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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 4 - "Cincinnatus" to "Cleruchy"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 4 - "Cincinnatus" to "Cleruchy"" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript.

(2) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective

(3) Letters topped by Macron are represented as [=x].

(4) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    Article CISTERCIANS: "and tried to reproduce the life exactly as it
      had been in St Benedict's time." 'life' amended from 'lire'.

    Article CITHARA: "This characteristic box sound-chest (fig. 1)
      consisted of two resonating tables, either flat or delicately
      arched." 'characteristic' amended from 'characteristc'.

    Article CIUDAD REAL: "and the trade of the town consists chiefly in
      the weekly sales of agricultrural produce and live-stock."
      'agricultrural' amended from 'agricultrual'.

    Article CIVIL SERVICE: "The chief, if not the only, test of fitness
      for office in many cases has been party loyalty, honesty and
      capacity being seldom more than secondary considerations." 'party'
      amended from 'partly'.

    Article CLAIRON: "Hainaut, on the 25th of January 1723, the natural
      daughter of an army sergeant." 'an' amended from 'any'.

    Article CLARENDON, EDWARD HYDE: "Cape Corso and other Dutch
      possessions on the coast of Africa, and New Amsterdam in America."
      'coast' amended from 'cost'.

    Article CLARETIE, JULES ARSÈNE ARNAUD: "He was elected a member of
      the Academy in 1888, and took his seat in February 1889, being
      received by Ernest Renan." 'February' amended from 'Feburary'.

    Article CLAUDIANUS, CLAUDIUS: "verse translation of Il Ratto di
      Proserpina , by L. Garces de Diez (1889)." 'Proserpina' amended
      from 'Prosperpina'.



              ELEVENTH EDITION

             VOLUME VI, SLICE IV

           Cincinnatus to Cleruchy

Articles in This Slice:

  CINDERELLA                          CLARINET
  CINEAS                              CLARK, SIR ANDREW
  CINERARIA                           CLARK, GEORGE ROGERS
  CINGOLI                             CLARK, SIR JAMES
  CINNA (Roman family)                CLARK, JOHN BATES
  CINNABAR                            CLARK, THOMAS
  CINNAMON                            CLARKE, ADAM
  CINNAMON-STONE                      CLARKE, SIR ANDREW
  CINNAMUS                            CLARKE, CHARLES COWDEN
  CINNOLIN                            CLARKE, EDWARD DANIEL
  CINQUE CENTO                        CLARKE, JOHN SLEEPER
  CINTRA                              CLARKE, MARY ANNE
  CIPHER                              CLARKE, SAMUEL
  CIPPUS                              CLARKE, THOMAS SHIELDS
  CIRCAR                              CLARKSON, THOMAS
  CIRCASSIA                           CLARKSVILLE
  CIRCE                               CLASSICS
  CIRCEIUS MONS                       CLASSIFICATION
  CIRCLE                              CLASTIDIUM
  CIRCLEVILLE                         CLAUBERG, JOHANN
  CIRCUIT                             CLAUDE, JEAN
  CIRCULAR NOTE                       CLAUDE OF LORRAINE
  CIRCUMVALLATION, LINES OF           CLAUDIUS (Nero Germanicus)
  CIRCUS                              CLAUDIUS (famous Roman gens.)
  CIRQUE                              CLAUSEL
  CIRTA                               CLAUSEN, GEORGE
  CISSOID                             CLAUSIUS, RUDOLF EMMANUEL
  CIST                                CLAVECIN
  CISTERCIANS                         CLAVICEMBALO
  CITATION                            CLAVICHORD
  CÎTEAUX                             CLAVICYTHERIUM
  CITHAERON                           CLAVIE, BURNING THE
  CITHARA                             CLAVIÈRE, ÉTIENNE
  CITIUM                              CLAVIJO, RUY GONZALEZ DE
  CITIZEN                             CLAVIJO Y FAJARDO, JOSÉ
  CITOLE                              CLAY, CASSIUS MARCELLUS
  CITRIC ACID                         CLAY, CHARLES
  CITRON                              CLAY, FREDERIC
  CITTADELLA                          CLAY, HENRY
  CITTÀ DELLA PIEVE                   CLAY (substance)
  CITTÀ DI CASTELLO                   CLAY CROSS
  CITTÀ VECCHIA                       CLAYMORE
  CITTERN                             CLAYS, PAUL JEAN
  CITY                                CLAYTON, JOHN MIDDLETON
  CIUDAD DE CURA                      CLAY-WITH-FLINTS
  CIUDAD JUAREZ                       CLAZOMENAE
  CIUDAD REAL (province of Spain)     CLEARCHUS
  CIUDAD REAL (city in Spain)         CLEARFIELD
  CIUDAD RODRIGO                      CLEARING-HOUSE
  CIVET                               CLEATOR MOOR
  CIVILIS, CLAUDIUS                   CLEBURNE
  CIVILIZATION                        CLECKHEATON
  CIVIL LAW                           CLEETHORPES
  CIVIL LIST                          CLEFT PALATE
  CIVIL SERVICE                       CLEISTHENES
  CIVITA VECCHIA                      CLEITHRAL
  CLACKMANNAN                         CLEITOR
  CLACTON-ON-SEA                      CLEMATIS
  CLADEL, LÉON                        CLEMENCEAU, GEORGES
  CLAIRAULT                           CLEMENT (popes)
  CLAIRON, LA                         CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA
  CLAIRVAUX                           CLÉMENT, FRANÇOIS
  CLAIRVOYANCE                        CLÉMENT, JACQUES
  CLAMECY                             CLEMENTI, MUZIO
  CLAN                                CLEMENTINE LITERATURE
  CLAPPERTON, HUGH                    CLEPSYDRA
  CLAQUE                              CLERESTORY
  CLARA, SAINT                        CLERFAYT
  CLARE (English family)              CLERGY
  CLARE, JOHN (English poet)          CLERGY, BENEFIT OF
  CLARE (county in Ireland)           CLERK
  CLAREMONT                           CLERKE, AGNES MARY
  CLARES, POOR                        CLERMONT-TONNERRE (French family)
  CLARET                              CLERMONT-TONNERRE, STANISLAS

CINCINNATUS,[1] LUCIUS QUINCTIUS (b. c. 519 B.C.), one of the heroes of
early Rome, a model of old Roman virtue and simplicity. A persistent
opponent of the plebeians, he resisted the proposal of Terentilius Arsa
(or Harsa) to draw up a code of written laws applicable equally to
patricians and plebeians. He was in humble circumstances, and lived and
worked on his own small farm. The story that he became impoverished by
paying a fine incurred by his son Caeso is an attempt to explain the
needy position of so distinguished a man. Twice he was called from the
plough to the dictatorship of Rome in 458 and 439. In 458 he defeated
the Aequians in a single day, and after entering Rome in triumph with
large spoils returned to his farm. The story of his success, related
five times under five different years, possibly rests on an historical
basis, but the account given in Livy of the achievements of the Roman
army is obviously incredible.

  See Livy iii. 26-29; Dion. Halic. x. 23-25; Florus i. 11. For a
  critical examination of the story see Schwegler, _Römische
  Geschichte_, bk. xxviii. 12; Sir G. Cornewall Lewis, _Credibility of
  early Roman History_, ch. xii. 40; W. Ihne, _History of Rome_, i.; E.
  Pais, _Storia di Roma_, i. ch. 4 (1898).


  [1] I.e. the "curly-haired."

CINDERELLA (i.e. little cinder girl), the heroine of an almost universal
fairy-tale. Its essential features are (1) the persecuted maiden whose
youth and beauty bring upon her the jealousy of her step-mother and
sisters, (2) the intervention of a fairy or other supernatural
instrument on her behalf, (3) the prince who falls in love with and
marries her. In the English version, a translation of Perrault's
_Cendrillon_, the _glass_ slipper which she drops on the palace stairs
is due to a mistranslation of _pantoufle en vair_ (a _fur_ slipper),
mistaken for _en verre_. It has been suggested that the story originated
in a nature-myth, Cinderella being the dawn, oppressed by the
night-clouds (cruel relatives) and finally rescued by the sun (prince).

  See Marian Rolfe Cox, _Cinderella; Three Hundred and Forty-five
  Variants_ (1893); A Lang, _Perrault's Popular Tales_ (1888).

CINEAS, a Thessalian, the chief adviser of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus. He
studied oratory in Athens, and was regarded as the most eloquent man of
his age. He tried to dissuade Pyrrhus from invading Italy, and after the
defeat of the Romans at Heraclea (280 B.C.) was sent to Rome to discuss
terms of peace. These terms, which are said by Appian (_De Rebus
Samniticis_, 10, 11) to have included the freedom of the Greeks in Italy
and the restoration to the Bruttians, Apulians and Samnites of all that
had been taken from them, were rejected chiefly through the vehement and
patriotic speech of the aged Appius Claudius Caecus the censor. The
withdrawal of Pyrrhus from Italy was demanded, and Cineas returned to
his master with the report that Rome was a temple and its senate an
assembly of kings. Two years later Cineas was sent to renew negotiations
with Rome on easier terms. The result was a cessation of hostilities,
and Cineas crossed over to Sicily, to prepare the ground for Pyrrhus's
campaign. Nothing more is heard of him. He is said to have made an
epitome of the _Tactica_ of Aeneas, probably referred to by Cicero, who
speaks of a Cineas as the author of a treatise _De Re Militari_.

  See Plutarch, _Pyrrhus_, 11-21; Justin xviii. 2; Eutropius ii. 12;
  Cicero, _Ad Fam._ ix. 25.

CINEMATOGRAPH, or KINEMATOGRAPH (from [Greek: khinêma], motion, and
[Greek: graphein], to depict), an apparatus in which a series of views
representing closely successive phases of a moving object are exhibited
in rapid sequence, giving a picture which, owing to persistence of
vision, appears to the observer to be in continuous motion. It is a
development of the zoetrope or "wheel of life," described by W.G. Horner
about 1833, which consists of a hollow cylinder turning on a vertical
axis and having its surface pierced with a number of slots. Round the
interior is arranged a series of pictures representing successive stages
of such a subject as a galloping horse, and when the cylinder is rotated
an observer looking through one of the slots sees the horse apparently
in motion. The pictures were at first drawn by hand, but photography was
afterwards applied to their production. E. Muybridge about 1877 obtained
successive pictures of a running horse by employing a row of cameras,
the shutters of which were opened and closed electrically by the passage
of the horse in front of them, and in 1883 E.J. Marey of Paris
established a studio for investigating the motion of animals by similar
photographic methods.

The modern cinematograph was rendered possible by the invention of the
celluloid roll film (employed by Marey in 1890), on which the serial
pictures are impressed by instantaneous photography, a long sensitized
film being moved across the focal plane of a camera and exposed
intermittently. In one apparatus for making the exposures a cam jerks
the film across the field once for each picture, the slack being
gathered in on a drum at a constant rate. In another four lenses are
rotated so as to give four images for each rotation, the film travelling
so as to present a new portion in the field as each lens comes in place.
Sixteen to fifty pictures may be taken per second. The films are
developed on large drums, within which a ruby electric light may be
fixed to enable the process to be watched. A positive is made from the
negative thus obtained, and is passed through an optical lantern, the
images being thus successively projected through an objective lens upon
a distant screen. For an hour's exhibition 50,000 to 165,000 pictures
are needed. To regulate the feed in the lantern a hole is punched in the
film for each picture. These holes must be extremely accurate in
position; when they wear the feed becomes irregular, and the picture
dances or vibrates in an unpleasant manner. Another method of exhibiting
cinematographic effects is to bind the pictures together in book form by
one edge, and then release them from the other in rapid succession by
means of the thumb or some mechanical device as the book is bent
backwards. In this case the subject is viewed, not by projection, but
directly, either with the unaided eye or through a magnifying glass.

Cinematograph films produced by ordinary photographic processes, being
in black and white only, fail to reproduce the colouring of the subjects
they represent. To some extent this defect has been remedied by painting
them by hand, but this method is too expensive for general adoption, and
moreover does not yield very satisfactory results. Attempts to adapt
three-colour photography, by using simultaneously three films, each with
a source of light of appropriate colour, and combining the three images
on the screen, have to overcome great difficulties in regard to
maintenance of register, because very minute errors of adjustment
between the pictures on the films are magnified to an intolerable extent
by projection. In a process devised by G.A. Smith, the results of which
were exhibited at the Society of Arts, London, in December 1908, the
number of colour records was reduced to two. The films were specially
treated to increase their sensitiveness to red. The photographs were
taken through two colour filters alternately interposed in front of the
film; both admitted white and yellow, but one, of red, was in addition
specially concerned with the orange and red of the subject, and the
other, of blue-green, with the green, blue-green, blue and violet. The
camera was arranged to take not less than 16 pictures a second through
each filter, or 32 a second in all. The positive transparency made from
the negative thus obtained was used in a lantern so arranged that beams
of red (composed of crimson and yellow) and of green (composed of yellow
and blue) issued from the lens alternately, the mechanism presenting the
pictures made with the red filter to the red beam, and those made with
the green filter to the green beam. A supplementary shutter was provided
to introduce violet and blue, to compensate for the deficiency in those
colours caused by the necessity of cutting them out in the camera owing
to the over-sensitiveness of the film to them, and the result was that
the successive pictures, blending on the screen by persistence of
vision, gave a reproduction of the scene photographed in colours which
were sensibly the same as those of the original.

The cinematograph enables "living" or "animated pictures" of such
subjects as an army on the march, or an express train at full speed, to
be presented with marvellous distinctness and completeness of detail.
Machines of this kind have been devised in enormous numbers and used for
purposes of amusement under names (bioscope, biograph, kinetoscope,
mutograph, &c.) formed chiefly from combinations of Greek and Latin
words for life, movement, change, &c., with suffixes taken from such
words as [Greek: skopein], to see, [Greek: graphein], to depict; they
have also been combined with phonographic apparatus, so that, for
example, the music of a dance and the motions of the dancer are
simultaneously reproduced to ear and eye. But when they are used in
public places of entertainment, owing to the extreme inflammability of
the celluloid film and its employment in close proximity to a powerful
source of light and heat, such as is required if the pictures are to
show brightly on the screen, precautions must be taken to prevent, as
far as possible, the heat rays from reaching it, and effective means
must be provided to extinguish it should it take fire. The production of
films composed of non-inflammable material has also engaged the
attention of inventors.

  See H.V. Hopwood, _Living Pictures_ (London, 1899), containing a
  bibliography and a digest of the British patents, which is
  supplemented in the _Optician_, vol. xviii. p. 85; Eugène Trutat, _La
  Photographie animée_ (1899), which contains a list of the French
  patents. For the camera see also PHOTOGRAPHY: _Apparatus_.

CINERARIA. The garden plants of this name have originated from a species
of _Senecio_, _S. cruentus_ (nat. ord. Compositae), a native of the
Canary Isles, introduced to the royal gardens at Kew in 1777. It was
known originally as _Cineraria cruenta_, but the genus _Cineraria_ is
now restricted to a group of South African species, and the Canary
Island species has been transferred to the large and widespread genus
_Senecio_. Cinerarias can be raised freely from seeds. For spring
flowering in England the seeds are sown in April or May in well-drained
pots or pans, in soil of three parts loam to two parts leaf-mould, with
one-sixth sand; cover the seed thinly with fine soil, and press the
surface firm. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them
out in pans or pots of similar soil, and when more advanced pot them
singly in 4-in. pots, using soil a trifle less sandy. They should be
grown in shallow frames facing the north, and, if so situated that the
sun shines upon the plants in the middle of the day, they must be
slightly shaded; give plenty of air, and never allow them to get dry.
When well established with roots, shift them into 6-in. pots, which
should be liberally supplied with manure water as they get filled with
roots. In winter remove to a pit or house, where a little heat can be
supplied whenever there is a risk of their getting frozen. They should
stand on a moist bottom, but must not be subjected to cold draughts.
When the flowering stems appear, give manure water at every alternate
watering. Seeds sown in March, and grown on in this way, will be in
bloom by Christmas if kept in a temperature of from 40° to 45° at night,
with a little more warmth in the day; and those sown in April and May
will succeed them during the early spring months, the latter set of
plants being subjected to a temperature of 38° or 40° during the night.
If grown much warmer than this, the Cineraria maggot will make its
appearance in the leaves, tunnelling its way between the upper and lower
surfaces and making whitish irregular markings all over. Such affected
leaves must be picked off and burned. Green fly is a great pest on
young plants, and can only be kept down by fumigating or vaporizing the
houses, and syringing with a solution of quassia chips, soft soap and

CINGOLI (anc. _Cingulum_), a town of the Marches, Italy, in the province
of Macerata, about 14 m. N.W. direct, and 17 m. by road, from the town
of Macerata. Pop. (1901) 13,357. The Gothic church of S. Esuperanzio
contains interesting works of art. The town occupies the site of the
ancient Cingulum, a town of Picenum, founded and strongly fortified by
Caesar's lieutenant T. Labienus (probably on the site of an earlier
village) in 63 B.C. at his own expense. Its lofty position (2300 ft.)
made it of some importance in the civil wars, but otherwise little is
heard of it. Under the empire it was a _municipium_.

CINNA, a Roman patrician family of the gens Cornelia. The most prominent
member was Lucius CORNELIUS CINNA, a supporter of Marius in his contest
with Sulla. After serving in the war with the Marsi as praetorian
legate, he was elected consul in 87 B.C. Breaking the oath he had sworn
to Sulla that he would not attempt any revolution in the state, Cinna
allied himself with Marius, raised an army of Italians, and took
possession of the city. Soon after his triumphant entry and the massacre
of the friends of Sulla, by which he had satisfied his vengeance, Marius
died. L. Valerius Flaccus became Cinna's colleague, and on the murder of
Flaccus, Cn. Papirius Carbo. In 84, however, Cinna, who was still
consul, was forced to advance against Sulla; but while embarking his
troops to meet him in Thessaly, he was killed in a mutiny. His daughter
Cornelia was the wife of Julius Caesar, the dictator; but his son, L.
CORNELIUS CINNA, praetor in 44 B.C., nevertheless sided with the
murderers of Caesar and publicly extolled their action.

The hero of Corneille's tragedy _Cinna_ (1640) was Cn. Cornelius Cinna,
surnamed _Magnus_ (after his maternal grandfather Pompey), who was
magnanimously pardoned by Augustus for conspiring against him.

CINNA, GAIUS HELVIUS, Roman poet of the later Ciceronian age.
Practically nothing is known of his life except that he was the friend
of Catullus, whom he accompanied to Bithynia in the suite of the praetor
Memmius. The circumstances of his death have given rise to some
discussion. Suetonius, Valerius Maximus, Appian and Dio Cassius all
state that, at Caesar's funeral, a certain Helvius Cinna was killed by
mistake for Cornelius Cinna, the conspirator. The last three writers
mentioned above add that he was a tribune of the people, while Plutarch,
referring to the affair, gives the further information that the Cinna
who was killed by the mob was a poet. This points to the identity of
Helvius Cinna the tribune with Helvius Cinna the poet. The chief
objection to this view is based upon two lines in the 9th eclogue of
Virgil, supposed to have been written 41 or 40 B.C. Here reference is
made to a certain Cinna, a poet of such importance that Virgil
deprecates comparison with him; it is argued that the manner in which
this Cinna, who could hardly have been any one but Helvius Cinna, is
spoken of implies that he was then alive; if so, he could not have been
killed in 44. But such an interpretation of the Virgilian passage is by
no means absolutely necessary; the terms used do not preclude a
reference to a contemporary no longer alive. It has been suggested that
it was really Cornelius, not Helvius Cinna, who was slain at Caesar's
funeral, but this is not borne out by the authorities. Cinna's chief
work was a mythological epic poem called _Smyrna_, the subject of which
was the incestuous love of Smyrna (or Myrrha) for her father Cinyras,
treated after the manner of the Alexandrian poets. It is said to have
taken nine years to finish. A _Propempticon Pollionis_, a send-off to
[Asinius] Pollio, is also attributed to him. In both these poems, the
language of which was so obscure that they required special
commentaries, his model appears to have been Parthenius of Nicaea.

  See A. Weichert, _Poëtarum Latinorum Vitae_ (1830); L. Müller's
  edition of Catullus (1870), where the remains of Cinna's poems are
  printed; A. Kiessling, "De C. Helvio Cinna Poëta" in _Commentationes
  Philologicae in honorem T. Mommsen_ (1878); O. Ribbeck, _Geschichte
  der römischen Dichtung_, i. (1887); Teuffel-Schwabe, _Hist. of Roman
  Lit._ (Eng. tr. 213, 2-5); Plessis, _Poésie latine_ (1909).

CINNABAR (Ger. _Zinnober_), sometimes written cinnabarite, a name
applied to red mercuric sulphide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common
ore of mercury. The name comes from the Greek [Greek: kinnabari], used
by Theophrastus, and probably applied to several distinct substances.
Cinnabar is generally found in a massive, granular or earthy form, of
bright red colour, but it occasionally occurs in crystals, with a
metallic adamantine lustre. The crystals belong to the hexagonal system,
and are generally of rhombohedral habit, sometimes twinned. Cinnabar
presents remarkable resemblance to quartz in its symmetry and optical
characters. Like quartz it exhibits circular polarization, and A. Des
Cloizeaux showed that it possessed fifteen times the rotatory power of
quartz (see POLARIZATION OF LIGHT). Cinnabar has higher refractive power
than any other known mineral, its mean index for sodium light being
3.02, whilst the index for diamond--a substance of remarkable
refraction--is only 2.42 (see REFRACTION). The hardness of cinnabar is
3, and its specific gravity 8.998.

Cinnabar is found in all localities which yield quicksilver, notably
Almaden (Spain), New Almaden (California), Idria (Austria), Landsberg,
near Ober-Moschel in the Palatinate, Ripa, at the foot of the Apuan Alps
(Tuscany), the mountain Avala (Servia), Huancavelica (Peru), and the
province of Kweichow in China, whence very fine crystals have been
obtained. Cinnabar is in course of deposition at the present day from
the hot waters of Sulphur Bank, in California, and Steamboat Springs,

Hepatic cinnabar is an impure variety from Idria in Carniola, in which
the cinnabar is mixed with bituminous and earthy matter.

Metacinnabarite is a cubic form of mercuric sulphide, this compound
being dimorphous.

  For a general description of cinnabar, see G.F. Becker's _Geology of
  the Quicksilver Deposits of the Pacific Slope_, U.S. Geol. Surv.
  Monographs, No. xiii. (1888).    (F. W. R.*)

found in the form of its benzyl ester in Peru and Tolu balsams, in
storax and in some gum-benzoins. It can be prepared by the reduction of
phenyl propiolic acid with zinc and acetic acid, by heating benzal
malonic acid, by the condensation of ethyl acetate with benzaldehyde in
the presence of sodium ethylate or by the so-called "Perkin reaction";
the latter being the method commonly employed. In making the acid by
this process benzaldehyde, acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate
are heated for some hours to about 1800 C, the resulting product is made
alkaline with sodium carbonate, and any excess of benzaldehyde removed
by a current of steam. The residual liquor is filtered and acidified
with hydrochloric acid, when cinnamic acid is precipitated,
C6H5CHO+CH3COONa = C6H5CH:CH.COONa+H2O. It may be purified by
recrystallization from hot water. Considerable controversy has taken
place as to the course pursued by this reaction, but the matter has been
definitely settled by the work of R. Fittig and his pupils (_Annalen_,
1883, 216, pp. 100, 115; 1885, 227, pp. 55, 119), in which it was shown
that the aldehyde forms an addition compound with the sodium salt of the
fatty acid, and that the acetic anhydride plays the part of a
dehydrating agent. Cinnamic acid crystallizes in needles or prisms,
melting at 133° C; on reduction it gives _phenyl propionic acid_,
C6H5.CH2.CH2.COOH. Nitric acid oxidizes it to benzoic acid and acetic
acid. Potash fusion decomposes it into benzoic and acetic acids. Being
an unsaturated acid it combines directly with hydrochloric acid,
hydrobromic acid, bromine, &c. On nitration it gives a mixture of ortho
and para nitrocinnamic acids, the former of which is of historical
importance, as by converting it into orthonitrophenyl propiolic acid A.
Baeyer was enabled to carry out the complete synthesis of indigo
(_q.v._). Reduction of orthonitrocinnamic acid gives orthoaminocinnamic
acid, C6H4(NH2)CH:CH.COOH, which is of theoretical importance, as it
readily gives a quinoline derivative. An isomer of cinnamic acid known
as _allo-cinnamic acid_ is also known.

  For the oxy-cinnamic adds see COUMARIN.

CINNAMON, the inner bark of _Cinnamomum zeylanicum_, a small evergreen
tree belonging to the natural order Lauraceae, native to Ceylon. The
leaves are large, ovate-oblong in shape, and the flowers, which are
arranged in panicles, have a greenish colour and a rather disagreeable
odour. Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity, and it was so
highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a present
fit for monarchs and other great potentates. It is mentioned in Exod.
xxx. 23, where Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon
(_Kinnamon_) and cassia, and it is alluded to by Herodotus under the
name [Greek: Kinnamômon], and by other classical writers. The tree is
grown at Tellicherry, in Java, the West Indies, Brazil and Egypt, but
the produce of none of these places approaches in quality that grown in
Ceylon. Ceylon cinnamon of fine quality is a very thin smooth bark, with
a light-yellowish brown colour, a highly fragrant odour, and a
peculiarly sweet, warm and pleasing aromatic taste. Its flavour is due
to an aromatic oil which it contains to the extent of from 0.5 to 1%.
This essential oil, as an article of commerce, is prepared by roughly
pounding the bark, macerating it in sea-water, and then quickly
distilling the whole. It is of a golden-yellow colour, with the peculiar
odour of cinnamon and a very hot aromatic taste. It consists essentially
of cinnamic aldehyde, and by the absorption of oxygen as it becomes old
it darkens in colour and develops resinous compounds. Cinnamon is
principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavouring material,
being largely used in the preparation of some kinds of chocolate and
liqueurs. In medicine it acts like other volatile oils and has a
reputation as a cure for colds. Being a much more costly spice than
cassia, that comparatively harsh-flavoured substance is frequently
substituted for or added to it. The two barks when whole are easily
enough distinguished, and their microscopical characters are also quite
distinct. When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine, little
effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality, but when
cassia is present a deep-blue tint is produced, the intensity of the
coloration depending on the proportion of the cassia.

CINNAMON-STONE, a variety of garnet, belonging to the lime-alumina type,
known also as essonite or hessonite, from the Gr. [Greek: êssôn],
"inferior," in allusion to its being less hard and less dense than most
other garnet. It has a characteristic red colour, inclining to orange,
much like that of hyacinth or jacinth. Indeed it was shown many years
ago, by Sir A.H. Church, that many gems, especially engraved stones,
commonly regarded as hyacinth, were really cinnamon-stone. The
difference is readily detected by the specific gravity, that of
hessonite being 3.64 to 3.69, whilst that of hyacinth (zircon) is about
4.6. Hessonite is rather a soft stone, its hardness being about that of
quartz or 7, whilst the hardness of most garnet reaches 7.5.
Cinnamon-stone comes chiefly from Ceylon, where it is found generally as
pebbles, though its occurrence in its native matrix is not unknown.

CINNAMUS [KINNAMOS], JOHN, Byzantine historian, flourished in the second
half of the 12th century. He was imperial secretary (probably in this
case a post connected with the military administration) to Manuel I.
Comnenus (1143-1180), whom he accompanied on his campaigns in Europe and
Asia Minor. He appears to have outlived Andronicus I., who died in 1185.
Cinnamus was the author of a history of the period 1118-1176, which thus
continues the _Alexiad_ of Anna Comnena, and embraces the reigns of John
II. and Manuel I., down to the unsuccessful campaign of the latter
against the Turks, which ended with the disastrous battle of
Myriokephalon and the rout of the Byzantine army. Cinnamus was probably
an eye-witness of the events of the last ten years which he describes.
The work breaks off abruptly; originally it no doubt went down to the
death of Manuel, and there are indications that, even in its present
form, it is an abridgment. The text is in a very corrupt state. The
author's hero is Manuel; he is strongly impressed with the superiority
of the East to the West, and is a determined opponent of the pretensions
of the papacy. But he cannot be reproached with undue bias; he writes
with the straightforwardness of a soldier, and is not ashamed on
occasion to confess his ignorance. The matter is well arranged, the
style (modelled on that of Xenophon) simple, and on the whole free from
the usual florid bombast of the Byzantine writers.

  _Editio princeps_, C. Tollius (1652); in Bonn, _Corpus Scriptorum
  Hist. Byz._, by A. Meineke (1836), with Du Cange's valuable notes;
  Migne, _Patrologia Graeca_, cxxxiii.; see also C. Neumann,
  _Griechische Geschichtsschreiber im 12. Jahrhundert_ (1888); H. von
  Kap-Herr, _Die abendländische Politik Kaiser Manuels_ (1881); C.
  Krumbacher, _Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur_ (1897).

CINNOLIN, C8H6N2, a compound isomeric with phthalazine, prepared by
boiling dihydrocinnolin dissolved in benzene with freshly precipitated
mercuric oxide. The solution is filtered and the hydrochloride of the
base precipitated by alcoholic hydrochloric acid; the free base is
obtained as an oil by adding caustic soda. It may be obtained in white
silky needles, melting at 24-25° C. and containing a molecule of ether
of crystallization by cooling the oil dissolved in ether. The free base
melts at 39° C. It is a strong base, forming stable salts with mineral
acids, and is easily soluble in water and in the ordinary organic
solvents. It has a taste resembling that of chloral hydrate, and leaves
a sharp irritation for some time on the tongue; it is also very
poisonous (M. Busch and A. Rast, _Berichte_, 1897, 30, p. 521). Cinnolin
derivatives are obtained from oxycinnolin carboxylic acid, which is
formed by digesting orthophenyl propiolic acid diazo chloride with
water. Oxycinnolin carboxylic acid on heating gives oxycinnolin, melting
at 225°, which with phosphorus pentachloride gives chlorcinnolin. This
substance is reduced by iron filings and sulphuric acid to

The relations of these compounds are here shown:--

                              C-OH                C-OH                CH
     ^                 ^     ^             ^     ^             ^     ^
   /   \_C:C·COOH    /   \ /  \\         /   \ /  \\         /   \ /  \\
  |     |           |     |     C·COOH  |     |     CH      |     |     CH
  |     |    --->   |     |     |  ---> |     |     |  ---> |     |     |
  |     |_          |     |     N       |     |     N       |     |     N
   \   /  N:N·OH     \   / \  //         \   / \  //         \   / \  //
     v                 v     N             v     N             v     N

  O-phenyl propiolic     Oxycinnolin       Oxycinnolin         Cinnolin
  acid diazo hydroxide  carboxylic acid

CINO DA PISTOIA (1270-1336), Italian poet and jurist, whose full name
was GUITTONCINO DE' SINIBALDI, was born in Pistoia, of a noble family.
He studied law at Bologna under Dinus Muggelanus (Dino de Rossonis: d.
1303) and Franciscus Accursius, and in 1307 is understood to have been
assessor of civil causes in his native city. In that year, however,
Pistoia was disturbed by the Guelph and Ghibelline feud. The
Ghibellines, who had for some time been the stronger party, being
worsted by the Guelphs, Cino, a prominent member of the former faction,
had to quit his office and the city of his birth. Pitecchio, a
stronghold on the frontiers of Lombardy, was yet in the hands of Filippo
Vergiolesi, chief of the Pistoian Ghibellines; Selvaggia, his daughter,
was beloved by Cino (who was probably already the husband of Margherita
degli Unghi); and to Pitecchio did the lawyer-poet betake himself. It is
uncertain how long he remained at the fortress; it is certain, however,
that he was not with the Vergiolesi at the time of Selvaggia's death,
which happened three years afterwards (1310), at the Monte della
Sambuca, in the Apennines, whither the Ghibellines had been compelled to
shift their camp. He visited his mistress's grave on his way to Rome,
after some time spent in travel in France and elsewhere, and to this
visit is owing his finest sonnet. At Rome Cino held office under Louis
of Savoy, sent thither by the Ghibelline leader Henry of Luxemburg, who
was crowned emperor of the Romans in 1312. In 1313, however, the emperor
died, and the Ghibellines lost their last hope. Cino appears to have
thrown up his party, and to have returned to Pistoia. Thereafter he
devoted himself to law and letters. After filling several high judicial
offices, a doctor of civil law of Bologna in his forty-fourth year, he
lectured and taught from the professor's chair at the universities of
Treviso, Siena, Florence and Perugia in succession; his reputation and
success were great, his judicial experience enabling him to travel out
of the routine of the schools. In literature he continued in some sort
the tradition of Dante during the interval dividing that great poet from
his successor Petrarch. The latter, besides celebrating Cino in an
obituary sonnet, has coupled him and his Selvaggia with Dante and
Beatrice in the fourth _capitolo_ of his _Trionfi d' Amore_.

Cino, the master of Bartolus, and of Joannes Andreae the celebrated
canonist, was long famed as a jurist. His commentary on the statutes of
Pistoia, written within two years, is said to have great merit; while
that on the code (_Lectura Cino Pistoia super codice_, Pavia, 1483;
Lyons, 1526) is considered by Savigny to exhibit more practical
intelligence and more originality of thought than are found in any
commentary on Roman law since the time of Accursius. As a poet he also
distinguished himself greatly. He was the friend and correspondent of
Dante's later years, and possibly of his earlier also, and was
certainly, with Guido Cavalcanti and Durante da Maiano, one of those who
replied to the famous sonnet _A ciascun' alma presa e gentil core_ of
the _Vita Nuova_. In the treatise _De Vulgari Eloquio_ Dante refers to
him as one of "those who have most sweetly and subtly written poems in
modern Italian," but his works, printed at Rome in 1559, do not
altogether justify the praise. Strained and rhetorical as many of his
outcries are, however, Cino is not without moments of true passion and
fine natural eloquence. Of these qualities the sonnet in memory of
Selvaggia, _Io fui in sull' alto e in sul beato monte_, and the canzone
to Dante, _Avegnachè di omaggio più per tempo_, are interesting

  The text-book for English readers is D.G. Rossetti's _Early Italian
  Poets_, wherein will be found not only a memoir of Cino da Pistoia,
  but also some admirably translated specimens of his verse--the whole
  wrought into significant connexion with that friendship of Cino's
  which is perhaps the most interesting fact about him. See also Ciampi,
  _Vita e poesie di messer Cino da Pistoia_ (Pisa, 1813).

courtier, was the second son of Antoine Coiffier Ruzé, marquis d'Effiat,
marshal of France (1581-1632), and was introduced to the court of Louis
XIII. by Richelieu, who had been a friend of his father and who hoped he
would counteract the influence of the queen's favourite Mlle. de
Hautefort. Owing to his handsome appearance and agreeable manners he
soon became a favourite of the king, and was made successively master of
the wardrobe and master of the horse. After distinguishing himself at
the siege of Arras in 1640, Cinq-Mars wished for a high military
command, but Richelieu opposed his pretensions and the favourite talked
rashly about overthrowing the minister. He was probably connected with
the abortive rising of the count of Soissons in 1641; however that may
be, in the following year he formed a conspiracy with the duke of
Bouillon and others to overthrow Richelieu. This plot was under the
nominal leadership of the king's brother Gaston of Orleans. The plans of
the conspirators were aided by the illness of Richelieu and his absence
from the king, and at the siege of Narbonne Cinq-Mars almost induced
Louis to agree to banish his minister. Richelieu, however, recovered,
became acquainted with the attempt of Cinq-Mars to obtain assistance
from Spain, and laid the proofs of his treason before the king, who
ordered his arrest. Cinq-Mars was brought to trial, admitted his guilt,
and was condemned to death. He was executed at Lyons on the 12th of
September 1642. It is possible that Cinq-Mars was urged to engage in
this conspiracy by his affection for Louise Marie de Gonzaga
(1612-1667), afterwards queen of Poland, who was a prominent figure at
the court of Louis XIII.; and this tradition forms part of the plot of
Alfred de Vigny's novel _Cinq-Mars_.

  See Le P. Griffet, _Histoire de Louis XIII_; A. Bazin, _Histoire de
  Louis XIII_ (1846); L. D'Astarac de Frontrailles, _Relations des
  choses particulières de la cour pendant la faveur de M. de Cinq-Mars_.

CINQUE CENTO (Italian for five hundred; short for 1500), in
architecture, the style which became prevalent in Italy in the century
following 1500, now usually called "16th-century work." It was the
result of the revival of classic architecture known as Renaissance, but
the change had commenced already a century earlier, in the works of
Ghiberti and Donatello in sculpture, and of Brunelleschi and Alberti in

CINQUE PORTS, the name of an ancient jurisdiction in the south of
England, which is still maintained with considerable modifications and
diminished authority. As the name implies, the ports originally
constituting the body were only five in number--Hastings, Romney, Hythe,
Dover and Sandwich; but to these were afterwards added the "ancient
towns" of Winchelsea and Rye with the same privileges, and a good many
other places, both corporate and non-corporate, which, with the title of
limb or member, held a subordinate position. To Hastings were attached
the corporate members of Pevensey and Seaford, and the non-corporate
members of Bulvarhythe, Petit Iham (Yham or Higham), Hydney, Bekesbourn,
Northeye and Grenche or Grange; to Romney, Lydd, and Old Romney,
Dengemarsh, Orwaldstone, and Bromehill or Promehill; to Dover,
Folkestone and Faversham, and Margate, St John's, Goresend (now
Birchington), Birchington Wood (now Woodchurch), St Peter's, Kingsdown
and Ringwould; to Sandwich, Fordwich and Deal, and Walmer, Ramsgate,
Reculver, Stonor (Estanor), Sarre (or Serre) and Brightlingsea (in
Essex). To Rye was attached the corporate member of Tenterden, and to a
Hythe the non-corporate member of West Hythe. The jurisdiction thus
extends along the coast from Seaford in Sussex to Birchington near
Margate in Kent; and it also includes a number of inland districts, at a
considerable distance from the ports with which they are connected. The
non-incorporated members are within the municipal jurisdiction of the
ports to which they are attached; but the corporate members are as free
within their own liberties as the individual ports themselves.

The incorporation of the Cinque Ports had its origin in the necessity
for some means of defence along the southern seaboard of England, and in
the lack of any regular navy. Up to the reign of Henry VII. they had to
furnish the crown with nearly all the ships and men that were needful
for the state; and for a long time after they were required to give
large assistance to the permanent fleet. The oldest charter now on
record is one belonging to the 6th year of Edward I.; and it refers to
previous documents of the time of Edward the Confessor and William the
Conqueror. In return for their services the ports enjoyed extensive
privileges. From the Conquest or even earlier they had, besides various
lesser rights--(1) exemption from tax and tallage; (2) soc and sac, or
full cognizance of all criminal and civil cases within their liberties;
(3) tol and team, or the right of receiving toll and the right of
compelling the person in whose hands stolen property was found to name
the person from whom he received it; (4) blodwit and fledwit, or the
right to punish shedders of blood and those who were seized in an
attempt to escape from justice; (5) pillory and tumbrel; (6)
infangentheof and outfangentheof, or power to imprison and execute
felons; (7) mundbryce (the breaking into or violation of a man's _mund_
or property in order to erect banks or dikes as a defence against the
sea); (8) waives and strays, or the right to appropriate lost property
or cattle not claimed within a year and a day; (9) the right to seize
all flotsam, jetsam, or ligan, or, in other words, whatever of value was
cast ashore by the sea; (10) the privilege of being a gild with power to
impose taxes for the common weal; and (11) the right of assembling in
portmote or parliament at Shepway or Shepway Cross, a few miles west of
Hythe (but afterwards at Dover), the parliament being empowered to make
by-laws for the Cinque Ports, to regulate the Yarmouth fishery, to hear
appeals from the local courts, and to give decision in all cases of
treason, sedition, illegal coining or concealment of treasure trove. The
ordinary business of the ports was conducted in two courts known
respectively as the court of brotherhood and the court of brotherhood
and guestling,--the former being composed of the mayors of the seven
principal towns and a number of jurats and freemen from each, and the
latter including in addition the mayors, bailiffs and other
representatives of the corporate members. The court of brotherhood was
formerly called the brotheryeeld, brodall or brodhull; and the name
guestling seems to owe its origin to the fact that the officials of the
"members" were at first in the position of invited guests.

The highest office in connexion with the Cinque Ports is that of the
lord warden, who also acts as governor of Dover Castle, and has a
maritime jurisdiction (_vide infra_) as admiral of the ports. His power
was formerly of great extent, but he has now practically no important
duty to exercise except that of chairman of the Dover harbour board. The
emoluments of the office are confined to certain insignificant admiralty
droits. The patronage attached to the office consists of the right to
appoint the judge of the Cinque Ports admiralty court, the registrar of
the Cinque Ports and the marshal of the court; the right of appointing
salvage commissioners at each Cinque Port and the appointment of a
deputy to act as chairman of the Dover harbour board in the absence of
the lord warden. Walmer Castle was for long the official residence of
the lord warden, but has, since the resignation of Lord Curzon in 1903,
ceased to be so used, and those portions of it which are of historic
interest are now open to the public. George, prince of Wales (lord
warden, 1903-1907), was the first lord warden of royal blood since the
office was held by George, prince of Denmark, consort of Queen Anne.

_Admiralty Jurisdiction._--The court of admiralty for the Cinque Ports
exercises a co-ordinate but not exclusive admiralty jurisdiction over
persons and things found within the territory of the Cinque Ports. The
limits of its jurisdiction were declared at an inquisition taken at the
court of admiralty, held by the seaside at Dover in 1682, to extend from
Shore Beacon in Essex to Redcliff, near Seaford, in Sussex; and with
regard to salvage, they comprise all the sea between Seaford in Sussex
to a point five miles off Cape Grisnez on the coast of France, and the
coast of Essex. An older inquisition of 1526 is given by R.G. Marsden in
his _Select Pleas of the Court of Admiralty_, II. xxx. The court is an
ancient one. The judge sits as the official and commissary of the lord
warden, just as the judge of the high court of admiralty sat as the
official and commissary of the lord high admiral. And, as the office of
lord warden is more ancient than the office of lord high admiral (_The
Lord Warden_ v. _King in his office of Admiralty_, 1831, 2 Hagg. Admy.
Rep. 438), it is probable that the Cinque Ports court is the more
ancient of the two.

The jurisdiction of the court has been, except in one matter of mere
antiquarian curiosity, unaffected by statute. It exercises only,
therefore, such jurisdiction as the high court of admiralty exercised,
apart from restraining statutes of 1389 and 1391 and enabling statutes
of 1840 and 1861. Cases of collision have been tried in it (the "Vivid,"
1 _Asp. Maritime Law Cases_, 601). But salvage cases (the "Clarisse,"
_Swabey_, 129; the "Marie," _Law. Rep. 7 P.D._ 203) are the principal
cases now tried. It has no prize jurisdiction. The one case in which
jurisdiction has been given to it by statute is to enforce forfeitures
under the statute of 1538.

Dr (afterwards the Right Hon. Robert Joseph) Phillimore succeeded his
father as judge of the court from 1855 to 1875, being succeeded by Mr
Arthur Cohen, K.C. As Sir R. Phillimore was also the last judge of the
high court of admiralty, from 1867 (the date of his appointment to the
high court) to 1875, the two offices were, probably for the first time
in history, held by the same person. Dr Phillimore's patent had a grant
of the "place or office of judge official and commissary of the court of
admiralty of the Cinque Ports, and their members and appurtenances, and
to be assistant to my lieutenant of Dover castle in all such affairs and
business concerning the said court of admiralty wherein yourself and
assistance shall be requisite and necessary." Of old the court sat
sometimes at Sandwich, sometimes at other ports. But the regular place
for the sitting of the court has for a long time been, and still is, the
aisle of St James's church, Dover. For convenience the judge often sits
at the royal courts of justice. The office of marshal in the high court
is represented in this court by a serjeant, who also bears a silver oar.
There is a registrar, as in the high court. The appeal is to the king in
council, and is heard by the judicial committee of the privy council.
The court can hear appeals from the Cinque Ports salvage commissioners,
such appeals being final (Cinque Ports Act 1821). Actions may be
transferred to it, and appeals made to it, from the county courts in all
cases, arising within the jurisdiction of the Cinque Ports as defined by
that act. At the solemn installation of the lord warden the judge as the
next principal officer installs him.

The Cinque Ports from the earliest times claimed to be exempt from the
jurisdiction of the admiral of England. Their early charters do not,
like those of Bristol and other seaports, express this exemption in
terms. It seems to have been derived from the general words of the
charters which preserve their liberties and privileges.

The lord warden's claim to prize was raised in, but not finally decided
by, the high court of admiralty in the "Ooster Ems," 1 _C. Rob._ 284,

  See S. Jeake, _Charters of the Cinque Ports_ (1728); Boys, _Sandwich
  and Cinque Ports_; Knocker, _Grand Court of Shepway_ (1862); M,
  Burrows, _Cinque Ports_ (1895); F.M. Hueffer, _Cinque Ports_ (1900);
  _Indices of the Great White and Black Books of the Cinque Ports_

CINTRA, a town of central Portugal, in the district of Lisbon, formerly
included in the province of Estramadura; 17 m. W.N.W. of Lisbon by the
Lisbon-Caçem-Cintra railway, and 6 m. N. by E. of Cape da Roca, the
westernmost promontory of the European mainland. Pop. (1900) 5914.
Cintra is magnificently situated on the northern slope of the Serra da
Cintra, a rugged mountain mass, largely overgrown with pines,
eucalyptus, cork and other forest trees, above which the principal
summits rise in a succession of bare and jagged grey peaks; the highest
being Cruz Alta (1772 ft.), marked by an ancient stone cross, and
commanding a wonderful view southward over Lisbon and the Tagus estuary,
and north-westward over the Atlantic and the plateau of Mafra. Few
European towns possess equal advantages of position and climate; and
every educated Portuguese is familiar with the verses in which the
beauty of Cintra is celebrated by Byron in _Childe Harold_ (1812), and
by Camoens in the national epic _Os Lusiadas_ (1572). One of the highest
points of the Serra is surmounted by the Palacio da Pena, a fantastic
imitation of a medieval fortress, built on the site of a Hieronymite
convent by the prince consort Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg (d. 1885); while
an adjacent part of the range is occupied by the Castello des Mouros, an
extensive Moorish fortification, containing a small ruined mosque and a
very curious set of ancient cisterns. The lower slopes of the Serra are
covered with the gardens and villas of the wealthier inhabitants of
Lisbon, who migrate hither in spring and stay until late autumn.

In the town itself the most conspicuous building is a 14th-15th-century
royal palace, partly Moorish, partly debased Gothic in style, and
remarkable for the two immense conical chimneys which rise like towers
in the midst. The 18th-century Palacio de Seteaes, built in the French
style then popular in Portugal, is said to derive its name ("Seven
_Ahs_") from a sevenfold echo; here, on the 22nd of August 1808, was
signed the convention of Cintra, by which the British and Portuguese
allowed the French army to evacuate the kingdom without molestation.
Beside the road which leads for 3½ m. W. to the village of Collares,
celebrated for its wine, is the Penha Verde, an interesting country
house and chapel, founded by João de Castro (1500-1548), fourth viceroy
of the Indies. De Castro also founded the convent of Santa Cruz, better
known as the Convento de Cortiça or Cork convent, which stands at the
western extremity of the Serra, and owes its name to the cork panels
which formerly lined its walls. Beyond the Penha Verde, on the Collares
road, are the palace and park of Montserrate. The palace was originally
built by William Beckford, the novelist and traveller (1761-1844), and
was purchased in 1856 by Sir Francis Cook, an Englishman who afterwards
obtained the Portuguese title viscount of Montserrate. The palace, which
contains a valuable library, is built of pure white stone, in Moorish
style; its walls are elaborately sculptured. The park, with its tropical
luxuriance of vegetation and its variety of lake, forest and mountain
scenery, is by far the finest example of landscape gardening in the
Iberian Peninsula, and probably among the finest in the world. Its
high-lying lawns, which overlook the Atlantic, are as perfect as any in
England, and there is one ravine containing a whole wood of giant
tree-ferns from New Zealand. Other rare plants have been systematically
collected and brought to Montserrate from all parts of the world by Sir
Francis Cook, and afterwards by his successor, Sir Frederick Cook, the
second viscount. The Praia das Maçãs, or "beach of apples," in the
centre of a rich fruit-bearing valley, is a favourite sea-bathing
station, connected with Cintra by an extension of the electric tramway
which runs through the town.

CIPHER, or CYPHER (from Arab, _[.s]ifr_, void), the symbol 0, nought, or
zero; and so a name for symbolic or secret writing (see CRYPTOGRAPHY),
or even for shorthand (q.v.), and also in elementary education for doing
simple sums ("ciphering").

CIPPUS (Lat. for a "post" or "stake"), in architecture, a low pedestal,
either round or rectangular, set up by the Romans for various purposes
such as military or mile stones, boundary posts, &c. The inscriptions on
some in the British Museum show that they were occasionally funeral

CIPRIANI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1727-1785), Italian painter and engraver,
Pistoiese by descent, was born in Florence in 1727. His first lessons
were given him by an Englishman, Ignatius Heckford or Hugford, and under
his second master, Antonio Domenico Gabbiani, he became a very clever
draughtsman. He was in Rome from 1750 to 1753, where he became
acquainted with Sir William Chambers, the architect, and Joseph Wilton,
the sculptor, whom he accompanied to England in August 1755. He had
already painted two pictures for the abbey of San Michele in Pelago,
Pistoia, which had brought him reputation, and on his arrival in England
he was patronized by Lord Tilney, the duke of Richmond and other
noblemen. His acquaintance with Sir William Chambers no doubt helped him
on, for when Chambers designed the Albany in London for Lord Holland,
Cipriani painted a ceiling for him. He also painted part of a ceiling in
Buckingham Palace, and a room with poetical subjects at Standlynch in
Wiltshire. Some of his best and most permanent work was, however, done
at Somerset House, built by his friend Chambers, upon which he lavished
infinite pains. He not only prepared the decorations for the interior of
the north block, but, says Joseph Baretti in his _Guide through the
Royal Academy_ (1780), "the whole of the carvings in the various fronts
of Somerset Place--excepting Bacon's bronze figures--were carved from
finished drawings made by Cipriani." These designs include the five
masks forming the keystones to the arches on the courtyard side of the
vestibule, and the two above the doors leading into the wings of the
north block, all of which are believed to have been carved by Nollekens.
The grotesque groups flanking the main doorways on three sides of the
quadrangle and the central doorway on the terrace appear also to have
been designed by Cipriani. The apartments in Sir William Chambers's
stately palace that were assigned to the Royal Academy, into which it
moved in 1780, owed much to Cipriani's graceful, if mannered, pencil.
The central panel of the library ceiling was painted by Sir Joshua
Reynolds, but the four compartments in the coves, representing Allegory,
Fable, Nature and History, were Cipriani's. These paintings still remain
at Somerset House, together with the emblematic painted ceiling, also
his work, of what was once the library of the Royal Society. It was
natural that Cipriani should thus devote himself to adorning the
apartments of the academy, since he was an original member (1768) of
that body, for which he designed the diploma so well engraved by
Bartolozzi. In recognition of his services in this respect the members
presented him in 1769 with a silver cup with a commemorative
inscription. He was much employed by the publishers, for whom he made
drawings in pen and ink, sometimes coloured. His friend Bartolozzi
engraved most of them. Drawings by him are in both the British Museum
and Victoria and Albert Museum. His best autograph engravings are "The
Death of Cleopatra," after Benvenuto Cellini; "The Descent of the Holy
Ghost," after Gabbiani; and portraits for Hollis's memoirs, 1780. He
painted allegorical designs for George III.'s state coach--which is
still in use--in 1782, and repaired Verrio's paintings at Windsor and
Rubens's ceiling in the Banqueting House at Whitehall. If his pictures
were often weak, his decorative treatment of children was usually
exceedingly happy. Some of his most pleasing work was that which,
directly or indirectly, he executed for the decoration of furniture. He
designed many groups of nymphs and _amorini_ and medallion subjects to
form the centre of Pergolesi's bands of ornament, and they were
continually reproduced upon the elegant satin-wood furniture which was
growing popular in his later days and by the end of the 18th century
became a rage. Sometimes these designs were inlaid in marqueterie, but
most frequently they were painted upon the satin-wood by other hands
with delightful effect, since in the whole range of English furniture
there is nothing more enchanting than really good finished satin-wood
pieces. There can be little doubt that some of the beautiful furniture
designed by the Adams was actually painted by Cipriani himself. He also
occasionally designed handles for drawers and doors. Cipriani died at
Hammersmith in 1785 and was buried at Chelsea, where Bartolozzi erected
a monument to his memory. He had married an English lady, by whom he had
two sons.

CIRCAR, an Indian term applied to the component parts of a _subah_ or
province, each of which is administered by a deputy-governor. In English
it is principally employed in the name of the NORTHERN CIRCARS, used to
designate a now obsolete division of the Madras presidency, which
consisted of a narrow slip of territory lying along the western side of
the Bay of Bengal from 15° 40' to 20° 17' N. lat. These Northern Circars
were five in number, Chicacole, Rajahmundry, Ellore, Kondapalli and
Guntur, and their total area was about 30,000 sq. m.

The district corresponds in the main to the modern districts of Kistna,
Godavari, Vizagapatam, Ganjam and a part of Nellore. It was first
invaded by the Mahommedans in 1471; in 1541 they conquered Kondapalli,
and nine years later they extended their conquests over all Guntur and
the districts of Masulipatam. But the invaders appear to have acquired
only an imperfect possession of the country, as it was again wrested
from the Hindu princes of Orissa about the year 1571, during the reign
of Ibrahim, of the Kutb Shahi dynasty of Hyderabad or Golconda. In 1687
the Circars were added, along with the empire of Hyderabad, to the
extensive empire of Aurangzeb. Salabat Jang, the son of the nizam ul
mulk Asaf Jah, who was indebted for his elevation to the throne to the
French East India Company, granted them in return for their services the
district of Kondavid or Guntur, and soon afterwards the other Circars.
In 1759, by the conquest of the fortress of Masulipatam, the dominion of
the maritime provinces on both sides, from the river Gundlakamma to the
Chilka lake, was necessarily transferred from the French to the British.
But the latter left them under the administration of the nizam, with the
exception of the town and fortress of Masulipatam, which were retained
by the English East India Company. In 1765 Lord Clive obtained from the
Mogul emperor Shah Alam a grant of the five Circars. Hereupon the fort
of Kondapalli was seized by the British, and on the 12th of November
1766 a treaty of alliance was signed with Nizam Ali by which the
Company, in return for the grant of the Circars, undertook to maintain
troops for the nizam's assistance. By a second treaty, signed on the 1st
of March 1768, the nizam acknowledged the validity of Shah Alam's grant
and resigned the Circars to the Company, receiving as a mark of
friendship an annuity of £50,000. Guntur, as the personal estate of the
nizam's brother Basalat Jang, was excepted during his lifetime under
both treaties. He died in 1782, but it was not till 1788 that Guntur
came under British administration. Finally, in 1823, the claims of the
nizam over the Northern Circars were bought outright by the Company, and
they became a British possession.

CIRCASSIA, a name formerly given to the north-western portion of the
Caucasus, including the district between the mountain range and the
Black Sea, and extending to the north of the central range as far as the
river Kuban. Its physical features are described in the article on the
Russian province of KUBAN, with which it approximately coincides. The
present article is confined to a consideration of the ethnographical
relations and characteristics of the people, their history being treated

The Cherkesses or Circassians, who gave their name to this region, of
which they were until lately the sole inhabitants, are a peculiar race,
differing from the other tribes of the Caucasus in origin and language.
They designate themselves by the name of Adigheb, that of Cherkesses
being a term of Russian origin. By their long-continued struggles with
the power of Russia, during a period of nearly forty years, they
attracted the attention of the other nations of Europe in a high degree,
and were at the same time an object of interest to the student of the
history of civilization, from the strange mixture which their customs
exhibited of chivalrous sentiment with savage customs. For this reason
it may be still worth while to give a brief summary of their national
characteristics and manners, though these must now be regarded as in
great measure things of the past.

In the patriarchal simplicity of their manners, the mental qualities
with which they were endowed, the beauty of form and regularity of
feature by which they were distinguished, they surpassed most of the
other tribes of the Caucasus. At the same time they were remarkable for
their warlike and intrepid character, their independence, their
hospitality to strangers, and that love of country which they manifested
in their determined resistance to an almost overwhelming power during
the period of a long and desolating war. The government under which they
lived was a peculiar form of the feudal system. The free Circassians
were divided into three distinct ranks, the princes or _pshi_, the
nobles or _uork_ (Tatar _usden_), and the peasants or _hokotl_. Like the
inhabitants of the other regions of the Caucasus, they were also divided
into numerous families, tribes or clans, some of which were very
powerful, and carried on war against each other with great animosity.
The slaves, of whom a large proportion were prisoners of war, were
generally employed in the cultivation of the soil, or in the domestic
service of some of the principal chiefs.

The will of the people was acknowledged as the supreme source of
authority; and every free Circassian had a right to express his opinion
in those assemblies of his tribe in which the questions of peace and
war, almost the only subjects which engaged their attention, were
brought under deliberation. The princes and nobles, the leaders of the
people in war and their rulers in peace, were only the administrators of
a power which was delegated to them. As they had no written laws, the
administration of justice was regulated solely by custom and tradition,
and in those tribes professing Mahommedanism by the precepts of the
Koran. The most aged and respected inhabitants of the various _auls_ or
villages frequently sat in judgment, and their decisions were received
without a murmur by the contending parties. The Circassian princes and
nobles were professedly Mahommedans; but in their religious services
many of the ceremonies of their former heathen and Christian worship
were still preserved. A great part of the people had remained faithful
to the worship of their ancient gods--Shible, the god of thunder, of war
and of justice; Tleps, the god of fire; and Seosseres, the god of water
and of winds. Although the Circassians are said to have possessed minds
capable of the highest cultivation, the arts and sciences, with the
exception of poetry and music, were completely neglected. They possessed
no written language. The wisdom of their sages, the knowledge they had
acquired, and the memory of their warlike deeds were preserved in
verses, which were repeated from mouth to mouth and descended from
father to son.

The education of the young Circassian was confined to riding, fencing,
shooting, hunting, and such exercises as were calculated to strengthen
his frame and prepare him for a life of active warfare. The only
intellectual duty of the _atalik_ or instructor, with whom the young men
lived until they had completed their education, was that of teaching
them to express their thoughts shortly, quickly and appropriately. One
of their marriage ceremonies was very strange. The young man who had
been approved by the parents, and had paid the stipulated price in
money, horses, oxen, or sheep for his bride, was expected to come with
his friends fully armed, and to carry her off by force from her father's
house. Every free Circassian had unlimited right over the lives of his
wife and children. Although polygamy was allowed by the laws of the
Koran, the custom of the country forbade it, and the Circassians were
generally faithful to the marriage bond. The respect for superior age
was carried to such an extent that the young brother used to rise from
his seat when the elder entered an apartment, and was silent when he
spoke. Like all the other inhabitants of the Caucasus, the Circassians
were distinguished for two very opposite qualities--the most generous
hospitality and implacable vindictiveness. Hospitality to the stranger
was considered one of the most sacred duties. Whatever were his rank in
life, all the members of the family rose to receive him on his entrance,
and conduct him to the principal seat in the apartment. The host was
considered responsible with his own life for the security of his guest,
upon whom, even although his deadliest enemy, he would inflict no injury
while under the protection of his roof. The chief who had received a
stranger was also bound to grant him an escort of horse to conduct him
in safety on his journey, and confide him to the protection of those
nobles with whom he might be on friendly terms. The law of vengeance was
no less binding on the Circassian. The individual who had slain any
member of a family was pursued with implacable vengeance by the
relatives, until his crime was expiated by death. The murderer might,
indeed, secure his safety by the payment of a certain sum of money, or
by carrying off from the house of his enemy a newly-born child, bringing
it up as his own, and restoring it when its education was finished. In
either case, the family of the slain individual might discontinue the
pursuit of vengeance without any stain upon its honour. The man closely
followed by his enemy, who, on reaching the dwelling of a woman, had
merely touched her hand, was safe from all other pursuit so long as he
remained under the protection of her roof. The opinions of the
Circassians regarding theft resembled those of the ancient Spartans. The
commission of the crime was not considered so disgraceful as its
discovery; and the punishment of being compelled publicly to restore the
stolen property to its original possessor, amid the derision of his
tribe, was much dreaded by the Circassian who would glory in a
successful theft. The greatest stain upon the Circassian character was
the custom of selling their children, the Circassian father being always
willing to part with his daughters, many of whom were bought by Turkish
merchants for the harems of Eastern monarchs. But no degradation was
implied in this transaction, and the young women themselves were
generally willing partners in it. Herds of cattle and sheep constituted
the chief riches of the inhabitants. The princes and nobles, from whom
the members of the various tribes held the land which they cultivated,
were the proprietors of the soil. The Circassians carried on little or
no commerce, and the state of perpetual warfare in which they lived
prevented them from cultivating any of the arts of peace.

CIRCE (Gr. [Greek: Kirkê]), in Greek legend, a famous sorceress, the
daughter of Helios and the ocean nymph Perse. Having murdered her
husband, the prince of Colchis, she was expelled by her subjects and
placed by her father on the solitary island of Aeaea on the coast of
Italy. She was able by means of drugs and incantations to change human
beings into the forms of wolves or lions, and with these beings her
palace was surrounded. Here she was found by Odysseus and his
companions; the latter she changed into swine, but the hero, protected
by the herb _moly_ (q.v.), which he had received from Hermes, not only
forced her to restore them to their original shape, but also gained her
love. For a year he relinquished himself to her endearments, and when he
determined to leave, she instructed him how to sail to the land of
shades which lay on the verge of the ocean stream, in order to learn his
fate from the prophet Teiresias. Upon his return she also gave him
directions for avoiding the dangers of the journey home (Homer,
_Odyssey_, x.-xii.; Hyginus, _Fab._ 125). The Roman poets associated her
with the most ancient traditions of Latium, and assigned her a home on
the promontory of Circei (Virgil, _Aeneid_, vii. 10). The metamorphoses
of Scylla and of Picus, king of the Ausonians, by Circe, are narrated in
Ovid (_Metamorphoses_, xiv.).

  _The Myth of Kirke_, by R. Brown (1883), in which Circe is explained
  as a moon-goddess of Babylonian origin, contains an exhaustive summary
  of facts, although many of the author's speculations may be proved
  untenable (review by H. Bradley in _Academy_, January 19, 1884); see
  also J.E. Harrison, _Myths of the Odyssey_ (1882); C. Seeliger in W.H.
  Roscher's _Lexikon der Mythologie_.

CIRCEIUS MONS (mod. _Monte Circeo_), an isolated promontory on the S.W.
coast of Italy, about 80 m. S.E. of Rome. It is a ridge of limestone
about 3½ m. long by 1 m. wide at the base, running from E. to W. and
surrounded by the sea on all sides except the N. The land to the N. of
it is 53 ft. above sea-level, while the summit of the promontory is 1775
ft. The origin of the name is uncertain: it has naturally been connected
with the legend of Circe, and Victor Bérard (in _Les Phéniciens et
l'Odyssée_, ii. 261 seq.) maintains in support of the identification
that [Greek: Ahiaiê], the Greek name for the island of Circe, is a
faithful transliteration of a Semitic name, meaning "island of the
hawk," of which [Greek: nêsos Kirkês] is the translation. The difficulty
has been raised, especially by geologists, that the promontory ceased to
be an island at a period considerably before the time of Homer; but
Procopius very truly remarked that the promontory has all the appearance
of an island until one is actually upon it. Upon the E. end of the ridge
of the promontory are the remains of an enceinte, forming roughly a
rectangle of about 200 by 100 yds. of very fine polygonal work, on the
outside, the blocks being very carefully cut and jointed and right
angles being intentionally avoided. The wall stands almost entirely
free, as at Arpinum--polygonal walls in Italy are as a rule embanking
walls--and increases considerably in thickness as it descends. The
blocks of the inner face are much less carefully worked both here and at
Arpinum. It seems to have been an acropolis, and contains no traces of
buildings, except for a subterranean cistern, circular, with a beehive
roof of converging blocks. The modern village of S. Felice Circeo seems
to occupy the site of the ancient town, the citadel of which stood on
the mountain top, for its medieval walls rest upon ancient walls of
Cyclopean work of less careful construction than those of the citadel,
and enclosing an area of 200 by 150 yds.

Circei was founded as a Roman colony at an early date--according to some
authorities in the time of Tarquinius Superbus, but more probably about
390 B.C. The existence of a previous population, however, is very likely
indicated by the revolt of Circei in the middle of the 4th century B.C.,
so that it is doubtful whether the walls described are to be attributed
to the Romans or the earlier Volscian inhabitants. At the end of the
republic, however, or at latest at the beginning of the imperial period,
the city of Circei was no longer at the E. end of the promontory, but on
the E. shores of the Lago di Paola (a lagoon--now a considerable
fishery--separated from the sea by a line of sandhills and connected
with it by a channel of Roman date: Strabo speaks of it as a small
harbour) one mile N. of the W. end of the promontory. Here are the
remains of a Roman town, belonging to the 1st and 2nd centuries,
extending over an area of some 600 by 500 yards, and consisting of fine
buildings along the lagoons, including a large open _piscina_ or basin,
surrounded by a double portico, while farther inland are several very
large and well-preserved water-reservoirs, supplied by an aqueduct of
which traces may still be seen. An inscription speaks of an
amphitheatre, of which no remains are visible. The transference of the
city did not, however, mean the abandonment of the E. end of the
promontory, on which stand the remains of several very large villas. An
inscription, indeed, cut in the rock near S. Felice, speaks of this part
of the _promunturium Veneris_ (the only case of the use of this name) as
belonging to the city of Circei. On the S. and N. sides of the
promontory there are comparatively few buildings, while, at the W. end
there is a sheer precipice to the sea. The town only acquired municipal
rights after the Social War, and was a place of little importance,
except as a seaside resort. For its villas Cicero compares it with
Antium, and probably both Tiberius and Domitian possessed residences
there. The beetroot and oysters of Circei had a certain reputation. The
view from the highest summit of the promontory (which is occupied by
ruins of a platform attributed with great probability to a temple of
Venus or Circe) is of remarkable beauty; the whole mountain is covered
with fragrant shrubs. From any point in the Pomptine Marshes or on the
coast-line of Latium the Circeian promontory dominates the landscape in
the most remarkable way.

  See T. Ashby, "Monte Circeo," in _Mélanges de l'école française de
  Rome_, XXV. (1905) 157 seq.    (T. As.)

CIRCLE (from the Lat. _circulus_, the diminutive of _circus_, a ring;
the cognate Gr. word is [Greek: kirkos], generally used in the form
[Greek: krikos]), a plane curve definable as the locus of a point which
moves so that its distance from a fixed point is constant.

The form of a circle is familiar to all; and we proceed to define
certain lines, points, &c., which constantly occur in studying its
geometry. The fixed point in the preceding definition is termed the
"centre" (C in fig. 1); the constant distance, e.g. CG, the "radius."
The curve itself is sometimes termed the "circumference." Any line
through the centre and terminated at both extremities by the curve, e.g.
AB, is a "diameter"; any other line similarly terminated, e.g. EF, a
"chord." Any line drawn from an external point to cut the circle in two
points, e.g. DEF, is termed a "secant"; if it touches the circle, e.g.
DG, it is a "tangent." Any portion of the circumference terminated by
two points, e.g. AD (fig. 2), is termed an "arc"; and the plane figure
enclosed by a chord and arc, e.g. ABD, is termed a "segment"; if the
chord be a diameter, the segment is termed a "semicircle." The figure
included by two radii and an arc is a "sector," e.g. ECF (fig. 2).
"Concentric circles" are, as the name obviously shows, circles having
the same centre; the figure enclosed by the circumferences of two
concentric circles is an "annulus" (fig. 3), and of two non-concentric
circles a "lune," the shaded portions in fig. 4; the clear figure is
sometimes termed a "lens."

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

[Illustration: FIG. 2]

[Illustration: FIG. 3]

[Illustration: FIG. 4]

The circle was undoubtedly known to the early civilizations, its
simplicity specially recommending it as an object for study. Euclid
defines it (Book I. def. 15) as a "plane figure enclosed by one line,
all the straight lines drawn to which from one point within the figure
are equal to one another." In the succeeding three definitions the
centre, diameter and the semicircle are defined, while the third
postulate of the same book demands the possibility of describing a
circle for every "centre" and "distance." Having employed the circle for
the construction and demonstration of several propositions in Books I.
and II. Euclid devotes his third book entirely to theorems and problems
relating to the circle, and certain lines and angles, which he defines
in introducing the propositions. The fourth book deals with the circle
in its relations to inscribed and circumscribed triangles,
quadrilaterals and regular polygons. Reference should be made to the
article GEOMETRY: _Euclidean_, for a detailed summary of the Euclidean
treatment, and the elementary properties of the circle.

_Analytical Geometry of the Circle._

  Cartesian co-ordinates.

In the article GEOMETRY: _Analytical_, it is shown that the general
equation to a circle in rectangular Cartesian co-ordinates is
x^2+y^2+2gx+2fy+c=0, i.e. in the general equation of the second degree
the co-efficients of x^2 and y^2 are equal, and of xy zero. The
co-ordinates of its centre are -g/c, -f/c; and its radius is
(g^2+f^2-c)^½. The equations to the chord, tangent and normal are
readily derived by the ordinary methods.

Consider the two circles:--

  x^2+y^2+2gx+2fy+c=0,   x^2+y^2+2g'x+2f'y+c'=0.

  Obviously these equations show that the curves intersect in four
  points, two of which lie on the intersection of the line, 2(g - g')x +
  2(f - f')y + c - c' = 0, the radical axis, with the circles, and the
  other two where the lines x² + y² = (x + iy) (x - iy) = 0 (where i =
  sqrt -1) intersect the circles. The first pair of intersections may be
  either real or imaginary; we proceed to discuss the second pair.

  The equation x² + y² = 0 denotes a pair of perpendicular imaginary
  lines; it follows, therefore, that circles always intersect in two
  imaginary points at infinity along these lines, and since the terms
  x² + y² occur in the equation of every circle, it is seen that all
  circles pass through two fixed points at infinity. The introduction of
  these lines and points constitutes a striking achievement in geometry,
  and from their association with circles they have been named the
  "circular lines" and "circular points." Other names for the circular
  lines are "circulars" or "isotropic lines." Since the equation to a
  circle of zero radius is x² + y² = 0, i.e. identical with the circular
  lines, it follows that this circle consists of a real point and the
  two imaginary lines; conversely, the circular lines are both a pair of
  lines and a circle. A further deduction from the principle of
  continuity follows by considering the intersections of concentric
  circles. The equations to such circles may be expressed in the form
  x² + y² = [alpha]², x² + y² = [beta]². These equations show that the
  circles touch where they intersect the lines x² + y² = 0, i.e.
  concentric circles have double contact at the circular points, the
  chord of contact being the line at infinity.

In various systems of triangular co-ordinates the equations to circles
specially related to the triangle of reference assume comparatively
simple forms; consequently they provide elegant algebraical
demonstrations of properties concerning a triangle and the circles
intimately associated with its geometry. In this article the equations
to the more important circles--the circumscribed, inscribed, escribed,
self-conjugate--will be given; reference should be made to the article
TRIANGLE for the consideration of other circles (nine-point, Brocard,
Lemoine, &c.); while in the article GEOMETRY: _Analytical_, the
principles of the different systems are discussed.

    Trilinear co-ordinates.

  The equation to the circumcircle assumes the simple form
  a[beta][gamma] + b[gamma][alpha] + c[alpha][beta] = 0, the centre
  being cos A, cos B, cos C. The inscribed circle is cos ½A sqrt([alpha])
  cos ½B sqrt([beta]) + cos ½C sqrt([gamma]) = 0, with centre [alpha] =
  [beta] = [gamma]; while the escribed circle opposite the angle A is
  cos ½A sqrt(-[alpha]) + sin ½B sqrt([beta]) + sin ½C sqrt([gamma]) =
  0, with centre -[alpha] = [beta] = [gamma]. The self-conjugate circle
  is [alpha]² sin 2A + [beta]² sin 2B + [gamma]² sin 2C = 0, or the
  equivalent form a cos A [alpha]² + b cos B [beta]² + c cos C [gamma]² =
  0, the centre being sec A, sec B, sec C.

  The general equation to the circle in trilinear co-ordinates is
  readily deduced from the fact that the circle is the only curve which
  intersects the line infinity in the circular points. Consider the

    a[beta][gamma] + b[gamma][alpha] + C[alpha][beta] + (l[alpha] +
    m[beta] + n[gamma]) (a[alpha] + b[beta] + c[gamma]) = 0        (1).

  This obviously represents a conic intersecting the circle
  a[beta][gamma] + b[gamma][alpha] + c[alpha][beta] = 0 in points on the
  common chords l[alpha] + m[beta] + n[gamma] = 0, a[alpha] + b[beta] +
  c[gamma] = 0. The line l[alpha] + m[beta] + n[gamma] is the radical
  axis, and since a[alpha] + b[beta] + c[gamma] = 0 is the line
  infinity, it is obvious that equation (1) represents a conic passing
  through the circular points, i.e. a circle. If we compare (1) with the
  general equation of the second degree u[alpha]² + v[beta]² + w[gamma]²
  + 2u'[beta][gamma] + 2v'[gamma][alpha] + 2w'[alpha][beta] = 0, it is
  readily seen that for this equation to represent a circle we must have

    -kabc = vc² + wb² - 2u'bc = wa² + uc² - 2v'ca = ub² + va² - 2w'ab.

    Areal co-ordinates.

  The corresponding equations in areal co-ordinates are readily derived
  by substituting x/a, y/b, z/c for [alpha], [beta], [gamma]
  respectively in the trilinear equations. The circumcircle is thus seen
  to be a²yz + b²zx + c²xy = 0, with centre sin 2A, sin 2B, sin 2C; the
  inscribed circle is sqrt(x cot ½A) + sqrt(y cot ½B) + sqrt(z cot ½C) =
  0, with centre sin A, sin B, sin C; the escribed circle opposite the
  angle A is sqrt(-x cot ½A) + sqrt(y tan ½B) + sqrt(z tan ½C)=0, with
  centre - sin A, sin B, sin C; and the self-conjugate circle is x² cot
  A + y² cot B + z² cot C = 0, with centre tan A, tan B, tan C. Since in
  areal co-ordinates the line infinity is represented by the equation x
  + y + z = 0 it is seen that every circle is of the form a²yz + b²zx +
  c²xy + (lx + my + nz)(x + y + z) = 0. Comparing this equation with ux²
  + vy² + wz² + 2u'yz + 2v'zx + 2w'xy = 0, we obtain as the condition
  for the general equation of the second degree to represent a

    (v + w - 2u')/a² = (w + u - 2v')/b² = (u + v - 2w')/c².

    Tangential co-ordinates.

  In tangential (p, q, r) co-ordinates the inscribed circle has for its
  equation (s - a)qr + (s - b)rp + (s - c)pq = 0, s being equal to ½(a +
  b + c); an alternative form is qr cot ½A + rp cot ½B + pq cot ½C = 0;
  the centre is ap + bq + cr = 0, or p sin A + q sin B + r sin C = 0.
  The escribed circle opposite the angle A is -sqr + (s - c)rp + (s -
  b)pq = 0 or -qr cot ½A + rp tan ½B + pq tan ½C = 0, with centre -ap +
  bq + cr = 0. The circumcircle is a sqrt(p) + b sqrt(q) + c sqrt(r) =
  0, the centre being p sin 2A + q sin 2B + r sin 2C = 0. The general
  equation to a circle in this system of co-ordinates is deduced as
  follows: If [rho] be the radius and lp + mq + nr = 0 the centre, we
  have [rho] = (lp1 + mq1 + nr1)/(l + m + n), in which p1, q1, r1 is a
  line distant [rho] from the point lp + mq + nr = 0. Making this
  equation homogeneous by the relation [Sigma]a²(p - q) (p - r) =
  4[Delta]² (see GEOMETRY: _Analytical_), which is generally written
  {ap, bq, cr}² = 4[Delta]², we obtain {ap, bq, cr}²[rho]² =
  4[Delta]²{(lp + mq + nr)/(l + m + n)}², the accents being dropped, and
  p, q, r regarded as current co-ordinates. This equation, which may be
  more conveniently written {ap, bq, cr}² = ([lambda]p + [mu]q +
  [nu]r)², obviously represents a circle, the centre being [lambda]p +
  [mu]q + [nu]r = 0, and radius 2[Delta]/([lambda] + [mu] + [nu]). If we
  make [lambda] = [mu] = [nu] = 0, [rho] is infinite, and we obtain {ap,
  bq, cr}² = 0 as the equation to the circular points.

_Systems of Circles._

_Centres and Circle of Similitude._--The "centres of similitude" of two
circles may be defined as the intersections of the common tangents to
the two circles, the direct common tangents giving rise to the "external
centre," the transverse tangents to the "internal centre." It may be
readily shown that the external and internal centres are the points
where the line joining the centres of the two circles is divided
externally and internally in the ratio of their radii.

The circle on the line joining the internal and external centres of
similitude as diameter is named the "circle of similitude." It may be
shown to be the locus of the vertex of the triangle which has for its
base the distance between the centres of the circles and the ratio of
the remaining sides equal to the ratio of the radii of the two circles.

With a system of three circles it is readily seen that there are six
centres of similitude, viz. two for each pair of circles, and it may be
shown that these lie three by three on four lines, named the "axes of
similitude." The collinear centres are the three sets of one external
and two internal centres, and the three external centres.

_Coaxal Circles._--A system of circles is coaxal when the locus of
points from which tangents to the circles are equal is a straight line.
Consider the case of two circles, and in the first place suppose them to
intersect in two real points A and B. Then by Euclid iii. 36 it is seen
that the line joining the points A and B is the locus of the
intersection of equal tangents, for if P be any point on AB and PC and
PD the tangents to the circles, then PA·PB = PC² = PD², and therefore PC
= PD. Furthermore it is seen that AB is perpendicular to the line
joining the centres, and divides it in the ratio of the squares of the
radii. The line AB is termed the "radical axis." A system coaxal with
the two given circles is readily constructed by describing circles
through the common points on the radical axis and any third point; the
minimum circle of the system is obviously that which has the common
chord of intersection for diameter, the maximum is the radical
axis--considered as a circle of infinite radius. In the case of two
non-intersecting circles it may be shown that the radical axis has the
same metrical relations to the line of centres.

[Illustration: Fig. 5]

  There are several methods of constructing the radical axis in this
  case. One of the simplest is: Let P and P' (fig. 5) be the points of
  contact of a common tangent; drop perpendiculars PL, P'L', from P and
  P' to OO', the line joining the centres, then the radical axis bisects
  LL' (at X) and is perpendicular to OO'. To prove this let AB, AB¹ be
  the tangents from any point on the line AX. Then by Euc. i. 47, AB² =
  AO² - OB² = AX² + OX² + OP²; and OX² = OD² - DX² = OP² + PD² - DX².
  Therefore AB² = AX² - DX² + PD². Similarly AB'² = AX² - DX² + DP'².
  Since PD = PD', it follows that AB = AB'.

  To construct circles coaxal with the two given circles, draw the
  tangent, say XR, from X, the point where the radical axis intersects
  the line of centres, to one of the given circles, and with centre X
  and radius XR describe a circle. Then circles having the intersections
  of tangents to this circle and the line of centres for centres, and
  the lengths of the tangents as radii, are members of the coaxal

In the case of non-intersecting circles, it is seen that the minimum
circles of the coaxal system are a pair of points I and I', where the
orthogonal circle to the system intersects the line of centres; these
points are named the "limiting points." In the case of a coaxal system
having real points of intersection the limiting points are imaginary.
Analytically, the Cartesian equation to a coaxal system can be written
in the form x² + y² + 2ax ± k² = 0, where a varies from member to
member, while k is a constant. The radical axis is x = 0, and it may be
shown that the length of the tangent from a point (0, h) is h² ± k²,
i.e. it is independent of a, and therefore of any particular member of
the system. The circles intersect in real or imaginary points according
to the lower or upper sign of k², and the limiting points are real for
the upper sign and imaginary for the lower sign. The fundamental
properties of coaxal systems may be summarized:--

  1. The centres of circles forming a coaxal system are collinear;

  2. A coaxal system having real points of intersection has imaginary
    limiting points;

  3. A coaxal system having imaginary points of intersection has real
    limiting points;

  4. Every circle through the limiting points cuts all circles of the
    system orthogonally;

  5. The limiting points are inverse points for every circle of the

The theory of centres of similitude and coaxal circles affords elegant
demonstrations of the famous problem: To describe a circle to touch
three given circles. This problem, also termed the "Apollonian problem,"
was demonstrated with the aid of conic sections by Apollonius in his
book on _Contacts_ or _Tangencies_; geometrical solutions involving the
conic sections were also given by Adrianus Romanus, Vieta, Newton and
others. The earliest analytical solution appears to have been given by
the princess Elizabeth, a pupil of Descartes and daughter of Frederick
V. John Casey, professor of mathematics at the Catholic university of
Dublin, has given elementary demonstrations founded on the theory of
similitude and coaxal circles which are reproduced in his _Sequel to
Euclid_; an analytical solution by Gergonne is given in Salmon's _Conic
Sections_. Here we may notice that there are eight circles which solve
the problem.

_Mensuration of the Circle._

All exact relations pertaining to the mensuration of the circle involve
the ratio of the circumference to the diameter. This ratio, invariably
denoted by [pi], is constant for all circles, but it does not admit of
exact arithmetical expression, being of the nature of an incommensurable
number. Very early in the history of geometry it was known that the
circumference and area of a circle of radius r could be expressed in the
forms 2[pi]r and [pi]r². The exact geometrical evaluation of the second
quantity, viz. [pi]r², which, in reality, is equivalent to determining a
square equal in area to a circle, engaged the attention of
mathematicians for many centuries. The history of these attempts,
together with modern contributions to our knowledge of the value and
nature of the number [pi], is given below (_Squaring of the Circle_).

  The following table gives the values of this constant and several
  expiessions involving it:--

    |              |  Number.  | Logarithm.|
    |        [pi]  | 3.1415927 | 0.4971499 |
    |      2 [pi]  | 6.2831858 | 0.7981799 |
    |      4 [pi]  |12.5663706 | 1.0992099 |
    |  (1/2) [pi]  | 1.5707963 | 0.1961199 |
    |  (1/3) [pi]  | 1.0471976 | 0.0200286 |
    |  (1/4) [pi]  | 0.7853982 | 1.8950899 |
    |  (1/6) [pi]  | 0.5235988 | 1.7189986 |
    |  (1/8) [pi]  | 0.3926991 | 1.5940599 |
    | (1/12) [pi]  | 0.2617994 | 1.4179686 |
    |  (4/3) [pi]  | 4.1887902 | 0.6220886 |
    |              |           |           |
    |      [pi]    |           |           |
    |     ------   | 0.0174533 | 2.2418774 |
    |      180     |           |           |
    |              |           |           |
    |       1      |           |           |
    |     ------   | 0.3183099 | 1.5028501 |
    |      [pi]    |           |           |
    |              |           |           |
    |       4      |           |           |
    |     ------   | 1.2732395 | 0.1049101 |
    |      [pi]    |           |           |
    |              |           |           |
    |       1      |           |           |
    |     ------   | 0.0795775 | 2.9097901 |
    |     4 [pi]   |           |           |
    |              |           |           |
    |      180     |           |           |
    |     ------   |57.2957795 | 1.7581226 |
    |      [pi]    |           |           |
    |              |           |           |
    |      [pi]²   | 9.8696044 | 0.9942997 |
    |              |           |           |
    |        1     |           |           |
    |    --------  | 0.0168869 | 2.2275490 |
    |     6 [pi]²  |           |           |
    |              |           |           |
    |      _____   |           |           |
    |    \/ [pi]   | 1.7724539 | 0.2485750 |
    |              |           |           |
    |      _____   |           |           |
    |   \³/ [pi]   | 1.4645919 | 0.1657166 |
    |              |           |           |
    |              |           |           |
    |      1       |           |           |
    |   --------   |           |           |
    |      _____   | 0.5641896 | 1.7514251 |
    |    \/ [pi]   |           |           |
    |              |           |           |
    |      2       |           |           |
    |   --------   |           |           |
    |      _____   | 1.1283792 | 0.0524551 |
    |    \/ [pi]   |           |           |
    |              |           |           |
    |      1       |           |           |
    | ----------   |           |           |
    |      _____   | 0.2820948 | 1.4503951 |
    |  2 \/ [pi]   |           |           |
    |              |           |           |
    |     _____    |           |           |
    |    /  6      |           |           |
    | \³/ ----     | 1.2407010 | 0.0936671 |
    |  V  [pi]     |           |           |
    |              |           |           |
    |     ______   |           |           |
    |    /   3     |           |           |
    | \³/ -------  | 0.6203505 | 1.7926371 |
    |  V  4 [pi]   |           |           |
    |              |           |           |
    | log e [pi]   | 1.1447299 | 0.0587030 |

  Useful fractional approximations are 22/7 and 355/113.

  A synopsis of the leading formula connected with the circle will now
  be given.

  1. _Circle._--Data: radius = a. Circumference = 2[pi]a. Area = [pi]a².

  2. _Arc_ and _Sector_.--Data: radius = a; [theta] = circular measure
  of angle subtended at centre by arc; c = chord of arc; c2 = chord of
  semi-arc; c4 = chord of quarter-arc.

  Exact formulae are:--Arc = a[theta], where [theta] may be given
  directly, or indirectly by the relation c = 2a sin ½[theta]. Area of
  sector = ½a²[theta] = ½ radius × arc.

  Approximate formulae are:--Arc = (1/3)(8c2 - c) (Huygen's formula);
  arc = (1/45)(c - 40c2 + 256c4).

  3. _Segment._--Data: a, [theta], c, c2, as in (2); h = height of
  segment, i.e. distance of mid-point of arc from chord.

  Exact formulae are:--Area = ½a²([theta] - sin [theta]) = ½a²[theta]
  -¼c² cot ½[theta] = ½a² - ½c sqrt(a² - ¼c²). If h be given, we can use
  c² + 4h² = 8ah, 2h = c tan ¼[theta] to determine [theta].

  Approximate formulae are:--Area = (1/15)(6c + 8c2)h; = (2/3) sqrt(c² +
  (8/5)h²)·h; = (1/15)(7c + 3[alpha])h, [alpha] being the true length of
  the arc.

  From these results the mensuration of any figure bounded by circular
  arcs and straight lines can be determined, e.g. the area of a _lune_
  or _meniscus_ is expressible as the difference or sum of two segments,
  and the circumference as the sum of two arcs.    (C. E.*)

_Squaring of the Circle._

The problem of finding a square equal in area to a given circle, like
all problems, may be increased in difficulty by the imposition of
restrictions; consequently under the designation there may be embraced
quite a variety of geometrical problems. It has to be noted, however,
that, when the "squaring" of the circle is especially spoken of, it is
almost always tacitly assumed that the restrictions are those of the
Euclidean geometry.

Since the area of a circle equals that of the rectilineal triangle whose
base has the same length as the circumference and whose altitude equals
the radius (Archimedes, [Greek: Kyklou metrêsis], prop. 1), it follows
that, if a straight line could be drawn equal in length to the
circumference, the required square could be found by an ordinary
Euclidean construction; also, it is evident that, conversely, if a
square equal in area to the circle could be obtained it would be
possible to draw a straight line equal to the circumference.
Rectification and quadrature of the circle have thus been, since the
time of Archimedes at least, practically identical problems. Again,
since the circumferences of circles are proportional to their
diameters--a proposition assumed to be true from the dawn almost of
practical geometry--the rectification of the circle is seen to be
transformable into finding the ratio of the circumference to the
diameter. This correlative numerical problem and the two purely
geometrical problems are inseparably connected historically.

Probably the earliest value for the ratio was 3. It was so among the
Jews (1 Kings vii. 23, 26), the Babylonians (Oppert, _Journ. asiatique_,
August 1872, October 1874), the Chinese (Biot, _Journ. asiatique_, June
1841), and probably also the Greeks. Among the ancient Egyptians, as
would appear from a calculation in the Rhind papyrus, the number
(4/3)^4, i.e. 3.1605, was at one time in use.[1] The first attempts to
solve the purely geometrical problem appear to have been made by the
Greeks (Anaxagoras, &c.)[2], one of whom, Hippocrates, doubtless raised
hopes of a solution by his quadrature of the so-called _meniscoi_ or

[Illustration: Fig. 6.]

[Illustration: Fig. 7.]

[The Greeks were in possession of several relations pertaining to the
quadrature of the lune. The following are among the more interesting. In
fig. 6, ABC is an isosceles triangle right angled at C, ADB is the
semicircle described on AB as diameter, AEB the circular arc described
with centre C and radius CA = CB. It is easily shown that the areas of
the lune ADBEA and the triangle ABC are equal. In fig. 7, ABC is any
triangle right angled at C, semicircles are described on the three
sides, thus forming two lunes AFCDA and CGBEC. The sum of the areas of
these lunes equals the area of the triangle ABC.]

As for Euclid, it is sufficient to recall the facts that the original
author of prop. 8 of book iv. had strict proof of the ratio being <4,
and the author of prop. 15 of the ratio being >3, and to direct
attention to the importance of book x. on incommensurables and props. 2
and 16 of book xii., viz. that "circles are to one another as the
squares on their diameters" and that "in the greater of two concentric
circles a regular 2n-gon can be inscribed which shall not meet the
circumference of the less," however nearly equal the circles may be.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

With Archimedes (287-212 B.C.) a notable advance was made. Taking the
circumference as intermediate between the perimeters of the inscribed
and the circumscribed regular n-gons, he showed that, the radius of the
circle being given and the perimeter of some particular circumscribed
regular polygon obtainable, the perimeter of the circumscribed regular
polygon of double the number of sides could be calculated; that the like
was true of the inscribed polygons; and that consequently a means was
thus afforded of approximating to the circumference of the circle. As a
matter of fact, he started with a semi-side AB of a circumscribed
regular hexagon meeting the circle in B (see fig. 8), joined A and B
with O the centre, bisected the angle AOB by OD, so that BD became the
semi-side of a circumscribed regular 12-gon; then as AB:BO:OA::1:
sqrt(3):2 he sought an approximation to sqrt(3) and found that AB:BO >
153:265. Next he applied his theorem[4] BO + OA:AB::OB:BD to calculate
BD; from this in turn he calculated the semi-sides of the circumscribed
regular 24-gon, 48-gon and 96-gon, and so finally established for the
circumscribed regular 96-gon that perimeter:diameter < (3-1/7):1. In a
quite analogous manner he proved for the inscribed regular 96-gon that
perimeter:diameter > 3-(10/71):1. The conclusion from these therefore
was that the ratio of circumference to diameter is < 3-1/7 and >
3-(10/71). This is a most notable piece of work; the immature condition
of arithmetic at the time was the only real obstacle preventing the
evaluation of the ratio to any degree of accuracy whatever.[5]

No advance of any importance was made upon the achievement of Archimedes
until after the revival of learning. His immediate successors may have
used his method to attain a greater degree of accuracy, but there is
very little evidence pointing in this direction. Ptolemy (fl. 127-151),
in the _Great Syntaxis_, gives 3.141552 as the ratio[6]; and the Hindus
(c. A.D. 500), who were very probably indebted to the Greeks, used
62832/20000, that is, the now familiar 3.1416.[7]

It was not until the 15th century that attention in Europe began to be
once more directed to the subject, and after the resuscitation a
considerable length of time elapsed before any progress was made. The
first advance in accuracy was due to a certain Adrian, son of Anthony, a
native of Metz (1527), and father of the better-known Adrian Metius of
Alkmaar. In refutation of Duchesne(Van der Eycke), he showed that the
ratio was < 3-(17/120) and > 3-(15/106), and thence made the exceedingly
lucky step of taking a mean between the two by the quite unjustifiable
process of halving the sum of the two numerators for a new numerator and
halving the sum of the two denominators for a new denominator, thus
arriving at the now well-known approximation 3-(16/113) or 355/113,
which, being equal to 3.1415929..., is correct to the sixth fractional

The next to advance the calculation was Francisco Vieta. By finding the
perimeter of the inscribed and that of the circumscribed regular polygon
of 393216 (i.e. 6 X 2^16) sides, he proved that the ratio was >
3.1415926535 and < 3.1415926537, so that its value became known (in
1579) correctly to 10 fractional places. The theorem for angle-bisection
which Vieta used was not that of Archimedes, but that which would now
appear in the form 1 - cos [theta] = 2 sin² ½[theta]. With Vieta, by
reason of the advance in arithmetic, the style of treatment becomes more
strictly trigonometrical; indeed, the _Universales Inspectiones_, in
which the calculation occurs, would now be called plane and spherical
trigonometry, and the accompanying _Canon mathematicus_ a table of
sines, tangents and secants.[9] Further, in comparing the labours of
Archimedes and Vieta, the effect of increased power of symbolical
expression is very noticeable. Archimedes's process of unending cycles
of arithmetical operations could at best have been expressed in his time
by a "rule" in words; in the 16th century it could be condensed into a
"formula." Accordingly, we find in Vieta a formula for the ratio of
diameter to circumference, viz. the interminate product[10]--

               __________      /        ___________
      ___     /       ___     /        /        ___
  ½ \/ ½  · \/ ½ + ½\/ ½  · \/ ½ + ½ \/ ½ + ½ \/ ½  ...

From this point onwards, therefore, no knowledge whatever of geometry
was necessary in any one who aspired to determine the ratio to any
required degree of accuracy; the problem being reduced to an
arithmetical computation. Thus in connexion with the subject a genus of
workers became possible who may be styled "[pi]-computers or
circle-squarers"--a name which, if it connotes anything uncomplimentary,
does so because of the almost entirely fruitless character of their
labours. Passing over Adriaan van Roomen (Adrianus Romanus) of Louvain,
who published the value of the ratio correct to 15 places in his _Idea
mathematica_ (1593),[11] we come to the notable computer Ludolph van
Ceulen (d. 1610), a native of Germany, long resident in Holland. His
book, _Van den Circkel_ (Delft, 1596), gave the ratio correct to 20
places, but he continued his calculations as long as he lived, and his
best result was published on his tombstone in St Peter's church, Leiden.
The inscription, which is not known to be now in existence,[12] is in
part as follows:--

  ... Qui in vita sua multo labore circumferentiae circuli proximam
  rationem ad diametrum invenit sequentem--

              quando diameter est 1
      tum circuli circumferentia plus est

  quam   314159265358979323846264338327950288

                      et minus
  quam   314159265358979323846264338327950289

This gives the ratio correct to 35 places. Van Ceulen's process was
essentially identical with that of Vieta. Its numerous root extractions
amply justify a stronger expression than "multo labore," especially in
an epitaph. In Germany the "Ludolphische Zahl" (Ludolph's number) is
still a common name for the ratio.[13]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

Up to this point the credit of most that had been done may be set down
to Archimedes. A new departure, however, was made by Willebrord Snell of
Leiden in his _Cyclometria_, published in 1621. His achievement was a
closely approximate geometrical solution of the problem of rectification
(see fig. 9): ACB being a semicircle whose centre is O, and AC the arc
to be rectified, he produced AB to D, making BD equal to the radius,
joined DC, and produced it to meet the tangent at A in E; and then his
assertion (not established by him) was that AE was nearly equal to the
arc AC, the error being in defect. For the purposes of the calculator a
solution erring in excess was also required, and this Snell gave by
slightly varying the former construction. Instead of producing AB (see
fig. 10) so that BD was equal to r, he produced it only so far that,
when the extremity D' was joined with C, the part D'F outside the circle
was equal to r; in other words, by a non-Euclidean construction he
trisected the angle AOC, for it is readily seen that, since FD' = FO =
OC, the angle FOB = (1/3)AOC.[14] This couplet of constructions is as
important from the calculator's point of view as it is interesting
geometrically. To compare it on this score with the fundamental
proposition of Archimedes, the latter must be put into a form similar to
Snell's. AMC being an arc of a circle (see fig. 11) whose centre is O,
AC its chord, and HK the tangent drawn at the middle point of the arc
and bounded by OA, OC produced, then, according to Archimedes, AMC < HK,
but > AC. In modern trigonometrical notation the propositions to be
compared stand as follows:--

  2 tan ½[theta] > [theta]  > 2sin ½ [theta]        (Archimedes);

                                                    3 sin [theta]
  tan (1/3)[theta] + 2sin (1/3)[theta] > [theta] > ---------------  (Snell).
                                                   2 + cos [theta]

It is readily shown that the latter gives the best approximation to
[theta]; but, while the former requires for its application a knowledge
of the trigonometrical ratios of only one angle (in other words, the
ratios of the sides of only one right-angled triangle), the latter
requires the same for two angles, [theta] and (1/3)[theta]. Grienberger,
using Snell's method, calculated the ratio correct to 39 fractional
places.[15] C. Huygens, in his _De Circuli Magnitudine Inventa_, 1654,
proved the propositions of Snell, giving at the same time a number of
other interesting theorems, for example, two inequalities which may be
written as follows[16]--

                 4chd [theta] + sin [theta]    1
  chd [theta] + --------------------------- · --- (chd [theta] - sin [theta]) >
                2chd [theta] + 3sin [theta]    3

    [theta] > chd [theta] + --- (chd [theta] - sin [theta]).
[Illustration: FIG. 11.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12.]

As might be expected, a fresh view of the matter was taken by René
Descartes. The problem he set himself was the exact converse of that of
Archimedes. A given straight line being viewed as equal in length to the
circumference of a circle, he sought to find the diameter of the circle.
His construction is as follows (see fig. 12). Take AB equal to one-fourth
of the given line; on AB describe a square ABCD; join AC; in AC produced
find, by a known process, a point C1 such that, when C1B1 is drawn
perpendicular to AB produced and C1D1 perpendicular to BC produced, the
rectangle BC1 will be equal to ¼ABCD; by the same process find a point C2
such that the rectangle B1C2 will be equal to ¼BC1; and so on _ad
infinitum_. The diameter sought is the straight line from A to the
limiting position of the series of B's, say the straight line AB[oo]. As
in the case of the process of Archimedes, we may direct our attention
either to the infinite series of geometrical operations or to the
corresponding infinite series of arithmetical operations. Denoting the
number of units in AB by ¼c, we can express BB1, B1B2, ... in terms of
¼c, and the identity AB[oo] = AB + BB1 + B1B2 + ... gives us at once an
expression for the diameter in terms of the circumference by means of an
infinite series.[17] The proof of the correctness of the construction is
seen to be involved in the following theorem, which serves likewise to
throw new light on the subject:--AB being any straight line whatever, and
the above construction being made, then AB is the diameter of the circle
circumscribed by the square ABCD (self-evident), AB1 is the diameter of
the circle circumscribed by the regular 8-gon having the same perimeter
as the square, AB2 is the diameter of the circle circumscribed by the
regular 16-gon having the same perimeter as the square, and so on.
Essentially, therefore, Descartes's process is that known later as the
process of _isoperimeters_, and often attributed wholly to Schwab.[18]

In 1655 appeared the _Arithmetica Infinitorum_ of John Wallis, where
numerous problems of quadrature are dealt with, the curves being now
represented in Cartesian co-ordinates, and algebra playing an important
part. In a very curious manner, by viewing the circle y = (1 - x²)^½
as a member of the series of curves y = (1 - x²)¹, y = (1 - x²)², &c.,
he was led to the proposition that four times the reciprocal of the
ratio of the circumference to the diameter, i.e. 4/[pi], is equal to the
infinite product

  3 · 3 · 5 · 5 · 7 · 7 · 9 ...
  2 · 4 · 4 · 6 · 6 · 8 · 8 ...

and, the result having been communicated to Lord Brounker, the latter
discovered the equally curious equivalent continued fraction

       1²    3²     5²     7²
  1 + ---   ---    ---    --- ...
       2  +  2   +  2   +  2

The work of Wallis had evidently an important influence on the next
notable personality in the history of the subject, James Gregory, who
lived during the period when the higher algebraic analysis was coming
into power, and whose genius helped materially to develop it. He had,
however, in a certain sense one eye fixed on the past and the other
towards the future. His first contribution[19] was a variation of the
method of Archimedes. The latter, as we know, calculated the perimeters
of successive polygons, passing from one polygon to another of double
the number of sides; in a similar manner Gregory calculated the areas.
The general theorems which enabled him to do this, after a start had
been made, are

  A2n = \/AnA'n (Snell's _Cyclom._),

          2 An A'n      2 A'n A2n
  A'2n = ---------- or ----------- (Gregory),
         An + A'2n      A'n + A2n

where An, A'n are the areas of the inscribed and the circumscribed
regular n-gons respectively. He also gave approximate rectifications of
circular arcs after the manner of Huygens; and, what is very notable, he
made an ingenious and, according to J.E. Montucla, successful attempt to
show that quadrature of the circle by a Euclidean construction was
impossible.[20] Besides all this, however, and far beyond it in
importance, was his use of infinite series. This merit he shares with
his contemporaries N. Mercator, Sir I. Newton and G.W. Leibnitz, and the
exact dates of discovery are a little uncertain. As far as the
circle-squaring functions are concerned, it would seem that Gregory was
the first (in 1670) to make known the series for the arc in terms of the
tangent, the series for the tangent in terms of the arc, and the secant
in terms of the arc; and in 1669 Newton showed to Isaac Barrow a little
treatise in manuscript containing the series for the arc in terms of the
sine, for the sine in terms of the arc, and for the cosine in terms of
the arc. These discoveries formed an epoch in the history of
mathematics generally, and had, of course, a marked influence on after
investigations regarding circle-quadrature. Even among the mere
computers the series

  [theta] = tan - (1/3) tan^3 [theta] + (1/5) tan^5 [theta] - ...,

specially known as Gregory's series, has ever since been a necessity of
their calling.

The calculator's work having now become easier and more mechanical,
calculation went on apace. In 1699 Abraham Sharp, on the suggestion of
Edmund Halley, took Gregory's series, and, putting tan [theta] = (1/3)
sqrt(3), found the ratio equal to

    __  /      1       1        1         \
  \/12 ( 1 - ----- + ------ - ------ + ... ),
        \    3 · 3   5 · 3²   7 · 3³      /

from which he calculated it correct to 71 fractional places.[21] About
the same time John Machin calculated it correct to 100 places, and, what
was of more importance, gave for the ratio the rapidly converging

   16   /  1       1       1         \
   --  (  ---- + ----- - ----- + ...  ) -
   5    \ 3·5²   5·5^4   7·5^6       /

      4   /      1         1         \
     --- ( 1 - ------ + ------- - ... ),
     239  \    3.239²   5.239^4      /

which long remained without explanation.[22] Fautet de Lagny, still
using tan 30°, advanced to the 127th place.[23]

Leonhard Euler took up the subject several times during his life,
effecting mainly improvements in the theory of the various series.[24]
With him, apparently, began the usage of denoting by [pi] the ratio of
the circumference to the diameter.[25]

The most important publication, however, on the subject in the 18th
century was a paper by J.H. Lambert,[26] read before the Berlin Academy
in 1761, in which he demonstrated the irrationality of [pi]. The general
test of irrationality which he established is that, if

  a1   a2   a2
  --   --   --   ...
  b1 ± b2 ± b3 ±

be an interminate continued fraction, a1, a2, ..., b1, b2 ... be
integers, a1/b1, a2/b2, ... be proper fractions, and the value of every
one of the interminate continued fractions

  a1         a2
  --       , --       , ... be < 1,
  b1 ± ...   b2 ± ...

then the given continued fraction represents an irrational quantity. If
this be applied to the right-hand side of the identity

       m      m     m²     m²
  tan --- =  ---   ----   ---- ...
       n      n  -  3n  -  5n

it follows that the tangent of every arc commensurable with the radius
is irrational, so that, as a particular case, an arc of 45°, having its
tangent rational, must be incommensurable with the radius; that is to
say, [pi]/4 is an incommensurable number.[27]

This incontestable result had no effect, apparently, in repressing the
[pi]-computers. G. von Vega in 1789, using series like Machin's, viz.
Gregory's series and the identities

  [pi]/4 = 5tan^{-1} (1/7) + 2tan^{-1} (3/79) (Euler, 1779),
  [pi]/4 =  tan^{-1} (1/7) + 2tan^{-1} ( 1/3) (Hutton, 1776),

neither of which was nearly so advantageous as several found by Charles
Hutton, calculated [pi] correct to 136 places.[28] This achievement was
anticipated or outdone by an unknown calculator, whose manuscript was
seen in the Radcliffe library, Oxford, by Baron von Zach towards the end
of the century, and contained the ratio correct to 152 places. More
astonishing still have been the deeds of the [pi]-computers of the 19th
century. A condensed record compiled by J.W.L. Glaisher (_Messenger of
Math._ ii. 122) is as follows:--

  |     |            |No. of fr. digits|                                            |
  |Date.|  Computer. +--------+--------+            Place of Publication.           |
  |     |            | calcd. |correct.|                                            |
  |1842 | Rutherford |   208  |   152  | _Trans. Roy. Soc._ (London, 1841), p. 283. |
  |1844 | Dase       |   205  |   200  | _Crelle's Journ._. xxvii. 198.             |
  |1847 | Clausen    |   250  |   248  | _Astron. Nachr._ xxv. col. 207.            |
  |1853 | Shanks     |   318  |   318  | _Proc. Roy. Soc._ (London, 1853), 273.     |
  |1853 | Rutherford |   440  |   440  |  Ibid.                                     |
  |1853 | Shanks     |   530  |    ..  |  Ibid.                                     |
  |1853 | Shanks     |   607  |    ..  |  W. Shanks, _Rectification of the Circle_  |
  |     |            |        |        |    (London, 1853).                         |
  |1853 | Richter    |   333  |   330  | _Grunert's Archiv_, xxi. 119.              |
  |1854 | Richter    |   400  |   330  |  Ibid. xxii. 473.                          |
  |1854 | Richter    |   400  |   400  |  Ibid. xxiii. 476.                         |
  |1854 | Richter    |   500  |   500  |  Ibid. xxv. 472.                           |
  |1873 | Shanks     |   707  |    ..  | _Proc. Roy. Soc._ (London), xxi.           |

By these computers Machin's identity, or identities analogous to it, e.g.

     [pi]/4 =  tan^{-1} (1/2)  + tan^{-1} 1/5  + tan^{-1} 1/8  (Dase, 1844),
     [pi]/4 = 4tan^{-1} (1/5) - tan^{-1} 1/70 + tan^{-1} 1/99 (Rutherford),

and Gregory's series were employed.[29]

A much less wise class than the [pi]-computers of modern times are the
pseudo-circle-squarers, or circle-squarers technically so called, that
is to say, persons who, having obtained by illegitimate means a
Euclidean construction for the quadrature or a finitely expressible
value for [pi], insist on using faulty reasoning and defective
mathematics to establish their assertions. Such persons have flourished
at all times in the history of mathematics; but the interest attaching
to them is more psychological than mathematical.[30]

It is of recent years that the most important advances in the theory of
circle-quadrature have been made. In 1873 Charles Hermite proved that
the base [eta] of the Napierian logarithms cannot be a root of a
rational algebraical equation of any degree.[31] To prove the same
proposition regarding [pi] is to prove that a Euclidean construction for
circle-quadrature is impossible. For in such a construction every point
of the figure is obtained by the intersection of two straight lines, a
straight line and a circle, or two circles; and as this implies that,
when a unit of length is introduced, numbers employed, and the problem
transformed into one of algebraic geometry, the equations to be solved
can only be of the first or second degree, it follows that the equation
to which we must be finally led is a rational equation of even degree.
Hermite[32] did not succeed in his attempt on [pi]; but in 1882 F.
Lindemann, following exactly in Hermite's steps, accomplished the
desired result.[33] (See also TRIGONOMETRY.)

  REFERENCES.--Besides the various writings mentioned, see for the
  history of the subject F. Rudio, _Geschichte des Problems von der
  Quadratur des Zirkels_ (1892); M. Cantor, _Geschichte der Mathematik_
  (1894-1901); Montucla, _Hist. des. math._ (6 vols., Paris, 1758, 2nd
  ed. 1799-1802); Murhard, _Bibliotheca Mathematica_, ii. 106-123
  (Leipzig, 1798); Reuss, _Repertorium Comment._ vii. 42-44 (Göttingen,
  1808). For a few approximate geometrical solutions, see Leybourn's
  _Math. Repository_, vi. 151-154; _Grunert's Archiv_, xii. 98, xlix. 3;
  _Nieuw Archief v. Wisk._ iv. 200-204. For experimental determinations
  of [pi], dependent on the theory of probability, see _Mess. of Math._
  ii. 113, 119; _Casopis pro pïstováni math. a fys._ x. 272-275;
  _Analyst_, ix. 176.    (T. MU.)


  [1] Eisenlohr, _Ein math. Handbuch d. alten Ägypter, übers. u.
    erklärt_ (Leipzig, 1877); Rodet, _Bull. de la Soc. Math. de France_,
    vi. pp. 139-149.

  [2] H. Hankel, _Zur Gesch. d. Math. im Alterthum_, &c., chap, v
    (Leipzig, 1874); M. Cantor, _Vorlesungen über Gesch. d. Math._ i.
    (Leipzig, 1880); Tannery, _Mém. de la Soc._, &c., _à Bordeaux_;
    Allman, in _Hermathena_.

  [3] Tannery. _Bull. des sc. math._ [2], x. pp. 213-226.

  [4] In modern trigonometrical notation, 1 + sec [theta]:tan
    [theta]::1:tan ½[theta].

  [5] Tannery, "Sur la mesure du cercle d'Archimède," in _Mém....
    Bordeaux_[2], iv. pp. 313-339; Menge, _Des Archimedes
    Kreismessung_ (Coblenz, 1874).

  [6] De Morgan, in _Penny Cyclop_, xix. p. 186.

  [7] Kern, _Aryabhattíyam_ (Leiden, 1874), trans. by Rodet

  [8] De Morgan, art. "Quadrature of the Circle," in _English
    Cyclop._; Glaisher, _Mess. of Math._ ii. pp. 119-128, iii. pp.
    27-46; de Haan, _Nieuw Archief v. Wisk._ i. pp. 70-86, 206-211.

  [9] Vieta, _Opera math._ (Leiden, 1646); Marie, _Hist. des sciences
    math._ iii. 27 seq. (Paris, 1884).

  [10] Klügel, _Math. Wörterb._ ii. 606, 607.

  [11] Kästner, _Gesch. d. Math._ i. (Göttingen, 1796-1800).

  [12] But see _Les Délices de Leide_ (Leiden, 1712); or de Haan,
    _Mess. of Math._ iii. 24-26.

  [13] For minute and lengthy details regarding the quadrature of the
    circle in the Low Countries, see de Haan, "Bouwstoffen voor de
    geschiedenis, &c.," in _Versl. en Mededeel. der K. Akad. van
    Wetensch._ ix., x., xi., xii. (Amsterdam); also his "Notice sur
    quelques quadrateurs, &c.," in _Bull. di bibliogr. e di storia delle
    sci. mat. e fis._ vii. 99-144.

  [14] It is thus manifest that by his first construction Snell gave
    an approximate solution of two great problems of antiquity.

  [15] _Elementa trigonometrica_ (Rome, 1630); Glaisher, _Messenger of
    Math._ iii. 35 seq.

  [16] See Kiessling's edition of the _De Circ. Magn. Inv._
    (Flensburg, 1869); or Pirie's tract on _Geometrical Methods of
    Approx. to the Value of [pi]_ (London, 1877).

  [17] See Euler, "Annotationes in locum quendam Cartesii," in _Nov.
    Comm. Acad. Petrop._ viii.

  [18] Gergonne, _Annales de math._ vi.

  [19] See _Vera Circuli et Hyperbolae Quadratura_ (Padua, 1667); and
    the _Appendicula_ to the same in his _Exercitationes geometricae_
    (London, 1668).

  [20] _Penny Cyclop._ xix. 187.

  [21] See Sherwin's _Math. Tables_ (London, 1705), p. 59.

  [22] See W. Jones, _Synopsis Palmariorum Matheseos_ (London, 1706);
    Maseres, _Scriptores Logarithmici_ (London, 1791-1796), iii. 159
    seq.; Hutton, _Tracts_, i. 266.

  [23] See _Hist. de l'Acad._ (Paris, 1719); 7 appears instead of 8 in
    the 113th place.

  [24] _Comment. Acad. Petrop._ ix., xi.; _Nov. Comm. Ac. Pet._ xvi.;
    _Nova Acta Acad. Pet._ xi.

  [25] _Introd. in Analysin Infin._ (Lausanne, 1748), chap. viii.

  [26] _Mém. sur quelques propriétés remarquables des quantités
    transcendantes, circulaires, et logarithmiques._

  [27] See Legendre, _Eléments de géométrie_ (Paris, 1794), note iv.;
    Schlömilch, _Handbuch d. algeb. Analysis_ (Jena, 1851), chap. xiii.

  [28] _Nova Acta Petrop._ ix. 41; _Thesaurus Logarithm. Completus_,

  [29] On the calculations made before Shanks, see Lehmann, "Beitrag
    zur Berechnung der Zahl [pi]," in _Grunert's Archiv_, xxi. 121-174.

  [30] See Montucla, _Hist. des rech. sur la quad. du cercle_ (Paris,
    1754, 2nd ed. 1831); de Morgan, _Budget of Paradoxes_ (London,

  [31] "Sur la fonction exponentielle," _Comples rendus_ (Paris),
    lxxvii. 18, 74, 226, 285.

  [32] See _Crelle's Journal_, lxxvi. 342.

  [33] See "Über die Zahl [pi]," in _Math. Ann._ xx. 213.

CIRCLEVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Pickaway county, Ohio,
U.S.A., about 26 m. S. by E. of Columbus, on the Scioto river and the
Ohio Canal. Pop. (1890) 6556; (1900) 6991 (551 negroes); (1910) 6744. It
is served by the Cincinnati & Muskingum Valley (Pennsylvania lines) and
the Norfolk & Western railways, and by the Scioto Valley electric line.
Circleville is situated in a farming region, and its leading industries
are the manufacture of straw boards and agricultural implements, and the
canning of sweet corn and other produce. The city occupies the site of
prehistoric earth-works, from one of which, built in the form of a
circle, it derived its name. Circleville, first settled about 1806, was
chosen as the county-seat in 1810. The court-house was built in the form
of an octagon at the centre of the circle, and circular streets were
laid out around it; but this arrangement proved to be inconvenient, the
court-house was destroyed by fire in 1841, and at present no trace of
the ancient landmarks remains. Circleville was incorporated as a village
in 1814, and was chartered as a city in 1853.

CIRCUIT (Lat. _circuitus_, from _circum_, round, and _ire_, to go), the
act of moving round; so circumference, or anything encircling or
encircled. The word is particularly known as a law term, signifying the
periodical progress of a legal tribunal for the purpose of carrying out
the administration of the law in the several provinces of a country. It
has long been applied to the journey or progress which the judges have
been in the habit of making through the several counties of England, to
hold courts and administer justice, where recourse could not be had to
the king's court at Westminster (see ASSIZE).

In England, by sec. 23 of the Judicature Act 1875, power was conferred
on the crown, by order in council, to make regulations respecting
circuits, including the discontinuance of any circuit, and the formation
of any new circuit, and the appointment of the place at which assizes
are to be held on any circuit. Under this power an order of council,
dated the 5th of February 1876, was made, whereby the circuit system was
remodelled. A new circuit, called the North-Eastern circuit, was
created, consisting of Newcastle and Durham taken out of the old
Northern circuit, and York and Leeds taken out of the Midland circuit.
Oakham, Leicester and Northampton, which had belonged to the Norfolk
circuit, were added to the Midland. The Norfolk circuit and the Home
circuit were abolished and a new South-Eastern circuit was created,
consisting of Huntingdon, Cambridge, Ipswich, Norwich, Chelmsford,
Hertford and Lewes, taken partly out of the old Norfolk circuit and
partly out of the Home circuit. The counties of Kent and Surrey were
left out of the circuit system, the assizes for these counties being
held by the judges remaining in London. Subsequently Maidstone and
Guildford were united under the revived name of the Home circuit for the
purpose of the summer and winter assizes, and the assizes in these towns
were held by one of the judges of the Western circuit, who, after
disposing of the business there, rejoined his colleague in Exeter. In
1899 this arrangement was abolished, and Maidstone and Guildford were
added to the South-Eastern circuit. Other minor changes in the assize
towns were made, which it is unnecessary to particularize. Birmingham
first became a circuit town in the year 1884, and the work there became,
by arrangement, the joint property of the Midland and Oxford circuits.
There are alternative assize towns in the following counties, viz.:--On
the Western circuit, Salisbury and Devizes for Wiltshire, and Wells and
Taunton for Somerset; on the South-Eastern, Ipswich and Bury St Edmunds
for Suffolk; on the North Wales circuit, Welshpool and Newtown for
Montgomery; and on the South Wales circuit, Cardiff and Swansea for

According to the arrangements in force in 1909 there are four assizes in
each year. There are two principal assizes, viz. the winter assizes,
beginning in January, and the summer assizes, beginning at the end of
May. At these two assizes criminal and civil business is disposed of in
all the circuits. There are two other assizes, viz. the autumn assizes
and the Easter assizes. The autumn assizes are regulated by acts of 1876
and 1877 (Winter Assizes Acts 1876 and 1877), and orders of council made
under the former act. They are held for the whole of England and Wales,
but for the purpose of these assizes the work is to a large extent
"grouped," so that not every county has a separate assize. For example,
on the South-Eastern circuit Huntingdon is grouped with Cambridge; on
the Midland, Rutland is grouped with Lincoln; on the Northern,
Westmorland is grouped with Cumberland; and the North Wales and South
Wales circuits are united, and no assizes are held at some of the
smaller towns. At these assizes criminal business only is taken, except
at Manchester, Liverpool, Swansea, Birmingham and Leeds. The Easter
assizes are held in April and May on two circuits only, viz. at
Manchester and Liverpool on the Northern and at Leeds on the
North-Eastern. Both civil and criminal business is taken at Manchester
and Liverpool, but criminal business only at Leeds.

Other changes were made, with a view to preventing the complete
interruption of the London sittings in the common law division by the
absence of the judges on circuit. The assizes were so arranged as to
commence on different dates in the various circuits. For example, the
summer assizes begin in the South-Eastern and Western circuits on the
29th of May; in the Northern circuit on the 28th of June; in the Midland
and Oxford circuits on the 16th of June; in the North-Eastern circuit on
the 6th of July; in the North Wales circuit on the 7th of July; and in
the South Wales circuit on the 11th of July. Again, there has been a
continuous development of what may be called the single-judge system. In
the early days of the new order the members of the court of appeal and
the judges of the chancery division shared the circuit work with the
judges in the common law division. This did not prove to be a
satisfactory arrangement. The assize work was not familiar and was
uncongenial to the chancery judges, who had but little training or
experience to fit them for it. Arrears increased in chancery, and the
appeal court was shorn of much of its strength for a considerable part
of the year. The practice was discontinued in or about the year 1884.
The appeal and chancery judges were relieved of the duty of going on
circuit, and an arrangement was made by the treasury for making an
allowance for expenses of circuit to the common law judges, on whom the
whole work of the assizes was thrown. In order to cope with the assize
work, and at the same time keep the common law sittings going in London,
an experiment, which had been previously tried by Lord Cairns and Lord
Cross (then home secretary) and discontinued, was revived. Instead of
two judges going together to each assize town, it was arranged that one
judge should go by himself to certain selected places--practically, it
may be said, to all except the more important provincial centres. The
only places to which two judges now go are Exeter, Winchester, Bristol,
Manchester, Liverpool, Nottingham, Stafford, Birmingham, Newcastle,
Durham, York, Leeds, Chester, and Cardiff or Swansea.

It could scarcely be said that, even with the amendments introduced
under orders in council, the circuit system was altogether satisfactory
or that the last word had been pronounced on the subject. In the first
report of the Judicature Commission, dated March 25th, 1869, p. 17
(_Parl. Papers_, 1868-1869), the majority report that "the necessity for
holding assizes in every county without regard to the extent of the
business to be transacted in such county leads, in our judgment, to a
great waste of judicial strength and a great loss of time in going from
one circuit town to another, and causes much unnecessary cost and
inconvenience to those whose attendance is necessary or customary at the
assizes." And in their second report, dated July 3rd, 1872 (_Parl.
Papers_, 1872, vol. xx.), they dwell upon the advisability of grouping
or a discontinuance of holding assizes "in several counties, for
example, Rutland and Westmorland, where it is manifestly an idle waste
of time and money to have assizes." It is thought that the grouping of
counties which has been effected for the autumn assizes might be carried
still further and applied to all the assizes; and that the system of
holding the assizes alternately in one of two towns within a county
might be extended to two towns in adjoining counties, for example,
Gloucester and Worcester. The facility of railway communication renders
this reform comparatively easy, and reforms in this direction have been
approved by the judges, but ancient custom and local patriotism,
interests, or susceptibility bar the way. The Assizes and Quarter
Sessions Act 1908 contributed something to reform by dispensing with the
obligation to hold assizes at a fixed date if there is no business to be
transacted. Nor can it be said that the single-judge system has been
altogether a success. When there is only one judge for both civil and
criminal work, he properly takes the criminal business first. He can fix
only approximately the time when he can hope to be free for the civil
business. If the calendar is exceptionally heavy or one or more of the
criminal cases prove to be unexpectedly long (as may easily happen), the
civil business necessarily gets squeezed into the short residue of the
allotted time. Suitors and their solicitors and witnesses are kept
waiting for days, and after all perhaps it proves to be impossible for
the judge to take the case, and a "remanet" is the result. It is the
opinion of persons of experience that the result has undoubtedly been to
drive to London much of the civil business which properly belongs to the
provinces, and ought to be tried there, and thus at once to increase the
burden on the judges and jurymen in London, and to increase the costs of
the trial of the actions sent there. Some persons advocate the
continuous sittings of the high court in certain centres, such as
Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Newcastle, Birmingham and Bristol, or (in
fact) a decentralization of the judicial system. There is already an
excellent court for chancery cases for Lancashire in the county palatine
court, presided over by the vice-chancellor, and with a local bar which
has produced many men of great ability and even eminence. The Durham
chancery court is also capable of development. Another suggestion has
been made for continuous circuits throughout the legal year, so that a
certain number of the judges, according to a rota, should be
continuously in the provinces while the remaining judges did the London
business. The value of this suggestion would depend on an estimate of
the number of cases which might thus be tried in the country in relief
of the London list. This estimate it would be difficult to make. The
opinion has also been expressed that it is essential in any changes that
may be made to retain the occasional administration by judges of the
high court of criminal jurisdiction, both in populous centres and in
remote places. It promotes a belief in the importance and dignity of
justice and the care to be given to all matters affecting a citizen's
life, liberty or character. It also does something, by the example set
by judges in country districts, to check any tendency to undue severity
of sentences in offences against property.

Counsel are not expected to practise on a circuit other than that to
which they have attached themselves, unless they receive a special
retainer. They are then said to "go special," and the fee in such a case
is one hundred guineas for a king's counsel, and fifty guineas for a
junior. It is customary to employ one member of the circuit on the side
on which the counsel comes special. Certain rules have been drawn up by
the Bar Committee for regulating the practice as to retainers on
circuit. (1) A special retainer must be given for a particular assize (a
circuit retainer will not, however, make it compulsory upon counsel
retained to go the circuit, but will give the right to counsel's
services should he attend the assize and the case be entered for trial);
(2) if the venue is changed to another place on the same circuit, a
fresh retainer is not required; (3) if the action is not tried at the
assize for which the retainer is given, the retainer must be renewed for
every subsequent assize until the action is disposed of, unless a brief
has been delivered; (4) a retainer may be given for a future assize,
without a retainer for an intervening assize, unless notice of trial is
given for such intervening assize. There are also various regulations
enforced by the discipline of the circuit bar mess.

In the United States the English circuit system still exists in some
states, as in Massachusetts, where the judges sit in succession in the
various counties of the state. The term _circuit courts_ applies
distinctively in America to a certain class of inferior federal courts
of the United States, exercising jurisdiction, concurrently with the
state courts, in certain matters where the United States is a party to
the litigation, or in cases of crime against the United States. The
circuit courts act in nine judicial circuits, divided as follows: _1st
circuit_, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island; _2nd
circuit_, Connecticut, New York, Vermont; _3rd circuit_, Delaware, New
Jersey, Pennsylvania; _4th circuit_, Maryland, North Carolina, South
Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia; _5th circuit_, Alabama, Florida,
Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas; _6th circuit_, Kentucky,
Michigan, Ohio, Tennessee; _7th circuit_, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin;
_8th circuit_, Arkansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota,
Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah,
Wyoming; _9th circuit_, Alaska, Arizona, California, Idaho, Montana,
Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Hawaii. A circuit court of appeals is
made up of three judges of the circuit court, the judges of the district
courts of the circuit, and the judge of the Supreme Court allotted to
the circuit.

In Scotland the judges of the supreme criminal court, or high court of
justiciary, form also three separate circuit courts, consisting of two
judges each; and the country, with the exception of the Lothians, is
divided into corresponding districts, called the Northern, Western and
Southern circuits. On the Northern circuit, courts are held at
Inverness, Perth, Dundee and Aberdeen; on the Western, at Glasgow,
Stirling and Inveraray; and on the Southern, at Dumfries, Jedburgh and

Ireland is divided into the North-East and the North-West circuits, and
those of Leinster, Connaught and Munster.

CIRCULAR NOTE, a documentary request by a bank to its foreign
correspondents to pay a specified sum of money to a named person. The
person in whose favour a circular note is issued is furnished with a
letter (containing the signature of an official of the bank and the
person named) called a letter of indication, which is usually referred
to in the circular note, and must be produced on presentation of the
note. Circular notes are generally issued against a payment of cash to
the amount of the notes, but the notes need not necessarily be cashed,
but may be returned to the banker in exchange for the amount for which
they were originally issued. A forged signature on a circular note
conveys no right, and as it is the duty of the payer to see that payment
is made to the proper person, he cannot recover the amount of a forged
note from the banker who issued the note. (See also LETTER OF CREDIT.)

CIRCULUS IN PROBANDO (Lat. for "circle in proving"), in logic, a phrase
used to describe a form of argument in which the very fact which one
seeks to demonstrate is used as a premise, i.e. as part of the evidence
on which the conclusion is based. This argument is one form of the
fallacy known as _petitio principii_, "begging the question." It is most
common in lengthy arguments, the complicated character of which enables
the speaker to make his hearers forget the data from which he began.

CIRCUMCISION (Lat. _circum_, round, and _caedere_, to cut), the cutting
off of the foreskin. This surgical operation, which is commonly
prescribed for purely medical reasons, is also an initiation or
religious ceremony among Jews and Mahommedans, and is a widespread
institution in many Semitic races. It remains, with Jews, a necessary
preliminary to the admission of proselytes, except in some Reformed
communities. The origin of the rite among the Jews is in Genesis (xvii.)
placed in the age of Abraham, and at all events it must have been very
ancient, for flint stones were used in the operation (Exodus iv. 25;
Joshua v. 2). The narrative in Joshua implies that the custom was
introduced by him, not that it had merely been in abeyance in the
Wilderness. At Gilgal he "rolled away the reproach of the Egyptians" by
circumcising the people. This obviously means that whereas the Egyptians
practised circumcision the Jews in the land of the Pharaohs did not, and
hence were regarded with contempt. It was an old theory (Herodotus ii.
36) that circumcision originated in Egypt; at all events it was
practised in that country in ancient times (Ebers, _Egypten und die
Bücher Mosis_, i. 278-284), and the same is true at the present day. But
it is not generally thought probable that the Hebrews derived the rite
directly from the Egyptians. As Driver puts it (_Genesis_, p. 190): "It
is possible that, as Dillmann and Nowack suppose, the peoples of N.
Africa and Asia who practised the rite adopted it from the Egyptians,
but it appears in so many parts of the world that it must at any rate in
these cases have originated independently." In another biblical
narrative (Exodus iv. 25) Moses is subject to the divine anger because
he had not made himself "a bridegroom of blood," that is, had not been
circumcised before his marriage.

The rite of circumcision was practised by all the inhabitants of
Palestine with the exception of the Philistines. It was an ancient
custom among the Arabs, being presupposed in the Koran. The only
important Semitic peoples who most probably did not follow the rite were
the Babylonians and Assyrians (Sayce, _Babyl. and Assyrians_, p. 47).
Modern investigations have brought to light many instances of the
prevalence of circumcision in various parts of the world. These facts
are collected by Andrée and Ploss, and go to prove that the rite is not
only spread through the Mahommedan world (Turks, Persians, Arabs, &c.),
but also is practised by the Christian Abyssinians and the Copts, as
well as in central Australia and in America. In central Australia
(Spencer and Gillen, pp. 212-386) circumcision with a stone knife must
be undergone by every youth before he is reckoned a full member of the
tribe or is permitted to enter on the married state. In other parts, too
(e.g. Loango), no uncircumcised man may marry. Circumcision was known to
the Aztecs (Bancroft, _Native Races_, vol. iii.), and is still practised
by the Caribs of the Orinoco and the Tacunas of the Amazon. The method
and period of the operation vary in important particulars. Among the
Jews it is performed in infancy, when the male child is eight days old.
The child is named at the same time, and the ceremony is elaborate. The
child is carried in to the godfather (_sandek_, a hebraized form of the
Gr. [Greek: sunteknos], "godfather," post-class.), who places the child
on a cushion, which he holds on his knees throughout the ceremony. The
operator (_mohel_) uses a steel knife, and pronounces various
benedictions before and after the rite is performed (see S. Singer,
_Authorized Daily Prayer Book_, pp. 304-307; an excellent account of the
domestic festivities and spiritual joys associated with the ceremony
among medieval and modern Jews may be read in S. Schechter's _Studies in
Judaism_, first series, pp. 351 seq.). Some tribes in South America and
elsewhere are said to perform the rite on the eighth day, like the Jews.
The Mazequas do it between the first and second months. Among the
Bedouins the rite is performed on children of three years, amid dances
and the selection of brides (Doughty, _Arabia Deserta_, i. 340); among
the Somalis the age is seven (Reinisch, _Somalisprache_, p. 110). But
for the most part the tribes who perform the rite carry it out at the
age of puberty. Many facts bearing on this point are given by B. Stade
in _Zeitschrift für die alttest. Wissenschaft_, vi. (1886) pp. 132 seq.

The significance of the rite of circumcision has been much disputed.
Some see in it a tribal badge. If this be the true origin of
circumcision, it must go back to the time when men went about naked.
Mutilations (tattooing, removal of teeth and so forth) were tribal
marks, being partly sacrifices and partly means of recognition (see
MUTILATION). Such initiatory rites were often frightful ordeals, in
which the neophyte's courage was severely tested (Robertson Smith,
_Religion of the Semites_, p. 310). Some regard circumcision as a
substitute for far more serious rites, including even human sacrifice.
Utilitarian explanations have also been suggested. Sir R. Burton
(_Memoirs Anthrop. Soc._ i. 318) held that it was introduced to promote
fertility, and the claims of cleanliness have been put forward
(following Philo's example, see ed. Mangey, ii. 210). Most probably,
however, circumcision (which in many tribes is performed on both sexes)
was connected with marriage, and was a preparation for connubium. It was
in Robertson Smith's words "originally a preliminary to marriage, and so
a ceremony of introduction to the full prerogative of manhood," the
transference to infancy among the Jews being a later change. On this
view, the decisive Biblical reference would be the Exodus passage (iv.
25), in which Moses is represented as being in danger of his life
because he had neglected the proper preliminary to marriage. In Genesis,
on the other hand, circumcision is an external sign of God's covenant
with Israel, and later Judaism now regards it in this symbolical sense.
Barton (_Semitic Origins_, p. 100) declares that "the circumstances
under which it is performed in Arabia point to the origin of
circumcision as a sacrifice to the goddess of fertility, by which the
child was placed under her protection and its reproductive powers
consecrated to her service." But Barton admits that initiation to the
connubium was the primitive origin of the rite.

As regards the non-ritual use of male circumcision, it may be added that
in recent years the medical profession has been responsible for its
considerable extension among other than Jewish children, the operation
being recommended not merely in cases of malformation, but generally for
reasons of health.

  AUTHORITIES.--On the present diffusion of circumcision see H. Ploss,
  _Das Kind im Brauch und Sitte der Völker_, i. 342 seq., and his
  researches in _Deutsches Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin_, viii.
  312-344; Andrée, "Die Beschneidung" in _Archiv für Anthropologie_,
  xiii. 76; and Spencer and Gillen, _Tribes of Central Australia_. The
  articles in the _Encyclopaedia Biblica_ and _Dictionary of the Bible_
  contain useful bibliographies as well as historical accounts of the
  rite and its ceremonies, especially as concerns the Jews. The _Jewish
  Encyclopedia_ in particular gives an extensive list of books on the
  Jewish customs connected with circumcision, and the various articles
  in that work are full of valuable information (vol. iv. pp. 92-102).
  On the rite among the Arabs, see Wellhausen, _Reste arabischen
  Heidentums_, 154.    (I. A.)

CIRCUMVALLATION, LINES OF (from Lat. _circum_, round, and _vallum_, a
rampart), in fortification, a continuous circle of entrenchments
surrounding a besieged place. "Lines of Contravallation" were similar
works by which the besieger protected himself against the attack of a
relieving army from any quarter. These continuous lines of
circumvallation and contravallation were used only in the days of small
armies and small fortresses, and both terms are now obsolete.

CIRCUS (Lat. _circus_, Gr. [Greek: kirkos] or [Greek: krikos], a ring or
circle; probably "circus" and "ring" are of the same origin), a space,
in the strict sense circular, but sometimes oval or even oblong,
intended for the exhibition of races and athletic contests generally.
The circus differs from the theatre inasmuch as the performance takes
place in a central circular space, not on a stage at one end of the

1. _In Roman antiquities_ the circus was a building for the exhibition
of horse and chariot races and other amusements. It consisted of tiers
of seats running parallel with the sides of the course, and forming a
crescent round one of the ends. The other end was straight and at right
angles to the course, so that the plan of the whole had nearly the form
of an ellipse cut in half at its vertical axis. Along the transverse
axis ran a fence (_spina_) separating the return course from the
starting one. The straight end had no seats, but was occupied by the
stalls (_carceres_) where the chariots and horses were held in
readiness. This end constituted also the front of the building with the
main entrance. At each end of the course were three conical pillars
(_metae_) to mark its limits.

The oldest building of this kind in Rome was the _Circus Maximus_, in
the valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills, where, before the
erection of any permanent structure, races appear to have been held
beside the altar of the god Consus. The first building is assigned to
Tarquin the younger, but for a long time little seems to have been done
to complete its accommodation, since it is not till 329 B.C. that we
hear of stalls being erected for the chariots and horses. It was not in
fact till under the empire that the circus became a conspicuous public
resort. Caesar enlarged it to some extent, and also made a canal 10 ft.
broad between the lowest tier of seats (_podium_) and the course as a
precaution for the spectators' safety when exhibitions of fighting with
wild beasts, such as were afterwards confined to the amphitheatre, took
place. When these exhibitions were removed, and the canal (_euripus_)
was no longer necessary, Nero had it filled up. Augustus is said to have
placed an obelisk on the _spina_ between the _metae_, and to have built
a new _pulvinar_, or imperial box; but if this is taken in connexion
with the fact that the circus had been partially destroyed by fire in 31
B.C., it may be supposed that besides this he had restored it
altogether. Only the lower tiers of seats were of stone, the others
being of wood, and this, from the liability to fire, may account for the
frequent restorations to which the circus was subject; it would also
explain the falling of the seats by which a crowd of people were killed
in the time of Antoninus Pius. In the reign of Claudius, apparently
after a fire, the _carceres_ of stone (tufa) were replaced by marble,
and the _metae_ of wood by gilt bronze. Under Domitian, again, after a
fire, the circus was rebuilt and the carceres increased to 12 instead of
8 as before. The work was finished by Trajan. See further for seating
capacity, &c., ROME: _Archaeology_, § "Places of Amusement."

The circus was the only public spectacle at which men and women were not
separated. The lower seats were reserved for persons of rank; there were
also various state boxes, e.g. for the giver of the games and his
friends (called _cubicula_ or _suggestus_). The principal object of
attraction apart from the racing must have been the _spina_ or low wall
which ran down the middle of the course, with its obelisks, images and
ornamental shrines. On it also were seven figures of dolphins and seven
oval objects, one of which was taken down at every round made in a race,
so that spectators might see readily how the contest proceeded. The
chariot race consisted of seven rounds of the course. The chariots
started abreast, but in an oblique line, so that the outer chariot might
be compensated for the wider circle it had to make at the other end.
Such a race was called a _missus_, and as many as 24 of these would take
place in a day. The competitors wore different colours, originally white
and red (_albata_ and _russata_), to which green (_prasina_) and blue
(_veneta_) were added. Domitian introduced two more colours, gold and
purple (_purpureus et auratus pannus_), which probably fell into disuse
after his death. To provide the horses and large staff of attendants it
was necessary to apply to rich capitalists and owners of studs, and from
this there grew up in time four select companies (_factiones_) of circus
purveyors, which were identified with the four colours, and with which
those who organized the races had to contract for the proper supply of
horses and men. The drivers (_aurigae, agitatores_), who were mostly
slaves, were sometimes held in high repute for their skill, although
their calling was regarded with contempt. The horses most valued were
those of Sicily, Spain and Cappadocia, and great care was taken in
training them. Chariots with two horses (_bigae_) or four (_quadrigae_)
were most common, but sometimes also they had three (_trigae_), and
exceptionally more than four horses. Occasionally there was combined
with the chariots a race of riders (_desultores_), each rider having two
horses and leaping from one to the other during the race. At certain of
the races the proceedings were opened by a _pompa_ or procession in
which images of the gods and of the imperial family deified were
conveyed in cars drawn by horses, mules or elephants, attended by the
colleges of priests, and led by the presiding magistrate (in some cases
by the emperor himself) seated in a chariot in the dress and with the
insignia of a triumphator. The procession passed from the capitol along
the forum, and on to the circus, where it was received by the people
standing and clapping their hands. The presiding magistrate gave the
signal for the races by throwing a white flag (_mappa_) on to the

Next in importance to the Circus Maximus in Rome was the _Circus
Flaminius_, erected 221 B.C., in the censorship of C. Flaminius, from
whom it may have taken its name; or the name may have been derived from
Prata Flaminia, where it was situated, and where also were held plebeian
meetings. The only games that are positively known to have been
celebrated in this circus were the _Ludi Taurii_ and _Plebeii_. There is
no mention of it after the 1st century. Its ruins were identified in the
16th century at S. Catarina dei Funari and the Palazzo Mattei.

A third circus in Rome was erected by Caligula in the gardens of
Agrippina, and was known as the _Circus Neronis_, from the notoriety
which it obtained through the Circensian pleasures of Nero. A fourth was
constructed by Maxentius outside the Porta Appia near the tomb of
Caecilia Metella, where its ruins are still, and now afford the only
instance from which an idea of the ancient circi in Rome can be
obtained. It was traced to Caracalla, till the discovery of an
inscription in 1825 showed it to be the work of Maxentius. Old
topographers speak of six circi, but two of these appear to be
imaginary, the Circus Florae and the Circus Sallustii.

Circus races were held in connexion with the following public festivals,
and generally on the last day of the festival, if it extended over more
than one day:--(1) The _Consualia_, August 21st, December 15th; (2)
_Equirria_, February 27th, March 14th; (3) _Ludi Romani_, September
4th-19th; (4) _Ludi Plebeii_, November 4th-17th; (5) _Cerialia_, April
12th-19th; (6) _Ludi Apollinares_, July 6th-13th; (7) _Ludi Megalenses_,
April 4th-10th; (8) _Floralia_, April 28th-May 3rd.

  In addition to Smith's _Dictionary of Antiquities_ (3rd ed., 1890),
  see articles in Daremberg and Saglio's _Dictionnaire des antiquités_,
  Pauly-Wissowa's _Realencyclopädie der classischen
  Altertumswissenschaft_, iii. 2 (1899), and Marquardt, _Römische
  Staatsverwaltung_, iii. (2nd ed., 1885), p. 504. For existing remains
  see works quoted under ROME: _Archaeology_.

2. _The Modern Circus._--The "circus" in modern times is a form of
popular entertainment which has little in common with the institution of
classical Rome. It is frequently nomadic in character, the place of the
permanent building known to the ancients as the circus being taken by a
tent, which is carried from place to place and set up temporarily on any
site procurable at country fairs or in provincial towns, and in which
spectacular performances are given by a troupe employed by the
proprietor. The centre of the tent forms an arena arranged as a
horse-ring, strewn with tan or other soft substance, where the
performances take place, the seats of the spectators being arranged in
ascending tiers around the central space as in the Roman circus. The
traditional type of exhibition in the modern travelling circus consists
of feats of horsemanship, such as leaping through hoops from the back of
a galloping horse, standing with one foot on each of two horses
galloping side by side, turning somersaults from a springboard over a
number of horses standing close together, or accomplishing acrobatic
tricks on horseback. These performances, by male and female riders, are
varied by the introduction of horses trained to perform tricks, and by
drolleries on the part of the clown, whose place in the circus is as
firmly established by tradition as in the pantomime.

The popularity of the circus in England may be traced to that kept by
Philip Astley (d. 1814) in London at the end of the 18th century. Astley
was followed by Ducrow, whose feats of horsemanship had much to do with
establishing the traditions of the circus, which were perpetuated by
Hengler's and Sanger's celebrated shows in a later generation. In
America a circus-actor named Ricketts is said to have performed before
George Washington in 1780, and in the first half of the 19th century the
establishments of Purdy, Welch & Co., and of van Amburgh gave a wide
popularity to the circus in the United States. All former
circus-proprietors were, however, far surpassed in enterprise and
resource by P.T. Barnum (q.v.), whose claim to be the possessor of "the
greatest show on earth" was no exaggeration. The influence of Barnum,
however, brought about a considerable change in the character of the
modern circus. In arenas too large for speech to be easily audible, the
traditional comic dialogue of the clown assumed a less prominent place
than formerly, while the vastly increased wealth of stage properties
relegated to the background the old-fashioned equestrian feats, which
were replaced by more ambitious acrobatic performances, and by
exhibitions of skill, strength and daring, requiring the employment of
immense numbers of performers and often of complicated and expensive
machinery. These tendencies are, as is natural, most marked in shows
given in permanent buildings in large cities, such as the London
Hippodrome, which was built as a combination of the circus, the
menagerie and the variety theatre, where wild animals such as lions and
elephants from time to time appeared in the ring, and where convulsions
of nature such as floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have been
produced with an extraordinary wealth of realistic display. At the
Hippodrome in Paris--unlike its London namesake, a circus of the true
classical type in which the arena is entirely surrounded by the seats of
the spectators--chariot races after the Roman model were held in the
latter part of the 19th century, at which prizes of considerable value
were given by the management.

CIRENCESTER (traditionally pronounced _Ciceter_), a market town in the
Cirencester parliamentary division of Gloucestershire, England, on the
river Churn, a tributary of the Thames, 93 m. W.N.W. of London. Pop. of
urban district (1901) 7536. It is served by a branch of the Great
Western railway, and there is also a station on the Midland and
South-Western Junction railway. This is an ancient and prosperous market
town of picturesque old houses clustering round a fine parish church,
with a high embattled tower, and a remarkable south porch with parvise.
The church is mainly Perpendicular, and among its numerous chapels that
of St Catherine has a beautiful roof of fan-tracery in stone dated 1508.
Of the abbey founded in 1117 by Henry I. there remain a Norman gateway
and a few capitals. There are two good museums containing mosaics,
inscriptions, carved and sculptured stones, and many smaller remains,
for the town was the Roman _Corinium_ or _Durocornovium Dobunorum_.
Little trace of Corinium, however, can be seen _in situ_, except the
amphitheatre and some indications of the walls. To the west of the town
is Cirencester House, the seat of Earl Bathurst. The first Lord Bathurst
(1684-1775) devoted himself to beautifying the fine demesne of Oakley
Park, which he planted and adorned with remarkable artificial ruins.
This nobleman, who became baron in 1711 and earl in 1772, was a patron
of art and literature no less than a statesman; and Pope, a frequent
visitor here, was allowed to design the building known as Pope's Seat,
in the park, commanding a splendid prospect of woods and avenues. Swift
was another appreciative visitor. The house contains portraits by
Lawrence, Gainsborough, Romney, Lely, Reynolds, Hoppner, Kneller and
many others. A mile west of the town is the Royal Agricultural College,
incorporated by charter in 1845. Its buildings include a chapel, a
dining hall, a library, a lecture theatre, laboratories, classrooms,
private studies and dormitories for the students, apartments for
resident professors, and servants' offices; also a museum containing a
collection of anatomical and pathological preparations, and
mineralogical, botanical and geological specimens. The college farm
comprises 500 acres, 450 of which are arable; and on it are the
well-appointed farm-buildings and the veterinary hospital. Besides
agriculture, the course of instruction at the college includes
chemistry, natural and mechanical philosophy, natural history,
mensuration, surveying and drawing, and other subjects of practical
importance to the farmer, proficiency in which is tested by means of
sessional examinations. The industries of Cirencester comprise various
branches of agriculture. It has connexion by a branch canal with the
Thames and Severn canal.

Corinium was a flourishing Romano-British town, at first perhaps a
cavalry post, but afterwards, for the greater part of the Roman period,
purely a civilian city. At Chedworth, 7 m. N.E., is one of the most
noteworthy Roman villas in England. Cirencester (_Cirneceaster_,
_Cyrenceaster_, _Cyringceaster_) is described in Domesday as ancient
demesne of the crown. The manor was granted by William I. to William
Fitzosbern; on reverting to the crown it was given in 1189, with the
township, to the Augustinian abbey founded here by Henry I. The struggle
of the townsmen to prove that Cirencester was a borough probably began
in the same year, when they were amerced for a false presentment. Four
inquisitions during the 13th century supported the abbot's claims, yet
in 1343 the townsmen declared in a chancery bill of complaint that
Cirencester was a borough distinct from the manor, belonging to the king
but usurped by the abbot, who since 1308 had abated their court of
provostry. Accordingly they produced a copy of a forged charter from
Henry I. to the town; the court ignored this and the abbot obtained a
new charter and a writ of _supersedeas_. For their success against the
earls of Kent and Salisbury Henry IV. in 1403 gave the townsmen a gild
merchant, although two inquisitions reiterated the abbot's rights.
These were confirmed in 1408-1409 and 1413; in 1418 the charter was
annulled, and in 1477 parliament declared that Cirencester was not
corporate. After several unsuccessful attempts to re-establish the gild
merchant, the government in 1592 was vested in the bailiff of the lord
of the manor. Cirencester became a parliamentary borough in 1572,
returning two members, but was deprived of representation in 1885.
Besides the "new market" of Domesday Book the abbots obtained charters
in 1215 and 1253 for fairs during the octaves of All Saints and St
Thomas the Martyr. The wool trade gave these great importance; in 1341
there were ten wool merchants in Cirencester, and Leland speaks of the
abbots' cloth-mill, while Camden calls it the greatest market for wool
in England.

  See _Transactions_ of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological
  Society, vols. ii., ix., xviii.

CIRILLO, DOMENICO (1739-1799), Italian physician and patriot, was born
at Grumo in the kingdom of Naples. Appointed while yet a young man to a
botanical professorship, Cirillo went some years afterwards to England,
where he was elected fellow of the Royal Society, and to France. On his
return to Naples he was appointed successively to the chairs of
practical and theoretical medicine. He wrote voluminously and well on
scientific subjects and secured an extensive medical practice. On the
French occupation of Naples and the proclamation of the Parthenopean
republic (1799), Cirillo, after at first refusing to take part in the
new government, consented to be chosen a representative of the people
and became a member of the legislative commission, of which he was
eventually elected president. On the abandonment of the republic by the
French (June 1799), Cardinal Ruffo and the army of King Ferdinand IV.
returned to Naples, and the Republicans withdrew, ill-armed and
inadequately provisioned, to the forts. After a short siege they
surrendered on honourable terms, life and liberty being guaranteed them
by the signatures of Ruffo, of Foote, and of Micheroux. But the arrival
of Nelson changed the complexion of affairs, and he refused to ratify
the capitulation. Secure under the British flag, Ferdinand and his wife,
Caroline of Austria, showed themselves eager for revenge, and Cirillo
was involved with the other republicans in the vengeance of the royal
family. He asked Lady Hamilton (wife of the British minister to Naples)
to intercede on his behalf, but Nelson wrote in reference to the
petition: "Domenico Cirillo, who had been the king's physician, might
have been saved, but that he chose to play the fool and lie, denying
that he had ever made any speeches against the government, and saying
that he only took care of the poor in the hospitals" (_Nelson and the
Neapolitan Jacobins_, Navy Records Society, 1903). He was condemned and
hanged on the 29th of October 1799. Cirillo, whose favourite study was
botany, and who was recognized as an entomologist by Linnaeus, left many
books, in Latin and Italian, all of them treating of medical and
scientific subjects, and all of little value now. Exception must,
however, be made in favour of the _Virtù morali dell' Asino_, a pleasant
philosophical pamphlet remarkable for its double charm of sense and
style. He introduced many medical innovations into Naples, particularly
inoculation for smallpox.

  See C. Giglioli, _Naples in 1799_ (London, 1903); L. Conforti, _Napoli
  nel 1799_ (Naples, 1889); C. Tivaroni, _L' Italia durante il dominio
  francese_, vol. ii. pp. 179-204. Also under NAPLES; NELSON and

CIRQUE (Lat. _circus_, ring), a French word used in physical geography
to denote a semicircular crater-like amphitheatre at the head of a
valley, or in the side of a glaciated mountain. The valley cirque is
characteristic of calcareous districts. In the Chiltern Hills
especially, and generally along the chalk escarpments, a flat-bottomed
valley with an intermittent stream winds into the hill and ends suddenly
in a cirque. There is an excellent example at Ivinghoe, Buckinghamshire,
where it appears as though an enormous flat-bottomed scoop had been
driven into the hillside and dragged outwards to the plain. In all cases
it is found that the valley floor consists of hard or impervious rock
above which lies a permeable or soluble stratum of considerable
thickness. In the case of the chalk hills the upper strata are very
porous, and the descending water with atmospheric and humous acids in
solution has great solvent power. During the winter this upper layer
becomes saturated and some of the water drains away along joints in the
escarpment. An underground stream is thus developed carrying away a
great deal of material in solution, and in consequence the ground above
slowly collapses over the stream, while the cirque at the head, where
the stream issues, gradually works backward and may pass completely
through the hills, leaving a gap of which another drainage system may
take possession. In the limestone country of the Cotteswold Hills, many
small intermittent tributary streams are headed by cirques, and some of
the longer dry valleys have springs issuing from beneath their lower
ends, the dry valleys being collapsed areas above underground streams
not yet revealed. In this case the pervious limestone is underlain by
beds of impervious clay. There are many of these in the Jura Mountains.
The Cirque de St Sulpice is a fine example where the impervious bed is a
marly clay.

The origin of the glacial cirque is entirely different and is said by
W.D. Johnson (_Journal of Geology_, xii. No. 7, 1904) to be due to basal
sapping and erosion under the _bergschrund_ of the glacier. In this he
is supported by G.K. Gilbert in the same journal, who produces some
remarkable examples from the Sierra Nevada in California, where the
mountain fragments have been left behind "like a sheet of dough upon a
board after the biscuit tin has done its work"; so that above the head
of the glaciers "the rock detail is rugged and splintered but its
general effect is that of a great symmetrical arc." Descending one of
the bergschrunds of Mt. Lyell to a depth of 150 ft., Johnson found a
rock floor cumbered with ice and blocks of rock and the rock face a
literally vertical cliff "much riven, its fracture planes outlining
sharp angular masses in all stages of displacement and dislodgment."
Judging from these facts, he interprets the deep valleys with cirques at
their head in formerly glaciated regions where at the head there is a
"reversed grade" of slope, as due to ice-erosion at valley-heads where
scour is impossible at the sides of the mountain but strongest under the
glacier head where the ice is deepest. The opponents of ice-erosion
nevertheless recognize the very frequent occurrence of glacial cirques
often containing small lakes such as that under Cader Idris in Wales, or
at the head of Little Timber Creek, Montana, and numerous examples in
Alpine districts.

CIRTA (mod. _Constantine_, q.v.), an ancient city of Numidia, in Africa,
in the country of the Massyli. It was regarded by the Romans as the
strongest position in Numidia, and was made by them the converging point
of all their great military roads in that country. By the early emperors
it was allowed to fall into decay, but was afterwards restored by
Constantine, from whom it took its modern name.

CISSEY, ERNEST LOUIS OCTAVE COURTOT DE (1810-1882), French general, was
born at Paris on the 23rd of September 1810, and after passing through
St Cyr, entered the army in 1832, becoming captain in 1839. He saw
active service in Algeria, and became _chef d'escadron_ in 1849 and
lieutenant-colonel in 1850. He took part as a colonel in the Crimean
War, and after the battle of Inkerman received the rank of general of
brigade. In 1863 he was promoted general of division. When the
Franco-German War broke out in 1870, de Cissey was given a divisional
command in the Army of the Rhine, and he was included in the surrender
of Bazaine's army at Metz. He was released from captivity only at the
end of the war, and on his return was at once appointed by the
Versailles government to a command in the army engaged in the
suppression of the Commune, a task in the execution of which he
displayed great rigour. From July 1871 de Cissey sat as a deputy, and he
had already become minister of war. He occupied this post several times
during the critical period of the reorganization of the French army. In
1880, whilst holding the command of the XI. corps at Nantes, he was
accused of having relations with a certain Baroness Kaula, who was said
to be a spy in the pay of Germany, and he was in consequence relieved
from duty. An inquiry subsequently held resulted in de Cissey's favour
(1881). He died on the 15th of June 1882 at Paris.

CISSOID (from the Gr. [Greek: kissos], ivy, and [Greek: eidos], form), a
curve invented by the Greek mathematician Diocles about 180 B.C., for
the purpose of constructing two mean proportionals between two given
lines, and in order to solve the problem of duplicating the cube. It was
further investigated by John Wallis, Christiaan Huygens (who determined
the length of any arc in 1657), and Pierre de Fermat (who evaluated the
area between the curve and its asymptote in 1661). It is constructed in
the following manner. Let APB be a semicircle, BT the tangent at B, and
APT a line cutting the circle in P and BT at T; take a point Q on AT so
that AQ always equals PT; then the locus of Q is the cissoid. Sir Isaac
Newton devised the following mechanical construction. Take a rod LMN
bent at right angles at M, such that MN = AB; let the leg LM always pass
through a fixed point O on AB produced such that OA = CA, where C is the
middle point of AB, and cause N to travel along the line perpendicular
to AB at C; then the midpoint of MN traces the cissoid. The curve is
symmetrical about the axis of x, and consists of two infinite branches
asymptotic to the line BT and forming a cusp at the origin. The
cartesian equation, when A is the origin and AB = 2a, is y²(2a - x) =
x³; the polar equation is r = 2a sin [theta] tan [theta]. The cissoid is
the first positive pedal of the parabola y² + 8ax = 0 for the vertex,
and the inverse of the parabola y² = 8ax, the vertex being the centre of
inversion, and the semi-latus rectum the constant of inversion. The area
between the curve and its asymptote is 3[pi]a², i.e. three times the
area of the generating circle.

The term cissoid has been given in modern times to curves generated in
similar manner from other figures than the circle, and the form
described above is distinguished as the cissoid of Diocles.


A _cissoid angle_ is the angle included between the concave sides of two
intersecting curves; the convex sides include the _sistroid angle_.

  See John Wallis, _Collected Works_, vol. i.; T.H. Eagles, _Plane
  Curves_ (1885).

CIS-SUTLEJ STATES, the southern portion of the Punjab, India. The name,
now obsolete, came into use in 1809, when the Sikh chiefs south of the
Sutlej passed under British protection, and was generally applied to the
country south of the Sutlej and north of the Delhi territory, bounded on
the E. by the Himalayas, and on the W. by Sirsa district. Before 1846
the greater part of this territory was independent, the chiefs being
subject merely to control from a political officer stationed at Umballa,
and styled the agent of the governor-general for the Cis-Sutlej states.
After the first Sikh War the full administration of the territory became
vested in this officer. In 1849 occurred the annexation of the Punjab,
when the Cis-Sutlej states commissionership, comprising the districts of
Umballa, Ferozepore, Ludhiana, Thanesar and Simla, was incorporated with
the new province. The name continued to be applied to this division
until 1862, when, owing to Ferozepore having been transferred to the
Lahore, and a part of Thanesar to the Delhi division, it ceased to be
appropriate. Since then, the tract remaining has been known as the
Umballa division. Patiala, Jind and Nabha were appointed a separate
political agency in 1901. Excluding Bahawalpur, for which there is no
political agent, and Chamba, the other states are grouped under the
commissioners of Jullunder and Delhi, and the superintendent of the
Simla hill states.

CIST (Gr. [Greek: kistê], Lat. _cista_, a box; cf. Ger. _Kiste_, Welsh
_kistvaen_, stone-coffin, and also the other Eng. form "chest"), in
Greek archaeology, a wicker-work receptacle used in the Eleusinian and
other mysteries to carry the sacred vessels; also, in the archaeology
of prehistoric man, a coffin formed of flat stones placed edgeways with
another flat stone for a cover. The word is also used for a sepulchral
chamber cut in the rock (see COFFIN).

"Cistern," the common term for a water-tank, is a derivation of the same
word (Lat. _cisterna_; cf. "cave" and "cavern").

CISTERCIANS, otherwise GREY or WHITE MONKS (from the colour of the
habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron). In 1098 St Robert,
born of a noble family in Champagne, at first a Benedictine monk, and
then abbot of certain hermits settled at Molesme near Châtillon, being
dissatisfied with the manner of life and observance there, migrated with
twenty of the monks to a swampy place called Cîteaux in the diocese of
Châlons, not far from Dijon. Count Odo of Burgundy here built them a
monastery, and they began to live a life of strict observance according
to the letter of St Benedict's rule. In the following year Robert was
compelled by papal authority to return to Molesme, and Alberic succeeded
him as abbot of Cîteaux and held the office till his death in 1109, when
the Englishman St Stephen Harding became abbot, until 1134. For some
years the new institute seemed little likely to prosper; few novices
came, and in the first years of Stephen's abbacy it seemed doomed to
failure. In 1112, however, St Bernard and thirty others offered
themselves to the monastery, and a rapid and wonderful development at
once set in. The next three years witnessed the foundation of the four
great "daughter-houses of Cîteaux"--La Ferté, Pontigny, Clairvaux and
Morimond. At Stephen's death there were over 30 Cistercian houses; at
Bernard's (1154) over 280; and by the end of the century over 500; and
the Cistercian influence in the Church more than kept pace with this
material expansion, so that St Bernard saw one of his monks ascend the
papal chair as Eugenius III.

The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to a literal observance of
St Benedict's rule--how literal may be seen from the controversy between
St Bernard and Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny (see Maitland, _Dark
Ages_, § xxii.). The Cistercians rejected alike all mitigations and all
developments, and tried to reproduce the life exactly as it had been in
St Benedict's time, indeed in various points they went beyond it in
austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to
manual labour, and especially to field-work, which became a special
characteristic of Cistercian life. In order to make time for this work
they cut away the accretions to the divine office which had been
steadily growing during three centuries, and in Cluny and the other
Black Monk monasteries had come to exceed greatly in length the regular
canonical office: one only of these accretions did they retain, the
daily recitation of the Office of the Dead (Edm. Bishop, _Origin of the
Primer_, Early English Text Society, original series, 109, p. xxx.).

It was as agriculturists and horse and cattle breeders that, after the
first blush of their success and before a century had passed, the
Cistercians exercised their chief influence on the progress of
civilization in the later middle ages: they were the great farmers of
those days, and many of the improvements in the various farming
operations were introduced and propagated by them; it is from this point
of view that the importance of their extension in northern Europe is to
be estimated. The Cistercians at the beginning renounced all sources of
income arising from benefices, tithes, tolls and rents, and depended for
their income wholly on the land. This developed an organized system for
selling their farm produce, cattle and horses, and notably contributed
to the commercial progress of the countries of western Europe. Thus by
the middle of the 13th century the export of wool by the English
Cistercians had become a feature in the commerce of the country. Farming
operations on so extensive a scale could not be carried out by the monks
alone, whose choir and religious duties took up a considerable portion
of their time; and so from the beginning the system of lay brothers was
introduced on a large scale. The lay brothers were recruited from the
peasantry and were simple uneducated men, whose function consisted in
carrying out the various field-works and plying all sorts of useful
trades; they formed a body of men who lived alongside of the choir
monks, but separate from them, not taking part in the canonical office,
but having their own fixed round of prayer and religious exercises. A
lay brother was never ordained, and never held any office of
superiority. It was by this system of lay brothers that the Cistercians
were able to play their distinctive part in the progress of European
civilization. But it often happened that the number of lay brothers
became excessive and out of proportion to the resources of the
monasteries, there being sometimes as many as 200, or even 300, in a
single abbey. On the other hand, at any rate in some countries, the
system of lay brothers in course of time worked itself out; thus in
England by the close of the 14th century it had shrunk to relatively
small proportions, and in the 15th century the régime of the English
Cistercian houses tended to approximate more and more to that of the
Black Monks.

The Cistercian polity calls for special mention. Its lines were
adumbrated by Alberic, but it received its final form at a meeting of
the abbots in the time of Stephen Harding, when was drawn up the _Carta
Caritatis_ (Migne, _Patrol. Lat._ clxvi. 1377), a document which
arranged the relations between the various houses of the Cistercian
order, and exercised a great influence also upon the future course of
western monachism. From one point of view, it may be regarded as a
compromise between the primitive Benedictine system, whereby each abbey
was autonomous and isolated, and the complete centralization of Cluny,
whereby the abbot of Cluny was the only true superior in the body.
Cîteaux, on the one hand, maintained the independent organic life of the
houses--each abbey had its own abbot, elected by its own monks; its own
community, belonging to itself and not to the order in general; its own
property and finances administered by itself, without interference from
outside. On the other hand, all the abbeys were subjected to the general
chapter, which met yearly at Cîteaux, and consisted of the abbots only;
the abbot of Cîteaux was the president of the chapter and of the order,
and the visitor of each and every house, with a predominant influence
and the power of enforcing everywhere exact conformity to Cîteaux in all
details of the exterior life--observance, chant, customs. The principle
was that Cîteaux should always be the model to which all the other
houses had to conform. In case of any divergence of view at the chapter,
the side taken by the abbot of Cîteaux was always to prevail (see F.A.
Gasquet, _Sketch of Monastic Constitutional History_, pp. xxxv-xxxviii,
prefixed to English trans, of Montalembert's _Monks of the West_, ed.

By the end of the 12th century the Cistercian houses numbered 500; in
the 13th a hundred more were added; and in the 15th, when the order
attained its greatest extension, there were close on 750 houses: the
larger figures sometimes given are now recognized as apocryphal. Nearly
half of the houses had been founded, directly or indirectly, from
Clairvaux, so great was St Bernard's influence and prestige: indeed he
has come almost to be regarded as the founder of the Cistercians, who
have often been called Bernardines. The order was spread all over
western Europe,--chiefly in France, but also in Germany, England,
Scotland, Ireland, Sweden, Poland, Hungary, Italy and Sicily, Spain and
Portugal,--where some of the houses, as Alcobaça, were of almost
incredible magnificence. In England the first foundation was Furness
(1127), and many of the most beautiful monastic buildings of the
country, beautiful in themselves and beautiful in their sites, were
Cistercian,--as Tintern, Rievaulx, Byland, Fountains. A hundred were
established in England in the next hundred years, and then only one more
up to the Dissolution (for list, see table and map in F.A. Gasquet's
_English Monastic Life_, or _Catholic Dictionary_, art. "Cistercians").

For a hundred years, till the first quarter of the 13th century, the
Cistercians supplanted Cluny as the most powerful order and the chief
religious influence in western Europe. But then in turn their influence
began to wane, chiefly, no doubt, because of the rise of the mendicant
orders, who ministered more directly to the needs and ideas of the new
age. But some of the reasons of Cistercian decline were internal. In the
first place, there was the permanent difficulty of maintaining in its
first fervour a body embracing hundreds of monasteries and thousands of
monks, spread all over Europe; and as the Cistercian very _raison
d'être_ consisted in its being a "reform," a return to primitive
monachism, with its field-work and severe simplicity, any failures to
live up to the ideal proposed worked more disastrously among Cistercians
than among mere Benedictines, who were intended to live a life of
self-denial, but not of great austerity. Relaxations were gradually
introduced in regard to diet and to simplicity of life, and also in
regard to the sources of income, rents and tolls being admitted and
benefices incorporated, as was done among the Benedictines; the farming
operations tended to produce a commercial spirit; wealth and splendour
invaded many of the monasteries, and the choir monks abandoned

The later history of the Cistercians is largely one of attempted
revivals and reforms. The general chapter for long battled bravely
against the invasion of relaxations and abuses. In 1335 Benedict XII.,
himself a Cistercian, promulgated a series of regulations to restore the
primitive spirit of the order, and in the 15th century various popes
endeavoured to promote reforms. All these efforts at a reform of the
great body of the order proved unavailing; but local reforms, producing
various semi-independent offshoots and congregations, were successfully
carried out in many parts in the course of the 15th and 16th centuries.
In the 17th another great effort at a general reform was made, promoted
by the pope and the king of France; the general chapter elected
Richelieu (commendatory) abbot of Cîteaux, thinking he would protect
them from the threatened reform. In this they were disappointed, for he
threw himself wholly on the side of reform. So great, however, was the
resistance, and so serious the disturbances that ensued, that the
attempt to reform Cîteaux itself and the general body of the houses had
again to be abandoned, and only local projects of reform could be
carried out. In 1598 had arisen the reformed congregation of the
Feuillants, which spread widely in France and Italy, in the latter
country under the name of "Improved Bernardines." The French
congregation of Sept-Fontaines (1654) also deserves mention. In 1663 de
Rancé reformed La Trappe (see TRAPPISTS).

The Reformation, the ecclesiastical policy of Joseph II., the French
Revolution, and the revolutions of the 19th century, almost wholly
destroyed the Cistercians; but some survived, and since the beginning of
the last half of the 19th century there has been a considerable
recovery. They are at present divided into three bodies: (1) the Common
Observance, with about 30 monasteries and 800 choir monks, the large
majority being in Austria-Hungary; they represent the main body of the
order and follow a mitigated rule of life; they do not carry on
field-work, but have large secondary schools, and are in manner of life
little different from fairly observant Benedictine Black monks; of late
years, however, signs are not wanting of a tendency towards a return to
older ideas; (2) the Middle Observance, embracing some dozen monasteries
and about 150 choir monks; (3) the Strict Observance, or Trappists
(q.v.), with nearly 60 monasteries, about 1600 choir monks and 2000 lay

In all there are about 100 Cistercian monasteries and about 4700 monks,
including lay brothers. There have always been a large number of
Cistercian nuns; the first nunnery was founded at Tart in the diocese of
Langres, 1125; at the period of their widest extension there are said to
have been 900 nunneries, and the communities were very large. The nuns
were devoted to contemplation and also did field-work. In Spain and
France certain Cistercian abbesses had extraordinary privileges.
Numerous reforms took place among the nuns. The best known of all
Cistercian convents was probably Port-Royal (q.v.), reformed by
Angélique Arnaud, and associated with the story of the Jansenist
controversy. After all the troubles of the 19th century there still
exist 100 Cistercian nunneries with 3000 nuns, choir and lay; of these,
15 nunneries with 900 nuns are Trappist.

  Accounts of the beginnings of the Cistercians and of the primitive
  life and spirit will be found in the lives of St Bernard, the best
  whereof is that of Abbé E. Vacandard (1895); also in the Life of St
  Stephen Harding, in the _English Saints_. See also Henry Collins (one
  of the Oxford Movement, who became a Cistercian), _Spirit and Mission
  of the Cistercian Order_ (1866). The facts are related in Helyot,
  _Hist. des ordres religieux_ (1792), v. cc. 33-46, vi cc. 1, 2. Useful
  sketches, with references to the literature, are supplied in Herzog,
  _Realencyklopädie_ (ed. 3), art. "Cistercienser"; Wetzer und Welte,
  _Kirchenlexikon_ (ed. 2), art. "Cistercienserorden"; Max Heimbucher,
  _Orden und Kongregationen_ (1896), i. §§ 33, 34. Prof. Brewer's
  discriminating, yet on the whole sympathetic, Preface to vol. iv. of
  the Works of Giraldus Cambrensis (Rolls Series of _Chronicles and
  Memorials_) is very instructive. Denis Murphy's _Triumphalia
  Monasterii S. Crucis_ (1891) contains a general sketch, with a
  particular account of the Irish Cistercians.    (E. C. B.)

CITATION (Lat. _citare_, to cite), in law, a summons to appear, more
particularly applied in England to process in the probate and divorce
division of the high court. In the ecclesiastical courts, citation was a
method of commencing a probate suit, answering to a writ of summons at
common law, and it is now in English probate practice an instrument
issuing from the principal probate registry, chiefly used when a person,
having the superior right to take a grant, delays or declines to do so,
and another having an inferior right desires to obtain a grant; the
party having the prior right is cited to appear and either to renounce
the grant or show cause why it should not be decreed to the citator. In
divorce practice, when a petitioner has filed his petition and
affidavit, he extracts a citation, i.e. a command drawn in the name of
the sovereign and signed by one of the registrars of the court, calling
upon the alleged offender to appear and make answer to the petition. In
Scots law, citation is used in the sense of a writ of summons. The word
in its more general literary sense means the act of quoting, or the
referring to an authority in support of an argument.

CÎTEAUX, a village of eastern France, in the department of Côte d'Or, 16
m. S.S.E. of Dijon by road. It is celebrated for the great abbey founded
by Robert, abbot of Molesme, in 1098, which became the headquarters of
the Cistercian order. The buildings which remain date chiefly from the
18th century and are of little interest. The church, destroyed in 1792,
used to contain the tombs of the earlier dukes of Burgundy.

CITHAERON, now called from its pine forests Elatea, a famous mountain
range (4626 ft.) in the south of Boeotia, separating that state from
Megaris and Attica. It was famous in Greek mythology, and is frequently
mentioned by the great poets, especially by Sophocles. It was on
Cithaeron that Aetaeon was changed into a stag, that Pentheus was torn
to pieces by the Bacchantes whose orgies he had been watching, and that
the infant Oedipus was exposed. This mountain, too, was the scene of the
mystic rites of Dionysus, and the festival of the Daedala in honour of
Hera. The carriage-road from Athens to Thebes crosses the range by a
picturesque defile (the pass of Dryoscephalae, "Oak-heads"), which was
at one time guarded on the Attic side by a strong fortress, the ruins of
which are known as Ghyphto-kastro ("Gipsy Castle"). Plataea is situated
on the north slope of the mountain, and the strategy of the battle of
479 B.C. was considerably affected by the fact that it was necessary for
the Greeks to keep their communications open by the passes (see
PLATAEA). The best known of these is that of Dryoscephalae, which must
then, as now, have been the direct route from Athens to Thebes. Two
other passes, farther to the west, were crossed by the roads from
Plataea to Athens and to Megara respectively.    (E. GR.)

CITHARA (Assyrian _chetarah_; Gr. [Greek: kithara]; Lat. _cithara_;
perhaps Heb. _kinura, kinnor_), one of the most ancient stringed
instruments, traced back to 1700 B.C. among the Semitic races, in Egypt,
Assyria, Asia Minor, Greece and the Roman empire, whence the use of it
spread over Europe. The main feature of the Greek _kithara_, its shallow
sound-chest, being the most important part of it, is also that in which
developments are most noticeable; its contour varied considerably during
the many musical ages, but the characteristic in respect of which it
fore-shadowed the precursors of the violin family, and by which they
were distinguished from other contemporary stringed instruments of the
middle ages, was preserved throughout in all European descendants
bearing derived names. This characteristic box sound-chest (fig. 1)
consisted of two resonating tables, either flat or delicately arched,
connected by ribs or sides of equal width. The cithara may be regarded
as an attempt by a more skilful craftsman or race to improve upon the
lyre (q.v.), while retaining some of its features. The construction of
the cithara can fortunately be accurately studied from two actual
specimens found in Egypt and preserved in the museums of Berlin and
Leiden. The Leiden cithara (fig. 2), which forms part of the d'Anastasy
Collection in the Museum of Antiquities, is in a very good state of
preservation. The sound-chest, in the form of an irregular square (17
cm. X 17 cm.), is hollowed out of a solid block of wood from the base,
which is open; the little bar, seen through the open base and measuring
2½ cm. (1 in.), is also of the same piece of wood. The arms, one short
and one long, are solid and are fixed to the body by means of wooden
pins; they are glued as well for greater strength. W. Pleyte, through
whose courtesy the sketch was revised and corrected, states that there
are no indications on the instrument of any kind of bridge or attachment
for strings except the little half-hoop of iron wire which passes
through the base from back to front. To this the strings were probably
attached, and the little bar performed the double duty of sound-post and
support for strengthening the tail-piece and enabling it to resist the
tension of the strings. The oblique transverse bar, rendered necessary
by the increasing length of the strings, was characteristic of the
Egyptian cithara,[1] whereas the Asiatic and Greek instruments were
generally constructed with horizontal bars resting on arms of equal
length, the pitch of the strings being varied by thickness and tension,
instead of by length. (For the Berlin cithara see LYRE.)

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Nero Citharoedus (_Mus. Pio-Clementino_),
showing back of a Roman Cithara.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Ancient Egyptian Cithara from Thebes. Museum of
Antiquities, Leiden.]

The number of strings with which the cithara was strung varied from 4 to
19 or 20 at different times; they were added less for the purpose of
increasing the compass in the modern sense than to enable the performer
to play in the different modes of the Greek musical system. Terpander is
credited with having increased the number of strings to seven; Euclid,
quoting him as his authority, states that "loving no more the
tetrachordal chant, we will sing aloud new hymns to a seven-toned

What has been said of the scale of the lyre applies also to the cithara,
and need therefore not be repeated here. The strings were vibrated by
means of the fingers or plectrum ([Greek: plêktron], from [Greek:
plêssein], to strike; Lat. _plectrum_, from _plango_, I strike).
Twanging with the fingers for strings of gut, hemp or silk was
undoubtedly the more artistic method, since the player was able to
command various shades of expression which are impossible with a rigid
plectrum.[2] Loudness of accent and great brilliancy of tone, however,
can only be obtained by the use of the plectrum.

Quotations from the classics abound to show what was the practice of the
Greeks and Romans in this respect. The plectrum was held in the right
hand, with elbow outstretched and palm bent inwards, and the strings
were plucked with the straightened fingers of the left hand.[3] Both
methods were used with intention according to the dictates of art for
the sake of the variation in tone colour obtainable thereby.[4]

The strings of the cithara were either knotted round the transverse
tuning bar itself (_zugon_) or to rings threaded over the bar, which
enabled the performer to increase or decrease the tension by shifting
the knots or rings; or else they were wound round pegs,[5] knobs[6] or
pins[7] fixed to the zugon. The other end of the strings was secured to
a tail-piece after passing over a flat bridge, or the two were combined
in the curious high box tail-piece which acted as a bridge. Plutarch[8]
states that this contrivance was added to the cithara in the days of
Cepion, pupil of Terpander. These boxes were hinged in order to allow
the lid to be opened for the purpose of securing the strings to some
contrivance concealed therein. It is a curious fact that no sculptured
cithara provided with this box tail-piece is represented with strings,
and in many cases there could never have been any, for the hand and
arm[9] are visible across the space that would be filled by the strings,
which are always carved in a solid block.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Apollo Citharoedus, showing Cithara with box

Like the lyre the cithara was made in many sizes, conditioned by the
pitch and the use to which the instrument was to be put. These
instruments may have been distinguished by different names; the
_pectis_, for instance, is declared by Sappho (22nd fragment) to have
been small and shrill; the _phorminx_, on the other hand, seems to have
been identical with the cithara.[10]

The Greek _kithara_ was the instrument of the professional singer or
citharoedus ([Greek: kitharôdos]) and of the instrumentalist or
citharista ([Greek: kitharistês]), and thus served the double purpose of
(1) accompanying the voice--a use placed by the Greeks far above mere
instrumental music--in epic recitations and rhapsodies, in odes and
lyric songs; and (2) of accompanying the dance; it was also used for
playing solos at the national games, at receptions and banquets and at
trials of skill. The costume of the citharoedus and citharista was rich
and recognized as being distinctive; it varied but little throughout the
ages, as may be deduced from a comparison of representations of the
citharoedus on a coin and on a Greek vase of the best period (fig. 4).
The costume consisted of a _palla_ or long tunic with sleeves
embroidered with gold and girt high above the waist, falling in graceful
folds to the feet. This _palla_ must not be confounded with the mantle
of the same name worn by women. Over one shoulder, or hanging down the
back, was the purple _chlamys_ or cloak, and on his brow a golden wreath
of laurels. All the citharoedi bear instruments of the type here
described as the cithara, and never one of the lyre type. The records of
the citharoedi extend over more than thirteen centuries and fall into
two natural divisions: (1) The mythological period, approximately from
the 13th century B.C. to the first Olympiad, 776 B.C.; and (2) the
historical period to the days of Ptolemy, A.D. 161. One of the very few
authentic Greek odes extant is a Pythian ode by Pindar, in which the
phorminx of Apollo is mentioned; the solo is followed by a chorus of
citharoedi. The scope of the solemn games and processions, called
_Panathenaea_, held every four years in honour of the goddess Athena,
which originally consisted principally of athletic sports and horse and
chariot races, was extended under Peisistratus (c. 540 B.C.), and the
celebration made to include contests of singers and instrumentalists,
recitations of portions of the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_, such as are
represented on the frieze of the Parthenon (in the Elgin Room at the
British Museum) and later on friezes by Pheidias. It was at the same
period that the first contests for solo-playing on the cithara ([Greek:
kitharistus]) and for solo _aulos_-playing were instituted at the 8th
Pythian Games.[11] One of the principal items at these contests for
aulos and cithara was the _Nomos Pythikos_, descriptive of the victory
of Apollo over the python and of the defeat of the monster.[12]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Cithara or Phorminx, from a vase in the British

The Pythian Games survived the classic Greek period and were continued
under Roman sway until about A.D. 394. Not only were these games held at
Delphi, but smaller contests, called Pythia, modelled on the great
Pythian, were instituted in various provinces of the empire, and more
especially in Asia Minor. The games lasted for several days, the first
being devoted to music. To the games at Delphi came musicians from all
parts of the civilized world; and the Spaniards, at the beginning of our
era, had attained to such a marvellous proficiency in playing the
cithara, an instrument which they had learnt to know from the Phoenician
colonists before the conquest by the Romans, that some of their
citharoedi easily carried off the honours at the musical contests. The
consul Metellus was so charmed with the music of the Spanish competitors
that he sent some to Rome for the festivals, where the impression
created was so great that the Spanish citharoedi obtained a permanent
footing in Rome. Aulus Gellius (_Noct. Att._) describes an incident at a
banquet which corroborates this statement.

The degeneration of music as an art among the Romans, and its gradual
degradation by association with the sensual amusements of corrupt Rome,
nearly brought about its extinction at the end of the 4th century, when
the condemnation of the Church closed the theatres, and the great
national games came to an end. Instrumental music was banished from
civil life and from religious rites, and thenceforth the slender threads
which connect the musical instruments of Greeks and Romans with those of
the middle ages must be sought among the unconverted barbarians of
northern and western Europe, who kept alive the traditions taught them
by conquerors and colonists; but as civilization was in its infancy with
them the instruments sent out from their workshops must have been crude
and primitive. Asia, the cradle of the cithara, also became its
foster-mother; it was among the Greeks of Asia Minor that the several
steps in the transition from cithara into guitar[13] (q.v.) took place.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Asiatic Cithara in transition (or rotta). From a
fresco at Beni-Hasan (c. 1700 B.C.).]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Roman Cithara in transition, of the Lycian
Apollo (Rome Mus. Capit.).]

The first of these steps produced the rotta (q.v.), by the construction
of body, arms and transverse bar in one piece. The Semitic races used
the rotta at a very remote period (1700 B.C.), as we know from a fresco
at Beni-Hasan, dating from the reign of Senwosri II., which depicts a
procession of strangers bringing tribute; among them is a bearded
musician of Semitic type bearing a rotta which he holds horizontally in
front of him in the Assyrian manner, and quite unlike the Greeks, who
always played the lyre and cithara in an upright position. A unique
specimen of this rectangular rotta was found in an Alamannic tomb of the
5th or 6th century at Oberflacht in the Black Forest. The instrument was
clasped in the arms of an armed knight; it is now preserved in the
Völker Museum in Berlin. This old German rotta is an exact counterpart
of instruments pictured in illuminated MSS. of the 8th century, and is
derived from the cithara with rectangular body, while from the cithara
with a body having the curve of the lower half of the violin was
produced a rotta with the outline of the body of the guitar. Both types
were common in Europe until the 14th century, some played with a bow,
others twanged by the fingers, and bearing indifferently both names,
cithara and rotta. The addition of a finger-board, stretching like a
short neck from body to transverse bar, leaving on each side of the
finger-board space for the hand to pass through in order to stop the
strings, produced the crwth or crowd (q.v.), and brought about the
reduction in the number of the strings to three or four. The conversion
of the rotta into the guitar (q.v.) was an easy transition effected by
the addition of a long neck to a body derived from the oval rotta. When
the bow was applied the result was the guitar or troubadour fiddle. At
first the instrument called _cithara_ in the Latin versions of the
Psalms was glossed _citran, citre_ in Anglo-Saxon, but in the 11th
century the same instrument was rendered _hearpan_, and in French and
English _harpe_ or _harp_, and our modern versions have retained this
translation. The _cittern_ (q.v.), a later descendant of the cithara,
although preserving the characteristic features of the cithara, the
shallow sound-chest with ribs, adopted the pear-shaped outline of the
Eastern instruments of the lute tribe. (K.S.)


  [1] A drawing of an Egyptian cithara, similar to the Leiden
    specimen, may be seen in Champollion, _Monuments de l'Égypte et de
    la Nubie_, ii. pl. 175.

  [2] See Plutarch, _Apophthegm. Lacon._

  [3] Philostratus the Elder, _Imagines_, No. 10, "Amphion," and
    Philostratus the Younger, _Imagines_, No. 7, "Orpheus," p. 403.

  [4] Tibullus, _Eleg._ iii. 4. 39.

  [5] _Le Antichità de Ercolano_, vol. iii. p. 5.

  [6] _Idem_, vol. iv. p. 201.

  [7] Thomas Hope, _Costumes of the Ancients_, vol. ii. p. 193; also
    Edward Buhle, _Die musikalischen Instrumente in den Miniaturen des
    frühen Mittelalters_ (Leipzig, 1903), frontispiece.

  [8] See _De Musica_, ch. vi.

  [9] See Visconti, _Museo Clementino_, pl. 22, Erato's cithara, and
    in the same work that of Apollo Citharoedus (fig. 3 above).

  [10] See _Od._ i. 153, 155; _Il._ xviii. 569-570. In Homer the form
    is always [Greek: kitharis].

  [11] See Pausanias x. 7, § 4 et seq.

  [12] For a description of the _Nomos Pythikos_ in its relation to
    Greek music see Kathleen Schlesinger, "Researches into the Origin of
    the Organs of the Ancients," _Intern. Mus. Ges._ Sbd. ii. (1901), 2,
    p. 177, and Strabo ix. p. 421.

  [13] For a discussion of this question see Kathleen Schlesinger,
    _The Instruments of the Orchestra_, part ii., and especially
    chapters on the cithara in transition during the middle ages, and
    the question of the origin of the Utrecht Psalter, in which the
    evolution of the cithara is traced at some length.

CITIUM (Gr. [Greek: Kition]), the principal Phoenician city in Cyprus,
situated at the north end of modern Larnaca, on the bay of the same name
on the S.E. coast of the island. Converging currents from E. and W. meet
and pass seawards off Cape Kiti a few miles south, and greatly
facilitated ancient trade. To S. and W. the site is protected by
lagoons, the salt from which was one of the sources of its prosperity.
The earliest remains near the site go back to the Mycenaean age (c.
1400-1100 B.C.) and seem to mark an Aegean colony.[1] but in historic
times Citium is the chief centre of Phoenician influence in Cyprus. That
this was still a recent settlement in the 7th century is suggested by an
allusion in a list of the allies of Assur-bani-pal of Assyria in 668
B.C. to a King Damasu of Kartihadasti (Phoenician for "New-town"), where
Citium would be expected. A Phoenician dedication to "Baal of Lebanon"
found here, and dated also to the 7th century, suggests that Citium may
have belonged to Tyre. The biblical name Kittim, derived from Citium, is
in fact used quite generally for Cyprus as a whole;[2] later also for
Greeks and Romans in general.[3] The discovery here of an official
monument of Sargon II. suggests that Citium was the administrative
centre of Cyprus during the Assyrian protectorate (700-668 B.C.).[4]
During the Greek revolts of 500, 386 foll. and 352 B.C., Citium led the
side loyal to Persia and was besieged by an Athenian force in 449 B.C.;
its extensive necropolis proves that it remained a considerable city
even after the Greek cause triumphed with Alexander. But like other
cities of Cyprus, it suffered repeatedly from earthquake, and in
medieval times when its harbour became silted the population moved to
Larnaca, on the open roadstead, farther south. Harbour and citadel have
now quite disappeared, the latter having been used to fill up the former
shortly after the British occupation; some gain to health resulted, but
an irreparable loss to science. Traces remain of the circuit wall, and
of a sanctuary with copious terra-cotta offerings; the large necropolis
yields constant loot to illicit excavation.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--W.H. Engel, _Kypros_ (Berlin, 1841), (classical
  allusions); J.L. Myres, _Journ. Hellenic Studies_, xvii. 147 ff.
  (excavations); _Cyprus Museum Catalogue_ (Oxford, 1899), p. 5-6;
  153-155; Index (Antiquities); G.F. Hill, _Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins of
  Cyprus_ (London, 1904), (Coins). (J.L.M.)


  [1] Cf. the name Kathian in a Ramessid list of cities of Cyprus,
    Oberhummer, _Die Insel Cypern_ (Munich, 1903), p. 4.

  [2] Gen. x. 4; Num. xxiv. 24; Is. xxiii. 1, 12; Jer. ii. 10; Ezek.
    xxvii. 6.

  [3] Dan. xi. 30; I Macc. i. 1; viii. 5.

  [4] Schrader, "Die Sargonstele des Berliner Museums," in _Abh. d. k.
    Preuss. Akad. Wiss._ (1881); _Zur Geogr. d. assyr. Reiches_ (Berlin,
    1890), pp. 337-344.

CITIZEN (a form corrupted in Eng., apparently by analogy with "denizen,"
from O. Fr. _citeain_, mod. Fr. _citoyen_), etymologically the
inhabitant of a city, _cité_ or _civitas_ (see CITY), and in England the
term still used primarily of persons possessing civic rights in a
borough; thus used also of a townsman as opposed to a countryman. The
more extended use of the word, however, corresponding to _civitas_,
gives "citizen" the meaning of one who is a constituent member of a
state in international relations and as such has full national rights
and owes a certain allegiance (q.v.) as opposed to an "alien"; in
republican countries the term is then commonly employed as the
equivalent of "subject" in monarchies of feudal origin. For the rules
governing the obtaining of citizenship in this latter sense in the
United States and elsewhere see NATURALIZATION.

CITOLE, also spelled SYTOLE, CYTHOLE, GYTOLLE, &c. (probably a Fr.
diminutive form of _cithara_, and not from Lat. _cista_, a box), an
obsolete musical instrument of which the exact form is uncertain. It is
frequently mentioned by poetical writers of the 13th to the 15th
centuries, and is found in Wycliffe's Bible (1360) in 2 Samuel vi. 5,
"Harpis and sitols and tympane." The Authorized Version has
"psaltiries," and the Vulgate "lyrae." It has been supposed to be
another name for the psaltery (q.v.), a box-shaped instrument often seen
in the illuminated missals of the middle ages.

C3H4(OH) (CO·OH)3, a tetrahydroxytribasic acid, first obtained
in the solid state by Karl Wilhelm Scheele, in 1784, from the juice of
lemons. It is present also in oranges, citrons, currants, gooseberries
and many other fruits, and in several bulbs and tubers. It is made on a
large scale from lime or lemon juice, and also by the fermentation of
glucose under the influence of _Citromycetes pfefferianus, C. glaber_
and other ferments. Lemon juice is fermented for some time to free it
from mucilage, then boiled and filtered, and neutralized with powdered
chalk and a little milk of lime; the precipitate of calcium citrate so
obtained is decomposed with dilute sulphuric acid, the solution
filtered, evaporated to remove calcium sulphate and concentrated,
preferably in vacuum pans. The acid is thus obtained in colourless
rhombic prisms of the composition C6H8O7 + H2O. Crystals of
a different form are deposited from a strong boiling solution of the
acid. About 20 gallons of lemon juice should yield about 10 lb of
crystallized citric acid. The acid may also be prepared from the juice
of unripe gooseberries. Calcium citrate must be manufactured with care
to avoid an excess of chalk or lime, which would precipitate
constituents of the juice that cause the fermentation of the citrate and
the production of calcium acetate and butyrate.

The synthesis of citric acid was accomplished by L.E. Grimaux and P.
Adam in 1881. Glycerin when treated with hydrochloric acid gives
propenyl dichlorhydrin, which may be oxidized to s-dichloracetone. This
compound combines with hydrocyanic acid to form a nitrile which
hydrolyses to dichlor-hydroxy iso-butyric acid. Potassium cyanide reacts
with this acid to form the corresponding dinitrile, which is converted
by hydrochloric acid into citric acid. This series of operations proves
the constitution of the acid. A. Haller and C.A. Held synthesized the
acid from ethyl chlor-acetoacetate (from chlorine and acetoacetic ester)
by heating with potassium cyanide and saponifying the resulting nitrile.
The acetone dicarboxylic acid, CO(CH2CO2H)2, so obtained
combines with hydrocyanic acid, and this product yields citric acid on

Citric acid has an agreeable sour taste. It is soluble in ¾ths of its
weight of cold, and in half its weight of boiling water, and dissolves
in alcohol, but not in ether. At 150°C. it melts, and on the continued
application of heat boils, giving off its water of crystallization. At
175° C. it is resolved into water and aconitic acid, C6H6O6, a
substance found in _Equisetum fluviatile_, monks-hood and other plants.
A higher temperature decomposes this body into carbon dioxide and
itaconic acid, C5H6C4, which, again, by the expulsion of a
molecule of water, yields citraconic anhydride, C5H4O3. Citric
acid digested at a temperature below 40°C. with concentrated sulphuric
acid gives off carbon monoxide and forms acetone dicarboxylic acid. With
fused potash it forms potassium oxalate and acetate. It is a strong
acid, and dissolved in water decomposes carbonates and attacks iron and

The citrates are a numerous class of salts, the most soluble of which
are those of the alkaline metals; the citrates of the alkaline earth
metals are insoluble. Citric acid, being tribasic, forms either acid
monometallic, acid dimetallic or neutral trimetallic salts; thus, mono-,
di- and tri-potassium and sodium citrates are known. On warming citric
acid with an excess of lime-water a precipitate of calcium citrate is
obtained which is redissolved as the liquid cools.

The impurities occasionally present in commercial citric acid are salts
of potassium and sodium, traces of iron, lead and copper derived from
the vessels used for its evaporation and crystallization, and free
sulphuric, tartaric and even oxalic acid. Tartaric acid, which is
sometimes present in large quantities as an adulterant in commercial
citric acid, may be detected in the presence of the latter, by the
production of a precipitate of acid potassium tartrate when potassium
acetate is added to a cold solution. Another mode of separating the two
acids is to convert them into calcium salts, which are then treated with
a perfectly neutral solution of cupric chloride, soluble cupric citrate
and calcium chloride being formed, while cupric tartrate remains
undissolved. Citric acid is also distinguished from tartaric acid by the
fact that an ammonia solution of silver tartrate produces a brilliant
silver mirror when boiled, whereas silver citrate is reduced only after
prolonged ebullition.

Citric acid is used in calico printing, also in the preparation of
effervescing draughts, as a refrigerant and sialogogue, and occasionally
as an antiscorbutic, instead of fresh lemon juice. In the form of lime
juice it has long been known as an antidote for scurvy. Several of the
citrates are much employed as medicines, the most important being the
scale preparations of iron. Of these iron and ammonium citrate is much
used as a haematinic, and as it has hardly any tendency to cause gastric
irritation or constipation it can be taken when the ordinary forms of
iron are inadmissible. Iron and quinine citrate is used as a bitter
stomachic and tonic. In the blood citrates are oxidized into carbonates;
they therefore act as _remote alkalis_, increasing the alkalinity of the
blood and thereby the general rate of chemical change within the body

CITRON, a species of _Citrus_ (_C. medica_), belonging to the tribe
_Aurantieae_, of the botanical natural order Rutaceae; the same genus
furnishes also the orange, lime and shaddock. The citron is a small
evergreen tree or shrub growing to a height of about 10 ft.; it has
irregular straggling spiny branches, large pale-green broadly oblong,
slightly serrate leaves and generally unisexual flowers purplish without
and white within. The large fruit is ovate or oblong, protuberant at the
tip, and from 5 to 6 in. long, with a rough, furrowed, adherent rind,
the inner portion of which is thick, white and fleshy, the outer, thin,
greenish-yellow and very fragrant. The pulp is sub-acid and edible, and
the seeds are bitter. There are many varieties of the fruit, some of
them of great weight and size. The Madras citron has the form of an
oblate sphere; and in the "fingered citron" of China the lobes are
separated into finger-like divisions formed by separation of the
constituent carpels, as occurs sometimes in the orange.

The citron-tree thrives in the open air in China, Persia, the West
Indies, Madeira, Sicily, Corsica, and the warmer parts of Spain and
Italy; and in conservatories it is often to be seen in more northerly
regions. Sir Joseph Hooker (_Flora of British India_, i. 514) regards it
as a native of the valleys at the foot of the Himalaya, and of the
Khasia hills and the Western Ghauts; Dr Bonavia, however, considers it
to have originated in Cochin China or China, and to have been introduced
into India, whence it spread to Media and Persia. It was described by
Theophrastus as growing in Media, three centuries before Christ, and was
early known to the ancients, and the fruit was held in great esteem by
them; but they seem to have been acquainted with no other member of the
_Aurantieae_, the introduction of oranges and lemons into the countries
of the Mediterranean being due to the Arabs, between the 10th and 15th
centuries. Josephus tells us that "the law of the Jews required that at
the feast of tabernacles every one should have branches of palm-tree and
citron-tree" (_Antiq._ xiii. 13. 5); and the Hebrew word _tappuach_,
rendered "apples" and "apple-tree" in Cant. ii. 3, 5, Prov. xxv. 11,
&c., probably signifies the citron-tree and its fruit. Oribasius in the
4th century describes the fruit, accurately distinguishing the three
parts of it. About the 3rd century the tree was introduced into Italy;
and, as Gallesio informs us, it was much grown at Salerno in the 11th
century. In China citrons are placed in apartments to make them
fragrant. The rind of the citron yields two perfumes, _oil of cedra_ and
_oil of citron_, isomeric with oil of turpentine; and when candied it is
much esteemed as a dessert and in confectionery. The lemon (q.v.) is now
generally regarded as a subspecies _Limonum_ of _Citrus medica_.

  Oribasii Sardiani, _Collectorum Medicinalium Libri XVII._ i. 64 (_De
  citrio_); Gallesio, _Traité du citrus_ (1811); Darwin, _Animals and
  Plants under Domestication_, i. 334-336 (1868); Brandis, _Forest Flora
  of North-West and Central India_, p. 51 (1874); E. Bonavia, _The
  Cultivated Oranges and Lemons, &c., of India and Ceylon_ (1890).

CITTADELLA, a town of Venetia, Italy, in the province of Padua, 20 m.
N.W. by rail from the town of Padua; 160 ft. above sea-level. Pop.
(1901) town, 3616; commune, 9686. The town was founded in 1220 by the
Paduans to counterbalance the fortification of Castelfranco, 8 m. to the
E., in 1218 by the Trevisans, and retains its well-preserved medieval
walls, surrounded by a wet ditch. It was always a fortress of
importance, and in modern times is a centre for the agricultural produce
of the district, being the junction of the lines from Padua to Bassano
and from Vicenza to Treviso.

CITTÀ DELLA PIEVE, a town and episcopal see of Umbria, Italy, in the
province of Perugia, situated 1666 ft. above the sea, 3 m. N.E. of its
station on the railway between Chiusi and Orvieto. Pop. (1901) 8381.
Etruscan tombs have been found in the neighbourhood, but it is not
certain that the present town stands on an ancient site. It was the
birthplace of the painter Pietro Vannucci (Perugino), and possesses
several of his works, but none of the first rank.

CITTÀ DI CASTELLO, a town and episcopal see of Umbria, Italy, in the
province of Perugia, 38 m. E. of Arezzo by rail (18 m. direct), situated
on the left bank of the Tiber, 945 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901) of
town, 6096; of commune, 26,885. It occupies, as inscriptions show, the
site of the ancient _Tifernum Tiberinum_, near which Pliny had a villa
(_Epist._ v. 6; cf. H. Winnefeld in _Jahrbuch des deutschen
archäologischen Instituts_, vi. Berlin, 1891, 203), but no remains exist
above ground. The town was devastated by Totila, but seems to have
recovered. We find it under the name of _Castrum Felicitatis_ at the end
of the 8th century. The bishopric dates from the 7th century. The town
went through various political vicissitudes in the middle ages, being
subject now to the emperor, now to the Church, until in 1468 it came
under the Vitelli: but when they died out it returned to the allegiance
of the Church. It is built in the form of a rectangle and surrounded by
walls of 1518. It contains fine buildings of the Renaissance, especially
the palaces of the Vitelli, and the cathedral, originally Romanesque.
The 12th-century altar front of the latter in silver is fine. The
Palazzo Comunale is of the 14th century. Some of Raphael's earliest
works were painted for churches in this town, but none of them remains
there. There is, however, a small collection of pictures.

  See Magherini Graziani, _L'Arte a Città di Castello_ (1897).

CITTÀ VECCHIA, or CITTÀ NOTABILE, a fortified city of Malta, 7 m. W. of
Valletta, with which it is connected by railway. Pop. (1901) 7515. It
lies on high, sharply rising ground which affords a view of a large part
of the island. It is the seat of a bishop, and contains an ornate
cathedral, overthrown by an earthquake in 1693, but rebuilt, which is
said by an acceptable tradition to occupy the site of the house of the
governor Publius, who welcomed the apostle Paul. It contains some rich
stalls of the 15th century and other objects of interest. In the rock
beneath the city there are some remarkable catacombs in part of
pre-Christian origin, but containing evidence of early Christian burial;
and a grotto, reputed to have given shelter to the apostle, is pointed
out below the church of San Paolo. Remains of Roman buildings have been
excavated in the town. About 2 m. E. of the town is the residence of the
English governor, known as the palace of S. Antonio; and at a like
distance to the south is the ancient palace of the grand masters of the
order of St John, with an extensive public garden called Il Boschetto.
Città Vecchia was called Civitas Melita by the Romans and oldest
writers, Medina (i.e. the city) by the Saracens, Notabile (_locale
notabile, et insigne coronae regiae_, as it is called in a charter by
Alphonso, 1428) under the Sicilian rule, and Città Vecchia (old city) by
the knights. It was the capital of the island till its supersession by
Valletta in 1570. (See also MALTA.)

cistre, cithre, guitare allemande_ or _anglaise_; Ger. _Cither_, Zither
(_mit Hals_, with neck); Ital. _cetera, cetra_), a medieval stringed
instrument with a neck terminating in a grotesque and twanged by fingers
or plectrum. The popularity of the cittern was at its height in England
and Germany during the 16th and 17th centuries. The cittern consisted of
a pear-shaped body similar to that of the lute but with a flat back and
sound-board joined by ribs. The neck was provided with a fretted
finger-board; the head was curved and surmounted by a grotesque head of
a woman or of an animal.[1] The strings were of wire in pairs of
unisons, known as courses, usually four in number in England. A
peculiarity of the cittern lay in the tuning of the courses, the third
course known as bass being lower than the fourth styled tenor.


[Illustration: From Thomas Robinson's _New Citharen Lessons_, 1609.
Four-course Cittern.]

According to Vincentio Galilei (the father of the great astronomer)
England was the birthplace of the cittern.[2] Several lesson books for
this popular instrument were published during the 17th century in
England. A very rare book (of which the British Museum does not possess
a copy), _The Cittharn Schoole_, written by Anthony Holborne in 1597, is
mentioned in Sir P. Leycester's manuscript commonplace book[3] dated
1656, "For the little Instrument called a _Psittyrne_ Anthony Holborne
and Tho. Robinson were most famous of any before them and have both of
them set out a booke of Lessons for this Instrument. Holborne has
composed a Basse-parte for the Viole to play unto the Psittyrne with
those Lessons set out in his booke. These lived about Anno Domini 1600."
Thomas Robinson's _New Citharen Lessons with perfect tunings for the
same from Foure course of strings to Fourteene course_, &c. (printed
London, 1609, by William Barley), contains illustrations of both kinds
of instruments. The fourteen-course cittern was also known in England as
_Bijuga_; the seven courses in pairs were stretched over the
finger-board, and the seven single strings, fastened to the grotesque
head, were stretched as in the lyre _à vide_ alongside the neck; all the
strings rested on the one flat bridge near the tail-piece. Robinson
gives instructions for learning to play the cittern and for reading the
tablature. John Playford's _Musick's Delight on the Cithren_ (London,
1666) also contains illustrations of the instrument as well as of the
viol da Gamba and Pochette; he claims to have revived the instrument and
restored it to what it was in the reign of Queen Mary.

The cittern probably owed its popularity at this time to the ease with
which it might be mastered and used to accompany the voice; it was one
of four instruments generally found in barbers' shops, the others being
the gittern, the lute and the virginals. The customers while waiting
took down the instrument from its peg and played a merry tune to pass
the time.[4] We read that when Konstantijn Huygens came over to England
and was received by James I. at Bagshot, he played to the king on the
cittern (cithara), and that his performance was duly appreciated and
applauded. He tells us that, although he learnt to play the barbiton in
a few weeks with skill, he had lessons from a master for two years on
the cittern.[5] On the occasion of a third visit he witnessed the
performance of some fine musicians and was astonished to hear a lady,
mother of twelve, singing in divine fashion, accompanying herself on the
cittern; one of these artists he calls Lanivius, the British Orpheus,
whose performance was really enchanting.

Michael Praetorius[6] gives various tunings for the cittern as well as
an illustration (sounded an octave higher than the notation).

[Illustration: French]

[Illustration: Italian 4 course]

[Illustration: Italian 6 course]

During the 18th century the cittern, citra or English guitar, had twelve
wire strings in six pairs of unisons tuned thus:


The introduction of the Spanish guitar, which at once leapt into favour,
gradually displaced the English variety. The Spanish guitar had gut
strings twanged by the fingers. The last development of the cittern
before its disappearance was the addition of keys. The keyed cithara[7]
was first made by Claus & Co. of London in 1783. The keys, six in
number, were placed on the left of the sound-board, and on being
depressed they acted on hammers inside the sound-chest, which rising
through the rose sound-hole struck the strings. Sometimes the keys were
placed in a little box right over the strings, the hammers striking from
above. M.J.B. Vuillaume of Paris possessed an Italian cetera (not keyed)
by Antoine Stradivarius,[8] 1700 (now in the Museum of the
Conservatoire, Paris), with twelve strings tuned in pairs of unisons to
E, D, G, B, C, A, which was exhibited in London in 1871.

The cittern of the 16th century was the result of certain transitions
which took place during the evolution of the violin from the Greek
kithara (see CITHARA).

  _Genealogical Table of the Cittern._

                 Assyrian Ketharah                      Persian Rebab
            ____________|_____________                         :
           |                          |                        :
  Persian and Arabic           Greek Kithara               Arab Rebab
       Kithara                        |                        :
           |                          |                        :
    Moorish Guitra,            Roman Cithara             European Rebec
  Cuitra or Guitarra            or Fidicula                    :
                                      |                        :
                        Cithara in transition or Rotta         :
          |                           |                        |
  Cithara in transition        Guitarra Latina          _Cittern_
       or Guitar              or Vihuela de Mano
          |                           |
    Spanish Guitar                 Ghittern

The cittern has retained the following characteristics of the archetype.
(1) The derivation of the name, which after the introduction of the bow
was used to characterize various instruments whose strings were twanged
by fingers or plectrum, such as the harp and the rotta (both known as
_cithara_), the citola and the zither. In an interlinear Latin and
Anglo-Saxon version of the Psalms, dated A.D. 700 (Brit. Mus., Vesp. A.
1), _cithara_ is translated _citran_, from which it is not difficult to
trace the English _cithron, citteran, cittarn_, of the 16th century. (2)
The construction of the sound-chest with flat back and sound-board
connected by ribs. The pear-shaped outline was possibly borrowed from
the Eastern instruments, both bowed as the rebab and twanged as the
lute, so common all over Europe during the middle ages, or more probably
derived from the _kithara_ of the Greeks of Asia Minor, which had the
corners rounded. These early steps in the transition from the _cithara_
may be seen in the miniatures of the Utrecht Psalter,[9] a unique and
much-copied Carolingian MS. executed at Reims (9th century), the
illustrations of which were undoubtedly adapted from an earlier psalter
from the Christian East. The instruments which remained true to the
prototype in outline as well as in construction and in the derivation
of the name were the ghittern and the guitar, so often confused with the
cittern. It is evident that the kinship of cittern and guitar was
formerly recognized, for during the 18th century, as stated above, the
cittern was known as the English guitar to distinguish it from the
Spanish guitar. The grotesque head, popularly considered the
characteristic feature of the cittern, was probably added in the 12th
century at a time when this style of decoration was very noticeable in
other musical instruments, such as the cornet or _Zinck_, the
_Platerspiel_, the chaunter of the bagpipe, &c. The cittern of the
middle ages was also to be found in oval shape. From the 13th century
representations of the pear-shaped instrument abound in miniatures and

  A very clearly drawn cittern of the 14th century occurs in a MS.
  treatise on astronomy (Sloane MS. 3983, Brit. Mus.) translated from
  the Persian of Albumazar into Latin by Georgius Zothari Zopari
  Fenduli, priest and philosopher, with a prologue and numerous
  illustrations by his own hand; the cittern is here called _giga_ in an
  inscription at the side of the drawing.

  References to the cittern are plentiful in the literature of the 16th
  and 17th centuries. Robert Fludd[11] describes it thus: "Cistrona quae
  quatuor tantum chordas duplicatas habet easque cupreas et ferreas de
  quibus aliquid dicemus quo loco." Others are given in the _New English
  Dictionary_, "Cittern," and in Godefroy's _Dict. de l'anc. langue
  franç. du IXe au XVe siècle_.    (K. S.)


  [1] See Shakespeare, _Love's Labour's Lost_, act v. sc. 2, where
    Boyet compares the countenance of Holofernes to a cittern head; John
    Forde, _Lovers' Melancholy_ (1629), act ii. sc. 1, "Barbers shall
    wear thee on their citterns."

  [2] _Dialogo della musica_ (Florence, 1581), p. 147.

  [3] The musical extracts from the commonplace book were prepared by
    Dr Rimbault for the Early English Text Society. Holborne's work is
    mentioned in his _Bibliotheca Madrigaliana_. The descriptive list of
    the musical instruments in use in England during Leycester's
    lifetime (about 1656) has been extracted and published by Dr F.J.
    Furnivall, in _Captain Cox, his Ballads and Books, or Robert
    Laneham's Letter_ (1575), (London, 1871), pp. 65-68.

  [4] See Knight's _London_, i. 142.

  [5] See _De Vita propria sermonum inter liberos libri duo_ (Haarlem,
    1817) and E. van der Straeten, _La Musique aux Pays-Bas_, ii.

  [6] _Syntagma Musicum_ (1618). See also M. Mersenne, _Harmonie
    universelle_ (Paris, 1636), livre ii. prop. xv., who gives different

  [7] See Carl Engel, _Catalogue_ of the Exhibition of Ancient Musical
    Instruments (London, 1872), Nos. 289 and 290.

  [8] See note above. Illustration in A.J. Hipkins, _Musical Instruments;
    Historic, Rare and Unique_ (Edinburgh, 1888).

  [9] For a résumé of the question of the origin of this famous psalter,
    and an inquiry into its bearing on the history of musical
    instruments with illustrations and facsimile reproductions, see
    Kathleen Schlesinger, _The Instruments of the Orchestra_, part ii.
    "The Precursors of the Violin Family," pp. 127-166 (London,

  [10] An oval cittern and a ghittern, side by side, occur in the
    beautiful 13th-century Spanish MS. known as _Cantigas de Santa
    Maria_ in the Escorial. For a fine facsimile in colours see marquis
    de Valmar, _Real. Acad. Esq._, publ. by L. Aguado (Madrid, 1889).
    Reproductions in black and white in Juan F. Riaño, _Critical and
    Bibliog. Notes on Early Spanish Music_ (London, 1887). See also K.
    Schlesinger, op. cit. fig. 167, p. 223, also boat-shaped citterns,
    figs. 155 and 156, p. 197. Cittern with woman's head, 15th century,
    on one of six bas-reliefs on the under parts of the seats of the
    choir of the Priory church, Great Malvern, reproduced in J. Carter's
    _Ancient Sculptures_, &c., vol. ii. pl. following p. 12. Another
    without a head, ibid. pl. following p. 16, from a brass monumental
    plate in St Margaret's, King's Lynn.

  [11] _Historia utriusque Cosmi_ (Oppenheim, ed. 1617) i. 226.

CITY (through Fr. _cité_, from Lat. _civitas_). In the United Kingdom,
strictly speaking, "city" is an honorary title, officially applied to
those towns which, in virtue of some preeminence (e.g. as episcopal
sees, or great industrial centres), have by traditional usage or royal
charter acquired the right to the designation. In the United Kingdom the
official style of "city" does not necessarily involve the possession of
municipal power greater than those of the ordinary boroughs, nor indeed
the possession of a corporation at all (e.g. Ely). In the United States
and the British colonies, on the other hand, the official application of
the term "city" depends on the kind and extent of the municipal
privileges possessed by the corporations, and charters are given raising
towns to the rank of cities. Both in France and England the word is used
to distinguish the older and central nucleus of some of the large towns,
e.g. the _Cité_ in Paris, and the "square mile" under the jurisdiction
of the lord mayor which is the "City of London."

In common usage, however, the word implies no more than a somewhat vague
idea of size and dignity, and is loosely applied to any large centre of
population. Thus while, technically, the City of London is quite small,
London is yet properly described as the largest city in the world. In
the United States this use of the word is still more loose, and any
town, whether technically a city or not, is usually so designated, with
little regard to its actual size or importance.

It is clear from the above that the word "city" is incapable of any very
clear and inclusive definition, and the attempt to show that
historically it possesses a meaning that clearly differentiates it from
"town" or "borough" has led to some controversy. As the translation of
the Greek [Greek: polis] or Latin _civitas_ it involves the ancient
conception of the state or "city-state," i.e. of the state as not too
large to prevent its government through the body of the citizens
assembled in the _agora_, and is applied not to the place but to the
whole body politic. From this conception both the word and its dignified
connotation are without doubt historically derived. On the occupation of
Gaul the Gallic states and tribes were called _civitates_ by the Romans,
and subsequently the name was confined to the chief towns of the
various administrative districts. These were also the seats of the
bishops. It is thus affirmed that in France from the 5th to the 15th
century the name _civitas_ or _cité_ was confined to such towns as were
episcopal sees, and Du Cange (_Gloss._ s.v. _civitas_) defines that word
as _urbs episcopalis_, and states that other towns were termed _castra_
or _oppida_. How far any such distinction can be sharply drawn may be
doubted. With regard to England no definite line can be drawn between
those towns to which the name _civitas_ or _cité_ is given in medieval
documents and those called _burgi_ or boroughs (see J.H. Round, _Feudal
England_, p. 338; F.W. Maitland, _Domesday Book and After_, p. 183). It
was, however, maintained by Coke and Blackstone that a city is a town
incorporate which is or has been the see of a bishop. It is true,
indeed, that the actual sees in England all have a formal right to the
title; the boroughs erected into episcopal sees by Henry VIII. thereby
became "cities"; but towns such as Thetford, Sherborne and Dorchester
are never so designated, though they are regularly incorporated and were
once episcopal sees. On the other hand, it has only been since the
latter part of the 19th century that the official style of "city" has,
in the United Kingdom, been conferred by royal authority on certain
important towns which were not episcopal sees, Birmingham in 1889 being
the first to be so distinguished. It is interesting to note that London,
besides 27 boroughs, now contains two cities, one (the City of London)
outside, the other (the City of Westminster) included in the
administrative county.

  For the history of the origin and development of modern city
  government see BOROUGH and COMMUNE: _Medieval_.

CIUDAD BOLÍVAR, an inland city and river port of Venezuela, capital of
the state of Bolívar, on the right bank of the Orinoco river, 240 m.
above its mouth. Pop. (1891) 11,686. It stands upon a small hill about
187 ft. above sea-level, and faces the river where it narrows to a width
of less than half a mile. The city is largely built upon the hillside.
It is the seat of the bishopric of Guayana (founded in 1790), and is the
commercial centre of the great Orinoco basin. Among its noteworthy
edifices are the cathedral, federal college, theatre, masonic temple,
market, custom-house, and hospital. The mean temperature is 83°. The
city has a public water-supply, a tramway line, telephone service,
subfluvial cable communication with Soledad near the mouth of the
Orinoco, where connexion is made with the national land lines, and
regular steamship communication with the lower and upper Orinoco.
Previous to the revolution of 1901-3 Ciudad Bolívar ranked fourth among
the Venezuelan custom-houses, but the restrictions placed upon transit
trade through West Indian ports have made her a dependency of the La
Guaira custom-house to a large extent. The principal exports from this
region include cattle, horses, mules, tobacco, cacáo, rubber, tonka
beans, bitters, hides, timber and many valuable forest products. The
town was founded by Mendoza in 1764 as San Tomás de la Nueva Guayana,
but its location at this particular point on the river gave to it the
popular name of _Angostura_, the Spanish term for "narrows." This name
was used until 1849, when that of the Venezuelan liberator was bestowed
upon it. Ciudad Bolívar played an important part in the struggle for
independence and was for a time the headquarters of the revolution. The
town suffered severely in the struggle for its possession, and the
political disorders which followed greatly retarded its growth.

CIUDAD DE CURA, an inland town of the state of Aragua, Venezuela, 55 m.
S.W. of Carácas, near the Lago de Valencia. Pop. (1891) 12,198. The town
stands in a broad, fertile valley, between the sources of streams
running southward to the Guárico river and northward to the lake, with
an elevation above sea-level of 1598 ft. Traffic between Puerto Cabello
and the Guárico plains has passed through this town since early colonial
times, and has made it an important commercial centre, from which hides,
cheese, coffee, cacao and beans are sent down to the coast for export;
it bears a high reputation in Venezuela for commercial enterprise.
Ciudad de Cura was founded in 1730, and suffered severely in the war of

CIUDAD JUAREZ, formerly EL PASO DEL NORTE, a northern frontier town of
Mexico, in the state of Chihuahua, 1223 m. by rail N.N.W. of Mexico
City. Pop. (1895) 6917. Ciudad Juarez stands 3800 ft. above sea-level on
the right bank of the Rio Grande del Norte, opposite the city of El
Paso, Texas, with which it is connected by two bridges. It is the
northern terminus of the Mexican Central railway, and has a large and
increasing transit trade with the United States, having a custom-house
and a United States consulate. It is also a military post with a small
garrison. The town has a straggling picturesque appearance, a
considerable part of the habitations being small adobe or brick cabins.
In the fertile neighbouring district cattle are raised, and wheat,
Indian corn, fruit and grapes are grown, wine and brandy being made. The
town was founded in 1681-1682; its present importance is due entirely to
the railway. It was the headquarters of President Juarez in 1865, and
was renamed in 1885 because of its devotion to his cause.

CIUDAD PORFIRIO DIAZ, formerly PIEDRAS NEGRAS, a northern frontier town
of Mexico in the state of Coahuila, 1008 m. N. by W. from Mexico City,
on the Rio Grande del Norte, 720 ft. above sea-level, opposite the town
of Eagle Pass, Texas. Pop. (1900, estimate) 5000. An international
bridge connects the two towns, and the Mexican International railway has
its northern terminus in Mexico at this point. The town has an important
transfer trade with the United States, and is the centre of a fertile
district devoted to agriculture and stock-raising. Coal is found in the
vicinity. The Mexican government maintains a custom-house and military
post here. The town was founded in 1849.

CIUDAD REAL, a province of central Spain, formed in 1833 of districts
taken from New Castile, and bounded on the N. by Toledo, E. by Albacete,
S. by Jaen and Cordova and W. by Badajoz. Pop. (1900) 321,580; area,
7620 sq. m. The surface of Ciudad Real consists chiefly of a level or
slightly undulating plain, with low hills in the north-east and
south-west; but along the south-western frontier the Sierra de Alcudia
rises in two parallel ridges on either side of the river Alcudia, and is
continued in the Sierra Madrona on the east. The river Guadiana drains
almost the entire province, which it traverses from east to west; only
the southernmost districts being watered by tributaries of the
Guadalquivir. Numerous smaller streams flow into the Guadiana, which
itself divides near Herencia into two branches,--the northern known as
the Giguela, the southern as the Zancara. The eastern division of Ciudad
Real forms part of the region known as La Mancha, a flat, thinly-peopled
plain, clothed with meagre vegetation which is often ravaged by locusts.
La Mancha (q.v.) is sometimes regarded as coextensive with the whole
province. Severe drought is common here, although some of the rivers,
such as the Jabalon and Azuer, issue fully formed from the chalky soil,
and from their very sources give an abundant supply of water to the
numerous mills. Towards the west, where the land is higher, there are
considerable tracts of forest.

The climate is oppressively hot in summer, and in winter the plains are
exposed to violent and bitterly cold winds; while the cultivation of
grain, the vine and the olive is further impeded by the want of proper
irrigation, and the general barrenness of the soil. Large flocks of
sheep and goats find pasture in the plains; and the swine which are kept
in the oak and beech forests furnish bacon and hams of excellent
quality. Coal is mined chiefly at Puertollano, lead in various
districts, mercury at Almadén. There are no great manufacturing towns.
The roads are insufficient and ill-kept, especially in the north-east
where they form the sole means of communication; and neither the
Guadiana nor its tributaries are navigable. The main railway from Madrid
to Lisbon passes through the capital, Ciudad Real, and through
Puertollano; farther east, the Madrid-Lináres line passes through
Manzanares and Valdepeñas. Branch railways also connect the capital with
Manzanares, and Valdepeñas with the neighbouring town of La Calzada.

The principal towns, Alcázar de San Juan (11,499), Almadén (7375),
Almodóvar del Campo (12,525), Ciudad Real (15,255), Manzanares (11,229)
and Valdepeñas (21,015), are described in separate articles. Almagro
(7974) and Daimiel (11,825), in the district of La Mancha known as the
Campo de Calatrava, belonged in the later middle ages to the knightly
Order of Calatrava, which was founded in 1158 to keep the Moors in
check. Almagro was long almost exclusively inhabited by monks and
knights, and contains several interesting churches and monasteries,
besides the castle of the knights, now used as barracks. Almagro is
further celebrated for its lace, Daimiel for its medicinal salts.
Tomelloso (13,929) is one of the chief market towns of La Mancha.
Education is very backward, largely owing to the extreme poverty which
has frequently brought the inhabitants to the verge of famine. (See also

CIUDAD REAL, the capital formerly of La Mancha, and since 1833 of the
province described above; 107 m. S. of Madrid, on the
Madrid-Badajoz-Lisbon and Ciudad Real-Manzanares railways. Pop. (1900)
15,255. Ciudad Real lies in the midst of a wide plain, watered on the
north by the river Guadiana, and on the south by its tributary the
Jabalon. Apart from the remnants of its 13th-century fortifications, and
one Gothic church of immense size, built without aisles, the town
contains little of interest; its public buildings--town-hall, barracks,
churches, hospital and schools--being in no way distinguished above those
of other provincial capitals. There are no important local manufactures,
and the trade of the town consists chiefly in the weekly sales of
agricultrural produce and live-stock. Ciudad Real was founded by Alphonso
X. of Castile (1252-1284), and fortified by him as a check upon the
Moorish power. Its original name of _Villarreal_ was changed to _Ciudad
Real_ by John VI. in 1420. During the Peninsular War a Spanish force was
defeated here by the French, on the 27th of March 1809.

CIUDAD RODRIGO, a town of western Spain, in the province of Salamanca,
situated 8 m. E. of the Portuguese frontier, on the right bank of the
river Agueda, and the railway from Salamanca to Coimbra in Portugal.
Pop. (1900) 8930. Ciudad Rodrigo is an episcopal see, and was for many
centuries an important frontier fortress. Its cathedral dates from 1190,
but was restored in the 15th century. The remnants of a Roman aqueduct,
the foundations of a bridge across the Agueda, and other remains, seem
to show that Ciudad Rodrigo occupies the site of a Roman settlement. It
was founded in the 12th century by Count Rodrigo Gonzalez, from whom its
name is derived. During the Peninsular War, it was captured by the
French under Marshal Ney, in 1810; but on the 19th of January 1812 it
was retaken by the British under Viscount Wellington, who, for this
exploit, was created earl of Wellington, duke of Ciudad Rodrigo, and
marquess of Torres Vedras, in Portugal.

CIVERCHIO, VINCENZO, an early 16th-century Italian painter, born at
Crema. There are altar-pieces by him at Brescia, and at Crema the
altar-piece at the duomo (1509). His "Birth of Christ" is in the Brera,
Milan; and at Lovere are other of his works dating from 1539 and 1540.

CIVET, or properly CIVET-CAT, the designation of the more typical
representatives of the mammalian family _Viverridae_ (see CARNIVORA).
Civets are characterized by the possession of a deep pouch in the
neighbourhood of the genital organs, into which the substance known as
civet is poured from the glands by which it is secreted. This fatty
substance is at first semifluid and yellow, but afterwards acquires the
consistency of pomade and becomes darker. It has a strong musky odour,
exceedingly disagreeable to those unaccustomed to it, but "when properly
diluted and combined with other scents it produces a very pleasing
effect, and possesses a much more floral fragrance than musk, indeed it
would be impossible to imitate some flowers without it." The African
civet (_Viverra civetta_) is from 2 to 3 ft. in length, exclusive of the
tail, which is half the length of the body, and stands from 10 to 12 in.
high. It is covered with long hair, longest on the middle line of the
back, where it is capable of being raised or depressed at will, of a
dark-grey colour, with numerous transverse black bands and spots. In
habits it is chiefly nocturnal, and by preference carnivorous, feeding
on birds and the smaller quadrupeds, in pursuit of which it climbs
trees, but it is said also to eat fruits, roots and other vegetable
matters. In a state of captivity the civet is never completely tamed,
and only kept for the sake of its perfume, which is obtained in largest
quantity from the male, especially when in good condition and subjected
to irritation, being scraped from the pouch with a small spoon usually
twice a week. The zibeth (_Viverra zibetha_) is a widely distributed
species extending from Arabia to Malabar, and throughout several of the
larger islands of the Indian Archipelago. It is smaller than the true
civet, and wants the dorsal crest. In the wild state it does great
damage among poultry, and frequently makes off with the young of swine
and sheep. When hunted it makes a determined resistance, and emits a
scent so strong as even to sicken the dogs, who nevertheless are
exceedingly fond of the sport, and cannot be got to pursue any other
game while the stench of the zibeth is in their nostrils. In
confinement, it becomes comparatively tame, and yields civet in
considerable quantity. In preparing this for the market it is usually
spread out on the leaves of the pepper plant in order to free it from
the hairs that have become detached from the pouch. On the Malabar coast
this species is replaced by _V. civettina_. The small Indian civet or
rasse (_Viverricula malaccensis_) ranges from Madagascar through India
to China, the Malay Peninsula, and the islands of the Archipelago. It is
almost 3 ft. long including the tail, and prettily marked with dark
longitudinal stripes, and spots which have a distinctly linear
arrangement. The perfume, which is extracted in the same way as in the
two preceding species, is highly valued and much used by the Javanese.
Although this animal is said to be an expert climber it usually inhabits
holes in the ground. It is frequently kept in captivity in the East, and
becomes tame. Fossil remains of extinct civets are found in the Miocene
strata of Europe.

CIVIDALE DEL FRIULI (anc. _Forum Iulii_), a town of Venetia, Italy, in
the province of Udine, 10 m. E. by N. by rail from the town of Udine;
453 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1001) town, 4143; commune, 9061. It is
situated on the river Natisone, which forms a picturesque ravine here.
It contains some interesting relics of the art of the 8th century. The
cathedral of the 15th century contains an octagonal marble canopy with
sculptures in relief, with a font below it belonging to the 8th century,
but altered later. The high altar has a fine silver altar front of 1185.
The museum contains various Roman and Lombard antiquities, and valuable
MSS. and works of art in gold, silver and ivory formerly belonging to
the cathedral chapter. The small church of S. Maria in Valle belongs to
the 8th century, and contains fine decorations in stucco which probably
belong to the 11th or 12th century. The fine 15th-century Ponte del
Diavolo leads to the church of S. Martino, which contains an altar of
the 8th century with reliefs executed by order of the Lombard king
Ratchis. At Cividale were born Paulus Diaconus, the historian of the
Lombards in the time of Charlemagne, and the actress Adelaide Ristori

The Roman town (a _municipium_) of Forum Iulii was founded either by
Julius Caesar or by Augustus, no doubt at the same time as the
construction of the Via Iulia Augusta, which passed through Utina
(Udine) on its way north. After the decay of Aquileia and Iulium
Carnicum (Zuglio) it became the chief town of the district of Friuli and
gave its name to it. The patriarchs of Aquileia resided here from 773 to
1031, when they returned to Aquileia, and finally in 1238 removed to
Udine. This last change of residence was the origin of the antagonism
between Cividale and Udine, which was only terminated by their surrender
to Venice in 1419 and 1420 respectively.

CIVILIS, CLAUDIUS, or more correctly, JULIUS, leader of the Batavian
revolt against Rome (A.D. 69-70). He was twice imprisoned on a charge of
rebellion, and narrowly escaped execution. During the disturbances that
followed the death of Nero, he took up arms under pretence of siding
with Vespasian and induced the inhabitants of his native country to
rebel. The Batavians, who had rendered valuable aid under the early
emperors, had been well treated in order to attach them to the cause of
Rome. They were exempt from tribute, but were obliged to supply a large
number of men for the army, and the burden of conscription and the
oppressions of provincial governors were important incentives to revolt.
The Batavians were immediately joined by several neighbouring German
tribes, the most important of whom were the Frisians. The Roman
garrisons near the Rhine were driven out, and twenty-four ships
captured. Two legions under Mummius Lupercus were defeated at Castra
Vetera (near the modern Xanten) and surrounded. Eight cohorts of
Batavian veterans joined their countrymen, and the troops sent by
Vespasian to the relief of Vetera threw in their lot with them. The
result of these accessions to the forces of Civilis was a rising in
Gaul. Hordeonius Flaccus was murdered by his troops (70), and the whole
of the Roman forces were induced by two commanders of the Gallic
auxiliaries--Julius Classicus and Julius Tutor--to revolt from Rome and
join Civilis. The whole of Gaul thus practically declared itself
independent, and the foundation of a new kingdom of Gaul was
contemplated. The prophetess Velleda predicted the complete success of
Civilis and the fall of the Roman Empire. But disputes broke out amongst
the different tribes and rendered co-operation impossible; Vespasian,
having successfully ended the civil war, called upon Civilis to lay down
his arms, and on his refusal resolved to take strong measures for the
suppression of the revolt. The arrival of Petillius Cerialis with a
strong force awed the Gauls and mutinous troops into submission; Civilis
was defeated at Augusta Treverorum (Trier, Trèves) and Vetera, and
forced to withdraw to the island of the Batavians. He finally came to an
agreement with Cerialis whereby his countrymen obtained certain
advantages, and resumed amicable relations with Rome. From this time
Civilis disappears from history.

  The chief authority for the history of the insurrection is Tacitus,
  _Historiae_, iv., v., whose account breaks off at the beginning of
  Civilis's speech to Cerialis; see also Josephus, _Bellum Judaicum_,
  vii. 4. There is a monograph by E. Meyer, _Der Freiheitskrieg der
  Bataver unter Civilis_ (1856); see also Merivale, _Hist. of the Romans
  under the Empire_, ch. 58; H. Schiller, _Geschichte der römischen
  Kaiserzeit_, bk. ii. ch. 2, § 54 (1883).

CIVILIZATION. The word "civilization" is an obvious derivative of the
Lat. _civis_, a citizen, and _civilis_, pertaining to a citizen.
Etymologically speaking, then, it would be putting no undue strain upon
the word to interpret it as having to do with the entire period of human
progress since mankind attained sufficient intelligence and social unity
to develop a system of government. But in practice "civilization" is
usually interpreted in a somewhat narrower sense, as having application
solely to the most recent and comparatively brief period of time that
has elapsed since the most highly developed races of men have used
systems of writing. This restricted usage is probably explicable, in
part at least, by the fact that the word, though distinctly modern in
origin, is nevertheless older than the interpretation of social
evolution that now finds universal acceptance. Only very recently has it
come to be understood that primitive societies vastly antedating the
historical period had attained relatively high stages of development and
fixity, socially and politically. Now that this is understood, however,
nothing but an arbitrary and highly inconvenient restriction of meanings
can prevent us from speaking of the citizens of these early societies as
having attained certain stages of civilization. It will be convenient,
then, in outlining the successive stages of human progress here, to
include under the comprehensive term "civilization" those long earlier
periods of "savagery" and "barbarism" as well as the more recent period
of higher development to which the word "civilization" is sometimes

  Savagery and barbarism.

Adequate proof that civilization as we now know it is the result of a
long, slow process of evolution was put forward not long after the
middle of the 19th century by the students of palaeontology and of
prehistoric archaeology. A recognition of the fact that primitive man
used implements of chipped flint, of polished stone, and of the softer
metals for successive ages, before he attained a degree of technical
skill and knowledge that would enable him to smelt iron, led the Danish
archaeologists to classify the stages of human progress under these
captions: the Rough Stone Age; the Age of Polished Stone; the Age of
Bronze; and the Age of Iron. These terms acquired almost universal
recognition, and they retain popularity as affording a very broad
outline of the story of human progress. It is obviously desirable,
however, to fill in the outlines of the story more in detail. To some
extent it has been possible to do so, largely through the efforts of
ethnologists who have studied the social conditions of existing races of
savages. A recognition of the principle that, broadly speaking, progress
has everywhere been achieved along the same lines and through the same
sequence of changes, makes it possible to interpret the past history of
the civilized races of to-day in the light of the present-day conditions
of other races that are still existing under social and political
conditions of a more primitive type. Such races as the Maoris and the
American Indians have furnished invaluable information to the student of
social evolution; and the knowledge thus gained has been extended and
fortified by the ever-expanding researches of the palaeontologist and

Thus it has become possible to present with some confidence a picture
showing the successive stages of human development during the long dark
period when our prehistoric ancestor was advancing along the toilsome
and tortuous but on the whole always uprising path from lowest savagery
to the stage of relative enlightenment at which we find him at the
so-called "dawnings of history." That he was for long ages a savage
before he attained sufficient culture to be termed, in modern
phraseology, a barbarian, admits of no question. Equally little in doubt
is it that other long ages of barbarism preceded the final ascent to
civilization. The precise period of time covered by these successive
"Ages" is of course only conjectural; but something like one hundred
thousand years may perhaps be taken as a safe minimal estimate. At the
beginning of this long period, the most advanced race of men must be
thought of as a promiscuous company of pre-troglodytic mammals, at least
partially arboreal in habit, living on uncooked fruits and vegetables,
and possessed of no arts and crafts whatever--nor even of the knowledge
of the rudest implement. At the end of the period, there emerges into
the more or less clear light of history a large-brained being, living in
houses of elaborate construction, supplying himself with divers luxuries
through the aid of a multitude of elaborate handicrafts, associated with
his fellows under the sway of highly organized governments, and
satisfying aesthetic needs through the practice of pictorial and
literary arts of a high order. How was this amazing transformation
brought about?

  Crucial developments.

If an answer can be found to that query, we shall have a clue to all
human progress, not only during the prehistoric but also during the
historic periods; for we may well believe that recent progress has not
departed from the scheme of development impressed on humanity during
that long apprenticeship. Ethnologists believe that an answer can be
found. They believe that the metamorphosis from beast-like savage to
cultured civilian may be proximally explained (certain potentialities
and attributes of the species being taken for granted) as the result of
accumulated changes that found their initial impulses in a half-dozen or
so of practical inventions. Stated thus, the explanation seems absurdly
simple. Confessedly it supplies only a proximal, not a final, analysis
of the forces impelling mankind along the pathway of progress. But it
has the merit of tangibility; it presents certain highly important facts
of human history vividly: and it furnishes a definite and fairly
satisfactory basis for marking successive stages of incipient

In outlining the story of primitive man's advancement, upon such a
basis, we may follow the scheme of one of the most philosophical of
ethnologists, Lewis H. Morgan, who made a provisional analysis of the
prehistoric period that still remains among the most satisfactory
attempts in this direction. Morgan divides the entire epoch of man's
progress from bestiality to civilization into six successive periods,
which he names respectively the Older, Middle and Later periods of
Savagery, and the Older, Middle and Later periods of Barbarism.


The first of these periods, when mankind was in the lower status of
savagery, comprises the epoch when articulate speech was being
developed. Our ancestors of this epoch inhabited a necessarily
restricted tropical territory, and subsisted upon raw nuts and fruits.
They had no knowledge of the uses of fire. All existing races of men had
advanced beyond this condition before the opening of the historical


The Middle Period of Savagery began with a knowledge of the uses of
fire. This wonderful discovery enabled the developing race to extend its
habitat almost indefinitely, and to include flesh, and in particular
fish, in its regular dietary. Man could now leave the forests, and
wander along the shores and rivers, migrating to climates less
enervating than those to which he had previously been confined.
Doubtless he became an expert fisher, but he was as yet poorly equipped
for hunting, being provided, probably, with no weapon more formidable
than a crude hatchet and a roughly fashioned spear. The primitive races
of Australia and Polynesia had not advanced beyond this middle status of
savagery when they were discovered a few generations ago. It is obvious,
then, that in dealing with the further progress of nascent civilization
we have to do with certain favoured portions of the race, which sought
out new territories and developed new capacities while many tribes of
their quondam peers remained static and hence by comparison seemed to

  Bow and arrow.

The next great epochal discovery, in virtue of which a portion of the
race advanced to the Upper Status of Savagery, was that of the bow and
arrow,--a truly wonderful implement. The possessor of this device could
bring down the fleetest animal and could defend himself against the most
predatory. He could provide himself not only with food but with
materials for clothing and for tent-making, and thus could migrate at
will back from the seas and large rivers, and far into inhospitable but
invigorating temperate and sub-Arctic regions. The meat diet, now for
the first time freely available, probably contributed, along with the
stimulating climate, to increase the physical vigour and courage of this
highest savage, thus urging him along the paths of progress.
Nevertheless many tribes came thus far and no further, as witness the
Athapascans of the Hudson's Bay Territory and the Indians of the valley
of the Columbia.


We now come to the marvellous discovery that enabled our ancestor to
make such advances upon the social conditions of his forbears as to
entitle him, in the estimate of his remote descendants, to be considered
as putting savagery behind him and as entering upon the Lower Status of
Barbarism. The discovery in question had to do with the practice of the
art of making pottery (see CERAMICS). Hitherto man had been possessed of
no permanent utensils that could withstand the action of fire. He could
not readily boil water except by some such cumbersome method as the
dropping of heated stones into a wooden or skin receptacle. The effect
upon his dietary of having at hand earthen vessels in which meat and
herbs could be boiled over a fire must have been momentous. Various
meats and many vegetables become highly palatable when boiled that are
almost or quite inedible when merely roasted before a fire. Bones,
sinews and even hides may be made to give up a modicum of nutriment in
this way; and doubtless barbaric man, before whom starvation always
loomed threateningly, found the crude pot an almost perennial refuge.
And of course its use as a cooking utensil was only one of many ways in
which the newly discovered mechanism exerted a civilizing influence.

  Domestic animals.

The next great progressive movement, which carried man into the Middle
Status of Barbarism, is associated with the domestication of animals in
the Eastern hemisphere, and with the use of irrigation in cultivating
the soil and of adobe bricks and stone in architecture in the Western
hemisphere. The dog was probably the first animal to be domesticated,
but the sheep, the ox, the camel and the horse were doubtless added in
relatively rapid succession, so soon as the idea that captive animals
could be of service had been clearly conceived. Man now became a
herdsman, no longer dependent for food upon the precarious chase of wild
animals. Milk, procurable at all seasons, made a highly important
addition to his dietary. With the aid of camel and horse he could
traverse wide areas hitherto impassable, and come in contact with
distant peoples. Thus commerce came to play an extended rôle in the
dissemination of both commodities and ideas. In particular the nascent
civilization of the Mediterranean region fell heir to numerous products
of farther Asia,--gums, spices, oils, and most important of all, the
cereals. The cultivation of the latter gave the finishing touch to a
comprehensive and varied diet, while emphasizing the value of a fixed
abode. For the first time it now became possible for large numbers of
people to form localized communities. A natural consequence was the
elaboration of political systems, which, however, proceeded along lines
already suggested by the experience of earlier epochs. All this tended
to establish and emphasize the idea of nationality, based primarily on
blood-relationship; and at the same time to develop within the community
itself the idea of property,--that is to say, of valuable or desirable
commodities which have come into the possession of an individual through
his enterprise or labour, and which should therefore be subject to his
voluntary disposal. At an earlier stage of development, all property had
been of communal, not of individual, ownership. It appears, then, that
our mid-period barbarian had attained--if the verbal contradiction be
permitted--a relatively high stage of civilization.


There remained, however, one master craft of which he had no conception.
This was the art of smelting iron. When, ultimately, his descendants
learned the wonderful secrets of that art, they rose in consequence to
the Upper Status of Barbarism. This culminating practical invention, it
will be observed, is the first of the great discoveries with which we
have to do that was not primarily concerned with the question of man's
food supply. Iron, to be sure, has abundant uses in the same connexion,
but its most direct and obvious utilities have to do with weapons of war
and with implements calculated to promote such arts of peace as
house-building, road-making and the construction of vehicles. Wood and
stone could now be fashioned as never before. Houses could be built and
cities walled with unexampled facility; to say nothing of the making of
a multitude of minor implements and utensils hitherto quite unknown, or
at best rare and costly. Nor must we overlook the aesthetic influence of
edged implements, with which wood and stone could readily be sculptured
when placed in the hands of a race that had long been accustomed to
scratch the semblance of living forms on bone or ivory and to fashion
crude images of clay. In a word, man, the "tool-making animal," was now
for the first time provided with tools worthy of his wonderful hands and
yet more wonderful brain.

Thus through the application of one revolutionary invention after
another, the most advanced races of men had arrived, after long ages of
effort, at a relatively high stage of development. A very wide range of
experiences had enabled man to evolve a complex body politic, based on a
fairly secure social basis, and his brain had correspondingly developed
into a relatively efficient and stable organ of thought. But as yet he
had devised no means of communicating freely with other people at a
distance except through the medium of verbal messages; nor had he any
method by which he could transmit his experiences to posterity more
securely than by fugitive and fallible oral traditions. A vague
symbolization of his achievements was preserved from generation to
generation in myth-tale and epic, but he knew not how to make permanent
record of his history. Until he could devise a means to make such
record, he must remain, in the estimate of his descendants, a barbarian,
though he might be admitted to have become a highly organized and even
in a broad sense a cultured being.


At length, however, this last barrier was broken. Some race or races
devised a method of symbolizing events and ultimately of making even
abstruse ideas tangible by means of graphic signs. In other words, a
system of writing was developed. Man thus achieved a virtual conquest
over time as he had earlier conquered space. He could now transmit the
record of his deeds and his thoughts to remote posterity. Thus he stood
at the portals of what later generations would term secure history. He
had graduated out of barbarism, and become in the narrower sense of the
word a civilized being. Henceforth, his knowledge, his poetical
dreamings, his moral aspirations might be recorded in such form as to be
read not merely by his contemporaries but by successive generations of
remote posterity. The inspiring character of such a message is obvious.
The validity of making this great culminating intellectual achievement
the test of "civilized" existence need not be denied. But we should ill
comprehend the character of the message which the earlier generations of
civilized beings transmit to us from the period which we term the
"dawning of history" did we not bear constantly in mind the long series
of progressive stages of "savagery" and "barbarism" that of necessity
preceded the final stage of "civilization" proper. The achievements of
those earlier stages afforded the secure foundation for the progress of
the future. A multitude of minor arts, in addition to the important ones
just outlined, had been developed; and for a long time civilized man was
to make no other epochal addition to the list of accomplishments that
came to him as a heritage from his barbaric progenitor. Indeed, even to
this day the list of such additions is not a long one, nor, judged in
the relative scale, so important as might at first thought be supposed.
Whoever considers the subject carefully must admit the force of Morgan's
suggestion that man's achievements as a barbarian, considered in their
relation to the sum of human progress, "transcend, in relative
importance, all his subsequent works."

Without insisting on this comparison, however, let us ask what
discoveries and inventions man has made within the historical period
that may fairly be ranked with the half-dozen great epochal achievements
that have been put forward as furnishing the keys to all the progress of
the prehistoric periods. In other words, let us sketch the history of
progress during the ten thousand years or so that have elapsed since man
learned the art of writing, adapting our sketch to the same scale which
we have already applied to the unnumbered millenniums of the prehistoric
period. The view of world-history thus outlined will be a very different
one from what might be expected by the student of national history; but
it will present the essentials of the progress of civilization in a
suggestive light.

  Civilization proper.

Without pretending to fix an exact date,--which the historical records
do not at present permit,--we may assume that the most advanced race of
men elaborated a system of writing not less than six thousand years
before the beginning of the Christian era. Holding to the terminology
already suggested for the earlier periods, we may speak of man's
position during the ensuing generations as that of the First or Lowest
Status of civilization. If we review the history of this period we shall
find that it extends unbroken over a stretch of at least four or five
thousand years. During the early part of this period such localized
civilizations as those of the Egyptians, the Sumerians, the Babylonians
and the Hittites rose, grew strong and passed beyond their meridian.
This suggests that we must now admit the word "civilization" to yet
another definition, within its larger meaning: we must speak of "_a_
civilization," as that of Egypt, of Babylonia, of Assyria, and we must
understand thereby a localized phase of society bearing the same
relation to civilization as a whole that a wave bears to the ocean or a
tree to the forest. Such other localized civilizations as those of
Phoenicia, Carthage, Greece, Rome, Byzantium, the Sassanids, in due
course waxed and waned, leaving a tremendous imprint on national
history, but creating only minor and transitory ripples in the great
ocean of civilization. Progress in the elaboration of the details of
earlier methods and inventions took place as a matter of course. Some
nation, probably the Phoenicians, gave a new impetus to the art of
writing by developing a phonetic alphabet; but this achievement,
remarkable as it was in itself, added nothing fundamental to human
capacity. Literatures had previously flourished through the use of
hieroglyphic and syllabic symbols; and the Babylonian syllabics
continued in vogue throughout western Asia for a long time after the
Phoenician alphabet had demonstrated its intrinsic superiority.

Similarly the art of Egyptian and Assyrian and Greek was but the
elaboration and perfection of methods that barbaric man had practised
away back in the days when he was a cave-dweller. The weapons of warfare
of Greek and Roman were the spear and the bow and arrow that their
ancestors had used in the period of savagery, aided by sword and helmet
dating from the upper period of barbarism. Greek and Roman government at
their best were founded upon the system of _gentes_ that barbaric man
had profoundly studied,--as witness, for example, the federal system of
the barbaric Iroquois Indians existing in America before the coming of
Columbus. And if the Greeks had better literature, the Romans better
roads and larger cities, than their predecessors, these are but matters
of detailed development, the like of which had marked the progress of
the more important arts and the introduction of less important ancillary
ones in each antecedent period. The axe of steel is no new implement,
but a mere perfecting of the axe of chipped flint. The _Iliad_
represents the perfecting of an art that unnumbered generations of
barbarians practised before their camp-fires.

  Great inventions of the middle ages.

Thus for six or seven thousand years after man achieved civilization
there was rhythmic progress in many lines, but there came no great
epochal invention to usher in a new ethnic period. Then, towards the
close of what historians of to-day are accustomed to call the middle
ages, there appeared in rapid sequence three or four inventions and a
great scientific discovery that, taken together, were destined to change
the entire aspect of European civilization. The inventions were
gunpowder, the mariner's compass, paper and the printing-press, three of
which appear to have been brought into Europe by the Moors, whether or
not they originated in the remote East. The scientific discovery which
must be coupled with these inventions was the Copernican demonstration
that the sun and not the earth is the centre of our planetary system.
The generations of men that found themselves (1) confronted with the
revolutionary conception of the universe given by the Copernican theory;
(2) supplied with the new means of warfare provided by gunpowder; (3)
equipped with an undreamed-of guide across the waters of the earth; and
(4) enabled to promulgate knowledge with unexampled speed and cheapness
through the aid of paper and printing-press--such generations of men
might well be said to have entered upon a new ethnic period. The
transition in their mode of thought and in their methods of practical
life was as great as can be supposed to have resulted, in an early
generation, from the introduction of iron, or in a yet earlier from the
invention of the bow and arrow. So the Europeans of about the 15th
century of the Christian era may be said to have entered upon the Second
or Middle Status of civilization.

  Steam machinery.

The new period was destined to be a brief one. It had compassed only
about four hundred years when, towards the close of the 18th century,
James Watt gave to the world the perfected steam-engine. Almost
contemporaneously Arkwright and Hargreaves developed revolutionary
processes of spinning and weaving by machinery. Meantime James Hutton
and William Smith and their successors on the one hand, and Erasmus
Darwin, François Lamarck, and (a half-century later) Charles Darwin on
the other, turned men's ideas topsy-turvy by demonstrating that the
world as the abiding-place of animals and man is enormously old, and
that man himself instead of deteriorating from a single perfect pair six
thousand years removed, has ascended from bestiality through a slow
process of evolution extending over hundreds of centuries. The
revolution in practical life and in the mental life of our race that
followed these inventions and this new presentation of truth probably
exceeded in suddenness and in its far-reaching effects the metamorphosis
effected at any previous transition from one ethnic period to another.
The men of the 19th century, living now in the period that may be termed
the Upper Status of civilization, saw such changes effected in the
practical affairs of their everyday lives as had not been wrought before
during the entire historical period. Their fathers had travelled in
vehicles drawn by horses, quite as their remoter ancestors had done
since the time of higher barbarism. It may be doubted whether there
existed in the world in the year 1800 a postal service that could
compare in speed and efficiency with the express service of the Romans
of the time of Caesar; far less was there a telegraph service that could
compare with that of the ancient Persians. Nor was there a ship sailing
the seas that a Phoenician trireme might not have overhauled. But now
within the lifetime of a single man the world was covered with a network
of steel rails on which locomotives drew gigantic vehicles, laden with
passengers at an hourly speed almost equalling Caesar's best journey of
a day; over the land and under the seas were stretched wires along which
messages coursed from continent to continent literally with the speed of
lightning; and the waters of the earth were made to teem with gigantic
craft propelled without sail or oar at a speed which the Phoenician
captain of three thousand years ago and the English captain of the 18th
century would alike have held incredible.

  Social and political organization.

There is no need to give further details here of the industrial
revolutions that have been achieved in this newest period of
civilization, since in their broader outlines at least they are familiar
to every one. Nor need we dwell upon the revolution in thought whereby
man has for the first time been given a clear inkling as to his origin
and destiny. It suffices to point out that such periods of fermentation
of ideas as this suggests have probably always been concomitant with
those outbursts of creative genius that gave the world the practical
inventions upon which human progress has been conditioned. The same
attitude of receptivity to new ideas is pre-requisite to one form of
discovery as to the other. Nor, it may be added, can either form of idea
become effective for the progress of civilization except in proportion
as a large body of any given generation are prepared to receive it.
Doubtless here and there a dreamer played with fire, in a literal sense,
for generations before the utility of fire as a practical aid to human
progress came to be recognized in practice. And--to seek an illustration
at the other end of the scale--we know that the advanced thinkers of
Greece and Rome believed in the antiquity of the earth and in the
evolution of man two thousand years before the coming of Darwin. We have
but partly solved the mysteries of the progress of civilization, then,
when we have pointed out that each tangible stage of progress owed its
initiative to a new invention or discovery of science. To go to the root
of the matter we must needs explain how it came about that a given
generation of men was in mental mood to receive the new invention or

The pursuit of this question would carry us farther into the realm of
communal and racial psychology--to say nothing of the realm of
conjecture--than comports with the purpose of this article. It must
suffice to point out that alertness of mind--that all mentality--is, in
the last analysis, a reaction to the influences of the environment. It
follows that man may subject himself to new influences and thus give his
mind a new stimulus by changing his habitat. A fundamental secret of
progress is revealed in this fact. Man probably never would have evolved
from savagery had he remained in the Tropics where he doubtless
originated. But successive scientific inventions enabled him, as has
been suggested, to migrate to distant latitudes, and thus more or less
involuntarily to become the recipient of new creative and progressive
impulses. After migrations in many directions had resulted in the
development of divers races, each with certain capacities and
acquirements due to its unique environment, there was opportunity for
the application of the principle of environmental stimulus in an
indirect way, through the mingling and physical intermixture of one race
with another. Each of the great localized civilizations of antiquity
appears to have owed its prominence in part at least--perhaps very
largely--to such intermingling of two or more races. Each of these
civilizations began to decay so soon as the nation had remained for a
considerable number of generations in its localized environment, and had
practically ceased to receive accretions from distant races at
approximately the same stage of development. There is a suggestive
lesson for present-day civilization in that thought-compelling fact.
Further evidence of the application of the principle of environmental
stimulus, operating through changed habitat and racial intermixture, is
furnished by the virility of the colonial peoples of our own day. The
receptiveness to new ideas and the rapidity of material progress of
Americans, South Africans and Australians are proverbial. No one doubts,
probably, that one or another of these countries will give a new
stimulus to the progress of civilization, through the promulgation of
some great epochal discovery, in the not distant future. Again, the
value of racial intermingling is shown yet nearer home in the
long-continued vitality of the British nation, which is explicable, in
some measure at least, by the fact that the Celtic element held aloof
from the Anglo-Saxon element century after century sufficiently to
maintain racial integrity, yet mingled sufficiently to give and receive
the fresh stimulus of "new blood." It is interesting in this connexion
to examine the map of Great Britain with reference to the birthplaces of
the men named above as being the originators of the inventions and
discoveries that made the close of the 18th century memorable as
ushering in a new ethnic era. It may be added that these names suggest
yet another element in the causation of progress: the fact, namely,
that, however necessary racial receptivity may be to the dynamitic
upheaval of a new ethnic era, it is after all _individual_ genius that
applies its detonating spark.

  Nine periods of progress.

Without further elaboration of this aspect of the subject it may be
useful to recapitulate the analysis of the evolution of civilization
above given, prior to characterizing it from another standpoint. It
appears that the entire period of human progress up to the present may
be divided into nine periods which, if of necessity more or less
arbitrary, yet are not without certain warrant of logic. They may be
defined as follows: (1) The Lower Period of Savagery, terminating with
the discovery and application of the uses of fire. (2) The Middle Period
of Savagery, terminating with the invention of the bow and arrow. (3)
The Upper Period of Savagery, terminating with the invention of pottery.
(4) The Lower Period of Barbarism, terminating with the domestication of
animals. (5) The Middle Period of Barbarism, terminating with the
discovery of the process of smelting iron ore. (6) The Upper Period of
Barbarism, terminating with the development of a system of writing
meeting the requirements of literary composition. (7) The First Period
of Civilization (proper) terminating with the introduction of gunpowder.
(8) The Second Period of Civilization, terminating with the invention of
a practical steam-engine. (9) The Upper Period of Civilization, which is
still in progress, but which, as will be suggested in a moment, is
probably nearing its termination.

It requires but a glance at the characteristics of these successive
epochs to show the ever-increasing complexity of the inventions that
delimit them and of the conditions of life that they connote. Were we to
attempt to characterize in a few phrases the entire story of achievement
thus outlined, we might say that during the three stages of Savagery man
was attempting to make himself master of the geographical climates. His
unconscious ideal was, to gain a foothold and the means of subsistence
in every zone. During the three periods of Barbarism the ideal of
conquest was extended to the beasts of the field, the vegetable world,
and the mineral contents of the earth's crust. During the three periods
of Civilization proper the ideal of conquest has become still more
intellectual and subtle, being now extended to such abstractions as an
analysis of speech-sounds, and to such intangibles as expanding gases
and still more elusive electric currents: in other words, to the forces
of nature, no less than to tangible substances. Hand in hand with this
growing complexity of man's relations with the external world has gone a
like increase of complexity in the social and political organizations
that characterize man's relations with his fellowmen. In savagery the
family expanded into the tribe; in barbarism the tribe developed into
the nation. The epoch of civilization proper is aptly named, because it
has been a time in which citizenship, in the narrower national
significance, has probably been developed to its apogee. Throughout this
period, in every land, the highest virtue has been considered to be
patriotism,--by which must be understood an instinctive willingness on
the part of every individual to defend even with his life the interests
of the nation into which he chances to be born, regardless of whether
the national cause in which he struggles be in any given case good or
bad, right or wrong. The communal judgment of this epoch pronounces any
man a traitor who will not uphold his own nation even in a wrong
cause--and the word "traitor" marks the utmost brand of ignominy.

  Nationality and cosmopolitanism.

But while the idea of nationality has thus been accentuated, there has
been a never-ending struggle within the bounds of the nation itself to
adjust the relations of one citizen to another. The ideas that might
makes right, that the strong man must dominate the weak, that leadership
in the community properly belongs to the man who is physically most
competent to lead--these ideas were a perfectly natural, and indeed an
inevitable, outgrowth of the conditions under which man fought his way
up through savagery and barbarism. Man in the first period of
civilization inherited these ideas, along with the conditions of society
that were their concomitants. So throughout the periods when the
oriental civilizations of Egypt and Babylonia and Assyria and Persia
were dominant, a despotic form of government was accepted as the natural
order of things. It does not appear that any other form was even
considered as a practicality. A despot might indeed be overthrown, but
only to make way for the coronation of another despot. A little later
the Greeks and Romans modified the conception of a heaven-sent
individual monarch; but they went no further than to substitute a
heaven-favoured community, with specially favoured groups (_Patricii_)
within the community. With this, national egoism reached its climax; for
each people regarded its own citizens as the only exemplars of
civilization, openly branding all the rest of the world as "barbarians,"
fit subjects for the exaction of tribute or for the imposition of the
bonds of actual slavery. During the middle ages there was a reaction
towards individualism as opposed to nationalism: but the entire system
of feudalism, with its clearly recognized conditions of over-lordship
and of vassaldom, gave expression, no less clearly than oriental
despotism and classical "democracy" had done, to the idea of individual
inequality; of divergence of moral and legal status based on natural
inheritance. Thus this idea, a reminiscence of barbarism, maintained its
dominance throughout the first period of civilization.

But gunpowder, marking the transition to the second period of
civilization, came as a great levelling influence. With its aid the
weakest peasant might prove more than a match for the most powerful
knight. Before its assaults the castle of the lord ceased to be an
impregnable fortress. And while gunpowder thus levelled down the power
of the mighty, the printing-press levelled up the intelligence, and
hence the power and influence of the lowly. Meantime the mariner's
compass opened up new territories beyond the seas, and in due course men
of lowly origin were seen to attain to wealth and power through
commercial pursuits, thus tending to break in upon the established
social order. In the colonial territories themselves all men were
subjected more or less to the same perils and dependent upon their own
efforts. Success and prominence in the community came not as a
birthright, but as the result of demonstrated fitness. The great lesson
that the interests of all members of a community are, in the last
analysis, mutual could be more clearly distinguished in these small
colonies than in larger and older bodies politic. Through various
channels, therefore, in the successive generations of this middle period
of civilization, the idea gained ground that intelligence and moral
worth, rather than physical prowess, should be the test of greatness;
that it is incumbent on the strong in the interests of the body politic
to protect the weak; and that, in the long run, the best interests of
the community are conserved if all its members, without exception, are
given moral equality before the law. This idea of equal rights and
privileges for all members of the community--for each individual "the
greatest amount of liberty consistent with a like liberty of every other
individual"--first found expression as a philosophical doctrine towards
the close of the 18th century; at which time also tentative efforts were
made to put it into practice. It may be said therefore to represent the
culminating sociological doctrine of the middle period of
civilization,--the ideal towards which all the influences of the period
had tended to impel the race.

It will be observed, however, that this ideal of individual equality
within the body politic in no direct wise influences the status of the
body politic itself as the centre of a localized civilization that may
be regarded as in a sense antagonistic to all other similarly localized
civilizations. If there were any such influence, it would rather operate
in the direction of accentuating the patriotism of the member of a
democratical community, as against that of the subject of a despot,
through the sense of personal responsibility developed in the former.
The developments of the middle period of civilization cannot be
considered, therefore, to have tended to decrease the spirit of
nationality, with its concomitant penalty of what is sometimes called
provincialism. The history of this entire period, as commonly presented,
is largely made up of the records of international rivalries and
jealousies, perennially culminating in bitterly contested wars. It was
only towards the close of the epoch that the desirability of free
commercial intercourse among nations began to find expression as a
philosophical creed through the efforts of Quesnay and his followers;
and the doctrine that both parties to an international commercial
transaction are gainers thereby found its first clear expression in the
year 1776 in the pages of Condillac and of Adam Smith.

But the discoveries that ushered in the third period of civilization
were destined to work powerfully from the outset for the breaking down
of international barriers, though, of course, their effects would not be
at once manifest. Thus the substitution of steam power for water power,
besides giving a tremendous impetus to manufacturing in general, mapped
out new industrial centres in regions that nature had supplied with coal
but not always with other raw materials. To note a single result,
England became the manufacturing centre of the world, drawing its raw
materials from every corner of the globe; but in so doing it ceased to
be self-supporting as regards the production of food-supplies. While
growing in national wealth, as a result of the new inventions, England
has therefore lost immeasurably in national self-sufficiency and
independence; having become in large measure dependent upon other
countries both for the raw materials without which her industries must
perish and for the foods to maintain the very life of her people.

What is true of England in this regard is of course true in greater or
less measure of all other countries. Everywhere, thanks to the new
mechanisms that increase industrial efficiency, there has been an
increasing tendency to specialization; and since the manufacturer must
often find his raw materials in one part of the world and his markets in
another, this implies an ever-increasing intercommunication and
interdependence between the nations. This spirit is obviously fostered
by the new means of transportation by locomotive and steamship, and by
the electric communication that enables the Londoner, for example, to
transact business in New York or in Tokio with scarcely an hour's delay;
and that puts every one in touch at to-day's breakfast table with the
happenings of the entire world. Thanks to the new mechanisms, national
isolation is no longer possible; globe-trotting has become a habit with
thousands of individuals of many nations; and Orient and Occident,
representing civilizations that for thousands of years were almost
absolutely severed and mutually oblivious of each other, have been
brought again into close touch for mutual education and betterment. The
Western mind has learned with amazement that the aforetime _Terra
Incognita_ of the far East has nurtured a gigantic civilization having
ideals in many ways far different from our own. The Eastern mind has
proved itself capable, in self-defence, of absorbing the essential
practicalities of Western civilization within a single generation. Some
of the most important problems of world-civilization of the immediate
future hinge upon the mutual relations of these two long-severed
communities, branched at some early stage of progress to opposite
hemispheres of the globe, but now brought by the new mechanisms into
daily and even hourly communication.

  Modern humanism.

While the new conditions of the industrial world have thus tended to
develop a new national outlook, there has come about, as a result of the
scientific discoveries already referred to, a no less significant
broadening of the mental and spiritual horizons. Here also the trend is
away from the narrowly egoistic and towards the cosmopolitan view. About
the middle of the 19th century Dr Pritchard declared that many people
debated whether it might not be permissible for the Australian settlers
to shoot the natives as food for their dogs; some of the disputants
arguing that savages were without the pale of human brotherhood. To-day
the thesis that all mankind are one brotherhood needs no defence. The
most primitive of existing aborigines are regarded merely as brethren
who, through some defect or neglect of opportunity, have lagged behind
in the race. Similarly the defective and criminal classes that make up
so significant a part of the population of even our highest present-day
civilizations, are no longer regarded with anger or contempt, as beings
who are suffering just punishment for wilful transgressions, but are
considered as pitiful victims of hereditary and environmental influences
that they could neither choose nor control. Insanity is no longer
thought of as demoniac possession, but as the most lamentable of

The changed attitude towards savage races and defective classes affords
tangible illustrations of a fundamental transformation of point of view
which doubtless represents the most important result of the operation of
new scientific knowledge in the course of the 19th century. It is a
transformation that is only partially effected as yet, to be sure; but
it is rapidly making headway, and when fully achieved it will represent,
probably, the most radical metamorphosis of mental view that has taken
place in the entire course of the historical period. The essence of the
new view is this: to recognize the universality and the invariability of
natural law; stated otherwise, to understand that the word
"supernatural" involves a contradiction of terms and has in fact no
meaning. Whoever has grasped the full import of this truth is privileged
to sweep mental horizons wider by far than ever opened to the view of
any thinker of an earlier epoch. He is privileged to forecast, as the
sure heritage of the future, a civilization freed from the last ghost of
superstition--an Age of Reason in which mankind shall at last find
refuge from the hosts of occult and invisible powers, the fearsome
galaxies of deities and demons, which have haunted him thus far at every
stage of his long journey through savagery, barbarism and civilization.
Doubtless here and there a thinker, even in the barbaric eras, may have
realized that these ghosts that so influenced the everyday lives of his
fellows were but children of the imagination. But the certainty that
such is the case could not have come with the force of demonstration
even to the most clear-sighted thinker until 19th-century science had
investigated with penetrating vision the realm of molecule and atom; had
revealed the awe-inspiring principle of the conservation of energy; and
had offered a comprehensible explanation of the evolution of one form of
life from another, from monad to man, that did not presuppose the
intervention of powers more "supernatural" than those that operate about
us everywhere to-day.

The stupendous import of these new truths could not, of course, make
itself evident to the generality of mankind in a single generation, when
opposed to superstitions of a thousand generations' standing. But the
new knowledge has made its way more expeditiously than could have been
anticipated; and its effects are seen on every side, even where its
agency is scarcely recognized. As a single illustration, we may note the
familiar observation that the entire complexion of orthodox teaching of
religion has been more altered in the past fifty years than in two
thousand years before. This of course is not entirely due to the
influence of physical and biological science; no effect has a unique
cause, in the complex sociological scheme. Archaeology, comparative
philology and textual criticism have also contributed their share; and
the comparative study of religions has further tended to broaden the
outlook and to make for universality, as opposed to insularity, of view.
It is coming to be more and more widely recognized that all theologies
are but the reflex of the more or less faulty knowledge of the times in
which they originate, that the true and abiding purpose of religion
should be the practical betterment of humanity--the advancement of
civilization in the best sense of the word; and that this end may
perhaps be best subserved by different systems of theology, adapted to
the varied genius of different times and divers races. Wherefore there
is not the same enthusiastic desire to-day that found expression a
generation ago, to impose upon the cultured millions of the East a
religion that seems to them alien to their manner of thought, unsuited
to their needs and less distinctly ethical in teaching than their own

Such are but a few of the illustrations that might be cited from many
fields to suggest that the mind of our generation is becoming receptive
to a changed point of view that augurs the coming of a new ethnic era.
If one may be permitted to enter very tentatively the field of prophecy,
it seems not unlikely that the great revolutionary invention which will
close the third period of civilization and usher in a new era is already
being evolved. It seems not over-hazardous to predict that the air-ship,
in one form or another, is destined to be the mechanism that will give
the new impetus to human civilization; that the next era will have as
one of its practical ideals the conquest of the air; and that this
conquest will become a factor in the final emergence of humanity from
the insularity of nationalism to the broad view of cosmopolitanism,
towards which, as we have seen, the tendencies of the present era are
verging. That the gap to be covered is a vastly wide one no one need be
reminded who recalls that the civilized nations of Europe, together with
America and Japan, are at present accustomed to spend more than three
hundred million pounds each year merely that they may keep armaments in
readiness to fly at one another's throats should occasion arise.
Formidable as these armaments now seem, however, the developments of the
not very distant future will probably make them quite obsolete; and
sooner or later, as science develops yet more deadly implements of
destruction, the time must come when communal intelligence will rebel at
the suicidal folly of the international attitude that characterized, for
example, the opening decade of the 20th century. At some time, after the
first period of cosmopolitanism shall be ushered in as a tenth ethnic
period, it will come to be recognized that there is a word fraught with
fuller meanings even than the word patriotism. That word is
humanitarianism. The enlightened generation that realizes the full
implications of that word will doubtless marvel that their ancestors of
the third period of civilization should have risen up as nations and
slaughtered one another by thousands to settle a dispute about a
geographical boundary. Such a procedure will appear to have been quite
as barbarous as the cannibalistic practices of their yet more remote
ancestors, and distinctly less rational, since cannibalism might
sometimes save its practiser from starvation, whereas warfare of the
civilized type was a purely destructive agency.

Equally obvious must it appear to the cosmopolite of some generation of
the future that quality rather than mere numbers must determine the
efficiency of any given community. Race suicide will then cease to be a
bugbear; and it will no longer be considered rational to keep up the
census at the cost of propagating low orders of intelligence, to feed
the ranks of paupers, defectives and criminals. On the contrary it will
be thought fitting that man should become the conscious arbiter of his
own racial destiny to the extent of applying whatever laws of heredity
he knows or may acquire in the interests of his own species, as he has
long applied them in the case of domesticated animals. The survival and
procreation of the unfit will then cease to be a menace to the progress
of civilization. It does not follow that all men will be brought to a
dead level of equality of body and mind, nor that individual competition
will cease; but the average physical mental status of the race will be
raised immeasurably through the virtual elimination of that vast company
of defectives which to-day constitutes so threatening an obstacle to
racial progress. There are millions of men in Europe and America to-day
whose whole mental equipment--despite the fact that they have been
taught to read and write--is far more closely akin to the average of the
Upper Period of Barbarism than to the highest standards of their own
time; and these undeveloped or atavistic persons have on the average
more offspring than are produced by the more highly cultured and
intelligent among their contemporaries. "Race suicide" is thereby
prevented, but the progress of civilization is no less surely
handicapped. We may well believe that the cosmopolite of the future,
aided by science, will find rational means to remedy this strange
illogicality. In so doing he will exercise a more consciously purposeful
function, and perhaps a more directly potent influence, in determining
the line of human progress than he has hitherto attempted to assume,
notwithstanding the almost infinitely varied character of the
experiments through which he has worked his way from savagery to

  Ethical evolution.

All these considerations tend to define yet more clearly the ultimate
goal towards which the progressive civilization of past and present
appears to be trending. The contemplation of this goal brings into view
the outlines of a vastly suggestive evolutionary cycle. For it appears
that the social condition of cosmopolite man, so far as the present-day
view can predict it, will represent a state of things, magnified to
world-dimensions, that was curiously adumbrated by the social system of
the earliest savage. At the very beginning of the journey through
savagery, mankind, we may well believe, consisted of a limited tribe,
representing no great range or variety of capacity, and an almost
absolute identity of interests. Thanks to this community of
interests,--which was fortified by the recognition of blood-relationship
among all members of the tribe,--a principle which we now define as "the
greatest ultimate good to the greatest number" found practical, even if
unwitting, recognition; and therein lay the germs of all the moral
development of the future. But obvious identity of interests could be
recognized only so long as the tribe remained very small. So soon as its
numbers became large, patent diversities of interest, based on
individual selfishness, must appear, to obscure the larger harmony. And
as savage man migrated hither and thither, occupying new regions and
thus developing new tribes and ultimately a diversity of "races," all
idea of community of interests, as between race and race, must have been
absolutely banished. It was the obvious and patent fact that each race
was more or less at rivalry, in disharmony, with all the others. In the
hard struggle for subsistence, the expansion of one race meant the
downfall of another. So far as any principle of "greatest good" remained
in evidence, it applied solely to the members of one's own community, or
even to one's particular phratry or gens.

Barbaric man, thanks to his conquest of animal and vegetable nature, was
able to extend the size of the unified community, and hence to develop
through diverse and intricate channels the application of the principle
of "greatest good" out of which the idea of right and wrong was
elaborated. But quite as little as the savage did he think of extending
the application of the principle beyond the bounds of his own race. The
laws with which he gave expression to his ethical conceptions applied,
of necessity, to his own people alone. The gods with which his
imagination peopled the world were local in habitat, devoted to the
interests of his race only, and at enmity with the gods of rival
peoples. As between nation and nation, the only principle of ethics that
ever occurred to him was that might makes right. Civilized man for a
long time advanced but slowly upon this view of international morality.
No Egyptian or Babylonian or Hebrew or Greek or Roman ever hesitated to
attack a weaker nation on the ground that it would be wrong to do so.
And few indeed are the instances in which even a modern nation has
judged an international question on any other basis than that of
self-interest. It was not till towards the close of the 19th century
that an International Peace Conference gave tangible witness that the
idea of fellowship of nations was finding recognition; and in the same
recent period history has recorded the first instance of a powerful
nation vanquishing a weaker one without attempting to exact at least an
"indemnifying" tribute.

But the citizen of the future, if the auguries of the present prove
true, will be able to apply principles of right and wrong without
reference to national boundaries. He will understand that the interests
of the entire human family are, in the last analysis, common interests.
The census through which he attempts to estimate "the greatest good of
the greatest number" must include, not his own nation merely, but the
remotest member of the human race. On this universal basis must be
founded that absolute standard of ethics which will determine the
relations of cosmopolite man with his fellows. When this ideal is
attained, mankind will again represent a single family, as it did in the
day when our primeval ancestors first entered on the pathway of
progress; but it will be a family whose habitat has been extended from
the narrow glade of some tropical forest to the utmost habitable
confines of the globe. Each member of this family will be permitted to
enjoy the greatest amount of liberty consistent with the like liberty of
every other member; but the interests of the few will everywhere be
recognized as subservient to the interests of the many, and such
recognition of mutual interests will establish the practical criterion
for the interpretation of international affairs.

  Progress and efficiency.

But such an extension of the altruistic principle by no means
presupposes the elimination of egoistic impulses--of individualism. On
the contrary, we must suppose that man at the highest stages of culture
will be, even as was the savage, a seeker after the greatest attainable
degree of comfort for the least necessary expenditure of energy. The
pursuit of this ideal has been from first to last the ultimate impelling
force in nature urging man forward. The only change has been a change in
the interpretation of the ideal, an altered estimate as to what manner
of things are most worth the purchase-price of toil and self-denial.
That the things most worth the having cannot, generally speaking, be
secured without such toil and self-denial, is a lesson that began to be
inculcated while man was a savage, and that has never ceased to be
reiterated generation after generation. It is the final test of
progressive civilization that a given effort shall produce a larger and
larger modicum of average individual comfort. That is why the great
inventions that have increased man's efficiency as a worker have been
the necessary prerequisites to racial progress. Stated otherwise, that
is why the industrial factor is everywhere the most powerful factor in
civilization; and why the economic interpretation is the most searching
interpretation of history at its every stage. It is the basal fact that
progress implies increased average working efficiency--a growing ratio
between average effort and average achievement--that gives sure warrant
for such a prognostication as has just been attempted concerning the
future industrial unification of our race. The efforts of civilized man
provide him, on the average, with a marvellous range of comforts, as
contrasted with those that rewarded the most strenuous efforts of savage
or barbarian, to whom present-day necessaries would have been
undreamed-of luxuries. But the ideal ratio between effort and result has
by no means been achieved; nor will it have been until the inventive
brain of man has provided a civilization in which a far higher
percentage of citizens will find the life-vocations to which they are
best adapted by nature, and in which, therefore, the efforts of the
average worker may be directed with such vigour, enthusiasm and interest
as can alone make for true efficiency; a civilization adjusted to such
an economic balance that the average man may live in reasonable comfort
without heart-breaking strain, and yet accumulate a sufficient surplus
to ensure ease and serenity for his declining days. Such, seemingly,
should be the normal goal of progressive civilization. Doubtless mankind
in advancing towards that goal will institute many changes that could by
no possibility be foretold, but (to summarize the views just presented)
it seems a safe augury from present-day conditions and tendencies that
the important lines of progress will include (1) the organic betterment
of the race through wise application of the laws of heredity; (2) the
lessening of international jealousies and the consequent minimizing of
the drain upon communal resources that attends a military régime; and
(3) an ever-increasing movement towards the industrial and economic
unification of the world.    (H. S. WI.)

  AUTHORITIES.--A list of works dealing with the savage and barbarous
  periods of human development will be found appended to the article
  ANTHROPOLOGY. Special reference may here be made to E.B. Tylor's
  _Early History of Mankind_ (1865), _Primitive Culture_ (1871) and
  _Anthropology_ (1881); Lord Avebury's _Prehistoric Times_ (new
  edition, 1900) and _Origin of Civilization_ (new edition, 1902); A.H.
  Keane's _Man Past and Present_ (1899); and Lewis H. Morgan's _Ancient
  Society_ (1877). The earliest attempt at writing a history of
  civilization which has any value for the 20th-century reader was F.
  Guizot's in 1828-1830, a handy English translation by William Hazlitt
  being included in Bohn's Standard Library under the title of _The
  History of Civilization_. The earlier lectures, delivered at the Old
  Sorbonne, deal with the general progress of European civilization,
  whilst the greater part of the work is an account of the growth of
  civilization in France. Guizot's attitude is somewhat antiquated, but
  this book still has usefulness as a storehouse of facts. T.H. Buckle's
  famous work, _The History of Civilization in England_ (1857-1861),
  though only a gigantic unfinished introduction to the author's
  proposed enterprise, holds an important place in historical literature
  on account of the new method which it introduced, and has given birth
  to a considerable number of valuable books on similar lines, such as
  Lecky's _History of European Morals_ (1869) and _Rise and Influence of
  Rationalism in Europe_ (1865). J.W. Draper's _History of the
  Intellectual Development of Europe_ (1861) undertook, from the
  American stand-point, "the labour of arranging the evidence offered by
  the intellectual history of Europe in accordance with physiological
  principles, so as to illustrate the orderly progress of civilization."
  Its objective treatment and wealth of learning still give it great
  value to the student. Since the third quarter of the 19th century it
  may be said that all serious historical work has been more or less a
  history of civilization as displayed in all countries and ages, and a
  bibliography of the works bearing on the subject would be coextensive
  with the catalogue of a complete historical library. Special mention,
  however, may be made of such important and suggestive works as C.H.
  Pearson's _National Life and Character_ (1893); Benjamin Kidd's
  _Social Evolution_ (1894) and _Principles of Western Civilization_
  (1902); Edward Eggleston's _Transit of Civilization_ (1901); C.
  Seignobos's _Histoire de la civilisation_ (1887); C. Faulmann's
  _Illustrirte Culturgeschichte_ (1881); G. Ducoudray's _Histoire de la
  civilisation_ (1886); J. von Hellwald's _Kulturgeschichte_ (1896); J.
  Lippert's _Kulturgeschichte der Menschheit_ (1886); O. Henne-am-Rhyn's
  _Die Kultur der Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft_ (1890); G.
  Kurth's _Origines de la civilisation moderne_ (1886), &c. The vast
  collection of modern works on sociology, from Herbert Spencer onwards,
  should also be consulted; see bibliography attached to the article
  SOCIOLOGY. The historical method on which practically all the articles
  of the present edition of the _Ency. Brit._ are planned, makes the
  whole work itself in essentials the most comprehensive history of
  civilization in existence.

CIVIL LAW, a phrase which, with its Latin equivalent _jus civile_, has
been used in a great variety of meanings. _Jus civile_ was sometimes
used to distinguish that portion of the Roman law which was the proper
or ancient law of the city or state of Rome from the _jus gentium_, or
the law common to all the nations comprising the Roman world, which was
incorporated with the former through the agency of the praetorian
edicts. This historical distinction remained as a permanent principle of
division in the body of the Roman law. One of the first propositions of
the Institutes of Justinian is the following:--"Jus autem civile vel
gentium ita dividitur. Omnes populi qui legibus et moribus reguntur
partim suo proprio, partim communi omnium hominum jure utuntur; nam quod
quisque populus ipsi sibi jus constituit, id ipsius civitatis proprium
est, vocaturque jus civile quasi jus proprium ipsius civitatis. Quod
vero naturalis ratio inter omnes homines constituit, id apud omnes
peraeque custoditur, vocaturque jus gentium quasi quo jure omnes gentes
utuntur." The _jus gentium_ of this passage is elsewhere identified with
_jus naturale_, so that the distinction comes to be one between civil
law and natural or divine law. The municipal or private law of a state
is sometimes described as civil law in distinction to public or
international law. Again, the municipal law of a state may be divided
into civil law and criminal law. The phrase, however, is applied _par
excellence_ to the system of law created by the genius of the Roman
people, and handed down by them to the nations of the modern world (see
ROMAN LAW). The civil law in this sense would be distinguished from the
local or national law of modern states. The civil law in this sense is
further to be distinguished from that adaptation of its principles to
ecclesiastical purposes which is known as the canon law (q.v.).



the English term for the account in which are contained all the expenses
immediately applicable to the support of the British sovereign's
household and the honour and dignity of the crown. An annual sum is
settled by the British parliament at the beginning of the reign on the
sovereign, and is charged on the consolidated fund. But it is only from
the reign of William IV. that the sum thus voted has been restricted
solely to the personal expenses of the crown. Before his accession many
charges properly belonging to the ordinary expenses of government had
been placed on the civil list. The history of the civil list dates from
the reign of William and Mary. Before the Revolution no distinction had
been made between the expenses of government in time of peace and the
expenses relating to the personal dignity and support of the sovereign.
The ordinary revenues derived from the hereditary revenues of the crown,
and from certain taxes voted for life to the king at the beginning of
each reign, were supposed to provide for the support of the sovereign's
dignity and the civil government, as well as for the public defence in
time of peace. Any saving made by the king in the expenditure touching
the government of the country or its defence would go to swell his privy
purse. But with the Revolution a step forward was made towards the
establishment of the principle that the expenses relating to the support
of the crown should be separated from the ordinary expenses of the
state. The evils of the old system under which no appropriation was made
of the ordinary revenue granted to the crown for life had been made
manifest in the reigns of Charles II. and James II.; it was their
control of these large revenues that made them so independent of
parliament. Moreover, while the civil government and the defences
suffered, the king could use these revenues as he liked. The parliament
of William and Mary fixed the revenue of the crown in time of peace at
£1,200,000 per annum; of this sum about £700,000 was appropriated
towards the "civil list." But from this the sovereign was to defray the
expenses of the civil service and the payment of pensions, as well as
the cost of the support of the royal household and his own personal
expenses. It was from this that the term "civil list" arose, to
distinguish it from the statement of military and naval charges. The
revenue voted to meet the civil list consisted of the hereditary
revenues of the crown and a part of the excise duties. Certain changes
and additions were made in the sources of revenue thus appropriated
between the reign of William and Mary and the accession of George III.,
when a different system was adopted. Generally speaking, however, the
sources of revenue remained as settled at the Revolution.

  Anne, George I. and George II.

  George III.

Anne had the same civil list, estimated to produce an annual income of
£700,000. During her reign a debt of £1,200,000 was incurred. This debt
was paid by parliament and charged on the civil list itself. George I.
enjoyed the same revenue by parliamentary grant, in addition to an
annual sum of £120,000 on the aggregate fund. A debt of £1,000,000 was
incurred, and discharged by parliament in the same manner as Anne's debt
had been. To George II. a civil list of £800,000 as a minimum was
granted, parliament undertaking to make up any deficiency if the sources
of income appropriated to its service fell short of that sum. Thus in
1746 a debt of £456,000 was paid by parliament on the civil list. On the
accession of George III. a change was made in the system of the civil
list. Hitherto the sources of revenue appropriated to the service of the
civil list had been settled on the crown. If these revenues exceeded the
sum they were computed to produce annually, the surplus went to the
king. George III., however, surrendered the life-interest in the
hereditary revenues and the excise duties hitherto voted to defray the
civil list expenditure, and any claim to a surplus for a fixed amount.
The king still retained other large sources of revenue which were not
included in the civil list, and were free from the control of
parliament. The revenues from which the civil list had been defrayed
were henceforward to be carried into, and made part of, the aggregate
fund. In their place a fixed civil list was granted--at first of
£723,000 per annum, to be increased to £800,000 on the falling in of
certain annuities to members of the royal family. From this £800,000 the
king's household and the honour and dignity of the crown were to be
supported, as well as the civil service offices, pensions and other
charges still laid on the list.

  Indebtedness of civil list.

During the reign of George III. the civil list played an important part
in the history of the struggle on the part of the king to establish the
royal ascendancy. From the revenue appropriated to its service came a
large portion of the money employed by the king in creating places and
pensions for his supporters in parliament, and, under the colour of the
royal bounty, bribery was practised on a large scale. No limit was set
to the amount applicable to the pensions charged on the civil list, so
long as the sum granted could meet the demand; and there was no
principle on which the grant was regulated. Secret pensions at the
king's pleasure were paid out of it, and in every way the independence
of parliament was menaced; and though the more legitimate expenses of
the royal household were diminished by the king's penurious style of
living, and though many charges not directly connected with the king's
personal expenditure were removed, the amount was constantly exceeded,
and applications were made from time to time to parliament to pay off
debts incurred; and thus opportunity was given for criticism. In 1769 a
debt of £513,511 was paid off in arrears; and in spite of the demand for
accounts and for an inquiry into the cause of the debt, the ministry
succeeded in securing this vote without granting such information. All
attempts to investigate the civil list were successfully resisted,
though Lord Chatham went so far as to declare himself convinced that the
funds were expended in corrupting members of parliament. Again, in 1777,
an application was made to parliament to pay off £618,340 of debts; and
in view of the growing discontent Lord North no longer dared to withhold
accounts. Yet, in spite of strong opposition and free criticism, not
only was the amount voted, but also a further £100,000 per annum, thus
raising the civil list to an annual sum of £900,000.

In 1779, at a time when the expenditure of the country and the national
debt had been enormously increased by the American War, the general
dissatisfaction found voice in parliament, and the abuses of the civil
list were specially singled out for attack. Many petitions were
presented to the House of Commons praying for its reduction, and a
motion was made in the House of Lords in the same sense, though it was
rejected. In 1780 Burke brought forward his scheme of economic reform,
but his name was already associated with the growing desire to remedy
the evils of the civil list by the publication in 1769 of his pamphlet
on "The Causes of the Present Discontent." In this scheme Burke freely
animadverts on the profusion and abuse of the civil list, criticizing
the useless and obsolete offices and the offices performed by deputy. In
every department he discovers jobbery, waste and peculation. His
proposal was that the many offices should be reduced and consolidated,
that the pension list should be brought down to a fixed sum of £60,000
per annum, and that pensions should be conferred only to reward merit or
fulfil real public charity. All pensions were to be paid at the
exchequer. He proposed also that the civil list should be divided into
classes, an arrangement which later was carried into effect. In 1780
Burke succeeded in bringing in his Establishment Bill; but though at
first it met with considerable support, and was even read a second time,
Lord North's government defeated it in committee. The next year the bill
was again introduced into the House of Commons, and Pitt made his first
speech in its favour. The bill was, however, lost on the second reading.

  Civil List Act 1782.

In 1782 the Rockingham ministry, pledged to economic reform, came into
power; and the Civil List Act 1782 was introduced and carried with the
express object of limiting the patronage and influence of ministers, or,
in other words, the ascendancy of the crown over parliament. Not only
did the act effect the abolition of a number of useless offices, but it
also imposed restraints on the issue of secret service money, and made
provision for a more effectual supervision of the royal expenditure. As
to the pension list, the annual amount was to be limited to £95,000; no
pension to any one person was to exceed £1200, and all pensions were to
be paid at the exchequer, thus putting a stop to the secret pensions
payable during pleasure. Moreover, pensions were only to be bestowed in
the way of royal bounty for persons in distress or as a reward for
merit. Another very important change was made by this act: the civil
list was divided into classes, and a fixed amount was to be appropriated
to each class. The following were the classes:--

  1. Pensions and allowances of the royal family.
  2. Payment of salaries of lord chancellor, speaker and judges.
  3. Salaries of ministers to foreign courts resident at the same.
  4. Approved bills of tradesmen, artificers and labourers for any
     article supplied and work done for His Majesty's service.
  5. Menial servants of the household.
  6. Pension list.
  7. Salaries of all other places payable out of the civil list revenues.
  8. Salaries and pensions of treasurer or commissioners of the
     treasury and of the chancellor of the exchequer.

Yet debt was still the condition of the civil list down to the end of
the reign, in spite of the reforms established by the Rockingham
ministry, and notwithstanding the removal from the list of many charges
unconnected with the king's personal expenses. The debts discharged by
parliament between 1782, the date of the passing of the Civil List Act,
and the end of George III.'s reign, amounted to £2,300,000. In all,
during his reign £3,398,061 of debt owing by the civil list was paid

With the regency the civil list was increased by £70,000 per annum, and
a special grant of £100,000 was settled on the prince regent. In 1816
the annual amount was settled at £1,083,727, including the establishment
of the king, now insane; though the civil list was relieved from some
annuities payable to the royal family. Nevertheless, the fund still
continued charged with such civil expenses as the salaries of judges,
ambassadors and officers of state, and with pensions granted for public
services. Other reforms were made as regards the definition of the
several classes of expenditure, while the expenses of the royal
household were henceforth to be audited by a treasury official--the
auditor of the civil list. On the accession of George IV. the civil
list, freed from the expenses of the late king, was settled at £845,727.
On William IV. coming to the throne a sum of £510,000 per annum was
fixed for the service of the civil list. The king at the same time
surrendered all the sources of revenue enjoyed by his predecessors,
apart from the civil list, represented by the hereditary revenues of
Scotland--the Irish civil list, the droits of the crown and admiralty,
the 4½% duties, the West India duties, and other casual revenues
hitherto vested in the crown, and independent of parliament. The
revenues of the duchy of Lancaster were still retained by the crown. In
return for this surrender and the diminished sum voted, the civil list
was relieved from all the charges relating rather to the civil
government than to the support of the dignity of the crown and the royal
household. The future expenditure was divided into five classes, and a
fixed annual sum was appropriated to each class. The pension list was
reduced to £75,000. The king resisted an attempt on the part of the
select committee to reduce the salaries of the officers of state on the
grounds that this touched his prerogative, and the ministry of Earl Grey
yielded to his remonstrance.

  Queen Victoria's civil list.

The civil list of Queen Victoria was settled on the same principles as
that of William IV. A considerable reduction was made in the aggregate
annual sum voted, from £510,000 to £385,000, and the pension list was
separated from the ordinary civil list. The civil list proper was
divided into the following five classes, with a fixed sum appropriated
to each:--

  Privy purse              £60,000
  Salaries of household    131,260
  Expenses of household    172,500
  Royal bounty, &c.         13,200
  Unappropriated             8,040

In addition the queen might, on the advice of her ministers, grant
pensions up to £1200 per annum, in accordance with a resolution of the
House of Commons of February 18th, 1834, "to such persons as have just
claims on the royal beneficence or who, by their personal services to
the crown, by the performance of duties to the public, or by their
useful discoveries in science and attainments in literature and art,
have merited the gracious consideration of the sovereign and the
gratitude of their country." The service of these pensions increased the
annual sum devoted to support the dignity of the crown and the expenses
of the household to about £409,000. The list of pensions must be laid
before parliament within thirty days of 20th June. Thus the civil list
was reduced in amount, and relieved from the very charges which gave it
its name as distinct from the statement of military and naval charges.
It now really only dealt with the support of the dignity and honour of
the crown and the royal household. The arrangement was most successful,
and during the last three reigns there was no application to parliament
for the discharge of debts incurred on the civil list.

  Civil List Act 1901.

The death of Queen Victoria rendered it necessary that a renewed
provision should be made for the civil list; and King Edward VII.,
following former precedents, placed unreservedly at the disposal of
parliament his hereditary revenues. A select committee of the House of
Commons was appointed to consider the provisions of the civil list for
the crown, and to report also on the question of grants for the
honourable support and maintenance of Her Majesty the Queen and the
members of the royal family. The committee in their conclusions were
guided to a considerable extent by the actual civil list expenditure
during the last ten years of the last reign, and made certain
recommendations which, without undue interference with the sovereign's
personal arrangements, tended towards increased efficiency and economy
in the support of the sovereign's household and the honour and dignity
of the crown. On their report was based the Civil List Act 1901, which
established the new civil list. The system that the hereditary revenues
should as before be paid into the exchequer and be part of the
consolidated fund was maintained. The amount payable for the civil list
was increased from £385,000 to £470,000. In the application of this sum
the number of classes of expenditure to which separate amounts were to
be appropriated was increased from five to six. The following was the
new arrangement of classes:--1st class, Their Majesties' privy purse,
£110,000; 2nd class, salaries of His Majesty's household and retired
allowances, £125,800; 3rd class, expenses of His Majesty's household,
£193,000; 4th class, works (the interior repair and decoration of
Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle), £20,000; 5th class, royal bounty,
alms and special services, £13,200; 6th class, unappropriated, £8000.
The system relating to civil list pensions, established by the Civil
List Act 1837, continued to apply, but the pensions were not regarded as
chargeable on the sum paid for the civil list. The committee also
advised that the mastership of the Buckhounds should not be continued;
and the king, on the advice of his ministers, agreed to accept their
recommendation. The maintenance of the royal hunt thus ceased to be a
charge on the civil list. The annuities of £20,000 to the prince of
Wales, of £10,000 to the princess of Wales, and of £18,000 to His
Majesty's three daughters, were not included in the civil list, though
they were conferred by the same act. Other grants made by special acts
of parliament to members of the royal family were also excluded from it;
these were £6000 to the princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, £6000
to the princess Louise (duchess of Argyll), £25,000 to the duke of
Connaught, £6000 to the duchess of Albany, £6000 to the princess
Beatrice (Henry of Battenberg), and £3000 to the duchess of

    Figures in other countries.

  It may be interesting to compare with the British civil list the
  corresponding figures in other countries. These are as follows, the
  figures being those, for convenience, of 1905. Spain, £280,000,
  exclusive of allowances to members of the royal family; Portugal,
  £97,333, in addition to £1333 to the queen-consort--total grant to the
  royal family, £116,700; Italy, £602,000, from which was deducted
  £16,000 for the children of the deceased Prince Amedeo, duke of Aosta,
  £16,000 to Prince Tommaso, duke of Genoa, and £40,000 to Queen
  Margherita; Belgium, £140,000; Netherlands, £50,000, with, in
  addition, £4000 for the maintenance of the royal palaces; Germany,
  £770,500 (_Krondotations Rente_), the sovereign also possessing large
  private property (_Kronfideikommiss und Schatullgüter_), the revenue
  from which contributed to the expenditure of the court and the members
  of the royal family; Denmark, £55,500, in addition to £6600 to the
  heir-apparent; Norway, £38,888; Sweden, £72,700; Greece, £52,000,
  which included £4000 each from Great Britain, France and Russia;
  Austria-Hungary, £941,666, made up of £387,500 as emperor of Austria
  out of the revenues of Austria, and £554,166 as king of Hungary out of
  the revenues of Hungary; Japan, £300,000; Rumania, £47,000, in
  addition to revenues from certain crown lands; Servia, £48,000;
  Bulgaria, £40,000, besides £30,000 for maintenance of palaces, &c.;
  Montenegro, £8300; Russia had no civil list, the sovereign having all
  the revenue from the crown domains (actual amount unknown, but
  supposed to amount to over £4,000,000); the president of the French
  Republic had a salary of £24,000 a year, with a further £24,000 for
  expenses; and the president of the United States had a salary of
  $50,000 (from 1909, $75,000).

CIVIL SERVICE, the generic name given to the aggregate of all the public
servants, or paid civil administrators and clerks, of a state. It is the
machinery by which the executive, through the various administrations,
carries on the central government of the country.

_British Empire._--The appointments to the civil service until the year
1855 were made by nomination, with an examination not sufficient to form
an intellectual or even a physical test. It was only after much
consideration and almost years of discussion that the nomination system
was abandoned. Various commissions reported on the civil service, and
orders in council were issued. Finally in 1855 a qualifying examination
of a stringent character was instituted, and in 1870 the principle of
open competition was adopted as a general rule. On the report of the
Playfair Commission (1876), an order in council was issued dividing the
civil service into an upper and lower division. The order in council
directed that a lower division should be constituted, and men and boy
clerks holding permanent positions replaced the temporary assistants and
writers. The "temporary" assistant was not found to be advantageous to
the service. In December 1886 a new class of assistant clerks was formed
to replace the men copyists. In 1887 the Ridley Commission reported on
the civil service establishment. In 1890 two orders in council were
issued based on the reports of the Ridley Commission, which sat from
1886 to 1890. The first order constituted what is now known as the
second division of the civil service. The second order in council
concerned the officers of the 1st class; and provision was made for the
possible promotion of the second division clerks to the first division
after eight years' service.

The whole system is under the administration of the civil service
commissioners, and power is given to them, with the approval of the
treasury, to prescribe the subjects of examination, limits of age, &c.
The age is fixed for compulsory retirement at sixty-five. In exceptional
cases a prolongation of five years is within the powers of the civil
service commissioners. The examination for 1st class clerkships is held
concurrently with that of the civil service of India and Eastern
cadetships in the colonial service. Candidates can compete for all three
or for two. In addition to the intellectual test the candidate must
fulfil the conditions of age (22 to 24), must present recommendations as
to character, and pass a medical examination. This examination
approximates closely to the university type of education. Indeed, there
is little chance of success except for candidates who have had a
successful university career, and frequently, in addition, special
preparation by a private teacher. The subjects include the language and
literature of England, France, Germany, Italy, ancient Greece and Rome,
Sanskrit and Arabic, mathematics (pure and applied), natural science
(chemistry, physics, zoology, &c.), history (English, Greek, Roman and
general modern), political economy and economic history, mental and
moral philosophy, Roman and English law and political science. The
candidate is obliged to reach a certain standard of knowledge in each
subject before any marks at all are allowed him. This rule was made to
prevent success by mere cramming, and to ensure competent knowledge on
the basis of real study.

The maximum scale of the salaries of clerks of Class I. is as
follows:--3rd class, £200 a year, increasing by £20 a year to £500; 2nd
class, £600, increasing by £25 a year to £800; 1st class, £850,
increasing by £50 a year to £1000. Their pensions are fixed by the
Superannuation Act 1859, 22 Vict. c. 26:--

  "To any person who shall have served ten years and upwards, and under
  eleven years, an annual allowance of ten-sixtieths of the annual
  salary and emoluments of his office:

  "For eleven years and under twelve years, an annual allowance of
  eleven-sixtieths of such salary and emoluments:

  "And in like manner a further addition to the annual allowance of
  one-sixtieth in respect of each additional year of such service, until
  the completion of a period of service of forty years, when the annual
  allowance of forty-sixtieths may be granted; and no additions shall be
  made in respect of any service beyond forty years."

  The "ordinary annual holidays allowed to officers" (1st class) "shall
  not exceed thirty-six week-days during each of their first ten years
  of service and forty-eight week-days thereafter." Order in Council,
  15th August 1890.

  "Within that maximum heads of departments have now, as they have
  hitherto had, an absolute discretion in fixing the annual leave."

Sick leave can be granted on full salary for not more than six months,
on half-salary for another six months.

The scale of salary for 2nd division clerks begins at £70 a year,
increasing by £5 to £100; then £100 a year, increasing by £7, 10s. to
£190; and then £190 a year, increasing by £10 to £250. The highest is
£300 to £500. Advancement in the 2nd division to the higher ranks
depends on merit, not seniority. The ordinary annual holiday of the 2nd
division clerks is 14 working days for the first five years, and 21
working days afterwards. They can be allowed sick leave for six months
on full pay and six months on half-pay. The subjects of their
examination are: (1) handwriting and orthography, including copying MS.;
(2) arithmetic; (3) English composition; (4) précis, including indexing
and digest of returns; (5) book-keeping and shorthand writing; (6)
geography and English history; (7) Latin; (8) French; (9) German; (10)
elementary mathematics; (11) inorganic chemistry with elements of
physics. Not more than four of the subjects (4) to (11) can be taken.
The candidate must be between the ages of 17 and 20. A certain number of
the places in the 2nd division were reserved for the candidates from the
boy clerks appointed under the old system. The competition is severe,
only about one out of every ten candidates being successful. Candidates
are allowed a choice of departments subject to the exigencies of the

  There is also a class of boy copyists who are almost entirely employed
  in London, a few in Dublin and Edinburgh, and, very seldom, in some
  provincial towns. The subjects of their examination are:
  _Obligatory_--handwriting and orthography, arithmetic and English
  composition. _Optional_--(any two of the following): (1) copying MS.;
  (2) geography; (3) English history; (4) translation from one of the
  following languages--Latin, French or German; (5) Euclid, bk. i. and
  ii., and algebra, up to and including simple equations; (6) rudiments
  of chemistry and physics. Candidates must be between the ages of 15
  and 18. They have no claims to superannuation or compensation
  allowance. Boy copyists are not retained after the age of 20.

Candidates for the civil service of India take the same examination as
for 1st class clerkships. Candidates successful in the examination must
subsequently spend one year in England. They receive for that year £150
if they elect to live at one of the universities or colleges approved by
the secretary of state for India. They are submitted to a final
examination in the following subjects--Indian Penal Code and the Code
of Criminal Procedure, the principal vernacular language of the province
to which they are assigned, the Indian Evidence Act (these three
subjects are compulsory), either Hindu and Mahommedan Law, or Sanskrit,
Arabic or Persian, Burmese (for Burma only). A candidate may not take
Arabic or Sanskrit both in the first examination and in the final. They
must also pass a thorough examination in riding. On reaching India
their salary begins at 400 rupees a month. They may take, as leave,
one-fourth of the time on active service in periods strictly limited by
regulation. After 25 years' service (of which 21 must be active service)
they can retire on a pension of £1000 a year. The unit of administration
is the district. At the head of the district is an executive officer
called either collector-magistrate or deputy-commissioner. In most
provinces he is responsible to the commissioner, who corresponds
directly with the provincial government. The Indian civilian after four
years' probation in both branches of the service is called upon to elect
whether he will enter the revenue or judicial department, and this
choice as a rule is held to be final for his future work.

  Candidates for the Indian Forest Service have to pass a competitive
  examination, one of the compulsory subjects being German or French.
  They have also to pass a severe medical examination, especially in
  their powers of vision and hearing. They must be between the ages of
  18 and 22. Successful candidates are required to pass a three years'
  course, with a final examination, seven terms of the course at an
  approved school of forestry, the rest of the time receiving practical
  instruction in continental European forests. On reaching India they
  start as assistant conservators at 380 rupees a month. The highest
  salary, that of inspector-general of forests, in the Indian Forest
  Service is 2650 rupees a month.

  The Indian Police Service is entered by a competitive examination of
  very much the same kind as for the forest service, except that special
  subjects such as German and botany are not included. The candidates
  are limited in age to 19 and 21. They must pass a riding examination.
  A free passage out is given them. They are allotted as probationers,
  their wishes being consulted as far as possible as to their province.
  A probationer receives 300 rupees a month. A district superintendent
  can rise to 1200 rupees a month, while there are a few posts with a
  salary of 3000 rupees a month in the police service. The leave and
  pension in both these departments follow the general rules for Indian

The civil service also includes student interpreterships for China,
Japan and Siam, and for the Ottoman dominions, Persia, Greece and
Morocco. Both these classes of student interpreters are selected by open
competition. Their object is to supply the consular service in the
above-named countries with persons having a thorough knowledge of the
language of the country in which they serve.

  In the first case, China, Japan, &c., they learn their language in the
  country itself, receiving £200 as probationers. Then they become
  assistants in a consulate. The highest post is that of consul-general.
  In the case of student interpreters for the Ottoman dominions, Persia,
  Greece and Morocco, the successful candidates learn their languages at
  Oxford. Turkish is taught gratuitously, but they pay the usual fees
  for other languages. At Oxford they receive £200 a year for two years.
  On leaving Oxford they become assistants under the embassy at
  Constantinople, the legations at Teheran, Athens or Morocco, or at one
  of H.B.M. consulates. As assistants they receive £300 a year. The
  consuls, the highest post to which they can reach, receive in the
  Levant from £500 to £1600 a year. The civil services of Ceylon,
  Hong-Kong, the Straits Settlements, and the Malay Peninsula are
  supplied by the Eastern cadetships. The limits of age for the
  examination are 18 and 24. The cadets are required to learn the native
  language of the colony or dependency to which they are assigned. In
  the case of the Straits Settlements and Malay cadets they may have to
  learn Chinese or Tamil, as well as the native language. The salaries
  are: passed cadets, 3500 rupees per annum, gradually increasing until
  first-class officers receive from 12,000 to 18,000 rupees per annum.
  They are allowed three months' vacation on full pay in two years, and
  leave of absence on half-pay after six years' service, or before that
  if urgently needed. They can retire for ill-health after ten years
  with fifteen-sixtieths of their annual salary. Otherwise they can add
  one-sixtieth of their annual salary to their pension for every
  additional year's service up to thirty-five years' service.

In spite of the general rule of open competition, there are still a few
departments where the system of _nomination_ obtains, accompanied by a
severe test of knowledge, either active or implied. Such are the foreign
office, British Museum, and board of education.

The employment of women in the civil service has been principally
developed in the post office. Women are employed in the post office as
female clerks, counter clerks, telegraphists, returners, sorters and
post-mistresses all over the United Kingdom. The board of agriculture,
the customs and the India office employ women. The department of
agriculture, the board of education generally, the local government
board, all to a certain extent employ women, whilst in the home office
there are an increasing number of women inspectors of workshops and

  In 1881 the postmaster-general took a decided step in favour of female
  employment, and with the consent of the treasury instituted female
  clerkships. Female clerks do not come in contact with the public.
  Their duties are purely clerical, and entirely in the
  accountant-general's department at the savings bank. Their leave is
  one month per annum; their pension is on the ordinary civil service
  scale. The examination is competitive; the subjects are handwriting
  and spelling, arithmetic, English composition, geography, English
  history, French or German. Candidates must be between the ages of 18
  and 20. Whether unmarried or widows they must resign on marriage. The
  class of girl clerks take the same subjects in a competitive
  examination. They must be between the ages of 16 and 18; they serve
  only in the Savings Bank department. If competent they can pass on
  later to female clerkships. The salaries of the female clerkships
  range from £200 to £500 in the higher grade, £55 to £190 in the 2nd
  class, whilst girl clerks are paid from £35 to £40, with the chance of
  advancement to higher posts.

  The "spoils system".

_United States._--Civil service reform, like other great administrative
reforms, began in America in the latter half of the 19th century.
Personal and partisan government, with all the entailed evils of the
patronage system, culminated in Great Britain during the reign of George
III., and was one of the efficient causes of the American revolution.
Trevelyan characterizes the use of patronage to influence legislation,
and the giving of colonial positions as sinecures to the privileged
classes and personal favourites of the administration, by saying, "It
was a system which, as its one achievement of the first order, brought
about the American War, and made England sick, once and for all, of the
very name of personal government." It was natural that the founders of
the new government in America, after breaking away from the
mother-country, should strive to avoid the evils which had in a measure
brought about the revolution. Their intention that the administrative
officers of the government should hold office during good behaviour is
manifest, and was given thorough and practical effect by every
administration during the first forty years of the life of the
government. The constitution fixed no term of office in the executive
branch of the government except those of president and vice-president;
and Madison, the expounder of the constitution, held that the wanton
removal of a meritorious officer was an impeachable offence. Not until
nine years after the passage of the Four Years' Tenure of Office Act in
1820 was there any material departure from this traditional policy of
the government. This act (suggested by an appointing officer who wished
to use the power it gave in order to secure his own nomination for the
presidency, and passed without debate and apparently without any
adequate conception of its full effect) opened the doors of the service
to all the evils of the "spoils system." The foremost statesmen of the
time were not slow to perceive the baleful possibilities of this
legislation, Jefferson,[1] Webster, Clay, Calhoun, Benton and many
others being recorded as condemning and deploring it in the strongest
terms. The transition to the "spoils system" was not, however,
immediate, and for the next nine years the practice of reappointing all
meritorious officers was practically universal; but in 1829 this
practice ceased, and the act of 1820 lent the sanction of law to the
system of proscriptions which followed, which was a practical
application of the theory that "to the victor belong the spoils of the
enemy." In 1836 the provisions of this law, which had at first been
confined mainly to officers connected with the collection of revenue,
were extended to include also all postmasters receiving a compensation
of $1000 per annum or more. It rapidly became the practice to regard all
these four years' tenure offices as agencies not so much for the
transaction of the public business as for the advancement of political
ends. The revenue service from being used for political purposes merely
came to be used for corrupt purposes as well, with the result that in
one administration frauds were practised upon the government to the
extent of $75,000,000. The corrupting influences permeated the whole
body politic. Political retainers were selected for appointment not on
account of their ability to do certain work but because they were
followers of certain politicians; these "public servants" acknowledged
no obligation except to those politicians, and their public duties, if
not entirely disregarded, were negligently and inefficiently performed.
Thus grew a saturnalia of spoils and corruption which culminated in the
assassination of a president.

  Law of 1883.

Acute conditions, not theories, give rise to reforms. In the
congressional election of November 1882, following the assassination of
President Garfield as an incident in the operation of the spoils system,
the voice of the people commanding reform was unmistakable. Congress
assembled in December 1882, and during the same month a bill looking to
the improvement of the civil service, which had been pending in the
Senate for nearly two years, was finally taken up and considered by that
body. In the debate upon this bill its advocates declared that it would
"vastly improve the whole civil service of the country," which they
characterized as being at that time "inefficient, expensive and
extravagant, and in many instances corrupt."[2] This bill passed the
Senate on the 27th of December 1882, and the House on the 4th of January
1883, and was signed by the president on the 16th of January 1883,
coming into full operation on the 16th of July 1883. It is now the
national civil service law. The fundamental principles of this law
are:--(1) selection by competitive examination for all appointments to
the "classified service," with a period of probationary service before
absolute appointment; (2) apportionment among the states and
territories, according to population, of all appointments in the
departmental service at Washington; (3) freedom of all the employees of
the government from any necessity to contribute to political campaign
funds or to render political services. For putting these principles into
effect the Civil Service Commission was created, and penalties were
imposed for the solicitation or collection from government employees of
contributions for political purposes, and for the use of official
positions in coercing political action. The commission, in addition to
its regular duties of aiding in the preparation of civil service rules,
of regulating and holding examinations, and certifying the results
thereof for use in making appointments, and of keeping records of all
changes in the service, was given authority to investigate and report
upon any violations of the act or rules. The "classified" service to
which the act applies has grown, by the action of successive presidents
in progressively including various branches of tne service within it,
from 13,924 positions in 1883 to some 80,000 (in round numbers) in 1900,
constituting about 40% of the entire civil service of the government and
including practically all positions above the grade of mere labourer or
workman to which appointment is _not_ made directly by the president
with the consent of the Senate.[3] A very large class to which the act
is expressly applicable, and which has been partly brought within its
provisions by executive action, is that of fourth-class postmasters, of
whom there are between 70,000 and 80,000 (about 15,000 classified in

In order to provide registers of eligibles for the various grades of
positions in the classified service, the United States Civil Service
Commission holds annually throughout the country about 300 different
kinds of examinations. In the work of preparing these examinations and
of marking the papers of competitors in them the commission is
authorized by law to avail itself, in addition to its own corps of
trained men, of the services of the scientific and other experts in the
various executive departments. In the work of holding the examinations
it is aided by about 1300 local boards of examiners, which are its local
representatives throughout the country and are located at the principal
post offices, custom houses and other government offices, being composed
of three or more Federal employees in those offices. About 50,000
persons annually compete in these examinations, and about 10,000 of
those who are successful receive appointments through regular
certification. Persons thus appointed, however, must serve six months
"on probation" before their appointment can be made absolute. At the end
of this probation, if his service has not been satisfactory, the
appointee is simply dropped; and the fact that less than 1% of those
appointed prove thus deficient on trial is high testimony to the
practical nature of the examinations held by the commission, and to
their aptness for securing persons qualified for all classes of

The effects of the Civil Service Act within the scope of its actual
operation have amply justified the hopes and promises of its advocates.
After its passage, absentee holders of lucrative appointments were
required to report for duty or to sever their connexion with the
service. Improved methods were adopted in the departments, and
superfluous and useless work was no longer devised in order to provide a
show of employment and a _locus standi_ for the parasites upon the
public service. Individual clerks were required, and by reason of the
new conditions were enabled, to do more and better work; and this,
coupled with the increase in efficiency in the service on account of new
blood coming in through the examinations, made possible an actual
decrease in the force required in many offices, notwithstanding the
natural growth in the amount of work to be done.[4] Experience proves
that the desire to create new and unnecessary positions was in direct
proportion to the power to control them, for where the act has taken
away this power of control the desire had disappeared naturally. There
is no longer any desire on the part of heads of departments to increase
the number or salaries of classified positions which would fall by law
within the civil service rules and be subject to competitive
examinations. Thus the promises of improvement and economy in the
service have been fulfilled.

The chief drawback to the full success of the act within its intended
scope of operation has been the withholding of certain positions in the
service from the application of the vital principle of competition. The
Civil Service Act contemplated no exceptions, within the limits to which
it was made applicable, to the general principle of competition upon
merit for entrance to the service. In framing the first civil service
rules, however, in 1883, the president, yielding to the pressure of the
heads of some of the departments, and against the urgent protest of the
Civil Service Commission, excepted from the requirement of examination
large numbers of positions in the higher grades of the service, chiefly
fiduciary and administrative positions such as cashiers, chief clerks
and chiefs of division. These positions being thus continued under the
absolute control of the appointing officer, the effect of their
exception from examination was to retain just that much of the old or
"spoils" system within the nominal jurisdiction of the new or "merit"
system. Even more: under the old system, while appointments from the
outside had been made regardless of fitness, still those appointments
had been made in the lower grades, the higher positions being filled by
promotion within the service, usually of the most competent, but under
the new system with its exceptions, while appointments to the lower
grades were filled on the basis of merit, the pressure for spoils at
each change of administration forced inexperienced, political or
personal favourites in at the top. This blocked promotions and
demoralized the service. Thus, while the general effect of the act was
to limit very greatly the number of vicious appointments, at the same
time the effect of these exceptions was to confine them to the upper
grades, where the demoralizing effect of each upon the service would be
a maximum. By constant efforts the Civil Service Commission succeeded in
having position after position withdrawn from this excepted class, until
by the action of the president, on the 6th of May 1896, it was finally
reduced almost to a minimum. By subsequent presidential action,
however, on the 29th of May 1899, the excepted class was again greatly

A further obstacle to the complete success of the merit system, and one
which prevents the carrying forward of the reform to the extent to which
it has been carried in Great Britain, is inherent in the Civil Service
Act itself. All postmasters who receive compensation of $1000 or more
per annum, and all collectors of customs and collectors of internal
revenue, are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate, and
are therefore, by express provision of the act, not "required to be
classified." The universal practice of treating these offices as
political agencies instead of as administrative business offices is
therefore not limited by the act. Such officers are active in political
work throughout the country, and their official position adds greatly to
their power to affect the political prospects of the leaders in their
districts. Accordingly the Senate, from being, as originally intended,
merely a confirming body as to these officers, has become in a large
measure, actually if not formally, a nominating body, and holds with
tenacity to the power thus acquired by the individual senators. Thorough
civil service reform requires that these positions also, and all those
of fourth-class postmasters (partly classified by order of 1st Dec.
1908), be made subject to the merit system, for in them is the real
remaining stronghold of the spoils system. Even though all their
subordinates be appointed through examination, it will be impossible to
carry the reform to ultimate and complete success so long as the
officers in charge are appointed mainly for political reasons and are
changed with every change of administration.

The purpose of the act to protect the individual employees in the
service from the rapacity of the "political barons" has been measurably,
if not completely, successful. The power given the Civil Service
Commission, to investigate and report upon violations of the law, has
been used to bring to light such abuses as the levying of political
contributions, and to set the machinery of the law in motion against
them. While comparatively few actual prosecutions have been brought
about, and although the penalties imposed by the act for this offence
have been but seldom inflicted, still the publicity given to all such
cases by the commission's investigations has had a wholesome deterrent
effect. Before the passage of the act, positions were as a general rule
held upon a well-understood lease-tenure, the political contributions
for them being as securely and as certainly collected as any rent. Now,
however, it can be said that these forced contributions have almost
entirely disappeared. The efforts which are still made to collect
political funds from government employees in evasion of the law are
limited in the main to persuasion to make "voluntary" contributions, and
it has been possible so to limit and obstruct these efforts that their
practical effect upon the character of the service is now very small.

  State examination.

The same evils that the Federal Civil Service Act was designed to remedy
exist to a large degree in many of the state governments, and are
especially aggravated in the administration of the local governments of
some of the larger cities. The chief, if not the only, test of fitness
for office in many cases has been party loyalty, honesty and capacity
being seldom more than secondary considerations. The result has been the
fostering of dishonesty and extravagance, which have brought weakness
and gross corruption into the administration of the local governments.
In consequence of this there has been a constantly growing tendency,
among the more intelligent class of citizens, to demand that honest
business methods be applied to local public service, and that
appointments be made on the basis of intelligence and capacity, rather
than of party allegiance. The movement for the reform of the civil
service of cities is going hand in hand with the movement for general
municipal reform, those reformers regarding the merit system of
appointments as not merely the necessary and only safe bulwark to
preserve the results of their labours, but also as the most efficient
means for bringing about other reforms. Hence civil service reform is
given a leading position in all programmes for the reform of state and
municipal governments. This has undoubtedly been due, in the first
instance, at least, to the success which attended the application of the
merit system to the Federal service, municipal and state legislation
following in the wake of the national civil service law. In New York an
act similar to the Federal Civil Service Act was passed on the 4th of
May 1883, and in 1894 the principles of the merit system were introduced
by an amendment into the state constitution, and made applicable to
cities and villages as well. In Massachusetts an act was passed on the
3rd of June 1884 which in its general features was based upon the
Federal act and the New York act. Similar laws were passed in Illinois
and Wisconsin in 1895, and in New Jersey in 1908; the laws provide for
the adoption of the merit system in state and municipal government. In
New Orleans, La., and in Seattle, Wash., the merit system was introduced
by an amendment to the city charter in 1896. The same result was
accomplished by New Haven, Conn., in 1897, and by San Francisco, Cal.,
in 1899. In still other cities the principles of the merit system have
been enacted into law, in some cases applying to the entire service and
in others to only a part of it.

The application of the merit system to state and municipal governments
has proved successful wherever it has been given a fair trial.[6] As
experience has fostered public confidence in the system, and at the same
time shown those features of the law which are most vulnerable, and the
best means for fortifying them, numerous and important improvements upon
the pioneer act applying to the Federal service have been introduced in
the more recent legislation. This is particularly true of the acts now
in force in New York (passed in 1899) and in Chicago. The power of the
commission to enforce these acts is materially greater than the power
possessed by the Federal commission. In making investigations they are
not confined to taking the testimony of voluntary witnesses, but may
administer oaths, and compel testimony and the production of books and
papers where necessary; and in taking action they are not confined to
the making of a report of the findings in their investigations, but may
themselves, in many cases, take final judicial action. Further than
this, the payment of salaries is made dependent upon the certificate of
the commission that the appointments of the recipients were made in
accordance with the civil service law and rules. Thus these commissions
have absolute power to prevent irregular or illegal appointments by
refractory appointing officers. Their powers being so much greater than
those of the national commission, their action can be much more drastic
in most cases, and they can go more directly to the heart of an existing
abuse, and apply more quickly and effectually the needed remedy.

Upon the termination of the Spanish-American War, the necessity for the
extension of the principles of the merit system to the new territories,
the responsibility for whose government the results of this war had
thrown upon the United States, was realized. By the acts providing for
civil government in Porto Rico (April 12th, 1900) and Hawaii (April
30th, 1900), the provisions of the Civil Service Act and Rules were
applied to those islands. Under this legislation the classification
applies to all positions which are analogous to positions in the Federal
service, those which correspond to positions in the municipal and state
governments being considered as local in character, and not included in
the classification.

On the 19th of September 1900 the United States Philippine Commission
passed an act "for the establishment and maintenance of an efficient and
honest civil service in the Philippine Islands." This act, in its
general features, is based upon the national civil service law, but
includes also a number of the stronger points to be found in the state
and municipal law mentioned above. Among these are the power given the
civil service board to administer oaths, summon witnesses, and require
the production of official records; and the power to stop payment of
salaries to persons illegally appointed. Promotions are determined by
competitive examinations, and are made throughout the service, as there
are no excepted positions. A just right of preference in local
appointments is given to natives. The president of the Philippine
commission in introducing this bill said: "The purpose of the United
States government ... in these islands is to secure for the Filipino
people as honest and as efficient a government as may be possible.... It
is the hope of the commission to make it possible for one entering the
lowest ranks to reach the highest, under a tenure based solely upon
merit." Judging by past experience it is believed that this law is well
adapted to accomplish the purpose above stated.

  For fuller information upon the details of the present workings of the
  merit system in the Federal service, recourse should be had to the
  publications of the U.S. Civil Service Commission, which are to be
  found in the public libraries in all the principal cities in the
  United States, or which may be had free of charge upon application to
  the commission. The _Manual of Examinations_, published semi-annually,
  gives full information as to the character of the examinations held by
  the commission, together with the schedule of dates and places for the
  holding of those examinations. The _Annual Reports_ of the commission
  contain full statistics of the results of its work, together with
  comprehensive statements as to the difficulties encountered in
  enforcing the law, and the means used to overcome them. In the
  _Fifteenth Report_, pp. 443-485, will be found a very valuable
  historical compilation from original sources, upon the "practice of
  the presidents in appointments and removals in the executive civil
  service, from 1789 to 1883." In the same report, pp. 511-517, is a
  somewhat comprehensive bibliography of "civil service" in periodical
  literature in the 19th century, brought down to the end of 1898. See
  also C.R. Fish, _The Civil Service and the Patronage_ (New York,

  In most European countries the civil service is recruited on much the
  same lines as in the United Kingdom and the United States, that is,
  either by examination or by nomination or by both. In some cases the
  examination is purely competitive, in other cases, as in France,
  holders of university degrees get special privileges, such as being
  put at the head of the list, or going up a certain number of places;
  or, as in Germany, many departmental posts are filled by nomination,
  combined with the results of general examinations, either at school or
  university. In the publications of the United States Department of
  Labour and Commerce for 1904-1905 will be found brief details of the
  systems adopted by the various foreign countries for appointing their
  civil service employees.


  [1] See letter to Monroe, November 29th, 1820, Jefferson's
    _Writings_, vii. 190. A quotation from this letter is given at p. 454
    of the _Fifteenth Report of the U.S. Civil Service Commission_.

  [2] See _Senate Report No. 576_, 47th Congress, 1st session; also
    _U.S. Civil Service Commission's Third Report_, p. 16 et seq., _Tenth
    Report_, pp. 136, 137, and _Fifteenth Report_, pp. 483, 484.

  [3] The progressive classification of the executive civil service,
    showing the growth of the merit system, is discussed, with
    statistics, in the _U.S. Civil Service Commission's Sixteenth
    Report_, pp. 129-137. A revision of this discussion, with important
    additions, appears in the _Seventeenth Report_.

  [4] For details justifying these statements, see _U.S. Civil Service
    Commission's Fourteenth Report_, pp. 12-14.

  [5] For the scope of these exceptions, see Civil Service Rule VI., at
    p. 57 of the _U.S. Civil Service Commission's Fifteenth and Sixteenth
    Reports_. A statement of the number of positions actually affected by
    this action of the president appears in the _Seventeenth Report_.

  [6] In the _U.S. Civil Service Commission's Fifteenth Report_, pp.
    489-502, the "growth of the civil service reform in states and
    cities" is historically treated, briefly, but with some thoroughness.

CIVITA CASTELLANA (anc. _Falerii_, q.v.), a town and episcopal see of
the province of Rome, 45 m. by rail from the city of Rome (the station
is 5 m. N.E. of the town). Population (1901) 5265. The cathedral of S.
Maria possesses a fine portico, erected in 1210 by Laurentius Romanus,
his son Jacobus and his grandson Cosmas, in the cosmatesque style, with
ancient columns and mosaic decorations: the interior was modernized in
the 18th century, but has some fragments of cosmatesque ornamentation.
The citadel was erected by Pope Alexander VI. from the designs of
Antonio da Sangallo the elder, and enlarged by Julius II. and Leo X. The
lofty bridge by which the town is approached belongs to the 18th
century. Mount Soracte lies about 6 m. to the south-east.

CIVITA VECCHIA, a seaport town and episcopal see of Italy, in the
province of Rome, 50 m. N.W. by rail and 35 m. direct from the city of
Rome. Pop. (1871) 8143; (1901) 17,589. It is the ancient _Centum
Cellae_, founded by Trajan. Interesting descriptions of it are given by
Pliny the Younger (_Epist._ vi. 31) and Rutilius Namat. i. 237. The
modern harbour works rest on the ancient foundations, and near it the
cemetery of detachments of the _Classes Misenensis_ and _Ravennas_ has
been found (_Corp. Inscr. Lat._ vol. xi., Berlin, 1888, pp. 3520 seq.).
Remains of an aqueduct and other Roman buildings are preserved; the
imperial family had a villa here. Procopius mentions it in the 6th
century as a strong and populous place, but it was destroyed in 813 by
the Saracens. Leo IV. erected a new city for the inhabitants on the site
where they had taken refuge, about 8 m. N.N.E. of Civita Vecchia towards
the hills, near La Farnesina, where its ruins may still be seen; the
city walls and some of the streets and buildings may be traced, and an
inscription (which must have stood over one of the city gates)
recording its foundation has been discovered. It continued to exist
under the name Cencelle as a feudal castle until the 15th century. In
the meantime, however, the inhabitants returned to the old town by the
shore in 889 and rebuilt it, giving it the name Civitas Vetus, the
modern Civita Vecchia (see O. Marucchi in _Nuovo Bullettino di
archeologia cristiana_, vi., 1900, p. 195 seq.). In 1508 Pope Julius II.
began the construction of the castle from the designs of Bramante,
Michelangelo being responsible for the addition of the central tower. It
is considered by Burckhardt the finest building of its kind. Pius IV.
added a convict prison. The arsenal was built by Alexander VII. and
designed by Bernini. Civita Vecchia was the chief port of the Papal
State and has still a considerable trade. There are cement factories in
the town, and calcium carbide is an important article of export. The
principal imports are coal, cattle for the home markets, and fire-bricks
from the United Kingdom. Three miles N.E. were the _Aquae Tauri_, warm
springs, now known as _Bagni della Ferrata_: considerable remains of the
Roman baths are still preserved. About 1 m. W. of these are other hot
springs, those of the _Ficoncella_, also known in Roman times.

CLACKMANNAN, the county town of Clackmannanshire, Scotland. Pop. 1505.
It lies near the north bank of the Forth, 2 m. E. of Alloa, with two
stations on the North British railway. Among the public buildings are
the parish church, the tower of which, standing on a commanding
eminence, is a conspicuous landmark. Clackmannan Tower is now a
picturesque ruin, but at one time played an important part in Scottish
history, and was the seat of a lineal descendant of the Bruce family
after the failure of the male line. The old market cross still exists,
and close to it stands the stone that gives the town its name (Gaelic,
_clach_, stone; Manann, the name of the district). A large spinning-mill
and coalpits lend a modern touch in singular contrast with the quaint,
old-world aspect of the place. About 1 m. to the S.E. is Kennet House,
the seat of Lord Balfour of Burleigh, another member of the Bruce

CLACKMANNANSHIRE, the smallest county in Scotland, bounded S.W. by the
Forth, W. by Stirlingshire, N.N.E. and N.W. by Perthshire, and E. by
Fifeshire. It has an area of 35,160 acres, or about 55 sq. m. An
elevated ridge starting on the west, runs through the middle of the
county, widening gradually till it reaches the eastern boundary, and
skirting the alluvial or carse lands in the valleys of the Forth and
Devon. Still farther to the N. the Ochil hills form a picturesque
feature in the landscape, having their generally verdant surface broken
by bold projecting rocks and deeply indented ravines. The principal
summits are within the limits of the shire, among them Ben Cleuch (2363
ft.), King's Seat (2111 ft.), Whitewisp (2110 ft.), the Law (above
Tillicoultry, 2094 ft.) and Blairdenon (2072 ft.), on the northern
slope, in which the river Devon takes its rise. The rivers of importance
are the Devon and the Black or South Devon. The former, noted in the
upper parts for its romantic scenery and its excellent trout-fishing,
runs through the county near the base of the Ochils, and falls into the
Forth at the village of Cambus, after a winding course of 33 m.,
although as the crow flies its source is only 5 1/4 m. distant. The
Black Devon, rising in the Cleish Hills, flows westwards in a direction
nearly parallel to that of the Devon, and falls into the Forth near
Clackmannan. It supplies motive power to numbers of mills and
collieries; and its whole course is over coal strata. The Forth is
navigable as far as it forms the boundary of the county, and ships of
500 tons burden run up as far as Alloa. The only lake is Gartmorn, 1 m.
long by about 1/3 of a mile broad, which has been dammed in order to
furnish water to Alloa and power to mills. The Ochils are noted for the
number of their glens. Though these are mostly small, they are well
wooded and picturesque, and those at Menstrie, Alva, Tillicoultry and
Dollar are particularly beautiful.

  _Geology._--This county is divided geologically into two areas, the
  boundary line skirting the southern margin of the Ochils and running
  westwards from a point north of Dollar by Alva in the direction of
  Airthrev in Stirlingshire. The northern portion forms part of the
  volcanic range of the Ochils which belongs to the Old Red Sandstone
  period, and consists of a great succession of lavas--basalts and
  andesites--with intercalations of tuff and agglomerate. As the rocks
  dip gently towards the north and form the highest ground in the county
  they must reach a great thickness. They are pierced by small intrusive
  masses of diorite, north of Tillicoultry House. The well-marked
  feature running E. and W. along the southern base of the Ochils
  indicates a line of fault or dislocation which abruptly truncates the
  Lower Old Red volcanic rocks and brings down an important development
  of Carboniferous strata occupying the southern part of the county.
  These belong mainly to the Coal-measures and comprise a number of
  valuable coal-seams which have been extensively worked. The
  Clackmannan field is the northern continuation of the great
  Lanarkshire basin which extends northwards by Slamannan, Falkirk and
  the Carron Ironworks to Alloa. Along the eastern margin between
  Cairnmuir and Brucefield the underlying Millstone Grit, consisting
  mainly of false-bedded sandstones, comes to the surface. Close to the
  river Devon south of Dollar the Vicars Bridge Limestone, which there
  marks the top of the Carboniferous Limestone series, rises from
  beneath the Millstone Grit. The structure of the Clackmannan field is
  interesting. The strata are arranged in synclinal form, the highest
  seams being found near the Devon ironworks, and they are traversed by
  a series of parallel east and west faults each with a downthrow to the
  south, whereby the coals are repeated and the field extended. During
  mining operations evidence has been obtained of the existence of a
  buried river-channel, filled with boulder clay and stratified deposits
  along the course of the Devon, which extends below the present
  sea-level and points to greater elevation of the land in pre-glacial
  time. An excellent example of a dolerite dyke trending slightly north
  of west occurs in the north part of the county where it traverses the
  volcanic rocks of Lower Old Red Sandstone age.

_Industries._--The soil is generally productive and well cultivated,
though the greater part of the elevated range which is interposed
between the carse lands on the Forth and the vale of Devon at the base
of the Ochils on the north consists of inferior soils, often lying upon
an impervious clay. Oats are the chief crop, but wheat and barley are
profitably grown. Sheep-farming is successfully pursued, the Ochils
affording excellent pasturage, and cattle, pigs and horses are also
raised. There is a small tract of moorland in the east, called the
Forest, bounded on its northern margin by the Black Devon. Iron-ore
(haematite), copper, silver, lead, cobalt and arsenic have all been
discovered in small quantity in the Ochils, between Alva and Dollar.
Ironstone--found either in beds, or in oblate balls embedded in slaty
clay, and yielded from 25 to 30% of iron--is mined for the Devon
iron-works, near Clackmannan. Coal has been mined for a long period. The
strata which compose the field are varieties of sandstone, shale,
fire-clay and argillaceous ironstone. There is a heavy continuous output
of coal at the mines at Sauchie, Fishcross, Coalsnaughton, Devonside,
Clackmannan and other pits. The spinning-mills at Alloa, Tillicoultry
and Alva are always busy, Alloa yarns and fingering being widely famous.
The distilleries at Glenochil and Carsebridge and the breweries in Alloa
and Cambus do a large export business. The minor trades include
glass-blowing, pottery, coopering, tanning, iron-founding, electrical
apparatus making, ship-building and paper-making.

The north British railway serves the whole county, while the Caledonian
has access to Alloa.

_Population and Government._--The population was 33,140 in 1891 and
32,029 in 1901, when 170 persons spoke Gaelic and English and one person
Gaelic only. The county unites with Kinross-shire in returning one
member to parliament. Clackmannan (pop. 1505) is the county town, but
Alloa (14,458), Alva (4624), and Tillicoultry (3338) take precedence in
population and trade. Menstrie (pop. 898) near Alloa has a large
furniture factory and the great distillery of Glenochil. To the
north-east of Alloa is the thriving mining village of Sauchie.
Clackmannan forms a sheriffdom with Stirling and Dumbarton shires, and a
sheriff-substitute sits at Alloa. Most of the schools in the shire are
under school-board control, but there are a few voluntary schools,
besides an exceptionally well-equipped technical school in Alloa and a
well-known academy at Dollar.

  See James Wallace, _The Sheriffdom of Clackmannan: a Sketch of its
  History_ (Edinburgh, 1890); D. Beveridge, _Between the Ochils and the
  Forth_ (Edinburgh, 1888); John Crawford, _Memorials of Alloa_ (1885);
  William Gibson, _Reminiscences of Dollar, Tillicoultry_,

CLACTON-ON-SEA, a watering-place in the Harwich parliamentary division
of Essex, England; 71 m. E.N.E. from London by a branch from Colchester
of the Great Eastern railway; served also by steamers from London in the
summer months. Pop. of urban district (1901) 7456. Clay cliffs of slight
altitude rise from the sandy beach and face south-eastward. In the
neighbourhood, however, marshes fringe the shore. The church of Great
Clacton, at the village 1½ m. inland, is Norman and later, and of
considerable interest. Clacton is provided with a pier, promenade and
marine parade; and is the seat of various convalescent and other homes.

CLADEL, LÉON (1835-1892), French novelist, was born at Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) on the 13th of March 1835. The son of an artisan, he
studied law at Toulouse and became a solicitor's clerk in Paris. He made
a reputation in a limited circle by his first book, _Les Martyrs
ridicules_ (1862), a novel for which Charles Baudelaire, whose literary
disciple Cladel was, wrote a preface. He then returned to his native
district of Quercy, where he produced a series of pictures of peasant
life in _Eral le dompteur_ (1865), _Le Nommé Qouael_ (1868) and other
volumes. Returning to Paris he published the two novels which are
generally acknowledged as his best work, _Le Bouscassié_ (1869) and _La
Fête votive de Saint Bartholomée Porte-glaive_ (1872). _Une Maudite_
(1876) was judged dangerous to the public morals and cost its author a
month's imprisonment. Other works by Cladel are _Les Va-nu-pieds_
(1873), a volume of short stories; _N'a qu'un oeil_ (1882), _Urbains
et ruraux_ (1884), _Gueux de marque_ (1887), and the posthumous _Juive
errante_ (1897). He died at Sèvres on the 20th of July 1892.

  See _La Vie de Léon Cladel_ (Paris, 1905), by his daughter Judith
  Cladel, containing also an article on Cladel by Edmond Picard, a
  complete list of his works, and of the critical articles on his work.

CLAFLIN, HORACE BRIGHAM (1811-1885), American merchant, was born in
Milford, Massachusetts, on the 18th of December 1811. He was educated at
Milford Academy, became a clerk in his father's store in Milford, and in
1831, with his brother Aaron and his brother-in-law Samuel Daniels,
succeeded to his father's business. In 1832 the firm opened a branch
store in Worcester, Mass., and in 1833 Horace B. Claflin and Daniels
secured the sole control of this establishment and restricted their
dealing to dry goods. In 1843 Claflin removed to New York City and
became a member of the firm of Bulkley & Claflin, wholesale dry goods
merchants. In 1851 and in 1864 the firm was reorganized, being
designated in these respective years as Claflin, Mellin & Company and
H.B. Claflin & Company. Under Claflin's management the business
increased so rapidly that the sales for a time after 1865 probably
exceeded those of any other mercantile house in the world. Though the
firm was temporarily embarrassed at the beginning of the Civil War, on
account of its large business interests in the South, and during the
financial panic of 1873, the promptness with which Mr Claflin met these
crises and paid every dollar of his liabilities greatly increased his
reputation for business ability and integrity. He died at Fordham, New
York, on the 14th of November 1885.

mathematician, was born on the 13th or 7th of May 1713, at Paris, where
his father was a teacher of mathematics. Under his father's tuition he
made such rapid progress in mathematical studies that in his thirteenth
year he read before the French Academy an account of the properties of
four curves which he had then discovered. When only sixteen he finished
a treatise, _Recherches sur les courbes à double courbure_, which, on
its publication in 1731, procured his admission into the Academy of
Sciences, although even then he was below the legal age. In 1736,
together with Pierre Louis Maupertuis, he took part in the expedition to
Lapland, which was undertaken for the purpose of estimating a degree of
the meridian, and on his return he published his treatise _Théorie de la
figure de la terre_ (1743). In this work he promulgated the theorem,
known as "Clairault's theorem," which connects the gravity at points on
the surface of a rotating ellipsoid with the compression and the
centrifugal force at the equator (see EARTH, FIGURE OF THE). He obtained
an ingenious approximate solution of the problem of the three bodies;
in 1750 he gained the prize of the St Petersburg Academy for his essay
_Théorie de la lune_; and in 1759 he calculated the perihelion of
Halley's comet. He also detected singular solutions in differential
equations of the first order, and of the second and higher degrees.
Clairault died at Paris, on the 17th of May 1765.

CLAIRON, LA (1723-1803), French actress, whose real name was CLAIRE
JOSEPH HIPPOLYTE LERIS, was born at Condé sur l'Escaut, Hainaut, on the
25th of January 1723, the natural daughter of any army sergeant. In 1736
she made her first stage appearance at the Comédie Italienne, in a small
part in Marivaux's _Île des esclaves_. After several years in the
provinces she returned to Paris. Her life, meanwhile, had been decidedly
irregular, even if not to the degree indicated by the libellous pamphlet
_Histoire de la demoiselle Cronel, dite Frétillon, actrice de la Comédie
de Rouen, écrite par elle-même_ (The Hague, 1746), or to be inferred
from the disingenuousness of her own _Mémoires d'Hippolyte Clairon_
(1798); and she had great difficulty in obtaining an order to make her
_début_ at the Comédie Française. Succeeding, however, at last, she had
the courage to select the title-rôle of _Phèdre_ (1743), and she
obtained a veritable triumph. During her twenty-two years at this
theatre, dividing the honours with her rival Mlle Dumesnil, she filled
many of the classical rôles of tragedy, and created a great number of
parts in the plays of Voltaire, Marmontel, Saurin, de Belloy and others.
She retired in 1766, and trained pupils for the stage, among them Mlle
Raucourt. Goldsmith called Mlle Clairon "the most perfect female figure
I have ever seen on any stage" (_The Bee_, 2nd No.); and Garrick, while
recognizing her unwillingness or inability to make use of the
inspiration of the instant, admitted that "she has everything that art
and a good understanding with great natural spirit can give her."

CLAIRVAUX, a village of north-eastern France, in the department of Aube,
40 m. E.S.E. of Troyes on the Eastern railway to Belfort. Clairvaux
(_Clara Vallis_) is situated in the valley of the Aube on the eastern
border of the Forest of Clairvaux. Its celebrity is due to the abbey
founded in 1115 by St Bernard, which became the centre of the Cistercian
order. The buildings (see ABBEY) belong for the most part to the 18th
century, but there is a large storehouse which dates from the 12th
century. The abbey, suppressed at the Revolution, now serves as a
prison, containing on an average 800 inmates, who are employed in
agricultural and industrial occupations. Clairvaux has iron-works of
some importance.

CLAIRVOYANCE (Fr. for "clear-seeing"), a technical term in psychical
research, properly equivalent to lucidity, a supernormal power of
obtaining knowledge in which no part is played by (_a_) the ordinary
processes of sense-perception or (_b_) supernormal communication with
other intelligences, incarnate, or discarnate. The word is also used,
sometimes qualified by the word _telepathic_, to mean the power of
gaining supernormal knowledge from the mind of another (see TELEPATHY).
It is further commonly used by spiritualists to mean the power of seeing
spirit forms, or, more vaguely, of discovering facts by some supernormal

_Lucidity._--Few experiments have been made to test the existence of
this faculty. If communications from discarnate minds are regarded as
possible, there are no means of distinguishing facts obtained in this
way from facts obtained by independent clairvoyance. In practice no
evidence has been obtained pointing to the possession by a discarnate
spirit of knowledge not possessed by any living person (see MEDIUM). As
explanation of the few successful experiments in independent
clairvoyance we have the choice of three explanations: (1) lucidity; (2)
telepathy from living persons; (3) hyperaesthesia. The second
possibility was overlooked in Richet's diagram experiments; it cannot be
assumed that a picture put into an envelope and not consciously recalled
has been in reality forgotten. Similarly the clairvoyant diagnosis of
diseases may depend on knowledge gained telepathically from the patient,
who may be subliminally aware of diseased states of the body. The most
elaborate experiments are by Prof. Richet with a hypnotized subject who
succeeded in naming twelve cards out of sixty-eight. But no precautions
were taken against hyperaesthesia further than enclosing the card in a
second envelope. There is a power possessed by a certain number of
people, of naming a card drawn by them or held in the hand face
downwards, so that there is no normal knowledge of its suit and number.
Few thorough trials have been made; but it seems to point to some kind
of hyperaesthesia rather than to clairvoyance; in the Richet experiments
even if the envelopes excluded hyperaesthesia of touch on the part of
the medium, there may have been subliminal knowledge on Prof. Richet's
part of the card which he put in the envelope. The experience known as
the _déjà vu_ has sometimes been explained as due to clairvoyance.

_Telepathic Clairvoyance._--For a discussion of this see TELEPATHY and
CRYSTAL-GAZING. It may be noted here that some curious relation seems to
exist between apparently telepathic acquisition of knowledge and the
arrival of a letter, newspaper, &c, from which the same knowledge could
be directly gained. We are confronted with a similar problem in
attempting an explanation of the power of mediums to state correctly
facts relating to objects placed in their hands. Of a somewhat different
character is retrocognition (_q.v._), where the knowledge in many cases,
if telepathic, must be derived from a discarnate mind.

Clairvoyance, as a term of spiritualism, with its correlative
_clairaudience_, is the name given to the power of seeing and hearing
discarnate spirits of dead relatives and others, with whom the living
are said to be surrounded. More vaguely it includes the power of gaining
knowledge, either through the spirit world or by means of psychometry
(i.e. the supernormal acquisition of knowledge about owners of objects,
writers of letters, &c). Some evidence for these latter powers has been
accumulated by the Society for Psychical Research, but in many cases the
piecing together of normally acquired knowledge, together with shrewd
guessing, suffices to explain the facts, especially where the
investigator has had no special training for his task.

  See Richet, _Experimentelle Studien_ (1891); also in _Proc. S.P.R._
  vi. 66. For a criticism see N.W. Thomas, _Thought Transference_, pp.
  44-48. For Clairvoyance in general see F.W.H. Myers, _Human
  Personality_, and in _Proc. S.P.R._ xi. 334 et seq. For a criticism of
  the evidence see Mrs Sidgwick in _Proc. S.P.R._ vii. 30, 356.
     (N. W. T.)

CLAMECY, a town of central France, capital of an arrondissement in the
department of Nièvre, at the confluence of the Yonne and Beuvron and on
the Canal du Nivernais, 46 m. N.N.E. of Nevers on the Paris-Lyon
railway. Pop. (1906) 4455. Its principal building is the church of St
Martin, which dates chiefly from the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. The
tower and façade are of the 16th century. The chevet, which is
surrounded by an aisle, is rectangular--a feature found in few French
churches. Of the old castle of the counts of Nevers, vaulted cellars
alone remain. A church in the suburb of Bethlehem, dating from the 12th
and 13th centuries, now serves as part of an hotel. The public
institutions include the sub-prefecture, tribunals of first instance and
of commerce and a communal college. Among the industrial establishments
are saw-mills, fulling-mills and flour-mills, tanneries and
manufactories of boots and shoes and chemicals; and there is
considerable trade in wine and cattle and in wood and charcoal, which is
conveyed principally to Paris, by way of the Yonne.

In the early middle ages Clamecy belonged to the abbey of St Julian at
Auxerre; in the 11th century it passed to the counts of Nevers, one of
whom, Hervé, enfranchised the inhabitants in 1213. After the capture of
Jerusalem by Saladin in 1188, Clamecy became the seat of the bishops of
Bethlehem, who till the Revolution resided in the hospital of Panthenor,
bequeathed by William IV., count of Nevers. On the _coup d'état_ of 1851
an insurrection broke out in the town, and was repressed by the new
authorities with great severity.

CLAN (Gaelic _clann_, O. Ir. _cland_, connected with Lat. _planta_,
shoot or scion, the ancient Gaelic or Goidelic substituting k for p), a
group of people united by common blood, and usually settled in a common
habitat. The clan system existed in Ireland and the Highlands of
Scotland from early times. In its strictest sense the system was
peculiar to those countries, but, in its wider meaning of a group of
kinsmen forming a self-governing community, the system as represented by
the village community has been shown by Sir H. Maine and others to have
existed at one time or another in all lands.

Before the use of surnames and elaborate written genealogies, a tribe in
its definite sense was called in Celtic a _tuath_, a word of wide
affinities, from a root _tu_, to grow, to multiply, existing in all
European languages. When the tribal system began to be broken up by
conquest and by the rise of towns and of territorial government, the use
of a common surname furnished a new bond for keeping up a connexion
between kindred. The head of a tribe or smaller group of kindred
selected some ancestor and called himself his _Ua_, grandson, or as it
has been anglicized _O', e.g. Ua Conchobair_ (O' Conor), _Ua
Suilleabhain_ (O'Sullivan). All his kindred adopted the same name, the
chief using no fore-name however. The usual mode of distinguishing a
person before the introduction of surnames was to name his father and
grandfather, e.g. Owen, son of Donal, son of Dermot. This naturally
led some to form their surnames with _Mac_, son, instead of _Ua_,
grandson, e.g. _MacCarthaigh_, son of _Carthach_ (MacCarthy),
_MacRuaidhri_, son of Rory (Macrory). Both methods have been followed in
Ireland, but in Scotland _Mac_ came to be exclusively used. The adoption
of such genealogical surnames fostered the notion that all who bore the
same surname were kinsmen, and hence the genealogical term _clann_,
which properly means the descendants of some progenitor, gradually
became synonymous with _tuath_, tribe. Like all purely genealogical
terms, _clann_ may be used in the limited sense of a particular tribe
governed by a chief, or in that of many tribes claiming descent from a
common ancestor. In the latter sense it was synonymous with _síl, siol_,
seed e.g. _Siol Alpine_, a great clan which included the smaller clans
of the Macgregors, Grants, Mackinnons, Macnabs, Macphies, Macquarries
and Macaulays.

The clan system in the most archaic form of which we have any definite
information can be best studied in the Irish _tuath_, or tribe.[1] This
consisted of two classes: (1) tribesmen, and (2) a miscellaneous class
of slaves, criminals, strangers and their descendants. The first class
included tribesmen by blood in the male line, including all illegitimate
children acknowledged by their fathers, and tribesmen by adoption or
sons of tribeswomen by strangers, foster-sons, men who had done some
signal service to the tribe, and lastly the descendants of the second
class after a certain number of generations. Each _tuath_ had a chief
called a _ríg_, king, a word cognate with the Gaulish _ríg-s_ or _rix_,
the Latin _reg-s_ or _rex_, and the Old Norse _rik-ir_. The tribesmen
formed a number of communities, each of which, like the tribe itself,
consisted of a head, _ceann fine_, his kinsmen, slaves and other
retainers. This was the _fine_, or sept. Each of these occupied a
certain part of the tribe-land, the arable part being cultivated under a
system of co-tillage, the pasture land co-grazed according to certain
customs, and the wood, bog and mountains forming the marchland of the
sept being the unrestricted common land of the sept. The sept was in
fact a village community.

What the sept was to the tribe, the homestead was to the sept. The head
of a homestead was an _aire_, a representative freeman capable of acting
as a witness, compurgator and bail. These were very important functions,
especially when it is borne in mind that the tribal homestead was the
home of many of the kinsfolk of the head of the family as well as of his
own children. The descent of property being according to a gavel-kind
custom, it constantly happened that when an _aire_ died the share of his
property which each member of his immediate family was entitled to
receive was not sufficient to qualify him to be an _aire_. In this case
the family did not divide the inheritance, but remained together as "a
joint and undivided family," one of the members being elected chief of
the family or household, and in this capacity enjoyed the rights and
privileges of an _aire_. Sir H.S. Maine directed attention to this kind
of family as an important feature of the early institutions of all
Indo-European nations. Beside the "joint and undivided family," there
was another kind of family which we might call "the joint family." This
was a partnership composed of three or four members of a sept whose
individual wealth was not sufficient to qualify each of them to be an
_aire_, but whose joint wealth qualified one of the co-partners as head
of the joint family to be one.

So long as there was abundance of land each family grazed its cattle
upon the tribe-land without restriction; unequal increase of wealth and
growth of population naturally led to its limitation, each head of a
homestead being entitled to graze an amount of stock in proportion to
his wealth, the size of his homestead, and his acquired position. The
arable land was no doubt applotted annually at first; gradually,
however, some of the richer families of the tribe succeeded in evading
this exchange of allotments and converting part of the common land into
an estate in sevralty. Septs were at first colonies of the tribe which
settled on the march-land; afterwards the conversion of part of the
common land into an estate in sevralty enabled the family that acquired
it to become the parent of a new sept. The same process might, however,
take place within a sept without dividing it; in other words, several
members of the sept might hold part of the land of the sept as separate
estate. The possession of land in sevralty introduced an important
distinction into the tribal system--it created an aristocracy. An _aire_
whose family held the same land for three generations was called a
_flaith_, or lord, of which rank there were several grades according to
their wealth in land and chattels. The _aires_ whose wealth consisted in
cattle only were called _bó-aires_, or cow-_aires_, of whom there were
also several grades, depending on their wealth in stock. When a
_bó-aire_ had twice the wealth of the lowest class of _flaith_ he might
enclose part of the land adjoining his house as a lawn; this was the
first step towards his becoming a _flaith_. The relations which
subsisted between the _flaiths_ and the _bó-aires_ formed the most
curious part of the Celtic tribal system, and throw a flood of light on
the origin of the feudal system. Every tribesman without exception owed
_ceilsinne_ to the _ríg_, or chief, that is, he was bound to become his
_ceile_, or vassal. This consisted in paying the _ríg_ a tribute in
kind, for which the _ceile_ was entitled to receive a proportionate
amount of stock without having to give any bond for their return, giving
him service, e.g. in building his _dun_, or stronghold, reaping his
harvest, keeping his roads clean and in repair, killing wolves, and
especially service in the field, and doing him homage three times while
seated every time he made his return of tribute. Paying the "_calpe_" to
the Highland chiefs represented this kind of vassalage, a _colpdach_ or
heifer being in many cases the amount of food-rent paid by a free or
_saer ceile_. A tribesman might, however, if he pleased, pay a higher
rent on receiving more stock together with certain other chattels for
which no rent was chargeable. In this case he entered into a contract,
and was therefore a bond or _daer ceile_. No one need have accepted
stock on these terms, nor could he do so without the consent of his
sept, and he might free himself at any time from his obligation by
returning what he had received, and the rent due thereon.

What every one was bound to do to his _ríg_, or chief, he might do
voluntarily to the _flaith_ of his sept, to any _flaith_ of the tribe,
or even to one of another tribe. He might also become a bond _ceile_. In
either case he might renounce his ceileship by returning a greater or
lesser amount of stock than what he had received according to the
circumstances under which he terminated his vassalage. In cases of
disputed succession to the chiefship of a tribe the rival claimants were
always anxious to get as many as possible to become their vassals. Hence
the anxiety of minor chieftains, in later times in the Highlands of
Scotland, to induce the clansmen to pay the "_calpe_" where there
happened to be a doubt as to who was entitled to be chief.

The effect of the custom of gavel-kind was to equalize the wealth of
each and leave no one wealthy enough to be chief. The "joint and
undivided family" and the formation of "joint families," or gilds, was
one way of obviating this result; another way was the custom of
tanistry. The headship of the tribe was practically confined to the
members of one family; this was also the case with the headship of a
sept. Sometimes a son succeeded his father, but the rule was that the
eldest and most capable member of the _geilfine_, that is, the relatives
of the actual chief to the fifth degree,[2] was selected during his
lifetime to be his successor--generally the eldest surviving brother or
son of the preceding chief. The man selected as successor to a chief of
a tribe, or chieftain of a sept, was called the tanist, and should be
"the most experienced, the most noble, the most wealthy, the wisest, the
most learned, the most truly popular, the most powerful to oppose, the
most steadfast to sue for profits and (be sued) for losses." In addition
to these qualities he should be free from personal blemishes and
deformities and of fit age to lead his tribe or sept, as the case may
be, to battle.[3] So far as selecting the man of the _geilfine_ who was
supposed to possess all those qualities, the office of chief of a tribe
or chieftain of a sept was elective, but as the _geilfine_ was
represented by four persons, together with the chief or chieftain, the
election was practically confined to one of the four. In order to
support the dignity of the chief or chieftain a certain portion of the
tribe or sept land was attached as an apanage to the office; this land,
with the _duns_ or fortified residences upon it, went to the successor,
but a chief's own property might be gavelled. This custom of tanistry
applied at first probably to the selection of the successors of a _ríg_,
but was gradually so extended that even a _bó-aire_ had a tanist.

A sept might have only one _flaith_, or lord, connected with it, or
might have several. It sometimes happened, however, that a sept might be
so broken and reduced as not to have even one man qualified to rank as a
_flaith_. The rank of a _flaith_ depended upon the number of his
_ceiles_, that is, upon his wealth. The _flaith_ of a sept, and the
highest when there was more than one, was _ceann fine_, or head of the
sept, or as he was usually called in Scotland, the chieftain. He was
also called the _flaith geilfine_, or head of the _geilfine_, that is,
the kinsmen to the fifth degree from among whom should be chosen the
tanist, and who, according to the custom of gavel-kind, were the
immediate heirs who received the personal property and were answerable
for the liabilities of the sept. The _flaiths_ of the different septs
were the vassals of the _ríg_, or chief of the tribe, and performed
certain functions which were no doubt at first individual, but in time
became the hereditary right of the sept. One of those was the office of
_maer_, or steward of the chief's rents, &c.;[4] and another that of
_aire tuisi_, leading _aire_, or _taoisech_, a word cognate with the
Latin _duc-s_ or _dux_, and Anglo-Saxon here-_tog_, leader of the
"here," or army. The _taoisech_ was leader of the tribe in battle; in
later times the term seems to have been extended to several offices of
rank. The cadet of a Highland clan was always called the _taoisech_,
which has been translated captain; after the conquest of Wales the same
term, _tywysaug_, was used for a ruling prince. Slavery was very common
in Ireland and Scotland; in the former slaves constituted a common
element in the stipends or gifts which the higher kings gave their
vassal _sub-reguli_. Female slaves, who were employed in the houses of
chiefs and _flaiths_ in grinding meal with the hand-mill or quern, and
in other domestic work, must have been very common, for the unit or
standard for estimating the wealth of a _bó-aire_, blood-fines, &c., was
called a _cumhal_, the value of which was three cows, but which
literally meant a female slave. The descendants of those slaves,
prisoners of war, forfeited hostages, refugees from other tribes, broken
tribesmen, &c., gathered round the residence of the _ríg_ and _flaiths_,
or squatted upon their march-lands, forming a motley band of retainers
which made a considerable element in the population, and one of the
chief sources of the wealth of chiefs and _flaiths_. The other principal
source of their income was the food-rent paid by _ceiles_, and
especially by the _daer_ or bond _ceiles_, who were hence called
_biathachs_, from _biad_, food. A _flaith_, but not a _ríg_, might, if
he liked, go to the house of his _ceile_ and consume his food-rent in
the house of the latter.

Under the influence of feudal ideas and the growth of the modern views
as to ownership of land, the chiefs and other lords of clans claimed in
modern times the right of best owing the tribe-land as _turcrec_,
instead of stock, and receiving rent not for cattle and other chattels
as in former times, but proportionate to the extent of land given to
them. The _turcrec_-land seems to have been at first given upon the same
terms as _turcrec_-stock, but gradually a system of short leases grew
up; sometimes, too, it was given on mortgage. In the Highlands of
Scotland _ceiles_ who received _turcrec_-land were called "taksmen." On
the death of the chief or lord, his successor either bestowed the land
upon the same person or gave it to some other relative. In this way in
each generation new families came into possession of land, and others
sank into the mass of mere tribesmen. Sometimes a "taksman" succeeded in
acquiring his land in perpetuity, by gift, marriage or purchase, or even
by the "strong hand." The universal prevalence of exchangeable
allotments, or the rundale system, shows that down to even comparatively
modern times some of the land was still recognized as the property of
the tribe, and was cultivated in village communities.

The chief governed the clan by the aid of a council called the _sabaid_
(_sab_, a prop), but the chief exercised much power, especially over the
miscellaneous body of non-tribesmen who lived on his own estate. This
power seems to have extended to life and death. Several of the
_flaiths_, perhaps, all heads of septs, also possessed somewhat
extensive powers of the same kind.

The Celtic dress, at least in the middle ages, consisted of a kind of
shirt reaching to a little below the knees called a _lenn_, a jacket
called an _inar_, and a garment called a _brat_, consisting of a single
piece of cloth. This was apparently the garb of the _aires_, who appear
to have been further distinguished by the number of colours in their
dress, for we are told that while a slave had clothes of one colour, a
_rég tuatha_, or chief of a tribe, had five, and an _ollamh_ and a
superior king six. The breeches was also known, and cloaks with a cowl
or hood, which buttoned up tight in front. The _lenn_ is the modern
kilt, and the _brat_ the plaid, so that the dress of the Irish and Welsh
in former times was the same as that of the Scottish Highlander.

By the abolition of the heritable jurisdiction of the Highland chiefs,
and the general disarmament of the clans by the acts passed in 1747
after the rebellion of 1745, the clan system was practically broken up,
though its influence still lingers in the more remote districts. An act
was also passed in 1747 forbidding the use of the Highland garb; but the
injustice and impolicy of such a law being generally felt it was
afterwards repealed.    (W. K. S.)


  [1] The following account of the Irish clan-system differs in some
    respects from that in the article on BREHON LAWS (_q.v._); but it is
    retained here in view of the authority of the writer and the admitted
    obscurity of the whole subject. (ED. _E.B._)

  [2] The explanation here given of _geilfine_ is different from that
    given in the introduction to the third volume of the _Ancient Laws of
    Ireland_, which was followed by Sir H.S. Maine in his account of it
    in his _Early History of Institutions_, and which the present writer
    believes to be erroneous.

  [3] It should also be mentioned that illegitimacy was not a bar. The
    issue of "handfast" marriages in Scotland were eligible to be chiefs,
    and even sometimes claimed under feudal law.

  [4] This office is of considerable importance in connexion with early
    Scottish history. In the Irish annals the _ríg_, or chief of a great
    tribe (_mor tuath_), such as of Ross, Moray, Marr, Buchan, &c., is
    called a _mor maer_, or great _maer_. Sometimes the same person is
    called king also in these annals. Thus _Findlaec_, or Finlay, son of
    _Ruadhri_, the father of Shakespeare's Macbeth, is called king of
    Moray in the _Annals of Ulster_, and _mor maer_ in the _Annals of
    Tighernach_. The term is never found in Scottish charters, but it
    occurs in the Book of the Abbey of Deir in Buchan, now in the library
    of the university of Cambridge. The Scotic kings and their successors
    obviously regarded the chiefs of the great tribes in question merely
    as their _maers_, while their tribesmen only knew them as kings. From
    these "mor-maerships," which corresponded with the ancient _mor
    tuatha_, came most, if not all, the ancient Scottish earldoms.

styled MacWilliam, and Ne-gan or Na-gCeann (i.e. "of the Heads," "having
made a mount of the heads of men slain in battle which he covered up
with earth"), was the son of Richard or Rickard de Burgh, lord of
Clanricarde, by a daughter of Madden of Portumna, and grandson of Ulick
de Burgh, lord of Clanricarde (1467-1487), the collateral heir male of
the earls of Ulster. On the death of the last earl in 1333, his only
child Elizabeth had married Lionel, duke of Clarence, and the earldom
became merged in the crown, in consequence of which the de Burghs
abjured English laws and sovereignty, and chose for their chiefs the
sons of Sir William, the "Red" earl of Ulster's brother, the elder
William taking the title of MacWilliam Eighter (Uachtar, i.e. Upper),
and becoming the ancestor of the earls of Clanricarde, and his brother
Sir Edmond that of MacWilliam Oughter (Ochtar, i.e. Lower), and founding
the family of the earls of Mayo. In 1361 the duke of Clarence was sent
over as lord-lieutenant to Ireland to enforce his claims as husband of
the heir general, but failed, and the chiefs of the de Burghs maintained
their independence of English sovereignty for several generations. Ulick
de Burgh succeeded to the headship of his clan, exercised a quasi-royal
authority and held vast estates in county Galway, in Connaught,
including Loughry, Dunkellin, Kiltartan (Hilltaraght) and Athenry, as
well as Clare and Leitrim. In March 1541, however, he wrote to Henry
VIII., lamenting the degeneracy of his family, "which have been brought
to Irish and disobedient rule by reason of marriage and nurseing with
those Irish, sometime rebels, near adjoining to me," and placing himself
and his estates in the king's hands. The same year he was present at
Dublin, when the act was passed making Henry VIII. king of Ireland. In
1543, in company with other Irish chiefs, he visited the king at
Greenwich, made full submission, undertook to introduce English manners
and abandon Irish names, received a regrant of the greater part of his
estates with the addition of other lands, was confirmed in the
captainship and rule of Clanricarde, and was created on the 1st of July
1543 earl of Clanricarde and baron of Dunkellin in the peerage of
Ireland, with unusual ceremony. "The making of McWilliam earl of
Clanricarde made all the country during his time quiet and obedient,"
states Lord Chancellor Cusake in his review of the state of Ireland in
1553.[1] He did not live long, however, to enjoy his new English
dignities, but died shortly after returning to Ireland about March 1544.
He is called by the annalist of Loch Cé "a haughty and proud lord," who
reduced many under his yoke, and by the Four Masters "the most
illustrious of the English in Connaught."

Clanricarde married (1) Grany or Grace, daughter of Mulrone O'Carroll,
"prince of Ely," by whom he had Richard or Rickard "the Saxon," who
succeeded him as 2nd earl of Clanricarde (grandfather of the 4th earl,
whose son became marquess of Clanricarde), this alliance being the only
one declared valid. After parting with his first wife he married (2)
Honora, sister of Ulick de Burgh, from whom he also parted. He married
(3) Mary Lynch, by whom he had John, who claimed the earldom in 1568.
Other sons, according to Burke's _Peerage_, were Thomas "the Athlete,"
shot in 1545, Redmond "of the Broom" (d. 1595), and Edmund (d. 1597).

  See also _Annals of Ireland by the Four Masters_ (ed. by O. Connellan,
  1846), p. 132 note, and reign of Henry VIII.; _Annals of Loch Cé
  (Rerum Brit. Medii Aevi Scriptores_) (54) (1871); _Hist. Mem. of the
  O'Briens_, by J.O. Donoghue (i860), pp 159, 519; _Ireland under the
  Tudors_, by R. Bagwell, vol. i.; _State Papers, Ireland, Carew MSS._
  and Gairdner's _Letters and Papers of Henry VIII.; Cotton MSS._ Brit.
  Mus., Titus B xi. f. 388. (P.C.Y.)


  [1] _Cal. of State Pap., Carew MSS._ 1515-1574, p. 246.

1658), son of Richard, 4th earl of Clanricarde, created in 1628 earl of
St Albans, and of Frances, daughter and heir of Sir Francis Walsingham,
and widow of Sir Philip Sidney and of Robert Devereux, earl of Essex,
was born in 1604. He was summoned to the House of Lords as Lord Burgh in
1628, and succeeded his father as 5th earl in 1635. He sat in the Short
Parliament of 1640 and attended Charles I. in the Scottish expedition.
On the outbreak of the Irish rebellion Clanricarde had powerful
inducements for joining the Irish--the ancient greatness and
independence of his family, his devotion to the Roman Catholic Church,
and strongest of all, the ungrateful treatment meted out by Charles I.
and Wentworth to his father, one of Elizabeth's most stanch adherents in
Ireland, whose lands were appropriated by the crown and whose death, it
was popularly asserted, was hastened by the harshness of the
lord-lieutenant. Nevertheless at the crisis his loyalty never wavered.
Alone of the Irish Roman Catholic nobility to declare for the king, he
returned to Ireland, took up his residence at Portumna, kept Galway, of
which he was governor, neutral, and took measures for the defence of the
county and for the relief of the Protestants, making "his house and
towns a refuge, nay, even a hospital for the distressed English."[1] In
1643 he was one of the commissioners appointed by the king to confer
with the Irish confederates, and urged the wisdom of a cessation of
hostilities in a document which he publicly distributed. He was
appointed commander of the English forces in Connaught in 1644, and in
1646 was created a marquess and a privy councillor. He supported the
same year the treaty between Charles I. and the confederates, and
endeavoured after its failure to persuade Preston, the general of the
Irish, to agree to a peace; but the latter, being advised by Rinuccini,
the papal nuncio, refused in December. Together with Ormonde,
Clanricarde opposed the nuncio's policy; and the royalist inhabitants of
Galway having through the latter's influence rejected the cessation of
hostilities, arranged with Lord Inchiquin in 1648, he besieged the town
and compelled its acquiescence. In 1649 he reduced Sligo. On Ormonde's
departure in December 1650 Clanricarde was appointed deputy
lord-lieutenant, but he was not trusted by the Roman Catholics, and was
unable to stem the tide of the parliamentary successes. In 1651 he
opposed the offer of Charles, duke of Lorraine, to supply money and aid
on condition of being acknowledged "Protector" of the kingdom. In May
1652 Galway surrendered to the parliament, and in June Clanricarde
signed articles with the parliamentary commissioners which allowed his
departure from Ireland. In August he was excepted from pardon for life
and estate, but by permits, renewed from time to time by the council, he
was enabled to remain in England for the rest of his life, and in 1653
£500 a year was settled upon him by the council of state in
consideration of the protection which he had given to the Protestants in
Ireland at the time of the rebellion. He died at Somerhill in Kent in
1657 or 1658 and was buried at Tunbridge.

The "great earl," as he was called, supported Ormonde in his desire to
unite the English royalists with the more moderate Roman Catholics on
the basis of religious toleration under the authority of the sovereign,
against the papal scheme advocated by Rinuccini, and in opposition to
the parliamentary and Puritan policy. By the author of the _Aphorismical
Discovery_, who represents the opinion of the native Irish, he is
denounced as the "masterpiece of the treasonable faction," "a foe to his
king, nation and religion," and by the duke of Lorraine as "a traitor
and a base fellow"; but there is no reason to doubt Clarendon's opinion
of him as "a person of unquestionable fidelity. . . and of the most
eminent constancy to the Roman Catholic religion of any man in the three
kingdoms," or the verdict of Hallam, who describes him "as perhaps the
most unsullied character in the annals of Ireland."

He married Lady Anne Compton, daughter of William Compton, 1st earl of
Northampton, but had issue only one daughter. On his death, accordingly,
the marquessate and the English peerages became extinct, the Irish
titles reverting to his cousin Richard, 6th earl, grandson of the 3rd
earl of Clanricarde. Henry, the 12th earl (1742-1797), was again created
a marquess in 1789, but the marquessate expired at his death without
issue, the earldom going to his brother. In 1825 the 14th earl
(1802-1874) was created a marquess; he was ambassador at St Petersburg,
and later postmaster-general and lord privy seal, and married George
Canning's daughter. His son (b. 1832), who achieved notoriety in the
Irish land agitation, succeeded him as 2nd marquess.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See the article "Burgh, Ulick de," in the _Dict. of
  Nat. Biography_, and authorities there given; _Hist. of the Irish
  Confederation_, by R. Bellings, ed. by J.T. Gilbert (1882);
  _Aphorismical Discovery_ (Irish Archaeological Society, 1879);
  _Memoirs of the Marquis of Clanricarde_ (1722, repr. 1744); _Memoirs
  of Ulick_, _Marquis of Clanricarde_, by John, 11th earl (1757); _Life
  of Ormonde_, by T. Carte (1851); S.R. Gardiner's _Hist. of the Civil
  War_ and of the _Commonwealth; Thomason Tracts_ (Brit. Mus.) E 371
  (11), 456 (10); _Cal. of State Papers, Irish_, esp. _Introd._
  1633-1647 and _Domestic; Hist. MSS. Comm., MSS. of Marq. of Ormonde_
  and _Earl of Egmont_.    (P. C. Y.)


  [1] _Hist. MSS. Comm.: MSS of Earl of Egmont_, i. 223.

CLANVOWE, SIR THOMAS, the name of an English poet first mentioned in the
history of English literature by F.S. Ellis in 1896, when, in editing
the text of _The Book of Cupid, God of Love, or The Cuckoo and the
Nightingale_, for the Kelmscott Press, he stated that Professor Skeat
had discovered that at the end of the best of the MSS. the author was
called Clanvowe. In 1897 this information was confirmed and expanded by
Professor Skeat in the supplementary volume of his Clarendon Press
_Chaucer_ (1894-1897). The beautiful romance of _The Cuckoo and the
Nightingale_ was published by Thynne in 1532, and was attributed by him,
and by successive editors down to the days of Henry Bradshaw, to
Chaucer. It was due to this error that for three centuries Chaucer was
supposed to be identified with the manor of Woodstock, and even painted,
in fanciful pictures, as lying

  "Under a maple that is fair and green,
   Before the chamber-window of the Queen
   At Wodëstock, upon the greenë lea."

But this queen could only be Joan of Navarre, who arrived in 1403, three
years after Chaucer's death, and it is to the spring of that year that
Professor Skeat attributes the composition of the poem. Sir Thomas
Clanvowe was of a Herefordshire family, settled near Wigmore. He was a
prominent figure in the courts of Richard II. and Henry IV., and is said
to have been a friend of Prince Hal. He was one of those who "had begun
to mell of Lollardy, and drink the gall of heresy." He was one of the
twenty-five knights who accompanied John Beaufort (son of John of Gaunt)
to Barbary in 1390.

The date of his birth is unknown, and his name is last mentioned in
1404. The historic and literary importance of _The Cuckoo and the
Nightingale_ is great. It is the work of a poet who had studied the
prosody of Chaucer with more intelligent care than either Occleve or
Lydgate, and who therefore forms an important link between the 14th and
15th centuries in English poetry. Clanvowe writes with a surprising
delicacy and sweetness, in a five-line measure almost peculiar to
himself. Professor Skeat points out a unique characteristic of
Clanvowe's versification, namely, the unprecedented freedom with which
he employs the suffix of the final _-e_, and rather avoids than seeks
elision. _The Cuckoo and the Nightingale_ was imitated by Milton in his
sonnet to the Nightingale, and was rewritten in modern English by
Wordsworth. It is a poem of so much individual beauty, that we must
regret the apparent loss of everything else written by a poet of such
unusual talent.

  See also a critical edition of the _Boke of Cupide_ by Dr Erich
  Vollmer (Berlin, 1898).    (E. G.)

naturalist, was born at Geneva on the 24th of April 1832. He belonged to
a French family, some members of which had taken refuge in that city
after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. In 1852 he began to study
medicine and natural science at Berlin, where he was greatly influenced
by J. Müller and C.G. Ehrenberg, the former being at that period engaged
in his important researches on the Echinoderms. In 1855 he accompanied
Müller to Norway, and there spent two months on a desolate reef that he
might obtain satisfactory observations. The latter part of his stay at
Berlin he devoted, along with J. Lachmann, to the study of the Infusoria
and Rhizopods. In 1857 he obtained the degree of doctor, and in 1862 he
was chosen professor of comparative anatomy at Geneva. In 1859 he
visited England, and in company with W.B. Carpenter made a voyage to the
Hebrides; and in 1863 he spent some months in the Bay of Biscay. On the
appearance of Darwin's work on the _Origin of Species_, he adopted his
theories and published a valuable series of articles on the subject in
the _Revue Germanique_ (1861). During 1865 and 1866 ill-health rendered
him incapable of work, and he determined to pass the winter of 1866-1867
in Naples. The change of climate produced some amelioration, and his
energy was attested by two elaborate volumes on the Annelidae of the
gulf. He again visited Naples with advantage in 1868; but in 1870,
instead of recovering as before, he grew worse, and on the 31st of May
he died at Siena on his way home. His _Recherches sur la structure des
annélides sédentaires_ were published posthumously in 1873.

CLAPPERTON, HUGH (1788-1827), Scottish traveller in West-Central Africa,
was born in 1788 at Annan, Dumfriesshire, where his father was a
surgeon. He gained some knowledge of practical mathematics and
navigation, and at thirteen was apprenticed on board a vessel which
traded between Liverpool and North America. After having made several
voyages across the Atlantic he was impressed for the navy, in which he
soon rose to the rank of midshipman. During the Napoleonic wars he saw a
good deal of active service, and at the storming of Port Louis,
Mauritius, in November 1810, he was first in the breach and hauled down
the French flag. In 1814 he went to Canada, was promoted to the rank of
lieutenant, and to the command of a schooner on the Canadian lakes. In
1817, when the flotilla on the lakes was dismantled, he returned home on

In 1820 Clapperton removed to Edinburgh, where he made the acquaintance
of Walter Oudney, M.D., who aroused in him an interest in African
travel. Lieut. G.F. Lyon, R.N., having returned from an unsuccessful
attempt to reach Bornu from Tripoli, the British government determined
on a second expedition to that country. Dr Oudney was appointed by Lord
Bathurst, then colonial secretary, to proceed to Bornu as consul with
the object of promoting trade, and Clapperton and Major Dixon Denham
(q.v.) were added to the party. From Tripoli, early in 1822, they set
out southward to Murzuk, and from this point Clapperton and Oudney
visited the Ghat oasis. Kuka, the capital of Bornu, was reached in
February 1823, and Lake Chad seen for the first time by Europeans. At
Bornu the travellers were well received by the sultan; and after
remaining in the country till the 14th of December they again set out
for the purpose of exploring the course of the Niger. At Murmur, on the
road to Kano, Oudney died (January 1824). Clapperton continued his
journey alone through Kano to Sokoto, the capital of the Fula empire,
where by order of Sultan Bello he was obliged to stop, though the Niger
was only five days' journey to the west. Worn out with his travel he
returned by way of Zaria and Katsena to Kuka, where he again met Denham.
The two travellers then set out for Tripoli, reached on the 26th of
January 1825. An account of the travels was published in 1826 under the
title of _Narrative of Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central
Africa in the years 1822-1824_.

Immediately after his return Clapperton was raised to the rank of
commander, and sent out with another expedition to Africa, the sultan
Bello of Sokoto having professed his eagerness to open up trade with the
west coast. Clapperton landed at Badagry in the Bight of Benin, and
started overland for the Niger on the 7th of December 1825, having with
him his servant Richard Lander (q.v.), Captain Pearce, R.N., and Dr
Morrison, navy surgeon and naturalist. Before the month was out Pearce
and Morrison were dead of fever. Clapperton continued his journey, and,
passing through the Yoruba country, in January 1826 he crossed the Niger
at Bussa, the spot where Mungo Park had died twenty years before. In
July he arrived at Kano. Thence he went to Sokoto, intending afterwards
to go to Bornu. The sultan, however, detained him, and being seized with
dysentery he died near Sokoto on the 13th of April 1827.

Clapperton was the first European to make known from personal
observation the semi-civilized Hausa countries, which he visited soon
after the establishment of the Sokoto empire by the Fula. In 1829
appeared the _Journal of a Second Expedition into the Interior of
Africa_, &c, by the late Commander Clapperton, to which was prefaced a
biographical sketch of the explorer by his uncle, Lieut.-colonel S.
Clapperton. Lander, who had brought back the journal of his master, also
published _Records of Captain Clapperton's Last Expedition to Africa ...
with the subsequent Adventures of the Author_ (2 vols., London, 1830).

CLAQUE (Fr. _claquer_, to clap the hands), an organized body of
professional applauders in the French theatres. The hiring of persons to
applaud dramatic performances was common in classical times, and the
emperor Nero, when he acted, had his performance greeted by an encomium
chanted by five thousand of his soldiers, who were called Angustals. The
recollection of this gave the 16th-century French poet, Jean Daurat, an
idea which has developed into the modern claque. Buying up a number of
tickets for a performance of one of his plays, he distributed them
gratuitously to those who promised publicly to express their
approbation. It was not, however, till 1820 that a M. Sauton seriously
undertook the systematization of the claque, and opened an office in
Paris for the supply of _claqueurs_. By 1830 the claque had become a
regular institution. The manager of a theatre sends an order for any
number of _claqueurs_. These people are usually under a _chef de
claque_, whose duty it is to judge where their efforts are needed and to
start the demonstration of approval. This takes several forms. Thus
there are _commissaires_, those who learn the piece by heart, and call
the attention of their neighbours to its good points between the acts.
The _rieurs_ are those who laugh loudly at the jokes. The _pleureurs_,
generally women, feign tears, by holding their handkerchiefs to their
eyes. The _chatouilleurs_ keep the audience in a good humour, while the
_bisseurs_ simply clap their hands and cry _bis! bis!_ to secure

CLARA, SAINT (1194-1253), foundress of the Franciscan nuns, was born of
a knightly family in Assisi in 1194. At eighteen she was so impressed by
a sermon of St Francis that she was filled with the desire to devote
herself to the kind of life he was leading. She obtained an interview
with him, and to test her resolution he told her to dress in penitential
sackcloth and beg alms for the poor in the streets of Assisi. Clara
readily did this, and Francis, satisfied as to her vocation, told her to
come to the Portiuncula arrayed as a bride. The friars met her with
lighted candles, and at the foot of the altar Francis shore off her
hair, received her vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, and invested
her with the Franciscan habit, 1212. He placed her for a couple of years
in a Benedictine convent in Assisi, until the convent at St Damian's,
close to the town, was ready. Her two younger sisters, and, after her
father's death, her mother and many others joined her, and the
Franciscan nuns spread widely and rapidly (see CLARES, POOR). The
relations of friendship and sympathy between St Clara and St Francis
were very close, and there can be no doubt that she was one of the
truest heirs of Francis's inmost spirit. After his death Clara threw
herself wholly on the side of those who opposed mitigations in the rule
and manner of life, and she was one of the chief upholders of St
Francis's primitive idea of poverty (see FRANCISCANS). She was the close
friend of Brother Leo and the other "Companions of St Francis," and they
assisted at her death. For forty years she was abbess at St Damian's,
and the great endeavour of her life was that the rule of the nuns should
be purged of the foreign elements that had been introduced, and should
become wholly conformable to St Francis's spirit. She lived just long
enough to witness the fulfilment of her great wish, a rule such as she
desired being approved by the pope two days before her death on the 11th
of August 1253.

  The sources for her life are to be found in the Bollandist _Acta
  Sanctorum_ on the 11th of August, and sketches in such _Lives of the
  Saints_ as Alban Butler's. See also Wetzer und Welte,
  _Kirchen-lexicon_ (2nd ed.), art. "Clara."    (E. C. B.)

CLARE, the name of a famous English family. The ancestor of this
historic house, "which played," in Freeman's words, "so great a part
alike in England, Wales and Ireland," was Count Godfrey, eldest of the
illegitimate sons of Richard the Fearless, duke of Normandy. His son,
Count Gilbert of Brionne, had two sons, Richard, lord of Bienfaite and
Orbec, and Baldwin, lord of Le Sap and Meulles, both of whom accompanied
the Conqueror to England. Baldwin, known as "De Meulles" or "of Exeter,"
received the hereditary shrievalty of Devon with great estates in the
West Country, and left three sons, William, Robert and Richard, of whom
the first and last were in turn sheriffs of Devon. Richard, known as
"de Bienfaite," or "of Tunbridge," or "of Clare," was the founder of the
house of Clare.

Richard derived his English appellation from his strongholds at
Tunbridge and at Clare, at both of which his castle-mounds still remain.
The latter, on the borders of Essex and Suffolk, was the head of his
great "honour" which lay chiefly in the eastern counties. Appointed
joint justiciar in the king's absence abroad, he took a leading part in
suppressing the revolt of 1075. By his wife, Rohese, daughter of Walter
Giffard, through whom great Giffard estates afterwards came to his
house, he left five sons and two daughters. Roger was his heir in
Normandy, Walter founded Tintern Abbey, Richard was a monk, and Robert,
receiving the forfeited fief of the Baynards in the eastern counties,
founded, through his son Walter, the house of FitzWalter (extinct 1432),
of whom the most famous was Robert FitzWalter, the leader of the barons
against King John. Of this house, spoken of by Jordan Fantosme as
"Clarreaus," the Daventrys of Daventry (extinct 1380) and Fawsleys of
Fawsley (extinct 1392) were cadets. One of Richard's two daughters
married the famous Walter Tirel.

Gilbert, Richard's heir in England, held his castle of Tunbridge against
William Rufus, but was wounded and captured. Under Henry I., who
favoured the Clares, he obtained a grant of Cardigan, and carried his
arms into Wales. Dying about 1115, he left four sons, of whom Gilbert,
the second, inherited Chepstow, with Nether-Gwent, from his uncle,
Walter, the founder of Tintern, and was created earl of Pembroke by
Stephen about 1138; he was father of Richard Strongbow, earl of Pembroke
(q.v.). The youngest son Baldwin fought for Stephen at the battle of
Lincoln (1141) and founded the priories of Bourne and Deeping on lands
acquired with his wife. The eldest son Richard, who was slain by the
Welsh on his way to Cardigan in 1135 or 1136, left two sons Gilbert and
Roger, of whom Gilbert was created earl of Hertfordshire by Stephen.

It was probably because he and the Clares had no interests in
Hertfordshire that they were loosely and usually styled the earls of
(de) Clare. Dying in 1152, Gilbert was succeeded by his brother Roger,
of whom Fitz-Stephen observes that "nearly all the nobles of England
were related to the earl of Clare, whose sister, the most beautiful
woman in England, had long been desired by the king" (Henry II.). He was
constantly fighting the Welsh for his family possessions in Wales and
quarrelled with Becket over Tunbridge Castle. In 1173 or 1174 he was
succeeded by his son Richard as third earl, whose marriage with Amicia,
daughter and co-heir of William, earl of Gloucester, was destined to
raise the fortunes of his house to their highest point. He and his son
Gilbert were among the "barons of the Charter," Gilbert, who became
fourth earl in 1217, obtained also, early in 1218, the earldom of
Gloucester, with its great territorial "Honour," and the lordship of
Glamorgan, in right of his mother; "from this time the house of Clare
became the acknowledged head of the baronage." Gilbert had also
inherited through his father his grandmother's "Honour of St Hilary" and
a moiety of the Giffard fief; but the vast possessions of his house were
still further swollen by his marriage with a daughter of William
(Marshal), earl of Pembroke, through whom his son Richard succeeded in
1245 to a fifth of the Marshall lands including the Kilkenny estates in
Ireland. Richard's successor, Gilbert, the "Red" earl, died in 1295, the
most powerful subject in the kingdom.

On his death his earldoms seem to have been somewhat mysteriously deemed
to have passed to his widow Joan, daughter of Edward I.; for her second
husband, Ralph de Monthermer, was summoned to parliament in right of
them from 1299 to 1306. After her death, however, in 1307, Earl
Gilbert's son and namesake was summoned in 1308 as earl of Gloucester
and Hertford, though only sixteen. A nephew of Edward II. and
brother-in-law of Gaveston, he played a somewhat wavering part in the
struggle between the king and the barons. Guardian of the realm in 1311
and regent in 1313, he fell gloriously at Bannockburn (June 24th, 1314),
when only twenty-three, rushing on the enemy "like a wild boar, making
his sword drunk with their blood."

The earl was the last of his mighty line, and his vast possessions in
England (in over twenty counties), Wales and Ireland fell to his three
sisters, of whom Elizabeth, the youngest, wife of John de Burgh,
obtained the "Honour of Clare" and transmitted it to her son William de
Burgh, 3rd earl of Ulster, whose daughter brought it to Lionel, son of
King Edward III., who was thereupon created duke of Clarence, a title
associated ever since with the royal house. The "Honour of Clare,"
vested in the crown, still preserves a separate existence, with a court
and steward of its own.

Clare College, Cambridge, derived its name from the above Elizabeth,
"Lady of Clare," who founded it as Clare Hall in 1347.

Clare County in Ireland derives its name from the family, though whether
from Richard Strongbow, or from Thomas de Clare, a younger son, who had
a grant of Thomond in 1276, has been deemed doubtful.

Clarenceux King of Arms, an officer of the Heralds' College, derives his
style, through Clarence, from Clare.

  See J.H. Round's _Geoffrey de Mandeville, Feudal England, Commune of
  London_, and _Peerage Studies_; also his "Family of Clare" in _Arch.
  Journ._ lvi., and "Origin of Armorial Bearings" in Ib. li.;
  Parkinson's "Clarence, the origin and bearers of the title," in _The
  Antiquary_, v.; Clark's "Lords of Glamorgan" in _Arch. Journ._ xxxv.;
  Planche's "Earls of Gloucester" in _Journ. Arch. Assoc._ xxvi.;
  Dugdale's _Baronage_, vol. i., and _Monasticon Anglicanum_; G.E.
  C[okayne]'s _Complete Peerage_.    (J. H. R.)

CLARE, JOHN (1793-1864), English poet, commonly known as "the
Northamptonshire Peasant Poet," the son of a farm labourer, was born at
Helpstone near Peterborough, on the 13th of July 1793. At the age of
seven he was taken from school to tend sheep and geese; four years later
he began to work on a farm, attending in the winter evenings a school
where he is said to have learnt some algebra. He then became a pot-boy
in a public-house and fell in love with Mary Joyce, but her father, a
prosperous farmer, forbade her to meet him. Subsequently he was gardener
at Burghley Park. He enlisted in the militia, tried camp life with
gipsies, and worked as a lime burner in 1817, but in the following year
he was obliged to accept parish relief. Clare had bought a copy of
Thomson's _Seasons_ out of his scanty earnings and had begun to write
poems. In 1819 a bookseller at Stamford, named Drury, lighted on one of
Clare's poems, _The Setting Sun_, written on a scrap of paper enclosing
a note to his predecessor in the business. He befriended the author and
introduced his poems to the notice of John Taylor, of the publishing
firm of Taylor & Hussey, who issued the _Poems Descriptive of Rural Life
and Scenery_ in 1820. This book was highly praised, and in the next year
his _Village Minstrel and other Poems_ were published. He was greatly
patronized; fame, in the shape of curious visitors, broke the tenor of
his life, and the convivial habits that he had formed were indulged more
freely. He had married in 1820, and an annuity of 15 guineas from Lord
Exeter, in whose service he had been, was supplemented by subscription,
and he became possessed of £45 annually, a sum far beyond what he had
ever earned, but new wants made his income insufficient, and in 1823 he
was nearly penniless. The _Shepherd's Calendar_ (1827) met with little
success, which was not increased by his hawking it himself. As he worked
again on the fields his health temporarily improved; but he soon became
seriously ill. Lord Fitzwilliam presented him with a new cottage and a
piece of ground, but Clare could not settle in his new home. Gradually
his mind gave way. His last and best work, the _Rural Muse_ (1835), was
noticed by "Christopher North" alone. He had for some time shown
symptoms of insanity; and in July 1837 he was removed to a private
asylum, and afterwards to the Northampton general lunatic asylum, where
he died on the 20th of May 1864. Clare's descriptions of rural scenes
show a keen and loving appreciation of nature, and his love-songs and
ballads charm by their genuine feeling; but his vogue was no doubt
largely due to the interest aroused by his humble position in life.

  See the _Life of John Clare_, by Frederick Martin (1865); and _Life
  and Remains of John Clare_, by J.L. Cherry (1873), which, though not
  so complete, contains some of the poet's asylum verses and prose

CLARE, JOHN FITZGIBBON, 1ST EARL OF (1749-1802), lord chancellor of
Ireland, was the second son of John Fitzgibbon, who had abandoned the
Roman Catholic faith in order to pursue a legal career. He was educated
at Trinity College, Dublin, where he was highly distinguished as a
classical scholar, and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated in
1770. In 1772 he was called to the Irish bar, and quickly acquired a
very lucrative practice; he also inherited his father's large fortune on
the death of his elder brother. In 1778 he entered the Irish House of
Commons as member for Dublin University, and at first gave a general
support to the popular party led by Henry Grattan (q.v.). He was,
however, from the first hostile to that part of Grattan's policy which
aimed at removing the disabilities of the Roman Catholics; he
endeavoured to impede the Relief Bill of 1778 by raising difficulties
about its effect on the Act of Settlement. He especially distrusted the
priests, and many years later explained that his life-long resistance to
all concession to the Catholics was based on his "unalterable opinion"
that "a conscientious Popish ecclesiastic never will become a
well-attached subject to a Protestant state, and that the Popish clergy
must always have a commanding influence on every member of that
communion." As early as 1780 Fitzgibbon began to separate himself from
the popular or national party, by opposing Grattan's declaration of the
Irish parliament's right to independence. There is no reason to suppose
that in this change of view he was influenced by corrupt or personal
motives. His cast of mind naturally inclined to authority rather than to
democratic liberty; his hostility to the Catholic claims, and his
distrust of parliamentary reform as likely to endanger the connexion of
Ireland with Great Britain, made him a sincere opponent of the aims
which Grattan had in view. In reply, however, to a remonstrance from his
constituents Fitzgibbon promised to support Grattan's policy in the
future, and described the claim of Great Britain to make laws for
Ireland as "a daring usurpation of the rights of a free people."

For some time longer there was no actual breach between him and Grattan.
Grattan supported the appointment of Fitzgibbon as attorney-general in
1783, and in 1785 the latter highly eulogized Grattan's character and
services to the country in a speech in which he condemned Flood's
volunteer movement. He also opposed Flood's Reform Bill of 1784; and
from this time forward he was in fact the leading spirit in the Irish
government, and the stiffest opponent of all concession to popular
demands. In 1784 the permanent committee of revolutionary reformers in
Dublin, of whom Napper Tandy was the most conspicuous, invited the
sheriffs of counties to call meetings for the election of delegates to
attend a convention for the discussion of reform; and when the sheriff
of the county of Dublin summoned a meeting for this purpose Fitzgibbon
procured his imprisonment for contempt of court, and justified this
procedure in parliament, though Lord Erskine declared it grossly
illegal. In the course of the debates on Pitt's commercial propositions
in 1785, which Fitzgibbon supported in masterly speeches, he referred to
Curran in terms which led to a duel between the two lawyers, when
Fitzgibbon was accused of a deliberation in aiming at his opponent that
was contrary to etiquette. His antagonism to Curran was life-long and
bitter, and after he became chancellor his hostility to the famous
advocate was said to have driven the latter out of practice. In January
1787 Fitzgibbon introduced a stringent bill for repressing the Whiteboy
outrages. It was supported by Grattan, who, however, procured the
omission of a clause enacting that any Roman Catholic chapel near which
an illegal oath had been tendered should be immediately demolished. His
influence with the majority in the Irish parliament defeated Pitt's
proposed reform of the tithe system in Ireland, Fitzgibbon refusing even
to grant a committee to investigate the subject. On the regency question
in 1789 Fitzgibbon, in opposition to Grattan, supported the doctrine of
Pitt in a series of powerful speeches which proved him a great
constitutional lawyer; he intimated that the choice for Ireland might in
certain eventualities rest between complete separation from England and
legislative union; and, while he exclaimed as to the latter alternative,
"God forbid that I should ever see that day!" he admitted that
separation would be the worse evil of the two.

In the same year Lord Lifford resigned the chancellorship, and
Fitzgibbon was appointed in his place, being raised to the peerage as
Baron Fitzgibbon. His removal to the House of Lords greatly increased
his power. In the Commons, though he had exercised great influence as
attorney-general, his position had been secondary; in the House of Lords
and in the privy council he was little less than despotic. "He was,"
says Lecky, "by far the ablest Irishman who had adopted without
restriction the doctrine that the Irish legislature must be maintained
in a condition of permanent and unvarying subjection to the English
executive." But the English ministry were now embarking on a policy of
conciliation in Ireland. The Catholic Relief Bill of 1793 was forced on
the Irish executive by the cabinet in London, but it passed rapidly and
easily through the Irish parliament. Lord Fitzgibbon, while accepting
the bill as inevitable under the circumstances that had arisen, made a
most violent though exceedingly able speech against the principle of
concession, which did much to destroy the conciliatory effect of the
measure; and as a consequence of this act he began persistently to urge
the necessity for a legislative union. From this date until the union
was carried, the career of Fitzgibbon is practically the history of
Ireland. True to his inveterate hostility to the popular claims, he was
opposed to the appointment of Lord Fitzwilliam (q.v.) as viceroy in
1795, and was probably the chief influence in procuring his recall; and
it was Fitzgibbon who first put it into the head of George III. that the
king would violate his coronation oath if he consented to the admission
of Catholics to parliament. When Lord Camden, Fitzwilliam's successor in
the viceroyalty, arrived in Dublin on the 31st of March 1795,
Fitzgibbon's carriage was violently assaulted by the mob, and he himself
was wounded; and in the riots that ensued his house was also attacked.
But as if to impress upon the Catholics the hopelessness of their case,
the government who had made Fitzgibbon a viscount immediately after his
attack on the Catholics in 1793 now bestowed on him a further mark of
honour. In June 1795 he was created earl of Clare. On the eve of the
rebellion he warned the government that while emancipation and reform
might be the objects aimed at by the better classes, the mass of the
disaffected had in view "the separation of the country from her
connexion with Great Britain, and a fraternal alliance with the French
Republic." Clare advocated stringent measures to prevent an outbreak;
but he was neither cruel nor immoderate, and was inclined to mercy in
dealing with individuals. He attempted to save Lord Edward Fitzgerald
(q.v.) from his fate by giving a friendly warning to his friends, and
promising to facilitate his escape from the country; and Lord Edward's
aunt, Lady Louisa Conolly, who was conducted to his death-bed in prison
by the chancellor in person, declared that "nothing could exceed Lord
Clare's kindness." His moderation and humanity after the rebellion was
extolled by Cornwallis. He threw his great influence on the side of
clemency, and it was through his intervention that Oliver Bond, when
sentenced to death, was reprieved; and that an arrangement was made by
which Arthur O'Connor, Thomas Emmet and other state prisoners were
allowed to leave the country.

In October 1798 Lord Clare, who since 1793 had been convinced of the
necessity for a legislative union if the connexion between Great Britain
and Ireland was to be maintained, and who was equally determined that
the union must be unaccompanied by Catholic emancipation, crossed to
England and successfully pressed his views on Pitt. In 1799 he induced
the Irish House of Lords to throw out a bill for providing a permanent
endowment of Maynooth. On the 10th of February 1800 Clare in the House
of Lords moved the resolution approving the union in a long and powerful
speech, in which he reviewed the history of Ireland since the
Revolution, attributing the evils of recent years to the independent
constitution of 1782, and speaking of Grattan in language of deep
personal hatred. He was not aware of the assurance which Cornwallis had
been authorized to convey to the Catholics that the union was to pave
the way for emancipation, and when he heard of it after the passing of
the act he bitterly complained that Pitt and Castlereagh had deceived
him. After the union Clare became more violent than ever in his
opposition to any policy of concession in Ireland. He died on the 28th
of January 1802; his funeral in Dublin was the occasion of a riot
organized "by a gang of about fourteen persons under orders of a
leader." His wife, in compliance with his death-bed request, destroyed
all his papers. His two sons, John (1792-1851) and Richard Hobart
(1793-1864), succeeded in turn to the earldom, which became extinct on
the death of the latter, whose only son, John Charles Henry, Viscount
Fitzgibbon (1829-1854), was killed in the charge of the Light Brigade at

Lord Clare was in private life an estimable and even an amiable man;
many acts of generosity are related of him; the determination of his
character swayed other wills to his purpose, and his courage was such as
no danger, no obloquy, no public hatred or violence could disturb.
Though not a great orator like Flood or Grattan, he was a skilful and
ready debater, and he was by far the ablest Irish supporter of the
union. He was, however, arrogant, overbearing and intolerant to the last
degree. He was the first Irishman since the Revolution to hold the
office of lord chancellor of Ireland. "Except where his furious personal
antipathies and his ungovernable arrogance were called into action, he
appears to have been," says Lecky, "an able, upright and energetic
judge"; but as a politician there can be little question that Lord
Clare's bitter and unceasing resistance to reasonable measures of reform
did infinite mischief in the history of Ireland, by inflaming the
passions of his countrymen, driving them into rebellion, and
perpetuating their political and religious divisions.

  See W.E.H. Lecky, _History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century_ (5
  vols., London, 1892); J.R. O'Flanagan, _The Lives of the Lord
  Chancellors and Keepers of the Great Seal in Ireland_ (2 vols.,
  London, 1870); _Cornwallis Correspondence_, ed. by C. Ross (3 vols.,
  London, 1859); Charles Phillips, _Recollections of Curran and some of
  his Contemporaries_ (London, 1822); Henry Grattan, _Memoirs of the
  Life and Times of the Right Honble. Henry Grattan_ (5 vols., London,
  1839-1846); Lord Auckland, _Journal and Correspondence_ (4 vols.,
  London, 1861); Charles Coote, _History of the Union of Great Britain
  and Ireland_ (London, 1802).    (R. J. M.)

CLARE, a county in the province of Munster, Ireland, bounded N. by
Galway Bay and Co. Galway, E. by Lough Derg, the river Shannon, and
counties Tipperary and Limerick, S. by the estuary of the Shannon, and
W. by the Atlantic Ocean. The area is 852,389 acres, or nearly 1332 sq.
m. Although the surface of the county is hilly, and in some parts even
mountainous, it nowhere rises to a great elevation. Much of the western
baronies of Moyarta and Ibrickan is composed of bog land. Bogs are
frequent also in the mountainous districts elsewhere, except in the
limestone barony of Burren, the inhabitants of some parts of which
supply themselves with turf from the opposite shores of Connemara.
Generally speaking, the eastern parts of the county are mountainous,
with tracts of rich pasture-land interspersed; the west abounds with
bog; and the north is rocky and best adapted for grazing sheep. In the
southern part, along the banks of the Fergus and Shannon, are the bands
of rich low grounds called corcasses, of various breadth, indenting the
land in a great variety of shapes. They are composed of deep rich loam,
and are distinguished as the black corcasses, adapted for tillage, and
the blue, used more advantageously as meadow land. The coast is in
general rocky, and occasionally bold and precipitous in the extreme, as
may be observed at the picturesque cliffs of Moher within a few miles of
Ennistimon and Lisdoonvarna, which rise perpendicularly at O'Brien's
Tower to an elevation of 580 ft. The coast of Clare is indented with
several bays, the chief of which are Ballyvaghan, Liscannor and Malbay;
but from Black Head to Loop Head, that is, along the entire western
boundary of the county formed by the Atlantic, there is no safe harbour
except Liscannor Bay. Malbay takes its name from its dangers to
navigators, and the whole coast has been the scene of many fatal
disasters. The county possesses only one large river, the Fergus; but
nearly 100 m. of its boundary-line are washed by the river Shannon,
which enters the Atlantic Ocean between this county and Kerry. The
numerous bays and creeks on both sides of this great river render its
navigation safe in every wind; but the passage to and from Limerick is
often tedious, and the port of Kilrush has from that cause gained in
importance. The river Fergus is navigable from the Shannon to the town
of Clare, which is the terminating point of its natural navigation, and
the port of all the central districts of the county.

There are a great number of lakes and tarns in the county, of which the
largest are Loughs Muckanagh, Graney, Atedaun and Dromore; but they are
more remarkable for beauty than for size or utility, with the exception
of the extensive and navigable Lough Derg, formed by the river Shannon
between this county and Tipperary. The salmon fishery of the Shannon,
both as a sport and as an industry, is famous; the Fergus also holds
salmon, and there is much good trout-fishing in the lakes for which
Ennis is a centre, and in the streams of the Atlantic seaboard. Clare is
a county which, like all the western counties of Ireland, repays
visitors in search of the pleasures of seaside resorts, sport, scenery
or antiquarian interest. Yet, again like other western counties, it was
long before it was rendered accessible. Communications, however, are now

  _Geology._--Upper Carboniferous strata cover the county west of Ennis,
  the coast-sections in them being particularly fine. Shales and
  sandstones alternate, now horizontal, as in the Cliffs of Moher, now
  thrown into striking folds. The Carboniferous Limestone forms a barren
  terraced country, often devoid of soil, through the Burren in the
  north, and extends to the estuary of the Fergus and the Shannon. On
  the east, the folding has brought up two bold masses of Old Red
  Sandstone, with Silurian cores. Slieve Bernagh, the more southerly of
  these, rises to 1746 ft. above Killaloe, and the hilly country here
  traversed by the Shannon is in marked contrast with the upper course
  of the river through the great limestone plain.

_Minerals._--Although metals and minerals have been found in many places
throughout the county, they do not often show themselves in sufficient
abundance to induce the application of capital for their extraction. The
principal metals are lead, iron and manganese. The Milltown lead mine in
the barony of Tulla is probably one of the oldest mines in Ireland, and
formerly, if the extent of the ancient excavations may be taken as a
guide, there must have been a very rich deposit. Copper pyrites occurs
in several parts of Burren, but in small quantity. Coal exists at
Labasheeda on the right bank of the Shannon, but the few and thin seams
are not productive. The nodules of clay-ironstone in the strata that
overlie the limestone were mined and smelted down to 1750. Within half a
mile of the Milltown lead mine are immense natural vaulted passages of
limestone, through which the river Ardsullas winds a singular course.
The lower limestone of the eastern portion of the county has been found
to contain several very large deposits of argentiferous galena. Flags,
easily quarried, are procured near Kilrush, and thinner flags near
Ennistimon. Slates are quarried in several places, the best being those
of Broadford and Killaloe, which are nearly equal to the finest procured
in Wales. A species of very fine black marble is obtained near Ennis; it
takes a high polish, and is free from the white spots with which the
black Kilkenny marble is marked.

The mineral springs, which are found in many places, are chiefly
chalybeate. That of Lisdoonvarna, a sulphur spa, about 8 m. from
Ennistimon, has been celebrated since the 18th century for its medicinal
qualities, and now attracts a large number of visitors annually. It lies
9 m. by road N. of Ennistimon. There are chalybeate springs of less note
at Kilkishen, Burren, Broadfoot, Lehinch, Kilkee, Kilrush, Killadysart,
and near Milltown Malbay. Springs called by the people "holy" or
"blessed" wells, generally mineral waters, are common; but the belief in
their power of performing cures in inveterate maladies is nearly

_Watering-places._--The Atlantic Ocean and the estuary of the Shannon
afford many situations admirably adapted for summer bathing-places.
Among the most frequented of these localities are Milltown Malbay; with
one of the best beaches on the western coast; and the neighbouring
Spanish Point (named from the scene of the wreck of two ships of the
Armada); Lehinch, about 2 m. from Ennistimon on Liscannor Bay, and near
the interesting cliffs of Moher, has a magnificent beach. Kilkee is the
most fashionable watering-place on the western coast of Ireland; and
Kilrush on the Shannon estuary is also favoured.

_Industries._--The soil and surface of the county are in general better
adapted for grazing than for tillage, and the acreage devoted to the
former consequently exceeds three times that of the latter. Agriculture
is in a backward state, and not a fifth of the total area is under
cultivation, while the acreage shows a decrease even in the principal
crops of oats and potatoes. Cattle, sheep, poultry and pigs, however,
all receive considerable attention. Owing to the mountainous nature of
the county nearly one-seventh of the total area is quite barren.

There are no extensive manufactures, although flannels and friezes are
made for home use, and hosiery of various kinds, chiefly coarse and
strong, is made around Ennistimon and other places. There are several
fishing stations on the coast, and cod, haddock, ling, sole, turbot,
ray, mackerel and other fish abound, but the rugged nature of the coast
and the tempestuous sea greatly hinder the operations of the fishermen.
Near Pooldoody is the great Burren oyster bed called the Red Bank, where
a large establishment is maintained, from which a constant supply of the
excellent Red Bank oysters is furnished to the Dublin and other large
markets. Crabs and lobsters are caught on the shores of the Bay of
Galway in every creek from Black Head to Ardfry. In addition to the
Shannon salmon fishery mentioned above, eels abound in every rivulet,
and form an important article of consumption.

The Great Southern & Western railway line from Limerick to Sligo
intersects the centre of the county from north to south. From Ennis on
this line the West Clare railway runs to Ennistimon on the coast, where
it turns south and follows the coast by Milltown Malbay to Kilkee and
Kilrush. Killaloe in the east of the county is the terminus of a branch
of the Great Southern & Western railway.

_Population and Administration._--The population (126,244 in 1891;
112,334 in 1901; almost wholly Roman Catholic and rural) shows a
decrease among the most serious of the Irish counties, and the
emigration returns are proportionately heavy. The principal towns, all
of insignificant size, are Ennis (pop. 5093, the county town), Kilrush
(4179), Kilkee (1661) and Killaloe (885); but several of the smaller
settlements, as resorts, are of more than local importance. The county,
which is divided into 11 baronies, contains 79 parishes, and includes
the Protestant diocese of Kilfenora, the greater part of Killaloe, and a
very small portion of the diocese of Limerick. It is within the Roman
Catholic dioceses of Killaloe and Limerick. The assizes are held at
Ennis, and quarter sessions here and at Ennistimon, Killaloe, Kilrush
and Tulla. The county is divided into the East and West parliamentary
divisions, each returning one member.

_History._--This county, together with part of the neighbouring
district, was anciently called Thomond, that is, North Munster, and
formed part of the monarchy of the celebrated Brian Boroihme, who held
his court at Kincora near Killaloe, where his palace was situated on the
banks of the Shannon. The site is still distinguished by extensive
earthen ramparts. Settlements were effected by the Danes, and in the
13th century by the Anglo-Normans, but without permanently affecting the
possession of the district by its native proprietors. In 1543 Murrogh
O'Brien, after dispossessing his nephew and vainly attempting a
rebellion against the English rule, proceeded to England and submitted
to Henry VIII., resigning his name and possessions. He soon received
them back by an English tenure, together with the title of earl of
Thomond, on condition of adopting the English dress, manners and
customs. In 1565 this part of Thomond (sometimes called O'Brien's
country) was added to Connaught, and made one of the six new counties
into which that province was divided by Sir Henry Sidney. It was named
Clare, the name being traceable either to Richard de Clare (Strongbow),
earl of Pembroke, or to his younger brother, Thomas de Clare, who
obtained a grant of Thomond from Edward I. in 1276, and whose family
for some time maintained a precarious position in the district. Towards
the close of the reign of Elizabeth, Clare was detached from the
government of Connaught and given a separate administration; but at the
Restoration it was reunited to Munster.

_Antiquities._--The county abounds with remains of antiquities, both
military and ecclesiastical, especially in the north-western part. There
still exist above a hundred fortified castles, several of which are
inhabited. They are mostly of small extent, a large portion being
fortified dwellings. The chief of them is Bunratty Castle, built in
1277, once inhabited by the earls of Thomond, 10 m. W. of Limerick, on
the Shannon. Those of Ballykinvarga, Ballynalackan and Lemaneagh, all in
the north-west, should also be mentioned. Raths or encampments are to be
found in every part. They are generally circular, composed either of
large stones without mortar or of earth thrown up and surrounded by one
or more ditches. The list of abbeys and other religious houses formerly
flourishing here (some now only known by name, but many of them
surviving in ruins) comprehends upwards of twenty. The most remarkable
are--Quin, considered one of the finest and most perfect specimens of
ancient monastic architecture in Ireland; Corcomroe; Ennis, in which is
a very fine window of uncommonly elegant workmanship; and those on
Inniscattery or Scattery Island, in the Shannon, said to have been
founded by St Senan (see KILRUSH). Kilfenora, 5 m. N.E. of Ennistimon,
was until 1752 a separate diocese, and its small cathedral is of
interest, with several neighbouring crosses and a holy well. The ruined
churches of Kilnaboy, Nouhaval and Teampul Cronan are the most
noteworthy of many in the north-west. Five round towers are to be found
in various stages of preservation--at Scattery Island, Drumcliffe,
Dysert O'Dea, Kilnaboy and Inniscaltra (Lough Derg). The cathedral of
the diocese of Killaloe is at the town of that name. Cromlechs are
found, chiefly in the rocky limestone district of Burren in the N.W.,
though there are some in other baronies. That at Ballygannor is formed
of a stone 40 ft. long and 10 broad.

  See papers by T.J. Westropp in _Proceedings of the Royal Irish
  Academy_--"Distribution of Cromlechs in County Clare" (1897); and
  "Churches of County Clare, and Origin of Ecclesiastical Divisions"

CLAREMONT, a city of Sullivan county, New Hampshire, U.S.A., situated in
the W. part of the state, bordering on the Connecticut river. Pop.
(1890) 5565; (1900) 6498 (1442 foreign-born); (1910) 7529. Area, 6 sq.
m. It is served by two branches of the Boston & Maine railway. In
Claremont is the Fiske free library (1873), housed in a Carnegie
building (1904). The Stevens high school is richly endowed by the gift
of Paran Stevens, a native of Claremont. The city contains several
villages, the principal being Claremont, Claremont Junction and West
Claremont. Sugar river, flowing through the city into the Connecticut
and falling 223 ft. within the city limits, furnishes good water-power.
Among the manufactures are woollen and cotton goods, paper, mining and
quarrying machinery, rubber goods, linens, shoes, wood trim and pearl
buttons. The first settlement here was made in 1762, and a township was
organized in 1764; in 1908 Claremont was chartered as a city. It was
named from Claremont, Lord Clive's country place.

CLARENCE, DUKES OF. The early history of this English title is identical
with that of the family of Clare (q.v.), earls of Gloucester, who are
sometimes called earls of Clare, of which word Clarence is a later form.
The first duke of Clarence was Lionel of Antwerp (see below), third son
of Edward III., who was created duke in 1362, and whose wife Elizabeth
was a direct descendant of the Clares, the "Honour of Clare" being among
the lands which she brought to her husband. When Lionel died without
sons in 1368 the title became extinct; but in 1412 it was revived in
favour of Thomas (see below), the second son of Henry IV. The third
creation of a duke of Clarence took place in 1461, and was in favour of
George (see below), brother of the King Edward IV. When this duke,
accused by the king, was attainted and killed in 1478, his titles and
estates were forfeited. There appears to have been no other creation of
a duke of Clarence until 1789, when William, third son of George III.,
was made a peer under this title. Having merged in the crown when
William became king of Great Britain and Ireland in 1830, the title of
duke of Clarence was again revived in 1890 in favour of Albert Victor
(1864-1892), the elder son of King Edward VII., then prince of Wales,
only to become extinct for the fifth time on his death in 1892.

LIONEL OF ANTWERP, duke of Clarence (1338-1368), third son of Edward
III., was born at Antwerp on the 29th of November 1338. Betrothed when a
child to Elizabeth (d. 1363), daughter and heiress of William de Burgh,
3rd earl of Ulster (d. 1332), he was married to her in 1352; but before
this date he had entered nominally into possession of her great Irish
inheritance. Having been named as his father's representative in England
in 1345 and again in 1346, Lionel was created earl of Ulster, and joined
an expedition into France in 1355, but his chief energies were reserved
for the affairs of Ireland. Appointed governor of that country, he
landed at Dublin in 1361, and in November of the following year was
created duke of Clarence, while his father made an abortive attempt to
secure for him the crown of Scotland. His efforts to secure an effective
authority over his Irish lands were only moderately successful; and
after holding a parliament at Kilkenny, which passed the celebrated
statute of Kilkenny in 1367, he threw up his task in disgust and
returned to England. About this time a marriage was arranged between
Clarence and Violante, daughter of Galeazzo Visconti, lord of Pavia (d.
1378); the enormous dowry which Galeazzo promised with his daughter
being exaggerated by the rumour of the time. Journeying to fetch his
bride, the duke was received in great state both in France and Italy,
and was married to Violante at Milan in June 1368. Some months were then
spent in festivities, during which Lionel was taken ill at Alba, where
he died on the 7th of October 1368. His only child Philippa, a daughter
by his first wife, married in 1368 Edmund Mortimer, 3rd earl of March
(1351-1381), and through this union Clarence became the ancestor of
Edward IV. The poet Chaucer was at one time a page in Lionel's

THOMAS, duke of Clarence (c. 1388-1421), who was nominally lieutenant of
Ireland from 1401 to 1413, and was in command of the English fleet in
1405, acted in opposition to his elder brother, afterwards King Henry
V., and the Beauforts during the later part of the reign of Henry IV.;
and was for a short time at the head of the government, leading an
unsuccessful expedition into France in 1412. When Henry V., however,
became king in 1413 no serious dissensions took place between the
brothers, and as a member of the royal council Clarence took part in the
preparations for the French war. He was with the English king at
Harfleur, but not at Agincourt, and shared in the expedition of 1417
into Normandy, during which he led the assault on Caen, and
distinguished himself as a soldier in other similar undertakings. When
Henry V. returned to England in 1421, the duke remained in France as his
lieutenant, and was killed at Beaugé whilst rashly attacking the French
and their Scottish allies on the 22nd of March 1421. He left no
legitimate issue, and the title again became extinct.

GEORGE, duke of Clarence (1449-1478), younger son of Richard, duke of
York, by his wife Cicely, daughter of Ralph Neville, 1st earl of
Westmorland, was born in Dublin on the 21st of October 1449. Soon after
his elder brother became king as Edward IV. in March 1461, he was
created duke of Clarence, and his youth was no bar to his appointment as
lord-lieutenant of Ireland in the following year. Having been mentioned
as a possible husband for Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold, afterwards
duke of Burgundy, Clarence came under the influence of Richard Neville,
earl of Warwick, and in July 1469 was married at Calais to the earl's
elder daughter Isabella. With his father-in-law he then acted in a
disloyal manner towards the king. Both supported the rebels in the north
of England, and when their treachery was discovered Clarence was
deprived of his office as lord-lieutenant and fled to France. Returning
to England with Warwick in September 1470, he witnessed the restoration
of Henry VI., when the crown was settled upon himself in case the male
line of Henry's family became extinct. The good understanding, however,
between Warwick and his son-in-law was not lasting, and Clarence was
soon secretly reconciled with Edward. The public reconciliation between
the brothers took place when the king was besieging Warwick in Coventry,
and Clarence then fought for the Yorkists at Barnet and Tewkesbury.
After Warwick's death in April 1471 Clarence appears to have seized the
whole of the vast estates of the earl, and in March 1472 was created by
right of his wife earl of Warwick and Salisbury. He was consequently
greatly disturbed when he heard that his younger brother Richard, duke
of Gloucester, was seeking to marry Warwick's younger daughter Anne, and
was claiming some part of Warwick's lands. A violent quarrel between the
brothers ensued, but Clarence was unable to prevent Gloucester from
marrying, and in 1474 the king interfered to settle the dispute,
dividing the estates between his brothers. In 1477 Clarence was again a
suitor for the hand of Mary, who had just become duchess of Burgundy.
Edward objected to the match, and Clarence, jealous of Gloucester's
influence, left the court. At length Edward was convinced that Clarence
was aiming at his throne. The duke was thrown into prison, and in
January 1478 the king unfolded the charges against his brother to the
parliament. He had slandered the king; had received oaths of allegiance
to himself and his heirs; had prepared for a new rebellion; and was in
short incorrigible. Both Houses of Parliament passed the bill of
attainder, and the sentence of death which followed was carried out on
the 17th or 18th of February 1478. It is uncertain what share Gloucester
had in his brother's death; but soon after the event the rumour gained
ground that Clarence had been drowned in a butt of malmsey wine. Two of
the duke's children survived their father: Margaret, countess of
Salisbury (1473-1541), and Edward, earl of Warwick (1475-1499), who
passed the greater part of his life in prison and was beheaded in
November 1499.

  On the last-named see W. Stubbs, _Constitutional History_, vol. iii.
  (Oxford, 1895); Sir J.H. Ramsay, _Lancaster and York_ (Oxford, 1892);
  C.W.C. Oman, _Warwick the Kingmaker_ (London, 1891). On the title
  generally see G.E. C(okayne), _Complete Peerage_ (1887-1898).

CLARENDON, EDWARD HYDE, 1ST EARL OF (1609-1674), English historian and
statesman, son of Henry Hyde of Dinton, Wiltshire, a member of a family
for some time established at Norbury, Cheshire, was born on the 18th of
February 1609. He entered Magdalen Hall, Oxford, in 1622 (having been
refused a demyship at Magdalen College), and graduated B.A. in 1626.
Intended originally for holy orders, the death of two elder brothers
made him his father's heir, and in 1625 he entered the Middle Temple. At
the university his abilities were more conspicuous than his industry,
and at the bar his time was devoted more to general reading and to the
society of eminent scholars and writers than to the study of law
treatises. This wandering from the beaten track, however, was not
without its advantages. In later years Clarendon declared "next the
immediate blessing and providence of God Almighty" that he "owed all the
little he knew and the little good that was in him to the friendships
and conversation ... of the most excellent men in their several kinds
that lived in that age."[1] These included Ben Jonson, Selden, Waller,
Hales, and especially Lord Falkland; and from their influence and the
wide reading in which he indulged, he doubtless drew the solid learning
and literary talent which afterwards distinguished him.

In 1629 he married his first wife, Anne, daughter of Sir George Ayliffe,
who died six months afterwards; and secondly, in 1634, Frances, daughter
of Sir Thomas Aylesbury, Master of Requests. In 1633 he was called to
the bar, and obtained quickly a good position and practice. His
marriages had gained for him influential friends, and in December 1634
he was made keeper of the writs and rolls of the common pleas; while his
able conduct of the petition of the London merchants against Portland
earned Laud's approval. He was returned to the Short Parliament in 1640
as member for Wootton Bassett. Respect and veneration for the law and
constitution of England were already fundamental principles with Hyde,
and the flagrant violations and perversions of the law which
characterized the twelve preceding years of absolute rule drove him into
the ranks of the popular party. He served on numerous and important
committees, and his parliamentary action was directed chiefly towards
the support and restoration of the law. He assailed the jurisdiction of
the earl marshal's court, and in the Long Parliament, in which he sat
for Saltash, renewed his attacks and practically effected its
suppression. In 1641 he served on the committees for inquiring into the
status of the councils of Wales and of the North, distinguished himself
by a speech against the latter, and took an important part in the
proceedings against the judges. He supported Stafford's impeachment, and
did not vote against the attainder, subsequently making an unsuccessful
attempt through Essex to avert the capital penalty.[2] Hyde's
allegiance, however, to the church of England was as staunch as his
support of the law, and was soon to separate him from the popular
faction. In February 1641 he opposed the reception of the London
petition against episcopacy, and in May the project for unity of
religion with the Scots, and the bill for the exclusion of the clergy
from secular office. He showed special energy in his opposition to the
Root and Branch Bill, and, though made chairman of the committee on the
bill on the 11th of July in order to silence his opposition, he caused
by his successful obstruction the failure of the measure. In consequence
he was summoned to the king's presence, and encouraged in his attitude,
and at the beginning of the second session was regarded as one of the
king's ablest supporters in the Commons. He considered the claims put
forward at this time by parliament as a violation and not as a guarantee
of the law and constitution. He opposed the demand by the parliament to
choose the king's ministers, and also the Grand Remonstrance, to which
he wrote a reply published by the king.

He now definitely though not openly joined the royal cause, and refused
office in January 1642 with Colepeper and Falkland in order to serve the
king's interests more effectually. Charles undertook to do nothing in
the Commons without their advice. Nevertheless a few days afterwards,
without their knowledge and by the advice of Lord Digby, he attempted
the arrest of the five members, a resort to force which reduced Hyde to
despair, and which indeed seemed to show that things had gone too far
for an appeal to the law. He persevered, nevertheless, in his legal
policy, to which Charles after the failure of his project again
returned, joined the king openly in June, and continued to compose the
king's answers and declarations in which he appealed to the "known Laws
of the land" against the arbitrary and illegal acts of a seditious
majority in the parliament, his advice to the king being "to shelter
himself wholly under the law, ... presuming that the king and the law
together would have been strong enough for any encounter." Hyde's appeal
had great influence, and gained for the king's cause half the nation. It
by no means, however, met with universal support among the royalists,
Hobbes jeering at Hyde's love for "mixed monarchy," and the courtiers
expressing their disapproval of the "spirit of accommodation" which
"wounded the regality." It was destined to failure owing principally to
the invincible distrust of Charles created in the parliament leaders,
and to the fact that Charles was simultaneously carrying on another and
an inconsistent policy, listening to very different advisers, such as
the queen and Digby, and resolving on measures (such as the attempt on
Hull) without Hyde's knowledge or approval.

War, accordingly, in spite of his efforts, broke out. He was expelled
the House of Commons on the 11th of August 1642, and was one of those
excepted later from pardon. He showed great activity in collecting
loans, was present at Edgehill, though not as a combatant, and followed
the king to Oxford, residing at All Souls College from October 1642 till
March 1645. On the 22nd of February he was made a privy councillor and
knighted, and on the 3rd of March appointed chancellor of the exchequer.
He was an influential member of the "Junto" which met every week to
discuss business before it was laid before the council. His aim was to
gain over some of the leading Parliamentarians by personal influence and
personal considerations, and at the Uxbridge negotiations in January
1645, where he acted as principal manager on the king's side, while
remaining firm on the great political questions such as the church and
the militia, he tried to win individuals by promises of places and
honours. He promoted the assembly of the Oxford parliament in December
1643 as a counterpoise to the influence and status of the Long
Parliament. Hyde's policy and measures, however, all failed. They had
been weakly and irregularly supported by the king, and were fiercely
opposed by the military party, who were jealous of the civil influence,
and were urging Charles to trust to force and arms alone and eschew all
compromise and concessions. Charles fell now under the influence of
persons devoid of all legal and constitutional scruples, sending to
Glamorgan in Ireland "those strange powers and instructions inexcusable
to justice, piety and prudence."[3]

Hyde's influence was much diminished, and on the 4th of March 1645 he
left the king for Bristol as one of the guardians of the prince of Wales
and governors of the west. Here the disputes between the council and the
army paralysed the proceedings, and lost, according to Hyde, the finest
opportunity since the outbreak of the war of raising a strong force and
gaining substantial victories in that part of the country. After
Hopton's defeat on the 16th of February 1646, at Torrington, Hyde
accompanied the prince, on the 4th of March, to Scilly, and on the 17th
of April, for greater security, to Jersey. He strongly disapproved of
the prince's removal to France by the queen's order and of the schemes
of assistance from abroad, refused to accompany him, and signed a bond
to prevent the sale of Jersey to the French supported by Jermyn. He
opposed the projected sacrifice of the church to the Scots and the grant
by the king of any but personal or temporary concessions, declaring that
peace was only possible "upon the old foundations of government in
church and state." He was especially averse to Charles's tampering with
the Irish Romanists. "Oh, Mr Secretary," he wrote to Nicholas, "those
stratagems have given me more sad hours than all the misfortunes in war
which have befallen the king and look like the effects of God's anger
towards us."[4] He refused to compound for his own estate. While in
Jersey he resided first at St Helier and afterwards at Elizabeth Castle
with Sir George Carteret. He composed the first portion of his _History_
and kept in touch with events by means of an enormous correspondence. In
1648 he published _A Full answer to an infamous and traiterous
Pamphlet..._, a reply to the resolution of the parliament to present no
more addresses to the king and a vindication of Charles.

On the outbreak of the second Civil War Hyde left Jersey (26th of June
1648) to join the queen and prince at Paris. He landed at Dieppe, sailed
from that port to Dunkirk, and thence followed the prince to the Thames,
where Charles had met the fleet, but was captured and robbed by a
privateer, and only joined the prince in September after the latter's
return to the Hague. He strongly disapproved of the king's concessions
at Newport. When the army broke off the treaty and brought Charles to
trial he endeavoured to save his life, and after the execution drew up a
letter to the several European sovereigns invoking their assistance to
avenge it. Hyde strongly opposed Charles II.'s ignominious surrender to
the Covenanters, the alliance with the Scots, and the Scottish
expedition, desiring to accomplish whatever was possible there through
Montrose and the royalists, and inclined rather to an attempt in
Ireland. His advice was not followed, and he gladly accepted a mission
with Cottington to Spain to obtain money from the Roman Catholic powers,
and to arrange an alliance between Owen O'Neill and Ormonde for the
recovery of Ireland, arriving at Madrid on the 26th of November 1649.
The defeat, however, of Charles at Dunbar, and the confirmation of
Cromwell's ascendancy, influenced the Spanish government against them,
and they were ordered to leave in December 1650. Hyde arrived at Antwerp
in January 1651, and in December rejoined Charles at Paris after the
latter's escape from Worcester. He now became one of his chief advisers,
accompanying him in his change of residence to Cologne in October 1654
and to Bruges in 1658, and was appointed lord chancellor on the 13th of
January 1658. His influence was henceforth maintained in spite of the
intrigues of both Romanists and Presbyterians, as well as the violent
and openly displayed hostility of the queen, and was employed
unremittingly in the endeavour to keep Charles faithful to the church
and constitution, and in the prevention of unwise concessions and
promises which might estrange the general body of the royalists. His
advice to Charles was to wait upon the turn of events, "that all his
activity was to consist in carefully avoiding to do anything that might
do him hurt and to expect some blessed conjuncture."[5] In 1656, during
the war between England and Spain, Charles received offers of help from
the latter power provided he could gain a port in England, but Hyde
discouraged small isolated attempts. He expected much from Cromwell's
death. The same year he made an alliance with the Levellers, and was
informed of their plots to assassinate the protector, without apparently
expressing any disapproval.[6] He was well supplied with information
from England,[7] and guided the action of the royalists with great
ability and wisdom during the interval between Cromwell's death and the
Restoration, urged patience, and advocated the obstruction of a
settlement between the factions contending for power and the fomentation
of their jealousies, rather than premature risings.

The Restoration was a complete triumph for Hyde's policy. He lays no
stress on his own great part in it, but it was owing to him that the
Restoration was a national one, by the consent and invitation of
parliament representing the whole people and not through the medium of
one powerful faction enforcing its will upon a minority, and that it was
not only a restoration of Charles but a restoration of the monarchy. By
Hyde's advice concessions to the inconvenient demands of special
factions had been avoided by referring the decision to a "free
parliament," and the declaration of Breda reserved for parliament the
settlement of the questions of amnesty, religious toleration and the
proprietorship of forfeited lands.

Hyde entered London with the king, all attempts at effecting his fall
having failed, and immediately obtained the chief place in the
government, retaining the chancellorship of the exchequer till the 13th
of May 1661, when he surrendered it to Lord Ashley. He took his seat as
speaker of the House of Lords and in the court of chancery on the 1st of
June 1660. On the 3rd of November 1660 he was made Baron Hyde of Hindon,
and on the 20th of April 1661 Viscount Cornbury and earl of Clarendon,
receiving a grant from the king of £20,000 and at different times of
various small estates and Irish rents. The marriage of his daughter Anne
to James, duke of York, celebrated in secret in September 1660, at first
alarmed Clarendon on account of the public hostility he expected thereby
to incur, but finding his fears unconfirmed he acquiesced in its public
recognition in December, and thus became related in a special manner to
the royal family and the grandfather of two English sovereigns.[8]

Clarendon's position was one of great difficulties, but at the same time
of splendid opportunities. In particular a rare occasion now offered
itself of settling the religious question on a broad principle of
comprehension or toleration; for the monarchy had been restored not by
the supporters of the church alone but largely by the influence and aid
of the nonconformists and also of the Roman Catholics, who were all
united at that happy moment by a common loyalty to the throne.
Clarendon appears to have approved of comprehension but not of
toleration. He had already in April 1660 sent to discuss terms with the
leading Presbyterians in England, and after the Restoration offered
bishoprics to several, including Richard Baxter. He drew up the royal
declaration of October, promising limited episcopacy and a revised
prayer-book and ritual, which was subsequently thrown out by parliament,
and he appears to have anticipated some kind of settlement from the
Savoy Conference which sat in April 1661. The failure of the latter
proved perhaps that the differences were too great for compromise, and
widened the breach. The parliament immediately proceeded to pass the
series of narrow and tyrannical measures against the dissenters known as
the Clarendon Code. The Corporations Act, obliging members of
corporations to denounce the Covenant and take the sacrament according
to the Anglican usage, became law on the 20th of December 1661, the Act
of Uniformity enforcing the use of the prayer-book on ministers, as well
as a declaration that it was unlawful to bear arms against the
sovereign, on the 19th of May 1662, and these were followed by the
Conventicle Act in 1664 suppressing conventicles and by the Five-Mile
Act in 1665 forbidding ministers who had refused subscription to the Act
of Uniformity to teach or reside within 5 m. of a borough. Clarendon
appears to have reluctantly acquiesced in these civil measures rather
than to have originated them, and to have endeavoured to mitigate their
injustice and severity. He supported the continuance of the tenure by
presbyterian ministers of livings not held by Anglicans and an amendment
in the Lords allowing a pension to those deprived, earning the gratitude
of Baxter and the nonconformists. On the 17th of March 1662 he
introduced into parliament a declaration enabling the king to dispense
with the Act of Uniformity in the case of ministers of merit.[9] But
once committed to the narrow policy of intolerance, Clarendon was
inevitably involved in all its consequences. His characteristic respect
for the law and constitution rendered him hostile to the general policy
of indulgence, which, though the favourite project of the king, he
strongly opposed in the Lords, and in the end caused its withdrawal. He
declared that he could have wished the law otherwise, "but when it was
passed, he thought it absolutely necessary to see obedience paid to it
without any connivance."[10] Charles was greatly angered. It was
believed in May 1663 that the intrigues of Bennet and Buckingham, who
seized the opportunity of ingratiating themselves with the king by
zealously supporting the indulgence, had secured Clarendon's dismissal,
and in July Bristol ventured to accuse him of high treason in the
parliament; but the attack, which did not receive the king's support,
failed entirely and only ended in the banishment from court of its
promoter. Clarendon's opposition to the court policy in this way
acquired a personal character, and he was compelled to identify himself
more completely with the intolerant measures of the House of Commons.
Though not the originator of the Conventicle Act or of the Five-Mile
Act, he has recorded his approval,[11] and he ended by taking alarm at
plots and rumours and by regarding the great party of nonconformists,
through whose co-operation the monarchy had been restored, as a danger
to the state whose "faction was their religion."[12]

Meanwhile Clarendon's influence and direction had been predominant in
nearly all departments of state. He supported the exception of the
actual regicides from the Indemnity, but only ten out of the twenty-six
condemned were executed, and Clarendon, with the king's support,
prevented the passing of a bill in 1661 for the execution of thirteen
more. He upheld the Act of Indemnity against all the attempts of the
royalists to upset it. The conflicting claims to estates were left to be
decided by the law. The confiscations of the usurping government
accordingly were cancelled, while the properly executed transactions
between individuals were necessarily upheld. There can be little doubt
that the principle followed was the only safe one in the prevailing
confusion. Great injustice was indeed suffered by individuals, but the
proper remedy of such injustice was the benevolence of the king, which
there is too much reason to believe proved inadequate and partial. The
settlement of the church lands which was directed by Clarendon presented
equal difficulties and involved equal hardships. In settling Scotland
Clarendon's aim was to make that kingdom dependent upon England and to
uphold the Cromwellian union. He proposed to establish a council at
Whitehall to govern Scottish affairs, and showed great zeal in
endeavouring to restore episcopacy through the medium of Archbishop
Sharp. His influence, however, ended with the ascendancy of Lauderdale
in 1663. He was, to some extent at least, responsible for the settlement
in Ireland, but, while anxious for an establishment upon a solid
Protestant basis, urged "temper and moderation and justice" in securing
it. He supported Ormonde's wise and enlightened Irish administration,
and in particular opposed persistently the prohibition of the import of
Irish cattle into England, incurring thereby great unpopularity. He
showed great activity in the advancement of the colonies, to whom he
allowed full freedom of religion. He was a member of the council for
foreign plantations, and one of the eight lords proprietors of Carolina
in 1663; and in 1664 sent a commission to settle disputes in New
England. In the department of foreign affairs he had less influence. His
policy was limited to the maintenance of peace "necessary for the
reducing [the king's] own dominions into that temper of subjection and
obedience as they ought to be in."[13] In 1664 he demanded, on behalf of
Charles, French support, and a loan of £50,000 against disturbance at
home, and thus initiated that ignominious system of pensions and
dependence upon France which proved so injurious to English interests
later. But he was the promoter neither of the sale of Dunkirk on the
27th of October 1662, the author of which seems to have been the earl of
Sandwich,[14] nor of the Dutch War. He attached considerable value to
the possession of the former, but when its sale was decided he conducted
the negotiations and effected the bargain. He had zealously laboured for
peace with Holland, and had concluded a treaty for the settlement of
disputes on the 4th of September 1662. Commercial and naval jealousies,
however, soon involved the two states in hostilities. Cape Corso and
other Dutch possessions on the coast of Africa, and New Amsterdam in
America, were seized by squadrons from the royal navy in 1664, and
hostilities were declared on the 22nd of February 1665. Clarendon now
gave his support to the war, asserted the extreme claims of the English
crown over the British seas, and contemplated fresh cessions from the
Dutch and an alliance with Sweden and Spain. According to his own
account he initiated the policy of the Triple Alliance,[15] but it seems
clear that his inclination towards France continued in spite of the
intervention of the latter state in favour of Holland; and he took part
in the negotiations for ending the war by an undertaking with Louis XIV.
implying a neutrality, while the latter seized Flanders. The crisis in
this feeble foreign policy and in the general official mismanagement was
reached in June 1667, when the Dutch burnt several ships at Chatham and
when "the roar of foreign guns were heard for the first and last time by
the citizens of London."[16]

The whole responsibility for the national calamity and disgrace, and for
the ignominious peace which followed it, was unjustly thrown on the
shoulders of Clarendon, though it must be admitted that the disjointed
state of the administration and want of control over foreign policy were
largely the causes of the disaster, and for these Clarendon's influence
and obstruction of official reforms were to some extent answerable.
According to Sir William Coventry, whose opinion has weight and who
acknowledges the chancellor's fidelity to the king, while Clarendon "was
so great at the council board and in the administration of matters, there
was no room for anybody to propose any remedy to what was remiss ... he
managing all things with that greatness which will now be removed."[17] He
disapproved of the system of boards and committees instituted during the
Commonwealth, as giving too much power to the parliament, and regarded the
administration by the great officers of state, to the exclusion of pure
men of business, as the only method compatible with the dignity and
security of the monarchy. The lowering of the prestige of the privy
council, and its subordination first to the parliament and afterwards to
the military faction, he considered as one of the chief causes of the fall
of Charles I. He aroused a strong feeling of hostility in the Commons by
his opposition to the appropriation of supplies in 1665, and to the audit
of the war accounts in 1666, as "an introduction to a commonwealth" and as
"a new encroachment," and by his high tone of prerogative and authority,
while by his advice to Charles to prorogue parliament he incurred their
resentment and gave colour to the accusation that he had advised the king
to govern without parliaments. He was unpopular among all classes, among
the royalists on account of the Act of Indemnity, among the Presbyterians
because of the Act of Uniformity. It was said that he had invented the
maxim "that the king should buy and reward his enemies and do little for
his friends, because they are his already."[18] Every kind of
maladministration was currently ascribed to him, of designs to govern by a
standing army, and of corruption. He was credited with having married
Charles purposely to a barren queen in order to raise his own
grandchildren to the throne, with having sold Dunkirk to France, and his
magnificent house in St James's was nicknamed "Dunkirk House," while on
the day of the Dutch attack on Chatham the mob set up a gibbet at his gate
and broke his windows. He had always been exceedingly unpopular at court,
and kept severely aloof from the revels and licence which reigned there.
Evelyn names "the buffoons and the misses to whom he was an eyesore."[19]
He was intensely disliked by the royal mistresses, whose favour he did not
condescend to seek, and whose presence and influence were often the
subject of his reproaches.[20] A party of younger men of the king's own
age, more congenial to his temperament, and eager to drive the old
chancellor from power and to succeed him in office, had for some time been
endeavouring to undermine his influence by ridicule and intrigue.
Surrounded by such general and violent animosity, Clarendon's only hope
could be in the support of the king. But the chancellor had early and
accurately gauged the nature and extent of the king's attachment to him,
which proceeded neither from affection nor gratitude but "from his
aversion to be troubled with the intricacies of his affairs," and in 1661
he had resisted the importunities of Ormonde to resign the great seal for
the lord treasurership with the rank of "first minister," "a title newly
translated out of French into English," on account of the obloquy this
position would incur and the further dependence which it entailed upon the
inconstant king.[21] Charles, long weary of the old chancellor's rebukes,
was especially incensed at this time owing to his failure in securing
Frances Stuart (la Belle Stuart) for his seraglio, a disappointment which
he attributed to Clarendon, and was now alarmed by the hostility which his
administration had excited. He did not scruple to sacrifice at once the
old adherent of his house and fortunes. "The truth is," he wrote Ormonde,
"his behaviour and humour was grown so insupportable to myself and all the
world else that I could no longer endure it, and it was impossible for me
to live with it and do these things with the Parliament that must be done,
or the government will be lost."[22] By the direction of Charles, James
advised Clarendon to resign before the meeting of parliament, but in an
interview with the king on the 26th of August Clarendon refused to deliver
up the seal unless dismissed, and urged him not to take a step ruinous to
the interests both of the chancellor himself and of the crown.[23] He
could not believe his dismissal was really intended, but on the 30th of
August he was deprived of the great seal, for which the king received the
thanks of the parliament on the 16th of October. On the 12th of November
his impeachment, consisting of various charges of arbitrary government,
corruption and maladministration, was brought up to the Lords, but the
latter refused to order his committal, on the ground that the Commons had
only accused him of treason in general without specifying any particular
charge. Clarendon wrote humbly to the king asking for pardon, and that the
prosecution might be prevented, but Charles had openly taken part against
him, and, though desiring his escape, would not order or assist his
departure for fear of the Commons. Through the bishop of Hereford,
however, on the 29th of November he pressed Clarendon to fly, promising
that he should not during his absence suffer in his honour or fortune.
Clarendon embarked the same night for Calais, where he arrived on the 2nd
of December. The Lords immediately passed an act for his banishment and
ordered the petition forwarded by him to parliament to be burnt.

The rest of Clarendon's life was passed in exile. He left Calais for
Rouen on the 25th of December, returning on the 21st of January 1668,
visiting the baths of Bourbon in April, thence to Avignon in June,
residing from July 1668 till June 1671 at Montpellier, whence he
proceeded to Moulins and to Rouen again in May 1674. His sudden
banishment entailed great personal hardships. His health at the time of
his flight was much impaired, and on arriving at Calais he fell
dangerously ill; and Louis XIV., anxious at this time to gain popularity
in England, sent him peremptory and repeated orders to quit France. He
suffered severely from gout, and during the greater part of his exile
could not walk without the aid of two men. At Evreux, on the 23rd of
April 1668, he was the victim of a murderous assault by English sailors,
who attributed to him the non-payment of their wages, and who were on
the point of despatching him when he was rescued by the guard. For some
time he was not allowed to see any of his children; even correspondence
with him was rendered treasonable by the Act of Banishment; and it was
not apparently till 1671, 1673 and 1674 that he received visits from his
sons, the younger, Lawrence Hyde, being present with him at his death.

Clarendon bore his troubles with great dignity and fortitude. He found
consolation in religious duties, and devoted a portion of every day to
the composition of his _Contemplations on the Psalms_, and of his moral
essays. Removed effectually from the public scene, and from all share in
present politics, he turned his attention once more to the past and
finished his _History_ and his _Autobiography_. Soon after reaching
Calais he had written, on the 17th of December 1667, to the university
of Oxford, desiring as his last request that the university should
believe in his innocence and remember him, though there could be no
further mention of him in their public devotions, in their private
prayers.[24] In 1668 he wrote to the duke and duchess of York to
remonstrate on the report that they had turned Roman Catholic, to the
former urging "You cannot be without zeal for the Church to which your
blessed father made himself a sacrifice," adding that such a change
would bring a great storm against the Romanists. He entertained to the
last hopes of obtaining leave to return to England. He asked for
permission in June 1671 and in August 1674. In the dedication of his
_Brief View of Mr Hobbes's Book Leviathan_ he repeats "the hope which
sustains my weak, decayed spirits that your Majesty will at some time
call to your remembrance my long and incorrupted fidelity to your person
and your service"; but his petitions were not even answered or noticed.
He died at Rouen on the 9th of December 1674. He was buried in
Westminster Abbey at the foot of the steps at the entrance to Henry
VII.'s chapel. He left two sons, Henry, 2nd earl of Clarendon, and
Lawrence, earl of Rochester, his daughter Anne, duchess of York, and a
third son, Edward, having predeceased him. His male descendants became
extinct on the death of the 4th earl of Clarendon and 2nd earl of
Rochester in 1753, the title of Clarendon being revived in 1776 in the
person of Thomas Villiers, who had married the granddaughter and heir of
the last earl.

As a statesman Clarendon had obvious limitations and failings. He
brought to the consideration of political questions an essentially legal
but also a narrow mind, conceiving the law, "that great and admirable
mystery," and the constitution as fixed, unchangeable and sufficient for
all time, in contrast to Pym, who regarded them as living organisms
capable of continual development and evolution; and he was incapable of
comprehending and governing the new conditions and forces created by the
civil wars. His character, however, and therefore to some extent his
career, bear the indelible marks of greatness. He left the popular cause
at the moment of its triumph and showed in so doing a strict
consistency. In a court degraded by licence and self-indulgence, he
maintained his self-respect and personal dignity regardless of
consequences, and in an age of almost universal corruption and
self-seeking he preserved a noble integrity and patriotism. At the
Restoration he showed great moderation in accepting rewards. He refused
a grant of 10,000 acres in the Fens from the king on the ground that it
would create an evil precedent, and amused Charles and James by his
indignation at the offer of a present of £10,000 from the French
minister Fouquet, the only present he accepted from Louis XIV. being a
set of books printed at the Louvre. His income, however, as lord
chancellor was very large, and Clarendon maintained considerable state,
considering it due to the dignity of the monarchy that the high officers
should carry the external marks of greatness. The house built by him in
St James's was one of the most magnificent ever seen in England, and was
filled with a collection of portraits, chiefly those of contemporary
statesmen and men of letters. It cost Clarendon £50,000, involved him
deeply in debt and was considered one of the chief causes of the "gust
of envy" that caused his fall.[25] He is described as "a fair, ruddy,
fat, middle-statured, handsome man," and his appearance was stately and
dignified. He expected deference from his inferiors, and one of the
chief charges which he brought against the party of the young
politicians was the want of respect with which they treated himself and
the lord treasurer. His industry and devotion to public business, of
which proofs still remain in the enormous mass of his state papers and
correspondence, were exemplary, and were rendered all the more
conspicuous by the negligence, inferiority in business, and frivolity of
his successors. As lord chancellor Clarendon made no great impression in
the court of chancery. His early legal training had long been
interrupted, and his political preoccupations probably rendered
necessary the delegation of many of his judicial duties to others.
According to Speaker Onslow his decrees were always made with the aid of
two judges. Burnet praises him, however, as "a very good chancellor,
only a little too rough but very impartial in the administration of
justice," and Pepys, who saw him presiding in his court, perceived him
to be "a most able and ready man."[26] According to Evelyn, "though no
considerable lawyer" he was "one who kept up the fame and substance of
things in the nation with ... solemnity." He made good appointments to
the bench and issued some important orders for the reform of abuses in
his court.[27] As chancellor of Oxford University, to which office he
was elected on the 27th of October 1660, Clarendon promoted the
restoration of order and various educational reforms. In 1753 his
manuscripts were left to the university by his great-grandson Lord
Cornbury, and in 1868 the money gained by publication was spent in
erecting the Clarendon Laboratory, the profits of the _History_ having
provided in 1713 a building for the university press adjoining the
Sheldonian theatre, known since the removal of the press to its present
quarters as the Clarendon Building.

Clarendon had risen to high office largely through his literary and
oratorical gifts. His eloquence was greatly admired by Evelyn and
Pepys, though Burnet criticises it as too copious. He was a great lover
of books and collected a large library, was well read in the Roman and
in the contemporary histories both foreign and English, and could
appreciate Carew, Ben Jonson and Cowley. As a writer and historian
Clarendon occupies a high place in English literature. His great work,
the _History of the Rebellion_, is composed in the grand style. A
characteristic feature is the wonderful series of well-known portraits,
drawn with great skill and liveliness and especially praised by Evelyn
and by Macaulay. The long digressions, the lengthy sentences, and the
numerous parentheses do not accord with modern taste and usage, but it
may be observed that these often follow more closely the natural
involutions of the thought, and express the argument more clearly, than
the short disconnected sentences, now generally employed, while in
rhythm and dignity Clarendon's style is immeasurably superior. The
composition, however, of the work as a whole is totally wanting in
proportion, and the book is overloaded with state papers, misplaced and
tedious in the narrative. In considering the accuracy of the history it
is important to remember the dates and circumstances of the composition
of its various portions. The published _History_ is mainly a compilation
of two separate original manuscripts, the first being the history
proper, written between 1646 and 1648, with the advantage of a fresh
memory and the help of various documents and authorities, and ending in
March 1644, and the second being the _Life_, extending from 1609 to
1660, but composed long afterwards in exile and without the aid of
papers between 1668 and 1670. The value of any statement, therefore, in
the published _History_ depends chiefly on whether it is taken from the
_History_ proper or the _Life_. In 1671 these two manuscripts were
united by Clarendon with certain alterations and modifications making
Books i.-vii. of the published _History_, while Books viii.-xv. were
written subsequently, and, being composed for the most part without
materials, are generally inaccurate, with the notable exception of Book
ix., made up from two narratives written at Jersey in 1646, and
containing very little from the _Life_. Sincerity and honest conviction
are present on every page, and the inaccuracies are due not to wilful
misrepresentation, but to failure of memory and to the disadvantages
under which the author laboured in exile. But they lessen considerably
the value of his work, and detract from his reputation as chronicler of
contemporary events, for which he was specially fitted by his practical
experience in public business, a qualification declared by himself to be
the "genius, spirit and soul of an historian." In general, Clarendon,
like many of his contemporaries, failed signally to comprehend the real
issues and principles at stake in the great struggle, laying far too
much stress on personalities and never understanding the real aims and
motives of the Presbyterian party. The work was first published in
1702-1704 from a copy of a transcript made by Clarendon's secretary,
with a few unimportant alterations, and was the object of a violent
attack by John Oldmixon for supposed changes and omissions in _Clarendon
and Whitelocke compared_ (1727) and again in a preface to his _History
of England_ (1730), repelled and refuted by John Burton in the
_Genuineness of Lord Clarendon's History Vindicated_ (1744). The history
was first published from the original in 1826; the best edition being
that of 1888 edited by W.D. Macray and issued by the Clarendon Press.
_The Lord Clarendon's History ... Compleated_, a supplement containing
portraits and illustrative papers, was published in 1717, and _An
Appendix to the History_, containing a life, speeches and various
pieces, in 1724. The _Sutherland Clarendon_ in the Bodleian library at
Oxford contains several thousand portraits and illustrations of the
_History_. _The Life of Edward, earl of Clarendon ... [and the]
Continuation of the History ..._, the first consisting of that portion
of the _Life_ not included in the _History_, and the second of the
account of Clarendon's administration and exile in France, begun in
1672, was published in 1759, the _History of the Reign of King Charles
II. from the Restoration ..._, published about 1755, being a
surreptitious edition of this work, of which the latest and best edition
is that of the Clarendon Press of 1857.

Clarendon was also the author of _The Difference and Disparity between
the Estate and Condition of George, duke of Buckingham and Robert, earl
of Essex_, a youthful production vindicating Buckingham, printed in
_Reliquiae Wottonianae_ (1672), i. 184; _Animadversions on a Book
entitled Fanaticism_ (1673); _A Brief View ... of the dangerous ...
errors in ... Mr Hobbes's book entitled "Leviathan"_ (1676); _The
History of the Rebellion and Civil War in Ireland_ (1719); _A Collection
of Several Pieces of Edward, earl of Clarendon_, containing reprints of
speeches from the journals of the House of Lords and of the History of
the Rebellion in Ireland (1727); _A Collection of Several Tracts_
containing his _Vindication_ in answer to his impeachment, _Reflections
upon several Christian Duties, Two Dialogues on Education and on the
want of Respect due to age_, and _Contemplations on the Psalms_ (1727);
_Religion and Policy_ (1811); _Essays moral and entertaining on the
various faculties and passions of the human mind_ (1815, and in _British
Prose Writers_, 1819, vol. i.); _Speeches_ in _Rushworth's Collections_
(1692), pt. iii. vol. i. 230, 333; _Declarations and Manifestos_
(Clarendon being the author of nearly all on the king's side between
March 1642 and March 1645, the first being the answer to the Grand
Remonstrance in January 1642, but not of the answer to the XIX.
Propositions or the apology for the King's attack upon Brentford) in the
published _History_, Rushworth's _Collections_, E. Husband's
_Collections of Ordinances and Declarations_ (1646), _Old Parliamentary
History_ (1751-1762), _Somers Tracts, State Tracts, Harleian Miscellany,
Thomasson Tracts_ (Brit. Mus.), E. 157 (14); and a large number of
anonymous pamphlets aimed against the parliament, including
_Transcendent and Multiplied Rebellion and Treason_ (1645), _A Letter
from a True and Lawful Member of Parliament ... to one of the Lords of
his Highness's Council_ (1656), and _Two Speeches made in the House of
Peers on Monday 19th Dec._ [1642] ... (_Somers Tracts_, Scott, vi. 576);
_Second Thoughts_ (n.d., in favour of a limited toleration) is ascribed
to him in the Catalogue in the British Museum; _A Letter ... to one of
the Chief Ministers of the Nonconforming Party_ ... (Saumur, 7th May
1674) has been attributed to him on insufficient evidence.

Clarendon's correspondence, amounting to over 100 volumes, is in the
Bodleian library at Oxford, and other letters are to be found in
_Additional MSS._ in the British Museum. Selections have been published
under the title of _State Papers Collected by Edward, earl of Clarendon_
(Clarendon State Papers) between 1767 and 1786, and the collection has
been calendared up to 1657 in 1869, 1872, 1876. Other letters of
Clarendon are to be found in Lister's _Life of Clarendon, iii.; Nicholas
Papers_ (Camden Soc., 1886); _Diary_ of J. Evelyn, _appendix_; Sir R.
Fanshaw's _Original Letters_ (1724); Warburton's _Life of Prince Rupert_
(1849): Barwick's _Life of Barwick_ (1724); _Hist. MSS. Comm._ 10th Rep.
pt. vi. pp. 193-216, and in the _Harleian Miscellany_.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Clarendon's autobiographical works and Letters
  enumerated above, and the MS. Collection in the Bodleian library. The
  Lives of Clarendon by T.H. Lister (1838), and by C.H. Firth in the
  _Dict. of Nat. Biography_ (with authorities there collected),
  completely supersede all earlier accounts including that in _Lives of
  All the Lord Chancellors_ (1708), in Macdiarmid's _Lives of British
  Statesmen_ (1807), and in the different Lives by Wood in _Athenae
  Oxonienses_ (Bliss), iii. 1018; while those in J.H. Browne's _Lives of
  the Prime Ministers of England_ (1858), in Lodge's _Portraits_, in
  Lord Campbell's _Lives of the Chancellors_, iii. 110 (1845), and in
  Foss's _Judges_, supply no further information. In _Historical
  Inquiries respecting the Character of Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon_,
  various charges against Clarendon were collected by G.A. Ellis (1827)
  and answered by Lister, vol. ii. 529, and by Lady Th. Lewis in _Lives
  of the Contemporaries of Lord Clarendon_ (1852), i. preface pt. i. For
  criticisms of the _History_ see Gardiner's _Civil Wars_ (1893), iii.
  121; Ranke's _Hist. of England_, vi. 3-29; _Die Politik Karls des
  Ersten_ ... _und Lord Clarendon's Darstellung_, by A. Buff (1868);
  article in the _Dict. of Nat. Biog._ by C.H. Firth, and especially a
  series of admirable articles by the same author in the _Eng. Hist.
  Review_ (1904). For description of the MS., Macray's edition of the
  _History_ (1888), Lady Th. Lewis's _Lives from the Clarendon Gallery_,
  i. introd. pt. ii.; for list of earlier editions, _Ath. Oxon._ (Bliss)
  iii. 1017. Lord Lansdowne defends Sir R. Granville against Clarendon's
  strictures in the _Vindication (Genuine Works of G. Granville, Lord
  Lansdowne, i. 503 [1732])_, and Lord Ashburnham defends John
  Ashburnham in _A Narrative by John Ashburnham_ (1830). See also _Notes
  at Meetings of the Privy Council between Charles II. and the Earl of
  Clarendon_ (Roxburghe Club. 1896); _General Orders of the High Court
  of Chancery_, by J. Beames (1815), 147-221; S.R. Gardiner's _Hist. of
  England, of the Civil War and of the Commonwealth; Lord Clarendon_, by
  A. Chassant (account of the assault at Evreux) (1891); _Annals of the
  Bodleian Library_, by W.D. Macray (1868); Masson's _Life of Milton_;
  _Life of Sir G. Savile_, by H.C. Foxcroft (1898); _Cal. of St. Pap.
  Dom._, esp. 1667-1668, 58, 354, 370; _Hist. MSS. Comm. Series, MSS. of
  J.M. Heathcote_ and _Various Collections_, vol. ii.; _Add. MSS._ in
  the British Museum; _Notes and Queries_, 6 ser. v. 283, 9 ser. xi.
  182, 1 ser. ix. 7; Pepys's _Diary_; J. Evelyn's _Diary and
  Correspondence_; Gen. Catalogue in British Museum; _Edward Hyde, earl
  of Clarendon_ (1909), a lecture delivered at Oxford during the
  Clarendon centenary by C.H. Firth.    (P. C. Y.)


  [1] _Life_, i. 25.

  [2] _Hist. of the Rebellion_, iii. 164, the account being
    substantially accepted by Gardiner, in spite of inaccuracies in
    details (_Hist._ ix. 341, note).

  [3] _Clarendon St. Pap._ ii. 337.

  [4] Ibid.

  [5] _Hist. of the Rebellion_, xiii. 140.

  [6] _Clarendon State Papers_, iii. 316, 325, 341, 343.

  [7] _Hist. MSS. Comm.: MSS. of F.W. Leyborne-Popham_, 227.

  [8] Anne Hyde (1637-1671), eldest daughter of the chancellor, was the
    mother by James of Queen Mary and Queen Anne, besides six other
    children, including four sons who all died in infancy. She became a
    Roman Catholic in 1670 shortly before her death, and was buried in
    the vault of Mary, queen of Scots, in Henry VII.'s chapel in
    Westminster Abbey.

  [9] See _Hist. MSS. Comm.: Various Collections_, ii. 118, and _MSS.
    of Duke of Somerset_, 94.

  [10] _Continuation_, 339.

  [11] Ib. 511, 776.

  [12] Lister's _Life of Clarendon_, ii. 295; _Hist. MSS. Comm.:
    Various Collections_, ii. 379.

  [13] _Continuation_, 1170.

  [14] _Hist. MSS. Comm.: MSS. of F.W. Leyborne-Popham_, 250.

  [15] _Continuation_, 1066.

  [16] Macaulay's _Hist. of England_, i. 193.

  [17] Pepys's _Diary_, Sept. 2, 1667.

  [18] _Hist. MSS. Comm._, 7th Rep. 162.

  [19] _Diary_, iii. 95, 96.

  [20] _Lives from the Clarendon Gallery_, by Lady Th. Lewis, i. 39;
    Burnet's _Hist. of his own Times_, i. 209.

  [21] _Continuation_, 88.

  [22] Lister's _Life of Clarendon_, ii. 416.

  [23] _Continuation_, 1137.

  [24] _Clarendon St. Pap._ iii. Suppl. xxxvii.

  [25] Evelyn witnessed its demolition in 1683--_Diary_, May 19th, Sept.
    18th; _Lives from the Clarendon Gallery_, by Lady Th. Lewis, i. 40.

  [26] _Diary_, July 14th, 1664.

  [27] _Lister_, ii. 528.

Villiers line) (1800-1870), English diplomatist and statesman, was born
in London on the 12th of January 1800. He was the eldest son of Hon.
George Villiers (1750-1827), youngest son of the 1st earl of Clarendon
(second creation), by Theresa, only daughter of the first Lord
Boringdon, and granddaughter of the first Lord Grantham. The earldom of
the lord chancellor Clarendon became extinct in the Hyde line by the
death of the 4th earl, his last male descendant. Jane Hyde, countess of
Essex, the sister of that nobleman (she died in 1724), left two
daughters; of these the eldest, Lady Charlotte, became heiress of the
Hyde family. She married Thomas Villiers (1709-1786), second son of the
2nd earl of Jersey, who served with distinction as English minister in
Germany, and in 1776 the earldom of Clarendon was revived in his favour.
The connexion with the Hyde family was therefore in the female line and
somewhat remote. But a portion of the pictures and plate of the great
chancellor was preserved to this branch of the family, and remains at
The Grove, their family seat at Hertfordshire. The 2nd and 3rd earls
were sons of the 1st, and, neither of them having sons, the title
passed, on the death of the 3rd earl (John Charles) in 1838, to their
younger brother's son.

Young George Villiers entered upon life in circumstances which gave
small promise of the brilliancy of his future career. He was well born;
he was heir presumptive to an earldom; and his mother was a woman of
great energy, admirable good sense, and high feeling. But the means of
his family were contracted; his education was desultory and incomplete;
he had not the advantages of a training either at a public school or in
the House of Commons. He went up to Cambridge at the early age of
sixteen, and entered St John's College on the 29th of June 1816. In
1820, as the eldest son of an earl's brother with royal descent, he was
enabled to take his M.A. degree under the statutes of the university
then in force. In the same year he was appointed attaché to the British
embassy at St Petersburg, where he remained three years, and gained that
practical knowledge of diplomacy which was of so much use to him in
after-life. He had received from nature a singularly handsome person, a
polished and engaging address, a ready command of languages, and a
remarkable power of composition.

Upon his return to England in 1823 he was appointed to a
commissionership of customs, an office which he retained for about ten
years. In 1831 he was despatched to France to negotiate a commercial
treaty, which, however, led to no result. On the 16th of August 1833 he
was appointed minister at the court of Spain. Ferdinand VII. died within
a month of his arrival at Madrid, and the infant queen Isabella, then in
the third year of her age, was placed by the old Spanish law of female
inheritance on her contested throne. Don Carlos, the late king's
brother, claimed the crown by virtue of the Salic law of the House of
Bourbon which Ferdinand had renounced before the birth of his daughter.
Isabella II. and her mother Christina, the queen regent, became the
representatives of constitutional monarchy, Don Carlos of Catholic
absolutism. The conflict which had divided the despotic and the
constitutional powers of Europe since the French Revolution of 1830
broke out into civil war in Spain, and by the Quadruple Treaty, signed
on the 22nd of April 1834, France and England pledged themselves to the
defence of the constitutional thrones of Spain and Portugal. For six
years Villiers continued to give the most active and intelligent support
to the Liberal government of Spain. He was accused, though unjustly, of
having favoured the revolution of La Granja, which drove Christina, the
queen mother, out of the kingdom, and raised Espartero to the regency.
He undoubtedly supported the chiefs of the Liberal party, such as
Espartero, against the intrigues of the French court; but the object of
the British government was to establish the throne of Isabella on a
truly national and liberal basis and to avert those complications,
dictated by foreign influence, which eventually proved so fatal to that
princess. Villiers received the grand cross of the Bath in 1838 in
acknowledgment of his services, and succeeded, on the death of his
uncle, to the title of earl of Clarendon; in the following year, having
left Madrid, he married Katharine, eldest daughter of James Walter,
first earl of Verulam.

In January 1840 he entered Lord Melbourne's administration as lord privy
seal, and from the death of Lord Holland in the autumn of that year Lord
Clarendon also held the office of chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster
until the dissolution of the ministry in 1841. Deeply convinced that the
maintenance of a cordial understanding with France was the most
essential condition of peace and of a liberal policy in Europe, he
reluctantly concurred in the measures proposed by Lord Palmerston for
the expulsion of the pasha of Egypt from Syria; he strenuously
advocated, with Lord Holland, a more conciliatory policy towards France;
and he was only restrained from sending in his resignation by the
dislike he felt to break up a cabinet he had so recently joined.

The interval of Sir Robert Peel's great administration (1841-1846) was
to the leaders of the Whig party a period of repose; but Lord Clarendon
took the warmest interest in the triumph of the principles of free trade
and in the repeal of the corn-laws, of which his brother, Charles Pelham
Villiers (q.v.), had been one of the earliest champions. For this
reason, upon the formation of Lord John Russell's first administration,
Lord Clarendon accepted the office of president of the Board of Trade.
Twice in his career the governor-generalship of India was offered him,
and once the governor-generalship of Canada;--these he refused from
reluctance to withdraw from the politics of Europe. But in 1847 a sense
of duty compelled him to take a far more laborious and uncongenial
appointment. The desire of the cabinet was to abolish the
lord-lieutenancy of Ireland, and Lord Clarendon was prevailed upon to
accept that office, with a view to transform it ere long into an Irish
secretaryship of state. But he had not been many months in Dublin before
he acknowledged that the difficulties then existing in Ireland could
only be met by the most vigilant and energetic authority, exercised on
the spot. The crisis was one of extraordinary peril. Agrarian crimes of
horrible atrocity had increased threefold. The Catholic clergy were
openly disaffected. This was the second year of the Irish famine, and
extraordinary measures were required to regulate the bounty of the
government and the nation. In 1848 the revolution in France let loose
fresh elements of discord, which culminated in an abortive insurrection,
and for a lengthened period Ireland was a prey to more than her wonted
symptoms of disaffection and disorder. Lord Clarendon remained viceroy
of Ireland till 1852, and left behind him permanent marks of
improvement. His services were expressly acknowledged in the queen's
speech to both Houses of Parliament on the 5th of September 1848--this
being the first time that any _civil_ services obtained that honour; and
he was made a knight of the Garter (retaining also the grand cross of
the Bath by special order) on the 23rd of March 1849.

Upon the formation of the coalition ministry between the Whigs and the
Peelites, in 1853, under Lord Aberdeen, Lord Clarendon became foreign
minister. The country was already "drifting" into the Crimean War, an
expression of his own which was never forgotten. Clarendon was not
responsible for the policy which brought war about; but when it occurred
he employed every means in his power to stimulate and assist the war
departments, and above all he maintained the closest relations with the
French. The tsar Nicholas had speculated on the impossibility of the
sustained joint action of France and England in council and in the
field. It was mainly by Lord Clarendon at Whitehall and by Lord Raglan
before Sevastopol that such a combination was rendered practicable, and
did eventually triumph over the enemy. The diplomatic conduct of such an
alliance for three years between two great nations jealous of their
military honour and fighting for no separate political advantage, tried
by excessive hardships and at moments on the verge of defeat, was
certainly one of the most arduous duties ever performed by a minister.
The result was due in the main to the confidence with which Lord
Clarendon had inspired the emperor of the French, and to the affection
and regard of the empress, whom he had known in Spain from her

In 1856 Lord Clarendon took his seat at the congress of Paris convoked
for the restoration of peace, as first British plenipotentiary. It was
the first time since the appearance of Lord Castlereagh at Vienna that a
secretary of state for foreign affairs had been present in person at a
congress on the continent. Lord Clarendon's first care was to obtain the
admission of Italy to the council chamber as a belligerent power, and to
raise the barrier which still excluded Prussia as a neutral one. But in
the general anxiety of all the powers to terminate the war there was no
small danger that the objects for which it had been undertaken would be
abandoned or forgotten. It is due entirely to the firmness of Lord
Clarendon that the principle of the neutralization of the Black Sea was
preserved, that the Russian attempt to trick the allies out of the
cession in Bessarabia was defeated, and that the results of the war were
for a time secured. The congress was eager to turn to other subjects,
and perhaps the most important result of its deliberations was the
celebrated Declaration of the Maritime Powers, which abolished
privateering, defined the right of blockade, and limited the right of
capture to enemy's property in enemy's ships. Lord Clarendon has been
accused of an abandonment of what are termed the belligerent rights of
Great Britain, which were undoubtedly based on the old maritime laws of
Europe. But he acted in strict conformity with the views of the British
cabinet, and the British cabinet adopted those views because it was
satisfied that it was not for the benefit of the country to adhere to
practices which exposed the vast mercantile interests of Britain to
depredation, even by the cruisers of a secondary maritime power, and
which, if vigorously enforced against neutrals, could not fail to
embroil her with every maritime state in the world.

Upon the reconstitution of the Whig administration in 1859, Lord John
Russell made it a condition of his acceptance of office under Lord
Palmerston that the foreign department should be placed in his own
hands, which implied that Lord Clarendon should be excluded from office,
as it would have been inconsistent alike with his dignity and his tastes
to fill any other post in the government. The consequence was that from
1859 till 1864 Lord Clarendon remained out of office, and the critical
relations arising out of the Civil War in the United States were left to
the guidance of Earl Russell. But he re-entered the cabinet in May 1864
as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster; and upon the death of Lord
Palmerston in 1865, Lord Russell again became prime minister, when Lord
Clarendon returned to the foreign office, which was again confided to
him for the third time upon the formation of Mr Gladstone's
administration in 1868. To the last moment of his existence, Lord
Clarendon continued to devote every faculty of his mind and every
instant of his life to the public service; and he expired surrounded by
the boxes and papers of his office on the 27th of June 1870. No man owed
more to the influence of a generous, unselfish and liberal disposition.
If he had rivals he never ceased to treat them with the consideration
and confidence of friends, and he cared but little for the ordinary
prizes of ambition in comparison with the advancement of the cause of
peace and progress.

He was succeeded as 5th earl by his eldest son, EDWARD HYDE VILLIERS (b.
1846), who became lord chamberlain in 1900.

  See also the article (by Henry Reeve) in _Fraser's Magazine_, August

CLARENDON, HENRY HYDE, 2ND EARL OF (1638-1709), English statesman,
eldest son of the first earl, was born on the 2nd of June 1638. He
accompanied his parents into exile and assisted his father as
secretary, returning with them in 1660. In 1661 he was returned to
parliament for Wiltshire as Lord Cornbury. He became secretary in 1662
and lord chamberlain to the queen in 1665. He took no part in the life
of the court, and on the dismissal of his father became a vehement
opponent of the administration, defended his father in the impeachment,
and subsequently made effective attacks upon Buckingham and Arlington.
In 1674 he became earl of Clarendon by his father's death, and in 1679
was made a privy councillor. He was not included in Sir W. Temple's
council of that year, but was reappointed in 1680. In 1682 he supported
Halifax's proposal of declaring war on France. On the accession of James
in 1685 he was appointed lord privy seal, but shortly afterwards, in
September, was removed from this office to that of lord-lieutenant of
Ireland. Clarendon was embarrassed in his estate, and James required a
willing agent to carry out his design by upsetting the Protestant
government and the Act of Settlement. Clarendon arrived in Dublin on the
9th of January 1686. He found himself completely in the power of
Tyrconnel, the commander-in-chief; and though, like his father, a
staunch Protestant, elected this year high steward of Oxford University,
and detesting the king's policy, he obeyed his orders to introduce Roman
Catholics into the government and the army and upon the bench, and clung
to office till after the dismissal of his brother, the earl of
Rochester, in January 1687, when he was recalled and succeeded by
Tyrconnel. He now supported the church in its struggle with James,
opposed the Declaration of Indulgence, wrote to Mary an account of the
resistance of the bishops,[1] and visited and advised the latter in the
Tower. He had no share, however, in inviting William to England. He
assured James in September that the Church would be loyal, advised the
calling of the parliament, and on the desertion of his son, Lord
Cornbury, to William on the 14th of November, expressed to the king and
queen the most poignant grief. In the council held on the 27th, however,
he made a violent and unseasonable attack upon James's conduct, and on
the 1st of December set out to meet William, joined him on the 3rd at
Berwick near Salisbury, and was present at the conference at Hungerford
on the 8th, and again at Windsor on the 16th. His wish was apparently to
effect some compromise, saving the crown for James. According to Burnet,
he advised sending James to Breda, and according to the duchess of
Marlborough to the Tower, but he himself denies these statements.[2] He
opposed vehemently the settlement of the crown upon William and Mary,
voted for the regency, and refused to take the oaths of the new
sovereigns, remaining a non-juror for the rest of his life. He
subsequently retired to the country, engaged in cabals against the
government, associated himself with Richard Graham, Lord Preston, and
organizing a plot against William, was arrested on the 24th of June 1690
by order of his niece, Queen Mary, and placed in the Tower. Liberated on
the 15th of August, he immediately recommenced his intrigues. On
Preston's arrest on the 31st of December, a compromising letter from
Clarendon was found upon him, and he was named by Preston as one of his
accomplices. He was examined before the privy council and again
imprisoned in the Tower on the 4th of January 1691, remaining in
confinement till the 3rd of July. This closed his public career. In
1702, on Queen Anne's accession, he presented himself at court, "to talk
to his niece," but the queen refused to see him till he had taken the
oaths. He died on the 31st of October 1709, and was buried in
Westminster Abbey.

His public career had been neither distinguished nor useful, but it
seems natural to ascribe its failure to small abilities and to the
conflict between personal ties and political convictions which drew him
in opposite directions, rather than, following Macaulay, to motives of
self-interest. He was a man of some literary taste, a fellow of the
Royal Society (1684), the author of _The History and Antiquities of the
Cathedral Church of Winchester ... continued by S. Gale_ (1715), and he
collaborated with his brother Rochester in the publication of his
father's _History_ (1702-1704). He married (1) in 1660, Theodosia,
daughter of Lord Capel, and (2) in 1670, Flower, daughter of William
Backhouse of Swallowfield in Berkshire, and widow of William Bishopp and
of Sir William Backhouse, Bart. He was succeeded by his only son, Edward
(1661-1724), as 3rd earl of Clarendon; and, the latter having no
surviving son, the title passed to Henry, 2nd earl of Rochester
(1672-1753), at whose death without male heirs it became extinct in the
Hyde line.


  [1] _Hist. MSS. Comm.: MSS. of the Duke of Buccleuch_, ii. 31.

  [2] _Correspondence and Diary_ (1828), ii. 286.

CLARENDON, CONSTITUTIONS OF, a body of English laws issued at Clarendon
in 1164, by which Henry II. endeavoured to settle the relations between
Church and State. Though they purported to declare the usages on the
subject which prevailed in the reign of Henry I. they were never
accepted by the clergy, and were formally renounced by the king at
Avranches in September 1172. Some of them, however, were in part at
least, as they all purported to be, declaratory of ancient usage and
remained in force after the royal renunciation. Of the sixteen
provisions the one which provoked the greatest opposition was that which
declared in effect that criminous clerks were to be summoned to the
king's court, and from there, after formal accusation and defence, sent
to the proper ecclesiastical court for trial. If found guilty they were
to be degraded and sent back to the king's court for punishment. Another
provision, which in spite of all opposition obtained a permanent place
in English law, declared that all suits even between clerk and clerk
concerning advowsons and presentations should be tried in the king's
court. By other provisions appeals to Rome without the licence of the
king were forbidden. None of the clergy were to leave the realm, nor
were the king's tenants-in-chief and ministers to be excommunicated or
their lands interdicted without the royal permission. Pleas of debt,
whether involving a question of good faith or not, were to be in the
jurisdiction of the king's courts. Two most interesting provisions, to
which the clergy offered no opposition, were: (1) if a dispute arose
between a clerk and a layman concerning a tenement which the clerk
claimed as free-alms (frankalmoign) and the layman as a lay-fee, it
should be determined by the recognition of twelve lawful men before the
king's justice whether it belonged to free-alms or lay-fee, and if it
were found to belong to free-alms then the plea was to be held in the
ecclesiastical court, but if to lay-fee, in the court of the king or of
one of his magnates; (2) a declaration of the procedure for election to
bishoprics and royal abbeys, generally considered to state the terms of
the settlement made between Henry I. and Anselm in 1107.

  AUTHORITIES.--J.C. Robertson, _Materials for History of Thomas
  Becket_, Rolls Series (1875-1885); Sir F. Pollock and F.W. Maitland,
  _History of English Law before the Time of Ed. I._ (Cambridge, 1898),
  and F.W. Maitland, _Roman Canon Law in the Church of England_ (1898);
  the text of the Constitutions is printed by W. Stubbs in _Select
  Charters_ (Oxford, 1895). (G.J.T.)

CLARES, POOR, otherwise _Clarisses_, Franciscan nuns, so called from
their foundress, St Clara (q.v.). She was professed by St Francis in the
Portiuncula in 1212, and two years later she and her first companions
were established in the convent of St Damian's at Assisi. The nuns
formed the "Second Order of St Francis," the friars being the "First
Order," and the Tertiaries (q.v.) the "Third." Before Clara's death in
1253, the Second Order had spread all over Italy and into Spain, France
and Germany; in England they were introduced c. 1293 and established in
London, outside Aldgate, where their name of Minoresses survives in the
Minories; there were only two other English houses before the
Dissolution. St Francis gave the nuns no rule, but only a "Form of Life"
and a "Last Will," each only five lines long, and coming to no more than
an inculcation of his idea of evangelical poverty. Something more than
this became necessary as soon as the institute began to spread; and
during Francis's absence in the East, 1219, his supporter Cardinal
Hugolino composed a rule which made the Franciscan nuns practically a
species of unduly strict Benedictines, St Francis's special
characteristics being eliminated. St Clara made it her life work to have
this rule altered, and to get the Franciscan character of the Second
Order restored; in 1247 a "Second Rule" was approved which went a long
way towards satisfying her desires, and finally in 1253 a "Third,"
which practically gave what she wanted. This rule has come to be known
as the "Rule of the Clares"; it is one of great poverty, seclusion and
austerity of life. Most of the convents adopted it, but several clung to
that of 1247. To bring about conformity, St Bonaventura, while general
(1264), obtained papal permission to modify the rule of 1253, somewhat
mitigating its austerities and allowing the convents to have fixed
incomes,--thus assimilating them to the Conventual Franciscans as
opposed to the Spirituals. This rule was adopted in many convents, but
many more adhered to the strict rule of 1253. Indeed a counter-tendency
towards a greater strictness set in, and a number of reforms were
initiated, introducing an appalling austerity of life. The most
important of these reforms were the Coletines (St Colette, c. 1400) and
the Capucines (c. 1540; see CAPUCHINS). The half-dozen forms of the
Franciscan rule for women here mentioned are still in use in different
convents, and there are also a great number of religious institutes for
women based on the rule of the Tertiaries. By the term "Poor Clares" the
Coletine nuns are now commonly understood; there are various convents of
these nuns, as of other Franciscans, in England and Ireland. Franciscan
nuns have always been very numerous; there are now about 150 convents of
the various observances of the Second Order, in every part of the world,
besides innumerable institutions of Tertiaries.

  See Helyot, _Hist. des ordres religieux_ (1792), vii. cc. 25-28 and
  38-42; Wetzer and Welte, _Kirchenlexikon_ (2nd ed.), art. "Clara"; Max
  Heimbucher, _Orden und Kongregationen_ (1896), i. §§ 47, 48, who gives
  references to all the literature. For a scientific study of the
  beginnings see Lempp, "Die Anfänge des Klarissenordens" in
  _Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte_, xiii. (1892), 181 ff. (E.C.B.)

CLARET (from the Fr. _vin claret_, mod. _clairet_, wine of a light clear
colour, from Lat. _clarus_, clear), the English name for the red
Bordeaux wines. The term was originally used in France for light-yellow
or light-red wines, as distinguished from the _vins rouges_ and the
_vins blancs_; later it was applied to red wines generally, but is
rarely used in French, and never with the particular English meaning
(see WINE).

CLARETIE, JULES ARSÈNE ARNAUD (1840-   ), French man of letters and
director of the Théâtre Français, was born at Limoges on the 3rd of
December 1840. After studying at the lycée Bonaparte in Paris, he became
an active journalist, achieving great success as dramatic critic to the
_Figaro_ and to the _Opinion nationale_. He was a newspaper
correspondent during the Franco-German War, and during the Commune acted
as staff-officer in the National Guard. In 1885 he became director of
the Théâtre Français, and from that time devoted his time chiefly to its
administration. He was elected a member of the Academy in 1888, and took
his seat in February 1889, being received by Ernest Renan. The long list
of his works includes _Histoire de la révolution de 1870-1871_ (new ed.,
5 vols., 1875-1876); _Cinq ans après; l'Alsace et la Lorraine depuis
l'annexion_ (1876); some annual volumes of reprints of his articles in
the weekly press, entitled _La Vie à Paris; La Vie moderne au théâtre_
(1868-1869); _Molière, sa vie et son oeuvre_ (1871); _Histoire de la
littérature française, 900-1900_ (2nd ed. 1905); _Candidat!_ (1887), a
novel of contemporary life; _Brichanteau, comédien français_ (1896);
several plays, some of which are based on novels of his own--_Les
Muscadins_ (1874), _Le Régiment de Champagne_ (1877), _Les Mirabeau_
(1879), _Monsieur le ministre_ (1883), and others; and the opera, _La
Navarraise_, based on his novel _La Cigarette_, and written with Henri
Cain to the music of Massenet. _La Navarraise_ was first produced at
Covent Garden (June 1894) with Mme Calvé in the part of Anita. His
_OEuvres complètes_ were published in 1897-1904.

CLARI, GIOVANNI CARLO MARIA, Italian musical composer, chapel-master at
Pistoia, was born at Pisa about the year 1669. The time of his death is
unknown. He was the most celebrated pupil of Colonna, chapel-master of
S. Petronio, at Bologna. He became _maestro di cappella_ at Pistoia
about 1712, at Bologna in 1720, and at Pisa in 1736. He is supposed to
have died about 1745. The works by which Clari distinguished himself
pre-eminently are his vocal duets and trios, with a _basso continuo_,
published between 1740 and 1747. These compositions, which combine
graceful melody with contrapuntal learning, were much admired by
Cherubini. They appear to have been admired by Handel also, since he did
not hesitate to make appropriations from them. Clari composed one opera,
_Il Savio delirante_, produced at Bologna in 1695, and a large quantity
of church music, several specimens of which were printed in Novello's
_Fitzwilliam Music_.

CLARINA, a comparatively new instrument of the wood-wind class (although
actually made of metal), a hybrid possessing characteristics of both
oboe and clarinet. The clarina was invented by W. Heckel of
Biebrich-am-Rhein, and has been used since 1891 at the Festspielhaus,
Bayreuth, in _Tristan und Isolde_, as a substitute for the
_Holztrompete_ made according to Wagner's instructions. The clarina has
been found more practical and more effective in producing the desired
tone-colour. The clarina is a metal instrument with the conical bore and
fingering of the oboe and the clarinet single-reed mouthpiece. The
compass of the instrument is as shown, and it stands in the key of
B[flat]. Like the clarinet, the clarina is a transposing instrument, for
which the music must be written in a key a tone higher than that of the
composition. The timbre resulting from the combination of conical bore
and single-reed mouthpiece has in the lowest register affinities with
the _cor anglais_, in the middle with the saxophone, and in the highest
with the clarinet. Other German orchestras have followed the example of
Bayreuth. The clarina has also been found very effective as a solo
instrument.    (K. S.)

[Illustration: Notation.]

[Illustration: Real Sounds.]

CLARINET, or CLARIONET (Fr. _clarinette_; Ger. _Clarinette, Klarinett_;
Ital. _clarinetto, chiarinetto_), a wood-wind instrument having a
cylindrical bore and played by means of a single-reed mouthpiece. The
word "clarinet" is said to be derived from _clarinetto_, a diminutive of
_clarino_, the Italian for (1) the soprano trumpet, (2) the highest
register of the instrument, (3) the trumpet played musically without the
blare of the martial instrument. The word "clarionet" is similarly
derived from "clarion," the English equivalent of _clarino_. It is
suggested that the name _clarinet_ or _clarinetto_ was bestowed on
account of the resemblance in timbre between the high registers of the
clarino and clarinet. By adding the speaker-hole to the old chalumeau,
J.C. Denner gave it an additional compass based on the overblowing of
the harmonic twelfth, and consisting of an octave and a half of
harmonics, which received the name of _clarino_, while the lower
register retained the name of _chalumeau_. There is something to be said
also in favour of another suggested derivation from the Italian
_chiarina_, the name for reed instruments and the equivalent for tibia
and aulos. At the beginning of the 18th century in Italy _clarinetto_,
the diminutive of _clarino_, would be masculine, whereas _chiarinetta_
or _clarinetta_ would be feminine,[1] as in Doppelmayr's account of the
invention written in 1730. The word "clarinet" is sometimes used in a
generic sense to denote the whole family, which consists of the
clarinet, or discant corresponding to the violin, oboe, &c; the alto
clarinet in E; the basset horn in F (q.v.); the bass clarinet (q.v.),
and the pedal clarinet (q.v.).

The modern clarinet consists of five (or four) separate pieces: (1) the
mouthpiece; (2) the bulb; (3) the upper middle joint, or left-hand
joint; (4) the lower middle joint, or right-hand joint[2]; (5) the bell;
which (the bell excepted) when joined together, form a tube with a
continuous cylindrical bore, 2 ft. or more in length, according to the
pitch of the instrument. The mouthpiece, including the beating or
single-reed common to the whole clarinet family, has the appearance of a
beak with the point bevelled off and thinned at the edge to correspond
with the end of the reed shaped like a spatula. The under part of the
mouthpiece (fig. 2) is flattened in order to form a table for the
support of the reed which is adjusted thereon with great nicety,
allowing just the amount of play requisite to set in vibration the
column of air within the tube.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Clarinet (Albert Model).]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Clarinet Mouthpiece. _a_, the mouthpiece showing
the position of the bore inside; _b_, the single or beating reed.]

The mouthpiece, which is subject to continual fluctuations of dampness
and dryness, and to changes of temperature, requires to be made of a
material having great powers of resistance, such as cocus wood, ivory or
vulcanite, which are mostly used for the purpose in England. A
longitudinal aperture 1 in. long and ½ in. wide, communicating with the
bore, is cut in the table and covered by the reed. The aperture is thus
closed except towards the point, where, for the distance of 1/3 to ¼
in., the reed is thinned and the table curves backwards towards the
point, leaving a gap between the ends of the mouthpiece and of the reed
of 1 mm. or about the thickness of a sixpence for the B flat clarinet.
The curve of the table and the size of the gap are therefore of
considerable importance. The reed is cut from a joint of the _Arundo
donax_ or _sativa_, which grows wild in the regions bordering on the
Mediterranean. A flat slip of the reed is cut, flattened on one side and
thinned to a very delicate edge on the other. At first the reed was
fastened to the table by means of many turns of a fine waxed cord. The
metal band adjusted by means of two screws, known as the "ligature," was
introduced about 1817 by Ivan Müller. The reed is set in vibration by
the breath of the performer, and being flexible it beats against the
table, opening and closing the gap at a rate depending on the rate of
the vibrations it sets up in the air column, this rate varying according
to the length of the column as determined by opening the lateral holes
and keys. A cylindrical tube played by means of a reed has the acoustic
properties of a stopped pipe, i.e. the fundamental tone produced by the
tube is an octave lower than the corresponding tone of an open pipe of
the same length, and overblows a twelfth; whereas tubes having a conical
bore like the oboe, and played by means of a reed, speak as open pipes
and overblow an octave. This forms the fundamental difference between
the instruments of the oboe and clarinet families. Wind instruments
depending upon lateral holes for the production of their scale must
either have as many holes pierced in the bore as they require notes, or
make use of the property possessed by the air-column of dividing into
harmonics or partials of the fundamental tones. Twenty to twenty-two
holes is the number generally accepted as the practical limit for the
clarinet; beyond that number the fingering and mechanism become too
complicated. The compass of the clarinet is therefore extended through
the medium of the harmonic overtones. In stopped pipes a node is formed
near the mouthpiece, and they are therefore only able to produce the
uneven harmonics, such as the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, &c, corresponding to
the fundamental, and the diatonic intervals of the 5th one octave above,
and of the 3rd and 7th two octaves above the fundamental. By pressing
the reed with the lip near the base where it is thicker and stiffer, and
increasing the pressure of the breath, the air-column is forced to
divide and to sound the harmonics, a principle well understood by the
ancient Greeks and Romans in playing upon the aulos and tibia.[3] This
is easier to accomplish with the double reed than with the beating reed;
in fact with a tube of wide diameter, such as that of the modern
clarinet, it would not be possible by this means alone to do justice to
the tone of the instrument or to the music now written for it. The bore
of the aulos was very much narrower than that of the clarinet.

In order to facilitate the production of the harmonic notes on the
clarinet, a small hole, closed by means of a key and called the
"speaker," is bored near the mouthpiece. By means of this small hole the
air-column is placed in communication with the external atmosphere, a
ventral segment is formed, and the air-column divides into three equal
parts, producing a triple number of vibrations resulting in the third
note of the harmonic series, at an interval of a twelfth above the
fundamental.[4] In a wind instrument with lateral holes the fundamental
note corresponding to any particular hole is produced when all the holes
below that hole are open and it itself and all above it are closed, the
effective length of the resonating tube being shortened as each of the
closed holes is successively uncovered. In order to obtain a complete
chromatic scale on the clarinet at least eighteen holes are required.
This series produces with the bell-note a succession of nineteen
semitones, giving the range of a twelfth and known as the fundamental
scale or _chalumeau_ register, so called, no doubt, because it was the
compass (without chromatic semitones) of the more primitive predecessor
of the clarinet, known as the _chalumeau_, which must not be confounded
with the shawm or schalmey of the middle ages.

  The fundamental scale of the modern clarinet in C extends from
  [Illustration]. The next octave and a half is obtained by opening the
  speaker key, whereby each of the fundamental notes is reproduced a
  twelfth higher; the bell-note thus jumps from E to B#, the first key
  gives instead of F its twelfth C#, and so on, extending the compass to
  [Illustration], which ends the natural compass of the instrument,
  although a skilful performer may obtain another octave by
  cross-fingering. The names of the holes and keys on the clarinet are
  derived not from the notes of the fundamental scale, but from the name
  of the twelfth produced by overblowing with the speaker key open; for
  instance, the first key near the bell is known not as the E key but as
  the B#. The use of the speaker key forms the greatest technical
  difficulty in learning to play the clarinet, on account of the thumb
  having to do double duty, closing one hole and raising the lever of
  the speaker key simultaneously. In a clarinet designed by Richard
  Carte this difficulty was ingeniously overcome by placing the left
  thumb-hole towards the front, and closing it by a thumb-lever or with
  a ring action by the first or second finger of the left hand, thus
  leaving the thumb free to work the speaker key alone.

  There is good reason to think that the ancient Greeks understood the
  advantage of a speaker-hole, which they called _Syrinx_, for
  facilitating the production of harmonics on the aulos. The credit of
  the discovery of this interesting fact is due to A.A. Howard,[5] of
  Harvard University; it explains many passages in the classics which
  before were obscure (see AULOS). Plutarch relates[6] that Telephanes
  of Megara was so incensed with the syrinx that he never allowed his
  instrument-makers to place one on any of his auloi; he even went so
  far as to absent himself, principally on account of the syrinx, from
  the Pythian games. Telephanes was a great virtuoso who scorned the use
  of a speaker-hole, being able to obtain his harmonics on the aulos by
  the mere control of lips and teeth.

  The modern clarinet has from thirteen to nineteen keys, some being
  normally open and others closed. In order to understand why, when once
  the idea of adding keys to the chalumeau had been conceived, the
  number rose so slowly, keys being added one or two at a time by makers
  of various nationalities at long intervals, it is necessary to
  consider the effect of boring holes in the side of a cylindrical tube.
  If it were possible to proceed from an absolute theoretical basis,
  there would be but little difficulty; there are, however, practical
  reasons which make this a matter of great difficulty. According to V.
  Mahillon,[7] the theoretical length of a B flat clarinet (French pitch
  diapason normal A = 435 vibrations), is 39 cm. when the internal
  diameter of the bore measures exactly 1.4 cm. Any increase in the
  diameter of the cylindrical bore for a given length of tube raises the
  pitch proportionally and in the same way a decrease lowers it. A bore
  narrow in proportion to the length facilitates the production of the
  harmonics, which is no doubt the reason why the aulos was made with a
  very narrow diameter, and produced such deep notes in proportion to
  its length. In determining the position of the holes along the tube,
  the thickness of the wood to be pierced must be taken into
  consideration, for the length of the passage from the main bore to the
  outer air adds to the length of the resonating column; as, however,
  the clarinet tube is reckoned as a closed one, only half the extra
  length must be taken into account. When placed in its correct
  theoretical position, a hole should have its diameter equal to the
  diameter of the main bore, which is the ideal condition for obtaining
  a full, rich tone; it is, however, feasible to give the hole a smaller
  diameter, altering its position by placing it nearer the mouthpiece.
  These laws, which were likewise known to the Greeks and Romans,[8] had
  to be rediscovered by experience in the 18th and 19th centuries,
  during which the mechanism of the key system was repeatedly improved.
  Due consideration having been given to these points, it will also be
  necessary to remember that the stopping of the seven open holes leaves
  only the two little fingers (the thumb of the right hand being in the
  ordinary clarinet engaged in supporting the instrument) free at all
  times for key service, the other fingers doing duty when momentarily
  disengaged. The fingering of the clarinet is the most difficult of any
  instrument in the orchestra, for it differs in all four octaves of its
  compass. Once mastered, however, it is the same for all clarinets, the
  music being always written in the key of C.

  [Illustration: real sounds]

  The actual tonality of the clarinet is determined by the diatonic
  scale produced when, starting with keys untouched and finger and
  thumb-holes closed, the fingers are raised one by one from the holes.
  In the B flat clarinet, the _real sounds_ thus produced are being part
  of the scale of B flat major. By the closing of two _open_ keys, the
  lower E flat and D are added.

  The following are the various sizes of clarinets with the key proper
  to each:

    E flat, a minor third above the C clarinet.
    B flat, a tone below         "      "
    The high F, 4 tones above    "      "
    The D, 1 tone above          "      "
    The low G, a  fourth below   "      "
    The A, a minor third below   "      "
    The B# 1 semintone below     "      "
    The alto clarinet in E flat, a fifth below the B flat clarinet.
    The tenor or basset horn, in F, a fifth below the C clarinet.
    The bass clarinet in B flat, an 8ve below that in B flat.
    The pedal clarinet in B flat, an 8ve below the bass clarinet.
    The clarinets in B flat and A are used in the orchestra; those in C
  and E flat in military bands.

_History_.--Although the single beating-reed associated with the
instruments of the clarinet family has been traced in ancient Egypt, the
double reed, characteristic of the oboe family, being of simpler
construction, was probably of still greater antiquity. An ancient
Egyptian pipe found in a mummy-case and now preserved in the museum at
Turin was found to contain a beating-reed sunk 3 in. below the end of
the pipe, which is the principle of the drone. It would appear that the
double chalumeau, called arghoul (q.v.) by the modern Egyptians, was
known in ancient Egypt, although it was not perhaps in common use. The
Musée Guimet possesses a copy of a fresco from the tombs at Saqqarah
(executed under the direction of Mariette Bey) assigned to the 4th or
5th dynasty, on which is shown a concert with dancing; the instruments
used are two harps, the long oblique flute "nay," blown from the end
without any mouthpiece or embouchure, and an instrument identified as an
arghoul[9] from its resemblance to the modern instrument of the same
name. This is believed to be the only illustration of the ancient double
chalumeau yet found in Egypt, with the single exception of a hieroglyph
occurring also once only, i.e. the sign read _As-it_, consisting of a
cylindrical pipe with a beak mouthpiece bound round with a cord tied in
a bow. The bow is taken to indicate the double parallel pipes bound
together; the same sign without the bow occurs frequently and is read
_Ma-it_,[10] and is considered to be the generic name for reed wind
instruments. The beating-reed was probably introduced into classic
Greece from Egypt or Asia Minor. A few ancient Greek instruments are
extant, five of which are in the British Museum. They are as nearly
cylindrical as would be the natural growing reed itself. The probability
is that both single and double reeds were at times used with the Greek
aulos and the Roman tibia. V. Mahillon and A.A. Howard of Harvard have
both obtained facsimiles of actual instruments, some found at Pompeii
and now deposited in the museum at Naples, and others in the British
Museum. Experiments made with these instruments, whose original
mouthpieces have perished, show that with pipes of such narrow diameter
the fundamental scale and pitch are the same whether sounded by means of
a single or of a double reed, but the modern combination of single reed
and cylindrical tube alone gives the full pure tone quality. The subject
is more fully discussed in the article AULOS.[11] The Roman tibia, if
monuments can be trusted, sometimes had a beak-shaped mouthpiece, as for
instance that attached to a pipe discovered at Pompeii, or that shown in
a scene on Trajan's column.[12] It is probable that when, at the decline
of the Roman empire, instrumental music was placed by the church under a
ban--and the tibia more especially from its association with every form
of licence and moral depravity--this instrument, sharing the common
fate, survived chiefly among itinerant musicians who carried it into
western Europe, where it was preserved from complete extinction. An
instrument of difficult technique requiring an advanced knowledge of
acoustics was not, however, likely to flourish or even to be understood
among nations whose culture was as yet in its infancy.

The tide of culture from the Byzantine empire filtered through to the
south and west, leaving many traces; a fresh impetus was received from
the east through the Arabs; and later, as a result of the Crusades, the
prototype of the clarinet, together with the practical knowledge
necessary for making the instrument and playing upon it, may have been
re-introduced through any one or all of these sources. However this may
be, the instrument was during the Carolingian period identified with the
tibia of the Romans until such time as the new western civilization
ceased to be content to go back to classical Rome for its models, and
began to express itself, at first naively and awkwardly, as the 11th
century dawned. The name then changed to the derivatives of the Greek
_kalamos_, assuming an almost bewildering variety of forms, of which the
commonest are chalemie, chalumeau, schalmey, scalmeye, shawm, calemel,
kalemele.[13] The derivation of the name seems to point to a Byzantine
rather than an Arab source for the revival of the instruments which
formed the prototype of both oboe and clarinet, but it must not be
forgotten that the instruments with a conical bore--more especially
those played by a reed--are primarily of Asiatic origin. At the
beginning of the 13th century in France, where the instrument remained
a special favourite until it was displaced by the clarinet, the
chalumeau is mentioned in some of the early romances:--"Tabars et
chalemiaux et estrumens sonner" (_Aye d'Avignon_, v. 4137); "Grelles et
chelimiaus et buisines bruians" (_Gui de Bourgogne_, v. 1374), &c. By
the end of the 13th century, the German equivalent _Schalmey_ appears in
the literature of that country,--"Pusûnen und Schalmeyen schal moht
niemen da gehoeren wal" (_Frauendienst_, 492, fol. 5, Ulrich von
Lichtenstein). The schalmey or shawm is frequently represented in
miniatures from the 13th century, but it must have been known long
before, since it was at that period in use as the chaunter of the
bag-pipe (q.v.), a fully-developed complex instrument which presupposes
a separate previous existence for its component parts.

We have no reason to suppose that any distinction was drawn between the
single and double reed instruments during the early middle ages--if
indeed the single reed was then known at all--for the derivatives of
_kalamos_ were applied to a variety of pipes. The first clear and
unmistakable drawing yet found of the single reed occurs in Mersenne's
_Harmonie universelle_ (p. 282), where the primitive reed pipe is shown
with the beating-reed detached from the tube of the instrument itself,
by making a lateral slit and then splitting back a little tongue of reed
towards a knot. Mersenne calls this the simplest form of chalumeau or
wheat-stalk (_tuyau de blé_). It is evident that no significance was
then attached to the form of the vibrating reed, whether single or
double, for Mersenne and other writers of his time call the chaunters of
the musette and cornemuse chalumeaux whether they are of cylindrical or
of conical bore. The difference in timbre produced by the two kinds of
reeds was, however, understood, for Mersenne states that a special kind
of cornemuse was used in concert with the _hautbois de Poitou_ (an oboe
whose double reed was enclosed in an air chamber) and was distinguished
from the shepherd's cornemuse by having double reeds throughout, whereas
the drones of the latter instrument were furnished with beating reeds.
It is therefore evident that as late as 1636 (the date at which Mersenne
wrote) in France the word "chalumeau" was not applied to the instrument
transformed some sixty years later into the clarinet, nor was it applied
exclusively to any one kind of pipe except when acting as the chaunter
of the bagpipe, and that independently of any structural
characteristics. The chaunter was still called chalumeau in 1737.[14] Of
the instrument which has been looked upon as the chalumeau, there is but
little trace in Germany or in France at the beginning of the 17th
century. A chalumeau with beak mouthpiece and characteristic short
cylindrical tube pierced with six holes figures among the musical
instruments used for the triumphal procession of the emperor Maximilian
I., commemorated by a fine series of plates,[15] engraved on wood by
Hans Burgkmair, the friend and colleague of A. Dürer. On the same plate
(No. 79) are five schalmeys with double reeds and five chalumeaux with
single-reed beak mouthpieces; the latter instruments were in all
probability made in the Netherlands, which excelled from the 12th
century in the manufacture of all musical instruments. No single-reed
instrument, with the exception of the regal (q.v.), is figured by S.
Virdung,[16] M. Agricola[17] or M. Praetorius.[18]

A good idea of the primitive chalumeau may be gained from a reproduction
of one of the few specimens from the 16th or 17th century still extant,
which belonged to Césare Snoeck and was exhibited at the Royal Military
Exhibition in London in 1890.[19] The tube is stopped at the mouthpiece
end by a natural joint of the reed, and a tongue has been detached just
under the joint; there are six finger-holes and one for the thumb. An
instrument almost identical with the above, but with a rudimentary bell,
and showing plainly the detached tongue, is figured by Jost Amman in
1589.[20] A plate in Diderot and d'Alembert's _Encyclopédie_[21] shows a
less primitive instrument, outwardly cylindrical and having a separate
mouthpiece joint and a clarinet reed but no keys. A chalumeau without
keys, but consisting apparently of three joints--mouthpiece, main tube
and bell,--is figured on the title-page of a musical work[22] dated
1690; it is very similar to the one represented in fig. 3, except that
only six holes are visible.

[Illustrations: (From Diderot and d'Alembert's _Encyclopédie_.) FIG. 3.
Chalumeau, 1767. (_a_) Front, (_b_) Back view.]


In his biographical notice of J. Christian Denner (1655-1707), J.G.
Doppelmayr[23] states that at the beginning of the 18th century "Denner
invented a new kind of pipe, the so-called clarinet, which greatly
delighted lovers of music; he also made great improvements in the stock
or rackett-fagottos, known in the olden time and finally also in the
chalumeaux." It is probable that the improvements in the chalumeau to
which Doppelmayr alludes without understanding them consisted (_a_) in
giving the mouthpiece the shape of a beak and adding a separate reed
tongue as in that of the modern clarinet, unless this change had already
taken place in the Netherlands, the country which the unremitting
labours of E. van der Straeten[24] have revealed as taking the lead in
Europe from the 14th to the 16th century in the construction of musical
instruments of all kinds; (_b_) in the boring of two additional holes
for A and B near the mouthpiece and covering them with two keys; (_c_)
in replacing the long cylindrical mouthpiece joint by a bulb, thus
restoring one of the characteristic features of the tibia,[25] known as
the [Greek: holmos]. There are a few of these improved chalumeaux in
existence, two being in the Bavarian national museum at Munich, the one
in high A, in a bad state of preservation, the second in C, marked J.C.
Denner, of which V. Mahillon has made a facsimile[26] for the museum of
the Brussels Conservatoire. There are two keys and eight holes; the
first consists of two small holes on the same level giving a semitone if
only one be closed. If the thumb-key be left open, the sounds of the
fundamental scale (shown in the black notes below) rise a twelfth to
form the second register (the white notes). This early clarinet or
improved chalumeau has a clarinet mouthpiece, but no bulb; it measures
50 cm. (20 in.), whereas the one in A mentioned above is only 28 cm. in
length, the long cylindrical tube between mouthpiece and key-joint,
afterwards turned into the bulb, being absent. Mahillon was probably the
first to point out that the so-called invention of the clarinet by J.C.
Denner consisted in providing a device--the speaker-key--to facilitate
the production of the harmonics of the fundamental. Can we be sure that
the same result was not obtained on the old chalumeau before keys were
added, by partially uncovering the hole for the thumb?

The Berlin museum possesses an early clarinet with two keys, marked J.B.
Oberlender, derived from the Snoeck collection. Paul de Wit's collection
has a similar specimen by Enkelmer. The Brussels Conservatoire possesses
clarinets with two keys by Flemish makers, G.A. Rottenburgh and J.B.
Willems[27]; the latter, with a small bulb and bell, is in G a fifth
above the C clarinet. The next improvements in the clarinet, made in
1720, are due to J. Denner, probably a son of J.C. Denner. They
consisted in the addition of a bell and in the removal of the
speaker-hole and key nearer the mouthpiece, involving the reduction of
the diameter of the hole. The effect of this change of position was to
turn the B[natural] into B flat, for J. Denner introduced into the
hole, nearly as far as the axis of the bore, a small metal drainage
tube[28] for the moisture of the breath. In the modern clarinet, the
same result is attained by raising this little tube slightly above the
surface of the main tube, placing a key on the top of it, and bending
the lever. In order to produce the missing B[natural], J. Denner
lengthened the tube and pierced another hole, the low E, covered by an
open key with a long lever which, when closed, gives the desired B as
its twelfth, thus forming a connexion between the two registers. A
clarinet with three keys, of similar construction (about 1750), marked
J.W. Kenigsperger, is preserved in the Bavarian national museum, at
Munich. Another in B flat marked Lindner[29] belongs to the collection
at Brussels. About the middle of the 18th century, the number of keys
was raised to five, some say[30] by Barthold Fritz of Brunswick
(1697-1766), who added keys for C# and D#. [Illustration] According to
Altenburg[31] the E flat or D# key is due to the virtuoso Joseph Beer
(1744-1811). The sixth key was added about 1790 by the celebrated French
virtuoso Xavier Lefébure (or Lefèvre), and produced G#. [Illustration]
Anton Stadler and his brother, both clarinettists in the Vienna court
orchestra and instrument-makers, are said to have lengthened the tube of
the B flat clarinet, extending the compass down to C (real sound B
flat). It was for the Stadler brothers that Mozart wrote his quintet for
strings, with a fine obbligato for the clarinet in A (1789), and the
clarinet concerto with orchestra in 1791.

This, then, was the state of the clarinet in 1810 when Ivan Müller, then
living in Paris, carried the number of keys up to thirteen, and made
several structural improvements already mentioned, which gave us the
modern instrument and inaugurated a new era in the construction and
technique of the clarinet. Müller's system is still adopted in principle
by most clarinet makers. The instrument was successively improved during
the 19th century by the Belgian makers Bachmann, the elder Sax, Albert
and C. Mahillon, whose invention in 1862 of the C# key with double
action is now generally adopted. In Paris the labours of Lefébure,
Buffet-Crampon, and Goumas are pre-eminent. In 1842 H.E. Klosé conceived
the idea of adapting to the clarinet the ingenious mechanism of movable
rings, invented by Boehm for the flute, and he entrusted the execution
of this innovation to Buffet-Crampon; this is the type of clarinet
generally adopted in French orchestras. From this adaptation has sprung
the erroneous notion that Klosé's clarinet was constructed according to
the Boehm system; Klosé's lateral divisions of the tube do not follow
those applied by Boehm to the flute.

In England the clarinet has also passed through several progressive
stages since its introduction about 1770, and first of all at the hands
of Cornelius Ward. The principal improvements were due to Richard Carte,
who took out a patent in 1858 for an improved Boehm clarinet which
possessed some claim to the name, since Boehm's principle of boring the
holes at theoretically correct intervals and of venting the holes by
means of open holes below was carried out. Carte made several
modifications of his original patent, his chief endeavour being to so
dispose the key-work as to reduce the difficulties in fingering. By the
extension of the principle of the ring action, the work of the third and
little fingers of the left hand was simplified and the fingering of
certain difficult notes and shakes greatly facilitated. Messrs Rudall,
Carte & Company have made further improvements in the clarinet, which
are embodied in Klussmann's patent (fig. 4); these consist in the
introduction of the duplicate G# key, a note which has hitherto formed a
serious obstacle to perfect execution. The duplicate key, operated by
the third or second finger of the right hand, releases the fourth finger
of the left hand. The old G# is still retained and may be used in the
usual way if desired. The body of the instrument is now made in one
joint, and the position of the G# hole is mathematically correct,
whereby perfect intonation for C#, G# and F[n] is secured. Other
improvements were made in Paris by Messrs Evette & Schaeffer and by M.
Paradis,[32] a clarinet-player in the band of the Garde Républicaine,
and very great improvements in boring and in key mechanism were effected
by Albert of Brussels (see fig. 1).

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Clarinet (Boehm model, Klussmann's patent).]

The clarinet appears to have received appreciation in the Netherlands
earlier than in its own native land. According to W. Altenburg (op. cit.
p. 11),[33] a MS. is preserved in the cathedral at Antwerp of a mass
written by A.J. Faber in 1720, which is scored for a clarinet. Johann
Mattheson,[34] _Kapellmeister_ at Hamburg, mentions clarinet music in
1713, although Handel, whose rival he was, does not appear to have known
the instrument. Joh. Christ. Bach scored for the clarinet in 1763 in his
opera _Orione_ performed in London, and Rameau had already employed the
instrument in 1751 in a theatre for his pastoral entitled _Acante et
Céphise_.[35] The clarinet was formally introduced into the orchestra in
Vienna in 1767,[36] Gluck having contented himself with the use of the
chalumeau in _Orfeo_ (1762) and in _Alceste_ (1767).[37] The clarinet
had already been adopted in military bands in France in 1755, where it
very speedily completely replaced the oboe. One of Napoleon Bonaparte's
bands is said to have had no less than twenty clarinets.

  For further information on the clarinet at the beginning of the 19th
  century, consult the _Methods_ by Ivan Müller and Xavier Lefébure, and
  Joseph Froehlich's admirable work on the instruments of the orchestra;
  and Gottfried Weber's articles in Ersch and Gruber's _Encyclopaedia_.


  [1] See Gottfried Weber's objection to this derivation in "Über
    Clarinette und Basset-horn," _Caecilia_ (Mainz, 1829), vol. xi. pp.
    36 and 37, note.

  [2] Nos. 3 and 4 are sometimes made in one, as for instance in Messrs
    Rudall, Carte & Company's modification, the Klussmann patent.

  [3] Aristotle (_de Audib._ 802 b 18, and 804 a) and Porphyry (ed.
    Wallis, pp. 249 and 252) mention that if the performer presses the
    _zeuge_ (mouthpiece) or the _glottai_ (reeds) of the pipes, a sharper
    tone is produced.

  [4] Cf. V.C. Mahillon, _Éléments d'acoustique musicale et
    instrumentale_ (Brussels, 1874), p. 161; and Fr. Zamminer, _Die Musik
    und die musikalischen Instrumente in ihrer Beziehung zu den Gesetzen
    der Akustik ..._ (Giessen, 1855), pp. 297 and 298.

  [5] "The Aulos or Tibia," _Harvard Studies_, iv. (Boston, 1893).

  [6] _De Musica_, 1138.

  [7] _Op. cit._ pp. 160 et seq.; and Wilhelm Altenburg, _Die
    Klarinette_ (Heilbronn, 1904), p. 9, who refers to Mahillon.

  [8] See Macrobius, _Comm. in somnium Scipionis_, ii. 4. 5 "nec secus
    probamus in tibiis de quarum foraminibus vicinis inflantis ori sonus
    acutus emittitur, de longinquis autem et termino proximis, gravior:
    item acutior per patentiora foramina, gravior per angusta."

  [9] See Victor Loret, _L'Égypte au temps des Pharaons--la vie, le
    science, et l'art_ (Paris, 1889), illustration p. 139 and p. 143. The
    author gives no information about this fresco except that it is in
    the Musée Guimet. It is probably identical with the second of the
    mural paintings described on p. 190 of _Petit guide illustré au Musée
    Guimet_, par L. de Milloue.

  [10] See Victor Loret, "Les flûtes égyptiennes antiques," _Journal
    asiatique_ (Paris, 1889), [8], xiv. pp. 129, 130, 132.

  [11] See also A.A. Howard, "Study on the Aulos or Tibia," _Harvard
    Studies_, vol. iv. (Boston, 1893); F.C. Gevaert, _Musique de
    l'antiquité_; Carl von Jan, article "Floete" in August Baumeister's
    _Denkmäler des klassischen Alterthums_ (Leipzig, 1884-1888), vol. i.;
    Dr Hugo Riemann, _Handbuch der Musikgesch._ vol. i. p. 90, &c.
    (Leipzig, 1904); all of whom have not come to the same conclusions.

  [12] Wilhelm Froehner, _La Colonne trajane_ (Paris, 1872), t. ii. pl.

  [13] "Aveuc aus ert vestus Guis
        Ki leur cante et Kalemele,
        En la muse au grant bourdon."

     J.A.U. Scheler's _Trouvères belges_.

  [14] See Ernest Thoinan, _Les Hotteterre et les Chédeville, célèbres
    facteurs de flûtes, hautbois, bassons et musettes_ (Paris, 1894), p.
    15 et seq., and _Méthode pour la musette_, &c., par Hotteterre le
    Romain (Paris, 1737).

  [15] The whole series of 135 plates has been reproduced in _Jahrb. d.
    Samml. des Alterh. Kaiserhauses_ (Vienna, 1883-1884).

  [16] _Musica getutscht und auszgezogen_ (Basel, 1511).

  [17] _Musica Instrumentalis Deudsch_ (Nuremberg, 1528 and 1545).

  [18] _Syntagma Musicum_ (Wolfenbüttel, 1618). This work and those
    mentioned in the two previous notes have been reprinted by the Ges.
    f. Musikforschung in vols. xi., xx. and xiii. of _Publikationen_

  [19] See _Descriptive Catalogue_, by Capt. C.R. Day (London, 1891),
    pl. iv. A and p. 110, No. 221.

  [20] _Wappenbuch_, p. 111, "Musica."

  [21] Paris, 1767, vol. v. "Planches," pl. ix. 20, 21, 22.

  [22] Dr Theofilo Muffat, "Componimenti musicali per il cembalo," in
    _Denkmäler d. Tonkunst in Österreich_, Bd. iii.

  [23] _Historische Nachricht von den Nürnbergischen Mathematicis u.
    Künstlern_, &c. (Nuremberg, 1730), p. 305.

  [24] _Histoire de la musique aux Pays Bas avant le XIXe siècle._

  [25] For a facsimile of one of the Pompeii tibiae, see Capt. C.R.
    Day, _op. cit._ pl. iv. C. and p. 109.

  [26] _Catalogue descriptif_ (Ghent, 1896), vol. ii. p. 211, No. 911,
    where an illustration is given. See also Capt. C.R. Day, _op. cit._
    pl. iv. B and _Errata_ where the description is printed.

  [27] For a description with illustration see V. Mahillon's _Catalogue
    descriptif_ (Ghent, 1896), vol. ii. p. 215, No. 916.

  [28] See Wilhelm Altenburg, op. cit. p. 6.

  [29] See V. Mahillon, _Catal. descript._ (1896), p. 213, No. 913.

  [30] H. Welcker von Gontershausen, _Die musikalischen Tonwerk-zeuge_
    (Frankfort-on-Main, 1855), p. 141.

  [31] Op. cit. p. 6.

  [32] See Capt. C.R. Day, op. cit. p. 106.

  [33] V. Mahillon, _Catal. desc._ (1880), p. 182, refers his statement
    to the Chevalier L. de Burbure.

  [34] _Das neu-eröffnete Orchester_ (Hamburg, 1713).

  [35] Mahillon, _Catal. desc._ (1880), vol. i. p. 182.

  [36] See Chevalier Ludwig von Koechel, _Die kaiserliche
    Hofmusik-kapelle zu Wien, 1543-1867_ (Vienna, 1869).

  [37] In the Italian edition of 1769 the part is scored for clarinet.

CLARK, SIR ANDREW, Bart. (1826-1893), British physician, was born at
Aberdeen on the 28th of October 1826. His father, who also was a medical
man, died when he was only a few years old. After attending school in
Aberdeen, he was sent by his guardians to Dundee and apprenticed to a
druggist; then returning to Aberdeen he began his medical studies in the
university of that city. Soon, however, he went to Edinburgh, where in
the extra-academical school he had a student's career of the most
brilliant description, ultimately becoming assistant to J. Hughes
Bennett in the pathological department of the Royal Infirmary, and
assistant demonstrator of anatomy to Robert Knox. But symptoms of
pulmonary phthisis brought his academic life to a close, and in the hope
that the sea might benefit his health he joined the medical department
of the navy in 1848. Next year he became pathologist to the Haslar
hospital, where T.H. Huxley was one of his colleagues, and in 1853 he
was the successful candidate for the newly-instituted post of curator to
the museum of the London hospital. Here he intended to devote all his
energies to pathology, but circumstances brought him into active medical
practice. In 1854, the year in which he took his doctor's degree at
Aberdeen, the post of assistant-physician to the hospital became vacant
and he was prevailed upon to apply for it. He was fond of telling how
his phthisical tendencies gained him the appointment. "He is only a poor
Scotch doctor," it was said, "with but a few months to live; let him
have it." He had it, and two years before his death publicly declared
that of those who were on the staff of the hospital at the time of his
selection he was the only one remaining alive. In 1854 he became a
member of the College of Physicians, and in 1858 a fellow, and then went
in succession through all the offices of honour the college has to
offer, ending in 1888 with the presidency, which he continued to hold
till his death. From the time of his selection as assistant physician to
the London hospital, his fame rapidly grew until he became a fashionable
doctor with one of the largest practices in London, counting among his
patients some of the most distinguished men of the day. The great number
of persons who passed through his consulting-room every morning rendered
it inevitable that to a large extent his advice should become
stereotyped and his prescriptions often reduced to mere stock formulae,
but in really serious cases he was not to be surpassed in the skill and
carefulness of his diagnosis and in his attention to detail. In spite of
the claims of his practice he found time to produce a good many books,
all written in the precise and polished style on which he used to pride
himself. Doubtless owing largely to personal reasons, lung diseases and
especially fibroid phthisis formed his favourite theme, but he also
discussed other subjects, such as renal inadequacy, anaemia,
constipation, &c. He died in London on the 6th of November 1893, after a
paralytic stroke which was probably the result of persistent overwork.

CLARK, FRANCIS EDWARD (1851-   ), American clergyman, was born of New
England ancestry at Aylmer, Province of Quebec, Canada, on the 12th of
September 1851. He was the son of Charles C. Symmes, but took the name
of an uncle, the Rev. E.W. Clark, by whom he was adopted after his
father's death in 1853. He graduated at Dartmouth College in 1873 and at
Andover Theological Seminary in 1876, was ordained in the Congregational
ministry, and was pastor of the Williston Congregational church at
Portland, Maine, from 1876 to 1883, and of the Phillips Congregational
church, South Boston, Mass., from 1883 to 1887. On the 2nd of February
1881 he founded at Portland the Young People's Society of Christian
Endeavor, which, beginning as a small society in a single New England
church, developed into a great interdenominational organization, which
in 1908 had 70,761 societies and more than 3,500,000 members scattered
throughout the United States, Canada, Great Britain, Australia, South
Africa, India, Japan and China. After 1887 he devoted his time entirely
to the extension of this work, and was president of the United Societies
of Christian Endeavor and of the World's Christian Endeavor Union, and
editor of the _Christian Endeavor World_ (originally _The Golden Rule_).
Among his numerous publications are _The Children and the Church_
(1882); _Looking Out on Life_ (1883); _Young People's Prayer Meetings_
(1884); _Some Christian Endeavor Saints_ (1889); _World-Wide Endeavor_
(1895); _A New Way Round an Old World_ (1900).

  See his _The Young People's Christian Endeavor, where it began, &c._
  (Boston, 1895); _Christian Endeavor Manual_ (Boston, 1903); and
  _Christian Endeavor in All Lands: Record of Twenty-five Years of
  Progress_ (Philadelphia, 1907).

CLARK, GEORGE ROGERS (1752-1818), American frontier military leader, was
born near Charlottesville, in Albemarle county, Virginia, on the 19th of
November 1752. Early in life he became a land-surveyor; he took part in
Lord Dunmore's War (1774), and in 1775 went as a surveyor for the Ohio
Company to Kentucky (then a district of Virginia), whither he removed
early in 1776. His iron will, strong passions, audacious courage and
magnificent physique soon made him a leader among his frontier
neighbours, by whom in 1776 he was sent as a delegate to the Virginia
legislature. In this capacity he was instrumental in bringing about the
organization of Kentucky as a county of Virginia, and also obtained from
Governor Patrick Henry a supply of powder for the Kentucky settlers.
Convinced that the Indians were instigated and supported in their raids
against the American settlers by British officers stationed in the forts
north of the Ohio river, and that the conquest of those forts would put
an end to the evil, he went on foot to Virginia late in 1777 and
submitted to Governor Henry and his council a plan for offensive
operations. On the 2nd of January 1778 he was commissioned
lieutenant-colonel, received £1200 in depreciated currency, and was
authorized to enlist troops; and by the end of May he was at the falls
of the Ohio (the site of Louisville) with about 175 men. The expedition
proceeded to Fort Kaskaskia, on the Mississippi, in what is now
Illinois. This place and Cahokia, also on the Mississippi, near St
Louis, were defended by small British garrisons, which depended upon the
support of the French _habitants_. The French being willing to accept
the authority of Virginia, both forts were easily taken. Clark gained
the friendship of Father Pierre Gibault, the priest at Kaskaskia, and
through his influence the French at Vincennes on the Wabash were induced
(late in July) to change their allegiance. On the 17th of December
Lieut.-Governor Henry Hamilton, the British commander at Detroit,
recovered Vincennes and went into winter quarters. Late in February 1779
he was surprised by Clark and compelled to give up Vincennes and its
fort, Fort Sackville, and to surrender himself and his garrison of about
80 men, as prisoners of war. With the exception of Detroit and several
other posts on the Canadian frontier the whole of the North-West was
thus brought under American influence; many of the Indians, previously
hostile, became friendly, and the United States was put in a position to
demand the cession of the North-West in the treaty of 1783. For this
valuable service, in which Clark had freely used his own private funds,
he received practically no recompense either from Virginia or from the
United States, and for many years before his death he lived in poverty.
To him and his men, however, the Virginia legislature granted 150,000
acres of land in 1781, which was subsequently located in what are now
Clark, Floyd and Scott counties, Indiana; Clark's individual share was
8049 acres, but from this he realized little. Clark built Fort Jefferson
on the Mississippi, 4 or 5 m. below the mouth of the Ohio, in 1780,
destroyed the Indian towns Chillicothe and Piqua in the same year, and
in November 1782 destroyed the Indian towns on the Miami river. With
this last expedition his active military service virtually ended, and in
July 1783 he was relieved of his command by Virginia. Thereafter he
lived on part of the land granted to him by Virginia or in Louisville
for the rest of his life. In 1793 he accepted from Citizen Genet a
commission as "major-general in the armies of France, and
commander-in-chief of the French Revolutionary Legion in the Mississippi
Valley," and tried to raise a force for an attack upon the Spanish
possessions in the valley of the Mississippi. The scheme, however, was
abandoned after Genet's recall. Disappointed at what he regarded as his
country's ingratitude, and broken down by excessive drinking and
paralysis, he lost his once powerful influence and lived in comparative
isolation until his death, near Louisville, Kentucky, on the 13th of
February 1818.

  See W.H. English, _Conquest of the Country north-west of the River
  Ohio, 1778-1783, and Life of George Rogers Clark_ (2 vols.,
  Indianapolis and Kansas City, 1896), an accurate and detailed work,
  which represents an immense amount of research among both printed and
  manuscript sources. Clark's own accounts of his expeditions, and other
  interesting documents, are given in the appendix to this work.

CLARK, WILLIAM (1770-1838), the well-known explorer, was the youngest
brother of the foregoing. He was born in Caroline county, Virginia, on
the 1st of August 1770. At the age of fourteen he removed with his
parents to Kentucky, settling at the falls of the Ohio (Louisville). He
entered the United States army as a lieutenant of infantry in March
1792, and served under General Anthony Wayne against the Indians in
1794. In July 1796 he resigned his commission on account of ill-health.
In 1803-1806, with Meriwether Lewis (q.v.), he commanded the famous
exploring expedition across the continent to the mouth of the Columbia
river, and was commissioned second lieutenant in March 1804 and first
lieutenant in January 1806. In February he again resigned from the army.
He then served for a few years as brigadier-general of the Louisiana
territorial militia, as Indian agent for "Upper Louisiana," as
territorial governor of Missouri in 1813-1820, and as superintendent of
Indian affairs at St Louis from 1822 until his death there on the 1st of
September 1838.

CLARK, SIR JAMES (1788-1870), English physician, was born at Cullen,
Banffshire, and was educated at the grammar school of Fordyce and at the
universities of Aberdeen and Edinburgh. He served for six years as a
surgeon in the army; then spent some time in travelling on the
continent, in order to investigate the mineral waters and the climate of
various health resorts; and for seven years he lived in Rome. In 1826 he
began to practise in London. In 1835 he was appointed physician to the
duchess of Kent, becoming physician in ordinary to Queen Victoria in
1837. In 1838 he was created a baronet. He published _The Influence of
Climate in Chronic Diseases_, containing valuable meteorological tables
(1829), and a _Treatise on Pulmonary Consumption_ (1835).

CLARK, JOHN BATES (1847-   ), American economist, was born at Providence,
Rhode Island, on the 26th of January 1847. Educated at Brown University,
Amherst College, Heidelberg and Zurich, he was appointed professor of
political economy at Carleton College, Minnesota, in 1877. In 1881 he
became professor of history and political science in Smith College,
Massachusetts; in 1892 professor of political economy in Amherst
College. He was appointed professor of political economy at Columbia
University in 1895. Among his works are: _The Philosophy of Wealth_
(1885); _Wages_ (1889); _Capital and its Earnings_ (1898); _The Control
of Trusts_ (1901); _The Problem of Monopoly_ (1904); and _Essentials of
Economic Theory_ (1907).

CLARK, JOSIAH LATIMER (1822-1898), English engineer and electrician, was
born on the 10th of March 1822 at Great Marlow, Bucks. His first
interest was in chemical manufacturing, but in 1848 he became assistant
engineer at the Menai Straits bridge under his elder brother Edwin
(1814-1894), the inventor of the Clark hydraulic lift graving dock. Two
years later, when his brother was appointed engineer to the Electric
Telegraph Company, he again acted as his assistant, and subsequently
succeeded him as chief engineer. In 1854 he took out a patent "for
conveying letters or parcels between places by the pressure of air and
vacuum," and later was concerned in the construction of a large
pneumatic despatch tube between the general post office and Euston
station, London. About the same period he was engaged in experimental
researches on the propagation of the electric current in submarine
cables, on which he published a pamphlet in 1855, and in 1859 he was a
member of the committee which was appointed by the government to
consider the numerous failures of submarine cable enterprises. Latimer
Clark paid much attention to the subject of electrical measurement, and
besides designing various improvements in method and apparatus and
inventing the Clark standard cell, he took a leading part in the
movement for the systematization of electrical standards, which was
inaugurated by the paper which he and Sir C.T. Bright read on the
question before the British Association in 1861. With Bright also he
devised improvements in the insulation of submarine cables. In the later
part of his life he was a member of several firms engaged in laying
submarine cables, in manufacturing electrical appliances, and in
hydraulic engineering. He died in London on the 30th of October 1898.
Besides professional papers, he published an _Elementary Treatise on
Electrical Measurement_ (1868), together with two books on astronomical
subjects, and a memoir of Sir W.F. Cooke.

CLARK, THOMAS (1801-1867), Scottish chemist, was born at Ayr on the 31st
of March 1801. In 1826 he was appointed lecturer on chemistry at the
Glasgow mechanics' institute, and in 1831 he took the degree of M.D. at
the university of that city. Two years later he became professor of
chemistry in Marischal College, Aberdeen, but was obliged to give up the
duties of that position in 1844 through ill-health, though nominally he
remained professor till 1860. His name is chiefly known in connexion
with his process for softening hard waters, and his water tests,
patented in 1841. The last twenty years before his death at Glasgow on
the 27th of November 1867 were occupied with the study of the historical
origin of the Gospels.

CLARK, WILLIAM GEORGE (1821-1878), English classical and Shakespearian
scholar, was born at Barford Hall, Darlington, in March 1821. He was
educated at Sedbergh and Shrewsbury schools and Trinity College,
Cambridge, where he was elected fellow after a brilliant university
career. In 1857 he was appointed public orator. He travelled much during
the long vacations, visiting Spain, Greece, Italy and Poland. His
_Peloponnesus_ (1858) was an important contribution to the knowledge of
the country at that time. In 1853 Clark had taken orders, but left the
Church in 1870 after the passing of the Clerical Disabilities Act, of
which he was one of the promoters. He also resigned the public
oratorship in the same year, and in consequence of illness left
Cambridge in 1873. He died at York on the 6th of November 1878. He
bequeathed a sum of money to his old college for the foundation of a
lectureship in English literature. Although Clark was before all a
classical scholar, he published little in that branch of learning. A
contemplated edition of the works of Aristophanes, a task for which he
was singularly fitted, was never published. He visited Italy in 1868 for
the express purpose of examining the Ravenna and other MSS., and on his
return began the notes to the _Acharnians_, but they were left in too
incomplete a state to admit of publication in book form even after his
death (see _Journal of Philology_, viii., 1879). He established the
Cambridge _Journal of Philology_, and cooperated with B.H. Kennedy and
James Riddell in the production of the well-known _Sabrinae Corolla_.
The work by which he is best known is the Cambridge Shakespeare
(1863-1866), containing a collation of early editions and selected
emendations, edited by him at first with John Glover and afterwards with
W. Aldis Wright. _Gazpacho_ (1853)gives an account of his tour in Spain;
his visits to Italy at the time of Garibaldi's insurrection, and to
Poland during the insurrection of 1863, are described in _Vacation
Tourists_, ed. F. Galton, i. and iii.

  H.A.J. Munro in _Journal of Philology_ (viii. 1879) describes Clark as
  "the most accomplished and versatile man he ever met"; see also
  notices by W. Aldis Wright in _Academy_ (Nov. 23, 1878); R. Burn in
  _Athenaeum_ (Nov. 16, 1878); _The Times_ (Nov. 8, 1878); _Notes and
  Queries_, 5th series, x. (1878), p. 400.

CLARKE, ADAM (1762?-1832), British Nonconformist divine, was born at
Moybeg, Co. Londonderry, Ireland, in 1760 or 1762. After receiving a
very limited education he was apprenticed to a linen manufacturer, but,
finding the employment uncongenial, he resumed school-life at the
institution founded by Wesley at Kingswood, near Bristol. In 1782 he
entered on the duties of the ministry, being appointed by Wesley to the
Bradford (Wiltshire) circuit. His popularity as a preacher was very
great, and his influence in the denomination is indicated by the fact
that he was three times (1806, 1814, 1822) chosen to be president of the
conference. He served twice on the London circuit, the second period
being extended considerably longer than the rule allowed, at the special
request of the British and Foreign Bible Society, who had employed him
in the preparation of their Arabic Bible. Though ardent in his pastoral
work, he found time for diligent study of Hebrew and other Oriental
languages, undertaken chiefly with the view of qualifying himself for
the great work of his life, his _Commentary on the Holy Scriptures_ (8
vols., 1810-1820). In 1802 he published a _Bibliographical Dictionary_
in six volumes, to which he afterwards added a supplement. He was
selected by the Records Commission to re-edit Rymer's _Foedera_, a task
which after ten years' labour (1808-1818) he had to resign. He also
wrote _Memoirs of the Wesley Family_ (1823), and edited a large number
of religious works. Honours were showered upon him (he was M.A., LL.D.
of Aberdeen), and many distinguished men in church and state were his
personal friends. He died in London on the 16th of August 1832.

  His _Miscellaneous Works_ were published in 13 vols. (1836), and a
  _Life_ (3 vols.) by his son, J.B.B. Clarke, appeared in 1833.

CLARKE, SIR ANDREW (1824-1902), British soldier and administrator, son
of Colonel Andrew Clarke, of Co. Donegal, Ireland, governor of West
Australia, was born at Southsea, England, on the 27th of July 1824, and
educated at King's school, Canterbury. He entered the Royal Military
Academy, Woolwich, and obtained his commission in the army in 1844 as
second lieutenant in the Royal Engineers. He was appointed to his
father's staff in West Australia, but was transferred to be A.D.C. and
military secretary to the governor of Tasmania; and in 1847 he went to
New Zealand to take part in the Maori War, and for some years served on
Sir George Grey's staff. He was then made surveyor-general in Victoria,
took a prominent part in framing its new constitution, and held the
office of minister of public lands during the first administration
(1855-1857). He returned to England in 1857, and in 1863 was sent on a
special mission to the West Coast of Africa. In 1864 he was appointed
director of works for the navy, and held this post for nine years, being
responsible for great improvements in the naval arsenals at Chatham,
Portsmouth and Plymouth, and for fortifications at Malta, Cork, Bermuda
and elsewhere. In 1873 he was made K.C.M.G., and became governor of the
Straits Settlements, where he did most valuable work in consolidating
British rule and ameliorating the condition of the people. From 1875 to
1880 he was minister of public works in India; and on his return to
England in 1881, holding then the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the
army, he was first appointed commandant at Chatham and then
inspector-general of fortifications (1882-1886). Having attained the
rank of lieutenant-general and been created G.C.M.G., he retired from
official life, and in 1886 and 1893 unsuccessfully stood for parliament
as a supporter of Mr Gladstone. During his last years he was
agent-general for Victoria. He died on the 29th of March 1902. Both as a
technical and strategical engineer and as an Imperial administrator Sir
Andrew Clarke was one of the ablest and most useful public servants of
his time; and his contributions to periodical literature, as well as his
official memoranda, contained valuable suggestions on the subjects of
imperial defence and imperial consolidation which received too little
consideration at a period when the home governments were not properly
alive to their importance. He is entitled to remembrance as one of those
who first inculcated, from a wide practical experience, the views of
imperial administration and its responsibilities, which in his last
years he saw accepted by the bulk of his countrymen.

CLARKE, CHARLES COWDEN (1787-1877), English author and Shakespearian
scholar, was born at Enfield, Middlesex, on the 15th of December 1787.
His father, John Clarke, was a schoolmaster, among whose pupils was John
Keats. Charles Clarke taught Keats his letters, and encouraged his love
of poetry. He knew Charles and Mary Lamb, and afterwards became
acquainted with Shelley, Leigh Hunt, Coleridge and Hazlitt. Clarke
became a music publisher in partnership with Alfred Novello, and married
in 1828 his partner's sister, Mary Victoria (1809-1898), the eldest
daughter of Vincent Novello. In the year after her marriage Mrs Cowden
Clarke began her valuable Shakespeare concordance, which was eventually
issued in eighteen monthly parts (1844-1845), and in volume form in
1845 as _The Complete Concordance to Shakespeare, being a Verbal Index
to all the Passages in the Dramatic Works of the Poet_. This work
superseded the _Copious Index to ... Shakespeare_ (1790) of Samuel
Ayscough, and the _Complete Verbal Index ..._ (1805-1807) of Francis
Twiss. Charles Cowden Clarke published many useful books, and edited the
text for John Nichol's edition of the British poets; but his most
important work consisted of lectures delivered between 1834 and 1856 on
Shakespeare and other literary subjects. Some of the more notable series
were published, among them being _Shakespeare's Characters, chiefly
those subordinate_ (1863), and _Molière's Characters_ (1865). In 1859 he
published a volume of original poems, _Carmina Minima_. For some years
after their marriage the Cowden Clarkes lived with the Novellos in
London. In 1849 Vincent Novello with his wife removed to Nice, where he
was joined by the Clarkes in 1856. After his death they lived at Genoa
at the "Villa Novello." They collaborated in _The Shakespeare Key,
unlocking the Treasures of his Style ..._ (1879), and in an edition of
Shakespeare for Messrs Cassell, which was issued in weekly parts, and
completed in 1868. It was reissued in 1886 as _Cassell's Illustrated
Shakespeare_. Charles Clarke died on the 13th of March 1877 at Genoa,
and his wife survived him until the 12th of January 1898. Among Mrs
Cowden Clarke's other works may be mentioned _The Girlhood of
Shakespeare's Heroines_ (3 vols., 1850-1852), and a translation of
Berlioz's _Treatise upon Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration_

  See _Recollections of Writers_ (1898), a joint work by the Clarkes
  containing letters and reminiscences of their many literary friends;
  and Mary Cowden Clarke's autobiography, _My Long Life_ (1896). A
  charming series of letters (1850-1861), addressed by her to an
  American admirer of her work, Robert Balmanno, was edited by Anne
  Upton Nettleton as _Letters to an Enthusiast_ (Chicago, 1902).

CLARKE, EDWARD DANIEL (1769-1822), English mineralogist and traveller,
was born at Willingdon, Sussex, on the 5th of June 1769, and educated
first at Tonbridge. In 1786 he obtained the office of chapel clerk at
Jesus College, Cambridge, but the loss of his father at this time
involved him in difficulties. In 1790 he took his degree, and soon after
became private tutor to Henry Tufton, nephew of the duke of Dorset. In
1792 he obtained an engagement to travel with Lord Berwick through
Germany, Switzerland and Italy. After crossing the Alps, and visiting a
few of the principal cities of Italy, including Rome, he went to Naples,
where he remained nearly two years. Having returned to England in the
summer of 1794, he became tutor in several distinguished families. In
1799 he set out with a Mr Cripps on a tour through the continent of
Europe, beginning with Norway and Sweden, whence they proceeded through
Russia and the Crimea to Constantinople, Rhodes, and afterwards to Egypt
and Palestine. After the capitulation of Alexandria, Clarke was of
considerable use in securing for England the statues, sarcophagi, maps,
manuscripts, &c., which had been collected by the French savants. Greece
was the country next visited. From Athens the travellers proceeded by
land to Constantinople, and after a short stay in that city directed
their course homewards through Rumelia, Austria, Germany and France.
Clarke, who had now obtained considerable reputation, took up his
residence at Cambridge. He received the degree of LL.D. shortly after
his return in 1803, on account of the valuable donations, including a
colossal statue of the Eleusinian Ceres, which he had made to the
university. He was also presented to the college living of Harlton, near
Cambridge, in 1805, to which, four years later, his father-in-law added
that of Yeldham. Towards the end of 1808 Dr Clarke was appointed to the
professorship of mineralogy in Cambridge, then first instituted. Nor was
his perseverance as a traveller otherwise unrewarded. The MSS. which he
had collected in the course of his travels were sold to the Bodleian
library for £1000; and by the publication of his travels he realized
altogether a clear profit of £6595. Besides lecturing on mineralogy and
discharging his clerical duties, Dr Clarke eagerly prosecuted the study
of chemistry, and made several discoveries, principally by means of the
gas blow-pipe, which he had brought to a high degree of perfection. He
was also appointed university librarian in 1817, and was one of the
founders of the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1819. He died in
London on the 9th of March 1822. The following is a list of his
principal works:--_Testimony of Authors respecting the Colossal Statue
of Ceres in the Public Library, Cambridge_ (8vo, 1801-1803); _The Tomb
of Alexander, a Dissertation on the Sarcophagus brought from Alexandria,
and now in the British Museum_ (4to, 1805); _A Methodical Distribution
of the Mineral Kingdom_ (fol., Lewes, 1807); _A Description of the Greek
Marbles brought from the Shores of the Euxine, Archipelago and
Mediterranean, and deposited in the University Library, Cambridge_ (8vo,
1809); _Travels in various Countries of Europe, Asia and Africa_ (4to,
1810-1819; 2nd ed., 1811-1823).

  See _Life and Remains_, by Rev. W. Otter (1824).

CLARKE, SIR EDWARD GEORGE (1841-   ), English lawyer and politician, son
of J.G. Clarke of Moorgate Street, London, was born on the 15th of
February 1841. In 1859 he became a writer in the India office, but
resigned in the next year, and became a law reporter. He obtained a
Tancred law scholarship in 1861, and was called to the bar at Lincoln's
Inn in 1864. He joined the home circuit, became Q.C. in 1880, and a
bencher of Lincoln's Inn in 1882. In November 1877 he was successful in
securing the acquittal of Chief-Inspector Clarke from the charge brought
against certain Scotland Yard officials of conspiracy to defeat justice,
and his reputation was assured by his defence of Patrick Staunton in the
Penge murder case (1877), and of Mrs Bartlett against the charge of
poisoning her husband (1886). Among other notable cases he was counsel
for the plaintiff in the libel action brought by Sir William
Gordon-Cumming (1890) against Mr and Mrs Lycett Green and others for
slander, charging him with cheating in the game of baccarat (in this
case the prince of Wales, afterwards Edward VII., gave evidence), and he
appeared for Dr Jameson, Sir John Willoughby and others when they were
tried (1896) under the Foreign Enlistment Act. He was knighted in 1886.
He was returned as Conservative member for Southwark at a by-election
early in 1880, but failed to retain his seat at the general election
which followed a month or two later; he found a seat at Plymouth,
however, which he retained until 1900. He was solicitor-general in the
Conservative administration of 1886-1892, but declined office under the
Unionist government of 1895 when the law officers of the crown were
debarred from private practice. The most remarkable, perhaps, of his
speeches in the House of Commons was his reply to Mr Gladstone on the
second reading of the Home Rule Bill in 1893. In 1899 differences which
arose between Sir Edward Clarke and his party on the subject of the
government's South African policy led to his resigning his seat. At the
general election of 1906 he was returned at the head of the poll for the
city of London, but he offended a large section of his constituents by a
speech against tariff reform in the House of Commons on the 12th of
March, and shortly afterwards he resigned his seat on grounds of health.
He published a _Treatise on the Law of Extradition_ (4th ed., 1903), and
also three volumes of his political and forensic speeches.

CLARKE, JAMES FREEMAN (1810-1888), American preacher and author, was
born in Hanover, New Hampshire, on the 4th of April 1810. He was
prepared for college at the public Latin school of Boston, and graduated
at Harvard College in 1829, and at the Harvard Divinity School in 1833.
He was then ordained as minister of a Unitarian congregation at
Louisville, Kentucky, which was then a slave state. Clarke soon threw
himself heart and soul into the national movement for the abolition of
slavery, though he was never what was then called in America a "radical
abolitionist." In 1839 he returned to Boston, where he and his friends
established (1841) the "Church of the Disciples." It brought together a
body of men and women active and eager in applying the Christian
religion to the social problems of the day, and he would have said that
the feature which distinguished it from any other church was that they
also were ministers of the highest religious life. Ordination could make
no distinction between him and them. Of this church he was the minister
from 1841 until 1850 and from 1854 until his death. He was also
secretary of the Unitarian Association and, in 1867-1871 professor of
natural religion and Christian doctrine at Harvard. From the beginning
of his active life he wrote freely for the press. From 1836 until 1839
he was editor of the _Western Messenger_, a magazine intended to carry
to readers in the Mississippi Valley simple statements of "liberal
religion," involving what were then the most radical appeals as to
national duty, especially the abolition of slavery. The magazine is now
of value to collectors because it contains the earliest printed poems of
Ralph Waldo Emerson, who was Clarke's personal friend. Most of Clarke's
earlier published writings were addressed to the immediate need of
establishing a larger theory of religion than that espoused by people
who were still trying to be Calvinists, people who maintained what a
good American phrase calls "hard-shelled churches." But it would be
wrong to call his work controversial. He was always declaring that the
business of the Church is Eirenic and not Polemic. Such books as
_Orthodoxy: Its Truths and Errors_ (1866) have been read more largely by
members of orthodox churches than by Unitarians. In the great moral
questions of his time Clarke was a fearless and practical advocate of
the broadest statement of human rights. Without caring much what company
he served in, he could always be seen and heard, a leader of unflinching
courage, in the front rank of the battle. He published but few verses,
but at the bottom he was a poet. He was a diligent and accurate scholar,
and among the books by which he is best known is one called _Ten Great
Religions_ (2 vols., 1871-1883). Few Americans have done more than
Clarke to give breadth to the published discussion of the subjects of
literature, ethics and religious philosophy. Among his later books are
_Every-Day Religion_ (1886) and _Sermons on the Lord's Prayer_ (1888).
He died at Jamaica Plain, Mass., on the 8th of June 1888.

  His _Autobiography, Diary and Correspondence_, edited by Edward
  Everett Hale, was published in Boston in 1891. (E.E.H.)

CLARKE, JOHN SLEEPER (1833-1899), American actor, was born in Baltimore,
Maryland, on the 3rd of September 1833, and was educated for the law. He
made his first appearance in Boston as Frank Hardy in _Paul Pry_ in
1851. In 1859 he married Asia Booth, daughter of Junius Brutus Booth,
and he was associated with his brother-in-law Edwin Booth in the
management of the Winter Garden theatre in New York, the Walnut Street
theatre in Philadelphia and the Boston theatre. In 1867 he went to
London, where he made his first appearance at the St James's as Major
Wellington de Boots in Stirling Coynes's _Everybody's Friend_, rewritten
for him and called _The Widow's Hunt_. His success was so great that he
remained in England for the rest of his life, except for four visits to
America. Among his favourite parts were Toodles, which ran for 200
nights at the Strand, Dr Pangloss in _The Heir-at-law_, and Dr Ollapod
in _The Poor Gentleman_. He managed several London theatres, including
the Haymarket, where he preceded the Bancrofts. He retired in 1889, and
died on the 24th of September 1899. His two sons also were actors.

CLARKE, MARCUS ANDREW HISLOP (1846-1881), Australian author, was born in
London on the 24th of April 1846. He was the only son of William Hislop
Clarke, a barrister of the Middle Temple who died in 1863. He emigrated
forthwith to Australia, where his uncle, James Langton Clarke, was a
county court judge. He was at first a clerk in the bank of Australasia,
but showed no business ability, and soon proceeded to learn farming at a
station on the Wimmera river, Victoria. He was already writing stories
for the _Australian Magazine_, when in 1867 he joined the staff of the
Melbourne _Argus_ through the introduction of Dr Robert Lewins. He also
became secretary (1872) to the trustees of the Melbourne public library
and later (1876) assistant librarian. He founded in 1868 the Yorick
Club, which soon numbered among its members the chief Australian men of
letters. The most famous of his books is _For the Term of his Natural
Life_ (Melbourne, 1874), a powerful tale of an Australian penal
settlement, which originally appeared in serial form in a Melbourne
paper. He also wrote _The Peripatetic Philosopher_ (1869), a series of
amusing papers reprinted from _The Austral-asian; Long Odds_ (London,
1870), a novel; and numerous comedies and pantomimes, the best of which
was _Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star_ (Theatre Royal, Melbourne;
Christmas, 1873). He married an actress, Marian Dunn. In spite of his
popular success Clarke was constantly involved in pecuniary
difficulties, which are said to have hastened his death at Melbourne on
the 2nd of August 1881.

  See _The Marcus Clarke Memorial Volume_ (Melbourne, 1884), containing
  selections from his writings with a biography and list of works,
  edited by Hamilton Mackinnon.

CLARKE, MARY ANNE (c. 1776-1852), mistress of Frederick duke of York,
second son of George III., was born either in London or at Oxford. Her
father, whose name was Thompson, seems to have been a tradesman in
rather humble circumstances. She married before she was eighteen, but Mr
Clarke, the proprietor of a stonemasonry business, became bankrupt, and
she left him. After other _liaisons_, she became in 1803 the mistress of
the duke of York, then commander-in-chief, maintaining a large and
expensive establishment in a fashionable district. The duke's promised
allowance was not regularly paid, and to escape her financial
difficulties Mrs Clarke trafficked in her protector's position,
receiving money from various promotion-seekers, military, civil and even
clerical, in return for her promise to secure them the good services of
the duke. Her procedure became a public scandal, and in 1809 Colonel
Wardle, M.P., brought eight charges of abuse of military patronage
against the duke in the House of Commons, and a committee of inquiry was
appointed, before which Mrs Clarke herself gave evidence. The result of
the inquiry clearly established the charges as far as she was concerned,
and the duke of York was shown to have been aware of what was being
done, but to have derived no pecuniary benefit himself. He resigned his
appointment as commander-in-chief, and terminated his connexion with Mrs
Clarke, who subsequently obtained from him a considerable sum in cash
and a pension, as the price for withholding the publication of his
numerous letters to her. Mrs Clarke died at Boulogne on the 21st of June

  See Taylor, _Authentic Memoirs of Mrs Clarke_; Clarke (? pseud.),
  _Life of Mrs M.A. Clarkek_; _Annual Register_, vol. li.

CLARKE, SAMUEL (1675-1729), English philosopher and divine, son of
Edward Clarke, an alderman, who for several years was parliamentary
representative of the city of Norwich, was born on the 11th of October
1675, and educated at the free school of Norwich and at Caius College,
Cambridge. The philosophy of Descartes was the reigning system at the
university; Clarke, however, mastered the new system of Newton, and
contributed greatly to its extension by publishing an excellent Latin
version of the _Traité de physique_ of Jacques Rohault (1620-1675) with
valuable notes, which he finished before he was twenty-two years of age.
The system of Rohault was founded entirely upon Cartesian principles,
and was previously known only through the medium of a rude Latin
version. Clarke's translation (1697) continued to be used as a text-book
in the university till supplanted by the treatises of Newton, which it
had been designed to introduce. Four editions were issued, the last and
best being that of 1718. It was translated into English in 1723 by his
brother Dr John Clarke (1682-1757), dean of Sarum.

Clarke afterwards devoted himself to the study of Scripture in the
original, and of the primitive Christian writers. Having taken holy
orders, he became chaplain to John Moore (1646-1714), bishop of Norwich,
who was ever afterwards his friend and patron. In 1699 he published two
treatises,--one entitled _Three Practical Essays on Baptism,
Confirmation and Repentance_, and the other, _Some Reflections on that
part of a book called Amyntor, or a Defence of Milton's Life, which
relates to the Writings of the Primitive Fathers, and, the Canon of the
New Testament_. In 1701 he published _A Paraphrase upon the Gospel of St
Matthew_, which was followed, in 1702, by the _Paraphrases upon the
Gospels of St Mark and St Luke_, and soon afterwards by a third volume
upon St John. They were subsequently printed together in two volumes and
have since passed through several editions. He intended to treat in the
same manner the remaining books of the New Testament, but his design was

Meanwhile he had been presented by Bishop Moore to the rectory of
Drayton, near Norwich. As Boyle lecturer, he dealt in 1704 with the
_Being and Attributes of God_, and in 1705 with the _Evidences of
Natural and Revealed Religion_. These lectures, first printed
separately, were afterwards published together under the title of _A
Discourse concerning the Being and Attributes of God, the Obligations of
Natural Religion, and the Truth and Certainty of the Christian
Revelation, in opposition to Hobbes, Spinoza, the author of the Oracles
of Reason, and other Deniers of Natural and Revealed Religion_.

In 1706 he wrote a refutation of Dr Henry Dodwell's views on the
immortality of the soul, and this drew him into controversy with Anthony
Collins. He also wrote at this time a translation of Newton's _Optics_,
for which the author presented him with £500. In the same year through
the influence of Bishop Moore, he obtained the rectory of St Benet's,
Paul's Wharf, London. Soon afterwards Queen Anne appointed him one of
her chaplains in ordinary, and in 1709 presented him to the rectory of
St James's, Westminster. He then took the degree of doctor in divinity,
defending as his thesis the two propositions: _Nullum fidei Christianae
dogma, in Sacris Scripturis traditum, est rectae rationi dissentaneum_,
and _Sine actionum humanarum libertate nulla potest esse religio_.
During the same year, at the request of the author, he revised Whiston's
English translation of the _Apostolical Constitutions_.

In 1712 he published a carefully punctuated and annotated edition (folio
1712, octavo 1720) of Caesar's _Commentaries_, with elegant engravings,
dedicated to the duke of Marlborough. During the same year he published
his celebrated treatise on _The Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity_. It
is divided into three parts. The first contains a collection and
exegesis of all the texts in the New Testament relating to the doctrine
of the Trinity; in the second the doctrine is set forth at large, and
explained in particular and distinct propositions; and in the third the
principal passages in the liturgy of the Church of England relating to
the doctrine of the Trinity are considered. Whiston informs us that,
some time before the publication of this book, a message was sent to him
from Lord Godolphin "that the affairs of the public were with difficulty
then kept in the hands of those that were for liberty; that it was
therefore an unseasonable time for the publication of a book that would
make a great noise and disturbance; and that therefore they desired him
to forbear till a fitter opportunity should offer itself,"--a message
that Clarke of course entirely disregarded. The ministers were right in
their conjectures; and the work not only provoked a great number of
replies, but occasioned a formal complaint from the Lower House of
Convocation. Clarke, in reply, drew up an apologetic preface, and
afterwards gave several explanations, which satisfied the Upper House;
and, on his pledging himself that his future conduct would occasion no
trouble, the matter dropped.

In 1715 and 1716 he had a discussion with Leibnitz relative to the
principles of natural philosophy and religion, which was at length cut
short by the death of his antagonist. A collection of the papers which
passed between them was published in 1717 (cf. G. v. Leroy, _Die philos.
Probleme in dem Briefwechsel Leibniz und Clarke_, Giessen, 1893). In
1719 he was presented by Nicholas 1st Baron Lechmere, to the mastership
of Wigston's hospital in Leicester. In 1724 he published seventeen
sermons, eleven of which had not before been printed. In 1727, on the
death of Sir Isaac Newton, he was offered by the court the place of
master of the mint, worth on an average from £1200 to £1500 a year. This
secular preferment, however, he absolutely refused. In 1728 was
published "A Letter from Dr Clarke to Benjamin Hoadly, F.R.S.,
occasioned by the controversy relating to the Proportion of Velocity and
Force in Bodies in Motion," printed in the _Philosophical Transactions_.
In 1729 he published the first twelve books of Homer's _Iliad_. This
edition, dedicated to William Augustus, duke of Cumberland, was highly
praised by Bishop Hoadly. On Sunday, the 11th of May 1729, when going
out to preach before the judges at Serjeants' Inn, he was seized with a
sudden illness, which caused his death on the Saturday following (May
17, 1729).

Soon after his death his brother Dr John Clarke, dean of Sarum,
published, from his original manuscripts, _An Exposition of the Church
Catechism_, and ten volumes of sermons. The _Exposition_ is composed of
the lectures which he read every Thursday morning, for some months in
the year, at St James's church. In the latter part of his life he
revised them with great care, and left them completely prepared for the
press. Three years after his death appeared also the last twelve books
of the _Iliad_, published by his son Samuel Clarke, the first three of
these books and part of the fourth having, as he states, been revised
and annotated by his father.

In disposition Clarke was cheerful and even playful. An intimate friend
relates that he once found him swimming upon a table. At another time
Clarke on looking out at the window saw a grave blockhead approaching
the house; upon which he cried out, "Boys, boys, be wise; here comes a
fool." Dr Warton, in his observations upon Pope's line,

  "Unthought-of frailties cheat us in the wise,"

says, "Who could imagine that Locke was fond of romances; that Newton
once studied astrology; that Dr Clarke valued himself on his agility,
and frequently amused himself in a private room of his house in leaping
over the tables and chairs?"

  _Philosophy._--Clarke, though in no way an original thinker, was
  eminent in theology, mathematics, metaphysics and philology, but his
  chief strength lay in his logical power. The materialism of Hobbes,
  the pantheism of Spinoza, the empiricism of Locke, the determinism of
  Leibnitz, Collins' necessitarianism, Dodwell's denial of the natural
  immortality of the soul, rationalistic attacks on Christianity, and
  the morality of the sensationalists--all these he opposed with a
  thorough conviction of the truth of the principles which he advocated.
  His fame as theologian and philosopher rests to a large extent on his
  demonstration of the existence of God and his theory of the foundation
  of rectitude. The former is not a purely a priori argument, nor is it
  presented as such by its author. It starts from a fact and it often
  explicitly appeals to facts. The intelligence, for example, of the
  self-existence and original cause of all things is, he says, "not
  easily proved a priori," but "demonstrably proved a posteriori from
  the variety and degrees of perfection in things, and the order of
  causes and effects, from the intelligence that created beings are
  confessedly endowed with, and from the beauty, order, and final
  purpose of things." The propositions maintained in the argument
  are--"(1) That something has existed from eternity; (2) that there has
  existed from eternity some one immutable and independent being; (3)
  that that immutable and independent being, which has existed from
  eternity, without any external cause of its existence, must be
  self-existent, that is, necessarily existing; (4) what the substance
  or essence of that being is, which is self-existent or necessarily
  existing, we have no idea, neither is it at all possible for us to
  comprehend it; (5) that though the substance or essence of the
  self-existent being is itself absolutely incomprehensible to us, yet
  many of the essential attributes of his nature are strictly
  demonstrable as well as his existence, and, in the first place, that
  he must be of necessity eternal; (6) that the self-existent being must
  of necessity be infinite and omnipresent; (7) must be but one; (8)
  must be an intelligent being; (9) must be not a necessary agent, but a
  being endued with liberty and choice; (10) must of necessity have
  infinite power; (11) must be infinitely wise, and (12) must of
  necessity be a being of infinite goodness, justice, and truth, and all
  other moral perfections, such as become the supreme governor and judge
  of the world."

  In order to establish his sixth proposition, Clarke contends that time
  and space, eternity and immensity, are not substances, but
  attributes--the attributes of a self-existent being. Edmund Law,
  Dugald Stewart, Lord Brougham, and many other writers, have, in
  consequence, represented Clarke as arguing from the existence of time
  and space to the existence of Deity. This is a serious mistake. The
  existence of an immutable, independent, and necessary being is
  supposed to be proved before any reference is made to the nature of
  time and space. Clarke has been generally supposed to have derived the
  opinion that time and space are attributes of an infinite immaterial
  and spiritual being from the _Scholium Generale_, first published in
  the second edition of Newton's _Principia_ (1714). The truth is that
  his work on the Being and Attributes of God appeared nine years before
  that _Scholium_. The view propounded by Clarke may have been derived
  from the Midrash, the Kabbalah, Philo, Henry More, or Cudworth, but
  not from Newton. It is a view difficult to prove, and probably few
  will acknowledge that Clarke has conclusively proved it.

  His ethical theory of "fitness" (see ETHICS) is formulated on the
  analogy of mathematics. He held that in relation to the will things
  possess an objective fitness similar to the mutual consistency of
  things in the physical universe. This fitness God has given to
  actions, as he has given laws to Nature; and the fitness is as
  immutable as the laws. The theory has been unfairly criticized by
  Jouffroy, Amédée Jacques, Sir James Mackintosh, Thomas Brown and
  others. It is said, for example, that Clarke made virtue consist in
  conformity to the relations of things universally, although the whole
  tenor of his argument shows him to have had in view conformity to such
  relations only as belong to the sphere of moral agency. It is true
  that he might have emphasized the relation of moral fitness to the
  will, and in this respect J.F. Herbart (_q.v._) improved on Clarke's
  statement of the case. To say, however, that Clarke simply confused
  mathematics and morals by justifying the moral criterion on a
  mathematical basis is a mistake. He compared the two subjects for the
  sake of the analogy.

  Though Clarke can thus be defended against this and similar criticism,
  his work as a whole can be regarded only as an attempt to present the
  doctrines of the Cartesian school in a form which would not shock the
  conscience of his time. His work contained a measure of rationalism
  sufficient to arouse the suspicion of orthodox theologians, without
  making any valuable addition to, or modification of, the underlying

  AUTHORITIES.--See W. Whiston's _Historical Memoirs_, and the preface
  by Benjamin Hoadly to Clarke's _Works_ (4 vols., London, 1738-1742).
  See further on his general philosophical position J. Hunt's _Religious
  Thought in England_, _passim_, but particularly in vol. ii. 447-457,
  and vol. iii. 20-29 and 109-115, &c.; Rob. Zimmermann in the
  _Denkschriften d. k. Akademie der Wissenschaften, Phil.-Hist. Classe_,
  Bd. xix. (Vienna, 1870); H. Sidgwick's _Methods of Ethics_ (6th ed.,
  1901), p. 384; A. Bain's _Moral Science_ (1872), p. 562 foll., and
  _Mental Science_ (1872), p. 416; Sir L. Stephen's _English Thought in
  the Eighteenth Century_ (3rd ed., 1902), c. iii.; J. E. le Rossignol,
  _Ethical Philosophy of S. Clarke_ (Leipzig, 1892).

CLARKE, THOMAS SHIELDS (1860-   ), American artist, was born in Pittsburg,
Pennsylvania, on the 25th of April 1860, and graduated at Princeton in
1882. He was a pupil of the Art Students' League, New York, and of the
École des Beaux Arts, Paris, under J.L. Gérôme; later he entered the
atelier of Dagnan-Bouveret, and, becoming interested in sculpture,
worked for a while under Henri M. Chapu. As a sculptor, he received a
medal of honour in Madrid for his "The Cider Press," now in the Golden
Gate Park, San Francisco, California, and he made four caryatides of
"The Seasons" for the Appellate Court House, New York. He designed an
"Alma Mater" for Princeton University, and a model is in the library.
Among his paintings are his "Night Market in Morocco" (Philadelphia Art
Club), for which he received a medal at the International Exposition in
Berlin in 1891, and his "A Fool's Fool," exhibited at the Salon in 1887
and now in the collection of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts,

CLARKE, WILLIAM BRANWHITE (1798-1878), British geologist, was born at
East Bergholt, in Suffolk, on the 2nd of June 1798. He received his
early education at Dedham grammar school, and in 1817 entered Jesus
College, Cambridge; he took his B.A. in 1821, was ordained and became
M.A. in 1824. In 1821 he was appointed curate of Ramsholt in Suffolk,
and he acted in his clerical capacity in other places until 1839. Having
become interested in geology through the teachings of Sedgwick, he
utilized his opportunities and gathered many interesting facts on the
geology of East Anglia which were embodied in a paper "On the Geological
Structure and Phenomena of Suffolk" (_Trans. Geol. Soc._ 1837). He also
communicated a series of papers on the geology of S.E. Dorsetshire to
the _Magazine of Nat. Hist._ (1837-1838). In 1839, after a severe
illness, he left England for New South Wales, mainly with the object of
benefiting by the sea voyage. He remained, however, in that country, and
came to be regarded as the "Father of Australian Geology." From the date
of his arrival in New South Wales until 1870 he was in clerical charge
first of the country from Paramatta to the Hawkesbury river, then of
Campbelltown, and finally of Willoughby. He zealously devoted attention
to the geology of the country, with results that have been of paramount
importance. In 1841 he discovered gold, being the first explorer who had
obtained it _in situ_ in the country, finding it both in the detrital
deposits and in the quartzites of the Blue Mountains, and he then
declared his belief in its abundance. In 1849 he made the first actual
discovery of tin in Australia and in 1859 he made known the occurrence
of the diamond. He was also the first to indicate the presence of
Silurian rocks, and to determine the age of the coal-bearing rocks in
New South Wales. In 1869 he announced the discovery of remains of
_Dinornis_ in Queensland. He was a trustee of the Australian museum at
Sydney, and an active member of the Royal Society of New South Wales. In
1860 he published _Researches in the Southern Gold-fields of New South
Wales_. He was elected F.R.S. in 1876, and in the following year was
awarded the Murchison medal by the Geological Society of London. His
contributions to Australian scientific journals were numerous. He died
near Sydney, on the 17th of June 1878.

CLARKSON, THOMAS (1760-1846), English anti-slavery agitator, was born on
the 28th of March 1760, at Wisbeach, in Cambridgeshire, where his father
was headmaster of the free grammar school. He was educated at St Paul's
school and at St John's College, Cambridge. Having taken the first place
among the middle bachelors as Latin essayist, he succeeded in 1785 in
gaining a similar honour among the senior bachelors. The subject
appointed by the vice-chancellor, Dr Peckhard, was one in which he was
himself deeply interested--_Anne liceat invitos in servitutem dare?_ (Is
it right to make men slaves against their will?). In preparing for this
essay Clarkson consulted a number of works on African slavery, of which
the chief was Benezet's _Historical Survey of New Guinea_; and the
atrocities of which he read affected him so deeply that he determined to
devote all his energies to effect the abolition of the slave trade, and
gave up his intention of entering the church.

His first measure was to publish, with additions, an English translation
of his prize essay (June 1786). He then commenced to search in all
quarters for information concerning slavery. He soon discovered that the
cause had already been taken up to some extent by others, most of whom
belonged to the Society of Friends, and among the chief of whom were
William Dillwyn, Joseph Wood and Granville Sharp. With the aid of these
gentlemen, a committee of twelve was formed in May 1787 to do all that
was possible to effect the abolition of the slave trade. Meanwhile
Clarkson had also gained the sympathy of Wilberforce, Whitbread, Sturge
and several other men of influence. Travelling from port to port, he now
commenced to collect a large mass of evidence; and much of it was
embodied in his _Summary View of the Slave Trade, and the Probable
Consequences of its Abolition_, which, with a number of other
anti-slavery tracts, was published by the committee. Pitt, Grenville,
Fox and Burke looked favourably on the movement; in May 1788 Pitt
introduced a parliamentary discussion on the subject, and Sir W. Dolben
brought forward a bill providing that the number of slaves carried in a
vessel should be proportional to its tonnage. A number of Liverpool and
Bristol merchants obtained permission from the House to be heard by
council against the bill, but on the 18th of June it passed the Commons.
Soon after Clarkson published an _Essay on the Impolicy of the Slave
Trade_; and for two months he was continuously engaged in travelling
that he might meet men who were personally acquainted with the facts of
the trade. From their lips he collected a considerable amount of
evidence; but only nine could be prevailed upon to promise to appear
before the privy council. Meanwhile other witnesses had been obtained by
Wilberforce and the committee, and on the 12th of May 1789 the former
led a debate on the subject in the House of Commons, in which he was
seconded by Burke and supported by Pitt and Fox.

It was now the beginning of the French Revolution, and in the hope that
he might arouse the French to sweep away slavery with other abuses,
Clarkson crossed to Paris, where he remained six months. He found Necker
head of the government, and obtained from him some sympathy but little
help. Mirabeau, however, with his assistance, prepared a speech against
slavery, to be delivered before the National Assembly, and the Marquis
de la Fayette entered enthusiastically into his views. During this visit
Clarkson met a deputation of negroes from Santo Domingo, who had come to
France to present a petition to the National Assembly, desiring to be
placed on an equal footing with the whites; but the storm of the
Revolution permitted no substantial success to be achieved. Soon after
his return home he engaged in a search, the apparent hopelessness of
which finely displays his unshrinking laboriousness and his passionate
enthusiasm. He desired to find some one who had himself witnessed the
capture of the negroes in Africa; and a friend having met by chance a
man-of-war's-man who had done so, Clarkson, though ignorant of the name
and address of the sailor, set out in search of him, and actually
discovered him. His last tour was undertaken in order to form
anti-slavery committees in all the principal towns. At length, in the
autumn of 1794, his health gave way, and he was obliged to cease active
work. He now occupied his time in writing a _History of the Abolition of
the Slave Trade_, which appeared in 1808. The bill for the abolition of
the trade became law in 1807; but it was still necessary to secure the
assent of the other powers to its principle. To obtain this was, under
pressure of the public opinion created by Clarkson and his friends, one
of the main objects of British diplomacy at the Congress of Vienna, and
in February 1815 the trade was condemned by the powers. The question of
concerting practical measures for its abolition was raised at the
Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818, but without result. On this
occasion Clarkson personally presented an address to the emperor
Alexander I., who communicated it to the sovereigns of Austria and
Prussia. In 1823 the Anti-Slavery Society was formed, and Clarkson was
one of its vice-presidents. He was for some time blind from cataract;
but several years before his death on the 26th of September 1846, his
sight was restored.

  Besides the works already mentioned, he published the _Portraiture of
  Quakerism_ (1806), _Memoirs of William Penn_ (1813), _Researches,
  Antediluvian, Patriarchal and Historical_ (1836), intended as a
  history of the interference of Providence for man's spiritual good,
  and _Strictures_ on several of the remarks concerning himself made in
  the _Life of Wilberforce_, in which his claim as originator of the
  anti-slavery movement is denied.

  See the lives by Thomas Elmes (1876) and Thomas Taylor (1839).

CLARKSVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Montgomery county, Tennessee,
U.S.A., situated in the N. part of the state, about 50 m. N.W. of
Nashville, on the Cumberland river, at the mouth of the Red river. Pop.
(1890) 7924; (1900) 9431, of whom 5094 were negroes; (1910 census) 8548.
It is served by the Louisville & Nashville, and the Illinois Central
railways, and by passenger and freight steamboat lines on the Cumberland
river. The city hall, and the public library are among the principal
public buildings, and the city is the seat of the Tennessee Odd Fellows'
home, and of the South-Western Presbyterian University, founded in 1875.
Clarksville lies in the centre of the dark tobacco belt--commonly known
as the "Black Patch"--and is an important tobacco market, with an annual
trade in that staple of about $4,000,000, most of the product being
exported to France, Italy, Austria and Spain. The city is situated in a
region well adapted for the growing of wheat, Indian corn, and
vegetables, and for the raising of live-stock; and Clarksville is a
shipping point for the lumber--chiefly oak, poplar and birch--and the
iron-ore of the surrounding country, a branch of the Louisville &
Nashville railway extending into the iron district. The city's principal
manufactures are flour and grist mill products, chewing and smoking
tobacco and snuff, furniture, lumber, iron, and pearl buttons. The value
of the factory product in 1905 was $2,210,112, being 32% greater than in
1900. The municipality owns its water-works. Clarksville was first
settled as early as 1780, was named in honour of General George Rogers
Clark, and was chartered as a city in 1850.

CLASSICS. The term "classic" is derived from the Latin epithet
_classicus_, found in a passage of Aulus Gellius (xix. 8. 15), where a
"_scriptor 'classicus'_" is contrasted with a "_scriptor proletarius_."
The metaphor is taken from the division of the Roman people into
_classes_ by Servius Tullius, those in the first class being called
_classici_, all the rest _infra classem_, and those in the last
_proletarii_.[1] The epithet "classic" is accordingly applied (1)
generally to an author of the first rank, and (2) more particularly to
a Greek or Roman author of that character. Similarly, "the classics" is
a synonym for the choicest products of the literature of ancient Greece
and Rome. It is to this sense of the word that the following article is
devoted in two main divisions: (A) the general history of classical
(i.e. Greek and Latin) scholarship, and (B) its place in higher


We may consider this subject in four principal periods:--(i.) the
_Alexandrian_, c. 300-1 B.C.; (ii.) the _Roman_, A.D. c. 1-530; (iii.)
the _Middle Ages_, c. 530-1350; and (iv.) the _Modern Age_, c. 1350 to
the present day.

(i.) _The Alexandrian Age._--The study of the Greek classics begins with
the school of Alexandria. Under the rule of Ptolemy Philadelphus
(285-247 B.C.), learning found a home in the Alexandrian Museum and in
the great Alexandrian Library. The first four librarians were Zenodotus,
Eratosthenes, Aristophanes of Byzantium, and Aristarchus. Zenodotus
produced before 274 the first scientific edition of the _Iliad_ and
_Odyssey_, an edition in which spurious lines were marked, at the
beginning, with a short horizontal dash called an _obelus_ (--). He also
drew up select lists of epic and lyric poets. Soon afterwards a
classified catalogue of dramatists, epic and lyric poets, legislators,
philosophers, historians, orators and rhetoricians, and miscellaneous
writers, with a brief biography of each, was produced by the scholar and
poet Callimachus (fl. 260). Among the pupils of Callimachus was
Eratosthenes who, in 234, succeeded Zenodotus as librarian. Apart from
his special interest in the history of the Old Attic comedy, he was a
man of vast and varied learning; the founder of astronomical geography
and of scientific chronology; and the first to assume the name of
[Greek: philologos]. The greatest philologist of antiquity was, however,
his successor, Aristophanes of Byzantium (195), who reduced accentuation
and punctuation to a definite system, and used a variety of critical
symbols in his recension of the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_. He also edited
Hesiod and Pindar, Euripides and Aristophanes, besides composing brief
introductions to the several plays, parts of which are still extant.
Lastly, he established a scientific system of lexicography and drew up
lists of the "best authors." Two critical editions of the _Iliad_ and
_Odyssey_ were produced by his successor, Aristarchus, who was librarian
until 146 B.C. and was the founder of scientific scholarship. His
distinguished pupil, Dionysius Thrax (born c. 166 B.C.), drew up a Greek
grammar which continued in use for more than thirteen centuries. The
most industrious of the successors of Aristarchus was Didymus (c. 65
B.C.-A.D. 10), who, in his work on the Homeric poems, aimed at restoring
the lost recensions of Aristarchus. He also composed commentaries on the
lyric and comic poets and on Thucydides and Demosthenes; part of his
commentary on this last author was first published in 1904. He was a
teacher in Alexandria (and perhaps also in Rome); and his death, about
A.D. 10, marks the close of the Alexandrian age. He is the industrious
compiler who gathered up the remnants of the learning of his
predecessors and transmitted them to posterity. The poets of that age,
including Callimachus and Theocritus, were subsequently expounded by
Theon, who flourished under Tiberius, and has been well described as
"the Didymus of the Alexandrian poets."

The Alexandrian canon of the Greek classics, which probably had its
origin in the lists drawn up by Callimachus, Aristophanes of Byzantium
and Aristarchus, included the following authors:--

  _Epic poets_ (5): Homer, Hesiod, Peisander, Panyasis, Antimachus.

  _Iambic poets_ (3): Simonides of Amorgos, Archilochus, Hipponax.

  _Tragic poets_ (5): Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Ion, Achaeus.

  _Comic poets, Old_ (7): Epicharmus, Cratinus, Eupolis, Aristophanes,
  Pherecrates, Crates, Plato. _Middle_ (2): Antiphanes, Alexis. _New_
  (5): Menander, Philippides, Diphilus, Philemon, Apollodorus.

  _Elegiac poets_ (4): Callinus, Mimnermus, Philetas, Callimachus.

  _Lyric poets_ (9): Alcman, Alcaeus, Sappho, Stesichorus, Pindar,
  Bacchylides, Ibycus, Anacreon, Simonides of Ceos.

  _Orators_ (10): Demosthenes, Lysias, Hypereides, Isocrates, Aeschines,
  Lycurgus, Isaeus, Antiphon, Ándocides, Deinarchus.

  _Historians_ (10): Thucydides, Herodotus, Xenophon, Philistius,
  Theopompus, Ephorus, Anaximenes, Callisthenes, Hellanicus, Polybius.

The latest name in the above list is that of Polybius, who died about
123 B.C. Apollonius Rhodius, Aratus and Theocritus were subsequently
added to the "epic" poets. Philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle,
were possibly classed in a separate "canon."

While the scholars of Alexandria were mainly interested in the _verbal
criticism_ of the Greek _poets_, a wider variety of studies was the
characteristic of the school of Pergamum, the literary rival of
Alexandria. Pergamum was a home of learning for a large part of the 150
years of the Attalid dynasty, 283-133 B.C.

The grammar of the Stoics, gradually elaborated by Zeno, Cleanthes and
Chrysippus, supplied a terminology which, in words such as "genitive,"
"accusative" and "aorist," has become a permanent part of the
grammarian's vocabulary; and the study of this grammar found its
earliest home in Pergamum.

From about 168 B.C. the head of the Pergamene school was Crates of
Mallus, who (like the Stoics) was an adherent of the principle of
"anomaly" in grammar, and was thus opposed to Aristarchus of Alexandria,
the champion of "analogy." He also opposed Aristarchus, and supported
the Stoics, by insisting on an _allegorical_ interpretation of Homer. He
is credited with having drawn up the classified lists of the best
authors for the Pergamene library. His mission as an envoy to the Roman
senate, "shortly after the death of Ennius" in 169 B.C., had a
remarkable influence on literary studies in Rome. Meeting with an
accident while he was wandering on the Palatine, and being detained in
Rome, he passed part of his enforced leisure in giving lectures
(possibly on Homer, his favourite author), and thus succeeded in
arousing among the Romans a taste for the scholarly study of literature.
The example set by Crates led to the production of a new edition of the
epic poem of Naevius, and to the public recitation of the _Annals_ of
Ennius, and (two generations later) the _Satires_ of Lucilius.

(ii.) _The Roman Age._--(a) _Latin Studies._--In the 1st century B.C.
the foremost scholar in Rome was L. Aelius Stilo (c. 154-c. 74), who is
described by Cicero as profoundly learned in Greek and Latin literature,
and as an accomplished critic of Roman antiquities and of ancient
authors. Of the plays then passing under the name of Plautus, he
recognized twenty-five as genuine. His most famous pupil was Varro
(116-27), the six surviving books of whose great work on the Latin
language are mainly concerned with the great grammatical controversy on
analogy and anomaly--a controversy which also engaged the attention of
Cicero and Caesar, and of the elder Pliny and Quintilian. The twenty-one
plays of Plautus accepted by Varro are doubtless the twenty now extant,
together with the lost _Vidularia_. The influence of Varro's last work
on the nine _disciplinae_, or branches of study, long survived in the
seven "liberal arts" recognized by St Augustine and Martianus Capella,
and in the _trivium_ and _quadrivium_ of the middle ages.

Part of Varro's treatise on Latin was dedicated to Cicero (106-43), who
as an interpreter of Greek philosophy to his fellow-countrymen enlarged
the vocabulary of Latin by his admirable renderings of Greek
philosophical terms, and thus ultimately gave us such indispensable
words as "species," "quality" and "quantity."

The earliest of Latin lexicons was produced about 10 B.C. by Verrius
Flaccus in a work, _De Verborum Significatu_, which survived in the
abridgment by Festus (2nd century A.D.) and in the further abridgment
dedicated by Paulus Diaconus to Charles the Great.

Greek models were diligently studied by Virgil and Horace. Their own
poems soon became the theme of criticism and of comment; and, by the
time of Quintilian and Juvenal, they shared the fate (which Horace had
feared) of becoming text-books for use in schools.

Recensions of Terence, Lucretius and Persius, as well as Horace and
Virgil, were produced by Probus (d. A.D. 88), with critical symbols
resembling those invented by the Alexandrian scholars. His contemporary
Asconius is best known as the author of an extant historical commentary
on five of the speeches of Cicero. In A.D. 88 Quintilian was placed at
the head of the first state-supported school in Rome. His comprehensive
work on the training of the future orator includes an outline of general
education, which had an important influence on the humanistic schools of
the Italian Renaissance. It also presents us with a critical survey of
the Greek and Latin classics arranged under the heads of poets,
historians, orators and philosophers (book x. chap. i.). The lives of
Roman poets and scholars were among the many subjects that exercised the
literary skill of Hadrian's private secretary, Suetonius. One of his
lost works is the principal source of the erudition of Isidore of
Seville (d. A.D. 636), whose comprehensive encyclopaedia was a favourite
text-book in the middle ages. About the time of the death of Suetonius
(A.D. 160) a work entitled the _Noctes Atticae_ was begun by Aulus
Gellius. The author is an industrious student and a typical scholar, who
frequents libraries and is interested in the MSS. of old Latin authors.
Early in the 4th century the study of grammar was represented in
northern Africa by the Numidian tiro, Nonius Marcellus (fl. 323), the
author of an encyclopaedic work in three parts, lexicographical,
grammatical and antiquarian, the main value of which lies in its
quotations from early Latin literature. About the middle of the same
century grammar had a far abler exponent at Rome in the person of Aelius
Donatus, the preceptor of St Jerome, as well as the author of a
text-book that remained in use throughout the middle ages. The general
state of learning in this century is illustrated by Ausonius (c.
310-393), the grammarian and rhetorician of Bordeaux, the author of the
_Mosella_, and the probable inspirer of the memorable decree of Gratian
(376), providing for the appointment and the payment of teachers of
rhetoric and of Greek and Latin literature in the principal cities of
Gaul. His distinguished friend, Q. Aurelius Symmachus, the consul of
A.D. 391, aroused in his own immediate circle an interest in Livy, the
whole of whose history was still extant. Early in the 5th century other
aristocratic Romans interested themselves in the textual criticism of
Persius and Martial. Among the contemporaries of Symmachus, the devoted
adherent of the old Roman religion, was St Jerome (d. 420), the most
scholarly representative of Christianity in the 4th century, the student
of Plautus and Terence, of Virgil and Cicero, the translator of the
_Chronology_ of Eusebius, and the author of the Latin version of the
Bible now known as the Vulgate. St Augustine (d. 430) confesses to his
early fondness for Virgil, and also tells us that he received his first
serious impressions from the _Hortensius_ of Cicero, an eloquent
exhortation to the study of philosophy, of which only a few fragments
survive. In his survey of the "liberal arts" St Augustine imitates (as
we have seen) the _Disciplinae_ of Varro, and in the greatest of his
works, the _De Civitate Dei_ (426), he has preserved large portions of
the _Antiquitates_ of Varro and the _De Republica_ of Cicero. About the
same date, and in the same province of northern Africa, Martianus
Capella produced his allegorical work on the "liberal arts," the
principal, and, indeed, often the only, text-book of the medieval

In the second half of the 5th century the foremost representative of
Latin studies in Gaul was Apollinaris Sidonius (fl. 470), whose
_Letters_ were modelled on those of the younger Pliny, while his poems
give proof of a wide though superficial acquaintance with classical
literature. He laments the increasing decline in the classical purity of
the Latin language.

An interest in Latin literature lived longest in Gaul, where schools of
learning flourished as early as the 1st century at Autun, Lyons,
Toulouse, Nîmes, Vienne, Narbonne and Marseilles; and, from the 3rd
century onwards, at Trier, Poitiers, Besançon and Bordeaux.

About ten years after the death of Sidonius we find Asterius, the consul
of 494, critically revising the text of Virgil in Rome. Boëthius, who
early in life formed the ambitious plan of expounding and reconciling
the opinions of Plato and Aristotle, continued in the year of his sole
consulship (510) to instruct his fellow-countrymen in the wisdom of
Greece. He is a link between the ancient world and the middle ages,
having been the last of the learned Romans who understood the language
and studied the literature of Greece, and the first to interpret to the
middle ages the logical treatises of Aristotle. He thereby gave the
signal for the age-long conflict between Nominalism and Realism, which
exercised the keenest intellects among the Schoolmen, while the crowning
work of his life, the _Consolatio Philosophiae_ (524), was repeatedly
expounded and imitated, and reproduced in renderings that were among the
earliest literary products of the vernacular languages of modern Europe.
His contemporary, Cassiodorus (c. 480-c. 575), after spending thirty
years in the service of the Ostrogothic dynasty at Ravenna, passed the
last thirty-three years of his long life on the shores of the Bay of
Squillace, where he founded two monasteries and diligently trained their
inmates to become careful copyists. In his latest work he made extracts
for their benefit from the pages of Priscian (fl. 512), a transcript of
whose great work on Latin grammar was completed at Constantinople by one
of that grammarian's pupils in 527, to be reproduced in a thousand MSS.
in the middle ages. More than ten years before Cassiodorus founded his
monasteries in the south of Italy, Benedict of Nursia (480-543) had
rendered a more permanent service to the cause of scholarship by
building, amid the ruins of the temple of Apollo on the crest of Monte
Cassino, the earliest of those homes of learning that have lent an
undying distinction to the Benedictine order. The learned labours of the
Benedictines were no part of the original requirements of the rule of St
Benedict; but before the founder's death his favourite disciple had
planted a monastery in France, and the name of that disciple is
permanently associated with the learned labours of the Benedictines of
the Congregation of St Maur (see MAURISTS).

(b) _Greek Studies._--Meanwhile, the study of the Greek classics was
ably represented at Rome in the Augustan age by Dionysius of
Halicarnassus (fl. 30-8 B.C.), the intelligent critic of the ancient
Attic orators, while the 1st century of our era is the probable date of
the masterpiece of literary criticism known as the treatise _On the
Sublime_ by Longinus (q.v.).

The 2nd century is the age of the two great grammarians, Apollonius
Dyscolus (the founder of scientific grammar and the creator of the study
of Greek syntax) and his son Herodian, the larger part of whose
principal work dealt with the subject of Greek accentuation. It is also
the age of the lexicographers of Attic Greek, the most important of whom
are Phrynichus, Pollux (fl. A.D. 180) and Harpocration.

In the 4th century Demosthenes was expounded and imitated by the widely
influential teacher, Libanius of Antioch (c. 314-c. 393), the pagan
preceptor of St Chrysostom. To the same century we may assign the
grammarian Theodosius of Alexandria, who, instead of confining himself
(like Dionysius Thrax) to the tenses of [Greek: thuptô] in actual use,
was the first to set forth all the imaginary aorists and futures of that
verb, which have thence descended through the Byzantine age to the
grammars of the Renaissance and of modern Europe.

In the 5th century we may place Hesychius of Alexandria, the compiler of
the most extensive of our ancient Greek lexicons, and Proclus, the
author of a chrestomathy, to the extracts from which (as preserved by
Photius) we owe almost all our knowledge of the contents of the lost
epics of early Greece. In the same century the study of Plato was
represented by Synesius of Cyrene (c. 370-c. 413) and by the
Neoplatonists of Alexandria and of Athens. The lower limit of the Roman
age of classical studies may be conveniently placed in the year 529. In
that year the monastery of Monte Cassino was founded in the West, while
the school of Athens was closed in the East. The Roman age thus ends in
the West with Boëthius, Cassiodorus and St Benedict, and in the East
with Priscian and Justinian.

(iii.) _The Middle Ages_.--(a) _In the East_, commonly called the
_Byzantine Age_, c. 530-1350. In this age, grammatical learning was
represented by Choeroboscus, and lexicography by Photius (d. 891), the
patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the author of a _Bibliotheca_
reviewing and criticizing the contents of 280 MSS., and incidentally
preserving important extracts from the lost Greek historians.

In the time of Photius the poets usually studied at school were Homer,
Hesiod, Pindar; certain select plays of Aeschylus (_Prometheus, Septem_
and _Persae_), Sophocles (_Ajax, Electra_ and _Oedipus Tyrannus_), and
Euripides (_Hecuba, Orestes, Phoenissae_, and, next to these, _Alcestis,
Andromache, Hippolytus, Medea, Rhesus, Troades_,) also Aristophanes
(beginning with the _Plutus_), Theocritus, Lycophron, and Dionysius
Periegetes. The principal prose authors were Thucydides, parts of Plato
and Demosthenes, with Aristotle, Plutarch's _Lives_, and, above all,
Lucian, who is often imitated in the Byzantine age.

One of the distinguished pupils of Photius, Arethas, bishop of Caesarea
in Cappadocia (c. 907-932), devoted himself with remarkable energy to
collecting and expounding the Greek classics. Among the important MSS.
still extant that were copied at his expense are the Bodleian Euclid
(888) and the Bodleian Plato (895). To the third quarter of the 10th
century we may assign the Greek lexicon of Suïdas, a combination of a
lexicon and an encyclopaedia, the best articles being those on the
history of literature.

Meanwhile, during the "dark age" of secular learning at Constantinople
(641-850), the light of Greek learning had spread eastwards to Syria and
Arabia. At Bagdad, in the reign of Mamun (813-833), the son of Harun
al-Rashid, philosophical works were translated by Syrian Christians from
Greek into Syriac and from Syriac into Arabic. It was in his reign that
Aristotle was first translated into Arabic, and, shortly afterwards, we
have Syriac and Arabic renderings of commentators on Aristotle, and of
portions of Plato, Hippocrates and Galen; while in the 10th century new
translations of Aristotle and his commentators were produced by the
Nestorian Christians.

The Arabic translations of Aristotle passed from the East to the West by
being transmitted through the Arab dominions in northern Africa to
Spain, which had been conquered by the Arabs in the 8th century. In the
12th century Toledo was the centre of the study of Aristotle in the
West, and it was from Toledo that the knowledge of Aristotle spread to
Paris and to other seats of learning in western Europe.

The 12th century in Constantinople is marked by the name of Tzetzes (c.
1110-c. 1180), the author of a mythological, literary and historical
miscellany called the _Chiliades_, in the course of which he quotes more
than four hundred authors. The prolegomena to his scholia on
Aristophanes supply us with valuable information on the Alexandrian
libraries. The most memorable name, however, among the scholars of this
century is that of Eustathius, whose philological studies at
Constantinople preceded his tenure of the archbishopric of Thessalonica
(1175-1192). The opening pages of his commentaries on the _Iliad_ and
the _Odyssey_ dwell with enthusiasm on the abiding influence of Homer on
the literature of Greece.

While the Byzantine MSS. of the 11th century (such as the Laurentian
MSS. of Aeschylus and Sophocles, and the Ravenna MS. of Aristophanes)
maintain the sound traditions of the Alexandrian and Roman ages, those
of the times of the Palaeologi give proof of a frequent tampering with
the metres of the ancient poets in order to bring them into conformity
with theories recently invented by Moschopulus and Triclinius. The
scholars of these times are the natural precursors of the earliest
representatives of the Revival of Learning in the West. Of these later
Byzantines the first in order of date is the monk Planudes (d. 1330),
who devoted his knowledge of Latin to producing excellent translations
of Caesar's _Gallic War_ as well as Ovid's _Metamorphoses_ and
_Heroides_, and the classic work of Boëthius; he also compiled (in 1302)
the only Greek anthology known to scholars before the recovery in 1607
of the earlier and fuller anthology of Cephalas (fl. 917).

The scholars of the Byzantine age cannot be compared with the great
Alexandrians, but they served to maintain the continuity of tradition by
which the Greek classics selected by the critics of Alexandria were
transmitted to modern Europe.

(b) _In the West_ (c. 530-c. 1350).--At the portal of the middle ages
stands Gregory the Great (c. 540-604), who had little (if any) knowledge
of Greek and had no sympathy with the _secular_ side of the study of
Latin. A decline in grammatical learning is exemplified in the three
Latin historians of the 6th century, Jordanes, Gildas and Gregory of
Tours (d. 594), who begins his history of the Franks by lamenting the
decay of Latin literature in Gaul. The historian of Tours befriended the
Latin poet, Venantius Fortunatus (d. _c._ 600), who is still remembered
as the writer of the three well-known hymns beginning _Salve festa
dies_, _Vexilla regis prodeunt_, and _Pange lingua gloriosi proelium
certaminis_. The decadence of Latin early in the 7th century is
exemplified by the fantastic grammarian Virgilius Maro, who also
illustrates the transition from Latin to Provençal, and from quantitive
to accentual forms of verse.

While Latin was declining in Gaul, even Greek was not unknown in
Ireland, and the Irish passion for travel led to the spread of Greek
learning in the west of Europe. The Irish monk Columban, shortly before
his death in 615, founded in the neighbourhood of Pavia the monastery of
Bobbio, to be the repository of many Latin MSS. which were ultimately
dispersed among the libraries of Rome, Milan and Turin. About the same
date his fellow-traveller, Gallus, founded above the Lake of Constance
the monastery of St Gallen, where Latin MSS. were preserved until their
recovery in the age of the Renaissance. During the next twenty-five
years Isidore of Seville (d. 636) produced in his _Origines_ an
encyclopaedic work which gathered up for the middle ages much of the
learning of the ancient world.

In Italy a decline in the knowledge of Greek in the 5th and 6th
centuries led to an estrangement between the Greek and Latin Churches.
The year 690 is regarded as the date of the temporary extinction of
Greek in Italy, but, in the first quarters of the 8th and the 9th
centuries, the iconoclastic decrees of the Byzantine emperors drove many
of the Greek monks and their lay adherents to the south of Italy, and
even to Rome itself.

In Ireland we find Greek characters used in the Book of Armagh (_c._
807); and, in the same century, a Greek psalter was copied by an Irish
monk of Liége, named Sedulius (fl. 850), who had a wide knowledge of
Latin literature. In England, some sixty years after the death of
Augustine, the Greek archbishop of Canterbury, Theodore of Tarsus (d.
690) founded a school for the study of Greek, and with the help of an
African monk named Hadrian made many of the English monasteries schools
of Greek and Latin learning, so that, in the time of Bede (d. 735), some
of the scholars who still survived were "as familiar with Greek and
Latin as with their mother-tongue." Among those who had learned their
Greek at Canterbury was Aldhelm (d. 709), "the first Englishman who
cultivated classical learning with any success." While Aldhelm is known
as "the father of Anglo-Latin verse," Latin prose was the literary
medium used by Bede in his celebrated _Ecclesiastical History_ of
England (731). Nine years after the death of Bede (735), Boniface, "the
apostle of Germany," sanctioned the founding of Fulda (744), which soon
rivalled St Gallen as a school of learning. Alcuin (d. 804), who was
probably born in the year of Bede's death, tells us of the wealth of
Latin literature preserved in the library at York. Through the
invitation of Charles the Great, he became associated with the revival
of learning which marks the reign of that monarch, by presiding over the
School of the Palace (782-790), and by exercising a healthy influence as
abbot of St Martin's at Tours (796-804). Among the friends of Alcuin and
the advisers of Charles was Theodulfus, bishop of Orleans and abbot of
Fleury (d. 821), who is memorable as an accomplished Latin poet, and as
the initiator of free education. Einhard (d. 840), in his classic life
of Charles the Great, models his style on that of Suetonius, and shows
his familiarity with Caesar and Livy and Cicero, while Rabanus Maurus
(d. 856), who long presided over Einhard's school of Fulda, was the
first to introduce Priscian into the schools of Germany. His pupil,
Walafrid Strabo, the abbot of Reichenau (d. 849), had a genuine gift for
Latin poetry, a gift agreeably exemplified in his poem on the plants in
the monastic garden. In the same century an eager interest in the Latin
classics is displayed by Servatus Lupus, who was educated at Fulda, and
was abbot of Ferrières for the last twenty years of his life (d. 862).
In his literary spirit he is a precursor of the humanists of the
Renaissance. Under Charles the Bald (d. 877) there was a certain revival
of interest in literature, when John the Scot (Erigena) became, for some
thirty years (c. 845-875), the head of the Palace School. He was
familiar with the Greek Fathers, and was chosen to execute a Latin
rendering of the writings of "Dionysius the Areopagite," the patron
saint of France. In the preface the translator praises the king for
prompting him not to rest satisfied with the literature of the West, but
to have recourse to the "most pure and copious waters of the Greeks." In
the next generation Remi of Auxerre was the first to open a school in
Paris (900). Virgil is the main authority quoted in Remi's Commentary on
Donatus, which remained in use until the Renaissance. During the two
centuries after John the Scot, the study of Greek declined in France. In
England the 9th century closes with Alfred, who, with the aid of the
Welsh monk, Asser, produced a series of free translations from Latin
texts, including Boëthius and Orosius and Bede, and the _Cura
Pastoralis_ of Gregory the Great.

In the 10th century learning flourished at Aachen under Bruno, brother
of Otto I. and archbishop of Cologne (953-965), who had himself learned
Greek from certain Eastern monks at the imperial court, and who called
an Irish bishop from Trier to teach Greek at the imperial capital. He
also encouraged the transcription of Latin MSS., which became models of
style to Widukind of Corvey, the imitator of Sallust and Livy. In the
same century the monastery of Gandersheim, south of Hanover, was the
retreat of the learned nun Hroswitha, who celebrated the exploits of
Otho in leonine hexameters, and composed in prose six moral and
religious plays in imitation of Terence. One of the most prominent
personages of the century was Gerbert of Aurillac, who, after teaching
at Tours and Fleury, became abbot of Bobbio, archbishop of Reims, and
ultimately pope under the name of Silvester II. (d. 1003). He frequently
quotes from the speeches of Cicero, and it has been surmised that the
survival of those speeches may have been due to the influence of
Gerbert. The most original hellenist of this age is Luitprand, bishop of
Cremona (d. 972), who acquired some knowledge of Greek during his
repeated missions to Constantinople. About the same time in England
Oswald of York, who had himself been educated at Fleury, invited Abbo
(d. 1004) to instruct the monks of the abbey recently founded at Ramsey,
near Huntingdon. At Ramsey he wrote for his pupils a scholarly work
dealing with points of prosody and pronunciation, and exhibiting an
accurate knowledge of Virgil and Horace. During the same half-century,
Ælfric, the abbot of Eynsham (d. c. 1030), aided Bishop Æthelwold in
making Winchester famous as a place of education. It was there that he
began his _Latin Grammar_, his _Glossary_ (the earliest Latin-English
dictionary in existence), and his _Colloquium_, in which Latin is taught
in a conversational manner.

In France, the most notable teacher in the first quarter of the 11th
century was Fulbert, bishop of Chartres (d. 1029). In and after the
middle of that century the Norman monastery of Bec flourished under the
rule of Lanfranc and Anselm, both of whom had begun their career in
northern Italy, and closed it at Canterbury. Meanwhile, in Germany, the
styles of Sallust and Livy were being happily imitated in the _Annals_
of Lambert of Hersfeld (d. 1077). In Italy, where the study of Latin
literature seems never to have entirely died out, young nobles and
students preparing for the priesthood were not infrequently learning
Latin together, in private grammar schools under liberal clerics, such
as Anselm of Bisate (fl. 1050), who describes himself as divided in his
allegiance between the saints and the muses. Learning flourished at
Monte Cassino under the rule of the Abbot Desiderius (afterwards Pope
Victor III.). In this century that famous monastery had its classical
chronicler in Leo Marsicanus, and its Latin poet in Alfanus, the future
archbishop of Salerno.

The Schoolmen devoted most of their attention to Aristotle, and we may
here briefly note the successive stages in their gradually increasing
knowledge of his works. Until 1128 only the first two of the five parts
of the _Organon_ were known, and those solely in Latin translations from
the original. After that date two more became known; the whole was
familiar to John of Salisbury in 1159; while the _Physics_ and
_Metaphysics_ came into notice about 1200. Plato was mainly represented
by the Latin translation of the _Timaeus_. Abelard (d. 1142) was
acquainted with no Greek works except in Latin translations, but he has
left his mark on the history of European education. The wide popularity
of his brilliant lectures in the "schools" of Paris made this city the
resort of the many students who were ultimately organized as a
"university" (c. 1170). John of Salisbury attended Abelard's lectures in
1136, and, after spending two years in the study of logic in Paris,
passed three more in the scholarly study of Latin literature at
Chartres, where a sound and healthy tradition, originally due to Bernard
of Chartres (fl. 1120), was still perpetuated by his pupils. In that
school the study of "figures of speech" was treated as merely
introductory to that of the classical texts. Stress was laid on the
sense as well as the style of the author studied. Discussions on set
subjects were held, select passages from the classics learned by heart,
while written exercises in prose and verse were founded on the best
ancient models. In the general scheme of education the authority
followed was Quintilian. John of Salisbury (d. 1180), the ripest product
of this school, is the most learned man of his time. His favourite
author is Cicero, and in all the Latin literature accessible to him he
is the best-read scholar of his age. Among Latin scholars of the next
generation we have Giraldus Cambrensis (d. c. 1222), the author of
topographical and historical writings on Ireland and Wales, and of other
works teeming with quotations from the Latin classics. During the middle
ages Latin prose never dies out. It is the normal language of
literature. In England it is used by many chroniclers and historians,
the best known of whom are William of Malmesbury (d. 1142) and Matthew
Paris (d. 1259). In Italy Latin verse had been felicitously applied to
historic themes by William of Apulia (fl. 1100) and other Latin poets
(1088-1247). In the 12th century England claims at least seven Latin
poets, one of these being her only Latin epic poet, Joseph of Exeter (d.
1210), whose poem on the Trojan war is still extant. The Latin
versifier, John of Garlandia, an Englishman who lived mainly in France
(fl. 1204-1252), produced several Latin vocabularies which were still in
use in the boyhood of Erasmus. The Latin poets of French birth include
Gautier and Alain de Lille (d. c. 1203), the former being the author of
the _Alexandreis_, and the latter that of the _Anti-Claudianus_, a poem
familiar to Chaucer.

During the hundred and thirty years that elapsed between the early
translations of Aristotle executed at Toledo about 1150 and the death in
1281 of William of Moerbeke, the translator of the _Rhetoric_ and the
_Politics_, the knowledge of Aristotle had been greatly extended in
Europe by means of translations, first from the Arabic, and, next, from
the original Greek. Aristotle had been studied in England by Grosseteste
(d. 1253), and expounded abroad by the great Dominican, Albertus Magnus
(d. 1280), and his famous pupil, Thomas Aquinas (d. 1274). Among the
keenest critics of the Schoolmen and of the recent translations of
Aristotle was Roger Bacon (d. 1294), whose _Opus majus_ has been
recognized as the _Encyclopédie_ and the _Organon_ of the 13th century.
His knowledge of Greek, as shown in his _Greek Grammar_ (first published
in 1902), was clearly derived from the Greeks of his own day. The
medieval dependence on the authority of Aristotle gradually diminished.
This was partly due to the recovery of some of the lost works of ancient
literature, and the transition from the middle ages to the revival of
learning was attended by a general widening of the range of classical
studies and by a renewed interest in Plato.

The classical learning of the middle ages was largely second-hand. It
was often derived from glossaries, from books of elegant extracts, or
from comprehensive encyclopaedias. Among the compilers of these last
were Isidore and Hrabanus, William of Conches and Honorius of Autun,
Bartholomaeus Anglicus (fl. 1250), Vincent of Beauvais (d. 1264), and,
lastly, Brunetto Latini (d. 1290), the earlier contemporary of Dante.
For Aristotle, as interpreted by Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas,
Dante has the highest regard. To the Latin translations of Aristotle
and to his interpreters he refers in more than three hundred passages,
while the number of his references to the Latin translation of the
_Timaeus_ of Plato is less than ten. His five great pagan poets are
Homer, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Lucan; Statius he regards as a "Christian"
converted by Virgil's _Fourth Eclogue_. His standard authors in Latin
prose are Cicero, Livy, Pliny, Frontinus and Orosius. His knowledge of
Greek was practically nil. Latin was the language of his political
treatise, _De Monarchia_, and even that of his defence of the vulgar
tongue, _De Vulgari Eloquio_. He is, in a limited sense, a precursor of
the Renaissance, but he is far more truly to be regarded as the crowning
representative of the spirit of the middle ages.


(iv.) _The Modern Age._--(a) Our fourth period is ushered in by the age
of the Revival of Learning in Italy (c. 1350-1527). Petrarch (1304-1374)
has been well described as "the first of modern men." In contrast with
the Schoolmen of the middle ages, he has no partiality for Aristotle. He
was interested in Greek, and, a full century before the fall of
Constantinople, he was in possession of MSS. of Homer and Plato, though
his knowledge of the language was limited to the barest rudiments. For
that knowledge, scanty as it was, he was indebted to Leontius Pilatus,
with whose aid Boccaccio (1313-1375) became "the first of modern men" to
study Greek to some purpose during the three years that Leontius spent
as his guest in Florence (1360-1363). It was also at Florence that Greek
was taught in the next generation by Chrysoloras (in 1396-1400). Another
generation passed, and the scholars of the East and West met at the
council of Florence (1439). One of the envoys of the Greeks, Gemistus
Pletho, then inspired Cosimo dei Medici with the thought of founding an
academy for the study of Plato. The academy was founded, and, in the age
of Lorenzo, Plato and Plotinus were translated into Latin by Marsilio
Ficino (d. 1499). The _Apology_ and _Crito_, the _Phaedo, Phaedrus_ and
_Gorgias_ of Plato, as well as speeches of Demosthenes and Aeschines,
with the _Oeconomics, Ethics_ and _Politics_ of Aristotle, had already
been translated by Leonardo Bruni (d. 1444); the _Rhetoric_ by Filelfo
(1430), and Plato's _Republic_ by Decembrio (1439). A comprehensive
scheme for translating the principal Greek prose authors into Latin was
carried out at Rome by the founder of the manuscript collections of the
Vatican, Nicholas V. (1447-1455), who had belonged to the literary
circle of Cosimo at Florence. The translation of Aristotle was entrusted
to three of the learned Greeks who had already arrived in Italy,
Trapezuntius, Gaza and Bessarion, while other authors were undertaken by
Italian scholars such as Guarino, Valla, Decembrio and Perotti. Among
the scholars of Italian birth, probably the only one in this age who
rivalled the Greeks as a public expositor of their own literature was
Politian (1454-1494), who lectured on Homer and Aristotle in Florence,
translated Herodian, and was specially interested in the Latin authors
of the Silver Age and in the text of the _Pandects_ of Justinian. It
will be observed that the study of Greek had been resumed in Florence
half a century before the fall of Constantinople, and that the principal
writers of Greek prose had been translated into Latin before that event.

Meanwhile, the quest of MSS. of the Latin classics had been actively
pursued. Petrarch had discovered Cicero's Speech _pro Archia_ at Liége
(1333) and the _Letters to Atticus_ and _Quintus_ at Verona (1345).
Boccaccio had discovered Martial and Ausonius, and had been the first of
the humanists to be familiar with Varro and Tacitus, while Salutati had
recovered Cicero's letters _Ad Familiares_ (1389). During the council of
Constance, Poggio, the papal secretary, spent in the quest of MSS. the
interval between May 1415 and November 1417, during which he was left at
leisure by the vacancy in the apostolic see.

Thirteen of Cicero's speeches were found by him at Cluny and Langres,
and elsewhere in France or Germany; the commentary of Asconius, a
complete Quintilian, and a large part of Valerius Flaccus were
discovered at St Gallen. A second expedition to that monastery and to
others in the neighbourhood led to the recovery of Lucretius, Manilius,
Silius Italicus and Ammianus Marcellinus, while the _Silvae_ of Statius
were recovered shortly afterwards. A complete MS. of Cicero, _De
Oratore_, _Brutus_ and _Orator_, was found by Bishop Landriani at Lodi
(1421). Cornelius Nepos was discovered by Traversari in Padua (1434).
The _Agricola_, _Germania_ and _Dialogue_ of Tacitus reached Italy from
Germany in 1455, and the early books of the _Annals_ in 1508. Pliny's
_Panegyric_ was discovered by Aurispa at Mainz (1433), and his
correspondence with Trajan by Fra Giocondo in Paris about 1500.

Greek MSS. were brought from the East by Aurispa, who in 1423 returned
with no less than two hundred and thirty-eight, including the celebrated
Laurentian MS. of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Apollonius Rhodius. A smaller
number was brought from Constantinople by Filelfo (1427), while Quintus
Smyrnaeus was discovered in south Italy by Bessarion, who presented his
own collection of MSS. to the republic of Venice and thus led to the
foundation of the library of St Mark's (1468). As the emissary of
Lorenzo, Janus Lascaris paid two visits to the East, returning from his
second visit in 1492 with two hundred MSS. from Mount Athos.

The Renaissance theory of a humanistic education is illustrated by
several treatises still extant. In 1392 Vergerio addressed to a prince
of Padua the first treatise which methodically maintains the claims of
Latin as an essential part of a liberal education. Eight years later, he
was learning Greek from Chrysoloras. Among the most distinguished pupils
of the latter was Leonardo Bruni, who, about 1405, wrote "the earliest
humanistic tract on education expressly addressed to a lady." He here
urges that the foundation of all true learning is a "sound and thorough
knowledge of Latin," and draws up a course of reading, in which history
is represented by Livy, Sallust, Curtius, and Caesar; oratory by Cicero;
and poetry by Virgil. The same year saw the birth of Maffeo Vegio, whose
early reverence for the muse of Virgil and whose later devotion to the
memory of Monica have left their mark on the educational treatise which
he wrote a few years before his death in 1458. The authors he recommends
include "Aesop" and Sallust, the tragedies of Seneca and the epic poets,
especially Virgil, whom he interprets in an allegorical sense. He is in
favour of an early simultaneous study of a wide variety of subjects, to
be followed later by the special study of one or two. Eight years before
the death of Vegio, Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.) had composed a
brief treatise on education in the form of a letter to Ladislaus, the
young king of Bohemia and Hungary. The Latin poets to be studied include
Virgil, Lucan, Statius, Ovid's _Metamorphoses_, and (with certain
limitations) Horace, Juvenal and Persius, as well as Plautus, Terence
and the tragedies of Seneca; the prose authors recommended are Cicero,
Livy and Sallust. The first great school of the Renaissance was that
established by Vittorino da Feltre at Mantua, where he resided for the
last twenty-two years of his life (1424-1446). Among the Latin authors
studied were Virgil and Lucan, with selections from Horace, Ovid and
Juvenal, besides Cicero and Quintilian, Sallust and Curtius, Caesar and
Livy. The Greek authors were Homer, Hesiod, Pindar and the dramatists,
with Herodotus, Xenophon and Plato, Isocrates and Demosthenes, Plutarch
and Arrian.

Meanwhile, Guarino had been devoting five years to the training of the
eldest son of the marquis of Ferrara. At Ferrara he spent the last
thirty years of his long life (1370-1460), producing text-books of Greek
and Latin grammar, and translations from Strabo and Plutarch. His method
may be gathered from his son's treatise, _De Ordine Docendi et
Studendi_. In that treatise the essential marks of an educated person
are, not only ability to write Latin verse, but also, a point of "at
least equal importance," "familiarity with the language and literature
of Greece." "Without a knowledge of Greek, Latin scholarship itself is,
in any real sense, impossible" (1459).

By the fall of Constantinople in 1453, "Italy (in the eloquent phrase of
Carducci) became sole heir and guardian of the ancient civilization,"
but its fall was in no way necessary for the revival of learning, which
had begun a century before. Bessarion, Theodorus Gaza, Georgius
Trepezuntius, Argyropulus, Chalcondyles, all had reached Italy before
1453. A few more Greeks fled to Italy after that date, and among these
were Janus Lascaris, Musurus and Callierges. All three were of signal
service in devoting their knowledge of Greek to perpetuating and
popularizing the Greek classics with the aid of the newly-invented art
of printing. That art had been introduced into Italy by the German
printers, Sweynheym and Pannartz, who had worked under Fust at Mainz. At
Subiaco and at Rome they had produced in 1465-1471 the earliest editions
of Cicero, _De Oratore_ and the _Letters_, and eight other Latin

The printing of Greek began at Milan with the Greek grammar of
Constantine Lascaris (1476). At Florence the earliest editions of Homer
(1488) and Isocrates (1493) had been produced by Demetrius Chalcondyles,
while Janus Lascaris was the first to edit the Greek anthology,
Apollonius Rhodius, and parts of Euripides, Callimachus and Lucian
(1494-1496). In 1494-1515 Aldus Manutius published at Venice no less
than twenty-seven _editiones principes_ of Greek authors and of Greek
works of reference, the authors including Aristotle, Theophrastus,
Theocritus, Aristophanes, Thucydides, Sophocles, Herodotus, Euripides,
Demosthenes (and the minor Attic orators), Pindar, Plato and Athenaeus.
In producing Plato, Athenaeus and Aristophanes, the scholar-printer was
largely aided by Musurus, who also edited the Aldine Pausanias (1516)
and the _Etymologicum_ printed in Venice by another Greek immigrant,
Callierges (1499).

The Revival of Learning in Italy ends with the sack of Rome (1527).
Before 1525 the study of Greek had begun to decline in Italy, but
meanwhile an interest in that language had been transmitted to the lands
beyond the Alps.

In the study of Latin the principal aim of the Italian humanists was the
_imitation_ of the style of their classical models. In the case of
poetry, this imitative spirit is apparent in Petrarch's _Africa_, and in
the Latin poems of Politian, Pontano, Sannazaro, Vida and many others.
Petrarch was not only the imitator of Virgil, who had been the leading
name in Latin letters throughout the middle ages; it was the influence
of Petrarch that gave a new prominence to Cicero. The imitation of
Cicero was carried on with varying degrees of success by humanists such
as Gasparino da Barzizza (d. 1431), who introduced a new style of
epistolary Latin; by Paolo Cortesi, who discovered the importance of a
rhythmical structure in the composition of Ciceronian prose (1490); and
by the accomplished secretaries of Leo X., Bembo and Sadoleto. Both of
these papal secretaries were mentioned in complimentary terms by Erasmus
in his celebrated dialogue, the _Ciceronianus_ (1528), in which no less
than one hundred and six Ciceronian scholars of all nations are briefly
and brilliantly reviewed, the slavish imitation of Cicero denounced, and
the law laid down that "to speak with propriety we must adapt ourselves
to the age in which we live--an age that differs entirely from that of
Cicero." One of the younger Ciceronians criticized by Erasmus was
Longolius, who had died at Padua in 1522. The cause of the Ciceronians
was defended by the elder Scaliger in 1531 and 1536, and by Étienne
Dolet in 1535, and the controversy was continued by other scholars down
to the year 1610. Meanwhile, in Italy, a strict type of Ciceronianism
was represented by Paulus Manutius (d. 1574), and a freer and more
original form of Latinity by Muretus (d. 1585).

Before touching on the salient points in the subsequent centuries, in
connexion with the leading nations of Europe, we may briefly note the
cosmopolitan position of Erasmus (1466-1536), who, although he was a
native of the Netherlands, was far more closely connected with France,
England, Italy, Germany and Switzerland, than with the land of his
birth. He was still a school-boy at Deventer when his high promise was
recognized by Rudolf Agricola, "the first (says Erasmus) who brought
from Italy some breath of a better culture." Late in 1499 Erasmus spent
some two months at Oxford, where he met Colet; it was in London that he
met More and Linacre and Grocyn, who had already ceased to lecture at
Oxford. At Paris, in 1500, he was fully conscious that "without Greek
the amplest knowledge of Latin was imperfect"; and, during his three
years in Italy (1506-1509), he worked quietly at Greek in Bologna and
attended the lectures of Musurus in Padua. In October 1511 he was
teaching Greek to a little band of students in Cambridge; at Basel in
1516 he produced his edition of the Greek Testament, the first that was
actually published; and during the next few years he was helping to
organize the college lately founded at Louvain for the study of Greek
and Hebrew, as well as Latin. Seven years at Basel were followed by five
at Freiburg, and by two more at Basel, where he died. The names of all
these places are suggestive of the wide range of his influence. By his
published works, his _Colloquies_, his _Adages_ and his _Apophthegms_,
he was the educator of the nations of Europe. An educational aim is also
apparent in his editions of Terence and of Seneca, while his Latin
translations made his contemporaries more familiar with Greek poetry and
prose, and his _Paraphrase_ promoted a better understanding of the Greek
Testament. He was not so much a scientific scholar as a keen and
brilliant man of letters and a widely influential apostle of humanism.



In France the most effective of the early teachers of Greek was Janus
Lascaris (1495-1503). Among his occasional pupils was Budaeus (d. 1540),
who prompted Francis I. to found in 1530 the corporation of the Royal
Readers in Greek, as well as Latin and Hebrew, afterwards famous under
the name of the Collège de France. In the study of Greek one of the
earliest links between Italy and Germany was Rudolf Agricola, who had
learned Greek under Gaza at Ferrara. It was in Paris that his younger
contemporary Reuchlin acquired part of that proficiency in Greek which
attracted the notice of Argyropulus, whose admiration of Reuchlin is
twice recorded by Melanchthon, who soon afterwards was pre-eminent as
the "praeceptor" of Germany.


In the age of the revival the first Englishman who studied Greek was a
Benedictine monk, William of Selling (d. 1494), who paid two visits to
Italy. At Canterbury he inspired with his own love of learning his
nephew, Linacre, who joined him on one of those visits, studied Greek at
Florence under Politian and Chalcondyles, and apparently stayed in Italy
from 1485 to 1499. His translation of a treatise of Galen was printed at
Cambridge in 1521 by Siberch, who, in the same year and place, was the
first to use Greek type in England. Greek had been first taught to some
purpose at Oxford by Grocyn on his return from Italy in 1491. One of the
younger scholars of the day was William Lilye, who picked up his Greek
at Rhodes on his way to Palestine and became the first high-master of
the school founded by Colet at St Paul's (1510).

(b) That part of the _Modern Period_ of classical studies which succeeds
the age of the Revival in Italy may be subdivided into three periods
distinguished by the names of the nations most prominent in each.

  The French period.

1. The first may be designated the _French_ period. It begins with the
foundation of the Royal Readers by Francis I. in 1530, and it may
perhaps be regarded as extending to 1700. This period is marked by a
many-sided _erudition_ rather than by any special cult of the _form_ of
the classical languages. It is the period of the great polyhistors of
France. It includes Budaeus and the elder Scaliger (who settled in
France in 1529), with Turnebus and Lambinus, and the learned printers
Robertus and Henricus Stephanus, while among its foremost names are
those of the younger (and greater) Scaliger, Casaubon and Salmasius. Of
these, Casaubon ended his days in England (1614); Scaliger, by leaving
France for the Netherlands in 1593, for a time at least transferred the
supremacy in scholarship from the land of his birth to that of his
adoption. The last sixteen years of his life (1593-1609) were spent at
Leiden, which was also for more than twenty years (1631-1653) the home
of Salmasius, and for thirteen (1579-1592) that of Lipsius (d. 1606). In
the 17th century the erudition of France is best represented by
"Henricus Valesius," Du Cange and Mabillon. In the same period Italy was
represented by Muretus, who had left France in 1563, and by her own
sons, Nizolius, Victorius, Robortelli and Sigonius, followed in the 17th
century by R. Fabretti. The Netherlands, in the 16th, claim W. Canter as
well as Lipsius, and, in the 17th, G.J. Vossius, Johannes Meursius, the
elder and younger Heinsius, Hugo Grotius, J.F. Gronovius, J.G. Graevius
and J. Perizonius. Scotland, in the 16th, is represented by George
Buchanan; England by Sir John Cheke, Roger Ascham, and Sir Henry Savile,
and, in the 17th, by Thomas Gataker, Thomas Stanley, Henry Dodwell, and
Joshua Barnes; Germany by Janus Gruter, Ezechiel Spanheim and Chr.
Cellarius, the first two of whom were also connected with other

  Literary Latin.

We have already seen that a strict imitation of Cicero was one of the
characteristics of the Italian humanists. In and after the middle of the
16th century a correct and pure Latinity was promoted by the educational
system of the Jesuits; but with the growth of the vernacular literatures
Latin became more and more exclusively the language of the learned.
Among the most conspicuous Latin writers of the 17th century are G.J.
Vossius and the Heinsii, with Salmasius and his great adversary, Milton.
Latin was also used in works on science and philosophy, such as Sir
Isaac Newton's _Principia_ (1687), and many of the works of Leibnitz
(1646-1705). In botany the custom followed by John Ray (1627-1705) in
his _Historia Plantarum_ and in other works was continued in 1760 by
Linnaeus in his _Systema Naturae_. The last important work in English
theology written in Latin was George Bull's _Defensio Fidei Nicenae_
(1685). The use of Latin in diplomacy died out towards the end of the
17th century; but, long after that date negotiations with the German
empire were conducted in Latin, and Latin was the language of the
debates in the Hungarian diet down to 1825.

  The English and Dutch period.

2. During the 18th century the classical scholarship of the Netherlands
was under the healthy and stimulating influence of Bentley (1662-1742),
who marks the beginning of the English and Dutch period, mainly
represented in Holland by Bentley's younger contemporary and
correspondent, Tiberius Hemsterhuys (1685-1766), and the latter
scholar's great pupil David Ruhnken (1723-1798). It is the age of
historical and literary, as well as verbal, criticism. Both of these
were ably represented in the first half of the century by Bentley
himself, while, in the twenty years between 1782 and 1803, the verbal
criticism of the tragic poets of Athens was the peculiar province of
Richard Porson (1759-1808), who was born in the same year as F.A. Wolf.
Among other representatives of England were Jeremiah Markland and
Jonathan Toup, Thomas Tyrwhitt and Thomas Twining, Samuel Parr and Sir
William Jones; and of the Netherlands, the two Burmanns and L. Küster,
Arnold Drakenborch and Wesseling, Lodewyk Valckenaer and Daniel
Wyttenbach (1746-1829). Germany is represented by Fabricius and J.M.
Gesner, J.A. Ernesti and J.J. Reiske, J.J. Winckelmann and Chr. G.
Heyne; France by B. de Montfaucon and J.B.G.D. Villoison; Alsace by
French subjects of German origin, R.F.P. Brunck and J. Schweighäuser;
and Italy by E. Forcellini and Ed. Corsini.

  The German period.

3. The _German_ period begins with F.A. Wolf (1759-1824), whose
_Prolegomena_ to Homer appeared in 1795. He is the founder of the
systematic and encyclopaedic type of scholarship embodied in the
comprehensive term _Altertumswissenschaft_, or "a scientific knowledge
of the old classical world." The tradition of Wolf was ably continued by
August Böckh (d. 1867), one of the leaders of the historical and
antiquarian school, brilliantly represented in the previous generation
by B.G. Niebuhr (d. 1831).

In contrast with this school we have the critical and grammatical school
of Gottfried Hermann (d. 1848). During this period, while Germany
remains the most productive of the nations, scholarship has been more
and more international and cosmopolitan in its character.


_19th Century._--We must here be content with simply recording the names
of a few of the more prominent representatives of the 19th century in
some of the most obvious departments of classical learning. Among
natives of Germany the leading scholars have been, in _Greek_, C.F.W.
Jacobs, C.A. Lobeck, L. Dissen, I. Bekker, A. Meineke, C. Lehrs, W.
Dindorf, T. Bergk, F.W. Schneidewin, H. Köchly, A. Nauck, H. Usener, G.
Kaibel, F. Blass and W. Christ; in _Latin_, C. Lachmann, F. Ritschl, M.
Haupt, C. Halm, M. Hertz, A. Fleckeisen, E. Bährens, L. Müller and O.
Ribbeck. _Grammar_ and kindred subjects have been represented by P.
Buttmann, A. Matthiae, F.W. Thiersch, C.G. Zumpt, G. Bernhardy, C.W.
Krüger, R. Kühner and H.L. Ahrens; and _lexicography_ by F. Passow and
C.E. Georges. Among editors of _Thucydides_ we have had E.F. Poppo and
J. Classen; among editors of _Demosthenes or other orators_, G.H.
Schäfer, J.T. Vömel, G.E. Benseler, A. Westermann, G.F. Schömann, H.
Sauppe, and C. Rehdantz (besides Blass, already mentioned). The
_Platonists_ include F. Schleiermacher, G.A.F. Ast, G. Stallbaum and the
many-sided C.F. Hermann; the _Aristotelians_, C.A. Brandis, A.
Trendelenburg, L. Spengel, H. Bonitz, C. Prantl, J. Bernays and F.
Susemihl. The history of _Greek philosophy_ was written by F. Ueberweg,
and, more fully, by E. Zeller. _Greek history_ was the domain of G.
Droysen, Max Duncker, Ernst Curtius, Arnold Schäfer and Adolf Holm;
_Greek antiquities_ that of M.H. Meier and G.F. Schömann and of G.
Gilbert; _Greek epigraphy_ that of J. Franz, A. Kirchhoff, W. von
Hartel, U. Köhler, G. Hirschfeld and W. Dittenberger; _Roman history and
constitutional antiquities_ that of Theodor Mommsen (1817-1903), who was
associated in _Latin epigraphy_ with E. Hübner and W. Henzen. _Classical
art and archaeology_ were represented by F.G. Welcker, E. Gerhard, C.O.
Müller, F. Wieseler, O. Jahn, C.L. Urlichs, H. Brunn, C.B. Stark, J.
Overbeck, W. Helbig, O. Benndorf and A. Furtwängler; _mythology_ (with
cognate subjects) by G.F. Creuzer, P.W. Forchhammer, L. Preller, A.
Kuhn, J.W. Mannhardt and E. Rohde; and _comparative philology_ by F.
Bopp, A.F. Pott, T. Benfey, W. Corssen, Georg Curtius, A. Schleicher and
H. Steinthal. The history of _classical philology_ in Germany was
written by Conrad Bursian (1830-1883).


  Belgium, Holland,


In France we have J.F. Boissonade, J.A. Letronne, L.M. Quicherat, M.P.
Littré, B. Saint-Hilaire, J.V. Duruy, B.E. Miller, É. Egger, C.V.
Daremberg, C. Thurot, L.E. Benoist, O. Riemann and C. Graux; (in
archaeology) A.C. Quatremère de Quincy, P. le Bas, C.F.M. Texier, the
duc de Luynes, the Lenormants (C. and F.), W.H. Waddington and O. Rayet;
and (in comparative philology) Victor Henry. Greece was ably represented
in France by A. Koraes. In Belgium we have P. Willems and the Baron De
Witte (long resident in France); in Holland, C.G. Cobet; in Denmark,
J.N. Madvig. Among the scholars of Great Britain and Ireland may be
mentioned: P. Elmsley, S. Butler, T. Gaisford, P.P. Dobree, J.H. Monk,
C.J. Blomfield, W. Veitch, T.H. Key, B.H. Kennedy, W. Ramsay, T.W.
Peile, R. Shilleto, W.H. Thompson, J.W. Donaldson, Robert Scott, H.G.
Liddell, C. Badham, G. Rawlinson, F.A. Paley, B. Jowett, T.S. Evans,
E.M. Cope, H.A.J. Munro, W.G. Clark, Churchill Babington, H.A. Holden,
J. Riddell, J. Conington, W.Y. Sellar, A. Grant, W.D. Geddes, D.B.
Monro, H. Nettleship, A. Palmer, R.C. Jebb, A.S. Wilkins, W.G.
Rutherford and James Adam; among historians and archaeologists, W.M.
Leake, H. Fynes-Clinton, G. Grote and C. Thirlwall, T. Arnold, G. Long
and Charles Merivale, Sir Henry Maine, Sir Charles Newton and A.S.
Murray, Robert Burn and H.F. Pelham. Among comparative philologists Max
Müller belonged to Germany by birth and to England by adoption, while,
in the United States, his ablest counterpart was W.D. Whitney. B.L.
Gildersleeve, W.W. Goodwin, Henry Drisler, J.B. Greenough and G.M. Lane
were prominent American classical scholars.

  Schools of Rome and Athens.

The 19th century in Germany was marked by the organization of the great
series of Greek and Latin inscriptions, and by the foundation of the
Archaeological Institute in Rome (1829), which was at first
international in its character. The Athenian Institute was founded in
1874. Schools at Athens and Rome were founded by France in 1846 and
1873, by the United States of America in 1882 and 1895, and by England
in 1883 and 1901; and periodicals are published by the schools of all
these four nations. An interest in Greek studies (and especially in art
and archaeology) has been maintained in England by the Hellenic Society,
founded in 1879, with its organ the _Journal of Hellenic Studies_. A
further interest in Greek archaeology has been awakened in all civilized
lands by the excavations of Troy, Mycenae, Tiryns, Epidaurus, Sparta,
Olympia, Dodona, Delphi, Delos and of important sites in Crete. The
extensive discoveries of papyri in Egypt have greatly extended our
knowledge of the administration of that country in the times of the
Ptolemies, and have materially added to the existing remains of Greek
literature. Scholars have been enabled to realize in their own
experience some of the enthusiasm that attended the recovery of lost
classics during the Revival of Learning. They have found themselves
living in a new age of _editiones principes_, and have eagerly welcomed
the first publication of Aristotle's _Constitution of Athens_ (1891),
Herondas (1891) and Bacchylides (1897), as well as the _Persae_ of
Timotheus of Miletus (1903), with some of the _Paeans_ of Pindar (1907)
and large portions of the plays of Menander (1898-1899 and 1907). The
first four of these were first edited by F.G. Kenyon, Timotheus by von
Wilamowitz-Möllendorff, Menander partly by J. Nicole and G. Lefebre and
partly by B.P. Grenfell and A.S. Hunt, who have also produced fragments
of the _Paeans_ of Pindar and many other classic texts (including a
Greek continuation of Thucydides and a Latin epitome of part of Livy) in
the successive volumes of the _Oxyrhynchus papyri_ and other kindred

  AUTHORITIES.--For a full bibliography of the history of classical
  philology, see E. Hübner, _Grundriss zu Vorlesungen über die
  Geschichte und Encyklopädie der klassischen Philologie_ (2nd ed.,
  1889); and for a brief outline, C.L. Urlichs in Iwan von Müller's
  _Handbuch_, vol. i. (2nd ed., 1891). 33-145; S. Reinach, _Manuel de
  philologie classique_ (2nd ed., 1883-1884; _nouveau tirage_ 1907),
  1-22; and A. Gudemann, _Grundris_ (Leipzig, 1907), pp. 224 seq. For
  the Alexandrian period, F. Susemihl, _Gesch. der griechischen
  Litteratur in der Alexandrinerzeit_ (2 vols., 1891-1892); cf. F.A.
  Eckstein, _Nomenclator Philologorum_ (1871), and W. Pökel,
  _Philologisches Schriftsteller-Lexikon_ (1882). For the period ending
  A.D. 400, see A. Gräfenhan, _Gesch. der klass. Philologie_ (4 vols.,
  1843-1850); for the Byzantine period, C. Krumbacher in Iwan von
  Müller, vol. ix. (1) (2nd ed., 1897); for the Renaissance, G. Voigt,
  _Die Wiederbelebung des class. Altertums_ (3rd ed., 1894, with
  bibliography); L. Geiger, _Renaissance und Humanismus in Italien und
  Deutschland_ (1882, with bibliography); J.A. Symonds, _Revival of
  Learning_ (1877, &c.); R.C. Jebb, in _Cambridge Modern History_, i.
  (1902), 532-584; and J.E. Sandys, _Harvard Lectures on the Revival of
  Learning_ (1905); also P. de Nolhac, _Pétrarque et l'humanisme_ (2nd
  ed., 1907). On the history of Greek scholarship in France, É. Egger,
  _L'Histoire d'hellénisme en France_ (1869); Mark Pattison, _Essays_,
  i., and _Life of Casaubon_; in Germany, C. Bursian, _Gesch. der class.
  Philologie in Deutschland_ (1883); in Holland, L. Müller, _Gesch. der
  class. Philologie in den Niederlanden_ (1869); in Belgium, L.C.
  Roersch in E.P. van Bemmel's _Patria Belgica_, vol. iii. (1875),
  407-432; and in England, R.C. Jebb, "Erasmus" (1890) and "Bentley"
  (1882), and "Porson" (in _Dict. Nat. Biog._). On the subject as a
  whole see J.E. Sandys, _History of Classical Scholarship_ (with
  chronological tables, portraits and facsimiles), vol. i.; _From the
  Sixth Century B.C. to the end of the Middle Ages_ (1903, 2nd ed.,
  1906); vols. ii. and iii., _From the Revival of Learning to the
  Present Day_ (1908), including the history of scholarship in all the
  countries of Europe and in the United States of America. See also the
  separate biographical articles in this Encyclopaedia.


After the Revival of Learning the study of the classics owed much to the
influence and example of Vittorino da Feltre, Budacus, Erasmus and
Melanchthon, who were among the leading representatives of that revival
in Italy, France, England and Germany.


1. In _England_, the two great schools of Winchester (1382) and Eton
(1440) had been founded during the life of Vittorino, but before the
revival had reached Britain. The first school[2] which came into being
under the immediate influence of humanism was that founded at St Paul's
by Dean Colet (1510), the friend of Erasmus, whose treatise _De pueris
instituendis_ (1529) has its English counterpart in the _Governor_ of
Sir Thomas Elyot (1531). The highmaster of St Paul's was to be "learned
in good and clean Latin, and also in Greek, if such may be gotten." The
master and the second master of Shrewsbury (founded 1551) were to be
"well able to make a Latin verse, and learned in the Greek tongue." The
influence of the revival extended to many other schools, such as
Christ's Hospital (1552), Westminster (1560), and Merchant Taylors'
(1561); Repton (1557), Rugby (1567) and Harrow (1571).

  Shakespeare and the grammar-school.

  Early text-books.

At the grammar school of Stratford-on-Avon, about 1571-1577, Shakespeare
presumably studied Terence, Horace, Ovid and the _Bucolics_ of Baptista
Mantuanus (1502). In the early plays he quotes Ovid and Seneca.
Similarly, in _Titus Andronicus_ (iv. 2) he says, of _Integer vitae_:
"'Tis a verse in Horace; I know it well: I read it in the grammar long
ago." In _Henry VI._ part ii. sc. 7, when Jack Cade charges Lord Say
with having "most traitorously corrupted the youth of the realm in
erecting a grammar-school," Lord Say replies that "ignorance is the
curse of God, knowledge the wing wherewith we fly to heaven." In the
_Taming of the Shrew_ (I. i. 157) a line is quoted as from Terence
(_Andria_, 74): "_redime te captum quam queas minimo._" This is taken
_verbatim_ from Lilye's contribution to the _Brevis Institutio_,
originally composed by Colet, Erasmus and Lilye for St Paul's School
(1527), and ultimately adopted as the _Eton Latin Grammar_. The
_Westminster Greek Grammar_ of Grant (1575) was succeeded by that of
Camden (1595), founded mainly on a Paduan text-book, and apparently
adopted in 1596 by Sir Henry Savile at Eton, where it long remained in
use as the _Eton Greek Grammar_, while at Westminster itself it was
superseded by that of Busby (1663). The text-books to be used at Harrow
in 1590 included Hesiod and some of the Greek orators and historians.


In one of the _Paston Letters_ (i. 301), an Eton boy of 1468 quotes two
Latin verses of his own composition. Nearly a century later, on New
Year's Day, 1560, forty-four boys of the school presented Latin verses
to Queen Elizabeth. The queen's former tutor, Roger Ascham, in his
_Scholemaster_ (1570), agrees with his Strassburg friend, J. Sturm, in
making the imitation of the Latin classics the main aim of instruction.
He is more original when he insists on the value of translation and
retranslation for acquiring a mastery over Latin prose composition, and
when he protests against compelling boys to converse in Latin too soon.
Ascham's influence is apparent in the _Positions_ of Mulcaster, who in
1581 insists on instruction in English before admission to a
grammar-school, while he is distinctly in advance of his age in urging
the foundation of a special college for the training of teachers.


  Bacon, Milton, Petty.


Cleland's _Institution of a Young Nobleman_ (1607) owes much to the
Italian humanists. The author follows Ascham in protesting against
compulsory Latin conversation, and only slightly modifies his
predecessor's method of teaching Latin prose. When Latin grammar has
been mastered, he bids the teacher lead his pupil "into the sweet
fountain and spring of all Arts and Science," that is, Greek learning
which is "as profitable for the understanding as the Latin tongue for
speaking." In the study of ancient history, "deeds and not words" are
the prime interest. "In Plutarch pleasure is so mixed and confounded
with profit; that I esteem the reading of him as a paradise for a
curious spirit to walk in at all time." Bacon in his _Advancement of
Learning_ (1605) notes it as "the first distemper of learning when men
study words and not matter" (I. iv. 3); he also observes that the
Jesuits "have much quickened and strengthened the state of learning" (I.
vi. 15). He is on the side of reform in education; he waves the humanist
aside with the words: _vetustas cessit, ratio vicit_. Milton, in his
_Tractate on Education_ (1644), advances further on Bacon's lines,
protesting against the length of time spent on instruction in language,
denouncing merely verbal knowledge, and recommending the study of a
large number of classical authors for the sake of their subject-matter,
and with a view to their bearing on practical life. His ideal place of
education is an institution combining a school and a university. Sir
William Petty, the economist (1623-1687), urged the establishment of
_ergastula literaria_ for instruction of a purely practical kind. Locke,
who had been educated at Winchester and had lectured on Greek at Oxford
(1660), nevertheless almost completely eliminated Greek from the scheme
which he unfolded in his _Thoughts on Education_ (1693). With Locke, the
moral and practical qualities of virtue and prudence are of the first
consideration. Instruction, he declares, is but the least part of
education; his aim is to train, not men of letters or men of science,
but practical men armed for the battle of life. Latin was, above all, to
be learned through use, with as little grammar as possible, but with the
reading of easy Latin texts, and with no repetition, no composition.
Greek he absolutely proscribes, reserving a knowledge of that language
to the learned and the lettered, and to professional scholars.


Throughout the 18th century and the early part of the 19th, the old
routine went on in England with little variety, and with no sign of
expansion. The range of studies was widened, however, at Rugby in
1828-1842 by Thomas Arnold, whose interest in ancient history and
geography, as a necessary part of classical learning, is attested by his
edition of Thucydides; while his influence was still further extended
when those who had been trained in his traditions became head masters of
other schools.

During the rest of the century the leading landmarks are the three royal
commissions known by the names of their chairmen: (1) Lord Clarendon's
on nine public schools, Eton, Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse,
Harrow, Rugby, Shrewsbury, St Paul's and Merchant Taylors' (1861-1864),
resulting in the Public Schools Act of 1868; (2) Lord Taunton's on 782
endowed schools (1864-1867), followed by the act of 1869; and (3) Mr
Bryce's on secondary education (1894-1895).

  Controversy on classical education.

A certain discontent with the current traditions of classical training
found expression in the _Essays on a Liberal Education_ (1867). The
author of the first essay, C.S. Parker, closed his review of the reforms
instituted in Germany and France by adding that in England there had
been but little change. The same volume included a critical examination
of the "Theory of Classical Education" by Henry Sidgwick, and an attack
on compulsory Greek and Latin verse composition by F.W. Farrar. The
claims of verse composition have since been judiciously defended by the
Hon. Edward Lyttelton (1897), while a temperate and effective
restatement of the case for the classics may be found in Sir Richard
Jebb's Romanes Lecture on "Humanism in Education" (1899).

The question of the position of Greek in secondary education has from
time to time attracted attention in connexion with the requirement of
Greek in Responsions at Oxford, and in the Previous Examination at

  "Compulsory Greek."

In the _Cambridge University Reporter_ for November 9, 1870, it was
stated that, "in order to provide adequate encouragement for the study
of Modern Languages and Natural Science," the commissioners for endowed
schools had determined on the establishment of modern schools of the
first grade in which Greek would be excluded. The commissioners feared
that, so long as Greek was a _sine qua non_ at the universities, these
schools would be cut off from direct connexion with the universities,
while the universities would in some degree lose their control over a
portion of the higher culture of the nation. On the 9th of March 1871 a
syndicate recommended that, in the Previous Examination, French and
German (taken together) should be allowed in place of Greek; on the 27th
of April this recommendation (which only affected candidates for honours
or for medical degrees) was rejected by 51 votes to 48.

All the other proposals and votes relating to Greek in the Previous
Examination in 1870-1873, 1878-1880, and 1891-1892 are set forth in the
_Cambridge University Reporter_ for November 11, 1904, pp. 202-205. In
November 1903 a syndicate was appointed to consider the studies and
examinations of the university, their report of November 1904 on the
Previous Examination was fully discussed, and the speeches published in
the _Reporter_ fcr December 17, 1904. In the course of the discussion
Sir Richard Jebb drew attention to the statistics collected by the
master of Emmanuel, Mr W. Chawner, showing that, out of 86 head masters
belonging to the Head Masters' Conference whose replies had been
published, "about 56 held the opinion that the exemption from Greek for
all candidates for a degree would endanger or altogether extinguish the
study of Greek in the vast majority of schools, while about 21 head
masters held a different opinion." On the 3rd of March 1905 a proposal
for accepting either French or German as an alternative for either Latin
or Greek in the Previous Examination was rejected by 1559 to 1052 votes,
and on the 26th of May 1906 proposals distinguishing between students in
letters and students in science, and (_inter alia_) _requiring_ the
latter to take either French or German for either Latin or Greek in the
Previous Examination, were rejected by 746 to 241.

Meanwhile, at Oxford a proposal practically making Greek optional with
all undergraduates was rejected, in November 1902, by 189 votes to 166;
a preliminary proposal permitting students of mathematics or natural
science to offer one or more modern languages in lieu of Greek was
passed by 164 to 162 in February 1904, but on the 29th of November the
draft of a statute to this effect was thrown out by 200 to 164. In the
course of the controversy three presidents of the Royal Society, Lord
Kelvin, Lord Lister and Sir W. Huggins, expressed the opinion that the
proposed exemption was not beneficial to science students.

  The Classical Association.

Incidentally, the question of "compulsory Greek" has stimulated a desire
for greater efficiency in classical teaching. In December 1903, a year
before the most important of the public discussions at Cambridge, the
Classical Association was founded in London. The aim of that association
is "to promote the development, and maintain the well-being, of
classical studies, and in particular (a) to impress upon public opinion
the claim of such studies to an eminent place in the national scheme of
education; (b) to improve the practice of classical teaching by free
discussion of its scope and methods; (c) to encourage investigation and
call attention to new discoveries; (d) to create opportunities of
friendly intercourse and co-operation between all lovers of classical
learning in this country."

  The curriculum.

The question of the curriculum and the time-table in secondary education
has occupied the attention of the Classical Association, the British
Association and the Education Department of Scotland. The general effect
of the recommendations already made would be to begin the study of
foreign languages with French, and to postpone the study of Latin to the
age of twelve and that of Greek to the age of thirteen. At the Head
Masters' Conference of December 1907 a proposal to lower the standard of
Greek in the entrance scholarship examinations of public schools was
lost by 10 votes to 16, and the "British Association report" was adopted
with reservations in 1908. In the case of secondary schools in receipt
of grants of public money (about 700 in England and 100 in Wales in
1907-1908), "the curriculum, and time-table must be approved by the
Board of Education." The Board has also a certain control over the
curriculum of schools under the Endowed Schools Acts and the Charitable
Trusts Acts, and also over that of schools voluntarily applying for
inspection with a view to being recognized as efficient.

  Reform in Latin pronunciation.

Further efficiency in classical education has been the aim of the
movement in favour of the reform of Latin pronunciation. In 1871 this
movement resulted in Munro and Palmer's _Syllabus of Latin
Pronunciation_. The reform was carried forward at University College,
London, by Professor Key and by Professor Robinson Ellis in 1873, and
was accepted at Shrewsbury, Marlborough, Liverpool College, Christ's
Hospital, Dulwich, and the City of London school. It was taken up anew
by the Cambridge Philological Society in 1886, by the Modern Languages
Association in 1901, by the Classical Association in 1904-1905, and the
Philological Societies of Oxford and Cambridge in 1906. The reform was
accepted by the various bodies of head masters and assistant masters in
December 1906-January 1907, and the proposed scheme was formally
approved by the Board of Education in February 1907.

  See W.H. Woodward, _Studies in Education during the Age of the
  Renaissance_ (1906), chap. xiii.; Acland and Llewellin Smith, _Studies
  in Secondary Education_, with introduction by James Bryce (1892);
  _Essays on a Liberal Education_, ed. F.W. Farrar (1867); R.C. Jebb,
  "Humanism in Education," Romanes Lecture of 1899, reprinted with other
  lectures on cognate subjects in _Essays and Addresses_ (1907); Foster
  Watson, _The Curriculum and Practice of the English Grammar Schools up
  to 1660_ (1908); "Greek at Oxford," by a Resident, in _The Times_
  (December 27, 1904); _Cambridge University Reporter_ (November 11 and
  December 17, 1904); _British Association Report on Curricula of
  Secondary Schools_ (with an independent paper by Professor Armstrong
  on "The Teaching of Classics"), (December 1907); W.H.D. Rouse in _The
  Year's Work in Classical Studies_ (1907 and 1908), chap. i.; J.P.
  Postgate, _How to pronounce Latin_ (Appendix B, on "Recent Progress"),
  (1907). For further bibliographical details see pp. 875-890 of Dr Karl
  Breul's "Grossbritannien" in Baumeister's _Handbuch_, I. ii. 737-892
  (Munich, 1897).


2. In _France_ it was mainly with a view to promoting the study of Greek
that the corporation of Royal Readers was founded by Francis I. in 1530
at the prompting of Budaeus. In the university of Paris, which was
originally opposed to this innovation, the statutes of 1598 prescribed
the study of Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Theocritus, Plato, Demosthenes and
Isocrates (as well as the principal Latin classics), and required the
production of three exercises in Greek or Latin in each week.


From the middle of the 16th century the elements of Latin were generally
learned from unattractive abridgments of the grammar of the Flemish
scholar, van Pauteren or Despautère (d. 1520), which, in its original
folio editions of 1537-1538, was an excellent work. The unhappy lot of
those who were compelled to learn their Latin from the current
abridgments was lamented by a Port-Royalist in a striking passage
describing the gloomy forest of _le pays de Despautère_ (Guyot, quoted
in Sainte-Beuve's _Port-Royal_, iii. 429). The first Latin grammar
written in French was that of Père de Condren of the _Oratoire_ (c.
1642), which was followed by the Port-Royal _Méthode latine_ of Claude
Lancelot (1644), and by the grammar composed by Bossuet for the dauphin,
and also used by Fénelon for the instruction of the duc de Bourgogne. In
the second half of the 17th century the rules of grammar and rhetoric
were simplified, and the time withdrawn from the practice of composition
(especially verse composition) transferred to the explanation and the
study of authors.

  Richelieu, Bossuet, Fénelon, Fleury.

Richelieu, in 1640, formed a scheme for a college in which Latin was to
have a subordinate place, while room was to be found for the study of
history and science, Greek, and French and modern languages. Bossuet, in
educating the dauphin, added to the ordinary classical routine
represented by the extensive series of the "Delphin Classics" the study
of history and of science. A greater originality in the method of
teaching the ancient languages was exemplified by Fénelon, whose views
were partially reflected by the Abbé Fleury, who also desired the
simplification of grammar, the diminution of composition, and even the
suppression of Latin verse. Of the ordinary teaching of Greek in his
day, Fleury wittily observed that most boys "learned just enough of that
language to have a pretext for saying for the rest of their lives that
Greek was a subject easily forgotten."


In the 18th century Rollin, in his _Traité des études_ (1726), agreed
with the Port-Royalists in demanding that Latin grammars should be
written in French, that the rules should be simplified and explained by
a sufficient number of examples, and that a more important place should
be assigned to translation than to composition. The supremacy of Latin
was the subject of a long series of attacks in the same century. Even at
the close of the previous century the brilliant achievements of French
literature had prompted La Bruyère to declare in _Des ouvrages de
l'esprit_ (about 1680), "We have at last thrown off the yoke of
_Latinism_"; and, in the same year, Jacques Spon claimed in his
correspondence the right to use the French language in discussing points
of archaeology.

  The Jesuits.

Meanwhile, in 1563, notwithstanding the opposition of the university of
Paris, the Jesuits had succeeded in founding the _Collegium
Claromontanum_. After the accession of Henry IV. they were expelled from
Paris and other important towns in 1594, and not allowed to return until
1609, when they found themselves confronted once more by their rival,
the university of Paris. They opened the doors of their schools to the
Greek and Latin classics, but they represented the ancient masterpieces
dissevered from their original historic environment, as impersonal
models of taste, as isolated standards of style. They did much, however,
for the cultivation of original composition modelled on Cicero and
Virgil. They have been charged with paying an exaggerated attention to
form, and with neglecting the subject-matter of the classics. This
neglect is attributed to their anxiety to avoid the "pagan" element in
the ancient literature. Intensely conservative in their methods, they
kept up the system of using Latin in their grammars (and in their oral
instruction) long after it had been abandoned by others.


The use of French for these purposes was a characteristic of the "Little
Schools" of the Jansenists of Port-Royal(1643-1660). The text-books
prepared for them by Lancelot included not only the above-mentioned
Latin grammar (1644) but also the _Méthode grecque_ of 1655 and the
_Jardin des racines grecques_ (1657), which remained in use for two
centuries and largely superseded the grammar of Clenardus (1636) and the
_Tirocinium_ of Père Labbe (1648). Greek began to decline in the
university about 1650, at the very time when the Port-Royalists were
aiming at its revival. During the brief existence of their schools their
most celebrated pupils were Tillemont and Racine.

The Jesuits, on the other hand, claimed Corneille and Molière, as well
as Descartes and Bossuet, Fontenelle, Montesquieu and Voltaire. Of their
Latin poets the best-known were Denis Petau (d. 1652), René Rapin (d.
1687) and N.E. Sanadon (d. 1733). In 1762 the Jesuits were suppressed,
and more than one hundred schools were thus deprived of their teachers.
The university of Paris, which had prompted their suppression, and the
parliament, which had carried it into effect, made every endeavour to
replace them. The university took possession of the _Collegium
Claromontanum_, then known as the _Collège Louis-le-Grand_, and
transformed it into an _école normale_. Many of the Jesuit schools were
transferred to the congregations of the _Oratoire_ and the Benedictines,
and to the secular clergy. On the eve of the Revolution, out of a grand
total of 562 classical schools, 384 were in the hands of the clergy and
178 in those of the congregations.

  Classical education attacked.

The expulsion of the Jesuits gave a new impulse to the attacks directed
against all schemes of education in which Latin held a prominent
position. At the moment when the university of Paris was, by the absence
of its rivals, placed in complete control of the education of France,
she found herself driven to defend the principles of classical education
against a crowd of assailants. All kinds of devices were suggested for
expediting the acquisition of Latin; grammar was to be set aside; Latin
was to be learned as a "living language"; much attention was to be
devoted to acquiring an extensive vocabulary; and, "to save time,"
composition was to be abolished. To facilitate the reading of Latin
texts, the favourite method was the use of interlinear translations,
originally proposed by Locke, first popularized in France by Dumarsais
(1722), and in constant vogue down to the time of the Revolution.

Early in the 18th century Rollin pleaded for the "utility of Greek,"
while he described that language as the heritage of the university of
Paris. In 1753 Berthier feared that in thirty years no one would be able
to read Greek. In 1768 Rolland declared that the university, which held
Greek in high honour, nevertheless had reason to lament that her
students learnt little of the language, and he traced this decline to
the fact that attendance at lectures had ceased to be compulsory. Greek,
however, was still recognized as part of the examination held for the
appointment of schoolmasters.

  Eve of the Revolution.

During the 18th century, in Greek as well as in Latin, the general aim
was to reach the goal as rapidly as possible, even at the risk of
missing it altogether. On the eve of the Revolution, France was enjoying
the study of the institutions of Greece in the attractive pages of the
_Voyage du jeune Anacharsis_ (1789), but the study of Greek was menaced
even more than that of Latin. For fifty years before the Revolution
there was a distinct dissatisfaction with the routine of the schools. To
meet that dissatisfaction, the teachers had accepted new subjects of
study, had improved their methods, and had simplified the learning of
the dead languages. But even this was not enough. In the study of the
classics, as in other spheres, it was revolution rather than evolution
that was loudly demanded.

  First Republic.

The Revolution was soon followed by the long-continued battle of the
"Programmes." Under the First Republic the schemes of Condorcet (April
1792) and J. Lakanal (February 1795) were superseded by that of P.C.F.
Daunou (October 1795), which divided the pupils of the "central schools"
into three groups, according to age, with corresponding subjects of
study: (1) twelve to fourteen,--drawing, natural history, Greek and
Latin, and a choice of modern languages; (2) fourteen to
sixteen,--mathematics, physics, chemistry; (3) over sixteen,--general
grammar, literature, history and constitutional law..


In July 1801, under the consulate, there were two courses, (1) nine to
twelve,--elementary knowledge, including elements of Latin; (2) above
twelve,--a higher course, with two alternatives, "humanistic" studies
for the "civil," and purely practical studies for the "military"
section. The law of the 1st of May 1802 brought the _lycées_ into
existence, the subjects being, in Napoleon's own phrase, "mainly Latin
and mathematics."


At the Restoration (1814) the military discipline of the lycées was
replaced by the ecclesiastical discipline of the "Royal Colleges." The
reaction of 1815-1821 in favour of classics was followed by the more
liberal programme of Vatimesnil (1829), including, for those who had no
taste for a classical education, certain "special courses" (1830), which
were the germ of the _enseignement spécial_ and the _enseignement

  Third Republic.

Under Louis Philippe (1830-1848), amid all varieties of administration
there was a consistent desire to hold the balance fairly between all the
conflicting subjects of study. After the revolution of 1848 the
difficulties raised by the excessive number of subjects were solved by
H.N.H. Fortoul's expedient of "bifurcation," the alternatives being
letters and science. In 1863, under Napoleon III., Victor Duruy
encouraged the study of history, and also did much for classical
learning by founding the École des Hautes Études. In 1872, under the
Third Republic, Jules Simon found time for hygiene, geography and modern
languages by abolishing Latin verse composition and reducing the number
of exercises in Latin prose, while he insisted on the importance of
studying the inner meaning of the ancient classics. The same principles
were carried out by Jules Ferry (1880) and Paul Bert (1881-1882). In the
scheme of 1890 the Latin course of six years began with ten hours a week
and ended with four; Greek was begun a year later with two hours,
increasing to six and ending with four.

The commission of 1899, under the able chairmanship of M. Alexandre
Ribot, published an important report, which was followed in 1902 by the
scheme of M. Georges Leygues. The preamble includes a striking tribute
to the advantages that France had derived from the study of the

  "L'étude de l'antiquité grecque et latine a donné au génie français
  une mesure, une clarté et une élégance incomparables. C'est par elle
  que notre philosophie, nos lettres et nos arts ont brillé d'un si vif
  éclat; c'est par elle que notre influence morale s'est exercée en
  souveraine dans le monde. Les humanités doivent être protégées contre
  toute atteinte et fortifiées. Elles font partie du patrimoine

  "L'esprit classique n'est pas ... incompatible avec l'esprit moderne.
  Il est de tous les temps, parce qu'il est le culte de la raison claire
  et libre, la recherche de la beauté harmonieuse et simple dans toutes
  les manifestations de la pensée."

By the scheme introduced in these memorable terms the course of seven
years is divided into two cycles, the first cycle (of four years) having
two parallel courses: (1) without Greek or Latin, and (2) with Latin,
and with optional Greek at the beginning of the third year. In the
second cycle (of three years) those who have been learning both Greek
and Latin, and those who have been learning neither, continue on the
same lines as before; while those who have been learning Latin only may
either (1) discontinue it in favour of modern languages _and_ science,
or (2) continue it with _either_. As an alternative to the second cycle,
which normally ends in the examination for the _baccalauréat_, there is
a shorter course, mainly founded on modern languages or applied science
and ending in a public examination without the _baccalauréat_. The
_baccalauréat_, however, has been condemned by the next minister, M.
Briand, who prefers to crown the course with the award of a school
diploma (1907).

  See H. Lantoine, _Histoire de l'enseignement secondaire en France au
  XVIIe siècle_ (1874); A. Sicard, _Les Études classiques avant la
  Révolution_ (1887); Sainte-Beuve, _Port-Royal_, vols. i.-v.
  (1840-1859), especially iii. 383-588; O. Gréard, _Education et
  instruction_, 4 vols., especially "Enseignement secondaire," vol. ii.
  pp. 1-90, with conspectus of programmes in the appendix (1889); A.
  Ribot, _La Réforme de l'enseignement secondaire_ (1900); G. Leygues,
  _Plan d'études_, &c. (1902); H.H. Johnson, "Present State of Classical
  Studies in France," in _Classical Review_ (December 1907). See also
  the English Education Department's _Special Reports on Education in
  France_ (1899). The earlier literature is best represented in England
  by Matthew Arnold's _Schools and Universities in France_ (1868; new
  edition, 1892) and _A French Eton_ (1864).


3. The history of education in Germany since 1500 falls into three
periods: (a) the age of the Revival of Learning and the Reformation
(1500-1650), (b) the age of French influence (1650-1800), and (c) the
19th century.


  The Greek Testament.

(a) During the first twenty years of the 16th century the reform of
Latin instruction was carried out by setting aside the old medieval
grammars, by introducing new manuals of classical literature, and by
prescribing the study of classical authors and the imitation of
classical models. In all these points the lead was first taken by south
Germany, and by the towns along the Rhine down to the Netherlands. The
old schools and universities were being quietly interpenetrated by the
new spirit of humanism, when the sky was suddenly darkened by the clouds
of religious conflict. In 1525-1535 there was a marked depression in the
classical studies of Germany. Erasmus, writing to W. Pirckheimer in
1528, exclaims: "Wherever the spirit of Luther prevails, learning goes
to the ground." Such a fate was, however, averted by the intervention of
Melanchthon (d. 1560), the _praeceptor Germaniae_, who was the
embodiment of the spirit of the new Protestant type of education, with
its union of evangelical doctrine and humanistic culture. Under his
influence, new schools rapidly rose into being at Magdeburg, Eisleben
and Nuremberg (1521-1526). During more than forty years of academic
activity he not only provided manuals of Latin and Greek grammar and
many other text-books that long remained in use, but he also formed for
Germany a well-trained class of learned teachers, who extended his
influence throughout the land. His principal ally as an educator and as
a writer of text-books was Camerarius (d. 1574). Precepts of style, and
models taken from the best Latin authors, were the means whereby a
remarkable skill in the imitation of Cicero was attained at Strassburg
during the forty-four years of the headmastership of Johannes von Sturm
(d. 1589), who had himself been influenced by the _De disciplinis_ of
J.L. Vivès (1531), and in all his teaching aimed at the formation of a
_sapiens atque eloquens pietas_. Latin continued to be the living
language of learning and of literature, and a correct and elegant Latin
style was regarded as the mark of an educated person. Greek was taught
in all the great schools, but became more and more confined to the study
of the Greek Testament. In 1550 it was proposed in Brunswick to banish
all "profane" authors from the schools, and in 1589 a competent scholar
was instructed to write a sacred epic on the kings of Israel as a
substitute for the works of the "pagan" poets. In 1637, when the doubts
of Scaliger and Heinsius as to the purity of the Greek of the New
Testament prompted the rector of Hamburg to introduce the study of
classical authors, any reflection on the style of the Greek Testament
was bitterly resented.

  The Jesuits.

The Society of Jesus was founded in 1540, and by 1600 most of the
teachers in the Catholic schools and universities of Germany were
Jesuits. The society was "dissolved" in 1773, but survived its
dissolution. In accordance with the _Ratio Studiorum_ of Aquaviva
(1599), which long remained unaltered and was only partially revised by
J. Roothaan (1832), the main subjects of instruction were the _litterae
humaniores diversarum linguarum_. The chief place among these was
naturally assigned to Latin, the language of the society and of the
Roman Church. The Latin grammar in use was that of the Jesuit rector of
the school at Lisbon, Alvarez (1572). As in the Protestant schools, the
principal aim was the attainment of _eloquentia_. A comparatively
subordinate place was assigned to Greek, especially as the importance
attributed to the Vulgate weakened the motive for studying the original
text. It was recognized, however, that Latin itself (as Vivès had said)
was "in no small need of Greek," and that, "unless Greek was learnt in
boyhood, it would hardly ever be learnt at all." The text-book used was
the _Institutiones linguae Graecae_ of the German Jesuit, Jacob Gretser,
of Ingolstadt (c. 1590), and the reading in the highest class included
portions of Demosthenes, Isocrates, Plato, Thucydides, Homer, Hesiod,
Pindar, Gregory of Nazianzus, Basil and Chrysostom. The Catholic and
Protestant schools of the 16th century succeeded, as a rule, in giving a
command over a correct Latin style and a taste for literary form and for
culture. Latin was still the language of the law-courts and of a large
part of general literature. Between Luther and Lessing there was no
great writer of German prose.

  The age of French influence.

(b) In the early part of the period 1650-1800, while Latin continued to
hold the foremost place, it was ceasing to be Latin of the strictly
classical type. Greek fell still further into the background; and Homer
and Demosthenes gradually gave way to the Greek Testament. Between 1600
and 1775 there was a great gap in the production of new editions of the
principal Greek classics. The spell was only partially broken by J.A.
Ernesti's _Homer_ (1759 f.) and Chr. G. Heyne's _Pindar_ (1773 f.).

  Modern and secular education.

The peace of Westphalia (1648) marks a distinct epoch in the history of
education in Germany. Thenceforth, education became more modern and more
secular. The long wars of religion in Germany, as in France and England,
were followed by a certain indifference as to disputed points of
theology. But the modern and secular type of education that now
supervened was opposed by the pietism of the second half of the 17th
century, represented at the newly-founded university of Halle (1694) by
A.H. Francke, the professor of Greek (d. 1727), whose influence was far
greater than that of Chr. Cellarius (d. 1707), the founder of the first
philological _Seminar_ (1697). Francke's contemporary, Chr. Thomasius
(d. 1728), was never weary of attacking scholarship of the old
humanistic type and everything that savoured of antiquarian pedantry,
and it was mainly his influence that made German the language of
university lectures and of scientific and learned literature. A modern
education is also the aim of the general introduction to the _nova
methodus_ of Leibnitz, where the study of Greek is recommended solely
for the sake of the Greek Testament (1666). Meanwhile, Ratichius (d.
1635) had in vain pretended to teach Hebrew, Greek and Latin in the
space of six months (1612), but he had the merit of maintaining that the
study of a language should begin with the study of an author. Comenius
(d. 1671) had proposed to teach Latin by drilling his pupils in a
thousand graduated phrases distributed over a hundred instructive
chapters, while the Latin authors were banished because of their
difficulty and their "paganism" (1631). One of the catchwords of the day
was to insist on a knowledge of _things_ instead of a knowledge of
_words_, on "realism" instead of "verbalism."


Under the influence of France the perfect courtier became the ideal in
the German education of the upper classes of the 17th and 18th
centuries. A large number of aristocratic schools (_Ritter-Akademien_)
were founded, beginning with the Collegium Illustre of Tübingen (1589)
and ending with the Hohe Karlschule of Stuttgart (1775). In these
schools the subjects of study included mathematics and natural sciences,
geography and history, and modern languages (especially French), with
riding, fencing and dancing; Latin assumed a subordinate place, and
classical composition in prose or verse was not considered a
sufficiently courtly accomplishment. The youthful aristocracy were thus
withdrawn from the old Latin schools of Germany, but the aristocratic
schools vanished with the dawn of the 19th century, and the ordinary
public schools were once more frequented by the young nobility.

  The "new humanism."


  School reorganization.

(c) _The Modern Period._--In the last third of the 18th century two
important movements came into play, the "naturalism" of Rousseau and the
"new humanism." While Rousseau sought his ideal in a form of education
and of culture that was in close accord with nature, the German apostles
of the new humanism were convinced that they had found that ideal
completely realized in the old Greek world. Hence the aim of education
was to make young people thoroughly "Greek," to fill them with the
"Greek" spirit, with courage and keenness in the quest of truth, and
with a devotion to all that was beautiful. The link between the
naturalism of Rousseau and the new humanism is to be found in J.G.
Herder, whose passion for all that is Greek inspires him with almost a
hatred of Latin. The new humanism was a kind of revival of the
Renaissance, which had been retarded by the Reformation in Germany and
by the Counter-Reformation in Italy, or had at least been degraded to
the dull classicism of the schools. The new humanism agreed with the
Renaissance in its unreserved recognition of the old classical world as
a perfect pattern of culture. But, while the Renaissance aimed at
reproducing the Augustan age of _Rome_, the new humanism found its
golden age in _Athens_. The Latin Renaissance in Italy aimed at
recovering and verbally imitating the ancient literature; the Greek
Renaissance in Germany sought inspiration from the creative originality
of Greek literature with a view to producing an original literature in
the German language. The movement had its effect on the schools by
discouraging the old classical routine of verbal imitation, and giving a
new prominence to Greek and to German. The new humanism found a home in
Göttingen (1783) in the days of J.M. Gesner and C.G. Heyne. It was
represented at Leipzig by Gesner's successor, Ernesti (d. 1781); and at
Halle by F.A. Wolf, who in 1783 was appointed professor of education by
Zedlitz, the minister of Frederick the Great. In literature, its leading
names were Winckelmann, Lessing and Voss, and Herder, Goethe and
Schiller. The tide of the new movement had reached its height about
1800. Goethe and Schiller were convinced that the old Greek world was
the highest revelation of humanity; and the universities and schools of
Germany were reorganized in this spirit by F.A. Wolf and his illustrious
pupil, Wilhelm von Humboldt. In 1809-1810 Humboldt was at the head of
the educational section of the Prussian Home Office, and, in the brief
interval of a year and a half, gave to the general system of education
the direction which it followed (with slight exceptions) throughout the
whole century. In 1810 the _examen pro facultate docendi_ first made the
profession of a schoolmaster independent of that of a minister of
religion. The new scheme drawn up by J.W. Süvern recognized four
principal co-ordinated branches of learning: Latin, Greek, German,
mathematics. All four were studied throughout the school, Greek being
begun in the fourth of the nine classes, that corresponding to the
English "third form." The old Latin school had only one main subject,
the study of Latin style (combined with a modicum of Greek). The new
gymnasium aimed at a wider education, in which literature was
represented by Latin, Greek and German, by the side of mathematics and
natural science, history and religion. The uniform employment of the
term _Gymnasium_ for the highest type of a Prussian school dates from
1812. The leaving examination (_Abgangsprüfung_), instituted in that
year, required Greek translation at sight, with Greek prose composition,
and ability to speak and to write Latin. In 1818-1840 the leading spirit
on the board of education was Johannes Schulze, and a _complete_ and
comprehensive system of education continued to be the ideal kept in
view. Such an education, however, was found in practice to involve a
prolongation of the years spent at school and a correspondingly later
start in life. It was also attacked on the ground that it led to
"overwork." This attack was partially met by the scheme of 1837.
Schulze's period of prominence in Berlin closely corresponded to that of
Herbart at Königsberg (1809-1833) and Göttingen (1833-1841), who
insisted that for boys of eight to twelve there was no better text-book
than the Greek _Odyssey_, and this principle was brought into practice
at Hanover by his distinguished pupil, Ahrens.

The Prussian policy of the next period, beginning with the accession of
Friedrich Wilhelm IV. in 1840, was to lay a new stress on religious
teaching, and to obviate the risk of overwork resulting from the
simultaneous study of all subjects by the encouragement of
specialization in a few. Ludwig Wiese's scheme of 1856 insisted on the
retention of Latin verse as well as Latin prose, and showed less favour
to natural science, but it awakened little enthusiasm, while the attempt
to revive the old humanistic Gymnasium led to a demand for schools of a
more modern type, which issued in the recognition of the _Realgymnasium_

In the age of Bismarck, school policy in Prussia had for its aim an
increasing recognition of modern requirements. In 1875 Wiese was
succeeded by Bonitz, the eminent Aristotelian scholar, who in 1849 had
introduced mathematics and natural science into the schools of Austria,
and had substituted the wide reading of classical authors for the
prevalent practice of speaking and writing Latin. By his scheme of 1882
natural science recovered its former position in Prussia, and the hours
assigned in each week to Latin were diminished from 86 to 77. But
neither of the two great parties in the educational world was satisfied;
and great expectations were aroused when the question of reform was
taken up by the German emperor, William II., in 1890. The result of the
conference of December 1890 was a compromise between the conservatism of
a majority of its members and the forward policy of the emperor. The
scheme of 1892 reduced the number of hours assigned to Latin from 77 to
62, and laid special stress on the _German_ essay; but the modern
training given by the _Realgymnasium_ was still unrecognized as an
avenue to a university education. A conference held in June 1900, in
which the speakers included Mommsen and von Wilamowitz, Harnack and
Diels, was followed by the "Kiel Decree" of the 26th of November. In
that decree the emperor urged the equal recognition of the classical and
the modern _Gymnasium_, and emphasized the importance of giving more
time to Latin and to English in both. In the teaching of Greek, "useless
details" were to be set aside, and special care devoted to the connexion
between ancient and modern culture, while, in all subjects, attention
was to be paid to the classic precept: _multum, non multa_.

By the scheme of 1901 the pupils of the _Realgymnasium_, the
_Oberrealschule_ and the _Gymnasium_ were admitted to the university on
equal terms in virtue of their leaving-certificates, but Greek and Latin
were still required for students of classics or divinity.

For the _Gymnasium_ the aim of the new scheme is, in _Latin_, "to supply
boys with a sound basis of grammatical training, with a view to their
understanding the more important classical writers of Rome, and being
thus introduced to the intellectual life and culture of the ancient
world"; and, in _Greek_, "to give them a sufficient knowledge of the
language with a view to their obtaining an acquaintance with some of the
Greek classical works which are distinguished both in matter and in
style, and thus gaining an insight into the intellectual life and
culture of Ancient Greece." In consequence of these changes Greek is now
studied by a smaller number of boys, but with better results, and a new
lease of life has been won for the classical _Gymnasium_.

Lastly, by the side of the classical _Gymnasium_, we now have the
"German Reform Schools" of two different types, that of Altona (dating
from 1878) and that of Frankfort-on-the-Main (1892). The leading
principle in both is the postponement of the time for learning Latin.
Schools of the Frankfort type take French as their only foreign language
in the first three years of the course, and aim at achieving in six
years as much as has been achieved by the _Gymnasia_ in nine; and it is
maintained that, in six years, they succeed in mastering a larger amount
of Latin literature than was attempted a generation ago, even in the
best _Gymnasia_ of the old style. It may be added that in all the German
_Gymnasia_, whether reformed or not, more time is given to classics than
in the corresponding schools in England.

  See F. Paulsen, _Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts vom Ausgang des
  Mittelalters bis auf die Gegenwart mit besonderer Rücksicht auf den
  klassischen Unterricht_ (2 vols., 2nd ed., 1896); _Das Realgymnasium
  und die humanistische Bildung_ (1889); _Die höheren Schulen und das
  Universitätsstudium im 20. Jahrhundert_ (1901); "Das moderne
  Bildungswesen" in _Die Kulture der Gegenwart_, vol. i. (1904); _Das
  deutsche Bildungswesen in seiner geschichtlichen Entwickelung_ (1906)
  (with the literature there quoted, pp. 190-192), translated by Dr T.
  Lorenz, _German Education, Past and Present_ (1908); T. Ziegler,
  _Notwendigkeit ... des Realgymnasiums_ (Stuttgart, 1894); F.A.
  Eckstein, _Lateinischer und griechischer Unterricht_ (1887); O. Kohl,
  "Griechischer Unterricht" (Langensalza, 1896) in W. Rein's _Handbuch_;
  A. Baumeister's _Handbuch_ (1895), especially vol. i. 1 (History) and
  i. 2 (Educational Systems); P. Stötzner, _Das öffentliche
  Unterrichtswesen Deutschlands in der Gegenwart_ (1901); F. Seiler,
  _Geschichte des deutschen Unterrichtswesens_ (2 vols., 1906);
  _Verhandlungen_ of June 1900 (2nd ed., 1902); _Lehrpläne_, &c. (1901);
  _Die Reform des höheren Schulwesens_, ed. W. Lexis (1902); A.
  Harnack's _Vortrag_ and W. Parow's _Erwiderung_ (1905); H. Müller,
  _Das höhere Schulwesen Deutschlands am Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts_
  (Stuttgart, 1904); O. Steinbart, _Durchführung des preussischen
  Schulreform in ganz Deutschland_ (Duisburg, 1904); J. Schipper, _Alte
  Bildung und moderne Cultur_ (Vienna, 1901); Papers by M.E. Sadler: (1)
  "Problems in Prussian Secondary Education" (Special Reports of
  Education Dept., 1899); (2) "The Unrest in Secondary Education in
  Germany and Elsewhere" (Special Reports of Board of Education, vol. 9,
  1902); J.L. Paton, _The Teaching of Classics in Prussian Secondary
  Schools_ (on "German Reform Schools") (1907, Wyman, London); J.E.
  Russell, _German Higher Schools_ (New York, 1899); and (among earlier
  English publications) Matthew Arnold's _Higher Schools and
  Universities in Germany_ (1874, reprinted from _Schools and
  Universities on the Continent_, 1865).

  United States.

(4) In the _United States of America_ the highest degree of educational
development has been subsequent to the Civil War. The study of Latin
begins in the "high schools," the average age of admission being fifteen
and the normal course extending over four years. Among classical
teachers an increasing number would prefer a longer course extending
over six years for Latin, and at least three for Greek, and some of
these would assign to the elementary school the first two of the
proposed six years of Latin study. Others are content with the late
learning of Latin and prefer that it should be preceded by a thorough
study of modern languages (see Prof. B.I. Wheeler, in Baumeister's
_Handbuch_, 1897, ii. 2, pp. 584-586).

  Latin pronunciation.

It was mainly owing to a pamphlet issued in 1871 by Prof. G.M. Lane, of
Harvard, that a reformed pronunciation of Latin was adopted in all the
colleges and schools of the United States. Some misgivings on this
reform found expression in a work on the _Teaching of Latin_, published
by Prof. C.E. Bennett of Cornell in 1901, a year in which it was
estimated that this pronunciation was in use by more than 96% of the
Latin pupils in the secondary schools.

Some important statistics as to the number studying Latin and Greek in
the secondary schools were collected in 1900 by a committee of twelve
educational experts representing all parts of the Union, with a view to
a uniform course of instruction being pursued in all classical schools.
They had the advantage of the co-operation of Dr W.T. Harris, the U.S.
commissioner of education, and they were able to report that, in all the
five groups into which they had divided the states, the number of pupils
pursuing the study of Latin and Greek showed a remarkable advance,
especially in the most progressive states of the middle west. The number
learning Latin had increased from 100,144 in 1890 to 314,856 in
1899-1900, and those learning Greek from 12,869 to 24,869. Thus the
number learning Latin at the later date was three times, and the number
learning Greek twice, as many as those learning Latin or Greek ten years
previously. But the total number in 1000 was 630,048; so that,
notwithstanding this proof of progress, the number learning Greek in
1900 was only about one twenty-fifth of the total number, while the
number learning Latin was as high as half.

The position of Greek as an "elective" or "optional" subject (notably at
Harvard), an arrangement regarded with approval by some eminent
educational authorities and with regret by others, probably has some
effect on the high schools in the small number of those who learn Greek,
and in their lower rate of increase, as compared with those who learn
Latin. Some evidence as to the quality of the study of those languages
in the schools is supplied by English commissioners in the _Reports of
the Mosely Commission_. Thus Mr Papillon considered that, while the
teaching of English literature was admirable, the average standard of
Latin and Greek teaching and attainment in the upper classes was "below
that of an English public school"; he felt, however, that the secondary
schools of the United States had a "greater variety of the curriculum to
suit the practical needs of life," and that they existed, not "for the
select few," but "for the whole people" (pp. 250 f.).

  For full information see the "Two volumes of Monographs prepared for
  the United States Educational Exhibit at the Paris Exposition of
  1900," edited by Dr N. Murray Butler; the _Annual Reports_ of the U.S.
  commissioner of education (Washington); and the _Reports of the Mosely
  Commission to the United States of America_ (London, 1904). Cf.
  statistics quoted in G.G. Ramsay's "Address on Efficiency in
  Education" (Glasgow, 1902, 17-20), from the _Transactions of the Amer.
  Philol. Association_, xxx. (1899), pp. lxxvii-cxxii; also Bennett and
  Bristol, _The Teaching of Latin and Greek in the Secondary School_
  (New York, 1901).    (J. E. S.*)


  [1] The above derivation is in accordance with English usage. In the
    _New English Dictionary_ the earliest example of the word "classical"
    is the phrase "classical and canonical," found in the _Europae
    Speculum_ of Sir Edwin Sandys (1599), and, as applied to a writer, it
    is explained as meaning "of the first rank or authority." This
    exactly corresponds with the meaning of _classicus_ in the above
    passage of Gellius. On the other hand, the French word _classique_
    (in Littré's view) primarily means "used in class."

  [2] See also the article SCHOOLS.

CLASSIFICATION (Lat. _classis_, a class, probably from the root _cal-_,
_cla-_, as in Gr. [Greek: kaleô], _clamor_), a logical process, common
to all the special sciences and to knowledge in general, consisting in
the collection under a common name of a number of objects which are
alike in one or more respects. The process consists in observing the
objects and abstracting from their various qualities that characteristic
which they have in common. This characteristic constitutes the
definition of the "class" to which they are regarded as belonging. It
is this process by which we arrive first at "species" and then at
"genus," i.e. at all scientific generalization. Individual things,
regarded as such, constitute a mere aggregate, unconnected with one
another, and so far unexplained; scientific knowledge consists in
systematic classification. Thus if we observe the heavenly bodies
individually we can state merely that they have been observed to have
certain motions through the sky, that they are luminous, and the like.
If, however, we compare them one with another, we discover that, whereas
all partake in the general movement of the heavens, some have a movement
of their own. Thus we arrive at a system of classification according to
motion, by which fixed stars are differentiated from planets. A further
classification according to other criteria gives us stars of the first
magnitude and stars of the second magnitude, and so forth. We thus
arrive at a systematic understanding expressed in laws by the
application of which accurate forecasts of celestial phenomena can be
made. Classification in the strict logical sense consists in discovering
the casual interrelation of natural objects; it thus differs from what
is often called "artificial" classification, which is the preparation,
e.g. of statistics for particular purposes, administrative and the like.

Of the systems of classification adopted in physical science, only one
requires treatment here, namely, the classification of the sciences as
a whole, a problem which has from the time of Aristotle attracted
considerable attention. Its object is to delimit the spheres of
influence of the positive sciences and show how they are mutually
related. Of such attempts three are specially noteworthy, those of
Francis Bacon, Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer.

Bacon's classification is based on the subjective criterion of the
various faculties which are specially concerned. He thus distinguished
History (natural, civil, literary, ecclesiastical) as the province of
memory, Philosophy (including Theology) as that of reason, and Poetry,
Fables and the like, as that of imagination. This classification was
made the basis of the _Encyclopédie_. Comte adopted an entirely
different system based on an objective criterion. Having first
enunciated the theory that all science passes through three stages,
theological, metaphysical and positive, he neglects the two first, and
divides the last according to the "things to be classified," in view of
their real affinity and natural connexions, into six, in order of
decreasing generality and increasing complexity--mathematics, astronomy,
physics, chemistry, physiology and biology (including psychology), and
sociology. This he conceives to be not only the logical, but also the
historical, order of development, from the abstract and purely deductive
to the concrete and inductive. Sociology is thus the highest, most
complex, and most positive of the sciences. Herbert Spencer, condemning
this division as both incomplete and theoretically unsound, adopted a
three-fold division into (1) _abstract_ science (including logic and
mathematics) dealing with the universal forms under which all knowledge
of phenomena is possible, (2) _abstract-concrete_ science (including
mechanics, chemistry, physics), dealing with the elements of phenomena
themselves, i.e. laws of forces as deducible from the persistence of
forces, and (3) _concrete_ science (e.g. astronomy, biology, sociology),
dealing with "phenomena themselves in their totalities," the universal
laws of the continuous redistribution of Matter and Motion, Evolution
and Dissolution.

Beside the above three systems several others deserve brief mention. In
Greece at the dawn of systematic thought the physical sciences were few
in number; none the less philosophers were not agreed as to their true
relation. The Platonic school adopted a triple classification, physics,
ethics and dialectics; Aristotle's system was more complicated, nor do
we know precisely how he subdivided his three main classes, theoretical,
practical and poetical (i.e. technical, having to do with [Greek:
poiêsis], creative). The second class covered ethics and politics, the
latter of which was often regarded by Aristotle as including ethics; the
third includes the useful and the imitative sciences; the first includes
metaphysics and physics. As regards pure logic Aristotle sometimes seems
to include it with metaphysics and physics, sometimes to regard it as
ancillary to all the sciences.

Thomas Hobbes (_Leviathan_) drew up an elaborate paradigm of the
sciences, the first stage of which was a dichotomy into "Naturall
Philosophy" ("consequences from the accidents of bodies naturall") and
"Politiques and Civill Philosophy" ("consequences from accidents of
Politique bodies"). The former by successive subdivisions is reduced to
eighteen special sciences; the latter is subdivided into the rights and
duties of sovereign powers, and those of the subject.

Jeremy Bentham and A.M. Ampère both drew up elaborate systems based on
the principle of dichotomy, and beginning from the distinction of mind
and body. Bentham invented an artificial terminology which is rather
curious than valuable. The science of the body was Somatology, that of
the mind Pneumatology. The former include Posology (science of quantity,
mathematics) and Poiology (science of quality); Posology includes
Morphoscopic (geometry) and Alegomorphic(arithmetic). See further
Bentham's _Chrestomathia_ and works quoted under BENTHAM, JEREMY.

Carl Wundt criticized most of these systems as taking too little account
of the real facts, and preferred a classification based on the
standpoint of the various sciences towards their subject-matter. His
system may, therefore, be described as conceptional. It distinguishes
philosophy, which deals with facts in their widest universal relations,
from the special sciences, which consider facts in the light of a
particular relation or set of relations.

All these systems have a certain value, and are interesting as throwing
light on the views of those who invented them. It will be seen, however,
that none can lay claim to unique validity. The _fundamenta divisionis_,
though in themselves more or less logical, are quite arbitrarily chosen,
generally as being germane to a preconceived philosophical or scientific

CLASTIDIUM (mod. _Casteggio_), a village of the Anamares, in Gallia
Cispadana, on the Via Postumia, 5 m. E. of Iria (mod. _Voghera_) and 31
m. W. of Placentia. Here in 222 B.C. M. Claudius Marcellus defeated the
Gauls and won the _spolia opima_; in 218 Hannibal took it and its stores
of corn by treachery. It never had an independent government, and not
later than 190 B.C. was made part of the colony of Placentia (founded
219). In the Augustan division of Italy, however, Placentia belonged to
the 8th region, Aemilia, whereas Iria certainly, and Clastidium
possibly, belonged to the 9th, Liguria (see Th. Mommsen in _Corp.
Inscrip. Lat._ vol. v. Berlin, 1877, p. 828). The remains visible at
Clastidium are scanty; there is a fountain (the Fontana d'Annibale), and
a Roman bridge, which seems to have been constructed of tiles, not of
stone, was discovered in 1857, but destroyed.

  See C. Giulietti, _Casteggio, notizie storiche II. Avanzi di
  antichità_ (Voghera, 1893).

CLAUBERG, JOHANN (1622-1665), German philosopher, was born at Solingen,
in Westphalia, on the 24th of February 1622. After travelling in France
and England, he studied the Cartesian philosophy under John Raey at
Leiden. He became (1649) professor of philosophy and theology at
Herborn, but subsequently (1651), in consequence of the jealousy of his
colleagues, accepted an invitation to a similar post at Duisburg, where
he died on the 31st of January 1665. Clauberg was one of the earliest
teachers of the new doctrines in Germany and an exact and methodical
commentator on his master's writings. His theory of the connexion
between the soul and the body is in some respects analogous to that of
Malebranche; but he is not therefore to be regarded as a true forerunner
of Occasionalism, as he uses "Occasion" for the stimulus which directly
produces a mental phenomenon, without postulating the intervention of
God (H. Müller, _J. Clauberg und seine Stellung im Cartesianismus_).
His view of the relation of God to his creatures is held to foreshadow
the pantheism of Spinoza. All creatures exist only through the
continuous creative energy of the Divine Being, and are no more
independent of his will than are our thoughts independent of us,--or
rather less, for there are thoughts which force themselves upon us
whether we will or not. For metaphysics Clauberg suggested the names
_ontosophy_ or _ontology_, the latter being afterwards adopted by Wolff.
He also devoted considerable attention to the German languages, and his
researches in this direction attracted the favourable notice of
Leibnitz. His chief works are: _De conjunctione animae et corporis
humani_; _Exercitationes centum de cognitione Dei et nostri_; _Logica
vetus et nova_; _Initiatio philosophi, seu Dubitatio Cartesiana_; a
commentary on Descartes' _Meditations_; and _Ars etymologica Teutonum_.

  A collected edition of his philosophical works was published at
  Amsterdam (1691), with life by H.C. Hennin; see also E. Zeller,
  _Geschichte der deutschen Philosophie seit Leibnitz_ (1873).

CLAUDE, JEAN (1619-1687), French Protestant divine, was born at La
Sauvetat-du-Dropt near Agen. After studying at Montauban, he entered the
ministry in 1645. He was for eight years professor of theology in the
Protestant college of Nîmes; but in 1661, having successfully opposed a
scheme for re-uniting Catholics and Protestants, he was forbidden to
preach in Lower Languedoc. In 1662 he obtained a post at Montauban
similar to that which he had lost; but after four years he was removed
from this also. He next became pastor at Charenton near Paris, where he
engaged in controversies with Pierre Nicole (_Réponse aux deux traités
intitulés la perpétuité de la foi_, 1665), Antoine Arnauld (_Réponse au
livre de M. Arnauld_, 1670), and J.B. Bossuet (_Réponse au livre de M.
l'évêque de Meaux_, 1683). On the revocation of the edict of Nantes he
fled to Holland, and received a pension from William of Orange, who
commissioned him to write an account of the persecuted Huguenots
(_Plaintes des protestants cruellement opprimés dans le royaume de
France_, 1686). The book was translated into English, but by order of
James II, both the translation and the original were publicly burnt by
the common hangman on the 5th of May 1686, as containing "expressions
scandalous to His Majesty the king of France." Other works by him were
_Réponse au livre de P. Nouet sur l'eucharistie_ (1668); _Oeuvres
posthumes_ (Amsterdam, 1688), containing the _Traité de la composition
d'un sermon_, translated into English in 1778.

  See biographies by J.P. Nicéron and Abel Rotholf de la Devèze; E.
  Haag, _La France protestante_, vol. iv. (1884, new edition).

landscape-painter, was born of very poor parents at the village of
Chamagne in Lorraine. When it was discovered that he made no progress at
school, he was apprenticed, it is commonly said, to a pastry-cook, but
this is extremely dubious. At the age of twelve, being left an orphan,
he went to live at Freiburg on the Rhine with an elder brother, Jean
Gelée, a wood-carver of moderate merit, and under him he designed
arabesques and foliage. He afterwards rambled to Rome to seek a
livelihood; but from his clownishness and ignorance of the language, he
failed to obtain permanent employment. He next went to Naples, to study
landscape painting under Godfrey Waals, a painter of much repute. With
him he remained two years; then he returned to Rome, and was
domesticated until April 1625 with another landscape-painter, Augustin
Tassi, who hired him to grind his colours and to do all the household

His master, hoping to make Claude serviceable in some of his greatest
works, advanced him in the rules of perspective and the elements of
design. Under his tuition the mind of Claude began to expand, and he
devoted himself to artistic study with great eagerness. He exerted his
utmost industry to explore the true principles of painting by an
incessant examination of nature; and for this purpose he made his
studies in the open fields, where he very frequently remained from
sunrise till sunset, watching the effect of the shifting light upon the
landscape. He generally sketched whatever he thought beautiful or
striking, marking every tinge of light with a similar colour; from these
sketches he perfected his landscapes. Leaving Tassi, he made a tour in
Italy, France and a part of Germany, including his native Lorraine,
suffering numerous misadventures by the way. Karl Dervent, painter to
the duke of Lorraine, kept him as assistant for a year; and he painted
at Nancy the architectural subjects on the ceiling of the Carmelite
church. He did not, however, relish this employment, and in 1627
returned to Rome. Here, painting two landscapes for Cardinal
Bentivoglio, he earned the protection of Pope Urban VIII, and from about
1637 he rapidly rose into celebrity. Claude was acquainted not only with
the facts, but also with the laws of nature; and the German painter
Joachim von Sandrart relates that he used to explain, as they walked
together through the fields, the causes of the different appearances of
the same landscape at different hours of the day, from the reflections
or refractions of light, or from the morning and evening dews or
vapours, with all the precision of a natural philosopher. He elaborated
his pictures with great care; and if any performance fell short of his
ideal, he altered, erased and repainted it several times over.

His skies are aerial and full of lustre, and every object harmoniously
illumined. His distances and colouring are delicate, and his tints have
a sweetness and variety till then unexampled. He frequently gave an
uncommon tenderness to his finished trees by glazing. His figures,
however, are very indifferent; but he was so conscious of his deficiency
in this respect, that he usually engaged other artists to paint them for
him, among whom were Courtois and Filippo Lauri. Indeed, he was wont to
say that he sold his landscapes and gave away his figures. In order to
avoid a repetition of the same subject, and also to detect the very
numerous spurious copies of his works, he made tinted outline drawings
(in six paper books prepared for this purpose) of all those pictures
which were transmitted to different countries; and on the back of each
drawing he wrote the name of the purchaser. These books he named _Libri
di verità_. This valuable work (now belonging to the duke of Devonshire)
has been engraved and published, and has always been highly esteemed by
students of the art of landscape. Claude, who had suffered much from
gout, died in Rome at the age of eighty-two, on the 21st (or perhaps the
23rd) of November 1682, leaving his wealth, which was considerable,
between his only surviving relatives, a nephew and an adopted daughter
(? niece).

Many choice specimens of his genius may be seen in the National Gallery
and in the Louvre; the landscapes in the Altieri and Colonna palaces in
Rome are also of especial celebrity. A list has been printed showing no
less than 92 examples in the various public galleries of Europe. He
himself regarded a landscape which he painted in the Villa Madama, being
a cento of various views with great abundance and variety of leafage,
and a composition of Esther and Ahasuerus, as his finest works; the
former he refused to sell, although Clement IX. offered to cover its
surface with gold pieces. He etched a series of twenty-eight landscapes,
fine impressions of which are greatly prized. Full of amenity, and
deeply sensitive to the graces of nature, Claude was long deemed the
prince of landscape painters, and he must always be accounted a prime
leader in that form of art, and in his day a great enlarger and refiner
of its province.

Claude was a man of amiable and simple character, very kind to his
pupils, a patient and unwearied worker; in his own sphere of study, his
mind was stored (as we have seen) with observation and knowledge, but he
continued an unlettered man till his death. Famous and highly patronized
though he was in all his later years, he seems to have been very little
known to his brother artists, with the single exception of Sandrart.
This painter is the chief direct authority for the facts of Claude's
life (_Academia Artis Pictoriae_, 1683); Baldinucci, who obtained
information from some of Claude's immediate survivors, relates various
incidents to a different effect (_Notizie dei professori del disegno_).

  See also Victor Cousin, _Sur Claude Gelée_ (1853); M.F. Sweetser,
  _Claude Lorrain_ (1878); Lady Dilke, _Claude Lorrain_ (1884).
     (W. M. R.)

CLAUDET, ANTOINE FRANÇOIS JEAN (1797-1867), French photographer, was
born at Lyons on the 12th of August 1797. Having acquired a share in
L.J.M. Daguerre's invention, he was one of the first to practise
daguerreotype portraiture in England, and he improved the sensitizing
process by using chlorine in addition to iodine, thus gaining greater
rapidity of action. In 1848 he produced the photographometer, an
instrument designed to measure the intensity of photogenic rays; and in
1849 he brought out the focimeter, for securing a perfect focus in
photographic portraiture. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society
in 1853, and in 1858 he produced the stereomonoscope, in reply to a
challenge from Sir David Brewster. He died in London on the 27th of
December 1867.

CLAUDIANUS, CLAUDIUS, Latin epic poet and panegyrist, flourished during
the reign of Arcadius and Honorius. He was an Egyptian by birth,
probably an Alexandrian, but it may be conjectured from his name and his
mastery of Latin that he was of Roman extraction. His own authority has
been assumed for the assertion that his first poetical compositions were
in Greek, and that he had written nothing in Latin before A.D. 395; but
this seems improbable, and the passage (_Carm. Min._ xli. 13) which is
taken to prove it does not necessarily bear this meaning. In that year
he appears to have come to Rome, and made his début as a Latin poet by a
panegyric on the consulship of Olybrius and Probinus, the first brothers
not belonging to the imperial family who had ever simultaneously filled
the office of consul. This piece proved the precursor of the series of
panegyrical poems which compose the bulk of his writings. In Birt's
edition a complete chronological list of Claudian's poems is given, and
also in J.B. Bury's edition of Gibbon (iii. app. i. p. 485), where the
dates given differ slightly from those in the present article.

In 396 appeared the encomium on the third consulship of the emperor
Honorius, and the epic on the downfall of Rufinus, the unworthy
minister of Arcadius at Constantinople. This revolution was principally
effected by the contrivance of Stilicho, the great general and minister
of Honorius. Claudian's poem appears to have obtained his patronage, or
rather perhaps that of his wife Serena, by whose interposition the poet
was within a year or two enabled to contract a wealthy marriage in
Africa (_Epist._ 2). Previously to this event he had produced (398) his
panegyric on the fourth consulship of Honorius, his epithalamium on the
marriage of Honorius to Stilicho's daughter, Maria, and his poem on the
Gildonic war, celebrating the repression of a revolt in Africa. To these
succeeded his piece on the consulship of Manlius Theodorus (399), the
unfinished or mutilated invective against the Byzantine prime minister
Eutropius in the same year, the epics on Stilicho's first consulship and
on his repulse of Alaric (400 and 403), and the panegyric on the sixth
consulship of Honorius (404). From this time all trace of Claudian is
lost, and he is generally supposed to have perished with his patron
Stilicho in 408. It may be conjectured that he must have died in 404, as
he could hardly otherwise have omitted to celebrate the greatest of
Stilicho's achievements, the destruction of the barbarian host led by
Radagaisus in the following year. On the other hand, he may have
survived Stilicho, as in the dedication to the second book of his epic
on the _Rape of Proserpine_ (which Birt, however, assigns to 395-397),
he speaks of his disuse of poetry in terms hardly reconcilable with the
fertility which he displayed during his patron's lifetime. From the
manner in which Augustine alludes to him in his _De civitate Dei_, it
may be inferred that he was no longer living at the date of the
composition of that work, between 415 and 428.

Besides Claudian's chief poems, his lively Fescennines on the emperor's
marriage, his panegyric on Serena, and the _Gigantomachia_, a fragment
of an unfinished Greek epic, may also be mentioned. Several poems
expressing Christian sentiments are undoubtedly spurious. Claudian's
paganism, however, neither prevented his celebrating Christian rulers
and magistrates nor his enjoying the distinction of a court laureate. It
is probable that he was nominally a Christian, like his patron Stilicho
and Ausonius, although at heart attached to the old religion. The very
decided statements of Orosius and Augustine as to his heathenism may be
explained by the pagan style of Claudian's political poems. We have his
own authority for his having been honoured by a bronze statue in the
forum, and Pomponius Laetus discovered in the 15th century an
inscription (_C.I.L._ vi. 1710) on the pedestal, which, formerly
considered spurious, is now generally regarded as genuine.

The position of Claudian--the last of the Roman poets--is unique in
literature. It is sufficiently remarkable that, after nearly three
centuries of torpor, the Latin muse should have experienced any revival
in the age of Honorius, nothing less than amazing that this revival
should have been the work of a foreigner, most surprising of all that a
just and enduring celebrity should have been gained by official
panegyrics on the generally uninteresting transactions of an inglorious
epoch. The first of these particulars bespeaks Claudian's taste, rising
superior to the prevailing barbarism, the second his command of
language, the third his rhetorical skill. As remarked by Gibbon, "he was
endowed with the rare and precious talent of raising the meanest, of
adorning the most barren, and of diversifying the most similar topics."
This gift is especially displayed in his poem on the downfall of
Rufinus, where the punishment of a public malefactor is exalted to the
dignity of an epical subject by the magnificence of diction and the
ostentation of supernatural machinery. The noble exordium, in which the
fate of Rufinus is propounded as the vindication of divine justice,
places the subject at once on a dignified level; and the council of the
infernal powers has afforded a hint to Tasso, and through him to Milton.
The inevitable monotony of the panegyrics on Honorius is relieved by
just and brilliant expatiation on the duties of a sovereign. In his
celebration of Stilicho's victories Claudian found a subject more worthy
of his powers, and some passages, such as the description of the flight
of Alaric, and of Stilicho's arrival at Rome, and the felicitous
parallel between his triumphs and those of Marius, rank among the
brightest ornaments of Latin poetry. Claudian's panegyric, however
lavish and regardless of veracity, is in general far less offensive than
usual in his age, a circumstance attributable partly to his more refined
taste and partly to the genuine merit of his patron Stilicho. He is a
valuable authority for the history of his times, and is rarely to be
convicted of serious inaccuracy in his facts, whatever may be thought of
the colouring he chooses to impart to them. He was animated by true
patriotic feeling, in the shape of a reverence for Rome as the source
and symbol of law, order and civilization. Outside the sphere of actual
life he is less successful; his _Rape of Proserpine_, though the
beauties of detail are as great as usual, betrays his deficiency in the
creative power requisite for dealing with a purely ideal subject. This
denotes the rhetorician rather than the poet, and in general it may be
said that his especial gifts of vivid natural description, and of
copious illustration, derived from extensive but not cumbrous erudition,
are fully as appropriate to eloquence as to poetry. In the general cast
of his mind and character of his writings, and especially, in his
faculty for bestowing enduring interest upon occasional themes, we may
fitly compare him with Dryden, remembering that while Dryden exulted in
the energy of a vigorous and fast-developing language, Claudian was
cramped by an artificial diction, confined to the literary class.

  The editio princeps of Claudian was printed at Vicenza in 1482; the
  editions of J.M. Gesner (1759) and P. Burmann (1760) are still
  valuable for their notes. The first critical edition was that of L.
  Jeep (1876-1879), now superseded by the exhaustive work of T. Birt,
  with bibliography, in _Monumenta Germaniae Historica_ (x., 1892;
  smaller ed. founded on this by J. Koch, Teubner series, 1893). There
  is a separate edition with commentary and verse translation of _Il
  Ratto di Proserpina_, by L. Garces de Diez (1889); the satire _In
  Eutropium_ is discussed by T. Birt in _Zwei politische Satiren des
  alten Rom_ (1888). There is a complete English verse translation of
  little merit by A. Hawkins (1817). See the articles by Ramsay in
  Smith's _Classical Dictionary_ and Vollmer in Pauly-Wissowa's
  _Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft_, iii. 2
  (1899); also J.H.E. Crees, _Claudian as an Historian_ (1908), the
  "Cambridge Historical Essay" for 1906 (No. 17); T. Hodgkin, _Claudian,
  the last of the Roman Poets_ (1875).

41-54, son of Drusus and Antonia, nephew of the emperor Tiberius, and
grandson of Livia, the wife of Augustus, was born at Lugdunum (Lyons) on
the 1st of August 10 B.C. During his boyhood he was treated with
contempt, owing to his weak and timid character and his natural
infirmities; the fact that he was regarded as little better than an
imbecile saved him from death at the hands of Caligula. He chiefly
devoted himself to literature, especially history, and until his
accession he took no real part in public affairs, though Caligula
honoured him with the dignity of consul. He was four times married: to
Plautia Urgulanilla, whom he divorced because he suspected her of
designs against his life; to Aelia Petina, also divorced; to the
infamous Valeria Messallina (q.v.); and to his niece Agrippina.

In A.D. 41, on the murder of Caligula, Claudius was seized by the
praetorians, and declared emperor. The senate, which had entertained the
idea of restoring the republic, was obliged to acquiesce. One of
Claudius's first acts was to proclaim an amnesty for all except Cassius
Chaerea, the assassin of his predecessor, and one or two others. After
the discovery of a conspiracy against his life in 42, he fell completely
under the influence of Messallina and his favourite freedmen Pallas and
Narcissus, who must be held responsible for acts of cruelty which have
brought undeserved odium upon the emperor. There is no doubt that
Claudius was a liberal-minded man of kindly nature, anxious for the
welfare of his people. Humane regulations were made in regard to
freedmen, slaves, widows and orphans; the police system was admirably
organized; commerce was put on a sound footing; the provinces were
governed in a spirit of liberality; the rights of citizens and admission
to the senate were extended to communities outside Italy. The speech of
Claudius delivered (in the year 48) in the senate in support of the
petition of the Aeduans that their senators should have the _jus
petendorum honorum_ (claim of admission to the senate and magistracies)
at Rome has been partly preserved on the fragment of a bronze tablet
found at Lyons in 1524; an imperial edict concerning the citizenship of
the Anaunians (15th of March 46) was found in the southern Tirol in 1869
(_C.I.L._ v. 5050). Claudius was especially fond of building. He
completed the great aqueduct (Aqua Claudia) begun by Caligula, drained
the Lacus Fucinus, and built the harbour of Ostia. Nor were his military
operations unsuccessful. Mauretania was made a Roman province; the
conquest of Britain was begun; his distinguished general Domitius
Corbulo (_q.v._) gained considerable successes in Germany and the East.
The intrigues of Narcissus caused Messallina to be put to death by order
of Claudius, who took as his fourth wife his niece Agrippina, a woman as
criminal as any of her predecessors. She prevailed upon him to set aside
his own son Britannicus in favour of Nero, her son by a former marriage;
and in 54, to make Nero's position secure, she put the emperor to death
by poison. The apotheosis of Claudius was the subject of a lampoon by
Seneca called _apokolokyntosis_, the "pumpkinification" of Claudius.

Claudius was a prolific writer, chiefly on history, but his works are
lost. He wrote (in Greek) a history of Carthage and a history of
Etruria; (in Latin) a history of Rome from the death of Caesar, an
autobiography, and an essay in defence of Cicero against the attacks of
Asinius Gallus. He also introduced three new letters into the Latin
alphabet: [Latin character] for the consonantal V, [Latin character] for
BS and PS, [Latin character] for the intermediate sound between I and U.

  AUTHORITIES.--Ancient: the _Annals_ of Tacitus, Suetonius and Dio
  Cassius. Modern: H. Lehmann, _Claudius und seine Zeit_, with
  introductory chapter on the ancient authorities (1858); Lucien Double,
  _L'Empereur Claude_ (1876); A. Ziegler, _Die politische Seite der
  Regierung des Kaisers Claudius_ (1885); H.F. Pelham in _Quarterly
  Review_ (April 1905), where certain administrative and political
  changes introduced by Claudius, for which he was attacked by his
  contemporaries, are discussed and defended; Merivale, _Hist. of the
  Romans under the Empire_, chs. 49, 50; H. Schiller, _Geschichte der
  römischen Kaiserzeit_, i., pt. 1; H. Furneaux's ed. of the _Annals_ of
  Tacitus (introduction).

CLAUDIUS, the name of a famous Roman gens. The by-form _Clodius_, in its
origin a mere orthographical variant, was regularly used for certain
Claudii in late republican times, but otherwise the two forms were used
indifferently. The gens contained a patrician and a plebeian family; the
chief representatives of the former were the Pulchri, of the latter the
Marcelli (see MARCELLUS). The following members of the gens deserve
particular mention.

from Regillum (or Regilli) in Sabine territory, founder of the Claudian
gens. His original name was Attus or Attius Clausus. About 504 B.C. he
settled in Rome, where he and his followers formed a tribe. In 495 he
was consul, and his cruel enforcement of the laws of debtor and
creditor, in opposition to his milder colleague, P. Servilius Priscus,
was one of the chief causes of the "secession" of the plebs to the
Sacred Mount. On several occasions he displayed his hatred of the
people, although it is stated that he subsequently played the part of

  Suetonius, _Tiberius_, i.; Livy ii. 16-29; Dion. Halic. v. 40, vi. 23,

2. CLAUDIUS, APPIUS, surnamed CRASSUS, a Roman patrician, consul in 471
and 451 B.C., and in the same and following year one of the decemvirs.
At first he was conspicuous for his aristocratic pride and bitter hatred
of the plebeians. Twice they refused to fight under him, and fled before
their enemies. He retaliated by decimating the army. He was banished,
but soon returned, and again became consul. In the same year (451) he
was made one of the decemviri who had been appointed to draw up a code
of written laws. When it was decided to elect decemvirs for another
year, he who had formerly been looked upon as the champion of the
aristocracy, suddenly came forward as the friend of the people, and was
himself re-elected together with several plebeians. But no sooner was
the new body in office, than it treated both patricians and plebeians
with equal violence, and refused to resign at the end of the year.
Matters were brought to a crisis by the affair of Virginia. Enamoured
of the beautiful daughter of the plebeian centurion Virginius, Claudius
attempted to seize her by an abuse of justice. One of his clients,
Marcus Claudius, swore that she was the child of a slave belonging to
him, and had been stolen by the childless wife of the centurion.
Virginius was summoned from the army, and on the day of trial was
present to expose the conspiracy. Nevertheless, judgment was given
according to the evidence of Marcus, and Claudius commanded Virginia to
be given up to him. In despair, her father seized a knife from a
neighbouring stall and plunged it in her side. A general insurrection
was the result; and the people seceded to the Sacred Mount. The
decemvirs were finally compelled to resign and Appius Claudius died in
prison, either by his own hand or by that of the executioner. For a
discussion of the character of Appius Claudius, see Mommsen's appendix
to vol. i. of his _History of Rome_. He holds that Claudius was never
the leader of the patrician party, but a patrician demagogue who ended
by becoming a tyrant to patricians as well as plebeians. The
decemvirate, one of the triumphs of the plebs, could hardly have been
abolished by that body, but would naturally have been overthrown by the
patricians. The revolution which ruined Claudius was a return to the
rule of the patricians represented by the Horatii and Valerii.

  Livy iii. 32-58; Dion. Halic. x. 59, xi. 3.

3. CLAUDIUS, APPIUS, surnamed CAECUS, Roman patrician and author. In 312
B.C. he was elected censor without having passed through the office of
consul. His censorship--which he retained for five years, in spite of
the lex Aemilia which limited the tenure of that office to eighteen
months--was remarkable for the actual or attempted achievement of
several great constitutional changes. He filled vacancies in the senate
with men of low birth, in some cases even the sons of freedmen (Diod.
Sic. xx. 36; Livy ix. 30; Suetonius, _Claudius_, 24). His most important
political innovation was the abolition of the old free birth, freehold
basis of suffrage. He enrolled the freedmen and landless citizens both
in the centuries and in the tribes, and, instead of assigning them to
the four urban tribes, he distributed them through all the tribes and
thus gave them practical control of the elections. In 304, however, Q.
Fabius Rullianus limited the landless and poorer freedmen to the four
urban tribes, thus annulling the effect of Claudius's arrangement.
Appius Claudius transferred the charge of the public worship of Hercules
in the Forum Boarium from the Potitian gens to a number of public
slaves. He further invaded the exclusive rights of the patricians by
directing his secretary Gnaeus Flavius (whom, though a freedman, he made
a senator) to publish the _legis actiones_ (methods of legal practice)
and the list of _dies fasti_ (or days on which legal business could be
transacted). Lastly, he gained enduring fame by the construction of a
road and an aqueduct, which--a thing unheard of before--he called by his
own name (Livy ix. 29; Frontinus, _De Aquis_, 115; Diod. Sic. xx. 36).
In 307 he was elected consul for the first time. In 298 he was interrex;
in 296, as consul, he led the army in Samnium, and although, with his
colleague, he gained a victory over the Etruscans and Samnites, he does
not seem to have specially distinguished himself as a soldier (Livy x.
19). Next year he was praetor, and he was once dictator. His character,
like his namesake the decemvir's is not easy to define. In spite of his
political reforms, he opposed the admission of the plebeians to the
consulship and priestly offices; and, although these reforms might
appear to be democratic in character and calculated to give
preponderance to the lowest class of the people, his probable aim was to
strengthen the power of the magistrates (and lessen that of the senate)
by founding it on the popular will, which would find its expression in
the urban inhabitants and could be most easily influenced by the
magistrate. He was already blind and too feeble to walk, when Cineas,
the minister of Pyrrhus, visited him, but so vigorously did he oppose
every concession that all the eloquence of Cineas was in vain, and the
Romans forgot past misfortunes in the inspiration of Claudius's
patriotism (Livy x. 13; Justin xviii. 2; Plutarch, _Pyrrhus_, 19). The
story of his blindness, however, may be merely a method of accounting
for his cognomen. Tradition regarded it as the punishment of his
transference of the cult of Hercules from the Potitii.

Appius Claudius Caecus is also remarkable as the first writer mentioned
in Roman literature. His speech against peace with Pyrrhus was the first
that was transmitted to writing, and thereby laid the foundation of
prose composition. He was the author of a collection of aphorisms in
verse mentioned by Cicero (of which a few fragments remain), and of a
legal work entitled _De Usurpationibus_. It is very likely also that he
was concerned in the drawing up of the _Legis Actiones_ published by
Flavius. The famous dictum "Every man is the architect of his own
fortune" is attributed to him. He also interested himself in grammatical
questions, distinguished the two sounds R and S in writing, and did away
with the letter Z.

  See Mommsen's appendix to his _Roman History_ (vol. i.); treatises by
  W. Siebert (1863) and F.D. Gerlach (1872), dealing especially with the
  censorship of Claudius.

4. CLAUDIUS, PUBLIUS, surnamed PULCHER, son of (3). He was the first of
the gens who bore this surname. In 249 he was consul and appointed to
the command of the fleet in the first Punic War. Instead of continuing
the siege of Lilybaeum, he decided to attack the Carthaginians in the
harbour of Drepanum, and was completely defeated. The disaster was
commonly attributed to Claudius's treatment of the sacred chickens,
which refused to eat before the battle. "Let them drink then," said the
consul, and ordered them to be thrown into the sea. Having been recalled
and ordered to appoint a dictator, he gave another instance of his
high-handedness by nominating a subordinate official, M. Claudius
Glicia, but the nomination was at once overruled. Claudius himself was
accused of high treason and heavily fined. He must have died before 246,
in which year his sister Claudia was fined for publicly expressing a
wish that her brother Publius could rise from the grave to lose a second
fleet and thereby diminish the number of the people. It is supposed that
he committed suicide.

  Livy, _Epit._, 19; Polybius i. 49; Cicero, _De Divinatione_, i. 16,
  ii. 8; Valerius Maximus i. 4, viii. I.

5. CLAUDIUS, APPIUS, surnamed PULCHER, Roman statesman and author. He
served under his brother-in-law Lucullus in Asia (72 B.C.) and was
commissioned to deliver the ultimatum to Tigranes, which gave him the
choice of war with Rome or the surrender of Mithradates. In 57 he was
praetor, in 56 propraetor in Sardinia, and in 54 consul with L. Domitius
Ahenobarbus. Through the intervention of Pompey, he became reconciled to
Cicero, who had been greatly offended because Claudius had indirectly
opposed his return from exile. In this and certain other transactions
Claudius seems to have acted from avaricious motives,--a result of his
early poverty. In 53 he entered upon the governorship of Cilicia, in
which capacity he seems to have been rapacious and tyrannical. During
this period he carried on a correspondence with Cicero, whose letters to
him form the third book of the _Epistolae ad Familiares_. Claudius
resented the appointment of Cicero as his successor, avoided meeting
him, and even issued orders after his arrival in the province. On his
return to Rome Claudius was impeached by P. Cornelius Dolabella on the
ground of having violated the sovereign rights of the people. This led
him to make advances to Cicero, since it was necessary to obtain
witnesses in his favour from his old province. He was acquitted, and a
charge of bribery against him also proved unsuccessful. In 50 he was
censor, and expelled many of the members of the senate, amongst them the
historian Sallust on the ground of immorality. His connexion with Pompey
brought upon him the enmity of Caesar, at whose march on Rome he fled
from Italy. Having been appointed by Pompey to the command in Greece, in
obedience to an ambiguous oracle he crossed over to Euboea, where he
died about 48, before the battle of Pharsalus. Claudius was of a
distinctly religious turn of mind, as is shown by the interest he took
in sacred buildings (the temple at Eleusis, the sanctuary of Amphiaraus
at Oropus). He wrote a work on augury, the first book of which he
dedicated to Cicero. He was also extremely superstitious, and believed
in invocations of the dead. Cicero had a high opinion of his
intellectual powers, and considered him a great orator (see Orelli,
_Onomasticon Tullianum_).

  A full account of all the Claudii will be found in Pauly-Wissowa's
  _Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft_, iii. 2

268-270, belonged to an obscure Illyrian family. On account of his
military ability he was placed in command of an army by Decius; and
Valerian appointed him general on the Illyrian frontier, and ruler of
the provinces of the lower Danube. During the reign of Gallienus, he was
called to Italy in order to crush Aureolus; and on the death of the
emperor (268) he was chosen as his successor, in accordance, it was
said, with his express desire. Shortly after his accession he routed the
Alamanni on the Lacus Benacus (some doubt is thrown upon this); in 269 a
great victory over the Goths at Naïssus in Moesia gained him the title
of Gothicus. In the following year he died of the plague at Sirmium, in
his fifty-sixth year. He enjoyed great popularity, and appears to have
been a man of ability and character.

  His life was written by Trebellius Pollio, one of the _Scriptores
  Historiae Augusiae_; see also Zosimus i. 40-43, the histories of Th.
  Bernhardt and H. Schiller, and special dissertations by A. Duncker on
  the life of Claudius (1868) and the defeat of the Alamanni (_Annalen
  des Vereins für nassauische Altertumskunde_, 1879); Homo, _De Claudio
  Gothico_ (1900); Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencyclopädie_, ii. 2458 ff.

CLAUDIUS, MATTHIAS (1740-1815), German poet, otherwise known by the _nom
de plume_ of ASMUS, was born on the 15th of August 1740 at Reinfeld,
near Lübeck, and studied at Jena. He spent the greater part of his life
in the little town of Wandsbeck, near Hamburg, where he earned his first
literary reputation by editing from 1771 to 1775, a newspaper called the
_Wandsbecker Bote_ (_Wandsbeck Messenger_), in which he published a
large number of prose essays and poems. They were written in pure and
simple German, and appealed to the popular taste; in many there was a
vein of extravagant humour or even burlesque, while others were full of
quiet meditation and solemn sentiment. In his later days, perhaps
through the influence of Klopstock, with whom he had formed an intimate
acquaintance, Claudius became strongly pietistic, and the graver side of
his nature showed itself. In 1814 he removed to Hamburg, to the house of
his son-in-law, the publisher Friedrich Christoph Perthes, where he died
on the 21st of January 1815.

  Claudius's collected works were published under the title of _Asmus
  omnia sua secum portans, oder Sämtliche Werke des Wandsbecker Boten_
  (8 vols., 1775-1812; 13th edition, by C. Redich, 2 vols., 1902). His
  biography has been written by Wilhelm Herbst (4th ed., 1878). See also
  M. Schneidereit, _M. Claudius, seine Weltanschauung und
  Lebensweisheit_ (1898).

CLAUSEL (more correctly CLAUZEL), BERTRAND, COUNT (1772-1842), marshal
of France, was born at Mirepoix (Ariège) on the 12th of December 1772,
and served in the first campaign of the French Revolutionary Wars as one
of the volunteers of 1791. In June 1795, having distinguished himself
repeatedly in the war on the northern frontier (1792-1793) and the
fighting in the eastern Pyrenees (1793-1794), Clausel was made a general
of brigade. In this rank he served in Italy in 1798 and 1799, and in the
disastrous campaign of the latter year he won great distinction at the
battles of the Trebbia and of Novi. In 1802 he served in the expedition
to S. Domingo. He became a general of division in December 1802, and
after his return to France he was in almost continuous military
employment there until in 1806 he was sent to the army of Naples. Soon
after this Napoleon made him a grand officer of the Legion of Honour. In
1808-1809 he was with Marmont in Dalmatia, and at the close of 1809 he
was appointed to a command in the army of Portugal under Masséna.

Clausel took part in the Peninsular campaigns of 1810 and 1811,
including the Torres Vedras campaign, and under Marmont he did excellent
service in re-establishing the discipline, efficiency and mobility of
the army, which had suffered severely in the retreat from Torres Vedras.
In the Salamanca campaign (1812) the result of Clausel's work was shown
in the marching powers of the French, and at the battle of Salamanca,
Clausel, who had succeeded to the command on Marmont being wounded, and
had himself received a severe wound, drew off his army with the greatest
skill, the retreat on Burgos being conducted by him in such a way that
the pursuers failed to make the slightest impression, and had themselves
in the end to retire from the siege of Burgos (1812). Early in 1813
Clausel was made commander of the Army of the North in Spain, but he was
unable to avert the great disaster of Vittoria. Under the supreme
command of Soult he served through the rest of the Peninsular War with
unvarying distinction. On the first restoration in 1814 he submitted
unwillingly to the Bourbons, and when Napoleon returned to France, he
hastened to join him. During the Hundred Days he was in command of an
army defending the Pyrenean frontier. Even after Waterloo he long
refused to recognize the restored government, and he escaped to America,
being condemned to death in absence. He took the first opportunity of
returning to aid the Liberals in France (1820), sat in the chamber of
deputies from 1827 to 1830, and after the revolution of 1830 was at once
given a military command. At the head of the army of Algiers, Clausel
made a successful campaign, but he was soon recalled by the home
government, which desired to avoid complications in Algeria. At the same
time he was made a marshal of France (February 1831). For some four
years thereafter he urged his Algerian policy upon the chamber of
deputies, and finally in 1835 was reappointed commander-in-chief. But
after several victories, including the taking of Mascara in 1835, the
marshal met with a severe repulse at Constantine in 1836. A change of
government in France was primarily responsible for the failure, but
public opinion attributed it to Clausel, who was recalled in February
1837. He thereupon retired from active service, and, after vigorously
defending his conduct before the deputies, he ceased to take part in
public affairs. He lived in complete retirement up to his death at
Secourrieu (Garonne) on the 21st of April 1842.

CLAUSEN, GEORGE (1852-   ), English painter, was born in London, the son
of a decorative artist. He attended the design classes at the South
Kensington schools from 1867-1873 with great success. He then worked in
the studio of Edwin Long, R.A., and subsequently in Paris under
Bouguereau and Robert-Fleury. He became one of the foremost modern
painters of landscape and of peasant life, influenced to a certain
extent by the impressionists with whom he shared the view that light is
the real subject of landscape art. His pictures excel in rendering the
appearance of things under flecking outdoor sunlight, or in the shady
shelter of a barn or stable. His "Girl at the Gate" was acquired for the
nation by the Chantrey Trustees and is now at the National Gallery of
British Art (Tate Gallery). He was elected associate of the Royal
Academy in 1895, and as professor of painting gave a memorable series of
lectures to the students of the schools,--published as _Six Lectures on
Painting_ (1904) and _Aims and Ideals in Art_ (1906).

CLAUSEWITZ, KARL VON (1780-1831), Prussian general and military writer,
was born at Burg, near Magdeburg, on the 1st of June 1780. His family,
originally Polish, had settled in Germany at the end of the previous
century. Entering the army in 1792, he first saw service in the Rhine
campaigns of 1793-1794, receiving his commission at the siege of Mainz.
On his return to garrison duty he set to work so zealously to remedy the
defects in his education caused by his father's poverty, that in 1801 he
was admitted to the Berlin Academy for young officers, then directed by
Scharnhorst. Scharnhorst, attracted by his pupil's industry and force of
character, paid special attention to his training, and profoundly
influenced the development of his mind. In 1803, on Scharnhorst's
recommendation, Clausewitz was made "adjutant" (aide-de-camp) to Prince
August, and he served in this capacity in the campaign of Jena (1806),
being captured along with the prince by the French at Prenzlau. A
prisoner in France and Switzerland for the next two years, he returned
to Prussia in 1809; and for the next three years, as a departmental
chief in the ministry of war, as a teacher in the military school, and
as military instructor to the crown prince, he assisted Scharnhorst in
the famous reorganization of the Prussian army. In 1810 he married the
countess Marie von Brühl.

On the outbreak of the Russian war in 1812, Clausewitz, like many other
Prussian officers, took service with his country's nominal enemy. This
step he justified in a memorial, published for the first time in the
_Leben Gneisenaus_ by Pertz (Berlin, 1869). At first adjutant to General
Phull, who had himself been a Prussian officer, he served later under
Pahlen at Witepsk and Smolensk, and from the final Russian position at
Kaluga he was sent to the army of Wittgenstein. It was Clausewitz who
negotiated the convention of Tauroggen, which separated the cause of
Yorck's Prussians from that of the French, and began the War of
Liberation (see YORCK VON WARTENBURG; also Blumenthal's _Die Konvention
von Tauroggen_, Berlin, 1901). As a Russian officer he superintended the
formation of the _Landwehr_ of east Prussia (see STEIN, BARON VOM), and
in the campaign of 1813 served as chief of staff to Count Wallmoden. He
conducted the fight at Göhrde, and after the armistice, with Gneisenau's
permission, published an account of the campaign (_Der Feldzug von 1813
bis zum Waffenstillstand_, Leipzig, 1813). This work was long attributed
to Gneisenau himself. After the peace of 1814 Clausewitz re-entered the
Prussian service, and in the Waterloo campaign was present at Ligny and
Wavre as General Thielmann's chief of staff. This post he retained till
1818, when he was promoted major-general and appointed director of the
_Allgemeine Kriegsschule_. Here he remained till in 1830 he was made
chief of the 3rd Artillery Inspection at Breslau. Next year he became
chief of staff to Field-marshal Gneisenau, who commanded an army of
observation on the Polish frontier. After the dissolution of this army
Clausewitz returned to his artillery duties; but on the 18th of November
1831 he died at Breslau of cholera, which had proved fatal to his chief
also, and a little previously, to his old Russian commander Diebitsch on
the other side of the frontier.

His collected works were edited and published by his widow, who was
aided by some officers, personal friends of the general, in her task. Of
the ten volumes of _Hinterlassene Werke über Krieg und Kriegführung_
(Berlin, 1832-1837, later edition called _Clausewitz's Gesammte Werke_,
Berlin, 1874) the first three contain Clausewitz's masterpiece, _Vom
Kriege_, an exposition of the philosophy of war which is absolutely
unrivalled. He produced no "system" of strategy, and his critics styled
his work "negative" and asked "_Qu'a-t-il fondé?_" What he had "founded"
was that modern strategy which, by its hold on the Prussian mind,
carried the Prussian arms to victory in 1866 and 1870 over the
"systematic" strategists Krismánic and Bazaine, and his philosophy of
war became, not only in Germany but in many other countries, the
essential basis of all serious study of the art of war. The English and
French translations (Graham, _On War_, London, 1873; Neuens, _La
Guerre_, Paris, 1849-1852; or Vatry, _Théorie de la grande guerre_,
Paris, 1899), with the German original, place the work at the disposal
of students of most nationalities. The remaining volumes deal with
military history: vol. 4, the Italian campaign of 1796-97; vols. 5 and
6, the campaign of 1799 in Switzerland and Italy; vol. 7, the wars of
1812, 1813 to the armistice, and 1814; vol. 8, the Waterloo Campaign;
vols. 9 and 10, papers on the campaigns of Gustavus Adolphus, Turenne,
Luxemburg, Münnich, John Sobieski, Frederick the Great, Ferdinand of
Brunswick, &c. He also wrote _Über das Leben und den Charakter von
Scharnhorst_ (printed in Ranke's _Historisch-politischer Zeitschrift_,
1832). A manuscript on the catastrophe of 1806 long remained
unpublished. It was used by v. Höpfner in his history of that war, and
eventually published by the Great General Staff in 1888 (French
translation, 1903). Letters from Clausewitz to his wife were published
in _Zeitschrift für preussische Landeskunde_ (1876). His name is borne
by the 28th Field Artillery regiment of the German army.

  See Schwartz, _Leben des General von Clausewitz und der Frau Marie von
  Clausewitz_ (2 vols., Berlin, 1877); von Meerheimb, _Karl von
  Clausewitz_ (Berlin, 1875), also Memoir in _Allgemeine deutsche
  Biographie_; Bernhardi, _Leben des Generals von Clausewitz_ (10th
  Supplement, _Militär. Wochenblatt_, 1878).

CLAUSIUS, RUDOLF JULIUS EMMANUEL (1822-1888), German physicist, was born
on the 2nd of January 1822 at Köslin, in Pomerania. After attending the
Gymnasium at Stettin, he studied at Berlin University from 1840 to 1844.
In 1848 he took his degree at Halle, and in 1850 was appointed professor
of physics in the royal artillery and engineering school at Berlin. Late
in the same year he delivered his inaugural lecture as _Privatdocent_ in
the university. In 1855 he became an ordinary professor at Zürich
Polytechnic, accepting at the same time a professorship in the
university of Zürich In 1867 he moved to Würzburg as professor of
physics, and two years later was appointed to the same chair at Bonn,
where he died on the 24th of August 1888. During the Franco-German War
he was at the head of an ambulance corps composed of Bonn students, and
received the Iron Cross for the services he rendered at Vionville and
Gravelotte. The work of Clausius, who was a mathematical rather than an
experimental physicist, was concerned with many of the most abstruse
problems of molecular physics. By his restatement of Carnot's principle
he put the theory of heat on a truer and sounder basis, and he deserves
the credit of having made thermodynamics a science; he enunciated the
second law, in a paper contributed to the Berlin Academy in 1850, in the
well-known form, "Heat cannot of itself pass from a colder to a hotter
body." His results he applied to an exhaustive development of the theory
of the steam-engine, laying stress in particular on the conception of
entropy. The kinetic theory of gases owes much to his labours, Clerk
Maxwell calling him its principal founder. It was he who raised it, on
the basis of the dynamical theory of heat, to the level of a theory, and
he carried out many numerical determinations in connextion with it, e.g.
of the mean free path of a molecule. To Clausius also was due an
important advance in the theory of electrolysis, and he put forward the
idea that molecules in electrolytes are continually interchanging atoms,
the electric force not causing, but merely directing, the interchange.
This view found little favour until 1887, when it was taken up by S.A.
Arrhenius, who made it the basis of the theory of electrolytic
dissociation. In addition to many scientific papers he wrote _Die
Potentialfunktion und das Potential_, 1864, and _Abhandlungen über die
mechanische Wärmetheorie_, 1864-1867.

CLAUSTHAL, or KLAUSTHAL, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Harz, lying
on a bleak plateau, 1860 ft. above sea-level, 50. m. by rail W.S.W. of
Halberstadt. Pop. (1905) 8565. Clausthal is the chief mining town of the
Upper Harz Mountains, and practically forms one town with Zellerfeld,
which is separated from it by a small stream, the Zellbach. The streets
are broad, opportunity for improvement having been given by fires in
1844 and 1854; the houses are mostly of wood. There are an Evangelical
and a Roman Catholic church, and a gymnasium. Clausthal has a famous
mining college with a mineralogical museum, and a disused mint. Its
chief mines are silver and lead, but it also smelts copper and a little
gold. Four or five sanatoria are in the neighbourhood. The museum of the
Upper Harz is at Zellerfeld.

Clausthal was founded about the middle of the 12th century in
consequence probably of the erection of a Benedictine monastery (closed
in 1431), remains of which still exist in Zellerfeld. At the beginning
of the 16th century the dukes of Brunswick made a new settlement here,
and under their directions the mining, which had been begun by the
monks, was carried on more energetically. The first church was built at
Clausthal in 1570. In 1864 the control of the mines passed into the
hands of the state.

CLAVECIN, the French for clavisymbal or harpsichord (Ger. _Clavicymbel_
or _Dockenklavier_), an abbreviation of the Flemish _clavisinbal_ and
Ital. _clavicimbalo_, a keyboard musical instrument in which the strings
were plucked by means of a plectrum consisting of a quill mounted upon a


CLAVICEMBALO, or GRAVICEMBALO (from Lat. _clavis_, key, and _cymbalum_,
cymbal; Eng. clavicymbal, clavisymbal; Flemish, _clavisinbal_; Span.
_clavisinbanos_), a keyboard musical instrument with strings plucked by
means of small quill or leather plectra. "Cymbal" (Gr. [Greek:
kumbalon], from [Greek: khumbê], a hollow vessel) was the old European
term for the dulcimer, and hence its place in the formation of the word.


CLAVICHORD, or CLARICHORD (Fr. _manicorde_; Ger. _Clavichord_; Ital.
_manicordo_; Span. _manicordio_[1]), a medieval stringed keyboard
instrument, a forerunner of the pianoforte (q.v.), its strings being set
in vibration by a blow from a brass tangent instead of a hammer as in
the modern instrument. The clavichord, derived from the dulcimer by the
addition of a keyboard, consisted of a rectangular case, with or without
legs, often very elaborately ornamented with paintings and gilding. The
earliest instruments were small and portable, being placed upon a table
or stand. The strings, of finely drawn brass, steel or iron wire, were
stretched almost parallel with the keyboard over the narrow belly or
soundboard resting on the soundboard bridges, often three in number, and
wound as in the piano round wrest or tuning pins set in a block at the
right-hand side of the soundboard and attached at the other end to hitch
pins. The bridges served to direct the course of the strings and to
conduct the sound waves to the soundboard. The scaling, or division of
the strings determining their vibrating length, was effected by the
position of the tangents. These tangents, small wedge-shaped blades of
brass, beaten out at the top, were inserted in the end of the arm of the
keys. As the latter were depressed by the fingers the tangents rose to
strike the strings and stop them at the proper length from the
belly-bridge. Thus the string was set in vibration between the point of
impact and the belly-bridge just as long as the key was pressed down.
The key being released, the vibrations were instantly stopped by a list
of cloth acting as damper and interwoven among the strings behind the
line of the tangents.

There were two kinds of clavichords--the fretted or _gebunden_ and the
fret-free or _bund-frei_. The term "fretted" was applied to those
clavichords which, instead of being provided with a string or set of
strings in unison for each note, had one set of strings acting for three
or four notes, the arms of the keys being twisted in order to bring the
contact of the tangent into the acoustically correct position under the
string. The "fret-free" were chromatically-scaled instruments. The first
_bund-frei_ clavichord is attributed to Daniel Faber of Crailsheim in
Saxony about 1720. This important change in construction increased the
size of the instrument, each pair of unison strings requiring a key and
tangent of its own, and led to the introduction of the system of tuning
by equal temperament upheld by J.S. Bach. Clavichords were made with

The tone of the clavichord, extremely sweet and delicate, was
characterized by a tremulous hesitancy, which formed its great charm
while rendering it suitable only for the private music room or study.
Between 1883 and 1893 renewed attention was drawn to the instrument by
A.J. Hipkins's lectures and recitals on keyboard instruments in London,
Oxford and Cambridge; and Arnold Dolmetsch reintroduced the art of
making clavichords in 1894.    (K. S.)


  [1] The words _clavicorde_, _clavicordo_ and _clavicordio_,
    respectively French, Italian and Spanish, were applied to a different
    type of instrument, the spinet (q.v.).

  [2] See Sebastian Virdung, _Musica getutscht und auszgezogen_ (Basel,
    1511) (facsimile reprint Berlin, 1882, edited by R. Eitner); J.
    Verschuere Reynvaan, _Musijkaal Kunst-Woordenboek_ (Amsterdam, 1795)
    (a very scarce book, of which the British Museum does not possess a
    copy); Jacob Adlung, _Musica Mechanica Organoedi_ (Berlin, 1768),
    vol. ii. pp. 158-9; A.J. Hipkins, _The History of the Pianoforte_
    (London, 1896), pp. 61 and 62.

CLAVICYTHERIUM, a name usually applied to an upright spinet (q.v.), the
soundboard and strings of which were vertical instead of horizontal,
being thus perpendicular to the keyboard; but it would seem that the
clavicytherium proper is distinct from the upright spinet in that its
strings are placed horizontally. In the early clavicytherium there was,
as in the spinet, only one string (of gut) to each key, set in vibration
by means of a small quill or leather plectrum mounted on a jack which
acted as in the spinet and harpsichord (q.v.). The clavicytherium or
keyed cythera or cetra, names which in the 14th and 15th centuries had
been applied somewhat indiscriminately to instruments having strings
stretched over a soundboard and plucked by fingers or plectrum, was
probably of Italian[1] or possibly of south German origin. Sebastian
Virdung,[2] writing early in the 16th century, describes the
clavicytherium as a new invention, having gut strings, and gives an
illustration of it. (See PIANOFORTE.) A certain amount of uncertainty
exists as to its exact construction, due to the extreme rarity of
unrestored specimens extant, and to the almost total absence of
trustworthy practical information.

In a unique specimen with two keyboards dating from the 16th or 17th
century, which is in the collection of Baron Alexandre Kraus,[3] what
appear to be vibrating strings stretched over a soundboard perpendicular
to the keyboard are in reality the wires forming part of the mechanism
of the action. The arrangement of this mechanism is the distinctive
feature of the clavicytherium, for the wires, unlike the strings of the
upright spinet, increase in length from _left to right_, so that the
upright harp-shaped back has its higher side over the treble of the
keyboard instead of over the bass. The vibrating strings of the
clavicytherium in the Kraus Museum are stretched horizontally over two
kinds of psalteries fixed one over the other. The first, serving for the
lower register, is of the well-known trapezoid shape and lies over the
keyboards; it has 30 wire strings in pairs of unisons corresponding to
the 15 lowest keys. The second psaltery resembles the kanoun of the
Arabs, and has 36 strings in courses of 3 unisons corresponding to the
next 12 keys, and 88 very thin strings in courses of 4, completing the
49 keys; the compass thus has a range of four octaves from C to C. The
quills of the jacks belonging to the two keyboards are of different
length and thickness. The jacks, which work as in the spinet, are
attached to the perpendicular wires, disposed in two parallel rows, one
for each keyboard.

There is a very fine specimen of the so-called clavicytherium (upright
spinet) in the Donaldson museum of the Royal College of Music, London,
acquired from the Correr collection at Venice in 1885.[4] The instrument
is undated, but A.J. Hipkins[5] placed it early in the 16th or even at
the end of the 15th century. There is German writing on the inside of
the back, referring to some agreement at Ulm. The case is of pine-wood,
and the natural keys of box-wood. The jacks have the early steel
springs, and in 1885 traces were found in the instrument of original
brass plectra, all of which point to a very early date.

A learned Italian, Nicolo Vicentino,[6] living in the 16th century,
describes an _archicembalo_ of his own invention, at which the performer
had to stand, having four rows of keys designed to obtain a complete
mesotonic pure third tuning. This was an attempt to reintroduce the
ancient Greek musical system. This instrument was probably an upright
harpsichord or clavicembalo.

  For the history of the clavicytherium considered as a forerunner of
  the pianoforte see PIANOFORTE.    (K. S.)


  [1] Mersenne, _Harmonie universelle_ (Paris, 1636), p. 113, calls the
    clavicytherium "une nouvelle forme d'épinette dont on use en Italie,"
    and states that the action of the jacks and levers is parallel from
    back to front.

  [2] _Musica getutscht und auszgezogen_ (Basel, 1511).

  [3] See "Une Pièce unique du Musée Kraus de Florence" in _Annales de
    l'alliance scientifique universelle_ (Paris, 1907).

  [4] See illustration by William Gibb in A.J. Hipkins's _Musical
    Instruments, Historic, Rare and Unique_ (1888).

  [5] _History of the Pianoforte_, Novello's Music Primers, No. 52
    (1896), p. 75.

  [6] _L'Antica Musica ridotta moderna prattica_ (Rome, 1555).

CLAVIE, BURNING THE, an ancient Scottish custom still observed at
Burghead, a fishing village on the Moray Firth, near Forres. The
"clavie" is a bonfire of casks split in two, lighted on the 12th of
January, corresponding to the New Year of the old calendar. One of these
casks is joined together again by a huge nail (Lat. _clavus_; hence the
term). It is then filled with tar, lighted and carried flaming round the
village and finally up to a headland upon which stands the ruins of a
Roman altar, locally called "the Douro." It here forms the nucleus of
the bonfire, which is built up of split casks. When the burning
tar-barrel falls in pieces, the people scramble to get a lighted piece
with which to kindle the New Year's fire on their cottage hearth. The
charcoal of the clavie is collected and is put in pieces up the cottage
chimneys, to keep spirits and witches from coming down.

CLAVIÈRE, ÉTIENNE (1735-1793), French financier and politician, was a
native of Geneva. As one of the democratic leaders there he was obliged
in 1782 to take refuge in England, upon the armed interference of
France, Sardinia and Berne in favour of the aristocratic party. There he
met other Swiss, among them Marat and Étienne Dumont, but their schemes
for a new Geneva in Ireland--which the government favoured--were given
up when Necker came to power in France, and Clavière, with most of his
comrades, went to Paris. There in 1789 he and Dumont allied themselves
with Mirabeau, secretly collaborating for him on the _Courrier de
Provence_ and also in preparing the speeches which Mirabeau delivered as
his own. It was mainly by his use of Clavière that Mirabeau sustained
his reputation as a financier. But Clavière also published some
pamphlets under his own name, and through these and his friendship with
J.P. Brissot, whom he had met in London, he became minister of finance
in the Girondist ministry, from March to the 12th of June 1792. After
the 10th of August he was again given charge of the finances in the
provisional executive council, though with but indifferent success. He
shared in the fall of the Girondists, was arrested on the 2nd of June
1793, but somehow was left in prison until the 8th of December, when, on
receiving notice that he was to appear on the next day before the
Revolutionary Tribunal, he committed suicide.

CLAVIJO, RUY GONZALEZ DE (d. 1412), Spanish traveller of the 15th
century, whose narrative is the first important one of its kind
contributed to Spanish literature, was a native of Madrid, and belonged
to a family of some antiquity and position. On the return of the
ambassadors Pelayo de Sotomayor and Hernan Sanchez de Palazuelos from
the court of Timur, Henry III. of Castille determined to send another
embassy to the new lord of Western Asia, and for this purpose he
selected Clavijo, Gomez de Salazar (who died on the outward journey),
and a master of theology named Fray Alonzo Paez de Santa Maria. They
sailed from St Mary Port near Cadiz on the 22nd of May 1403, touched at
the Balearic Isles, Gaeta and Rhodes, spent some time at Constantinople,
sailed along the southern coast of the Black Sea to Trebizond, and
proceeded inland by Erzerum, the Ararat region, Tabriz, Sultanieh,
Teheran and Meshed, to Samarkand, where they were well received by the
conqueror. Their return was at last accomplished, in part after Timur's
death, and with countless difficulties and dangers, and they landed in
Spain on the 1st of March 1406. Clavijo proceeded at once to the court,
at that time in Alcala de Henares, and served as chamberlain till the
king's death (in the spring of 1406-1407); he then returned to Madrid,
and lived there in opulence till his own death on the 2nd of April 1412.
He was buried in the chapel of the monastery of St Francis, which he had
rebuilt at great expense.

  There are two leading MSS. of Clavijo's narrative--(a) London, British
  Museum, Additional MSS., 16,613 fols. I, n.-125, v.; (b) Madrid,
  National Library, 9218; and two old editions of the original
  Spanish--(1) by Gonçalo Argote de Molina (Seville, 1582), (2) by
  Antonio de Sancha (Madrid, 1782), both having the misleading titles,
  apparently invented by Molina, of _Historia del gran Tamorlan_, and
  _Vida y hazañas del gran Tamorlan_ (the latter at the beginning of the
  text itself); a better sub-title is added, viz. _Itinerario y
  enarracion del viage y relacion de la embaxada que Ruy Gonzalez de
  Clavijo le hizo_. Both editors, and especially Sancha, supply general
  explanatory dissertations. The Spanish text has also been published,
  with a Russian translation, in vol. xxviii. (pp. 1-455) of the
  _Publications of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences_ (_Section
  of Russian Language_, &c.), edited by I.I. Sreznevski (1881). An
  English version, by Sir Clements Markham, was issued by the Hakluyt
  Society in 1859 (_Narrative of the Embassy of R ... G ... de Clavijo
  to the Court of Timour_). The identification of a great number of the
  places mentioned by Clavijo is a matter of considerable difficulty,
  and has given rise to some discussion (see Khanikof's list in
  _Geographical Magazine_ (1874), and Sreznevski's _Annotated Index_ in
  the Russian edition of 1881). A short account ot Clavijo's life is
  given by Alvarez y Baena in the _Hijos de Madrid_, vol. ix. See also
  C.R. Beazley, _Dawn of Modern Geography_, iii. 332-56.

CLAVIJO Y FAJARDO, JOSÉ (1730-1806), Spanish publicist, was born at
Lanzarote (Canary Islands) in 1730. He settled in Madrid, became editor
of _El Pensador_, and by his campaign against the public performance of
_autos sacramentales_ secured their prohibition in 1765. In 1770 he was
appointed director of the royal theatres, a post which he resigned in
order to take up the editorship of the _Mercurio histórico y politico de
Madrid_: at the time of his death in 1806 he was secretary to the
Cabinet of Natural History. He had in abundance the courage,
perseverance and gift of pungent expression which form the equipment of
the aggressive journalist, but his work would long since have been
forgotten were it not that it put an end to a peculiarly national form
of dramatic exposition, and that his love affair with one of
Beaumarchais' sisters suggested the theme of Goethe's first publication,

CLAY, CASSIUS MARCELLUS (1810-1903), American politician, was born in
Madison county, Kentucky, on the 19th of October 1810. He was the son of
Green Clay (1757-1826), a Kentucky soldier of the war of 1812 and a
relative of Henry Clay. He was educated at Centre College, Danville,
Kentucky, and at Yale, where he graduated in 1832. Influenced to some
extent by William Lloyd Garrison, he became an advocate of the abolition
of slavery, and on his return to his native state, at the risk of social
and political ostracism, he gave utterance to his belief. He studied
law, but instead of practising devoted himself to a political career. In
1835, 1837 and 1840 he was elected as a Whig to the Kentucky
legislature, where he advocated a system of gradual emancipation, and
secured the establishment of a public school system, and a much-needed
reform in the jury system. In 1841 he was defeated on account of his
abolition views. In 1844 he delivered campaign speeches for Henry Clay
throughout the North. In 1845 he established, at Lexington, Kentucky, an
anti-slavery publication known as _The True American_, but in the same
year his office and press were wrecked by a mob, and he removed the
publication office to Cincinnati, Ohio. During this and the earlier
period of his career his zeal and hot temper involved him in numerous
personal encounters and several duels, in all of which he bore himself
with a reckless bravery. In the Mexican War he served as a captain of a
Kentucky company of militia, and was taken prisoner, while
reconnoitring, during General Scott's advance on the City of Mexico. He
left the Whig party in 1850, and as an anti-slavery candidate for
governor of Kentucky polled 5000 votes. In 1856 he joined the Republican
party, and wielded considerable influence as a Southern representative
in its councils. In 1860 he was a leading candidate for the
vice-presidential nomination. In 1861 he was sent by President Lincoln
as minister to Russia; in 1862 he returned to America to accept a
commission as major-general of volunteers, but in March 1863 was
reappointed to his former post at St Petersburg, where he remained until
1869. Disapproving of the Republican policy of reconstruction, he left
the party, and in 1872 was one of the organizers of the
Liberal-Republican revolt, and was largely instrumental in securing the
nomination of Horace Greeley for the presidency. In the political
campaigns of 1876 and 1880 he supported the Democratic candidate, but
rejoined the Republican party in the campaign of 1884. He died at
Whitehall, Kentucky, on the 22nd of July 1903.

  See his autobiography, _The Life, Memoirs, Writings, and Speeches of
  Cassius Marcellus Clay_ (Cincinnati, 1896); and _The Writings of
  Cassius Marcellus Clay_ (edited with a "Memoir" by Horace Greeley. New
  York, 1848).

CLAY, CHARLES (1801-1893), English surgeon, was born at Bredbury, near
Stockport, on the 27th of December 1801. He began his medical education
as a pupil of Kinder Wood in Manchester (where he used to attend John
Dalton's lectures on chemistry), and in 1821 went to Edinburgh to
continue his studies there. Qualifying in 1823, he began a general
practice in Ashton-under-Lyne, but in 1839 removed to Manchester to
practise as an operative and consulting surgeon. It was there that, in
1842, he first performed the operation of ovariotomy with which his name
is associated. On this occasion it was perfectly successful, and when
in 1865 he published an analysis of 111 cases he was able to show a
mortality only slightly above 30%. Although his merits in this matter
have sometimes been denied, his claim to the title "Father of
Ovariotomy" is now generally conceded, and it is admittted that he
deserves the credit not only of having shown how that operation could be
made a success, but also of having played an important part in the
advance of abdominal surgery for which the 19th century was conspicuous.
In spite of the claims of a heavy practice, Clay found time for the
pursuit of geology and archaeology. Among the books of which he was the
author were a volume of _Geological Sketches of Manchester_ (1839) and a
_History of the Currency of the Isle of Man_ (1849), and his collections
included over a thousand editions of the Old and New Testaments and a
remarkably complete series of the silver and copper coins of the United
States. He died at Poulton-le-Fylde, near Preston, on the 19th of
September 1893.

CLAY, FREDERIC (1838-1889), English musical composer, the son of James
Clay, M.P., who was celebrated as a player of whist and a writer on that
subject, was born in Paris on the 3rd of August 1838. He studied music
under W.B. Molique in Paris and Moritz Hauptmann at Leipzig. With the
exception of a few songs and two cantatas, _The Knights of the Cross_
(1866) and _Lalla Rookh_ (1877),--the latter of which contained his
well-known song "I'll sing thee songs of Araby,"--his compositions were
all written for the stage. Clay's first public appearance was made with
an opera entitled _Court and Cottage_, the libretto of which was written
by Tom Taylor. This was produced at Covent Garden in 1862, and was
followed by _Constance_ (1865), _Ages Ago_ (1869), and _Princess Toto_
(1875), to name only three of many works which have long since been
forgotten. The last two, which were written to libretti by W.S. Gilbert,
are among Clay's most tuneful and most attractive works. He wrote part
of the music for _Babil and Bijou_ (1872) and _The Black Crook_ (1873),
both of which were produced at the Alhambra. He also furnished
incidental music for a revival of _Twelfth Night_ and for the production
of James Albery's _Oriana_. His last works, _The Merry Duchess_ (1883)
and _The Golden Ring_ (1883), the latter written for the reopening of
the Alhambra, which had been burned to the ground the year before,
showed an advance upon his previous work, and rendered all the more
regrettable the stroke of paralysis which crippled his physical and
mental energies during the last few years of his life. He died at Great
Marlow on the 24th of November 1889.

CLAY, HENRY (1777-1852), American statesman and orator, was born in
Hanover county, Virginia, on the 12th of April 1777, and died in
Washington on the 29th of June 1852. Few public characters in the United
States have been the subject of more heated controversy. His enemies
denounced him as a pretender, a selfish intriguer, and an abandoned
profligate; his supporters placed him among the sages and sometimes even
among the saints. He was an arranger of measures and leader of political
forces, not an originator of ideas and systems. His public life covered
nearly half a century, and his name and fame rest entirely upon his own
merits. He achieved his success despite serious obstacles. He was tall,
rawboned and awkward; his early instruction was scant; but he "read
books," talked well, and so, after his admission to the bar at Richmond,
Virginia, in 1797, and his removal next year to Lexington, Kentucky, he
quickly acquired a reputation and a lucrative income from his law

Thereafter, until the end of life, and in a field where he met, as
either friend or foe, John Quincy Adams, Gallatin, Madison, Monroe,
Webster, Jackson, Calhoun, Randolph and Benton, his political activity
was wellnigh ceaseless. At the age of twenty-two (1799), he was elected
to a constitutional convention in Kentucky; at twenty-six, to the
Kentucky legislature; at twenty-nine, while yet under the age limit of
the United States constitution, he was appointed to an unexpired term
(1806-1807) in the United States Senate, where, contrary to custom, he
at once plunged into business, as though he had been there all his life.
He again served in the Kentucky legislature (1808-1809), was chosen
speaker of its lower house, and achieved distinction by preventing an
intense and widespread anti-British feeling from excluding the common
law from the Kentucky code. A year later he was elected to another
unexpired term in the United States Senate, serving in 1810-1811. At
thirty-four (1811) he was elected to the United States House of
Representatives and chosen speaker on the first day of the session. One
of the chief sources of his popularity was his activity in Congress in
promoting the war with Great Britain in 1812, while as one of the peace
commissioners he reluctantly signed the treaty of Ghent on the 24th of
December 1814. During the fourteen years following his first election,
he was re-elected five times to the House and to the speakership;
retiring for one term (1821-1823) to resume his law practice and
retrieve his fortunes. He thus served as speaker in 1811-1814, in
1815-1820 and in 1823-1825. Once he was unanimously elected by his
constituents, and once nearly defeated for having at the previous
session voted to increase congressional salaries. He was a warm friend
of the Spanish-American revolutionists (1818) and of the Greek
insurgents (1824). From 1825 to 1829 he served as secretary of state in
President John Quincy Adams's cabinet, and in 1831 he was elected to the
United States Senate, where he served until 1842, and again from 1849
until his death.

From the beginning of his career he was in favour of internal
improvements as a means of opening up the fertile but inaccessible West,
and was opposed to the abuse of official patronage known as "the spoils
system." The most important of the national questions with which Clay
was associated, however, were the various phases of slavery politics and
protection to home industries. The most prominent characteristics of his
public life were his predisposition to "compromises" and "pacifications"
which generally failed of their object, and his passionate patriotic
devotion to the Union.

  His career as a Protectionist.

His earliest championship of protection was a resolution introduced by
him in the Kentucky legislature (1808) which favoured the wearing by its
members of home-made clothes; and one in the United States Senate (April
1810), on behalf of home-grown and home-made supplies for the United
States navy, but only to the point of making the nation independent of
foreign supply. In 1816 he advocated the Dallas tariff, in which the
duties ranged up to 35% on articles of home production, the supply of
which could satisfy the home demand; the avowed purpose being to build
up certain industries for safety in time of war. In 1824 he advocated
high duties to relieve the prevailing distress, which he pictured in a
brilliant and effective speech. Although the distress was caused by the
reactionary effect of a disordered currency and the inflated prices of
the war of 1812, he ascribed it to the country's dependence on foreign
supply and foreign markets. Great Britain, he said, was a shining
example of the wisdom of a high tariff. No nation ever flourished
without one. He closed his principal speech on the subject in the House
of Representatives with a glowing appeal in behalf of what he called
"The American System." In spite of the opposition of Webster and other
prominent statesmen, Clay succeeded in enacting a tariff which the
people of the Southern states denounced as a "tariff of abominations."
As it overswelled the revenue, in 1832 he vigorously favoured reducing
the tariff rates on all articles not competing with American products.
His speech in behalf of the measure was for years a protection
text-book; but the measure itself reduced the revenue so little and
provoked such serious threats of nullification and secession in South
Carolina, that, to prevent bloodshed and to forestall a free trade
measure from the next Congress, Clay brought forward in 1833 a
compromise gradually reducing the tariff rates to an average of 20%. To
the Protectionists this was "like a crash of thunder in winter"; but it
was received with such favour by the country generally, that its author
was hailed as "The Great Pacificator," as he had been thirteen years
before at the time of the Missouri Compromise (see below). As, however,
the discontent with the tariff in the South was only a symptom of the
real trouble there--the sensitiveness of the slave-power,--Clay
subsequently confessed his serious doubts of the policy of his

He was only twenty-two, when, as an opponent of slavery, he vainly urged
an emancipation clause for the new constitution of Kentucky, and he
never ceased regretting that its failure put his state, in improvements
and progress, behind its free neighbours. In 1820 he congratulated the
new South American republics on having abolished slavery, but the same
year the threats of the Southern states to destroy the Union led him to
advocate the "Missouri Compromise," which, while keeping slavery out of
all the rest of the territory acquired by the "Louisiana Purchase" north
of Missouri's southern boundary line, permitted it in that state. Then,
greeted with the title of "The Great Pacificator" as a reward for his
success, he retired temporarily to private life, with a larger stock of
popularity than he had ever had before. Although at various times he had
helped to strengthen the law for the recovery of fugitive slaves,
declining as secretary of state to aid Great Britain in the further
suppression of the slave trade, and demanding the return of fugitives
from Canada, yet he heartily supported the colonizing of the slaves in
Africa, because slavery was the "deepest stain upon the character of the
country," opposition to which could not be repressed except by "blowing
out the moral lights around," and "eradicating from the human soul the
light of reason and the law of liberty." When the slave power became
more aggressive, in and after the year 1831, Clay defended the right of
petition for the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia, and
opposed Calhoun's bill forbidding the use of the mails to "abolition"
newspapers and documents. He was luke-warm toward recognizing the
independence of Texas, lest it should aid the increase of slave
territory, and generally favoured the freedom of speech and press as
regards the question of slavery; yet his various concessions and
compromises resulted, as he himself declared, in the abolitionists
denouncing him as a slaveholder, and the slaveholders as an
abolitionist. In 1839, only twelve months after opposing the pro-slavery
demands, he prepared an elaborate speech, in order "to set himself right
with the South," which, before its delivery, received pro-slavery
approval. While affirming that he was "no friend of slavery" he held
abolition and the abolitionists responsible for the hatred, strife,
disruption and carnage that menaced the nation. In response, Calhoun
extended to him a most hearty welcome, and assigned him to a place on
the bench of the penitents. Being a candidate for the presidency Clay
had to take the insult without wincing. It was in reference to this
speech that he made the oft-quoted remark that he "would rather be right
than be president." While a candidate for president in 1844, he opposed
in the "Raleigh letter" the annexation of Texas on many grounds except
that of its increasing the slave power, thus displeasing both the men of
anti-slavery and those of pro-slavery sentiments. In 1847, after the
conquest of Mexico, he made a speech against the annexation of that
country or the acquiring of any foreign territory for the spread of
slavery. Although in 1849 he again vainly proposed emancipation in
Kentucky, he was unanimously elected to the United States Senate, where
in 1850 he temporarily pacified both sections of the country by
successfully offering, for the sake of the "peace, concord and harmony
of these states," a measure or series of measures that became known as
the "Compromise of 1850." It admitted California as a free state,
organized Utah and New Mexico as Territories without reference to
slavery, and enacted a more efficient fugitive slave law. In spite of
great physical weakness he made several earnest speeches in behalf of
these measures to save the Union.

Another conspicuous feature of Clay's public career was his absorbing
and rightful, but constantly ungratified, ambition to be president of
the United States. His name in connexion therewith was mentioned
comparatively early, and in 1824, with W.H. Crawford, Andrew Jackson,
and John Quincy Adams, he was a candidate for that office. There being
no choice by the people, and the House of Representatives having elected
Adams, Clay was accused by Jackson and his friends of making a corrupt
bargain whereby, in payment of his vote and influence for Adams, he was
appointed secretary of state. This made Jackson Clay's lifelong enemy,
and ever after kept Clay busy explaining and denying the allegation. In
1832 Clay was unanimously nominated for the presidency by the National
Republicans; Jackson, by the Democrats. The main issue was the policy of
continuing the United States Bank, which in 1811 Clay had opposed, but
in 1816 and always subsequently warmly favoured. A majority of the
voters approved of Jackson's fight against what Clay had once denounced
as a dangerous and unconstitutional monopoly. Clay made the mistake of
supposing that he could arouse popular enthusiasm for a moneyed
corporation in its contest with the great military "hero of New
Orleans." In 1839 he was a candidate for the Whig nomination, but by a
secret ballot his enemies defeated him in the party convention, held in
December of that year, and nominated William Henry Harrison. The result
threw Clay into paroxysms of rage, and he violently complained that his
friends always used him as their candidate when he was sure to be
defeated, and betrayed him when he or any one could have been elected.
In 1844 he was nominated by the Whigs against James K. Polk, the
Democratic candidate. By an audacious fraud that represented him as an
enemy, and Polk as a friend of protection, Clay lost the vote of
Pennsylvania; and he lost the vote of New York by his own letter abating
the force of his previous opposition to the annexation of Texas. Even
his enemies felt that his defeat by Polk was almost a national calamity.
In 1848, Zachary Taylor, a Mexican War hero, and hardly even a convert
to the Whig party, defeated Clay for the nomination, Kentucky herself
deserting her "favourite son."

Clay's quick intelligence and sympathy, and his irreproachable conduct
in youth, explain his precocious prominence in public affairs. In his
persuasiveness as an orator and his charming personality lay the secret
of his power. He had early trained himself in the art of speech-making,
in the forest, the field and even the barn, with horse and ox for
audience. By contemporaries his voice was declared to be the finest
musical instrument that they ever heard. His eloquence was in turn
majestic, fierce, playful, insinuating; his gesticulation natural,
vivid, large, powerful. In public he was of magnificent bearing,
possessing the true oratorical temperament, the nervous exaltation that
makes the orator feel and appear a superior being, transfusing his
thought, passion and will into the mind and heart of the listener; but
his imagination frequently ran away with his understanding, while his
imperious temper and ardent combativeness hurried him and his party into
disadvantageous positions. The ease, too, with which he outshone men of
vastly greater learning lured him from the task of intense and arduous
study. His speeches were characterized by skill of statement, ingenious
grouping of facts, fervent diction, and ardent patriotism; sometimes by
biting sarcasm, but also by superficial research, half-knowledge and an
unwillingness to reason a proposition to its logical results. In
private, his never-failing courtesy, his agreeable manners and a noble
and generous heart for all who needed protection against the powerful or
the lawless, endeared him to hosts of friends. His popularity was as
great and as inexhaustible among his neighbours as among his
fellow-citizens generally. He pronounced upon himself a just judgment
when he wrote: "If any one desires to know the leading and paramount
object of my public life, the preservation of this Union will furnish
him the key."

  See Calvin Colton, _The Works of Henry Clay_ (6 vols., New York, 1857;
  new ed., 7 vols., New York, 1898), the first three volumes of which
  are an account of Clay's "Life and Times"; Carl Schurz, _Henry Clay_
  (2 vols., Boston, 1887), in the "American Statesmen" series; and the
  life by T. Hart Clay (1910).    (C. S.)

CLAY (from O. Eng. _claeg_, a word common in various forms to Teutonic
languages, cf. Ger. _Klei_), commonly defined as a fine-grained, almost
impalpable substance, very soft, more or less coherent when dry, plastic
and retentive of water when wet; it has an "earthy" odour when breathed
upon or moistened, and consists essentially of hydrous aluminium
silicate with various impurities. Of clay are formed a great number of
rocks, which collectively are known as "clay-rocks" or "pelitic rocks"
(from Gr. [Greek: pêlos], clay), e.g. mudstone, shale, slate: these
exhibit in greater or less perfection the properties above described
according to their freedom from impurities. In nature, clays are rarely
free from foreign ingredients, many of which can be detected with the
unaided eye, while others may be observed by means of the microscope.
The commonest impurities are:--(1) organic matter, humus, &c.
(exemplified by clay-soils with an admixture of peat, oil shales,
carbonaceous shales); (2) fossils (such as plants in the shales of the
Lias and Coal Measures, shells in clays of all geological periods and in
fresh water marls); (3) carbonate of lime (rarely altogether absent, but
abundant in marls, cement-stones and argillaceous limestones); (4)
sulphide of iron, as pyrite or marcasite (when finely diffused, giving
the clay a dark grey-blue colour, which weathers to brown--e.g. London
Clay; also as nodules and concretions, e.g. Gault); (5) oxides of iron
(staining the clay bright red when ferric oxide, red ochre; yellow when
hydrous, e.g. yellow ochre); (6) sand or detrital silica (forming loams,
arenaceous clays, argillaceous sandstones, &c.). Less frequently present
are the following:--rock salt (Triassic clays, and marls of Cheshire,
&c.); gypsum (London Clay, Triassic clays); dolomite, phosphate of lime,
vivianite (phosphate of iron), oxides of manganese, copper ores (e.g.
_Kupferschiefer_), wavellite and amber. As the impurities increase in
amount the clay rocks pass gradually into argillaceous sands and
sandstones, argillaceous limestones and dolomites, shaly coals and clay

Natural clays, even when most pure, show a considerable range of
composition, and hence cannot be regarded as consisting of a single
mineral; clay is a _rock_, and has that variability which characterizes
all rocks. Of the essential properties of clay some are merely physical,
and depend on the minute size of the particles. If any rock be taken
(even a piece of pure quartz) and crushed to a very fine powder, it will
show some of the peculiarities of clays; for example, it will be
plastic, retentive of moisture, impermeable to water, and will shrink to
some extent if the moist mass be kneaded, and then allowed to dry. It
happens, however, that many rocks are not disintegrated to this extreme
degree by natural processes, and weathering invariably accompanies
disintegration. Quartz, for example, has little or no cleavage, and is
not attacked by the atmosphere. It breaks up into fragments, which
become rounded by attrition, but after they reach a certain minuteness
are borne along by currents of water or air in a state of suspension,
and are not further reduced in size. Hence sands are more coarse grained
than clays. A great number of rock-forming minerals, however, possess a
good cleavage, so that when bruised they split into thin fragments; many
of these minerals decompose somewhat readily, yielding secondary
minerals, which are comparatively soft and have a scaly character, with
eminently perfect cleavages, which facilitate splitting into exceedingly
thin plates. The principal substances of this description are kaolin,
muscovite and chlorite. Kaolin and muscovite are formed principally
after felspar (and the felspars are the commonest minerals of all
crystalline rocks); also from nepheline, leucite, scapolite and a
variety of other rock-forming minerals. Chlorite arises from biotite,
augite and hornblende. Serpentine, which may be fibrous or scaly, is a
secondary product of olivine and certain pyroxenes. Clays consist
essentially of the above ingredients (although serpentine is not known
to take part in them to any extent, it is closely allied to chlorite).
At the same time other substances are produced as decomposition goes on.
They are principally finely divided quartz, epidote, zoisite, rutile,
limonite, calcite, pyrites, and very small particles of these are rarely
absent from natural clays. These fine-grained materials are at first
mixed with broken and more or less weathered rock fragments and coarser
mineral particles in the soil and subsoil, but by the action of wind and
rain they are swept away and deposited in distant situations. "Loess" is
a fine calcareous clay, which has been wind-borne, and subsequently laid
down on the margins of dry steppes and deserts. Most clays are
water-borne, having been carried from the surface of the land by rain
and transported by the brooks and rivers into lakes or the sea. In this
state the fine particles are known as "mud." They are deposited where
the currents are checked and the water becomes very still. If
temporarily laid down in other situations they are ultimately lifted
again and removed. A little clay, stirred up with water in a glass
vessel, takes hours to settle, and even after two or three days some
remains in suspension; in fact, it has been suggested that in such cases
the clay forms a sort of "colloidal solution" in the water. Traces of
dissolved salts, such as common salt, gypsum or alum, greatly accelerate
deposition. For these reasons the principal gathering places of fine
pure clays are deep, still lakes, and the sea bottom at considerable
distances from the shore. The coarser materials settle nearer the land,
and the shallower portions of the sea floor are strewn with gravel and
sand, except in occasional depressions and near the mouths of rivers
where mud may gather. Farther out the great mud deposits begin,
extending from 50 to 200 m. from the land, according to the amount of
sediment brought in, and the rate at which the water deepens. A girdle
of mud accumulations encircles all the continents. These sediments are
fine and tenacious; their principal components, in addition to clay,
being small grains of quartz, zircon, tourmaline, hornblende, felspar
and iron compounds. Their typical colour is blackish-blue, owing to the
abundance of sulphuretted hydrogen; when fresh they have a sulphurous
odour, when weathered they are brown, as their iron is present as
hydrous oxides (limonite, &c). These deposits are tenanted by numerous
forms of marine life, and the sulphur they contain is derived from
decomposing organic matter. Occasionally water-logged plant débris is
mingled with the mud. In a few places a red colour prevails, the iron
being mostly oxidized; elsewhere the muds are green owing to abundant
glauconite. Traced landwards the muds become more sandy, while on their
outer margins they grade into the abysmal deposits, such as the
globigerina ooze (see OCEAN AND OCEANOGRAPHY). Near volcanoes they
contain many volcanic minerals, and around coral islands they are often
in large part calcareous.

Microscopic sections of some of the more coherent clays and shales may
be prepared by saturating them with Canada balsam by long boiling, and
slicing the resultant mass in the same manner as one of the harder
rocks. They show that clay rocks contain abundant very small grains of
quartz (about 0.01 to 0.05 mm. in diameter), with often felspar,
tourmaline, zircon, epidote, rutile and more or less calcite. These may
form more than one-third of an ordinary shale; the greater part,
however, consists of still smaller scales of other minerals (0.01 mm. in
diameter and less than this). Some of these are recognizable as pale
yellowish and white mica; others seem to be chlorite, the remainder is
perhaps kaolin, but, owing to the minute size of the flakes, they yield
very indistinct reactions to polarized light. They are also often
stained with iron oxide and organic substances, and in consequence their
true nature is almost impossible to determine. It is certain, however,
that the finer-grained rocks are richest in alumina, and in combined
water; hence the inference is clear that kaolin or some other hydrous
aluminium silicate is the dominating constituent. These results are
confirmed by the mechanical analysis of clays. This process consists in
finely pulverizing the soil or rock, and levigating it in vessels of
water. A series of powders is obtained progressively finer according to
the time required to settle to the bottom of the vessel. The clay is
held to include those particles which have less than 0.005 mm. diameter,
and contains a higher percentage of alumina than any of the other

As might be inferred from the differences they exhibit in other
respects, clay rocks vary greatly in their chemical composition. Some of
them contain much iron (yellow, blue and red clays); others contain
abundant calcium carbonate (calcareous clays and marls). Pure clays,
however, may be found almost quite free from these substances. Their
silica ranges from about 60 to 45%, varying in accordance with the
amount of quartz and alkali-felspar present. It is almost always more
than would be the case if the rock consisted of kaolin mixed with
muscovite. Alumina is high in the finer clays (18 to 30%), and they are
the most aluminous of all sediments, except bauxite. Magnesia is never
absent, though its amount may be less than 1%; it is usually contained
in minerals of the chlorite group, but partly also in dolomite. The
alkalis are very interesting; often they form 5 or 10% of the whole
rock; they indicate abundance of white micas or of undecomposed
particles of felspar. Some clays, however, such as fireclays, contain
very little potash or soda, while they are rich in alumina; and it is a
fair inference that hydrated aluminous silicates, such as kaolin, are
well represented in these rocks. There are, in fact, a few clays which
contain about 45% of alumina, that is to say, more than in pure kaolin.
It is probable that these are related to bauxite and certain kinds of

A few of the most important clay rocks, such as china-clay, brick-clay,
red-clay and shale, may be briefly described here.

_China-clay_ is white, friable and earthy. It occurs in regions of
granite, porphyry and syenite, and usually occupies funnel-shaped
cavities of no great superficial area, but of considerable depth. It
consists of very fine scaly kaolin, larger, shining plates of white
mica, grains of quartz and particles of semi-decomposed felspar,
tourmaline, zircon and other minerals, which originally formed part of
the granite. These clays are produced by the decomposition of the
granite by acid vapours, which are discharged after the igneous rock has
solidified ("fumarole or pneumatolytic action"). Fluorine and its
compounds are often supposed to have been among the agencies which
produce this change, but more probably carbonic acid played the
principal role. The felspar decomposes into kaolin and quartz; its
alkalis are for the most part set free and removed in solution, but are
partly retained in the white mica which is constantly found in crude
china-clays. Semi-decomposed varieties of the granite are known as
china-stone. The kaolin may be washed away from its original site, and
deposited in hollows or lakes to form beds of white clay, such as
pipe-clay; in this case it is always more or less impure. Yellow and
pinkish varieties of china-clay and pipe-clay contain a small quantity
of oxide of iron. The best known localities for china-clay are Cornwall,
Limoges (France), Saxony, Bohemia and China; it is found also in
Pennsylvania, N. Carolina and elsewhere in the United States.

_Fire-clays_ include all those varieties of clay which are very
refractory to heat. They must contain little alkalis, lime, magnesia and
iron, but some of them are comparatively rich in silica. Many of the
clays which pass under this designation belong to the Carboniferous
period, and are found underlying seams of coal. Either by rapid growth
of vegetation, or by subsequent percolation of organic solutions, most
of the alkalis and the lime have been carried away.

Any argillaceous material, which can be used for the manufacture of
bricks, may be called a _brick-clay_. In England, Kimmeridge Clay, Lias
clays, London Clay and pulverized shale and slate are all employed for
this purpose. Each variety needs special treatment according to its
properties. The true brick-clays, however, are superficial deposits of
Pleistocene or Quaternary age, and occur in hollows, filled-up lakes and
deserted stream channels. Many of them are derived from the glacial
boulder-clays, or from the washing away of the finer materials contained
in older clay formations. They are always very impure.

The _red-clay_ is an abysmal formation, occurring in the sea bottom in
the deepest part of the oceans. It is estimated to cover over fifty
millions of square miles, and is probably the most extensive deposit
which is in course of accumulation at the present day. In addition to
the reddish or brownish argillaceous matrix it contains fresh or
decomposed crystals of volcanic minerals, such as felspar, augite,
hornblende, olivine and pumiceous or palagonitic rocks. These must
either have been ejected by submarine volcanoes or drifted by the wind
from active vents, as the fine ash discharged by Krakatoa was wafted
over the whole globe. Larger rounded lumps of pumice, found in the clay,
have probably floated to their present situations, and sank when
decomposed, all their cavities becoming filled with sea water. Crystals
of zeolites (phillipsite) form in the red-clay as radiate, nodular
groups. Lumps of manganese oxide, with a black, shining outer surface,
are also characteristic of this deposit, and frequently encrust pieces
of pumice or animal remains. The only fossils of the clay are
radiolaria, sharks' teeth and the ear-bones of whales, precisely those
parts of the skeleton of marine creatures which are hardest and can
longest survive exposure to sea-water. Their comparative abundance shows
how slowly the clay gathers. Small rounded spherules of iron, believed
by some to be meteoric dust, have also been obtained in some numbers.
Among the rocks of the continents nothing exactly the same as this
remarkable deposit is known to occur, though fine dark clays, with
manganese nodules, are found in many localities, accompanied by other
rocks which indicate deep-water conditions of deposit.

Another type of red-clay is found in caves, and is known as _cave-earth_
or _red-earth_ (_terra rossa_). It is fine, tenacious and bright red,
and represents the insoluble and thoroughly weathered impurities which
are left behind when the calcareous matter is removed in solution by
carbonated waters. Similar residual clays sometimes occur on the surface
of areas of limestone in hollows and fissures formed by weathering.

_Boulder-clay_ is a coarse unstratified deposit of fine clay, with more
or less sand, and boulders of various sizes, the latter usually marked
with glacial striations.

Some clay rocks which have been laid down by water are very uniform
through their whole thickness, and are called _mud-stones_. Others split
readily into fine leaflets or laminae parallel to their bedding, and
this structure is accentuated by the presence of films of other
materials, such as sand or vegetable debris. Laminated clays of this
sort are generally known as _shales_; they occur in many formations but
are very common in the Carboniferous. Some of them contain much organic
debris, and when distilled yield paraffin oil, wax, compounds of
ammonia, &c. In these oil-shales there are clear, globular, yellow
bodies which seem to be resinous. It has been suggested that the
admixture of large quantities of decomposed fresh-water algae among the
original mud is the origin of the paraffins. In New South Wales,
Scotland and several parts of America such oil-shales are worked on a
commercial scale. Many shales contain great numbers of ovoid or rounded
septarian nodules of clay ironstone. Others are rich in pyrites, which,
on oxidation, produces sulphuric acid; this attacks the aluminous
silicates of the clay and forms aluminium sulphate (_alum shales_). The
lias shales of Whitby contain blocks of semi-mineralized wood, or jet,
which is black with a resinous lustre, and a fibrous structure. The
laminated structure of shales, though partly due to successive very thin
sheets of deposit, is certainly dependent also on the vertical pressure
exerted by masses of super-incumbent rock; it indicates a transition to
the fissile character of clay slates.    (J. S. F.)

CLAY CROSS, an urban district in the Chesterfield parliamentary division
of Derbyshire, England, near the river Amber, on the Midland railway, 5
m. S. of Chesterfield. Pop. (1901) 8358. The Clay Cross Colliery and
Ironworks Company, whose mines were for a time leased by George
Stephenson, employ a great number of hands.

CLAYMORE (from the Gaelic _claidheamh mòr_, "great sword"), the old
two-edged broadsword with cross hilt, of which the guards were usually
turned down, used by the Highlanders of Scotland. The name is also
wrongly applied to the single-edged basket-hilted sword adopted in the
16th century and still worn as the full-dress sword in the Highland
regiments of the British army.

CLAYS, PAUL JEAN (1819-1900), Belgian artist, was born at Bruges in
1819, and died at Brussels in 1900. He was one of the most esteemed
marine painters of his time, and early in his career he substituted a
sincere study of nature for the extravagant and artificial
conventionality of most of his predecessors. When he began to paint, the
sea was considered by continental artists as worth representing only
under its most tempestuous aspects. Artists cared only for the stirring
drama of storm and wreck, and they clung still to the old-world
tradition of the romantic school. Clays was the first to appreciate the
beauty of calm waters reflecting the slow procession of clouds, the
glories of sunset illuminating the sails of ships or gilding the tarred
sides of heavy fishing-boats. He painted the peaceful life of rivers,
the poetry of wide estuaries, the regulated stir of roadsteads and
ports. And while he thus broke away from old traditions he also threw
off the trammels imposed on him by his master, the marine painter
Theodore Gudin (1802-1880). Endeavouring only to give truthful
expression to the nature that delighted his eyes, he sought to render
the limpid salt atmosphere, the weight of waters, the transparence of
moist horizons, the gem-like sparkle of the sky. A Fleming in his
feeling for colour, he set his palette with clean strong hues, and their
powerful harmonies were in striking contrast with the rusty, smoky tones
then in favour. If he was not a "luminist" in the modern use of the
word, he deserves at any rate to be classed with the founders of the
modern naturalistic school. This conscientious and healthy
interpretation, to which the artist remained faithful, without any
important change, to the end of an unusually long and laborious career,
attracted those minds which aspired to be bold, and won over those which
were moderate. Clays soon took his place among the most famous Belgian
painters of his generation, and his pictures, sold at high prices, are
to be seen in most public and private galleries. We may mention, among
others, "The Beach at Ault," "Boats in a Dutch Port," and "Dutch Boats
in the Flushing Roads," the last in the National Gallery, London. In the
Brussels gallery are "The Port of Antwerp," "Coast near Ostend," and a
"Calm on the Scheldt"; in the Antwerp museum, "The Meuse at Dordrecht";
in the Pinakothek at Munich, "The Open North Sea"; in the Metropolitan
Museum of Fine Arts, New York, "The Festival of the Freedom of the
Scheldt at Antwerp in 1863"; in the palace of the king of the Belgians,
"Arrival of Queen Victoria at Ostend in 1857"; in the Bruges academy,
"Port of Feirugudo, Portugal." Clays was a member of several Academies,
Belgian and foreign, and of the Order of Leopold, the Legion of Honour,

  See Camille Lemonnier, _Histoire des Beaux-Arts_ (Brussels, 1887).
     (O. M.*)

CLAYTON, JOHN MIDDLETON (1796-1856), American politician, was born in
Dagsborough, Sussex county, Delaware, on the 24th of July 1796. He came
of an old Quaker family long prominent in the political history of
Delaware. He graduated at Yale in 1815, and in 1819 began to practise
law at Dover, Delaware, where for a time he was associated with his
cousin, Thomas Clayton (1778-1854), subsequently a United States senator
and chief-justice of the state. He soon gained a large practice. He
became a member of the state House of Representatives in 1824, and from
December 1826 to October 1828 was secretary of state of Delaware. In
1829, by a combination of anti-Jackson forces in the state legislature,
he was elected to the United States Senate. Here his great oratorical
gifts gave him a high place as one of the ablest and most eloquent
opponents of the administration. In 1831 he was a member of the Delaware
constitutional convention, and in 1835 he was returned to the Senate as
a Whig, but resigned in the following year. In 1837-1839 he was chief
justice of Delaware. In 1845 he again entered the Senate, where he
opposed the annexation of Texas and the Mexican War, but advocated the
active prosecution of the latter once it was begun. In March 1849 he
became secretary of state in the cabinet of President Zachary Taylor, to
whose nomination and election his influence had contributed. His brief
tenure of the state portfolio, which terminated on the 22nd of July
1850, soon after Taylor's death, was notable chiefly for the negotiation
with the British minister, Sir Henry Lytton Bulwer, of the
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (q.v.). He was once more a member of the Senate
from March 1853 until his death at Dover, Delaware, on the 9th of
November 1856. By his contemporaries Clayton was considered one of the
ablest debaters and orators in the Senate.

  See the memoir by Joseph P. Comegys in the _Papers_ of the Historical
  Society of Delaware, No. 4 (Wilmington, 1882).

CLAYTON-BULWER TREATY, a famous treaty between the United States and
Great Britain, negotiated in 1850 by John M. Clayton and Sir Henry
Lytton Bulwer (Lord Dalling), in consequence of the situation created by
the project of an interoceanic canal across Nicaragua, each signatory
being jealous of the activities of the other in Central America. Great
Britain had large and indefinite territorial claims in three
regions--Belize or British Honduras, the Mosquito Coast and the Bay
Islands.[1] On the other hand, the United States, without territorial
claims, held in reserve, ready for ratification, treaties with Nicaragua
and Honduras, which gave her a certain diplomatic vantage with which to
balance the _de facto_ dominion of Great Britain. Agreement on these
points being impossible and agreement on the canal question possible,
the latter was put in the foreground. The resulting treaty had four
essential points. It bound both parties not to "obtain or maintain" any
exclusive control of the proposed canal, or unequal advantage in its
use. It guaranteed the neutralization of such canal. It declared that,
the intention of the signatories being not only the accomplishment of "a
particular object"--i.e. that the canal, then supposedly near
realization, should be neutral and equally free to the two contracting
powers--"but also to establish a general principle," they agreed "to
extend their protection by treaty stipulation to any other practicable
communications, whether by canal or railway, across the isthmus which
connects North and South America." Finally, it stipulated that neither
signatory would ever "occupy, or fortify, or colonize, or assume or
exercise any dominion over Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito Coast or
any part of Central America," nor make use of any protectorate or
alliance, present or future, to such ends.

The treaty was signed on the 19th of April, and was ratified by both
governments; but before the exchange of ratifications Lord Palmerston,
on the 8th of June, directed Sir H. Bulwer to make a "declaration" that
the British government did not understand the treaty "as applying to Her
Majesty's settlement at Honduras, or its dependencies." Mr Clayton made
a counter-declaration, which recited that the United States did not
regard the treaty as applying to "the British settlement in Honduras
commonly called British-Honduras ... nor the small islands in the
neighbourhood of that settlement which may be known as its
dependencies"; that the treaty's engagements did apply to all the
Central American states, "with their just limits and proper
dependencies"; and that these declarations, not being submitted to the
United States Senate, could of course not affect the legal import of the
treaty. The interpretation of the declarations soon became a matter of
contention. The phraseology reflects the effort made by the United
States to render impossible a physical control of the canal by Great
Britain through the territory held by her at its mouth--the United
States losing the above-mentioned treaty advantages,--just as the
explicit abnegations of the treaty rendered impossible such control
politically by either power. But great Britain claimed that the excepted
"settlement" at Honduras was the "Belize" covered by the extreme British
claim; that the Bay Islands were a dependency of Belize; and that, as
for the Mosquito Coast, the abnegatory clauses being wholly prospective
in intent, she was not required to abandon her protectorate. The United
States contended that the Bay Islands were not the "dependencies" of
Belize, these being the small neighbouring islands mentioned in the same
treaties; that the excepted "settlement" was the British-Honduras of
definite extent and narrow purpose recognized in British treaties with
Spain; that she had not confirmed by recognition the large, indefinite
and offensive claims whose dangers the treaty was primarily designed to
lessen; and that, as to the Mosquito Coast, the treaty was
retrospective, and mutual in the rigour of its requirements, and as the
United States had no _de facto_ possessions, while Great Britain had,
the clause binding both not to "occupy" any part of Central America or
the Mosquito Coast necessitated the abandonment of such territory as
Great Britain was already actually occupying or exercising dominion
over; and the United States demanded the complete abandonment of the
British protectorate over the Mosquito Indians. It seems to be a just
conclusion that when in 1852 the Bay Islands were erected into a British
"colony" this was a flagrant infraction of the treaty; that as regards
Belize the American arguments were decidedly stronger, and more correct
historically; and that as regards the Mosquito question, inasmuch as a
protectorate seems certainly to have been recognized by the treaty, to
demand its absolute abandonment was unwarranted, although to satisfy the
treaty Great Britain was bound materially to weaken it.

In 1859-1860, by British treaties with Central American states, the Bay
Islands and Mosquito questions were settled nearly in accord with the
American contentions.[2] But by the same treaties Belize was accorded
limits much greater than those contended for by the United States. This
settlement the latter power accepted without cavil for many years.

Until 1866 the policy of the United States was consistently for
inter-oceanic canals open equally to all nations, and unequivocally
neutralized; indeed, until 1880 there was practically no official
divergence from this policy. But in 1880-1884 a variety of reasons were
advanced why the United States might justly repudiate at will the
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.[3] The new policy was based on national
self-interest. The arguments advanced on its behalf were quite
indefensible in law and history, and although the position of the United
States in 1850-1860 was in general the stronger in history, law and
political ethics, that of Great Britain was even more conspicuously the
stronger in the years 1880-1884. In 1885 the former government reverted
to its traditional policy, and the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1902, which
replaced the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, adopted the rule of neutralization
for the Panama Canal.

  See the collected diplomatic correspondence in I.D. Travis, _History
  of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty_ (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1899); J.H. Latané,
  _Diplomatic Relations of the United States and Spanish America_
  (Baltimore, 1900); T.J. Lawrence, _Disputed Questions of Modern
  International Law_ (2nd ed., Cambridge, England, 1885); Sir E.L.
  Bulwer in 99 _Quarterly Rev._ 235-286, and Sir H. Bulwer in 104
  _Edinburgh Rev._ 280-298.


  [1] The claims to a part of the first two were very old in origin,
    but all were heavily clouded by interruptions of possession,
    contested interpretations of Spanish-British treaties, and active
    controversy with the Central American States. The claim to some of
    the territory was new and still more contestable. See particularly on
    these claims Travis'e book cited below.

  [2] The islands were ceded to Honduras. The Mosquito Coast was
    recognized as under Nicaraguan rule limited by an attenuated British
    protectorate over the Indians, who were given a reservation and
    certain peculiar rights. They were left free to accept full
    Nicaraguan rule at will. This they did in 1894.

  [3] It was argued, e.g., that the "general principle" of that
    engagement was contingent on the prior realization of its "particular
    object," which had failed, and the treaty had determined as a special
    contract; moreover, none of the additional treaties to embody the
    "general principle" had been negotiated, and Great Britain had not
    even offered co-operation in the protection and neutrality-guarantee
    of the Panama railway built in 1850-1855, so that her rights had
    lapsed; certain engagements of the treaty she had violated, and
    therefore the whole treaty was voidable, &c.

CLAY-WITH-FLINTS, in geology, the name given by W. Whitaker in 1861 to a
peculiar deposit of stiff red, brown or yellow clay containing unworn
whole flints as well as angular shattered fragments, also with a
variable admixture of rounded flint, quartz, quartzite and other
pebbles. It occurs "in sheets or patches of various sizes over a large
area in the south of England, from Hertfordshire on the north to Sussex
on the south, and from Kent on the east to Devon on the west. It almost
always lies on the surface of the Upper Chalk, but in Dorset it passes
on to the Middle and Lower Chalk, and in Devon it is found on the
Chert-Beds of the Selbornian group" (A.J. Jukes-Browne, "The
Clay-with-Flints, its Origin and Distribution," _Q.J.G.S._, vol. lxii.,
1906, p. 132). Many geologists have supposed, and some still hold, that
the Clay-with-Flints is the residue left by the slow solution and
disintegration of the Chalk by the processes of weathering; on the other
hand, it has long been known that the deposit very frequently contains
materials foreign to the Chalk, derived either from the Tertiary rocks
or from overlying drift. In the paper quoted above, Jukes-Browne ably
summarizes the evidence against the view that the deposit is mainly a
Chalk residue, and brings forward a good deal of evidence to show that
many patches of the Clay-with-Flints lie upon the same plane and may be
directly associated with Reading Beds. He concludes "that the material
of the Clay-with-Flints has been chiefly and almost entirely derived
from Eocene clay, with addition of some flints from the Chalk; that its
presence is an indication of the previous existence of Lower Eocene Beds
on the same site and nearly at the same relative level, and,
consequently, that comparatively little Chalk has been removed from
beneath it. Finally, I think that the tracts of Clay-with-Flints have
been much more extensive than they are now" (loc. cit. p. 159).

It is noteworthy that the Clay-with-Flints is developed over an area
which is just beyond the limits of the ice sheets of the Glacial epoch,
and the peculiar conditions of late Pliocene and Pleistocene times;
involving heavy rains, snow and frost, may have had much to do with the
mingling of the Tertiary and Chalky material. Besides the occurrence in
surface patches, Clay-with-Flints is very commonly to be observed
descending in "pipes" often to a considerable depth into the Chalk;
here, if anywhere, the residual chalk portion of the deposit should be
found, and it is surmised that a thin layer of very dark clay with
darkly stained flints, which appears in contact with the sides and
bottom of the pipe, may represent all there is of insoluble residue.

A somewhat similar deposit, a "_conglomérat de silex_" or "_argue à
silex_," occurs at the base of the Eocene on the southern and western
borders of the Paris basin, in the neighbourhood of Chartres, Thimerais
and Sancerrois.    (J. A. H.)

CLAZOMENAE (mod. _Kelisman_), an ancient town of Ionia and a member of
the Ionian Dodecapolis (Confederation of Twelve Cities), on the Gulf of
Smyrna, about 20 m. W. of that city. Though not in existence before the
arrival of the Ionians in Asia, its original founders were largely
settlers from Phlius and Cleonae. It stood originally on the isthmus
connecting the mainland with the peninsula on which Erythrae stood; but
the inhabitants, alarmed by the encroachments of the Persians, removed
to one of the small islands of the bay, and there established their
city. This island was connected with the mainland by Alexander the Great
by means of a pier, the remains of which are still visible. During the
5th century it was for some time subject to the Athenians, but about the
middle of the Peloponnesian war (412 B.C.) it revolted. After a brief
resistance, however, it again acknowledged the Athenian supremacy, and
repelled a Lacedaemonian attack. Under the Romans Clazomenae was
included in the province of Asia, and enjoyed an immunity from taxation.
The site can still be made out, in the neighbourhood of Vourla, but
nearly every portion of its ruins has been removed. It was the
birthplace of the philosopher Anaxagoras. It is famous for its painted
terra-cotta sarcophagi, which are the finest monuments of Ionian
painting in the 6th century B.C.    (E. GR.)

CLEANTHES (c. 301-232 or 252 B.C.), Stoic philosopher, born at Assos in
the Troad, was originally a boxer. With but four drachmae in his
possession he came to Athens, where he listened first to the lectures of
Crates the Cynic, and then to those of Zeno, the Stoic, supporting
himself meanwhile by working all night as water-carrier to a gardener
(hence his nickname [Greek: phrehantlês]). His power of patient
endurance, or perhaps his slowness, earned him the title of "the Ass";
but such was the esteem awakened by his high moral qualities that, on
the death of Zeno in 263, he became the leader of the school. He
continued, however, to support himself by the labour of his own hands.
Among his pupils were his successor, Chrysippus, and Antigonus, king of
Macedon, from whom he accepted 2000 minae. The manner of his death was
characteristic. A dangerous ulcer had compelled him to fast for a time.
Subsequently he continued his abstinence, saying that, as he was already
half-way on the road to death, he would not trouble to retrace his

Cleanthes produced very little that was original, though he wrote some
fifty works, of which fragments have come down to us. The principal is
the large portion of the _Hymn to Zeus_ which has been preserved in
Stobaeus. He regarded the sun as the abode of God, the intelligent
providence, or (in accordance with Stoical materialism) the vivifying
fire or aether of the universe. Virtue, he taught, is life according to
nature; but pleasure is not according to nature. He originated a new
theory as to the individual existence of the human soul; he held that
the degree of its vitality after death depends upon the degree of its
vitality in this life. The principal fragments of Cleanthes's works are
contained in Diogenes Laertius and Stobaeus; some may be found in Cicero
and Seneca.

  See G.C. Mohinke, _Kleanthes der Stoiker_ (Greifswald, 1814); C.
  Wachsmuth, _Commentationes de Zenone Citiensi et Cleanthe Assio_
  (Göttingen, 1874-1875); A.C. Pearson, _Fragments of Zeno and
  Cleanthes_ (Camb., 1891); article by E. Wellmann in Ersch and Gruber's
  _Allgemeine Encyklopädie_; R. Hirzel, _Untersuchungen zu Ciceros
  philosophischen Schriften_, ii. (1882), containing a vindication of
  the originality of Cleanthes; A.B. Krische, _Forschungen auf dem
  Gebiete der alten Philosophie_ (1840); also works quoted under STOICS.

CLEARCHUS, the son of Rhamphias, a Spartan general and condottiere. Born
about the middle of the 5th century B.C., Clearchus was sent with a
fleet to the Hellespont in 411 and became governor ([Greek: harmostês])
of Byzantium, of which town he was _proxenus_. His severity, however,
made him unpopular, and in his absence the gates were opened to the
Athenian besieging army under Alcibiades (409). Subsequently appointed
by the ephors to settle the political dissensions then rife at Byzantium
and to protect the city and the neighbouring Greek colonies from
Thracian attacks, he made himself tyrant of Byzantium, and, when
declared an outlaw and driven thence by a Spartan force, he fled to
Cyrus. In the "expedition of the ten thousand" undertaken by Cyrus to
dethrone his brother Artaxerxes Mnemon, Clearchus led the
Peloponnesians, who formed the right wing of Cyrus's army at the battle
of Cunaxa (401). On Cyrus's death Clearchus assumed the chief command
and conducted the retreat, until, being treacherously seized with his
fellow-generals by Tissaphernes, he was handed over to Artaxerxes and
executed (Thuc. viii. 8. 39, 80; Xen. _Hellenica_, i. 3. 15-19;
_Anabasis_, i. ii.; Diodorus xiv. 12. 19-26). In character he was a
typical product of the Spartan educational system. He was a warrior to
the finger-tips ([Greek: polemikos kai philopolemos eschatôs]. Xen.
_Anab._ ii. 6. 1), and his tireless energy, unfaltering courage and
strategic ability made him an officer of no mean order. But he seems to
have had no redeeming touch of refinement or humanity.

CLEARFIELD, a borough and the county-seat of Clearfield county,
Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on the W. branch of the Susquehanna river, in the
W. central part of the state. Pop. (1890) 2248; (1900) 5081 (310
foreign-born); (1910) 6851. It is served by the New York Central &
Hudson River, the Pennsylvania, and the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburg
railways. The borough is about 1105 ft. above sea-level, in a rather
limited space between the hills, which command picturesque views of the
narrow valley. The river runs through the borough. Coal and fireclay
abound in the vicinity, and these, with leather, iron, timber and the
products of the fertile soil, are the bases of its leading industries.
Before the arrival of the whites the place had been cleared of timber
(whence its name), and in 1805 it was chosen as a site for the
county-seat of the newly erected county and laid out as a town; in 1840
it was incorporated as a borough.

CLEARING-HOUSE, the general term for a central institution employed in
connexion with large and interrelated businesses for the purpose of
facilitating the settlement of accounts.

_Banking._--The London Clearing-House was established between 1750 and
1770 as a place where the clerks of the bankers of the city of London
could assemble daily to exchange with one another the cheques drawn upon
and bills payable at their respective houses. Before the clearing-house
existed, each banker had to send a clerk to the places of business of
all the other bankers in London to collect the sums payable by them in
respect of cheques and bills; and it is obvious that much time was
consumed by this process, which involved the use of an unnecessary
quantity of money and corresponding risks of safe carriage. In 1775 a
room in Change Alley was settled upon as a common centre of exchange;
this was afterwards removed to Post Office Court, Lombard Street. This
clearing centre was at first confined to the bankers--at that time and
long afterwards exclusively private bankers--doing business within the
city, and the bankers in the west end of the metropolis used some one or
other of the city banks as their agent in clearing. When the joint-stock
banks were first established, the jealousy of the existing banks was
powerful enough to exclude them altogether from the use of the
Clearing-House; and it was not until 1854 that this feeling was removed
so as to allow them to be admitted.

At first the Clearing-House was simply a place of meeting, but it came
to be perceived that the sorting and distribution of cheques, bills, &c,
could be more expeditiously conducted by the appointment of two or three
common clerks to whom each banker's clerk could give all the instruments
of exchange he wished to collect, and from whom he could receive all
those payable at his own house. The payment of the balance settled the
transaction, but the arrangements were afterwards so perfected that the
balance is now settled by means of transfers made at the Bank of England
between the Clearing-House account and those of the various banks, the
Clearing-House, as well as each banker using it, having an account at
the Bank of England. The use of the Clearing-House was still further
extended in 1858, so as to include the settlement of exchanges between
the country bankers of England. Before that time each country banker
receiving cheques on other country bankers sent them to those other
bankers by post (supposing they were not carrying on business in the
same place), and requested that the amount should be paid by the London
agent of the banker on whom the cheques were drawn to the London agent
of the banker remitting them. Cheques were thus collected by
correspondence, and each remittance involved a separate payment in
London. Since 1858, accordingly, a country banker sends cheques on other
country banks to his London correspondent, who exchanges them at the
Clearing-House with the correspondents of the bankers on whom they are

The Clearing-House consists of one long room, lighted from the roof.
Around the walls and down the centre are placed desks, allotted to the
various banks, according to the amount of their business. The desks are
arranged alphabetically, so that the clerks may lose no time in passing
round the room and delivering their "charges" or batches of cheques to
the representatives of the various banks. There are three clearings in
London each day. The first is at 10.30 A.M., the second at noon, and the
third at 2.30 P.M. It is the busiest of all, and continues until five
minutes past four, when the last delivery must be made. The three
clearings were, in 1907, divided into town, metropolitan and country
clearings, each with a definite area. All the clearing banks have their
cheques marked with the letters "T," "M" and "C," according to the
district in which the issuing bank is situated. Every cheque issued by
the clearing banks, even though drawn in the head office of a bank, goes
through the Clearing-House.

The amount of business transacted at the Clearing-House varies very much
with the seasons of the year, the busiest time being when dividends are
paid and stock exchange settlements are made, but the volume of
transactions averages roughly from 200 to 300 millions sterling a week,
and the yearly clearances amount to something like £12,000,000,000.
There are provincial clearing-houses at Manchester, Liverpool,
Birmingham, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Leeds, Sheffield, Leicester and Bristol.
There are also clearing-houses in most of the large towns of Scotland
and Ireland. In New York and the other large cities of the United States
there are clearing-houses providing accommodation for the various
banking institutions (see BANKS AND BANKING).

The progress of banking on the continent of Europe has been slow in
comparison with that of the United Kingdom, and the use of cheques is
not so general, consequently the need for clearing-houses is not so
great. In France, too, the greater proportion of the banking business
is carried on through three banks only, the Banque de France, the
Société Générale and the Crédit Lyonnais, and a great part of their
transactions are settled at their own head offices. But at the same time
large sums pass through the Paris Chambre de Compensation (the
clearing-house), established in 1872.

There are clearing-houses also in Berlin, Hamburg and many other
European cities.

_Railways._--The British Railway Clearing-House was established in 1842,
its purpose, as defined by the Railway Clearing-House Act of 1850, being
"to settle and adjust the receipts arising from railway traffic within,
or partly within, the United Kingdom, and passing over more than one
railway within the United Kingdom, booked or invoiced at throughout
rates or fares." It is an independent body, governed by a committee
which is composed of delegates (usually the chairman or one of the
directors) from each of the railways that belong to it. Any railway
company may be admitted a party to the clearing-system with the assent
of the committee, may cease to be a member at a month's notice, and may
be expelled if such expulsion be voted for by two-thirds of the
delegates present at a specially convened meeting. The cost of
maintaining it is defrayed by contributions from the companies
proportional to the volume of business passed through it by each. It has
two main functions. (1) When passengers or goods are booked through
between stations belonging to different railway companies at an
inclusive charge for the whole journey, it distributes the money
received in due proportions between the companies concerned in rendering
the service. To this end it receives, in the case of passenger traffic,
a monthly return of the tickets issued at each station to stations on
other lines, and, in the case of goods traffic, it is supplied by both
the sending and receiving stations (when these are on different
companies' systems) with abstracts showing the character, weight, &c.,
of the goods that have travelled between them. By the aid of these
particulars it allocates the proper share of the receipts to each
company, having due regard to the distance over which the traffic has
been carried on each line, to the terminal services rendered by each
company, to any incidental expenses to which it may have been put, and
to the existence of any special agreements for the division of traffic.
(2) To avoid the inconvenience of a change of train at points where the
lines of different companies meet, passengers are often, and goods and
minerals generally, carried in through vehicles from their
starting-point to their destination. In consequence, vehicles belonging
to one company are constantly forming part of trains that belong to, and
run over the lines of, other companies, which thus have the temporary
use of rolling stock that does not belong to them. By the aid of a large
staff of "number takers" who are stationed at junctions all over the
country, and whose business is to record particulars of the vehicles
which pass through those junctions, the Clearing-House follows the
movements of vehicles which have left their owners' line, ascertains how
far they have run on the lines of other companies, and debits each of
the latter with the amount it has to pay for their use. This charge is
known as "mileage"; another charge which is also determined by the
Clearing-House is "demurrage," that is, the amount exacted from the
detaining company if a vehicle is not returned to its owners within a
prescribed time. By the exercise of these functions the Clearing-House
accumulates a long series of credits to, and debits against, each
company; these are periodically added up and set against each other,
with the result that the accounts between it and the companies are
finally settled by the transfer of comparatively small balances. It also
distributes the money paid by the post-office to the railways on account
of the conveyance of parcel-post traffic, and through its lost luggage
department many thousands of articles left in railway carriages are
every year returned to their owners. Its situation in London further
renders it a convenient meeting-place for several "Clearing-House
Conferences" of railway officials, as of the general managers, the goods
managers, and the superintendents of the line, held four times a year
for the consideration of questions in which all the companies are
interested. The Irish Railway Clearing-House, established in 1848, has
its headquarters in Dublin, and was incorporated by act of parliament in

_General_.--The principle of clearing adopted by banks and railways has
been applied with considerable success in other businesses.

In 1874 the London Stock Exchange Clearing-House was established for the
purpose of settling transactions in stock, the clearing being effected
by balance-sheets and tickets; the balance of stock to be received or
delivered is shown on a balance-sheet sent in by each member, and the
items are then cancelled against one another and tickets issued for the
balances outstanding. The New York Stock Exchange Clearing-House was
established in 1892. The settlements on the Paris Bourse are cleared
within the Bourse itself, through the Compagnie des Agents de Change de

In 1888 a society was formed in London called the Beetroot Sugar
Association for clearing bargains in beetroot sugar. For every 500 bags
of sugar of a definite weight which a broker sells, he issues a
_filière_ (a form something like a dock-warrant), giving particulars as
to the ship, the warehouse, trade-marks, &c. The filière contains also a
series of transfer forms which are filled up and signed by each
successive holder, so transferring the property to a new purchaser. The
new purchaser also fills up a coupon attached to the transfer, quoting
the date and hour of sale. This coupon is detached by the seller and
retained by him as evidence to determine any liability through
subsequent delay in the delivery of the sugar. Any purchaser requiring
delivery of the sugar forwards the filière to the clearing-house, and
the officials then send on his name to the first seller who tenders him
the warrant direct. These filières pass from hand to hand within a limit
of six days, a stamp being affixed on each transfer as a clearing-house
fee. The difference between each of the successive transactions is
adjusted by the clearing-house to the profit or loss of the seller.

The London Produce Clearing-House was established in 1888 for regulating
and adjusting bargains in foreign and colonial produce. The object of
the association is to guarantee both to the buyer and the seller the
fulfilment of bargains for future delivery. The transactions on either
side are allowed to accumulate during a month and an adjustment made at
the end by a settlement of the final balance owing. On the same lines
are the Caisse de Liquidation at Havre and the Waaren Liquidations Casse
at Hamburg. The Cotton Association also has a clearing-house at
Liverpool for clearing the transactions which arise from dealings in

  AUTHORITIES.--W. Howarth, _Our Clearing System and Clearing Houses_
  (1897), _The Banks in the Clearing House_ (1905); J.G. Cannon,
  _Clearing-houses, their History, Methods and Administration_ (1901);
  H.T. Easton, _Money, Exchange and Banking_ (1905); and the various
  volumes of the _Journal of the Institute of Bankers_. (T.A.I.)

CLEAT (a word common in various forms to many Teutonic languages, in the
sense of a wedge or lump, cf. "clod" and "clot"), a wedge-shaped piece
of wood fastened to ships' masts and elsewhere to prevent a rope, collar
or the like from slipping, or to act as a step; more particularly a
piece of wood or metal with double or single horns used for belaying
ropes. A "cleat" is also a wedge fastened to a ship's side to catch the
shores in a launching cradle or dry dock. "Cleat" is also used in mining
for the vertical cleavage-planes of coal.

CLEATOR MOOR, an urban district in the Egremont parliamentary division
of Cumberland, England, 4 m. S.E. of White-haven, served by the Furness,
London & North-Western and Cleator & Workington Junction railways. Pop.
(1901) 8120. The town lies between the valleys of the Ehen and its
tributary the Dub Beck, in a district rich in coal and iron ore. The
mining of these, together with blast furnaces and engineering works,
occupies the large industrial population.

CLEAVERS, or GOOSE-GRASS, _Galium Aparine_ (natural order Rubiaceae), a
common plant in hedges and waste places, with a long, weak, straggling,
four-sided, green stem, bearing whorls of 6 to 8 narrow leaves, ½ to 2
in. long, and, like the angles of the stem, rough from the presence of
short, stiff, downwardly-pointing, hooked hairs. The small, white,
regular flowers are borne, a few together, in axillary clusters, and are
followed by the large, hispid, two-celled fruit, which, like the rest of
the plant, readily clings to a rough surface, whence the common name.
The plant has a wide distribution throughout the north temperate zone,
and is also found in temperate South America.

CLEBURNE, a town and the county-seat of Johnson county, Texas, U.S.A.,
25 m. S. of Fort Worth. Pop. (1890) 3278; (1900) 7493, including 611
negroes; (1910) 10,364. It is served by the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fé,
the Missouri, Kansas & Texas, and the Trinity & Brazos Valley railways.
It is the centre of a prosperous farming, fruit and stock-raising
region, has large railway repair shops, flour-mills, cotton gins and
foundries, a canning factory and machine shops. It has a Carnegie
library, and St Joseph's Academy (Roman Catholic; for girls). The town
was named in honour of Patrick Ronayne Cleburne (1828-1864), a
major-general of the Confederate army, who was of Irish birth, practised
law in Helena, Arkansas, served at Shiloh, Perryville, Stone River,
Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Ring-gold Gap, Jonesboro and Franklin,
and was killed in the last-named battle; he was called the "Stonewall of
the West."

CLECKHEATON, an urban district in the Spen Valley parliamentary division
of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 5½ m. S. by E. of Bradford, on
the Lancashire & Yorkshire, Great Northern and London & North-Western
railways. Pop. (1901) 12,524. A chamber of commerce has held meetings
here since 1878. The industries comprise the manufacture of woollens,
blankets, flannel, wire-card and machinery.

CLEETHORPES, a watering-place of Lincolnshire, England; within the
parliamentary borough of Great Grimsby, 3 m. S.E. of that town by a
branch of the Great Central railway. Pop. of urban district of
Cleethorpe with Thrunscoe (1901) 12,578. Cleethorpes faces eastward to
the North Sea, but its shore of fine sand, affording good bathing,
actually belongs to the estuary of the Humber. There is a pier, and the
sea-wall extends for about a mile, forming a pleasant promenade. The
suburb of New Clee connects Cleethorpes with Grimsby. The church of the
Holy Trinity and St Mary is principally Norman of various dates, but
work of a date apparently previous to the Conquest appears in the tower.
Cleethorpes is greatly favoured by visitors from the midland counties,
Lancashire and Yorkshire.

CLEFT PALATE and HARE-LIP, in surgery. _Cleft Palate_ is a congenital
cleavage, or incomplete development in the roof of the mouth, and is
frequently associated with hare-lip. The infant is prevented from
sucking, and an operation is necessary. Cleft-palate is often a
hereditary defect. The most favourable time for operating is between the
age of two weeks and three months, and if the cleft is closed at this
early date, not only are the nutrition and general development of the
child greatly improved, but the voice is probably saved from much of the
unpleasant tone which is usually associated with a defective roof to the
mouth and is apt to persist even if a cleft has been successfully
operated on later in childhood. The greatest advance which has been made
in the operative treatment of cleft palate is due to the teaching of Dr
Truman W. Brophy, who adopted the ingenious plan of thrusting together
to the middle line of the mouth the halves of the palate which nature
had unfortunately left apart. But, as noted above, this operation must,
to give the best results, be undertaken in the earliest months of
infancy. After the cleft in the palate has been effectually dealt with,
the hare-lip can be repaired with ease and success.

_Hare-lip_.--In the hare the splitting of the lip is in the middle line,
but in the human subject it is on one side, or on both sides of the
middle line. This is accounted for on developmental grounds: a cleft in
the exact middle line is of extremely rare occurrence. Hare-lip is often
associated with cleft palate. Though we are at present unable to explain
why development should so frequently miss the mark in connexion with the
formation of the lip and palate, it is unlikely that maternal
impressions have anything to do with it. As a rule, the supposed
"fright" comes long after the lips are developed. They are completely
formed by the ninth week. Heredity has a powerful influence in many
cases. The best time for operating on a hare-lip depends upon various
circumstances. Thus, if it is associated with cleft palate, the palatine
cleft has first to be closed, in which case the child will probably be
several months old before the lip is operated on. If the infant is in so
poor a state of nutrition that it appears unsuitable for surgical
treatment, the operation must be postponed until his condition is
sufficiently improved. But, assuming that the infant is in fair health,
that he is taking his food well and thriving on it, that he is not
troubled by vomiting or diarrhoea, and that the hare-lip is not
associated with a defective palate, the sooner it is operated on the
better. It may be successfully done even within a few hours of birth.
When a hare-lip is unassociated with cleft palate, the infant may
possibly be enabled to take the breast within a short time of the gap
being closed. In such a case the operation may be advisably undertaken
within the first few days of birth. The case being suitable, the
operation may be conveniently undertaken at any time after the tenth
day.    (E. O.*)

CLEISTHENES, the name of two Greek statesmen, (1) of Athens, (2) of
Sicyon, of whom the first is far the more important.

1. CLEISTHENES, the Athenian statesman, was the son of Megacles and
Agariste, daughter of Cleisthenes of Sicyon. He thus belonged, through
his father, to the noble family of the Alcmaeonidae (q.v.), who bore
upon them the curse of the Cylonian massacre, and had been in exile
during the rule of the Peisistratids. In the hope of washing out the
stigma, which damaged their prestige, they spent the latter part of
their exile in carrying out with great splendour the contract given out
by the Amphictyons for the rebuilding of the temple at Delphi (destroyed
by fire in 548 B.C.). By building the pronaos of Parian marble instead
of limestone as specified in the contract, they acquired a high
reputation for piety; the curse was consigned to oblivion, and their
reinstatement was imposed by the oracle itself upon the Spartan king,
Cleomenes (q.v.). Cleisthenes, to whom this far-seeing atonement must
probably be attributed, had also on his side (1) the malcontents in
Athens who were disgusted with the growing severity of Hippias, and (2)
the oligarchs of Sparta, partly on religious grounds, and partly owing
to their hatred of tyranny. Aristotle's _Constitution of Athens_,
however, treats the alliance of the Peisistratids with Argos, the rival
of Sparta in the Peloponnese, as the chief ground for the action of
Sparta (_c._ 19). In _c._ 513 B.C. Cleisthenes invaded Attica, but was
defeated by the tyrant's mercenaries at Leipsydrium (S. of Mt. Parnes).
Sparta then, in tardy obedience to the oracle, threw off her alliance
with the Peisistratids, and, after one failure, expelled Hippias in
511-510 B.C., leaving Athens once again at the mercy of the powerful

  Home and foreign policy.

Cleisthenes, on his return, was in a difficulty; he realized that Athens
would not tolerate a new tyranny, nor were the other nobles willing to
accept him as leader of a constitutional oligarchy. It was left for him
to "take the people into partnership" as Peisistratus had in a different
way done before him. Solon's reforms had failed, primarily because they
left unimpaired the power of the great landed nobles, who, in their
several districts, doubled the rôles of landlord, priest and patriarch.
This evil of local influence Peisistratus had concealed by satisfying
the nominally sovereign people that in him they had a sufficient
representative. It was left to Cleisthenes to adopt the remaining remedy
of giving substance to the form of the Solonian constitution. His first
attempts roused the aristocrats to a last effort; Isagoras appealed to
the Spartans (who, though they disliked tyranny, had no love for
democracy) to come to his aid. Cleisthenes retired on the arrival of a
herald from Cleomenes, reviving the old question of the curse; Isagoras
thus became all-powerful[1] and expelled seven hundred families. The
democrats, however, rose, and after besieging Cleomenes and Isagoras in
the Acropolis, let them go under a safe-conduct, and brought back the

Apart from the reforms which Cleisthenes was now able to establish, the
period of his ascendancy is a blank, nor are we told when and how it
came to an end. It is clear, however--and it is impossible in connexion
with the Pan-hellenic patriotism to which Athens laid claim, to overrate
the importance of the fact--that Cleisthenes, hard pressed in the war
with Boeotia, Euboea and Sparta (Herod, v. 73 and foll.), sent
ambassadors to ask the help of Persia. The story, as told by Herodotus,
that the ambassadors of their own accord agreed to give "earth and
water" (i.e. submission) in return for Persian assistance, and that the
Ecclesia subsequently disavowed their action as unauthorized, is
scarcely credible. Cleisthenes (1) was in full control and must have
instructed the ambassadors; (2) he knew that any help from Persia meant
submission. It is practically certain, therefore, that he (cf. the
Alcmaeonids and the story of the shield at Marathon) was the first to
"medize" (see Curtius, _History of Greece_). Probably he had hoped to
persuade the Ecclesia that the agreement was a mere form. Aelian says
that he himself was a victim to his own device of ostracism (q.v.);
this, though apparently inconsistent with the _Constitution of Athens_
(_c._ 22), may perhaps indicate that his political career ended in
disgrace, a hypothesis which is explicable on the ground of this act of
treachery in respect of the attempted Persian alliance. Whether to
Cleisthenes are due the final success over Boeotia and Euboea, the
planting of the 4000 cleruchs on the Lelantine Plain, and the policy of
the Aeginetan War (see AEGINA), in which Athens borrowed ships from
Corinth, it is impossible to determine. The eclipse of Cleisthenes in
all records is one of the most curious facts in Greek history. It is
also curious that we do not know in what official capacity Cleisthenes
carried his reforms. Perhaps he was given extraordinary _ad hoc_ powers
for a specified time; conceivably he used the ordinary mechanism. It
seems clear that he had fully considered his scheme in advance, that he
broached it before the last attack of Isagoras, and that it was only
after the final expulsion of Isagoras and his Spartan allies that it
became possible for him to put it into execution.

  Analysis of his reforms

  The ten tribes

Cleisthenes aimed at being the leader of a self-governing people; in
other words he aimed at making the democracy actual. He realized that
the dead-weight which held the democracy down was the influence on
politics of the local religious unit. Therefore his prime object was to
dissociate the clans and the phratries from politics, and to give the
democracy a totally new electoral basis in which old associations and
vested interests would be split up and become ineffective. It was
necessary that no man should govern a pocket-constituency merely by
virtue of his religious, financial or ancestral prestige, and that there
should be created a new local unit with administrative powers of a
democratic character which would galvanize the lethargic voters into a
new sense of responsibility and independence. His first step was to
abolish the four Solonian tribes and create ten new ones.[2] Each of the
new tribes was subdivided into "demes'" (roughly "townships"); this
organization did not, except politically, supersede the system of clans
and phratries whose old religious signification remained untouched. The
new tribes, however, though geographically arranged, did not represent
local interests. Further, the tribe names were taken from legendary
heroes (Cecropis, Pandionis, Aegeis recalled the storied kings of
Attica), and, therefore, contributed to the idea of a national unity;
even Ajax, the eponym of the tribe Aeantis, though not Attic, was famous
as an ally (Herod, v. 66) and ranked as a national hero. Each tribe had
its shrine and its particular hero-cult, which, however, was free from
local association and the dominance of particular families. This
national idea Cleisthenes further emphasized by setting up in the
market-place at Athens a statue of each tribal hero.


The next step was the organization of the deme. Within each tribe he
grouped ten demes (see below), each of which had (1) its hero and its
chapel, and (2) its census-list kept by the demarch. The demarch (local
governor), who was elected popularly and held office for one year,
presided over meetings affecting local administration and the provision
of crews for the state-navy, and was probably under a system of scrutiny
like the _dokimasia_ of the state-magistrates. According to the
Aristotelian _Constitution of Athens_, Cleisthenes further divided
Attica into three districts, Urban and Suburban, Inland (_Mesogaios_),
and Maritime (_Paralia_), each of which was subdivided into ten
_trittyes_; each tribe had three trittyes in each of these districts.
The problem of establishing this decimal system in connexion with the
demes and trittyes is insoluble. Herodotus says that there were ten[3]
demes to each tribe ([Greek: deka eis tas phylas]); but each tribe was
composed of three trittyes, one in each of the three districts. Since
the deme was, as will be seen, the electoral unit, it is clear that in
tribal voting the object of ending the old threefold schism of the
Plain, the Hill and the Shore was attained, but the relation of deme and
trittys is obviously of an unsymmetrical kind. The _Constitution of
Athens_ says nothing of the ten-deme-to-each-tribe arrangement, and
there is no sufficient reason for supposing that the demes originally
were exactly a hundred in number. We know the names of 168 demes, and
Polemon (3rd century B.C.) enumerated 173. It has been suggested that
the demes did originally number exactly a hundred, and that new demes
were added as the population increased. This theory, however,
presupposes that the demes were originally equal in numbers. In the 5th
and 4th centuries this was certainly not the case; the number of
demesmen in some cases was only one hundred or two hundred, whereas the
deme Acharnae is referred to as a "great part" of the whole state, and
is known to have furnished three thousand hoplites. The theory is
fundamentally at fault, inasmuch as it regards the deme as consisting of
all those _resident within its borders_. In point of fact membership was
hereditary, not residential; Demosthenes "of the Paeanian deme" might
live where he would without severing his deme connexion. Thus the
increase of population could be no reason for creating new demes. This
distinction in a deme between demesmen and residents belonging to
another deme (the [Greek: egkektêmenoi]), who paid a deme-tax for their
privilege, is an important one. It should further be noted that the
demes belonging to a particular tribe do not, as a fact, appear always
in three separate groups; the tribe Aeantis consisted of Phalerum and
eleven demes in the district of Marathon; other tribes had demes in five
or six groups. It must, therefore, be admitted that the problem is
insoluble for want of data. Nor are we better equipped to settle the
relation between the Cleisthenean division into Urban, Maritime and
Inland, and the old divisions of the Plain, the Shore and the Upland or
Hill. The "Maritime" of Cleisthenes and the old "Shore" are certainly
not coincident, nor is the "Inland" identical with the "Upland."

Lastly, it has been asked whether we are to believe that Cleisthenes
invented the demes. To this the answer is in the negative. The demes
were undoubtedly primitive divisions of Attica; Herodotus (ix. 73)
speaks of the Dioscuri as ravaging the demes of Decelea (see R.W. Macan
_ad loc._) and we hear of opposition between the city and the demes. The
most logical conclusion perhaps is that Cleisthenes, while he _did_
create the demes which Athens itself comprised, did not create the
country demes, but merely gave them definition as political divisions.
Thus the city itself had six demes in five different tribes, and the
other five tribes were represented in the suburbs and the Peiraeus. It
is clear that in the Cleisthenean system there was one great source of
danger, namely that the residents in and about Athens must always have
had more weight in elections than those in distant demes. There can be
little doubt that the preponderating influence of the city was
responsible for the unwisdom of the later imperial policy and the
Peloponnesian war.

  The diapsephismus.

A second problem is the franchise reform of Cleisthenes. Aristotle in
the _Politics_ (iii. 2. 3 = 1275 b) says that Cleisthenes created new
citizens by enrolling in the tribes "many resident aliens and
emancipated slaves."[4] But the Aristotelian _Constitution of Athens_
asserts that he gave "citizenship to the masses." These two statements
are not compatible. It is perfectly clear that Cleisthenes is to be
regarded as a democrat, and it would have been no bribe to the people
merely to confer a boon on aliens and slaves. Moreover, a revision of
the citizen-roll (_diapsephismus_) had recently taken place (after the
end of the tyranny) and a great many citizens had been struck off the
roll as being of impure descent ([Greek: _oi tô genei mê katharoi_]).
This class had existed from the time of Solon, and, through fear of
political extinction by the oligarchs, had been favourable to
Peisistratus. Cleisthenes may have enfranchised aliens and slaves, but
it seems certain that he must have dealt with these free Athenians who
had lost their rights. Now Isagoras presumably did not carry out this
revision of the roll (_diapsephismus_); as "the friend of the tyrants"
(so _Ath. Pol._ 20; by Meyer, Busolt and others contest this) he would
not have struck a blow at a class which favoured his own views. A
reasonable hypothesis is that Cleisthenes was the originator of the
measure of expulsion, and that he now changed his policy, and
strengthened his hold on the democracy by reinstating the disfranchised
in much larger numbers. The new citizens, whoever they were, must, of
course, have been enrolled also in the (hitherto exclusive) phratry
lists and the deme-rolls.

  The council and boards of ten.

The Boul[=e] (q.v.) was reorganized to suit the new tribal arrangement,
and was known henceforward as the Council of the Five Hundred, fifty
from each tribe. Its exact constitution is unknown, but it was certainly
more democratic than the Solonian Four Hundred. Further, the system of
ten tribes led in course of time to the construction of boards of ten to
deal with military and civil affairs, e.g. the Strategi (see STRATEGUS),
the Apodectae, and others. Of these the former cannot be attributed to
Cleisthenes, but on the evidence of Androtion it is certain that it was
Cleisthenes who replaced the Colacretae[5] by the Apodectae
("receivers"), who were controllers and auditors of the finance
department, and, before the council in the council-chamber, received the
revenues. The Colacretae, who had done this work before, remained in
authority over the internal expenses of the Prytaneum. A further change
which followed from the new tribal system was the reconstitution of the
army; this, however, probably took place about 501 B.C., and cannot be
attributed directly to Cleisthenes. It has been said that the deme
became the local political unit, replacing the naucrary (q.v.). But the
naucraries still supplied the fleet, and were increased in number from
forty-eight to fifty; if each naucrary still supplied a ship and two
mounted soldiers as before, it is interesting to learn that, only
seventy years before the Peloponnesian War, Athens had but fifty ships
and a hundred horse.[6]

The device of ostracism is the final stone in the Cleisthenean
structure. An admirable scheme in theory, and, at first, in practice, it
deteriorated in the 5th century into a mere party weapon, and in the
case of Hyperbolus (417) became an absurdity.


In conclusion it should be noticed that Cleisthenes was the founder of
the Athens which we know. To him was due the spirit of nationality, the
principle of liberty duly apportioned and controlled by centralized and
decentralized administration, which prepared the ground for the rich
developments of the Golden Age with its triumphs of art and literature,
politics and philosophy. It was Cleisthenes who organized the structure
which, for a long time, bore the heavy burden of the Empire against
impossible odds, the structure which the very different genius of
Pericles was able to beautify. He was the first to appreciate the unique
power in politics, literature and society of an organized public

  AUTHORITIES.--_Ancient:_ Aristotle, _Constitution of Athens_ (ed. J.E.
  Sandys), cc. 20-22, 41; Herodotus v, 63-73, vi. 131; Aristotle,
  _Politics_, iii. 2, 3 (= 1275 b, for franchise reforms). _Modern:_
  Histories of Greece in general, especially those of Grote and Curtius
  (which, of course, lack the information contained in the _Constitution
  of Athens_), and J.B. Bury. See also E. Meyer, _Geschichte des
  Altertums_ (vol. ii.); G. Busolt, _Griech. Gesch._ (2nd ed., 1893
  foll.); Milchhöfer, "Über die Demenordnung des Kleisthenes" in
  appendix to _Abhandlung d. Berl. Akad._ (1892); R. Loeper in _Athen.
  Mitteil._ (1892), pp. 319-433; A.H.J. Greenidge, _Handbook of Greek
  Constitutional History_ (1896); Gilbert, _Greek Constitutional
  Antiquities_ (Eng. trans., 1895); R.W. Macan, _Herodotus iv.-vi._,
  vol. ii. (1895), pp. 127-148; U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, _Arist.

2. CLEISTHENES OF SICYON (c. 600-570), grandfather of the above, became
tyrant of Sicyon as the representative of the conquered Ionian section
of the inhabitants. He emphasized the destruction of Dorian predominance
by giving ridiculous epithets to their tribal units, which from Hylleis,
Dymanes and Pamphyli become Hyatae ("Swine-men"), Choireatae ("Pig-men")
and Oneatae ("Ass-men"). He also attacked Dorian Argos, and suppressed
the Homeric "rhapsodists" who sang the exploits of Dorian heroes. He
championed the cause of the Delphic oracle against the town of Crisa
(Cirrha) in the Sacred War (c. 590). Crisa was destroyed, and Delphi
became one of the meeting-places of the old amphictyony of Anthela,
henceforward often called the Delphic amphictyony. The Pythian games,
largely on the initiative of Cleisthenes, were re-established with new
magnificence, and Cleisthenes won the first chariot race in 582. He
founded Pythian games at Sicyon, and possibly built a new Sicyonian
treasury at Delphi. His power was so great that when he offered his
daughter Agariste in marriage, some of the most prominent Greeks sought
the honour, which fell upon Megacles, the Alcmaeonid. The story of the
rival wooers with the famous retort, "Hippocleides don't care," is told
in Herod. vi. 125; see also Herod, v. 67 and Thuc. i. 18.

  CLEISTHENES is also the name of an Athenian, pilloried by Aristophanes
  (_Clouds_, 354; _Thesm._ 574) as a fop and a profligate.    (J. M. M.)


  [1] The archonship of Isagoras in 508 is important as showing that
    Cleisthenes, three years after his return, had so far failed to
    secure the support of a majority in Athens. There is no sufficient
    reason for supposing that the election of Isagoras was procured by
    Cleomenes; all the evidence points to its having been brought about
    in the ordinary way. Probably, therefore, Cleisthenes did not take
    the people thoroughly into partnership till after the spring of 508.

  [2] The explanation given for this step by Herodotus (v. 67) is an
    amusing example of his incapacity as a critical historian. To compare
    Cleisthenes of Sicyon (see below), bent on humiliating the Dorians of
    Sicyon by giving opprobrious names to the Dorian tribes, with his
    grandson, whose endeavour was to elevate the very persons whose
    tribal organization he replaced, is clearly absurd.

  [3] Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (_Arist. und Athen_, pp. 149-150)
    suggests [Greek: dekacha], "in ten batches," instead of [Greek:

  [4] It should be observed that there are other translations of the
    difficult phrase [Greek: xenous kai doulous metoikous].

  [5] _Colacretae_ were very ancient Athenian magistrates; either (1)
    those who "cut up the joints" in the Prytaneum ([Greek: kôla,
    keirô]), or (2) those who "collected the joints" ([Greek: kôla,
    ageirô]) which were left over from public sacrifices, and consumed in
    the Prytaneum. These officials were again important in the time of
    Aristophanes (_Wasps_, 693, 724; _Birds_, 1541), and they presided
    over the payment of the dicasts instituted by Pericles. They are not
    mentioned, though they may have existed, after 403 B.C. At Sicyon
    also magistrates of this name are found.

  [6] It is, however, more probable that the right reading of the
    passage is [Greek: deka ippeis] instead of [Greek: duo], which would
    give a cavalry force in early Athens of 480, a reasonable number in
    proportion to the total fighting strength.

CLEITARCHUS, one of the historians of Alexander the Great, son of
Deinon, also an historian, was possibly a native of Egypt, or at least
spent a considerable time at the court of Ptolemy Lagus. Quintilian
(_Instit._ x. i. 74) credits him with more ability than trustworthiness,
and Cicero (_Brutus_, 11) accuses him of giving a fictitious account of
the death of Themistocles. But there is no doubt that his history was
very popular, and much used by Diodorus Siculus, Quintus Curtius, Justin
and Plutarch, and the authors of the Alexander romances. His unnatural
and exaggerated style became proverbial.

  The fragments, some thirty in number, chiefly preserved in Aelian and
  Strabo, will be found in C. Müller's _Scriptores Rerum Alexandri
  Magni_ (in the Didot _Arrian_, 1846); monographs by C. Raun, _De
  Clitarcho Diodori, Curtii, Justini auctore_ (1868), and F. Reuss,
  "Hellenistische Beiträge" in _Rhein. Mus._ lxiii. (1908), pp. 58-78.

CLEITHRAL (Gr. [Greek: kleithron], an enclosed or shut-up place), an
architectural term applied to a covered Greek temple, in
contradistinction to _hypaethral_, which designates one that is
uncovered; the roof of a cleithral temple completely covers it.

CLEITOR, or CLITOR, a town of ancient Greece, in that part of Arcadia
which corresponds to the modern eparchy of Kalavryta in the nomos of
Elis and Achaea. It stood in a fertile plain to the south of Mt Chelmos,
the highest peak of the Aroanian Mountains, and not far from a stream
of its own name, which joined the Aroanius, or Katzana. In the
neighbourhood was a fountain, the waters of which were said to deprive
those who drank them of the taste for wine. The town was a place of
considerable importance in Arcadia, and its inhabitants were noted for
their love of liberty. It extended its territory over several
neighbouring towns, and in the Theban war fought against Orchomenus. It
joined the other Arcadian cities in the foundation of Megalopolis. As a
member of the Achaean league it was besieged by the Aetolians in 220
B.C., and was on several occasions the seat of the federal assemblies.
It coined money up to the time of Septimius Severus. The ruins, which
bear the common name of Paleopoli, or Old City, are still to be seen
about 3 m. from a village that preserves the ancient designation. The
greater part of the walls which enclose an area of about a mile and
several of the semi-circular towers with which they were strengthened
can be clearly made out; and there are also remains of three Doric
temples and a small theatre.

CLELAND, WILLIAM (1661?-1689), Scottish poet and soldier, son of Thomas
Cleland, gamekeeper to the marquis of Douglas, was born about 1661. He
was probably brought up on the marquess of Douglas's estate in
Lanarkshire, and was educated at St Andrews University. Immediately on
leaving college he joined the army of the Covenanters, and was present
at Drumclog, where, says Robert Wodrow, some attributed to Cleland the
manoeuvre which led to the victory. He also fought at Bothwell Bridge.
He and his brother James were described in a royal proclamation of the
16th of June 1679 among the leaders of the insurgents. He escaped to
Holland, but in 1685 was again in Scotland in connexion with the
abortive invasion of the earl of Argyll. He escaped once more, to return
in 1688 as agent for William of Orange. He was appointed
lieutenant-colonel of the Cameronian regiment raised from the minority
of the western Covenanters who consented to serve under William III. The
Cameronians were entrusted with the defence of Dunkeld, which they held
against the fierce assault of the Highlanders on the 26th of August. The
repulse of the Highlanders before Dunkeld ended the Jacobite rising, but
Cleland fell in the struggle. He wrote _A Collection of several Poems
and Verses_ composed upon various occasions (published posthumously,
1697). Of "Hullo, my fancie, whither wilt thou go?" only the last nine
stanzas are by Cleland. His poems have small literary merit, and are
written, not in pure Lowland Scots, but in English with a large
admixture of Scottish words. The longest and most important of them are
the "mock poems" "On the Expedition of the Highland Host who came to
destroy the western shires in winter 1678" and "On the clergie when they
met to consult about taking the Test in the year 1681."

  An Exact Narrative of the _Conflict of Dunkeld ... collected from
  several officers of the regiment ..._ appeared in 1689.

CLEMATIS, in botany, a genus of the natural order Ranunculaceae,
containing nearly two hundred species, and widely distributed. It is
represented in England by _Clematis Vitalba_, "old man's beard" or
"traveller's joy," a common plant on chalky or light soil. The plants
are shrubby climbers with generally compound opposite leaves, the stalk
of which is sensitive to contact like a tendril, becoming twisted round
suitable objects and thereby giving support to the plant. The flowers
are arranged in axillary or terminal clusters; they have no petals, but
white or coloured, often very large sepals, and an indefinite number of
stamens and carpels. They contain no honey, and are visited by insects
for the sake of the pollen, which is plentiful. The fruit is a head of
achenes, each bearing the long-bearded persistent style, suggesting the
popular name. This feathery style is an important agent in the
distribution of the seed by means of the wind. Several of the species,
especially the large-flowered ones, are favourite garden plants, well
adapted for covering trellises or walls, or trailing over the ground.
Many garden forms have been produced by hybridization; among the best
known is _C. Jackmanni_, due to Mr George Jackman of Woking.

  Further information may be obtained from _The Clematis as a Garden
  Flower_, by Thos. Moore and George Jackman. See also G. Nicholson,
  _Dictionary of Gardening_, i. (1885) and _Supplements_.

CLEMENCEAU, GEORGES (1841-   ), French statesman, was born at
Mouilleron-en-Pareds, Vendée, on the 28th of September 1841. Having
adopted medicine as his profession, he settled in 1869 in Montmartre;
and after the revolution of 1870 he had become sufficiently well known
to be nominated mayor of the 18th arrondissement of Paris
(Montmartre)--an unruly district over which it was a difficult task to
preside. On the 8th of February 1871 he was elected as a Radical to the
National Assembly for the department of the Seine, and voted against the
peace preliminaries. The execution, or rather murder, of Generals
Lecomte and Clément Thomas by the communists on 18th March, which he
vainly tried to prevent, brought him into collision with the central
committee sitting at the hôtel de ville, and they ordered his arrest,
but he escaped; he was accused, however, by various witnesses, at the
subsequent trial of the murderers (November 29th), of not having
intervened when he might have done, and though he was cleared of this
charge it led to a duel, for his share in which he was prosecuted and
sentenced to a fine and a fortnight's imprisonment.

Meanwhile, on the 20th of March 1871, he had introduced in the National
Assembly at Versailles, on behalf of his Radical colleagues, the bill
establishing a Paris municipal council of eighty members; but he was not
returned himself at the elections of the 26th of March. He tried with
the other Paris mayors to mediate between Versailles and the hôtel de
ville, but failed, and accordingly resigned his mayoralty and his seat
in the Assembly, and temporarily gave up politics; but he was elected to
the Paris municipal council on the 23rd of July 1871 for the
Clignancourt _quartier_, and retained his seat till 1876, passing
through the offices of secretary and vice-president, and becoming
president in 1875. In 1876 he stood again for the Chamber of Deputies,
and was elected for the 18th arrondissement. He joined the Extreme Left,
and his energy and mordant eloquence speedily made him the leader of the
Radical section. In 1877, after the _Seize Mai_ (see FRANCE: _History_),
he was one of the republican majority who denounced the Broglie
ministry, and he took a leading part in resisting the anti-republican
policy of which the _Seize Mai_ incident was a symptom, his demand in
1879 for the indictment of the Broglie ministry bringing him into
particular prominence. In 1880 he started his newspaper, _La Justice_,
which became the principal organ of Parisian Radicalism; and from this
time onwards throughout M. Grévy's presidency his reputation as a
political critic, and as a destroyer of ministries who yet would not
take office himself, rapidly grew. He led the Extreme Left in the
Chamber. He was an active opponent of M. Jules Ferry's colonial policy
and of the Opportunist party, and in 1885 it was his use of the Tongking
disaster which principally determined the fall of the Ferry cabinet. At
the elections of 1885 he advocated a strong Radical programme, and was
returned both for his old seat in Paris and for the Var, selecting the
latter. Refusing to form a ministry to replace the one he had
overthrown, he supported the Right in keeping M. Freycinet in power in
1886, and was responsible for the inclusion of General Boulanger in the
Freycinet cabinet as war minister. When Boulanger (q.v.) showed himself
as an ambitious pretender, Clemenceau withdrew his support and became a
vigorous combatant against the Boulangist movement, though the Radical
press and a section of the party continued to patronize the general.

By his exposure of the Wilson scandal, and by his personal plain
speaking, M. Clemenceau contributed largely to M. Grévy's resignation of
the presidency in 1887, having himself declined Grévy's request to form
a cabinet on the downfall of that of M. Rouvier; and he was primarily
responsible, by advising his followers to vote neither for Floquet,
Ferry nor Freycinet, for the election of an "outsider" as president in
M. Carnot. He had arrived, however, at the height of his influence, and
several factors now contributed to his decline. The split in the Radical
party over Boulangism weakened his hands, and its collapse made his help
unnecessary to the moderate republicans. A further misfortune occurred
in the Panama affair, Clemenceau's relations with Cornelius Herz leading
to his being involved in the general suspicion; and, though he remained
the leading spokesman of French Radicalism, his hostility to the Russian
alliance so increased his unpopularity that in the election for 1893 he
was defeated for the Chamber, after having sat in it continuously since
1876. After his defeat for the Chamber, M. Clemenceau confined his
political activities to journalism, his career being further
overclouded--so far as any immediate possibility of regaining his old
ascendancy was concerned--by the long-drawn-out Dreyfus case, in which
he took an active and honourable part as a supporter of M. Zola and an
opponent of the anti-Semitic and Nationalist campaign. In 1900 he
withdrew from _La Justice_ to found a weekly review, _Le Bloc_, which
lasted until March 1902. On the 6th of April 1902 he was elected senator
for the Var, although he had previously continually demanded the
suppression of the Senate. He sat with the Socialist Radicals, and
vigorously supported the Combes ministry. In June 1903 he undertook the
direction of the journal _L'Aurore_, which he had founded. In it he led
the campaign for the revision of the Dreyfus affair, and for the
separation of Church and State.

In March 1906 the fall of the Rouvier ministry, owing to the riots
provoked by the inventories of church property, at last brought
Clemenceau to power as minister of the interior in the Sarrien cabinet.
The strike of miners in the Pas de Calais after the disaster at
Courrières, leading to the threat of disorder on the 1st of May 1906,
obliged him to employ the military; and his attitude in the matter
alienated the Socialist party, from which he definitely broke in his
notable reply in the Chamber to Jean Jaurès in June 1906. This speech
marked him out as the strong man of the day in French politics; and when
the Sarrien ministry resigned in October, he became premier. During 1907
and 1908 his premiership was notable for the way in which the new
_entente_ with England was cemented, and for the successful part which
France played in European politics, in spite of difficulties with
Germany and attacks by the Socialist party in connexion with Morocco
(see FRANCE: _History_). But on July 20th, 1909, he was defeated in a
discussion in the Chamber on the state of the navy, in which bitter
words were exchanged between him and Delcassé; and he at once resigned,
being succeeded as premier by M. Briand, with a reconstructed cabinet.

CLEMENCÍN, DIEGO (1765-1834), Spanish scholar and politician, was born
on the 27th of September 1765, at Murcia, and was educated there at the
Colegio de San Fulgencio. Abandoning his intention of taking orders, he
found employment at Madrid in 1788 as tutor to the sons of the
countess-duchess de Benavente, and devoted himself to the study of
archaeology. In 1807 he became editor of the _Gaceta de Madrid_, and in
the following year was condemned to death by Murat for publishing a
patriotic article; he fled to Cadiz, and under the Junta Central held
various posts from which he was dismissed by the reactionary government
of 1814. During the liberal régime of 1820-1823 Clemencín took office as
colonial minister, was exiled till 1827, and in 1833 published the first
volume of his edition (1833-1839) of _Don Quixote_. Its merits were
recognized by his appointment as royal librarian, but he did not long
enjoy his triumph: he died on the 30th of July 1834. His commentary on
_Don Quixote_ owes something to John Bowle, and is disfigured by a
patronizing, carping spirit; nevertheless it is the most valuable work
of its kind, and is still unsuperseded. Clemencín is also the author of
an interesting _Elogio de la reina Isabel la Católica_, published as the
sixth volume of the _Memorias_ of the Spanish Academy of History, to
which body he was elected on the 12th of September 1800.

CLEMENT (Lat. _Clemens_, i.e. merciful; Gr. [Greek: Klêmes]), the name
of fourteen popes and two anti-popes.

CLEMENT I., generally known as Clement of Rome, or CLEMENS ROMANUS
(flor. c. A.D. 96), was one of the "Apostolic Fathers," and in the lists
of bishops of Rome is given the third or fourth place--Peter, Linus,
(Anencletus), Clement. There is no ground for identifying him with the
Clement of Phil. iv. 3. He may have been a freedman of T. Flavius
Clemens, who was consul with his cousin, the Emperor Domitian, in A.D.
95. A 9th-century tradition says he was martyred in the Crimea in 102;
earlier authorities say he died a natural death; he is commemorated on
the 23rd of November.

In _The Shepherd of Hermas_ (q.v.) (Vis. 11. iv. 3) mention is made of
one Clement whose office it is to communicate with other churches, and
this function agrees well with what we find in the letter to the church
at Corinth by which Clement is best known. Whilst being on our guard
against reading later ideas into the title "bishop" as applied to
Clement, there is no reason to doubt that he was one of the chief
personalities in the Christian community at Rome, where since the time
of Paul the separate house congregations (Rom. xvi.) had been united
into one church officered by presbyters and deacons (Clem. 40-42). The
letter in question was occasioned by a dispute in the church of Corinth,
which had led to the ejection of several presbyters from their office.
It does not contain Clement's name, but is addressed by "the Church of
God which sojourneth in Rome to the Church of God which sojourneth in
Corinth." But there is no reason for doubting the universal tradition
which ascribes it to Clement, or the generally accepted date, c. A.D.
96. No claim is made by the Roman Church to interfere on any ground of
superior rank; yet it is noteworthy that in the earliest document
outside the canon which we can securely date, the church in the imperial
city comes forward as a peacemaker to compose the troubles of a church
in Greece. Nothing is known of the cause of the discontent; no moral
offence is charged against the presbyters, and their dismissal is
regarded by Clement as high-handed and unjustifiable, and as a revolt of
the younger members of the community against the elder. After a
laudatory account of the past conduct of the Corinthian Church, he
enters upon a denunciation of vices and a praise of virtues, and
illustrates his various topics by copious citations from the Old
Testament scriptures. Thus he paves the way for his tardy rebuke of
present disorders, which he reserves until two-thirds of his epistle is
completed. Clement is exceedingly discursive, and his letter reaches
twice the length of the Epistle to the Hebrews. Many of his general
exhortations are but very indirectly connected with the practical issue
to which the epistle is directed, and it is very probable that he was
drawing largely upon the homiletical material with which he was
accustomed to edify his fellow-Christians at Rome.

This view receives some support from the long liturgical prayer at the
close, which almost certainly represents the intercession used in the
Roman eucharists. But we must not allow such a theory to blind us to the
true wisdom with which the writer defers his censure. He knows that the
roots of the quarrel lie in a wrong condition of the church's life. His
general exhortations, courteously expressed in the first person plural,
are directed towards a wide reformation of manners. If the wrong spirit
can be exorcised, there is hope that the quarrel will end in a general
desire for reconciliation. The most permanent interest of the epistle
lies in the conception of the grounds on which the Christian ministry
rests according to the view of a prominent teacher before the 1st
century has closed. The orderliness of nature is appealed to as
expressing the mind of its Creator. The orderliness of Old Testament
worship bears a like witness; everything is duly fixed by God; high
priests, priests and Levites, and the people in the people's place.
Similarly in the Christian dispensation all is in order due. "The
apostles preached the gospel to us from the Lord Jesus Christ; Jesus
Christ was sent from God. Christ then is from God, and the apostles from
Christ. . . . They appointed their first-fruits, having tested them by
the Spirit, as bishops and deacons of those who should believe. . . .
Our apostles knew through our Lord Jesus Christ that there would be
strife about the name of the bishop's office. For this cause therefore,
having received perfect foreknowledge, they appointed the aforesaid, and
afterwards gave a further injunction ([Greek: heptnomên] has now the
further evidence of the Latin _legem_) that, if these should fall
asleep, other approved men should succeed to their ministry. . . . It
will be no small sin in us if we eject from the bishop's office those
who have offered the gifts blamelessly and holily" (cc. xlii. xliv.).

Clement's familiarity with the Old Testament points to his being a
Christian of long standing rather than a recent convert. We learn from
his letter (i. 7) that the church at Rome, though suffering persecution,
was firmly held together by faith and love, and was exhibiting its unity
in an orderly worship. The epistle was publicly read from time to time
at Corinth, and by the 4th century this usage had spread to other
churches. We even find it attached to the famous Alexandrian MS. (Codex
A) of the New Testament, but this does not imply that it ever reached
canonical rank. For the mass of early Christian literature that was
gradually attached to his name see CLEMENTINE LITERATURE.

  The epistle was published in 1633 by Patrick Young from Cod.
  Alexandrinus, in which a leaf near the end was missing, so that the
  great prayer (cc. lv.-lxiv.) remained unknown. In 1875 (six years
  after J.B. Lightfoot's first edition) Bryennius (q.v.) published a
  complete text from the MS. in Constantinople (dated 1055), from which
  in 1883 he gave us the _Didaché_. In 1876 R.L. Bensly found a complete
  Syriac text in a MS. recently obtained by the University library at
  Cambridge. Lightfoot made use of these new materials in an Appendix
  (1877); his second edition, on which he had been at work at the time
  of his death, came out in 1890. This must remain the standard edition,
  notwithstanding Dom Morin's most interesting discovery of a Latin
  version (1894), which was probably made in the 3rd century, and is a
  valuable addition to the authorities for the text. Its evidence is
  used in a small edition of the epistle by R. Knopf (Leipzig, 1899).
  See also W. Wrede, _Untersuchungen zum ersten Clemensbrief_ (1891),
  and the other literature cited in Herzog-Hauck's _Realencyklopädie_,
  vol. iv.    (A. J. G.; J. A. R.)

CLEMENT II. (Suidger) became pope on the 25th of December 1046. He
belonged to a noble Saxon family, was bishop of Bamberg, and chancellor
to the emperor Henry III., to whom he was indebted for his elevation to
the papacy upon the abdication of Gregory VI. He was the first pope
placed on the throne by the power of the German emperors, but his short
pontificate was only signalized by the convocation of a council in which
decrees were enacted against simony. He died on the 9th of October 1047,
and was buried at Bamberg.    (L. D.*)

CLEMENT III. (Paolo Scolari), pope from 1187 to 1191, a Roman, was made
cardinal bishop of Palestrina by Alexander III. in 1180 or 1181. On the
19th of December 1187 he was chosen at Pisa to succeed Gregory VIII. On
the 31st of May 1188 he concluded a treaty with the Romans which removed
difficulties of long standing, and in April 1189 he made peace with the
emperor Frederick I. Barbarossa. He settled a controversy with William
of Scotland concerning the choice of the archbishop of St Andrews, and
on the 13th of March 1188 removed the Scottish church from under the
legatine jurisdiction of the archbishop of York, thus making it
independent of all save Rome. In spite of his conciliatory policy,
Clement angered Henry VI. of Germany by bestowing Sicily on Tancred. The
crisis was acute when the pope died, probably in the latter part of
March 1191.

  See "Epistolae et Privilegia," in J.P. Migne, _Patrologiae cursus
  completes_, tom. 204 (Paris, 1853), 1253 ff.; additional material in
  _Neues Archiv für die ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde_, 2. 219; 6.
  293; 14. 178-182; P. Jaffé, _Regesta Pontificum Romanorum_, tom. 2
  (2nd edition, Leipzig, 1888), 535 ff.    (W. W. R.*)

CLEMENT IV. (Gui Foulques), pope from 1265 to 1268, son of a successful
lawyer and judge, was born at St Gilles-sur-Rhône. He studied law, and
became a valued adviser of Louis IX. of France. He married, and was the
father of two daughters, but after the death of his wife took orders. In
1257 he became bishop of Le Puy; in 1259 he was elected archbishop of
Narbonne; and on the 24th of December 1261 Urban IV. created him
cardinal bishop of Sabina. He was appointed legate in England on the
22nd of November 1263, and before his return was elected pope at Perugia
on the 5th of February 1265. On the 26th of February he invested Charles
of Anjou with the kingdom of Sicily; but subsequently he came into
conflict with Charles, especially after the death of Manfred in February
1266. To the cruelty and avarice of Charles he opposed a generous
humanity. When Conradin, the last of the Hohenstaufen, appeared in Italy
the pope excommunicated him and his supporters, but it is improbable
that he was in the remotest degree responsible for his execution. At
Viterbo, where he spent most of his pontificate, Clement died on the
29th of November 1268, leaving a name unsullied by nepotism. As the
benefactor and protector of Roger Bacon he has a special title to the
gratitude of posterity.

  See A. Potthast, _Regesta Pontificum Romanorum_, vol. ii. (Berlin,
  l875). 1542 ff.; E. Jordan, _Les Régistres de Clement IV_ (Paris, 1893
  ff.); Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (3rd ed., vol. iv., Leipzig,
  1898), 144 f.; J. Heidemann, _Papst Clemens IV., I. Teil: Das Vorleben
  des Papstes und sein Legationsregister = Kirchengeschichtliche
  Studien, herausgegeben von Knöpfler_, &c., 6. Band, 4. Heft (Münster,
  1903), reprints _Processus legationis in Angliam_.    (W. W. R.*)

CLEMENT V. (Bertrand de Gouth), pope from 1305 to 1314, was born of a
noble Gascon family about 1264. After studying the arts at Toulouse and
law at Orleans and Bologna, he became a canon at Bordeaux and then
vicar-general to his brother the archbishop of Lyons, who in 1294 was
created cardinal bishop of Albano. Bertrand was made a chaplain to
Boniface VIII., who in 1295 nominated him bishop of Cominges (Haute
Garonne), and in 1299 translated him to the archbishopric of Bordeaux.
Because he attended the synod at Rome in 1302 in the controversy between
France and the Pope, he was considered a supporter of Boniface VIII.,
yet was by no means unfavourably regarded at the French court. At
Perugia on the 5th of June 1305 he was chosen to succeed Benedict XI;
the cardinals by a vote of ten to five electing one neither an Italian
nor a cardinal, in order to end a conclave which had lasted eleven
months. The chronicler Villani relates that Bertrand owed his election
to a secret agreement with Philip IV., made at St Jean d'Angély in
Saintonge; this may be dismissed as gossip, but it is probable that the
future pope had to accept certain conditions laid down by the cardinals.
At Bordeaux Bertrand was formally notified of his election and urged to
come to Italy; but he caused his coronation to take place at Lyons on
the 14th of November 1305. From the beginning Clement V. was subservient
to French interests. Among his first acts was the creation of nine
French cardinals. Early in 1306 he modified or explained away those
features of the bulls _Clericis Laicos_ and _Unam sanctam_ which were
particularly offensive to the king. Most of the year 1306 he spent at
Bordeaux because of ill-health; subsequently he resided at Poitiers and
elsewhere, and in March 1309 the entire papal court settled at Avignon,
an imperial fief held by the king of Sicily. Thus began the seventy
years "Babylonian captivity of the Church." On the 13th of October 1307
came the arrest of all the Knights Templar in France, the breaking of a
storm conjured up by royal jealousy and greed. From the very day of
Clement's coronation the king had charged the Templars with heresy,
immorality and abuses, and the scruples of the weak pope were at length
overcome by apprehension lest the State should not wait for the Church,
but should proceed independently against the alleged heretics, as well
as by the royal threats of pressing the accusation of heresy against the
late Boniface VIII. In pursuance of the king's wishes Clement summoned
the council of Vienne (see VIENNE, COUNCIL OF), which was unable to
conclude that the Templars were guilty of heresy. The pope abolished the
order, however, as it seemed to be in bad repute and had outlived its
usefulness. Its French estates were granted to the Hospitallers, but
actually Philip IV. held them until his death.

In his relations to the Empire Clement was an opportunist. He refused to
use his full influence in favour of the candidacy of Charles of Valois,
brother of Philip IV., lest France became too powerful; and recognized
Henry of Luxemburg, whom his representatives crowned emperor at the
Lateran in 1312. When Henry, however, came into conflict with Robert of
Naples, Clement supported Robert and threatened the emperor with ban and
interdict. But the crisis passed with the unexpected death of Henry,
soon followed by that of the pope on the 20th of April 1314 at
Roquemaure-sur-Rhône. Though the sale of offices and oppressive taxation
which disgraced his pontificate may in part be explained by the
desperate condition of the papal finances and by his saving up gold for
a crusade, nevertheless he indulged in unbecoming pomp. Showing
favouritism toward his family and his nation, he brought untold
disaster on the Church.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY--See "Clementis V. . . . et aliorum epistolae," in S.
  Baluzius, _Vitae Paparum Avenionensium_, tom. ii. (Paris, 1693), 55
  ff.; "Tractatus cum Henrico VII. imp. Germ. anno 1309," in Pertz,
  _Monumenta Germaniae historica_, legum ii. I. 492-496; J.F. Rabanis,
  _Clément V et Philippe le Bel. Suivie du journal de la visite
  pastorale de Bertrand de Got dans la province ecclésiastique de
  Bordeaux en 1304 et 1305_ (Paris, 1858); "Clementis Papae V.
  Constitutiones," in _Corpus Iuris Canonici_, ed. Aemilius Friedberg,
  vol. ii. (Leipzig, 1881), 1125-1200; P.B. Gams, _Series Episcoporum
  Ecclesiae Catholicae_ (Regensburg, 1873); Wetzer und Welte,
  _Kirchenlexikon_, vol. iii. (2nd ed., Freiburg, 1884), 462-473;
  _Regestum Clementis Papae V. ex Vaticanis archetypis cura et studio
  monachorum ord. Ben._ (Rome, 1885-1892), 9 vols. and appendix; J.
  Gmelin, _Schuld oder Unschuld des Templerordens_ (Stuttgart, 1893);
  Gachon, _Pièces relatifs au débat du pape Clément V avec l'empéreur
  Henri VII_ (Montpellier 1894); Lacoste, _Nouvelles Études sur Clément
  V_ (1896); Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_, vol. iv. (3rd ed.,
  Leipzig, 1898), 144 f.; J. Loserth, _Geschichte des späteren
  Mittelalters_ (Munich, 1903); and A. Eitel, _Der Kirchenstaat unter
  Klemens V._ (Berlin, 1907).    (W. W. R.*)

CLEMENT VI. (Pierre Roger), pope from the 7th of May 1342 to the 6th of
December 1352, was born at Maumont in Limousin in 1291, the son of the
wealthy lord of Rosières, entered the Benedictine order as a boy,
studied at Paris, and became successively prior of St Baudil, abbot of
Fécamp, bishop of Arras, chancellor of France, archbishop of Sens and
archbishop of Rouen. He was made cardinal-priest of Sti Nereo ed
Achilleo and administrator of the bishopric of Avignon by Benedict XII.
in 1338, and four years later succeeded him as pope. He continued to
reside at Avignon despite the arguments of envoys and the verses of
Petrarch, but threw a sop to the Romans by reducing the Jubilee term
from one hundred years to fifty. He appointed Cola di Rienzo to a civil
position at Rome, and, although at first approving the establishment of
the tribunate, he later sent a legate who excommunicated Rienzo and,
with the help of the aristocratic faction, drove him from the city
(December 1347). Clement continued the struggle of his predecessors with
the emperor Louis the Bavarian, excommunicating him after protracted
negotiations on the 13th of April 1346, and directing the election of
Charles of Moravia, who received general recognition after the death of
Louis in October 1347, and put an end to the schism which had long
divided Germany. Clement proclaimed a crusade in 1343, but nothing was
accomplished beyond a naval attack on Smyrna (29th of October 1344). He
also carried on fruitless negotiations for church unity with the
Armenians and with the Greek emperor, John Cantacuzenus. He tried to end
the Hundred Years' War between England and France, but secured only a
temporary truce. He excommunicated Casimir of Poland for marital
infidelity and forced him to do penance. He successfully resisted
encroachments on ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the kings of England,
Castile and Aragon. He made Prague an archbishopric in 1344, and three
years later founded the university there. During the disastrous plague
of 1347-1348 Clement did all he could to alleviate the distress, and
condemned the Flagellants and Jew-baiters. He tried Queen Joanna of
Naples for the murder of her husband and acquitted her. He secured full
ownership of the county of Avignon through purchase from Queen Joanna
(9th of June 1348) and renunciation of feudal claims by Charles IV. of
France, and considerably enlarged the papal palace in that city. To
supply money for his many undertakings Clement revived the practice of
selling reservations and expectancies, which had been abolished by his
predecessor. Oppressive taxation and unblushing nepotism were Clement's
great faults. On the other hand, he was famed for his engaging manners,
eloquence and theological learning. He died on the 6th of December 1352,
and was buried in the Benedictine abbey at Auvergne, but his tomb was
destroyed by Calvinists in 1562. His successor was Innocent VI.

  The chief sources for the life of Clement VI. are in Baluzius, _Vitae
  Pap. Avenion._, vol. i. (Paris, 1693); E. Werunsky, _Excerpta ex
  registris Clementis VI. et Innocentii VI._ (Innsbruck, 1885); and F.
  Cerasoli, _Clemente VI. e Giovanni I. di Napoli--Documenti inedite
  dell' Archivio Vaticano_ (1896, &c).

  See L. Pastor, _History of the Popes_, vol. i., trans, by F.I.
  Antrobus (London, 1899); F. Gregorovius, _Rome in the Middle Ages_,
  vol. vi. trans. by Mrs G.W. Hamilton (London, 1900-1902); J.B.
  Christophe, _Histoire de la papauté pendant le XIVe siècle_, vol. ii.
  (Paris, 1853); also article by L. Küpper in the _Kirchenlexikon_ (2nd
  ed.). (C.H.HA.)

CLEMENT VII. (Robert of Geneva), (d. 1394), antipope, brother of Peter,
count of Genevois, was connected by blood or marriage with most of the
sovereigns of Europe. After occupying the episcopal sees of Thérouanne
and Cambrai, he attained to the cardinalate at an early age. In 1377, as
legate of Pope Gregory XI. in the Romagna, he directed, or rather
assisted in, the savage suppression of the revolt of the inhabitants of
Cesena against the papal authority. In the following year he took part
in the election of Pope Urban VI. at Rome, and was perhaps the first to
express doubts as to the validity of that tumultuous election. After
withdrawing to Fondi to reconsider the election, the cardinals finally
resolved to regard Urban as an intruder and the Holy See as still
vacant, and an almost unanimous vote was given in favour of Robert of
Geneva (20th of September 1378), who took the name of Clement VII. Thus
originated the Great Schism of the West.

To his high connexions and his adroitness, as well as to the gross
mistakes of his rival, Clement owed the immediate support of Queen
Joanna of Naples and of several of the Italian barons; and the king of
France, Charles V., who seems to have been sounded beforehand on the
choice of the Roman pontiff, soon became his warmest protector. Clement
eventually succeeded in winning to his cause Scotland, Castile, Aragon,
Navarre, a great part of the Latin East, and Flanders. He had adherents,
besides, scattered through Germany, while Portugal on two occasions
acknowledged him, but afterwards forsook him. From Avignon, however,
where he had immediately fixed his residence, his eyes were always
turned towards Italy, his purpose being to wrest Rome from his rival. To
attain this end he lavished his gold--or rather the gold provided by the
clergy in his obedience--without stint, and conceived a succession of
the most adventurous projects, of which one at least was to leave a
lasting mark on history.

By the bait of a kingdom to be carved expressly out of the States of the
Church and to be called the kingdom of Adria, coupled with the
expectation of succeeding to Queen Joanna, Clement incited Louis, duke
of Anjou, the eldest of the brothers of Charles V., to take arms in his
favour. These tempting offers gave rise to a series of expeditions into
Italy carried out almost exclusively at Clement's expense, in the first
of which Louis lost his life. These enterprises on several occasions
planted Angevin domination in the south of the Italian peninsula, and
their most decisive result was the assuring of Provence to the dukes of
Anjou and afterwards to the kings of France. After the death of Louis,
Clement hoped to find equally brave and interested champions in Louis'
son and namesake; in Louis of Orleans, the brother of Charles VI.; in
Charles VI. himself; and in John III., count of Armagnac. The prospect
of his briliant progress to Rome was ever before his eyes; and in his
thoughts force of arms, of French arms, was to be the instrument of his
glorious triumph over his competitor.

There came a time, however, when Clement and more particularly his
following had to acknowledge the vanity of these illusive dreams; and
before his death, which took place on the 16th of September 1394, he
realized the impossibility of overcoming by brute force an opposition
which was founded on the convictions of the greater part of Catholic
Europe, and discerned among his adherents the germs of disaffection. By
his vast expenditure, ascribable not only to his wars in Italy, his
incessant embassies, and the necessity of defending himself in the
Comtat Venaissin against the incursions of the adventurous Raymond of
Turenne, but also to his luxurious tastes and princely habits, as well
as by his persistent refusal to refer the question of the schism to a
council, he incurred general reproach. Unity was the crying need; and
men began to fasten upon him the responsibility of the hateful schism,
not on the score of insincerity--which would have been very unjust,--but
by reason of his obstinate persistence in the course he had chosen.

  See N. Valois, _La France el le grand schisme d'occident_ (Paris,
  1896). (N.V.)

CLEMENT VII. (Giulio de' Medici), pope from 1523 to 1534, was the son of
Giuliano de' Medici, assassinated in the conspiracy of the Pazzi at
Florence, and of a certain Fioretta, daughter of Antonia. Being left an
orphan he was taken into his own house by Lorenzo the Magnificent and
educated with his sons. In 1494 Giulio went with them into exile; but,
on Giovanni's restoration to power, returned to Florence, of which he
was made archbishop by his cousin Pope Leo X., a special dispensation
being granted on account of his illegitimate birth, followed by a formal
declaration of the fact that his parents had been secretly married and
that he was therefore legitimate. On the 23rd of September 1513 the pope
conferred on him the title of cardinal and made him legate at Bologna.
During the reign of the pleasure-loving Leo, Cardinal Giulio had
practically the whole papal government in his hands and displayed all
the qualities of a good administrator; and when, on the death of Adrian
VI.--whose election he had done most to secure--he was chosen pope (Nov.
18, 1523), his accession was hailed as the dawn of a happier era. It
soon became clear, however, that the qualities which had made Clement an
excellent second in command were not equal to the exigencies of supreme
power at a time of peculiar peril and difficulty.

Though free from the grosser vices of his predecessors, a man of taste,
and economical without being avaricious, Clement VII. was essentially a
man of narrow outlook and interests. He failed to understand the great
spiritual movement which was convulsing the Church; and instead of
bending his mind to the problem of the Reformation, he from the first
subordinated the cause of Catholicism and of the world to his interests
as an Italian prince and a Medici. Even in these purely secular affairs,
moreover, his timidity and indecision prevented him from pursuing a
consistent policy; and his ill fortune, or his lack of judgment, placed
him, as long as he had the power of choice, ever on the losing side.

Clement's accession at once brought about a political change in favour
of France; yet he was unable to take a strong line, and wavered between
the emperor and Francis I., concluding a treaty of alliance with the
French king, and then, when the crushing defeat of Pavia had shown him
his mistake, making his peace with Charles (April 1, 1525), only to
break it again by countenancing Girolamo Morone's League of Freedom, of
which the aim was to assert the independence of Italy from foreign
powers. On the betrayal of this conspiracy Clement made a fresh
submission to the emperor, only to follow this, a year later, by the
Holy League of Cognac with Francis I. (May 22, 1526). Then followed the
imperial invasion of Italy and Bourbon's sack of Rome (May 1527) which
ended the Augustan age of the papal city in a horror of fire and blood.
The pope himself was besieged in the castle of St Angelo, compelled on
the 6th of June to ransom himself with a payment of 400,000 scudi, and
kept in confinement until, on the 26th of November, he accepted the
emperor's terms, which besides money payments included the promise to
convene a general council to deal with Lutheranism. On the 6th of
December Clement escaped, before the day fixed for his liberation, to
Orvieto, and at once set to work to establish peace. After the signature
of the treaty of Cambrai on the 3rd of August 1529 Charles met Clement
at Bologna and received from him the imperial crown and the iron crown
of Lombardy. The pope was now restored to the greater part of his
temporal power; but for some years it was exercised in subservience to
the emperor. During this period Clement was mainly occupied in urging
Charles to arrest the progress of the Reformation in Germany and in
efforts to elude the emperor's demand for a general council, which
Clement feared lest the question of the mode of his election and his
legitimacy should be raised. It was due to his dependence on Charles V.,
rather than to any conscientious scruples, that Clement evaded Henry
VIII.'s demand for the nullification of his marriage with Catherine of
Aragon, and so brought about the breach between England and Rome. Some
time before his death, however, the dynastic interests of his family led
him once more to a rapprochement with France. On the 9th of June 1531 an
agreement was signed for the marriage of Henry of Orleans with
Catherine de' Medici; but it was not till October 1533 that Clement met
Francis at Marseilles, the wedding being celebrated on the 27th. Before,
however, the new political alliance, thus cemented, could take effect,
Clement died, on the 25th of September 1534.

  See E. Casanova, _Lettere di Carlo V. a Clemente VII._ (Florence,
  1893); Hugo Lämmer, _Monumenta Vaticana_, &c (Freiburg, 1861); P.
  Balan, _Monumenta saeculi XVI. hist. illustr._ (Innsbruck, 1885); ib.
  _Mon. Reform. Luther_ (Regensburg, 1884); Stefan Ehses, _Röm. Dokum.
  z. Gesch. der Ehescheidung Heinrichs VIII._ (Paderborn, 1893);
  _Calendar of State Papers_ (London, 1869, &c.); J.J.I. von Döllinger,
  _Beiträge zur politischen, kirchlichen und Kulturgeschichte_ (3 vols.,
  Vienna, 1882); F. Guicciardini, _Istoria d'Italia_; L. von Ranke, _Die
  römischen Päpste in den letzten vier Jahrhunderten_, and _Deutsche
  Gesch. im Zeitalter der Reformation_; W. Hellwig, _Die politischen
  Beziehungen Clements VII. zu Karl V., 1526_ (Leipzig, 1889); H.
  Baumgarten, _Gesch. Karls V._ (Stuttgart, 1888); F. Gregorovius,
  _Geschichte der Stadt Rom_, vol. viii. p. 414. (2nd ed., 1874); P.
  Balan, _Clemente VII. e l' Italia de' suoi tempi_ (Milan, 1887); E.
  Armstrong, _Charles the Fifth_ (2 vols., London, 1902); M. Creighton,
  _Hist. of the Papacy during the Period of the Reformation_ (London,
  1882); and H.M. Vaughan, _The Medici Popes_ (1908). Further references
  will be found in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie, s. Clemens VII_. See
  also _Cambridge Modern History_, vol. ii. chap. i. and bibliography.
     (W. A. P.)

CLEMENT VIII. (Aegidius Muñoz), antipope from 1425 to the 26th of July
1429, was a canon at Barcelona until elected at Peñiscola by three
cardinals whom the stubborn antipope Benedict XIII. had named on his
death-bed. Clement was immediately recognized by Alphonso V. of Aragon,
who was hostile to Pope Martin V. on account of the latter's opposition
to his claims to the kingdom of Naples, but abdicated as soon as an
agreement was reached between Alphonso and Martin through the exertions
of Cardinal Pierre de Foix, an able diplomat and relation of the king's.
Clement spent his last years as bishop of Majorca, and died on the 28th
of December 1446.

  See. L. Pastor, _History of the Popes_, vol. i. trans, by F.I.
  Antrobus (London, 1899); M. Creighton, _History of the Papacy_, vol.
  ii. (London, 1899); and consult bibliography on MARTIN V. (C.H.HA.)

CLEMENT VIII. (Ippolito Aldobrandini), pope from 1592 to 1605, was born
at Fano, in 1535. He became a jurist and filled several important
offices. In 1585 he was made a cardinal, and subsequently discharged a
delicate mission to Poland with skill. His moderation and experience
commended him to his fellow cardinals, and on the 30th of January 1592
he was elected pope, to succeed Innocent IX. While not hostile to Philip
II., Clement desired to emancipate the papacy from undue Spanish
influence, and to that end cultivated closer relations with France. In
1595 he granted absolution to Henry IV., and so removed the last
objection to the acknowledgment of his legitimacy. The peace of Vervins
(1598), which marked the end of Philip's opposition to Henry, was mainly
the work of the pope. Clement also entertained hopes of recovering
England. He corresponded with James I. and with his queen, Anne of
Denmark, a convert to Catholicism. But James was only half in earnest,
and, besides, dared not risk a breach with his subjects. Upon the
failure of the line of Este, Clement claimed the reversion of Ferrara
and reincorporated it into the States of the Church (1598). He
remonstrated against the exclusion of the Jesuits from France, and
obtained their readmission. But in their doctrinal controversy with the
Dominicans (see MOLINA, LUIS) he refrained from a decision, being
unwilling to offend either party. Under Clement the publication of the
revised edition of the Vulgate, begun by Sixtus V., was finished; the
Breviary, Missal and Pontifical received certain corrections; the Index
was expanded; the Vatican library enlarged; and the Collegium
Clementinum founded. Clement was an unblushing nepotist; three of his
nephews he made cardinals, and to one of them gradually surrendered the
control of affairs. But on the other hand among those whom he promoted
to the cardinalate were such men as Baronius, Bellarmine and Toledo.
During this pontificate occurred the burning of Giordano Bruno for
heresy; and the tragedy of the Cenci (see the respective articles).
Clement died on the 5th of March 1605, and was succeeded by Leo XI.

  See the contemporary life by Ciaconius, _Vitae et res gestae summorum
  Pontiff. Rom._ (Rome, 1601-1602); Francolini, _Ippolito Aldobrandini,
  che fu Clemente VIII._ (Perugia, 1867); Ranke's excellent sketch,
  _Popes_ (Eng. trans. Austin), ii. 234 seq.; v. Reumont, _Gesch. der
  Stadt Rom_, iii. 2, 599 seq.; Brosch, _Gesch. des Kirchenstaates_
  (1880), i. 301 seq.    (T. F. C.)

CLEMENT IX. (Giulio Rospigliosi) was born in 1600, became successively
auditor of the Rota, archbishop of Tarsus _in partibus_, and cardinal,
and was elected pope on the 20th of June 1667. He effected a temporary
adjustment of the Jansenist controversy; was instrumental in concluding
the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668); healed a long-standing breach
between the Holy See and Portugal; aided Venice against the Turks, and
laboured unceasingly for the relief of Crete, the fall of which hastened
his death on the 9th of October 1669.

  See Oldoin, continuator of Ciaconius, _Vitae et res gestae summorum
  Pontiff. Rom._; Palazzi, _Gesta Pontiff. Rom._ (Venice, 1687-1688),
  iv. 621 seq. (both contemporary); Ranke, _Popes_ (Eng. trans. Austin),
  iii. 59 seq.; and v. Reumont, _Gesch. der Stadt Rom_, iii. 2, 634 seq.

CLEMENT X. (Emilio Altieri) was born in Rome, on the 13th of July 1590.
Before becoming pope, on the 29th of April 1670 he had been auditor in
Poland, governor of Ancona, and nuncio in Naples. His advanced age
induced him to resign the control of affairs to his adopted nephew,
Cardinal Paluzzi, who embroiled the papacy in disputes with the resident
ambassadors, and incurred the enmity of Louis XIV., thus provoking the
long controversy over the regalia (see INNOCENT XI.). Clement died on
the 22nd of July 1676.

  See Guarnacci, _Vitae et res gestae Pontiff. Rom._ (Rome, 1751),
  (contin. of Ciaconius), i. 1 seq.; Palazzi, _Gesta Pontiff. Rom._
  (Venice, 1687-1688), iv. 655 seq.; and Ranke, _Popes_ (Eng. trans.
  Austin), iii. 172 seq. (T.F.C.)

CLEMENT XI (Giovanni Francesco Albani), pope from 1700 to 1721, was born
in Urbino, on the 22nd of July 1649, received an extraordinary education
in letters, theology and law, filled various important offices in the
Curia, and finally, on the 23rd of November 1700, succeeded Innocent
XII. as pope. His private life and his administration were blameless,
but it was his misfortune to reign in troublous times. In the war of the
Spanish Succession he would willingly have remained neutral, but found
himself between two fires, forced first to recognize Philip V., then
driven by the emperor to recognize the Archduke Charles. In the peace of
Utrecht he was ignored; Sardinia and Sicily, Parma and Piacenza, were
disposed of without regard to papal claims. When he quarrelled with the
duke of Savoy, and revoked his investiture rights in Sicily (1715), his
interdict was treated with contempt. The prestige of the papacy had
hardly been lower within two centuries. About 1702 the Jansenist
controversy broke out afresh. Clement reaffirmed the infallibility of
the pope, in matters of _fact_ (1705), and, in 1713, issued the bull
_Unigenitus_, condemning 101 Jansenistic propositions extracted from the
_Moral Reflections_ of Pasquier Quesnel. The rejection of this bull by
certain bishops led to a new party division and a further prolonging of
the controversy (see JANSENISM and QUESNEL, PASQUIER). Clement also
forbade the practice of the Jesuit missionaries in China of
"accommodating" their teachings to pagan notions or customs, in order to
win converts. Clement was a polished writer, and a generous patron of
art and letters. He died on the 19th of March 1721.

  For contemporary lives see Elci, _The Present State of the Court of
  Rome_, trans, from the Ital. (London, 1706); Polidoro, _De Vita et
  Reb. Gest. Clem. XI._ (Urbino, 1727); Reboulet, _Hist. de Clem. XI.
  Pape_ (Avignon, 1752); Guarnacci, _Vitae et res gest. Pontiff. Rom._
  (Rome, 1751); Sandini, _Vitae Pontiff Rom._ (Padua, 1739); Buder,
  _Leben u. Thaten Clementis XI._ (Frankfort, 1720-1721). See also
  _Clementis XI. Opera Omnia_ (Frankfort, 1729); the detailed "Studii
  sul pontificato di Clem. XI.," by Pometti in the _Archivio della R.
  Soc. romana di storia patria_, vols. 21, 22, 23 (1898-1900), and the
  extended bibliography in Hergenröther, _Allg. Kirchengesch._ (1880),
  iii. 506.    (T. F. C.)

CLEMENT XII. (Lorenzo Corsini), pope from 1730 to 1740, succeeded
Benedict XIII. on the 12th of July 1730, at the age of seventy-eight.
The rascally Cardinal Coscia, who had deluded Benedict, was at once
brought to justice and forced to disgorge his dishonest gains.
Politically the papacy had sunk to the level of pitiful helplessness,
unable to resist the aggressions of the Powers, who ignored or coerced
it at will. Yet Clement entertained high hopes for Catholicism; he
laboured for a union with the Greek Church, and was ready to facilitate
the return of the Protestants of Saxony. He deserves well of posterity
for his services to learning and art; the restoration of the Arch of
Constantine; the enrichment of the Capitoline museum with antique
marbles and inscriptions, and of the Vatican library With oriental
manuscripts (see ASSEMANI); and the embellishment of the city with many
buildings. He died on the 6th of February 1740, and was succeeded by
Benedict XIV.

  See Guarnacci, _Vitae et res gestae Pontiff. Rom._ (Rome, 1751);
  Sandini, _Vitae Pontiff. Rom._ (Padua, 1739); Fabroni, _De Vita et
  Reb. Gest. Clementis XII_. (Rome, 1760); Ranke, _Popes_ (Eng. trans.
  Austin), iii. 191 seq.; v. Reumont, _Gesch. der Stadt Rom_, iii. 2,
  653 seq. (T.F.C.)

CLEMENT XIII. (Carlo della Torre Rezzonico), pope from 1758 to 1769, was
born in Venice, on the 7th of March 1693, filled various important posts
in the Curia, became cardinal in 1737, bishop of Padua in 1743, and
succeeded Benedict XIV. as pope on the 6th of July 1758. He was a man of
upright, moderate and pacific intentions, but his pontificate of eleven
years was anything but tranquil. The Jesuits had fallen upon evil days;
in 1758 Pombal expelled them from Portugal; his example was followed by
the Bourbon countries--France, Spain, the Two Sicilies and Parma
(1764-1768). The order turned to the pope as its natural protector; but
his protests (cf. the bull _Apostolicum pascendi munus_, 7th of January
1765) were unheeded (see JESUITS). A clash with Parma occurred to
aggravate his troubles. The Bourbon kings espoused their relative's
quarrel, seized Avignon, Benevento and Ponte Corvo, and united in a
peremptory demand for the suppression of the Jesuits (January 1769).
Driven to extremities, Clement consented to call a Consistory to
consider the step, but on the very eve of the day set for its meeting he
died (2nd of February 1769), not without suspicion of poison, of which,
however, there appears to be no conclusive evidence.

  A contemporary account of Clement was written by Augustin de Andrès y
  Sobiñas, ... _el nacimiento, estudios y empleos de ... Clem. XIII_.
  (Madrid, 1759). Ravignan's _Clement XIII. e Clement XIV._ (Paris,
  1854) is partisan but free from rancour; and appends many interesting
  documents. See also the bibliographical note under Clement XIV.
  _infra_.; and the extended bibliography in Hergenröther, _Allg.
  Kirchengesch._ (1880), iii. 509.    (T. F. C.)

CLEMENT XIV. (Lorenzo Ganganelli), pope from 1769 to 1774, son of a
physician of St Arcangelo, near Rimini, was born on the 31st of October
1705, entered the Franciscan order at the age of seventeen, and became a
teacher of theology and philosophy. As regent of the college of S.
Bonaventura, Rome, he came under the notice of Benedict XIV., who
conceived a high opinion of his talents and made him consulter of the
Inquisition. Upon the recommendation of Ricci, general of the Jesuits,
Clement XIII. made him a cardinal; but, owing to his disapproval of the
pope's policy, he found himself out of favour and without influence. The
conclave following the death of Clement XIII. was the most momentous of
at least two centuries. The fate of the Jesuits hung in the balance; and
the Bourbon princes were determined to have a pope subservient to their
hostile designs. The struggle was prolonged three months. At length, on
the 19th of May 1769, Ganganelli was chosen, not as a declared enemy of
the Jesuits, but as being least objectionable to each of the contending
factions. The charge of simony was inspired by Jesuit hatred; there is
absolutely no evidence that Ganganelli pledged himself to suppress the

The outlook for the papacy was dark; Portugal was talking of a
patriarchate; France held Avignon; Naples held Ponte Corvo and
Benevento; Spain was ill-affected; Parma, defiant; Venice, aggressive;
Poland meditating a restriction of the rights of the nuncio. Clement
realized the imperative necessity of conciliating the powers. He
suspended the public reading of the bull _In Coena Domini_, so obnoxious
to civil authority; resumed relations with Portugal; revoked the
_monitorium_ of his predecessor against Parma. But the powers were bent
upon the destruction of the Jesuits, and they had the pope at their
mercy. Clement looked abroad for help, but found none. Even Maria
Theresa, his last hope, suppressed the order in Austria. Temporizing
and partial concessions were of no avail. At last, convinced that the
peace of the Church demanded the sacrifice, Clement signed the brief
_Dominus ac Redemptor_, dissolving the order, on the 21st of July 1773.
The powers at once gave substantial proof of their satisfaction;
Benevento, Ponte Corvo, Avignon and the Venaissin were restored to the
Holy See. But it would be unfair to accept this as evidence of a
bargain. Clement had formerly indignantly rejected the suggestion of
such an exchange of favours.

There is no question of the legality of the pope's act; whether he was
morally culpable, however, continues to be a matter of bitter
controversy. On the one hand, the suppression is denounced as a base
surrender to the forces of tyranny and irreligion, an act of treason to
conscience, which reaped its just punishment of remorse; on the other
hand, it is as ardently maintained that Clement acted in full accord
with his conscience, and that the order merited its fate by its own
mischievous activities which made it an offence to religion and
authority alike. But whatever the guilt or innocence of the Jesuits, and
whether their suppression were ill-advised or not, there appears to be
no ground for impeaching the motives of Clement, or of doubting that he
had the approval of his conscience. The stories of his having swooned
after signing the brief, and of having lost hope and even reason, are
too absurd to be entertained. The decline in health, which set in
shortly after the suppression, and his death (on the 22nd of September
1774) proceeded from wholly natural causes. The testimony of his
physician and of his confessor ought to be sufficient to discredit the
oft-repeated story of slow poisoning (see Duhr, _Jesuiten Fabeln_, 4th
ed., 1904, pp. 69 seq.).

The suppression of the Jesuits bulks so large in the pontificate of
Clement that he has scarcely been given due credit for his praiseworthy
attempt to reduce the burdens of taxation and to reform the financial
administration, nor for his liberal encouragement of art and learning,
of which the museum Pio-Clementino is a lasting monument.

No pope has been the subject of more diverse judgments than Clement XIV.
Zealous defenders credit him with all virtues, and bless him as the
instrument divinely ordained to restore the peace of the Church;
virulent detractors charge him with ingratitude, cowardice and
double-dealing. The truth is at neither extreme. Clement's was a deeply
religious and poetical nature, animated by a lofty and refined spirit.
Gentleness, equanimity and benevolence were native to him. He cherished
high purposes and obeyed a lively conscience. But he instinctively
shrank from conflict; he lacked the resoluteness and the sterner sort of
courage that grapples with a crisis.

  Caraccioli's _Vie de Clément XIV_ (Paris, 1775) (freq. translated), is
  incomplete, uncritical and too laudatory. The middle of the 19th
  century saw quite a spirited controversy over Clement XIV.; St Priest,
  in his _Hist. de la chute des Jésuites_ (Paris, 1846), represented
  Clement as lamentably, almost culpably, weak; Cretineau-Joly, in his
  _Hist. ... de la Comp. de Jésus_ (Paris, 1844-1845), and his _Clément
  XIV et les Jésuites_ (Paris, 1847), was outspoken and bitter in his
  condemnation; this provoked Theiner's _Gesch. des Pontificats Clemens'
  XIV._ (Leipzig and Paris, 1852), a vigorous defence based upon
  original documents to which, as custodian of the Vatican archives, the
  author had freest access; Cretineau-Joly replied with _Le Pape Clément
  XIV; Lettres au P. Theiner_ (Paris, 1852). Ravignan's _Clem. XIII. e
  Clem. XIV._ (Paris, 1854) is a weak, half-hearted apology for Clement
  XIV. See also v. Reumont, _Ganganelli, Papst Clemens XIV._ (Berlin,
  1847); and Reinerding, _Clemens XIV. u. d. Aufhebung der Gesellschaft
  Jesu_ (Augsburg, 1854). The letters of Clement have frequently been
  printed; the genuineness of Caraccioli's collection (Paris, 1776;
  freq. translated) has been questioned, but most of the letters are now
  generally accepted as genuine; see also _Clementis XIV. Epp. ac
  Brevia_, ed. Theiner (Paris, 1852