of a
community, the rapid manner in which capital is reproduced (see Mill's
_Political Economy_, i. 94), and the general doctrine of a limit to all
the modes by which national wealth may accumulate. He was the first also
to advance that argument in favour of religious establishments which
meets upon its own ground the doctrine of Adam Smith, that religion like
other things should be left to the operation of the natural law of
supply and demand. In the department of natural theology and the
Christian evidences he ably advocated that method of reconciling the
Mosaic narrative with the indefinite antiquity of the globe which
William Buckland (1784-1856) advanced in his Bridgewater Treatise, and
which Dr Chalmers had previously communicated to him. His refutation of
Hume's objection to the truth of miracles is perhaps his intellectual
_chef-d'oeuvre_. The distinction between the laws and dispositions of
matter, as between the ethics and objects of theology, he was the first
to indicate and enforce, and he laid great emphasis on the superior
authority as witnesses for the truth of Revelation of the Scriptural as
compared with the Extra-Scriptural writers, and of the Christian as
compared with the non-Christian testimonies. In his _Institutes of
Theology_, no material modification is attempted on the doctrines of
Calvinism, which he received with all simplicity of faith as revealed in
the Divine word, and defended as in harmony with the most profound
philosophy of human nature and of the Divine providence.

  For biographical details see Dr W. Hanna's _Memoirs_ (Edinburgh, 4
  vols., 1849-1852); there is a good short _Life_ by Mrs Oliphant
  (1893).     (W. Ha.; D. Mn.)



CHALONER, SIR THOMAS (1521-1565), English statesman and poet, was the
son of Roger Chaloner, mercer of London, a descendant of the
Denbighshire Chaloners. No details are known of his youth except that he
was educated at both Oxford and Cambridge. In 1540 he went, as secretary
to Sir Henry Knyvett, to the court of Charles V., whom he accompanied in
his expedition against Algiers in 1541, and was wrecked on the Barbary
coast. In 1547 he joined in the expedition to Scotland, and was
knighted, after the battle of Musselburgh, by the protector Somerset,
whose patronage he enjoyed. In 1549 he was a witness against Dr Bonner,
bishop of London; in 1551 against Stephen Gardiner, bishop of
Winchester; in the spring of the latter year he was sent as a
commissioner to Scotland, and again in March 1552. In 1553 he went with
Sir Nicholas Wotton and Sir William Pickering on an embassy to France,
but was recalled by Queen Mary on her accession. In spite of his
Protestant views, Chaloner was still employed by the government, going
to Scotland in 1555-1556, and providing carriages for troops in the war
with France, 1557-1558. In 1558 he went as Elizabeth's ambassador to the
emperor Ferdinand at Cambrai, from July 1559 to February 1559/60 he was
ambassador to King Philip at Brussels, and in 1561 he went in the same
capacity to Spain. His letters are full of complaints of his treatment
there, but it was not till 1564, when in failing health, that he was
allowed to return home. He died at his house in Clerkenwell on the 14th
of October 1565. He acquired during his years of service three estates,
Guisborough in Yorkshire, Steeple Claydon in Buckinghamshire, and St
Bees in Cumberland. He married (1) Joan, widow of Sir Thomas Leigh; and
(2) Etheldreda, daughter of Edward Frodsham, of Elton, Cheshire, by whom
he had one son, Sir Thomas Chaloner (1561-1615), the naturalist.
Chaloner was the intimate of most of the learned men of his day, and
with Lord Burghley he had a life-long friendship. Throughout his busy
official life he occupied himself with literature, his Latin verses and
his pastoral poems being much admired by his contemporaries. Chaloner's
"Howe the Lorde Mowbray ... was ... banyshed the Realme," printed in the
1559 edition of William Baldwin's _Mirror for Magistrates_ (repr. in
vol. ii. pt. 1 of Joseph Haslewood's edition of 1815), has sometimes
been attributed to Thomas Churchyard. His most important work, _De Rep.
Anglorum instauranda libri decem_, written while he was in Spain, was
first published by William Malim (1579, 3 pts.), with complimentary
Latin verses in praise of the author by Burghley and others. Chaloner's
epigrams and epitaphs were also added to the volume, as well as _In
laudem Henrici octavi ... carmen Panegericum_, first printed in 1560.
Amongst his other works are _The praise of folie, Moriae encomium_ ...
by Erasmus ... Englished by Sir Thomas Chaloner, Knight (1549, ed. Janet
E. Ashbee, 1901); _A book of the Office of Servantes_ (1543), translated
from Gilbert Cognatus; and _An homilie of Saint John Chrysostome_....
Englished by T.C. (1544).

  See "The Chaloners, Lords of the Manor of St Bees," by William
  Jackson, in _Transactions of the Cumberland Assoc. for the Advancement
  of Literature and Science_, pt. vi. pp. 47-74, 1880-1881.



CHÂLONS-SUR-MARNE, a town of north-eastern France, capital of the
department of Marne, 107 m. E. of Paris on the main line of the Eastern
railway to Nancy, and 25 m. S.S.E. of Reims. Pop. (1906) 22,424. Châlons
is situated in a wide level plain principally on the right bank of the
Marne, its suburb of Marne, which contains the railwaystations of the
Eastern and Est-État railways, lying on the left bank. The town proper
is bordered on the west by the lateral canal of the Marne, across which
lies a strip of ground separating it from the river itself. Châlons is
traversed by branches of the canal and by small streams, and its streets
are for the most part narrow and irregular, but it is surrounded by
ample avenues and promenades, the park known as the Jard, in the
south-western quarter, being especially attractive. Huge barracks lie to
the north and east. There are several interesting churches in the town.
The cathedral of St Étienne dates chiefly from the 13th century, but its
west façade is in the classical style and belongs to the 17th century.
There are stained-glass windows of the 13th century in the north
transept. Notre-Dame, of the 12th and 13th centuries, is conspicuous for
its four Romanesque towers, two flanking the apse; the other two,
surmounted by tall lead spires, flanking the principal façade. The
churches of St. Alpin, St Jean and St Loup date from various periods
between the 11th and the 17th centuries. The hôtel-de-ville (1771),
facing which stands a monument to President Carnot; the prefecture
(1750-1764), once the residence of the intendants of Champagne; the
college, once a Jesuit establishment; and a training college which
occupies the Augustinian abbey of Toussaints (16th and 17th centuries),
are noteworthy civil buildings. The houses of Châlons are generally
ill-built of timber and plaster, or rough-cast, but some old mansions,
dating from the 15th to the 16th centuries, remain. The church of Ste
Pudentienne, on the left bank of the river, is a well-known place of
pilgrimage. The town is the seat of a bishop and a prefect, and
headquarters of the VI. army corps; it has tribunals of first instance
and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a
museum, a library, training colleges, a higher ecclesiastical seminary,
a communal college and an important technical school. The principal
industry is brewing, which is carried on in the suburb of Marne.
Galleries of immense length, hewn in a limestone hill and served by
lines of railway, are used as store-houses for beer. The preparation of
champagne, the manufacture of boots and shoes, brushes, wire-goods and
wall-paper also occupy many hands. There is trade in cereals.

Châlons-sur-Marne occupies the site of the chief town of the Catalauni,
and some portion of the plains which lie between it and Troyes was the
scene of the defeat of Attila in the conflict of 451. In the 10th and
following centuries it attained great prosperity as a kind of
independent state under the supremacy of its bishops, who were
ecclesiastical peers of France. In 1214 the militia of Châlons served at
the battle of Bouvines; and in the 15th century the citizens maintained
their honour by twice (1430 and 1434) repulsing the English from their
walls. In the 16th century the town sided with Henry IV., king of
France, who in 1589 transferred thither the parlement of Paris, which
shortly afterwards burnt the bulls of Gregory XIV. and Clement VIII. In
1856 Napoleon III. established a large camp, known as the Camp of
Châlons, about 16 m. north of the town by the railway to Reims. It was
situated in the immediate neighbourhood of Grand Mourmelon and Petit
Mourmelon, and occupied an area of nearly 30,000 acres. The "Army of
Châlons," formed by Marshal MacMahon in the camp after the first
reverses of the French in 1870, marched thence to the Meuse, was
surrounded by the Germans at Sedan, and forced to capitulate. The camp
is still a training-centre for troops.

About 5 m. E. of Châlons is L'Epine, where there is a beautiful
pilgrimage church (15th and 16th centuries, with modern restoration)
with a richly-sculptured portal. In the interior there is a fine
choir-screen, an organ of the 16th century, and an ancient and
much-venerated statue of the Virgin.



CHALON-SUR-SAÔNE, a town of east-central France, capital of an
arrondissement in the department of Saône-et-Loire, 81 m. N. of Lyons
by the Paris-Lyon railway. Pop. (1906) 26,538. It is a well-built town,
with fine quays, situated in an extensive plain on the right bank of the
Saône at its junction with the Canal du Centre. A handsome stone bridge
of the 15th century, decorated in the 18th century with obelisks,
connects it with the suburb of St Laurent on an island in the river. The
principal building is the church of St Vincent, once the cathedral. It
dates mainly from the 12th to the 15th centuries, but the façade is
modern and unpleasing. The old bishop's palace is a building of the 15th
century. The church of St Pierre, with two lofty steeples, dates from
the late 17th century. Chalon preserves remains of its ancient ramparts
and a number of old houses. The administrative buildings are modern. An
obelisk was erected in 1730 to commemorate the opening of the canal.
There is a statue of J.N. Niepce, a native of the town. Chalon is the
seat of a sub-prefect and a court of assizes, and there are tribunals of
first instance and commerce, a branch of the Bank of France, a chamber
of commerce, communal colleges for boys and girls, a school of drawing,
a public library and a museum. Chalon ranks next to Le Creusot among the
manufacturing towns of Burgundy; its position at the junction of the
Canal du Centre and the Saône, and as a railway centre for Lyons, Paris,
Dôle, Lons-le-Saunier and Roanne, brings it a large transit trade. The
founding and working of copper and iron is its main industry; the large
engineering works of Petit-Creusot, a branch of those of Le Creusot,
construct bridges, tug-boats and torpedo-boats; distilleries,
glass-works, chemical works, straw-hat manufactories, oil-works,
tile-works and sugar refineries also occupy many hands. Wine, grain,
iron, leather and timber are among the many products for which the town
is an entrepôt. About 2 m. east of Chalon is St Marcel (named after the
saint who in the 2nd century preached Christianity at Chalon), which has
a church of the 12th century, once belonging to a famous abbey.

Chalon-sur-Saône is identified with the ancient _Cabillonum_, originally
an important town of the Aedui. It was chosen in the 6th century by
Gontram, king of Burgundy, as his capital; and it continued till the
10th to pay for its importance by being frequently sacked. The
bishopric, founded in the 4th century, was suppressed at the Revolution.
In feudal times Chalon was the capital of a countship. In 1237 it was
given in exchange for other fiefs in the Jura by Jean le Sage, whose
descendants nevertheless retained the title. Hugh IV., duke of Burgundy,
the other party to the exchange, gave the citizens a communal charter in
1256. In its modern history the most important event was the resistance
offered to a division of the Austrian army in 1814.



CHALUKYA, the name of an Indian dynasty which ruled in the Deccan from
A.D. 550 to 750, and again from 973 to 1190. The Chalukyas themselves
claimed to be Rajputs from the north who imposed their rule on the
Dravidian inhabitants of the Deccan tableland, and there is some
evidence for connecting them with the Chapas, a branch of the foreign
Gurjaras. The dynasty was founded by a chief named Pulakesin I., who
mastered the town of Vatapi (now Badami, in the Bijapur district) about
550. His sons extended their principality east and west; but the founder
of the Chalukya greatness was his grandson Pulakesin II., who succeeded
in 608 and proceeded to extend his rule at the expense of his
neighbours. In 609 he established as his viceroy in Vengi his brother
Kubja Vishnuvardhana, who in 615 declared his independence and
established the dynasty of Eastern Chalukyas, which lasted till 1070. In
620 Pulakesin defeated Harsha (q.v.), the powerful overlord of northern
India, and established the Nerbudda as the boundary between the South
and North. He also defeated in turn the Chola, Pandya and Kerala kings,
and by 630 was beyond dispute the most powerful sovereign in the Deccan.
In 642, however, his capital was taken and he himself killed by the
Pallava king Narasimhavarman. In 655 the Chalukya power was restored by
Pulakesin's son Vikramaditya I.; but the struggle with the Pallavas
continued until, in 740, Vikramaditya II. destroyed the Pallava capital.
In 750 Vikramaditya's son, Kirtivarman Chalukya, was overthrown by the
Rashtrakutas.

In 973, Taila or Tailapa II. (d. 995), a scion of the royal Chalukya
race, succeeded in overthrowing the Rashtrakuta king Kakka II., and in
recovering all the ancient territory of the Chalukyas with the exception
of Gujarat. He was the founder of the dynasty known as the Chalukyas of
Kalyani. About A.D. 1000 a formidable invasion by the Chola king
Rajaraja the Great was defeated, and in 1052 Somesvara I., or Ahamavalla
(d. 1068), the founder of Kalyani, defeated and slew the Chola
Rajadhiraja. The reign of Vikramaditya VI., or Vikramanka, which lasted
from 1076 to 1126, formed another period of Chalukya greatness.
Vikramanka's exploits against the Hoysala kings and others, celebrated
by the poet Bilhana, were held to justify him in establishing a new era
dating from his accession. With his death, however, the Chalukya power
began to decline. In 1156 the commander-in-chief Bijjala (or Vijjana)
Kalachurya revolted, and he and his sons held the kingdom till 1183. In
this year Somesvara IV. Chalukya recovered part of his patrimony, only
to succumb, about 1190, to the Yadavas of Devagiri and the Hoysalas of
Dorasamudra. Henceforth the Chalukya rajas ranked only as petty chiefs.

  See J.F. Fleet, _Dynasties of the Kanarese Districts_; Prof. R.G.
  Bhandarker, "Early History of the Deccan," in the _Bombay Gazetteer_
  (1896), vol. i. part ii.; Vincent A. Smith, _Early Hist. of India_
  (Oxford, 1908), pp. 382 ff.



CHALYBÄUS, HEINRICH MORITZ (1796-1862), German philosopher, was born at
Pfaffroda in Saxony. For some years he taught at Dresden, and won a high
reputation by his lectures on the history of philosophy in Germany. In
1839 he became professor in Kiel University, where, with the exception of
one brief interval, when he was expelled with several colleagues because
of his German sympathies, he remained till his death. His first published
work, _Historische Entwickelung der spekulativen Philosophic von Kant bis
Hegel_ (1837, 5th ed. 1860), which still ranks among the best expositions
of modern German thought, has been twice translated into English, by A.
Tulk (London, 1854), and by A. Edersheim (Edinburgh, 1854). His chief
works are _Entwurf eines Systems der Wissenschaftslehre_ (Kiel, 1846) and
_System der spekulativen Ethik_ (2 vols., 1850). He opposed both the
extreme realism of Herbart and what he regarded as the one-sided idealism
of Hegel, and endeavoured to find a mean between them, to discover the
ideal or formal principle which unfolds itself in the real or material
world presented to it. His _Wissenschaftslehre_, accordingly, divides
itself into (1) _Principlehre_, or theory of the one principle; (2)
_Vermittelungslehre_, or theory of the means by which this principle
realizes itself; and (3) _Teleologie_. The most noticeable point is the
position assigned by Chalybäus to the "World Ether," which is defined as
the infinite in time and space, and which, he thinks, must be posited as
necessarily coexisting with the Infinite Spirit or God. The fundamental
principle of the _System der Ethik_ is carried out with great strength of
thought, and with an unusually complete command of ethical material.

  See J.E. Erdmann, _Grundriss der Gesch. d. Philos._ ii. 781-786; K.
  Prantl, in _Allgem. deutsch. Biog._



CHALYBITE, a mineral species consisting of iron carbonate (FeCO3) and
forming an important ore of iron. It was early known as spathose iron,
spathic iron or steel ore. F.S. Beudant in 1832 gave the name siderose
(from [Greek: sidêros], iron), which was modified by W. Haidinger in
1845 to siderite. Chalybite (from [Greek: chalyps], [Greek: chalybos],
Lat. _chalybs_, steel) is of slightly later date, having been given by
E.F. Glocker in 1847. The name siderite is in common use, but it is open
to objection since it had earlier been applied to several other species,
and is also now used as a group name for meteoric irons. Chalybite
crystallizes in the rhombohedral system and is isomorphous with calcite;
like this it possesses perfect cleavages parallel to the faces of the
primitive rhombohedron, the angles between which are 73° 0'. Crystals
are usually rhombohedral in habit, and the primitive rhombohedron r
{100} is a common form, the faces being often curved as represented in
the figure. Acute rhombohedra in combination with the basal pinacoid are
also frequent, giving crystals of octahedral aspect. The mineral often
occurs in cleavable masses with a coarse or fine granular texture; also
in botryoidal or globular (sphaerosiderite) and oolitic forms. When
compact and mixed with much clay and sand it constitutes the well-known
clay ironstone. Chalybite is usually yellowish-grey or brown in colour;
it is translucent and has a vitreous lustre. Hardness 3½; sp. gr. 3.8.
The double refraction ([omega] - [epsilon] = 0.241) is stronger than
that of calcite. When pure it contains 48.2% of iron, but this is often
partly replaced isomorphously by manganese, magnesium or calcium: the
varieties known as oligon-spar or oligonite, sideroplesite and
siderodote contain these elements respectively in large amount. These
varieties form a passage to ankerite (q.v.) and mesitite, and all are
referred to loosely as brown-spar.

[Illustration: Crystal of Chalybite.]

Chalybite is a common gangue mineral in metalliferous veins, and
well-crystallized specimens are found with ores of copper, lead, tin,
&c., in Cornwall, the Harz, Saxony and many other places. It also occurs
alone as large masses in veins and beds in rocks of various kinds. The
clay ironstone so extensively worked as an ore of iron occurs as nodules
and beds in the Coal Measures of England and the United States, and the
oolitic iron ore of the Cleveland district in Yorkshire forms beds in
the Lias. The mineral is occasionally found as concretionary masses
(sphaerosiderite) in cavities in basic igneous rocks such as dolerite.
     (L. J. S.)



CHAMBA, a native state of India, within the Punjab, amid the Himalayas,
and lying on the southern border of Kashmir. It has an area of 3216 sq.
m. Pop. (1901) 127,834. The sanatorium of Dalhousie, though within the
state, is attached to the district of Gurdaspur. Chamba is entirely
mountainous; in the east and north, and in the centre, are snowy ranges.
The valleys in the west and south are fertile. The chief rivers are the
Chandra and Ravi. The country is much in favour with sportsmen. The
principal crops are rice, maize and millet. Mineral ores of various
kinds are known, but unworked. Trade is chiefly in forest produce. The
capital of the state is Chamba (pop. 6000), situated above the gorge of
the Ravi. External communications are entirely by road. The state was
founded in the 6th century, and, though sometimes nominally subject to
Kashmir and afterwards tributary to the Mogul empire, always practically
maintained its independence. Its chronicles are preserved in a series of
inscriptions, mostly engraved on copper. It first came under British
influence in 1846, when it was declared independent of Kashmir. The line
of the rajas of Chamba was founded in the 6th century A.D. by Marut, of
an ancient family of Rajputs. In 1904 Bhuri Singh, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., an
enlightened and capable ruler, succeeded.



CHAMBAL, a river of India, one of the principal tributaries of the
Jumna. Rising amid the summits of the Vindhya mountains in Malwa, it
flows north, and after being joined by the Chambla and Sipra, passes
through the gorges of the Mokandarra hills. After receiving the waters
of the Kali-Sind, Parbati and Banas, its principal confluents, the
Chambal becomes a great river, enters the British district of Etawah,
and joins the Jumna 40 m. below Etawah town, its total length being 650
m.



CHAMBERLAIN, JOSEPH (1836-   ), British statesman, third son of Joseph
Chamberlain, master of the Cordwainers' Company, was born at Camberwell
Grove, London, on the 8th of July 1836. His father was a well-to-do man
of business, a Unitarian in religion and a Liberal in politics. Young
Chamberlain was educated at Canonbury from 1845 to 1850, and at
University College school, London, from 1850 to 1852. After two years in
his father's office in London, he was sent to Birmingham to join his
cousin Joseph Nettlefold in a screw business in which his father had an
interest; and by degrees, largely owing to his own intelligent
management, this business became very successful. Nettlefold &
Chamberlain employed new methods of attracting customers, and
judiciously amalgamated rival firms with their own so as to reduce
competition, with the result that in 1874, after twenty-two years of
commercial life, Mr Chamberlain was able to retire with an ample
fortune. Meanwhile he had in 1861 married his first wife, Miss Harriet
Kenrick (she died in 1863), and had gradually come to take an
increasingly important part in the municipal and political life of
Birmingham. He was a constant speaker at the Birmingham and Edgbaston
Debating Society; and when in 1868 the Birmingham Liberal Association
was reorganized, he became one of its leading members. In 1869 he was
elected chairman of the executive council of the new National Education
League, the outcome of Mr George Dixon's movement for promoting the
education of the children of the lower classes by paying their school
fees, and agitating for more accommodation and a better national system.
In the same year he was elected a member of the town council, and
married his second wife--a cousin of his first--Miss Florence Kenrick
(d. 1875).

In 1870 he was elected a member of the first school board for
Birmingham; and for the next six years, and especially after 1873, when
he became leader of a majority and chairman, he actively championed the
Nonconformist opposition to denominationalism. He was then regarded as a
Republican--the term signifying rather that he held advanced Radical
opinions, which were construed by average men in the light of the
current political developments in France, than that he really favoured
Republican institutions. His programme was "free Church, free land, free
schools, free labour." At the general election of 1874 he stood as a
parliamentary candidate for Sheffield, but without success. Between 1869
and 1873 he was a prominent advocate in the Birmingham town council of
the gospel of municipal reform preached by Mr Dawson, Dr Dale and Mr
Bunce (of the _Birmingham. Post_); and in 1873 his party obtained a
majority, and he was elected mayor, an office he retained until June
1876. As mayor he had to receive the prince and princess of Wales on
their visit in June 1874, an occasion which excited some curiosity
because of his reputation as a Republican; but those who looked for an
exhibition of bad taste were disappointed, and the behaviour of the
Radical mayor satisfied the requirements alike of _The Times_ and of
_Punch_.

The period of his mayoralty was one of historic importance in the growth
of modern Birmingham. New municipal buildings were erected, Highgate
Park was opened as a place of recreation, the free library and art
gallery were developed. But the great work carried through by Mr
Chamberlain for Birmingham was the municipalization of the supply of gas
and water, and the improvement scheme by which slums were cleared away
and forty acres laid out in new streets and open spaces. The prosperity
of modern Birmingham dates from 1875 and 1876, when these admirably
administered reforms were initiated, and by his share in them Mr
Chamberlain became not only one of its most popular citizens but also a
man of mark outside. An orator of a business-like, straightforward type,
cool and hard-hitting, his spare figure, incisive features and single
eye-glass soon made him a favourite subject for the caricaturist; and in
later life his aggressive personality, and the peculiarly irritating
effect it had on his opponents, made his actions and speeches the object
of more controversy than was the lot of any other politician of his
time. His hobby for orchid-growing at his house "Highbury" near
Birmingham also became famous. In private life his loyalty to his
friends, and his "genius for friendship" (as John Morley said) made a
curious contrast to his capacity for arousing the bitterest political
hostility. It may be added here that the interest taken by him in
Birmingham remained undiminished during his life, and he was largely
instrumental in starting the Birmingham University (1900), of which he
became chancellor. His connexion with Birmingham University was indeed
peculiarly appropriate to his character as a man of business; but in
spite of his representing a departure among men of the front rank in
politics from the "Eton and Oxford" type, his general culture sometimes
surprised those who did not know him. In later life Oxford and Cambridge
gave him their doctors' degrees; and in 1897 he was made lord rector of
Glasgow University (delivering an address on "Patriotism" at his
installation).

In 1876 Mr Dixon resigned his seat in parliament, and Mr Chamberlain was
returned for Birmingham in his place unopposed, as John Bright's
colleague. He made his maiden speech in the House of Commons on the 4th
of August 1876, on Lord Sandon's Education Bill. At this period, too, he
paid much attention to the question of licensing reform, and in 1876 he
examined the Gothenburg system in Sweden, and advocated a solution of
the problem in England on similar lines. During 1877 the new federation
of Liberal Associations which became known as the "Caucus" was started
under Mr Chamberlain's influence in Birmingham--its secretary, Mr
Schnadhorst, quickly making himself felt as a wire-puller of exceptional
ability; and the new organization had a remarkable effect in putting
life into the Liberal party, which since Mr Gladstone's retirement in
1874 had been much in need of a stimulus. When the general election came
in 1880, Mr Schnadhorst's powers were demonstrated in the successes won
under his auspices. The Liberal party numbered 349, against 243
Conservatives and 60 Irish Nationalists; and the Radical section of the
Liberal party, led by Mr Chamberlain and Sir Charles Dilke, was
recognized by Mr Gladstone by his inclusion of the former in his cabinet
as president of the Board of Trade, and the appointment of the latter as
under secretary for foreign affairs. In his new capacity Mr Chamberlain
was responsible for carrying such important measures as the Bankruptcy
Act 1883, and the Patents Act. Another bill which he had much at heart,
on merchant shipping, had to be abandoned, and a royal commission
substituted, but the subsequent legislation in 1888-1894 owed much to
his efforts. The Franchise Act of 1884 was also one in which he took a
leading part as a champion of the opinions of the labouring class. At
this time he took the current advanced Radical views of both Irish and
foreign policy, hating "coercion," disliking the occupation of Egypt,
and prominently defending the Transvaal settlement after Majuba. Both
before and after the defeat of Mr Gladstone's government on the Budget
in June 1885, he associated himself with what was known as the
"Unauthorized Programme," i.e. free education, small holdings, graduated
taxation and local government. In June 1885 he made a speech at
Birmingham, treating the reforms just mentioned as the "ransom" that
property must pay to society for the security it enjoys--for which Lord
Iddesleigh called him "Jack Cade"; and he continually urged the Liberal
party to take up these Radical measures. At the general election of
November 1885 Mr Chamberlain was returned for West Birmingham. The
Liberal strength generally was, however, reduced to 335 members, though
the Radical section held their own; and the Irish vote became necessary
to Mr Gladstone if he was to command a majority. In December it was
stated that Mr Gladstone intended to propose Home Rule for Ireland, and
in January Lord Salisbury's ministry was defeated on the Address, on an
amendment moved by Mr Chamberlain's Birmingham henchman, Mr Jesse
Collings (b. 1831), embodying the "three acres and a cow" of the Radical
programme. Unlike Lord Hartington (afterwards duke of Devonshire) and
other Liberals, who declined to join Mr Gladstone in view of the altered
attitude he was adopting towards Ireland, Mr Chamberlain entered the
cabinet as president of the Local Government Board (with Mr Jesse
Collings as parliamentary secretary), but on the 15th of March 1886 he
resigned, explaining in the House of Commons (8th April) that, while he
had always been in favour of the largest possible extension of local
government to Ireland consistently with the integrity of the empire and
the supremacy of parliament, and had therefore joined Mr Gladstone when
he believed that this was what was intended, he was unable to consider
that the scheme communicated by Mr Gladstone to his colleagues
maintained those limitations. At the same time he was not
irreconcilable, and he invited Mr Gladstone even then to modify his bill
so as to remove the objections made to it. This indecisive attitude did
not last long, and the split in the party rapidly widened. At Birmingham
Mr Chamberlain was supported by the "Two Thousand," but deserted by the
"Caucus" and Mr Schnadhorst. In May the Radicals who followed Mr Bright
and Mr Chamberlain, and the Whigs who took their cue from Lord
Hartington, decided to vote against the second reading of the Home Rule
Bill, instead of allowing it to be taken and then pressing for
modifications in committee, and on 7th June the bill was defeated by 343
to 313, 94 Liberal Unionists--as they were generally called--voting
against the government. Mr Chamberlain was the object of the bitterest
attacks from the Gladstonians for his share in this result; he was
stigmatized as "Judas," and open war was proclaimed by the Home Rulers
against the "dissentient Liberals"--the description used by Mr
Gladstone. The general election, however, returned to parliament 316
Conservatives, 78 Liberal Unionists, and only 276 Gladstonians and
Nationalists, Birmingham returning seven Unionist members. When the
House met in August, it was decided by the Liberal Unionists, under Lord
Hartington's leadership, that their policy henceforth was essentially to
combine with the Tories to keep Mr Gladstone out. The old Liberal
feeling still prevailing among them was too strong, however, for their
leaders to take office in a coalition ministry. It was enough for them
to be able to tie down the Conservative government to such measures as
were not offensive to Liberal Unionist principles. It still seemed
possible, moreover, that the Gladstonians might be brought to modify
their Home Rule proposals, and in January 1887 a Round Table conference
(suggested by Mr Chamberlain) was held between Mr Chamberlain, Sir G.
Trevelyan, Sir William Harcourt, Mr Morley and Lord Herschell. But no
_rapprochement_ was effected, and reconciliation became daily more and
more difficult. The influence of Liberal Unionist views upon the
domestic legislation of the government was steadily bringing about a
more complete union in the Unionist party, and destroying the old lines
of political cleavage. Before 1892 Mr Chamberlain had the satisfaction
of seeing Lord Salisbury's ministry pass such important acts, from a
progressive point of view, as those dealing with Coal Mines Regulation,
Allotments, County Councils, Housing of the Working Classes, Free
Education and Agricultural Holdings, besides Irish legislation like the
Ashbourne Act, the Land Act of 1891, and the Light Railways and
Congested Districts Acts. In October 1887 Mr Chamberlain, Sir L.
Sackville West and Sir Charles Tupper were selected by the government as
British plenipotentiaries to discuss with the United States the Canadian
fisheries dispute, and a treaty was arranged by them at Washington on
the 15th of February 1888. The Senate refused to ratify it; but a
protocol provided for a _modus vivendi_ pending ratification, giving
American fishing vessels similar advantages to those contemplated in the
treaty; and on the whole Mr Chamberlain's mission to America was
accepted as a successful one in maintaining satisfactory relations with
the United States. He returned to England in March 1888, and was
presented with the freedom of the borough of Birmingham. The visit also
resulted, in November 1888, in his marriage with his third wife, Miss
Endicott, daughter of the United States secretary of war in President
Cleveland's first administration.

At the general election of 1892 Mr Chamberlain was again returned, with
an increased majority, for West Birmingham; but the Unionist party as a
whole came back with only 315 members against 355 Home Rulers. In August
Lord Salisbury's ministry was defeated; and on the 13th of February 1893
Mr Gladstone introduced his second Home Rule Bill, which was eventually
read a third time on the 1st of September. During the eighty-two days'
discussion in the House of Commons Mr Chamberlain was the life and soul
of the opposition, and his criticisms had a vital influence upon the
attitude of the country when the House of Lords summarily threw out the
bill. His chief contribution to the discussions during the later stages
of the Gladstone and Rosebery ministries was in connexion with Mr
Asquith's abortive Employers' Liability Bill, when he foreshadowed the
method of dealing with this question afterwards carried out in the
Compensation Act of 1897. Outside parliament he was busy formulating
proposals for old age pensions, which had a prominent place in the
Unionist programme of 1895. In that year, on the defeat of Lord
Rosebery, the union of the Unionists was sealed by the inclusion of the
Liberal Unionist leaders in Lord Salisbury's ministry; and Mr
Chamberlain became secretary of state for the colonies. There had been
much speculation as to what his post would be, and his nomination to the
colonial office, then considered one of secondary rank, excited some
surprise; but Mr Chamberlain himself realized how important that
department had become. He carried with him into the ministry his close
Birmingham municipal associates, Mr Jesse Collings (as under secretary
of the home office), and Mr J. Powell-Williams (1840-1904) as financial
secretary to the war office. Mr Chamberlain's influence in the Unionist
cabinet was soon visible in the Workmen's Compensation Act and other
measures. This act, though in Sir Matthew White Ridley's charge as home
secretary, was universally and rightly associated with Mr Chamberlain;
and its passage, in the face of much interested opposition from
highly-placed, old-fashioned conservatives and capitalists on both
sides, was principally due to his determined advocacy. Another "social"
measure of less importance, which formed part of the Chamberlain
programme, was the Small Houses Acquisition Act of 1899; but the problem
of old age pensions was less easily solved. This subject had been handed
over in 1893 to a royal commission, and further discussed by a select
committee in 1899 and a departmental committee in 1900, but both of
these threw cold water on the schemes laid before them--a result which,
galling enough to one who had made so much play with the question in the
country, offered welcome material to his opponents for electioneering
recrimination, as year by year went by between 1895 and 1900 and nothing
resulted from all the confident talk on the subject in which Mr
Chamberlain had indulged when out of office. Eventually it was the
Liberal and not the Unionist party that carried an Old Age Pensions
scheme through parliament, during the 1908 session, when Mr Chamberlain
was _hors de combat_.

From January 1896 (the date of the Jameson Raid) onwards South Africa
demanded the chief attention of the colonial secretary (see SOUTH
AFRICA, and for details TRANSVAAL). In his negotiations with President
Kruger one masterful temperament was pitted against another. Mr
Chamberlain had a very difficult part to play, in a situation dominated
by suspicion on both sides, and while he firmly insisted on the rights
of Great Britain and of British subjects in the Transvaal, he was the
continual object of Radical criticism at home. Never has a statesman's
personality been more bitterly associated by his political opponents
with the developments they deplored. Attempts were even made to ascribe
financial motives to Mr Chamberlain's actions, and the political
atmosphere was thick with suspicion and scandal. The report of the
Commons committee (July 1897) definitely acquitted both Mr Chamberlain
and the colonial office of any privity in the Jameson Raid, but Mr
Chamberlain's detractors continued to assert the contrary. Opposition
hostility reached such a pitch that in 1899 there was hardly an act of
the cabinet during the negotiations with President Kruger which was not
attributed to the personal malignity and unscrupulousness of the
colonial secretary. The elections of 1900 (when he was again returned,
unopposed, for West Birmingham) turned upon the individuality of a
single minister more than any since the days of Mr Gladstone's
ascendancy, and Mr Chamberlain, never conspicuous for inclination to
turn his other cheek to the smiter, was not slow to return the blows
with interest.

Apart from South Africa, his most important work at this time was the
successful passing of the Australian Commonwealth Act (1900), in which
both tact and firmness were needed to settle certain differences between
the imperial government and the colonial delegates.

Mr Chamberlain's tenure of the office of colonial secretary between 1895
and 1900 must always be regarded as a turning-point in the history of
the relations between the British colonies and the mother country. His
accession to office was marked by speeches breathing a new spirit of
imperial consolidation, embodied either in suggestions for commercial
union or in more immediately practicable proposals for improving the
"imperial estate"; and at the Diamond Jubilee of 1897 the visits of the
colonial premiers to London emphasized and confirmed the new policy, the
fruits of which were afterwards seen in the cordial support given by the
colonies in the Boer War. Even in what Mr Chamberlain called his
"Radical days" he had never supported the "Manchester" view of the value
of a colonial empire; and during the Gladstone ministry of 1882-1885 Mr
Bright had remarked that the junior member for Birmingham was the only
Jingo in the cabinet--meaning, no doubt, that he objected to the policy
of _laissez-faire_ and the timidity of what was afterwards known as
"Little Englandism." While he was still under Mr Gladstone's influence
these opinions were kept in subordination; but Mr Chamberlain was always
an imperial federationist, and from 1887 onwards he constantly gave
expression to his views on the desirability of drawing the different
parts of the empire closer together for purposes of defence and
commerce. In 1895 the time for the realization of these views had come;
and Mr Chamberlain's speeches, previously remarkable chiefly for
debating power and directness of argument, were now dominated by a new
note of constructive statesmanship, basing itself on the economic
necessities of a world-wide empire. Not the least of the anxieties of
the colonial office during this period was the situation in the West
Indies, where the cane-sugar industry was being steadily undermined by
the European bounties given to exports of continental beet; and though
the government restricted themselves to attempts at removing the
bounties by negotiation and to measures for palliating the worst effects
in the West Indies, Mr Chamberlain made no secret of his repudiation of
the Cobden Club view that retaliation would be contrary to the doctrines
of free trade, and he did his utmost to educate public opinion at home
into understanding that the responsibilities of the mother country are
not merely to be construed according to the selfish interests of a
nation of consumers. As regards foreign affairs, Mr Chamberlain more
than once (and particularly at Leicester on 30th November 1899)
indicated his leanings towards a closer understanding between the
British empire, the United States and Germany,--a suggestion which did
not save him from an extravagant outburst of German hostility during the
Boer War. The unusually outspoken and pointed expression, however, of
his disinclination to submit to Muscovite duplicity or to "pin-pricks"
or "unmannerliness" from France was criticized on the score of
discretion by a wider circle than that of his political adversaries.

During the progress of the Boer War from 1899 to 1902, Mr Chamberlain,
as the statesman who had represented the cabinet in the negotiations
which led to it, remained the object of constant attacks from his
Radical opponents--the "little Englanders" and "Pro-Boers," as he called
them--and he was supported by the Imperialist and Unionist party with at
least equal ardour. But as colonial secretary, except in so far as his
consistent support of Lord Milner and his enthusiastic encouragement of
colonial assistance were concerned, he naturally played only a
subordinate part during the carrying out of the military operations.
Among domestic statesmen he was felt, however, to be the backbone of the
party in power. He was the hero of the one side, just as he was the
bugbear of the other. On the 13th of February 1902 he was presented with
an address in a gold casket by the city corporation, and entertained at
luncheon at the Mansion House, an honour not unconnected with the strong
feeling recently aroused by his firm reply (at Birmingham, January 11)
to some remarks made by Count von Büllow, the German chancellor, in the
Reichstag (January 8), reflecting the offensive allegations current in
Germany against the conduct of the army in South Africa. Mr
Chamberlain's speech, in answer to what had been intended as a
contemptuous rebuke, was universally applauded. His own imperialism was
intensified by the way in which England's difficulties resulted in
calling forth colonial assistance and so cementing the bonds of empire.
The domestic crisis, and the sharp cleavage between parties at home, had
driven the bent of his mind and policy further and further away from the
purely municipal and national ideals which he had followed so keenly
before he became colonial minister. The problems of empire engrossed
him, and a new enthusiasm for imperial projects arose in the Unionist
party under his inspiration. No English statesman probably has ever
been, at different times in his career, so able an advocate of
absolutely contradictory policies, and his opponents were not slow to
taunt him with quotations from his earlier speeches. As the war drew to
its end, new plans for imperial consolidation were maturing in his
brain. Subsidiary points of utility, such as the formation of the London
and Liverpool schools of tropical medicine from 1899 onwards, were taken
up by him with characteristic vigour. But the next step was to prove a
critical one indeed for the loyalty of the party which had so far been
unanimous in his favour.

The settlement after the war was full of difficulties, financial and
others, in South Africa. When Mr Arthur Balfour succeeded Lord Salisbury
as prime minister in July 1902, Mr Chamberlain agreed to serve loyally
under him, and the friendship between the two leaders was indeed one of
the most marked features of the political situation. In November 1902 it
was arranged that Mr Chamberlain should go out to South Africa, and it
was hoped, not without reason, that his personality would effect more
good than any ordinary official negotiations. At the time the best
results appeared to be secured. He went from place to place in South
Africa (December 26-February 25); arranged with the leading Transvaal
financiers that in return for support from the British government in
raising a Transvaal loan they would guarantee a large proportion of a
Transvaal debt of £30,000,000, which should repay the British treasury
so much of the cost of the war; and when he returned in March 1903,
satisfaction was general in the country over the success of his mission.
But meantime two things had happened. He had looked at the empire from
the colonial point of view, in a way only possible in a colonial
atmosphere; and at home some of his colleagues had gone a long way,
behind the scenes, to destroy one of the very factors on which the
question of a practical scheme for imperial commercial federation seemed
to hinge. In the budget of 1902 a duty of a shilling a quarter on
imported corn had been reintroduced. This small tax was regarded as only
a registration duty. Even by free-trade ministers like Gladstone it had
been left up to 1869 untouched, and its removal by Robert Lowe (Lord
Sherbrooke) had since then been widely regarded as a piece of economic
pedantry. Its reimposition, officially supported for the sake of
necessary revenue in war-time, and cordially welcomed by the Unionist
party, had justified itself, as they contended, in spite of the
criticisms of the Opposition (who raised the cry of the "dear loaf"), by
proving during the year to have had no general or direct effect on the
price of bread. And the more advanced Imperialists, as well as the more
old-fashioned protectionists (like Mr Chaplin) who formed an integral
body of the Conservative party, had looked forward to this tax being
converted into a differential one between foreign and colonial corn, so
as to introduce a scheme of colonial preference and commercial
consolidation between the colonies and the mother country. In South
Africa--as in any other British colony, since all of them were
accustomed to tariffs of a protectionist nature, and the idea of a
preference (already started by Canada) was fairly popular--Mr
Chamberlain had found this view well established. The agitation in
England against the tax had now blown over. The Unionist rank and file
were committed to its support,--many even advocating its increase to two
shillings at least. But Mr Ritchie, the chancellor of the exchequer,
having a surplus in prospect and taxation to take off, carried the
cabinet in favour of again remitting this tax on corn. Mr Chamberlain
himself had proposed only to take it off as regards colonial, and not
foreign corn,--thus inaugurating a preferential system. But a majority
of the cabinet supported Mr Ritchie. The remission of this tax, after
all the conviction with which its restoration had been supported a year
before, was very difficult for the party itself to stomach, and on any
ground it was a distasteful act, loyally as the party followed their
leaders. But to those who had looked to it as providing a lever for a
gradual change in the established fiscal system, the _volte-face_ was a
bitter blow, and at once there began, though not at first openly, a
split between the more rigid free-traders--advocates of cheap food and
free imports--and those who desired to use the opportunities of a
tariff, of however moderate a kind, for attaining national and imperial
and not merely revenue advantages. This idea, which had for some time
been floating in Mr Chamberlain's mind (see especially his speech at
Birmingham of May 16, 1902), now took full possession of it. For the
moment he remained in the cabinet, but the seed of dissension was sown.
The first public intimation of his views was given in a speech to his
constituents at Birmingham (May 15, 1903), when he outlined a plan for
raising more money by a rearranged tariff, partly to obtain a
preferential system for the empire and partly to produce funds for
social reform at home. On May 28th in the House of Commons he spoke on
the same subject, and declared "if you are to give a preference to the
colonies, you must put a tax on food." Considered in the light of after
events, this putting the necessity of food-taxes in the forefront was
decidedly injudicious; but imperialist conviction and enthusiasm were
more conspicuous than electioneering tact in the launching of Mr
Chamberlain's new scheme.

The movement grew quickly, its supporters including a number of the
cleverest younger politicians and journalists in the Unionist party. The
idea of tariff reform--to broaden the basis of taxation, to introduce a
preference, and to stimulate home industries and increase
employment--took firm root; and the political economists of the
party--Prof. W. Cunningham, Prof. W. Ashley and Prof. W.A.S. Hewins, in
particular--brought effective criticism to bear on the one-sided "free
trade" in vogue. The first demand was for inquiry. The country was still
bearing an income-tax of elevenpence in the pound; it appeared that the
old sources of revenue were inadequate; and meanwhile the statistics of
trade, it was argued, showed that the English free-import system
hampered English trade while providing the foreigner with a free market.
Mr Chamberlain and his supporters argued that since 1870 certain other
countries (Germany and the United States), with protective tariffs, had
increased their trade in much larger proportion, while English trade had
only been maintained by the increased business done with British
colonies. A scientific inquiry into the facts was needed. By the
Opposition, who now found themselves the defenders of conservatism in
the established fiscal policy of the country, this whole argument was
scouted; but for a time the demand merely for inquiry, and the
production of figures, gave no sufficient occasion for dissension among
Unionists, even when, like Sir M. Hicks Beach, they were convinced
free-importers on purely economic grounds; and Mr Balfour (q.v.), as
premier, managed to hold his colleagues and party together by taking the
line that particular opinions on economic subjects should not be made a
test of party loyalty. The Board of Trade was set to work to produce
fiscal Blue-books, and hum-drum politicians who had never shown any
genius for figures suddenly blossomed out into arithmeticians of the
deepest dye. The Tariff Reform League was founded in order to further Mr
Chamberlain's policy, holding its inaugural meeting on July 21st; and it
began to take an active part in issuing leaflets and in work at
by-elections. Discussion proceeded hotly on the merits of a preferential
tariff, and on August 15th a manifesto appeared against it signed by
fourteen professors or lecturers on political economy, including Mr
Leonard Courtney, Professor Edgeworth, Professor Marshall, Professor
Bastable, Professor Smart, Professor J.S. Nicholson, Professor Conner,
Mr Bowley, Mr E. Cannan and Mr L.R. Phelps,--men of admitted competence,
yet, after all, of no higher authority than the economists supporting Mr
Chamberlain, such as Dr Cunningham and Professor Ashley.

Meanwhile, the death of Lord Salisbury (August 22) removed a weighty
figure from the councils of the Unionist party. The cabinet met several
times at the beginning of September, and the question of their attitude
towards the fiscal problem became acute. The public had its first
intimation of impending events in the appearance on September 16th of Mr
Balfour's _Economic Notes on Insular Free Trade_, which had been
previously circulated as a cabinet memorandum. The next day appeared the
Board of Trade Fiscal Blue-book. And on the 18th the resignations were
announced, not only of the more rigid free-traders in the cabinet, Mr
Ritchie and Lord George Hamilton, but also of Mr Chamberlain. Letters in
cordial terms were published, which had passed between Mr Chamberlain
(September 9) and Mr Balfour (September 16). Mr Chamberlain pointed out
that he was committed to a preferential scheme involving new duties on
food, and could not remain in the government without prejudice while it
was excluded from the party programme; remaining loyal to Mr Balfour and
his general objects, he could best promote this course from outside, and
he suggested that the government might confine its policy to the
"assertion of our freedom in the case of all commercial relations with
foreign countries." Mr Balfour, while reluctantly admitting the
necessity of Mr Chamberlain's taking a freer hand, expressed his
agreement in the desirability of a closer fiscal union with the
colonies, but questioned the immediate practicability of any scheme; he
was willing to adopt fiscal reform so far as it covered retaliatory
duties, but thought that the exclusion of taxation of food from the
party programme was in existing circumstances necessary, so long as
public opinion was not ripe. At the same time he welcomed the fact that
Mr Chamberlain's son, Mr Austen Chamberlain, was ready to remain a
member of the government. Mr Austen Chamberlain (b. 1863) accordingly
became the new chancellor of the exchequer; he was already in the
cabinet as postmaster-general, having previously made his mark as civil
lord of the admiralty (1895-1900), and financial secretary to the
treasury (1900-1902).

From the turning-point of Mr Chamberlain's resignation, it is not
necessary here to follow in detail the discussions and dissensions in
the party as a whole in its relations with the prime minister (see
BALFOUR, A.J.). It is sufficient to say that while Mr Balfour's
sympathetic "send off" appeared to indicate his inclination towards Mr
Chamberlain's programme, if only further support could be gained for it,
his endeavour to keep the party together, and the violent opposition
which gathered against Mr Chamberlain's scheme, combined to make his
real attitude during the next two years decidedly obscure, both sections
of the party--free-traders and tariff reformers--being induced from time
to time to regard him as on their side. The tariff reform movement
itself was now, however, outside the purely official programme, and Mr
Chamberlain (backed by a majority of the Unionist members) threw himself
with impetuous ardour into a crusade on its behalf, while at the same
time supporting Mr Balfour in parliament, and leaving it to him to
decide as to the policy of going to the country when the time should be
ripe. In his own words, he went in front of the Unionist army as a
pioneer, and if his army was attacked he would go back to it; in no
conceivable circumstances would he allow himself to be put in any sort
of competition, direct or indirect, with Mr Balfour, his friend and
leader, whom he meant to follow (October 6).

On October 6th he opened his campaign with a speech at Glasgow.
Analysing the trade statistics as between 1872 and 1902, he insisted
that British progress involved a relative decline compared with that of
protectionist foreign countries like Germany and the United States;
Great Britain exported less and less of manufactured goods, and imported
more and more; the exports to foreign countries had decreased, and it
was only the increased exports to the colonies that maintained the
British position. This was the outcome of the working of a one-sided
free-trade system. Now was the time, and it might soon be lost, for
consolidating British trade relations with the colonies. If the mother
country and her daughter states did not draw closer, they would
inevitably drift apart. A further increase of £26,000,000 a year in the
trade with the colonies might be obtained by a preferential tariff, and
this meant additional employment at home for 166,000 workmen, or
subsistence for a population of a far larger number. His positive
proposals were: (1) no tax on raw materials; (2) a small tax on food
other than colonial, e.g. two shillings a quarter on foreign corn but
excepting maize, and 5% on meat and dairy produce excluding bacon; (3)
a 10% general tariff on imported manufactured goods. To meet any
increased cost of living, he proposed to reduce the duties on tea, sugar
and other articles of general consumption, and he estimated that his
scheme would in no case increase a working-man's expenditure, and in
most cases would reduce it. "The colonies," he said, "are prepared to
meet us; in return for a very moderate preference, they will give us a
substantial advantage in their markets." This speech, delivered with
characteristic vigour and Imperialistic enthusiasm, was the type of
others which followed in quick succession during the year. At Greenock
next day he emphasized the necessity of retaliating against foreign
tariffs--"I never like being hit without striking back." The practice of
"dumping" must be fairly met; if foreign goods were brought into England
to undersell British manufacturers, either the Fair Wages Clause and the
Factory Acts and the Compensation Act would have to be repealed, or the
workmen would have to take lower wages, or lose their work. "Agriculture
has been practically destroyed, sugar has gone, silk has gone, iron is
threatened, wool is threatened, cotton will go! How long are you going
to stand it?" On October 20th he spoke at Newcastle, on the 21st at
Tynemouth, on the 27th at Liverpool, insisting that free-trade had never
been a working-class measure and that it could not be reconciled with
trade-unionism; on November 4th at Birmingham, on the 20th at Cardiff,
on the 21st at Newport, and on December 16th at Leeds. In all these
speeches he managed to point his argument by application to local
industries. In the Leeds speech he announced that, with a view to
drawing up a scientific model tariff, a non-political commission of
representative experts would be appointed under the auspices of the
Tariff Reform League to take evidence from every trade; it included many
heads of businesses, and Mr Charles Booth, the eminent student of social
and industrial London, with Sir Robert Herbert as chairman, and
Professor W.A.S. Hewins as secretary. The name of "Tariff Commission,"
given to this voluntary and unofficial body, was a good deal criticized,
but though flouted by the political free-traders it set to work in
earnest, and accumulated a mass of evidence as to the real facts of
trade, which promised to be invaluable to economic inquirers. On January
18th, 1904, Mr Chamberlain ended his series of speeches by a great
meeting at the Guildhall, in the city of London, the key-note being his
exhortation to his audience to "think imperially."

All this activity on Mr Chamberlain's part represented a great physical
and intellectual feat on the part of a man now sixty-seven years of age;
but his bodily vigour and comparatively youthful appearance were
essential features of his personality. Nothing like this campaign had
been known in the political world since Mr Gladstone's Midlothian days;
and it produced a great public impression, stirring up both supporters
and opponents. Free-trade unionists like Lord Goschen and Lord Hugh
Cecil, and the Liberal leaders--for whom Mr Asquith became the principal
spokesman, though Lord Rosebery's criticisms also had considerable
weight--found new matter in Mr Chamberlain's speeches for their
contention that any radical change in the traditional English fiscal
policy, established now for sixty years, would only result in evil. The
broad fact remained that while Mr Chamberlain's activity gathered round
him the bulk of the Unionist members and an enthusiastic band of
economic sympathizers, the country as a whole remained apathetic and
unconvinced. One reason was the intellectual difficulty of the subject
and the double-faced character of all arguments from statistics, which
were either incomprehensible or disputable; another was the fact that
substantially this was a political movement, and that tariff reform was,
after all, only one in a complexity of political issues, most of which
during this period were being interpreted by the electorate in a sense
hostile to the Unionist party. Mr Chamberlain had relied on his personal
influence, which from 1895 to 1902 had been supreme; but his own
resignation, and the course of events, had since 1903 made his
personality less authoritative, and new interests--such as the
opposition to the Education Act, to the heavy taxation, and to Chinese
labour in the Transvaal, and indignation over the revelations concerned
with the war--were monopolizing attention, to the weakening of his hold
on the public. The revival in trade, and the production of new
statistics which appeared to stultify Mr Chamberlain's prophecies of
progressive decline, enabled the free-trade champions to reassure their
audiences as to the very foundation of his case, and to represent the
whole tariff reform movement as no less unnecessary than risky.
Moreover, the split in the Unionist party brought the united Liberal
party in full force into the field, and at last the country began to
think that the danger of Irish Home Rule was practically over, and that
a Liberal majority might be returned to power in safety, with the
prospect of providing an alternative government which would assure
commercial repose (Lord Rosebery's phrase), relief from extravagant
expenditure, and--as the working-classes were led to believe--a certain
amount of labour legislation which the Tory leaders would never propose.
On the other hand the colonies took a great interest in the new
movement, though without putting any such pressure on the home public as
Mr Chamberlain might have expected. At the opening of 1904 he was
officially invited by Mr Deakin, the prime minister of the Commonwealth,
to pay a visit to Australia, in order to expound his scheme, being
promised an enthusiastic welcome "as the harbinger of commercial
reciprocity between the mother country and her colonies." Mr
Chamberlain, however, declined; his work at home was too pressing.

From the end of Mr Chamberlain's series of expository speeches on his
scheme of tariff reform, onwards during the various fiscal debates and
discussions of 1904, it is unnecessary to follow events in detail. The
scheme was now before the country, and Mr Chamberlain was anxious to
take its verdict. Time was not on his side at his age, and if he had to
be beaten at one election he was anxious to get rid of the other issues
which would encumber the popular vote, and to press on to a second when
he would be on the attacking side. But he would make no move which would
embarrass Mr Balfour in parliament, and adhered to his promise of
loyalty. The result was a long drawn out interval, while the government
held on and its supporters became more embittered over their
differences. Mr Chamberlain needed a rest, and was away in Italy and
Egypt from March to May, and again in November. He made three important
speeches at Welbeck (August 4), at Luton (October 5), and at Limehouse
(December 15), but he had nothing substantial to add to his case, and
the party situation continued in all its embarrassments. Mr Balfour's
introduction of his promise (at Edinburgh on October 3) to convene an
imperial conference after the general election if the Unionists came
back to power, in order to discuss a scheme for fiscal union,
represented an academic rather than a practical advance, since the
by-elections showed that the Unionists were certain to be defeated. The
one important new development concerned the Liberal-Unionist
organization. In January some correspondence was published between Mr
Chamberlain and the duke of Devonshire, dating from the previous
October, as to difficulties arising from the central Liberal-Unionist
organization subsidizing local associations which had adopted the
programme of tariff reform. The duke objected to this departure from
neutrality, and suggested that it was becoming "impossible with any
advantage to maintain under existing circumstances the existence of the
Liberal-Unionist organization." Mr Chamberlain retorted that this was a
matter for a general meeting of delegates to decide; if the duke was
outvoted he might resign his presidency; for his own part he was
prepared to allow the local associations to be subsidized impartially,
so long as they supported the government, but he was not prepared for
the violent disruption, which the duke apparently contemplated, of an
association so necessary to the success of the Unionist cause. The duke
was in a difficult position as president of the organization, since most
of the local associations supported Mr Chamberlain, and he replied that
the differences between them were vital, and he would not be responsible
for dividing the association into sections, but would rather resign. Mr
Chamberlain then called a general meeting on his own responsibility in
February, when a new constitution was proposed; and in May, at the
annual meeting of the Liberal-Unionist council, the free-food Unionists,
being in a minority, retired, and the association was reorganized under
Mr Chamberlain's auspices, Lord Lansdowne and Lord Selborne (both of
them cabinet ministers) becoming vice-presidents. On July 14th the
reconstituted Liberal-Unionist organization held a great demonstration
in the Albert Hall, and Mr Chamberlain's success in ousting the duke of
Devonshire and the other free-trade members of the old Liberal-Unionist
party, and imposing his own fiscal policy upon the Liberal-Unionist
caucus, was now complete.

During the spring and summer of 1905 Mr Chamberlain's more active
supporters were in favour of forcing a dissolution by leaving the
government in a minority, but he himself preferred to leave matters to
take their course, so long as the prime minister was content to be
publicly identified with the policy of eventually fighting on tariff
reform lines. Speaking at the Albert Hall in July Mr Chamberlain pushed
somewhat further than before his "embrace" of Mr Balfour; and in the
autumn, when foreign affairs no longer dominated the attention of the
government, the crisis rapidly came to a head. In reply to Mr Balfour's
appeal for the sinking of differences (Newcastle, November 14), Mr
Chamberlain insisted at Bristol (November 21) on the adoption of his
fiscal policy; and Mr Balfour resigned on December 4. on the ground that
he no longer retained the confidence of the party. At the crushing
Unionist defeat in the general election which followed in January 1906,
Mr Chamberlain was triumphantly returned for West Birmingham, and all
the divisions of Birmingham returned Chamberlainite members. Amid the
wreck of the party--Mr Balfour and several of his colleagues themselves
losing their seats--he had the consolation of knowing that the tariff
reformers won the only conspicuous successes of the election. But he had
no desire to set himself up as leader in Mr Balfour's place, and after
private negotiations with the ex-prime minister, a common platform was
arranged between them, on which Mr Balfour, for whom a seat was found in
the City of London, should continue to lead the remnant of the party.
The formula was given in a letter from Mr Balfour of February 14th (see
BALFOUR, A.J.) which admitted the necessity of making fiscal reform the
first plank in the Unionist platform, and accepted a general tariff on
manufactured goods and a small duty on foreign corn as "not in principle
objectionable."

It may be left to future historians to attempt a considered judgment on
the English tariff reform movement, and on Mr Chamberlain's
responsibility for the Unionist _débâcle_ of 1906. But while his enemies
taunted him with having twice wrecked his party--first the Radical party
under Mr Gladstone, and secondly the Unionist party under Mr Balfour--no
well-informed critic doubted his sincerity, or failed to recognize that
in leaving the cabinet and embarking on his fiscal campaign he showed
real devotion to an idea. In championing the cause of imperial fiscal
union, by means involving the abandonment of a system of taxation which
had become part of British orthodoxy, he followed the guidance of a
profound conviction that the stability of the empire and the very
existence of the hegemony of the United Kingdom depended upon the
conversion of public opinion to a revision of the current economic
doctrine. There were doubtless miscalculations at the outset as to the
resistance to be encountered. But from the purely party point of view he
was entitled to say that he followed the path of loyalty to Mr Balfour
which he had marked out from the moment of his resignation, and that he
persistently, refused to be put in competition with him as leader. Even
in the absence of the new issue, defeat was foredoomed for Mr Balfour's
administration by the ordinary course of political events; and it might
fairly be claimed that "Chinese slavery," "passive resistance," and
labour irritation at the Taff Vale judgment (see TRADE UNIONS) were
mainly responsible for the Unionist collapse. Time alone would show
whether the system of free imports could be permanently reconciled with
British imperial policy or commercial prosperity. It remained the fact
that Mr Chamberlain staked an already established position on his
refusal to compromise with his convictions on a question which appeared
to him of vital and immediate importance.

Mr Chamberlain's own activity in the political field was cut short in
the middle of the session of 1906 by a serious attack of gout, which was
at first minimized by his friends, but which, it was gradually
discovered, had completely crippled him. Though encouragement was given
to the idea that he might return to the House of Commons, where he
continued to retain his seat for Birmingham, he was quite incapacitated
for any public work; and this invalid condition was protracted
throughout 1907, 1908 and 1909. But he remained in the background as the
inspirer and adviser of the Tariff Reformers. The cause made continuous
headway at by-elections, and though the general election of January 1910
gave the Unionists no majority it saw them returned in much increased
strength, which was chiefly due to the support obtained for tariff
reform principles. Mr Chamberlain himself was returned unopposed for
West Birmingham again.     (H. Ch.)



CHAMBERLAIN, JOSHUA LAWRENCE (1828-   ), American soldier and
educationalist, was born at Brewer, Maine, on the 8th of September 1828.
He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1852, and at the Bangor Theological
Seminary in 1855, and was successively tutor in logic and natural
theology (1855-1856), professor of rhetoric and oratory (1856-1861), and
professor of modern languages (1861-1865), at Bowdoin. In 1862 he
entered the Federal army as lieutenant-colonel of the 20th Maine
Infantry. His military career was marked by great personal bravery and
energy and intrepidity as a leader. He was six times wounded, and
participated in all the important battles in the East from Antietam
onwards, including Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, the
Wilderness, Cold Harbor, Petersburg and Five Forks. For his conduct at
Petersburg, where he was severely wounded, he was promoted to be
brigadier-general of volunteers. He was breveted major-general of
volunteers on the 29th of March 1865, and led the Federal advance in the
final operations against General R.E. Lee. In 1893 he received a
Congressional medal of honour "for daring heroism and great tenacity in
holding his position on the Little Round Top and carrying the advance
position on the Great Round Top at the Battle of Gettysburg." After the
war he was again professor of rhetoric and oratory at Bowdoin in
1865-1866, and in 1867-1870 was governor of Maine, having been elected
as a Republican. From 1871 to 1883 he was president of Bowdoin College,
and during 1874-1879 was professor of mental and moral philosophy also.
Appointed in 1880 by Alonzo Garcelon, the retiring governor, to protect
the property and institutions of the state until a new governor should
be duly qualified, and acting as major-general of the state militia,
Chamberlain did much to avert possible civil war, at a time of great
political excitement and bitter partisan feeling. (See MAINE:
_History_.) In 1883-1885 he was a lecturer on political science and
public law at Bowdoin, and in 1900 became surveyor of customs for the
district of Portland, Maine. He published _Maine, Her Place in History_
(1877), and edited _Universities and Their Sons_ (6 vols., 1898).



CHAMBERLAIN, SIR NEVILLE BOWLES (1820-1902), British field marshal, was
the third son of Sir Henry Chamberlain, first baronet, consul-general
and chargé d'affaires in Brazil, and was born at Rio on the 10th of
January 1820. He entered the Indian army in 1837, served as a subaltern
in the first Afghan War (1839-42), and was wounded on six occasions. He
was attached to the Governor-General's Bodyguard at the battle of
Maharajpur, in the Gwalior campaign of 1843, was appointed military
secretary to the governor of Bombay in 1846, and honorary aide-de-camp
to the governor-general of India in 1847. He served on the staff
throughout the Punjab campaign of 1848-49, and was given a brevet
majority. In 1850 he was appointed commandant of the Punjab military
police, and in 1852 military secretary to the Punjab government.
Promoted lieut.-colonel in 1854, he was given the command of the Punjab
Frontier Force with rank of brigadier-general, and commanded in several
expeditions against the frontier tribes. In the Indian Mutiny he
succeeded Colonel Chester as adjutant-general of the Indian army, and
distinguished himself at the siege of Delhi, where he was severely
wounded. He was rewarded with a brevet-colonelcy, the appointment of
A.D.C. to the queen, and the C.B. He was reappointed to the command of
the Punjab Frontier Force in 1858, and commanded in the Umbeyla campaign
(1863), in which he was severely wounded. He was now made major-general
for distinguished service and a K.C.B. He was made K.C.S.I. in 1866,
lieut.-general in 1872, G.C.S.I. in 1873, G.C.B in 1875, and general in
1877. From 1876 to 1881 he was commander-in-chief of the Madras army,
and in 1878 was sent on a mission to the amir of Afghanistan, whose
refusal to allow him to enter the country precipitated the second Afghan
War. He was for some time acting military member of the council of the
governor-general of India. He retired in 1886, was made a field marshal
in 1900, and died on the 18th of February 1902.

  An excellent biography by G.W. Forrest appeared in 1909.



CHAMBERLAIN (O. Fr. _chamberlain, chamberlenc_, Mod. Fr. _chambellan_,
from O.H. Ger. _Chamarling, Chamarlinc_, whence also the Med. Lat.
_cambellanus, camerlingus, camerlengus_; Ital. _camerlingo_; Span,
_camerlengo_, compounded of O.H. Ger. _Chamara, Kamara_ [Lat. _camera_,
"chamber"], and the Ger. suffix _-ling_), etymologically, and also to a
large extent historically, an officer charged with the superintendence
of domestic affairs. Such were the chamberlains of monasteries or
cathedrals, who had charge of the finances, gave notice of chapter
meetings, and provided the materials necessary for the various services.
In these cases, as in that of the apostolic chamberlain of the Roman
see, the title was borrowed from the usage of the courts of the western
secular princes. A royal chamberlain is now a court official whose
function is in general to attend on the person of the sovereign and to
regulate the etiquette of the palace. He is the representative of the
medieval _camberlanus, cambellanus_, or _cubicularius_, whose office was
modelled on that of the _praefectus sacri cubiculi_ or _cubicularius_ of
the Roman emperors. But at the outset there was another class of
chamberlains, the _camerarii_, i.e. high officials charged with the
administration of the royal treasury (_camera_). The _camerarius_ of the
Carolingian emperors was the equivalent of the _hordere_ or
_thesaurarius_ (treasurer) of the Anglo-Saxon kings; he develops into
the _Erzkämmerer_ (_archicamerarius_) of the Holy Roman Empire, an
office held by the margraves of Brandenburg, and the _grand chambrier_
of France, who held his _chamberie_ as a fief. Similarly in England
after the Norman conquest the _hordere_ becomes the chamberlain. This
office was of great importance. Before the Conquest he had been, with
the marshal, the principal officer of the king's court; and under the
Norman sovereigns his functions were manifold. As he had charge of the
administration of the royal household, his office was of financial
importance, for a portion of the royal revenue was paid, not into the
exchequer, but in _camera regis_. In course of time the office became
hereditary and titular, but the complexities of the duties necessitated
a division of the work, and the office was split up into three: the
hereditary and sinecure office of _magister camerarius_ or lord great
chamberlain (see LORD GREAT CHAMBERLAIN), the more important domestic
office of _camerarius regis_, king's chamberlain or lord chamberlain
(see LORD CHAMBERLAIN), and the chamberlains (_camerarii_) of the
exchequer, two in number, who were originally representatives of the
chamberlain at the exchequer, and afterwards in conjunction with the
treasurer presided over that department. In 1826 the last of these
officials died, when by an act passed forty-four years earlier they
disappeared.

In France the office of _grand chambrier_ was early overshadowed by the
_chamberlains (cubicularii, cambellani_, but sometimes also
_camerarii_), officials in close personal attendance on the king, men at
first of low rank, but of great and ever-increasing influence. As the
office of _grand chambrier_, held by great feudal nobles seldom at
court, became more and more honorary, the chamberlains grew in power, in
numbers and in rank, until, in the 13th century, one of them emerges as
a great officer of state, the _chambellan de France_ or _grand
chambellan_ (also _magister cambellanorum, mestre chamberlenc_), who at
times shares with the _grand chambrier_ the revenues derived from
certain trades in the city of Paris (see _Regestum Memoralium Camerae
computorum_, quoted in du Cange, s. _Cameranus_). The honorary office of
_grand chambrier_ survived till the time of Henry II., who was himself
the last to hold it before his accession; that of _grand chambellan_,
which in its turn soon became purely honorary, survived till the
Revolution. Among the prerogatives of the _grand chambellan_ which
survived to the last not the least valued was the right to hand the king
his shirt at the ceremonial levée. The offices of _grand chambellan,
premier chambellan_, and _chambellan_ were revived by Napoleon,
continued under the Restoration, abolished by Louis Philippe, and again
restored by Napoleon III.

In the papal Curia the apostolic chamberlain (Lat. _camerarius_, Ital.
_camerlingo_) occupies a very important position. He is at the head of
the treasury (_camera thesauraria_) and, in the days of the temporal
power, not only administered the papal finances but possessed an
extensive civil and criminal jurisdiction. During a vacancy of the Holy
See he is at the head of the administration of the Roman Church. The
office dates from the 11th century, when it superseded that of
archdeacon of the Roman Church, and the close personal relations of the
_camerarius_ with the pope, together with the fact that he is the
official guardian of the ceremonial vestments and treasures, point to
the fact that he is also the representative of the former _vestararius_
and _vice-dominus_, whose functions were merged in the new office, of
which the idea and title were probably borrowed from the usage of the
secular courts of the West (Hinschius, _Kirchenrecht_, i. 405, &c.).
There are also attached to the papal household (_famiglia pontificia_) a
large number of chamberlains whose functions are more or less
ornamental. These are divided into several categories: privy
chamberlains (_camerieri segreti_), chamberlains, assistant and honorary
chamberlains. These are gentlemen of rank and belong to the highest
class of the household (_famiglia nobile_).

In England the modern representatives of the _cubicularii_ are the
gentlemen and grooms of the bed-chamber, in Germany the _Kammerherr_
(_Kämmerer_, from _camerarius_, in Bavaria and Austria) and
_Kammerjunker_. The insignia of their office is a gold key attached to
their coats behind.

Many corporations appoint a chamberlain. The most important in England
is the chamberlain of the corporation of the city of London, who is
treasurer of the corporation, admits persons entitled to the freedom of
the city, and, in the chamberlain's court, of which he and the
vice-chamberlain are judges, exercises concurrent jurisdiction with the
police court in determining disputes between masters and apprentices.
Formerly nominated by the crown, since 1688 he has been elected annually
by the liverymen. He has a salary of £2000 a year. Similarly in Germany
the administration of the finances of a city is called the _Kämmerei_
and the official in charge of it the _Kämmerer_.

  See also STATE, GREAT OFFICERS OF; HOUSEHOLD, ROYAL; Du Cange,
  _Glossarium_, s. "Camerarius" and "Cambellanus"; Père Anselme (Pierre
  de Guibours), _Hist. généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale
  de France, &c_. (9 vols., 3rd ed., 1726-1733); A. Luchaire, _Manuel
  des institutions françaises_ (Paris, 1892); W.R. Anson, _Law and
  Custom of the Constitution_ (Oxford, 1896); Hinschius, _Kirchenrecht_,
  i. 405 (Berlin, 1869).



CHAMBERLAYNE, WILLIAM (1619-1679), English poet, was born in 1619.
Nothing is known of his history except that he practised as a physician
at Shaftesbury in Dorsetshire, and fought on the Royalist side at the
second battle of Newbury. He died on the 11th of July 1679. His works
are: _Pharonnida_ (1659), a verse romance in five books; _Love's
Victory_ (1658), a tragi-comedy, acted under another title in 1678 at
the Theatre Royal; _England's Jubilee_ (1660), a poem in honour of the
Restoration. A prose version of _Pharonnida_, entitled _Eromena_, or the
_Noble Stranger_, appeared in 1683. Southey speaks of him as "a poet to
whom I am indebted for many hours of delight." _Pharonnida_ was
reprinted by S.W. Singer in 1820, and again in 1905 by Prof. G.
Saintsbury in _Minor Poets of the Caroline Period_ (vol. i.). The poem
is loose in construction, but contains some passages of great beauty.



CHAMBERS, EPHRAIM (d. 1740), English encyclopaedist, was born at Kendal,
Westmorland, in the latter part of the 17th century. He was apprenticed
to a globe-maker in London, but having conceived the plan of his
Cyclopaedia, or _Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences_, he devoted
himself entirely to it. The first edition appeared by subscription in
1728, in two vols. fol., and dedicated to the king (see ENCYCLOPAEDIA).
The _Encyclopédie_ of Diderot and d'Alembert owed its inception to a
French translation of Chambers's work. In addition to the _Cyclopaedia_,
Chambers wrote for the _Literary Magazine_ (1735-1736), and translated
the _History and Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris_
(1742), and the _Practice of Perspective_ from the French of Jean
Dubreuil. He died on the 15th of May 1740.



CHAMBERS, GEORGE (1803-1840), English marine painter, born at Whitby,
Yorkshire, was the son of a seaman, and for several years he pursued his
father's calling. While at sea he was in the habit of sketching the
different classes of vessels. His master, observing this, gratified him
by cancelling his indentures, and thus set him free to follow his
natural bent. Chambers then apprenticed himself to an old woman who kept
a painter's shop in Whitby, and began by house-painting. He also took
lessons of a drawing-master, and found a ready sale for small and cheap
pictures of shipping. Coming afterwards to London, he was employed by
Thomas Horner to assist in painting the great panorama of London for the
Colosseum (the exhibition building in Regent's Park, demolished towards
1860), and he next became scene-painter at the Pavilion theatre. In 1834
he was elected an associate, and in 1836 a full member, of the
Water-colour Society. His best works represent naval battles. Two of
these--the "Bombardment of Algiers in 1816," and the "Capture of Porto
Bello"--are in Greenwich hospital. Not long before his death he was
introduced to William IV., and his professional prospects brightened;
but his constitution, always frail, gave way, and he died on the 28th of
October 1840.

  A _Life_, by John Watkins, was published in 1841.



CHAMBERS, ROBERT (1802-1871), Scottish author and publisher, was born at
Peebles on the 10th of July 1802. He was sent to the local schools, and
gave evidence of unusual literary taste and ability. A small circulating
library in the town, and a copy of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_ which
his father had purchased, furnished him with stores of reading of which
he eagerly availed himself. Long afterwards he wrote of his early
years--"Books, not playthings, filled my hands in childhood. At twelve I
was deep, not only in poetry and fiction, but in encyclopaedias." Robert
had been destined for the church, but this design had to be abandoned
for lack of means. The family removed to Edinburgh in 1813, and in 1818
Robert began business as a bookstall-keeper in Leith Walk. He was then
only sixteen, and his whole stock consisted of a few old books belonging
to his father. In 1819 his elder brother William had begun a similar
business, and the two eventually united as partners in the publishing
firm of W. & R. Chambers. Robert Chambers showed an enthusiastic
interest in the history and antiquities of Edinburgh, and found a most
congenial task in his _Traditions of Edinburgh_ (2 vols., 1824), which
secured for him the approval and the personal friendship of Sir Walter
Scott. A _History of the Rebellions in Scotland from 1638 to 1745_ (5
vols., 1828) and numerous other works followed.

In the beginning of 1832 William Chambers started a weekly publication
under the title of _Chambers's Edinburgh Journal_ (known since 1854 as
_Chambers's Journal of Literature, Science and Arts_), which speedily
attained a large circulation. Robert was at first only a contributor.
After fourteen numbers had appeared, however, he was associated with his
brother as joint-editor, and his collaboration contributed more perhaps
than anything else to the success of the _Journal_.

Among the other numerous works of which Robert was in whole or in part
the author, the _Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen_ (4 vols.,
Glasgow, 1832-1835), the _Cyclopaedia of English Literature_ (1844), the
_Life and Works of Robert Burns_ (4 vols., 1851), _Ancient Sea Margins_
(1848), the _Domestic Annals of Scotland_ (3 vols., 1859-1861) and the
_Book of Days_ (2 vols., 1862-1864) were the most important.
_Chambers's Encyclopaedia_ (1859-1868), with Dr Andrew Findlater as
editor, was carried out under the superintendence of the brothers (see
ENCYCLOPAEDIA). The _Cyclopaedia of English Literature_[1] contains a
series of admirably selected extracts from the best authors of every
period, "set in a biographical and critical history of the literature
itself." For the _Life of Burns_ he made diligent and laborious original
investigations, gathering many hitherto unrecorded facts from the poet's
sister, Mrs Begg, to whose benefit the whole profits of the work were
generously devoted. Robert Chambers was a scientific geologist, and
availed himself of tours in Scandinavia and Canada for the purpose of
geological exploration. The results of his travels were embodied in
_Tracings of the North of Europe_ (1851) and _Tracings in Iceland and
the Faroe Islands_ (1856). His knowledge of geology was one of the
principal grounds on which the authorship of the _Vestiges of the
Natural History of Creation_ (2 vols., 1843-1846) was eventually
assigned to him. The book was published anonymously. Robert Chambers was
aware of the storm that would probably be raised at the time by a
rational treatment of the subject, and did not wish to involve his firm
in the discredit that a charge of heterodoxy would bring with it. The
arrangements for publication were made through Alexander Ireland of
Manchester, and the secret was so well kept that such different names as
those of Prince Albert and Sir Charles Lyell were coupled with the book.
Ireland in 1884 issued a 12th edition, with a preface giving an account
of its authorship, which there was no longer any reason for concealing.
The _Book of Days_ was Chambers's last publication, and perhaps his most
elaborate. It was a miscellany of popular antiquities in connexion with
the calendar, and it is supposed that his excessive labour in connexion
with this book hastened his death, which took place at St Andrews on the
17th of March 1871. Two years before, the university of St Andrews had
conferred upon him the degree of doctor of laws, and he was elected a
member of the Athenaeum club in London. It is his highest claim to
distinction that he did so much to give a healthy tone to the cheap
popular literature which has become so important a factor in modern
civilization.

His brother, WILLIAM CHAMBERS (1800-1883) was born at Peebles, on the
16th of April 1800. He was the financial genius of the publishing firm.
He laid the city of Edinburgh under the greatest obligations by his
public spirit and munificence. As lord provost he procured the passing
in 1867 of the Improvement Act, which led to the reconstruction of a
great part of the Old Town, and at a later date he proposed and carried
out, largely at his own expense, the restoration of the noble and then
neglected church of St Giles, making it in a sense "the Westminster
Abbey of Scotland." This service was fitly acknowledged by the offer of
a baronetcy, which he did not live to receive, dying on the 20th of May
1883, three days before the reopening of the church. He was the author
of a history of St Giles's, of a memoir of himself and his brother
(1872), and of many other useful publications. On his death in 1883
Robert Chambers (1832-1888), son of Robert Chambers, succeeded as head
of the firm, and edited the _Journal_ until his death. His eldest son,
Charles Edward Stuart Chambers (b. 1859), became editor of the _Journal_
and chairman of W. & R. Chambers, Limited.

  See also _Memoir of Robert Chambers, with Autobiographic Reminiscences
  of William Chambers_ (1872), the 13th ed. of which (1884) has a
  supplementary chapter; Alexander Ireland's preface to the 12th ed.
  (1884) of the _Vestiges of Creation_; the _Story of a Long and Busy
  Life_ (1884), by William Chambers; and some discriminating
  appreciation in James Payn's _Some Literary Recollections_ (1884),
  chapter v. The _Select Writings of Robert Chambers_ were published in
  7 vols. in 1847, and a complete list of the works of the brothers is
  added to _A Catalogue of Some of the Rarer Books ... in the Collection
  of C.E.S. Chambers_ (Edinburgh, 1891).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] A new and enlarged edition of this work, edited by David Patrick,
    LL. D., appeared in 1903.



CHAMBERS, SIR WILLIAM (1726-1796), British architect, was the grandson
of a rich merchant who had financed the armies of Charles XII., but was
paid in base money, and whose son remained in Sweden many years
endeavouring to obtain redress. In 1728 the latter returned to England
and settled at Ripon, where William, who was born in Stockholm, was
educated. At the age of sixteen he became supercargo to the Swedish East
India Company, and voyaging to Canton made drawings of Chinese
architecture, furniture and costume which served as basis for his
_Designs for Chinese Buildings_, &c. (1757). Two years later he quitted
the sea to study architecture seriously, and spent a long time in Italy,
devoting special attention to the buildings of classical and Renaissance
architects. He also studied under Clérisseau in Paris, with whom and
with the sculptor Wilton he lived at Rome. In 1755 he returned to
England with Cipriani and Wilton, and married the beautiful daughter of
the latter. His first important commission was a villa for Lord
Bessborough at Roehampton, but he made his reputation by the grounds he
laid out and the buildings he erected at Kew between 1757 and 1762 for
Augusta, princess dowager of Wales. Some of them have since been
demolished, but the most important, the pagoda, still survives. The
publication in a handsome volume of the designs for these buildings
assured his position in the profession. He was employed to teach
architectural drawing to the prince of Wales (George III.), and gained
further professional distinction in 1759 by the publication of his
_Treatise of Civil Architecture_. He began to exhibit with the Society
of Artists in 1761 at Spring Gardens, and was one of the original
members and treasurer of the Royal Academy when it was established in
1768. In 1772 he published his _Dissertation on Oriental Gardening_,
which attempted to prove the inferiority of European to Chinese
landscape gardening. As a furniture designer and internal decorator he
is credited with the creation of that "Chinese Style" which was for a
time furiously popular, although Thomas Chippendale (q.v.) had published
designs in that manner at a somewhat earlier date. It is not
unreasonable to count the honours as divided, since Chippendale
unquestionably adapted and altered the Chinese shapes in a manner better
to fit them for European use. To the rage for every possible form of
_chinoiserie_, for which he is chiefly responsible, Sir William Chambers
owed much of his success in life. He became architect to the king and
queen, comptroller of his majesty's works, and afterwards
surveyor-general. In 1775 he was appointed architect of Somerset House,
his greatest monument, at a salary of £2000 a year. He also designed
town mansions for Earl Gower at Whitehall and Lord Melbourne in
Piccadilly, built Charlemont House, Dublin, and Duddingston House near
Edinburgh. He designed the market house at Worcester, was employed by
the earl of Pembroke at Wilton, by the duke of Marlborough at Blenheim,
and by the duke of Bedford in Bloomsbury. The state coach of George
III., his constant patron, was his work; it is now in the Victoria and
Albert Museum. Although his practice was mainly Classic, he made Gothic
additions to Milton Abbey in Dorset. Sir William Chambers achieved
considerable distinction as a designer of furniture. In addition to his
work in the Chinese style and in the contemporary fashions, he was the
author of what is probably the most ambitious and monumental piece of
furniture ever produced in England. This was a combined bureau,
dressing-case, jewel-cabinet and organ, made for Charles IV., king of
Spain, in 1793. These combination pieces were in the taste of the time,
and the effort displays astonishing ingenuity and resource. The panels
were painted by W. Hamilton, R.A., with representations of the four
seasons, night and morning, fire and water, Juno and Ceres, together
with representations of the Golden Fleece and the Immaculate Conception.
The organ, in the domed top, is in a case decorated with ormolu and
Wedgwood. This remarkable achievement, which possesses much sober
elegance, formed part of the loan collection of English furniture at the
Franco-British Exhibition in London in 1908. Sir William Chambers
numbered among his friends Dr Johnson, Goldsmith, Sir Joshua Reynolds,
David Garrick and Dr Burney.



CHAMBERS (the Fr. _chambre_, from Lat. _camera_, a room), a term used
generally of rooms or apartments, but especially in law of the offices
of a lawyer or the semi-private rooms in which judges or judicial
officers deal with questions of practice and other matters not of
sufficient importance to be dealt with in court. It is a matter of doubt
at what period the practice of exercising jurisdiction "in chambers"
commenced in England; there is no statutory sanction before 1821, though
the custom can be traced back to the 17th century. An act of 1821
provided for sittings in chambers between terms, and an act of 1822
empowered the sovereign to call upon the judges by warrant to sit in
chambers on as many days in vacation as should seem fit, while the Law
Terms Act 1830 defined the jurisdiction to be exercised at chambers. The
Judges' Chambers Act 1867 was the first act, however, to lay down proper
regulations for chamber work, and the Judicature Act 1873 preserved that
jurisdiction and gave power to increase it as might be directed or
authorized by rules of court to be thereafter made. (See CHANCERY;
KING'S BENCH, COURT OF.)



CHAMBERSBURG, a borough and the county-seat of Franklin county,
Pennsylvania, U.S.A., at the confluence of Conoco-cheague Creek and
Falling Spring, 52 m. S.W. of Harrisburg. Pop. (1890) 7863; (1900) 8864,
of whom 769 were negroes; (1910) 11,800. It is served by the Cumberland
Valley and the Western Maryland railways, and is connected by electric
lines with Greencastle, Waynesboro, Caledonia, a beautiful park in the
Pennsylvania timber reservation, on South Mountain, 12 m. east of
Chambersburg, and Pen Mar, a summer resort, on South Mountain, near the
boundary line between Pennsylvania and Maryland. Chambersburg is built
on an elevated site in the broad and fertile Cumberland Valley, and
commands a fine view of the distant hills and dales. The borough is the
seat of Chambersburg Academy, a preparatory school; Penn Hall, a school
for girls; and Wilson College, a Presbyterian institution for women,
opened in 1870. The Wilson College campus, the former estate of Col. A.
K. McClure (1828-1909), a well-known journalist, was laid out by Donald
G. Mitchell ("Ik Marvel"), who was an enthusiastic landscape gardener.
The shops of the Cumberland Valley railway are at Chambersburg, and
among the borough's manufactures are milling machinery, boilers,
engines, hydraulic presses, steam-hammers, engineering and bridge
supplies, hosiery, shoes, gloves, furniture, flour, paper, leather,
carriages and agricultural implements; the total value of its factory
product in 1905 was $1,085,185. The waterworks and the electric-lighting
plant are owned and operated by the municipality. A settlement was
founded here in 1730 by Benjamin Chambers, in whose honour the borough
was named, and who, immediately after General Edward Braddock's defeat
in 1755, built a stone fort and surrounded it with a stockade for the
protection of the community from the Indians. Chambersburg was laid out
in 1764 and was incorporated as a borough in 1803. On the 30th of July
1864 Chambersburg was occupied by a Confederate cavalry force under
General McCausland (acting under General Jubal A. Early's orders), who,
upon the refusal of the citizens to pay $100,000 for immunity, burned a
large part of the borough.



CHAMBÉRY, a city of France, capital of the department of Savoie,
pleasantly situated in a fertile district, between two hills, on the
rivers Leysse and Albane, 79 m. by rail S.S.W. of Geneva. Pop. (1906)
town, 16,852; commune, 23,027. The town is irregularly built, and has
only two good streets--the Place Saint-Léger and the Rue de Boigne, the
latter being named after General Benoît Boigne (1741-1830), who left a
fortune of 3,400,000 francs (accumulated in India) to the town. The
principal buildings are the cathedral, dating from the 14th and 15th
centuries; the Hôtel-Dieu, founded in 1647; the castle, a modern
building serving as the prefecture, and preserving only a great square
tower belonging to the original structure; the palace of justice, the
theatre, the barracks, and the covered market, which dates from 1863.
Several of the squares are adorned with fountains; the old ramparts of
the city, destroyed during the French Revolution, have been converted
into public walks; and various promenades and gardens have been
constructed. Chambéry is the seat of an archbishop (raised to that
dignity from a bishopric in 1817) and of a superior tribunal. It has
also a Jesuit college, a royal academical society, a society of
agriculture and commerce, a public library with 60,000 volumes, a museum
(antiquities and paintings), a botanic garden, and many charitable
institutions. It manufactures silk-gauze, lace, leather and hats, and
has a considerable trade in liqueurs, wine, lead, copper and other
articles. Overlooking the town on the north is the Rocher de Lémenc,
which derives its name from the _Lemincum_ of the Romans; and in the
vicinity is Les Charmettes, for some time (1736-1740) the residence of
Rousseau.

The origin of Chambéry is unknown, but its lords are mentioned for the
first time in 1029. In 1232 it was sold to the count of Savoy, Thomas
I., who bestowed several important privileges on the inhabitants. As
capital of the duchy of Savoy, it has passed through numerous political
vicissitudes. Between 1536 and 1713 it was several times occupied by the
French; in 1742 it was captured by a Franco-Spanish army; and in 1792 it
was occupied by the Republican forces, and became the capital of the
department of Mont Blanc. Restored to the house of Savoy by the treaties
of Vienna and Paris, it was again surrendered to France in 1860. Among
the famous men whom it has given to France, the most important are
Vaugelas (1585-1650), Saint-Réal (1639-1692), and the brothers Joseph
(1754-1821) and Xavier (1763-1852) de Maistre.



CHAMBORD, HENRI CHARLES FERDINAND MARIE DIEUDONNÉ COMTE DE (1820-1883),
the "King Henry V." of the French legitimists, was born in Paris on the
29th of September 1820. His father was the duc de Berry, the elder son
of the comte d'Artois (afterwards Charles X.); his mother was the
princess Caroline Ferdinande Louise of Naples. Born seven months after
the assassination of his father, he was hailed as the "enfant du
miracle," and was made the subject of one of Lamartine's most famous
poems. He was created duc de Bordeaux, and in 1821, as the result of a
subscription organized by the government, received the château of
Chambord. He was educated by tutors inspired by detestation of the
French Revolution and its principles, and from the duc de Damas in
particular imbibed those ideas of divine right and of devotion to the
Church to which he always remained true. After the revolution of July,
Charles X. vainly endeavoured to save the Bourbon cause by abdicating in
his favour and proclaiming him king under the title of Henry V. (August
2, 1830). The comte de Chambord accompanied his grandfather into exile,
and resided successively at Holyrood, Prague, and Görz. In 1841, during
an extensive tour through Europe, he broke his leg--an accident that
resulted in permanent lameness. The death of his grandfather, Charles
X., in 1836, and of his uncle, the duc d'Angoulême, in 1844, left him
the last male representative of the elder branch of the Bourbon family;
and his marriage with the archduchess Maria Theresa, eldest daughter of
the duke of Modena (November 7, 1846), remained without issue. The title
to the throne thus passed to the comte de Paris, as representative of
the Orleans branch of the house of Bourbon, and the history of the comte
de Chambord's life is largely an account of the efforts made to unite
the Royalist party by effecting a reconciliation between the two
princes. Though he continued to hold an informal court, both on his
travels and at his castle of Frohsdorf, near Vienna, yet he allowed the
revolution of 1848 and the _coup d'état_ of 1851 to pass without any
decisive assertion of his claims. It was the Italian war of 1859, with
its menace to the pope's independence, that roused him at last to
activity. He declared himself ready "to pay with his blood for the
triumph of a cause which was that of France, the Church, and God
himself." Making common cause with the Church, the Royalists now began
an active campaign against the Empire. On the 9th of December 1866 he
addressed a manifesto to General Saint-Priest, in which he declared the
cause of the pope to be that of society and liberty, and held out
promises of retrenchment, civil and religious liberty, "and above all
honesty." Again, on the 4th of September 1870, after the fall of the
Empire, he invited Frenchmen to accept a government "whose basis was
right and whose principle was honesty," and promised to drive the enemy
from French soil. These vague phrases, offered as a panacea to a nation
fighting for its life, showed conclusively his want of all political
genius; they had as little effect on the French as his protest against
the bombardment of Paris had on the Germans. Yet fortune favoured him.
The elections placed the Republican party in a minority in the National
Assembly; the abrogation of the law of exile against the royal family
permitted him to return to his castle of Chambord; and it was thence
that on the 5th of July 1871 he issued a proclamation, in which for the
first time he publicly posed as king, and declared that he would never
abandon the white standard of the Bourbons, "the flag of Henry IV.,
Francis I., and Joan of Arc," for the tricolour of the Revolution. He
again quitted France, and answered the attempts to make him renounce his
claims in favour of the comte de Paris by the declaration (January 25,
1872) that he would never abdicate. In the following month he held a
great gathering of his adherents at Antwerp, which was the cause of
serious disturbances. A constitutional programme, signed by some 280
members of the National Assembly, was presented for his acceptance, but
without result. The fall of Thiers in May 1873, however, offered an
opportunity to the Royalists by which they hastened to profit. The comte
de Paris and the prince de Joinville journeyed to Frohsdorf, and were
formally reconciled with the head of the family (August 5). The
Royalists were united, the premier (the duc de Broglie) an open
adherent, the president (MacMahon) a benevolent neutral. MM. Lucien Brun
and Chesnelong were sent to interview the comte de Chambord at Salzburg,
and obtain the definite assurances that alone were wanting. They
returned with the news that he accepted the principles of the French
Revolution and the tricolour flag. But a letter to Chesnelong, dated
Salzburg, 27th of October, declared that he had been misunderstood: he
would give no guarantees; he would not inaugurate his reign by an act of
weakness, nor become "le roi légitime de la Révolution." "Je suis le
pilote nécessaire," he added, "le seul capable de conduire le navire au
port, parce que j'ai mission et autorité pour cela." This outspoken
adherence to the principle of divine right did credit to his honesty,
but it cost him the crown. The duc de Broglie carried the septennate,
and the Republic steadily established itself in popular favour. A last
effort was made in the National Assembly in June 1874 by the duc de la
Rochefoucauld-Bisaccia, who formally moved the restoration of the
monarchy. The comte de Chambord on the 2nd of July issued a fresh
manifesto, which added nothing to his former declarations. The motion
was rejected by 272 to 79, and on the 25th of February 1875 the Assembly
definitely adopted the Republic as the national form of government. From
this time the comte de Chambord, though continuing to publish letters on
political affairs, made no further effort to regain the throne. He died
at Frohsdorf on the 24th of August 1883.

  See _Manifestes et programmes politiques de M. le comte de Chambord,
  1848-1873_ (1873), and _Correspondance de la famille royale et
  principalement de Mgr. le comte de Chambord avec le comte de Bouillé_
  (1884). Of the enormous literature relating to him, mention may be
  made of _Henri V et la monarchie traditionnelle_ (1871), _Le Comte de
  Chambord étudié dans ses voyages et sa correspondance_ (1880), and
  _Henri de France_, by H. de Pène (1885).     (H. Sy.)



CHAMBORD, a village of central France, in the department of
Loir-et-Cher, on the left bank of the Cosson, 10 m. E. by N. of Blois by
road. The village stands in the park of Chambord, which is enclosed by a
wall 21 m. in circumference. The celebrated château (see ARCHITECTURE:
_Renaissance Architecture in France_) forms a parallelogram flanked at
the angles by round towers and enclosing a square block of buildings,
the façade of which forms the centre of the main front. The profusion of
turrets, pinnacles, and dormer windows which decorates the roof of this,
the chief portion of the château, constitutes the main feature of the
exterior, while in the interior are a well-preserved chapel of the 16th
century and a famous double staircase, the construction of which permits
two people to ascend and descend respectively without seeing one
another. There are 440 apartments, containing pictures of the 17th
century and souvenirs of the comte de Chambord. The château was
originally a hunting-box of the counts of Blois, the rebuilding of which
was begun by Francis I. in 1526, and completed under Henry II. It was
the residence of several succeeding monarchs, and under Louis XIV.
considerable alterations were made. In the same reign Molière performed
_Monsieur de Pourceaugnac_ and _Le Bourgeois gentilhomme_ for the first
time in the theatre. Stanislaus, king of Poland, lived at Chambord,
which was bestowed by his son-in-law, Louis XV., upon Marshal Saxe. It
was given by Napoleon to Marshal Berthier, from whose widow it was
purchased by subscription in 1821, and presented to the duc de Bordeaux,
the representative of the older branch of the Bourbons, who assumed from
it the title of comte de Chambord. On his death in 1883 it came by
bequest into the possession of the family of Parma.



CHAMBRE ARDENTE (Fr. "burning chamber"), the term for an extraordinary
court of justice in France, mainly held for the trials of heretics. The
name is perhaps an allusion to the fact that the proceedings took place
in a room from which all daylight was excluded, the only illumination
being from torches, or there may be a reference to the severity of the
sentences in _ardente_, suggesting the burning of the prisoners at the
stake. These courts were originated by the Cardinal of Lorraine, the
first of them meeting in 1535 under Francis I. The _Chambre Ardente_
co-operated with an inquisitorial tribunal also established by Francis
I., the duty of which was to discover cases of heresy and hand them over
for final judgment to the _Chambre Ardente_. The reign of Henry II. of
France was particularly infamous for the cruelties perpetrated by this
court on the Huguenots. The marquise de Brinvilliers (q.v.) and her
associates were tried in the _Chambre Ardente_ in 1680. The court was
abolished in 1682.

  See N. Weiss, _La Chambre Ardente_ (Paris, 1889), and F. Ravaisson,
  _Archives de la Bastille_ (Paris, 1866-1884, 16 vols.).



CHAMELEON, the common name of one of the three suborders of Lacertilia
or lizards. The chief genus is _Chamaeleon_, containing most of the
fifty to sixty species of the whole group, and with the most extensive
range, all through Africa and Madagascar into Arabia, southern India and
Ceylon. The Indian species is _Ch. calcaratus_; the dwarf chameleon of
South Africa is _Ch. pumilus_; the giant of the whole tribe, reaching a
total length of 2 ft., is _Ch. parsoni_ of Madagascar. The commonest
species in the trade is _Ch. vulgaris_ of North Africa, introduced into
southern Andalusia. A few queer genera, with much stunted tail, e.g.
_Rhampholeon_, in tropical Africa and _Brookesia_ in Madagascar are the
most aberrant. The common chameleon is the most typical. The head is
raised into a pyramidal crest far beyond the occiput, there is no outer
ear, nor a drum-cavity. The limbs are very long and slender, and the
digits form stout grasping bundles; on the hand the first three form an
inner bundle, opposed to the remaining two; on the foot the inner bundle
is formed by the first and second toe, the outer by the other three
toes. The tail is prehensile, by being rolled downwards; it is not
brittle and cannot be renewed. The eyeballs are large, but the lids are
united into one concentric fold, leaving only the small pupil visible.
The right and left eyes are incessantly moved separately from each other
and literally in every direction, up and down, forwards and straight
backwards, producing the most terrible squinting. Chameleons alone of
all reptiles can focus their eyes upon one spot, and conformably they
alone possess a retinal _macula centralis_, or spot of acutest,
binocular vision. The tongue has attained an extraordinary development.
It is club-shaped, covered with a sticky secretion, and based upon a
very narrow root, which is composed of extremely elastic fibres and
telescoped over the much elongated, style-shaped, copular piece of the
hyoid. The whole apparatus is kept in a contracted state like a spring
in a tube. When the spring is released, so to speak, by filling the
apparatus with blood and by the play of the hyoid muscles, the heavy
thick end shoots out upon the insect prey and is withdrawn by its own
elasticity. The whole act is like a flash. An ordinary chameleon can
shoot a fly at the distance of fully 6 in., and it can manage even a big
sphinx moth.

[Illustration: Left Forefoot of _Chamaeleon o'shaughenesii_, outer
view.]

Another remarkable feature is their changing of colour. This proverbial
power is greatly exaggerated. They cannot assume in succession all the
colours of the rainbow, nor are the changes quick. The common chameleon
may be said to be greenish grey, changing to grass-green or to dull
black, with or without maroon red, or brown, lateral series of patches.
At night the same specimen assumes as a rule a more or less uniform pale
straw-colour. After it has been watched for several months, when all its
possibilities seem exhausted, it will probably surprise us by a totally
new combination, for instance, a black garb with many small yellow
specks, or green with many black specks. Pure red and blue are not in
the register of this species, but they are rather the rule upon the dark
green ground colour of the South African dwarf chameleon. The changes
are partly under control of the will, partly complicated reflex actions,
intentionally adaptive to the physical and psychical surroundings. The
mechanism is as follows. The cutis contains several kinds of specialized
cells in many layers, each filled with minute granules of guanine. The
upper cells are the smallest, most densely filled with crystals, and
cause the white colour by diffusion of direct light; near the Malpighian
layer the cells are charged with yellow oil drops; the deeper cells are
the largest, tinged light brown, and acting as a turbid medium they
cause a blue colour, which, owing to the superimposed yellow drops,
reaches our eye as green; provided always that there is an effective
screen at the back, and this is formed by large chromatophores which lie
at the bottom and send their black pigment half-way up, or on to the top
of the layers of guanine and oil containing cells. When all the pigment
is shifted towards the surface, as near the epidermis as possible, the
creature looks black; when the black pigment is withdrawn into the basal
portions of the chromatophores the skin appears yellow.

The lungs are very capacious, and end in several narrow blind sacs which
extend far down into the body cavity, so that not only the chest but the
whole body can be blown up. This happens when the animals hiss and
fight, as they often do. But when they know themselves discovered, they
make themselves as thin as possible by compressing the chest and belly
vertically by means of their peculiarly elongated ribs. The whole body
is then put into such a position that it presents only its narrow edge
to the enemy, and with the branch of the tree or shrub interposed. They
are absolutely arboreal, but they hibernate in the ground.

The usual mode of propagation is by eggs, which are oval, numerous,
provided with a calcareous shell, and buried in humus, whence they are
hatched about four months later. But a few species, e.g. the dwarf
chameleon, are viviparous.

Chameleons are insectivorous. They prefer locusts, grass-hoppers and
lepidoptera, but are also fond of flies and mealworms. They are
notoriously difficult to keep in good health. They want not only warmth,
but sunshine, and they must have water, which they lick up in drops from
the edges of wet leaves whenever they have a chance. The silliness of
the fable that they live on air is shown by the fact that they usually
die in an absolutely emaciated and parched condition after three or four
months' starvation.     (H. F. G.)

  In astronomy, "Chamaeleon" is a constellation situated near the south
  pole and surrounded by the constellations of Octans, Mensa, Piscis
  volans, Carina (Nauta), Musca and Apus. In chemistry, "chameleon
  mineral" is a name applied to the green mass which is obtained when
  pyrolusite (manganese dioxide) is fused with nitre, since a solution
  in water assumes a purple tint on exposure to the air; this change is
  due to the oxidation of the manganate, which is first formed, to a
  permanganate.



CHAMFER, CHAMPFER or CHAUMFER (Fr. _chanfrein_; possibly from Lat.
_cantus_, corner, and _frangere_, to break), an architectural term; when
the edge or arris of any work is cut off at an angle of 45° in a small
degree, it is said to be "chamfered," while it would be "canted" if on a
large scale. The chamfer is much used in medieval work, and is sometimes
plain, sometimes hollowed out and sometimes moulded. Chamfers are
sometimes "stopped" by a bead or some moulding, but when cut short by a
slope they are generally known as "stop chamfer."



CHAMFORT, SEBASTIEN ROCH NICOLAS (1741-1794), French man of letters, was
born at a little village near Clermont in Auvergne in 1741. He was,
according to a baptismal certificate found among his papers, the son of
a grocer named Nicolas. A journey to Paris resulted in the boy's
obtaining a bursary at the Collège des Grassins. He worked hard,
although he wrote later in one of his most contemptuous epigrams--_"Ce
que j'ai appris je ne le sais plus; le peu que je sais je l'ai diviné."_
His college career ended, Chamfort assumed the dress of a _petit abbé.
"C'est un costume, et non point un état,"_ he said; and to the principal
of his college who promised him a benefice, he replied that he would
never be a priest, inasmuch as he preferred honour to honours--_"j'aime
l'honneur et non les honneurs."_ About this time he assumed the name of
Chamfort.

For some time he contrived to exist by teaching and as a booksellers'
hack. His good looks and ready wit, however, soon brought him into
notice; but though endowed with immense strength--"Hercule sous la
figure d'Adonis," Madame de Craon called him--he lived so hard that he
was glad of the chance of doing a "cure" at Spa when the Belgian
minister in Paris, M. van Eyck, took him with him to Germany in 1761. On
his return to Paris he produced a comedy, _La Jeune Indienne_ (1764),
which was performed with some success, and this was followed by a series
of "epistles" in verse, essays and odes. It was not, however, until
1769, when he won the prize of the French Academy for his _Éloge_ on
Molière, that his literary reputation was established.

Meanwhile he had lived from hand to mouth, mainly on the hospitality of
people who were only too glad to give him board and lodging in exchange
for the pleasure of the conversation for which he was famous. Thus
Madame Helvétius entertained him at Sèvres for some years. In 1770
another comedy, _Le Marchand de Smyrne_, brought him still further into
notice, and he seemed on the road to fortune, when he was suddenly
smitten with a horrible disease. His distress was relieved by the
generosity of a friend, who made over to him a pension of 1200 livres
charged on the _Mercure de France_. With this assistance he was able to
go to the baths of Contrexéville and to spend some time in the country,
where he wrote an _Éloge_ on La Fontaine which won the prize of the
Academy of Marseilles (1774). In 1775, while taking the waters at
Barèges, he met the duchesse de Grammont, sister of Choiseul, through
whose influence he was introduced at court. In 1776 his poor tragedy,
_Mustapha et Zeangir_, was played at Fontainebleau before Louis XVI. and
Marie Antoinette; the king gave him a further pension of 1200 livres,
and the prince de Condé made him his secretary. But he was a Bohemian
naturally and by habit, the restraints of the court irked him, and with
increasing years he was growing misanthropical. After a year he resigned
his post in the prince's household and retired into solitude at Auteuil.
There, comparing the authors of old with the men of his own time, he
uttered the famous _mot_ that proclaims the superiority of the dead over
the living as companions; and there too he presently fell in love. The
lady, attached to the household of the duchesse du Maine, was
forty-eight years old, but clever, amusing, a woman of the world; and
Chamfort married her. They left Auteuil, and went to Vaucouleurs, where
in six months Madame Chamfort died. Chamfort lived in Holland for a time
with M. de Narbonne, and returning to Paris received in 1781 the place
at the Academy left vacant by the death of La Curne de Sainte-Palaye,
the author of the _Dictionnaire des antiquités françaises_. In 1784,
through the influence of Calonne, he became secretary to the king's
sister, Madame Elizabeth, and in 1786 he received a pension of 2000
livres from the royal treasury. He was thus once more attached to the
court, and made himself friends in spite of the reach and tendency of
his unalterable irony; but he quitted it for ever after an unfortunate
and mysterious love affair, and was received into the house of M. de
Vaudreuil. Here in 1783 he had met Mirabeau, with whom he remained to
the last on terms of intimate friendship. whom he assisted with money
and influence, and one at least of whose speeches--that on the
Academies--he wrote.

The outbreak of the Revolution made a profound change in the relations
of Chamfort's life. Theoretically he had long been a republican, and he
now threw himself into the new movement with almost fanatical ardour,
devoting all his small fortune to the revolutionary propaganda. His old
friends of the court he forgot. "Those who pass the river of
revolutions," he said, "have passed the river of oblivion." Until the
31st of August 1791 he was secretary of the Jacobin club; he became a
street orator and entered the Bastille among the first of the storming
party. He worked for the _Mercure de France_, collaborated with Ginguené
in the _Feuille villageoise_, and drew up for Talleyrand his _Adresse au
peuple français_.

With the reign of Marat and Robespierre, however, his uncompromising
Jacobinism grew critical, and with the fall of the Girondins his
political life came to an end. But he could not restrain the tongue that
had made him famous; he no more spared the Convention than he had spared
the court. His notorious republicanism failed to excuse the sarcasms he
lavished on the new order of things, and denounced by an assistant in
the Bibliothèque Nationale, to a share in the direction of which he had
been appointed by Roland, he was taken to the Madelonnettes. Released
for a moment, he was threatened again with arrest; but he had determined
to prefer death to a repetition of the moral and physical restraint to
which he had been subjected. He attempted suicide with pistol and with
poniard; and, horribly hacked and shattered, dictated to those who came
to arrest him the well-known declaration--_"Moi, Sebastien-Roch-Nicolas
Chamfort, déclare avoir voulu mourir en homme libre plutôt que d'être
reconduit en esclave dans une maison d'arrêt"_--which he signed in a
firm hand and in his own blood. He did not die at once, but lingered on
until the 13th of April 1794 in charge of a gendarme, for whose wardship
he paid a crown a day. To the Abbé Sieyès Chamfort had given fortune in
the title of a pamphlet ("_Qu'est-ce que le Tiers-État? Tout. Qu'a-t-il?
Rien_"), and to Sieyès did Chamfort retail his supreme sarcasm, the
famous "_Je m'en vais enfin de ce monde où il faut que le coeur se brise
ou se bronze._" The maker of constitutions followed the dead wit to the
grave.

The writings of Chamfort, which include comedies, political articles,
literary criticisms, portraits, letters, and verses, are colourless and
uninteresting in the extreme. As a talker, however, he was of
extraordinary force. His _Maximes et Pensées_, highly praised by John
Stuart Mill, are, after those of La Rochefoucauld, the most brilliant
and suggestive sayings that have been given to the modern world. The
aphorisms of Chamfort, less systematic and psychologically less
important than those of La Rochefoucauld, are as significant in their
violence and iconoclastic spirit of the period of storm and preparation
that gave them birth as the _Réflexions_ in their exquisite restraint
and elaborate subtlety are characteristic of the tranquil elegance of
their epoch; and they have the advantage in richness of colour, in
picturesqueness of phrase, in passion, in audacity. Sainte-Beuve
compares them to "well-minted coins that retain their value," and to
keen arrows that "_arrivent brusquement et sifflent encore._"

  An edition of his works--_OEuvres complètes de Nicolas Chamfort_--Was
  published at Paris in five volumes in 1824-1825. Selections--_OEuvres
  de Chamfort_--in one volume, appeared in 1852, with a biographical and
  critical preface by Arsène Houssaye, reprinted from the _Revue des
  deux mondes_; and _Oeuvres choisies_ (2 vols.), with a preface and
  notes by M. de Lescure (1879). See also Sainte-Beuve, _Causeries du
  Lundi_.



CHAMIER, FREDERICK (1796-1870), English novelist, was the son of an
Anglo-Indian official. In 1809 he entered the navy, and was in active
service until 1827. He retired in 1833, and was promoted to be captain
in 1856. On his retirement he settled near Waltham Abbey, and wrote
several nautical novels on the lines popularized by Marryat, that had
considerable success. These were _The Life of a Sailor_ (1832), _Ben
Brace_ (1836), _The Arethusa_ (1837), _Jack Adams_ (1838), _Tom Bowling_
(1841) and _Jack Malcolm's Log_ (1846). He wrote a number of other
books, and edited and brought down to 1827 James's _Naval History_
(1837).



CHAMILLART, MICHEL (1652-1721), French statesman, minister of Louis
XIV., was born at Paris of a family of the noblesse of recent elevation.
Following the usual career of a statesman of his time he became in turn
councillor of the parlement of Paris (1676), master of requests (1686),
and intendant of the generality of Rouen (January 1689). Affable, of
polished manners, modest and honest, Chamillart won the confidence of
Madame de Maintenon and pleased the king. In 1690 he was made intendant
of finances, and on the 5th of September 1699 the king appointed him
controller-general of finances, to which he added on the following 7th
of January the ministry of war. From the first Chamillart's position was
a difficult one. The deficit amounted to more than 53 million livres,
and the credit of the state was almost exhausted. He lacked the great
intelligence and energy necessary for the situation, and was unable to
moderate the king's warlike tastes, or to inaugurate economic reforms.
He could only employ the usual expedients of the time--the immoderate
sale of offices, the debasement of the coinage (five times in six
years), reduction of the rate of interest on state debts, and increased
taxation. He attempted to force into circulation a kind of paper money,
_billets de monnaie_, but with disastrous results owing to the state of
credit. He studied Vauban's project for the royal tithe and
Boisguillebert's proposition for the _taille_, but did not adopt them.
In October 1706 he showed the king that the debts immediately due
amounted to 288 millions, and that the deficit already foreseen for 1707
was 160 millions. In October 1707 he saw with consternation that the
revenue for 1708 was already entirely eaten up by anticipation, so that
neither money nor credit remained for 1708. In these conditions
Chamillart, who had often complained of the overwhelming burden he was
carrying, and who had already wished to retire in 1706, resigned his
office of controller-general. Public opinion attributed to him the ruin
of the country, though he had tried in 1700 to improve the condition of
commerce by the creation of a council of commerce. As secretary of state
for war he had to place in the field the army for the War of the Spanish
Succession, and to reorganize it three times, after the great defeats of
1704, 1706 and 1708. With an empty treasury he succeeded only in part,
and he frankly warned the king that the enemy would soon be able to
dictate the terms of peace. He was reproached with having secured the
command of the army which besieged Turin (1706) for his son-in-law, the
incapable duc de la Feuillade. Madame de Maintenon even became hostile
to him, and he abandoned his position on the 10th of June 1709, retiring
to his estates. He died on the 14th of April 1721.

  Chamillart's papers have been published by G. Esnault, _Michel
  Chamillart, contrôleur général et secrétaire d'état de la guerre,
  correspondance et papiers inédits_ (2 vols., Paris, 1885); and by A.
  de Boislisle in vol. 2 of his _Correspondance des contrôleurs
  généraux_ (1883). See D'Auvigny, _Vies des hommes illustres_ (1739),
  tome vi. pp. 288-402; E. Moret, _Quinze années du règne de Louis XIV_
  (Paris, 1851); and the new edition of the _Mémoires de St-Simon_, by
  A. de Boislisle.



CHAMINADE, CÉCILE (1861-   ), French musical composer, was born at Paris
on the 8th of August 1861. She studied in Paris, her musical talent
being shown at the age of eight by the writing of some church music
which attracted Bizet's attention; and at eighteen she came out in
public as a pianist. Her own compositions, both songs (in large numbers)
and instrumental pieces, were soon produced in profusion: melodious and
interesting, and often charming, they became very popular, without being
entitled to rank with the greater style of music. Both in Paris and in
England Mlle Chaminade and her works became well known at the principal
concerts. In 1908 she visited America and was warmly welcomed.



CHAMISSO, ADELBERT VON [LOUIS CHARLES ADELAIDE DE] (1781-1838), German
poet and botanist, was born at the château of Boncourt in Champagne,
France, the ancestral seat of his family, on the 30th of January 1781.
Driven from France by the Revolution, his parents settled in Berlin,
where in 1796 young Chamisso obtained the post of page-in-waiting to the
queen, and in 1798 entered a Prussian infantry regiment as ensign. His
family were shortly afterwards permitted to return to France; he,
however, remained behind and continued his career in the army. He had
but little education, but now sought distraction from the soulless
routine of the Prussian military service in assiduous study. In
collaboration with Varnhagen von Ense, he founded in 1803 the _Berliner
Musenalmanach_, in which his first verses appeared. The enterprise was a
failure, and, interrupted by the war, it came to an end in 1806. It
brought him, however, to the notice of many of the literary celebrities
of the day and established his reputation as a rising poet. He had
become lieutenant in 1801, and in 1805 accompanied his regiment to
Hameln, where he shared in the humiliations following the treasonable
capitulation of that fortress in the ensuing year. Placed on parole he
went to France, where he found that both his parents were dead; and,
returning to Berlin in the autumn of 1807, he obtained his release from
the service early in the following year. Homeless and without a
profession, disillusioned and despondent, he lived in Berlin until 1810,
when, through the services of an old friend of the family, he was
offered a professorship at the _lycée_ at Napoléonville in La Vendée. He
set out to take up the post, but drawn into the charmed circle of Madame
de Staël, followed her in her exile to Coppet in Switzerland, where,
devoting himself to botanical research, he remained nearly two years. In
1812 he returned to Berlin, where he continued his scientific studies.
In the summer of the eventful year, 1813, he wrote the prose narrative
_Peter Schlemihl_, the man who sold his shadow. This, the most famous of
all his works, has been translated into most European languages (English
by W. Howitt). It was written partly to divert his own thoughts and
partly to amuse the children of his friend Hitzig. In 1815 Chamisso was
appointed botanist to the Russian ship "Rurik," which Otto von Kotzebue
(son of August von Kotzebue) commanded on a scientific voyage round the
world. His diary of the expedition (_Tagebuch_, 1821) affords some
interesting glimpses of England and English life. On his return in 1818
he was made custodian of the botanical gardens in Berlin, and was
elected a member of the Academy of Sciences, and in 1820 he married.
Chamisso's travels and scientific researches restrained for a while the
full development of his poetical talent, and it was not until his
forty-eighth year that he turned again to literature. In 1829, in
collaboration with Gustav Schwab, and from 1832 in conjunction with
Franz von Gaudy, he brought out the _Deutsche Musenalmanach_, in which
his later poems were mainly published. He died on the 21st of August
1838.

As a scientist Chamisso has not left much mark, although his
_Bemerkungen und Ansichten_, published in an incomplete form in O. von
Kotzebue's _Entdeckungsreise_ (Weimar, 1821) and more completely in
Chamisso's _Gesammelte Werke_ (1836), and the botanical work, _Übersicht
der nutzbarsten und schädlichsten Gewächse in Norddeutschland_ (1829)
are esteemed for their careful treatment of the subjects with which they
deal. As a poet Chamisso's reputation stands high, _Frauen Liebe und
Leben_ (1830), a cycle of lyrical poems, which was set to music by
Schumann, being particularly famous. Noteworthy are also _Schloss
Boncourt_ and _Salas y Gomez_. In estimating his success as a writer, it
should not be forgotten that he was cut off from his native speech and
from his natural current of thought and feeling. He often deals with
gloomy and sometimes with ghastly and repulsive subjects; and even in
his lighter and gayer productions there is an undertone of sadness or of
satire. In the lyrical expression of the domestic emotions he displays a
fine felicity, and he knew how to treat with true feeling a tale of love
or vengeance. _Die Löwenbraut_ may be taken as a sample of his weird and
powerful simplicity; and _Vergeltung_ is remarkable for a pitiless
precision of treatment.

  The first collected edition of Chamisso's works was edited by J.E.
  Hitzig, 6 vols. (1836); 6th edition (1874); there are also excellent
  editions by M. Koch (1883) and O.F. Walzel (1892). On Chamisso's life
  see J.E. Hitzig, "Leben und Briefe von Adelbert yon Chamisso" (in the
  _Gesammelte Werke_); K. Fulda, _Chamisso und seine Zeit_ (1881); G.
  Hofmeister, _Adelbert von Chamisso_ (1884); and, for the scientific
  side of Chamisso's life, E. du Bois-Raymond, _Adelbert von Chamisso
  als Naturforscher_ (1889).



CHAMKANNI, a small Pathan tribe on the Kohat border of the North-West
Province of India. They inhabit the western part of the Kurmana Valley
in the Orakzai portion of Tirah, but are supposed to be a distinct race.
They took part in the frontier risings of 1897, and during the Tirah
expedition of that year a brigade under General Gaselee was sent to
punish them.



CHAMOIS, the Franco-Swiss name of an Alpine ruminant known in the German
cantons as _Gemse_, and to naturalists as _Rupicapra tragus_ or _R.
rupicapra tragus_. It is the only species of its genus, and typifies a
subfamily, _Rupicaprinae_, of hollow-horned ruminants in some degree
intermediate between antelopes and goats (see ANTELOPE). About equal in
height to a roebuck, and with a short black tail, the chamois is readily
distinguishable from all other ruminants by its vertical,
backwardly-hooked, black horns, which are common to males and females,
although smaller in the latter. Apart from black and white
face-markings, and the black tail and dorsal stripe, the prevailing
colour of the Alpine chamois is chestnut brown in summer, but lighter
and greyer in winter. In the Pyrenees the species is represented by a
small race locally known as the izard; a very brightly-coloured form,
_R.t. picta_, inhabits the Apennines; the Carpathian chamois is very
dark-coloured, and the one from the Caucasus is the representative of
yet another race. A thick under-fur is developed in the winter-coat, as
in all other ruminants dwelling at high altitudes. Chamois are
gregarious, living in herds of 15 or 20, and feeding generally in the
morning or evening. The old males, however, live alone except in the
rutting season, which occurs in October, when they join the herds,
driving off the younger bucks, and engaging in fierce contests with each
other, that often end fatally for one at least of the combatants. The
period of gestation is twenty weeks, when the female, beneath the
shelter generally of a projecting rock, produces one and sometimes two
young. In summer they ascend to the limits of perpetual snow, being only
exceeded in the loftiness of their haunts by the ibex; and during that
season they show their intolerance of heat by choosing such
browsing-grounds as have a northern exposure. In winter they descend to
the wooded districts that immediately succeed the region of glaciers,
and it is there only they can be successfully hunted. Chamois are
exceedingly shy; and their senses, especially those of sight and smell,
very acute. The herd never feeds without having a sentinel posted on
some prominence to give notice of the approach of danger; which is done
by stamping on the ground with the forefeet, and uttering a shrill
whistling note, thus putting the entire herd on the alert. No sooner is
the object of alarm scented or seen than each one seeks safety in the
most inaccessible situations, which are often reached by a series of
astounding leaps over crevasses, up the faces of seemingly perpendicular
rocks, or down the sides of equally precipitous chasms. The chamois will
not hesitate, it is said, thus to leap down 20 or even 30 ft., and this
it effects with apparent ease by throwing itself forward diagonally and
striking its feet several times in its descent against the face of the
rock. Chamois-shooting is most successfully pursued when a number of
hunters form a circle round a favourite feeding ground, which they
gradually narrow; the animals, scenting the hunters to windward, fly in
the opposite direction, only to encounter those coming from leeward.
Chamois-hunting, in spite of, or perhaps owing to the great danger
attending it, has always been a favourite pursuit among the hardy
mountaineers of Switzerland and Tirol, as well as of the amateur
sportsmen of all countries, with the result that the animal is now
comparatively rare in many districts where it was formerly common.
Chamois feed in summer on mountain-herbs and flowers, and in winter
chiefly on the young shoots and buds of fir and pine trees. They are
particularly fond of salt, and in the Alps sandstone rocks containing a
saline impregnation are often met with hollowed by the constant licking
of these creatures. The skin of the chamois is very soft; made into
leather it was the original _shammy_, which is now made, however, from
the skins of many other animals. The flesh is prized as venison.
     (R. L.*)



CHAMOMILE, or Camomile Flowers, the _flores anthemidis_ of the British
Pharmacopoeia, the flower-heads of _Anthemis nobilis_ (Nat. Ord.
_Compositae_), a herb indigenous to England and western Europe. It is
cultivated for medicinal purposes in Surrey, at several places in
Saxony, and in France and Belgium,--that grown in England being much
more valuable than any of the foreign chamomiles brought into the
market. In the wild plant the florets of the ray are ligulate and white,
and contain pistils only, those of the disk being tubular and yellow;
but under cultivation the whole of the florets tend to become ligulate
and white, in which state the flower-heads are said to be double. The
flower-heads have a warm aromatic odour, which is characteristic of the
entire plant, and a very bitter taste. In addition to a bitter
extractive principle, they yield about 2% of a volatile liquid, which on
its first extraction is of a pale blue colour, but becomes a yellowish
brown on exposure to light. It has the characteristic odour of the
flowers, and consists of a mixture of butyl and amyl angelates and
valerates. Angelate of potassium has been obtained by treatment of the
oil with caustic potash, and angelic acid may be isolated from this by
treatment with dilute sulphuric acid. Chamomile is used in medicine in
the form of its volatile oil, of which the dose is ½-3 minims. There is
an official extract which is never used. Like all volatile oils the drug
is a stomachic and carminative. In large doses the infusion is a simple
emetic.

Wild chamomile is _Matricaria Chamomilla_, a weed common in waste and
cultivated ground especially in the southern counties of England. It has
somewhat the appearance of true chamomile, but a fainter scent.



CHAMONIX, a mountain valley in south-east France, its chief village, of
the same name, being the capital of a canton of the arrondissement of
Bonneville in the department of Haute-Savoie. The valley runs from N.E.
to S.W., and is watered by the Arve, which rises in the Mer de Glace. On
the S.E. towers the snowclad chain of Mont Blanc, and on the N.W. the
less lofty, but rugged chain of the Brévent and of the Aiguilles Rouges.
Near the head of the valley is the village of Argentière (4101 ft.),
which is connected with Switzerland by "char" (light carriage) roads
over the Tête Noire and past Salvan, and by a mule path over the Col de
Balme, which joins the Tête Noire route near Trient and then crosses by
a "char" road the Col de la Forclaz to Martigny in the Rhone valley. The
principal village, Chamonix (3416 ft.), is 6 m. below Argentière by
electric railway (which continues via Finhaut to Martigny) and is
visited annually by a host of tourists, as it is the best starting-point
for the exploration of the glaciers of the Mont Blanc chain, as well as
for the ascent of Mont Blanc itself. It is connected with Geneva by a
railway (55 m.). In 1906 the population of the village was 806, of the
commune 3482.

The valley is first heard of about 1091, when it was granted by the
count of the Genevois to the great Benedictine house of St Michel de la
Cluse, near Turin, which by the early 13th century established a priory
therein. But in 1786 the inhabitants bought their freedom from the
canons of Sallanches, to whom the priory had been transferred in 1519.
In 1530 the inhabitants obtained from the count of the Genevois the
privilege of holding two fairs a year, while the valley was often
visited by the civil officials and by the bishops of Geneva (first
recorded visit in 1411, while St Francis de Sales came thither in 1606).
But travellers for pleasure were long rare. The first party to publish
(1744) an account of their visit was that of Dr R. Pococke, Mr W.
Windham and other Englishmen who visited the Mer de Glace in 1741. In
1742 came P. Martel and several other Genevese, in 1760 H.B. de
Saussure, and rather later Bourrit.

  See J.A. Bonnefoy and A. Perrin, _Le Prieuré de Chamonix_ (2 vols.,
  Chambery, 1879 and 1883); A. Perrin, _Histoire de la vallée et du
  prieuré de Chamonix_ (Chambéry, 1887); L. Kurz and X. Imfeld, _Carte
  de la chaîne du Mont Blanc_ (1896; new ed., 1905); L. Kurz, _Climbers'
  Guide to the Chain of Mont Blanc_ (London, 1892); also works referred
  to under BLANC, MONT.     (W. A. B. C.)



CHAMPAGNE, an ancient province of the kingdom of France, bounded N. by
Liége and Luxemburg; E. by Lorraine; S. by Burgundy; and W. by Picardy
and Isle de France. It now forms the departments of Ardennes, Marne,
Aube and Haute Marne, with part of Aisne, Seine-et-Marne, Yonne and
Meuse. Its name--in Latin Campania, "country of plains"--is derived from
the immense plains near Reims, Châlons and Troyes. It was constituted
towards the end of the middle ages by joining to the countship of
Champagne the ecclesiastical duchies of Reims and Langres, together with
the ecclesiastical countship of Châlons. Documents of the 12th and 13th
centuries make it possible to determine the territorial configuration of
the countship of Champagne with greater accuracy than in the case of any
other fief of the crown of France. Formed at random by the acquisitions
of the counts of the houses of Vermandois and Blois, Champagne reckoned
among its dependencies, from 1152 to 1234, the countship of Blois and
Chartres, of which Touraine was a fief, the countship of Sancerre, and
various scattered fiefs in the Bourbonnais and in Burgundy. Officially
called the "countship of Champagne and Brie" since 1217, this state was
formed by the union of the countships of Troyes and Meaux, to which the
greater part of the districts embraced in the country known, since the
beginning of the middle ages, by the name of Champagne and Brie came in
course of time to be attached. Placed under the authority of a single
count in 960, the countships of Troyes and Meaux were not again
separated after 1125. For the counts of Troyes before the 11th century
see TROYES. We confine ourselves here to the counts of Champagne of the
house of Blois.

About 1020 Eudes or Odo I. (Odo II., count of Blois) became count of
Champagne. He disputed the kingdom of Burgundy with the emperor Conrad,
and died in 1037, in a battle near Bar-le-Duc. In 1037 he was succeeded
by his younger son, Stephen II. About 1050 Odo II., son of Stephen II.,
became count. This prince, guilty of murder, found refuge in Normandy,
where he received the castle of Aumale. He took part in 1066 in the
conquest of England, and became earl of Holderness. About 1063 Theobald
(Thibaud) I., count of Blois and Meaux, eldest son of Odo I., became
count of Champagne. In 1077 he seized the countships of Vitry and
Bar-sur-Aube, left vacant by Simon of Valois, who had retired to a
monastery. In 1089 Odo III., second son of Theobald II., became count,
and was succeeded about 1093 by his younger brother, Hugh, who became a
templar in 1125, and gave up the countship to his suzerain, the count of
Blois. In 1125 the countship of Champagne passed to Theobald II. the
Great, already count of Blois and Meaux, and one of the most powerful
French barons of his time. He was related to the royal house of England,
and incurred the displeasure of the king of France, who in 1142 invaded
Champagne and burnt the town of Vitry. After Theobald the Great the
countship of Blois ceased to be the dominant fief of his house and
became the appanage of a younger branch. In 1152 Henry the Liberal,
eldest son of Theobald II., became count of Champagne; he married Mary,
daughter of Louis VII. of France, and went to the crusade in 1178. He
was taken prisoner by the Turks, recovered his liberty through the good
offices of the emperor of the East, and died a few days after his return
to Champagne. In 1181 his eldest son, Henry II., succeeded him under the
tutelage of Mary of France. In 1190 he went to the Holy Land, and became
king of Jerusalem in 1192 by his marriage with Isabelle, widow of the
marquis of Montferrat. He died in 1197 in his town of Acre from the
results of an accident. In 1197 Theobald III., younger son of Henry I.,
became count, and was succeeded in 1201 by Theobald IV., "le
Chansonnier" (the singer), who was the son of Theobald III. and Blanche
of Navarre, and was born some days after the death of his father. From
1201 to 1222 he remained under the tutelage of his mother, who governed
Champagne with great sagacity. The reign of this prince was singularly
eventful. The two daughters of count Henry II. successively claimed the
countship, so that Theobald had to combat the claims of Philippa, wife
of Erard of Brienne, seigneur of Rameru, from 1216 to 1222, and those of
Alix, queen dowager of Cyprus, in 1233 and 1234. In 1226 he followed
king Louis VII. to the siege of Avignon, and after the death of that
monarch played a prominent part during the reign of St Louis. At first
leagued with the malcontent barons, he allowed himself to be gained over
by the queen-mother, and thus came into collision with his old allies.
He became king of Navarre in 1234 by the death of his maternal uncle,
Sancho VII. but by the onerous treaty which he concluded in that year
with the queen of Cyprus he was compelled to cede to the king, in return
for a large sum of money, the overlordship of the countships of Blois,
Chartres and Sancerre, and the viscounty of Châteaudun. In 1239 and 1240
he took part in an expedition to the Holy Land, probably accompanied St
Louis in 1242 in the campaign of Saintonge against the English, and died
on the 14th of July 1254 at Pampeluna. If the author of the _Grandes
chroniques de France_ can be believed, Theobald IV. conceived a passion
for Queen Blanche, the mother of St Louis,--a passion which she
returned, and which explains the changes in his policy; but this opinion
apparently must be relegated to the category of historical fables. The
witty and courtly songs he composed place him in the front rank of the
poets of that class, in which he showed somewhat more originality than
his rivals. In 1254 Theobald V. the Young, eldest son of Theobald IV.
and, like his father, king of Navarre, became count of Champagne. He
married Isabelle of France, daughter of St Louis, and followed his
father-in-law to Tunis to the crusade, dying on his return. In 1270 he
was succeeded by Henry III. the Fat, king of Navarre. Henry was
succeeded in 1274 by his only daughter, Joan of Navarre, under the
tutelage of her mother, Blanche of Artois, and afterwards of Edmund,
earl of Lancaster, her mother's second husband. In 1284 she married the
heir-presumptive to the throne of France, Philip the Fair, to whom she
brought the countship of Champagne as well as the kingdom of Navarre.
She became queen of France in 1285, and died on the 4th of April 1305,
when her eldest son by King Philip, Louis Hutin, became count of
Champagne. He was the last independent count of the province, which
became attached to the French crown on his accession to the throne of
France in 1314.

The celebrated fairs of Champagne, which flourished in the 12th and 13th
centuries, were attended by merchants from all parts of civilized
Europe. They were six in number: two at Troyes, two at Provins, one at
Lagny-sur-Marne, and one at Bar-sur-Aube. They formed a kind of
continuous market, divided into six periods, and passed in turn from
Lagny to Bar, from Bar to Provins, from Provins to Troyes, from Troyes
to Provins and from Provins to Troyes, to complete the year. It was, in
fact, a perpetual fair, which had at once unity and variety, offering to
the different parts of the countship the means of selling successively
the special productions of their soil or their industry, and of
procuring in exchange riches and comforts. These fairs had special
legislation; and special magistrates, called "masters of the fairs," had
control of the police.

  For the wine "champagne" see WINE.

  AUTHORITIES.--H. d'Arbois de Jubainville, _Histoire des ducs et des
  comtes de Champagne_ (1859-1866); A. Longnon, _Documents relatifs au
  comté de Champagne et de Brie_ (1901 seq.; vol. i. with map); F.
  Bourquelot, _Études sur les foires de Champagne_ (1865).     (A. Lo.)



CHAMPAGNY, JEAN BAPTISTE NOMPÈRE DE (1756-1834), French politician, was
born at Roanne, and entered the navy in 1774. He fought through the war
in America and resigned in 1787. Elected deputy by the _noblesse_ of
Forex to the states-general in 1789, he went over to the third estate on
the 21st of June and collaborated in the work of the Constituent
Assembly, especially occupying himself with the reorganization of the
navy. A political career seems to have attracted him little; he remained
in private life from 1791 to 1799, when Napoleon named him member of the
council of state. From July 1801 to August 1804 he was ambassador of
France at Vienna, and directed with great intelligence the incessant
negotiations between the two courts. In August 1804 Napoleon made him
minister of the interior, and in this position, which he held for three
years, he proved an administrator of the first order. In addition to the
ordinary charges of his office, he had to direct the recruitment of the
army, organize the industrial exhibition of 1808, and to complete the
public works undertaken in Paris and throughout France. He was devoted
to Napoleon, on whom he lavished adulation in his speeches. In August
1807 the emperor chose him to succeed Talleyrand as minister for
foreign affairs. He directed the annexation of the Papal States in April
1808, worked to secure the abdication of Charles IV. of Spain in May
1808, negotiated the peace of Vienna (1809) and the marriage of
Napoleon. In April 1811 a quarrel with the emperor led to his
retirement, and he obtained the sinecure office of intendant general of
the crown. In 1814, after the abdication, the empress sent him on a
fruitless mission to the emperor of Austria. Then he went over to the
Bourbons. During the Hundred Days he again joined Napoleon. This led to
his exclusion by Louis XVIII., but in 1819 he recovered his dignity of
peer. He died in Paris in 1834. He had three sons who became men of
distinction. François (1804-1882) was a well-known author, who was made
a member of the French Academy in 1869. His great work was a history of
the Roman empire, in three parts, (1) _Les Césars_ (1841-1843, 4 vols.),
(2) _Les Antonins_ (1863, 3 vols.), (3) _Les Césars du IIIe siècle_
(1870, 3 vols.). Napoléon (1806-1872) published a _Traité de la police
municipale_ in 4 volumes (1844-1861), and was a deputy in the Corps
Législatif from 1852 to 1870. Jérome Paul (1809-1886) was also deputy in
the Corps Législatif from 1853 to 1870, and was made honorary
chamberlain in 1859. He worked at the official publication of the
correspondence of Napoleon I.



CHAMPAIGN, a city of Champaign county, Illinois, U.S.A., about 125 m. S.
by W. of Chicago, on the head-waters of the Vermilion river. Pop. (1890)
5839; (1900) 9098, of whom 973 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 12,421.
It is served by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the
Wabash, and the Illinois Central railways (the last having repair shops
here), and by the Illinois (electric) Traction System from Danville,
Illinois, to St Louis, Missouri. In 1906 the city covered 3.5 sq. m.; it
is situated in a rich agricultural region, and has small manufacturing
interests. Immediately east of Champaign is the city of Urbana, the
county-seat of Champaign county, served by the Wabash and the Cleveland,
Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis railways, with repair shops of the
latter. In 1890 the population of Urbana was 3511; in 1900, 5728 (300
foreign-born); in 1910, 8245. Partly in Urbana and partly in Champaign
is the University of Illinois (see ILLINOIS); immediately south of its
campus is the 400-acre farm of the university. Each city has a public
library, and in Champaign are the Burnham Athenaeum, the Burnham
hospital, the Garwood home for old ladies, and several parks, all gifts
of former citizens. Champaign was founded in 1855, incorporated as a
city in 1860, and re-chartered in 1883. Urbana secured a city charter in
1855.



CHAMPAIGNE, PHILIPPE DE (1602-1674), Belgian painter of the French
school, was born at Brussels of a poor family. He was a pupil of J.
Fouquières; and, going to Paris in 1621, was employed by N. Du Chesne to
paint along with Nicholas Poussin in the palace of the Luxembourg. His
best works are to be found at Vincennes, and in the church of the
Carmelites at Paris, where is his celebrated Crucifix, a signal
perspective success, on one of the vaultings. After the death of Du
Chesne, Philippe became first painter to the queen of France, and
ultimately rector of the Academy of Paris. As his age advanced and his
health failed, he retired to Port Royal, where he had a daughter
cloistered as a nun, of whom (along with Catherine Agnès Arnauld) he
painted a celebrated picture, now in the Louvre, highly remarkable for
its solid unaffected truth. This, indeed, is the general character of
his work,--grave reality, without special elevation or depth of
character, or charm of warm or stately colour. He produced an immense
number of paintings, religious and other subjects as well as portraits,
dispersed over various parts of France, and now over the galleries of
Europe. Philippe was a good man, indefatigable, earnest and scrupulously
religious. He died on the 12th of August 1674.



CHAMPARAN, or CHUMPARUN, a district of British India, in the Patna
division of Bengal, occupying the north-west corner of Behar, between
the two rivers Gandak and Baghmati and the Nepal hills. It has an area
of 3531 sq. m. In 1901 the population was 1,790,463, showing a decrease
of 4% in the decade. A broad grass-covered road or embankment defines
the Nepal frontier, except where rivers or streams form a natural
boundary. The district is a vast level except in the N. and N.W., where
it undulates, and gradually assumes a rugged appearance as it approaches
the mountains and forests of Nepal. Wide uncultivated tracts cover its
north-western corner; the southern and western parts are carefully
cultivated, and teem with an active agricultural population. The
principal rivers are the Gandak, navigable all the year round, the Buri
Gandak, Panch Nadi, Lalbagia, Koja and Teur. Old beds of rivers
intersect Champaran in every direction, and one of these forms a chain
of lakes which occupy an area of 139 sq. m. in the centre of the
district. Champaran, with the rest of Bengal and Behar, was acquired by
the British in 1765. Up to 1866 it remained a subdivision of Saran. In
that year it was separated and formed into a separate district. The
administrative headquarters are at Motihari (population, 13,730); Bettia
is the centre of a very large estate; Segauli, still a small military
station, was the scene of a massacre during the Mutiny. Champaran was
the chief seat of indigo planting in Behar before the decline of that
industry. There are about 40 saltpetre refineries. The district suffered
severely from drought in 1866 and 1874, and again in 1897. In the last
year a small government canal was opened, and a canal from the Gandak
has also been constructed. The district is traversed almost throughout
its length to Bettia by the Tirhoot state railway. A considerable trade
is conducted with Nepal.



CHAMPEAUX, WILLIAM OF [GULIELMUS CAMPELLENSIS] (c. 1070-1121), French
philosopher and theologian was born at Champeaux near Melun. After
studying under Anselm of Laon and Roscellinus, he taught in the school
of the cathedral of Notre Dame, of which he was made canon in 1103.
Among his pupils was Abelard. In 1108 he retired into the abbey of St
Victor, where he resumed his lectures. He afterwards became bishop of
Châlons-sur-Marne, and took part in the dispute concerning investitures
as a supporter of Calixtus II., whom he represented at the conference of
Mousson. His only printed works are a fragment on the Eucharist
(inserted by Jean Mabillon in his edition of the works of St Bernard),
and the _Moralia Abbreviata_ and _De Origine Animae_ (in E. Martène's
_Thesaurus novus Anecdotorum_, 1717, vol. 5). In the last of these he
maintains that children who die unbaptized must be lost, the pure soul
being denied by the grossness of the body, and declares that God's will
is not to be questioned. He upholds the theory of Creatianism (that a
soul is specially created for each human being). Ravaisson-Mollien has
discovered a number of fragments by him, among which the most important
is the _De Essentia Dei et de Substantia Dei_; a _Liber Sententiarum_,
consisting of discussions on ethics and Scriptural interpretation, is
also ascribed to Champeaux. He is reputed the founder of Realism. For
his views and his controversy with Abelard, see SCHOLASTICISM and
ABELARD.

  See Victor Cousin, introduction to his _Ouvrages inédits d'Abélard_
  (1836), and _Fragments pour servir à l'histoire de la philosophie_
  (1865); G.A. Patru, _Wilhelmi Campellensis de natura et de origine
  rerum placita_ (1847); E. Michaud, _Guillaume de Champeaux et les
  écoles de Paris au XIIe siècle_ (2nd ed., 1868); "William of Champeaux
  and his Times" in _Christian Observer_, lxxii. 843; B. Hauréau, _De la
  philosophie scolastique_ (Paris, 1850); Opuscula in J.P. Migne's
  _Patrologia_, clxiii.



CHAMPERTY, or CHAMPARTY (Lat. _campi partitio_, O. Fr. _champ parti_),
in English law, a bargain between a plaintiff or defendant in a cause
and another person, to divide the land (_campum partiri_) or other
matter sued for, if they prevail, in consideration of that person
carrying on or defending the suit at his own expense. It is a
misdemeanour punishable by fine or imprisonment. It differs only from
maintenance (q.v.), in that the recompense for the service which has
been given is always part of the matter in suit, or some profit growing
out of it. So an agreement by a solicitor not to charge costs on
condition of retaining for himself a share of the sums recovered would
be illegal and void. It is not, however, champerty to charge the
subject-matter of a suit in order to obtain the means of prosecuting it.

  See _Fifth Report of the Criminal Law Commissioners_, pp. 34-9.



CHAMPION (Fr. _champion_, Late Lat. _campio_ from _campus_, a field or
open space, i.e. one "who takes the field" or fights; cf. Ger. _Kampf_,
battle, and _Kämpfer_, fighter), in the judicial combats of the middle
ages the substitute for a party to the suit disabled from bearing arms
or specially exempt from the duty to do so (see WAGER). Hence the word
has come to be applied to any one who "champions," or contends on behalf
of, any person or cause. In the laws of the Lombards (lib. ii. tit. 56
§§ 38, 39), those who by reason of youth, age or infirmity could not
bear arms were allowed to nominate champions, and the same provision was
made in the case of women (lib. i. tit. 3 § 6, tit. 16, §2). This was
practically the rule laid down in all subsequent legislation on the
subject. Thus the _Assize of Jerusalem_ (cap. 39) says: "These are the
people who may defend themselves through champions; a woman, a sick man,
a man who has passed the age of sixty, &c." The clergy, too, whether as
individuals or corporations, were represented by champions; in the case
of bishops and abbots this function was part of the duties of the
_advocatus_ (see ADVOCATE). Du Cange gives instances of mercenary
champions (_campiones conductitii_), who were regarded as "infamous
persons" and sometimes, in case of defeat, were condemned to lose hand
or foot. Sometimes championships were "serjeanties," i.e. rendered
service to lords, churches or cities in consideration of the grant of
certain fiefs, or for annual money payments, the champion doing homage
to the person or corporation represented by him (_campiones homagii_).

The office of "king's champion" (_campio regis_) is peculiar to England.
The function of the king's champion, when the ceremonial of the
coronation was carried out in its completeness, was to ride, clad in
complete armour, on his right the high constable, on his left the earl
marshal, into Westminster Hall during the coronation banquet, and
challenge to single combat any who should dispute the king's right to
reign. The challenge was thrice repeated by the herald, at the entrance
to the hall, in the centre, and at the foot of the dais. On picking up
his gauntlet for the third time the champion was pledged by the king in
a gilt-covered cup, which was then presented to him as his fee by the
king. If he had had occasion to fight, and was victorious, his fee would
have been the armour he wore and the horse he rode, the second best in
the royal stables; but no such occasion has ever arisen. This
picturesque ceremonial was last performed at the coronation of George
IV. The office of king's champion is of great antiquity, and its origins
are involved in great obscurity. It is said to have been held under
William the Conqueror by Robert or Roger Marmion, whose ancestors had
been hereditary champions in Normandy. The first authentic record,
however is a charter of Henry I., signed by Robert Marmion (_Robertus de
Bajucis campio regis_). Of the actual exercise of the office the
earliest record dates from the coronation of Richard II. On this
occasion the champion, Sir John Dymoke, appeared at the door of the
Abbey immediately after the coronation mass, but was peremptorily told
to go away and return later; moreover, in his bill presented to the
court of claims, he stated that the champion was to ride in the
procession before the service, and make his challenge to all the world.
This seems to show that the ceremony, as might be expected, was
originally performed _before_ the king's coronation, when it would have
had some significance. The office of king's champion is hereditary, and
is now held by the family of Dymoke (q.v.).

  See Du Cange, _Glossarium_, s.v. "Campio"; L.G. Wickham Legg,
  _English Coronation Records_ (Westminster, 1901); J.H.T. Perkins,
  _The Coronation Book_ (London, 1902).



CHAMPIONNET, JEAN ÉTIENNE (1762-1800), French general, enlisted in the
army at an early age and served in the great siege of Gibraltar. When
the Revolution broke out he took a prominent part in the movement, and
was elected by the men of a battalion to command them. In May 1793 he
was charged with the suppression of the disturbances in the Jura, which
he quelled without bloodshed. Under Pichegru he took part in the Rhine
campaign of that year as a brigade commander, and at Weissenburg and in
the Palatinate won the warm commendation of Lazare Hoche. At Fleurus his
stubborn fighting in the centre of the field contributed greatly to
Jourdan's victory. In the subsequent campaigns he commanded the left
wing of the French armies on the Rhine between Neuwied and Düsseldorf,
and took a great part in all the successful and unsuccessful expeditions
to the Lahn and the Main. In 1798 Championnet was named
commander-in-chief of the "army of Rome" which was protecting the infant
Roman republic against the Neapolitan court and the British fleet.
Nominally 32,000 strong, the army scarcely numbered 8000 effectives,
with a bare fifteen cartridges per man. The Austrian general Mack had a
tenfold superiority in numbers, but Championnet so well held his own
that he ended by capturing Naples itself and there setting up the
Parthenopean Republic. But his intense earnestness and intolerance of
opposition soon embroiled him with the civilians, and the general was
recalled in disgrace. The following year, however, saw him again in the
field as commander-in-chief of the "army of the Alps." This, too, was at
first a mere paper force, but after three months' hard work it was able
to take the field. The campaign which followed was uniformly
unsuccessful, and, worn out by the unequal struggle, Championnet died at
Antibes on the 9th of January 1800. In 1848 a statue was erected in his
honour at Valence.

  See A.R.C. de St Albin, _Championnet, ou les Campagnes de Hollande, de
  Rome et de Naples_ (Paris, 1860).



CHAMPLAIN, SAMUEL DE (1567-1635), French explorer, colonial pioneer and
first governor of French Canada, was born at Brouage, a small French
port on the Bay of Biscay, in 1567. His father was a sea captain, and
the boy was early skilled in seamanship and navigation. He entered the
army of Henry IV., and served in Brittany under Jean d'Aumont, François
de St Luc and Charles de Brissac. When the army of the League was
disbanded he accompanied his uncle, who had charge of the ships in which
the Spanish allies were conveyed home, and on reaching Cadiz secured
(1599) the command of one of the vessels about to make an expedition to
the West Indies. He was gone over two years, visiting all the principal
ports and pushing inland from Vera Cruz to the city of Mexico. The MS.
account of his adventures, _Bref Discours des Choses plus remarquables
que Samuel Champlain de Brouage a recognues aux Indes Occidentales_, is
in the library at Dieppe. It was not published in French until 1870,
although an English translation was printed by the Hakluyt Society in
1859. It contains a suggestion of a Panama Canal, "by which the voyage
to the South Sea would be shortened by more than 1500 leagues." In 1603
Champlain made his first voyage to Canada, being sent out by Aymar de
Clermont, seigneur de Chastes, on whom the king had bestowed a patent.
Champlain at once established friendly relations with the Indians and
explored the St Lawrence to the rapids above Montreal. On his return he
published an interesting and historically valuable little book, _Des
sauvages, ou voyage de Samuel Champlain de Brouage fait en la France
Nouvelle_. During his absence de Chastes had died, and his privileges
and fur trade monopolies were conferred upon Pierre de Guast, sieur de
Monts (1560-1611). With him, in 1604, Champlain was engaged in exploring
the coast as far south as Cape Cod, in seeking a site for a new
settlement, and in making surveys and charts. They first settled on an
island near the mouth of the St Croix river, and then at Port Royal--now
Annapolis, N.S.

Meanwhile the Basques and Bretons, asserting that they were being ruined
by de Monts' privileges, got his patent revoked, and Champlain returned
with the discouraged colonists to Europe. When, however, in modified
form, the patent was re-granted to his patron Champlain induced him to
abandon Acadia and establish a settlement on the St Lawrence, of the
commercial advantages of which, perhaps even as a western route to China
and Japan, he soon convinced him. Champlain was placed in command of one
of the two vessels sent out. He was to explore and colonize, while the
other vessel traded, to pay for the expedition. Champlain fixed on the
site of Quebec and founded the first white settlement there in July
1608, giving it its present name. In the spring he joined a war party of
Algonquins and Hurons, discovered the great lake that bears his name,
and, near the present Ticonderoga, took with his arquebus an important
part in the victory which his savage friends obtained over the Iroquois.
The Iroquois naturally turned first to the Dutch and then to the English
for allies. "Thus did new France rush into collision with the redoubted
warriors of the Five Nations. Here was the beginning, and in some
measure doubtless the cause, of a long suite of murderous conflicts,
bearing havoc and flame to generations yet unborn" (Parkman). Champlain
returned to France and again related to Henry IV.--who had previously
learned his worth and had pensioned him--his exciting adventures. De
Monts failed to secure a renewal of his patent, but resolved to proceed
without it. Champlain was again (1611) in Canada, fighting for and
against the Indians and establishing a trading post at Mont Royal (see
MONTREAL). He was the third white man to descend, and the second to
descend successfully, the Lachine Rapids. De Monts, now governor of
Paris, was too busy to occupy himself in the waning fortunes of the
colony, and left them entirely to his associate. An influential
protector was needed; and Champlain prevailed upon Charles de Bourbon,
comte de Soissons, to interest himself to obtain from the king the
appointment of lieutenant-general in New France. The comte de Soissons
died almost immediately, and was succeeded in the office by Henri de
Bourbon, prince de Condé, and he, like his predecessors and successors,
retained Champlain as lieutenant-governor. "In Champlain alone was the
life of New France. By instinct and temperament he was more impelled to
the adventurous toils of exploration than to the duller task of building
colonies. The profits of trade had value in his eyes only as means to
these ends, and settlements were important chiefly as a base of
discovery. Two great objects eclipsed all others,--to find a route to
the Indies, and to bring the heathen tribes into the embraces of the
Church, since, while he cared little for their bodies, his solicitude
for their souls knew no bounds" (Parkman).

In 1613 Champlain again crossed the Atlantic and endeavoured to confirm
Nicolas de Vignau's alleged discovery of a short route to the ocean by
the Ottawa river, a great lake at its source, and another river flowing
north therefrom. That year he got as far as Allumette Island in the
Ottawa, but two years later, with a "Great War Party" of Indians, he
crossed Lake Nipissing and the eastern ends of Lakes Huron and Ontario,
and made a fierce but unsuccessful attack on an Onondaga fortified town
a few miles south of Lake Oneida. This was the end of his wanderings. He
now devoted himself to the growth and strengthening of Quebec. Every
year he went to France with this end in view. He was one of the hundred
associates of the Company of New France, created by Richelieu to reform
abuses and take over all his country's interests in the new world. These
ill-defended possessions England now prepared to seize. Three ships were
sent out under letters of marque commanded by David, Lewis and Thomas
Kirke, and Quebec, already on the verge of starvation, was compelled to
surrender (1629). Champlain was taken to England a prisoner, but when
Canada was restored to the French he returned (1633) to his post, where
he died on the 25th of December 1635. He had married in 1610, Hélène
Boullé, then but twelve years old. She did not leave France for Canada,
however, until ten years later. After his death she became a nun.

  Champlain's complete works in 6 vols. were published under the
  patronage of the university of Laval in 1870. There is a careful
  translation of _Champlain's Voyages_, by Professor and Mrs E.G. Bourne
  in the "Trailmaker" series edited by Prof. J.B. McMaster. See F.
  Parkman, _Pioneers of France in the New World_ (1865); J. Winsor,
  _Cartier to Frontenac_ (1894); N.E. Dionne, _Champlain_ (1905).
       (N. E. D.)



CHAMPLAIN, a lake lying between the states of New York and Vermont,
U.S.A., and penetrating for a few miles into Canada. It extends about
130 m. from N. to S., varies from ¼ m. to 1 m. in width for 40 m. from
its S. terminus, and then widens until it reaches a maximum width of
about 11 m. near Ausable Point. Its area is about 500 sq. m. Its surface
is 96 ft. above the sea. In the north part it is generally from 200 to
300 ft. deep; opposite Essex, N.Y., near its middle, the depth
increases to 400 ft.; but farther south it is much less; throughout the
greater part of the lake there is a depth of water of more than 100 ft.
Since the lake is caused by the ponding of water in a broad irregular
valley, the shore line is nearly everywhere much broken, and in the
northern portion are several islands, both large and small, most of
which belong to Vermont. These islands divide the lake's northern end
into two large arms which extend into Canada. From the western arm the
Richelieu river flows out, carrying the water of Champlain to the St
Lawrence. The waters abound in salmon, salmon-trout, sturgeon and other
fish, and are navigated from end to end by large steamboats and vessels
of considerable tonnage. The lake was formerly the seat of extensive
traffic, especially in lumber, but navigation has greatly decreased; the
tonnage entering and clearing at the lake was twice as great in the
early '70's as it was thirty years later. The principal ports are
Burlington, Vt., and Plattsburg, N.Y. Lake Champlain lies in a valley
from 1 to 30 m. wide, between the Green Mountains on the east and the
Adirondack Mountains on the west, and the scenery is most picturesque.
On the east side is a rather gradual ascent for 20 m. or more from shore
to summit, while on the west side the ascent is by a succession of
hills, in some places from the water's edge. North of Crown Point low
mountains rise 1000 to 1600 ft. above the lake, and behind these are the
higher peaks of the Adirondacks, reaching an elevation of more than 5000
ft. Lake George is a tributary on the south, several small streams flow
in from each side; the Champlain Canal, 63 m. in length, connects the
lake with the Hudson river; and through the Richelieu it has a natural
outlet to the north into the St Lawrence.

Lake Champlain was named from Samuel de Champlain, who discovered it in
July 1609. The valley is a natural pathway between the United States and
Canada, and during the various wars which the English have waged in
America it had great strategic importance. In 1731 the French built a
fort at Crown Point; in 1756, another at Ticonderoga; and both were
important strategic points in the French and Indian War as well as in
the American War of Independence. On the 11th of October 1776, the first
battle between an American and a British fleet, the battle of Valcour
Island, was fought on the lake. Benedict Arnold, the American commander,
with a decidedly inferior force, withstood the British under Thomas
Pringle for about seven hours, and then during the night escaped through
the enemy's line. Although overtaken the next day he again, after a
fight of a few hours, made a successful retreat.

At the beginning of the War of 1812 the American naval force on the
lake, though very small, was superior to that of the British, but on the
3rd of June 1813 the British captured two American sloops in the narrow
channel at the northern end and gained supremacy. Both sides now began
to build and equip vessels for a decisive contest; by May 1814 the
Americans had regained supremacy, and four months later a British land
force of 11,000 men under Sir George Prevost (1767-1816) and a naval
force of 16 vessels of about 2402 tons with 937 men and 92 guns under
Captain George Downie (d. 1814) confronted an American land force of
1500 men under Brigadier-General Alexander Macomb (1782-1841), strongly
entrenched at Plattsburg, and an American naval force (anchored in
Plattsburg Bay) of 14 vessels of about 2244 tons with 882 men and 86
guns under Commodore Thomas Macdonough (1783-1825). In the open lake the
British naval force should have been the superior, but at anchor in the
bay the Americans had a decided advantage. Expecting the British land
force to drive the American fleet from its anchorage, Captain Downie, on
the 11th of September 1814, began the battle of Lake Champlain. It had
continued only fifteen minutes when he was killed; the land force failed
to co-operate, and after a severe fight at close range for 2½ hours,
during which the British lost about 300 men, the Americans 200 and the
vessels of both sides were greatly shattered, the British retreated both
by land and by water, abandoning their plan of invading New York.

  See C.E. Peet, "Glacial and Post-Glacial History of the Hudson and
  Champlain Valleys," in vol. xii. of the _Journal of Geology_
  (Chicago, 1904); P.S. Palmer, _History of Lake Champlain_ (Albany.
  1866); and Capt. A.T. Mahan, _Sea Power in its Relations to the War of
  1812_ (2 vols., Boston, 1905).



CHAMPMESLÉ, MARIE (1642-1698), French actress, was born in Rouen of a
good family. Her father's name was Desmares. She made her first
appearance on the stage at Rouen with Charles Chevillet (1645-1701), who
called himself sieur de Champmeslé, and they were married in 1666. By
1669 they were playing in Paris at the Théatre du Marais, her first
appearance there being as Venus in Boyer's _Fête de Venus_. The next
year, as Hermione in Racine's _Andromaque_, she had a great success at
the Hôtel de Bourgogne. Her intimacy with Racine dates from then. Some
of his finest tragedies were written for her, but her repertoire was not
confined to them, and many an indifferent play--like Thomas Corneille's
_Ariane_ and _Comte d'Essex_--owed its success to "her natural manner of
acting, and her pathetic rendering of the hapless heroine." _Phèdre_ was
the climax of her triumphs, and when she and her husband deserted the
Hôtel de Bourgogne (see BÉJART _ad fin._), it was selected to open the
Comédie Française on the 26th of August 1680. Here, with Mme Guérin as
the leading comedy actress, she played the great tragic love parts for
more than thirty years, dying on the 15th of May 1698. La Fontaine
dedicated to her his novel _Belphégor_, and Boileau immortalized her in
verse. Her husband distinguished himself both as actor and playwright,
and his _Parisien_ (1682) gave Mme Guérin one of her greatest successes.

Her brother, the actor NICOLAS DESMARES (c. 1650-1714), began as a
member of a subsidized company at Copenhagen, but by her influence he
came to Paris and was received in 1685 _sans début_--the first time such
an honour had been accorded--at the Comédie Française, where he became
famous for peasant parts. His daughter, to whom Christian V. and his
queen stood sponsors, CHRISTINE ANTOINETTE CHARLOTTE DESMARES
(1682-1753), was a fine actress in both tragedy and soubrette parts. She
made her début at the Comédie Française in 1699, in La Grange Chancel's
_Oreste et Pylade_, and was at once received as _sociétaire_. She
retired in 1721.



CHAMPOLLION, JEAN FRANÇOIS (1790-1832), French Egyptologist, called LE
JEUNE to distinguish him from Champollion-Figeac (q.v.), his elder
brother, was born at Figeac, in the department of Lot, on the 23rd of
December 1790. He was educated by his brother, and was then appointed
government pupil at the Lyceum, which had recently been founded. His
first work (1804) was an attempt to show by means of their names that
the giants of the Bible and of Greek mythology were personifications of
natural phenomena. At the age of sixteen (1807) he read before the
academy of Grenoble a paper in which he maintained that the Coptic was
the ancient language of Egypt. He soon after removed to Paris, where he
enjoyed the friendship of Langlès, De Sacy and Millin. In 1809 he was
made professor of history in the Lyceum of Grenoble, and there published
his earlier works. Champollion's first decipherment of hieroglyphics
dates from 1821. In 1824 he was sent by Charles X. to visit the
collections of Egyptian antiquities in the museums of Turin, Leghorn,
Rome and Naples; and on his return he was appointed director of the
Egyptian museum at the Louvre. In 1828 he was commissioned to undertake
the conduct of a scientific expedition to Egypt in company with
Rosellini, who had received a similar appointment from Leopold II.,
grand duke of Tuscany. He remained there about a year. In March 1831 he
received the chair of Egyptian antiquities, which had been created
specially for him, in the Collège de France. He was engaged with
Rosellini in publishing the results of Egyptian researches at the
expense of the Tuscan and French governments, when he was seized with a
paralytic disorder, and died at Paris in 1832. Champollion, whose claims
were hotly disputed for many years after his death, is now universally
acknowledged to have been the founder of Egyptology.

  He wrote _L'Égypte sous les Phraons_ (2 vols. 8vo, 1814); _Sur
  l'écriture hiératique_ (1821); _Sur l'écriture démotique_; _Précis du
  systéme hiéroglyphique_, &c. (1824); _Panthéon égyptien, ou collection
  des personnages mythologiques de l'ancienne Egypte_ (incomplete);
  _Monumens de l'Égypte et de la Nubie considérés par rapport a
  l'histoire, la religion, &c._; _Grammaire égyptienne_ (1836), and
  _Dictionnaire égyptienne_(1841), edited by his brother; _Analyse
  méthodique du texte démotique de Rosette_; _Aperçu des résultats
  historiques de la découverte de l'alphabet hiéroglyphique_ (1827);
  _Mémoires sur les signes employés par les Égyptiens dans leurs trois
  systèmes graphiques à la notation des principales divisions du temps_;
  _Lettres ecrites d'Égypte et de Nubie_ (1833); and also seveial
  letters on Egyptian subjects, addressed at different periods to the
  duc de Blacas and others.

  See H. Hartleben, _Champollion, sein Leben und sein Werk_ (2 vols.,
  1906); also EGYPT: _Language and Writing_ (_ad init._).



CHAMPOLLION-FIGEAC, JACQUES JOSEPH (1778-1867), French archaeologist,
elder brother of Jean François Champollion, was born at Figeac in the
department of Lot, on the 5th of October 1778. He became professor of
Greek and librarian at Grenoble, but was compelled to retire in 1816 on
account of the part he had taken during the Hundred Days. He afterwards
became keeper of manuscripts at the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, and
professor of palaeography at the École des Chartes. In 1849 he became
librarian of the palace of Fontainebleau. He edited several of his
brother's works, and was also author of original works on philological
and historical subjects, among which may be mentioned _Nouvelles
recherches sur les patois ou idiomes vulgaires de la France_ (1809),
_Annales de Lagides_ (1819) and _Chartes latines sur papyrus du VIe
siècle de l'ère chrétienne_. His son AIMÉ (1812-1894) became his
father's assistant at the Bibliothèque Nationale, and besides a number
of works on historical subjects wrote a biographical and bibliographical
study of his family in _Les Deux Champollion_ (Grenoble, 1887).



CHANCE (through the O. Fr. _chéance_, from the Late Lat. _cadentia_,
things happening, from _cadere_, to fall out, happen; cf. "case"), an
accident or event, a phenomenon which has no apparent or discoverable
cause; hence an event which has not been expected, a piece of good or
bad fortune. From the popular idea that anything of which no assignable
cause is known has therefore no cause, chance (Gr. [Greek: tuchê]) was
regarded as having a substantial objective existence, being itself the
source of such uncaused phenomena. For the philosophic theories relating
to this subject see ACCIDENTALISM.

"Chance," in the theory of probability, is used in two ways. In the
stricter, or mathematical usage, it is synonymous with probability; i.e.
if a particular event may occur in n ways in an aggregate of p events,
then the "chance" of the particular event occurring is given by the
fraction _n/p_. In the second usage, the "chance" is regarded as the
ratio of the number of ways which a particular event may occur to the
number of ways in which it may not occur; mathematically expressed, this
chance is _n/(p-n)_ (see PROBABILITY). In the English law relating to
gaming and wagering a distinction is drawn between games of chance and
games of skill (see GAMING AND WAGERING).



CHANCEL (through O. Fr. from Lat. plur. _cancelli_, dim. of _cancer_,
grating, lattice, probably connected with an Indo-European root _Kar_-,
to bend; cf. circus, curve, &c.), in the earliest and strictest sense
that part of a church near the altar occupied by the deacons and
sub-deacons assisting the officiating priest, this space having
originally been separated from the rest of the church by _cancelli_ or
lattice work. The word _cancelli_ is used in classical Latin of a
screen, bar or the like, set to mark off an enclosed space in a building
or in an open place. It is thus used of the bar in a court of justice
(Cicero, _Verres_, ii. 3 seq.). It is particularly used of the lattice
or screen in the ancient basilica, which separated the _bema_, or raised
tribunal, from the rest of the building. The use of the name in
ecclesiastical buildings is thus natural, for the altar stood in the
place occupied by the _bema_ in the apse of the basilica. From the
screen the term was early transferred to the space _inter cancellos_,
i.e. the _locus altaris cancellis septus_. This railed-off space is now
generally known among Roman Catholics as the "sanctuary," the word
chancel being little used. In the Church of England, however, the word
chancel survived the Reformation, and is applied, both in the
ecclesiastical and the architectural sense, to that part of the church
occupied by the principal altar or communion table and by the clergy and
singers officiating at the chief services; it thus includes presbytery,
chancel proper and choir (q.v.), and in this sense, in the case of
cathedrals and other large churches, is often used synonymously with
choir. In this more inclusive sense the early basilican churches had no
chancels, which were a comparatively late development; the _cancelli_,
e.g. of such a church as San Clemente at Rome are equivalent not to the
"chancel screen" of a medieval church but to the "altar rails" that
divide off the sanctuary. In churches of the type that grew to its
perfection in the middle ages the chancels are clearly differentiated
from the nave by structural features: by the raising of the floor level,
by the presence of a "chancel arch," and by a chancel or rood screen
(see ROOD). The chancel screen might be no more than a low barrier, some
4 ft. high, or a light structure of wood or wrought iron; sometimes,
however, they were massive stone screens, which in certain cases were
continued on either side between the piers of the choir and (on the
European continent) round the east end of the sanctuary, as in the
cathedrals of Paris, Bourges, Limoges, Amiens and Chartres. These
screens served the purpose, in collegiate and conventual churches, of
cutting off the space reserved for the services conducted for and by the
members of the chapter or community. For popular services a second high
altar was usually set up to the west of the screen, as formerly at
Westminster Abbey. In parish churches the screen was set, partly to
differentiate the space occupied by the clergy from that reserved for
the laity, partly to support the representation of the crucifixion known
as the Rood. In these churches, too, the chancel is very usually
structurally differentiated by being narrower and, sometimes, less high
than the nave.

In the Church of England, the duty of repairing the chancel falls upon
the parson by custom, while the repair of the body of the church falls
on the parishioners. In particular cases, as in certain London churches,
the parishioners also have to repair the chancel. Where there are both a
rector and a vicar the repairs are shared between them, and this is also
the case where the rector is a lay impropriator. By the rubric of the
English Prayer Book "the chancels shall remain as they have done in
times past," i.e. distinguished from the body of the church by some
partition sufficient to separate the two without interfering with the
view of the congregation. At the Reformation, and for some time after,
this distinction was regarded by the dominant Puritan party as a mark of
sacerdotalism, and services were commonly said in other parts of the
church, the chancels being closed and disused. The rubric, however,
directs that "'Morning and Evening Prayer' shall be used in the
accustomed place in the church, chapel or chancel, except it shall be
otherwise determined by the Ordinary." Chancel screens, with or without
gates, are lawful, but chancellors of dioceses have refused to grant a
faculty to erect gates, as unnecessary or inexpedient.



CHANCELLOR (M. Eng. and Anglo-Fr. _canceler_, _chanceler_, Fr.
_chancelier_, Lat. _cancellarius_), an official title used by most of
the peoples whose civilization has arisen directly or indirectly out of
the Roman empire. At different times and in different countries it has
stood and stands for very various duties, and has been, and is, borne by
officers of various degrees of dignity. The original chancellors were
the _cancelarii_ of Roman courts of justice, ushers who sat at the
_cancelli_ or lattice work screens of a "basilica" or law court, which
separated the judge and counsel from the audience (see CHANCEL). In the
later Eastern empire the _cancellarii_ were promoted at first to
notarial duties. The barbarian kingdoms which arose on the ruin of the
empire in the West copied more or less intelligently the Roman model in
all their judicial and financial administration. Under the Frankish
kings of the Merovingian dynasty the _cancellarii_ were subordinates of
the great officer of state called the _referendarius_, who was the
predecessor of the more modern chancellor. The office became established
under the form _archi-cancellarius_, or chief of the _cancellarii_.
Stubbs says that the Carolingian chancellor was the royal notary and the
arch-chancellor keeper of the royal seal. His functions would naturally
be discharged by a cleric in times when book learning was mainly
confined to the clergy. From the reign of Louis the Pious the post was
held by a bishop. By an equally natural process he became the chief
secretary of the king and of the queen, who also had her chancellor.
Such an office possessed an obvious capacity for developing on the
judicial as well as the administrative side. Appeals and petitions of
aggrieved persons would pass through the chancellor's hands, as well as
the political correspondence of the king. Nor was the king the only man
who had need of a chancellor. Great officers and corporations also had
occasion to employ an agent to do secretarial, notarial and judicial
work for them, and called him by the convenient name of chancellor. The
history of the office in its many adaptations to public and private
service is the history of its development on judicial, administrative,
political, secretarial and notarial lines.


  The chancellor in England.

The model of the Carolingian court was followed by the medieval states
of Western Europe. In England the office of chancellor dates back to the
reign of Edward the Confessor, the first English king to use the Norman
practice of sealing instead of signing documents; and from the Norman
Conquest onwards the succession of chancellors is continuous. The
chancellor was originally, and long continued to be, an ecclesiastic,
who combined the functions of the most dignified of the royal chaplains,
the king's secretary in secular matters, and keeper of the royal seal.
From the first, then, though at the outset overshadowed by that of the
justiciar, the office of chancellor was one of great influence and
importance. As chaplain the chancellor was keeper of the king's
conscience; as secretary he enjoyed the royal confidence in secular
affairs; as keeper of the seal he was necessary to all formal
expressions of the royal will. By him and his staff of chaplains the
whole secretarial work of the royal household was conducted, the
accounts were kept under the justiciar and treasurer, writs were drawn
up and sealed, and the royal correspondence was carried on. He was, in
fact, as Stubbs puts it, a sort of secretary of state for all
departments. "This is he," wrote John of Salisbury (d. 1180), "who
cancels (_cancellat_) the evil laws of the realm, and makes equitable
(_aequa_) the commands of a pious prince," a curious anticipation of the
chancellor's later equitable jurisdiction. Under Henry II., indeed, the
chancellor was already largely employed in judicial work, either in
attendance on the king or in provincial visitations; though the peculiar
jurisdiction of the chancery was of later growth. By this time, however,
the chancellor was "great alike in Curia and Exchequer"; he was
_secundus a rege_, i.e. took precedence immediately after the justiciar,
and nothing was done either in the Curia or the exchequer without his
consent. So great was his office that William FitzStephen, the
biographer of Becket, tells us that it was not purchasable (_emenda non
est_), a statement which requires modification, since it was in fact
more than once sold under Henry I., Stephen, Richard and John (Stubbs,
_Const. Hist._ i. pp. 384-497; Gneist, _Const. Hist. of England_, p.
219), an evil precedent which was, however, not long followed.

The judicial duties of the chancellor grew out of the fact that all
petitions addressed to the king passed through his hands. The number and
variety of these became so great that in 1280, under Edward I., an
ordinance was issued directing the chancellor and the justices to deal
with the greater number of them; those which involved the use of the
great seal being specially referred to the chancellor. The chancellor
and justices were to determine which of them were "so great, and of
grace, that the chancellor and others would not despatch them without
the king," and these the chancellor and other chief ministers were to
carry in person to the king (Stubbs ii. 263, note, and p. 268). At this
period the chancellor, though employed in equity, had ministerial
functions only; but when, in the reign of Edward III., the chancellor
ceased to follow the court, his tribunal acquired a more definite
character, and petitions for grace and favour began to be addressed
primarily to him, instead of being merely examined and passed on by him
to the king; and in the twenty-second year of this reign matters which
were of grace were definitely committed to the chancellor for decision.
This is the starting-point of the equitable jurisdiction of the
chancellor, whence developed that immense body of rules, supplementing
the deficiencies or modifying the harshness of the common law, which is
known as Equity (q.v.).


  The chancellor in parliament.

The position of the chancellor as speaker or prolocutor of the House of
Lords dates from the time when the ministers of the royal Curia formed
_ex officio_ a part of the _commune concilium_ and parliament. The
chancellor originally attended with the other officials, and he
continued to attend _ex officio_ after they had ceased to do so. If he
chanced to be a bishop, he was summoned regularly _qua_ bishop;
otherwise he attended without summons. When not a peer the chancellor
had no place in parliament except as chancellor, and the act of 31 Henry
VIII. cap. 10 (1539) laid down that, if not a peer, he had "no interest
to give any assent or dissent in the House." Yet Sir Robert Bourchier
(d. 1349), the first lay chancellor, had protested in 1341 against the
first statute of 15 Edward III. (on trial by peers, &c.), on the ground
that it had not received his assent and was contrary to the laws of the
realm. From the time, however, of William, Lord Cowper (first lord high
chancellor of Great Britain in 1705, created Baron Cowper in 1706), all
chancellors have been made peers on their elevation to the woolsack.
Sometimes the custody of the great seal has been transferred from the
chancellor to a special official, the lord keeper of the great seal (see
LORD KEEPER); this was notably the case under Queen Elizabeth (cf. the
French _garde des sceaux_, below). Sometimes it is put into commission,
being affixed by lords commissioners of the great seal. By the Catholic
Emancipation Act of 1829 it was enacted that none of these offices could
be held by a Roman Catholic (see further under LORD HIGH CHANCELLOR).
The office of lord chancellor of Ireland, and that of chancellor of
Scotland (who ceased to be appointed after the Act of Union of 1707)
followed the same lines of development.


  Chancellor of the exchequer.

The title of chancellor, without the predicates "high" or "lord," is
also applied in the United Kingdom to a number of other officials and
functionaries of varying rank and importance. Of these the most
important is the chancellor of the exchequer, an office which originated
in the separation of the chancery from the exchequer in the reign of
Henry III. (1216-1272). His duties consisted originally in the custody
and employment of the seal of the exchequer, in the keeping of a
counter-roll to check the roll kept by the treasurer, and in the
discharge of certain judicial functions in the exchequer of account. So
long as the treasury board was in active working, the chancellorship of
the exchequer was an office of small importance, and even during a great
part of the 19th century was not necessarily a cabinet office, unless
held in conjunction with that of first lord of the treasury. At the
present time the chancellor of the exchequer is minister of finance, and
therefore always of cabinet rank (see EXCHEQUER).


  Chancellor of the duchy.

The chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster is the representative of the
crown in the management of its lands and the control of its courts in
the duchy of Lancaster, the property of which is scattered over several
counties. These lands and privileges, though their inheritance has
always been vested in the king and his heirs, have always been kept
distinct from the hereditary revenues of the sovereign, whose palatine
rights as duke of Lancaster were distinct from his rights as king. The
Judicature Act of 1873 left only the chancery court of the duchy, but
the chancellor can appoint and dismiss the county court judges within
the limits of the duchy; he is responsible also for the land revenues of
the duchy, which are the private property of the sovereign, and keeps
the seal of the duchy. His appointment is by letters patent, and his
salary is derived from the revenue of the duchy. As the judicial and
estate work is done by subordinate officials, the office is practically
a sinecure and is usually given to a minister whose assistance is
necessary to a government, but who for one reason or another cannot
undertake the duties of an important department. John Bright described
him as the maid-of-all-work of the cabinet.


  Ecclesiastical chancellors.

The chancellor of a diocese is the official who presides over the
bishop's court and exercises jurisdiction in his name. This use of the
word is comparatively modern, and, though employed in acts of
parliament, is not mentioned in the commission, having apparently been
adopted on the analogy of the like title in the state. The chancellor
was originally the keeper of the archbishop or bishop's seals; but the
office, as now understood, includes two other offices distinguished in
the commission by the titles of vicar-general and official principal
(see ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION). The chancellor of a diocese must be
distinguished from the chancellor of a cathedral, whose office is the
same as that of the ancient _scholasticus_ (see CATHEDRAL).


  Academic, &c.

The chancellor of an order of knighthood discharges notarial duties and
keeps the seal. The chancellor of a university is an official of
medieval origin. The appointment was originally made by the popes, and
the office from the first was one of great dignity and originally of
great power. The chancellor was, as he remains, the head of the
university; he had the general superintendence of its studies and of its
discipline, could make and unmake laws, try and punish offences, appoint
to professorial chairs and admit students to the various degrees (see Du
Cange, s. "_Cancellarii Academiarum_"). In England the chancellorship of
the universities is now a more or less ornamental office and is
conferred on noblemen or statesmen of distinction, whose principal
function is to look after the general interests of the university,
especially in its relations with the government. The chancellor is
represented in the university by a vice-chancellor, who performs the
administrative and judicial functions of the office. In the United
States the heads of certain educational establishments have the title of
chancellor. In Scotland the foreman of a jury is called its chancellor.
In the United States the chancellors are judges of the chancery courts
of the states, e.g. Delaware and New Jersey, where these courts are
still maintained as distinct from the courts of common law. In other
states, e.g. New York since 1847, the title has been abolished, and
there is no federal chancellor.

In diplomacy generally the chancellor of an embassy or legation is an
official attached to the suite of an ambassador or minister. He performs
the functions of a secretary, archivist, notary and the like, and is at
the head of the chancery, or chancellery (Fr. _chancellerie_), of the
mission. The functions of this office are the transcribing and
registering of official despatches and other documents, and generally
the transaction of all the minor business, e.g. marriages, passports and
the like, connected with the duties of a diplomatic agent towards his
nationals in a foreign country. The dignified connotation of the title
chancellor has given to this office a prestige which in itself it does
not deserve; and "chancery" or "chancellery" is commonly used as though
it were synonymous with embassy, while diplomatic style is sometimes
called _style de chancellerie_, though as a matter of fact the
chanceries have nothing to do with it.

_France._--The country in which the office of chancellor followed most
closely the same lines as in England is France. He had become a great
officer under the Carolingians, and he grew still greater under the
Capetian sovereigns. The great chancellor, _summus cancellarius_ or
_archi-cancellarius_, was a dignitary who had indeed little real power.
The post was commonly filled by the archbishop of Reims, or the bishop
of Paris. The _cancellarius_, who formed part of the royal court and
administration, was officially known as the _sub-cancellarius_ in
relation to the _summus cancellarius_, but as _proto-cancellarius_ in
regard to his subordinate _cancellarii_. He was a very great officer, an
ecclesiastic who was the chief of the king's chaplains or king's clerks,
who administered all ecclesiastical affairs; he had judicial powers, and
from the 12th century had the general control of foreign affairs. The
chancellor in fact became so great that the Capetian kings, who did not
forget the mayor of the palace, grew afraid of him. Few of the early
ecclesiastical chancellors failed to come into collision with the king,
or parted with him on good terms. Philip Augustus suspended the
chancellorship throughout the whole of his reign, and appointed a keeper
of the seals (_garde des sceaux_). The office was revived under Louis
VIII., but the ecclesiastical chancellorship was finally suppressed in
1227. The king of the 13th century employed only keepers of the seal.
Under the reign of Philip IV. le Bel lay chancellors were first
appointed. From the reign of Charles V. to that of Louis XI. the French
_chancelier_ was elected by the royal council. In the 16th century he
became irremovable, a distinction more honourable than effective, for
though the king could not dismiss him from office he could, and on some
occasions did, deprive him of the right to exercise his functions, and
entrusted them to a keeper of the seal. The _chancelier_ from the 13th
century downwards was the head of the law, and performed the duties
which are now entrusted to the minister of justice. His office was
abolished when in 1790 the whole judicial system of France was swept
away by the Revolution. The smaller _chanceliers_ of the provincial
parlements and royal courts disappeared at the same time. But when
Napoleon was organizing the empire he created an arch-chancellor, an
office which was imitated rather from the _Erz-Kanzler_ of the Holy
Roman Empire than from the old French _chancelier_. At the Restoration
the office of chancellor of France was restored, the chancellor being
president of the House of Peers, but it was finally abolished at the
revolution of 1848. The administration of the Legion of Honour is
presided over by a _grand chancelier_, who is a grand cross of the
order, and who advises the head of the state in matters concerning the
affairs of the order. The title of _chancelier_ continues also to be
used in France for the large class of officials who discharge notarial
duties in some public offices, in embassies and consulates. They draw up
diplomas and prepare all formal documents, and have charge of the
registration and preservation of the archives.

_Spain._--In Spain the office of chancellor, _canciller_, was introduced
by Alphonso VII. (1126-1157), who adopted it from the court of his
cousins of the Capetian dynasty of France. The _canciller_ did not in
Spain go beyond being the king's notary. The chancellor of the privy
seal, _canciller del sello de la puridad_ (literally the secret seal),
was the king's secretary, and sealed all papers other than diplomas and
charters. The office was abolished in 1496, and its functions were
transferred to the royal secretaries. The _cancelario_ was the
chancellor of a university. The _canciller_ succeeded the _maesescuela_
or _scholasticus_ of a church or monastery. _Canciller mayor de
Castilla_ is an honorary title of the archbishops of Toledo. The _gran
canciller de las Indias_, high chancellor of the Indies, held the seal
used for the American dominions of Spain, and presided at the council in
the absence of the president. The office disappeared with the loss of
Spain's empire in America.

_Italy, Germany, &c._--In central and northern Europe, and in Italy, the
office had different fortunes. In southern Italy, where Naples and
Sicily were feudally organized, the chancellors of the Norman kings, who
followed Anglo-Norman precedents very closely, and, at least in Sicily,
employed Englishmen, were such officers as were known in the West. The
similarity is somewhat concealed by the fact that these sovereigns also
adopted names and offices from the imperial court at Constantinople.
Their chancellor was officially known as Protonotary and Logothete, and
their example was followed by the German princes of the Hohenstaufen
family, who acquired the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily. The papal or
apostolic chancery is dealt with in the article on the Curia Romana
(q.v.). It may be pointed out here, however, that the close connexion of
the papacy with the Holy Roman Empire is illustrated by the fact that
the archbishop of Cologne, who by right of his see was the emperor's
arch-chancellor (_Erz-Kanzler_) for Italy, was confirmed as papal
arch-chancellor by a bull of Leo IX. in 1052. The origin and duration of
this connexion are, however, obscure; it appears to have ceased before
1187. The last record of a papal chancellor in the middle ages dates
from 1212, from which time onward, for reasons much disputed, the head
of the papal chancery bore the title vice-chancellor (Hinschius i. 439),
until the office of chancellor was restored by the constitution
_Sapientius_ of Pius X. in 1908.

The title of arch-chancellor (_Erz-Kanzler_) was borne by three great
ecclesiastical dignitaries of the Holy Roman Empire. The archbishop of
Mainz was arch-chancellor for Germany. The archbishop of Cologne held
the dignity for Italy, and the archbishop of Trier for Gaul and the
kingdom of Arles. The second and third of these dignities became purely
formal with the decline of the Empire in the 13th century. But the
arch-chancellorship of Germany remained to some extent a reality till
the Empire was finally dissolved in 1806. The office continued to be
attached to the archbishopric of Mainz, which was an electorate. Karl
von Dalberg, the last holder of the office, and the first prince primate
of the Confederation of the Rhine, continued to act in show at least as
chancellor of that body, and was after a fashion the predecessor of the
_Bundes Kanzler_, or chancellor of the North German Confederation. The
duties imposed on the imperial chancery by the very complicated
constitution of the Empire were, however, discharged by a
vice-chancellor who was attached to the court of the emperor. The abbot
of Fulda was chancellor to the empress.

The house of Austria in their hereditary dominions, and in those of
their possessions which they treated as hereditary, even where the
sovereignty was in theory elective, made a large and peculiar use of the
title chancellor. The officers so called were of course distinct from
the arch-chancellor and vice-chancellor of the Empire, although the
imperial crown became in practice hereditary in the house of Habsburg.
In the family states their administration was, to use a phrase familiar
to the French, "polysynodic." As it was when fully developed, and as it
remained until the March revolution of 1848, it was conducted through
boards presided over by a chancellor. There were three aulic
chancellorships for the internal affairs of their dominions, "a united
aulic chancellorship for all parts of the empire (i.e. of Austria, not
the Holy Roman) not belonging to Hungary or Transylvania, and a separate
chancellorship for each of those last-mentioned provinces" (Hartig,
_Genesis of the Revolution in Austria_). There were also a house, a
court, and a state chancellor for the business of the imperial household
and foreign affairs, who were not, however, the presidents of a board.
These "aulic" (i.e. court) officers were in fact secretaries of the
sovereign, and administrative or political rather than judicial in
character, though the boards over which they presided controlled
judicial as well as administrative affairs. In the case of such
statesmen as Kaunitz and Metternich, who were house, court, and state
chancellors as well as "united aulic" chancellors, the combination of
offices made them in practice prime ministers, or rather
lieutenants-general, of the sovereign. The system was subject to
modifications, and in the end it broke down under its own complications.
We are not dealing here with the confusing history of the Austrian
administration, and these details are only quoted to show how it
happened that in Austria the title chancellor came to mean a political
officer and minister. There is obviously a vast difference between such
an official as Kaunitz, who as house, court, and state chancellor was
minister of foreign affairs, and as "united aulic" chancellor had a
general superiority over the whole machinery of government, and the lord
high chancellor in England, the _chancelier_ in France, or the
_canciller mayor_ in Castile, though the title was the same. The
development of the office in Austria must be understood in order to
explain the position and functions of the imperial chancellor (_Reichs
Kanzler_) of the modern German empire. Although the present empire is
sometimes rhetorically and absurdly spoken of as a revival of the
medieval Empire, it is in reality an adaptation of the Austrian empire,
which was a continuation under a new name of the hereditary Habsburg
monarchy. The _Reichs Kanzler_ is the immediate successor of the _Bundes
Kanzler_, or chancellor of the North German Confederation (_Bund_). But
the _Bundes Kanzler_, who bore no sort of resemblance except in mere
name to the _Erz-Kanzler_ of the old Empire, was in a position not
perhaps actually like that of Prince Kaunitz, but capable of becoming
much the same thing. When the German empire was established in 1871
Prince Bismarck, who was _Bundes Kanzler_ and became _Reichs Kanzler_,
took care that his position should be as like as possible to that of
Prince Kaunitz or Prince Metternich. The constitution of the German
empire is separately dealt with, but it may be pointed out here that
the _Reichs Kanzler_ is the federal minister of the empire, the chief of
the federal officials, and a great political officer, who directs the
foreign affairs, and superintends the internal affairs, of the empire.

In these German states the title of chancellor is also given as in
France to government and diplomatic officials who do notarial duties and
have charge of archives. The title of chancellor has naturally been
widely used in the German and Scandinavian states, and in Russia since
the reign of Peter the Great. It has there as elsewhere wavered between
being a political and a judicial office. Frederick the Great of Prussia
created a _Gross Kanzler_ for judicial duties in 1746. But there was in
Prussia a state chancellorship on the Austrian model. It was allowed to
lapse on the death of Hardenberg in 1822. The Prussian chancellor after
his time was one of the four court ministries (_Hofämter_) of the
Prussian monarchy.

  AUTHORITIES.--Du Cange, _Glossarium_, s.v. "Cancellarius"; W. Stubbs,
  _Const. Hist. of England_ (1874-1878); Rudolph Gneist, _Hist. of the
  English Constitution_ (Eng. trans., London, 1891); L.O. Pike, _Const.
  Hist. of the House of Lords_ (London, 1894); Sir William R. Anson,
  _The Law and Custom of the Constitution_, vol. ii. part i. (Oxford,
  1907); A. Luchaire, _Manuel des institutions françaises_ (Paris,
  1892); K.F. Stumpf, _Die Reichs Kanzler_ (3 vols., Innsbruck,
  1865-1873); G. Sceliger, _Erzkanzler und Reichskanzleien_ (ib. 1889);
  P. Hinschius, _Kirchenrecht_ (Berlin, 1869); Sir R.J. Phillimore,
  _Eccles. Law_ (London, 1895); P. Pradier-Fodéré, _Cours de droit
  diplomatique_, ii. 542 (Paris, 1899).



CHANCELLORSVILLE, a village of Spottsylvania county, Virginia, U.S.A.,
situated almost midway between Washington and Richmond. It was the
central point of one of the greatest battles of the Civil War, fought on
the 2nd and 3rd of May 1863, between the Union Army of the Potomac under
Major-General Hooker, and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia
under General Lee. (See AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, and WILDERNESS.) General
"Stonewall" Jackson was mortally wounded in this battle.



CHANCE-MEDLEY (from the A.-Fr. _chance-medlée_, a mixed chance, and not
from _chaude-medlée_, a hot affray), an accident of a mixed character,
an old term in English law for a form of homicide arising out of a
sudden affray or quarrel. The homicide has not the characteristic of
"malice prepense" which would raise the death to murder, nor the
completely accidental nature which would reduce it to homicide by
misadventure. It was practically identical, therefore, with
manslaughter.



CHANCERY, in English law, the court of the lord chancellor of England,
consolidated in 1873 along with the other superior courts in the Supreme
Court of Judicature. Its origin is noticed under the head of Chancellor.

It has been customary to say that the court of chancery consists of two
distinct tribunals--one a court of common law, the other a court of
equity. From the former have issued all the original writs passing under
the great seal, all commissions of sewers, lunacy, and the like--some of
these writs being originally kept in a _hanaper_ or hamper (whence the
"hanaper office"), and others in a little sack or bag (whence the
"petty-bag office"). The court had likewise power to hold pleas upon
_scire facias_ (q.v.) for repeal of letters patent, &c. "So little,"
says Blackstone, "is commonly done on the common law side of the court
that I have met with no traces of any writ of error being actually
brought since the fourteenth year of Queen Elizabeth."

The equitable jurisdiction of the court of chancery was founded on the
supposed superiority of conscience and equity over the strict law. The
appearance of equity in England is in harmony with the general course of
legal history in progressive societies. What is remarkable is that,
instead of being incorporated with or superseding the common law, it
gave rise to a wholly independent set of tribunals. The English dislike
of the civil law, and the tendency to follow precedent which has never
ceased to characterize English lawyers, account for this unfortunate
separation. The claims of equity in its earlier stages are well
expressed in the little treatise called _Doctor and Student_, published
in the reign of Henry VIII.:--"Conscience never resisteth the law nor
addeth to it, but only when the law is directly in itself against the
_law of God_, or _law of reason_." So also King James, speaking in the
Star Chamber, says: "Where the rigour of the law in many cases will undo
a subject, then the chancery tempers the law with equity, and so mixes
mercy with justice, as it preserves a man from destruction." This theory
of the essential opposition between law and equity, and of the natural
superiority of the latter, remained long after equity had ceased to
found itself on natural justice, and had become as fixed and rigid as
the common law itself. The jealousy of the common lawyers came to a head
in the time of Lord Ellesmere, when Coke disputed the right of the
chancery to give relief against a judgment of the court of queen's bench
obtained by gross fraud and imposition. James I., after consultation,
decided in favour of the court of equity. The substitution of lay for
clerical chancellors is regarded by G. Spence (_Equitable Jurisdiction
of the Court of Chancery_, 2 vols., 1846-1849) as having at first been
unfortunate, inasmuch as the laymen were ignorant of the principles on
which their predecessors had acted. Lord Nottingham (1621-1682) is
usually credited with the first attempt to reduce the decisions of the
court to order, and his work was continued by Lord Hardwicke
(1690-1764). By the time of Lord Eldon equity had become fixed, and the
judges, like their brethren in the common law courts, strictly followed
the precedents. Henceforward chancery and common law courts have
exhibited the anomaly of two co-ordinate sets of tribunals, empowered to
deal with the same matters, and compelled to proceed in many cases on
wholly different principles. The court of chancery could in most cases
prevent a person from taking advantage of a common law right, not
approved of by its own system. But if a suitor chose to go to a court of
common law, he might claim such unjust rights, and it required the
special intervention of the court of equity to prevent his enforcing
them. In many cases also a special application had to be made to
chancery for facilities which were absolutely necessary to the
successful conduct of a case at common law. Another source of difficulty
and annoyance was the uncertainty in many cases whether the chancery or
common law courts were the proper tribunal, so that a suitor often found
at the close of an expensive and protracted suit that he had mistaken
his court and must go elsewhere for relief. Attempts more or less
successful were made to lessen those evils by giving the powers to both
sets of courts; but down to the consolidation effected by the Judicature
Act, the English judicial system justified the sarcasm of Lord Westbury,
that one tribunal was set up to do injustice and another to stop it.

The equitable jurisdiction of chancery was commonly divided into
_exclusive_, _concurrent_ and _auxiliary_. Chancery had exclusive
jurisdiction when there were no forms of action by which relief could be
obtained at law, in respect of rights which ought to be enforced. Trusts
were the most conspicuous example of this class. It also included the
rights of married women, infants and lunatics. Chancery had concurrent
jurisdiction when the common law did not give _adequate_ relief, e.g. in
cases of fraud, accident, mistake, specific performance of contracts,
&c. It had auxiliary jurisdiction when the administrative machinery of
the law courts was unable to procure the necessary evidence.

The Judicature Act 1873 enacted (§ 24) that in every civil cause or
matter commenced in the High Court of Justice, law and equity should be
administered by the High Court of Justice and the court of appeal
respectively, according to the rules therein contained, which provide
for giving effect in all cases to "equitable rights and other matters of
equity." The 25th section declared the law hereafter to be administered
in England on certain points, and ordained that "generally in all
matters not hereinbefore particularly mentioned in which there is any
conflict or variance between the rules of equity and the rules of the
common law with reference to the same matter, the rules of equity shall
prevail." The 34th section specifically assigned to the chancery
division the following causes and matters:--The administration of the
estates of deceased persons; the dissolution of partnerships, or the
taking of partnership, or other accounts; the redemption or foreclosure
of mortgages; the raising of portions, or other charges on land; the
sale and distribution of the proceeds of property subject to any lien
or charge; the execution of trusts, charitable or private; the
rectification, or setting aside, or cancellation of deeds or other
written instruments; the specific performance of contracts between
vendors and purchasers of real estates, including contracts for leases;
the partition or sale of real estates; the wardship of infants and the
care of infants' estates.

The chancery division originally consisted of the lord chancellor as
president and the master of the rolls, and the three vice-chancellors.
The master of the rolls was also a member of the court of appeal, but
Sir George Jessel, who held that office when the new system came into
force, regularly sat as a judge of first instance until 1881, when, by
the act of that year (sec. 2), the master of the rolls became a member
of the court of appeal only, and provision was made for the appointment
of a judge to supply the vacancy thus occasioned (sec. 3). Sir James
Bacon (1798-1895) was the last survivor of the vice-chancellors. He
retained his seat on the bench until the year 1886, when he retired
after more than seventeen years' judicial service. For some reason the
solicitors, when they had the choice, preferred to bring their actions
in the chancery division. The practice introduced by the Judicature Act
of trying actions with oral evidence instead of affidavits, and the
comparative inexperience of the chancery judges and counsel in that mode
of trial, tended to lengthen the time required for the disposal of the
business. Demand was consequently made for more judges in the chancery
division. By an act of 1877 the appointment of an additional judge in
that division was authorized, and Sir Edward Fry (afterwards better
known as a lord justice) was appointed. In August 1899 the crown
consented to the appointment of a new judge of the High Court in the
chancery division on an address from both Houses of Parliament, pursuant
to the 87th section of the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876. The chancery
division, therefore, consists of the lord chancellor and six puisne
judges. The latter are styled and addressed in the same manner as was
customary in the old common law courts.[1] Formerly there were only four
judges of this division (being the successors of the master of the rolls
and the three vice-chancellors) to whom chambers were attached. The
fifth judge heard only causes with witnesses transferred to him from the
overflowing of the lists of his four brethren. In each set of chambers
there were three chief clerks, with a staff of assistant clerks under
them. The chief clerks had no original jurisdiction, but heard
applications only on behalf of the judge to whose chambers they
belonged, and theoretically every suitor had the right to have his
application heard by the judge himself in chambers. But the appointment
of a sixth judge enabled the lord chancellor to carry out a reform
recommended by a departmental committee which reported in 1885. The
great difficulty in the chancery division always was to secure the
continuous hearing of actions with witnesses, as nearly one-half of the
judge's time was taken up with cases adjourned to him from chambers and
other administrative business and non-witness actions and motions. The
interruption of a witness action for two or three days, particularly in
a country case, occasioned great expense, and had other inconveniences.
It was a simple remedy to link the judges in pairs with one list of
causes and one set of chambers assigned to each pair. This reform was
effected by the alteration of a few words in certain rules of court.
There are therefore, only three sets of chambers, each containing four
chief clerks, or, as they are now styled, masters of the Supreme Court,
and one of the linked judges, by arrangement between themselves,
continuously tries the witness actions in their common list, while the
other attends in chambers, and also hears the motions, petitions,
adjourned summonses and non-witness cases.

Although styled masters it does not appear that the chief clerks have
any larger or different jurisdiction than they had before. They are
still the representatives of and responsible to the judges to whom the
chambers are attached. The judge may either hear an application in
chambers, or may direct any matter which he thinks of sufficient
importance to be argued before him in court, or a party may move in
court to discharge an order made in chambers with a view to an appeal,
but this is not required if the judge certifies that the matter was
sufficiently discussed before him in chambers.

Under the existing rules of court many orders can now be made on summons
in chambers which used formerly to require a suit or petition in court
(see Order LV. as to foreclosure, administration, payment out of money
in court and generally). The judge is also enabled to decide any
particular question arising in the administration of the estate of a
deceased person or execution of the trusts of a settlement without
directing administration of the whole estate or execution of the trusts
generally by the court (Order LV. rule 10), and where an application for
accounts is made by a dissatisfied beneficiary or creditor to order the
accounts to be delivered out of court, and the application to stand over
till it can be seen what questions (if any) arise upon the accounts
requiring the intervention of the court (Order LV. 2, 10a). Delay and
consequent worry and expense are thus saved to the parties, and, at the
same time, a great deal of routine administration is got rid of and a
larger portion of the judicial term can be devoted to hearing actions
and deciding any question of importance in court. The work of the
chambers staff of the judges has probably been increased; but, on the
other hand, it has been lightened by the removal of the winding-up
business. The chancery division has also inherited from the court of
chancery a staff of registrars and taxing masters.

In the United States "chancery" is generally used as the synonym of
"equity." Chancery practice is practice in cases of equity. Chancery
courts are equity courts (see EQUITY). For the diplomatic sense of
chancery (chancellery) see CHANCELLOR.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The comte de Franqueville comments on the misuse of the title
    "Lord" in addressing judges as another anomaly which only adds to the
    confusion, but perhaps unnecessarily. According to Foss (vol. viii.
    p. 200) it was only in the 18th century that the judges began to be
    addressed by the title of "Your Lordship." In the Year Books (he
    adds) they are constantly addressed by the title of "Sir." "Sir, vous
    voyez bien," &c.



CHANDA, a town and district of British India, in the Nagpur division of
the Central Provinces. In 1901 the town had a population of 17,803. It
is situated at the junction of the Virai and Jharpat rivers. It was the
capital of the Gond kingdom of Chanda, which was established on the
ruins of a Hindu state in the 11th or 12th century, and survived until
1751 (see GONDWANA). The town is still surrounded by a stone wall 5½m.
in circuit. It has several old temples and tombs, and the district at
large is rich in remains of antiquity. There are manufactures of cotton,
silk, brass-ware and leather slippers, and a considerable local trade.

The DISTRICT OF CHANDA has an area of 10,156 sq. m. Excepting in the
extreme west, hills are thickly dotted over the country, sometimes in
detached ranges, occasionally in isolated peaks rising sheer out from
the plain. Towards the east they increase in height, and form a broad
tableland, at places 2000 ft. above sea-level. The Wainganga river flows
through the district from north to south, meeting the Wardha river at
Seoni, where their streams unite to form the Pranhita. Chanda is thickly
studded with fine tanks, or rather artificial lakes, formed by closing
the outlets of small valleys, or by throwing a dam across tracts
intersected by streams. The broad clear sheets of water thus created are
often very picturesque in their surroundings of wood and rock. The chief
architectural objects of interest are the cave temples at Bhandak,
Winjbasani, Dewala and Ghugus; a rock temple in the bed of the Wardha
river below Ballalpur; the ancient temples at Markandi, Ambgaon and
elsewhere; the forts of Wairagarh and Ballalpur; and the old walls of
the city of Chanda, its system of waterworks, and the tombs of the Gond
kings. In 1901 the population was 601,533, showing a decrease of 15% in
the decade. The principal crops are rice, millet, pulse, wheat,
oil-seeds and cotton. The district contains the coalfield of Warora,
which was worked by government till 1906, when it was closed. Other
fields are known, and iron ores also occur. The district suffered
severely from famine in 1900, when in April the number of persons
relieved rose to 90,000.



CHANDAUSI, a town of British India, in the Moradabad district of the
United Provinces, 28 m. south of Moradabad. Pop. (1901) 25,711. It is an
important station on the Oudh & Rohilkhand railway, with a junction for
Aligarh. Its chief exports are of cotton, hemp, sugar and stone. There
is a factory for pressing cotton.



CHAND BARDAI (fl. c. 1200), Hindu poet, was a native of Lahore, but
lived at the court of Prithwi Raja (Prithiraj), the last Hindu sovereign
of Delhi. His _Prithiraj Rasau_, a poem of some 100,000 stanzas,
chronicling his master's deeds and the contemporary history of his part
of India, is valuable not only as historical material but as the
earliest monument of the Western Hindi language, and the first of the
long series of bardic chronicles for which Rajputana is celebrated. It
is written in ballad form, and portions of it are still sung by
itinerant bards throughout north-western India and Rajputana.

  See Lieut.-Col. James Tod, _Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han_ (2
  vols., London, 1829-1832; repub. by Lalit Mohan Auddy, 2 vols. ib.,
  1894-1895), where good translations are given.



CHANDELIER, a frame of metal, wood, crystal, glass or china, pendent
from roof or ceiling for the purpose of holding lights. The word is
French, but the appliance has lost its original significance of a
candle-holder, the chandelier being now chiefly used for gas and
electric lighting. Clusters of hanging lights were in use as early as
the 14th century, and appear originally to have been almost invariably
of wood. They were, however, so speedily ruined by grease that metal was
gradually subsituted, and fine and comparatively early examples in
beaten iron, brass, copper and even silver are still extant. Throughout
the 17th century the hanging candle-holder of brass or bronze was common
throughout northern Europe, as innumerable pictures and engravings
testify. In the great periods of the art of decoration in France many
magnificent chandeliers were made by Boulle, and at a later date by
Gouthière and Thomire and others among the extraordinarily clever
_fondeurs-ciseleurs_ of the second half of the 18th century. The
chandelier in rock crystal and its imitations had come in at least a
hundred years before their day, and continued in favour to the middle of
the 19th century, or even somewhat later. It reached at last the most
extreme elaboration of banality, with ropes of pendants and hanging
faceted drops often called lustres. When many lights were burning in one
of these chandeliers an effect of splendour was produced that was not
out of place in a ballroom, but the ordinary household varieties were
extremely ugly and inartistic. The more purely domestic chandelier
usually carries from two to six lights. The rapidly growing use of
electricity as an illuminating medium and the preference for smaller
clusters of lights have, however, pushed into the background an
appliance which had grown extremely commonplace in design, and had
become out of character with modern ideas of household decoration.



CHANDERNAGORE, or CHANDARNAGAR, a French settlement in India, with a
small adjoining territory, situated on the right bank of the river
Hugli, 20 m. above Calcutta, in 22° 51' 40" N, and 88° 24' 50" E. Area 3
sq. m.; pop. (1901) 25,000. Chandernagore has played an important part
in the European history of Bengal. It became a permanent French
settlement, in 1688, but did not rise to any importance till the time of
Dupleix, during whose administration more than two thousand brick houses
were erected in the town and a considerable maritime trade was carried
on. In 1757 Chandernagore was bombarded by an English fleet under
Admiral Watson and captured; the fortifications and houses were
afterwards demolished. On peace being established the town was restored
to the French in 1763. When hostilities afterwards broke out in 1794, it
was again taken possession of by the English, and was held by them till
1816, when it was a second time given up to the French; it has ever
since remained in their possession. All the former commercial grandeur
of Chandernagore has now passed away, and at present it is little more
than a quiet suburb of Calcutta, without any external trade. The
European town is situated at the bottom of a beautiful reach of the
Hugli, with clean wide thoroughfares, and many elegant residences along
the river-bank. The authorities of Chandernagore are subject to the
jurisdiction of the governor-general of Pondicherry, to whom is confided
the general government of all the French possessions in India.



CHANDLER, HENRY WILLIAM (1828-1889), English scholar, was born in London
on the 31st of January 1828. In 1848 he entered Pembroke College,
Oxford, where he was elected fellow in 1853. In 1867 he succeeded H.L.
Mansel as Waynflete professor of moral and metaphysical philosophy, and
in 1884 was appointed curator of the Bodleian library. He died by his
own hand in Oxford on the 16th of May 1889. He was chiefly known as an
Aristotelian scholar, and his knowledge of the Greek commentators on
Aristotle was profound. He collected a vast amount of material for an
edition of the fragments of his favourite author, but on the appearance
of Valentine Rose's work in 1886 he abandoned the idea. Two works on the
bibliography of Aristotle, _A Catalogue of Editions of Aristotle's
Nicomachean Ethics and of Works illustrative of them printed in the 15th
century_ (1868), and _A Chronological Index to Editions of Aristotle's
Nicomachean Ethics, and of Works illustrative of them from the Origin of
Printing to 1799_ (1878), are of great value. Chandler's collection of
works on Aristotelian literature is now in the library of Pembroke
College. His _Practical Introduction to Greek Accentuation_ (1862, ed.
min. 1877) is the standard work in English.



CHANDLER, RICHARD (1738-1810), British antiquary, was born in 1738 at
Elson in Hampshire, and educated at Winchester and at Queen's and
Magdalen Colleges, Oxford. His first work consisted of fragments from
the minor Greek poets, with notes (_Elegiaca Graeca_, 1759); and in 1763
he published a fine edition of the Arundelian marbles, _Marmora
Oxoniensia_, with a Latin translation, and a number of suggestions for
supplying the lacunae. He was sent by the Dilettanti Society with
Nicholas Revett, an architect, and Pars, a painter, to explore the
antiquities of Ionia and Greece (1763-1766); and the result of their
work was the two magnificent folios of Ionian antiquities published in
1769. He subsequently held several church preferments, including the
rectory of Tylehurst, in Berkshire, where he died on the 9th of February
1810. Other works by Chandler were _Inscriptiones Antiquae pleraeque
nondum editae_ (Oxford, 1774); _Travels in Asia Minor_ (1775); _Travels
in Greece_ (1776); _History of Ilium_ (1803), in which he asserted the
accuracy of Homer's geography. His _Life of Bishop Waynflete_, lord high
chancellor to Henry VI., appeared in 1811.

  A complete edition (with notes by Revett) of the _Travels in Asia
  Minor and Greece_ was published by R. Churton (Oxford, 1825), with an
  "Account of the Author."



CHANDLER, SAMUEL (1693-1766), English Nonconformist divine, was born in
1693 at Hungerford, in Berkshire, where his father was a minister. He
was sent to school at Gloucester, where he began a lifelong friendship
with Bishop Butler and Archbishop Secker; and he afterwards studied at
Leiden. His talents and learning were such that he was elected fellow of
the Royal and Antiquarian Societies, and was made D.D. of Edinburgh and
Glasgow. He also received offers of high preferment in the Church of
England. These he refused, remaining to the end of his life in the
position of a Presbyterian minister. He was moderately Calvinistic in
his views and leaned towards Arianism. He took a leading part in the
deist controversies of the time, and discussed with some of the bishops
the possibility of an act of comprehension. From 1716 to 1726 he
preached at Peckham, and for forty years he was pastor of a
meeting-house in Old Jewry. During two or three years, having fallen
into pecuniary distress through the failure of the South Sea scheme, he
kept a book-shop in the Poultry. On the death of George II. in 1760
Chandler published a sermon in which he compared that king to King
David. This view was attacked in a pamphlet entitled _The History of the
Man after God's own Heart_, in which the author complained of the
parallel as an insult to the late king, and, following Pierre Bayle,
exhibited King David as an example of perfidy, lust and cruelty.
Chandler condescended to reply first in a review of the tract (1762) and
then in _A Critical History of the Life of David_, which is perhaps the
best of his productions. This work was just completed when he died, on
the 8th of May 1766. He left 4 vols. of sermons (1768), and a paraphrase
of the Epistles to the Galatians and Ephesians (1777), several works on
the evidences of Christianity, and various pamphlets against Roman
Catholicism.



CHANDLER, ZACHARIAH (1813-1879), American politician, was born at
Bedford, New Hampshire, on the 10th of December 1813. In 1833 he removed
to Detroit, Michigan, where he became a prosperous dry-goods merchant.
He took a prominent part as a Whig in politics (serving as mayor in
1851), and, impelled by his strong anti-slavery views, actively
furthered the work of the "Underground Railroad," of which Detroit was
one of the principal "transfer" points. He was one of the organizers in
Michigan of the Republican party, and in 1857 succeeded Lewis Cass in
the United States Senate, serving until 1875, and at once taking his
stand with the most radical opponents of slavery extension. When the
Civil War became inevitable he endeavoured to impress upon the North the
necessity of taking extraordinary measures for the preservation of the
Union. After the fall of Fort Sumter he advocated the enlistment of
500,000 instead of 75,000 men for a long instead of a short term, and
the vigorous enforcement of confiscation measures. In July 1862 he made
a bitter attack in the Senate on General George B. McClellan, charging
him with incompetency and lack of "nerve." Throughout the war he allied
himself with the most radical of the Republican faction in opposition to
President Lincoln's policy, and subsequently became one of the bitterest
opponents of President Johnson's plan of reconstruction. From October
1875 to March 1877 he was secretary of the interior in the cabinet of
President Grant, succeeding Columbus Delano (1809-1896). In 1876, as
chairman of the national republican committee, he managed the campaign
of Hayes against Tilden. In February 1879 he was re-elected to the
Senate to succeed Isaac P. Christiancy (1812-1890), and soon afterwards,
in a speech concerning Mexican War pensions, bitterly denounced
Jefferson Davis. He died at Chicago, Illinois, on the 1st of November
1879. By his extraordinary force of character he exercised a wide
personal influence during his lifetime, but failed to stamp his
personality upon any measure or policy of lasting importance.



CHANDOS, BARONS AND DUKES OF. The English title of Chandos began as a
barony in 1554, and was continued in the family of Brydges (becoming a
dukedom in 1719) till 1789. In 1822 the dukedom was revived in connexion
with that of Buckingham.

JOHN BRYDGES, 1st Baron Chandos (c. 1490-1557), a son of Sir Giles
Brydges, or Bruges (d. 1511), was a prominent figure at the English
court during the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI. and Mary. He took
part in suppressing the rebellion of Sir Thomas Wyat in 1554, and as
lieutenant of the Tower of London during the earlier part of Mary's
reign, had the custody, not only of Lady Jane Grey and of Wyat, but for
a short time of the princess Elizabeth. He was created Baron Chandos of
Sudeley in 1554, one of his ancestors, Alice, being a grand-daughter of
Sir Thomas Chandos (d. 1375), and he died in March 1557. The three
succeeding barons, direct descendants of the 1st baron, were all members
of parliament and persons of some importance. Grey, 5th Baron Chandos
(c. 1580-1621), lord-lieutenant of Gloucestershire, was called the "king
of the Cotswolds," owing to his generosity and his magnificent style of
living at his residence, Sudeley Castle. He has been regarded by Horace
Walpole and others as the author of some essays, _Horae Subsecivae_. His
elder son George, 6th Baron Chandos (1620-1655), was a supporter of
Charles I. during his struggle with Parliament, and distinguished
himself at the first battle of Newbury in 1643. He had six daughters but
no sons, and after the death of his brother William in 1676 the barony
came to a kinsman, Sir James Brydges, Bart. (1642-1714), who was English
ambassador to Constantinople from 1680 to 1685.

JAMES BRYDGES, 1st duke of Chandos (1673-1744), son and heir of the
last-named, had been member of parliament for Hereford from 1698 to
1714, and, three days after his father's death, was created Viscount
Wilton and earl of Carnarvon. For eight years, from 1705 to 1713, during
the War of the Spanish Succession, he was paymaster-general of the
forces abroad, and in this capacity he amassed great wealth. In 1719 he
was created marquess of Carnarvon and duke of Chandos. The duke is
chiefly remembered on account of his connexion with Handel and with
Pope. He built a magnificent house at Canons near Edgware in Middlesex,
and is said to have contemplated the construction of a private road
between this place and his unfinished house in Cavendish Square, London.
For over two years Handel, employed by Chandos, lived at Canons, where
he composed his oratorio _Esther_. Pope, who in his _Moral Essays_
(_Epistle to the Earl of Burlington_) doubtless described Canons under
the guise of "Timon's Villa," referred to the duke in the line, "Thus
gracious Chandos is belov'd at sight"; but Swift, less complimentary,
called him "a great complier with every court." The poet was caricatured
by Hogarth for his supposed servility to the duke. Chandos, who was
lord-lieutenant of the counties of Hereford and Radnor, and chancellor
of the university of St Andrews, became involved in financial
difficulties, and after his death on the 9th of August 1744 Canons was
pulled down. He was succeeded by his son Henry, 2nd duke (1708-1771),
and grandson James, 3rd duke (1731-1789). On the death of the latter
without sons in September 1789 all his titles, except that of Baron
Kinloss, became extinct, although a claimant arose for the barony of
Chandos of Sudeley. The 3rd duke's only daughter, Anna Elizabeth, who
became Baroness Kinloss on her father's death, was married in 1796 to
Richard Grenville, afterwards marquess of Buckingham; and in 1822 this
nobleman was created duke of Buckingham and Chandos (see BUCKINGHAM,
DUKES OF).

  See G.E. C(okayne), _Complete Peerage_ (1887-1898); and J.R. Robinson,
  _The Princely Chandos_, i.e. the 1st duke (1893).



CHANDOS, SIR JOHN (?-1370), one of the most celebrated English
commanders of the 14th century. He is found at the siege of Cambrai in
1337, and at the battle of Crécy in 1346. At the battle of Poitiers, in
1356, it was he who decided the day and saved the life of the Black
Prince. For these services Edward III. made him a knight of the Garter,
gave him the lands of the viscount of Saint Sauveur in Cotentin, and
appointed him his lieutenant in France and vice-chamberlain of the royal
household. In 1362 he was made constable of Aquitaine, and won the
victories of Auray (1364) and Navaret in Spain (1367) over Duguesclin.
He was seneschal of Poitou in 1369, and was mortally wounded at the
bridge of Lussac near Poitiers on the 31st of December. He died on the
following day, the 1st of January 1370.

  See Benjamin Fillon, "John Chandos, Connétable d'Aquitaine et Sénéchal
  de Poitou," in the _Revue des provinces de l'ouest_ (1855).



CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA (reigned 321-296 B.C.), known to the Greeks as
Sandracottus, founder of the Maurya empire and first paramount ruler of
India, was the son of a king of Magadha by a woman of humble origin,
whose caste he took, and whose name, Mura, is said to have been the
origin of that of Maurya assumed by his dynasty. As a youth he was
driven into exile by his kinsman, the reigning king of Magadha. In the
course of his wanderings he met Alexander the Great, and, according to
Plutarch (_Alexander_, cap. 62), encouraged him to invade the Ganges
kingdom by enlarging on the extreme unpopularity of the reigning
monarch. During his exile he collected a large force of the warlike
clans of the north-west frontier, and on the death of Alexander attacked
the Macedonian garrisons and conquered the Punjab. He next attacked
Magadha, dethroned and slew the king, his enemy, with every member of
his family, and established himself on the throne (321). The great army
acquired from his predecessor he increased until it reached the total of
30,000 cavalry, 9000 elephants, and 600,000 infantry; and with this huge
force he overran all northern India, establishing his empire from the
Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal. In 305 Seleucus Nicator crossed the
Indus, but was defeated by Chandragupta and forced to a humiliating
peace (303), by which the empire of the latter was still farther
extended in the north. About six years later Chandragupta died, leaving
his empire to his son Bindusura.

An excellent account of the court and administrative system of
Chandragupta has been preserved in the fragments of Megasthenes, who
came to Pataliputra as the envoy of Seleucus shortly after 303. The
government was, of course, autocratic and even tyrannous, but it was
organized on an elaborate system, army and civil service being
administered by a series of boards, while the cities were governed by
municipal commissioners responsible for public order and the upkeep of
public works. Chandragupta himself is described as living in barbaric
splendour, appearing in public only to hear causes, offer sacrifice, or
to go on military and hunting expeditions, and withal so fearful of
assassination that he never slept two nights running in the same room.

  See J.W. MacCrindle, _Ancient India as described by Megasthenes and
  Arrian_ (Calcutta, 1877); V.A. Smith, _Early Hist. of India_ (Oxford,
  1908); also the articles INDIA: _History_, and INSCRIPTIONS: _Indian_.



CHANGARNIER, NICOLAS ANNE THÉODULE (1793-1877), French general, was born
at Autun on the 26th of April 1793. Educated at St Cyr, he served for a
short time in the bodyguard of Louis XVIII., and entered the line as a
lieutenant in January 1815. He achieved distinction in the Spanish
campaign of 1823, and became captain in 1825. In 1830 he entered the
Royal Guard and was sent to Africa, where he took part in the Mascara
expedition. Promoted commandant in 1835, he distinguished himself under
Marshal Clausel in the campaign against Ahmed Pasha, bey of Constantine,
and became lieutenant-colonel in 1837. The part he took in the
expedition of Portes-de-Fer gained him a colonelcy, and his success
against the Hajutas and Kabyles, the cross of the Legion of Honour.
Three more years of brilliant service in Africa won for him the rank of
_maréchal de camp_ in 1840, and of lieutenant-general in 1843. In 1847
he held the Algiers divisional command. He visited France early in 1848,
assisted the provisional government to establish order, and returned to
Africa in May to succeed General Cavaignac in the government of Algeria.
He was speedily recalled on his election to the general assembly for the
department of the Seine, and received the command of the National Guard
of Paris, to which was added soon afterwards that of the troops in
Paris, altogether nearly 100,000 men. He held a high place and exercised
great influence in the complicated politics of the next two years. In
1849 he received the grand cross of the Legion of Honour. An avowed
enemy of republican institutions, he held a unique position in upholding
the power of the president; but in January 1851 he opposed Louis
Napoleon's policy, was in consequence deprived of his double command,
and at the _coup d'état_ in December was arrested and sent to Mazas,
until his banishment from France by the decree of the 9th of January
1852. He returned to France after the general amnesty, and resided in
his estate in the department of Saône-et-Loire. In 1870 he held no
command, but was present with the headquarters, and afterwards with
Bazaine in Metz. He was employed on an unsuccessful mission to Prince
Frederick Charles, commanding the German army which besieged Metz, and
on the capitulation became a prisoner of war. At the armistice he
returned to Paris, and in 1871 was elected to the National Assembly by
four departments, and sat for the Somme. He took an active part in
politics, defended the conduct of Marshal Bazaine, and served on the
committee which elaborated the monarchical constitution. When the comte
de Chambord refused the compromise, he moved the resolution to extend
the executive power for ten years to Marshal MacMahon. He was elected a
life senator in 1875. He died in Paris on the 14th of February 1877.



CHANG-CHOW, a town of China, in the province of Fu-kien, on a branch of
the Lung Kiang, 35 m. W. of Amoy. It is surrounded by a wall 4½ m. in
circumference, which, however, includes a good deal of open ground. The
streets are paved with granite, but are very dirty. The river is crossed
by a curious bridge, 800 ft. long, constructed of wooden planks
supported on twenty-five piles of stones about 30 ft. apart. The city is
a centre of the silk-trade, and carries on an extensive commerce in
different directions. Brick-works and sugar-factories are among its
chief industrial establishments. Its population is estimated at about
1,000,000.



CHANG CHUN, KIU (1148-1227), Chinese Taoist sage and traveller, was born
in 1148. In 1219 he was invited by Jenghiz Khan, founder of the Mongol
empire and greatest of Asiatic conquerors, to visit him. Jenghiz' letter
of invitation, dated the 15th of May 1219 (by present reckoning), has
been preserved, and is among the curiosities of history; here the
terrible warrior appears as a meek disciple of wisdom, modest and
simple, almost Socratic in his self-examination, alive to many of the
deepest truths of life and government. Chang Chun obeyed this summons;
and leaving his home in Shantung (February 1220) journeyed first to
Peking. Learning that Jenghiz had gone far west upon fresh conquests,
the sage stayed the winter in Peking. In February 1221 he started again
and crossed eastern Mongolia to the camp of Jenghiz' brother Ujughen,
near Lake Bör or Buyur in the upper basin of the Kerulun-Amur. Thence he
travelled south-westward up the Kerulun, crossed the Karakorum region in
north-central Mongolia, and so came to the Chinese Altai, probably
passing near the present Uliassutai. After traversing the Altai he
visited Bishbalig, answering to the modern Urumtsi, and moved along the
north side of the Tian Shan range to lake Sairam, Almalig (or Kulja),
and the rich valley of the Ili. We then trace him to the Chu, over this
river to Talas and the Tashkent region, and over the Jaxartes (or Syr
Daria) to Samarkand, where he halted for some months. Finally, through
the "Iron Gates" of Termit, over the Oxus, and by way of Balkh and
northern Afghanistan, Chang Chun reached Jenghiz' camp near the Hindu
Kush. Returning home he followed much the same course as on his outward
route: certain deviations, however, occur, such as a visit to
Kuku-khoto. He was back in Peking by the end of January 1224. From the
narrative of his expedition (the _Si yu ki_, written by his pupil and
companion Li Chi Chang) we derive some of the most faithful and vivid
pictures ever drawn of nature and man between the Great Wall of China
and Kabul, between the Aral and the Yellow Sea: we may particularly
notice the sketches of the Mongols, and of the people of Samarkand and
its neighbourhood; the account of the fertility and products of the
latter region, as of the Ili valley, at or near Almalig-Kulja; and the
description of various great mountain ranges, peaks and defiles, such as
the Chinese Altai, the Tian Shan, Mt Bogdo-ola (?), and the Iron Gates
of Termit. There is, moreover, a noteworthy reference to a land
apparently identical with the uppermost valley of the Yenisei. After his
return Chang Chun lived at Peking till his death on the 23rd of July
1227. By order of Jenghiz some of the former imperial garden grounds
were made over to him, for the foundation of a Taoist monastery.

  See E. Bretschneider, _Mediaeval Researches from Eastern Asiatic
  Sources_, vol. i. pp. 35-108, where a complete translation of the
  narrative is given, with a valuable commentary; C.R. Beazley _Dawn of
  Modern Geography_, iii. 539.     (C. R. B.)



CHANGE (derived through the Fr. from the Late Lat. _cambium, cambiare_,
to barter; the ultimate derivation is probably from the root which
appears in the Gr. [Greek: kamptein], to bend), properly the
substitution of one thing for another, hence any alteration or
variation, so applied to the moon's passing from one phase to another.
The use of the word for a place of commercial business has usually been
taken to be a shortened form of Exchange (q.v.) and so is often written
'Change. The _New English Dictionary_ points out that "change" appears
earlier than "exchange" in this sense. "Change" is particularly used of
coins of lower denomination given in substitution for those of larger
denomination or for a note, cheque, &c., and also for the balance of a
sum paid larger than that which is due. A further application is that in
bell-ringing, of the variations in order in which a peal of bells may be
rung. The term usually excludes the ringing of the bells according to
the diatonic scale in which they are hung (see BELL). It is from a
combination of these two meanings that the thieves' slang phrase
"ringing the changes" arises; it denotes the various methods by which
wrong change may be given or extracted, or counterfeit coin passed.



CHANGELING, the term used of a child substituted or changed for another,
especially in the case of substitutions popularly supposed to be through
fairy agency. There was formerly a widespread superstition that infants
were sometimes stolen from their cradles by the fairies. Any specially
peevish or weakly baby was regarded as a changeling, the word coming at
last to be almost synonymous with imbecility. It was thought that the
elves could only effect the exchange before christening, and in the
highlands of Scotland babies were strictly watched till then. Strype
states that in his time midwives had to take an oath binding themselves
to be no party to the theft or exchange of babies. The belief is
referred to by Shakespeare, Spenser and other authors. Pennant, writing
in 1796, says: "In this very century a poor cottager, who lived near the
spot, had a child who grew uncommonly peevish; the parents attributed
this to the fairies and imagined it was a changeling. They took the
child, put it in a cradle, and left it all night beneath the "Fairy Oak"
in hopes that the _tylwydd têg_ or fairy family would restore their own
before morning. When morning came they found the child perfectly quiet,
so went away with it, quite confirmed in their belief" (_Tour in
Scotland_, 1796, p. 257).

  See W. Wirt Sikes, _British Goblins_ (1880).



CHANGOS, a tribe of South American Indians who appear to have originally
inhabited the Peruvian coast. A few of them still live on the coast of
Atacama, northern Chile. They are a dwarfish race, never exceeding 5 ft.
in height. Their sole occupation is fishing, and in former times they
used boats of inflated sealskins, lived in sealskin huts, and slept on
heaps of dried seaweed. They are a hospitable and friendly people, and
never resisted the whites.



CHANGRA, or KANGHARI (anc. _Gangra_; called also till the time of
Caracalla, _Germanicopolis_, after the emperor Claudius), the chief town
of a sanjak of the same name in the Kastamuni vilayet, Asia Minor,
situated in a rich, well-watered valley; altitude 2500 ft. The ground is
impregnated with salt, and the town is unhealthy. Pop. (1894) 15,632, of
whom 1086 are Christians (Cuinet). Gangra, the capital of the
Paphlagonian kingdom of Deiotarus Philadelphus, son of Castor, was taken
into the Roman province of Galatia on his death in 6-5 B.C. The earlier
town, the name of which signified "she-goat," was built on the hill
behind the modern city, on which are the ruins of a late fortress; while
the Roman city occupied the site of the modern. In Christian times
Gangra was the metropolitan see of Paphlagonia. In the 4th century the
town was the scene of an important ecclesiastical synod.

_Synod of Gangra._--Conjectures as to the date of this synod vary from
341 to 376. All that can be affirmed with certainty is that it was held
about the middle of the 4th century. The synodal letter states that
twenty-one bishops assembled to take action concerning Eustathius (of
Sebaste?) and his followers, who contemned marriage, disparaged the
offices of the church, held conventicles of their own, wore a peculiar
dress, denounced riches, and affected especial sanctity. The synod
condemned the Eustathian practices, declaring however, with remarkable
moderation, that it was not virginity that was condemned, but the
dishonouring of marriage; not poverty, but the disparagement of honest
and benevolent wealth; not asceticism, but spiritual pride; not
individual piety, but dishonouring the house of God. The twenty canons
of Gangra were declared ecumenical by the council of Chalcedon, 451.

  See Mansi ii. pp. 1095-1122; Hardouin i. pp. 530-540; Hefele 2nd ed.,
  i. pp. 777 sqq. (English trans. ii. pp. 325 sqq.).



CHANNEL ISLANDS (French _Îles Normandes_), a group of islands in the
English Channel, belonging (except the Îles Chausey) to Great Britain.
(For map, see ENGLAND, Section VI.) They lie between 48° 50' and 49° 45'
N., and 1° 50' and 2° 45' W., along the French coast of Cotentin
(department of Manche), at a distance of 4 to 40 m. from it, within the
great rectangular bay of which the northward horn is Cape La Hague. The
greater part of this bay is shallow, and the currents among the numerous
groups of islands and rocks are often dangerous to navigation. The
nearest point of the English coast to the Channel Islands is Portland
Bill, a little over 50 m. north of the northernmost outlier of the
islands. The total land area of the islands is about 75 sq. m. (48,083
acres), and the population in 1901 was 95,618. The principal individual
islands are four:--JERSEY (area 45 sq. m., pop. 52,576), GUERNSEY (area
24.5 sq. m., pop. 40,446), ALDERNEY (area 3.06 sq. m., pop. 2062), and
SARK (area nearly 2 sq. m., pop. 504). Each of these islands is treated
in a separate article. The chief town and port of Jersey is St Helier,
and of Guernsey St Peter Port; a small town on Alderney is called St
Anne. Regular communication by steamer with Guernsey and Jersey is
provided on alternate days from Southampton and Weymouth, by steamers of
the London & South-Western and Great Western railway companies of
England. Railway communications within the islands are confined to
Jersey. Regular steamship communications are kept up from certain French
ports, and locally between the larger islands. In summer the islands,
especially Jersey, Guernsey and Sark, are visited by numerous tourists,
both from England and from France.

The islands fall physically into four divisions. The northernmost, lying
due west of Cape La Hague, and separated therefrom by the narrow Race of
Alderney, includes that island, Burhou and Ortach, and numerous other
islets west of it, and west again the notorious Casquets, an angry group
of jagged rocks, on the largest of which is a powerful lighthouse.
Doubtful tradition places here the wreck of the "White Ship," in which
William, son of Henry I., perished in 1120; in 1744 the "Victory," a
British man-of-war, struck on one of the rocks, and among calamities of
modern times the wreck of the "Stella," a passenger vessel, in 1899, may
be recalled. The second division of islands is also the most westerly;
it includes Guernsey with a few islets to the west, and to the east,
Sark, Herm, Jethou (inhabited islands) and others. The strait between
Guernsey and Herm is called Little Russel, and that between Herm and
Sark Great Russel. Sark is famous for its splendid cliffs and caves,
while Herm possesses the remarkable phenomenon of a shell-beach, or
shore, half-a-mile in length, formed wholly of small shells, which
accumulate in a tidal eddy formed at the north of the island. To the
south-east of these, across the channel called La Déroute, lies Jersey,
forming, with a few attendant islets, of which the Ecréhou to the
north-east are the chief, the third division. The fourth and
southernmost division falls into two main subdivisions. The Minquiers,
the more western, are a collection of abrupt rocks, the largest of
which, Maîtresse Ile, affords a landing and shelter for fishermen. Then
eastern subdivision, the Îles Chausey, lies about 9 m. west by north of
Granville (to which commune they belong) on the French coast, and
belongs to France. These rocks are close set, low and curiously regular
in form. On Grande Ile, the only permanently inhabited island (pop.
100), some farming is carried on, and several of the islets are
temporarily inhabited by fishermen. There is also a little
granite-quarrying, and seaweed-burning employs many.

None of the islands is mountainous, and the fine scenery for which they
are famous is almost wholly coastal. In this respect each main island
has certain distinctive characteristics. Bold cliffs are found on the
south of Alderney; in Guernsey they alternate with lovely bays; Sark is
specially noted for its magnificent sea-caves, while the coast scenery
of Jersey is on the whole more gentle than the rest.

  _Geology_.--Geologically, the Channel Islands are closely related to
  the neighbouring mainland of Normandy. With a few exceptions, to be
  noted later, all the rocks are of pre-Cambrian, perhaps in part of
  Archean age. They consist of massive granites, gneisses, diorites,
  porphyrites, schists and phyllites, all of which are traversed by
  dykes and veins. In Jersey we find in the north-west corner a granitic
  tract extending from Grosnez to St Mary and St John, beyond which it
  passes into a small granulitic patch. South of the granites is a
  schistose area, by St Ouen and St Lawrence, and reaching to St Aubin's
  Bay. Granitic masses again appear round St Brelade's Bay. The eastern
  half of the island is largely occupied by porphyrites and similar
  rocks (hornstone porphyry) with rhyolites and denitrified obsidians;
  some of the latter contain large spherulites with a diameter of as
  much as 24 in.; these are well exposed in Bouley Bay; a complex
  igneous and intrusive series of rocks lies around St Helier. In the
  north-east corner of the island a conglomerate, possibly of Cambrian
  age, occurs between Bouley Bay and St Catherine's Bay. Tracts of
  blown-sand cover the ground for some distance north of St Clement's
  Bay and again east of St Ouen's Bay. In the sea off the latter bay a
  submerged forest occurs. The northern half of Guernsey is mainly
  dioritic, the southern half, below St Peter, is occupied by gneisses.
  Several patches of granite and granulite fringe the western coast, the
  largest of these is a hornblende granite round Rocquaine Bay.
  Hornblende gneiss from St Sampson and quartz diorite from Capelles,
  Corvée and elsewhere are transported to England for road metal. Sark
  is composed almost wholly of hornblende-schists and gneisses with
  hornblendic granite at the north end of the island, in Little Sark and
  in the middle of Bréchou. Dykes of diabase and diorite are abundant.
  Alderney consists mainly of hornblende granite and granulite, which
  are covered on the east by two areas of sandstone which may be of
  Cambrian age. An enstatite-augite-diorite is sent from Alderney for
  road-making. Besides the submerged forest on the coast of Jersey
  already mentioned, there are similar occurrences near St Peter Port
  and St Sampson's harbour, and in Vazon Bay in Guernsey. Raised beaches
  are to be seen at several points in the islands.

_Climate_.--The climate is mild and very pleasant. In Jersey the mean
temperature for twenty years is found to be--in January (the coldest
month) 42.1° F., in August (the hottest) 63°, mean annual 51.7°. In
Guernsey the figures are, for January 42.5°, for August 59.7°, mean
annual 49.5°. The mean annual rainfall for twenty-five years in Jersey
is 34.21 in., and in Guernsey 38.64 in. The average amount of sunshine
in Jersey is considerably greater than in the most favoured spots on the
south coast of England; and in Guernsey it is only a little less than in
Jersey. Snow and frost are rare, and the seasons of spring and autumn
are protracted. Thick sea-fogs are not uncommon, especially in May and
June.

_Flora and Fauna._--The flora of the islands is remarkably rich,
considering their extent, nearly 2000 different species of plants having
been counted throughout the group. Of timber properly speaking there is
little, but the evergreen oak, the elm and the beech are abundant. Wheat
is the principal grain in cultivation; but far more ground is taken up
with turnips and potatoes, mangold, parsnip and carrot. The tomato
ripens as in France, and the Chinese yam has been successfully grown.
There is a curious cabbage, chiefly cultivated in Jersey, which shoots
up into a long woody stalk from 10 to 15 ft. in height, fit for
walking-sticks or palisades. Grapes and peaches come to perfection in
greenhouses without artificial heat; and not only apples and pears but
oranges and figs can be reared in the open air. The arbutus ripens its
fruit, and the camellia clothes itself with blossom, as in more southern
climates; the fuchsia reaches a height of 15 or 20 ft., and the magnolia
attains the dimensions of a tree. Of the flowers, both indigenous and
exotic, that abound throughout the islands, it is sufficient to mention
the Guernsey lily with its rich red petals, which is supposed to have
been brought from Japan.

The number of the species of the mammalia is little over twenty, and
several of these have been introduced by man. There is a special breed
of horned cattle, and each island has its own variety, which is
carefully kept from all intermixture. The animals are small and
delicate, and marked by a peculiar yellow colour round the eyes and
within the ears. The red deer was once indigenous, and the black rat is
still common in Alderney, Sark and Herm. The list of birds includes
nearly 200 species, nearly 100 of which are permanent inhabitants of the
islands. There are few localities in the northern seas which are visited
by a greater variety of fish, and the coasts abound in crustacea,
shell-fish and zoophytes.

_Government_.--For the purposes of government the Channel Islands
(excluding the French Chauseys) are divided into two divisions:--(1)
Jersey, and (2) the bailiwick of Guernsey, which includes Alderney,
Sark, Herm and Jethou with the island of Guernsey. The constitutions of
each division are peculiar and broadly similar, but differing in certain
important details; they may therefore be considered together for the
sake of comparison. Until 1854 governors were appointed by the crown;
now a separate military lieutenant-governor is appointed for each
division on the recommendation of the war office after consultation with
the home office. The other crown officials are the bailiff (_bailli_)
or chief magistrate, the _procureur du roi_, representing the
attorney-general, and the _avocat du roi_, or in Guernsey the
_contrôle_, representing the solicitor-general. In Jersey the _vicomte_
is also appointed by the crown, in the position of a high sheriff (and
coroner); but his counterpart in Guernsey, the _prévôt_, is not so
appointed. The bailiff in each island is president of the royal court,
which is composed of twelve jurats, elected for life, in Jersey by the
ratepayers of each parish, in Guernsey by the Elective States, a body
which also elects the _prévôt_, who, with the jurats, serves upon it.
The rest of the body is made up of the rectors of the parishes, the
_douzaines_, or elected parish councils ("dozens," from the original
number of their members) of the town parish of St Peter Port, the four
cantons, and the county parishes, and certain other officials. The royal
court administers justice (but in Jersey there is a trial by jury for
criminal cases), and in Guernsey can pass temporary ordinances subject
to no higher body. It also puts forward _projets de loi_ for the
approval of the Deliberative States. Alderney and Sark have a separate
legal existence with courts dependent on the royal court of Guernsey. In
both Jersey and Guernsey the chief administrative body is the
Deliberative States. The Jersey States is composed of the
lieutenant-governor (who has a veto on the deliberation of any question,
but no vote), the bailiff, jurats, parish rectors, parish constables and
deputies, the _procureur_ and _avocat_, with right to speak but no vote,
and the _vicomte_, with right of attendance only. Besides the veto of
the lieutenant-governor, the bailiff has the power to dissent from any
measure, in which case it is referred to the privy council. In Guernsey
the States consists of the bailiff, jurats, eight out of ten rectors,
the _procureur_ and deputies; while the lieutenant-governor is always
invited and may speak if he attends. By both States local administration
is carried on (largely through committees); and relations with the
British parliament are maintained through the privy council. Acts of
parliament are transmitted to the islands by an order in council to be
registered in the rolls of the royal court, and are not considered to be
binding until this is done; moreover, registration may be held over
pending discussion by the States if any act is considered to menace the
privileges of the islands. The right of the crown to legislate by order
in council is held to be similarly limited. In cases of encroachment on
property, a remarkable form of appeal of very ancient origin called
_Clameur de Haro_ survives (see HARO, CLAMEUR DE). The islands are in
the diocese of Winchester, and there is a dean in both Jersey and
Guernsey, who is also rector of a parish.

These peculiar constitutions are of local development, the history of
which is obscure. The bailiff was originally assisted in his judicial
work by itinerant justices; their place was later taken by the elected
jurats; later still the practice of summoning the States to assist in
the passing of Ordinances was established by the bailiff and jurats, and
at last the States claimed the absolute right of being consulted. This
was confirmed to them in 1771.

It is characteristic of these islands that there should be compulsory
service in the militia. In Jersey and Alderney every man between the
ages of sixteen and forty-five is liable, but in Jersey after ten years'
service militiamen are transferred to the reserve. In Guernsey the age
limit is from sixteen to thirty-three, and the obligation is extended to
all who are British subjects, and draw income from a profession
practised in the island. Garrisons of regular troops are maintained in
all three islands. Taxation is light in the islands, and pauperism is
practically unknown.

  In 1904 the revenue of Jersey was £70,191, and its expenditure
  £69,658; the revenue of Guernsey was £79,334, and the expenditure
  £43,385. The public debt in the respective islands was £322,070 and
  £195,794. In Jersey the annual revenues from crown rights (principally
  seigneurial dues, houses and lands and tithes) amount to about £2700,
  and about £360 is remitted to the paymaster-general. In Guernsey these
  revenues, in which the principal item is fines on transference of
  property (_treizièmes_ or fees), amount to about £4500, and about
  £1000 is remitted. In Alderney the revenues (chiefly from harbour
  dues) amount to about £1400.

  In Jersey the English gold and silver coinage are current, but there
  is a local copper coinage and local one-pound notes are issued.
  Guernsey has also such notes, and its copper coinage consists of
  pence, halfpence, two-double and one-double (one-eighth of a penny)
  pieces. A Guernsey pound is taken as equal to 24 francs, and English
  and French currency pass equally throughout the islands.

_Industry_.--The old Norman system of land-tenure has survived, and the
land is parcelled out among a great number of small proprietors;
holdings ranging from 5 to 25 acres as a rule. The results of this
arrangement seem to be favourable in the extreme. Every corner of the
ground is carefully and intelligently cultivated, and a considerable
proportion is allotted to market-gardening. The cottages are neat and
comfortable, the hedges well-trimmed, and the roads kept in excellent
repair. There is a considerable export trade in agricultural produce and
stock, including vegetables and fruit, in fish (the fisheries forming an
important industry) and in stone. There is no manufacture of importance.
The inhabitants share in common the right of collecting and burning
seaweed (called _vraic_) for manure. The cutting of the weed (vraicking)
became a ceremonial occasion, taking place at times fixed by the
government, and connected with popular festivities.

_Language_.--The language spoken in ordinary life by the inhabitants of
the islands is in great measure the same as the old Norman French. The
use of the _patois_ has decreased naturally in modern times. Modern
French is the official language, used in the courts and states, and
English is taught in the parochial schools, and is familiar practically
to all. The several islands have each its own dialect, differing from
that of the others in vocabulary and idiom; differences are also
observable in different localities within the same island, as between
the north and the south of Guernsey. None of the dialects has received
much literary cultivation, though Jersey is proud of being the
birthplace of one of the principal Norman poets, Wace, who flourished in
the 12th century.

_History_.--The original ethnology and pre-Christian history of the
Channel Islands are largely matters of conjecture and debate. Of early
inhabitants abundant proof is afforded by the numerous megalithic
monuments--cromlechs, kistvaens and maenhirs--still extant. But little
trace has been left of Roman occupation, and such remains as have been
discovered are mainly of the portable description that affords little
proof of actual settlement, though there may have been an unimportant
garrison here. The constant recurrence of the names of saints in the
place-names of the islands, and the fact that pre-Christian names do not
occur, leads to the inference that before Christianity was introduced
the population was very scanty. It may be considered to have consisted
originally of Bretons (Celts), and to have received successively a
slight admixture of Romans and Legionaries, Saxons and perhaps Jutes and
Vandals. Christianity may have been introduced in the 5th century.
Guernsey is said to have been visited in the 6th century by St Sampson
of Dol (whose name is given to a small town and harbour in the island),
St Marcou or Marculfus and St Magloire, a friend and fellow-evangelist
of St Sampson, who founded monasteries at Sark and at Jersey, and died
in Jersey in 575. Another evangelist of this period was St Helerius,
whose name is borne by the chief town of Jersey, St Helier. In his life
it is stated that the population of the island when he reached it was
only 30. In 933 the islands were made over to William, duke of Normandy
(d. 943), and after the Norman conquest of England their allegiance
shifted between the English crown and the Norman coronet according to
the vicissitudes of war and policy. During the purely Norman period they
had been enriched with numerous ecclesiastical buildings, some of which
are still extant, as the chapel of Rozel in Jersey.

In the reign of John of England the future of the islands was decided by
their attachment to the English crown, in spite of the separation of the
duchy of Normandy. To John it has been usual to ascribe a document, at
one time regarded by the islanders as their Magna Carta; but modern
criticism leaves little doubt that it is not genuine. An unauthenticated
"copy" of uncertain origin alone has been discovered, and there is
little proof of there ever having been an original. The reign of Edward
I. was full of disturbance; and in 1279 Jersey and Guernsey received
from the king, by letters patent, a public seal as a remedy for the
dangers and losses which they had incurred by lack of such a
certificate. Edward II. found it necessary to instruct his collectors
not to treat the islanders as foreigners: his successor, Edward III.,
fully confirmed their privileges, immunities and customs in 1341; and
his charter was recognized by Richard II. in 1378. In 1343 there was a
descent of the French on Guernsey; the governor was defeated, and Castle
Cornet besieged. In 1372 there was another attack on Guernsey, and in
1374 and 1404 the French descended on Jersey. None of these attempts,
however, resulted in permanent settlement. Henry V. confiscated the
alien priories which had kept up the same connexion with Normandy as
before the conquest, and conferred them along with the regalities of the
islands on his brother, the duke of Bedford. During the Wars of the
Roses, Queen Margaret, the consort of Henry VI., made an agreement with
Pierre de Brézé, comte de Maulevrier, the seneschal of Normandy, that if
he afforded assistance to the king he should hold the islands
independently of the crown. A force was accordingly sent to take
possession of Mont Orgueil. It was captured and a small part of the
island subjugated, and here Maulevrier remained as governor from 1460 to
1465; but the rest held out under Sir Philip de Carteret, seigneur of St
Ouen, and in 1467 the vice-admiral of England, Sir Richard Harliston,
recaptured the castle and brought the foreign occupation to an end. In
1482-1483 Pope Sixtus IV., at the instance of King Edward IV., issued a
bull of anathema against all who molested the islands; it was formally
registered in Brittany in 1484, and in France in 1486; and in this way
the islands acquired the right of neutrality, which they retained till
1689. In the same reign (Edward IV.) Sark was taken by the French, and
only recovered in the reign of Mary, by the strategy (according to
tradition) of landing from a vessel a coffin nominally containing a body
for burial, but in reality filled with arms. By a charter of 1494, the
duties of the governors of Jersey were defined and their power
restricted; and the educational interests of the island were furthered
at the same time by the foundation of two grammar schools. The religious
establishments in the islands were dissolved, as in England, in the
reign of Henry VIII. The Reformation was heartily welcomed in the
islands. The English liturgy was translated into French for their use.
In the reign of Mary there was much religious persecution; and in that
of Elizabeth Roman Catholics were maltreated in their turn. In 1568 the
islands were attached to the see of Winchester, being finally separated
from that of Coutances, with which they had long been connected, with
short intervals in the reign of John, when they had belonged to the see
of Exeter, and that of Henry VI., when they had belonged to Salisbury.

The Presbyterian form of church government was adopted under the
influence of refugees from the persecution of Protestantism on the
continent. It was formally sanctioned in St Helier and St Peter Port by
Queen Elizabeth; and in 1603 King James enacted that the whole of the
islands "should quietly enjoy their said liberty." During his reign,
however, disputes arose. An Episcopal party had been formed in Jersey,
and in 1619 David Bandinel was declared dean of the island. A body of
canons which he drew up agreeable to the discipline of the Church of
England was accepted after considerable modification by the people of
his charge; but the inhabitants of Guernsey maintained their
Presbyterian practices. Of the hold which this form of Protestantism had
got on the minds of the people even in Jersey abundant proof is afforded
by the general character of the worship at the present day.

In the great struggle between king and parliament, Presbyterian Guernsey
supported the parliament; in Jersey, however, there were at first
parliamentarian and royalist factions. Sir Philip de Carteret,
lieutenant-governor, declared for the king, but Dean Bandinel and
Michael Lemprière, a leader of the people, headed the parliamentary
party. They received a commission for the apprehension of Carteret, who
established himself in Elizabeth Castle; but after some fighting had
taken place he died in the castle in August 1643. Meanwhile in Guernsey
Sir Peter Osborne, the governor, was defying the whole island and
maintaining himself in Castle Cornet. A parliamentarian governor,
Leonard Lydcott, arrived in Jersey immediately after Sir Philip de
Carteret's death. But the dowager Lady Carteret was holding Mont
Orgueil; George Carteret, Sir Philip's nephew, arrived from St Malo to
support the royalist cause, and Lydcott and Lemprière presently fled to
England. George Carteret established himself as lieutenant-governor and
bailiff. Bandinel was imprisoned in Mont Orgueil, and killed himself in
trying to escape. Jersey was now completely royalist. In 1646 the prince
of Wales, afterwards Charles II., arrived secretly at Jersey, and
remained over two months at Elizabeth Castle. He went on to France, but
returned in 1649, having been proclaimed king by George Carteret, and at
Elizabeth Castle he signed the declaration of his claims to the throne
on the 29th of October. In 1651, when Charles had fled to France again
after the battle of Worcester, parliamentarian vessels of war appeared
at Jersey. The islanders, weary of the tyrannical methods of their
governor, now Sir George Carteret, offered little resistance. On the
15th of December the royalist remnant yielded up Elizabeth Castle; and
at the same time Castle Cornet, Guernsey, which had been steadily held
by Osborne, capitulated. In each case honourable terms of surrender were
granted. Both islands had suffered severely from the struggle, and the
people of Guernsey, appealing to Cromwell on the ground of their support
of his cause, complained that two-thirds of the land was out of
cultivation, and that they had lost "their ships, their traffic and
their trading." After the Restoration there was considerable
improvement, and in the reign of James II. the islanders got a grant of
wool for the manufacture of stockings--4000 tods[1] of wool being
annually allowed to Jersey, 2000 to Guernsey, 400 to Alderney and 200 to
Sark. Alderney, which had been parliamentarian, was granted after the
Restoration to the Carteret family; and it continued to be governed
independently till 1825.

By William of Orange the neutrality of the islands was abolished in
1689, and during the war between England and France (1778-1783) there
were two unsuccessful attacks on Jersey, in 1779 and 1781, the second,
under Baron de Rullecourt, being famous for the victory over the
invaders due to the bravery of the young Major Peirson, who fell when
the French were on the point of surrender. During the revolutionary
period in France the islands were the home of many refugees. In the 18th
century various attempts were made to introduce the English custom-house
system; but proved practically a failure, and the islands throve on
smuggling and privateering down to 1800.

  AUTHORITIES.--Heylin, _Relation of two Journeys_ (1656); P. Falle,
  _Account of the Island of Jersey_ (1694; notes, &c., by E. Durell,
  Jersey, 1837); J. Duncan, _History of Guernsey_ (London, 1841); P. le
  Geyt, _Sur les constitutions, les lois et les usages de cette île_
  [Jersey], ed. R.P. Marett (Jersey, 1846-1847); F.B. Tupper,
  _Chronicles of Castle Cornet, Guernsey_ (2nd ed. London, 1851), and
  _History of Guernsey and its Bailiwick_ (Guernsey, 1854); S.E.
  Hoskins, _Charles II. in the Channel Islands_ (London, 1854), and
  other works; Delacroix, _Jersey, ses antiquités, &c._ (Jersey, 1859);
  T. le Cerf, _L'archipel des Îles Normandes_ (Paris, 1863); G. Dupont,
  _Le Cotentin et ses îles_ (Caen, 1870-1885); J.P.E. Havet, _Les Cours
  royales des Îles Normandes_ (Paris, 1878); E. Pégot-Ogier, _Histoire
  des Îles de la Manche_ (Paris, 1881); C. Noury, _Géologie de Jersey_
  (Paris and Jersey, 1886); D.T. Ansted and R.G. Latham, _Channel
  Islands_ (1865; 3rd ed., rev. by E.T. Nicolle, London, 1893), the
  principal general work of reference; Sir E. MacCulloch, _Guernsey
  Folklore_, ed. Edith F. Carey (London, 1903); E.F. Carey, _Channel
  Islands_ (London, 1904).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] A tod generally equalled 28 lb.



CHANNING, WILLIAM ELLERY (1780-1842), American divine and
philanthropist, was born in Newport, Rhode Island, on the 7th of April
1780. His maternal grandfather was William Ellery, a signer of the
Declaration of Independence; his mother, Lucy Ellery, was a remarkable
woman; and his father, William Channing, was a prominent lawyer in
Newport. Channing had as a child a refined delicacy of feature and
temperament, and seemed to have inherited from his father simple and
elegant tastes, sweetness of temper, and warmth of affection, and from
his mother that strong moral discernment and straightforward rectitude
of purpose and action which formed so striking a feature of his
character. From his earliest years he delighted in the beauty of the
scenery of Newport, and always highly estimated its influence upon his
spiritual character. His father was a strict Calvinist, and Dr Samuel
Hopkins, one of the leaders of the old school Calvinists, was a frequent
guest in his father's house. He was, even as a child, he himself says,
"quite a theologian, and would chop logic with his elders according to
the fashion of that controversial time." He prepared for college in New
London under the care of his uncle, the Rev. Henry Channing, and in
1794, about a year after the death of his father, entered Harvard
College. Before leaving New London he came under religious influences to
which he traced the beginning of his spiritual life. In his college
vacations he taught at Lancaster, Massachusetts, and in term time he
stinted himself in food that he might need less exercise and so save
time for study,--an experiment which undermined his health, producing
acute dyspepsia. From his college course he thought that he got little
good, and said "when I was in college, only three books that I read were
of any moment to me: ... Ferguson on _Civil Society_, ... Hutcheson's
_Moral Philosophy_, and Price's _Dissertations_. Price saved me from
Locke's philosophy."

After graduating in 1798, he lived at Richmond, Virginia, as tutor in
the family of David Meade Randolph, United States marshal for Virginia.
Here he renewed his ascetic habits and spent much time in theological
study, his mind being greatly disturbed in regard to Trinitarian
teachings in general and especially prayer to Jesus. He returned to
Newport in 1800 "a thin and pallid invalid," spent a year and a half
there, and in 1802 went to Cambridge as regent (or general proctor) in
Harvard; in the autumn of 1802 he began to preach, having been approved
by the Cambridge Association. On the 1st of June 1803, having refused
the more advantageous pastorate of Brattle Street church, he was
ordained pastor of the Federal Street Congregational church in Boston.
At this time it seems certain that his theological views were not fixed,
and in 1808, when he preached a sermon at the ordination of the Rev.
John Codman (1782-1847), he still applied the title "Divine Master" to
Jesus Christ, and used such expressions as "shed for souls" of the blood
of Jesus, and "the Son of God himself left the abodes of glory and
expired a victim of the cross." But his sermon preached in 1819 at
Baltimore at the ordination of the Rev. Jared Sparks was in effect a
powerful attack on Trinitarianism, and was followed in 1819 by an
article in _The Christian Disciple_, "Objections to Unitarian
Christianity Considered," and in 1820 by another, "The Moral Argument
against Calvinism"--an excellent evidence of the moral (rather than the
intellectual) character of Unitarian protest. In 1814 he had married a
rich cousin, Ruth Gibbs, but refused to make use of the income from her
property on the ground that clergymen were so commonly accused of
marrying for money.

He was now entering on his public career. Even in 1810, in a Fast Day
sermon, he warned his congregation of Bonaparte's ambition; two years
later he deplored "this country taking part with the oppressor against
that nation which has alone arrested his proud career of victory"; in
1814 he preached a thanksgiving sermon for the overthrow of Napoleon;
and in 1816 he preached a sermon on war which led to the organization of
the Massachusetts Peace Society. His sermon on "Religion, a Social
Principle," helped to procure the omission from the state constitution
of the third article of Part I., which made compulsory a tax for the
support of religious worship. In 1821 he delivered the Dudleian lecture
on the "Evidences of Revealed Religion" at Harvard, of whose corporation
he had been a member since 1813; he had received its degree of S.T.D. in
1820. In August 1821 he undertook a journey to Europe, in the course of
which he met in England many distinguished men of letters, especially
Wordsworth and Coleridge. Both of these poets greatly influenced him
personally and by their writings, and he prophesied that the Lake poets
would be one of the greatest forces in a forming spiritual reform.
Coleridge wrote of him, "He has the love of wisdom and the wisdom of
love."

On his return to America in August 1823, Dr Channing resumed his duties
as pastor, but with a more decided attention than before to literature
and public affairs, especially after receiving as colleague, in 1824,
the Rev. Ezra Stiles Gannett. In 1830, because of his wife's bad health,
Channing went to the West Indies. Negro slavery, as he saw it there, and
as he had seen it in Richmond, more than thirty years before, so
strongly impressed him that he began to write his book _Slavery_ (1835).
In this he insists that "not what is profitable, but what is right" is
"the first question to be proposed by a rational being"; that slavery
ought to be discussed "with a deep feeling of responsibility, and so
done as not to put in jeopardy the peace of the slave-holding states";
that "man cannot be justly held and used as property"; that the tendency
of slavery is morally, intellectually, and domestically, bad; that
emancipation, however, should not be forced on slave-holders by
governmental interference, but by an enlightened public conscience in
the South (and in the North), if for no other reason, because "slavery
should be succeeded by a friendly relation between master and slave; and
to produce this the latter must see in the former his benefactor and
deliverer." He declined to identify himself with the Abolitionists,
whose motto was "Immediate Emancipation" and whose passionate agitation
he thought unsuited to the work they were attempting. The moderation and
temperance of his presentation of the anti-slavery cause naturally
resulted in some misunderstanding and misstatement of his position, such
as is to be found in Mrs Chapman's _Appendix_ to the _Autobiography of
Harriet Martineau_, where Channing is represented as actually using his
influence on behalf of slavery. In 1837 he published _Thoughts on the
Evils of a Spirit of Conquest, and on Slavery: A Letter on the
Annexation of Texas to the United States_, addressed to Henry Clay, and
arguing that the Texan revolt from Mexican rule was largely the work of
land-speculators, and of those who resolved "to throw Texas open to
slave-holders and slaves"; that the results of annexation must be war
with Mexico, embroiling the United States with England and other
European powers, and at home the extension and perpetuation of slavery,
not alone in Texas but in other territories which the United States,
once started at conquest, would force into the Union. But he still
objected to political agitation by the Abolitionists, preferring
"unremitting appeals to the reason and conscience," and, even after the
prominent part he took in the meeting in Faneuil Hall, called to protest
against the murder of Elijah P. Lovejoy, he wrote to _The Liberator_,
counselling the Abolitionists to "disavow this resort to force by Mr
Lovejoy." Channing's pamphlet _Emancipation_ (1840) dealt with the
success of emancipation in the West Indies, as related in Joseph John
Gurney's _Familiar Letters to Henry Clay of Kentucky, describing a
Winter in the West Indies_ (1840), and added his own advice "that we
should each of us bear our conscientious testimony against slavery," and
that the Free States "abstain as rigidly from the use of political power
against Slavery in the States where it is established, as from
exercising it against Slavery in foreign communities," and should free
themselves "from any obligation to use the powers of the national or
state governments in any manner whatever for the support of slavery." In
1842 he published _The Duty of the Free States_, or _Remarks Suggested
by the Case of the Creole_, a careful analysis of the letter of
complaint from the American to the British government, and a defence of
the position taken by the British government. On the 1st of August 1842
he delivered at Lenox, Massachusetts, an address celebrating the
anniversary of emancipation in the British West Indies. Two months
later, on the 2nd of October 1842, he died at Bennington, Vermont.

Physically Channing was short and slight; his eyes were unnaturally
large; his voice wonderfully clear, and like his face, filled with
devotional spirit. He was not a great pastor, and lacked social tact, so
that there were not many people who became his near friends; but by the
few who knew him well, he was almost worshipped. As a preacher Channing
was often criticised for his failure to deal with the practical everyday
duties of life. But his sermons are remarkable for their rare simplicity
and gracefulness of style as well as for the thought that they express.
The first open defence of Unitarians was not based on doctrinal
differences but on the peculiar nature of the attack on them made in
June 1815 by the conservatives in the columns of _The Panoplist_, where
it was stated that Unitarians were "operating only in secret, ... guilty
of hypocritical concealment of their sentiments." His chief objection to
the doctrine of the Trinity (as stated in his sermon at the ordination
of the Rev. Jared Sparks) was that it was no longer used
philosophically, as showing God's relation to the triple nature of man,
but that it had lapsed into mere Tritheism. To the name "Unitarian"
Channing objected strongly, thinking "unity" as abstract a word as
"trinity" and as little expressing the close fatherly relation of God to
man. It is to be noted that he strongly objected to the growth of
"Unitarian orthodoxy" and its increasing narrowness. His views as to the
divinity of Jesus were based on phrases in the Gospels which to his mind
established Christ's admission of inferiority to God the Father,--for
example, "Knoweth no man, neither the Son, but the Father"; at the same
time he regarded Christ as "the sinless and spotless son of God,
distinguished from all men by that infinite peculiarity--freedom from
moral evil." He believed in the pre-existence of Jesus, and that it
differed from the pre-existence of other souls in that Jesus was
actually conscious of such pre-existence, and he reckoned him one with
God the Father in the sense of spiritual union (and not metaphysical
mystery) in the same way that Jesus bade his disciples "Be ye one, even
as I am one." Bunsen called him "the prophet in the United States for
the presence of God in mankind." Channing believed in historic
Christianity and in the story of the resurrection, "a fact which comes
to me with a certainty I find in few ancient histories." He also
believed in the miracles of the Gospels, but held that the Scriptures
were not inspired, but merely records of inspiration, and so saw the
possibility of error in the construction put upon miracles by the
ignorant disciples. But in only a few instances did he refuse full
credence of the plain gospel narrative of miracles. He held, however,
that the miracles were facts and not "evidences" of Christianity, and he
considered that belief in them followed and did not lead up to belief in
Christianity. His character was absolutely averse from controversy of
any sort, and in controversies into which he was forced he was free from
any theological odium and continually displayed the greatest breadth and
catholicity of view. The differences in New England churches he
considered were largely verbal, and he said that "would Trinitarians
tell us what they mean, their system would generally be found little
else than a mystical form of the Unitarian doctrine."

His opposition to Calvinism was so great that even in 1812 he declared
"existence a curse" if Calvinism be true. Possibly his boldest and most
elaborate defence of Unitarianism was his sermon on _Unitarianism most
favourable to Piety_, preached in 1826, criticizing as it did the
doctrine of atonement by the sacrifice of an "infinite substitute"; and
the Election Sermon of 1830 was his greatest plea for spiritual and
intellectual freedom.

Channing's reputation as an author was probably based largely on his
publication in _The Christian Examiner_ of _Remarks on the Character and
Writings of John Milton_ (1826), _Remarks on the Life and Character of
Napoleon Bonaparte_ (1827-1828), and an _Essay on the Character and
Writings of Fénelon_ (1829). An _Essay on Self-Culture_ (1838) was an
address introducing the Franklin Lectures delivered in Boston September
1838. Channing was an intimate friend of Horace Mann, and his views on
the education of children are stated, by no less an authority than
Elizabeth Palmer Peabody, to have anticipated those of Froebel. His
_Complete Works_ have appeared in various editions (5 vols., Boston,
1841; 2 vols., London, 1865; 1 vol., New York, 1875).

Among members of his family may be mentioned his two nephews William
Henry (1810-1884), son of his brother Francis Dana, and William Ellery,
commonly known as Ellery (1818-1901), son of his brother Walter, a
Boston physician (1786-1876). The former, whose daughter married Sir
Edwin Arnold, the English poet, became a Unitarian pastor, for some
time in America, and also in England, where he died; he was deeply
interested in Christian Socialism, and was a constant writer,
translating Jouffroy's _Ethics_ (1840), and assisting in editing the
_Memoirs of Margaret Fuller_ (1852); and he wrote the biography of his
uncle (see O.B. Frothingham's _Memoir_, 1886). Ellery Channing married
Margaret Fuller's sister (1842), and besides critical essays and poems
published an intimate sketch of Thoreau in 1873.

  See the _Memoir_ by William Henry Channing (3 vols., London, 1848;
  republished in one volume, New York, 1880); Elizabeth Palmer Peabody,
  _Reminiscences of the Rev. William Ellery Channing, D.D_. (Boston,
  1880), intimate but inexact; John White Chadwick, _William Ellery
  Channing, Minister of Religion_ (Boston, 1903); and William M. Salter,
  "Channing as a Social Reformer" (_Unitarian Review_, March 1888).
       (R. We.)



CHANSONS DE GESTE, the name given to the epic chronicles which take so
prominent a place in the literature of France from the 11th to the 15th
century. Gaston Paris defined a chanson de geste as a song the subject
of which is a series of historical facts or _gesta_. These facts form
the centre around which are grouped sets of poems, called cycles, and
hence the two terms have in modern criticism become synonymous for the
epic family to which the hero of the particular group or cycle belongs.
The earliest chansons de geste were founded on the fusion of the
Teutonic spirit, under a Roman form, into the new Christian and French
civilization. It seems probable that as early as the 9th century epic
poems began to be chanted by the itinerant minstrels who are known as
jongleurs. It is conjectured that in a base Latin fragment of the 10th
century we possess a translation of a poem on the siege of Girona.
Gaston Paris dates from this lost epic the open expression of what he
calls "the epic fermentation" of France. But the earliest existing
chanson de geste is also by far the noblest and most famous, the
_Chanson de Roland_; the conjectural date of the composition of this
poem has been placed between the years 1066 and 1095. That the author,
as has been supposed, was one of the conquerors of England, it is
perhaps rash to assert, but undoubtedly the poem was composed before the
First Crusade, and the writer lived at or near the sanctuary of Mont
Saint-Michel. The _Chanson de Roland_ stands at the head of modern
French literature, and its solidity and grandeur give a dignity to the
whole class of poetry of which it is the earliest and by far the noblest
example. But it is in the crowd of looser and later poems, less fully
characterized, less steeped in the individuality of their authors, that
we can best study the form of the typical chanson de geste. These epics
sprang from the soil of France; they were national and historical; their
anonymous writers composed them spontaneously, to a common model, with
little regard to the artificial niceties of style. The earlier examples,
which succeed the _Roland_, are unlike that great work in having no
plan, no system of composition. They are improvisations which wander on
at their own pace, whither accident may carry them. This mass of
medieval literature is monotonous, primitive and superficial. As Léon
Gautier has said, in the rudimentary psychology of the chansons de
geste, man is either entirely good or entirely bad. There are no fine
shades, no observation of character. The language in which these poems
are composed is extremely simple, without elaboration, without ornament.
Everything is sacrificed to the telling of a story by a narrator of
little skill, who helps himself along by means of a picturesque, but
almost childish fancy, and a primitive sentiment of rhythm. Two great
merits, however, all the best of these poems possess, force and
lucidity; and they celebrate, what they did much to create, that
unselfish elevation of temper which we call the spirit of chivalry.

Perhaps the most important cycle of chansons de geste was that which was
collected around the name of Charlemagne, and was known as the _Geste du
roi_. A group of this cycle dealt with the history of the mother of the
emperor, and with Charlemagne himself down to the coming of Roland. To
this group belong _Bertha Greatfoot_ and _Aspremont_, both of the 12th
century, and a variety of chansons dealing with the childhood of
Charlemagne and of Ogier the Dane. A second group deals with the
struggle of Charlemagne with his rebellious vassals. This is what has
been defined as the Feudal Epic; it includes _Girars de Viane_ and
_Ogier the Dane_, both of the 13th century, or the end of the 12th. A
third group follows Charlemagne and his peers to the East. It is in the
principal of these poems, _The Pilgrimage to Jerusalem_, that
Alexandrine verse first makes its appearance in French literature. This
must belong to the beginning of the 12th century. A fourth group,
antecedent to the Spanish war, is of the end of the 12th century and the
beginning of the 13th; it includes _Aiquin_, _Fierabras_ and _Otinel_.
The fifth class discusses the war in Spain, and it is to this that
_Roland_ belongs; there are different minor epics dealing with the
events of Roncevaux, and independent chansons of _Gui de Bourgogne_,
_Gaidon_ and _Anseïs de Carthage_. The _Geste du Roi_ comprises a sixth
and last group, proceeding with events up to the death of Charlemagne;
this contains _Huon de Bordeaux_ and a vast number of poems of minor
originality and importance.

Another cycle is that of Duke William Shortnose, _La Geste de
Guillaume_. This includes the very early and interesting _Departure of
the Aimeri Children_, _Aliscans_ and _Rainoart_. It is thought that this
cycle, which used to be called the _Geste de Garin de Monglane_, is less
artificial than the others; it deals with the heroes of the South who
remained faithful in their vassalage to the throne. The poems belonging
to this cycle are extremely numerous, and some of them are among the
earliest which survive. These chansons find their direct opposites in
those which form the great cycle of _La Geste de Doon de Mayence_,
sometimes called "la faulse geste," because it deals with the feats of
the traitors, of the rebellious family of Ganelon. This is the geste of
the Northmen, always hostile to the Carlovingian dynasty. It comprises
some of the most famous of the chansons, in particular _Parise la
duchesse_ and _The Four Sons of Aymon_. Several of its sections are the
production of a known poet, Raimbert of Paris. From this triple division
of the main body of the chansons de geste into _La Geste du Roi_, _La
Geste de Guillaume_ and _La Geste de Doon_, are excluded certain poems
of minor importance,--some provincial, such as _Amis and Amiles_ and
_Garin_, some dealing with the Crusades, such as _Antioche_, and some
which are not connected with any existing cycle, such as _Ciperis de
Vignevaux_; most of this last category, however, are works of the
decadence.

The analysis which is here sketched is founded on the latest theories of
Léon Gautier, who has given the labour of a lifetime to the
investigation of this subject. The wealth of material is baffling to the
ordinary student; of the medieval chansons de geste many hundreds of
thousands of lines have been preserved. The habit of composing became in
the 14th century, as has been said, no longer an art but a monomania.
Needless to add that a very large proportion of the surviving poems have
never yet been published. All the best of the early chansons de geste
are written in ten-syllable verse, divided into stanzas or _laisses_ of
different length, united by a single assonance. Rhyme came in with the
13th century, and had the effect in languid bards of weakening the
narrative; the sing-song of it led at last to the abandonment of verse
in favour of plain historical prose. The general character of the
chansons de geste, especially of those of the 12th century, is hard,
coarse, inflexible, like the march of rough men stiffened by coats of
mail. There is no art and little grace, but a magnificent display of
force. These poems enshrine the self-sufficiency of a young and powerful
people; they are full of Gallic pride, they breathe the spirit of an
indomitable warlike energy. All their figures belong to the same social
order of things, and all illustrate the same fighting aristocracy. The
moving principle is that of chivalry, and what is presented is,
invariably, the spectacle of the processional life of a medieval
soldier. The age described is a disturbed one; the feudal anarchy of
Europe is united, for a moment, in defending western civilization
against the inroads of Asia, against "the yellow peril." But it is a
time of transition in Europe also, and Charlemagne, the immortal but
enfeebled emperor, whose beard is whiter than lilies, represents an old
order of things against which the rude barons of the North are
perpetually in successful revolt. The loud cry of the dying Ronald, as
E. Quinet said, rings through the whole poetical literature of medieval
France; it is the voice of the individuality of the great vassal, who,
in the decay of the empire, stands alone with himself and with his
sword.

  AUTHORITIES,--Léon Gautier, _Les Épopées françaises_ (4 vols.,
  1878-1894); Gaston Paris, _La Littérature française au moyen âge_
  (1890); Paul Meyer, _Recherches sur l'épopée française_ (1867); G.
  Paris, _Histoire poétique de Charlemagne_ (1865); A. Longnon, _Les
  Quatre Fits Aimon_, &c. (1879).     (E. G.)



CHANT (derived through the Fr. from the Lat. _cantare_, to sing; an old
form is "chaunt"), a song or melody, particularly one sung according to
the rules of church service-books. For an account of the chant or
_cantus firmus_ of the Roman Church see PLAIN-SONG. In the English
church "chants" are the tunes set to the unmetrical verses of the psalms
and canticles. The chant consisted of an "intonation" followed by a
reciting note of indefinite length; a "mediation" closed the first part
of the verse, leading to a second reciting note; a "termination" closed
the second part of the verse. In the English chant the "intonation"
disappeared. Chants are "single," if written for one verse only,
"double," if for two. "Quadruple" chants for four verses have also been
written.



CHANTABUN, or CHANTABURI, the principal town of the Siamese province of
the same name, on the E. side of the Gulf of Siam, in 102° 6' E., 12°
38' N. Pop. about 5000. The town lies about 12 m. from the sea on a
river which is navigable for boats and inside the bar of which there is
good anchorage for light-draft vessels. The trade is chiefly in rubies
and sapphires from the mines of the Krat and Pailin districts, and in
pepper, of which about 500 tons are exported annually. Cardamoms and
rosewood are also exported. In 1905 Chantabun was made the headquarters
of a high commissioner with jurisdiction extending over the coast
districts from the Nam Wen on the East to Cape Liant on the West, which
were thus united to form a provincial division (_Monton_). In 1893
Chantabun was occupied by a French force of four hundred men, a step
taken by France as a guarantee for the execution by Siam of undertakings
entered into by the treaty of that year. The occupation, which was
merely military and did not affect the civil government, lasted until
January 1905, when, in accordance with the provisions of the
Franco-Siamese treaty of 1904, the garrison of occupation was withdrawn.
Chantabun has been since the 17th century, and still is, a stronghold of
the Roman Catholic missionaries, and the Christian element amongst the
population is greater here than anywhere else in Siam.



CHANTADA, a town of north-western Spain, in the province of Lugo, on the
left bank of the Río de Chantada, a small right-hand tributary of the
river Miño, and on the main road from Orerse, 18 m. S. by W., to Lugo,
28 m. N. by E. Pop. (1900) 15,003. Chantada is the chief town of the
fertile region between the Miño and the heights of El Faro, which mark
the western border of the province. Despite the lack of railway
communication, it has a thriving trade in grain, flax, hemp, and dairy
produce.



CHANTAGE (a Fr. word from _chanter_, to sing, slang for a criminal
making an avowal under examination), a demand for money backed by the
threat of scandalous revelations, the French equivalent of "blackmail."



CHANTARELLE, an edible fungus, known botanically as _Cantharellus
cibarius_, found in woods in summer. It is golden yellow, somewhat
inversely conical in shape and about 2 in. broad and high. The cap is
flattened above with a central depression and a thick lobed irregular
margin. Running down into the stem from the cap are a number of shallow
thick gills. The substance of the fungus is dry and opaque with a
peculiar smell suggesting ripe apricots or plums. The flesh is whitish
tinged with yellow. The chantarelle is sold in the markets on the
continent of Europe, where it forms a regular article of food, but seems
little known in Britain though often plentiful in the New Forest and
elsewhere. Before being cooked they should be allowed to dry, and then
thrown into boiling water. They may then be stewed in butter or oil, or
cut up small and stewed with meat. No fungus requires more careful
preparation.

  See M.C. Cooke, _British Edible Fungi_, (1891), pp. 104-105.



CHANTAVOINE, HENRI (1850- ), French man of letters, was born at
Montpellier on the 6th of August 1850, and was educated at the École
Normale Supérieure. After teaching in the provinces he moved, in 1876,
to the Lycée Charlemagne in Paris, and subsequently became professor of
rhetoric at the Lycée Henri IV. and _maître de conferences_ at the École
Normale at Sèvres. He was associated with the _Nouvelle Revue_ from its
foundation in 1879, and he joined the _Journal des débats_ in 1884. His
poems include _Poèmes sincères_ (1877), _Satires contemporaines_ (1881),
_Ad memoriam_ (1884), _Au fil des jours_ (1889).



CHANTILLY, a town of northern France, in the department of Oise, 25 m.
N. of Paris on the Northern railway to St Quentin. Pop. (1906) 4632. It
is finely situated to the north of the forest of Chantilly and on the
left bank of the river Nonette, and is one of the favourite Parisian
resorts. Its name was long associated with the manufacture, which has
now to a great extent decayed, of lace and blonde; it is still more
celebrated for its château and its park (laid out originally by A. Le
Nôtre in the second half of the 17th century), and as the scene of the
great annual races of the French Jockey Club. The château consists of
the palace built from 1876 to 1885 and of an older portion adjoining it
known as the châtelet. The old castle must have been in existence in the
13th century, and in the reign of Charles VI. the lordship belonged to
Pierre d'Orgemont, chancellor of France. In 1484 it passed to the house
of Montmorency, and in 1632 from that family to the house of Condé.
Louis II., prince de Condé, surnamed the Great, was specially attached
to the place, and did a great deal to enhance its beauty and splendour.
Here he enjoyed the society of La Bruyère, Racine, Molière, La Fontaine,
Boileau, and other great men of his time; and here his steward Vatel
killed himself in despair, because of a hitch in the preparations for
the reception of Louis XIV. The stables close to the racecourse were
built from 1719 to 1735 by Louis-Henri, duke of Bourbon. Of the two
splendid mansions existing at that period known as the grand château and
the châtelet, the former was destroyed about the time of the Revolution,
but the latter, built for Anne de Montmorency by Jean Bullant, still
remains as one of the finest specimens of Renaissance architecture in
France. The château d'Enghien, facing the entrance to the grand château,
was built in 1770 as a guest-house. On the death in 1830 of the duke of
Bourbon, the last representative of the house of Condé, the estate
passed into the hands of Henri, duc d'Aumale, fourth son of Louis
Philippe. In 1852 the house of Orleans was declared incapable of
possessing property in France, and Chantilly was accordingly sold by
auction. Purchased by the English bankers, Coutts & Co., it passed back
into the hands of the duc d'Aumale, in 1872. By him a magnificent
palace, including a fine chapel in the Renaissance style, was erected on
the foundations of the ancient grand château and in the style of the
châtelet. It is quadrilateral in shape, consisting of four unequal sides
flanked by towers and built round a courtyard. The whole group of
buildings as well as the pleasure-ground behind them, known as the
Parterre de la Volière, is surrounded by fosses supplied with water from
the Nonette. On the terrace in front of the château there is a bronze
statue of the constable Anne de Montmorency. The duc d'Aumale installed
in the châtelet a valuable library, specially rich in incunabula and
16th century editions of classic authors, and a collection of the
paintings of the great masters, besides many other objects of art. By a
public act in 1886 he gave the park and château with its superb
collections to the Institute of France in trust for the nation,
reserving to himself only a life interest; and when he died in 1897 the
Institute acquired full possession.



CHANTREY, SIR FRANCIS LEGATT (1782-1841), English sculptor, was born on
the 7th of April 1782 at Norton near Sheffield, where his father, a
carpenter, cultivated a small farm. His father died when he was eight
years of age; and his mother having married again, his profession was
left to be chosen by his friends. In his sixteenth year he was on the
point of being apprenticed to a grocer in Sheffield, when, having seen
some wood-carving in a shop-window, he requested to be made a carver
instead, and was accordingly placed with a Mr Ramsey, wood-carver in
Sheffield. In this situation he became acquainted with Raphael Smith, a
distinguished draftsman in crayon, who gave him lessons in painting; and
Chantrey, eager to commence his course as an artist, procured the
cancelling of his indentures, and went to try his fortune in Dublin and
Edinburgh, and finally (1802) in London. Here he first obtained
employment as an assistant wood-carver, but at the same time devoted
himself to portrait-painting, bust-sculpture, and modelling in clay. He
exhibited pictures at the Academy for some years from 1804, but from
1807 onwards devoted himself mainly to sculpture. The sculptor Nollekens
showed particular zeal in recognizing his merits. In 1807 he married his
cousin, Miss Wale, who had some property of her own. His first
imaginative work in sculpture was the model of the head of Satan, which
was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1808. He afterwards executed for
Greenwich hospital four colossal busts of the admirals Duncan, Howe,
Vincent and Nelson; and so rapidly did his reputation spread that the
next bust which he executed, that of Horne Tooke, procured him
commissions to the extent of £12,000. From this period he was almost
uninterruptedly engaged in professional labour. In 1819 he visited
Italy, and became acquainted with the most distinguished sculptors of
Florence and Rome. He was chosen an associate (1815) and afterwards a
member (1818) of the Royal Academy, received the degree of M.A. from
Cambridge, and that of D.C.L. from Oxford, and in 1835 was knighted. He
died after an illness of only two hours' duration on the 25th of
November 1841, having for some years suffered from disease of the heart,
and was buried in a tomb constructed by himself in the church of his
native village.

The works of Chantrey are extremely numerous. The principal are the
statues of Washington in the State-house at Boston, U.S.A.; of George
III. in the Guildhall, London; of George IV. at Brighton; of Pitt in
Hanover Square, London; of James Watt in Westminster Abbey and in
Glasgow; of Roscoe and Canning in Liverpool; of Dalton in Manchester; of
Lord President Blair and Lord Melville in Edinburgh, &c. Of his
equestrian statues the most famous are those of Sir Thomas Munro in
Calcutta, and the duke of Wellington in front of the London Exchange.
But the finest of Chantrey's works are his busts, and his delineations
of children. The figures of two children asleep in each other's arms,
which form a monumental design in Lichfield cathedral, have always been
lauded for beauty, simplicity and grace. So is also the statue of the
girlish Lady Louisa Russell, represented as standing on tiptoe and
fondling a dove in her bosom. Both these works appear, in design, to
have owed something to Stothard; for Chantrey knew his own scantiness of
ideal invention or composition, and on system sought aid from others for
such attempts. In busts, his leading excellence is facility--a ready
unconstrained air of life, a prompt vivacity of ordinary expression.
Allan Cunningham and Weekes were his chief assistants, and were indeed
the active executants of many works that pass under Chantrey's name.
Chantrey was a man of warm and genial temperament, and is said to have
borne noticeable though commonplace resemblance to the usual portraits
of Shakespeare.

_Chantrey Bequest._--By the will dated the 31st of December 1840,
Chantrey (who had no children) left his whole residuary personal estate
after the decease or on the second marriage of his widow (less certain
specified annuities and bequests) in trust for the president and
trustees of the Royal Academy (or in the event of the dissolution of the
Royal Academy, to such society as might take its place), the income to
be devoted to the encouragement of British fine art in painting and
sculpture only, by "the purchase of works of fine art of the highest
merit ... that can be obtained." The funds might be allowed to
accumulate for not more than five years; works by British or foreign
artists, dead or living, might be acquired, so long as such works were
entirely executed within the shores of Great Britain, the artists having
been in residence there during such execution and completion. The prices
to be paid were to be "liberal," and no sympathy for an artist or his
family was to influence the selection or the purchase of works, which
were to be acquired solely on the ground of intrinsic merit. No
commission or orders might be given: the works must be finished before
purchase. Conditions were made as to the exhibition of the works, in the
confident expectation that as the intention of the testator was to form
and establish a "public collection of British Fine Art in Painting and
Sculpture," the government or the country would provide a suitable
gallery for their display; and an annual sum of £300 and £50 was to be
paid to the president of the Royal Academy and the secretary
respectively, for the discharge of their duties in carrying out the
provisions of the will.

Lady Chantrey died in 1875, and two years later the fund became
available for the purchase of paintings and sculptures. The capital sum
available amounted to £105,000 in 3% Consols, which (since reduced to
2½%) produces an available annual income varying from £2500 to £2100.
Galleries in the Victoria and Albert Museum at South Kensington were at
first adopted as the depository of the works acquired, until in 1898 the
Royal Academy arranged with the treasury, on behalf of the government,
for the transference of the collection to the National Gallery of
British Art, which had been erected by Sir Henry Tate at Millbank. It
was agreed that the "Tate Gallery" should be its future home, and that
"no power of selection or elimination is claimed on behalf of the
trustees and director of the National Gallery" (Treasury Letter,
18054-98, 7th December 1898) in respect of the pictures and sculptures
which were then to be handed over and which should, from time to time,
be sent to augment the collection. Inasmuch as it was felt that the
provision that all works must be complete to be eligible for purchase
militated against the most advantageous disposition of the fund in
respect of sculpture, in the case of wax models or plaster casts before
being converted into marble or bronze, it was sought in the action of
_Sir F. Leighton_ v. _Hughes_ (tried by Mr Justice North, judgment May
7th, 1888, and in the court of appeal, before the master of the rolls,
Lord Justice Cotton, and Lord Justice Fry, judgment June 4th, 1889--the
master of the rolls dissenting) to allow of sculptors being commissioned
to complete in bronze or marble a work executed in wax or plaster, such
"completion" being more or less a mechanical process. The attempt,
however, was abortive.

A growing discontent with the interpretation put by the Royal Academy
upon the terms of the will as shown in the works acquired began to find
expression more than usually forcible and lively in the press during the
year 1903, and a debate raised in the House of Lords by the earl of
Lytton led to the appointment of a select committee of the House of
Lords, which sat from June to August 1904. The committee consisted of
the earls of Carlisle, Lytton, and Crewe, and Lords Windsor,
Ribblesdale, Newton, and Killanin, and the witnesses represented the
Royal Academy and representative art institutions and art critics. The
report (ordered to be printed on the 8th of August 1904) made certain
recommendations with a view to the prevention of certain former errors
of administration held to have been sustained, but dismissed other
charges against the Academy. In reply thereto a memorandum was issued by
the Royal Academy (February 1905, ordered to be printed on the 7th of
August 1905--Paper 166) disagreeing with certain recommendations, but
allowing others, either intact or in a modified form.

Up to 1905 inclusive 203 works had been bought--all except two from
living painters--at a cost of nearly £68,000. Of these, 175 were in
oil-colours, 12 in water-colours, and 16 sculptures (10 in bronze and 6
marble).

  See _The Administration of the Chantrey Bequest_, by D.S. MacColl
  (l6mo, London, 1904), a highly controversial publication by the
  leading assailant of the Royal Academy: _Chantrey and His Bequest_, by
  Arthur Fish, a complete illustrated record of the purchases, &c.
  (London, 1904); _The Royal Academy, its Uses and Abuses_, by H.J.
  Laidlay (London, 1898), controversial; _Report from the Select
  Committee of the House of Lords on the Chantrey Trust; together with
  the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence and Appendix_
  (Wyman & Sons, 1904), and _Index_ (separate publication, 1904).



CHANT ROYAL, one of the fixed forms of verse invented by the ingenuity
of the poets of medieval France. It is composed of five strophes,
identical in arrangement, of eleven verses each, and of an envoi of five
verses. All the strophes are written on the five rhymes exhibited in the
first strophe, the entire poem, therefore, consisting of sixty lines in
the course of which five rhymes are repeated. It has been conjectured
that the chant royal is an extended ballade, or rather a ballade
conceived upon a larger scale; but which form preceded the other appears
to be uncertain. On this point Henri de Croï, who wrote about these
forms of verse in his _Art et science de rhétorique_ (1493), throws no
light. He dwells, however, on the great dignity of what he calls the
"Champt Royal," and says that those who defy with success the ardour of
its rules deserve crowns and garlands for their pains. Étienne Pasquier
(1529-1615) points out the fact that the Chant Royal, by its length and
the rigidity of its structure, is better fitted than the ballade for
solemn and pompous themes. In Old French, the most admired chants royal
are those of Clement Marot; his _Chant royal chrestien_, with its
refrain

  "Santé au corps, et Paradis à l'âme,"

was celebrated. Théodore de Banville defines the chant royal as
essentially belonging to ages of faith, when its subjects could be
either the exploits of a hero of royal race or the processional
splendours of religion. La Fontaine was the latest of the French poets
to attempt the chant royal, until it was resuscitated in modern times.

This species of poem was unknown in English medieval literature and was
only introduced into Great Britain in the last quarter of the 19th
century. The earliest chant royal in English was that published by
Edmund Gosse in 1877; it is here given to exemplify the structure and
rhyme-arrangement of the form:--

  THE PRAISE OF DIONYSUS

 "Behold, above the mountains there is light,
  A streak of gold, a line of gathering fire,
  And the dim East hath suddenly grown bright
  With pale aerial flame, that drives up higher
  The lurid mists which all the night long were
  Breasting the dark ravines and coverts bare;
  Behold, behold! the granite gates unclose,
  And down the vales a lyric people flows,
  Who dance to music, and in dancing fling
  Their frantic robes to every wind that blows,
  _And deathless praises to the Vine-God sing._

  Nearer they press, and nearer still in sight,
  Still dancing blithely in a seemly choir;
  Tossing on high the symbol of their rite,
  The cone-tipp'd thyrsus of a god's desire;
  Nearer they come, tall damsels flushed and fair,
  With ivy circling their abundant hair,
  Onward, with even pace, in stately rows,
  With eye that flashes, and with cheek that glows,
  And all the while their tribute-songs they bring,
  And newer glories of the past disclose
  _And deathless praises to the Vine-God sing._

  The pure luxuriance of their limbs is white,
  And flashes clearer as they draw the nigher,
  Bathed in an air of infinite delight,
  Smooth without wound of thorn, or fleck of mire,
  Borne up by song as by a trumpet's blare,
  Leading the van to conquest, on they fare,
  Fearless and bold, whoever comes or goes,
  These shining cohorts of Bacchantes close,
  Shouting and shouting till the mountains ring,
  And forests grim forget their ancient woes,
  _And deathless praises to the Vine-God sing._

  And youths there are for whom full many a night
  Brought dreams of bliss, vague dreams that haunt and tire
  Who rose in their own ecstasy bedight,
  And wandered forth through many a scourging briar,
  And waited shivering in the icy air,
  And wrapped the leopard-skin about them there,
  Knowing for all the bitter air that froze,
  The time must come, that every poet knows,
  When he shall rise and feel himself a king,
  And follow, follow where the ivy grows,
  _And deathless praises to the Vine-God sing._

  But oh! within the heart of this great flight,
  Whose ivory arms hold up the golden lyre?
  What form is this of more than mortal height?
  What matchless beauty, what inspiréd ire?
  The brindled panthers know the prize they bear,
  And harmonize their steps with tender care;
  Bent to the morning, like a living rose,
  The immortal splendour of his face he shows;
  And, where he glances, leaf and flower and wing
  Tremble with rapture, stirred in their repose,
  _And deathless praises to the Vine-God sing._

  _Envoi_.

  Prince of the flute and ivy, all thy foes
  Record the bounty that thy grace bestows,
  But we, thy servants, to thy glory cling,
  And with no frigid lips our songs compose,
  _And deathless praises to the Vine-God sing._"

In the middle ages the chant royal was largely used for the praise of
the Virgin Mary. Eustache Deschamps (1340-1410) distinguishes these
Marian chants royaux, which were called "serventois," by the absence of
an envoi. These poems are first mentioned by Rutebeuf, a _trouvère_ of
the 13th century. The chant royal is practically unknown outside French
and English literature.     (E. G.)



CHANTRY (Fr. _chanterie_, from _chanter_, to sing; Med. Lat.
_cantuaria_), a small chapel built out from a church, endowed in
pre-Reformation times for the express purpose of maintaining priests for
the chanting of masses for the soul of the founder or of some one named
by him. It generally contained the tomb of the founder, and, as the
officiator or mass-priest was often unconnected with the parochial
clergy, had an entrance from the outside. The word passed through
graduations of meaning. Its first sense was singing or chanting. Then it
meant the endowment funds, next the priests, and then the church or
chapel itself.



CHANUTE, a city of Neosho county, Kansas, U.S.A., 1 m. from the Neosho
river, and about 120 m. S.S.W. of Kansas city. Pop. (1890) 2826; (1900)
4208, of whom 210 were foreign-born and 171 were negroes; (1910 census)
9272. Chanute is served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe and the
Missouri, Kansas & Texas railways, the former having large repair shops.
The city is in the Kansas-Oklahoma oil and gas field, and is surrounded
by a fine farming and dairying region, in which special attention is
given to the raising of small fruit; oil, gas, cement rock and brick
shale are found in the vicinity. Among the city's manufactures are
refined oil, Portland cement, vitrified brick and tile, glass, asphalt,
ice, cigars, drilling machinery, and flour. The municipality owns and
operates the waterworks, a natural gas plant, and an electric lighting
plant. Four towns--New Chicago, Tioga, Chicago Junction and
Alliance--were started here about the same time (1870). In 1872 they
were consolidated, and the present name was adopted in honour of Octave
Chanute (b. 1832), the civil engineer and aeronautist (see FLIGHT AND
FLYING), then the engineer of the Lawrence, Leavenworth & Galveston
railway (now part of the Atchison system). Chanute was incorporated as a
city of the third class in 1873, and its charter was revised in 1888.
Natural gas and oil were found here in 1899, and Chanute became one of
the leaders of the Kansas independent refineries in their contest with
the Standard Oil Company.



CHANZY, ANTOINE EUGÈNE ALFRED (1823-1883), French general, was born at
Nouart (Ardennes) on the 18th of March 1823. The son of a cavalry
officer, he was educated at the naval school at Brest, but enlisted in
the artillery, and, subsequently passing through St Cyr, was
commissioned in the Zouaves in 1843. He saw a good deal of fighting in
Algeria, and was promoted lieutenant in 1848, and captain in 1851. He
became _chef de bataillon_ in 1856, and served in the Lombardy campaign
of 1859, being present at Magenta and Solferino. He took part in the
Syrian campaign of 1860-61 as a lieutenant-colonel; and as colonel
commanded the 48th regiment at Rome in 1864. He returned to Algeria as
general of brigade, assisted to quell the Arab insurrection, and
commanded the subdivisions of Bel Abbes and Tlemçen in 1868. Although he
had acquired a good professional reputation, he was in bad odour at the
war office on account of suspected contributions to the press, and at
the outbreak of the Franco-German War he was curtly refused a brigade
command. After the revolution, however, the government of national
defence called him from Algeria, made him a general of division, and
gave him command of the XVI. corps of the army of the Loire. (For the
operations of the Orleans campaign which followed, see FRANCO-GERMAN
WAR.) The Loire army won the greatest success of the French during the
whole war at Coulmiers, and followed this up with another victorious
action at Patay; in both engagements General Chanzy's corps took the
most brilliant part. After the second battle of Orleans and the
separation of the two wings of the French army, Chanzy was appointed to
command that in the west, designated the second army of the Loire. His
enemies, the grand duke of Mecklenburg, Prince Frederick Charles, and
General von der Tann, all regarded Chanzy as their most formidable
opponent. He displayed conspicuous moral courage and constancy, not less
than technical skill, in the fighting from Beaugency to the Loire, in
his retreat to Le Mans, and in retiring to Laval behind the Mayenne. As
Gambetta was the soul, Chanzy was the strong right arm of French
resistance to the invader. He was made a grand officer of the Legion of
Honour, and was elected to the National Assembly. At the outbreak of the
Commune, Chanzy, then at Paris, fell into the hands of the insurgents,
by whom he was forced to give his parole not to serve against them. It
was said that he would otherwise have been appointed instead of MacMahon
to command the army of Versailles. A ransom of £40,000 was also paid by
the government for him. In 1872 he became a member of the committee of
defence and commander of the VII. army corps, and in 1873 was appointed
governor of Algeria, where he remained for six years. In 1875 he was
elected a life senator, in 1878 received the grand cross of the Legion
of Honour, and in 1879, without his consent, was nominated for the
presidency of the republic, receiving a third of the total votes. For
two years he was ambassador at St Petersburg, during which time he
received many tokens of respect, not only from the Russians, but also
from the German emperor, William I., and Prince Bismarck. He died
suddenly, while commanding the VI. army corps (stationed nearest to the
German frontier), at Châlons-sur-Marne, on the 4th of January 1883, only
a few days after Gambetta, and his remains received a state funeral. He
was the author of _La Deuxième Armée de la Loire_ (1872). Statues of
General Chanzy have been erected at Nouart and Le Mans.



CHAOS, in the Hesiodic theogony, the infinite empty space, which existed
before all things (_Theog._ 116, 123). It is not, however, a mere
abstraction, being filled with clouds and darkness; from it proceed
Erebus and Nyx (Night), whose children are Aether (upper air) and Hemera
(Day). In the Orphic cosmogony the origin of all goes back to Chronos,
the personification of time, who produces Aether and Chaos. In the
Aristophanic parody (_Birds_, 691) the winged Eros in conjunction with
gloomy Chaos brings forth the race of birds. The later Roman conception
(Ovid, _Metam._ i. 7) makes Chaos the original undigested, amorphous
mass, into which the architect of the world introduces order and
harmony, and from which individual forms are created. In the created
world (cosmos, order of the universe) the word has various
meanings:--the universe; the space between heaven and earth; the
under-world and its ruler. Metaphorically it is used for the
immeasurable darkness, eternity, and the infinite generally. In modern
usage "chaos" denotes a state of disorder and confusion.



CHAPBOOK (from the O. Eng. _chap_, to buy and sell), the comparatively
modern name applied by booksellers and bibliophiles to the little
stitched tracts written for the common people and formerly circulated in
England, Scotland and the American colonies by itinerant dealers or
chapmen, consisting chiefly of vulgarized versions of popular stories,
such as _Tom Thumb_, _Jack the Giant Killer_, _Mother Shipton_, and
_Reynard the Fox_--travels, biographies and religious treatises. Few of
the older chapbooks exist. Samuel Pepys collected some of the best and
had them bound into small quarto volumes, which he called Vulgaria;
also four volumes of a smaller size, which he lettered _Penny
Witticisms, Penny Merriments, Penny Compliments_ and _Penny
Godlinesses_. The early chapbooks were the direct descendants of the
black-letter tracts of Wynkyn de Worde. It was in France that the
printing-press first began to supply reading for the common people. At
the end of the 15th century there was a large popular literature of
farces, tales in verse and prose, satires, almanacs, &c., stitched
together so as to contain a few leaves, and circulated by itinerant
booksellers, known as colporteurs. Most early English chapbooks are
adaptations or translations of these French originals, and were
introduced into England early in the 16th century. The chapbooks of the
17th century present us with valuable illustrations of the manners of
the time; one of the best known is that containing the story of Dick
Whittington. Others which had a great vogue are _Jack the Giant Killer,
Little Red Riding Hood_, and _Mother Shipton_. Those of the 18th century
are far inferior in every way, both as regards the literature and the
printing; and unfortunately it is these which form the bulk of what is
now known to us in collections as chapbooks. They have never exercised
any great influence in England nor received much attention, owing no
doubt to their poor literary character. In France, on the other hand,
their French equivalents have been the object of close and systematic
study, and _L'Histoire des livres populaires ou de la littérature du
colportage_ by Charles Nisard (1854) goes deeply into the subject.
Amongst English books may be mentioned _Notices of Fugitive Tracts and
Chapbooks_, by J.O. Halliwell-Phillipps (1849); _Chapbooks of the 18th
Century_, by John Ashton (1882), and some reprints by the Villon Society
in 1885. The word "chapbook" has not been noticed earlier than 1824,
when Dibdin, the celebrated bibliographer, described a work as being "a
chapbook, printed in rather a neat black-letter."



CHAPE (from the Fr. _chape_, a hood, cope or sheath), a cover or metal
plate, such as the cap upon the needle in the compass, also the
transverse guard of a sword which protects the hand. From the original
meaning comes the use of the word as a support or catch to attach one
thing to another, as the hook on a belt to which the sword is fastened.
The word is also used for the tip of a fox's brush.



CHAPEL, a place of religious worship,[1] a name properly applied to that
of a Christian religious body, but sometimes to any small temple of
pagan worship (Lat. _sacellum_). The word is derived through the O. Fr.
_chapele_, modern _chapelle_, from the Late Lat. _capelle_ or
_cappella_, diminutive of _cappa_, a cape, particularly that of a monk.
This word was transferred to any sanctuary containing relics, in the
early history of the Frankish Church, because the cloak of St Martin,
_cappa brevior Sancti Martini_, one of the most sacred relics of the
Frankish kings, was carried in a sanctuary or shrine wherever the king
went; and oaths were taken on it (see Ducange, _Glossarium_, s.v.
_Capella_). Such a sanctuary was served by a priest, who was hence
called _capellanus_, from which is derived the English "chaplain"
(q.v.). The strict application of the word to a sanctuary containing
relics was extended to embrace any place of worship other than a church,
and it was synonymous, therefore, with "oratory" (_oratorium_),
especially one attached to a palace or to a private dwelling-house. The
celebrated Sainte Chapelle in Paris, attached to what is now the Palais
de Justice, well illustrates the early and proper meaning of the word.
It was built (consecration, 1248) by St Louis of France to contain the
relic of the Crown of Thorns, ransomed by the king from the Venetians,
who held it in pawn from the Latin emperor of the East, John of Brienne,
lately dead. The chapel served as the sanctuary of the relic lodged in
the upper chapel, and the whole building was attached as the place of
worship to the king's palace. This, the primary meaning, survives in the
chapels usually placed in the aisles of cathedrals and large churches.
They were originally built either to contain relics of a particular
saint to whom they were dedicated, or the tomb of a particular family.

In the Church of England the word is applied to a private place of
worship, attached either to the palaces of the sovereign, "chapels
royal," or to the residence of a private person, to a college, school,
prison, workhouse, &c. Further, the word has particular legal
applications, though in each case the building might be and often is
styled a church. These are places of worship supplementary to a parish
church, and may be either "chapels of ease," to ease or relieve the
mother-church and serve those parishioners who may live far away,
"parochial chapels," the "churches" of ancient divisions of a very large
and widely scattered parish, or "district chapels," those of a district
of a parish divided under the various church building acts. A "free
chapel" is one founded by the king and by his authority, and visited by
him and not by the bishop. A "proprietary chapel" is one that belongs to
a private person. They are anomalies to the English ecclesiastical law,
have no parish rights, and can be converted to other than religious
purposes, but a clergyman may be licensed to perform duty in such a
place of worship. In the early and middle part of the 19th century such
proprietary chapels were common, but they have practically ceased to
exist. "Chapel" was early and still is in England the general name of
places of worship other than those of the established Church, but the
application of "church" to all places of worship without distinction of
sect is becoming more and more common. The word "chapel" was in this
restricted sense first applied to places of worship belonging to the
Roman Church in England, and was thus restricted to those attached to
foreign embassies, or to those of the consorts of Charles I. and II. and
James II., who were members of that church. The word is still frequently
the general term for Roman Catholic churches in Great Britain and always
so in Ireland. The use of "chapel" as a common term for all
Nonconformist places of worship was general through most of the 19th
century, so that "church and chapel" was the usual phrase to mark the
distinction between members of the established Church and those of
Nonconformist bodies. Here the widened use of "church" noticed above has
been especially marked. Most of the recent buildings for worship erected
by Nonconformist bodies will be found to be styled Wesleyan,
Congregational, &c., churches. It would appear that while the word
"chapel" was not infrequent in the early history of Nonconformity,
"meeting-house" was the more usual term.

From the architectural point of view the addition of chapels to a
cathedral or large church assumes some historical importance in
consequence of the changes it involved in the plan. It was the
introduction of the apsidal chapels in the churches of France which
eventually led to the _chevet_ or cluster of eastern chapels in many of
the great cathedrals, and also sometimes to the extension of the
transept so as to include additional apsidal chapels on the east side.
In France, and to a certain extent in Italy, the multiplication of
chapels led to their being placed on the north and south side of the
aisles, and in some cases, as at Albi in France, to the suppression of
the aisles and the instalment of the chapels in their place. The chapels
of the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge are sometimes of large
dimensions and architecturally of great importance, that of Christ
Church being actually the cathedral of Oxford; among others may be
mentioned the chapel of Merton College, and the new chapel of Exeter
College, both in Oxford, and the chapel of King's College, Cambridge,
which is roofed over with perhaps the finest fan-vault in England. (See
VAULT, Plate II., fig. 19.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The only other English sense is that of a printer's workshop, or
    the body of compositors in it, who are presided over by a "father of
    the chapel."



CHAPELAIN, JEAN (1595-1674), French poet and man of letters, the son of
a notary, was born in Paris on the 4th of December 1595. His father
destined him for his own profession; but his mother, who had known
Ronsard, had determined otherwise. At an early age Chapelain began to
qualify himself for literature, learning, under Nicolas Bourbon, Greek
and Latin, and teaching himself Italian and Spanish. Having finished his
studies, he was engaged for a while in teaching Spanish to a young
nobleman. He was then appointed tutor to the two sons of a M. de la
Trousse, grand provost of France. Attached for the next seventeen years
to the family of this gentleman, the administration of whose fortune was
wholly in his hands, he seems to have published nothing during this
period, yet to have acquired a great reputation as a probability. His
first work given to the public was a preface for the _Adone_ of Marini,
who printed and published that notorious poem at Paris. This was
followed by an excellent translation of Mateo Aleman's novel, _Guzmán de
Alfarache_, and by four extremely indifferent odes, one of them
addressed to Richelieu. The credit of introducing the law of the
dramatic unities into French literature has been claimed for many
writers, and especially for the Abbé d'Aubignac, whose _Pratique du
théâtre_ appeared in 1657. The theory had of course been enunciated in
the _Art poétique_ of J.C. Scaliger in 1561, and subsequently by other
writers, but there is no doubt that it was the action of Chapelain that
transferred it from the region of theory to that of actual practice. In
a conversation with Richelieu in about 1632, reported by the abbé
d'Olivet, Chapelain maintained that it was indispensable to maintain the
unities of time, place and action, and it is explicitly stated that the
doctrine was new to the cardinal and to the poets who were in his pay.
French classical drama thus owes the riveting of its fetters to
Chapelain. Rewarded with a pension of a thousand crowns, and from the
first an active member of the newly-constituted Academy, Chapelain drew
up the plan of the grammar and dictionary the compilation of which was
to be a principal function of the young institution, and at Richelieu's
command drew up the _Sentiments de l'Académie sur le Cid_. In 1656 he
published, in a magnificent form, the first twelve cantos of his
celebrated epic _La Pucelle_,[1] on which he had been engaged during
twenty years. Six editions of the poem were disposed of in eighteen
months. But this was the end of the poetic reputation of Chapelain, "the
legist of Parnassus". Later the slashing satire of Boileau (in this case
fairly master of his subject) did its work, and Chapelain ("_Le plus
grand poète Français qu' ait jamais été et du plus solide jugement_," as
he is called in Colbert's list) took his place among the failures of
modern art.

Chapelain's reputation as a critic survived this catastrophe, and in
1663 he was employed by Colbert to draw up an account of contemporary
men of letters, destined to guide the king in his distribution of
pensions. In this pamphlet, as in his letters, he shows to far greater
advantage than in his unfortunate epic. His prose is incomparably better
than his verse; his criticisms are remarkable for their justice and
generosity; his erudition and kindliness of heart are everywhere
apparent; the royal attention is directed alike towards the author's
firmest friends and bitterest enemies. To him young Racine was indebted
not only for kindly and seasonable counsel, but also for that pension of
six hundred livres which was so useful to him. The catholicity of his
taste is shown by his _De la lecture des vieux romans_ (pr. 1870), in
which he praises the _chansons de geste_, forgotten by his generation.
Chapelain refused many honours, and his disinterestedness in this and
other cases makes it necessary to receive with caution the stories of
Ménage and Tallemant des Réaux, who assert that he was in his old age a
miser, and that a considerable fortune was found hoarded in his
apartments when he died on the 22nd of February 1674.

  There is a very favourable estimate of Chapelain's merits as a critic
  in George Saintsbury's _History of Criticism_, ii. 256-261. An
  analysis of _La Pucelle_ is given in pp. 23-79 of Robert Southey's
  _Joan of Arc_. See also _Les Lettres de Jean Chapelain_ (ed. P.
  Tanuzey de Larroque, 1880-1882); _Lettres inédites ... à P.D. Huet_
  (1658-1673, ed. by L.G. Pellissier, 1894); Julien Duchesne, _Les
  Poèmes épiques du XVIIe siècle_ (1870); the abbé A. Fabre, _Les
  Ennemis de Chapelain_ (1888), _Chapelain et nos deux premières
  Académies_ (1890); and A. Muehlan,_ Jean Chapelain_ (1893).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The last twelve cantos of _La Pucelle_ were edited (1882) from
    the MS. with corrections and a preface in the author's autograph, in
    the _Bibliothèque Nationale_, by H. Herluison. Another edition, by E.
    de Molènes (2 vols.), was published in 1892.



CHAPEL-EN-LE-FRITH, a market town in the High Peak parliamentary
division of Derbyshire, England, 20 m. S.E. of Manchester, on the London
& North-Western and Midland railways. Pop. (1901) 4626. It lies in an
upland valley of the Peak district, the hills of which rise above 1200
ft. in its immediate vicinity. There are paper-works and ironworks, and
brewing is carried on. The foundation of the church of St Thomas of
Canterbury is attributed to the foresters of the royal forest or frith
of the Peak early in the 13th century; and from this the town took name.
After the defeat of the Scottish forces at Preston by Cromwell in 1648,
it is said that 1500 prisoners were confined in the church at
Chapel-en-le-Frith.



CHAPEL HILL, a town of Orange county, North Carolina, U.S.A., about 28
m. N.W. of Raleigh. Pop. (1900) 1099; (1910) 1149. It is served by a
branch of the Southern railway, connecting at University, 10 m. distant,
with the Greensboro & Goldsboro division. The town is best known as the
seat of the University of North Carolina (see NORTH CAROLINA), whose
campus contains 48 acres. There are cotton and knitting mills and lumber
interests of some importance. Chapel Hill was settled late in the 18th
century, and was first incorporated in 1851.



CHAPELLE ARDENTE (Fr. "burning chapel"), the chapel or room in which the
corpse of a sovereign or other exalted personage lies in state pending
the funeral service. The name is in allusion to the many candles which
arc lighted round the catafalque. This custom is first chronicled as
occurring at the obsequies of Dagobert I. (602-638).



CHAPERON, originally a cap or hood (Fr. _chape_) worn by nobles and
knights of the Garter in full dress, and after the 16th century by
middle-aged ladies. The modern use of the word is of a married or
elderly lady (cf. "duenna") escorting or protecting a young and
unmarried girl in public places and in society.



CHAPLAIN, strictly one who conducts service in a chapel (q.v.), i.e. a
priest or minister without parochial charge who is attached for special
duties to a sovereign or his representatives (ambassadors, judges, &c.),
to bishops, to the establishments of nobles, &c., to institutions (e.g.
parliament, congress, colleges, schools, workhouses, cemeteries), or to
the army and the navy. In some cases a parish priest is also appointed
to a chaplaincy, but in so far as he is a chaplain he has no parochial
duties. Thus a bishop of the English Church appoints examining chaplains
who conduct the examination of candidates for holy orders; such
officials generally hold ordinary benefices also. The British sovereign
has 36 "Chaplains in Ordinary," who perform service at St James's in
rotation, as well as "Honorary Chaplains" and "Chaplains of the
Household." There are also royal chaplains in Scotland and Ireland. The
Scottish chaplains in ordinary are on the same basis as those in
England, but the Irish chaplains are attached to the household of the
lord-lieutenant. The Indian civil service appoints a number of clergymen
of the Church of England and the Church of Scotland. These clergymen are
known as Chaplains, and are subject to the same conditions as other
civil servants, being eligible for a retiring pension after 23 years of
service. Chaplains are also appointed under the foreign office to
embassies, legations, consulates, &c.

Workhouse chaplains are appointed by overseers and guardians on the
direction of the Local Government Board, to which alone such chaplains
are responsible. Prison chaplains are appointed by the home secretary.

In the British army there are two kinds of chaplains, permanent and
occasional. The former, described as Chaplains to the Forces, hold
commissions, serving throughout the empire except in India: they include
a Chaplain-General who ranks as a major-general, and four classes of
subordinate chaplains who rank respectively as colonels,
lieutenant-colonels, majors and captains. There are about 100 in all.
Special chaplains (Acting Chaplains for Temporary Service) may be
appointed by a secretary of state under the Army Chaplains Act of 1868
to perform religious service for the army in particular districts. The
permanent chaplains may be Church of England, Roman Catholic, or
Presbyterian; Wesleyans (if they prefer not to accept commissions) may
be appointed Acting Chaplains. The Church of England chaplains report to
the chaplain-general, while other chaplains report to the War Office
direct. In the navy, chaplains are likewise appointed but do not hold
official rank. They must have a special ecclesiastical licence from the
archbishop of Canterbury. In 1900 a Chaplains' Department of the
Territorial Force was formed; there is no denominational restriction.

In the armies and navies of all Christian countries chaplains are
officially appointed, with the single exception of France, where the
office was abolished on the separation of Church and State. In the army
of the United States of America chaplains are originally appointed by
the president, and subsequently are under the authority of the secretary
of war, who receives recommendations as regards transfer from department
commanders. By act of Congress, approved in April 1904, the
establishment of chaplains was fixed at 57 (15 with the rank of major),
12 for the artillery corps and 1 each for the cavalry and infantry
regiments. There is no distinction of sect. In the U.S. navy the
chaplains are 24 in number, of whom 13 rank as lieutenants, 7 as
commanders, 4 as captains.

In the armies of Roman Catholic countries there are elaborate
regulations. Where the chaplains are numerous a chaplain-major is
generally appointed, but in the absence of special sanction from the
pope such officer has no spiritual jurisdiction. Moreover, chaplains
must be approved by the ordinary of the locality. In Austria there are
Roman Catholic, Greek Church, Jewish and Mahommedan chaplains. The Roman
Catholic chaplains are classed as parish priests, curates and
assistants, and are subject to an army Vicar Apostolic. In war, at an
army headquarters there are a "field-rabbi," a "military imam," an
evangelical minister, as well as the Roman Catholic hierarchy. By a
decree of the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda (May 15, 1906), the
archbishop of Westminster is the ecclesiastical superior of all
commissioned Roman Catholic chaplains in the British army and navy, and
he is empowered to negotiate with the civil authorities concerning
appointments.

In Germany, owing to the fact that there are different religions in the
different states, there is no uniform system. In Prussia there are two
_Feldprobste_ (who are directly under the war minister), one Lutheran,
one Roman Catholic. The latter is a titular bishop, and has sole
spiritual authority over soldiers. There are also army corps and
divisional chaplains of both faiths. Bavaria and Saxony, both Roman
Catholic states, have no special spiritual hierarchy; in Bavaria, the
archbishop of Munich and Freysing is _ex officio_ bishop of the army.

The origin of the office of _capellanus_ or _cappellanus_ in the
medieval church is generally traced (see Du Cange, _Gloss, med. et
infim. Latin_.) to the appointment of persons to watch over the sacred
cloak (_cappa_ or _capella_) of St Martin of Tours, which was preserved
as a relic by the French monarchs. In time of war this cloak was carried
with the army in the field, and was kept in a tent which itself came to
be known as a _cappella_ or _capella_. It is also suggested that the
_capella_ was simply the tent or canopy which the French kings erected
over the altar in the field for the worship of the soldiers. However
this may be, the name _capellanus_ was generally applied to those who
were in charge of sacred relics: such officials were also known as
_custodes, martyrarii, cubicularii_. Thus we hear of a _custos palatinae
capellae_ who was in charge of the palace chapel relics, and guarded
them in the field; the chief of these _custodes_ was sometimes called
the _archicapellanus_. From the care of sacred relics preserved in royal
chapels, &c. (_sacella_ or _capellae_), the office of _capellanus_
naturally extended its scope until it covered practically that of the
modern court chaplain, and was officially recognized by the Church.
These clerics became the confessors in royal and noble houses, and were
generally chosen from among bishops and other high dignitaries. The
arch-chaplain not only received jurisdiction within the royal household,
but represented the authority of the monarch in religious matters, and
also acquired more general powers. In France the arch-chaplain was
grand-almoner, and both in France and in the Holy Roman Empire was also
high chancellor of the realm. The office was abolished in France at the
Revolution in 1789, revived by Pius IX. in 1857, and again abolished on
the fall of the Second Empire.

The Roman Catholic Church also recognizes a class of beneficed
chaplains, supported out of "pious foundations" for the specific duty of
saying, or arranging for, certain masses, or taking part in certain
services. These chaplains are classified as follows:--_Ecclesiastical_,
if the foundation has been recognized officially as a benefice; _Lay_,
if this recognition has not been obtained; _Mercenary_, if the person
who has been entrusted with the duty of performing or procuring the
desired celebration is a layman (such persons also are sometimes called
"Lay Chaplains"); _Collative_, if it is provided that a bishop shall
collate or confer the right to act upon the accepted candidate, who
otherwise could not be recognized as an ecclesiastical chaplain. There
are elaborate regulations governing the appointment and conduct of these
chaplains.

Other classes of chaplains are:--(1) _Parochial_ or _Auxiliary
Chaplains_, appointed either by a parish priest (under a provision
authorized by the Council of Trent) or by a bishop to take over certain
specified duties which he is unable to perform; (2) _Chaplains of
Convents_, appointed by a bishop: these must be men of mature age,
should not be regulars unless secular priests cannot be obtained, and
are not generally to be appointed for life; (3) _Pontifical Chaplains_,
some of whom (known as Private Chaplains) assist the pontiff in the
celebration of Mass; others attached directly to the pope are honorary
private chaplains who occasionally assist the private chaplains, private
clerics of the chapel, common chaplains and supernumerary chaplains. The
common chaplains were instituted by Alexander VII., and in 1907 were
definitely allowed the title "Monsignore" by Pius X.



CHAPLIN, HENRY (1841-   ), English statesman, second son of the Rev.
Henry Chaplin, of Blankney, Lincolnshire, was educated at Harrow and
Christ Church, Oxford, and first entered parliament in 1868 as
Conservative member for Mid-Lincolnshire. He represented this
constituency (which under the Redistribution Act of 1885 became the
Sleaford division) till 1906, when he was defeated, but in 1907 returned
to the House of Commons as member for Wimbledon at a by-election. In
1876 he married a daughter of the 3rd duke of Sutherland, but lost his
wife in 1881. Outside the House of Commons he was a familiar figure on
the Turf, winning the Derby with Hermit in 1867; and in politics from
the first the "Squire of Blankney" took an active interest in
agricultural questions, as a popular and typical representative of the
English "country gentleman" class. Having filled the office of
chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster in Lord Salisbury's short ministry
of 1885-1886, he became president of the new Board of Agriculture in
1889, with a seat in the cabinet, and retained this post till 1892. In
the Conservative cabinet of 1895-1900 he was president of the Local
Government Board, and was responsible for the Agricultural Rates Act of
1896; but he was not included in the ministry after its reconstruction
in 1900. Mr Chaplin had always been an advocate of protectionism, being
in this respect the most prominent inheritor of the views of Lord George
Bentinck; and when in 1903 the Tariff Reform movement began under Mr
Chamberlain's leadership, he gave it his enthusiastic support, becoming
a member of the Tariff Commission and one of the most strenuous
advocates in the country of the new doctrines in opposition to free
trade.



CHAPMAN, GEORGE (? 1559-1634), English poet and dramatist, was born near
Hitchin. The inscription on the portrait which forms the frontispiece of
_The Whole Works of Homer_ states that he was then (1616) fifty-seven
years of age. Anthony à Wood (_Athen. Oxon._ ii. 575) says that about
1574 he was sent to the university, "but whether first to this of Oxon,
or that of Cambridge, is to me unknown; sure I am that he spent some
time in Oxon, where he was observed to be most excellent in the Latin
and Greek tongues, but not in logic or philosophy." Chapman's first
extant play, _The Blind Beggar of Alexandria_, was produced in 1596, and
two years later Francis Meres mentions him in _Palladis Tamia_ among the
"best for tragedie" and the "best for comedie." Of his life between
leaving the university and settling in London there is no account. It
has been suggested, from the detailed knowledge displayed in _The Shadow
of Night_ of an incident in Sir Francis Vere's campaign, that he saw
service in the Netherlands. There are frequent entries with regard to
Chapman in Henslowe's diary for the years 1598-1599, but his dramatic
activity slackened during the following years, when his attention was
chiefly occupied by his _Homer_. In 1604 he was imprisoned with John
Marston for his share in _Eastward Ho_, in which offence was given to
the Scottish party at court. Ben Jonson voluntarily joined the two, who
were soon released. Chapman seems to have enjoyed favour at court, where
he had a patron in Prince Henry, but in 1605 Jonson and he were for a
short time in prison again for "a play." Beaumont, the French ambassador
in London, in a despatch of the 5th of April 1608, writes that he had
obtained the prohibition of a performance of _Biron_ in which the queen
of France was represented as giving Mademoiselle de Verneuil a box on
the ears. He adds that three of the actors were imprisoned, but that the
chief culprit, the author, had escaped (Raumer, _Briefe aus Paris_,
1831, ii. 276). Among Chapman's patrons was Robert Carr, earl of
Somerset, to whom he remained faithful after his disgrace. Chapman
enjoyed the friendship and admiration of his great contemporaries. John
Webster in the preface to _The White Devil_ praised "his full and
heightened style," and Ben Jonson told Drummond of Hawthornden that
Fletcher and Chapman "were loved of him." These friendly relations
appear to have been interrupted later, for there is extant in the
Ashmole MSS. an "Invective written by Mr George Chapman against Mr Ben
Jonson." Chapman died in the parish of St Giles in the Fields, and was
buried on the 12th of May 1634 in the churchyard. A monument to his
memory was erected by Inigo Jones.     (M. Br.)

Chapman, his first biographer is careful to let us know, "was a person
of most reverend aspect, religious and temperate, qualities rarely
meeting in a poet"; he had also certain other merits at least as
necessary to the exercise of that profession. He had a singular force
and solidity of thought, an admirable ardour of ambitious devotion to
the service of poetry, a deep and burning sense at once of the duty
implied and of the dignity inherent in his office; a vigour, opulence,
and loftiness of phrase, remarkable even in that age of spiritual
strength, wealth and exaltation of thought and style; a robust
eloquence, touched not unfrequently with flashes of fancy, and kindled
at times into heat of imagination. The main fault of his style is one
more commonly found in the prose than in the verse of his time,--a
quaint and florid obscurity, rigid with elaborate rhetoric and tortuous
with labyrinthine illustration; not dark only to the rapid reader
through closeness and subtlety of thought, like Donne, whose miscalled
obscurity is so often "all glorious within," but thick and slab as a
witch's gruel with forced and barbarous eccentricities of articulation.
As his language in the higher forms of comedy is always pure and clear,
and sometimes exquisite in the simplicity of its earnest and natural
grace, the stiffness and density of his more ambitious style may perhaps
be attributed to some pernicious theory or conceit of the dignity proper
to a moral and philosophic poet. Nevertheless, many of the gnomic
passages in his tragedies and allegoric poems are of singular weight and
beauty; the best of these, indeed, would not discredit the fame of the
very greatest poets for sublimity of equal thought and expression:
witness the lines chosen by Shelley as the motto for a poem, and fit to
have been chosen as the motto for his life.

The romantic and sometimes barbaric grandeur of Chapman's _Homer_
remains attested by the praise of Keats, of Coleridge and of Lamb; it is
written at a pitch of strenuous and laborious exaltation, which never
flags or breaks down, but never flies with the ease and smoothness of an
eagle native to Homeric air. From his occasional poems an expert and
careful hand might easily gather a noble anthology of excerpts, chiefly
gnomic or meditative, allegoric or descriptive. The most notable
examples of his tragic work are comprised in the series of plays taken,
and adapted sometimes with singular licence, from the records of such
part of French history as lies between the reign of Francis I. and the
reign of Henry IV., ranging in date of subject from the trial and death
of Admiral Chabot to the treason and execution of Marshal Biron. The two
plays bearing as epigraph the name of that famous soldier and
conspirator are a storehouse of lofty thought and splendid verse, with
scarcely a flash or sparkle of dramatic action. The one play of
Chapman's whose popularity on the stage survived the Restoration is
_Bussy d'Ambois_ (d'Amboise),--a tragedy not lacking in violence of
action or emotion, and abounding even more in sweet and sublime
interludes than in crabbed and bombastic passages. His rarest jewels of
thought and verse detachable from the context lie embedded in the
tragedy of _Caesar and Pompey_, whence the finest of them were first
extracted by the unerring and unequalled critical genius of Charles
Lamb. In most of his tragedies the lofty and labouring spirit of Chapman
may be said rather to shine fitfully through parts than steadily to
pervade the whole; they show nobly altogether as they stand, but even
better by help of excerpts and selections. But the excellence of his
best comedies can only be appreciated by a student who reads them fairly
and fearlessly through, and, having made some small deductions on the
score of occasional pedantry and occasional indecency, finds in _All
Fools_, _Monsieur d'Olive_, _The Gentleman Usher_, and _The Widow's
Tears_ a wealth and vigour of humorous invention, a tender and earnest
grace of romantic poetry, which may atone alike for these passing
blemishes and for the lack of such clear-cut perfection of character and
such dramatic progression of interest as we find only in the yet higher
poets of the English heroic age.

So much it may suffice to say of Chapman as an original poet, one who
held of no man and acknowledged no master, but from the birth of Marlowe
well-nigh to the death of Jonson held on his own hard and haughty way of
austere and sublime ambition, not without kindly and graceful
inclination of his high grey head to salute such younger and still
nobler compeers as Jonson and Fletcher. With Shakespeare we should never
have guessed that he had come at all in contact, had not the keen
intelligence of William Minto divined or rather discerned him to be the
rival poet referred to in Shakespeare's sonnets with a grave note of
passionate satire, hitherto as enigmatic as almost all questions
connected with those divine and dangerous poems. This conjecture
Professor Minto fortified by such apt collocation and confrontation of
passages that we may now reasonably accept it as an ascertained and
memorable fact.

The objections which a just and adequate judgment may bring against
Chapman's master-work, his translation of Homer, may be summed up in
three epithets: it is romantic, laborious, Elizabethan. The qualities
implied by these epithets are the reverse of those which should
distinguish a translator of Homer; but setting this apart, and
considering the poems as in the main original works, the superstructure
of a romantic poet on the submerged foundations of Greek verse, no
praise can be too warm or high for the power, the freshness, the
indefatigable strength and inextinguishable fire which animate this
exalted work, and secure for all time that shall take cognizance of
English poetry an honoured place in its highest annals for the memory of
Chapman.     (A. C. S.)

  Chapman's works include:--[Greek: Skia nyktos]: _The Shadow of Night:
  Containing two Poeticall Hymnes_ ... (1594), the second of which deals
  with Sir Francis Vere's campaign in the Netherlands; _Ovid's Banquet
  of Sence. A Coronet for his Mistresse Philosophie; and His Amorous
  Zodiacke with a translation of a Latine coppie, written by a Fryer,
  Anno Dom. 1400_ (1595, 2nd ed. 1639), a collection of poems frequently
  quoted from in _England's Parnassus_ (1600); "De Guiana, carmen
  epicum," a poem prefixed to Lawrence Keymis's _A Relation of the
  second voyage to Guiana_ (1596); _Hero and Leander. Begun by
  Christopher Marloe; and finished by George Chapman_ (1598); _The
  Blinde begger of Alexandria, most pleasantly discoursing his variable
  humours_ ... (acted 1596, printed 1598), a popular comedy; _A Pleasant
  Comedy entituled An Humerous dayes Myrth_ (identified by Mr Fleay with
  the "Comodey of Umero" noted by Henslowe on the 11th of May 1597;
  printed 1599); _Al Fooles, A Comedy_ (paid for by Henslowe on the 2nd
  of July 1599, its original name being "The World runs on wheels";
  printed 1605); _The Gentleman Usher_ (c. 1601, pr. 1606), a comedy;
  _Monsieur d'Olive_ (1604, pr. 1606), one of his most amusing and
  successful comedies; _Eastward Hoe_ (1605), written in conjunction
  with Ben Jonson and John Marston, an excellent comedy of city life;
  _Bussy d'Ambois,[1] A Tragedie_ (1604, pr. 1607, 1608, 1616, 1641,
  &c.), the scene of which is laid in the court of Henry III.; _The
  Revenge of Bussy d'Ambois. A Tragedie_ (pr. 1613, but probably written
  much earlier); _The Conspiracie, And Tragedie of Charles Duke of
  Byron. Marshall of France, ... in two plays_ (1607 and 1608; pr. 1608
  and 1625); _May-Day, A witty Comedie_ (pr. 1611; but probably acted as
  early as 1601); _The widdowes Teares. A Comedie_ (pr. 1612; produced
  perhaps as early as 1605); _Caesar and Pompey: A Roman Tragedy,
  declaring their warres. Out of whose events is evicted this
  Proposition. Only a just man is a freeman_ (pr. 1631), written, says
  Chapman in the dedication, "long since," but never staged.

  _The Tragedy of Alphonsus Emperour of Germany_ (see the edition by Dr
  Karl Elye; Leipzig, 1867) and _Revenge for Honour_ (1654)[2] both bear
  Chapman's name on the title-page, but his authorship has been
  disputed. In _The Ball_ (lic. 1632; pr. 1639), a comedy, and _The
  Tragedie of Chabot Admirall of France_ (lic. 1635; pr. 1639) he
  collaborated with James Shirley. _The memorable Masque of the two
  Honourable Houses or Inns of Court; the Middle Temple and Lyncoln's
  Inne_, was performed at court in 1613 in honour of the marriage of the
  Princess Elizabeth.

  _The Whole Works of Homer: Prince of Poets. In his Iliads and
  Odysseys_ ... appeared in 1616, and about 1624 he added _The Crowne
  of all Homers works Batrachomyomachia or the Battaile of Frogs and
  Mise. His Hymns and Epigrams._ But the whole works had been already
  published by instalments. _Seaven Bookes of the Iliades of Homer_ had
  appeared in 1598, _Achilles Shield_ in the same year, books i.-xii.
  about 1609; in 1611 _The Iliads of Homer, Prince of Poets_ ...; and
  in 1614 _Twenty-four Bookes of Homer's Odisses_ were entered at
  Stationers' Hall. In 1609 he addressed to Prince Henry _Enthymiae
  Raptus; or the Teares of Peace_, and on the death of his patron he
  contributed _An Epicede, or Funerall Song_ (1612). A paraphrase of
  _Petrarchs Seven Penitentiall Psalms_ (1612), a poem in honour of the
  marriage of Robert Carr, earl of Somerset, and Frances, the divorced
  countess of Essex, indiscreetly entitled _Andromeda Liberata_ ...
  (1614), a translation of _The Georgicks of Hesiod_ (1618), _Pro Vere
  Autumni Lachrymae_ (1622), in honour of Sir Horatio Vere, _A
  justification of a Strange Action of Nero ... also ... the fifth
  Satyre of Juvenall_ (1629), and _Eugenia_ ... (1614), an elegy on Sir
  William Russell, complete the list of his separately published works.

  Chapman's _Homer_ was edited in 1857 by the Rev. Richard Hooper; and a
  reprint of his dramatic works appeared in 1873. The standard edition
  of Chapman is the _Works_, edited by R.H. Shepherd (1874-1875), the
  third volume of which contains an "Essay on the Poetical and Dramatic
  works of George Chapman," by Mr Swinburne, printed separately in 1875.
  The selection of his plays (1895) for the Mermaid Series is edited by
  Mr W.L. Phelps. For the sources of the plays see Emil Koeppel,
  "Anellen Studien zu den Dramen George Chapman's, Philip Massinger's
  und John Ford's" in _Quellen und Forschungen zur Sprach und
  Kulturgeschichte_ (vol. 82, Strassburg, 1897). The suggestion of W.
  Minto (see _Characteristics of the English Poets_, 1885) that Chapman
  was the "rival poet" of Shakespeare's sonnets is amplified in Mr A.
  Acheson's _Shakespeare and the Rival Poet_ (1903). Much satire in
  Chapman's introduction is there applied to Shakespeare. For other
  criticisms of his translation of Homer see Matthew Arnold, _Lectures
  on translating Homer_ (1861), and Dr A. Lohff, _George Chapman's
  Ilias-Übersetzung_ (Berlin, 1903).     (M. Br.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Chapman's source in this piece remains undetermined. It cannot be
    the _Historia sui temporis_ of Jacques de Thorn, for the 4th volume
    of his work, which relates the story, was not published until 1609
    (see Koeppel, p. 14).

  [2] This play appears to have been issued in 1653 with the title _The
    Parracide, or Revenge for Honour_ as the work of Henry Glathorne.



CHAPMAN (from O. Eng. _céap_, and Mid. Eng. _cheap_, to barter, cf.
"Cheapside" in London, and Ger. _Kaufmann_), one who buys or sells, a
trader or dealer, especially an itinerant pedlar. The word "chap," now a
slang term, meant originally a customer.



CHAPONE, HESTER (1727-1801), English essayist, daughter of Thomas Mulso,
a country gentleman, was born at Twywell, Northamptonshire, on the 27th
of October 1727. She was a precocious child, and at the age of nine
wrote a romance entitled _The Loves of Amoret and Melissa_. Hecky Mulso,
as she was familiarly called, developed a beautiful voice, which earned
her the name of "the linnet." While on a visit to Canterbury she made
the acquaintance of the learned Mrs Elizabeth Carter, and soon became
one of the admirers of the novelist Samuel Richardson. She was one of
the little court of women who gathered at North End, Fulham; and in Miss
Susannah Highmore's sketch of the novelist reading _Sir Charles
Grandison_ to his friends Miss Mulso is the central figure. She
corresponded with Richardson on "filial obedience" in letters as long as
his own, signing herself his "ever obliged and affectionate child." She
admired, however, with discrimination, and in the words of her
biographer (_Posthumous Works_, 1807, p. 9) "her letters show with what
dignity, tempered with proper humility, she could maintain her own
well-grounded opinion." In 1760 Miss Mulso, with her father's reluctant
consent, married the attorney, John Chapone, who had been befriended by
Richardson. Her husband died within a year of her marriage. Mrs Chapone
remained in London visiting various friends. She had already made small
contributions to various periodicals when she published, in 1772, her
best known work, _Letters on the Improvement of the Mind._ This book
brought her numerous requests from distinguished persons to undertake
the education of their children. She died on the 25th of December 1801.

  See _The Posthumous Works of Mrs Chapone, containing her
  correspondence with Mr Richardson; a series of letters to Mrs
  Elizabeth Carter ... together with an account of her life and
  character drawn up by her own family_ (1807).



CHAPPE, CLAUDE (1763-1805), French engineer, was born at Brûlon (Sarthe)
in 1763. He was the inventor of an optical telegraph which was widely
used in France until it was superseded by the electric telegraph. His
device consisted of an upright post, on the top of which was fastened a
transverse bar, while at the ends of the latter two smaller arms moved
on pivots. The position of these bars represented words or letters; and
by means of machines placed at intervals such that each was distinctly
visible from the next, messages could be conveyed through 50 leagues in
a quarter of an hour. The machine was adopted by the Legislative
Assembly in 1792, and in the following year Chappe was appointed
_ingénieur-télégraphe_; but the originality of his invention was so much
questioned that he was seized with melancholia and (it is said)
committed suicide at Paris in 1805.

His elder brother, Ignace Urbain Jean Chappe (1760-1829), took part in
the invention of the telegraph, and with a younger brother, Pierre
François, from 1805 to 1823 was administrator of the telegraphs, a post
which was also held by two other brothers, René and Abraham, from 1823
to 1830. Ignace was the author of a _Histoire de la télégraphie_ (1824).
An uncle, Jean Chappe d'Auteroche (1728-1769), was an astronomer who
observed two transits of Venus, one in Siberia in 1761, and the other in
1769 in California, where he died.



CHAPPELL, WILLIAM (1809-1888), English writer on music, a member of the
London musical firm of Chappell & Co., was born on the 20th of November
1809, eldest son of Samuel Chappell (d. 1834), who founded the business.
William Chappell is particularly noteworthy for his starting the Musical
Antiquarian Society in 1840, and his publication of the standard work
_Popular Music of the Olden Time_ (1855-1859)--an expansion of a
collection of "national English airs" made by him in 1838-1840. The
modern revival of interest in English folk-songs owes much to this work,
which has since been re-edited by Professor H.E. Wooldridge (1893). W.
Chappell died on the 20th of August 1888. His brother, Thomas Patey
Chappell (d. 1902), meanwhile had largely extended the publishing
business, and had started (1859) the Monday and Saturday Popular
Concerts at St James's Hall, which were successfully managed by a
younger brother, S. Arthur Chappell, till they came to an end towards
the close of the century.



CHAPRA, or CHUPRA, a town of British India, the administrative
headquarters of Saran district in Bengal, near the left bank of the
river Gogra, just above its confluence with the Ganges; with a railway
station on the Bengal & North-Western line towards Oudh. Pop. (1901)
45,901, showing a decrease of 21% in the decade. There are a government
high school, a German Lutheran mission, and a public library endowed by
a former maharaja of Hatwa. Chapra is the centre of trade in indigo and
saltpetre, and conducts a large business by water as well as by rail.



CHAPTAL, JEAN ANTOINE CLAUDE, COMTE DE CHANTE-LOUP (1756-1832), French
chemist and statesman, was born at Nogaret, Lozère, on the 4th of June
1756. The son of an apothecary, he studied chemistry at Montpellier,
obtaining his doctor's diploma in 1777, when he repaired to Paris. In
1781 the States of Languedoc founded a chair of chemistry for him at the
school of medicine in Montpellier, where he taught the doctrines of
Lavoisier. The capital he acquired by the death of a wealthy uncle he
employed in the establishment of chemical works for the manufacture of
the mineral acids, alum, white-lead, soda and other substances. His
labours in the cause of applied science were at length recognized by the
French government, which presented him with letters of nobility, and the
cordon of the order of Saint Michel. During the Revolution a publication
by Chaptal, entitled _Dialogue entre un Montagnard et un Girondin_,
caused him to be arrested; but being speedily set at liberty through the
intermission of his friends, he undertook, in 1793, the management of
the saltpetre works at Grenelle. In the following year he went to
Montpellier, where he remained till 1797, when he returned to Paris.
After the _coup d'état_ of the 18th of Brumaire (November 9, 1799) he
was made a councillor of state by the First Consul, and succeeded Lucien
Bonaparte as minister of the interior, in which capacity he established
a chemical manufactory near Paris, a school of arts, and a society of
industries; he also reorganized the hospitals, introduced the metrical
system of weights and measures, and otherwise greatly encouraged the
arts and sciences. A misunderstanding between him and Napoleon (who
conferred upon him the title of comte de Chanteloup) occasioned
Chaptal's retirement from office in 1804; but before the end of that
year he was again received into favour by the emperor, who bestowed on
him the grand cross of the Legion of Honour, and made him treasurer to
the conservative senate. On Napoleon's return from Elba, Chaptal was
made director-general of commerce and manufactures and a minister of
state. He was obliged after the downfall of the emperor to withdraw into
private life; and his name was removed from the list of the peers of
France until 1819. In 1816, however, he was nominated a member of the
Academy of Sciences by Louis XVIII. Chaptal was especially a popularizer
of science, attempting to apply to industry and agriculture the
discoveries of chemistry. In this way he contributed largely to the
development of modern industry. He died at Paris on the 30th of July
1832.

  His literary works exhibit both vigour and perspicuity of style; he
  wrote, in addition to various articles, especially in the _Annales de
  chimie, Élémens de chimie_ (3 vols., 1790; new ed., 1796-1803);
  _Traité du salpètre et des goudrons_ (1796); _Tableau des principaux
  sels terreux_ (1798); _Essai sur le perfectionnement des arts
  chimiques en France_ (1800); _Art de faire, de gouverner, et de
  perfectionner les vins_ (1 vol., 1801; new ed., 1819); _Traité
  théorique et pratique sur la culture de la vigne, &c._, (2 vols.,
  1801; new ed., 1811); _Essai sur le blanchiment_ (1801); _La Chimie
  appliquée aux arts_ (4 vols., 1806); _Art de la teinture du coton en
  rouge_ (1807); _Art du teinturier et du dégraisseur_ (1800); _De
  l'industrie française_ (2 vols., 1819); _Chimie appliquée a
  l'agriculture_ (2 vols., 1823; new ed., 1829).



CHAPTER (a shortened form of _chapiter_, a word still used in
architecture for a capital; derived from O. Fr. _chapitre_, Lat.
_capitellum_, diminutive of _caput_, head), a principal division or
section of a book, and so applied to acts of parliament, as forming
"chapters" or divisions of the legislation of a session of parliament.
The name "chapter" is given to the permanent body of the canons of a
cathedral or collegiate church, presided over, in the English Church, by
the dean, and in the Roman communion by the provost or the dean, and
also to the body of the members of a religious order. This may be a
"conventual" chapter of the monks of a particular monastery,
"provincial" of the members of the order in a province, or "general" of
the whole order. This ecclesiastical use of the word arose from the
custom of reading a chapter of Scripture, or a head (_capitulum_) of the
_regula_, to the assembled canons or monks. The transference from the
reading to the assembly itself, and to the members constituting it, was
easy, through such phrases as _convenire ad capitulum_. The title
"chapter" is similarly used of the assembled body of knights of a
military or other order. (See also CANON; CATHEDRAL; DEAN).



CHAPTER-HOUSE (Lat. _capitolium_, Ital. _capitolo_, Fr. _chapitre_, Ger.
_Kapitelhaus_), the chamber in which the chapter or heads of the
monastic bodies (see ABBEY and CATHEDRAL) assembled to transact
business. They are of various forms; some are oblong apartments, as
Canterbury, Exeter, Chester, Gloucester, &c.; some octagonal, as
Salisbury, Westminster, Wells, Lincoln, York, &c. That at Lincoln has
ten sides, and that at Worcester is circular; most are vaulted
internally and polygonal externally, and some, as Salisbury, Wells,
Lincoln, Worcester, &c., depend on a single slight vaulting shaft for
the support of the massive vaulting. They are often provided with a
vestibule, as at Westminster, Lincoln, Salisbury and are almost
exclusively English.



CHAPU, formerly an important maritime town of China, in the province of
Cheh-kiang, 50 m. N.W. of Chên-hai, situated in one of the richest and
best cultivated districts in the country. It is the port of Hang-chow,
with which it has good canal communication, and it was formerly the only
Chinese port trading with Japan. The town has a circuit of about 5 m.
exclusive of the suburbs that lie along the beach; and the Tatar quarter
is separated from the rest by a wall. It was captured and much injured
by the British force in 1842, but was abandoned immediately after the
engagement. The sea around it has now silted up, though in the middle of
the 19th century it was accessible to the light-draught ships of the
British fleet.



CHAR (_Salvelinus_), a fish of the family Salmonidae, represented in
Europe, Asia and North America. The best known and most widely
distributed species, the one represented in British and Irish lakes, is
_S. alpinus_, a graceful and delicious fish, covered with very minute
scales and usually dark olive, bluish or purplish black above, with or
without round orange or red spots, pinkish white or yellowish pink to
scarlet or claret red below. When the char go to sea, they assume a more
silvery coloration, similar to that of the salmon and sea trout; the red
spots become very indistinct and the lower parts are almost white. The
very young are also silvery on the sides and white below, and bear 11 to
15 bars, or parr-marks, on the side. This fish varies much according to
localities; and the difference in colour, together with a few points of
doubtful constancy, have given rise to the establishment of a great
number of untenable so-called species, as many as seven having been
ascribed to the British and Irish fauna, viz. _S. alpinus, nivalis,
killinensis, willoughbyi, perisii, colii_ and _grayi_, the last from
Lough Melvin, Ireland, being the most distinct. _S. alpinus_ varies much
in size according to the waters it inhabits, remaining dwarfed in some
English lakes, and growing to 2 ft. or more in other localities. In
other parts of Europe, also, various local forms have been
distinguished, such as the "omble chevalier" of the lakes of Switzerland
and Savoy (_S. umbla_), the "Säbling" of the lakes of South Germany and
Austria (_S. salvelinus_), the "kullmund" of Norway (_S. carbonarius_),
&c., while the North American _S. parkei, alipes, stagnalis, arcturus,
areolus, oquassa_ and _marstoni_ may also be regarded as varieties.
Taken in this wide sense, _S. alpinus_ has a very extensive
distribution. In central Europe, in the British islands and in the
greater part of Scandinavia it is confined to mountain lakes, but
farther to the north, in both the Old World and the New, it lives in the
sea and ascends rivers to spawn. In Lapland, Iceland, Greenland and
other parts of the arctic regions, it ranks among the commonest fishes.
The extreme northern point at which char have been obtained is 82° 34'
N. (Victoria lake and Floeberg Beach, Arctic America). It reaches an
altitude of 2600 ft. in the Alps and 6000 ft. in the Carpathians.

The American brook char, _S. fontinalis_, is a close ally of _S.
alpinus_, differing from it in having fewer and shorter gill-rakers, a
rather stouter body, the back more or less barred or marbled with dark
olive or black, and the dorsal and caudal fins mottled or barred with
black. Many local varieties of colour have been distinguished. Sea-run
individuals are often nearly plain bright silvery. It is a small
species, growing to about 18 in. abundant in all clear, cold streams of
North America, east of the Mississippi, northward to Labrador. The fish
has been introduced into other parts of the United States, and also into
Europe.

Another member of the same section of Salmonidae is the Great Lake char
of North America, _S. namaycush_, one of the largest salmonids, said to
attain a weight of 100 lb. The body is very elongate and covered with
extremely small scales. The colour varies from grey to black, with
numerous round pale spots, which may be tinged with reddish; the dorsal
and caudal fins reticulate with darker. This fish inhabits the Great
Lakes regions and neighbouring parts of North America.



CHAR-À-BANC (Fr. for "benched carriage"), a large form of wagonette-like
vehicle for passengers, but with benched seats arranged in rows,
looking forward, commonly used for large parties, whether as public
conveyances or for excursions.



CHARACTER (Gr. [Greek: charaktêr] from [Greek: charattein], to scratch),
a distinctive mark (spelt "caracter" up to the 16th century, with other
variants); so applied to symbols of notation or letters of the alphabet;
more figuratively, the distinguishing traits of anything, and
particularly the moral and mental qualities of an individual human
being, the sum of those qualities which distinguish him as a
personality. From the latter usage "a character" becomes almost
identical with "reputation"; and in the sense of "giving a servant a
character," the word involves a written testimonial. For the law
relating to servants' characters see MASTER AND SERVANT. A further
development is the use of "character" to mean an "odd or eccentric
person"; or of a "character actor," to mean an actor who plays a
highly-coloured strange part. The word is also used as the name of a
form of literature, consisting of short descriptions of types of
character. Well-known examples of such "characters" are those of
Theophrastus and La Bruyère, and in English, of Joseph Hall (1574-1656)
and Sir Thomas Overbury.



CHARADE, a kind of riddle, probably invented in France during the 18th
century, in which a word of two or more syllables is divined by guessing
and combining into one word (the answer) the different syllables, each
of which is described, as an independent word, by the giver of the
charade. Charades may be either in prose or verse. Of poetic charades
those by W. Mackworth Praed are well known and excellent examples, while
the following specimens in prose may suffice as illustrations. "My
_first_, with the most rooted antipathy to a Frenchman, prides himself,
whenever they meet, upon sticking close to his jacket; my _second_ has
many virtues, nor is its least that it gives its name to my first; my
_whole_ may I never catch!" "My _first_ is company; my _second_ shuns
company; my _third_ collects company; and my _whole_ amuses company."
The solutions are _Tar-tar_ and _Co-nun-drum_. The most popular form of
this amusement is the acted charade, in which the meaning of the
different syllables is acted out on the stage, the audience being left
to guess each syllable and thus, combining the meaning of all the
syllables, the whole word. A brilliant example of the acted charade is
described in Thackeray's _Vanity Fair_.



CHARCOAL, the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by
removing the volatile constituents of animal and vegetable substances;
wood gives origin to wood-charcoal; sugar to sugar-charcoal; bone to
bone-charcoal (which, however, mainly consists of calcium phosphate);
while coal gives "coke" and "gas-carbon." The first part of the word
charcoal is of obscure origin. The independent use of "char," meaning to
scorch, to reduce to carbon, is comparatively recent, and must have been
taken from "charcoal," which is quite early. The _New English
Dictionary_ gives as the earliest instance of "char" a quotation dated
1679. Similarly the word "chark" or "chak," meaning the same as "char,"
is also late, and is probably due to a wrong division of the word
"charcoal," or, as it was often spelled in the 16th and 17th centuries,
"charkole" and "charke-coal." No suggestions for an origin of "char" are
satisfactory. It may be a use of the word "chare," which appears in
"char-woman," the American "chore"; in all these words it means "turn,"
a turn of work, a job, and "charcoal" would have to mean "turned coal,"
i.e. wood changed or turned to coal, a somewhat forced derivation, for
which there is no authority. Another suggestion is that it is connected
with "chirk" or "chark," an old word meaning "to make a grating noise."

_Wood-charcoal._--In districts where there is an abundance of wood, as
in the forests of France, Austria and Sweden, the operation of
charcoal-burning is of the crudest description. The method, which dates
back to a very remote period, generally consists in piling billets of
wood on their ends so as to form a conical pile, openings being left at
the bottom to admit air, with a central shaft to serve as a flue. The
whole is covered with turf of moistened soil. The firing is begun at the
bottom of the flue, and gradually spreads outwards and upwards. The
success of the operation--both as to the intrinsic value of the product
and its amount--depends upon the rate of the combustion. Under average
conditions, 100 parts of wood yield about 60 parts by volume, or 25
parts by weight, of charcoal. The modern process of carbonizing
wood--either in small pieces or as sawdust--in cast iron retorts is
extensively practised where wood is scarce, and also by reason of the
recovery of valuable by-products (wood spirit, pyroligneous acid,
wood-tar), which the process permits. The question of the temperature of
the carbonization is important; according to J. Percy, wood becomes
brown at 220° C., a deep brown-black after some time at 280°, and an
easily powdered mass at 310°. Charcoal made at 300° is brown, soft and
friable, and readily inflames at 380°; made at higher temperatures it is
hard and brittle, and does not fire until heated to about 700°. One of
the most important applications of wood-charcoal is as a constituent of
gunpowder (q.v.). It is also used in metallurgical operations as a
reducing agent, but its application has been diminished by the
introduction of coke, anthracite smalls, &c. A limited quantity is made
up into the form of drawing crayons; but the greatest amount is used as
a fuel.

The porosity of wood-charcoal explains why it floats on the surface of
water, although it is actually denser, its specific gravity being about
1.5. The porosity also explains the property of absorbing gases and
vapours; at ordinary temperatures ammonia and cyanogen are most readily
taken up; and Sir James Dewar has utilized this property for the
preparation of high vacua at low temperatures. This character is
commercially applied in the use of wood-charcoal as a disinfectant. The
fetid gases produced by the putrefaction and waste of organic matter
enter into the pores of the charcoal, and there meet with the oxygen
previously absorbed from the atmosphere; oxidation ensues, and the
noxious effluvia are decomposed. Generally, however, the action is a
purely mechanical one, the gases being only absorbed. Its
pharmacological action depends on the same property; it absorbs the
gases of the stomach and intestines (hence its use in cases of
flatulence), and also liquids and solids. Wood-charcoal has also the
power of removing colouring matters from solutions, but this property is
possessed in a much higher degree by animal-charcoal.

_Animal-charcoal_ or _bone black_ is the carbonaceous residue obtained
by the dry distillation of bones; it contains only about 10% of carbon,
the remainder being calcium and magnesium phosphates (80%) and other
inorganic material originally present in the bones. It is generally
manufactured from the residues obtained in the glue (q.v.) and gelatin
(q.v.) industries. Its decolorizing power was applied in 1812 by Derosne
to the clarification of the syrups obtained in sugar-refining; but its
use in this direction has now greatly diminished, owing to the
introduction of more active and easily managed reagents. It is still
used to some extent in laboratory practice. The decolorizing power is
not permanent, becoming lost after using for some time; it may be
revived, however, by washing and reheating.

_Lampblack_ or _soot_ is the familiar product of the incomplete
combustion of oils, pitch, resins, tallow, &c. It is generally prepared
by burning pitch residues (see COAL-TAR) and condensing the product.
Thus obtained it is always oily, and, before using as a pigment, it must
be purified by ignition in closed crucibles (see CARBON).



CHARCOT, JEAN MARTIN (1825-1893), French physician, was born in Paris on
the 29th of November 1825. In 1853 he graduated as M.D. of Paris
University, and three years later was appointed physician of the Central
Hospital Bureau. In 1860 he became professor of pathological anatomy in
the medical faculty of Paris, and in 1862 began that famous connexion
with the Salpêtrière which lasted to the end of his life. He was elected
to the Academy of Medicine in 1873, and ten years afterwards became a
member of the Institute. His death occurred suddenly on the 16th of
August 1893 at Morvan, where he had gone for a holiday. Charcot, who was
a good linguist and well acquainted with the literature of his own as
well as of other countries, excelled as a clinical observer and a
pathologist. His work at the Salpêtrière exerted a great influence on
the development of the science of neurology, and his classical _Leçons
sur les maladies du système nerveux_, the first series of which was
published in 1873, represents an enormous advance in the knowledge and
discrimination of nervous diseases. He also devoted much attention to
the study of obscure morbid conditions like hysteria, especially in
relation to hypnotism (q.v.); indeed, it is in connexion with his
investigation into the phenomena and results of the latter that his name
is popularly known. In addition to his labours on neurological and even
physiological problems he made many contributions to other branches of
medicine, his published works dealing, among other topics, with liver
and kidney diseases, gout and pulmonary phthisis. As a teacher he was
remarkably successful, and always commanded an enthusiastic band of
followers.



CHARD, JOHN ROUSE MERRIOTT (1847-1897), British soldier, was born at
Boxhill, near Plymouth, on the 21st of December 1847, and in 1868
entered the Royal Engineers. In 1878 Lieutenant Chard was ordered to
South Africa to take part in the Zulu War, and was stationed at the
small post of Rorke's Drift to protect the bridges across the Buffalo
river, and some sick men and stores. Here, with Lieutenant Gonville
Bromhead (1856-1891) and eighty men of the 2nd 24th Foot, he heard, on
the 22nd of January 1879, of the disaster of Isandhlwana from some
fugitives who had escaped the slaughter. Believing that the victorious
Zulus would attempt to cross into Natal, they prepared, hastily, to hold
the Drift until help should come. They barricaded and loopholed the old
church and hospital, and improvised defences from wagons, mealie sacks
and bags of Indian corn. Early in the afternoon they were attacked by
more than 3000 Zulus, who, after hours of desperate hand-to-hand
fighting, carried the outer defences, an inner low wall of biscuit
boxes, and the hospital, room by room. The garrison then retired to the
stone kraal, and repulsed attack after attack through the night. The
next morning relieving forces appeared, and the enemy retired. The
spirited defence of Rorke's Drift saved Natal from a Zulu invasion, and
Chard's and Bromhead's gallantry was rewarded with the V.C. and
immediate promotion to the rank of captain and brevet-major. On Chard's
return to England he became a popular hero. From 1893-1896 he commanded
the Royal Engineers at Singapore, and was made a colonel in 1897. He
died the same year at Hatch-Beauchamp, near Taunton, on the 1st of
November.



CHARD, a market town and municipal borough in the Southern parliamentary
division of Somersetshire, England, 142½ m. W. by S. of London by the
London & South Western railway. Pop. (1901) 4437. It stands on high
ground within 1 m. of the Devonshire border. Its cruciform parish church
of St Mary the Virgin is Perpendicular of the 15th century. A fine east
window is preserved. The manufactures include linen, lace, woollens,
brassware and ironware. Chard is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12
councillors. Area, 444 acres.

Chard (_Cerdre_, _Cherdre_, _Cherde_) was commercial in origin, being a
trade centre near the Roman road to the west. There are two Roman villas
in the parish. There was a British camp at Neroche in the neighbourhood.
The bishop of Bath held Chard in 1086, and his successor granted in 1234
the first charter which made Chard a free borough, each burgage paying a
rent of 12d. Trade in hides was forbidden to non-burgesses. This charter
was confirmed in 1253, 1280 and 1285. Chard is said to have been
incorporated by Elizabeth, as the corporation seal dates from 1570, but
no Elizabethan charter can be found. It was incorporated by grant of
Charles I. in 1642, and Charles II. gave a charter in 1683. Chard was a
mesne borough, the first overlord being Bishop Joceline, whose
successors held it (with a brief interval from 1545 to 1552) until 1801,
when it was sold to Earl Poulett. Parliamentary representation began in
1312, and was lost in 1328. A market on Monday and fair on the 25th of
July were granted in 1253, and confirmed in 1642 and 1683, when two more
fair days were added (November 2 and May 3), the market being changed to
Tuesday. The market day is now Monday, fairs being held on the first
Wednesday in May, August and November, for corn and cattle only, their
medieval importance as centres of the cloth trade having departed.



CHARDIN, JEAN SIMÉON (1699-1779), French _genre_ painter, was born in
Paris, and studied under Pierre Jacques Cazes (1676-1754), the
historical painter, and Noël Nicolas Coypel. He became famous for his
still-life pictures and domestic interiors, which are well represented
at the Louvre, and for figure-painting, as in his _Le Bénédicité_
(1740).



CHARDIN, SIR JOHN (1643-1713), French traveller, was born at Paris in
1643. His father, a wealthy jeweller, gave him an excellent education,
and trained him in his own art; but instead of settling down in the
ordinary routine of the craft, he set out in company with a Lyons
merchant named Raisin in 1665 for Persia and India, partly on business
and partly to gratify his own inclination. After a highly successful
journey, during which he had received the patronage of Shah Abbas II. of
Persia, he returned to France in 1670, and there published in the
following year _Récit du Couronnement du roi de Perse Soliman III_.
Finding, however, that his Protestant profession cut him off from all
hope of honours or advancement in his native country, he set out again
for Persia in August 1671. This second journey was much more adventurous
than the first, as instead of going directly to his destination, he
passed by Smyrna, Constantinople, the Crimea, Caucasia, Mingrelia and
Georgia, and did not reach Ispahan till June 1673. After four years
spent in researches throughout Persia, he again visited India, and
returned to Europe by the Cape of Good Hope in 1677. The persecution of
Protestants in France led him, in 1681, to settle in London, where he
was appointed jeweller to the court, and received from Charles II. the
honour of knighthood. In 1683 he was sent to Holland as representative
of the English East India Company; and in 1686 he published the first
part of his great narrative--_The Travels of Sir John Chardin into
Persia and the East Indies, &c._ (London). Sir John died in London in
1713, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, where his monument bears the
inscription _Nomen sibi fecit eundo_.

  It was not till 1711 that the complete account of Chardin's travels
  appeared, under the title of _Journal du voyage du chevalier Chardin_,
  at Amsterdam. The Persian portion is to be found in vol. ii. of
  Harris's _Collection_, and extracts are reprinted by Pinkerton in vol.
  ix. The best complete reprint is by Langlès (Paris, 1811). Sir John
  Chardin's narrative has received the highest praise from the most
  competent authorities for its fulness, comprehensiveness and fidelity;
  and it furnished Montesquieu, Rousseau, Gibbon and Helvétius with most
  important material.



CHARENTE, an inland department of south-western France, comprehending
the ancient province of Angoumois, and inconsiderable portions of
Saintonge, Poitou, Marche, Limousin and Périgord. It is bounded N. by
the departments of Deux-Sèvres and Vienne, E. by those of Vienne and
Dordogne, S. by Dordogne and W. by Charente-Inférieure. Area 2305 sq. m.
Pop. (1906) 351,733. The department, though it contains no high
altitudes, is for the most part of a hilly nature. The highest points,
many of which exceed 1000 ft., are found in the Confolentais, the
granite region of the extreme north-east, known also as the Terres
Froides. In the Terres Chaudes, under which name the remainder of the
department is included, the levels vary in general between 300 and 650
ft., except in the western plains--the Pays-Bas and Champagne--where
they range from 40 to 300 ft. A large part of Charente is thickly
wooded, the principal forests lying in its northern districts. The
department, as its name indicates, belongs mainly to the basin of the
river Charente (area of basin 3860 sq. m.; length of river 225 m.), the
chief affluents of which, within its borders, are the Tardoire, the
Touvre and the Né. The Confolentais is watered by the Vienne, a
tributary of the Loire, while the arrondissement of Barbexieux in the
south-west belongs almost wholly to the basin of the Gironde.

The climate is temperate but moist, the rainfall being highest in the
north-east. Agriculturally, Charente is prosperous. More than half its
surface is arable land, on the greater part of which cereals are grown.
The potato is an important crop. The vine is predominant in the region
of Champagne, the wine produced being chiefly distilled into the famous
brandy to which the town of Cognac gives its name. The best pasture is
found in the Confolentais, where horned cattle are largely reared. The
chief fruits are chestnuts, walnuts and cider-apples. The poultry raised
in the neighbourhood of Barbezieux is highly esteemed. Charente has
numerous stone quarries, and there are peat workings and beds of clay
which supply brick and tile-works and earthenware manufactories. Among
the other industries, paper-making, which has its chief centre at
Angoulême, is foremost. The most important metallurgical establishment
is the large foundry of naval guns at Ruelle. Flour-mills and
leather-works are numerous. There are also many minor industries
subsidiary to paper-making and brandy-distilling, and Angoulême
manufactures gunpowder and confectionery. Coal, salt and timber are
prominent imports. Exports include paper, brandy, stone and agricultural
products. The department is served chiefly by the Orlêans and Ouest-État
railways, and the Charente is navigable below Angoulême. Charente is
divided into the five arrondissements of Angoulême, Cognac, Ruffec,
Barbezieux and Confolens (29 cantons, 426 communes). It belongs to the
region of the XII. army corps, to the province of the archbishop of
Bordeaux, and to the académie (educational division) of Poitiers. Its
court of appeal is at Bordeaux.

Angoulême (the capital), Cognac, Confolens, Jarnac and La Rochefoucauld
(q.v.) are the more noteworthy places in the department. Barbezieux and
Ruffec, capitals of arrondissements and agricultural centres, are
otherwise of little importance. The department abounds in churches of
Romanesque architecture, of which those of Bassac, St Amant-de-Boixe
(portions of which are Gothic in style), Plassac and Gensac-la-Pallue
may be mentioned. There are remains of a Gothic abbey church at La
Couronne, and Roman remains at St Cybardeaux, Brossac and Chassenon
(where there are ruins of the Gallo-Roman town of Cassinomagus).



CHARENTE-INFÉRIEURE, a maritime department of south-western France,
comprehending the old provinces of Saintonge and Aunis, and a small
portion of Poitou, and including the islands of Ré, Oléron, Aix and
Madame. Area, 2791 sq.m. Pop. (1906) 453,793. It is bounded N. by
Vendée, N.E. by Deux-Sèvres, E. by Charente, S.E. by Dordogne, S.W. by
Gironde and the estuary of the Gironde, and W. by the Bay of Biscay.
Plains and low hills occupy the interior; the coast is flat and marshy,
as are the islands (Ré, Aix, Oléron) which lie opposite to it. The
department takes its name from the river Charente, which traverses it
during the last 61 m. of its course and drains the central region. Its
chief tributaries are on the right the Boutonne, on the left the Seugne.
The climate is temperate and, except along the coast, healthy. There are
several sheltered bays on the coast, and several good harbours, the
chief of which are La Rochelle, Rochefort and Tonnay-Charente, the two
latter some distance up the Charente. Royan on the north shore of the
Gironde is an important watering-place much frequented for its bathing.

The majority of the inhabitants of Charente-Inférieure live by
agriculture. The chief products of the arable land are wheat, oats,
maize, barley and the potato. Horse and cattle-raising is carried on and
dairying is prosperous. A considerable quantity of wine, most of which
is distilled into brandy, is produced. The department has a few
peat-workings, and produces freestone, lime and cement; the salt-marshes
of the coast are important sources of mineral wealth. Glass, pottery,
bricks and earthenware are prominent industrial products. Ship-building,
brandy-distilling, iron-founding and machine construction are also
carried on. Oysters and mussels are bred in the neighbourhood of La
Rochelle and Marennes, and there are numerous fishing ports along the
coast.

The railways traversing the department belong to the Ouest-État system,
except one section of the Paris-Bordeaux line belonging to the Orléans
Company. The facilities of the department for internal communication are
greatly increased by the number of navigable streams which water it. The
Charente, the Sèvre Niortaise, the Boutonne, the Seudre and the Gironde
furnish 142 m. of navigable waterway, to which must be added the 56 m.
covered by the canals of the coast. There are 6 arrondissements (40
cantons, 481 communes), cognominal with the towns of La Rochelle,
Rochefort, Marennes, Saintes, Jonzac and St Jean d'Angély--La Rochelle
being the chief town of the department. The department forms the diocese
of La Rochelle, and is attached to the 18th military region, and in
educational matters to the académie of Poitiers. Its court of appeal is
at Poitiers.

La Rochelle, St Jean d'Angély, Rochefort and Saintes (q.v.) are the
principal towns. Surgères and Aulnay possess fine specimens of the
numerous Romanesque churches. Pons has a graceful château of the 15th
and 16th centuries, beside which there rises a fine keep of the 12th
century.



CHARENTON-LE-PONT, a town of northern France in the department of Seine,
situated on the right bank of the Marne, at its confluence with the
Seine, 1 m. S.E. of the fortifications of Paris, of which it is a
suburb. Pop. (1906) 18,034. It derives the distinctive part of its name
from the stone bridge of ten arches which crosses the Marne and unites
the town with Alfortville, well known for its veterinary school founded
in 1766. It has always been regarded as a point of great importance for
the defence of the capital, and has frequently been the scene of
sanguinary conflicts. The fort of Charenton on the left bank of the
Marne is one of the older forts of the Paris defence. In the 16th and
17th centuries Charenton was the scene of the ecclesiastical councils of
the Protestant party, which had its principal church in the town. At St
Maurice adjoining Charenton is the famous Hospice de Charenton, a
lunatic asylum, the foundation of which dates from 1641. Till the time
of the Revolution it was used as a general hospital, and even as a
prison, but from 1802 onwards it was specially appropriated to the
treatment of lunacy. St Maurice has two other national establishments,
one for the victims of accidents in Paris (_asile national Vacassy_),
the other for convalescent working-men (_asile national de Vincennes_).
Charenton has a port on the Canal de St Maurice, beside the Marne, and
carries on boat-building and the manufacture of tiles and porcelain.



CHARES, Athenian general, is first heard of in 366 B.C. as assisting the
Phliasians, who had been attacked by Argos and Sicyon. In 361 he visited
Corcyra, where he helped the oligarchs to expel the democrats, a policy
which led to the subsequent defection of the island from Athens. In 357,
Chares was appointed to the command in the Social War, together with
Chabrias, after whose death before Chios he was associated with
Iphicrates and Timotheus (for the naval battle in the Hellespont, see
TIMOTHEUS). Chares, having successfully thrown the blame for the defeat
on his colleagues, was left sole commander, but receiving no supplies
from Athens, took upon himself to join the revolted satrap Artabazus. A
complaint from the Persian king, who threatened to send three hundred
ships to the assistance of the confederates, led to the conclusion of
peace (355) between Athens and her revolted allies, and the recall of
Chares. In 349, he was sent to the assistance of Olynthus (q.v.) against
Philip II. of Macedon, but returned without having effected anything; in
the following year, when he reached Olynthus, he found it already in the
hands of Philip. In 340 he was appointed to the command of a force sent
to aid Byzantium against Philip, but the inhabitants, remembering his
former plunderings and extortions, refused to receive him. In 338 he was
defeated by Philip at Amphissa, and was one of the commanders at the
disastrous battle of Chaeroneia. Lysicles, one of his colleagues, was
condemned to death, while Chares does not seem to have been even
accused. After the conquest of Thebes by Alexander (335), Chares is said
to have been one of the Athenian orators and generals whose surrender
was demanded. Two years later he was living at Sigeum, for Arrian
(_Anabasis_ i. 12) states that he went from there to pay his respects to
Alexander. In 332 he entered the service of Darius and took over the
command of a Persian force in Mytilene, but capitulated on the approach
of a Macedonian fleet on condition of being allowed to retire
unmolested. He is last heard of at Taenarum, and is supposed to have
died at Sigeum. Although boastful and vain-glorious, Chares was not
lacking in personal courage, and was among the best Athenian generals
of his time. At the best, however, he was "hardly more than an ordinary
leader of mercenaries" (A. Holm). He openly boasted of his profligacy,
was exceedingly avaricious, and his bad faith became proverbial.

  Diod. Sic. xv. 75, 95, xvi. 7, 21, 22, 85-88; Plutarch, _Phocion_, 14;
  Theopompus, _ap._ Athenaeum, xii. p. 532; A. Schäfer, _Demosthenes und
  seine Zeit_ (1885); A. Holm, _History of Greece_ (Eng. trans., 1896),
  vol. iii.



CHARES, of Lindus in Rhodes, a noted sculptor, who fashioned for the
Rhodians a colossal bronze statue of the sun-god, the cost of which was
defrayed by selling the warlike engines left behind by Demetrius
Poliorcetes, when he abandoned the siege of the city in 303 B.C. (Pliny,
_Nat. Hist._ xxxiv. 41). The colossus was seventy cubits (105 ft.) in
height; and its fingers were larger than many statues. The notion that
the legs were planted apart, so that ships could sail between them, is
absurd. The statue was thrown down by an earthquake after 56 years; but
the remains lay for ages on the spot.



CHARES, of Mytilene, a Greek belonging to the suite of Alexander the
Great. He was appointed court-marshal or introducer of strangers to the
king, an office borrowed from the Persian court. He wrote a history of
Alexander in ten books, dealing mainly with the private life of the
king. The fragments are chiefly preserved in Athenaeus.

  See _Scriptores Rerum Alexandri_ (pp. 114-120) in the Didot edition of
  Arrian.



CHARGE (through the Fr. from the Late Lat. _carricare_, to load in a
_carrus_ or wagon; cf. "cargo"), a load; from this, its primary meaning,
also seen in the word "charger," a large dish, come the uses of the word
for the powder and shot to load a firearm, the accumulation of
electricity in a battery, the necessary quantity of dynamite or other
explosive in blasting, and a device borne on an escutcheon in heraldry.
"Charge" can thus mean a burden, and so a care or duty laid upon one, as
in "to be in charge" of another. With a transference to that which lays
such a duty on another, "charge" is used of the instructions given by a
judge to a jury, or by a bishop to the clergy of his diocese. In the
special sense of a pecuniary burden the word is used of the price of
goods, of an encumbrance on property, and of the expenses of running a
business. Further uses of the word are of the violent, rushing attack of
cavalry, or of a bull or elephant, or football player; hence "charger"
is a horse ridden in a charge, or more loosely a horse ridden by an
officer, whether of infantry or cavalry.



CHARGÉ D'AFFAIRES (Fr. for "in charge of business"), the title of two
classes of diplomatic agents, (1) _Chargés d'affaires_ (_ministres
chargés d'affaires_), who were placed by the _règlement_ of the congress
of Vienna in the 4th class of diplomatic agents, are heads of permanent
missions accredited to countries to which, for some reason, it is not
possible or not desirable to send agents of a higher rank. They are
distinguished from these latter by the fact that their credentials are
addressed by the minister for foreign affairs of the state which they
are to represent to the minister for foreign affairs of the receiving
state. Though still occasionally accredited, ministers of this class are
now rare. They have precedence over the other class of _chargés
d'affaires_. (2) _Chargés d'affaires per interim_, or _chargés des
affaires_, are those who are presented as such, either verbally or in
writing, by heads of missions of the first, second or third rank to the
minister for foreign affairs of the state to which they are accredited,
when they leave their post temporarily, or pending the arrival of their
successor. It is usual to appoint a counsellor or secretary of legation
_chargé d'affaires_. Some governments are accustomed to give the title
of minister to such _chargés d'affaires_, which ranks them with the
other heads of legation. Essentially _chargés d'affaires_ do not differ
from ambassadors, envoys or ministers resident. They represent their
nation, and enjoy the same privileges and immunities as other diplomatic
agents (see DIPLOMACY).



CHARGING ORDER, in English law, an order obtained from a court or judge
by a judgment creditor under the Judgment Acts 1838 and 1840, by which
the property of the judgment debtor in any stocks or funds stands
charged with the payment of the amount for which judgment shall have
been recovered, with interest. A charging order can only be obtained in
respect of an ascertained sum, but this would include a sum ordered to
be paid at a future date. An order can be made on stock standing in the
name of a trustee in trust for the judgment debtor, or on cash in court
to the credit of the judgment debtor, but not on stock held by a debtor
as a trustee. The application for a charging order is usually made by
motion to a divisional court, though it may be made to a judge. The
effect of the order is not that of a contract to pay the debt, but
merely of an instrument of charge on the shares, signed by the debtor.
An interval of six months must elapse before any proceedings are taken
to enforce the charge, but, it necessary, a stop order on the fund and
the dividends payable by the debtor can be obtained by the creditor to
protect his interest A solicitor employed to prosecute any suit, matter
or proceeding in any court, is entitled, on declaration of the court, to
a charge for his costs upon the property recovered or preserved in such
suit or proceeding. (See _Rules of the Supreme Court_, o. XLIX.)



CHARIBERT (d. 567), king of the Franks, was the son of Clotaire I. On
Clotaire's death in 561 his estates were divided between his sons,
Charibert receiving Paris as his capital, together with Rouen, Tours,
Poitiers, Limoges, Bordeaux and Toulouse. Besides his wife, Ingoberga,
he had unions with Merofleda, a wool-carder's daughter, and Theodogilda,
the daughter of a neatherd. He was one of the most dissolute of the
Merovingian kings, his early death in 567 being brought on by his
excesses.     (C. Pf.)



CHARIDEMUS, of Oreus in Euboea, Greek mercenary leader. About 367 B.C.
he fought under the Athenian general Iphicrates against Amphipolis.
Being ordered by Iphicrates to take the Amphipolitan hostages to Athens,
he allowed them to return to their own people, and joined Cotys, king of
Thrace, against Athens. Soon afterwards he fell into the hands of the
Athenians and accepted the offer of Timotheus to re-enter their service.
Having been dismissed by Timotheus (362) he joined the revolted satraps
Memnon and Mentor in Asia, but soon lost their confidence, and was
obliged to seek the protection of the Athenians. Finding, however, that
he had nothing to fear from the Persians, he again joined Cotys, on
whose murder he was appointed guardian to his youthful son Cersobleptes.
In 357, on the arrival of Chares with considerable forces, the
Chersonese was restored to Athens. The supporters of Charidemus
represented this as due to his efforts, and, in spite of the opposition
of Demosthenes, he was honoured with a golden crown and the franchise of
the city. It was further resolved that his person should be inviolable.
In 351 he commanded the Athenian forces in the Chersonese against Philip
II. of Macedon, and in 349 he superseded Chares as commander in the
Olynthian War. He achieved little success, but made himself detested by
his insolence and profligacy, and was in turn replaced by Chares. After
Chaeroneia the war party would have entrusted Charidemus[1] with the
command against Philip, but the peace party secured the appointment of
Phocion. He was one of those whose surrender was demanded by Alexander
after the destruction of Thebes, but escaped with banishment. He fled to
Darius III., who received him with distinction. But, having expressed
his dissatisfaction with the preparations made by the king just before
the battle of Issus (333), he was put to death.

  See Diod. Sic. xvii. 30; Plutarch, _Phocion_, 16, 17; Arrian,
  _Anabasis_, i. 10; Quintus Curtius iii. 2; Demosthenes, _Contra
  Aristocratem_; A. Schäfer, _Demosthenes und seine Zeit_ (1885).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] According to some authorities, this is a second Charidemus, the
    first disappearing from history after being superseded by Chares in
    the Olynthian war.



CHARING CROSS, the locality about the west end of the Strand and the
north end of Whitehall, on the south-east side of Trafalgar Square,
London, England. It falls within the bounds of the city of Westminster.
Here Edward I. erected the last of the series of crosses to the memory
of his queen, Eleanor (d. 1290). It stood near the present entrance to
Charing Cross station of the South-Eastern & Chatham railway, in the
courtyard of which a fine modern cross has been erected within a few
feet of the exact site. A popular derivation of the name connected it
with Edward's "dear queen" (_chère reine_), and a village of Cherringe
or Charing grew up here later, but the true origin of the name is not
known. There is a village of Charing in Kent, and the name is connected
by some with that of a Saxon family, Cerring.





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