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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 4 - "Coquelin" to "Costume"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 4 - "Coquelin" to "Costume"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. When letters are subscripted, they are
      preceded by an underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were originally printed in
      superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Letters topped by Macron are represented as [=x].

(5) Letters topped by Breve are represented as [)x].

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    Article CORDUROY: "From the ribbed appearance of the cloth the name
      corduroy is applied, particularly in America, to a rough road of
      logs laid transversely side by side, usually across swampy ground."
      'America' from 'Amercia'.

    Article CORNEILLE, PIERRE: "the only contemporary whose genius
      entitled him to criticise Corneille." 'entitled' amended from
      'entiled'.

    Article CORNET: "while in France the instruments with detachable
      mouthpiece were distinguished by the addition of à bouquin."
      'addition' amended from 'adition'.

    Article CORNET: "but from the explanation now given, it will be
      readily understood." Omitted the word 'but' after 'explanation'.

    Article CORN LAWS: "and the permission accorded by the statute of
      1773 to import foreign corn at any price, to be reexported duty
      free, was modified by a warehouse duty of 2s. 6d. in addition to
      the duties on import payable at the time of sale." 'statute'
      amended from 'statue'.

    Article CORONATION: "In connexion with the English coronation a
      number of claims to do certain services have sprung up, and before
      each coronation a court of claims is constituted, which
      investigates and adjudicates on the claims that are made." 'is'
      amended from 'in'.

    Article CORTES, HERNAN: "But although his power was thus confirmed
      by royal authority, and although he exerted himself to consolidate
      Spanish domination throughout all Mexico." 'himself' amended from
      'himelf'.

    Article CORVÉE: "The system of turnpikes, dating from 1663, which
      gradually extended over the whole of England, lessened the burden
      of this system of taxation, so far as main roads were concerned."
      'The' amended from 'Ths'.

    Article COSTUME: "But the garment as explained by Josephus (Ant.
      iii. 7. 1) was properly a loin-cloth (cf. the examples from Punt),
      and the reason given for its use (Ex. xxviii. 42) points to a later
      date than the law which enforced the same regard for decency by
      forbidding the priests to ascend altars with steps (ib. xx. 26)."
      'loin-cloth' amended from 'lion-cloth'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME VII, SLICE IV

            Coquelin to Costume



Articles in This Slice:


  COQUELIN, BENOÎT CONSTANT          CORNWALL (city of England)
  COQUEREL, ATHANASE JOSUÉ           CORNWALLIS, CHARLES CORNWALLIS
  COQUEREL, ATHANASE LAURENT         CORNWALLIS, SIR WILLIAM
  COQUES, GONZALEZ                   CORO
  COQUET (river of Northumberland)   COROMANDEL COAST
  COQUET (simulate love-making)      CORONA
  COQUIMBO                           CORONACH
  CORACLE                            CORONADO, FRANCISCO VASQUEZ DE
  CORAËS, ADAMANTIOS                 CORONATION
  CORAL                              CORONER
  CORALLIAN                          CORONIUM
  CORAL-REEFS                        COROT, JEAN-BAPTISTE CAMILLE
  CORAM, THOMAS                      CORPORAL
  COR ANGLAIS                        CORPORAL PUNISHMENT
  CORATO                             CORPORATION
  CORBAN                             CORPS
  CORBEIL, WILLIAM OF                CORPSE
  CORBEIL (town of northern France)  CORPULENCE
  CORBEL                             CORPUS CHRISTI
  CORBET, RICHARD                    CORPUS CHRISTI, FEAST OF
  CORBIE                             CORRAL
  CORBRIDGE                          CORREA
  CORBULO, GNAEUS DOMITIUS           CORREA DA SERRA, JOSÉ FRANCISCO
  CORD                               CORREGGIO
  CORDAY D'ARMONT                    CORRENTI, CESARE
  CORDELIERS, CLUB OF THE            CORRESPONDENCE
  CORDERIUS                          CORRÈZE
  CORDES                             CORRIB, LOUGH
  CORDILLERA                         CORRIDOR
  CORDITE                            CORRIE
  CÓRDOBA, GONZALO FERNANDEZ DE      CORRIENTES (province of Argentine)
  CÓRDOBA (province of Argentine)    CORRIENTES (city of Argentine)
  CÓRDOBA (city of Argentine)        CORRIGAN, MICHAEL AUGUSTINE
  CÓRDOBA (town of Mexico)           CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE
  CORDON                             CORRUPT PRACTICES
  CORDOVA (province of Spain)        CORRY
  CORDOVA (city of Spain)            CORSAIR
  CORDUROY                           CORSICA
  CORDUS, AULUS CREMUTIUS            CORSICANA
  CORELLI, ARCANGELO                 CORSINI
  CORELLI, MARIE                     CORSON, HIRAM
  CORENZIO, BELISARIO                CORSSEN, WILHELM PAUL
  CO-RESPONDENT                      CORT, CORNELIS
  CORFE CASTLE                       CORTE
  CORFINIUM                          CORTE-REAL, JERONYMO
  CORFU                              CORTES, HERNAN
  CORI                               CORTES
  CORIANDER                          CORTI, LODOVICO
  CORINGA                            CORTLAND
  CORINNA                            CORTONA
  CORINTH (city of Greece)           CORUMBÁ
  CORINTH (city of Mississippi)      CORUNDUM
  CORINTH, ISTHMUS OF                CORUNNA (province of Spain)
  CORINTHIANS, EPISTLES TO THE       CORUNNA (city of Spain)
  CORINTO                            CORVÉE
  CORIOLANUS, GAIUS MARCIUS          CORVEY
  CORIOLI                            CORVINUS, JÁNOS
  CORIPPUS, FLAVIUS CRESCONIUS       CORVUS, MARCUS VALERIUS
  CORISCO                            CORWEN
  CORK, RICHARD BOYLE                CORWIN, THOMAS
  CORK (county of Ireland)           CORY, WILLIAM JOHNSON
  CORK (city of Ireland)             CORYATE, THOMAS
  CORK (bark)                        CORYBANTES
  CORK AND ORRERY, MARY              CORYDON
  CORLEONE                           CORYPHAEUS
  CORMENIN, LOUIS MARIE DE LA HAYE   COS
  CORMON, FERNAND                    COSA
  CORMONTAINGNE, LOUIS DE            COSEL
  CORMORANT                          COSENZ, ENRICO
  CORN (grain)                       COSENZA
  CORN (outgrowth of the skin)       COSHOCTON
  CORNARO, CATERINA                  COSIN, JOHN
  CORNARO, LUIGI                     COSMAS (of Alexandria)
  CORNBRASH                          COSMAS (of Prague)
  CORNEILLE, PIERRE                  COSMATI
  CORNEILLE, THOMAS                  COSMIC
  CORNELIA                           COSMOGONY
  CORNELIUS                          COSMOPOLITAN
  CORNELIUS, CARL AUGUST PETER       COSNE
  CORNELIUS, PETER VON               COSSA, LUIGI
  CORNELL UNIVERSITY                 COSSA, PIETRO
  CORNET                             COSSACKS
  CORNETO TARQUINIA                  COSSIMBAZAR
  CORNICE                            COSTA, GIOVANNI
  CORNIFICIUS                        COSTA, LORENZO
  CORNING, ERASTUS                   COSTA, SIR MICHAEL ANDREW AGNUS
  CORNING                            COSTAKI, ANTHOPOULOS
  CORN LAWS                          COSTANZO, ANGELO DI
  CORN-SALAD                         COSTA RICA
  CORNU, MARIE ALFRED                COSTELLO, DUDLEY
  CORNU COPIAE                       COSTER-MONGER
  CORNUS                             COSTS
  CORNUTUS, LUCIUS ANNAEUS           COSTUME
  CORNWALL (city of Canada)



COQUELIN, BENOÎT CONSTANT (1841-1909), French actor, known as Coquelin
_aîné_, was born at Boulogne on the 23rd of January 1841. He was
originally intended to follow his father's trade of baker (he was once
called _un boulanger manqué_ by a hostile critic), but his love of
acting led him to the Conservatoire, where he entered Regnier's class in
1859. He won the first prize for comedy within a year, and made his
début on the 7th of December 1860 at the Comédie Française as the comic
valet, Gros-René, in Molière's _Dépit amoureux_, but his first great
success was as Figaro, in the following year. He was made _sociétaire_
in 1864, and during the next twenty-two years he created at the Français
the leading parts in forty-four new plays, including Théodore de
Banville's _Gringoire_ (1867), Paul Ferrier's _Tabarin_ (1871), Émile
Augier's _Paul Forestier_ (1871), _L'Étrangère_ (1876) by the younger
Dumas, Charles Lomon's _Jean Dacier_ (1877), Edward Pailleron's _Le
Monde où l'on s'ennuie_ (1881), Erckmann and Chatrian's _Les Rantzau_
(1884). In consequence of a dispute with the authorities over the
question of his right to make provincial tours in France he resigned in
1886. Three years later, however, the breach was healed; and after a
successful series of tours in Europe and the United States he rejoined
the Comédie Française as _pensionnaire_ in 1890. It was during this
period that he took the part of Labussière, in the production of
Sardou's' _Thermidor_, which was interdicted by the government after
three performances. In 1892 he broke definitely with the Comédie
Française, and toured for some time through the capitals of Europe with
a company of his own. In 1895 he joined the Renaissance theatre in
Paris, and played there until he became director of the Porte Saint
Martin in 1897. Here he won successes in Edmond Rostand's _Cyrano de
Bergerac_ (1897), Émile Bergerat's _Plus que reine_ (1899), Catulle
Mendès' _Scarron_ (1905), and Alfred Capus and Lucien Descaves'
_L'Attentat_ (1906). In 1900 he toured in America with Sarah Bernhardt,
and on their return continued with his old colleague to appear in
_L'Aiglon_, at the Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt. He was rehearsing for the
creation of the leading part in Rostand's _Chantecler_, which he was to
produce, when he died suddenly in Paris, on the 27th of January 1909.
Coquelin was an Officier de l'Instruction Publique and of the Legion of
Honour. He published _L'Art et le comédien_ (1880), _Molière et le
misanthrope_ (1881), essays on _Eugène Manuel_ (1881) and
_Sully-Prudhomme_ (1882), _L'Arnolphe de Molière_ (1882), _Les
Comédiens_ (1882), _L'Art de dire le monologue_ (with his brother,
1884), _Tartuffe_ (1884), _L'Art du comédien_ (1894).

His brother, ERNEST ALEXANDRE HONORÉ COQUELIN (1848-1909), called
Coquelin _cadet_, was born on the 16th of May 1848 at Boulogne, and
entered the Conservatoire in 1864. He graduated with the first prize in
comedy and made his début in 1867 at the Odéon. The next year he
appeared with his brother at the Théâtre Francais and became a
_sociétaire_ in 1879. He played a great many parts, in both the classic
and the modern répertoire, and also had much success in reciting
monologues of his own composition. He wrote _Le Livre des convalescents_
(1880), _Le Monologue moderne_ (1881), _Fairiboles_ (1882), _Le Rire_
(1887), _Pirouettes_ (1888). He died on the 8th of February 1909.

JEAN COQUELIN (1865-   ), son of Coquelin _aîné_, was also an actor,
first at the Théâtre Francais (début, 1890), later at the Renaissance,
and then at the Porte Saint Martin, where he created the part of Raigoné
in _Cyrano de Bergerac_.



COQUEREL, ATHANASE JOSUÉ (1820-1875), French Protestant divine, son of
A. L. C. Coquerel (q.v.), was born at Amsterdam on the 16th of June
1820. He studied theology at Geneva and at Strassburg, and at an early
age succeeded his uncle, C. A. Coquerel, as editor of _Le Lien_, a post
which he held till 1870. In 1852 he took part in establishing the
_Nouvelle Revue de théologie_, the first periodical of scientific
theology published in France, and in the same year helped to found the
"Historical Society of French Protestantism." Meanwhile he had gained a
high reputation as a preacher, and especially as the advocate of
religious freedom; but his teaching became more and more offensive to
the orthodox party, and on the appearance (1864) of his article on
Renan's _Vie de Jésus_ in the _Nouvelle Revue de théologie_ he was
forbidden by the Paris consistory to continue his ministerial functions.
He received an address of sympathy from the consistory of Anduze, and a
provision was voted for him by the Union Protestante Libérale, to enable
him to continue his preaching. He received the cross of the Legion of
Honour in 1862. He died at Fismes (Marne), on the 24th of July 1875. His
chief works were _Jean Calas et sa famille_ (1858); _Des Beaux-Arts en
Italie_ (Eng. trans. 1859); _La Saint Barthélemy_ (1860); _Précis de
l'église réformée_ (1862); _Le Catholicisme et le protestantisme
considérés dans leur origine et leur développement_ (1864); _Libres
études, and La Conscience et la foi_ (1867).



COQUEREL, ATHANASE LAURENT CHARLES (1795-1868), French Protestant
divine, was born in Paris on the 17th of August 1795. He received his
early education from his aunt, Helen Maria Williams, an Englishwoman,
who at the close of the 18th century gained a reputation by various
translations and by her _Letters from France_. He completed his
theological studies at the Protestant seminary of Montauban, and in 1816
was ordained minister. In 1817 he was invited to become pastor of the
chapel of St Paul at Jersey, but he declined, being unwilling to
subscribe to the Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England. During
the following twelve years he resided in Holland, and preached before
Calvinistic congregations at Amsterdam, Leiden and Utrecht. In 1830, at
the suggestion of Baron Georges de Cuvier, then minister of Protestant
worship, Coquerel was called to Paris as pastor of the Reformed Church.
In the course of 1833 he was chosen a member of the consistory, and
rapidly acquired the reputation of a great pulpit orator, but his
liberal views brought him into antagonism with the rigid Calvinists. He
took a warm interest in all matters of education, and distinguished
himself so much by his defence of the university of Paris against a
sharp attack, that in 1835 he was chosen a member of the consistory of
the Legion of Honour. In 1841 appeared his _Réponse_ to the _Leben Jesu_
of Strauss. After the revolution of February 1848, Coquerel was elected
a member of the National Assembly, where he sat as a moderate
republican, subsequently becoming a member of the Legislative Assembly.
He supported the first ministry of Louis Napoleon, and gave his vote in
favour of the expedition to Rome and the restoration of the temporal
power of the pope. After the _coup d'état_ of the 2nd of December 1851,
he confined himself to the duties of his pastorate. He was a prolific
writer, as well as a popular and eloquent speaker. He died at Paris on
the 10th of January 1868. A large collection of his sermons was
published in 8 vols. between 1819 and 1852. Other works were _Biographie
sacrée_ (1825-1826); _Histoire sainte et analyse de la Bible_ (1839);
_Orthodoxie moderne_ (1842); _Christologie_ (1858), &c.

His brother, CHARLES AUGUSTIN COQUEREL (1797-1851), was the author of a
work on English literature (1828), an _Essai sur l'histoire générale du
christianisme_ (1828) and a _Histoire des églises du désert, depuis la
revocation de l'édit de Nantes_ (1841). A liberal in his views, he was
the founder and editor of the _Annales protestantes_, _Le Lien_, and the
_Revue protestante_.



COQUES (or COCX), GONZALEZ (1614-1684), Flemish painter, son of Pieter
Willemsen Cocx, a respectable Flemish citizen, and not, as his name
might imply, a Spaniard, was born at Antwerp. At the age of twelve he
entered the house of Pieter, the son of "Hell" Breughel, an obscure
portrait painter, and at the expiration of his time as an apprentice
became a journeyman in the workshop of David Ryckaert the second, under
whom he made accurate studies of still life. At twenty-six he
matriculated in the gild of St Luke; he then married Ryckaert's
daughter, and in 1653 joined the literary and dramatic club known as the
"Retorijkerkamer." After having been made president of his gild in 1665,
and in 1671 painter in ordinary to Count Monterey, governor-general of
the Low Countries, he married again in 1674, and died full of honours in
his native place. One of his canvases in the gallery at the Hague
represents a suite of rooms hung with pictures, in which the artist
himself may be seen at a table with his wife and two children,
surrounded by masterpieces composed and signed by several
contemporaries. Partnership in painting was common amongst the small
masters of the Antwerp school; and it has been truly said of Coques that
he employed Jacob von Arthois for landscapes, Ghering and van Ehrenberg
for architectural backgrounds, Steenwijck the younger for rooms, and
Pieter Gysels for still life and flowers; but the model upon which
Coques formed himself was Van Dyck, whose sparkling touch and refined
manner he imitated with great success. He never ventured beyond the
"cabinet," but in this limited field the family groups of his middle
time are full of life, brilliant from the sheen of costly dress and
sparkling play of light and shade, combined with finished execution and
enamelled surface.



COQUET (pronounced Cócket), a river of Northumberland, draining a
beautiful valley about 40 m. in length. It rises in the Cheviot Hills.
Following a course generally easterly, but greatly winding, it passes
Harbottle, near which relics of the Stone Age are seen, and Holystone,
where it is recorded that Bishop Paulinus baptized a great body of
Northumbrians in the year 627. Several earthworks crown hills above this
part of the valley, and at Cartington, Fosson and Whitton are relics of
medieval border fortifications. The small town of Rothbury is
beautifully situated beneath the ragged Simonside Hills. The river
dashes through a narrow gully called the Thrum, and then passes
Brinkburn priory, of which the fine Transitional Norman church was
restored to use in 1858, while there are fragments of the monastic
buildings. This was an Augustinian foundation of the time of Henry I.
The dale continues well wooded and very beautiful until Warkworth is
reached, with its fine castle and remarkable hermitage. A short distance
below this the Coquet has its mouth in Alnwick Bay (North Sea), with the
small port of Amble on the south bank, and Coquet Island a mile out to
sea. The river is frequented by sportsmen for salmon and trout fishing.
No important tributary is received, and the drainage area does not
exceed 240 sq. m.



COQUET (pronounced co-kétte), to simulate the arts of love-making,
generally from motives of personal vanity, to flirt; in a figurative
sense, to trifle or dilly-dally with anything. The word is derived from
the French _coqueter_, which originally means, "to strut about like a
cock-bird," i.e. when it desires to attract the hens. The French
substantive _coquet_, in the sense of "beau" or "lady-killer," was
formerly commonly used in English; but the feminine form, _coquette_,
now practically alone survives, in the sense of a woman who gratifies
her vanity by using her powers of attraction in a frivolous or
inconstant fashion. Hence "to coquet," the original and more correct
form, has come frequently to be written "to coquette." Coquetry (Fr.
_coquetterie_), primarily the art of the coquette, is used figuratively
of any dilly-dallying or "coquetting" and, by transference of idea, of
any superficial qualities of attraction in persons or things. "Coquet"
is still also occasionally used adjectivally, but the more usual form is
"coquettish"; e.g. we speak of a "coquettish manner," or a "coquettish
hat." The crested humming-birds of the genus _Lophornis_ are known as
coquettes (Fr. _coquets_).



COQUIMBO, an important city and port of the province and department of
Coquimbo, Chile, in 29° 57' 4" S., 71° 21' 12" W. Pop. (1895) 7322. The
railway connexions are with Ovalle to the S., and Vicuña (or Elqui) to
the E., but the proposed extension northward of Chile's longitudinal
system would bring Coquimbo into direct communication with Santiago. The
city has a good well-sheltered harbour, reputed the best in northern
Chile, and is the port of La Serena, the provincial capital, 9 m.
distant, with which it is connected by rail. There are large
copper-smelting establishments in the city, which exports a very large
amount of copper, some gold and silver, and cattle and hay to the more
northern provinces.

The province of Coquimbo, which lies between those of Aconcagua and
Atacama and extends from the Pacific inland to the Argentine frontier,
has an area of 13,461 sq. m. (official estimate) and a population (1895)
of 160,898. It is less arid than the province of Atacama, the surface
near the coast being broken by well-watered river valleys, which produce
alfalfa, and pasture cattle for export. Near the mountains grapes are
grown, from which wine of a good quality is made. The mineral resources
include extensive deposits of copper, and some less important mines of
gold and silver. The climate is dry and healthy, and there are
occasional rains. Several rivers, the largest of which is the Coquimbo
(or Elqui) with a length of 125 m., cross the province from the
mountains. The capital is La Serena, and the principal cities are
Coquimbo, Ovalle (pop. 5565), and Illapel (3170).



CORACLE (Welsh _corwg-l_, from _corwg_, cf. Irish and mod. Gaelic
_curach_, boat), a species of ancient British fishing-boat which is
still extensively used on the Severn and other rivers of Wales, notably
on the Towy and Teifi. It is a light boat, oval in shape, and formed of
canvas stretched on a framework of split and interwoven rods, and
well-coated with tar and pitch to render it water-tight. According to
early writers the framework was covered with horse or bullock hide
(_corium_). So light and portable are these boats that they can easily
be carried on the fisherman's shoulders when proceeding to and from his
work. Coracle-fishing is performed by two men, each seated in his
coracle and with one hand holding the net while with the other he plies
his paddle. When a fish is caught, each hauls up his end of the net
until the two coracles are brought to touch and the fish is then
secured. The coracle forms a unique link between the modern life of
Wales and its remote past; for this primitive type of boat was in
existence amongst the Britons at the time of the invasion of Julius
Caesar, who has left a description of it, and even employed it in his
Spanish campaign.



CORAËS (KORAÏS), ADAMANTIOS [in French, DIAMANT CORAY] (1748-1833),
Greek scholar and patriot, was born at Smyrna, the son of a merchant. As
a schoolboy he distinguished himself in the study of ancient Greek, but
from 1772 to 1779 he was occupied with the management of his father's
business affairs in Amsterdam. In 1782, on the collapse of his father's
business, he went to Montpellier, where for six years he studied
medicine, supporting himself by translating German and English medical
works into French. He then settled in Paris, where he lived until his
death on the 10th of April 1833. Inspired by the ideals of the French
Revolution, he devoted himself to furthering the cause of Greek
independence both among the Greeks themselves and by awakening the
interest of the chief European Powers against the Turkish rule. His
great object was to rouse the enthusiasm of the Greeks for the idea that
they were the true descendants of the ancient Hellenes by teaching them
to regard as their own inheritance the great works of antiquity. He
sought to purify the ordinary written language by eliminating the more
obvious barbarisms, and by enriching it with classical words and others
invented in strict accordance with classical tradition (see further
GREEK LANGUAGE: modern). Under his influence, though the common patois
was practically untouched, the language of literature and intellectual
intercourse was made to approximate to the pure Attic of the 5th and 4th
centuries B.C. His chief works are his editions of Greek authors
contained in his [Greek: Hellênikê Bibliothêkê] and his [Greek:
Parerga]; his editions of the _Characters_ of Theophrastus, of the _De
aëre, aquis, et locis_ of Hippocrates, and of the _Aethiopica_ of
Heliodorus, elaborately annotated.

  His literary remains have been edited by Mamoukas and Damalas
  (1881-1887); collections of letters written from Paris at the time of
  the French Revolution have been published (in English, by P. Ralli,
  1898; in French, by the Marquis de Queux de Saint-Hilaire, 1880). His
  autobiography appeared at Paris (1829; Athens, 1891), and his life has
  been written by D. Thereianos (1889-1890); see also A. R. Rhangabé,
  _Histoire littéraire de la Grèce moderne_ (1877).



CORAL, the hard skeletons of various marine organisms. It is chiefly
carbonate of lime, and is secreted from sea-water and deposited in the
tissues of Anthozoan polyps, the principal source of the coral-reefs of
the world (see ANTHOZOA), of Hydroids (see HYDROMEDUSAE), less important
in modern reef-building, but extremely abundant in Palaeozoic times, and
of certain Algae. The skeletons of many other organisms, such as Polyzoa
and Mollusca, contribute to coral masses but cannot be included in the
term "coral." The structure of coral animals (sometimes erroneously
termed "coral insects") is dealt within the articles cited above; for
the distribution and formation of reefs see CORAL-REEFS.

Beyond their general utility and value as sources of lime, few of the
corals present any special feature of industrial importance, excepting
the red or precious coral (_Corallium rubrum_) of the Mediterranean Sea.
It, however, is and has been from remote times very highly prized for
jewelry, personal ornamentation and decorative purposes generally. About
the beginning of the Christian era a great trade was carried on in
coral between the Mediterranean and India, where it was highly esteemed
as a substance endowed with mysterious sacred properties. It is remarked
by Pliny that, previous to the existence of the Indian demand, the Gauls
were in the habit of using it for the ornamentation of their weapons of
war and helmets; but in his day, so great was the Eastern demand, that
it was very rarely seen even in the regions which produced it. Among the
Romans branches of coral were hung around children's necks to preserve
them from danger, and the substance had many medicinal virtues
attributed to it. A belief in its potency as a charm continued to be
entertained throughout medieval times; and even to the present day in
Italy it is worn as a preservative from the evil eye, and by females as
a cure for sterility.

The precious coral is found widespread on the borders and around the
islands of the Mediterranean Sea. It ranges in depth from shallow water
(25 to 50 ft.) to water over 1000 ft., but the most abundant beds are in
the shallower areas. The most important fisheries extend along the
coasts of Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco; but red coral is also obtained
in the vicinity of Naples, near Leghorn and Genoa, and on the coasts of
Sardinia, Corsica, Catalonia and Provence. It occurs also in the
Atlantic off the north-west of Africa, and recently it has been dredged
in deep water off the west of Ireland. Allied species of small
commercial value have been obtained off Mauritius and near Japan. The
black coral (_Antipathes abies_), formerly abundant in the Persian Gulf,
and for which India is the chief market, has a wide distribution and
grows to a considerable height and thickness in the tropical waters of
the Great Barrier Reef of Australia.

From the middle ages downwards the securing of the right to the coral
fisheries on the African coasts was an object of considerable rivalry
among the Mediterranean communities of Europe. Previous to the 16th
century they were controlled by the Italian republics. For a short
period the Tunisian fisheries were secured by Charles V. to Spain; but
the monopoly soon fell into the hands of the French, who held the right
till the Revolutionary government in 1793 threw the trade open. For a
short period (about 1806) the British government controlled the
fisheries, and now they are again in the hands of the French
authorities. Previous to the French Revolution much of the coral trade
centred in Marseilles; but since that period, both the procuring of the
raw material and the working of it up into the various forms in which it
is used have become peculiarly Italian industries, centring largely in
Naples, Rome and Genoa. On the Algerian coast, however, boats not flying
the French flag have to pay heavy dues for the right to fish, and in the
early years of the 20th century the once flourishing fisheries at La
Calle were almost entirely neglected. Two classes of boats engage in the
pursuit--a large size of from 12 to 14 tons, manned by ten or twelve
hands, and a small size of 3 or 4 tons, with a crew of five or six. The
large boats, dredging from March to October, collect from 650 to 850
[lb] of coral, and the small, working throughout the year, collect from
390 to 500 [lb]. The Algerian reefs are divided into ten portions, of
which only one is fished annually--ten years being considered sufficient
for the proper growth of the coral.

The range of value of the various qualities of coral, according to
colour and size, is exceedingly wide, and notwithstanding the steady
Oriental demand its price is considerably affected by the fluctuations
of fashion. While the price of the finest tints of rose pink may range
from £80 to £120 per oz., ordinary red-coloured small pieces sell for
about £2 per oz., and the small fragments called _collette_, used for
children's necklaces, cost about 5s. per oz. In China large spheres of
good coloured coral command high prices, being in great requisition for
the button of office worn by the mandarins. It also finds a ready market
throughout India and in Central Asia; and with the negroes of Central
Africa and of America it is a favourite ornamental substance.



CORALLIAN (Fr. _Corallien_), in geology, the name of one of the
divisions of the Jurassic rocks. The rocks forming this division are
mainly calcareous grits with oolites, and rubbly coral rock--often
called "Coral Rag"; ferruginous beds are fairly common, and occasionally
there are beds of clay. In England the Corallian strata are usually
divided into an upper series, characterized by the ammonite
_Perisphinctes plicatilis_, and a lower series with _Aspidoceras
perarmatus_ as the zonal fossil. When well developed these beds are seen
to lie above the Oxford Clay and below the Kimeridge Clay; but it will
save a good deal of confusion if it is recognized that the Corallian
rocks of England are nothing more than a variable, local lithological
phase of the two clays which come respectively above and below them.
This caution is particularly necessary when any attempt is being made to
co-ordinate the English with the continental Corallian.

The Corallian rocks are nowhere better displayed than in the cliffs at
Weymouth. Here Messrs Blake and Huddleston recognized the following
beds:--

             / Upper Coral Rag and Abbotsbury Iron Ore.
             | Sandsfoot Grits.
  Upper      | Sandsfoot Clay.
  Corallian <  Sandsfoot Clay.
             | Trigonia Beds.
             \ Osmington Oolite (quarried at Marnhull and Todbere).

             / Bencliff Grits.
  Lower      | Nothe Clay.
  Corallian <  Nothe Clay.
             \ Nothe Grit.

In Dorsetshire the Corallian rocks are 200 ft. thick, in Wiltshire 100
ft., but N.E. of Oxford they are represented mainly by clays, and the
series is much thinner. (At Upware, the "Upware limestone" is the only
known occurrence of beds that correspond in character with the Coralline
oolite between Wiltshire and Yorkshire). In Yorkshire, however, the hard
rocky beds come on again in full force. They appear once more at Brora
in Sutherlandshire. Corallian strata have been proved by boring in
Sussex (241 ft.). In Huntingdon, Bedfordshire, parts of Buckinghamshire,
Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire the Corallian series is represented by
the "Ampthill Clay," which has also been called "Bluntesham" or
"Tetworth" Clay. Here and there in this district hard calcareous
inconstant beds appear, such as the Elsworth rock, St Ives rock and
Boxworth rock.

In Yorkshire the Corallian rocks differ in many respects from their
southern equivalents. They are subdivided as follows:--

                   /             Upper Calcareous Grit  \
  Kimeridge       |            / Coral Rag and Upper     >_A. plicatilis._
  Clay            |           |   Limestone              |
           Cora-  |"Coralline |  Middle Calcareous Grit /
  .......  llian <  Oolite"  <
           Rock   |           |  Lower Limestone        \
  Oxford          |            \ Passage Beds            >_A. perarmatus._
  Clay             \             Lower Calcareous Grit  /

These rocks play an important part in the formation of the Vale of
Pickering, and the Hambleton and Howardian Hills; they are well exposed
in Gristhorpe Bay.

The passage beds, highly siliceous, flaggy limestones, are known locally
as "Greystone" or "Wall stones"; some portions of these beds have
resisted the weathering agencies and stand up prominently on the
moors--such are the "Bridestones." Cement stone beds occur in the upper
calcareous grit at North Grimstone; and in the middle and lower
calcareous grits good building stones are found.

Among the fossils in the English Corallian rocks corals play an
important part, frequently forming large calcareous masses or "doggers";
_Thamnastrea_, _Thecosmilia_ and _Isastrea_ are prominent genera.
Ammonites and belemnites are abundant and gasteropods are very common
(_Nerinea_, _Chemnitzia_, _Bourgetia_, &c.). _Trigonias_ are very
numerous in certain beds (_T. perlata_ and _T. mariani_). _Astarte
ovata_, _Lucina aliena_ and other pelecypods are also abundant. The
echinoderms _Echinobrissus scutatus_ and _Cidaris florigemma_ are
characteristic of these beds.

Rocks of the same age as the English Corallian are widely spread over
Europe, but owing to the absence of clearly-marked stratigraphical and
palaeontological boundaries, the nomenclature has become greatly
involved, and there is now a tendency amongst continental geologists to
omit the term Corallian altogether. According to A. de Lapparent's
classification the English Corallian rocks are represented by the
_Séquanien_ stage, with two substages, an upper _Astartien_ and lower
_Rauracien_; but this does not include the whole Corallian stage as
defined above, the lower part being placed by the French author in his
_Oxfordien_ stage. For the table showing the relative position of these
stages see the article JURASSIC.

  See also "The Jurassic Rocks of Great Britain," vol. i. (1892) and
  vol. v. (1895) (_Memoirs of the Geological Survey_); Blake and
  Huddleston, "On the Corallian Rocks of England," _Q.J.G.S._ vol.
  xxxiii. (1877).     (J. A. H.)



CORAL-REEFS. Many species of coral (q.v.) are widely distributed, and
are found at all depths both in warmer and colder seas. _Lophohelia
prolifera_ and _Dendrophyllia ramea_ form dense beds at a depth of from
100 to 200 fathoms off the coasts of Norway, Scotland and Portugal, and
the "Challenger" and other deep-sea dredging expeditions have brought up
corals from great depths in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. But the
larger number of species, particularly the more massive kinds, occur
only in tropical seas in shallow waters, whose mean temperature does not
fall below 68° Fahr., and they do not flourish unless the temperature is
considerably higher. These conditions of temperature are found in a belt
of ocean which may roughly be indicated as lying between the 28th N. and
S. parallels. Within these limits there are numerous reefs and islands
formed of coral intermixed with the calcareous skeletons of other
animals, and their formation has long been a matter of dispute among
naturalists and geologists.

Coral formations may be classed as fringing or shore reefs, barrier
reefs and atolls. _Fringing reefs_ are platforms of coral rock extending
no great distance from the shores of a continent or island. The seaward
edge of the platform is usually somewhat higher than the inner part, and
is often awash at low water. It is intersected by numerous creeks and
channels, especially opposite those places where streams of fresh water
flow down from the land, and there is usually a channel deep enough to
be navigable by small boats between the edge of the reef and the land.
The outer wall of the reef is rather steep, but descends into a
comparatively shallow sea. Since corals are killed by fresh water or by
deposition of mud or sand, it is obvious that the outer edge of the reef
is the region of most active coral growth, and the boat channel and the
passages leading into it from the open sea have been formed by the
suppression of coral growth by one of the above-mentioned causes,
assisted by the scour of the tides and the solvent action of sea-water.
_Barrier reefs_ may be regarded as fringing reefs on a large scale. The
great Australian barrier reef extends for no less a distance than 1250
m. from Torres Strait in 9.5° S. lat. to Lady Elliot island in 24° S.
lat. The outer edge of a barrier reef is much farther from the shore
than that of a fringing reef, and the channel between it and the land is
much deeper. Opposite Cape York the seaward edge of the great Australian
barrier reef is nearly 90 m. distant from the coast, and the maximum
depth of the channel at this point is nearly 20 fathoms. As is the case
in a fringing reef, the outer edge of a barrier reef is in many places
awash at low tides, and masses of dead coral and sand may be piled up on
it by the action of the waves, so that islets are formed which in time
are covered with vegetation. These islets may coalesce and form a strip
of dry land lying some hundred yards or less from the extreme outer edge
of the reef, and separated by a wide channel from the mainland. Where
the barrier reef is not far from the land there are always gaps in it
opposite the mouths of rivers or considerable streams. The outer wall of
a barrier reef is steep, and frequently, though not always, descends
abruptly into great depths. In many cases in the Pacific Ocean a barrier
reef surrounds one or more island peaks, and the strips of land on the
edge of the reef may encircle the peaks with a nearly complete ring. An
_atoll_ is a ring-shaped reef, either awash at low tide or surmounted by
several islets, or more rarely by a complete strip of dry land
surrounding a central lagoon. The outer wall of an atoll generally
descends with a very steep but irregular slope to a depth of 500 fathoms
or more, but the lagoon is seldom more than 20 fathoms deep, and may be
much less. Frequently, especially to the leeward side of an atoll,
there may be one or more navigable passages leading from the lagoon to
the open sea.

Though corals flourish everywhere under suitable conditions in tropical
seas, coral reefs and atolls are by no means universal in the torrid
zone. The Atlantic Ocean is remarkably free from coral formations,
though there are numerous reefs in the West Indian islands, off the
south coast of Florida, and on the coast of Brazil. The Bermudas also
are coral formations, their high land being formed by sand accumulated
by the wind and cemented into rock, and are remarkable for being the
farthest removed from the equator of any recent reefs, being situated in
32° N. lat. In the Pacific Ocean there is a vast area thickly dotted
with coral formations, extending from 5° N. lat. to 25° S. lat., and
from 130° E. long, to 145° W. long. There are also extensive reefs in
the westernmost islands of the Hawaiian group in about 25° N. lat. In
the Indian Ocean, the Laccadive and Maldive islands are large groups of
atolls off the west and south-west of India. Still farther south is the
Chagos group of atolls, and there are numerous reefs off the north coast
of Madagascar, at Mauritius, Bourbon and the Seychelles. The
Cocos-Keeling Islands, in 12° S. lat. and 96° E. long., are typical
atolls in the eastern part of the Indian Ocean.

  [Illustration: Diagram showing the formation of an atoll during
  subsidence. (After C. Darwin.) The lower part of the figure represents
  a barrier reef surrounding a central peak.

  A, A, outer edges of the barrier reef at the sea-level; the coco-nut
  trees indicate dry land formed on the edges of the reef.

  L, L, lagoon channel.

  A', A', outer edges of the atoll formed by upgrowth of the coral
  during the subsidence of the peak.

  L', lagoon of the atoll.

  The vertical scale is considerably exaggerated as compared with the
  horizontal scale.]

The remarkable characters of barrier reefs and atolls, their isolated
position in the midst of the great oceans the seemingly unfathomable
depths from which they rise their peaceful and shallow lagoons and inner
channels, their narrow strips of land covered with coco-nut palms and
other vegetation, and rising but a few feet above the level of the
ocean, naturally attracted the attention of the earlier navigators, who
formed sundry speculations as to their origin. The poet-naturalist, A.
von Chamisso, was the first to propound a definite theory of the origin
of atolls and encircling reefs, attributing their peculiar features to
the natural growth of corals and the action of the waves. He pointed out
that the larger and more massive species of corals flourish best on the
outer sides of a reef, whilst the more interior corals are killed or
stunted in growth by the accumulation of coral and other debris. Thus
the outer edge of a submerged reef is the first to reach the surface,
and a ring of land being formed by materials piled up by the waves, an
atoll with a central lagoon is produced. Chamisso's theory necessarily
assumed the existence of a great number of submerged banks reaching
nearly, but not quite, to the surface of the sea in the Pacific and
Indian oceans, and the difficulty of accounting for the existence of so
many of these led C. Darwin to reject his views and bring forward an
explanation which may be called the theory of _subsidence_. Starting
from the well-known premise that reef-building species of corals do not
flourish in a greater depth of water than 20 fathoms, Darwin argued that
all coral islands must have a rocky base, and that it was inconceivable
that, in such large tracts of sea as occur in the Pacific and Indian
oceans, there should be a vast number of submarine peaks or banks all
rising to within 20 or 30 fathoms of the surface and none emerging above
it. But on the supposition that the atolls and encircling reefs were
formed round land which was undergoing a slow movement of subsidence,
their structure could easily be explained. Take the case of an island
consisting of a single high peak. At first the coral growth would form a
fringing reef clinging to its shores. As the island slowly subsided into
the ocean the upward growth of coral would keep the outer rim of the
reef level with or within a few fathoms of the surface, so that, as
subsidence proceeded, the distance between the outer rim of the reef and
the sinking land would continually increase, with the result that a
barrier-reef would be formed separated by a wide channel from the
central peak. As corals and other organisms with calcareous skeletons
live in the channel, their remains, as well as the accumulation of coral
and other debris thrown over the outer edge of the reef, would maintain
the channel at a shallower depth than that of the ocean outside.
Finally, if the subsidence continued, the central peak would disappear
beneath the surface, and an atoll would be left consisting of a raised
margin of reef surrounding a central lagoon, and any pause during the
movement of subsidence would result in the formation of raised islets or
a strip of dry land along the margin of the reef. Darwin's theory was
published in 1842, and found almost universal acceptance, both because
of its simplicity and its applicability to every known type of
coral-reef formation, including such difficult cases as the Great Chagos
Bank, a huge submerged atoll in the Indian Ocean.

Darwin's theory was adopted and strengthened by J. D. Dana, who had made
extensive observations among the Pacific coral reefs between 1838 and
1842, but it was not long before it was attacked by other observers. In
1851 Louis Agassiz produced evidence to show that the reefs off the
south coast of Florida were not formed during subsidence, and in 1863
Karl Semper showed that in the Pelew islands there is abundant evidence
of recent upheaval in a region where both atolls and barrier-reefs
exist. Latterly, many instances of recently upraised coral formations
have been described by H. B. Guppy, J. S. Gardiner and others, and
Alexander Agassiz and Sir J. Murray have brought forward a mass of
evidence tending to shake the subsidence theory to its foundations.
Murray has pointed out that the deep-sea soundings of the "Tuscarora"
and "Challenger" have proved the existence of a large number of
submarine elevations rising out of a depth of 2000 fathoms or more to
within a few hundred fathoms of the surface. The existence of such banks
was unknown to Darwin, and removes his objections to Chamisso's theory.
For although they may at first be too far below the surface for
reef-building corals, they afford a habitat for numerous echinoderms,
molluscs, crustacea and deep-sea corals, whose skeletons accumulate on
their summits, and they further receive a constant rain of the
calcareous and silicious skeletons of minute organisms which teem in the
waters above. By these agencies the banks are gradually raised to the
lowest depth at which reef-building corals can flourish, and once these
establish themselves they will grow more rapidly on the periphery of the
bank, because they are more favourably situated as regards food-supply.
Thus the reef will rise to the surface as an atoll, and the nearer it
approaches the surface the more will the corals on the exterior faces be
favoured, and the more will those in the centre of the reef decrease,
for experiment has shown that the minute pelagic organisms on which
corals feed are far less abundant in a lagoon than in the sea outside.
Eventually, as the margin of the reef rises to the surface and material
is accumulated upon it to form islets or continuous land, the coral
growth in the lagoon will be feeble, and the solvent action of sea-water
and the scour of the tide will tend to deepen the lagoon. Thus the
considerable depth of some lagoons, amounting to 40 or 50 fathoms, may
be accounted for. The observations of Guppy in the Solomon islands have
gone far to confirm Murray's conclusions, since he found in the islands
of Ugi, Santa Anna and Treasury and Stirling islands unmistakable
evidences of a nucleus of volcanic rock, covered with soft earthy bedded
deposits several hundred feet thick. These deposits are highly
fossiliferous in parts, and contain the remains of pteropods,
lamellibranchs and echinoderms, embedded in a foraminiferous deposit
mixed with volcanic debris, like the deep-sea muds brought up by the
"Challenger." The flanks of these elevated beds are covered with
coralline limestone rocks varying from 100 to 16 ft. in thickness. One
of the islands, Santa Anna, has the form of an upraised atoll, with a
mass of coral limestone 80 ft. in vertical thickness, resting on a
friable and sparingly argillaceous rock resembling a deep-sea deposit.
A. Agassiz, in a number of important researches on the Florida reefs,
the Bahamas, the Bermudas, the Fiji islands and the Great Barrier Reef
of Australia, has further shown that many of the peculiar features of
these coral formations cannot be explained on the theory of subsidence,
but are rather attributable to the natural growth of corals on banks
formed by prevailing currents, or on extensive shore platforms or
submarine flats formed by the erosion of pre-existing land surfaces.

In face of this accumulated evidence, it must be admitted that the
subsidence theory of Darwin is inapplicable to a large number of coral
reefs and islands, but it is hardly possible to assert, as Murray does,
that no atolls or barrier reefs have ever been developed after the
manner indicated by Darwin. The most recent research on the structure of
coral reefs has also been the most thorough and most convincing. It is
obvious that, if Murray's theory were correct, a bore hole sunk deep
into an atoll would pass through some 100 ft. of coral rock, then
through a greater or less thickness of argillaceous rock, and finally
would penetrate the volcanic rock on which the other materials were
deposited. If Darwin's theory is correct, the boring would pass through
a great thickness of coral rock, and finally, if it went deep enough,
would pass into the original rock which subsided below the waters. An
expedition sent out by the Royal Society of London started in 1896 for
the island of Funafuti, a typical atoll of the Ellice group in the
Pacific Ocean, with the purpose of making a deep boring to test this
question. The first attempt was not successful, for at a depth of 105
ft. the refractory nature of the rock stopped further progress. But a
second attempt, under the management of Professor Edgeworth David of
Sydney, proved a complete success. With improved apparatus, the boring
was carried down to a depth of 697 ft. (116 fathoms), and a third
attempt carried it down to 1114 ft. (185 fathoms). The boring proves the
existence of a mass of pure limestone of organic origin to the depth of
1114 ft., and there is no trace of any other rock. The organic remains
found in the core brought up by the drill consist of corals,
foraminifera, calcareous algae and other organisms. A boring was also
made from the deck of a ship into the floor of the lagoon, which shows
that under 100 ft. of water there exists at the bottom of the lagoon a
deposit more than 100 ft. thick, consisting of the remains of a
calcareous alga, _Halimeda opuntia_, mixed with abundant foraminifera.
At greater depths, down to 245 ft., the same materials, mixed with the
remains of branching madrepores, were met with, and further progress was
stopped by the existence of solid masses of coral, fragments of porites,
madrepora and heliopora having been brought up in the core. These are
shallow-water corals, and their existence at a depth of nearly 46
fathoms, buried beneath a mass of _Halimeda_ and foraminifera, is clear
evidence of recent subsidence. _Halimeda_ grows abundantly over the
floor of the lagoon of Funafuti, and has been observed in many other
lagoons. The writer collected a quantity of it in the lagoon of Diego
Garcia in the Chagos group. The boring demonstrates that the lagoon of
Funafuti has been filled up to an extent of at least 245 ft. (nearly 41
fathoms), and this fact accords well with Darwin's theory, but is
incompatible with that of Murray. In the present state of our knowledge
it seems reasonable to conclude that coral reefs are formed wherever the
conditions suitable for growth exist, whether in areas of subsidence,
elevation or rest. A considerable number of reefs, at all events, have
not been formed in areas of subsidence, and of these the Florida reefs,
the Bermudas, the Solomon islands, and possibly the Great Barrier Reef
of Australia are examples. Funafuti would appear to have been formed in
an area of subsidence, and it is quite probable that the large groups of
low-lying islands in the Pacific and Indian oceans have been formed
under the same conditions. At the same time, it must be remembered that
the atoll or barrier reef shape is not necessarily evidence of
formation during subsidence, for the observations of Karl Semper, A.
Agassiz, and Guppy are sufficient to prove that these forms of reefs may
be produced by the natural growth of coral, modified by the action of
waves and currents in regions in which subsidence has certainly not
taken place.

  See A. Agassiz, many publications in the _Mem. Amer. Acad._ (1883) and
  _Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool._ (Harvard, 1889-1899); J. D. Dana, _Corals and
  Coral Islands_ (1853; 2nd ed., 1872; 3rd ed., 1890); C. Darwin, _The
  Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs_ (3rd ed., 1889); H. B.
  Guppy, "The Recent Calcareous Formations of the Solomon Group,"
  _Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb._ xxxii. (1885); R. Langenbeck, "Die neueren
  Forschungen über die Korallenriffe," _Hettner geogr. Zeitsch._ iii.
  (1897); J. Murray, "On the Structure and Origin of Coral Reefs and
  Islands," _Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb._ x. (1879-1880); J. Murray and
  Irvine, "On Coral Reefs and other Carbonate of Lime Formations in
  Modern Seas," _Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb._ (1889); W. Savile Kent, _The
  Great Barrier Reef of Australia_ (London, W. H. Allen & Co., 1893);
  Karl Semper, _Animal Life_, "Internat. Sci. Series," vol. xxxi.
  (1881); J. S. Gardiner, _Nature_, lxix. 371.     (G. C. B.)



CORAM, THOMAS (1668-1751), English philanthropist, was born at Lyme
Regis, Dorset. He began life as a seaman, and rose to the position of
merchant captain. He settled at Taunton, Massachusetts, for several
years engaging there in farming and boat-building, and in 1703 returned
to England. His acquaintance with the destitute East End of London, and
the miserable condition of the children there, inspired him with the
idea of providing a refuge for such of them as had no legal protector;
and after seventeen years of unwearied exertion, he obtained in 1739 a
royal charter authorizing the establishment of his hospital for
foundling infants (see FOUNDLING HOSPITALS). It was opened in Hatton
Garden, on the 17th of October 1740, with twenty inmates. For fifteen
years it was supported by voluntary contributions; but in 1756 it was
endowed with a parliamentary grant of £10,000 for the support of all
that might be sent to it. Children were brought, however, in such
numbers, and so few (not one-third, it is said) survived infancy, that
the grant was stopped, and the charity, which had been removed to
Guilford Street, was from that time only administered under careful
restrictions. Coram's later years were spent in watching over the
interests of the hospital; he was also one of the promoters of the
settlement of Georgia and Nova Scotia; and his name is honourably
connected with various other charities. In carrying out his
philanthropic schemes he spent nearly all his private means; and an
annuity of £170 was raised for him by public subscription. He died on
the 29th of March 1751.



COR ANGLAIS, or ENGLISH HORN (Ger. _englisches Horn_ or _alt Hoboe_;
Ital. _corno inglese_), a wood-wind double-reed instrument of the oboe
family, of which it is the tenor. It is not a horn, but bears the same
relation to the oboe as the basset horn does to the clarinet. The cor
anglais differs slightly in construction from the oboe; the conical bore
of the wooden tube is wider and slightly longer, and there is a larger
globular bell and a bent metal crook to which the double reed mouthpiece
is attached. The fingering and method of producing the sound are so
similar in both instruments that the player of the one can in a short
time master the other, but as the cor anglais is pitched a fifth lower,
the music must be transposed for it into a key a fifth higher than the
real sounds produced. The compass of the cor anglais extends over two
octaves and a fifth:

  [Illustration: Notation
                 Real sounds]

The true quality of the cor anglais is penetrating like that of the
oboe, but mellower and more melancholy.

The cor anglais is the alto Pommer (q.v.) or _haute-contre de hautbois_
(see OBOE), gradually developed, improved and provided with key-work. It
is not known exactly when the change took place, but it was probably
during the 17th century, after the Schalmey or Shawm had been
transformed into the oboe. In a 17th century MS. (Add. 30,342, f. 145)
in the British Museum, written in French, giving pen and ink sketches of
many instruments, is an "accord de hautbois" which comprises a _pédalle_
(bass oboe or Pommer), a _sacquebute_ (sackbut) as _basse-contre_, a
_taille_ (tenor) with a note that the _haute-contre_ (the cor anglais)
_est de mesme sinon plus petite_. The tubes of all the members of the
hautbois family are straight in this drawing. Before 1688 the French
hoboy, made in four parts and having two keys, was known in England.[1]
It is probable that in France, where the hautbois played such an
important part in court music, the cor anglais, under the name of
_haute-contre de hautbois_, was also provided with keys. At the end of
the 17th century there were two players of the _haute-contre de
hautbois_ among the musicians of the Grande Écurie du Roi.[2]

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Modern Cor anglais. (Besson & Co.)]

[Illustration: From Richard Hofmann's _Katechismus der
Musikinstrumente_.

FIG. 2.--Cor anglé, 18th century.]

  The origin of the name of the instrument is also a matter of
  conjecture. Two theories exist--one that cor anglais is a corruption
  of _cor anglé_, a name given on account of the angular bend of the
  early specimens. In that case the name, but not necessarily the
  instrument, probably originated in France early in the 18th century,
  for Gluck scored for two cors anglais in his Italian version of
  _Alceste_ played in Vienna in 1767. When a French version of this
  opera was given in Paris two years later, the cor anglais, not being
  known or available there, was replaced by oboes. It was not until 1808
  that the cor anglais was heard at the Paris Opera, when it was played
  by the oboist Vogt in Catel's _Alexandre chez Apelle_. This, however,
  proves only that the name was not familiar in France, where the oboe
  of the same pitch was called _haute-contre de hautbois_. The bending
  of the tube and the development of the cor anglais as solo instrument
  originated in Germany, unless the _oboe da caccia_ was identical with
  the cor anglais, in which case Italy would be the country of origin.
  Thomas Stanesby, junior, made an oboe da caccia in 1740 of straight
  pattern in four pieces, having a bent metal crook for the insertion of
  the reed and two saddle keys; but the bell was like the bell of the
  oboe, not globular like that of the cor anglais, a form to which the
  veiled quality of its _timbre_ is due. It is interesting in this
  connexion to recall some experiments in bending the cor anglais, which
  do not appear to have led to any practical result. A French broadside
  (c. 1650), "La Musique," preserved in the British Museum, contains
  drawings of many musical instruments in use in the 17th century; among
  them are an oboe with keys in a perforated case, and two other wood
  wind instruments of the same family, which may be taken to represent
  attempts to dispose of the inconvenient length of the _haute-contre_
  (1) by bending the tube at right angles for about one quarter of its
  length from the mouthpiece, which contains a large double reed, (2)
  by bending the tube in the elongated "S" shape of the _corno torto_ or
  bass Zinke, for which the drawing in question might be mistaken but
  for the bent crook inserted in the end for the reception of the reed,
  which, however, is missing. The other hypothesis is that when the cor
  anglais was given a bend in order to facilitate the handling, the name
  was adopted to mark its resemblance to a kind of hunting-horn said to
  be in use in England at the time. This suggestion does not seem to be
  a happy one; for if the reference be to the crescent-shaped horn, that
  instrument was in use in all countries at various periods before the
  17th century, while if it be to the angular form, then a reproduction
  of such a horn should be forthcoming to support the statement.

  The idea of bending the instrument is attributed to Giovanni or
  Giuseppe Ferlendis of Bergamo,[3] brothers and virtuosi on the oboe.
  One of these had settled in Salzburg, and both were equally renowned
  as performers on the English horn. They visited Venice, Brescia,
  Trieste, Vienna, London (in 1795) and Lisbon, where Giuseppe died. In
  this case we might expect the name to have been given in Italian,
  _corno inglese_; yet Gluck in his Italian edition used the French name
  already in 1767, when Giuseppe was but twelve years old. We must await
  some more conclusive explanation, but we may suppose that the new name
  was bestowed when the instrument assumed a form entirely new to the
  family of hautbois or oboes. The cor anglais was well known in England
  before 1774, for in a quaint book of travels through England,
  published in that year, we read that Signor Sougelder,[4] "an eminent
  surgeon of Bristol," was a performer "on the English horn."

  The experiment of bending the cor anglais did not prove satisfactory,
  for the tube instead of being bored had to be cut out of two pieces of
  wood which were then glued together and covered with leather. Even the
  most skilful craftsman did not succeed in making the inside of the
  tube quite smooth; the roughness of the wood was detrimental to the
  tone and gave the cor anglais a veiled, somewhat hoarse quality, and
  makers before long reverted to the direct or vertical form.     (K. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See Harleian MS. 2034, f. 207b, British Museum, in the third part
    of Randle Holme's _Academy of Armoury_, written before 1688, where an
    outline sketch in ink is also given.

  [2] See J. Écorcheville, "Quelques documents sur la musique de la
    Grande Écurie du Roi," _Sammelband intern. Musikges._ ii. 4, pp. 609
    and 625. Deeds exist creating charges for four hautbois and musettes
    de Poitou in the hand of King John, middle of 14th century, see p.
    633.

  [3] See Henri Lavoix, _Histoire de l'instrumentation_, p. 111;
    Gerber, _Lexikon_, "Giuseppe Ferlendis"; Robert Eitner,
    _Quellen-Lexikon der Tonkünstler_, "Gioseffo Ferlendis." Fétis and
    Pohl also refer to him.

  [4] See _Musical Travels thro' England_ (London, 1774), p. 56.



CORATO, a city of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Bari, 26 m. W. of
Bari by steam tramway. Pop. (1901) 41,573. It is situated in the centre
of an agricultural district. It contains no buildings of great interest,
but is a clean and well-kept town.



CORBAN ([Hebrew: KRBN]), an Aramaic word meaning "a consecrated gift."
Josephus uses the word of Nazirites and of the temple treasure of
Jerusalem. Such a votive offering lay under a curse if it were diverted
to ordinary purposes, like the spoil of Jericho which Achan appropriated
(Josh. vii.), or the temple treasure of Delphi which was seized by the
Phocians, 356 B.C. The word is found in Mark vii. 11, the usual
interpretation of which is that Jesus refers to an abuse--a man might
declare that any part of his property which came into his parents' hands
was _corban_, consecrated, i.e. that a curse rested on any benefit they
might get from it. The Jewish scribes thus fenced the law of vows with a
traditional interpretation which made men break the most binding
injunctions of the Mosaic Law, in this case the fifth commandment. A
totally different explanation of the passage is put forward by J. H. A.
Hart in _The Jewish Quarterly Review_ for July 1907, the gist of which
is that Jesus commends the Pharisees for insisting that when a man has
vowed a vow to God he should pay it even though his parents should
suffer.



CORBEIL, WILLIAM OF (d. 1136), archbishop of Canterbury, was born
probably at Corbeil on the Seine, and was educated at Laon. He was soon
in the service of Ranulf Flambard, bishop of Durham; then, having
entered the order of St Augustine, he became prior of the Augustinian
foundation at St Osyth in Essex. At the beginning of 1123 he was chosen
from among several candidates to be archbishop of Canterbury, and as he
refused to admit that Thurstan, archbishop of York, was independent of
the see of Canterbury, this prelate refused to consecrate him, and the
ceremony was performed by his own suffragan bishops. Proceeding to Rome
the new archbishop found that Thurstan had anticipated his arrival in
that city and had made out a strong case against him to Pope Calixtus
II.; however, the exertions of the English king Henry I. and of the
emperor Henry V. prevailed, and the pope gave William the pallium. The
archbishop's next dispute was with the papal legate. Cardinal John of
Crema, who had arrived in England and was acting in an autocratic
manner. Again travelling to Rome, William gained another victory, and
was himself appointed papal legate (_legatus natus_) in England and
Scotland, a precedent of considerable importance in the history of the
English Church. The archbishop had sworn to Henry I. that he would
support the claim of his daughter Matilda to the English crown, but
nevertheless he crowned Stephen in December 1135. He died at Canterbury
on the 21st of November 1136. William built the keep of Rochester
Castle, and finished the building of the cathedral at Canterbury, which
was dedicated with great pomp in May 1130.

  See W. F. Hook, _Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury_ (1860-1884);
  and W. R. W. Stephens, _History of the English Church_ (1901).



CORBEIL, a town of northern France, capital of an arrondissement in the
department of Seine-et-Oise, at the confluence of the Essonne with the
Seine, 21 m. S. by E. of Paris on the Orléans railway to Nevers. Pop.
(1906) 9756. A bridge across the Seine unites the main part of the town
on the left bank with a suburb on the other side; handsome boulevards
lead to the village of Essonnes (pop. 7255), about a mile to the
south-west. St Spire, the only survivor of the formerly numerous
churches of Corbeil, dates from the 12th to the 15th centuries. Behind
the church there is a Gothic gateway. A monument has been erected to the
brothers Galignani, publishers of Paris, who gave a hospital and
orphanage to the town. Corbeil is the seat of a sub-prefect, and has
tribunals of first instance and commerce and a chamber of commerce. It
has important flour-mills, tallow-works, printing-works, large
paper-works at Essonnes, and carries on boat and carriage-building, and
the manufacture of plaster. The Decauville engineering works are in the
vicinity. There is trade in grain and flour.

From the 10th to the 12th century Corbeil was the chief town of a
powerful countship, but it was united to the crown by Louis VI.; it
continued for a long time to be an important military post in connexion
with the commissariat of Paris. In 1258 St Louis concluded a treaty here
with James I. of Aragon. Of the numerous sieges to which it has been
exposed the most important were those by the Huguenots in 1562, and by
Alexander Farnese, prince of Parma, in 1590.



CORBEL (Lat. _corbellus_, a diminutive of _corvus_, a raven, on account
of the beak-like appearance; Ital. _mensola_, Fr. _corbeau_,
_cul-de-lampe_, Ger. _Kragstein_), the name in medieval architecture for
a piece of stone jutting out of a wall to carry any super-incumbent
weight. A piece of timber projecting in the same way was called a tassel
or a bragger. Thus the carved ornaments from which the vaulting shafts
spring at Lincoln are corbels. Norman corbels are generally plain. In
the Early English period they are sometimes elaborately carved, as at
Lincoln above cited, and sometimes more simply so, as at Stone. They
sometimes end with a point apparently growing into the wall, or forming
a knot, as at Winchester, and often are supported by angels and other
figures. In the later periods the foliage or ornaments resemble those in
the capitals. The corbels carrying the arches of the corbel tables in
Italy and France were often elaborately moulded, and sometimes in two or
three courses projecting over one another; those carrying the
machicolations of English and French castles had four courses. The
corbels carrying balconies in Italy and France were sometimes of great
size and richly carved, and some of the finest examples of the Italian
Cinquecento style are found in them. Throughout England, in half-timber
work, wood corbels abound, carrying window-sills or oriels in wood,
which also are often carved. A "corbel table" is a projecting moulded
string course supported by a range of corbels. Sometimes these corbels
carry a small arcade under the string course, the arches of which are
pointed and trefoiled. As a rule the corbel table carries the gutter,
but in Lombard work the arcaded corbel table was utilized as a
decoration to subdivide the storeys and break up the wall surface. In
Italy sometimes over the corbels will be a moulding, and above a plain
piece of projecting wall forming a parapet (see also MASONRY).



CORBET, RICHARD (1582-1635), English bishop and poet, was born in 1582,
the son of a nurseryman at Ewell, Surrey. At Oxford, to which he
proceeded from Westminster school in 1597, he was noted as a wit. On
taking orders he continued to display this talent from the pulpit, and
James I., in consideration of his "fine fancy and preaching," made him
one of the royal chaplains. In 1620 he became vicar of Stewkley,
Berkshire, and in the same year was made dean of Christchurch, Oxford.
In 1628 he was made bishop of Oxford, and in 1632 translated thence to
the see of Norwich. Corbet was the author of many poems, for the most
part of a lively, satirical order, his most serious production being the
_Fairies' Farewell_. His verses were first collected and published in
1647. His conviviality was famous, and many stories are told of his
youthful merrymaking in London taverns in company with Ben Jonson, who
always remained his close friend, and other dramatists. He died at
Norwich on the 28th of July 1635.



CORBIE (Lat. _corvus_), a crow or raven. In architecture, "corbie steps"
is a Scottish term (cf. CORBEL) for the steps formed up the sides of the
gable by breaking the coping into short horizontal beds.



CORBRIDGE, a small market town in the Hexham parliamentary division of
Northumberland, England; 3½ m. E. of Hexham, on the north bank of the
river Tyne, which is here crossed by a fine seven-arched bridge dating
from 1674. Pop. (1901) 1647. Corbridge was formerly of greater
importance than at present. Its name, derived from the small river Cor,
a tributary of the Tyne, is said to be associated with the Brigantian
tribe of Corionototai. About 760 it became the capital of Northumbria;
later it was a borough and was long represented in parliament. In 1138
David of Scotland made it a centre of military operations, and it was
ravaged by Wallace in 1296, by Bruce in 1312, and by David II. in 1346.
Its chief remains of antiquity are a square peel-tower and the cruciform
church of St Andrew, of which part of the fabric is of pre-Conquest
date, though the building is mainly Early English. Extensive use is made
of building materials from the Roman station of _Corstopitum_ (also
called Corchester), which lay half a mile west of Corbridge at the
junction of the Cor with the Tyne. This site has from time to time
yielded many valuable relics, notably a silver dish, discovered in 1734,
148 oz. in weight and ornamented with figures of deities; but the
first-rate importance of the station was only revealed by careful
excavations undertaken in 1907 seq. There were then unearthed remains of
several buildings fronting a broad thoroughfare, one of which is the
largest Roman building, except the baths at Bath, yet discovered in
England. Two of these buildings were granaries, and indicate the
importance of Corstopitum as a base of the northward operations of
Antoninus Pius. After his conquests had been lost, and Corstopitum
ceased to be a military centre, its military buildings passed into
civilian occupation, of which many evidences have been found. A fine
hoard of gold coins, wrapped in lead-foil and hidden in a wall, was
discovered in 1908. Corstopitum ceased to exist early in the 5th
century, and the site was never again occupied.



CORBULO, GNAEUS DOMITIUS (1st century A.D.), Roman general, was the
half-brother of Caesonia, one of the wives of the emperor Caligula. In
the reign of Tiberius he held the office of praetor, and was appointed
to the superintendence of the roads and bridges. Under Claudius he was
governor of lower Germany (A.D. 47). He punished the Frisii who refused
to pay the tribute, and was on the point of advancing against the
Chauci, but was recalled by the emperor and ordered to withdraw behind
the Rhine. In order to provide employment for his soldiers, Corbulo made
them cut a canal from the Mosa (Meuse) to the northern branch of the
Rhine, which still forms one of the chief drains between Leiden and
Sluys, and before the introduction of railways was the ordinary traffic
road between Leiden and Rotterdam. Soon after the accession of Nero,
Vologaeses (Vologasus), king of Parthia, overran Armenia, drove out
Rhadamistus, who was under the protection of the Romans, and set his own
brother Tiridates on the throne. Corbulo was thereupon sent out to the
East with full military powers. After some delay, he took the offensive
in 58, and, reinforced by troops from Germany, attacked Tiridates.
Artaxata and Tigranocerta were captured, and Tigranes, who had been
brought up in Rome and was the obedient servant of the government, was
installed king of Armenia. In 61 Tigranes invaded Adiabene, an integral
portion of the Parthian kingdom, and a conflict between Rome and Parthia
seemed unavoidable. Vologaeses, however, thought it better to come to
terms. It was agreed that both the Roman and Parthian troops should
evacuate Armenia, that Tigranes should be dethroned, and the position of
Tiridates recognized. The Roman government declined to accede to these
arrangements, and L. Caesennius Paetus, governor of Cappadocia, was
ordered to settle the question by bringing Armenia under direct Roman
administration. The protection of Syria in the meantime claimed all
Corbulo's attention. Paetus, a weak and incapable man, suffered a severe
defeat at Rhandea (62), where he was surrounded and forced to capitulate
and to evacuate Armenia. The command of the troops was again entrusted
to Corbulo. In 63, with a strong army, he crossed the Euphrates, but
Tiridates declined to give battle and concluded peace. At Rhandea he
laid down his diadem at the foot of the emperor's statue, promising not
to resume it until he received it from the hand of Nero himself in Rome.
In 67 disturbances broke out in Judaea, but Nero, jealous of Corbulo's
success and popularity, ordered Vespasian to take command of the forces
and summoned Corbulo to Greece. On his arrival at Cenchreae, the port of
Corinth, messengers from Nero met Corbulo, and ordered him to commit
suicide. Without hesitation he obeyed, exclaiming, "I have deserved it."
Whether he had really given any grounds for suspicion is unknown; but
there is no doubt, so great was his popularity with the soldiers and
such the hatred felt for Nero, that he could easily have seized the
throne. Corbulo wrote an account of his Asiatic experiences, which is
lost.

  See Tacitus, _Annals_, xii.-xv.; Dio Cassius lix. 15, lx. 30, lxii.
  19-23, lxiii. 6, 17, lxvi. 3; H. Schiller, _Geschichte des römischen
  Kaiserreichs unter der Regierung des Nero_ (1872); E. Egli, "Feldzüge
  in Armenien von 41-63," in M. Büdinger's _Untersuchungen zur römischen
  Kaisergeschichte_, i. (1868); Mommsen, _Hist. of the Roman Provinces_,
  ii. (1886); for the Armenian campaigns see B. W. Henderson in
  _Classical Review_ (April, May, June, 1901); in general D. T.
  Schoonover, _A Study of Cn. Domitius Corbulo_ (Chicago, 1909).



CORD (derived through the Fr. _corde_, from the Lat. _chorda_, Gr.
[Greek: chordê], the string of a musical instrument), a length of
twisted or woven strands, in thickness coming between a rope and a
string, a smaller kind of rope (q.v.). From the use of such a cord for
measuring, the word is applied to a quantity of cut wood, differing
according to locality. The variant "chord," which, in spelling, reverts
to the original Latin, is used in particular senses, as, in physiology,
for such cord-like structures as the vocal chords; in the case of the
"umbilical cord," the other spelling is usually retained. In mathematics
a "chord" is a straight line joining any two points on the same curve,
and, in music, the word is used of several musical notes sounded
simultaneously and in harmony (q.v.). In this last sense, "chord" is
properly a shortened form of "accord," agreement, from Late Lat.
_accordare_, and the spelling with _h_ is due to a confusion.



CORDAY D'ARMONT, MARIE ANNE CHARLOTTE (1768-1793), French revolutionary
heroine, the murderess of Marat, born at St Saturnin des Lignerets, near
Séez in Normandy, was descended from a noble but poor family, and
numbered among her ancestors the dramatist Corneille. Charlotte Corday
was educated in the convent of the Holy Trinity at Caen, and then sent
to live with an aunt. Here she saw hardly any one but her relative, and
passed her lonely hours in reading the works of the _philosophes_,
especially Voltaire and the Abbé Raynal. Another of her favourite
authors was Plutarch, from whose pages she doubtless imbibed the idea of
classic heroism and civic virtue which prompted the act that has made
her name famous. On the outbreak of the Revolution she began to study
current politics, chiefly in the papers issued by the party afterwards
known as the Girondins. On the downfall of this party, on May 31, 1793,
many of the leaders took refuge in Normandy, and proposed to make Caen
the headquarters of an army of volunteers, at the head of whom Félix de
Wimpffen, who commanded the army assembled for the defence of the coasts
at Cherbourg, was to have marched upon Paris. Charlotte attended their
meetings, and heard them speak; but we have no reason to believe that
she saw any of them privately, till the day when she went to ask for
introductions to friends of theirs in Paris. She saw that their efforts
in Normandy were doomed to fail. She had heard of Marat as a tyrant and
the chief agent in their overthrow, and she had conceived the idea of
going alone to Paris and assassinating him,--doubtless thinking that
this would break up the party of the Terrorists and be the signal of a
counter-revolution, and ignorant of the fact that Marat was ill almost
to the point of death, and that others were more influential than he.

Apparently she had thought of going to Paris in April, before the fall
of the Girondins, for she had then procured a passport which she used in
July. It contained the usual description of the bearer, and ran thus:
_Laissez passer la citoyenne Marie, &c., Corday, âgée de 24 ans, taille
de 5 pieds 1 pouce, cheveux et sourcils châtains, yeux gris, front
élevé, nez long, bouche moyenne, menton rond fourchu, visage ovale._
Arrived in Paris she first attended to some business for a friend at
Caen, and then she wrote to Marat: "Citizen, I have just arrived from
Caen. Your love for your native place doubtless makes you desirous of
learning the events which have occurred in that part of the republic. I
shall call at your residence in about an hour; have the goodness to
receive me and to give me a brief interview. I will put you in a
condition to render great service to France." On calling she was refused
admittance, and wrote again, promising to reveal important secrets, and
appealing to Marat's sympathy on the ground that she herself was
persecuted by the enemies of the republic. She was again refused an
audience, and it was only when she called a third time (July 13) that
Marat, hearing her voice in the antechamber, consented to see her. He
lay in a bathing tub, wrapped in towels, for he was suffering from a
horrible disease which had almost reduced him to a state of
putrefaction. Our only source of information as to what followed is
Charlotte's own confession. She spoke to Marat of what was passing at
Caen, and his only comment on her narrative was that all the men she had
mentioned should be guillotined in a few days. As he spoke she drew from
her bosom a dinner-knife (which she had bought the day before for two
francs) and plunged it into his left side. It pierced the lung and the
aorta. He cried out, "_À moi, ma chère amie!_" and expired. Two women
rushed in, and prevented Charlotte from escaping. A crowd collected
round the house, and it was with difficulty that she was escorted to the
prison of the Abbaye. On being brought before the Revolutionary Tribunal
she gloried in her act, and when the indictment against her was read,
and the president asked her what she had to say in reply, her answer
was, "Nothing, except that I have succeeded." Her advocate, Claude
François Chauveau Lagarde, put forward in vain the plea of insanity. She
was sentenced to death, and calmly thanked her counsel for his efforts
on her behalf, adding that the only defence worthy of her was an avowal
of the act. She was then conducted to the Conciergerie, where at her own
desire her portrait (now in the museum of Versailles) was painted by the
artist Jean Jacques Hauer. She preserved her perfect calmness to the
last. When she saw the guillotine, she placed herself in position under
the fatal blade without assistance from any one. The knife fell, and one
of the executioners held up her head by the hair, and had the brutality
to strike it with his fist. Many believed they saw the dead face
blush,--probably an effect of the red stormy sunset. It was the 17th of
July 1793. It is difficult to analyse the character of Charlotte Corday;
but there was in it much that was noble and exalted. Her mind had been
formed by her studies on a pagan type. To C. J. M. Barbaroux and the
Girondins of Caen she wrote from her prison, anticipating happiness
"with Brutus in the Elysian Fields" after her death, and with this
letter she sent a simple loving farewell to her father, revealing a
tender side to her character that otherwise we would hardly have looked
for in such a woman. Lamartine called her _l'ange de l'assassinat_, and
Vergniaud said, "_Elle nous perd, mais elle nous apprend à mourir._"

  See _OEuvres politiques de Charlotte Corday_ (Caen, 1863; some letters
  and an _Adresse aux Français amis des lois el de la paix_), with a
  supplement printed in the same year; Louvet de Couvrai, _Mémoires_
  (ed. Aulard, Paris, 1889); Alphonse Esquiros, _Charlotte Corday_ (2nd
  ed., 2 vols., Paris, 1841); Cheron de Villiers, _Marie Anne Charlotte
  Corday_ (Paris, 1865); Casimir Périer, "La Jeunesse de Charlotte
  Corday" (_Revue des deux mondes_, 1862); C. Vatel, _Dossiers du procès
  criminel de Charlotte de Corday ... extraits des archives impériales_
  (Paris, 1861), and _Dossier historique de Charlotte Corday_ (Paris,
  1872); Austin Dobson, _Four Frenchwomen_ (London, 1890); A. Ducos,
  _Les Trois Girondines, Mme Roland, Charlotte Corday ..._ (Paris,
  1896); Dr Cabanès, "La vraie Charlotte Corday," in _Le Cabinet secret
  de l'histoire_ (4 vols., 1897-1900). Her tragic history was the
  subject of two anonymous tragedies, _Charlotte Corday_ (1795), said to
  be by the Conventional F. J. Gamon, and _Charlotte Corday_ (Caen,
  1797), neither of which have any merit; another by J. B. Salles is
  published by C. Vatel in _Charlotte de Corday et les Girondins_
  (1864-1872). See further bibliographical articles in M. Tourneux,
  _Bibl. de l'hist. de Paris ..._ (vol. iv., 1906), and in the
  _Bibliographie des femmes célèbres_ (3 vols., Turin and Rome,
  1892-1905); and also E. Defrance, _Charlotte Corday et la mort de
  Marat_ (1909).



CORDELIERS, CLUB OF THE, or SOCIETY OF THE FRIENDS OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN
AND OF THE CITIZEN, a popular society of the French Revolution. It was
formed by the members of the district of the Cordeliers, when the
Constituent Assembly suppressed the 60 districts of Paris to replace
them with 48 sections (21st of May 1790). It held its meetings at first
in the church of the monastery of the Cordeliers,--the name given in
France to the Franciscan Observantists,--now the Dupuytren museum of
anatomy in connexion with the school of medicine. From 1791, however,
the Cordeliers met in a hall in the rue Dauphine. The aim of the society
was to keep an eye on the government; its emblem on its papers was
simply an open eye. It sought as well to encourage revolutionary
measures against the monarchy and the old régime, and it was it
especially which popularized the motto "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity."
It took an active part in the movement against the monarchy of the 20th
of June and the 10th of August 1792; but after that date the more
moderate leaders of the club, Danton, Fabre d'Eglantine, Camille
Desmoulins, seem to have ceased attending, and the "_enragés_" obtained
control, such as J. R. Hébert, F. N. Vincent, C. P. H. Ronsin and A. F.
Momoro. Its influence was especially seen in the creation of the
revolutionary army destined to assure provisions for Paris, and in the
establishment of the worship of Reason. The Cordeliers were combated by
those revolutionists who wished to end the Terror, especially by Danton,
and by Camille Desmoulins in his journal _Le Vieux Cordelier_. The club
disowned Danton and Desmoulins and attacked Robespierre for his
"moderation," but the new insurrection which it attempted failed, and
its leaders were guillotined on the 24th of March 1794, from which date
nothing is known of the club. We know little of its composition.

  The papers emanating from the Cordeliers are enumerated in M.
  Tourneux, _Bibliographie de l'histoire de Paris pendant la Révolution_
  (1894), i. (on the trial of the Hebertists) Nos. 4204-4210, ii. Nos.
  9795-9834 and 11,813. See also A. Bougeart, _Les Cordeliers, documents
  pour servir à l'histoire de la Révolution_ (Caen, 1891); G. Lenotre,
  _Paris révolutionnaire_ (Paris, 1895); G. Tridon, _Les Hébertists,
  plainte contre une calomnie de l'histoire_ (Paris, 1864). The
  last-named author was condemned to four months' prison; his work was
  reprinted in 1871. The inventory of the pictures found in 1790 in the
  monastery of the Cordeliers was published by J. Guiffrey in _Nouvelles
  archives de l'art français_, viii., 2nd series, iii. (1880).
       (R. A.*)



CORDERIUS, the Latinized form of name used by MATHURIN CORDIER (c.
1480-1564), French schoolmaster, a native of Normandy or Perche. He
possessed special tact and liking for teaching children, and taught
first at Paris, where Calvin was among his pupils, and, after a number
of changes, finally at Geneva, where he died on the 8th of September
1564. He wrote several books for children; the most famous is his
_Colloquia_ (_Colloquiorum scholasticorum libri quatuor_), which has
passed through innumerable editions, and was used in schools for three
centuries after his time. He also wrote: _Principia Latine loquendi
scribendique, sive selecta quaedam ex Epistolis Ciceronis_; _De corrupti
sermonis apud Gallos emendatione et Latine loquendi Ratione_; _De
syllabarum quantitate_; _Conciones sacrae viginti sex Galliae_; _Catonis
disticha de moribus_ (with Latin and French translation); _Remontrances
et exhortations au roi et aux grands de son royaume_.

  See monograph by E. A. Berthault, _De M. Corderio et creatis apud
  Protestantes litterarum studiis_ (1875).



CORDES, a town of southern France, in the department of Tarn, 15 m. N.W.
of Albi by road. Pop. (1906) 1619. Cordes, which covers the summit and
slopes of an isolated hill, was a bastide founded by Raymond VII., count
of Toulouse, in the first half of the 13th century. It preserves its
medieval aspect to a remarkable degree, a large number of houses of the
13th and 14th centuries, with decorated fronts, forming its chief
attraction. A church of the same periods and remains of the original
ramparts are also to be seen.



CORDILLERA, a Spanish term for a range or chain of mountains, derived
from the Old Spanish _cordilla_, the diminutive of _cuerda_, a cord or
rope. The name was first given to the Andes ranges of South America,
_Las Cordilleras de los Andes_, and applied to the extension of the
system into Mexico. In North America the parallel ranges of mountains
running between and including the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada
are known as the "Cordilleras," and that part of the western continent
crossed by them has been termed the "Cordilleran region." Although the
name has been applied to the eastern mountain system of Australia, the
word is not, outside America, used as a generic term for parallel ranges
of mountains.



CORDITE, the name given to the smokeless propellant in use in the
British army and navy. The material is produced in the form of
cylindrical rods or strings of varying thicknesses by pressing the
material, whilst in a soft and pasty state, through dies or perforations
in a steel plate by hydraulic or screw pressure, hence the name cordite.
The thickness or size of the rods varies from about 1 mm. diameter to 5
or more mm. according to the nature of the charge for which it is
intended. The smallest diameter is used for revolver cartridge and the
largest for heavy guns. When first devised by the Ordnance Committee,
presided over by Sir Frederick Abel, in 1891, this explosive consisted
of 58% of nitro-glycerin, 37% of gun-cotton, and 5% of mineral jelly.
This variety is now known as Cordite Mark 1. At the present time a
modification is made which contains gun-cotton 65%, nitro-glycerin 30%,
and mineral jelly 5%. This is known as Cordite M.D. The advantages of
Cordite M.D. over Mark 1 are slightly reduced rate of burning, higher
velocities and more regular pressure in the gun, and lower temperature.

Cordite of either mark is a perfectly waterproof substance, containing
only traces of water remaining from the manufacturing processes. It has
a density of about 1.56 at the ordinary temperature (15° C.), and, as
its coefficient of expansion is small, this density does not change to
any serious extent under climatic temperature variations. A rod may be
bent to a moderate extent without breaking, and Cordite M.D. especially
shows considerable elasticity. It can be impressed by the nail and cut
with a knife, but is not in the least sticky, nor does the
nitro-glycerin exude to any appreciable extent. It can be obtained in a
finely-divided state by scraping with a sharp knife, or on a new file,
or by grinding in a mill, such as a coffee-mill, but can scarcely be
pounded in a mortar. Cordite is of a brownish colour in mass, but is
much paler when finely ground or scraped. The rods easily become
electrified by gentle friction with a dry substance. Like all colloidal
substances it is an exceedingly bad conductor of heat. A piece ignited
in air burns with a yellowish flame. With the smaller sizes, about 2 mm.
diameter or less, this flame may be blown out, and the rod will continue
to burn in a suppressed manner without actual flame, fumes containing
oxides of nitrogen being emitted. Temperature appears to have an effect
on the rate of burning. When much cooled it certainly burns more slowly
than when at the ordinary air temperature, and is also more difficult to
ignite. Rods of moderate thickness, say from 5 mm. diameter, will
continue to burn under water if first ignited in air and the burning
portion slowly immersed. The end of a rod of cordite may be struck a
moderately heavy blow on an anvil without exploding or igniting. The rod
will first flatten out. A _sharp_ blow will then detonate or explode
the portion immediately under the hammer, the remainder of the rod
remaining quite intact. Bullets may be fired through a bundle or package
of cordite without detonating or inflaming it. This is of course a
valuable quality. The exact temperature at which substances ignite or
take fire is in all cases difficult to determine with any exactness.
Cordite is not _instantly_ ignited on contact with a flame such as that
of a candle, because, perhaps, of the condensation of some moisture from
the products of burning of the candle upon it. A blow-pipe flame or a
red-hot wire is more rapid in action. The ignition temperature may be
somewhere in the region of 180° C.

All the members of this class of explosive when kept for some time at
(for them) moderately high temperatures, such as the boiling-point of
water (100° C.), show signs of decomposition; oxides of nitrogen are
liberated, and some complex oxidation processes are started. Carefully
prepared gun-cotton and nitro-glycerin will, however, withstand this
temperature for a long time without serious detriment, excepting that
nitro-glycerin is slightly volatilized. When incorporated in cordite,
however, the nitro-glycerin appears to be much less volatile than when
free at this temperature. Under reduced pressure (3 or 4 in. only of
mercury instead of 30) it is possible to distil away a considerable
amount of nitro-glycerin from cordite at 100° C. It is very doubtful
whether at ordinary temperatures and pressures any nitro-glycerin
whatever evaporates.

Cordite may be kept in contact with clean, dry metals, wood, paper, and
a number of ordinary substances without deterioration. In contact with
damp and easily oxidizable metals all the substances of the gun-cotton
class are liable to a slight local action, but the colloid nature, and
probably also the contained mineral jelly, protect cordite considerably
in these circumstances. Ammonia has a deleterious action, but even this
proceeds but slowly. Cordite does not appear to change when kept under
water.

The manufacturing processes comprise: drying the gun-cotton and
nitro-glycerin; melting and filtering the mineral jelly; weighing and
mixing the nitro-glycerin with the gun-cotton; moistening this mixture
with acetone until it becomes a jelly; and then incorporating in a
special mixing mill for about three hours, after which the weighed
amount of mineral jelly is added and the incorporation continued for
about one hour or until judged complete. The incorporating or mixing
machine is covered as closely as possible to prevent too great
evaporation of the very volatile acetone. Before complete incorporation
the mixture is termed, in the works, "paste," and, when finally mixed,
"dough."

The right consistency having been produced, the material is placed in a
steel cylinder provided with an arrangement of dies or holes of
regulated size at one end, and a piston or plunger at the other. The
plunger is worked either by hydraulic power or by a screw (driven from
ordinary shafting). Before reaching and passing through the holes in the
die, the material is filtered through a disk of fine wire gauze to
retain any foreign substances, such as sand, bits of wood or metal, or
unchanged fibres of cellulose, &c., which might choke the dies or be
otherwise dangerous. The material issues from the cylinders in the form
of cord or string of the diameter of the holes of the die. The thicker
sizes are cut off, as they issue, into lengths (of about 3 ft.), it
being generally arranged that a certain number of these--say ten--should
have, within narrow limits, a definite weight. The small sizes, such as
those employed for rifle cartridges, are wound on reels or drums, as the
material issues from the press cylinders, in lengths of many yards.

Some of the solvent or gelatinizing material (acetone) is lost during
the incorporating, and more during the pressing process and the
necessary handling, but much still remains in the cordite at this stage.
It is now dried in heated rooms, where it is generally spread out on
shelves, a current of air passing through carrying the acetone vapour
with it. In the more modern works this air current is drawn, finally,
through a solution of a substance such as sodium bisulphite; a fixed
compound is thus formed with the acetone, which by suitable treatment
may be recovered. The time taken in the drying varies with the
thickness of the cordite from a few days to several weeks. For several
reasons it is desirable that this process should go on gradually and
slowly.

After drying, all the various batches of cordite of the same size are
carefully "blended," so that any slight differences in the manufacture
of one batch or one day's output may be equalized as much as possible.
Slight differences may arise from the raw materials, cotton waste or
glycerin, or in the making of these into gun-cotton or nitro-glycerin
respectively. To help in controlling the blending, each "make" of
gun-cotton and nitro-glycerin is "marked" or numbered, and carries its
mark to the cordite batch of which it is an ingredient. The history of
each box of large-sized or reel of small-sized cordite is therefore
known up to the operation of blending and packing. The final testing is
by firing proofs, as in the case of the old gunpowders.

The gun-cotton employed for cordite is made in the usual way (see
GUN-COTTON), with the exception of treating with alkali. It is also
after complete washing with water gently pressed into small cylinders
(about 3 in. diameter and 4 in. high) whilst wet, and these are
carefully dried before the nitro-glycerin is added. The pressure applied
is only sufficient to make the gun-cotton just hold together so that it
is easily mixed with the nitro-glycerin. The mineral jelly or vaseline
is obtained at a certain stage of distillation of petroleum, and is a
mixture of hydrocarbons, paraffins, olefines and some other unsaturated
hydrocarbons, possibly aromatic, which no doubt play a very important
part as preservatives in cordite.

The stability of cordite, that is, its capability of keeping without
chemical or ballistic changes, is judged of by certain "heat tests." The
Abel heat test consists in subjecting a weighed quantity, 2 grams, of
the finely divided cordite contained in a test tube, to a temperature of
70° C. maintained constant by a water bath. The test tube is about 6×¾
in., and dips into the water sufficiently to immerse about 2 in., viz.
the part containing the cordite. In the upper free portion a piece of
filter-paper impregnated with a mixture of potassium iodide and starch
paste is suspended by a platinum wire from the stopper of the tube. A
portion of the test paper is moistened with a solution of glycerin to
render it more sensitive than the dry part. A faint brown colour
appearing on the moistened portion indicates that some oxides of
nitrogen have been evolved from the cordite. This brown tint is compared
with a standard, and the time taken before the standard tint appears is
noted. The time fixed upon as a test of relative stability is an
arbitrary one determined by examination of well-known specimens. Should
the cordite or other explosive contain traces of mercury salts, such as
mercuric chloride, which is sometimes added as a preservative, this test
is rendered nugatory, and no coloration may appear (or only after a long
exposure), although the sample may be of indifferent stability. It is
now customary to examine specially for mercury, either by heating the
explosive in contact with gold leaf or silver foil, or by burning the
substance and examining the flame in the spectroscope.

The method of examination known as the vacuum silvered vessel process is
probably not interfered with by the presence of very small quantities of
mercury. It consists in heating 50 grams of the finely divided explosive
in a Dewar's silvered vacuum glass bulb to a rigidly constant
temperature of 80° C. for many hours. A sensitive thermometer having its
bulb immersed in the centre of the cordite shows when the temperature
rises above 80°. Such a rise indicates internal oxidation or
decomposition of the explosive; it is accompanied by an evolution of
nitrogen dioxide, NO2, the depth of colour of which is noted through a
side tube attached to the bulb. As all explosives of this class would in
time decompose sufficiently to give these indications, time periods or
limits have been fixed at which an appreciable and definite rise in
temperature and production of red fumes indicate relative stability or
instability.     (W. R. E. H.)



CÓRDOBA, GONZALO FERNANDEZ DE (1453-1515), Spanish general and
statesman, usually spoken of by the Italianized form of his Christian
name as GONSALVO DE CÓRDOBA, or as "the Great Captain," was the second
son of Don Pedro Fernandez de Córdoba, count of Aguilar, and of his wife
Elvira de Herrera, who belonged to the family of Enriquez, the
hereditary admirals of Castile, a branch of the royal house. Gonzalo was
born at Montilla near the city of Córdova (Cordoba) on the 16th of March
1453. The father died when he and his elder brother, Don Alonso, were
mere boys. The counts of Aguilar carried on an hereditary feud with the
rival house of Cabra, and the children were carried by their vassals
into the faction fights of the two families. As a younger son Gonzalo
had his fortune to make, but he was generously aided by the affection of
his elder brother, who was very wealthy. War and service in the king's
court offered the one acceptable career outside the church to a
gentleman of his birth.

He was first attached to the household of Don Alphonso, the king's
brother, and upon his death devoted himself to Isabella, afterwards the
queen. During the civil war, and the conflict with Portugal which
disturbed the first years of her reign, he fought under the grand master
of Santiago, Alonso de Cardenas. After the battle of Albuera, the grand
master gave him especial praise, saying that he could always see Gonzalo
to the front because he was conspicuous by the splendour of his armour.
Indeed the future Great Captain, who, as a general, was above all things
astute and patient, could, and habitually did, display the most reckless
personal daring, going into a fight as if he loved it, and having a
shrewd sense that a reputation for intrepidity, a free-handed profusion,
and the personal magnificence which strikes the eye, would secure him
the devotion of his soldiers. During the ten years' war for the conquest
of Granada he completed his apprenticeship under his brother, the count
of Aguilar, the grand master of Santiago, and the count of Tendilla, of
whom he always spoke as his masters. It was a war of surprises and
defences of castles or towns, of skirmishes, and of ambuscades in the
defiles of the mountains. The military engineer and the "guerrillero"
were about equally employed. Gonzalo's most distinguished single feat
was the defence of the advanced post of Illora, but he commanded the
queen's escort when she wished to take a closer view of Granada, and he
beat back a sortie of the Moors under her eyes. When Granada
surrendered, he was one of the officers chosen to arrange the
capitulation, and on the peace he was rewarded by a grant of land.

So far he was only known as an able subordinate, but his capacity could
not be hidden from such an excellent judge of character as Isabella, to
whom as a woman he appealed by a chivalrous union of devotion and
respect. When, therefore, the Catholic sovereigns decided to support the
Aragonese house of Naples against Charles VIII. of France, Gonzalo was
chosen by the influence of the queen, and in preference to older men, to
command the Spanish expedition. It was in Italy that he won the title of
the Great Captain; Guicciardini says that it was given him by the
customary arrogance of the Spaniards, but it was certainly accepted as
just by all the soldiers of the time of whatever nationality. A detailed
account of his campaigns cannot be given here. He held the command in
Italy twice. In 1495 he was sent with a small force of little more than
five thousand men to aid Ferdinand of Naples to recover his kingdom, and
he returned home after achieving success, in 1498. After a brief
interval of service against the conquered Moors who had risen in revolt,
he returned to Italy in 1501. Ferdinand of Spain had entered into his
iniquitous compact with Louis XII. of France for the spoliation and
division of the kingdom of Naples. The Great Captain was chosen to
command the Spanish part of this robber coalition. As general and as
viceroy of Naples he remained in Italy till 1507. During his first
command he was mostly employed in Calabria in mountain warfare which
bore much resemblance to his former experience in Granada. There was,
however, a material difference in the enemy. The French forces,
commanded by the Scotsman Stuart d'Aubigny, consisted largely of Swiss
pikemen, and of their own men-at-arms. With his veterans of the
Granadine war, foot soldiers armed with sword and buckler, or arquebuses
and crossbows, and light cavalry, trained to unsleeping vigilance,
capable of long marches, and of an endurance unparalleled among the
soldiers of the time, he could carry on a guerrillero warfare which wore
down his opponents, who suffered far more than the Spaniards from the
heat. But he saw clearly that this was not enough. His experience in
Seminara showed him that something more was wanted on the battlefield.
The action was lost mainly because King Ferdinand, disregarding the
advice of Gonzalo, persisted in fighting a pitched battle with inferior
numbers, some of whom were untrustworthy Neapolitans. The Spanish foot
behaved excellently, but the result showed that in the open field their
loose formation and their swords put them at a disadvantage as against a
charge of heavy cavalry or pikemen. Gonzalo therefore introduced a much
more strict formation, and adopted the pike as the weapon of a part of
his foot. The division of the Spanish infantry into the "battle" or main
central body of pikemen, and the wings (_alas_) of "shot" to be employed
in outflanking the enemy, was primarily due to the Great Captain.

The French were expelled by 1498 without another battle. When the Great
Captain reappeared in Italy he had first to perform the congenial task
of driving the Turk from Cephalonia, then to aid in robbing the king of
Naples, Frederick, brother of his old ally Ferdinand. When the king of
Naples had been despoiled, the French and Spaniards quarrelled over the
booty. The Great Captain now found himself with a much outnumbered army
in the presence of the French. The war was divided into two phases very
similar to one another. During the end of 1502 and the early part of
1503 the Spaniards stood at bay in the entrenched camp at Barletta near
the Ofanto on the shores of the Adriatic. He resolutely refused to be
tempted into battle either by the taunts of the French or the discontent
of his own soldiers. Meanwhile he employed the Aragonese partisans in
the country, and flying expeditions of his own men, to harass the
enemy's communications. When he was reinforced, and the French committed
the mistake of scattering their forces too much to secure supplies, he
took the offensive, pounced on the enemy's depot of provisions at
Cerignola, took a strong position, threw up hasty field works, and
strengthened them with a species of wire entanglements. The French made
a headlong front attack, were repulsed, assailed in flank, and routed.
The later operations on the Garigliano were very similar, and led to the
total expulsion of the French from Naples. Gonzalo remained as governor
of Naples till 1507. But he had become too great not to arouse the
jealousy of such a typical king of the Renaissance as Ferdinand the
Catholic. The death of the queen in 1504 had deprived him of a friend,
and it must be allowed that he was profuse in rewarding his captains and
his soldiers out of the public treasury. Ferdinand loaded him with
titles and fine words, but recalled him so soon as he could, and left
him unemployed till his death on the 2nd of December 1515.

The Great Captain is sometimes spoken of as the first of modern
generals. The expression is uncritical, for modern generalship arose
from many sides, but he was emphatically a general. There is much in his
methods which bears a curious likeness to those of the duke of
Wellington; Barletta, for instance, has a distinct resemblance to the
Torres Vedras campaign, and the battle on the Garigliano to Assaye. As
an organizer he founded the Spanish infantry of the 16th and 17th
centuries, and he gave the best proof of his influence by forming a
school of officers. The best generals of Charles V. were either the
pupils of the Great Captain or were trained by them.

  There is no life of Gonzalo de Córdoba written by a scholar who was
  also a good judge of war. The dull _Cronica del Gran Capitan_ gives
  the bare events of his campaigns rather wearisomely but fully. Paulus
  Govius, _Vitae illustrium virorum_, translated by Domenichi (Florence,
  1550), is elegant and very readable. Don José Quintana includes him in
  his _Españoles celebres_ (_Rivadeneyra Biblioteca de autores
  españoles_, vol. xix., Madrid, 1846-1880); and Prescott collected the
  authorities, and made good use of them in his _Ferdinand and
  Isabella_. See also P. du Poncet, _Histoire de Gonsalve de Cordoue_
  (Paris, 1714). The _Gonsalve de Cordoue, ou Grenade reconquise_ of
  Florian (Paris, 1791) is a romance.     (D. H.)



CÓRDOBA, a large central province of the Argentine Republic, bounded N.
by Santiago del Estero, E. by Santa Fé, S. by Buenos Aires and La Pampa,
W. by San Luis and Rioja, and N.W. by Catamarca. Pop. (1895) 351,223;
(1904, estimate) 465,464; area, 62,160 sq. m. The greater part of the
province belongs to the pampas, though less fertile and grassy than the
plains farther E. and S. It likewise includes large saline and swampy
areas. The N.W. part of the province is traversed by an isolated
mountain system made up of the Córdoba, Pocho and Ischilin sierras,
which extend for a distance of some 200 m. in a N. and S. direction.
These ranges intercept the moist winds from the Atlantic, and receive on
their eastern slopes an abundant rainfall, which gives them a strikingly
verdant appearance in comparison with the surrounding plains. West and
N.W. of the sierras are extensive saline basins called Las Salinas
Grandes, which extend into the neighbouring provinces and are absolutely
barren. In the N.E. the land is low and swampy; here are the large
saline lagoons of Mar Chiquita and Los Porongos. The principal rivers,
which have their sources in the sierras and flow eastward, are the
Primero and Segundo, which flow north-easterly into the lacustrine basin
of Mar Chiquita; the Tercero and Quarto, which unite near the Santa Fé
frontier to form the Carcaraña, a tributary of the Paraná; and the
Quinto, which flows south-easterly into the swamps of the Laguna Amarga
in the S. part of the province. Countless small streams also descend the
eastern slopes of the sierras and are lost in the great plains. The
eastern districts are moderately fertile, and are chiefly devoted to
cattle-breeding, though cereals are also produced. In the valleys and
well-watered foothills of the sierras, however, cereals, alfalfa and
fruit are the principal products. The rainfall is limited throughout the
province, and irrigation is employed in but few localities. The mineral
resources include gold, silver, copper, lead and iron, but mining is
carried on only to a very limited extent. Salt and marble are also
produced. Córdoba is traversed by several railway lines--those running
westward from Buenos Aires and Rosario to Mendoza and the Chilean
frontier, those connecting the city of Córdoba with the same cities, and
with Tucuman on the N. and Catamarca and Rioja on the N.W. The chief
towns are Córdoba, the capital, Rio Quarto, Villa Maria, an important
railway centre 82 m. S.E. of Córdoba, and Cruz del Eje on the W. slopes
of the sierras, 110 m. N.W. of Córdoba.



CÓRDOBA, a city in the central part of the Argentine Republic, capital
of the above province, on the Rio Primero, 435 m. by rail N.W. of Buenos
Aires by way of Rosario, 246 m. from the latter. Pop. (1895) 42,783--the
suburbs having 11,679 more--(1905, estimate) 60,000. The city is
connected by railway with Buenos Aires and Rosario, and with the
capitals of all the surrounding provinces. Córdoba stands on a high
eastward-sloping plain called the "Altos," 1240 ft. above sea-level, and
is built in a broad river bottom washed out by periodical inundations
and the action of the rains on the alluvial banks. The inundations have
been brought under control by the construction of barriers and dams, but
the banks are constantly broken down. The city is regularly laid out,
and contains many fine edifices and dwellings. Several suburban
settlements surround the city, the more important of which are served by
the urban tramway lines. The streets are lighted by gas and electricity,
and an excellent telephone service is maintained. The noteworthy public
buildings include the cathedral, a handsome edifice curiously oriental
in appearance, a massive old Jesuit church with a ceiling of richly
carved and gilded cedar, the old university, founded in 1613, which
still occupies the halls built by the Jesuits around a large quadrangle,
the fine old _cabildo_, or government house, of Moorish appearance, and
the national observatory on the _barranca_ overlooking the city. There
are, also, two national normal schools, a national college, an episcopal
seminary, an endowed Carmelite orphanage, a national meteorological
station, a national academy of sciences, and a good public library.
Among the attractive features of the city is an alameda of about six
acres, within which is a square artificial lake of 4 acres, surrounded
by shrubbery and shaded walks; the alameda dates from the time when the
Jesuits ruled the city, and to them also are due the tiled baths,
supplied with running water. A short avenue connects the alameda with
the principal _plaza_, a pretty garden and promenade. The water supply
of Córdoba is derived from the Rio Primero, 12 m. above the city, where
an immense dam (Dique San Roque), one of the largest of its kind in
South America, has been built across the river valley. This dam also
serves to irrigate the valley below, and to furnish power for the
electric plant which provides Córdoba with light and electric power. In
and about the city there are several industrial establishments which
have sprung into existence since the opening of the first railway in
1870. The surrounding country is irrigated and well cultivated, and
produces an abundance of fruit and vegetables.

The city was founded in 1573 by Luis Geronimo de Cabrera and was for a
long time distinguished for its learning and piety. It was the
headquarters of the Jesuits in this part of South America for two
centuries, and for a time the capital of the Spanish _intendencia_ of
Tucuman. The expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767 proved to be a serious
blow to the academic reputation of the city, from which it did not
recover until 1870, when President Sarmiento engaged some eminent
scientific men from Europe to teach modern science in the university.



CÓRDOBA, a town of the state of Vera Cruz, Mexico, 55 m. W.S.W. of the
port of Vera Cruz, in a highly fertile valley, near the volcano of
Orizaba, and 2880 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1895) 7974. The surrounding
district produces sugar, tobacco and coffee, Córdoba being one of the
principal coffee-producing centres of Mexico. It also manufactures
cotton and woollen fabrics. The town is regularly laid out and built of
stone, and contains several handsome edifices, chief of which is the old
cathedral. Córdoba was a town of considerable importance in colonial
times, but fell into decay after the revolution. The railway from Vera
Cruz to Mexico, which passes through it, and the development of coffee
production, have helped the city to recover a part of its lost trade.



CORDON (a French derivative of _corde_, cord), a word used in many
applications of its meaning of "line" or "cord," and particularly of a
cord of gold or silver lace worn in military and other uniforms. The
word is especially used of the sash or ribbon worn by members of an
order of knighthood, crossing from one shoulder to the opposite hip. The
_cordon bleu_, the sky-blue ribbon of the knight's grand cross of the
order of the Holy Spirit, the highest order of the Bourbon kings of
France, was, like the "blue ribbon" of the English Garter, taken as a
type of the highest reward or prize to which any one can attain (see
also COOKERY). In heraldry, "cordons" are the ornamental cords which,
with the hats to which they are attached, ensign the shields of arms of
certain ecclesiastical dignitaries; they are interlaced to form a mesh
or network and terminate in rows of tassels. A cardinal's cordon is
_gules_ with five rows of fifteen tassels, an archbishop's _vert_ with
four rows of ten, and a bishop's also _vert_, with three rows of six. In
architecture a "cordon" is a projecting band of stone along the outside
of a building, a string-course. The word is frequently used in a
transferred sense of a line of posts or stations to guard an enclosed
area from unauthorized passage, e.g. a military or police cordon, and
especially a sanitary cordon, a line of posts to prevent communication
from or with an area infected with disease.



CORDOVA (Span. _Córdoba_), an inland province of southern Spain, bounded
on the N.E. by Ciudad Real, E. by Jaén, S.E. by Granada, S. by Málaga,
S.W. and W. by Seville, and N.W. by Badajoz. Pop. (1900) 455,859; area,
5299 sq. m. The river Guadalquivir divides the province into two very
dissimilar portions. On the right bank is the mountainous region of the
Sierra Morena, less peopled and fertile than the left bank, with its
great plains (_La Campiña_) and slightly undulating country towards the
south and south-east, where the surface again becomes mountainous with
the outlying ridges of the Sierra Nevada. The Guadalquivir, flowing from
E.N.E. to W.S.W., waters the richest districts of Cordova, and has many
tributaries, notably the Bembezar, Guadiato and Guadamellato, on the
right, and the Genil and Guadajoz on the left. The northern districts
(_Los Pedroches_) are drained by several small tributaries of the
Guadiana. The climate is much varied. Snow is to be found for months on
the highest peaks of the mountains; mild temperature in the plains,
except in the few torrid summer months, when rain seldom falls. The
peasantry are chiefly occupied in various branches of husbandry;
sheep-farming and the culture of the olive employ large numbers. The
agricultural wealth of Cordova is, however, not fully exploited, owing
to the conservatism and backward education of the peasantry. There are
no great manufacturing towns, but mining is an industry of some
importance. In 1903 coal was obtained in considerable quantities in the
Belmez district; argentiferous lead and zinc near Pozoblanco and
elsewhere; iron ore at Luque, near Baena. A small amount of bismuth is
also obtained. Mining is facilitated by a fairly complete and well-kept
system of communication by road and railway. The main line
Madrid-Lináres-Seville follows the Guadalquivir valley throughout the
province, passing through the capital, Cordova. Here it meets the line
from Almorchón, on the north, to Málaga, on the south, which has three
important branches--Belmez-Fuente del Arco, Cordova-Utrera, and Puente
Genil-Jaén. After the capital, the principal towns are Aguilar de la
Frontera (13,236), Baena (14,539), Cabra (13,127), Fuente Ovejuna
(11,777), Lucena (21,179), Montilla (13,603), Montoro (14,581),
Pozoblanco (12,792), Priego de Cordoba (16,904) and Puente Genil
(12,956). These are described under separate headings. Other towns of
less importance are Adamuz (6974), Belalcázar (7682), Belmez (8978),
Bujalance (10,756), Castro del Río (11,821), Hinojosa del Duque
(10,673), Palma del Río (7914), Rute (10,740) and Villafranca de Córdoba
(9771).



CORDOVA (Span. _Córdoba_; Lat. _Corduba_), the capital of the Spanish
province of Cordova, on the southern slopes of the Sierra de Cordova,
and the right bank of the river Guadalquivir. Pop. (1900) 58,275. At
Cordova the Madrid-Seville railway meets the branch line from Almorchón
to Málaga. The city is an episcopal see. Few fragments remain of its
Moorish walls, which were erected on Roman foundations and enclosed a
very wide area, now largely occupied by garden-ground cleared from the
ruins of ancient buildings. On the outskirts are many modern factories
in striking contrast with the surrounding orange, lemon and olive
plantations, and with the pastures which belong to the celebrated
Cordovan school of bull-fighting. Nearer the centre the streets are for
the most part narrow and crooked. Almost every building, however, is
profusely covered with whitewash, and thus there is little difference on
the surface between the oldest and the most modern houses. The southern
suburb communicates with the town by means of a bridge of sixteen arches
across the river, exhibiting the usual combination of Roman and Moorish
masonry and dominated at the one end by an elevated statue of the patron
saint, St Raphael, whose effigy is to be seen in various other quarters
of the city. The most important of the public buildings are the
cathedral, the old monastic establishments, the churches, the bishop's
palace, the city hall, the hospitals and the schools and colleges,
including the academy for girls founded in 1590 by Bishop Pacheco of
Cordova, which is empowered to grant degrees. The Alcázar, or royal
palace, stands on the south-west amid the gardens laid out by its
builder, the caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III. (912-961). Its older parts are in
ruins, and even the so-called New Alcázar, erected by Alphonso XI. of
Castile in 1328, and long used as the offices of the Holy Inquisition,
has only one wing in good repair, which serves as a prison.

But the glory of Cordova, surpassing all its other Moorish or Christian
buildings, is the _mezquita_, or mosque, now a cathedral, but originally
founded on the site of a Roman temple and a Visigothic church by
Abd-ar-Rahman I. (756-788), who wished to confirm the power of his
caliphate by making its capital a great religious centre. Immigration
from all the lands of Islam soon rendered a larger mosque necessary,
owing to the greatly increased multitude of worshippers, and, by orders
of Abd-ar-Rahman II. (822-852) and Al-Hakim II. (961-976), the original
size was doubled. After various minor additions, Al-Mansur, the vizier
of the caliph Hisham II. (976-1009), again enlarged the _Zeca_, or House
of Purification, as the mosque was named, to twice its former size,
rendering it the largest sacred building of Islam, after the Kaaba at
Mecca. The ground plan of the completed mosque forms a rectangle,
measuring 570 ft. in length and 425 in breadth, or little less than St
Peter's in Rome. About one-third of this area is occupied by the
courtyard, and the cloisters which surround it on the north, west and
east. The exterior, with the straight lines of its square buttress
towers, has a heavy and somewhat ungainly appearance; but the interior
is one of the most beautiful specimens of Moorish architecture. Passing
through a grand courtyard about 500 ft. in length, shady with palm and
cypress and orange trees and watered by five fountains, the visitor
enters on the south a magnificent and bewildering labyrinth of pillars
in which porphyry, jasper and many-coloured marbles are boldly combined.
Part came from the spoils of Nîmes or Narbonne, part from Seville or
Tarragona, some from the older ruins of Carthage, and others as a
present to Abd-ar-Rahman I. from the East Roman emperor Leo IV., who
sent also from Constantinople his own skilled workmen, with 16 tons of
tesserae for the mosaics. Originally of different heights, the pillars
have been adjusted to their present standard of 12 ft. either by being
sunk into the soil or by the addition of Corinthian capitals. Twelve
hundred was the number of the columns in the original building, but many
have been destroyed. The pillars divide the area of the building from
north to south, longitudinally into nineteen and transversely into
twenty-nine aisles--each row supporting a tier of open Moorish arches of
the same height (12 ft.) with a third and similar tier superimposed upon
the second. The full height of the ceiling is thus about 35 ft. The
Moorish character of the building was unfortunately impaired in the 16th
century by the formation in the interior of a _crucero_, or high altar
and cruciform choir, by the addition of numerous chapels along the sides
of the vast quadrangle, and by the erection of a belfry 300 ft. high in
room of the old minaret. The _crucero_ in itself is no disgrace to the
architect Hernan Ruiz, but every lover of art must sympathize with the
rebuke administered by the emperor Charles V. (1500-1558) to the
cathedral authorities: "You have built here what could have been built
as well anywhere else; and you have destroyed what was unique in the
world." Magnificent, indeed, as the cathedral still is, it is almost
impossible to realize what the mosque must have been when the
worshippers thronged through its nineteen gateways of bronze, and its
4700 lamps, fed with perfumed oil, illuminated its brilliant aisles. Of
the exquisite elaboration bestowed on the more sacred portions abundant
proof is afforded by the third _Mihrab_, or prayer-recess, a small
10th-century chapel, heptagonal in shape, roofed with a single
shell-like block of snow-white marble, and inlaid with Byzantine mosaics
of glass and gold.

Cordova was celebrated in the time of the Moors for its silversmiths,
who are said to have come originally from Damascus; and it exported a
peculiar kind of leather which took its name from the city, whence is
derived the word _cordwainer_. Fine silver filigree ornaments are still
produced; and Moorish work in leather is often skilfully imitated,
although this handicraft almost disappeared in the 15th century. The
chief modern industries of Cordova are distillation of spirits and the
manufacture of woollen, linen and silken goods.

Corduba, probably of Carthaginian origin, was occupied by the Romans
under Marcus Marcellus in 152 B.C.. and shortly afterwards became the
first Roman _colonia_ in Spain. From the large number of men of noble
rank among the colonists, the city obtained the title of _Patricia_; and
to this day the Cordovese pride themselves on the purity and antiquity
of their descent. In the 1st century B.C. Cordova aided the sons of
Pompey against Caesar; but after the battle of Munda, in 45 B.C., it
fell into the hands of Caesar, who avenged the obstinacy of its
resistance by massacring 20,000 of the inhabitants. Under Augustus, if
not before, it became a municipality, and was the capital of the
thoroughly Romanized province of Baetica. In the lifetime of Strabo,
however (c. 63 B.C.-A.D. 21), it still ranked as the largest city of
Spain. Its prosperity was due partly to its position on the Baetis, and
on the Via Augusta, the great commercial road from northern Spain built
by Augustus, and partly to its proximity to mines and rich grazing and
grain-producing districts. Hosius, its bishop, presided over the first
council of Nicaea in 345; and its importance was maintained by the
Visigothic kings, whose rule lasted from the 5th to the beginning of the
8th century. Under the Moors, Cordova was at first an appanage of the
caliphate of Damascus; but after 756 Abd-ar-Rahman I. made it the
capital of Moorish Spain, and the centre of an independent caliphate
(see ABD-AR-RAHMAN). It reached its zenith of prosperity in the middle
of the 10th century, under Abd-ar-Rahman III. At his death, it is
recorded by native chroniclers, probably with Arabic exaggeration, that
Cordova contained within its walls 200,000 houses, 600 mosques, 900
baths, a university, and numerous public libraries; whilst on the bank
of the Guadalquivir, under the power of its monarch, there were eight
cities, 300 towns and 12,000 populous villages. A period of decadence
began in 1016, owing to the claims of the rival dynasties which aimed at
succeeding to the line of Abd-ar-Rahman; the caliphate never won back
its position, and in 1236 Cordova was easily captured by Ferdinand III.
of Castile. The substitution of Spanish for Moorish supremacy rather
accelerated than arrested the decline of art, industry and population;
and in the 19th century Cordova never recovered from the disaster of
1808, when it was stormed and sacked by the French. Few cities of Spain,
however, can boast of so long a list of illustrious natives in the
Moorish and Roman periods, and even, to a less extent, in modern times.
It was the birthplace of the rhetorician Marcus Annaeus Seneca, and his
more famous son Lucius (c. 3 B.C.-A.D. 65); of the poet Lucan (A.D.
39-65); of the philosophers Averroes (1126-1198) and Maimonides
(1135-1204); of the Spanish men of letters Juan de Mena (c. 1411-1456),
Lorenzo de Sepúlveda (d. 1574) and Luis de Gongora y Argote (1561-1627);
and the painters Pablo de Céspedes (1538-1608) and Juan de Valdés Leal
(1630-1691). The celebrated captain Gonzalo Fernandez de Córdoba (q.v.),
the conqueror of Naples (1495-1498), was born in the neighbouring town
of Montilla.

  See _Estudio descriptivo de los monumentos árabes de Granada y
  Córdoba_, by R. Contreras (Madrid, 1885); _Córdoba_, a large
  illustrated volume of the series _España_, by P. de Madrazo
  (Barcelona, 1884); _Inscripciones árabes de Córdoba_, by R. Amador de
  los Ríos y Villalta (Madrid, 1886).



CORDUROY, a cotton cloth of the fustian kind, made like a ribbed velvet.
It is generally a coarse heavy material and is used largely for
workmen's clothes, but some finer kinds are used for ladies' dresses,
&c. According to the _New English Dictionary_ the word is understood to
be of English invention, "either originally intended, or soon after
assumed, to represent a supposed French _corde du roi_." It is said that
a coarse woollen fabric called _duroy_, made in Somerset during the 18th
century, has no apparent connexion with it. From the ribbed appearance
of the cloth the name _corduroy_ is applied, particularly in America, to
a rough road of logs laid transversely side by side, usually across
swampy ground.



CORDUS, AULUS CREMUTIUS, Roman historian of the later Augustan age. He
was the author of a history (perhaps called _Annales_) of the events of
the civil wars and the reign of Augustus, embracing the period from at
least 43-18 B.C. In A.D. 25 he was brought to trial for having eulogized
Brutus and spoken of Cassius as the last of the Romans. His real offence
was a witticism at the expense of Sejanus, who put up two of his
creatures to accuse him in the senate. Seeing that nothing could save
him, Cordus starved himself to death. A decree of the senate ordered
that his works should be confiscated and burned by the aediles. Some
copies, however, were saved by the efforts of Cordus's daughter Marcia,
and after the death of Tiberius the work was published at the express
wish of Caligula. It is impossible to form an opinion of it from the
scanty fragments (H. Peter, _Historicorum Romanorum Fragmenta_, 1883).
According to ancient authorities, the writer was very outspoken in his
denunciations, and his relatives considered it necessary to strike out
the most offensive passages of the work before it was widely circulated
(Quintilian, _Instit._ x. 1, 104). Two passages in Pliny (_Nat. Hist._
x. 74 [37], xvi. 108 [45]) seem to refer to a work of a different nature
from the history--perhaps a treatise on _Admiranda_ or remarkable
things.

  See Tacitus, _Annals_, iv. 34, 35; Suetonius, _Tiberius_, 61,
  _Caligula_, 16; Seneca, _Suasoriae_, vii., esp. the _Consolatio_ to
  Cordus's daughter Marcia; Dio Cassius lvii. 24. There are monographs
  by J. Held (1841) and C. Rathlef (1860). Also H. Peter, _Die
  geschichtliche Literatur über die römische Kaiserzeit_ (1897);
  Teuffel-Schwabe, _Hist. of Roman Lit._, Eng. trans., 277, 1.



CORELLI, ARCANGELO (1653-1713), Italian violin-player and composer, was
born on the 12th or 13th of February 1653, at Fusignano near Imola, and
died in 1713. Of his life little is known. His master on the violin was
Bassani. Matteo Simonelli, the well-known singer of the pope's chapel,
taught him composition. His first decided success was gained in Paris at
the age of nineteen. To this he owed his European reputation. From Paris
Corelli went to Germany. In 1681 he was in the service of the electoral
prince of Bavaria; between 1680 and 1685 he spent a considerable time in
the house of his friend Farinelli. In 1685 he was certainly in Rome,
where he led the festival performances of music for Queen Christine of
Sweden and was also a favourite of Cardinal Ottoboni. From 1689 to 1690
he was in Modena, the duke of which city made him handsome presents. In
1708 he went once more to Rome, living in the palace of Cardinal
Ottoboni. His visit to Naples, at the invitation of the king, took place
in the same year. The style of execution introduced by Corelli and
preserved by his pupils, such as Geminiani, Locatelli, and many others,
has been of vital importance for the development of violin-playing, but
he employed only a limited portion of his instrument's compass, as may
be seen by his writings, wherein the parts for the violin never proceed
above D on the first string, the highest note in the third position; it
is even said that he refused to play, as impossible, a passage which
extended to A in altissimo in the overture to Handel's _Trionfo del
Tempo_, and took serious offence when the composer played the note in
evidence of its practicability. His compositions for the instrument mark
an epoch in the history of chamber music; for his influence was not
confined to his own country. Even Sebastian Bach submitted to it.
Musical society in Rome owed much to Corelli. He was received in the
highest circles of the aristocracy, and arranged and for a long time
presided at the celebrated Monday concerts in the palace of Cardinal
Ottoboni. Corelli died possessed of a sum of 120,000 marks and a
valuable collection of pictures, the only luxury in which he had
indulged. He left both to his benefactor and friend, who, however,
generously made over the money to Corelli's relations. Corelli's
compositions are distinguished by a beautiful flow of melody and by a
masterly treatment of the accompanying parts, which he is justly said to
have liberated from the strict rules of counterpoint. Six collections of
concerti, sonatas and minor pieces for violin, with accompaniment of
other instruments, besides several concerted pieces for strings, are
authentically ascribed to this composer. The most important of these is
the XII. _Suonati a violino e violone o cimbalo_ (Rome, 1700).



CORELLI, MARIE (1864-   ), English novelist, was the daughter of an
Italian father and a Scottish mother, but in infancy was adopted by
Charles Mackay (q.v.), the song-writer and journalist, whose son Eric,
at his death, became her guardian. She was sent to be educated in a
French convent with the object of training her for the musical
profession, and while still a girl composed various pieces of music. But
her journalistic connexion proved a stronger stimulus to expression, and
editors who were friends of her adopted father printed some of her early
poetry. Then she produced what was at least a clever, if not a
remarkably well written, romantic story, on the theme of a
self-revelation connecting the Christian Deity with a world force in the
form of electricity, which was published in 1886 under the title of _A
Romance of Two Worlds_. It had an immediate and large sale, which
resulted, naturally, in her devoting her inventive faculty to satisfy
the public demand for similar work. Thus she wrote in succession a
series of melodramatic romantic novels, original in some aspects of
their treatment, daring in others, but all combining a readable plot
with enough _au fond_ of what the majority demanded in ethical and
religious correctness to suit a widespread contemporary taste; these
were _Vendetta_ (1886), _Thelma_ (1887), _Ardath_ (1889), _The Soul of
Lilith_ (1892), _Barabbas_ (1893), _The Sorrows of Satan_ (1895),--the
very titles were catching,--_The Mighty Atom_ (1896),--which appealed to
all who knew enough of modern science to wish to think it wicked,--and
others, down to _The Master Christian_ (1900), again satisfying the
socio-ethico-religious demand, and _Temporal Power_ (1902), with its
contemporary suggestion from the accession of Edward VII. Miss Corelli
had the advantage of writing quite sincerely and with conviction, amid
what superior critics sneered at as bad style and sensationalism, on
themes which conventional readers nevertheless enjoyed, and round plots
which were dramatic and vigorous. Her popular success was great and
advertised itself. It was helped by a well-spread belief that Queen
Victoria preferred her novels to any other. Reviewers wrote
sarcastically, and justly, of her obvious literary lapses and failings;
she retorted by pitying the poor reviewers and letting it be understood
that no books of hers were sent to the Press for criticism. When she
went to live at Stratford-on-Avon, her personality, and her importance
in the literary world, became further allied with the historic
associations of the place; and in the public life of women writers her
utterances had the _réclame_ which is emphasized by journalistic
publicity. Such success is not to be gauged by purely literary
standards; the popularity of Miss Corelli's novels is a phenomenon not
so much of literature as of literary energy--entirely creditable to the
journalistic resource of the writer, and characteristic of contemporary
pleasure in readable fiction.



CORENZIO, BELISARIO (c. 1558-1643), Italian painter, a Greek by birth,
studied at Venice under Tintoretto, and then settled at Naples, where he
became famous for unscrupulous conduct as a man and rapid execution as
an artist. Though careless in composition and a mannerist in style, he
possessed an acknowledged fertility of invention and readiness of hand;
and these qualities, allied to a certain breadth of conception, seem in
the eyes of his contemporaries to have atoned for many defects. When
Guido Reni came in 1621 to Naples to paint in the chapel of St
Januarius, Corenzio suborned an assassin to take his life. The hired
bravo killed Guido's assistant, and effectually frightened Reni, who
prudently withdrew to Rome. Corenzio, however, only suffered temporary
imprisonment, and lived long enough to supplant Ribera in the good
graces of Don Pedro di Toledo, viceroy of Naples, who made him his court
painter. Corenzio vainly endeavoured to fill Guido's place in the chapel
of St Januarius. His work was adjudged to have been under the mark, and
yet the numerous frescoes which he left in Neapolitan churches and
palaces, and the large wall paintings which still cover the cupola of
the church of Monte Casino are evidence of uncommon facility, and show
that Corenzio was not greatly inferior to the _fa prestos_ of his time.
His florid style, indeed, seems well in keeping with the overladen
architecture and full-blown decorative ornament peculiar to the Jesuit
builders of the 17th century. Corenzio died, it is said, at the age of
eighty-five by a fall from a scaffolding.



CO-RESPONDENT, in law, generally, a person made respondent to, or called
upon to answer, along with another or others, a petition or other
proceeding. More particularly, since the Matrimonial Causes Act 1857,
the term is applied to the person charged by a husband, when presenting
a petition praying for the dissolution of his marriage on the ground of
adultery, with misconduct with his wife, and made, jointly with her, a
respondent to the suit. (See also DIVORCE.)



CORFE CASTLE, a town in the eastern parliamentary division of
Dorsetshire, England, in the district called the Isle of Purbeck, 129½
m. S.W. by W. from London by the London & South-Western railway. Pop.
(1901) 1440. The castle, through which the town is famous, guarded a gap
in the line of considerable hills which rise in the centre of Purbeck.
It is strongly placed on an eminence falling almost sheer on three
sides. Its ruins are extensive, and date for the most part from the
Norman period to the reign of Edward I. There is, however, a trace of
early masonry which may have belonged to the Saxon house where, in 978,
King Edward the Martyr was murdered. Corfe Castle was held for the
empress Maud against King Stephen in 1139, was frequently the residence
of King John, and was a stronghold of the barons against Henry III.
Edward II. was imprisoned here for a short period. The castle withstood
a protracted siege by the Parliamentarians in 1643, and fell to them by
treachery in 1646, after which it was dismantled and wrecked. The church
in the town, almost wholly rebuilt, is dedicated to St Edward the
Martyr. The quarrying of Purbeck stone and the raising of potters' clay
are the chief industries.

Probably Corfe Castle (_Corfes geat_, _Corf geat_, _Corve_, _Corph_) was
an early Anglo-Saxon settlement. According to William of Malmesbury the
church was founded by St Aldhelm in the 7th century. In 1086 the abbey
of Shaftesbury held the manor, which afterwards passed to the Norman
kings, who raised the castle. Its date is disputed, but the town
dependent on it seems to have grown up during the 13th century, being
first mentioned in 1290, when an inquisition states that the mayor has
pesage of wool and cheese. The rights of the burgesses seem to have been
undefined, for frequent commissions attest to encroachments on the
rights of warren, forest and wreckage belonging to the royal manor. In
1380-1381 at an inquisition into the liberties of Corfe Castle, the
jurors declared that from time immemorial the constable and his steward
had held all pleas and amerciaments except those of the mayor's court of
Pie Powder, but that the town had judgment by fire, water and combat.
The tenants, or "barons," elected themselves a mayor and coroners, but
the constable received the assize of ale. Elizabeth in 1577 gave
exclusive admiralty jurisdiction within the island of Purbeck to Sir
Christopher Hatton, and granted the mayor and "barons" of Corfe the
rights they enjoyed by prescription and charter and that of not being
placed on juries or assizes in matters beyond the island. Charles II.
incorporated Corfe Castle in 1663, the mayor being elected at a court
leet from three nominees of the lord of the manor. Corfe Castle first
returned two representatives to parliament in 1572, but was
disfranchised in 1832. A market for each Saturday was granted to Corfe
in 1214, and in 1248 the town obtained a fair and a market on each
Thursday, while Elizabeth granted fairs on the feasts of St Philip and
St James and of St Luke; both of these still survive. As early as the
14th century the quarrying and export of marble gave employment to the
men of Corfe, and during the 18th century the knitting of stockings was
a flourishing industry.

  See T. Bond, _History and Description of Corfe Castle_ (London and
  Bournemouth, 1883).



CORFINIUM, in ancient Italy, the chief city of the Paeligni, 7 m. N. of
Sulmona in the valley of the Aternus. The site of the original town is
occupied by the village of Pentima. It probably became subject to Rome
in the 4th century B.C., though it does not appear in Roman history
before the Social War (90 B.C.), in which it was at first adopted by the
allies as the capital and seat of government of their newly founded
state under the name Italia (this form, not Italica, is vouched for by
the coins). It appears also as a fortress of importance in the Civil
War, though it only resisted Caesar's attack for a week (49 B.C.).
Whether the Via Valeria ran as far as Corfinium before the time of
Claudius is uncertain: he, however, certainly extended it to the
Adriatic, and at the same time constructed a cross road, the Via Claudia
Nova, which diverged from the Via Claudia Valeria at a point 6 m.
farther north, and led past Peltuinum and Aveia to Foruli on the Via
Salaria. Another road ran S.S.E. past Sulmo to Aesernia. It was thus an
important road centre, and must have been, in the imperial period, a
town of some size, as may be gathered from the inscriptions that have
been discovered there, and from the extent rather than the importance of
the buildings visible on the site (among them may be noted the remains
of two aqueducts), which has, however, never been systematically
excavated. Short accounts of discoveries will be found in _Notizie degli
Scavi_, _passim_, and a museum, consisting chiefly of the contents of
tombs, has been formed at Pentima. In one corner of a large enclosed
space (possibly a _palaestra_) was constructed the church of S. Pelino.
The present building dates from the 13th century, though its origin may
be traced to the end of the 5th when it was the cathedral of the see of
Valva, which appears to have been the name of Corfinium at the close of
the Roman period.     (T. AS.)



CORFU (anc. and mod. Gr. [Greek: Kerkyra] or [Greek: Korkyra], Lat.
_Corcyra_), an island of Greece, in the Ionian Sea, off the coast of
Albania or Epirus, from which it is separated by a strait varying in
breadth from less than 2 to about 15 m. The name Corfu is an Italian
corruption of the Byzantine [Greek: Koryphô], which is derived from the
Greek [Greek: Koryphai] (crests). In shape it is not unlike the sickle
(_drepan[=e]_), to which it was compared by the ancients,--the hollow
side, with the town and harbour of Corfu in the centre, being turned
towards the Albanian coast. Its extreme length is about 40 m. and its
greatest breadth about 20. The area is estimated at 227 sq. m., and the
population in 1907 was 99,571, of whom 28,254 were in the town and
suburbs of Corfu. Two high and well-defined ranges divide the island
into three districts, of which the northern is mountainous, the central
undulating and the southern low-lying. The most important of the two
ranges is that of San Salvador, probably the ancient Istone, which
stretches east and west from Cape St Angelo to Cape St Stefano, and
attains its greatest elevation of 3300 ft. in the summit from which it
takes its name. The second culminates in the mountain of Santi Deca, or
Santa Decca, as it is called by misinterpretation of the Greek
designation [Greek: hoi Hagioi Deka], or the Ten Saints. The whole
island, composed as it is of various limestone formations, presents
great diversity of surface, and the prospects from the more elevated
spots are magnificent.

Corfu is generally considered the most beautiful of all the Greek isles,
but the prevalence of the olive gives some monotony to its colouring. It
is worthy of remark that Homer names, as adorning the garden of
Alcinous, seven plants only--wild olive, oil olive, pear, pomegranate,
apple, fig and vine. Of these the apple and the pear are now very
inferior in Corfu; the others thrive well and are accompanied by all the
fruit trees known in southern Europe, with addition of the Japanese
medlar (or loquat), and, in some spots, of the banana. When undisturbed
by cultivation, the myrtle, arbutus, bay and ilex form a rich brushwood
and the minor _flora_ of the island is extensive.

The common form of laud tenure is the _colonia perpetua_, by which the
landlord grants a lease to the tenant and his heirs for ever, in return
for a rent, payable in kind, and fixed at a certain proportion of the
produce. Of old, a tenant thus obtaining half the produce to himself was
held to be co-owner of the soil to the extent of one-fourth; and if he
had three-fourths of the crop, his ownership came to one-half. Such a
tenant could not be expelled except for non-payment, bad culture or the
transfer of his lease without the landlord's consent. Attempts have been
made to prohibit so embarrassing a system; but as it is preferred by the
agriculturists, the existing laws permit it. The portion of the olive
crop due to the landlord, whether by _colonia_ or ordinary lease, is
paid, not according to the actual harvest, but in keeping with the
estimates of valuators mutually appointed, who, just before the fruit is
ripe, calculate how much each tree will probably yield. The large old
fiefs (_baronie_) in Corfu, as in the other islands, have left their
traces in the form of quit-rents (known in Scotland by the name of
feu-duties), generally equal to one-tenth of the produce. But they have
been much subdivided, and the vassals may by law redeem them. Single
olive trees of first quality yield sometimes as much as 2 gallons of
oil, and this with little trouble or expense beyond the collecting and
pressing of the fallen fruit. The trees grow unrestrained, and some are
not less than three hundred years old. The vineyards are laboured by the
broad heart-shaped hoe. The vintage begins on the festival of Santa
Croce, or the 26th of September (O.S.). None of the Corfu wines is much
exported. The capital is the only city or town of much extent in the
island; but there are a number of villages, such as Benizze, Gasturi,
Ipso, Glypho, with populations varying from 300 to 1000. Near Gasturi
stands the Achilleion, the palace built for the Empress Elizabeth of
Austria, and purchased in 1907 by the German emperor, William II.

The town of Corfu stands on the broad part of a peninsula, whose
termination in the citadel is cut from it by an artificial fosse formed
in a natural gully, with a salt-water ditch at the bottom. Having grown
up within fortifications, where every foot of ground was precious, it is
mostly, in spite of recent improvements, a labyrinth of narrow,
tortuous, up-and-down streets, accommodating themselves to the
irregularities of the ground, few of them fit for wheel carriages. There
is, however, a handsome esplanade between the town and the citadel, and
a promenade by the seashore towards Castrades. The palace, built by Sir
Thomas Maitland (?1759-1824; lord high commissioner of the Ionian
Islands, 1815), is a large structure of white Maltese stone. In several
parts of the town may be found houses of the Venetian time, with some
traces of past splendour, but they are few, and are giving place to
structures in the modern and more convenient French style. Of the
thirty-seven Greek churches the most important are the cathedral,
dedicated to Our Lady of the Cave ([Greek: hê Panagia Spêliôtissa]); St
Spiridion's, with the tomb of the patron saint of the island; and the
suburban church of St Jason and St Sosipater, reputed the oldest in the
island. The city is the seat of a Greek and a Roman Catholic archbishop;
and it possesses a gymnasium, a theatre, an agricultural and industrial
society, and a library and museum preserved in the buildings formerly
devoted to the university, which was founded by Frederick North, 5th
earl of Guilford (1766-1827, himself the first chancellor in 1824,) in
1823, but disestablished on the cessation of the English protectorate.
There are three suburbs of some importance--Castrades, Manduchio and San
Rocco. The old fortifications of the town, being so extensive as to
require a force of from 10,000 to 20,000 troops to man them, were in
great part thrown down by the English, and a simpler plan adopted,
limiting the defences to the island of Vido and the old citadel; these
are now dismantled.

_History._--According to the local tradition Corcyra was the Homeric
island of Scheria, and its earliest inhabitants the Phaeacians. At a
date no doubt previous to the foundation of Syracuse it was peopled by
settlers from Corinth, but it appears to have previously received a
stream of emigrants from Eretria. The splendid commercial position of
Corcyra on the highway between Greece and the West favoured its rapid
growth, and, influenced perhaps by the presence of non-Corinthian
settlers, its people, quite contrary to the usual practice of Corinthian
colonies, maintained an independent and even hostile attitude towards
the mother city. This opposition came to a head in the early part of the
7th century, when their fleets fought the first naval battle recorded in
Greek history (about 664 B.C.). These hostilities ended in the conquest
of Corcyra by the Corinthian tyrant Periander (c. 600), who induced his
new subjects to join in the colonization of Apollonia and Anactorium.
The island soon regained its independence and henceforth devoted itself
to a purely mercantile policy. During the Persian invasion of 480 it
manned the second largest Greek fleet (60 ships), but took no active
part in the war. In 435 it was again involved in a quarrel with Corinth
and sought assistance from Athens. This new alliance was one of the
chief immediate causes of the Peloponnesian War (q.v.), in which Corcyra
was of considerable use to the Athenians as a naval station, but did not
render much assistance with its fleet. The island was nearly lost to
Athens by two attempts of the oligarchic faction to effect a revolution;
on each occasion the popular party ultimately won the day and took a
most bloody revenge on its opponents (427 and 425). During the Sicilian
campaigns of Athens Corcyra served as a base for supplies; after a third
abortive rising of the oligarchs in 410 it practically withdrew from the
war. In 375 it again joined the Athenian alliance; two years later it
was besieged by a Lacedaemonian armament, but in spite of the
devastation of its flourishing countryside held out successfully until
relief was at hand. In the Hellenistic period Corcyra was exposed to
attack from several sides; after a vain siege by Cassander it was
occupied in turn by Agathocles and Pyrrhus. It subsequently fell into
the hands of Illyrian corsairs, until in 229 it was delivered by the
Romans, who retained it as a naval station and gave it the rank of a
free state. In 31 B.C. it served Octavian (Augustus) as a base against
Antony.

Eclipsed by the foundation of Nicopolis, Corcyra for a long time passed
out of notice. With the rise of the Norman kingdom in Sicily and the
Italian naval powers, it again became a frequent object of attack. In
1081-1085 it was held by Robert Guiscard, in 1147-1154 by Roger II. of
Sicily. During the break-up of the Later Roman Empire it was occupied by
Genoese privateers (1197-1207) who in turn were expelled by the
Venetians. In 1214-1259 it passed to the Greek despots of Epirus, and in
1267 became a possession of the Neapolitan house of Anjou. Under the
latter's weak rule the island suffered considerably from the inroads of
various adventurers; hence in 1386 it placed itself under the protection
of Venice, which in 1401 acquired formal sovereignty over it. Corcyra
remained in Venetian hands till 1797, though several times assailed by
Turkish armaments and subjected to two notable sieges in 1536 and
1716-1718, in which the great natural strength of the city again
asserted itself. The Venetian feudal families pursued a mild but
somewhat enervating policy towards the natives, who began to merge their
nationality in that of the Latins and adopted for the island the new
name of Corfu. The Corfiotes were encouraged to enrich themselves by the
cultivation of the olive, but were debarred from entering into
commercial competition with Venice. The island served as a refuge for
Greek scholars, and in 1732 became the home of the first academy of
modern Greece, but no serious impulse to Greek thought came from this
quarter.

By the treaty of Campo Formio Corfu was ceded to the French, who
occupied it for two years, until they were expelled by a Russo-Turkish
armament (1799). For a short time it became the capital of a
self-governing federation of the Hephtanesos ("Seven Islands"); in 1807
its faction-ridden government was again replaced by a French
administration, and in 1809 it was vainly besieged by a British fleet.
When, by the treaty of Paris of November 5, 1815, the Ionian Islands
were placed under the protectorate of Great Britain, Corfu became the
seat of the British high commissioner. The British commissioners, who
were practically autocrats in spite of the retention of the native
senate and assembly, introduced a strict method of government which
brought about a decided improvement in the material prosperity of the
island, but by its very strictness displeased the natives. In 1864 it
was, with the other Ionian Islands, ceded to the kingdom of Greece, in
accordance with the wishes of the inhabitants. The island has again
become an important point of call and has a considerable trade in olive
oil; under a more careful system of tillage the value of its
agricultural products might be largely increased.

Corfu contains very few and unimportant remains of antiquity. The site
of the ancient city of Corcyra ([Greek: Kerkyra]) is well ascertained,
about 1½ m. to the south-east of Corfu, upon the narrow piece of ground
between the sea-lake of Calichiopulo and the Bay of Castrades, in each
of which it had a port. The circular tomb of Menecrates, with its
well-known inscription, is on the Bay of Castrades. Under the hill of
Ascension are the remains of a temple, popularly called of Neptune, a
very simple Doric structure, which still in its mutilated state presents
some peculiarities of architecture. Of Cassiope, the only other city of
ancient importance, the name is still preserved by the village of
Cassopo, and there are some rude remains of building on the site; but
the temple of Zeus Cassius for which it was celebrated has totally
disappeared. Throughout the island there are numerous monasteries and
other buildings of Venetian erection, of which the best known are
Paleocastrizza, San Salvador and Pelleka.

  AUTHORITIES.--Strabo vi. p. 269; vii. p. 329; Herodotus viii. 168;
  Thucydides i.-iii.; Xenophon, _Hellenica_, vi. 2; Polybius ii. 9-11;
  Plutarch, _Quaestiones Graecae_, ch. xi.; H. Jervis, _The Ionian
  Islands during the Present Century_ (London, 1863); D. F. Ansted, _The
  Ionian Islands in the Year 1863_ (London, 1863); Riemann, _Recherches
  archéologiques sur les Îles ioniennes_ (Paris, 1879-1880); J. Partsch,
  _Die Insel Korfu_ (Gotha, 1887); B. Schmidt, _Korkyräische Studien_
  (Leipzig, 1890); B. V. Head, _Historia Numorum_ (Oxford, 1887), pp.
  275-277; H. Lutz in _Philologus_, 56 (1897), pp. 71-77; also art.
  NUMISMATICS: Greek, § "Epirus."     (E. GR.; M. O. B. C.)



CORI (anc. _Cora_), a town and episcopal see of the province of Rome,
Italy, 36 m. S.E. by rail from the town of Rome, on the lower slopes of
the Volscian mountains, 1300 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901) 6463. It
occupies the site of the ancient Volscian town of Cora, the foundation
of which is by classical authors variously ascribed to Trojan settlers,
to the Volscians (with a later admixture of Latins), and to the Latins
themselves. The last is more probable (though in that case it was the
only town of the Prisci Latini in the Volscian hills), as it appears
among the members of the Latin league. Coins of Cora exist, belonging at
latest to 350-250 B.C. It was devastated by the partisans of Marius
during the struggle between him and Sulla. Before the end of the
Republic it had become a _municipium_. It lay just above the older road
from Velitrae to Terracina, which followed the foot of the Volscian
hills, but was 6 m. from the Via Appia, and it is therefore little
mentioned by classical writers. It is comparatively often spoken of in
the 4th century, but from that time to the 13th we hear hardly anything
of it, as though it had almost ceased to exist. The remains of the city
walls are considerable: three different _enceintes_, one within the
other, enclose the upper and lower town and the acropolis. They are
built in Cyclopean work, and different parts vary considerably in the
roughness or fineness of the jointing and hewing of the blocks; but
explorations at Norba (q.v.) have proved that inferences as to their
relative antiquity based upon such considerations are not to be trusted.
There is a fine single-arched bridge, now called the Ponte della Catena,
just outside the town on the way to Norba, to which an excessively early
date is often assigned.

At the summit of the town is a beautiful little Doric tetrastyle temple,
belonging probably to the 1st century B.C., built of limestone with an
inscription recording its erection by the _duumviri_. It is not known to
what deity it was dedicated; and there is no foundation for the
assertion that the porphyry statue of Minerva (or Roma) now in front of
the Palazzo del Senatore, at Rome, was found here in the 16th century.
Lower down are two columns of a Corinthian temple dedicated to Castor
and Pollux, as the inscription records. The church of Santa Oliva stands
upon the site of a Roman building. The cloister, constructed in
1466-1480, is in two storeys; the capitals of the columns are finely
sculptured by a Lombard artist (G. Giovannoni in _L'Arte_, 1906, p.
108). There are remains of several other ancient buildings in the modern
town, especially of a series of large cisterns probably belonging to the
imperial period. Some interesting frescoes of the Roman school of the
15th century are to be found in the chapel of the Annunziata outside the
town (F. Hermanin in _L'Arte_, 1906, p. 45).

  See G. B. Piranesi, _Antichità di Cora_ (Rome, n.d., c. 1770); A.
  Nibby, _Analisi della Carta dei Dintorni di Roma_ (Rome, 1848), i. 487
  seq.     (T. AS.)



CORIANDER, the fruit, improperly called seed, of an umbelliferous plant
(_Coriandrum sativum_), a native of the south of Europe and Asia Minor,
but cultivated in the south of England, where it is also found as an
escape, growing apparently wild. The name is derived from the Gr.
[Greek: koris] (a bug), and was given on account of its foetid, bug-like
smell. The plant produces a slender, erect, hollow stem rising 1 to 2
ft. in height, with bipinnate leaves and small flowers in pink or
whitish umbels. The fruit is globular and externally smooth, having five
indistinct ridges, and the mericarps, or half-fruits, do not readily
separate from each other. It is used in medicine as an aromatic and
carminative, the active principle being a volatile oil, obtained by
distillation, which is isomeric with Borneo camphor, and may be given in
doses of ½ to 3 minims. On account of its pleasant and pungent flavour
it is a favourite ingredient in hot curries and sauces. The fruit is
also used in confectionery, and as a flavouring ingredient in various
liqueurs. The essential oil on which its aroma depends is obtained from
it by distillation. The tender leaves and shoots of the young plant are
used in soups and salads.



CORINGA, a seaport of British India, in the district of Godavari and
presidency of Madras, on the estuary of a branch of the Godavari river.
The harbour is protected from the swell of the sea by the southward
projection of Point Godavari, and affords a shelter to vessels during
the south-west monsoon; but though formerly the most important on this
coast it has been silted up and lost its trade. The repairing and
building of small coasting ships is an industry at Tallarevu in the
vicinity. In 1787 a gale from the north-east occasioned an inundation
which swept away the greater part of Coringa with its inhabitants; and
in 1832 another storm desolated the place, carrying vessels into the
fields and leaving them aground. Of Europeans the Dutch were the first
to establish themselves at Coringa. In 1759 the English took possession
of the town, and erected a factory 5 m. to the south of it.



CORINNA, surnamed "the Fly," a Greek poetess, born at Tanagra in
Boeotia, flourished about 500 B.C. She is chiefly known as the
instructress and rival of Pindar, over whom she gained the victory in
five poetical contests. According to Pausanias (ix. 22. 3), her success
was chiefly due to her beauty and her use of the local Boeotian dialect.
The extant fragments of her poems, dealing chiefly with mythological
subjects, such as the expedition of the Seven against Thebes, will be
found in Bergk's _Poëtae Lyrici Graeci_.

  Some considerable remains of two poems on a 2nd-century papyrus
  (_Berliner Klassikertexte_, v., 1907) have also been attributed to
  Corinna (W. H. D. Rouse's _Year's Work in Classical Studies_, 1907; J.
  M. Edmonds, _New Frags. of ... and Corinna_, 1910).



CORINTH, a city of Greece, situated near the isthmus (see CORINTH,
ISTHMUS OF) which connects Peloponnesus and central Greece, and
separates the Saronic and the Corinthian gulfs on E. and W. The ancient
town stood 1½ m. from the latter, in a plain extending westward to
Sicyon. The citadel, or Acrocorinthus, rising precipitously on the S. to
a height of 1886 ft. was separated by a ravine from Oneium, a range of
hills which runs E. to the isthmus entrance. Between this ridge and the
offshoots of Geraneia opposite a narrow depression allowed of easy
transit across the Isthmus neck. The territory of Corinth was mostly
rocky and unfertile; but its position at the head of two navigable gulfs
clearly marked it out as a commercial centre. Its natural advantages
were enhanced by the "Diolcus" or tram-road, by which ships could be
hauled across the Isthmus. It was connected in historic times with its
western port of Lechaeum by two continuous walls, with Cenchreae and
Schoenus on the east by chains of fortifications. The city walls
attained a circuit of 10 m.

I. _History._--In mythology, Corinth (originally named Ephyre) appears
as the home of Medea, Sisyphus and Bellerophon, and already has over-sea
connexions which illustrate its primitive commercial activity. Similarly
the early presence of Phoenician traders is attested by the survival of
Sidonian cults (Aphrodite Urania, Athena Phoenicice, Melicertes, i.e.
Melkarth). In the Homeric poems Corinth is a mere dependency of Mycenae;
nor does it figure prominently in the tradition of the Dorian
migrations. Though ultimately conquered by the invaders it probably
retained much of its former "Ionian" population, whose god Poseidon
continued to be worshipped at the national Isthmian games throughout
historic times; of the eight communal tribes perhaps only three were
Dorian. Under the new dynasty of Aletes, which reigned according to
tradition from 1074 to 747, Corinthian history continues obscure. The
government subsequently passed into the hands of a small corporation of
nobles descended from a former king Bacchis, and known as the Bacchidae,
who nominated annually a Prytanis (president) from among their number.
The maritime expansion of Corinth at this time is proved by the
foundation of colonies at Syracuse and Corcyra, and the equipment of a
fleet of triremes (the newly invented Greek men-of-war) to quell a
revolt of the latter city.

But Corinth's real prosperity dates from the time of the tyranny
(657-581), established by a disqualified noble Cypselus (q.v.). and
continued under his son Periander (q.v.). Under these remarkable men,
whose government was apparently mild, the city rapidly developed. She
extended her sphere of influence throughout the coast-lands of the
western gulf; by the settlement of numerous colonies in N.W. Greece she
controlled the Italian and Adriatic trade-routes and secured a large
share of the commerce with the western Greeks. In Levantine waters
connexions grew up with the great marts of Chalcis and Miletus, with the
rulers of Lydia, Phrygia, Cyprus and Egypt. As an industrial centre
Corinth achieved pre-eminence in pottery, metal-work and decorative
handicraft, and was the reputed "inventor" of painting and tiling; her
bronze and her pottery, moulded from the soft white clay of Oneium, were
widely exported over the Mediterranean. The chief example of her early
art was the celebrated "chest of Cypselus" at Olympia, of carved cedar
and ivory inlaid with gold. The city was enriched with notable temples
and public works (see § ARCHAEOLOGY), and became the home of several
Cyclic poets and of Arion, the perfecter of the dithyramb.

The tyranny was succeeded by an oligarchy based upon a graduated money
qualification, which ruled with a consistency equalling that of the
Venetian Council, but pursued a policy too purely commercial to the
neglect of military efficiency. Late in the 6th century Corinth joined
the Peloponnesian league under Sparta, in which her financial resources
and strategic position secured her an unusual degree of independence.
Thus the city successfully befriended the Athenians against Cleomenes I.
(q.v.), and supported them against Aegina, their common commercial rival
in eastern waters. In the great Persian war of 480 Corinth served as the
Greek headquarters: her army took part at Thermopylae and Plataea and
her navy distinguished itself at Salamis and Mycale. Later in the
century the rapid development of Athenian trade and naval power became a
serious menace. In 459 the Corinthians, in common with their former
rivals the Aeginetans, made war upon Athens, but lost both by sea and
land. Henceforward their Levantine commerce dwindled, and in the west
the Athenians extended their rivalry even into the Corinthian Gulf.
Though Syracuse remained friendly, and the colonies in the N.W.
maintained a close commercial alliance with the mother-city, the
disaffection of Corcyra hampered the Italian trade. The alliance of this
latter power with Athens accentuated the rising jealousy of the
Corinthians, who, after deprecating a federal war in 440, virtually
forced Sparta's hand against Athens in 432. In the subsequent war
Corinth displayed great activity in the face of heavy losses, and the
support she gave to Syracuse had no little influence on the ultimate
issue of the war (see PELOPONNESIAN WAR). In 395 the domineering
attitude of Sparta impelled the Corinthians to conclude an alliance with
Argos which they had previously contemplated on occasions of friction
with the former city, as well as with Thebes and with Athens, whose
commercial rivalry they no longer dreaded. In the ensuing "Corinthian
War" the city suffered severely, and the war-party only maintained
itself by the help of an Argive garrison and a formal annexation to
Argos. Since 387 the Spartan party was again supreme, and after Leuctra
Corinth took the field against the Theban invaders of Peloponnesus
(371-366). In 344 party struggles between oligarchs and democrats led to
a usurpation by the tyrant Timophanes, whose speedy assassination was
compassed by his brother Timoleon (q.v.).

After the campaign of Chaeronea, Philip II. of Macedon summoned a Greek
congress at Corinth and left a garrison on the citadel. This citadel,
one of the "fetters of Greece," was eagerly contended for by the
Macedonian pretenders after Alexander's death; ultimately it fell to
Antigonus Gonatas, who controlled it through a tyrant. In 243 Corinth
was freed by Aratus and incorporated into the Achaean league. After a
short Spartan occupation in 224 it was again surrendered to Macedonia.
T. Quinctius Flamininus, after proclaiming the liberty of Greece at the
Isthmus, restored Corinth to the league (196). With the revival of its
political and commercial importance the city became the centre of
resistance against Rome. In return for the foolish provocation of war in
146 B.C. the Roman conquerors despoiled Corinth of its art treasures and
destroyed the entire settlement: the land was partly made over to Sicyon
and partly became public domain.

In 46 Julius Caesar repeopled Corinth with Italian freedmen and
dispossessed Greeks. Under its new name _Laus Julii_ and an Italian
constitution it rapidly recovered its commercial prosperity. Augustus
made it the capital of Achaea; Hadrian enriched it with public works.
Its prosperity, as also its profligacy, is attested by the New
Testament, by Strabo and Pausanias. After the Gothic raids of 267 and
395 Corinth was secured by new fortifications at the Isthmus. Though
restricted to the citadel, the medieval town became the administrative
and ecclesiastical capital of Peloponnesus, and enjoyed a thriving trade
and silk industry until in 1147 it was sacked by the Normans. In 1210 it
was joined to the Latin duchy of the Morea, and subsequently was
contended for by various Italian pretenders. Since the Turkish conquest
(1459) the history of Corinth has been uneventful, save for a raid by
the Maltese in 1611 and a Venetian occupation from 1687 to 1715.

  AUTHORITIES.--Strabo, pp. 378-382; Pausanias ii. 1-4; Curtius,
  _Peloponnesos_ (Gotha, 1851), ii., 514-556; E. Wilisch, _Die
  Altkorinthische Thonindustrie_ (Leipzig, 1892) and _Geschichte
  Korinth's_ (1887, 1896, 1901); G. Gilbert, _Griechische
  Staatsaltertümer_ (Leipzig, 1885), li. pp. 87-91.     (M. O. B. C.)

II. _Archaeology and Modern Town._--The modern town of New Corinth, the
head of a district in the province of Corinth (pop. 71,229), is situated
on the Isthmus of Corinth near the south-eastern recess of the Gulf of
Corinth, 3½ m. N.E. from the site of the ancient city. It was founded in
1858, when Old Corinth was destroyed by an earthquake. It is connected
by railway with Athens (57 m.), with Patras (80 m.), and with Nauplia
(40 m.), the capital of Argolis. Communication by sea with Athens,
Patras, the Ionian Islands and the shores of the Ambracian Gulf, is
constant since the opening of the Corinthian ship canal, in 1893. It has
not, however, attained great prosperity. It has broad streets and low
houses, but is architecturally unattractive, like most of the creations
of the time of King Otto. Its chief exports are seedless grapes
("currants"), olive-oil, silk and cereals. Pop. (1905) about 4300.

Old Corinth passed through its various stages, Greek, Roman, Byzantine,
Turkish. After the War of Liberation it was again Greek, and, being a
considerable town, was suggested as the capital of the new kingdom of
Greece. The earthquake of 1858 levelled it to the ground with the
exception of about a dozen houses. A mere handful of the old inhabitants
remained on the site. But fertile fields and running water made it
attractive; and outsiders gradually came in. At present it is an untidy,
poverty-stricken village of about 1000 inhabitants, mostly of Albanian
blood. Like the ancient city, it spreads out over two terraces, one
about 100 ft. above the other. These were formed in different geological
ages by the gulf, which had in historical times receded to a distance of
1¼ m. from the city. At the nearest point to the city was laid out the
harbour, Lechaeum, a basin dug far into the shore and joined with the
city by long walls. At about the middle of the two terraces, 1½ m. long,
the edge of the upper one was worn back into a deep indentation,
probably by running water, possibly by quarrying. Here was the heart of
the ancient city. At the lower end of the indentation is the modern
public square, shaded by a gigantic and picturesque plane tree,
nourished by the surplus water of Pirene. As the visitor looks from the
square up the indentation he sees on a height to the right a venerable
temple ruin, and, directly in front, Acro-Corinth, rising over 1500 ft.
above the village. Even from the village, the view over the gulf,
including Parnassus with its giant neighbours on the N., Cyllene and its
neighbours on the W., and Geraneia on the N.E., is very fine. But from
Acro-Corinth the view is still finer, and is perhaps unsurpassed in
Greece.

The excavations begun in 1896 by the American school of Classical
Studies at Athens, under the direction of Rufus B. Richardson, have
brought to light important monuments of the ancient city, both Greek and
Roman.

The first object was the locating of the agora, or public square, first
because Pausanias says that most of the important monuments of the city
were either on or near the agora; and secondly because, beginning with
the agora, he mentions, sometimes with a brief description, the
principal monuments in order along three of the principal thoroughfares
radiating from it. In the first year's work twenty-one trial trenches
were dug in the hope of finding a clue to its position. Somewhat less
than a quarter of a mile to the N.W. of the temple, set back into the
edge of the upper terrace, there was found, under 20 ft. of soil, a
ruined Roman theatre built upon the ruins of a Greek theatre. This
theatre was, according to Pausanias, on the street leading from the
agora towards Sicyon, and so to the west of the agora. Another trench
dug across the deep indentation to the E. of the temple revealed a broad
limestone pavement leading from the very northern edge of the city up
through the indentation, in the direction of Acro-Corinth. It required
little sagacity to identify it with the street mentioned by Pausanias as
leading from the agora towards Lechaeum. It was practically certain that
by following up this pavement to its point of intersection with the road
from Sicyon the agora would be discovered.

[Illustration: CORINTH showing sites of excavations]

The limestone pavement, with long porches on either side, was found to
stop at the foot of a marble staircase of thirty-four steps of Byzantine
construction, underneath which appeared a Roman arrangement of the two
flights with a platform halfway up. The top flight led up to the
propylaea. The remains of the propylaea above ground are few; but the
foundations are massive and well laid, at the end of the upper terrace
where it is farthest worn back. These foundations are clearly those of a
Roman triumphal arch, which perhaps took the name "propylaea" from an
ancient Greek structure on the same spot. This arch appears on Roman
coins from Augustus to Commodus; according to Pausanias it bore two
four-horse chariots, one driven by Helios and the other by Phaethon, his
son, all in gilded bronze.

Although a considerable part of the agora has been excavated, none of
the statues which Pausanias saw in it have been discovered. On the upper
(S.) side are excellent foundations of a long porch. On the N. side,
stretching westward from the propylaea, are two porches of different
periods. The older one, which still existed in Roman times, was backed
up against the temple hill, which was cut away to make room for it. An
ancient staircase, 15 ft. broad, led down from the temple hill into the
lower area of the broad pavement, from which access to the agora and the
Pirene was easy.

To the E. of the paved road and close up against the agora itself, only
at a much lower level, was found, buried under 35 ft. of earth, the
famous fountain Pirene, tallying exactly with the description of
Pausanias, as "a series of chambers that are like caves, and bearing a
façade of white marble." This Pirene originally had a two-storey façade
of Roman fashion made of limestone, but, before the time of Pausanias,
it had received a covering of marble which has now fallen off, but has
left traces of itself in the holes drilled into the limestone, in the
rough hacking away of the half columns, and in the numerous marble
fragments which lay in front of the façade. This was not, however, the
earliest form of Pirene. It was built up in front of a more simple Greek
fountain-structure which consisted of seven cross-walls placed under the
edge of the stratum forming the upper terrace. Six chambers were thus
formed which showed the chaste beauty of Greek workmanship, while the
stratum of native rock which covered them gave a touch of nature and
made them caves. The walls ended at the front in the form of an _anta_
delicately carved. On a parapet at the rear of each chamber a single
slender Ionic column between two _antae_ supported an Ionic entablature.
The stuccoed walls were striped horizontally and vertically with red on
a blue field, on which appear fishes swimming. The chambers were really
reservoirs, filled by the water which flowed along their backs.

We know nothing further about the Greek system, but in the Roman
adjustment the water was led from this series of cisterns into a large
rectangular basin which formed the centre of a quadrangle 50 ft. square.
In the N.E. corner is a hole through which it was drained, and at the N.
end a flight of five steps led down into it. Besides the four orifices
through which water flowed into it there were two other holes about 4
in. lower down to keep the basin from overflowing. Two uses of water are
mentioned by Pausanias, "The water," he says, "was sweet to drink," and
also good for tempering bronze. It seems clear then, that the basin was
at stated times used for the latter purpose, and was converted into a
tank. The bronze was plunged into the water in a red hot condition, and
thus acquired its peculiar excellence.

In Byzantine times five columns, of various diameters, with no two bases
of the same size, bearing Corinthian capitals, were set up about 6 ft.
in front of the façade. Blocks of marble which had seen use elsewhere
ran from them back into the façade, which was hacked away in rough
fashion to receive them. Probably these blocks formed the floor of a
balcony, a tawdry marble addition.

Pirene was at all times the heart of the city. Here it was that Athena
helped Bellerophon to bridle Pegasus; and hence she received the epithet
of "the Bridler," Chalinitis. The importance of the fountain is attested
by the fact that the Greek poets and the Delphic oracle instead of
saying Corinth said, "the city of Pirene." That it was a place of common
resort is shown by Euripides (_Medea_, 68 f.), where it is said that the
elders were to be found "near the august waters of Pirene, playing
draughts ([Greek: pessoi])." The quadrangle, with its walls 20 ft. high,
and its three apses probably covered with half domes, provided
considerable shade. There is reason for supposing that the marble
coating of the façade, and perhaps the erection of the quadrangle, also
covered with marble, were the work of Herodes Atticus, and therefore
just completed when Pausanias saw them. A base on which stood a statue
of Herodes' wife, Regilla, was found close to the façade, inscribed with
fulsome praise, stating that the statue was "set up by order of the
Sisyphaean Senate at the outpouring of the streams." Two inscriptions of
Roman times make the identity of Pirene certain, if there could be any
doubt in the face of the exact agreement of Pausanias's description with
the structure.

Of the surviving monuments of the Greek city the most important is the
temple of Apollo. While it was probably badly wrecked by the Romans at
the sack of the city, its massive columns with the entablature survived.
That it was restored and was in use in Roman time is shown by the fact
that both the seven columns still standing and two fallen columns
discovered in the excavations, to say nothing of several fragments of
others, have a thick coating of Roman stucco laid over the finer Greek.
The style of the temple points to 600 B.C., when Periander was at the
height of his power. According to Herodotus he made his doubtful
adherents deposit pledges of faithfulness in the temple of Apollo. Quite
near the W. end of the temple is the fountain Glauc[=e] cut out of a
cube of rock, apparently left standing when the material for the temple
was quarried around it. In it were carved out four chambers or
reservoirs all connected and a porch consisting of three pillars between
two _antae_ in which the side walls ended. The water coming down from
Acro-Corinth was introduced from behind. Approached by a flight of steps
partly rock-cut, it had at the rear of the porch a balustrade with
marble lions' heads through which the water overflowed. Two of these
heads were found. The top of the system of reservoirs was too heavy for
the slender cross walls and pillars, only the stumps of which remain; a
collapse took place, by which the porch and the W. compartment were
carried away. From its location only about 50 yds. from the temple it
seems to have been the temple fountain. It was named after the second
wife of Jason, Glauc[=e], who plunged into it to quench the fire of the
poisoned bridal garments given her by Medea.

It is not surprising that monuments were found of which there is no
record in ancient writings. Such was a very ancient fountain W. of the
propylaea, 25 ft. below the surface. Under remains of the Roman city
appeared a triglyphon of porous stone with an extent from N. to S. of
about 30 ft. At the N. end it turned westward at an obtuse angle and
extended about 10 ft. in that direction. The system is about 4 ft. high.
While the colours on the metopes and triglyphs had faded somewhat, the
border above them, topped with a cornice projecting 6 in., retained a
most brilliant maeander pattern of red, blue and yellow, while below
these were two bands of godroons of blue and red. On the top of this
system as a foundation were set several statue bases, one bearing the
signature of Lysippus, which shows that the system stood there at least
as early as the 4th century B.C. Some parts of it may have been taken
from older buildings, but not the cornice nor the corner metope block
which formed an obtuse angle. Near the middle of the long side is an
opening; and from it a flight of seven steps led down to a trapezoidal
chamber, on the back wall of which are two lions' heads of bronze,
through which water, conducted in long semi-cylindrical channels of
bronze, from behind the wall, poured out into pitchers for which holes
are cut in the floor. Channels for the overflow were cut along the back
and sides of the chamber. All this was once approached from the front at
the level of the floor, long before the triglyphon was set up, 7 ft.
above it. Considering its depth this fountain must be dated back to the
5th century, probably near the beginning. The style of the lions' heads
would hardly admit a later date. This is the only case of an ancient
Greek fountain of such an early date, unaltered and intact. The pains
taken to preserve it suggest that it was invested with a sacred
character.

Sculptures in large numbers, both of the Greek city and the Roman, are
collected in the new museum erected by the Greek government near the
plane tree. The finest of the Greek sculptures is the head of a youth
found in the orchestra of the theatre at a depth of 23 ft. It lacks only
the lower part of the bridge of the nose, and has style and character,
resembling Myron's heads in shape and in the hair. A large fragment of a
relief also of early date, represents two dancing maenads half
life-size. Most impressive is a colossal female figure of grand style
and excellent drapery. If not an original of the 5th century it is one
of the finest of copies. Of the great amount of Roman sculpture the best
single piece is a head of Dionysus under the influence of wine, crowned
with a wreath of ivy, his right hand thrown carelessly over his head.
The fine execution is all that differentiates it from the numerous
copies in various museums. The most important sculptures of the Roman
period, however, are a group of colossal figures supporting an
entablature, a large part of which has been recovered. One of the
figures, a barbarian captive, effeminate like those which appear on
Roman triumphal arches, is practically intact. Another, its counterpart,
is preserved down to the hips. These differ from Caryatids, which bear
the architrave on their heads. Here a pilaster forming the back of the
figure receives a Corinthian capital, upon which the architrave rests;
and the figures merely brace up the pilaster. Two of these figures stood
at the end of a re-entrant curve, several pieces of which are preserved.
Two female heads of like proportions belong to the system, since the
backs of their heads are cut away in the same manner as the male heads.
The building to which the figures belonged, a porch, extended westward
from the propylaea; and may be traced for 45 ft. All that is left of it
is the core of _opus incertum_.

The excavations brought to light vases and fragments of vases, of nearly
every period except the Mycenaean. On the N. side of the hill on which
stands the village schoolhouse, from which one looks across the
indentation to the Apollo temple, several vertical shafts in the
limestone stratum were found, and underneath it in horizontal passages
were bodies surrounded with vases. These are pre-Mycenaean, and their
only ornament is scratches, into which white matter has been pressed.
There are over fifty of these vases, of multiform shapes. By the side of
the Lechaeum road, near the steps leading to the propylaea, were found
in deep diggings thirteen early Geometric vases. Proto-Corinthian vases
also were everywhere strongly represented. The best find of pottery,
however, was an Old Corinthian celeb[=e] ([Greek: kelebê], drinking
vessel), about a foot high, in forty-six fragments, found in a well, 30
ft. below the surface. On one side are a boar and a leopard confronting
each other, and on the other side two cocks in the same heraldic
arrangement. On the projecting plates supported by the handles are
palmettes.

Two inscriptions in the Old Corinthian alphabet came to light. But, on
the whole, inscriptions before the Roman times were almost entirely
lacking. One inscription, though of late date, deserves mention. On a
marble block broken away at both ends, which in a second use was a
lintel, we read [Greek: AGÔGÊEBR], which can only be [Greek: synagôgê
Hebraiôn] (synagogue of the Hebrews).

The excavations were confined to a small part of the city, but there is
little doubt that it was the most important part. By good fortune the
earth here was very deep. On the higher level of the agora and the
Apollo temple, where the depth of earth is comparatively slight, there
is little hope of important finds. There is no hope of finding the great
bronze Athena, which stood in the middle of the agora. To the west,
beyond the theatre, one might find the temple of Athena Chalinitis and
the fountain Lerna, and somewhere near Glauce, the Odeum and the tomb of
Medea's children; but it is more likely that they have disappeared. On
the Lechaeum road, on which a bewildering wealth of fountains and
statues is enumerated, only the Baths of Eurycles below the plane tree
were found; deep diggings were made into them, and the foundations of
the façade laid bare. This great complex was apparently supplied with
water from Hadrian's aqueduct from Lake Stymphalus. On the street going
eastward from the agora nothing is mentioned between it and the city
wall. This level eastern part was probably given up to fine houses, all
traces of which have perished. Outside the gate, apparently, was the
famous Craneion, shaded by cypress trees, and near it the tombs of Lais
and Diogenes, a precinct of Bellerophon and of Athena Melaenis. The
number of temples and shrines enumerated by Pausanias along the road
leading up to Acro-Corinth is bewildering. Here were represented Isis
and Serapis, Helios, the Mother of the Gods, the Fates, Demeter and
Persephone; but no trace of these temples remains. At the highest point
of the road, according to Pausanias, there stood the famous temple of
Aphrodite, but the remains excavated at this point seem to be those of
a late tower, and the few foundations below it do not resemble those of
a temple. We are equally unfortunate in regard to Strabo's splendid
marble Sisyphaeum just below the summit. The fountain Pirene, "behind
the temple," still exists, but so much earth has accumulated about it
that one now approaches it by going down a ladder. The water is so
crystal clear that one inadvertently steps into it. The identity of name
with that of Pirene in the city is justified by the fact that the upper
spring is the source of the Pirene below.

  See, for details, the _American Journal of Archaeology_ (from 1896).
       (R. B. R.)



CORINTH, a city and the county-seat of Alcorn county, Mississippi,
U.S.A., situated in the N.E. part of the state, about 90 m. E. by S. of
Memphis, Tennessee. Pop.(1890) 2111; (1900) 3661 (1174 negroes); (1910)
5020. It is served by the Mobile & Ohio and the Southern railways; and
by a branch of the Illinois Central connecting Jackson, Miss., and
Birmingham, Ala. It has woollen mills, cotton compresses, clothing,
furniture, and spoke and stave factories and machine shops, and is a
cotton market. Because of its situation and its importance as a railway
junction, Corinth played an important part in the western campaigns of
the Civil War. After the first Confederate line of defence had been
broken by the capture of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson (February 1862),
Corinth was fortified by General P. G. T. Beauregard, and was made the
centre of the new line along the Memphis & Charleston railway, "the
great East and West artery of the Confederacy." Grant's advance on this
centre, then defended by General A. S. Johnston, led to the battle of
Shiloh, fought on April 6/7 about 20 m. N.E. of Corinth; after this
engagement Beauregard withdrew to Corinth. General H. W. Halleck, with a
greatly superior force, cautiously and slowly advanced upon the
Confederate position, consuming more than a month in the operation.
During the night of the 29th of May Beauregard evacuated the place
(which was occupied by the Federals on the following day), and
re-established his line at Tupelo. Corinth then became the headquarters
of the Union forces under General W. S. Rosecrans, who on the 3/4 of
October 1862 was fiercely attacked here by General Earl von Dorn, whom
he repulsed, both sides suffering considerable losses in killed and
wounded, and the Confederates leaving many prisoners behind.



CORINTH, ISTHMUS OF, an isthmus of Greece, dividing the Gulf of Corinth
from the Saronic Gulf. Ships were sometimes dragged across it in ancient
times at a place called the Diolcus ([Greek: dielkein], to pull or cut
through). Nero, in A.D. 67, began cutting a canal through it; but the
project was abandoned. In 1893 a ship canal was opened, with its western
entrance about 1¼ m. N.E. of the little town of New Corinth. It was
begun in 1881 by a French company, which ceased operations in 1889, a
Greek company completing the undertaking. The canal is about 70 ft.
broad, nearly 4 m. long, and 26 ft. deep. It shortens the journey from
the Adriatic to the Peiraeus by 202 m., but foreign steamships seldom
use it, as the narrowness of the canal and the strength of the current
at times render the passage dangerous. About 1 m. from its western end
it is crossed by the iron bridge of the Athens and Corinth railway.
Traces of the Isthmian wall may still be seen parallel to the canal; it
was constructed, at an unknown date, for the fortification of the
Isthmus. Just to the S. of it, and about ½ m. from the sea are the
remains of the Isthmian precinct of Poseidon and its stadium, where the
Isthmian games were celebrated. This precinct served also as a fortress.
Within it have been found traces of the temple of Poseidon and other
buildings.     (E. GR.)



CORINTHIANS, EPISTLES TO THE, two books of the Bible (New Testament).
The two letters addressed to the Christian church at Corinth are, with
Romans, the longest of the Pauline epistles. They possess a singular
interest and value, due to the apostle's close acquaintance with the
members of the church addressed and their circumstances. In consequence
of this intimate character the First Epistle to the Corinthians presents
a picture, unrivalled in fulness and colour, of the life of a Pauline
church, while the Second Epistle, written out of strong feeling, gives a
revelation of the innermost feelings and characteristic temperament of
Paul himself, such as is not elsewhere to be found. Dealing, as both
epistles do, with concrete problems of morals and with such tendencies
of thought and life as find their parallel in all times, they are full
of instruction to the modern Church; and this instruction increases in
effectiveness the better we come to understand ancient modes of thought
in their diversity from our own.

Lofty and vivid expression of the apostle's thought on the highest
themes is also to be found here--witness the "Hymn to Love" (1 Cor.
xiii.), the declaration of the resurrection (1 Cor. xv. 51-57), or the
list of signatures of the true servant of God (2 Cor. vi. 3-10). In
important historical statements, also, these epistles stand second to
none, not even to Galatians--as may be indicated by a reference to the
words about the institution of the Lord's supper (1 Cor. xi. 23-26) and
the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ (1 Cor. xv. 1-8); or to the
autobiographical utterances in which Paul explains that he was once a
persecutor of Christians (1 Cor. xv. 9), mentions his escape from
Damascus (2 Cor. xi. 32 f.), describes his coming to Corinth (1 Cor. ii.
1 ff.), enumerates his sufferings for the Gospel (2 Cor. xi. 16-31),
tells of his visions (2 Cor. xii. 1-9). In the Corinthian epistles we
come in contact, as nowhere else, with the man Paul and his daily life.

The history of Paul's relations with Corinth can be made out from the
Acts and the Epistles with considerable clearness. The chronology of
Paul's life is not at any point surely determinable within a range of
less than five years, but it must have been in the autumn of one of the
years A.D. 49-53 (the usual chronology has fixed on A.D. 52) that the
arrival of Paul in Corinth took place as described in Acts xviii. 1. In
his so-called second missionary journey Paul had been driven by
irresistible inner impulses to push on into Greece the missionary work
already begun in Asia Minor. First he preached in the province of
Macedonia, where the work opened auspiciously at Philippi, Thessalonica
and Beroea; then, apparently driven out by the violent opposition of the
Jews, he moved on to Achaea, and after rather unsuccessful attempts to
secure converts among the philosophers of Athens came to Corinth.

This ancient city, taken and destroyed by the Romans in 146 B.C., had
been refounded by Julius Caesar as a Roman colony in 46 B.C., settled
with Italian colonists, and made a residence of the Roman governor. Its
situation on the isthmus of Corinth made it a stage on the greatest of
the trade routes between Rome and the East, and it was at this time the
commercial capital of Greece. The traditions of licentiousness and
sensuality associated with the worship of Aphrodite, which had given
rise to the sinister word _corinthianize_, increased the natural
tendencies of a great city to wickedness and wanton luxury. Here, as in
all great centres of trade and industry, there was a body of Jews, with
a synagogue. The conditions of life in Corinth--the heathen
surroundings, the temptations to vice, the competition and disputes of
trading life, the controversial arguments of Jews, the alertness of mind
of a lively city people, the haughty temper of the inhabitants of the
capital--all these are to be seen reflected in the earnest paragraphs of
Paul's two epistles.

The founding of the church in Corinth (cf. 1 Cor. iv. 15) and nearly
everything important that we know of Paul's first visit there will be
found, well told, in Acts xviii. 1-18, a passage for which, evidently,
the writer of the history had excellent sources of information. Of the
somewhat chastened spirit with which Paul came he himself tells in 1
Cor. ii. 1-5. His success was prompt and large, and in the year and six
months of his stay a vigorous church was gathered, including Aquila and
Priscilla, as well as Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue, of whom we
hear again in 1 Cor. i. 14; whether Sosthenes, who seems to have
succeeded Crispus in his office (Acts xviii. 17), was afterwards
converted and became the Christian brother mentioned in i Cor. i. 1
cannot be known. The church evidently consisted mainly of Gentile
converts, but with some Jews (i Cor. x. 14, "flee from idolatry"; xii.
2, "when ye were Gentiles "; vii. 18, "was any man called being
circumcised?").

The apostle's next long stay was at Ephesus, whither he seems to have
gone in the course of the same year in which he left Corinth (A.D.
51-55) and where he stayed three years. Before he arrived at Ephesus
Aquila and Priscilla, who had settled there, made the acquaintance of
Apollos, a Jew from Alexandria, well-educated and zealous, who with
imperfect Christian knowledge was preaching the gospel of Jesus to his
fellow-countrymen in the synagogue. He presently went to Corinth and
carried on Christian work there with success (Acts xviii. 24-28), "I
planted," says Paul (1 Cor. iii. 6), "Apollos watered." From this point
on our information comes from the epistles, of which the first was
written from Ephesus before Pentecost of the year in which Paul left
that city, i.e. A.D. 54-58 (1 Cor. xvi. 8).

It appears that the church grew in numbers, for Paul refers in 2 Cor. i.
1 to "saints who are in all Achaea." Its membership was mostly of humble
people (1 Cor. i. 26-29), but probably not exclusively so, for Crispus
and Stephanas (who with his household was able to render services that
may well have been costly, 1 Cor. xvi. 15), Gaius and Erastus (Rom. xvi.
23), would appear to have been persons of substance. The references to
law-suits perhaps imply fairly prosperous traders, the tone of the
letters suggests considerable education and a reasonable degree of
property on the part of many (though not all) of the readers.

The first need of the church for help from Paul seems to have grown out
of the dangers from surrounding heathenism. In 1 Cor. v. 9 we read of a
letter in which Paul had directed the Christians "not to have company
with fornicators." This letter, so far as we know, opened the
correspondence which was maintained during the three years of Paul's
stay in Ephesus, whence there was easy and frequent communication with
Corinth. He refers to it in order to explain the injunction which had
been (perhaps wilfully) misunderstood and exaggerated.[1]

While at Ephesus Paul was visited by persons of the household of Chloe
(1 Cor. i. 11), and by Stephanas with Fortunatus and Achaicus (probably
his slaves, xvi. 17). From them and from a letter (vii. 1), which was
brought perhaps by Stephanas, he was able to gain the intimate knowledge
which the epistles everywhere reveal. The letter from Corinth must have
contained inquiries as to practical conduct with regard to marriage
(vii. 1), meat offered to idols (viii. 1), and the "spiritual gifts"
(xii. 1), and may well have related to other matters, such as the
collection of money for Jerusalem (xvi. 1), the visit of Apollos (xvi.
12), the position of women (xi. 2). Paul's reply includes many other
topics. When it was sent, his trusted helper Timothy had also started on
his way (probably through Macedonia) to Corinth, to contribute there to
the edification of the Christians (iv. 17, xvi. 10). The letter itself
was doubtless sent by the hand of returning Corinthians, possibly by the
unnamed brethren referred to in xvi. 11, and was expected to arrive
before Timothy.

_First Epistle._--The first epistle (in many respects the most
systematic of all Paul's letters) is a pastoral letter, dealing both
with positive evils that need correction, and with difficult questions
of practice and of thought upon which advice may be valued. Through it
all there is a genial undercurrent of confidence in the personal loyalty
of the Corinthian church to Paul, its founder and father. We shall be
aided to understand its contents by a brief summary of the tendencies
and conditions at Corinth which it reflects.

First of all there was a lack of supreme devotion to the Cause itself,
which led the Corinthians to forget that they were first, last and
always Christians, and so to form factions and parties. Of these there
were distinguished at least three, attached to the names respectively of
the founder Paul, of the learned Apollos, and of the great
pillar-apostle at Jerusalem, Peter, besides, as many hold, a fourth,
which arrogantly claimed to be the party of Christ (i. 12). What were
the precise motives and principles of these parties cannot be
determined. They do not in any case seem to represent recognizable
definite points of view with regard to the controverted matters that
are taken up in the epistle. Yet some conjectures are possible. Paul and
Apollos were personally on friendly terms (xvi. 12, cf. iii. 5-9, iv.
6), and were understood to be in fundamental agreement. But doubtless
the more elaborate discourses of Apollos were admired, and Paul's
teaching seemed in contrast bare, plain and crude (cf. 2 Cor. x. 10).
The contrast between the Hellenic and Jewish types of thought may well
have played a part also. Paul seems to be replying to such criticisms
brought against him when he declares that he deliberately chose to bring
to Corinth not the "wisdom of men" but the "power of God" (i. 17, ii.
1-5), and informs them that he has a store of wisdom for those who are
ready for it (ii. 6). On the other hand the party of Cephas must have
had Jewish-Christian leanings. A little later, in the second epistle,
such a tendency is seen breaking out into violent opposition to Paul.
The "Christ-party," if, as is probable, it existed, must also have been
a party with a Judaizing turn (cf. 2 Cor. x. 7, xi. 22 f.), perhaps of a
more extreme character. The danger of shattering the solid front of the
Christian church against surrounding heathenism was keenly felt by Paul,
as nearly every one of his epistles testifies. How serious it was at
Corinth is shown by the long passage (chaps, i.-iv.) in which he points
out that sectarianism is a mark not of superior but of inferior maturity
and devotion.

Other difficulties arose from various causes. The influences of the
heathen world, from which most of the Corinthian Christians had come and
to which their friends and neighbours belonged, were always with them,
and the problems created by these relations were very numerous.
Christianity had brought over and had even intensified the moral code of
Judaism, and, especially in the relations of the sexes, this brought a
strain upon the naturalistic impulses and lower standards of converts
trained in a different system.

Again, there were law-suits in the ordinary courts, a natural result of
the frictions and strains of an oriental trading community. To Paul this
was abhorrent, and here too he urges a complete break with their past.
With regard to the social customs of meals at which meat that had been
offered in heathen sacrifices was a part, and of feasts actually at
heathen temples, doubtful questions arose. Was it a denial of the faith
to eat such food or not? Mixed marriages, too, had their problems; ought
the believing wife to separate herself? Ought the believing husband to
insist that his heathen wife stay with him against her will? And,
further, in the case of slaves, does the consciousness of Christian
manhood give a new motive for trying to gain worldly freedom? In all
these matters Paul gives sensible advice. There were clearly two groups
of Christians, the "weak," or scrupulous, whose principle was to
abstain, and the "strong," or free, who maintained that the morally
insignificant must not usurp a place to which it has no right. Paul
sides with neither, but follows two principles, one that the church and
its members must be kept pure, the other that the moral welfare not only
of the individual but of his neighbour must be the controlling motive.

Not due so much to heathen influences as to the natural tendencies of
imperfect and passionate human nature were other conditions. The most
striking incident here, and one which gave Paul much concern, was the
case of a man who after his father's death had married his own
stepmother ("the case of incest"). That this was rare in the ancient
world and generally abominated both by Jews and Greeks made it seem to
Paul the more imperative that this stain on the Christian church should
be removed. His language shows his indignation and grief that the
Corinthians themselves have not already taken the matter in hand.

Besides these troubles from heathenism there were questions of
asceticism; the Greek reaction against naturalism held that nature was
vile and marriage wrong. Paul had a qualified tendency to asceticism,
but he shows excellent good sense in his discussion of these delicate
matters.

A different set of difficulties arose from the freedom into which
Christianity had introduced persons from all classes of life. What
degree of freedom was permissible to a Christian woman? How far must a
woman of the lower classes who became a Christian subject herself to the
restrictions of a higher class of society? Might a woman, as a free
child of God, take part in the Christian public meeting?

Also in matters pertaining to the common religious life of the new
society the new situation raised new problems. How should reasonable
order be maintained in the wholly democratic forms of the church
devotional meeting? What value should be assigned to the different
religious functions or "spiritual gifts"? Did any of them confer the
right to a consciousness of God's special favour? Again, the celebration
of the Lord's supper, which was associated with a proper meal, was
marred by exhibitions of selfishness and irreverence that needed
correction.

The great variety of practical problems present to the anxious minds of
the Corinthians themselves and of germinant abuses revealed to the
paternal scrutiny of the apostle, opens to us some notion of the
exciting times in which the Corinthian Christians stood, and explains
the intensity and detailed concern of the apostle. From every side and
at every moment new and often difficult questions were arising; to every
one of them belonged remoter relations that made it profoundly
important. It is by no accident that Paul is in the habit of treating
the simplest moral issues by reference to the highest principles of his
theology. From the situation at Corinth we gain an idea of what was
taking place in many cities, but in the seething life of so great a
capital with more rapid and varied development.

Of strictly intellectual and theological problems or errors only one is
treated systematically, although at many other points in the practical
discussions we can detect the theoretical basis cf the errors combated
and the theological foundations of Paul's own judgments. Questions about
the resurrection, however, had appeared, of a rationalistic nature and
evincing an Hellenic failure to understand the Jewish view. In his reply
Paul shows that he too recognizes the significance of the Greek's
difficulties and he presents a conception which, fortunately for the
later Church, does some measure of justice to the superior scientific
insight of their attitude.

_Second Epistle._--After the despatch of First Corinthians there took
place, it would appear, the riot in the theatre at Ephesus (Acts xix. 23
ff.), to which 2 Cor. i. 8 seems to refer. On leaving Ephesus Paul went
to Troas (2 Cor. ii. 12), then to Macedonia, and from Macedonia (2 Cor.
vii. 5, viii. 1, ix. 2) he wrote Second Corinthians. This must have been
in the autumn of one of the years A.D. 54-58, nearly or quite a year
after First Corinthians was written (cf, "a year ago," 2 Cor. viii. 10,
ix. 2 and 1 Cor. xvi. 1-4). In the meantime there had been exciting
developments in Paul's relations with Corinth, the course of which we
can partly trace by the aid of the second epistle. These events explain
the great difference in tone between the second epistle and the first.

Several allusions in Second Corinthians show that Paul had already twice
visited Corinth (2 Cor. ii. 1, xii. 14, xii. 21, xiii. 2). The second of
these visits is not mentioned in Acts; it is referred to by Paul as
having a painful character. The most natural hypothesis is that, in
consequence of a growing spirit of insubordination on the part of the
Corinthians, Paul found it necessary to go to Corinth from Ephesus
(probably by sea direct) at some time after First Corinthians was
written. Of what happened on this visit, which the writer of Acts has
naturally enough thought it unnecessary to mention, we seem to learn
further from certain passages in the letter (2 Cor. ii. 5-11, vii. 9)
which refer to some sort of an insult to Paul for which there has now
been repentance and which the apostle heartily forgives. For the
offender he entreats also the pardon of the church. It may well be that
the sad affair had to do with the gross offender of the "case of incest"
(1 Cor. v. 1-8), who with the support of his fellow Christians may have
refused to conform to Paul's imperative commands. We may suppose an
angry scene, possibly an attack of Paul's bodily ailment (especially if
the "thorn in the flesh" be understood to be epilepsy), the immediate
triumph of the adversaries, Paul's speedy departure in grief. If, as
other scholars hold, the offender was not the same as in the first
epistle, the general picture of the visit will not have to be much
changed.

Besides making this visit it is probable that Paul also wrote to Corinth
a letter, now lost, intended to secure the result of which the
unfortunate visit had failed (ii. 3, 4, 9, vii. 8, 12). It, is, however,
possible that the allusions merely refer to I Cor. v., in which case it
is not necessary to assume this intermediate letter. The letter, if
there was one, may have been sent by Titus, whom Paul in any case
commissioned to go to Corinth and try to mend matters. Paul describes
his anxiety over this last resource in touching language (ii. 12, 13).
Disappointed that Titus did not meet him at Troas, he moved on to
Macedonia, and there (vii. 5-9) was rejoiced by the coming of the envoy
with good news of the complete return of the Corinthians to integrity
and loyalty.

Second Corinthians was Paul's response to this friendly attitude
reported by Titus. It went by the hand of Titus, who was promptly sent
back to complete the work he had so well begun (viii. 6, 16-24). In
company with him (viii. 18) was sent a brother (unnamed) who had already
been appointed as the representative of the churches to accompany Paul
in carrying to Jerusalem the great collection of money now nearly
completed. The greater part of the epistle consists of the outpouring of
Paul's thankful and loving heart (chaps, i.-vii.), together with
directions and exhortations relating to the collection.

But the epistle contains evidence of another and a disagreeable side to
the affairs of the Corinthian church. Especially the last four chapters,
but also references in the earlier chapters, show that virulent personal
opponents of Paul and his work had been exercising an evil activity. It
is not easy to discover the precise relation of these persons to the
parties at Corinth or to the series of events which have just been
sketched, but we can well understand that their presence and efforts
played a large part in the history. We learn that Jewish Christians (xi.
22) had come to Corinth, doubtless from Jerusalem, with letters of
recommendation (iii. 1). They urged their own claims as apostles (though
not of the twelve), and set themselves up as superior to Paul (xi. 5,
xii. 11, v. 12, xi. 18). Paul calls them "false apostles" (xi. 13-15),
and declares that they preach "another Jesus, another Spirit, another
Gospel" (xi. 4). That in Paul's judgment his influence with the
Corinthian church depended on overthrowing the power of these disturbers
of the peace is plain, and this accounts for the strenuous, and
occasionally violent, tone of his polemic in chapters x.-xiii. As we
compare them with the Judaizers of Galatia it seems that their polemic
was less on the ground of principles and doctrines, and more a personal
attack. Paul does not much argue, as he does in Galatians, against the
inclination of Gentile Christians to subject themselves to the Law (yet
note the contrast of the old veiled covenant and the new open
revelation, iii. 4-18, esp. iii. 6); he is engaged in personal defence
against charges of carnal motives (x. 2), perhaps even of embezzlement
(xii. 16-18), and also of fickleness (i. 12-ii. 4). When he ironically
calls himself a "fool" (xi. 1, 16, 17, 19, 21, xii. 6-11), he is
doubtless taking up their term of abuse, and in many of the hard
passages of this most difficult of all Paul's epistles we may suspect
that half-quoted flings of the enemy glimmer through his retort. From 2
Cor. x. 7, xi. 22 it may be inferred that these Jewish Christians had
something to do with the "Christ-party" of which we seem to hear in the
first epistle.

To the tact and firmness of Titus must be ascribed much of the
successful issue of these dealings with the Corinthians. Paul spent the
following winter at Corinth (Acts xx. 2, 3); while there he wrote the
Epistle to the Romans, which in its milder tone gives clear indication
that the day of violent controversy with Judaizing emissaries like those
who came to Galatia had passed. There was indeed, as might have been
expected, trouble from enemies among the Jews, but Paul escaped the
danger, and with the money for the mother church, the collection of
which had so long lain near his heart, he was able to start for
Jerusalem in the spring of one of the years 55-59 (See PAUL).

In later time (circ. A.D. 95) we hear from the epistle of Clement of
Rome that the Corinthian church paid full honour to Paul's memory; and
circ. A.D. 139, the excellent Catholic (though Hebrew) Christian
Hegesippus found himself deeply refreshed by the honest life and the
fidelity to Christian truth of the descendants and successors of the
Christians over whom Paul had laboured with such faithful oversight and
so many anxious tears.

_Critical Questions._--The manuscript evidence for the Corinthian
epistles is the same as for the other epistles of Paul (see BIBLE: New
Testament). Of early attestation the amount is rather greater for First
Corinthians than for other epistles. Not only were both epistles
included without question in the Pauline canon of Marcion (circ. A.D.
150) and in the Muratorian list (end of 2nd century), and known to
various Gnostic sects of the 2nd century, but Clement of Rome (circ.
A.D. 95) makes a specific reference (xlvii. 1) to the fact that the
Corinthians "received the Epistle of the blessed Apostle Paul," and
proceeds with an unmistakable quotation from 1 Cor. i. 11-13. Other
quotations from First Corinthians are found in Clement, Ignatius,
Polycarp, Athenagoras, Theophilus, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria,
Tertullian, while use of the epistle can probably be detected in Hermas.
Second Corinthians was, and still remains, less quotable, but it is
probably used by Polycarp, perhaps by Ignatius, and by the presbyters
known to Irenaeus, and it was freely used by Theophilus, Irenaeus,
Clement of Alexandria and Tertullian.

The only serious doubt of the genuineness of First and Second
Corinthians has been that of the so-called Dutch school of critics, in
the latter part of the 19th century, and forms a part of their attempt
(the first since that of Baur) entirely to reconstruct the history of
early Christianity. Their view that the Corinthian epistles are the
product of a body of progressive Christians in the 2nd century, who
ascribed to a legendary Paul the advanced views they had themselves
developed, has not commended itself to critics, and seems to be burdened
by nearly all possible difficulties. The genuineness of both epistles
is, in fact, amply attested not only by early writers, but by the surer
proof of complicated and consistent concreteness, with perfect
adaptation to all we know of Paul and of the passing circumstances of
the earliest days of Christianity in Greece. For a writer a century
later to have composed the Corinthian epistles and then successfully
passed them off as the work of Paul could be explained only by an
hypothesis of inspiration! It would have been as difficult as to forge a
daily newspaper. It is to be observed that the two epistles are so
intimately connected by their contents with Romans and Galatians that
the four together support one another's genuineness.

In Second Corinthians two important questions of integrity have been
much discussed. (1) 2 Cor. vi. 14-vii. 1 is a passage somewhat distinct
from its context, and introduced by a seemingly abrupt break in the
sequence of thought. It is, therefore, held by some (including G.
Heinrici) to be an interpolation by another writer, by others (as A.
Hilgenfeld) to be a part of the letter referred to in 1 Cor. v. 9. But
the arguments against Pauline authorship are not convincing; there is
after all a certain real connexion to be traced between the section and
vi. I; and the resemblance to the substance of 1 Cor. v. 9 is natural in
any case. (2) More important is the question as to 2 Cor. x.-xiii. Since
J. S. Semler (1776) it has been held by careful scholars that these
chapters are written in a tone of excited irritation which is out of
accord with the genial tone of gratified affection and confidence that
pervades chaps, i.-ix. Hence such scholars as A. Hausrath, R. A.
Lipsius, O. Pfleiderer, P. W. Schmiedel, A. C. M'Giffert have adopted
the view that these four chapters were not written as part of Second
Corinthians, but, while unquestionably from Paul's hand, were from a
separate letter (the "Vier-kapitel-Brief"), probably the same as that
supposed to be referred to in 2 Cor. ii. 3-9, vii. 8-12. This theory is,
however, probably not correct, for while, on the one hand, it is based
on an exaggeration of the differences and a neglect of certain lines of
connexion between the chaps, x.-xiii. and chaps, i.-ix., on the other
hand the identification supposed is made difficult by several facts.
Thus these chapters contain no mention whatever of the offender of 2
Cor. ii. 5-11, of whose case the intervening letter must have mainly
treated; again, x. 1, 9, 10, 11 imply a previous sharp rebuke already
administered, such as is hardly accounted for merely by First
Corinthians; and finally, xii. 18 implies that these four chapters were
not written until after Titus's visit, that is, that they were written
at just the same time as Second Corinthians.

An apocryphal correspondence of Paul and the church at Corinth,
consisting of the church's letter and Paul's reply, had canonical
authority in the Syrian church in the 4th century (Aphraates, Ephraem).
It is preserved in Armenian and Latin manuscripts, and is now known to
have been a part of the Acts of Paul, written in the 2nd century. The
letters relate to the condemnation of certain Gnostic views. For a
translation see Stanley's _Epistles of St Paul to the Corinthians_ (4th
ed., 1876), PP. 593-598. See Harnack, _Geschichte der altchristlichen
Literatur_, i. pp. 37-39, ii. 1, pp. 506-508; Bardenhewer, _Geschichte
der altkirchlichen Literatur_, i. pp. 463-467; Hennecke,
_Neutestamentliche Apokryphen_, pp. 362-364, 378-380.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--On the Corinthian Epistles consult the _Introduction to
  the New Testament_ of H. Holtzmann (1885, 3rd ed. 1892); B. Weiss
  (1886, 3rd ed. 1897, Eng. trans. 1887); G. Salmon (1887); A. Jülicher
  (1894, 5th and 6th ed. 1906, Eng. trans. 1904); T. Zahn (1897-1899,
  2nd ed. 1900); and the articles in the Bible dictionaries, especially
  those by A. Robertson in Hastings's _Dictionary_. See also _Lives of
  Paul_; and the general works on the _Apostolic Age_ of C. von
  Weizsäcker (1886, 2nd ed. 1892); O. Pfleiderer, _Das Urchristentum_
  (1887, 2nd ed. 1902, Eng. trans. 1906); and A. C. M'Giffert (1897).
  Especially valuable for 1 and 2 Corinthians is E. von Dobschütz,
  _Christian Life in the Primitive Church_ (1902, Eng. trans. 1904).

  In English, Dean Stanley's work (1855, 4th ed. 1876) is now out of
  date. On First Corinthians reference may be made to the works of T.
  Evans in _Speaker's Commentary_ (1881); T. C. Edwards (1885); C. J.
  Ellicott (1887); Fr. Godet (1886-1887, Eng. trans. 1887); on both
  epistles to those of H. A. W. Meyer (5th ed. 1870, Eng. trans.
  1877-1879) and J. J. Lias, in _Cambridge Greek Testament_ (1886-1892).
  F. W. Robertson's classic _Sermons on St Paul's Epistles to the
  Corinthians_ (1859) should not be neglected. In German there are
  commentaries of much value by G. Heinrici (1880--1887) and in
  Heinrici's revision of Meyer's _Kommentar_ (8th ed., 1896-1900), and
  by P. W. Schmiedel in _Hand-Commentar_ (1891, 2nd ed. 1892). For
  further literature see Robertson's art, "Corinthians, First Epistle to
  the," in Hastings's _Dictionary of the Bible_. On early attestation
  see A. H. Charteris, _Canonicity_ (1880), and the Oxford Committee's
  _New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers_ (1905).     (J. H. RS.)


   FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Hilgenfeld, Bacon and others hold that this letter is partly
    preserved in 2 Cor. vi. 14-vii. 1, but the evidence for removing
    those verses from their present position is insufficient.



CORINTO, a seaport on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua, in the department
of Chinandega, built on the small island of Asserradores or Corinto, at
the entrance to Realejo Bay, 65 m. by rail N.W. of Managua. Pop. (1900)
about 3000. The town, which was founded in 1849, and first came into
prominence as a port in 1863, has a spacious and sheltered harbour, the
best in Nicaragua. It possesses no docks or wharves, and vessels anchor
some 500 yds. off-shore to load or discharge cargo by means of lighters.
On the mainland is the terminus of a railway to Leon, Managua and other
commercial centres. Coffee, gold, mahogany, rubber and cattle are
largely exported; and more than half the foreign trade of Nicaragua
passes through this port, which has completely superseded the roadstead
of Realejo, now partly filled with sandbanks, but from 1550 to 1850 the
principal seaport of the country. About 450 ocean-going ships, of some
450,000 tons, annually enter the port. Most of the foreign vessels are
owned in Germany or the United States. The coasting trade is restricted
to Nicaraguan boats.



CORIOLANUS, GAIUS (or GNAEUS) MARCIUS, Roman legendary hero of patrician
descent. According to tradition, his surname was due to the bravery
displayed by him at the siege of Corioli (493 B.C.) during the war
against the Volscians (but see below). In 492, when there was a famine
in Rome, he advised that the people should not be relieved out of the
supplies obtained from Sicily, unless they would consent to the
abolition of their tribunes. For this he was accused by the tribunes,
and, being condemned to exile, took refuge with his friend Attius
Tullius, king of the Volscians. A pretext for a quarrel with Rome was
found, and Coriolanus, in command of the Volscian army, advanced against
his native city. In vain the first men of Rome prayed for moderate
terms. He would agree to nothing less than the restoration to the
Volscians of all their land, and their admission among the Roman
citizens. A mission of the chief priests also failed. At last, persuaded
by his mother Veturia and his wife Volumnia, he led back the Volscian
army, and restored the conquered towns. He died at an advanced age in
exile amongst the Volscians; according to others, he was put to death by
them as a traitor; a third tradition (mentioned, but ridiculed, by
Cicero) represents him as having taken his own life.

The whole legend is open to serious criticism. At the traditional date
(493 B.C.) Corioli was not a Volscian possession, but one of the Latin
cities which had concluded a treaty of alliance with Rome; further, Livy
himself states that the chroniclers knew nothing of a campaign carried
on by the consul Postumus Cominius Auruncus (under whom Coriolanus is
said to have served) against the Volscians. Only one of the consuls was
mentioned as having concluded the treaty; the absence of the other was
consequently assumed, and a reason for it found in a Volscian war. The
bestowal of a cognomen from a captured city was unknown at the time, the
first instance being that of Scipio; in any case, it would have been
conferred upon the commander-in-chief, Postumus Cominius Auruncus, not
upon a subordinate. The conquest of Corioli by Coriolanus is invented to
explain the surname. The details of the famine are borrowed from those
of later years, especially 433 and 411. The incident of Coriolanus
taking refuge with the Volscian king, who, according to Plutarch, was his
bitter enemy, curiously resembles the appeal of Themistocles to the
Molossian king Admetus. Further, the tradition that Coriolanus, like
Themistocles, committed suicide, renders it a probable conjecture that
these incidents are derived from a Greek source. The contradictions in
the accounts of the campaign against Rome and its inherent improbability
give further ground for suspicion. Twelve important towns are taken in a
single summer apparently without resistance on the part of the Romans,
and after the retirement of Coriolanus they are immediately abandoned by
the conquerors. It is strange that the Volscians should have entrusted a
stranger with the command of their army, and it is possible that the
attribution of their successes to a Roman general was intended to
gratify the national pride and obliterate the memory of a disastrous
war. It is suggested that Coriolanus never commanded the Volscian army
at all, but that, like Appius Herdonius--the Sabine chieftain who in
460, with a band of fugitives and slaves, obtained possession of the
capital--he appeared at the gates of Rome at the head of a body of
exiles (but at a much later date, c. 443), at a time when the city was
in great distress, perhaps as the result of a pestilence, and only
desisted from making himself master of Rome at the earnest entreaty of
his mother. This seems to be the historical nucleus of the tradition,
which accentuates the great influence exercised by and the respect shown
to the Roman matrons in early times.

  ANCIENT AUTHORITIES.--Plutarch's _Life_; Livy ii. 34-40; Dion. Halic.
  vi. 92-94, vii. 21-27, 41-47, viii. 1-60; Cicero, _Brutus_, x. 42. The
  story is the subject of Shakespeare's _Coriolanus_. For a critical
  examination of the story see Schwegler, _Römische Geschichte_, bk.
  xxiv.; Sir G. Cornewall Lewis, _Credibility of Early Roman History_,
  ch. xii. 19-23; W. Ihne, _History of Rome_, i.; T. Mommsen, "Die
  Erzählung von Cn. Marcius Coriolanus," in _Hermes_, iv. (1869); E.
  Pais, _Storia di Roma_, i. ch. 4 (1898).



CORIOLI, an ancient Volscian city in _Latium adiectum_, taken, according
to the Roman annals in 493 B.C., with Longula and Pollusca, and retaken
(but see above) for the Volsci by Gaius Marcius Coriolanus, its original
conqueror, who, in disgust at his treatment by his countrymen, had
deserted to the enemy. After this it does not appear in history, and we
hear soon afterwards (443 B.C.) of a dispute between Ardea and Aricia
about some land which had been part of the territory of Corioli, but had
at an unknown date passed to Rome with Corioli. The site is apparently
to be sought in the N.W. portion of the district between the sea, the
river Astura and the Alban Hills; but it cannot be more accurately fixed
(the identification with Monte Giove, S. of the Valle-Aricciana, rests
on no sufficient evidence), and even in the time of Pliny it ranked
among the lost cities of Latium.



CORIPPUS, FLAVIUS CRESCONIUS, Roman epic poet of the 6th century A.D. He
was a native of Africa, and in one of the MSS. is called _grammaticus_
(teacher). He has been identified, but on insufficient grounds, with
Cresconius, an African bishop (7th century), author of a _Concordia
Canonum_, or collection of the laws of the church. Nothing is known of
Corippus beyond what is contained in his own poems. He appears to have
held the office of tribune or notary (_scriniarius_) under Anastasius,
imperial treasurer and chamberlain of Justinian, at the end of whose
reign he left Africa for Constantinople, in consequence of having lost
his property during the Moorish and Vandal wars. He was the author of
two poems, of considerable importance for the history of the times, one
of which was not discovered till the beginning of the 19th century. The
latter poem, dedicated to the nobles of Carthage, which comes first in
point of time, is called _Johannis_ or _De bellis Libycis_, and relates
the overthrow of the Moors by a certain Johannes, _magister militum_ in
546; it is in eight books (the last is unfinished) and contains about
5000 hexameters. The narrative commences with the despatch of Johannes
to the theatre of war by Justinian, and ends with the decisive victory
near Carthage (548). The other poem (_In laudem Justini minoris_), in
four books, contains the death of Justinian, the coronation of his
successor Justin II. (14th of November 565), and the early events of his
reign. It is preceded by a preface, and a short and fulsome panegyric on
Anastasius, the poet's patron. The _Laus_ was published at Antwerp in
1581 by Michael Ruyz Azagra, secretary to the emperor Rudolf II., from a
9th or 10th century MS. The preface contains a reference to a previous
work by the author on the wars in Africa, and although Johannes
Cuspinianus (1473-1529) in his _De Caesaribus et Imperatoribus_
professed to have seen a MS. of it in the library at Buda (destroyed by
Suleiman II. in 1527), it was not till 1814 that it was discovered at
Milan by Cardinal Mazzucchelli, librarian of the Ambrosian library, from
the codex Trivultianus (in the library of the marquis Trivulzi), the
only MS. of the _Johannis_ still extant.

The _Johannis_ is of great value, not only from a purely historical
point of view, but also as giving a description of the land and people
of Africa, which conscientiously records the impressions of an
intelligent native observer; many of his statements as to manners and
customs are confirmed both by independent ancient authorities (such as
Procopius) and by our knowledge of the modern Berbers. Virgil, Lucan,
and Claudian were the poet's chief models. The _Laus_, which was written
when he was advanced in years, although marred by Byzantine servility
and gross flattery of a by no means worthy object, throws much light
upon Byzantine court ceremony, as in the account of the accession of
Justin and the reception of the embassy of the Avars. On the whole the
language and metre of Corippus, considering the age in which he lived
and the fact that he was not a native Italian, is remarkably pure. That
he was a Christian is rendered probable by negative indications, such as
the absence of all the usual mythological accessories of an epic poem,
positive allusions to texts of Scripture, and the highly orthodox
passage _Laus_ iv. 294 ff.

  The editions of the _Johannis_ by P. Mazzucchelli (1820) and of the
  _Laus_ by P. F. Foggini (1777) are still valuable for their
  commentaries. They are both included in the 28th volume of the Bonn
  _Corpus scriptorum historiae Byzantinae_. The best modern editions are
  by J. Partsch (in _Monumenta Germaniae historica_, 1879), with very
  valuable prolegomena, and M. Petschenig (_Berliner Studien für
  klassische Philologie_, iv., 1886); see also Gibbon, _Decline and
  Fall_, ch. xlv.



CORISCO, the name of a bay and an island on the Guinea Coast, West
Africa. The bay is bounded N. by Cape San Juan (1° 10' N.) and S. by
Cape Esterias (0° 36' N.), and is about 31 m. across, while it extends
inland some 15 m. The bay is much encumbered with sandbanks, which
impair its value as a harbour. Whereas the Muni river or estuary, which
enters the bay on its northern side, has a maximum depth of over 100
ft., vessels entering it have to come by a channel with an average depth
of six fathoms. The entrance to the southern part of the bay is
obstructed by the Bana Bank, which extends for 9 m., rendering
navigation dangerous. The bay encloses many small islands and islets,
some hardly distinguishable from sandbanks and submerged at high water,
giving rise to a native saying that "half the islands live under water."
The principal islands are four, Bana, Great and Little Elobey, and
Corisco, the last-named lying farthest to seaward and giving its name to
the bay.

Corisco Island, the largest of the group, is some 3 m. long by 1¾ m. in
breadth and has an area of about 5½ sq. m. The surface of the island is
very diversified. On a miniature scale it possesses mountains and
valleys, rivers, lakes, forests and swamps, grassland and bushland,
moorland and parkland. The forests supply ebony and logwood for export.
The natives are a Bantu-Negro tribe called Benga. There are among them
many converts to Roman Catholicism and a few Protestants. Corisco and
the other islands named are Spanish possessions and are governed as
dependencies of Fernando Po.

  See Mary H. Kingsley, _Travels in West Africa_, ch. xvii. (London,
  1897); E. L. Perea, "Guinea española: La isla de Corisco," in _Revista
  de geog. colon. y mercantil_ (Madrid, 1906).



CORK, RICHARD BOYLE, 1ST EARL OF (1566-1643), Irish statesman, second
son of Roger Boyle of Faversham in Kent, a descendant of an ancient
Herefordshire family, and of Joan, daughter of Robert Naylor of
Canterbury, was born at Canterbury on the 3rd of October 1566, and was
educated at the King's school and at Bennet (Corpus Christi) College,
Cambridge, where he was admitted in 1583. He afterwards studied law at
the Middle Temple and became clerk to Sir Richard Manwood, chief baron
of the exchequer; but finding his position offered little opportunity
for advancement he determined to make a new start in Ireland. He landed
in Dublin on the 23rd of June 1588, as he relates himself, with £27, 3s.
in money, a gold bracelet worth £10, and a diamond ring, besides some
fine wearing apparel. He began to make his fortune almost immediately.
In 1590 he obtained the appointment of deputy escheator to John Crofton,
the escheator-general, and in 1595 he married Joan, daughter and
co-heiress of William Appsley of Limerick, who died in 1599, having
brought him an estate of £500 a year.

Meanwhile he had been the object of the attacks of Sir Henry Wallop and
others, incited, according to his own account, by envy at his success
and increasing prosperity, and was apprehended on various charges of
fraud in his office, being more than once thrown into prison. He was on
the point of leaving for England to justify himself to the queen, when
the rebellion in Munster in October 1598 again reduced him to poverty
and obliged him to return to London to his chambers at the Temple. He
was, however, almost immediately taken by Essex into his service, when
Sir Henry Wallop again renewed his prosecution, with the result that
Boyle was summoned before the star chamber. His enemies appear to have
failed in substantiating their accusations, and in the course of the
inquiry, at which he had secured the presence of the queen herself, he
was able to expose several instances of malversation on the part of his
opponent, who was dismissed in consequence from his office of treasurer,
while Boyle himself, who had favourably impressed the queen, was
declared by her as "a man fit to be employed by ourselves" and was at
once made clerk of the council of Munster. He brought to Elizabeth the
news of the victory near Kingsale in December 1601, and in October 1602
was again sent over by Sir George Carew, the president of Munster, on
Irish affairs; and on this occasion, at the instance of Carew, he bought
for £1000 the whole of Sir Walter Raleigh's lands in Cork, Waterford and
Tipperary, consisting of 12,000 acres with immense capabilities of
development. This offered a splendid opportunity for the exercise of his
genius for business and administration. Manufactures were established,
the breeding of cattle and fish introduced, mines opened, colonists from
England encouraged to come over, the natural resources of the land
developed, bridges, harbours and roads constructed, and towns settled,
order being maintained by 13 castles garrisoned by retainers.

While himself quickly accumulating vast riches, the services which
Boyle rendered to the government and to the nation at such a time of
disorder and transition were incalculable. He soon became the most
powerful subject in Ireland. On the 25th of July 1603 he married, as his
second wife, Catherine, daughter of Sir Geoffrey Fenton, secretary of
state, and was knighted. In 1606 he became a privy councillor for
Munster and in 1613 for Ireland. On the 6th of September 1616 he was
raised to the peerage as Lord Boyle, baron of Youghal, and on the 26th
of October 1620 was created earl of Cork and Viscount Dungarvan. He was
appointed on the 26th of October 1629 a lord justice, and on the 9th of
November 1631 lord high treasurer. Though no peer of England, he was "by
writ called into the Upper House by His Majesty's great grace," and took
his place as an "assistant sitting on the inside of the Woolsack."[1]
The appointment of Wentworth (Lord Strafford), however, as lord deputy
in 1633 put an end to the predominant power and influence of Cork in
Ireland. "A most cursed man," he writes in his diary on Wentworth's
arrival, "to all Ireland and to me in particular." In reality these two
great men had much in common, held similar views of administration, and
had the same talents for practical statesmanship. Cork had already
carried out in Munster the policy which Strafford desired to see
extended to the whole of Ireland. But Cork belonged to the "spacious
days of great Elizabeth," and for such a man there was no room within
the narrow despotism and intolerance of the government of Charles. The
subjection of the great was part of Strafford's settled policy, and
consequently, instead of seeking his collaboration in developing the
country and in maintaining order, he studied merely to diminish his
influence. He subjected him to various humiliations. He forced him to
remove his wife's tomb from the choir in St Patrick's at Dublin, and
deprived him arbitrarily of the greater part of the revenues of Youghal,
a portion of the Raleigh estates. "No physic," wrote Laud, delighted,
"better than a vomit if it be given in time, and therefore you have
taken a very judicious course to administer one so early to my Lord of
Cork. I hope it will do him good...."[2] Cork, however, refrained from
any systematic or retaliatory resistance, and even simulated an
admiration for Strafford's rule. At the latter's trial he was an
important witness, but took no active part in the prosecution, though he
thoroughly approved of his condemnation and execution. Scarcely had he
returned to Ireland from witnessing his rival's destruction when the
rebellion broke out, but his influence and preparations, supported by
the military prowess of his sons, were sufficient to offer a successful
resistance to the rebels in Munster and to save the province from ruin.
This was his last great service to the state. He died about the 15th of
September 1643, leaving a large and illustrious family by his second
wife.

Four of his seven sons received independent peerages,--Richard, created
Baron Clifford and earl of Burlington; Lewis, Viscount Kinalmeaky,
killed in 1642 at the battle of Liscarrol; Roger, baron of Broghill and
earl of Orrery; and Francis, Viscount Shannon. Another son was Robert
Boyle (q.v.), the famous natural philosopher and chemist.

The title passed to the eldest surviving son, RICHARD BOYLE, 1st earl of
Burlington and 2nd earl of Cork (1612-1698), who matriculated at Christ
Church, Oxford, and was knighted in 1624. Returning home after
travelling abroad he married in 1635 Elizabeth, daughter and heir of
Henry, Lord Clifford, later earl of Cumberland. On the outbreak of the
rebellion he supported his father in Munster, fought at the battle of
Liscarrol, and raised forces for the first war with the Scots. In 1640
he represented Appleby in the Long Parliament, and in the civil war he
supported zealously the royal cause, being created in 1643 Baron
Clifford of Lanesborough in the peerage of England, in addition to the
earldom of Cork which he inherited from his father the same year. At the
Restoration he obtained also the earldom of Burlington (or Bridlington),
and was appointed lord-lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire,
resigning this office through opposition to the government of James II.
He held the office of lord treasurer of Ireland from 1680 till 1695. He
died on the 15th of January 1698. His two sons having predeceased him,
he was succeeded in his titles by his grandson Charles, issue of his
eldest son Charles, as 2nd earl of Burlington and 3rd earl of Cork; and
on the extinction of the direct male line in the person of Richard, the
4th earl, in 1753 the earldom of Cork fell to the younger branch of the
Boyle family, in the person of John, 5th earl of Orrery, he and later
earls being "of Cork and Orrery."

JOHN BOYLE, 5th earl of Cork and Orrery (1707-1762), only son of the 4th
earl of Orrery, was born on the 2nd of January 1707. He was educated at
Christ Church, Oxford, and was led by indifferent health and many
untoward accidents to cultivate in retirement his talents for literature
and poetry. His translation of the _Letters of Pliny the Younger_, with
various notes, for the use of his eldest son, was published in 1751. He
also published _Remarks on the Life and Writings of Jonathan Swift_
(1751), in several letters addressed to his second son, and _Memoirs of
Robert Carey, earl of Monmouth_, from the original manuscript, with
preface and notes. He died on the 16th of November 1762. His _Letters
from Italy_ appeared in 1774, edited, with memoir, by the Rev. J.
Duncombe. The earldom continued in later years in the Boyle family,
being held in 1909 by the 10th earl (b. 1861). The wife of the 7th earl
(see CORK and ORRERY, MARY, COUNTESS OF) was a famous figure in society
in the early 19th century.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR 1ST EARL.--_True Remembrances_, written by himself
  and printed by Birch in his edition of the works of Robert Boyle;
  _Lismore Papers_, ed. by A. B. Grosart (10 vols., 1886-1887), 1st
  series consisting of the diary from 1611 to his death and of
  autobiographical notes, and 2nd series of correspondence; _Life of
  Lord Cork_, by Dorothea Townshend (1904); article in the _Dict. of
  Nat. Biog._, with authorities there given; _Egerton_ MSS. 80 (copies
  of correspondence); _Add. MSS._, Brit. Mus., 19831-19832 (rebellion in
  Munster, examination before the Star Chamber, correspondence) and
  18023; Strafford's _Letters_; _Calendars of State Papers, Domestic and
  Irish_, and _Carew Papers_; E. Lodge's _Irish Peerage_, i. 144; E.
  Budgell's _Memoirs of the Boyles_ (1737); Ed. Edwards's _Life of
  Raleigh_; Gardiner's _Hist. of England_; Charles Smith's _History of
  Cork_ (1893); R. Caulfield's _Council Book of Youghal_; also the
  biography in _Biographia Britannica_, Kippis, vol. ii.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _Lords Journals._

  [2] _Strafford Letters_, i. 156.



CORK, a county of Ireland in the province of Munster, bounded S. by the
Atlantic Ocean, E. by the counties Waterford and Tipperary, N. by
Limerick, and W. by Kerry. It is the largest county in Ireland, having
an area of 1,849,686 acres, or about 2890 sq. m. The outline is
irregular; the coast is for the most part bold and rocky, and is
intersected by the bays of Bantry, Dunmanus, and Roaring Water. The
southern part of the coast projects several headlands into the Atlantic,
and its south-eastern side is indented by Cork Harbour, and Ballycotton
and Youghal Bays. The surface is undulating. It consists of low rounded
ridges, with corresponding valleys, running east and west, except in the
western portion of the county, which is more mountainous. The principal
rivers are the Blackwater, the Lee, and the Bandon, flowing generally
eastward from their sources in the high ground of the west. The most
elevated part of the county is in the Boggeragh Mountains, in the
north-west, which reach an extreme height of 2118 ft. To the south are
the Shehy Mountains, at the root of the two promontories flanking Bantry
Bay, the Caha Mountains forming the backbone of the northern of these
promontories, and the hills of the district of Corbery to the south of
the Shehy range. North of the Blackwater the country is comparatively
level, being a branch of the great plain which occupies a large part of
the centre of Ireland. Of the principal rivers the Blackwater has its
source in the county Limerick. The Lee originates in the wild and
picturesque Gouganebarra Lough, and the Bandon river rises in the
Cullinagh Lough. There are also some smaller streams which flow directly
into the sea, the more important of these being in the south-west
portion of the county. No lakes of any magnitude occur, the largest
being Lough Allua, or Inchigeelagh, an expansion of the river Lee. The
scenery of the western parts of the county is bold and rugged. In the
central and eastern parts, especially in the valleys, it is green and
quiet, and in some spots well wooded.

  _Geology._--The county presents a remarkable simplicity of geological
  structure. Its surface is controlled throughout by the "Hercynian"
  folds, running from the Kerry border eastward to the sea at Youghal.
  The Old Red Sandstone comes out in the north, forming the heather-clad
  Ballyhoura Hills, which are repeated across the limestone hollow of
  Mitchelstown by the western spur of the Knockmealdown Mountains. On
  the west, beds as high as the Millstone Grit and Coal Measures remain
  above the limestone, extending from Mallow and Kanturk to the Limerick
  and Kerry borders. Another synclinal of Carboniferous Limestone runs
  from Millstreet through Lismore, and the Blackwater has worn out an
  easy course along it. Then the Old Red Sandstone again rises as an
  undulating upland through the centre of the county, with a few
  synclinal patches of Carboniferous Shale and Limestone caught in on
  its back. Cork city lies on the north slope and in the floor of a
  larger synclinal, and the Yellow Sandstone, which forms the
  passage-beds from the Old Red Sandstone to the Carboniferous, appears
  near the city. This hollow continues across the Lee through Middleton.
  The limestone in it has become crystalline, veined and brecciated,
  while a fine red staining, especially at Little Island, adds to its
  value as a marble. After another anticlinal of Old Red Sandstone, the
  Carboniferous Slate occupies most of the country southward, with
  occasional appearances of the basal Coomhola Grits and of the
  underlying Old Red Sandstone along anticlinals. The soils thus vary
  from sandy loams, usually on the higher ground, to stiff clays along
  the limestone hollows.

  This country admirably illustrates the system of river-development
  originally traced out by Prof. J. B. Jukes in 1862, and further
  explained by Prof. W. M. Davis and others. The folded series,
  culminating originally in Upper Carboniferous strata, was worn down,
  perhaps as far back as Permian times, until it possessed a fairly
  uniform surface. This surface, or "peneplain," was probably the result
  of denudation working away the beds almost to sea-level. A subsequent
  elevation enabled the streams, as in so many cases now recognized, to
  cut into the surface along the direction of greatest inclination,
  which here happened to be southward. When the higher strata had been
  worn away, the rivers and their tributaries worked upon rocks of very
  various hardness, but with a common strike from east to west. The
  tributaries, running along the strike, speedily confined themselves to
  the synclinals of limestone, along which they could erode and dissolve
  long valleys. The present surface of anticlinal sandstone ridges and
  synclinal limestone hollows thus began to arise; but the main streams
  still held on their courses across the strike, that is, from north to
  south. Here and there a more active tributary worked its way back at
  its head into the basin of one of the cross-streams, and drew off into
  its own system the head-waters of this other stream. With this new
  flood of water the strengthened system still further deepened its
  original ravine across the strike, while the beheaded cross-stream or
  streams rapidly dwindled in importance. Ultimately, the tributaries of
  the surviving river-systems appeared as the most important feature,
  stretching far west--in the case of county Cork--along the synclinal
  hollows; while the original cross-ravine remained in the course of
  each river, a right-angled bend occurring thus in the lower portion of
  the valleys. Jukes urged that the upper part of the original
  cross-ravine can be traced above the bend in each case, though the
  stream now descending along it seems merely a tributary entering
  parallel with the north-and-south portion of the main stream.
  Moreover, the tributaries on the north side of the great synclinal
  valleys may in many cases be the relics of original cross-streams that
  once flowed directly to the sea until captured by the growth along the
  synclinal of the tributary of another stream. The Blackwater, rising
  on Upper Carboniferous beds on the Kerry border, thus falls steeply
  southward to Rathmore, and then turns eastward along the synclinal
  valley of limestone from Millstreet to Cappoquin. Here it abruptly
  turns south, keeping, in fact, to that part of its valley which was
  first developed. The Lee, rising in the Old Red Sandstone moors of
  Gouganebarra, runs east, encountering one or two patches of limestone
  in the floor of the synclinal on its way, mere residues of the rock
  that once occupied the hollow. Near Cork, the limestone and
  accompanying shale are better preserved; but the river, instead of
  continuing along the synclinal through Middleton to Youghal, turns
  south, and forms the now submerged valley of Cork Harbour.
  Observations have shown that the coast lay much at its present level
  in pre-Glacial times, and that Cork Harbour was thus a marine inlet
  before the ice descended into it. The synclinal valleys of Bantry Bay
  and Dunmanus Bay were also, in all probability, submerged at this same
  early epoch.

  The county has been famous for its copper-mines, notably at Allihies
  in the extreme west. The region south-west of Bantry has been mined in
  several places. Both gold and silver have been found in the
  copper-ores of this latter area. Barytes has been mined near Bantry,
  Schull and Clonakilty, and manganese-ore at Glandore. Anthracite has
  been raised from time to time in the band of Coal Measures south-west
  of Kanturk. The marble of Little Island near Cork is quarried under
  the name of "Cork Red," and the veined pink and grey marble of
  Middleton is also much esteemed.

_Climate and Watering-places._--The climate is moist and warm, the
prevailing winds being from the west and south-west. The annual
rainfall in the city of Cork is about 40 in., that of the whole county
being somewhat higher. The mean annual temperature is about 52° F. The
snow-fall during the winter is usually slight, and snow rarely remains
long on the ground except in sheltered places. The thermal spring of
Mallow was formerly in considerable repute; it is situated in a basin on
the banks of the Blackwater, rising from the base of a limestone hill.
The chief places for sea-bathing are Blackrock, Passage, Monkstown,
Queenstown, and other waterside villages in the vicinity of Cork;
Bantry, Baltimore, Kinsale, Glengarrif and Youghal are also much
frequented during the summer months.

_Industries._--The soils of the county exhibit no great variety. They
may be reduced in number to four: the calcareous in the limestone
districts; the deep mellow loams found in districts remote from
limestone, and generally occurring in the less elevated parts of the
grey and red sandstone districts; the light shallow soils, and the
moorland or peat soils, the usual substratum of which is coarse
retentive clay. About one-sixth of the total area is quite barren. In a
district of such extent and variety of surface, the state of agriculture
must be liable to much variation. The more populous parts near the sea,
and in the vicinity of the great lines of communication, exhibit
favourable instances of agricultural improvement. Oats, potatoes and
turnips are the principal crops, but the extent of land under tillage
shows a general decrease. Pasture land, however, extends, and the number
of cattle, sheep and poultry rises; for dairies are numerous and the
character of the Cork butter and farmyard produce stands high in English
and foreign markets.

Youghal, Kinsale, Queenstown, Castletown and Bearhaven are the deep-sea
and coast fishing district centres of the county; while the salmon
fishing is distributed among the districts of Cork, Bandon, Skibbereen
and Bantry. The mackerel fishery is especially productive from mid-March
to mid-June. The Blackwater, Lee and Bandon, apart from the netting
industry, afford good rod-fishing for salmon, especially the first, on
which Lismore, Fermoy and Mallow are the principal centres. The loughs,
the upper waters of these rivers and their tributaries, frequently
abound in trout. Macroom, Inchigeelagh, Bandon, Dunmanway and Glandore,
with Bantry and Skibbereen, are all good stations.

_Communications._--The main line of the Great Southern & Western
railway, entering the county from the north at Charleville, serves Cork
and Queenstown. The Cork, Bandon & South Coast line runs west to
Skibbereen, Baltimore, Bantry, Clonakilty and Kinsale; and there are
also the Cork & Macroom line to Macroom; the Cork, Blackrock & Passage
to the western waterside villages of Cork Harbour, and the Great
Southern & Western branch eastward from Cork to Youghal; while from
Mallow a branch of the same system continues towards Killarney and the
south-western coast of Ireland. There is also connexion from this
junction with Fermoy, Mitchelstown and county Waterford eastward. The
Timoleague and Courtmacsherry line connects these villages with the
Clonakilty branch of the Cork, Bandon & South Coast Railway.

_Population._--The population (438,432 in 1891; 404,611 in 1901)
exhibits a decrease among the most serious of the Irish counties, and
emigration is correspondingly heavy. Of the total about 90% are Roman
Catholics, and about 70% constitute the rural population. The principal
towns are Cork (pop. 76,122, a county of a city); Queenstown (7909),
Fermoy (6126); Kinsale (4250), Bandon (2830), Youghal (5393), Mallow
(4542), Skibbereen (3208), Macroom (3016), Bantry (3109), Middleton
(3361), Clonakilty (3098), and among smaller towns Charleville,
Mitchelstown, Passage West, Doneraile and Kanturk. Crookhaven in the
extreme S.W. is of importance as a harbour of refuge, but the chief
ports are Cork and Queenstown. The county is divided into east and west
ridings, and contains twenty-three baronies and 249 parishes. Assizes
are held at Cork, and quarter-sessions at Cork, Fermoy, Kanturk,
Kinsale, Mallow, Middleton, and Youghal in the east riding; and Bandon,
Bantry, Clonakilty, Macroom and Skibbereen in the west riding. The
county is in the Protestant diocese of Cork, and the Roman Catholic
diocese of Cork, Cloyne, Kerry and Ross. There are seven parliamentary
divisions, east, mid, north, north-east, south, south-east and west,
each returning one member.

_History._--Cork is one of the counties which is generally considered to
have been instituted by King John. It had not always its present extent,
for its existing boundaries include part of the ancient territory of
Desmond (q.v.), which, in the later half of the 16th century, ranked as
a separate county. In 1598, however, there were two sheriffs in the
county Cork, one especially for Desmond, which was then included in
Cork, but was afterwards amalgamated with the county Kerry. In the same
period wide lands in the county were given to settlers under the crown,
and among these were Sir Walter Raleigh and Edmund Spenser the poet, who
received 40,000 acres and 3028 acres respectively. In 1602 a large
portion of the estates of Sir Walter Raleigh and Fane Beecher were
purchased by Richard Boyle, 1st earl of Cork, who had them colonized
with English settlers; and by founding or rebuilding the towns of
Bandon, Clonakilty, Baltimore, Youghal, and afterwards those of
Middleton, Castlemartyr, Charleville and Doneraile, which were
incorporated and made parliamentary boroughs, the family of Boyle became
possessed of nearly the entire political power of the county.

_Antiquities._--The earlier antiquities of the county are rude monuments
of the Pagan era. There are two so-called druids' altars, the most
perfect near Cloyne, and certain pillar stones scattered through the
county, with straight marks cut on the edges called Ogham inscriptions,
the interpretation of which is a subject of much controversy. The
remains of the old ecclesiastical buildings are in a very ruinous
condition, being used as burial-places by the country people. The
principal is Kilcrea, founded by Cormac M'Carthy about 1485, some of the
tombs of whose descendants are still in the chancel; the steeple is
still nearly perfect, and chapter-house, cloister, dormitory and kitchen
can be seen. Timoleague church, situated on a romantic spot on rising
ground at the extreme end of Courtmacsherry Bay, contains some tombs of
interest, and is still in fair condition. Buttevant Abbey (13th century)
contains some tombs of the Barrys and other distinguished families.
There is a good crypt here. All these were the property of the
Franciscans. There are two round towers in the county, one in a fine
state of preservation opposite Cloyne Cathedral, the other at Kinneigh.
On the chapter seal at Ross, which is dated 1661, and seems to have been
a copy of a much earlier one, there is a good example of a round tower
and stone-roofed church, with St Fachnan, to whom the church is
dedicated, standing by, with a book in one hand and a cross in the
other. The present church dates from 1837, but is on the site of a
former cathedral united to Cork in 1583. Of Mourne Abbey, near Mallow,
once a preceptory of the Knights Templars, and Tracton Abbey, which once
sent a prior to parliament, the very ruins have perished. On an island
of Lough Gouganebarra are remains of an oratory of St Finbar.

Of the castles, Lohort, built in the reign of King John, is by far the
oldest, and in its architectural features the most interesting; it is
still quite perfect and kept in excellent repair by the owner, the Earl
of Egmont. Blarney Castle, built by Cormac M'Carthy about 1449, has a
wide reputation (see BLARNEY). Castles Mahon and Macroom have been
incorporated into the residences of the earls of Bandon and Bantry. The
walls of Mallow Castle attest its former strength and extent, as also
the castle of Kilbolane. The castles of Buttevant, Kilcrea and Dripsy
are still in good condition. At Kanturk is a huge Elizabethan castle
still known as "M'Donagh's Folly," left unfinished owing to objections
raised by a jealous government. At Kilcolman castle near Doneraile the
"Faerie Queene" was written by Spenser.



CORK, a city, county of a city, parliamentary and municipal borough and
seaport of Co. Cork, Ireland, at the head of the magnificent inlet of
Cork Harbour, on the river Lee, 165½ m. S.W. of Dublin by the Great
Southern & Western railway. Pop. (1901) 76,122. Until the middle of the
19th century it ranked second only to Dublin, but is now surpassed by
Belfast in commercial importance. It is the centre of a considerable
railway system, including the Great Southern & Western, the Cork,
Bandon & South Coast, the Cork & Macroom Direct, the Cork, Blackrock &
Passage railways, and the Cork & Muskerry light railway; each of which
companies possesses a separate station in the city. The passenger
steamers to Great Britain, mainly under the control of the City of Cork
Steam Packet Company, serve Fishguard, Glasgow, Liverpool, Plymouth and
Southampton, London and other ports, starting from Penrose Quay on the
North Channel.

The nucleus of the city occupies an island formed by the North and South
Channels, two arms of the river Lee, and in former times no doubt
merited its name, which signifies a swamp. In the beginning of the 18th
century, indeed, this island was broken up into many parts connected by
drawbridges, by numerous small channels navigable at high tide. It now
includes most of the principal thoroughfares, which form a notable
contrast to many of the smaller streets and alleys, in which good
building and cleanliness are lacking. Three bridges cross the North
Channel, a footbridge, North Gate bridge and St Patrick's bridge, the
last a handsome three-arch structure leading to St Patrick's Street, a
wide and pleasant thoroughfare, containing a statue of Father Mathew,
the celebrated Capuchin advocate of temperance, born in 1790. It
communicates with the Grand Parade and this in turn with Great George's
Street, to the west, and the South Mall to the east, the last containing
the principal banks, the County Club house, and good commercial
buildings. The Clarks, South Gate, Parliament and Parnell bridges cross
the South Channel to the southern parts of the city. Public grounds are
few, but on the outskirts of the city are a park and race-course, with
the fashionable Marina promenade; while the Mardyke walk, on the west of
the island, is pleasantly shaded by a fine avenue, and was the site of
the International exhibition held in 1902. Electric tramways connect the
city and suburbs and traverse the principal streets and the St Patrick's
and Parnell bridges. Both branches of the Lee are lined with fine quays
of cut limestone, extending in total length over 4 m.

The principal church is the Protestant cathedral, founded in 1865, and
consecrated on St Andrew's Day 1870; while the central tower was
completed in 1879. It is dedicated to St Fin Barre or Finbar, who
founded the original cathedral in the 7th century. The present building
is in the south-west part of the city, and replaces a somewhat mean
structure erected in 1735 on the site of the ancient cathedral, which
suffered during the siege of Cork in September 1689. Money for the
erection of the building of 1735 was raised by the curious method of a
tax on imported coal. The new cathedral is in the Early French (pointed)
style, with an eastern apse and a striking west front. Its design was by
William Burges (d. 1881), and its erection was due to the indefatigable
exertions and munificence of Dr John Gregg, bishop of Cork, Cloyne and
Ross; while the tower and spires were the gift of two merchants of Cork.
The other principal Protestant churches are St Luke's, St Nicholas and
St Anne Shandon, with its striking tower of parti-coloured stones; and
its peal of bells extolled in Father Prout's lyric "The Bells of
Shandon." The Roman Catholic cathedral, also dedicated to St Finbar, is
conspicuous on the north side of the city; it dates from 1808, but has
been since restored. Other fine churches of this faith are St Mary, St
Peter and Paul, St Patrick, Holy Trinity and St Vincent de Paul. St
Finbar's cemetery has handsome monuments, and St Joseph's, founded by
Father Mathew in 1830 on the site of the old botanic gardens of the Cork
Institution, is beautifully planted. The court house in Great George's
Street has a good Corinthian portico, happily undamaged in a fire which
destroyed the rest of the building in 1891. The custom-house commands
the river in a fine position at the lower junction of the branches. The
usual commercial and public buildings are mainly on the island. The most
notable educational establishment is the University College, founded as
Queen's College (1849), with those of the same name at Belfast and
Galway, under an Act of 1845. A new charter was granted to it under
letters patent pursuant to the Irish Universities Act 1908, when it was
given its present name. The building, designed by Sir Thomas Deane,
occupies a beautiful site on the river in the west of the city, where
Gill Abbey, of the 7th century, formerly stood. It is a fine building in
Tudor Style, "worthy," said Macaulay, "to stand in the High Street of
Oxford." A large library, museum and well-furnished laboratory are here.
The Crawford School of Science (1885); and the Munster Dairy and
Agricultural School, 1 m. west of the city, also claim notice, while
besides parochial and industrial schools several of the religious orders
located here devote themselves to education. The Cork library (founded
1790) contains a valuable collection of books. The Royal Cork
Institution (1807), in addition to an extensive library and a rare
collection of Oriental MSS., possesses a valuable collection of
minerals, and the collections of casts from the antique presented by the
pope to George IV. There are numerous literary and scientific societies,
including the Cork Cuvierian and Archaeological Society. The principal
clubs are the County and the Southern in South Mall, and the City in
Grand Parade; while for sport there are the Cork Golf Club, Little
Island, three rowing clubs, and the Royal Munster and Royal Cork Yacht
clubs, the latter located at Queenstown. The theatres are the
opera-house in Nelson's Place, and the Theatre Royal.

[Illustration: CORK and QUEENSTOWN

Based on information embodied from the Ordnance Survey, by permission of
the Controller of H. M. Stationery Office.]

The country neighbouring to Cork is highly attractive. The harbour, with
the ceaseless activity of shipping, its calm waters, sheltered by many
islands, and its well-wooded shores studded with pleasant
watering-places, affords a series of charming views, apart from its
claim to be considered one of the finest natural harbours in the
kingdom. Military depots occupy several of the smaller islets, and three
batteries guard the entry. This is about 1 m. wide, but within the width
increases to 3 m. while the length is about 10 m. The Atlantic port of
Queenstown (q.v.) is on Great Island at the head of the outer harbour.
Tivoli (the residence of Sir Walter Raleigh), Fort William, Lota Park,
and Blackrock Castle are notable features on the shore; and Passage,
Blackrock, Glenbrook and Monkstown are waterside resorts. Inland from
Cork runs the picturesque valley of the Lee, and low hills surround the
commanding situation of the port.

The harbour is by far the most important on the south coast of Ireland,
and dredging operations render the quays approachable for vessels
drawing 20 ft. at all states of the tide. Its trade is mainly with
Bristol and the ports of South Wales. The imports, exceeding £1,000,000
in annual value, include large quantities of wheat and maize, while the
exports (about £9000 annually) are chiefly of cattle, provisions, butter
and fish. The Cork Butter Exchange, where classification of the various
qualities is carried out by branding under the inspection of experts,
was important in the early part of the 17th century, and an unbroken
series of accounts dates from 1769 when the present market was founded.
There are distilleries, breweries, tanneries and iron foundries in the
city; and manufactures of woollen and leather goods, tweeds, friezes,
gloves and chemical manure. Nearly six-sevenths of the population are
Roman Catholics. The city does not share with the county the rapid
decrease of population. It is governed by a lord mayor, 14 aldermen and
42 councillors. The parliamentary borough returns two members.

The original site of Cork seems to have been in the vicinity of the
Protestant cathedral; St Finbar's ecclesiastical foundation attracting
many students and votaries. In the 9th century the town was frequently
pillaged by the Northmen. According to the _Annals of the Four Masters_
a fleet burned Cork in 821, in 846 the Danes appear to have been in
possession of the town, for a force was collected to demolish their
fortress; and in 1012 Cork again fell in flames. The Danes then appear
to have founded the new city on the banks of the Lee as a trading
centre. It was anciently surrounded with a wall, an order for the
reparation of which is found so late as 1748 in the city council books
(which date from 1610). Submission and homage were made to Henry II. on
his arrival in 1172, and subsequently the English held the town for a
long period against the Irish, by constant and careful watch. Cork
showed favour to Perkin Warbeck in 1492, and its mayor was hanged in
consequence. In 1649 it surrendered to Cromwell, and in 1689 to the earl
of Marlborough after five days' siege, when Henry, duke of Grafton, was
mortally wounded. Cork was a borough by prescription, and successive
charters were granted to it from the reign of Henry II. onward. By a
charter of Edward IV. the lord mayor of Cork was created admiral of the
port, and this office is manifested in a triennial ceremony in which the
mayor throws a dart over the harbour.

  See C. Smith, _Ancient and Present State of the County and City of
  Cork_ (1750), edited by R. Day and W. A. Copinger (Cork, 1893); C. B.
  Gibson, _History of the City and County of Cork_ (London, 1861); M. F.
  Cusack, _History of the City and County of Cork_, 1875.



CORK (perhaps through Sp. _corcha_ from Lat. _cortex_, bark, but
possibly connected with _quercus_, oak), the outer layer of the bark of
an evergreen species of oak (_Quercus Suber_). The tree reaches the
height of about 30 ft., growing in the south of Europe and on the North
African coasts generally; but it is principally cultivated in Spain and
Portugal. The outer layer of bark in the cork oak by annual additions
from within gradually becomes a thick soft homogeneous mass, possessing
those compressible and elastic properties upon which the economic value
of the material chiefly depends. The first stripping of cork from young
trees takes place when they are from fifteen to twenty years of age. The
yield, which is rough, unequal and woody in texture, is called virgin
cork, and is useful only as a tanning substance, or for forming rustic
work in ferneries, conservatories, &c. Subsequently the bark is removed
every eight or ten years, the quality of the cork improving with each
successive stripping; and the trees continue to live and thrive under
the operation for 150 years and upwards. The produce of the second
barking is still so coarse in texture that it is only fit for making
floats for nets and for similar applications. The operation of stripping
the trees takes place during the months of July and August. Two cuts are
made round the stem--one a little above the ground, and the other
immediately under the spring of the main branches. Between these three
or four longitudinal incisions are then made, the utmost care being
taken not to injure the inner bark. The cork is thereafter removed in
the sections into which it has been cut, by inserting under it the
wedge-shaped handle of the implement used in making the incisions. After
the outer surface has been scraped and cleaned, the pieces are flattened
by heating them over a fire and submitting them to pressure on a flat
surface. In the heating operation the surface is charred, and thereby
the pores are closed up, and what is termed "nerve" is given to the
material. In this state the cork is ready for manufacture or
exportation.

Though specially developed in the cork-oak, the substance cork is an
almost universal product in the stems (and roots) of woody plants which
increase in diameter year by year. Generally towards the end of the
first year the original thin protective layer of a stem or branch is
replaced by a thin layer of "cork," that is a layer of cells the living
contents of which have disappeared while the walls have become thickened
and toughened as the result of the formation in them of a substance
known as suberin. Fresh cork is formed each season by an active
formative layer below the layer developed last season, which generally
peels off. Where the formation is extensive and persistent as in the
cork-oak, a thick covering of cork is formed. In some cases, as on young
shoots of the cork-elm, the development is irregular and wing-like
outgrowths of cork are formed. In northern Russia a similar method to
that used for obtaining cork from the cork-oak is employed with the
birch.

Cork possesses a combination of properties which peculiarly fits it for
many and diverse uses, for some of which it alone is found applicable.
The leading purpose for which it is used is for forming bungs and
stoppers for bottles and other vessels containing liquids. Its
compressibility, elasticity and practical imperviousness to both air and
water so fit it for this purpose that the term cork is even more applied
to the function than to the substance. Its specific lightness, combined
with strength and durability, recommend it above all other substances
for forming life-buoys, belts and jackets, and in the construction of
life-boats and other apparatus for saving from drowning. On account of
its lightness, softness and non-conducting properties it is used for
hat-linings and the soles of shoes, the latter being a very ancient
application of cork. It is also used in making artificial limbs, for
lining entomological cases, for pommels in leather-dressing, and as a
medium for making architectural models. Chips and cuttings are ground up
and mixed with india-rubber to form kamptulicon floor-cloth, or
"cork-carpet." The inner bark of the cork-tree is a valuable tanning
material.

Certain of the properties and uses of cork were known to the ancient
Greeks and Romans, and the latter, we find by Horace (_Odes_ iii. 8),
used it as a stopper for wine-vessels:--

  "corticem adstrictum pice dimovebit
   amphorae"--

It appears, however, that cork was not generally used for stopping
bottles till so recent a period as near the end of the 17th century, and
bottles themselves were not employed for storing liquids till the 15th
century. Many substitutes have been proposed for cork as a stoppering
agent; but except in the case of aerated liquids none of these has
recommended itself in practice. For aerated water bottles several
successful devices have been introduced. The most simple of these is an
india-rubber ball pressed upwards into the narrow of the bottle neck by
the force of the gas contained in the water; and in another system a
glass ball is similarly pressed against an india-rubber collar inserted
in the neck of the bottle. By analogy the term "to cork" is used of any
such devices for sealing up a bottle or aperture.



CORK AND ORRERY, MARY, COUNTESS OF (Mary Monckton) (1746-1840), was born
on the 21st of May 1746, the daughter of the first Viscount Galway. From
her early years she took a keen interest in literature, and through her
influence her mother's house in London became a favourite meeting-place
of literary celebrities. Dr Johnson was a frequent guest. According to
Boswell, Miss Monckton's "vivacity enchanted the sage, and they used to
talk together with all imaginable ease." Sheridan, Reynolds, Burke and
Horace Walpole were among her constant visitors, and Mrs Siddons was her
closest friend. In 1786 she married the seventh earl of Cork and Orrery,
who died in 1798. As Lady Cork, her love of social "lions" became more
pronounced than ever. Among her regular guests were Canning and
Castlereagh, Byron, Sir Walter Scott, Lord John Russell, Sir Robert
Peel, Theodore Hook and Sydney Smith. She is supposed to have been the
original of Lady Bellair in Disraeli's _Henrietta Temple_, and Dickens
is believed to have drawn on her for some of the peculiarities of Mrs
Leo Hunter in _Pickwick_. Lady Cork had a remarkable memory, and was a
brilliant conversationalist. She died in London on the 30th of May 1840.
She was then ninety-four, but within a few days of her death had been
either dining out or entertaining every night. There is a fine portrait
of her by Reynolds.



CORLEONE (Saracen, _Korliun_), a town of Sicily, in the province of
Palermo, 42 m. S. of Palermo by rail and 21 m. direct, 1949 ft. above
sea-level. Pop. (1901) 14,803. The town was a Saracen settlement, but a
Lombard colony was introduced by Frederick II. Two medieval castles rise
above the town, and there are some churches of interest.



CORMENIN, LOUIS MARIE DE LA HAYE, VICOMTE DE (1788-1868), French jurist
and political pamphleteer, was born at Paris on the 6th of January 1788.
His father and his grandfather both held the rank of lieutenant-general
of the admiralty. At the age of twenty he was received advocate, and
about the same time he gained some reputation as a writer of piquant and
delicate poems. In 1810 he received from Napoleon I. the appointment of
auditor to the council of state; and after the restoration of the
Bourbons he became master of requests. During the period of his
connexion with the council he devoted himself zealously to the study of
administrative law. He was selected to prepare some of the most
important reports of the council. Among his separate publications at
this time are noted,--_Du conseil d'état envisagé comme conseil et comme
juridiction dans notre monarchie constitutionnelle_ (1818), and _De la
responsabilité des agents du gouvernement_. In the former he claimed,
for the protection of the rights of private persons in the
administration of justice, the institution of a special court whose
members should be irremovable, the right of oral defence, and publicity
of trial. In 1822 appeared his _Questions de droit administratif_, in
which he for the first time brought together and gave scientific shape
to the scattered elements of administrative law. These he arranged and
stated clearly in the form of aphorisms, with logical deductions,
establishing them by proofs drawn from the archives of the council of
state. This is recognized as his most important work as a jurist. The
fifth edition (1840) was thoroughly revised.

In 1828 Cormenin entered the Chamber of Deputies as member for Orleans,
took his seat in the Left Centre, and began a vigorous opposition to the
government of Charles X. As he was not gifted with the qualifications of
the orator, he seldom appeared at the tribune; but in the various
committees he defended all forms of popular liberties, and at the same
time delivered, in a series of powerful pamphlets, under the pseudonym
of "Timon," the most formidable blows against tyranny and all political
and administrative abuses. After the revolution of July 1830, Cormenin
was one of the 221 who signed the protest against the elevation of the
Orleans dynasty to the throne; and he resigned both his office in the
council of state and his seat in the chamber. He was, however, soon
re-elected deputy, and now voted with the extreme Left. The discussions
on the budget in 1831 gave rise to the publication of his famous series
of _Lettres sur la liste civile_, which in ten years ran through
twenty-five editions. In the following year he was elected deputy for
Belley. In 1834 he was elected by two arrondissements, and sat for
Joigny, which he represented till 1846. In this year he lost his seat in
consequence of the popular prejudice aroused against him by his
trenchant pamphlet _Oui et non_ (1845) against attacks on religious
liberty, and a second entitled _Feu! Feu!_ (1845), written in reply to
those who demanded a retractation of the former. Sixty thousand copies
were rapidly sold.

Cormenin was an earnest advocate of universal suffrage before the
revolution of February 1848, and had remorselessly exposed the corrupt
practices at elections in his pamphlet--_Ordre du jour sur la corruption
électorale_. After the revolution he was elected by four departments to
the Constituent Assembly, and became one of its vice-presidents. He was
also member and president of the constitutional commission, and for some
time took a leading part in drawing up the republican constitution. But
the disputes which broke out among the members led him to resign the
presidency. He was soon after named member of the council of state and
president of the _comité du contentieux_. It was at this period that he
published two pamphlets--_Sur l'indépendance de l'Italie_. After the
_coup d'état_ of December 2, 1851, Cormenin, who had undertaken the
defence of Prince Louis Napoleon after his attempt at Strassburg,
accepted a place in the new council of state of the empire. Four years
later, by imperial ordinance, he was made a member of the Institute. One
of the most characteristic works of Cormenin is the _Livre des
orateurs_, a series of brilliant studies of the principal parliamentary
orators of the restoration and the monarchy of July, the first edition
of which appeared in 1838, and the eighteenth in 1860. In 1846 he
published his _Entretiens de village_, which procured him the Montyon
prize, and of which six editions were called for the same year. His last
work was _Le Droit de tonnage en Algérie_ (1860). He died at Paris, on
the 6th of May 1868. Two volumes of his _Reliquiae_ were printed in
Paris in the same year.



CORMON, FERNAND (1845-   ), French painter, was born in Paris. He became
a pupil of Cabanel, Fromentin and Portaels, and one of the leading
historical painters of modern France. At an early age he attracted
attention by the better class of sensationalism in his art, although for
a time his powerful brush dwelled with particular delight on scenes of
bloodshed, such as the "Murder in the Seraglio" (1868) and the "Death of
Ravara, Queen of Lanka" at the Toulouse Museum. The Luxembourg has his
"Cain flying before Jehovah's Curse"; and for the Mairie of the fourth
arrondissement of Paris he executed in grisaille a series of Panels:
"Birth," "Death," "Marriage," "War," &c. "A Chief's Funeral," and
pictures having the Stone Age for their subject, occupied him for
several years. He was appointed to the Legion of Honour in 1880.
Subsequently he also devoted himself to portraiture.



CORMONTAINGNE, LOUIS DE (c. 1697-1752), French military engineer, was
born at Strassburg. He was present as a volunteer at the sieges of
Freiburg and Landau in the later years of the War of the Spanish
Succession, and in 1715 he entered the engineers. After being stationed
for some years at Strassburg he became captain, and was put in charge
(at first in a subordinate capacity, and subsequently as chief engineer)
of the new works, Forts Moselle and Bellecroix, at Metz, which he built
according to his own system of fortification. He was present at the
siege of Philipsburg in 1733, and as a lieutenant-colonel took part in
most of the sieges in the Low Countries during the War of the Austrian
Succession. He attained the rank of brigadier and finally that of
_maréchal de camp_, and was employed in fortification work until his
death. His _Architecture militaire_, written in 1714, was long kept
secret by order of the authorities, but, an unauthorized edition having
appeared at the Hague in 1741, he himself prepared another version
called _Premier mémoire sur la fortification_, which from 1741 onwards
was followed by others. His ideas are closely modelled on those of
Vauban (q.v.), and in his lifetime he was not considered the equal of
such engineers as d'Asfeld and Filley. It was not until twenty years
after his death that his system became widely known. Fourcroy de
Rainecourt, then chief of engineers, searching the archives for valuable
matter, chose the numerous memoirs of Cormontaingne for publication
amongst engineer officers in 1776. Even then they only circulated
privately, and it was not until the engineer Bousmard published
Cormontaingne's _Mémorial de l'attaque des places_ (Berlin, 1803) that
Fourcroy, and after him General La Fitte de Clavé, actually gave to the
general public the _OEuvres posthumes de Cormontaingne_ (Paris,
1806-1809).

His system of fortification was not marked by any great originality of
thought, which indeed could not be expected of a member of the _corps du
génie_, the characteristics of which were a close caste spirit and an
unquestioning reverence for the authority of Vauban. Forts Moselle and
Bellecroix are still in existence.

  See Von Brese-Winiari, _Über Entstehen etc. der neueren
  Befestigungsmethode_ (Berlin, 1844); Prévost du Vernois, _De la
  fortification depuis Vauban_ (Paris, 1861); Cosseron de Villenoisy,
  _Essai historique sur la fortification_ (Paris, 1869).



CORMORANT (from the Lat. _corvus marinus_,[1] through the Fr., in some
_patois_ of which it is still "cor marin"; in certain Ital. dialects are
the forms "corvo marin" or "corvo marino"), a large sea-fowl belonging
to the genus _Phalacrocorax_[2] (_Carbo_, _Halieus_ and _Graculus_ of
some ornithologists), and that group of the Linnaean order _Anseres_,
now partly generally recognized by Illiger's term _Steganopodes_, of
which it with its allies forms a family _Phalacrocoracidae_.

The cormorant (_P. carbo_) frequents almost all the sea-coast of Europe,
and breeds in societies at various stations, most generally on steep
cliffs, but occasionally on rocky islands as well as on trees. The nest
consists of a large mass of sea-weed, and, with the ground immediately
surrounding it, generally looks as though bespattered with whitewash,
from the excrement of the bird, which lives entirely on fish. The eggs,
from four to six in number, are small, and have a thick, soft,
calcareous shell, bluish-white when first laid, but soon becoming
discoloured. The young are hatched blind, and covered with an inky-black
skin. They remain for some time in the squab-condition, and are then
highly esteemed for food by the northern islanders, their flesh being
said to taste as well as a roasted hare's. Their first plumage is of a
sombre brownish-black above, and more or less white beneath. They take
two or three years to assume the fully adult dress, which is deep
black, glossed above with bronze, and varied in the breeding-season with
white on the cheeks and flanks, besides being adorned by filamentary
feathers on the head, and further set off by a bright yellow gape. The
old cormorant looks nearly as big as a goose, but is really much
smaller; its flesh is quite uneatable.

Taken when young from the nest, this bird is easily tamed and can be
trained to fish for its keeper, as was of old time commonly done in
England, where the master of the cormorants was one of the officers of
the royal household. Nowadays the practice is nearly obsolete. When
taken out to furnish sport, a strap is fastened round the bird's neck so
as, without impeding its breath, to hinder it from swallowing its
captures.[3] Arrived at the waterside, it is cast off. It at once dives
and darts along the bottom as swiftly as an arrow in quest of its prey,
rapidly scanning every hole or pool. A fish is generally seized within a
few seconds of its being sighted, and as each is taken the bird rises to
the surface with its capture in its bill. It does not take much longer
to dispose of the prize in the dilatable skin of its throat so far as
the strap will allow, and the pursuit is recommenced until the bird's
gular pouch, capacious as it is, will hold no more. It then returns to
its keeper, who has been anxiously watching and encouraging its
movements, and a little manipulation of its neck effects the delivery of
the booty. It may then be let loose again, or, if considered to have
done its work, it is fed and restored to its perch. The activity the
bird displays under water is almost incredible to those who have not
seen its performances, and in a shallow river scarcely a fish escapes
its keen eyes, and sudden turns, except by taking refuge under a stone
or root, or in the mud that may be stirred up during the operation, and
so avoiding observation (see Salvin and Freeman, _Falconry_, 1859).

Nearly allied to the cormorant, and having much the same habits, is the
shag, or green cormorant of some writers (_P. graculus_). The shag
(which name in many parts of the world is used in a generic sense) is,
however, about one-fourth smaller in linear dimensions, is much more
glossy in plumage, and its nuptial embellishment is a nodding plume
instead of the white patches of the cormorant. The easiest diagnostic on
examination will be found to be the number of tail-feathers, which in
the former are fourteen and in the shag twelve. The latter, too, is more
marine in the localities it frequents, scarcely ever entering fresh or
indeed inland waters.

In the south of Europe a much smaller species (_P. pygmaeus_) is found.
This is almost entirely a fresh-water bird, and is not uncommon on the
lower Danube. Other species, to the number perhaps of thirty or more,
have been discriminated from other parts of the world, but all have a
great general similarity to one another. New Zealand and the west coast
of northern America are particularly rich in birds of this genus, and
the species found there are the most beautifully decorated of any. All,
however, are remarkable for their curiously-formed feet, the four toes
of each being connected by a web, for their long stiff tails, and for
the absence, in the adult, of any exterior nostrils. When gorged, or
when the state of the tide precludes fishing, they are fond of sitting
on an elevated perch, often with extended wings, and in this attitude
they will remain motionless for a considerable time, as though hanging
themselves out to dry. It was perhaps this peculiarity that struck the
observation of Milton, and prompted his well-known similitude of Satan
to a cormorant (_Parad. Lost_, iv. 194); but when not thus behaving they
themselves provoke the more homely comparison of a row of black bottles.
Their voracity is proverbial.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Some authors, following Caius, derive the word from _corvus
    vorans_ and spell it corvorant, but doubtless wrongly.

  [2] So spelt since the days of Gesner; but possibly _Phalaracorax_
    would be more correct.

  [3] According to Willoughby it was formerly the custom to carry the
    cormorant hooded till it was required; in modern practice the bearer
    wears a face-mask to protect himself from its beak.



CORN (a common Teutonic word; cf. Lat. _granum_, seed, grain),
originally meaning a small hard particle or grain, as of sand, salt,
gunpowder, &c. It thus came to be applied to the small hard seed of a
plant, as still used in the words barley-corn and pepper-corn. In
agriculture it is generally applied to the seed of the cereal plants. It
is often locally understood to mean that kind of cereal which is the
leading crop of the district; thus in England it refers to wheat, in
Scotland and Ireland to oats, and in the United States to maize (Indian
corn). See GRAIN TRADE; CORN LAWS; AGRICULTURE; WHEAT; MAIZE; &c.

The term "corned" is given to a preparation of meat (especially beef) on
account of the original manner of preserving it by the use of salt in
grains or "corns."



CORN (from Lat. _cornu_, horn), in pathology (technically _clavus_), a
localized outgrowth of the epidermic layer of the skin, most commonly of
the toe, with a central ingrowth of a hard horny plug. The underlying
papillae are atrophied, causing a cup-shaped hollow, whilst the
surrounding papillae are hyper-trophied. The condition is mainly caused
by badly fitting boots, though any undue pressure, of insufficient power
to give rise to ulceration, may be the cause of a corn. Corns may be
hard or soft. The hard corn usually occurs on one of the toes, is a more
or less conical swelling and may be extremely painful at times. If
suppuration occurs around the corn, it is apt to burrow, and if
unattended to may give rise to arthritis or even necrosis. The best
treatment is to soften the corn with hot water, pare it very carefully
with a sharp knife, and then paint it with a solution of salicylic acid
in collodion. The painting must be repeated three times a day for a week
or ten days. The soft corn occurs between the toes and is usually a more
painful condition. Owing to the absorption of sweat its surface may
become white and sodden in appearance. The treatment is much the same,
but spirits of camphor should be painted on each night, and a layer of
cotton wool placed between the toes during the daytime.



CORNARO, CATERINA (1454-1510), queen of Cyprus, was the daughter of
Marco Cornaro, a Venetian noble, whose brother Andrea was an intimate
friend of James de Lusignan, natural son of King John II. of Cyprus. In
the king's death in 1458 the succession was disputed, and James, with
the help of the sultan of Egypt, seized the island. But several powers
were arrayed against him--the duke of Savoy, who claimed the island on
the strength of the marriage of his son Louis to Charlotte, the only
legitimate daughter of John II.,[1] the Genoese, and the pope. It was
important that he should make a marriage such as would secure him
powerful support. Andrea Cornaro suggested his niece Caterina, famed for
her beauty, as that union would bring him Venetian help. The proposal
was agreed to, and approved of by Caterina herself and the senate, and
the contract was signed in 1468. But further intrigues caused delay, and
it was not until 1471 that James's hesitations were overcome. Caterina
was solemnly adopted by the doge as a "daughter of the Republic" and
sailed for Cyprus in 1472 with the title of queen of Cyprus, Jerusalem
and Armenia. But she only enjoyed one year of happiness, for in 1473 her
husband died of fever, leaving his kingdom to his queen and their child
as yet unborn. Enemies and rival claimants arose on all sides, for
Cyprus was a tempting bait. In August the child James III. was born, but
as soon as the Venetian fleet sailed away a plot to depose him in favour
of Zarla, James's illegitimate daughter, broke out, and Caterina was
kept a prisoner. The Venetians returned, and order was soon restored,
but the republic was meditating the seizure of Cyprus, although it had
no valid title whatever, and after the death of Caterina's child in 1474
it was Venice which really governed the island. The poor queen was
surrounded by intrigues and plots, and although the people of the coast
towns loved her, the Cypriot nobles were her bitter enemies and hostile
to Venetian influence. In 1488 the republic, fearing that Sultan Bayezid
II. intended to attack Cyprus, and having also discovered a plot to
marry Caterina to King Alphonso II. of Naples, a proposal to which she
seemed not averse, decided to recall the queen to Venice and formally
annex the island. Caterina at first refused, for she clung to her
royalty, but Venice was a severe parent to its adopted daughter and
would not be gainsaid; she was forced to abdicate in favour of the
republic, and returned to Venice in 1489. The government conferred on
her the castle and town of Asolo for life, and there in the midst of a
learned and brilliant little court, of which Cardinal Bembo (q.v.) was a
shining light, she spent the rest of her days in idyllic peace. She died
in July 1510. Titian's famous portrait of her is in the Uffizi gallery
in Florence.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--A. Centelli, _Caterina Cornaro e il suo regno_ (Venice,
  1892); S. Romanin, _Storia documentata di Venezia_, vol. iv. (Venice,
  1855), and his _Lezioni di storia Veneta_ (Florence, 1875); L. de Mas
  Latrie, _Histoire de l'île de Chypre_ (Paris, 1852-1861); and Horatio
  Brown's essay in his _Studies in Venetian History_ (London, 1907),
  which gives the best sketch of the queen's career and a list of
  authorities.     (L. V.*)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Whence the kings of Italy derive their title of kings of Cyprus
    and Jerusalem.



CORNARO, LUIGI (1467-1566), a Venetian nobleman, famous for his
treatises on a temperate life. In his youth he lived freely, but after a
severe illness at the age of forty, he began under medical advice
gradually to reduce his diet. For some time he restricted himself to a
daily allowance of 12 oz. of solid food and 14 oz. of wine; later in
life he reduced still further his bill of fare, and found he could
support his life and strength with no more solid meat than an egg a day.
At the age of eighty-three he wrote his treatise on _The Sure and
Certain Method of Attaining a Long and Healthful Life_, the English
translation of which went through numerous editions; and this was
followed by three others on the same subject, composed at the ages of
eighty-six, ninety-one and ninety-five respectively. The first three
were published at Padua in 1558. They are written, says Addison
(_Spectator_, No. 195), "with such a spirit of cheerfulness, religion
and good sense, as are the natural concomitants of temperance and
sobriety." He died at Padua at the age of ninety-eight.



CORNBRASH, in geology, the name applied to the uppermost member of the
Bathonian stage of the Jurassic formation in England. It is an old
English agricultural name applied in Wiltshire to a variety of loose
rubble or "brash" which, in that part of the country, forms a good soil
for growing corn. The name was adopted by William Smith for a thin band
of shelly limestone which, in the south of England, breaks up in the
manner indicated. Although only a thin group of rocks (10-25 ft.), it is
remarkably persistent; it may be traced from Weymouth to the Yorkshire
coast, but in north Lincolnshire it is very thin, and probably dies out
in the neighbourhood of the Humber. It appears again, however, as a thin
bed in Gristhorpe Bay, Cayton Bay, Wheatcroft, Newton Dale and Langdale.
In the inland exposures in Yorkshire it is difficult to follow on
account of its thinness, and the fact that it passes up into dark shales
in many places--the so-called "clays of the Cornbrash," with _Avicula
echinata_.

The Cornbrash is a very fossiliferous formation; the fauna indicates a
transition from the Lower to the Middle Oolites, though it is probably
more nearly related to that of the beds above than to those below. Good
localities for fossils are Radipole near Weymouth, Closworth, Wincanton,
Trowbridge, Cirencester, Witney, Peterborough and Sudbrook Park near
Lincoln. A few of the important fossils are: _Waldheimia lagenalis_,
_Pecten levis_, _Avicula echinata_, _Ostrea flabelloides_, _Myacites
decurtatus_, _Echinobrissus clunicularis_; _Macrocephalites
macrocephalus_ is abundant in the midland counties but rarer in the
south; belemnites are not known. The remains of saurians
(_Steneosaurus_) are occasionally found. The Cornbrash is of little
value for building or road-making, although it is used locally; in the
south of England it is not oolitic, but in Yorkshire it is a rubbly,
marly, frequently ironshot oolitic limestone. In Bedfordshire it has
been termed the Bedford limestone.

  See JURASSIC; also H. B. Woodward, "The Jurassic Rocks of Britain,"
  vol. iv. (1894); and C. Fox Strangways, vol. i.; both _Memoirs of the
  Geological Survey_.     (J. A. H.)



CORNEILLE, PIERRE (1606-1684), French dramatist and poet, was born at
Rouen, in the rue de la Pie, on the 6th of June 1606. The house, which
was long preserved, was destroyed not many years ago. His father, whose
Christian name was the same, was _avocat du roi à la Table de Marbre du
Palais_, and also held the position of _maître des eaux et forêts_ in
the _vicomté_ (or _bailliage_, as some say) of Rouen. In this latter
office he is said to have shown himself a vigorous magistrate,
suppressing brigandage and plunder without regard to his personal
safety. He was ennobled in 1637 (it is said not without regard to his
son's distinction), and the honour was renewed in favour of his sons
Pierre and Thomas in 1669, when a general repeal of the letters of
nobility recently granted had taken place. There appears, however, to be
no instance on record of the poet himself assuming the "de" of nobility.
His mother's name was Marthe le Pesant.

After being educated by the Jesuits of Rouen, Corneille at the age of
eighteen was entered as _avocat_, and in 1624 took the oaths, as we are
told, four years before the regular time, a dispensation having been
procured. He was afterwards appointed advocate to the admiralty, and to
the "waters and forests," but both these posts must have been of small
value, as we find him parting with them in 1650 for the insignificant
sum of 6000 livres. In that year and the next he was _procureur-syndic
des États de Normandie_. His first play, _Mélite_, was acted in 1629. It
is said by B. le B. de Fontenelle (his nephew) to have been inspired by
personal experiences, and was extremely popular, either because or in
spite of its remarkable difference from the popular plays of the day,
those of A. Hardy. In 1632 _Clitandre_, a tragedy, was printed (it may
have been acted in 1631); in 1633 _La Veuve_ and the _Galerie du
palais_, in 1634 _La Suivante_ and _La Place Royale_, all the last-named
plays being comedies, saw the stage. In 1634 also, having been selected
as the composer of a Latin elegy to Richelieu on the occasion of the
cardinal visiting Rouen, he was introduced to the subject of his verses,
and was soon after enrolled among the "five poets." These officers (the
others being G. Colletet, Boisrobert and C. de l'Étoile, who in no way
merited the title, and J. de Rotrou, who was no unworthy yokefellow even
of Corneille) had for task the more profitable than dignified occupation
of working up Richelieu's ideas into dramatic form. No one could be less
suited for such work than Corneille, and he soon (it is said) incurred
his employer's displeasure by altering the plan of the third act of _Les
Thuileries_, which had been entrusted to him.

Meanwhile the year 1635 saw the production of _Médée_, a grand but
unequal tragedy. In the next year the singular extravaganza entitled
_L'Illusion comique_ followed, and was succeeded about the end of
November by the _Cid_, based on the _Mocedades del Cid_ of Guillem de
Castro. The triumphant success of this, perhaps the most "epoch-making"
play in all literature, the jealousy of Richelieu and the Academy, the
open attacks of Georges de Scudéry and J. de Mairet and others, and the
pamphlet-war which followed, are among the best-known incidents in the
history of letters. The trimming verdict of the Academy, which we have
in J. Chapelain's _Sentiments de l'Académie française sur la
tragi-comédie du Cid_ (1638), when its arbitration was demanded by
Richelieu, and not openly repudiated by Corneille, was virtually
unimportant; but it is worth remembering that no less a writer than
Georges de Scudéry, in his _Observations sur le Cid_ (1637), gravely and
apparently sincerely asserted and maintained of this great play that the
subject was utterly bad, that all the rules of dramatic composition were
violated, that the action was badly conducted, the versification
constantly faulty, and the beauties as a rule stolen! Corneille himself
was awkwardly situated in this dispute. The _esprit bourru_ by which he
was at all times distinguished, and which he now displayed in his rather
arrogant _Excuse à Ariste_, unfitted him for controversy, and it was of
vital importance to him that he should not lose the outward marks of
favour which Richelieu continued to show him. Perhaps the pleasantest
feature in the whole matter is the unshaken and generous admiration with
which Rotrou, the only contemporary whose genius entitled him to
criticise Corneille, continued to regard his friend, rival, and in some
sense (though Rotrou was the younger of the two) pupil. Finding it
impossible to make himself fairly heard in the matter, Corneille (who
had retired from his position among the "five poets") withdrew to Rouen
and passed nearly three years in quiet there, perhaps revolving the
opinions afterwards expressed in his three _Discours_ and in the
_Examens_ of his plays, where he bows, somewhat as in the house of
Rimmon, to "the rules." In 1639, or at the beginning of 1640, appeared
_Horace_ with a dedication to Richelieu. The good offices of Madame de
Combalet, to whom the _Cid_ had been dedicated, and perhaps the
satisfaction of the cardinal's literary jealousy, had healed what breach
there may have been, and indeed the poet was in no position to quarrel
with his patron. Richelieu not only allowed him 500 crowns a year, but
soon afterwards, it is said, though on no certain authority, employed
his omnipotence in reconciling the father of the poet's mistress, Marie
de Lampérière, to the marriage of the lovers (1640). In this year also
_Cinna_ appeared. A brief but very serious illness attacked him, and the
death of his father the year before had increased his family anxieties
by leaving his mother in very indifferent circumstances. It has,
however, been recently denied that he himself was at any time poor, as
older traditions asserted.

In the following year Corneille figured as a contributor to the
_Guirlande de Julie_, a famous album which the marquis de Montausier,
assisted by all the literary men of the day, offered to his lady-love,
Julie d'Angennes. 1643 was, according to the latest authorities (for
Cornelian dates have often been altered), a very great year in the
dramatist's life. Therein appeared _Polyeucte_, the memorable comedy of
_Le Menteur_, which though adapted from the Spanish stood in relation to
French comedy very much as _Le Cid_, which owed less to Spain, stood to
French tragedy; its less popular and far less good _Suite_,--and perhaps
_La Mort de Pompée_. _Rodogune_ (1644) was a brilliant success;
_Théodore_ (1645), a tragedy on a somewhat perilous subject, was the
first of Corneille's plays which was definitely damned. Some amends may
have been made to him by the commission which he received next year to
write verses for the _Triomphes poétiques de Louis XIII_. Soon after
(22nd of January 1647) the Academy at last (it had twice rejected him on
frivolous pleas) admitted the greatest of living French writers.
_Héraclius_ (1646), _Andromède_ (1650), a spectacle-opera rather than a
play, _Don Sanche d'Aragon_ (1650) and _Nicomède_ (1651) were the
products of the next few years' work; but in 1652 _Pertharite_ was
received with decided disfavour, and the poet in disgust resolved, like
Ben Jonson, to quit the loathed stage. In this resolution he persevered
for six years, during which he worked at a verse translation of the
_Imitation of Christ_ (finished in 1656), at his three _Discourses on
Dramatic Poetry_, and at the _Examens_ which are usually printed at the
end of his plays. In 1659 Fouquet, the Maecenas of the time, persuaded
him to alter his resolve, and _OEdipe_, a play which became a great
favourite with Louis XIV., was the result. It was followed by _La Toison
d'or_ (1660), _Sertorius_ (1662) and _Sophonisbe_ (1663). In this latter
year Corneille (who had at last removed his residence from Rouen to
Paris in 1662) was included among the list of men of letters pensioned
at the proposal of Colbert. He received 2000 livres. _Othon_ (1664),
_Agésilas_ (1666), _Attila_ (1667), and _Tite et Bérénice_ (1670), were
generally considered as proofs of failing powers,--the cruel quatrain of
Boileau--

  "Après l'_Agésilas_
     Hélas!
   Mais après l'_Attila_
     Holà!"

in the case of these two plays, and the unlucky comparison with Racine
in the _Bérénice_, telling heavily against them. In 1665 and 1670 some
versifications of devotional works addressed to the Virgin had appeared.
The part which Corneille took in _Psyché_ (1671), Molière and P.
Quinault being his coadjutors, showed signs of renewed vigour; but
_Pulchérie_ (1672) and _Suréna_ (1674) were allowed even by his faithful
followers to be failures. He lived for ten years after the appearance of
_Suréna_, but was almost silent save for the publication, in 1676, of
some beautiful verses thanking Louis XIV. for ordering the revival of
his plays. He died at his house in the rue d'Argenteuil on the 30th of
September 1684. For nine years (1674-1681), and again in 1683, his
pension had, for what reason is unknown, been suspended. It used to be
said that he was in great straits, and the story went (though, as far as
Boileau is concerned, it has been invalidated), that at last Boileau,
hearing of this, went to the king and offered to resign his own pension
if there were not money enough for Corneille, and that Louis sent the
aged poet two hundred pistoles. He might, had it actually been so, have
said, with a great English poet in like case, "I have no time to spend
them." Two days afterwards he was dead.

Corneille was buried in the church of St Roch, where no monument marked
his grave until 1821. He had six children, of whom four survived him.
Pierre, the eldest son, a cavalry officer who died before his father,
left posterity in whom the name has continued; Marie, the eldest
daughter, was twice married, and by her second husband, M. de Farcy,
became the ancestress of Charlotte Corday. Repeated efforts have been
made for the benefit of the poet's descendants, Voltaire, Charles X. and
the _Comédie française_ having all borne part therein.

The portraits of Corneille (the best and most trustworthy of which is
from the burin of M. Lasne, an engraver of Caen), represent him as a man
of serious, almost of stern countenance, and this agrees well enough
with such descriptions as we have of his appearance, and with the idea
of him which we should form from his writings and conduct. His nephew
Fontenelle admits that his general address and manner were by no means
prepossessing. Others use stronger language, and it seems to be
confessed that either from shyness, from pride, or from physical defects
of utterance, probably from all three combined, he did not attract
strangers. Racine is said to have assured his son that Corneille made
verses "cent fois plus beaux" than his own, but that his own greater
popularity was owing to the fact that he took some trouble to make
himself personally agreeable. Almost all the anecdotes which have been
recorded concerning him testify to a rugged and somewhat unamiable
self-contentment. "Je n'ai pas le mérite de ce pays-ci," he said of the
court, "Je n'en suis pas moins Pierre Corneille," he is said to have
replied to his friends as often as they dared to suggest certain
shortcomings in his behaviour, manner or speech, "Je suis saoul de
gloire et affamé d'argent" was his reply to the compliments of Boileau.
Yet tradition is unanimous as to his affection for his family, and as to
the harmony in which he lived with his brother Thomas who had married
Marguerite de Lampérière, younger sister of Marie, and whose household
both at Rouen and at Paris was practically one with that of his brother.
No story about Corneille is better known than that which tells of the
trap between the two houses, and how Pierre, whose facility of
versification was much inferior to his brother's, would lift it when
hard bestead, and call out "Sans-souci, une rime!" Notwithstanding this
domestic felicity, an impression is left on the reader of Corneille's
biographies that he was by no means a happy man. Melancholy of
temperament will partially explain this, but there were other reasons.
He appears to have been quite free from envy properly so called, and to
have been always ready to acknowledge the excellences of his
contemporaries. But, as was the case with a very different
man--Goldsmith--praise bestowed on others always made him uncomfortable
unless it were accompanied by praise bestowed on himself. As Guizot has
excellently said, "Sa jalousie fut celle d'un enfant qui veut qu'un
sourire le rassure contre les caresses que reçoit son frère."

Although his actual poverty has been recently denied, he cannot have
been affluent. His pensions covered but a small part of his long life
and were most irregularly paid. He was no "dedicator," and the
occasional presents of rich men, such as Montauron (who gave him a
thousand, others say two hundred, pistoles for the dedication of
_Cinna_), and Fouquet (who commissioned _OEdipe_), were few and far
between, though they have exposed him to reflections which show great
ignorance of the manners of the age. Of his professional earnings, the
small sum for which, as we have seen, he gave up his offices, and the
expression of Fontenelle that he practised "sans goût et sans succès,"
are sufficient proof. His patrimony and his wife's dowry must both have
been trifling. On the other hand, it was during the early and middle
part of his career impossible, and during the later part very difficult,
for a dramatist to live decently by his pieces. It was not till the
middle of the century that the custom of allowing the author two shares
in the profits during the first run of the piece was observed, and even
then revivals profited him nothing. Thomas Corneille himself, who to his
undoubted talents united wonderful facility, untiring industry, and
(gift valuable above all others to the playwright) an extraordinary
knack of hitting the public fancy, died, notwithstanding his simple
tastes, "as poor as Job." We know that Pierre received for two of his
later pieces two thousand livres each, and we do not know that he ever
received more.

But his reward in fame was not stinted. Corneille, unlike many of the
great writers of the world, was not driven to wait for "the next age" to
do him justice. The cabal or clique which attacked the _Cid_ had no
effect whatever on the judgment of the public. All his subsequent
masterpieces were received with the same ungrudging applause, and the
rising star of Racine, even in conjunction with the manifest inferiority
of Corneille's last five or six plays, with difficulty prevailed against
the older poet's towering reputation. The great men of his time--Condé,
Turenne, the maréchal de Grammont, the knight-errant duc de Guise--were
his fervent admirers. Nor had he less justice done him by a class from
whom less justice might have been expected, the brother men of letters
whose criticisms he treated with such scant courtesy. The respectable
mediocrity of Chapelain might misapprehend him; the lesser geniuses of
Scudéry and Mairet might feel alarm at his advent; the envious Claverets
and D'Aubignacs might snarl and scribble. But Balzac did him justice;
Rotrou, as we have seen, never failed in generous appreciation; Molière
in conversation and in print recognized him as his own master and the
foremost of dramatists. We have quoted the informal tribute of Racine;
but it should not be forgotten that Racine, in discharge of his duty as
respondent at the Academical reception of Thomas Corneille, pronounced
upon the memory of Pierre perhaps the noblest and most just tribute of
eulogy that ever issued from the lips of a rival. Boileau's testimony is
of a more chequered character; yet he seems never to have failed in
admiring Corneille whenever his principles would allow him to do so.
Questioned as to the great men of Louis XIV.'s reign, he is said to have
replied: "I only know three,--Corneille, Molière and myself." "And how
about Racine?" his auditor ventured to remark. "He was an extremely
clever fellow to whom I taught the art of elaborate rhyming" (_rimer
difficilement_). It was reserved for the 18th century to exalt Racine
above Corneille. Voltaire, who was prompted by his natural benevolence
to comment on the latter (the profits went to a relation of the poet),
was not altogether fitted by nature to appreciate Corneille, and
moreover, as has been ingeniously pointed out, was not a little wearied
by the length of his task. His partially unfavourable verdict was
endorsed earlier by Vauvenargues, who knew little of poetry, and later
by La Harpe, whose critical standpoint has now been universally
abandoned. Napoleon I. was a great admirer of Corneille ("s'il vivait,
je le ferais prince," he said), and under the Empire and the Restoration
an approach to a sounder appreciation was made. But it was the glory of
the romantic school, or rather of the more catholic study of letters
which that school brought about, to restore Corneille to his true rank.
So long, indeed, as a certain kind of criticism was pursued, due
appreciation was impossible. When it was thought sufficient to say with
Boileau that Corneille excited, not pity or terror, but admiration which
was not a tragic passion; or that

  "D'un seul nom quelquefois le son dur ou bizarre
   Rend un poème entier ou burlesque ou barbare;"

when Voltaire could think it crushing to add to his exposure of the
"infamies" of _Théodore_--"après cela comment osons-nous condamner les
pièces de Lope de Véga et de Shakespeare?"--it is obvious that the _Cid_
and _Polyeucte_, much more _Don Sanche d'Aragon_ and _Rodogune_, were
sealed books to the critic.

Almost the first thing which strikes a reader is the singular inequality
of this poet, and the attempts to explain this inequality, in reference
to his own and other theories, leave the fact untouched. Producing, as
he certainly has produced, work which classes him with the greatest
names in literature, he has also signed an extraordinary quantity of
verse which has not merely the defects of genius, irregularity,
extravagance, _bizarreté_, but the faults which we are apt to regard as
exclusively belonging to those who lack genius, to wit, the dulness and
tediousness of mediocrity. Molière's manner of accounting for this is
famous in literary history or legend. "My friend Corneille," he said,
"has a familiar who inspires him with the finest verses in the world.
But sometimes the familiar leaves him to shift for himself, and then he
fares very badly." That Corneille was by no means destitute of the
critical faculty his _Discourses_ and the _Examens_ of his plays (often
admirably acute, and, with Dryden's subsequent prefaces, the originals
to a great extent of specially modern criticism) show well enough. But
an enemy might certainly contend that a poet's critical faculty should
be of the Promethean, not be Epimethean order. The fact seems to be that
the form in which Corneille's work was cast, and which by an odd irony
of fate he did so much to originate and make popular, was very partially
suited to his talents. He could imagine admirable situations, and he
could write verses of incomparable grandeur--verses that reverberate
again and again in the memory, but he could not, with the patient
docility of Racine, labour at proportioning the action of a tragedy
strictly, at maintaining a uniform rate of interest in the course of the
plot and of excellence in the fashion of the verse. Especially in his
later plays a verse and a couplet will crash out with fulgurous
brilliancy, and then be succeeded by pages of very second-rate
declamation or argument. It was urged against him also by the party of
the _Doucereux_, as he called them, that he could not manage, or did not
attempt, the great passion of love, and that except in the case of
Chimène his principle seemed to be that of one of his own heroines:--

  "Laissons, seigneur, laissons pour les petites âmes
   Ce commerce rampant de soupirs et de flammes."

    (Aristie in _Sertorius_.)

There is perhaps some truth in this accusation, however much some of us
may be disposed to think that the line just quoted is a fair enough
description of the admired ecstasies of Achille and Bajazet. But these
are all the defects which can be fairly urged against him; and in a
dramatist bound to a less strict service they would hardly have been
even remarked. They certainly neither require, nor are palliated by,
theories of his "megalomania," of his excessive attention to conflicts
of will and the like. On the English stage the liberty of unrestricted
incident and complicated action, the power of multiplying characters and
introducing prose scenes, would have exactly suited his somewhat
intermittent genius, both by covering defects and by giving greater
scope for the exhibition of power.

How great that power is can escape no one. The splendid soliloquies of
Medea which, as Voltaire happily says, "annoncent Corneille," the entire
parts of Rodogune and Chimène, the final speech of Camille in _Horace_,
the discovery scene of _Cinna_, the dialogues of Pauline and Sévère in
_Polyeucte_, the magnificently-contrasted conception and exhibition of
the best and worst forms of feminine dignity in the Cornélie of _Pompée_
and the Cléopâtre of _Rodogune_, the singularly fine contrast in _Don
Sanche d'Aragon_, between the haughtiness of the Spanish nobles and the
unshaken dignity of the supposed adventurer Carlos, and the characters
of Aristie, Viriate and Sertorius himself, in the play named after the
latter, are not to be surpassed in grandeur of thought, felicity of
design or appropriateness of language. "Admiration" may or may not
properly be excited by tragedy, and until this important question is
settled the name of tragedian may be at pleasure given to or withheld
from the author of _Rodogune_. But his rank among the greatest of
dramatic poets is not a matter of question. For a poet is to be judged
by his best things, and the best things of Corneille are second to none.

_The Plays._--It was, however, some time before his genius came to
perfection. It is undeniable that the first six or seven of his plays
are of no very striking intrinsic merit. On the other hand, it requires
only a very slight acquaintance with the state of the drama in France at
the time to see that these works, poor as they may now seem, must have
struck the spectators as something new and surprising. The language and
dialogue of _Mélite_ are on the whole simple and natural, and though the
construction is not very artful (the fifth act being, as is not unusual
in Corneille, superfluous and clumsy), it is still passable. The fact
that one of the characters jumps on another's back, and the rather
promiscuous kissing which takes place, are nothing to the liberties
usually taken in contemporary plays. A worse fault is the [Greek:
stichomythia], or, to borrow Butler's expression, the Cat-and-Puss
dialogue, which abounds. But the common objection to the play at the
time was that it was _too_ natural and too devoid of striking incidents.
Corneille accordingly, as he tells us, set to work to cure these faults,
and produced a truly wonderful work, _Clitandre_. Murders, combats,
escapes and outrages of all kinds are provided; and the language makes
_The Rehearsal_ no burlesque. One of the heroines rescues herself from a
ravisher by blinding him with a hair-pin, and as she escapes the seducer
apostrophizes the blood which trickles from his eye, and the weapon
which has wounded it, in a speech forty verses long. This, however, was
his only attempt of the kind. For his next four pieces, which were
comedies, there is claimed the introduction of some important
improvements, such as the choosing for scenes places well known in
actual life (as in the _Galerie du palais_), and the substitution of the
soubrette in place of the old inconvenient and grotesque nurse. It is
certain, however, that there is more interval between these six plays
and _Médée_ than between the latter and Corneille's greatest drama. Here
first do we find those sudden and magnificent lines which characterize
the poet. The title-rôle is, however, the only good one, and as a whole
the play is heavy. Much the same may be said of its curious successor
_L'Illusion comique_. This is not only a play within a play, but in part
of it there is actually a _third_ involution, one set of characters
beholding another set discharging the parts of yet another. It contains,
however, some very fine lines, in particular, a defence of the stage and
some heroics put into the mouth of a braggadocio. We have seen it said
of the _Cid_ that it is difficult to understand the enthusiasm it
excited. But the difficulty can only exist for persons who are
insensible to dramatic excellence, or who so strongly object to the
forms of the French drama that they cannot relish anything so presented.
Rodrigue, Chimène, Don Diègue are not of any age, but of all time. The
conflicting passions of love, honour, duty, are here represented as they
never had been on a French stage, and in the "strong style" which was
Corneille's own. Of the many objections urged against the play, perhaps
the weightiest is that which condemns the frigid and superfluous part of
the Infanta. _Horace_, though more skilfully constructed, is perhaps
less satisfactory. There is a hardness about the younger Horace which
might have been, but is not made, imposing, and Sabine's effect on the
action is quite out of proportion to the space she occupies. The
splendid declamation of Camille, and the excellent part of the elder
Horace, do not altogether atone for these defects. _Cinna_ is perhaps
generally considered the poet's masterpiece, and it undoubtedly contains
the finest single scene in all French tragedy. The blot on it is
certainly the character of Émilie, who is spiteful and thankless, not
heroic. _Polyeucte_ has sometimes been elevated to the same position.
There is, however, a certain coolness about the hero's affection for his
wife which somewhat detracts from the merit of his sacrifice; while the
Christian part of the matter is scarcely so well treated as in the
_Saint Genest_ of Rotrou or the _Virgin Martyr_ of Massinger. On the
other hand, the entire parts of Pauline and Sévère are beyond praise,
and the manner in which the former reconciles her duty as a wife with
her affection for her lover is an astonishing success. In _Pompée_ (for
_La Mort de Pompée_, though the more appropriate, was not the original
title) the splendid declamation of Cornélie is the chief thing to be
remarked. _Le Menteur_ fully deserves the honour which Molière paid to
it. Its continuation, notwithstanding the judgment of some French
critics, we cannot think so happy. But _Théodore_ is perhaps the most
surprising of literary anomalies. The central situation, which so
greatly shocked Voltaire and indeed all French critics from the date of
the piece, does not seem to blame. A virgin martyr who is threatened
with loss of honour as a bitterer punishment than loss of life offers
points as powerful as they are perilous. But the treatment is thoroughly
bad. From the heroine who is, in a phrase of Dryden's, "one of the
coolest and most insignificant" heroines ever drawn, to the undignified
Valens, the termagant Marcelle, and the peevish Placide, there is hardly
a good character. Immediately upon this in most printed editions, though
older in representation, follows the play which (therein agreeing rather
with the author than with his critics) we should rank as his greatest
triumph, _Rodogune_. Here there is hardly a weak point. The magnificent
and terrible character of Cléopâtre, and the contrasted dispositions of
the two princes, of course attract most attention. But the character of
Rodogune herself, which has not escaped criticism, comes hardly short of
these. _Héraclius_, despite great art and much fine poetry, is injured
by the extreme complication of its argument and by the blustering part
of Pulchérie. _Andromède_, with the later spectacle piece, the _Toison
d'or_, do not call for comment, and we have already alluded to the chief
merit of _Don Sanche_. _Nicomède_, often considered one of Corneille's
best plays, is chiefly remarkable for the curious and unusual character
of its hero. Of _Pertharite_ it need only be said that no single critic
has to our knowledge disputed the justice of its damnation. _OEdipe_
is certainly unworthy of its subject and its author, but in _Sertorius_
we have one of Corneille's finest plays. It is remarkable not only for
its many splendid verses and for the nobility of its sentiment, but from
the fact that not one of its characters lacks interest, a commendation
not generally to be bestowed on its author's work. Of the last six plays
we may say that perhaps only one of them, _Agésilas_, is almost wholly
worthless. Not a few speeches of _Suréna_ and of _Othon_ are of a very
high order. As to the poet's non-dramatic works, we have already spoken
of his extremely interesting critical dissertations. His minor poems and
poetical devotions are not likely to be read save from motives of duty
or curiosity. The verse translation of à Kempis, indeed, which was in
its day immensely popular (it passed through many editions), condemns
itself.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The subject of the bibliography of Corneille was
  treated in the most exhaustive manner by M. E. Picot in his
  _Bibliographie Cornélienne_ (Paris, 1875-1876). Less elaborate, but
  still ample information may be found in J. A. Taschereau's _Vie_ and
  in M. Marty-Laveaux's edition of the _Works_. The individual plays
  were usually printed a year or two after their first appearance: but
  these dates have been subjected to confusion and to controversy, and
  it seems better to refer for them to the works quoted and to be
  quoted. The chief collected editions in the poet's lifetime were those
  of 1644, 1648, 1652, 1660 (with important corrections), 1664 and 1682,
  which gives the definitive text. In 1692 T. Corneille published a
  complete _Théâtre_ in 5 vols. 12mo. Numerous editions appeared in the
  early part of the 18th century, that of 1740 (6 vols. 12mo, Amsterdam)
  containing the _OEuvres diverses_ as well as the plays. Several
  editions are recorded between this and that of Voltaire (12 vols. 8vo;
  Geneva, 1764, 1776, 8 vols. 4to), whose _Commentaires_ have often been
  reprinted separately. In the year IX. (1801) appeared an edition of
  the _Works_ with Voltaire's commentary and criticisms thereon by
  Palissot (12 vols. 8vo, Paris). Since this the editions have been
  extremely numerous. Those chiefly to be remarked are the following.
  Lefèvre's (12 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1854), well printed and with a useful
  variorum commentary, lacks bibliographical information and is
  disfigured by hideous engravings. Of Taschereau's, in the
  _Bibliothèque elzévirienne_, only two volumes were published. Lahure's
  appeared in 5 vols. (1857-1862) and 7 vols. (1864-1866). The edition
  of Ch. Marty-Laveaux in Regnier's _Grands Écrivains de la France_
  (1862-1868), in 12 vols. 8vo, is still the standard. In appearance and
  careful editing it leaves nothing to desire, containing the entire
  works, a lexicon, full bibliographical information, and an album of
  illustrations of the poet's places of residence, his arms, some
  title-pages of his plays, facsimiles of his writings, &c. Nothing is
  wanting but variorum comments, which Lefèvre's edition supplies.
  Fontenelle's life of his uncle is the chief original authority on that
  subject, but Taschereau's _Histoire de la vie et des ouvrages de P.
  Corneille_ (1st ed. 1829, 2nd in the _Bibl. elzévirienne_, 1855) is
  the standard work. Its information has been corrected and augmented in
  various later publications, but not materially. Of the exceedingly
  numerous writings relative to Corneille we may mention the _Recueil de
  dissertations sur plusieurs tragédies de Corneille et de Racine_ of
  the abbé Granet (Paris, 1740), the criticisms already alluded to of
  Voltaire, La Harpe and Palissot, the well-known work of Guizot, first
  published as _Vie de Corneille_ in 1813 and revised as _Corneille et
  son temps_ in 1852, and the essays, repeated in his _Portraits
  littéraires_, in _Port-Royal_, and in the _Nouveaux Lundis_ of
  Sainte-Beuve. More recently, besides essays by MM. Brunetière, Faguet
  and Lemaître and the part appurtenant of M. E. Rigal's work on 16th
  century drama in France, see Gustave Lanson's "Corneille" in the
  _Grands Écrivains français_ (1898); F. Bouquet's _Points obscurs et
  nouveaux de la vie de Pierre Corneille_ (1888); _Corneille inconnu_,
  by J. Levallois (1876); J. Lemaître, _Corneille et la poétique
  d'Aristote_ (1888); J. B. Segall, _Corneille and the Spanish Drama_
  (1902); and the recently discovered and printed _Fragments sur Pierre
  et Thomas Corneille_ of Alfred de Vigny (1905). On the _Cid_ quarrel
  E. H. Chardon's _Vie de Rotrou_ (1884) bears mainly on a whole series
  of documents which appeared at Rouen in the proceedings of the
  _Société des bibliophiles normands_ during the years 1891-1894. The
  best-known English criticism, that of Hallam in his _Literature of
  Europe_, is inadequate. The translations of separate plays are very
  numerous, but of the complete _Théâtre_ only one version (into
  Italian) is recorded by the French editors. Fontenelle tells us that
  his uncle had translations of the _Cid_ in every European tongue but
  Turkish and Slavonic, and M. Picot's book apprises us that the latter
  want, at any rate, is now supplied. Corneille has suffered less than
  some other writers from the attribution of spurious works. Besides a
  tragedy, _Sylla_, the chief piece thus assigned is _L'Occasion perdue
  recouverte_, a rather loose tale in verse. Internal evidence by no
  means fathers it on Corneille, and all external testimony is against
  it. It has never been included in Corneille's works. It is curious
  that a translation of Statius (_Thebaid_, bk. iii.), an author of whom
  Corneille was extremely fond, though known to have been written,
  printed and published, has entirely dropped out of sight. Three verses
  quoted by Ménage are all we possess.     (G. SA.)



CORNEILLE, THOMAS (1625-1709), French dramatist, was born at Rouen on
the 20th of August 1625, being nearly twenty years younger than his
brother, the great Corneille. His skill in verse-making seems to have
shown itself early, as at the age of fifteen he composed a piece in
Latin which was represented by his fellow-pupils at the Jesuits' college
of Rouen. His first French play, _Les Engagements du hasard_, was acted
in 1647. _Le Feint Astrologue_, imitated from the Spanish, and imitated
by Dryden, came next year. At his brother's death he succeeded to his
vacant chair in the Academy. He then turned his attention to philology,
producing a new edition of the _Remarques_ of C. F. Vaugelas in 1687,
and in 1694 a dictionary of technical terms, intended to supplement that
of the Academy. A complete translation of Ovid's _Metamorphoses_ (he had
published six books with the _Heroic Epistles_ some years previously)
followed in 1697. In 1704 he lost his sight and was constituted a
"veteran," a dignity which preserved to him the privileges, while it
exempted him from the duties, of an academician. But he did not allow
his misfortune to put a stop to his work, and in 1708 produced a large
_Dictionnaire universel géographique et historique_ in three volumes
folio. This was his last labour. He died at Les Andelys on the 8th of
December 1709, aged eighty-four. It has been the custom to speak of
Thomas Corneille as of one who, but for the name he bore, would merit no
notice. This is by no means the case; on the contrary, he is rather to
be commiserated for his connexion with a brother who outshone him as he
would have outshone almost any one. But the two were strongly attached
to one another, and practically lived in common. Of his forty-two plays
(this is the utmost number assigned to him) the last edition of his
complete works contains only thirty-two, but he wrote several in
conjunction with other authors. Two are usually reprinted as his
masterpieces at the end of his brother's selected works. These are
_Ariane_ (1672) and the _Comte d' Essex_, in the former of which Rachel
attained success. But of _Laodice_, _Camma_, _Stilica_ and some other
pieces, Pierre Corneille himself said that "he wished he had written
them," and he was not wont to speak lightly. _Camma_ (1661, on the same
story as Tennyson's _Cup_) especially deserves notice. Thomas Corneille
is in many ways remarkable in the literary gossip-history of his time.
His _Timocrate_ boasted of the longest run (80 nights) recorded of any
play in the century. For _La Devineresse_ he and his coadjutor de Visé
(1638-1710, founder of the _Mercure galant_, to which Thomas
contributed) received above 6000 livres, the largest sum known to have
been thus paid. Lastly, one of his pieces (_Le Baron des Fondrières_)
contests the honour of being the first which was hissed off the stage.

  There is a monograph, _Thomas Corneille, sa vie et ses ouvrages_
  (1892), by G. Reynier. See also the _Fragments inédits de critique sur
  Pierre et Thomas Corneille_ of Alfred de Vigny, published in 1905.
       (G. SA.)



CORNELIA (2nd cent. B.C.), daughter of Scipio Africanus the Elder,
mother of the Gracchi and of Sempronia, the wife of Scipio Africanus the
Younger. On the death of her husband, refusing numerous offers of
marriage, she devoted herself to the education of her twelve children.
She was so devoted to her sons Tiberius and Gaius that it was even
asserted that she was concerned in the death of her son-in-law Scipio,
who by his achievements had eclipsed the fame of the Gracchi, and was
said to have approved of the murder of Tiberius. When asked to show her
jewels she presented her sons, and on her death a statue was erected to
her memory inscribed, "Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi." After the
murder of her second son Gaius she retired to Misenum, where she devoted
herself to Greek and Latin literature, and to the society of men of
letters. She was a highly educated woman, and her letters were
celebrated for their beauty of style. The genuineness of the two
fragments of a letter from her to her son Gaius, printed in some
editions of Cornelius Nepos, is disputed.

  See L. Mercklin, _De Corneliae vita_ (1844), of no great value; J.
  Sörgel, _Cornelia, die Mutter der Gracchen_ (1868), a short popular
  sketch.



CORNELIUS, pope, was elected in 251 during the lull in the persecution
of the emperor Decius. Two years afterwards, under the emperor Gallus,
he was exiled to Centumcellae (Civita Vecchia), where he died. He was
very intimate with St Cyprian, and is commemorated with him on the 16th
of September, which is not, however, the anniversary of his death. He
died in June 253.



CORNELIUS, CARL AUGUST PETER (1824-1874), German musician and poet, son
of an actor at Wiesbaden, grandson of the engraver Ignaz Cornelius, and
nephew of Cornelius the painter, was born at Mainz on the 24th of
December 1824. In his childhood his bent was towards languages, but his
musical gifts were carefully cultivated and he learned to sing and to
play the violin. Cornelius the elder, anxious for his son to become an
actor, himself taught the boy the elements of the art. These theatrical
studies, however, were interrupted early by a visit paid by Peter
Cornelius to England as second violin in the Mainz orchestra. On
returning home young Cornelius made his stage debut as John Cook in
_Kean_. But after two more appearances, as the lover in the comedy _Das
war Ich_ and as Perin in Moreto's _Donna Diana_, he practically
abandoned the stage for music, his idea being to become a comic opera
composer. In 1843 his father died. Hitherto Cornelius's musical studies
had been unsystematic. Now opportunity served to remedy this, for his
relative, Cornelius the painter, summoned him in 1844 to Berlin, and
enabled him a year later to become a pupil of Siegfried Wilhelm Dehn
(1799-1858), counterpoint and theory generally being worked at
laboriously. After leaving Dehn, Cornelius proved his independence by
writing a trio in A minor, a quartet in C, as well as two comic opera
texts. In 1847 he returned to Dehn and immediately composed an enormous
mass of music, including a second trio, 30 vocal canons, several
sonatas, a Mass, a Stabat Mater; he also wrote a number of translations
of old French poems, which are classics of their kind. In 1852 he first
came in touch with Liszt, through his uncle's instrumentality. At
Weimar, whither he went in 1852, he heard Berlioz's delightful
_Benvenuto Cellini_, a work which ultimately exercised great influence
over him. For the time, however, he devoted himself, on Liszt's advice,
to further Church compositions, the influence of the Church on him at
that time being so great that he applied, but vainly, for a place in a
Jesuit college. Still his mind was bent on the production of a comic
opera, but the composition was long delayed by the work of translating
the prefaces for Liszt's symphonic poems and the texts of works by
Berlioz and Rubinstein. Between October 1855 and September in the
following year, Cornelius wrote the book of the _Barbier von Bagdad_,
and on December 15, 1858, the opera was produced at Weimar under Liszt,
and hissed off the stage. Thereupon Liszt resigned his post, and shortly
afterwards Cornelius went to Vienna and Munich, and still later came
very much under Wagner's influence. Cornelius's _Cid_ was completed and
produced at Weimar in 1865. For the last nine years of his life
(1865-1874) Cornelius was occupied with his opera _Gunlöd_ and other
compositions, besides writing ably and abundantly on Wagner's
music-dramas. In 1867 he became teacher of rhetoric and harmony at the
Musikschule, Munich, and married Berthe Jung. He died on the 26th of
October 1874. Not the least of Cornelius's many claims to fame was his
remarkable versatility. Many of his original poems, as well as his
translations from the French, rank high. Among his songs, special
mention may be made of the lovely "Weihnachtslieder," and of the
"Vätergruft," an unaccompanied vocal work for baritone solo and choir.



CORNELIUS, PETER VON (1784-1867), German painter, was born in Düsseldorf
in 1784. His father, who was inspector of the Düsseldorf gallery, died
in 1799, and the young Cornelius was stimulated to extraordinary
exertions. In a letter to the Count Raczynski he says, "It fell to the
lot of an elder brother and myself to watch over the interests of a
numerous family. It was at this time that it was attempted to persuade
my mother that it would be better for me to devote myself to the trade
of a goldsmith than to continue to pursue painting--in the first place,
in consequence of the time necessary to qualify me for the art, and in
the next, because there were already so many painters. My dear mother,
however, rejected all this advice, and I felt myself impelled onward by
an uncontrollable enthusiasm, to which the confidence of my mother gave
new strength, which was supported by the continual fear that I should be
removed from the study of that art I loved so much." His earliest work
of importance was the decoration of the choir of the church of St
Quirinus at Neuss. At the age of twenty-six he produced his designs from
_Faust_. On October 14, 1811, he arrived in Rome, where he soon became
one of the most promising of that brotherhood of young German painters
which included Overbeck, Schadow, Veit, Schnorr and Ludwig Vogel
(1788-1879),--a fraternity (some of whom selected a ruinous convent for
their home) who were banded together for resolute study and mutual
criticism. Out of this association came the men who, though they were
ridiculed at the time, were destined to found a new German school of
art.

At Rome Cornelius participated, with other members of his fraternity, in
the decoration of the Casa Bartoldi and the Villa Massimi, and while
thus employed he was also engaged upon designs for the illustration of
the Nibelungenlied. From Rome he was called to Düsseldorf to remodel the
Academy, and to Munich by the then crown-prince of Bavaria, afterwards
Louis I., to direct the decorations for the Glyptothek. Cornelius,
however, soon found that attention to such widely separated duties was
incompatible with the just performance of either, and most inconvenient
to himself; eventually, therefore, he resigned his post at Düsseldorf to
throw himself completely and thoroughly into those works for which he
had been commissioned by the crown-prince. He therefore left Düsseldorf
for Munich, where he was joined by those of his pupils who elected to
follow and to assist him. At the death of Director Langer, 1824-1825, he
became director of the Munich Academy.

The fresco decorations of the Ludwigskirche, which were for the most
part designed and executed by Cornelius, are perhaps the most important
mural works of modern times. The large fresco of the Last Judgment, over
the high altar in that church, measures 62 ft. in height by 38 ft. in
width. The frescoes of the Creator, the Nativity, and the Crucifixion in
the same building are also upon a large scale. Amongst his other great
works in Munich may be included his decorations in the Pinakothek and in
the Glyptothek; those in the latter building, in the hall of the gods
and the hall of the hero-myths, are perhaps the best known. About the
year 1839-1840 he left Munich for Berlin to proceed with that series of
cartoons, from the Apocalypse, for the frescoes for which he had been
commissioned by Frederick William IV., and which were intended to
decorate the Campo Santo or royal mausoleum. These were his final works.

Cornelius, as an oil painter, possessed but little technical skill, nor
do his works exhibit any instinctive appreciation of colour. Even as a
fresco painter his manipulative power was not great. And in critically
examining the execution in colour of some of his magnificent designs,
one cannot help feeling that he was, in this respect, unable to do them
full justice. Cornelius and his associates endeavoured to follow in
their works the spirit of the Italian painters. But the Italian strain
is to a considerable extent modified by the Dürer heritage. This Dürer
influence is manifest in a tendency to overcrowding in composition, in a
degree of attenuation in the proportions of, and a poverty of contour
in, the nude figure, and also in a leaning to the selection of Gothic
forms for draperies. These peculiarities are even noticeable in
Cornelius's principal work of the "Last Judgment," in the Ludwigskirche
in Munich. The attenuation and want of flexibility of contour in the
nude are perhaps most conspicuous in his frescoes of classical subjects
in the Glyptothek, especially in that representing the contention for
the body of Patroclus. But notwithstanding these peculiarities there is
always in his works a grandeur and nobleness of conception, as all must
acknowledge who have inspected his designs for the Ludwigskirche, for
the Campo Santo, &c. If he were not dexterous in the handling of the
brush, he could conceive and design a subject with masterly purpose. If
he had an imperfect eye for colour, in the Venetian, the Flemish, or the
English sense, he had vast mental foresight in directing the German
school of painting; and his favourite motto of _Deutschland über alles_
indicates the direction and the strength of his patriotism. Karl Hermann
was one of Cornelius's earliest and most esteemed scholars, a man of
simple and fervent nature, painstaking to the utmost, a very type of the
finest German student nature; Kaulbach and Adam Eberle were also amongst
his scholars. Every public edifice in Munich and other German cities
which were embellished with frescoes, became, as in Italy, a school of
art of the very best kind; for the decoration of a public building
begets a practical knowledge of design. The development of this
institution of scholarship in Munich was a work of time. The cartoons
for the Glyptothek were all by Cornelius's own hand. In the Pinakothek
his sketches and small drawings sufficed; but in the Ludwigskirche the
invention even of some of the subjects was entrusted to his scholar
Hermann.

To comprehend and appreciate thoroughly the magnitude of the work which
Cornelius accomplished for Germany, we must remember that at the
beginning of the 19th century Germany had no national school of art.
Germany was in painting and sculpture behind all the rest of Europe. Yet
in less than half a century Cornelius founded a great school, revived
mural painting, and turned the gaze of the art world towards Munich. The
German revival of mural painting had its effect upon England, as well as
upon other European nations, and led to the famous cartoon competitions
held in Westminster Hall, and ultimately to the partial decoration of
the Houses of Parliament. When the latter work was in contemplation,
Cornelius, in response to invitations, visited England (November 1841).
His opinion was in every way favourable to the carrying out of the
project, and even in respect of the durability of fresco in the climate
of England. Cornelius, in his teaching, always inculcated a close and
rigorous study of nature, but he understood by the study of nature
something more than what is ordinarily implied by that expression,
something more than constantly making studies from life; he meant the
study of nature with an inquiring and scientific spirit. "Study nature,"
was the advice he once gave, "in order that you may become acquainted
with its _essential_ forms."

The personal appearance of Cornelius could not but convey to those who
were fortunate enough to come into contact with him the impression that
he was a man of an energetic, firm and resolute nature. He was below the
middle height and squarely built. There was evidence of power about his
broad and overhanging brow, in his eagle eyes and firmly gripped
attenuated lips, which no one with the least discernment could
misinterpret. Yet there was a sense of humour and a geniality which drew
men towards him; and towards those young artists who sought his teaching
and his criticism he always exhibited a calm patience.

  See Förster, _Peter von Cornelius_ (Berlin, 1874).     (W. C. T.)



CORNELL UNIVERSITY, one of the largest of American institutions of
higher education, situated at Ithaca, New York. Its campus is finely
situated on a hill above the main part of the city; it lies between Fall
Creek and Cascadilla Creek (each of which has cut a deep gorge), and
commands a beautiful view of the valley and of Lake Cayuga. The
university is co-educational (since 1872), and comprises the graduate
school, with 306 students in 1909; the college of arts and sciences (902
students); the college of law (225 students), established in 1887; the
medical college (217 students, of whom 29 were taking freshman or
sophomore work in Ithaca, where all women entering the college must
pursue the first two years of work)--this college was established in
1898 by the gift of Oliver Hazard Payne, and has buildings opposite
Bellevue hospital on First Avenue and 28th Street, New York city; the
New York state veterinary college (94 students), established by the
state legislature in 1894; the New York state college of agriculture
(413 students), established as such by the state legislature in
1904,--the teaching of agriculture had from the beginning been an
important part of the university's work,--with an agricultural
experiment station, established in 1887 by the Federal government; the
college of architecture (133 students); the college of civil engineering
(569 students); and the Sibley College of mechanical engineering and
mechanic arts (1163 students), named in honour of Hiram Sibley
(1807-1888), a banker of Rochester, N.Y., who gave $180,000 for its
endowment and equipment and whose son Hiram W. Sibley gave $130,000 to
the college. A state college of forestry was established in connexion
with the university in 1898, but was discontinued after several years.
The total enrolment of regular students in 1909 was 3980; in addition,
841 students were enrolled in the 1908 summer session (which is
especially for teachers) and 364 in the "short winter course in
agriculture" in 1909. Nearly all the states and territories of the
United States and thirty-two foreign countries were represented--e.g.
there were 33 students from China, 12 from the Argentine Republic, 6
from India, 10 from Japan, 10 from Mexico, 5 from Peru, &c.

In the W. central part of the campus is the university library building,
which, with an endowment (1891) of $300,000 for the purchase of books
and periodicals, was the gift of Henry Williams Sage (1814-1897), second
president of the board of trustees; in 1906 it received an additional
endowment fund of about $500,000 by the bequest of Prof. Willard Fiske.
The building, of light grey Ohio sandstone, houses the general library
(300,050 volumes in 1909), the seminary and department libraries (7284
volumes), and the forestry library (1007 volumes). Among the special
collections of the general library are the classical library of Charles
Anthon, the philological library of Franz Bopp, the Goldwin Smith
library (1869), the White architectural and historical libraries, the
Spinoza collection presented by Andrew D. White (1894), the library of
Jared Sparks, the Samuel J. May collection of works on the history of
slavery, the Zarncke library, especially rich in Germanic philology and
literature, the Eugene Schuyler collection of Slavic folk-lore,
literature and history, the Willard Fiske Rhaeto-Romanic, Icelandic,
Dante and Petrarch collections, and the Herbert H. Smith collection of
works on Latin America (in addition there are college and department
libraries--that of the college of law numbers 38,735 volumes--bringing
the total to 353,638 bound volumes in 1909). Among the other buildings
are: Morse Hall, Franklin Hall, Sibley College, Lincoln Hall (housing
the college of civil engineering), Goldwin Smith Hall (for language and
history), Stimson Hall (given by Dean Sage to the medical college),
Boardman Hall (housing the college of law), Morrill Hall (containing the
psychological laboratory), McGraw Hall and White Hall--these, with the
library, forming the quadrangle; S. of the quadrangle, Sage chapel (with
beautiful interior decorations), Barnes Hall (the home of the Cornell
University Christian Association), Sage College (a dormitory for women),
and the armoury and gymnasium; E. of the quadrangle, the Rockefeller
Hall of Physics (1906) and the New York State College of Agriculture
(completed in 1907); and S.E. of the quadrangle the New York State
Veterinary College and the Fuertes Observatory. The university is
well-equipped with laboratories, the psychological laboratory, the
laboratories of Sibley college and the hydraulic laboratory of the
college of civil engineering being especially noteworthy; the last is on
Fall Creek, where a curved concrete masonry dam has been built, forming
Beebe Lake. East of the campus is the university playground and athletic
field (55 acres), built with funds raised from the alumni. Cayuga Lake
furnishes opportunity for rowing, and the Cornell crews are famous.
During their first two years all undergraduates, unless properly
excused, must take a prescribed amount of physical exercise. Normally
the first year's exercise for male students is military drill under the
direction of a U.S. army officer detailed as commandant.

The reputation of the university is particularly high in mechanical
engineering; Sibley college was built up primarily under Prof. Robert
Henry Thurston (1839-1903), a well-known engineer, its director in
1885-1903. The college includes the following departments: machine
design and construction, experimental engineering, power engineering,
and electrical engineering. The "Susan Linn Sage School of Philosophy,"
so called since the gift (1891) of $200,000 from Henry W. Sage in memory
of his wife, issues _The Philosophical Review_ and _Cornell Studies in
Philosophy_, and is well known for the psychological laboratory
investigations under Prof. E. B. Titchener (b. 1867). Equally well known
are the college of agriculture under Prof. Liberty Hyde Bailey (b.
1858); the "Cornell School" of Latin grammarians, led first by Prof. W.
G. Hale and then by Prof. C. E. Bennett; the department of entomology
under Prof. J. H. Comstock (b. 1849), the department of physics under
Prof. E. L. Nichols (b. 1854), and other departments. The university
publishes _Cornell Studies in Classical Philology_, the _Journal of
Physical Chemistry_, the _Physical Review_, _Publications of Cornell
University Medical College_, various publications of the college of
agriculture, and _Studies in History and Political Science_ (of "The
President White School of History and Political Science"). Among the
student publications are _The Cornell Era_ (1868, weekly), _The Cornell
Daily Sun_ (1880), _The Sibley Journal of Engineering_ (1882), _The
Cornell Magazine_, a literary monthly, and _The Cornell Widow_ (1892), a
comic tri-weekly. The regular annual tuition fee is $100, but in
medicine, in architecture, and in civil and mechanical engineering it is
$150. In the veterinary and agricultural colleges there are no tuition
fees for residents of New York state. There are 150 free-tuition state
scholarships (one for each of the state assembly districts), and, in
addition, there are 36 undergraduate university scholarships (annual
value, $200) tenable for two years, and 23 fellowships and 17 graduate
scholarships (annual value, $300-600 each). In the college of arts and
sciences the elective system, with certain restrictions, obtains.

The university has always been absolutely non-sectarian; its charter
prescribes that "persons of every religious denomination, or of no
religious denomination, shall be equally eligible to all offices and
appointments" and that "at no time shall a majority of the board (of
trustees) be of one religious sect or of no religious sect." There is,
however, an active Christian Association and religious services--provided
for by the Dean Sage Preachership Endowment--are conducted in Sage chapel
by eminent clergymen representing various sects and denominations.

The affairs of Cornell university are under the administration of a
board which must consist of forty trustees, of whom ten are elected by
the alumni. The following are _ex officio_ members of the board: the
president of the university, the librarian of the Cornell Library (in
Ithaca), the governor and the lieutenant-governor of the state, the
speaker of the state assembly, the state commissioners of education and
of agriculture, and the president of the state agricultural society. The
internal government is in the hands of the university faculty (which
consists of the president, the professors and the assistant professors,
and has jurisdiction over matters concerning the university as a whole),
and of the special faculties, which consist of the president, the
professors, the assistant professors, and the instructors of the
several colleges, and which have jurisdiction over distinctively
collegiate matters.

In 1909 the invested funds of the university amounted to about
$8,594,300, yielding an annual income of about $428,800; the income from
state and nation was about $232,050, and from tuition fees about
$336,100; the campus and buildings were valued at about $4,263,400, and
the Library, collections, apparatus, &c. at about $1,826,100.

The university was incorporated by the legislature of New York state on
the 27th of April 1865, and was named in honour of Ezra Cornell,[1] its
principal benefactor. In 1864 Cornell, at the suggestion of Andrew D.
White, his fellow member of the state senate, decided to found a
university of a new type--which should be broad and liberal in its
scope, should be absolutely non-sectarian, and which should recognize
and meet the growing need for practical training and adequate
instruction in the sciences as well as in the humanities. He offered to
the state as an endowment $500,000 (with 200 acres of land) on condition
that the state add to this fund the proceeds of the sales of public
lands granted to it by the Morrill Act of 1862 for "the endowment,
support and maintenance of at least one college, where the leading
object shall be ... to teach such branches of learning as are related to
agriculture and the mechanic arts.... "[2] The charter provided that
"such other branches of science and knowledge may be embraced in the
plan of instruction and investigation pertaining to the university as
the trustees may deem useful and proper," and Ezra Cornell expressed his
own ideal in the oft-quoted words: "I would found an institution where
any person can find instruction in any study." The opposition to
Cornell's plan was bitter, especially on the part of denominational
schools and press, but incorporation was secured, and the trustees first
met on the 5th of September 1865. Andrew D. White was elected president
and the entire educational scheme was left to him. Dr White's ideals in
part were: a closer union between the advanced and the general
educational system of the state; liberal instruction of the industrial
classes; increased stress on technical instruction; unsectarian control;
"a course in history and political and social science adapted to the
practical needs of men worthily ambitious in public affairs"; a more
thorough study of modern languages and literatures, especially English;
the "steady effort to abolish monastic government and pedantic
instruction"; the elective system of studies; and the stimulus of
non-resident lecturers. On the 7th of October 1868 the Cornell
University opened with some confusion due to the condition of the
campus, and to the presence of 412 would-be pupils, many of whom
expected to "work their way through." The brilliance of the faculty and
especially of its non-resident members (including J. R. Lowell, Louis
Agassiz, G. W. Curtis, Bayard Taylor, Theodore D. Dwight, and Goldwin
Smith, who was a resident professor in 1866-1869), was to a degree
over-shadowed during the fifteen years 1868-1882 by financial
difficulties. But Ezra Cornell himself paid many salaries during early
years, and provided much valuable equipment solely at his own expense;
and because the state's land scrip was selling too low to secure an
adequate endowment for the University, in 1866 he bought the land scrip
yet unsold (819,920 acres)[3] by the state at the rate of sixty cents
an acre on the understanding that all profits, in excess of the purchase
money, should constitute a separate endowment fund to which the
restrictions in the Morrill Act should not apply; and in 1866-1867 he
"located" 512,000 acres in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Kansas. In November
1874 he transferred these lands, which had cost him $576,953 more than
he had received from them, to the university. This actual deficit on the
lands owned by the university steadily increased up to 1881, when, after
the trustees had refused (in 1880) an offer of $1,250,000 for 275,000
acres of pine lands, they sold about 140,600 acres for $2,319,296;
ultimately 401,296 acres of the land turned over to the university by
Cornell were sold, bringing a net return of about $4,800,000. The
university was put on a sound financial footing; the number of students,
less in 1881-1882 than in 1868 at the opening of the university, again
increased, so that it was 585 in 1884-1885, and 2120 in 1897-1898. The
presidents of the university have been: Andrew Dickson White, 1865-1885;
Charles Kendall Adams, 1885-1892; and Jacob Gould Schurman.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Ezra Cornell (1807-1874) was born in Westchester county, New
    York, on the 11th of January 1807. His parents were Quakers from
    Massachusetts. He received a scanty education; worked as a carpenter
    in Syracuse and as a machinist in Ithaca; became interested (about
    1842) in the development of the electric telegraph; and after
    unsuccessful or over-expensive attempts to ground the telegraph wires
    in 1844 solved the difficulty by stringing them on poles. He
    organized many telegraph construction companies, was one of the
    founders of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and accumulated a
    large fortune. He was a delegate to the first national convention of
    the Republican party (1856) and was a member of the New York assembly
    in 1862-1863 and of the state senate in 1864-1867. He founded a
    public library (dedicated in 1866) in Ithaca, and died there on the
    9th of December 1874. Consult Alonzo B. Cornell, _True and Firm: A
    Biography of Ezra Cornell_ (New York, 1884).

  [2] New York's share amounted to 990,000 acres. The Morrill Act
    prescribed that the proceeds from the sale of this land should not be
    used for the purchase, erection or maintenance of any building or
    buildings.

  [3] He had previously--in 1865--bought scrip for 100,000 acres for
    $50,000, on the understanding that all profits which might accrue
    from the sale of the land should be paid to the university.



CORNET, a word having two distinct significations and two etymological
histories, both, however, ultimately referable to the same Latin
origin:--

1. (Fr. _cornette_, dim. of _corne_, from Lat. _cornu_, a horn), a small
standard, formerly carried by a troop of cavalry, and similar to the
pennon in form, narrowing gradually to a point. The term was then
applied to the body of cavalry which carried a cornet. In this sense it
is used in the military literature of the 16th century and, less
frequently, in that of the 17th. Before the close of the 16th century,
however, the world had also come to mean a junior officer of a troop of
cavalry who, like the "ensign" of foot, carried the colour. The spelling
"coronet" occurs in the 16th century, and has perhaps contributed to
obscure the derivation of "colonel" or "coronel." The rank of "cornet"
remained in the British cavalry until the general adoption of the term
"second lieutenant." In the Boer republics "field-cornets" were local
subordinate officers of the commando (q.v.), the unit of the military
forces. Elected for three years by the wards into which the electoral
districts were divided, they had administrative as well as military
duties, and acted as magistrates, inspectors of natives and registration
officers for their respective wards. In 1907, the "field-cornet" system
was re-established in the Transvaal; the new duties of the
"field-cornets" are those performed by assistant magistrates, viz. petty
jurisdiction, registration of voters, births and deaths, the carrying
out of regulations as to animal diseases, and maintenance of roads. The
"field-cornets" are appointed by government for three years.

2. (Fr. _cornet_, Ital. _cornetto_, Med. Lat. _cornetum_, a bugle, from
Lat. _cornu_, a horn), in music, the name of two varieties of wind
instruments (see below), and also of certain stops of the organ. The
great organ "solo cornet" was a mixture or compound stop, having either
5, 4, or 3 ranges of pipes; occasionally it was placed on a separate
soundboard, when it was known as a "mounted cornet." The "echo cornet"
was a similar stop, but softer and enclosed in a box. In German and
Dutch organs the term cornet is sometimes applied to a pedal reed stop.

(a) CORNET or CORNETT (Fr. _cornet_, _cornet à bouquin_; Ger. _Zinck_,
_Zincken_; Ital. _cornetto_) is the name given to a family of wood wind
instruments, now obsolete, having a cup-shaped mouthpiece and a conical
bore without a bell, and differing entirely from the modern cornet à
pistons. The old cornets were of two kinds, the straight and the curved,
characterized by radical differences in construction. There were two
very different kinds of straight cornets (Ger. _gerader Zinck_, Ital.
_cornetto diretto_ or _recto_), the one most commonly used having a
detachable cup-shaped mouthpiece similar to that of the trumpet, while
the other was made to all appearance without mouthpiece, there being not
even a moulded rim at the end of the tube to break the rigid straight
line. Examination of the tube, however, reveals the secret of the
characteristic sweet tone of this latter kind of cornet; unsuspected
inside the top of the tube is cut out of the thickness of the wood a
mouthpiece, not cup-shaped, but like a funnel similar to that of the
French horn, which merges gradually into the bore of the instrument.
This mode of construction, together with the narrower bore adopted,
greatly influenced the timbre of the instrument, whose softer tone was
thus due mainly to the substitution of the funnel for the sharp angle of
incidence at the bottom of the cup mouthpiece known as the throat (see
MOUTHPIECE), where it communicates with the tube. It is this sharp
angle, which in the other cornets with detachable mouthpiece, causes the
column of air to break, producing a shrill quality of tone, while the
wider bore and slightly rough walls of the tube account for the
harshness. In Germany the sweet-toned cornet was known as _stiller_ or
_sanfter Zinck_, and in Italy as _cornetto muto_ (fig. 1), while in
France the instruments with detachable mouthpiece were distinguished by
the addition of _à bouquin_ (= with mouthpiece). The curved cornet (Ger.
_krummer Zinck_ or _Stadtkalb_; Ital. _cornetto curvo_) could not for
obvious reasons have the bore pierced through a single piece of wood;
the channel for the vibrating column of air was, therefore, hollowed out
of two pieces of wood, the diameter increasing from the mouthpiece to
the lower end. The two pieces of wood thus prepared were joined together
with glue and covered with leather, the outer surface of the tube being
finished off in octagonal shape. The separate mouthpiece, made
indifferently of wood, horn, ivory or metal,[1] analogous to that of the
trumpet, was distinctly cup-shaped and fixed by a tenon to the upper
extremity of the pipe. The primitive instrument was an animal's horn.

[Illustration: From Capt. C. R. Day's _Descriptive Catalogue of Musical
Instruments_, by permission of Messrs. Eyre & Spottiswoode.

FIG. 1.--Cornetto Muto.

FIG. 2.--Cornetto Curvo.]

Pipes of such short length give only, besides the first or fundamental,
the second and sometimes the third note of the harmonic series. Thus a
pipe that has for its fundamental A will, if the pressure of breath and
tension of the lips be steadily increased, give the octave A and the
twelfth E. In order to connect the first and second harmonics
diatonically, the length of the pipe was progressively shortened by
boring lateral holes through the tube for the fingers to cover. The
successive opening of these holes furnished the instrumentalist with the
different intervals of the scale, six holes sufficing for this purpose:

[Illustration]

The fundamental was thus connected with its octave by all the degrees of
a diatonic scale, which became chromatic by the help of cross-fingering
and the greater or less tension of the lips stretched as vibrating reeds
across the opening of the mouthpiece. This increased compass of
twenty-seven notes obtained by cross-fingering is very clearly shown in
a table by Eisel.[2] The fingering was completed by a seventh hole,
which had for its object the production of the octave without the
necessity of closing all the holes in order to produce the second note
of the harmonic series. The first complete octave, thus obtained by a
succession of fundamental notes, was easily octaved by a stronger
pressure of breath and tension of the lips across the mouthpiece, and
thus the ordinary limits of the compass of a _Zinck_ or cornet could be
extended to a fifteenth. Whether straight or curved it was pierced
laterally with seven holes, six through the front, and the seventh, that
nearest the mouthpiece, through the back. The first three holes were
usually covered with the third, second and first fingers of the right
hand, the next four with the third, second and first fingers and the
thumb of the left hand. But some instrumentalists inverted the position
of the hands. Virdung[3] shows, besides the _cornetto recto_, a kind of
_Zinck_ made of an animal's horn with only four holes, three in the
front of the pipe and one at the back. Such an instrument as this had
naturally a very limited compass, since these four holes only sufficed
to produce the intermediate notes between the second and third proper
tones of the harmonic scale, the lower octave comprised between the
first and second remaining incomplete; by overblowing, however, the next
octave would be obtained in addition.

  At the beginning of the 17th century Praetorius[4] represents the
  _Zincken_ as a complete family comprising: (1) the little _Zinck_ with
  the lowest note [Illustration: musical scale--E above middle C], (2)
  the ordinary _Zinck_ with the lowest note [Illustration: musical
  scale--A below middle C], (3) the great _Zinck_, _cornon_ or _corno
  torto_, a great cornet in the shape of an [Illustration: reverse S]
  with the lowest note [Illustration: musical scale--D above low C "or"
  low C]. In France[5] the family was composed of the following
  instruments:

  (1) The _dessus_ or treble cornet with the lowest note [Illustration:
  musical scale--A below middle C];

  (2) the _haute-contre_ or alto cornet with the lowest note
  [Illustration: musical scale--F below middle C];

  (3) the _taille_ or tenor cornet with the lowest note [Illustration:
  musical scale--D above low C] and the _basse_ or bass or _pédalle_[6]
  cornet with the lowest note [Illustration: musical scale--G below low
  C].

  The cornets of the lowest pitch were sometimes furnished with an open
  key which, when closed, lengthened the tube, and extended the compass
  downwards by a note. Mersenne figures a _cornon_ with a key.

  During the middle ages these instruments were in such favour that an
  important part was given to them in all instrumental combinations. At
  Dresden,[7] between 1647 and 1651, the Kapelle of the electoral prince
  of Saxony included two cornets, the bass being supplied by the
  trombone. Monteverde introduced two cornets in the 3rd and 4th acts of
  his _Orfeo_ (1607). In France the charges for the _Chapelle-Musique_
  of the kings of France for the year 1619 contain two entries of the
  sum of 450 _livres tournois_, salary paid to one Marcel Cayty, _joueur
  de cornet_, a post held by him from 1604 until at least 1631, when
  another cornet player, Jean Daneau, is also mentioned.[8]

  In Germany in the 17th and 18th centuries, _Zincken_ were used with
  trombones in the churches to accompany the chorales. There are
  examples of this use of the instrument in the sacred cantatas of J. S.
  Bach, where the cornet is added to the upper voice parts to strengthen
  them. Johann Mattheson, conductor of the opera at Hamburg, writing on
  the orchestra in 1713[9] gives a description of the _Zinck_ as a
  member of the orchestra, but in 1739,[10] in his work on the perfect
  conductor, he deplores the decrease of its popularity in church music,
  from which it seems to be banished as useless. Gluck was the last
  composer of importance who scored for the cornet, as for instance in
  _Orfeo_, in _Paride ed Elena_, in _Alceste_ and in _Armide_, &c. The
  great vogue of the curved cornet is not to be accounted for by its
  musical qualities, for it had a hard, hoarse, piercing sound, and it
  failed utterly in truth of intonation; these natural defects,
  moreover, could only be modified with great difficulty. Mersenne's
  eulogium of the _dessus_, then more employed than the other cornets,
  can only be appreciated at its full value if we look upon the art of
  cornet playing as a lost art. "The _dessus_," he says, "was used in
  the vocal concerts and to make the treble with the organ, which is
  ravishing when one knows how to play it to perfection like the Sieur
  Guiclet;" and again further on, "the character of its tone resembles
  the brilliance of a sunbeam piercing the darkness, when it is heard
  among the voices in churches, cathedrals or chapels."[11] Mersenne
  further observes that the serpent is the true bass of the cornet, that
  one without the other is like body without soul. A drawing in pen and
  ink of a curved cornet is given by Randle Holme in his _Academy of
  Armoury_ (1688);[12] and at the end of the description of the
  instrument he adds, "It is a delicate pleasant wind musick, if well
  played and humoured." Giovanni Maria Artusi[13] of Bologna, writing at
  the end of the 16th century, devotes much space to the cornet,
  explaining in detail the three kinds of tonguing used with the
  instrument. By tonguing is understood a method of articulation into
  the mouthpiece of flute, cornet à pistons or trumpet, of certain
  syllables which add brilliance to the tone. Artusi advocates (1) for
  the guttural effect, _ler, ler, ler, der, ler, der, ler_; _ter, ler,
  ter_; _ler, ter, ler_; (2) for the tongue effect, _tere, tere, tere_;
  (3) for the dental effect, _teche, teche, teche_, used by those who
  wish to strike terror into the hearts of the hearers--an effect,
  however, which offends the ear. A clue to the popularity of the
  instrument during the middle ages may perhaps be found in Artusi's
  remark that this instrument is the most apt in imitating the human
  voice, but that it is very difficult and fatiguing to play; the
  musician, he adds elsewhere, should adopt an instrument to imitate the
  voice as much as possible, such as the cornetto and the trombone. He
  mentions two players in Venice, Il Cavaliero del Cornetto and M.
  Girolamo da Udine, who excelled in the art of playing the cornet.

  Being derived from the horn of an animal through which lateral holes
  had been pierced, the curved cornet was probably the earlier, and when
  the instrument came to be copied in metal and in wood the straight
  cornet was the result of an attempt to simplify the construction. The
  evolution probably took place in Asia Minor, where tubes with conical
  bore were the rule, and the instrument was thence introduced into
  Europe. A straight _Zinck_, having a grotesque animal's head at the
  bell-end, and six holes visible, is pictured in a miniature of the
  11th century.[14] What appears to be precisely the same kind of
  instrument, although differing widely in reality, the chaunter being
  reed-blown, is to be found in illuminated MSS. as the chaunter of the
  bagpipe, as for example in a royal roll of Henry III. at the British
  Museum,[15] where it occurs twice played by a man on stilts. The
  grotesque was probably added to the chaunter in imitation of that on
  the straight _Zinck_. Two _stille Zincken_ or _cornetti muti_ are
  among the musical instruments represented in the triumphal procession
  of the emperor Maximilian I.[16] (d. 1519), designed at his command by
  H. Burgmair under the superintendence of Albrecht Dürer.

(b) CORNET À PISTONS, CORNET, CORNOPAEAN (Fr. _cornet à pistons_; Ger.
_Cornett_; Ital. _cornetto_), are the names of a modern brass wind
instrument of the same pitch as the trumpet. Being a transformation of
the old post-horn, the cornet should have a conical bore of wide
diameter in proportion to the length of tube, but in practice usually
only a small portion of the tube is conical, i.e. from the mouthpiece to
the slide of the first valve and from the slide of the third valve to
the bell. The tube of the cornet is doubled round upon itself. The
cup-shaped mouthpiece is larger than that of the trumpet; the shape of
the cup in conjunction with the length of the tube and the proportions
of the bore determines the timbre of the instrument. The outline of the
bottom of the cup, where it communicates with the bore, is of the
greatest importance.[17] If, as in the trumpet, it presents angles
against which the column of air breaks, it produces a brilliant tone
quality. In the cornet mouthpiece there are no angles at the bottom of
the cup, which curves into the bore; hence the cornet's loose, coarse
quality of tone. The sound is produced by stretching the lips across the
mouthpiece, and making them act as double reeds, set in vibration by the
breath. There are no fixed notes on the cornet as in instruments with
lateral holes, or with keys; the musical scale is obtained by means of
the power the performer possesses--once he has learned how to use it--of
producing the notes of the harmonic series by overblowing, i.e. by
varying the tension of the lips and the pressure of breath. In the
cornet this series is short, comprising only the harmonics from the 2nd
to the 8th:

[Illustration: Harmonic series of the B[flat] cornet--the 7th is
slightly flat, a defect which the performer corrects, if he uses the
note at all.]

The intermediate notes completing the chromatic scale are obtained by
means of three pistons which, on being depressed, open valves leading
into supplementary wind-ways, which lengthen the original tube. The
pitch of the instrument is thus lowered respectively one tone, half a
tone, and one tone and a half. The action of the piston temporarily
changes the key of the instrument and with it the notes of the harmonic
series. Before a performer, therefore, can play a note he must know in
which harmonic series it is best obtained and use the proper piston in
conjunction with the requisite lip tension. By means of the pistons the
compass of the cornet is thus extended from [graphic] to [graphic].

[Illustration: Real sounds for the cornet in C.

(The minims indicate the practical compass but the extension shown by
the crotchets is possible to all good players.)]

The treble clef is used in notation, and in England the music for the
cornet is usually written as sounded, but most French and German
composers score for it as for a transposing instrument; for example, the
music for the B[flat] cornet is written in a key one tone higher than
that of the composition.

The _timbre_ of the cornet lies somewhere between that of the horn and
the trumpet, having the blaring, penetrating quality of the latter
without its brilliant noble sonorousness. The great favour with which
the cornet meets is due to the facility with which it speaks, to the
little fatigue it causes, and to the simplicity of its mechanism. We
must, however, regret from the point of view of art that its success has
been so great, and that it has ended in usurping in brass bands the
place of the bugles, the tone colour of which is infinitely preferable
as a foundation for an ensemble composed entirely of brass instruments.
Even the symphonic orchestra has not been secure from its intrusion, and
the growing tendency in some orchestras, notably in France, to allow the
cornet to supersede the trumpet, to the great detriment of tone colour,
is to be deplored. The cornet used in a rich orchestral harmony is of
value for completing the chords of trumpets, or to undertake diatonic
and chromatic passages which on account of their rapidity cannot easily
be fingered by trombones or horns. The technical possibilities of the
instrument are very great, almost unrivalled in the brass wind:--notes
sustained, crescendo or diminuendo; diatonic and chromatic scale and
arpeggio passages; leaps, shakes, and in fact all kinds of musical
figures in any key, can be played with great facility on the
three-valved cornet. Double tonguing is also practicable, the
articulation with the tongue of the syllables _ti-ke_ for double, and of
_ti-ke-ti_ for triple time producing a striking staccato effect.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--B[flat] Cornet with enharmonic valves (Besson &
Co.).]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--B[flat] Cornet with strictly conical bore
throughout, Klussmann's patent (Rudall, Carte & Co.)]

The cornet was evolved in Germany, at the beginning of the 19th century,
from the post-horn, by the application of the newly invented pistons of
Stoelzel and Bluemel patented in 1815. It was introduced into Great
Britain and France about 1830. There were at first only two pistons--for
a whole tone and for a half tone--from which there naturally resulted
gaps in the chromatic scale of the instrument. The use of a combination
of pistons (see BOMBARDON and VALVES) fails to give acoustically correct
intervals, because the length of tubing thus thrown open is not of the
theoretical length required to produce the interval. A tube about 4 ft.
long, such as that of the B[flat] cornet, needs an additional length of
about 3 in. to lower the pitch a semitone; but, if this cornet has
already been lowered one tone to the key of A[flat], the length of tube
has increased some 6 in., and the 3-in. semitone piston no longer adds
sufficient tubing to produce a semitone of correct intonation. To the
performer falls the task of concealing the shortcomings of his
instrument, and he therefore corrects the intonation by varying the lip
tension. At first the cornet was supplied with a great many crooks for
A, A[flat], G, F, E, E[flat] and D, but from the explanation now given,
it will be readily understood that they were found unpractical for valve
instruments, and all but the first two mentioned have been abandoned.
The history of the cornet is a record of the endeavours of successive
musical instrument makers to overcome this inherent defect in
construction. The most ingenious and successful of these improvements
are the following:--(1) The _six-valve-independent system_[18] of
Adolphe Sax, designed about 1850, by which a separate valve was used for
each position, thus obviating the necessity of using combinations of
pistons. This theoretically perfect system unfortunately introduced
great difficulties in practice, the valves being made _ascending_
instead of _descending_, and each piston cutting off a definite length
of wind-way from the open tube, instead of adding to it. The system was
eventually abandoned. (2) The _Besson Registre_ giving eight independent
positions, afterwards modified as the (3) _Besson compensating system
transpositeur_, patented in England in 1859, which was considered so
successful that the idea was extensively used by other makers. (4) The
_Boosey automatic compensating piston_, invented by D. J. Blaikley, and
patented in 1878, a very ingenious device whereby when two or more
pistons are used simultaneously the length of the air column is
automatically adjusted to the theoretical length required to ensure
correct intonation. (5) Victor Mahillon's automatic regulating pistons
(_pistons régulateur automatique_) produced about 1886, the result of
independent efforts in the same direction as Blaikley, and equally
ingenious and effectual.[19] Finally we have (6) more recently the
_Besson enharmonic valve system_ (fig. 3) with three pistons and six
independent tuning slides which give the seven positions independently,
thus realizing in a simple effectual manner all that Sax strove to
accomplish with his six pistons. The enharmonic valves give all notes
theoretically true; there are in addition separate means for adjusting
each of the first six lengths, for although these lengths are
theoretically correct there are always certain modifying conditions
connected with brass instruments which render it essential to provide
means for adjustment. All notes being true on this Besson cornet, they
can be fingered to the greatest advantage for smoothness and rapidity.
(7) Rudall, Carte & Co.'s cornet (fig. 4), with strictly conical bore
(Klussmann's patent) throughout the open tube and additional lengths
from the mouthpiece to the bell, gives a perfect intonation and is at
the same time easy to blow. There are no crooks to this cornet when
constructed in B[flat], but it may be instantaneously transposed into
the key of A major by means of an undetachable slide guided by a piston
rod.     (V. M.; K. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See Marin Mersenne, _L'Harmonie universelle_ (Paris, 1636-1637),
    bk. v., pp. 273-274.

  [2] See Eisel's (Anon.) _Musicus [Greek: Autodidaktos], oder der sich
    selbst informirende Musicus_ (Erfurt, 1738), p. 93 and table vi.

  [3] Sebastian Virdung, _Musica getutscht und auszgezogen_ (Basel,
    1511).

  [4] Michael Praetorius, _Syntag. Music._, vol. ii. _De Organographia_
    (Wolfenbüttel, 1618), pp. 25 and 41, pls. 8 and 13.

  [5] See Mersenne, _loc. cit._

  [6] See Ad. MS. 30342, Brit. Museum, fol. 145. A tract in French
    containing pen and ink sketches of musical instruments, which dates
    from the 17th or perhaps the 18th century, and was formerly in the
    possession of the Jesuit college in Paris. Here the _pédalle_ is the
    bass pommer, or _hautbois_, and the sackbut is indicated as second
    bass or _basse-contre_. As also in Mersenne, the cornets are curved.

  [7] See Moritz Fürstenau, _Geschichte der Musik und des Theaters am
    Hofe zu Dresden_ (Dresden, 1861-1862), p. 28.

  [8] See Michel Brenet, "Deux comptes de la Chapelle Musique des rois
    de France," _Sammelband der Intern. Mus. Ges._, vi. 1 (Leipzig,
    1904), pp. 20, 21, 29; and _Archives nationales_ (Paris), Z. Ia. 486.

  [9] _Das neu-eröffnete Orchester_ (Hamburg, 1713), p. 253.

  [10] _Der vollkommene Kapellmeister_ (Hamburg, 1739).

  [11] See Mersenne, _op. cit._, bk. v., p. 274.

  [12] Part of book iii. in MS. Harleian, 2034, fol. 207b. Brit.
    Museum.

  [13] _Delle imperfettioni della moderna musica_ (Venice, 1600), pp.
    4, 5, 6 and 12b.

  [14] Gräfl. Schönborn Bibl. Pommersfelden, Cod. 2776, reproduced in
    E. Buhle's _Die musikalischen Instrumente in den
    Miniatur-Handschriften des Mittelalters_, part i. (Leipzig, 1903) pl.
    6 and p. 24, where other references will be found.

  [15] Royal Roll, 14 B. v. 13th century. See also Augustus
    Hughes-Hughes, _Catalogue of MS. Music in the British Museum_, part
    iii.

  [16] See "Triumphzug des Kaisers Maximilians I.," _Beilage zum 1 sten
    Bd. d. Jahrbuch der Samml. des Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses_ (Vienna,
    1883), part i. p. 26, and letterpress, Bd. i. pp. 154-181.

  [17] See Victor Mahillon, _Éléments d'acoustique musicale et
    instrumentale_ (Brussels, 1874), pp. 96, 97, &c., with diagrams, and
    Friedrich Zamminer, _Die Musik und die musikalischen Instrumente_,
    &c. (Giessen, 1855), p. 310, &c., with diagrams.

  [18] For a fuller description of this system see Capt. C. R. Day,
    _Descriptive Catalogue of Musical Instruments_ (London, 1891), p.
    207, No. 406.

  [19] Id., pp. 192-193.



CORNETO TARQUINIA (anc. _Tarquinii_), a town of Italy, in the province
of Rome, 62 m. N.W. by rail from the town of Rome, 490 ft. above
sea-level. Pop. (1901) 5273. Corneto probably arose after the ancient
town had been destroyed by the Saracens. In the 10th century it began to
acquire importance, and for some time was an independent commune. It is
picturesquely situated, and commands a fine view. It possesses medieval
fortifications, and no less than twenty-five towers are still standing
in various parts of the town, which thus has a remarkably medieval
appearance. The castle on the N. contains the Romanesque church of S.
Maria in Castello, begun in 1121, with a fine portal of 1143, a
_ciborium_ of 1168 and a pulpit of 1209, both in "cosmatesque" work: the
pavement in marble mosaic also is fine. There are several other
Romanesque and Gothic churches in the town more or less restored. The
oldest parts of the Palazzo Comunale date from about 1000. The Gothic
Palazzo Vitelleschi (1439) contains remarkably rich windows. The
municipal museum (which is to be transferred to this palace) and the
Palazzo Bruschi, contain fine collections of Etruscan antiquities from
the tombs of Tarquinii. Four miles to the S.W. is the Porto Clementino
(perhaps the ancient _Graviscae_, the port of Tarquinii), with
government saltworks, in which convicts are employed.

  See L. Dasti, _Notizie storiche archeologiche di Tarquinia e Corneto_
  (Rome, 1878); for the cemeteries, _Notizie degli Scavi_, 1906, 1907.



CORNICE (Fr. _corniche_, Ital. _cornice_), in architecture, the
projection at the top of a wall, which is provided to throw off the rain
water from the roof, beyond the face of the building. As employed in
classic architecture it forms the upper part of the entablature of an
order, and is there subdivided into bed mould, corona and cymatium. The
term is also generally applied to any moulding projection which crowns
the feature to which it is attached; thus doors and windows, internally
as well as externally, have each their cornice, and the same applies to
pieces of furniture (see also MASONRY).



CORNIFICIUS, the author of a work on rhetorical figures, and perhaps of
a general treatise (_ars_, [Greek: technê]) on the art of rhetoric
(Quintilian, _Instit._, iii. 1. 21, ix. 3. 89). He has been identified
with the author of the four books of _Rhetorica_ dedicated to a certain
Q. Herennius and generally known under the title of _Auctor ad
Herennium_. The chief argument in favour of this identity is the fact
that many passages quoted by Quintilian from Cornificius are reproduced
in the _Rhetorica_. Jerome, Priscian and others attributed the work to
Cicero (whose _De inventione_ was called _Rhetorica prima_, the _Auctor
ad Herennium_, _Rhetorica secunda_), while the claims of L. Aelius
Stilo, M. Antonius Gnipho, and Ateius Praetextatus to the authorship
have been supported by modern scholars. But it seems improbable that the
question of authorship will ever be satisfactorily settled. Internal
indications point to the date of compositions as 86-82 B.C., the period
of Marian domination in Rome. The unknown author, as may be inferred
from the treatise itself, did not write to make money, but to oblige his
relative and friend Herennius, for whose instruction he promises to
supply other works on grammar, military matters and political
administration. He expresses his contempt for the ordinary school
rhetorician, the hair-splitting dialecticians and their "sense of
inability to speak, since they dare not even pronounce their own name
for fear of expressing themselves ambiguously." Finally, he admits that
rhetoric is not the highest accomplishment, and that philosophy is far
more deserving of attention. Politically, it is evident that he was a
staunch supporter of the popular party.

The first and second books of the _Rhetorica_ treat of _inventio_ and
forensic rhetoric; the third, of _dispositio_, _pronuntiatio_,
_memoria_, deliberative and demonstrative rhetoric; the fourth, of
_elocutio_. The chief aims of the author are conciseness and clearness
(_breviter et dilucide scribere_). In accordance with this, he ignores
all rhetorical subtleties, the useless and irrelevant matter introduced
by the Greeks to make the art appear more difficult of acquisition;
where possible, he uses Roman terminology for technical terms, and
supplies his own examples of the various rhetorical figures. The work as
a whole is considered very valuable. The question of the relation of
Cicero's _De inventione_ to the _Rhetorica_ has been much discussed.
Three views were held: that the Auctor copied from Cicero; that they
were independent of each other, parallelisms being due to their having
been taught by the same rhetorician at Rome; that Cicero made extracts
from the _Rhetorica_, as well as from other authorities, in his usual
eclectic fashion. The latest editor, F. Marx, puts forward the theory
that Cicero and the Auctor have not produced original works, but have
merely given the substance of two [Greek: technai] (both emanating from
the Rhodian school); that neither used the [Greek: technai] directly,
but reproduced the revised version of the rhetoricians whose school they
attended, the introductions alone being their own work; that the
lectures on which the Ciceronian treatise was based were delivered
before the lectures attended by the Auctor.

  The best modern editions are by C. L. Kayser (1860), in the Tauchnitz,
  and W. Friedrich (1889), in the Teubner edition of Cicero's works, and
  separately by F. Marx (1894); see also _De scholiis Rhetorices ad
  Herennium_, by M. Wisen (1905). Full references to authorities will be
  found in the articles by Brzoska in Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencyclopädie_
  (1901); M. Schanz, _Geschichte der römischen Litt._, i. (2nd ed., pp.
  387-394); and Teuffel-Schwabe, _Hist. of Roman Lit._ (Eng. trans., p.
  162); see also Mommsen, _Hist. of Rome_, bk. iv. ch. 13.



CORNING, ERASTUS (1794-1872), American capitalist, was born in Norwich,
Connecticut, on the 14th of December 1794. In 1807 he became a clerk in
a hardware store at Troy, New York, but in 1814 he removed to Albany,
where he eventually became the owner of extensive ironworks, obtained a
controlling interest in various banking institutions, and accumulated a
large fortune. He was prominently connected with the early history of
railway development in New York, became president of the Utica &
Schenectady line, and was the principal factor in the extension and
consolidation of the various independent lines that formed the New York
Central system, of which he was president from 1853 to 1865. He was also
interested in the building of the Michigan Central and the Chicago,
Burlington & Quincy railways, and was president of the company which
constructed the Sault Sainte Marie ship canal, providing a navigable
waterway between Lakes Huron and Superior. He was prominent in politics
as a Democrat, and, after serving as mayor of Albany from 1834 to 1837,
and as state senator from 1842 to 1845, he was a representative in
Congress in 1857-1859 and in 1861-1863, being re-elected for a third
term in 1862, but resigning before the opening of the session. In 1861
he was a delegate to the Peace Congress, but when the Civil War actually
began he loyally supported the Lincoln administration. He was a delegate
to the New York constitutional convention of 1867, and was for many
years vice-chancellor of the board of regents of the University of the
State of New York. He died at Albany, New York, on the 9th of April
1872.



CORNING, a city of Steuben county, New York, U.S.A., in the S. part of
the state, on the Chemung river, 10 m. W.N.W. of Elmira. Pop. (1890)
8550; (1900) 11,061, of whom 1410 were foreign-born; (1910) 13,730.
Corning is served by the Erie, the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, and
the New York Central & Hudson River railways. Among the principal
buildings and institutions are a fine city hall, a Federal building, a
county court house, the Corning hospital, a free public library and St
Mary's orphan asylum (Roman Catholic). Corning is one of the principal
markets in New York state for tobacco, which is extensively produced in
the surrounding country. The principal industry is the making of cut and
flint glass, and, of the several extensive plants devoted to this
industry, that of the Corning Glass Works is one of the largest in the
world. The city also has railway car shops and foundries, and among its
manufactures are pressed brick, tile and terra-cotta, papier-mâché and
lumber. The total value of the factory products in 1905 was $3,083,515,
35.7% more than in 1900. There were settlers on the site of Corning as
early as 1789, but it was not until 1848 that it was incorporated as a
village under its present name, given in honour of Erastus Corning, the
railway builder. Corning was chartered as a city in 1890.

  See C. H. M'Master, _History of the Settlement of Steuben County_
  (Bath, N.Y., 1853).



CORN LAWS. In England, legislation on corn was early applied both to
home and foreign trade in this essential produce. Roads were so bad, and
the chain of home trade so feeble, that there was often scarcity of
grain in one part, and plenty in another part of the same kingdom.
Export by sea or river to some foreign market was in many cases more
easy than the carriage of corn from one market to another within the
country. The frequency of local dearths, and the diversity and
fluctuation of prices, were thus extreme. It was out of this general
situation that the first corn laws arose, and they appear to have been
wholly directed towards lowering the price of corn. Exportation was
prohibited, and home merchandise in grain was in no repute or
toleration. As long as the rent of land, including the extensive domains
of the crown, was paid in kind, the sovereign, the barons and other
landholders had little interest in the price of corn different from that
of other classes of people, the only demand for corn being for
consumption and not for resale or export. But as rents of land came to
be paid in money, the interest of the farmer to be distinguished by a
remove from that of the landowner, the difference between town and
country to be developed, and the business of society to be more complex,
the ruling powers of the state were likely to be actuated by other
views; and hence the force which corn legislation afterward assumed in
favour of what was deemed the agricultural interest. But during four
centuries after the Conquest the corn law of England simply was that
export of corn was prohibited, save in years of extreme plenty under
forms of state licence, and that producers carried their surplus grain
into the nearest market town, and sold it there for what it would bring
among those who wanted it to consume; and the same rule prevailed in the
principal countries of the continent of Europe. This policy, though, as
one may argue from its long continuance, probably not felt to be acutely
oppressive, was of no avail in removing the evils against which it was
directed. On the contrary it prolonged and aggravated them. The
prohibition of export discouraged agricultural improvement, and in so
much diminished the security and liberality even of domestic supply;
while the intolerance of any home dealing or merchandise in corn
prevented the growth of a commercial and financial interest strong
enough to improve the means of transport by which the plenty of one part
of the same country could have come to the aid of the scarcity in
another.


  English corn laws, 1436-1603.

Apart from this general feudal germ of legislation on corn, the history
of the British corn laws may be said to have begun with the statute in
the reign of Henry VI. (1436), by which exportation was permitted
without state licence, when the price of wheat or other corn fell below
certain prices. The reason given in the preamble of the statute was that
the previous state of the law had compelled farmers to sell their corn
at low prices, which was no doubt true, but which also showed the
important turn of the tide that had set in. J. R. M'Culloch, in an
elaborate article in the _Commercial Dictionary_, says that the
fluctuation of the prices of corn in that age was so great, and beyond
all present conception, that "it is not easy to determine whether the
exportation price of 6s. 8d. for wheat" [12s. 10d. in present money per
quarter] "was above or below the medium price." But while the medium
price of the kingdom must be held to be unascertainable in a remote
time, when the medium price in any principal market town of England did
not agree with that of another for any year or series of years, one may
readily perceive that the cultivators of the wheat lands in the
south-eastern counties of England, for example, who could frequently
have sold their produce in that age to Dutch merchants to better
advantage than in their own market towns, or even in London, but were
prohibited to export abroad, and yet had no means of distributing their
supplies at home so as to realize the highest medium price in England,
must have felt aggrieved, and that their barons and knights of the shire
would have a common interest in making a strong effort to rectify the
injustice in parliament. This object appears to have been in some
measure accomplished by this statute, and twenty-seven years afterwards
(1463) a decided step was taken towards securing to agriculturists a
monopoly of the home market by a statute prohibitory of importation from
abroad. Foreign import was to be permitted only at and above the point
of prices where the export of domestic produce was prohibited. The
landed interest had now adopted the idea of sustaining and equalizing
the value of corn, and promoting their own industry and gains, which for
four centuries, under various modifications of plan, and great changes
of social and political condition, were to maintain a firm place in the
legislation and policy of England. But there were many reasons why this
idea, when carried into practice, should not have the results
anticipated from it.

The import of grain from abroad, even in times of dearth and high prices
at home, could not be considerable as long as the policy of neighbouring
countries was to prohibit export; nor could the export of native corn,
even with the Dutch and other European ports open to such supplies, be
effective save in limited maritime districts, as long as the internal
corn trade was suppressed, not only by want of roads, but by legal
interdict. The regulation of liberty of export and import by rates of
price, moreover, had the same practical objection as the various
sliding-scales, bounties, and other legislative expedients down to 1846,
viz. that they failed, probably more in that age than in later times, to
create a permanent market, and aimed only at a casual trade. When
foreign supplies were needed, they were often not to be found; and when
there was an excess of corn in the country a profitable outlet was both
difficult and uncertain. It would appear, indeed, that during the Wars
of the Roses the statutes of Henry VI. and Edward IV. had become
obsolete; for a law regulating export prices in identical terms of the
law of 1436 was re-enacted in the reign of Philip and Mary (1554). In
the preceding reign of Edward VI., as well as in the succeeding long
reign of Elizabeth, there were unceasing complaints of the decay of
tillage, the dearth of corn, and the privations of the labouring
classes; and these complaints were met by the same kind of measures--by
statutes encouraging tillage, forbidding the enlargement of farms,
imposing severer restrictions on storing and buying and selling of
grain, and by renewed attempts to regulate export and import according
to prices. In 1562 the price at which export might take place was raised
to 10s. per quarter for wheat, and 6s. 8d. for barley and malt. This
only lasted a few years, and in 1570 the export of wheat and barley was
permitted from particular districts on payment of a duty of 1s. 8d. per
quarter, although still liable to prohibition by the government or local
authority, while it was entirely prohibited under the old regulations
from other districts. Only at the close of Elizabeth's reign (1603) did
a spark of new light appear in a further statute, which removed the
futile provisions in favour of tillage and against enlargement of
pastoral farms, and rested the whole policy for promoting an equable
supply of corn, while encouraging agriculture, on an allowed export of
wheat and other grain at a duty of 2s. and 1s. 4d. when the price of
wheat was not more than 20s., and of barley and malt 12s. per quarter.
The import of corn appears to have been much lost sight of from the
period of the statute of 1463. The internal state of England, as well
as the policy of other countries of Europe, was unfavourable to any
regular import of grain, though many parts of the kingdom were often
suffering from dearth of corn. It is obvious that this legislation,
carried over more than a century and a half, failed of its purpose, and
that it neither promoted agriculture nor increased the supply of bread.
So great a variance and conflict between the intention of statutes and
the actual course of affairs might be deemed inexplicable, but for an
explanation which a close economic study of the circumstances of the
times affords.

Besides the general reasons of the failure already indicated, there were
three special causes in active operation, which, though not seen at the
period, have become distinct enough since. (1) A comparatively free
export of wool had been permitted in England from time immemorial. It
was subject neither to conditions of price nor to duties in the times
under consideration, was easier of transport and much less liable to
damage than corn, and, under the extending manufactures of France and
the Low Countries, was sure of a foreign as well as a domestic market.
Here was one description of rural produce on which there was the least
embargo, and on which some reliance could be placed that it would in all
circumstances bring a fair value; while corn, the prime rural produce,
was subject as a commodity of merchandise to every difficulty,
internally and externally, which meddling legislation and popular
prejudice could impose. The numerous statutes enjoining tillage and
discouraging pastoral farms--or in other words requiring that
agriculturists should turn from what was profitable to what was
unprofitable--had consequently no substantial effect, save in the many
individual instances in which the effect may have been injurious. (2)
The value of the standard money of the kingdom had been undergoing great
depreciation from two opposite quarters at once. The pound sterling of
England was reduced in weight of pure metal from £1: 18: 9 in 1436, the
date of the first of the corn statutes, to 4s. 7¾d. in 1551, as far as
can be estimated in present money, and to £1: 0: 6¾ under the
restoration of the coinage in the following year. At the same time the
greater abundance of silver, which now began to be experienced in Europe
from the discovery of the South American mines, was steadily reducing
the intrinsic value of the metal. Hence a general rise of prices
remarked by Hume and other historians; and hence also it followed that a
price of corn fixed for export or import at one period became always at
another period more or less restrictive of export than had been
designed. (3) The wages of labour would have followed the advance in the
prices of commodities had wages been left free, but they were kept down
by statute to the three or four pence per day at which they stood when
the pound sterling contained one-fourth more silver, and silver itself
was much more valuable. This was a refinement of cruelty. The feudal
system was breaking up; a wage-earning population was rapidly increasing
both in the farms and in the towns; but the spirit of feudalism
remained, and the iron collar of serfdom was riveted round the necks of
the labourers by these statutes many generations after they had become
nominally freemen.[1] The result was chronic privation and discontent
among the common people, by which all the conditions of agriculture and
trade in corn were further straitened and barbarized; and an age, in
some high respects among the most brilliant in the annals of England,
was marked by an enormous increase of pauperism, and by the introduction
of the merciful but wasteful remedy of the Poor Laws.


  1660-1773.

The corn legislation of Elizabeth remained without change during the
reign of James, the civil wars and the Commonwealth. But on the
restoration of Charles II. in 1660, the question was resumed, and an act
was passed of a more prohibitory character. Export and import of corn,
while nominally permitted, were alike subjected to heavy duties--the
need of the exchequer being the paramount consideration, while the
agriculturists were no doubt pleased with the complete command secured
to them in the home market. This act was followed by such high prices of
corn, and so little advantage to the revenue, that parliament in 1663
reduced the duties on import to 9% _ad valorem_, while at the same time
raising the price at which export ceased to 48s., and reducing the duty
on export from 20s. to 5s. 4d. per quarter. In a few years this was
found to be too much free-trade for the agricultural liking, and in 1670
prohibitory duties were re-imposed on import when the home price was
under 53s. 4d., and a duty of 8s. between that price and 80s., with the
usual make-weight in favour of home supply, that export should be
prohibited when the price was 53s. 4d. and upwards. But complaints of
the decline of agriculture continued to be as rife under this act as
under the others, till on the accession of William and Mary, the landed
interest, taking advantage of the Revolution as they had taken advantage
of the Restoration to promote their own interests, took the new and
surprising step of enacting a bounty on the export of grain. This evil
continued to affect the corn laws of the kingdom, varied, on one
occasion at least, with the further complication of bounties on import,
until the 19th century. The duties on export being abolished, while the
heavy duties on import were maintained, this is probably the most
one-sided form which the British corn laws ever assumed, but it was
attended with none of the advantages anticipated. The prices of corn
fell, instead of rising. There had occurred at the period of the
Revolution a depreciation of the money of the realm, analogous in one
respect to that which marked the first era of the corn statutes
(1436-1551), and forming one of the greatest difficulties which the
government of William had to encounter. The coin of the realm was
greatly debased, and as rapidly as the mint sent out money of standard
weight and purity, it was melted down, and disappeared from the
circulation. The influx of silver from South America to Europe had spent
its action on prices before the middle of the century; the precious
metals had again hardened in value; and for forty years before the
Revolution the price of corn had been steadily falling in money price.
The liberty of exporting wool had also now been cut down before the
English manufactures were able to take up the home supply, and
agriculturists were consequently forced to extend their tillage. When
the current coin of the kingdom became wholly debased by clipping and
other knaveries, there ensued both irregularity and inflation of nominal
prices, and the producers and consumers of corn found themselves equally
ill at ease. The farmers complained that the home-market for their
produce was unremunerative and unsatisfactory; the masses of the people
complained with no less reason that the money wages of labour could not
purchase them the usual necessaries of life. Macaulay, in his _History
of England_, says of this period, with little exaggeration, that "the
price of the necessaries of life, of shoes, of ale, of oatmeal, rose
fast. The labourer found that the bit of metal which, when he received
it, was called a shilling, would hardly, when he purchased a pot of beer
or a loaf of rye bread, go as far as sixpence." The state of agriculture
could not be prosperous under these conditions. But when the government
of William surmounted this difficulty of the coinage, as they did
surmount it, under the guidance of Sir Isaac Newton, with remarkable
statesmanship, it necessarily followed that prices, so far from rising,
declined, because, for one reason, they were now denominated in a solid
metallic value. The rise of prices of corn attending the first years of
the export bounty was consequently of very brief duration. The average
price of wheat in the Winchester market, which in the ten years
1600-1699 was £2: 10s., fell in the ten years 1716-1725 to £1: 5: 4, and
in the ten years 1746-1755 to £1: 1: 2¾. The system of corn law
established in the reign of William and Mary was probably the most
perfect to be conceived for advancing the agricultural interest of any
country. Every stroke of the legislature seemed complete to this end.
Yet it wholly failed of its purpose. The price of wheat again rose in
1750-1760 and 1760-1770 to £1: 19: 3¼ and £2: 11: 3¾, but many causes
had meanwhile been at work, as invariably happens in such economic
developments, the operation of which no statutes could embrace, either
to control or to prevent. Between the reign of William and Mary and that
of George III., the question of bounty on export of grain had, in the
general progress of the country, fallen into the background, while that
of the heavy embargoes on import had come to the front. Therefore it is
that Burke's Act of 1773, as a deliberate attempt to bring the corn laws
into some degree of reason and order, is worthy of special mention. This
statute permitted the import of foreign wheat at a nominal duty of 6d.
when the home price was 48s. per quarter, and it stopped both the
liberty to export and the bounty on export together when the home price
was 44s. per quarter. The one blemish of this statute was the stopping
export and cutting off bounty on export at the same point of price.

Few questions have been more discussed or more differently interpreted
than the elaborate system of corn laws dating from the reign of William
and Mary. So careful an observer as Malthus was of opinion that the
bounty on export had enlarged the area of subsistence. That it had large
operation is sufficiently attested by the fact that, in the years from
1740 to 1751, bounties were paid out of the exchequer to the amount of
£1,515,000, and in 1749 alone they amounted to £324,000. But the trade
thus forced was of no permanence, and the British exports of corn, which
reached a maximum of 1,667,778 quarters in 1749-1750, had fallen to
600,000 quarters in 1760 and continued to decrease.


  1791-1846.

Burke's Act lasted long enough to introduce a regular import of foreign
grain, varying with the abundance or scarcity of the home harvest, yet
establishing in the end a systematic preponderance of imports over
exports. The period, moreover, was marked by great agricultural
improvements, by extensive reclamation of waste lands, and by an
increased home produce of wheat, in the twenty years from 1773 to 1793,
of nearly 2,000,000 quarters. Nor had the course of prices been
unsatisfactory. The average price of British wheat in the twenty years
was £2: 6: 3, and in only three years of the twenty was the price a
fraction under £2. But the ideas in favour of greater freedom of trade,
of which the act of 1773 was an indication, and of which another
memorable example was given in Pitt's commercial treaty with France,
were overwhelmed in the extraordinary excitement caused by the French
Revolution, and all the old corn law policy was destined to have a
sudden revival. The landowners and farmers complained that an import of
foreign grain at a nominal duty of 6d., when the price of wheat was only
48s., deprived them of the ascending scale of prices when it seemed due;
and on this instigation an act was passed in 1791, whereby the price at
which importation could proceed at the nominal duty of 6d. was raised to
54s., with a duty of 2s. 6d. from 54s. to 50s., and at 50s. and under
50s. a prohibitory duty of 24s. 3d. The bounty on export was maintained
by this act, but exportation was allowed without bounty till the price
reached 46s.; and the permission accorded by the statute of 1773 to
import foreign corn at any price, to be reexported duty free, was
modified by a warehouse duty of 2s. 6d. in addition to the duties on
import payable at the time of sale, when the corn, instead of being
re-exported, happened to be sold for home consumption. The legislative
vigilance in this statute to prevent foreign bread from reaching the
home consumer is remarkable. There were deficient home harvests for some
years after 1791, particularly in 1795 and 1797, and parliament was
forced to the new expedient of granting high bounties on importation. At
this period the country was involved in a great war; all the customary
commercial relations were violently disturbed; freight, insurance and
other charges on import and export were multiplied fivefold; heavier and
heavier taxes were imposed; and the capital resources of the kingdom
were poured with a prodigality without precedent into the war channels.
The consequence was that the price of corn, as of all other commodities,
rose greatly: and the Bank of England having stopped paying in specie
in 1797, this raised nominal prices still more under the liberal use of
bank paper in loans and discounts, and the difference that began to be
established in the actual value of Bank of England notes and their legal
par in bullion.

The average price of British wheat rose to £5: 19: 6 in 1801. So unusual
a value must have led to a large extension of the area under wheat, and
to much corn-growing on land that after great outlay was ill prepared
for it. In the following years there were agricultural complaints; and
in 1804, though in 1803 the average price of wheat had been as high as
£2: 18: 10, an act was passed, so much more severe than any previous
statute, that its object would appear to have been to keep the price of
corn somewhere approaching the high range of 1801. A prohibitory duty of
24s. 3d. was imposed on the import of foreign wheat when the home price
was 63s. or less; and the price at which the bounty was paid on export
was lowered to 40s., while the price at which export might proceed
without bounty was raised to 54s. Judging from the prices that ruled
during the remaining period of the French wars, this statute would
appear to have been effective for its end, though, under all the varied
action of the times on a rise of prices, it would be difficult to assign
its proper place in the general effect. The average price of wheat rose
to £4: 9: 9 in 1805, and the bank paper price in 1812 was as high even
as £6: 6: 6. The bullion prices from 1809 to 1813 ranged from 86s. 6d.
to 100s. 3d. But it was foreseen that when the wars ended a serious
reaction would ensue, and that the rents of land, and the general
condition of agriculture, under the warlike, protective and monetary
stimulation they had received, would be imperilled. In the brief peace
of 1814 the average bullion price of British wheat fell to 55s. 8d. All
the means of select committees of inquiry on agricultural distress, and
new modifications of the corn laws, were again brought into requisition.
The first idea broached in parliament was to raise the duties on foreign
imports, as well as the prices at which they were to be leviable, and to
abolish the bounty on export, while permitting freedom of export
whatever the home price might be. The latter part of the scheme was
passed into law in the session of 1814; but the irritation of the
manufacturing districts against the new scale of import duties was too
great to be resisted. In the subsequent session an act was passed, after
much opposition, fixing 80s. (14s. more than during the wars) as the
price at which import of wheat was to become free of duty.

This act of 1815 was intended to keep the price of wheat in the British
markets at about 80s. per quarter; but the era of war and great
expenditure of money raised by public loans had ended, the ports of the
continent were again open to some measure of trade and to the equalizing
effect of trade upon prices, the Bank of England and other banks of
issue had to begin the uphill course of a resumption of specie payments,
the nation had to begin to feel the whole naked weight of the war debt,
and the idea of the protectors of a high price of corn was proved by the
event to be an utter hallucination. The corn statutes of the next twenty
years, though occupying an enormous amount of time and attention in the
Houses of Parliament, may be briefly treated, for they are simply a
record of the impotence of legislation to maintain the price of a
commodity at a high point when all the natural economic causes in
operation are opposed to it. In 1822 a statute was passed reducing the
limit of prices at which importation could proceed to 70s. for wheat,
35s. for barley, 25s. for oats; but behind the apparent relaxation was a
new scale of import duties, by which foreign grain was subjected to
heavy three-month duties up to a price of 85s.,--17s. when wheat was
70s., 12s. when between 70s. and 80s., and 10s. when 85s., showing the
grasping spirit of the would-be monopolizers of the home supply of corn,
and their reluctance to believe in a lower range of value for corn as
for all other commodities. This act never operated, for the reason that,
with the exception in some few instances of barley, prices never were so
high as its projectors had contemplated. The corn trade had passed
rapidly beyond reach of the statutes by which it was to be so painfully
controlled; and as there were occasional seasons of scarcity,
particularly in oats, the king in council was authorized for several
years to override the statutes, and do whatever the public interests
might require.

In 1827 Canning introduced a new system of duties, under which there
would have been a fixed duty of 1s. per quarter when the price of wheat
was at or above 70s., and an increased duty of 2s. for every shilling
the price fell below 69s.; but though Canning's resolutions were adopted
by a large majority in the House of Commons, his death and the
consequent change of ministers involved the failure of his scheme of
corn duties. In the following year Charles Grant introduced another
scale of import duties on corn, by which the duty was to be 23s. when
the price was 64s., 16s. 8d. when the price was 69s., and only 1s. when
the price was 73s. or above 73s. per quarter; and this became law the
same year. This sliding scale was more objectionable, as a basis of
foreign corn trade, than that of Canning, though not following so
closely shilling by shilling the variation of prices, because of the
abrupt leaps it made in the amount of duties leviable. For example, a
merchant who ordered a shipment of foreign wheat when the home price was
70s. and rising to 73s., instead of having a duty of 1s. to pay, should
on a backward drop of the home price to 69s. have 16s. 8d. of duty to
pay. The result was to introduce wide and incalculable elements of
speculation into all transactions in foreign corn. The prices during
most part of this period were under the range at which import was
practically prohibited. The average price of British wheat was 96s. 11d.
in 1817, but from that point there was in succeeding years a rapid and
progressive decline, varied only by the results of the domestic
harvests, till in 1835 the average price of wheat was 39s. 4d., of
barley 29s. 11d. and oats 22s. The import of foreign grain in these
years consisted principally of a speculative trade, under a privilege of
warehousing accorded in the statute of 1773, and extended in subsequent
acts, by which the grain might be sold for home consumption on payment
of the duties, or re-exported free, as suited the interest of the
holders.

The act of 1822 admitted corn of the British possessions in North
America under a favoured scale of duties, and in 1825 a temporary act
was passed, allowing the import of wheat from these provinces at a fixed
duty of 5s. per quarter, irrespective of the home price, which, if
maintained, would have given some stability to the trade with Canada.
The idea of a fixed duty on all foreign grain, however, appears to have
grown in favour from about this period. It was included in the programme
of import duty reforms of the Whig government in 1841, and fell with its
propounders in the general election of that year. Sir Robert Peel, on
succeeding to office, and commencing his remarkable career as a
free-trade statesman, introduced and carried in 1842 a new sliding scale
of duties somewhat better adjusted to the current values. But public
opinion by this time was changing, and the prime minister, convinced, as
he confessed, by the arguments of Cobden and the Anti-Corn-Law League,
and stimulated into action by the failure of the potato crop in Ireland,
put an effectual end to the history of the corn laws by the famous act
of 1846. It was provided under this measure that the maximum duty on
foreign wheat was to be immediately reduced to 10s. per quarter when the
price was under 48s., to 5s. on barley when the price was under 26s.,
and to 4s. on oats when the price was under 18s., with lower duties as
prices rose above these figures; but the conclusive part of the
enactment was that in three years--on the 1st of February 1849--these
duties were to cease, and all foreign corn to be admitted at a duty of
1s. per quarter, and all foreign meal and flour at a duty of 4½d. per
cwt.--the same nominal imposts which were conceded to grain and flour of
British possessions abroad from the date of the act. In 1869 even these
nominal duties were abolished by Robert Lowe in a Customs Duties Act. In
1902 a registration duty of 3d. per cwt. was imposed on imported corn,
and 5d. per cwt. on imported flour, in the expectation that such a duty
would broaden the basis of taxation. The duty was, however, repealed the
following year. But a low duty on imported foreign corn was made an
essential part of the tariff reform scheme advocated by Mr. J.
Chamberlain (q.v.) from 1903 onwards.


  Spain.

  Portugal.

  France.

  Belgium.

  Netherlands.

  Italy.

  Germany.

  Austria-Hungary.

_Foreign Corn Laws._--Freedom of export of corn from customs duties has
become the general rule of nearly all foreign countries. It is somewhat
curious that Spain saw the advantage to her wheat-producing provinces of
freedom of export of wheat as early as 1820, and three years afterwards
extended this freedom to all "fruits of the soil" in Spain. The import
duty on wheat, as on other grain, has varied from time to time. The
tariff of 1882 fixed the duty at 2s. 3¼d. per cwt.; a law of February
1895 raised the duty to 4s. 3¼d. per cwt., at which rate it remained
till 1898, when it was reduced to 2s. 5¼d., though in this same year,
that of the war with the United States, it was for some three months
suspended, owing to distress in the country. In 1899 it was raised to
3s. 3d., and by a law of March 1904 fixed at 6.00 pesetas per 100 kilos
(2s. 5¼d. per cwt.) as long as the average price of wheat in the markets
of Castile does not fall below 27.00 pesetas per 100 kilos (11s. per
cwt.). The duty on rye, oats, barley and maize is 1s. 9½d. per cwt. The
duty on flour varied from 3s. 4½d. per cwt. in 1882 to 7s. 0½d. in 1895;
by the law of March 1904 it was fixed at 4s. 0¾d. per cwt. The duty on
rice is 2s. 1¾d. per cwt. in the husk and 4s. 3¾d. not in the husk. In
Portugal the import duty on wheat was fixed by a law of May 1888 at 20
reis per kilo (4s. 7d. per cwt.). By a law of July 1889, as amended by
laws of August 1891 and July 1899, importation is prohibited except in
the event of the home-grown crop being insufficient, and even then
permission is confined to millers. The duty, in the event of permission
to import being accorded, is to be charged on a sliding scale intended
to keep the cost of wheat to the millers, including the duty, at 60 reis
(3¼d.) per kilo (2.2 lbs.). Maize is subject to a duty of 4s. 1½d. per
cwt., and rye, oats and barley to one of 3s. 8d. per cwt. By laws of
July 1889 and August 1891 the importation of flour was prohibited except
in the event of a strike of the mill-hands, and the duty was fixed at
6s. 2d. per cwt. Export and import of grain in France were prohibited
down to the period of the repeal of the British corn laws, save when
prices were below certain limits in the one case and above certain other
limits in the other. But export of grain and flour from France has long
been free of duty. On the other hand, import duties have varied
considerably. By a law of 1881, the duty on wheat was fixed at 3d. per
cwt.; this duty was raised in 1885 to 1s. 2¾d. per cwt. and again in
1887 to 2s. 0½d. By a law of 1894 the duty was fixed at 2s. 10¼d. per
cwt. In 1898, owing to the sudden rise in the price of corn occasioned
by the war between Spain and the United States, the duty was temporarily
(the 4th of May to the 30th of June) suspended. By a law of 1873 free
importation of rye, barley, maize and oats was permitted, but by a law
of 1885 a duty was fixed at 7¼d. per cwt., and this was subsequently
(1887) increased to 1s. 2¾d. In 1881 the duty on imported flour was as
low as 5¾d. per cwt., but this was increased successively by laws of
1885, 1887, 1891 and 1892, and in 1894 was fixed at 4s. 5¾d. per cwt. at
the rate of extraction of 70% and over; 5s. 5¾d. at 70 to 60%; and 6s.
6d. at 60% and under. In Belgium both the export and import of wheat,
rye, barley and maize are free of duty; so also were oats and flour.
Since 1895, however, there has been a duty of 1s. 2½d. on oats, and of
9¾d. on flour. The policy of the Netherlands was, owing to the
advantages possessed by its ports, long favourable to the import and
export of grain. But for some years prior to 1845 there was a moderate
sliding scale of import duties, and this gave place, on the ravages of
the potato disease, to a low fixed duty; since 1877, however, the
importation of cereals and flour has been free. In Italy there are no
duties on the export of grain. The import duties show a progressive
increase. In 1878 the import duty on wheat was 6¾d. per cwt.; this was
increased to 1s. 2¾d. in 1888, and in 1894 to 3s. 0½d. As in Spain and
France, there was a temporary reduction and suspension during 1898, on
the Spanish-American war. The duty on rye, barley, oats and maize was
fixed by the tariff of 1878 at 5½d. per cwt. By a decree of 1894 the
duty on rye was raised to 1s. 10d.; that on barley, by a decree of 1896,
to 1s. 7½d.; that on oats, by a decree of 1888, to 1s. 7½d.; and that on
maize, by a decree of 1896, to 3s. 0½d. The duty on flour, fixed at 1s.
1½d., by the tariff of 1878, was raised to 2s. 5¼d. in 1888, to 3s. 6½d.
in 1888, and to 5s. in 1894. In Germany, the duty on wheat and rye, as
fixed by the tariff of 1879, was 6d. per cwt. In 1885 this was raised to
1s. 6¼d., and in 1888 to 2s. 6½d. By treaty in 1892 this was decreased
to 1s. 9¼d. On oats the duty in 1879 was 6d. per cwt., increased to 9¼d.
in 1885, and again, in 1888, to 2s. 0½d., but reduced to 1s. 5d. in
1892. On barley the duty in 1879 was 3d., in 1885 9¼d., in 1888 1s.
1¾d., and in 1892 1s. 0¼d. On maize, 3d. in 1879, 6d. in 1885, 1s. 0¼d.
in 1888, and 9¾d. in 1892. On flour, 1s. 0¼d. in 1879, 3s. 9¾d. in 1885,
5s. 4d. in 1888, and 3s. 8½d. in 1892. The new German tariff of 1906
which formed the basis for the new German commercial treaties with
Russia, Italy, Austria-Hungary, &c., and which was passed when the
influence of the agrarian party was predominant, increased still more
the import duties on cereals. Under this tariff there are two rates of
duties: (1). Those of the new "general" tariff as applied to imports
from all countries entitled to most favoured-nation treatment. (2).
"Conventional" tariff rates, conceded to other states as the result of
treaties. Under this tariff the "general" and "conventional" duties,
respectively, on wheat are 3s. 9½d. and 2s. 9d.; on oats and rye, 3s.
6½d. and 2s. 6¼d.; on "common baker's produce," 8s. 3d. and 5s. 2d. In
Austria-Hungary the import duty on wheat and rye is, under the tariff of
1887, 1s. 6¼d. per cwt.; on barley and oats, 9¼d.; on maize, 6d., and on
flour, 3s. 9¾d.


  United States.

  Russia.

  India.

  Australia, New Zealand, Canada.

  South Africa.

The great countries, famous for a production of raw materials much
beyond their own means of consumption, are favourable, of course, to the
utmost freedom of export. The empire of China itself was never unwilling
to sell to foreigners tea for which there was no domestic use. The
United States promotes transit and export of grain, internally and
externally, with all the intelligence and resources of a civilized
people. Although the import duty on "breadstuffs" imposed by the United
States tariff is very high, and is, possibly, a useful protection
against the importation of "baker's products," yet it is to a certain
extent unnecessary for a country which must dispose of its surplus by
exportation. The same remark applies to Russia, whose exportation and
importation are alike free, though there is an import duty on wheat
flour of 2s. 11½d. per cwt. In the British colonies probably the only
example of an export duty is that on rice in British India; it amounts
to 3 annas per maund (4d. per cwt.). The import of grain into India is
free. In Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and all mainly agricultural
countries, there is no export duty. In each of these countries, however,
there is an import duty; in the cases of Australia and New Zealand,
designed, to a certain extent, as a precaution against possible rivalry
on the part of the other. The Australian import duty is 1s. 6d. per
cental (100 lb av.), and the New Zealand 9d. per cental. The Canadian
import duties on grain are important only in the light of being a
species of retaliation against similar duties imposed by the United
States with the design of restricting inter-frontier exchange. The
Canadian import duty is, on barley, 30% _ad valorem_; on buckwheat, rye
and oats, 4.93d. per bushel, and on wheat, 5.92d. per bushel. The South
African production of cereal is still insufficient to meet the demand
for home consumption, and there is a considerable grain importation. The
import duty, which undoubtedly acts as an encouragement to home
agriculture, is 1s. per cental. (See also GRAIN TRADE.)
     (R. SO.; T. A. I.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] M'Culloch found from a comparison of the prices of corn and wages
    of labour in the reign of Henry VII. and the latter part of the reign
    of Elizabeth, that in the former period a labourer could earn a
    quarter of wheat in 20, a quarter of rye in 12, and a quarter of
    barley in 9 days; whereas, in the latter period, to earn a quarter of
    wheat required 48, a quarter of rye 32, and a quarter of barley 29
    days' labour.



CORN-SALAD, or LAMB'S LETTUCE, _Valerianella olitoria_ (natural order
Valerianaceae), a weedy annual, native of southern Europe, but
naturalized in cornfields in central Europe, and not infrequent in
Britain. In France it is used in salads during winter and spring as a
substitute for lettuces, but it is less esteemed in England. The plant
is raised from seed sown on a bed or border of light rich earth, and
should be weeded and watered, as occasion requires, till winter, when it
should be protected with long litter during severe frost. The largest
plants should be drawn for use in succession. Sowing may be made every
two or three weeks from the beginning of August till October, and again
in March, if required in the latter part of the spring. The sorts
principally grown are the Round-leaved and the Italian; the last is a
distinct species, _Valerianella eriocarpa_.



CORNU, MARIE ALFRED (1841-1902), French physicist, was born at Orleans
on the 6th of March 1841, and after being educated at the École
Polytechnique and the École des Mines, became in 1867 professor of
experimental physics in the former institution, where he remained
throughout his life. Although he made various excursions into other
branches of physical science, undertaking, for example, with J. B. A.
Bailie about 1870 a repetition of Cavendish's experiment for determining
the mean density of the earth, his original work was mainly concerned
with optics and spectroscopy. In particular he carried out a classical
redetermination of the velocity of light by A. H. L. Fizeau's method,
introducing various improvements in the apparatus, which added greatly
to the accuracy of the results. This achievement won for him, in 1878,
the _prix Lacaze_ and membership of the Academy of Sciences in France,
and the Rumford medal of the Royal Society in England. In 1899, at the
jubilee commemoration of Sir George Stokes, he was Rede lecturer at
Cambridge, his subject being the undulatory theory of light and its
influence on modern physics; and on that occasion the honorary degree of
D.Sc. was conferred on him by the university. He died at Paris on the
11th of April 1902.



CORNU COPIAE, later CORNUCOPIA ("horn of plenty"), a horn; generally
twisted, filled with fruit and flowers, or an ornament representing it.
It was used as a symbol of prosperity and abundance, and hence in works
of art it is placed in the hands of Plutus, Fortuna and similar
divinities (for the mythological account see AMALTHEIA). The symbol
probably originated in the practice of using the horns of oxen and goats
as drinking-cups; hence the _rhyton_ (drinking-horn) is often confounded
with the _cornu copiae_. For its representation in works of art, in
which it is very common, especially in those belonging to the Roman
period, see article in Daremberg and Saglio's _Dictionnaire des
Antiquités_.



CORNUS, an ancient town of Sardinia, of Phoenician origin, on the west
coast, 18 m. from Tharros, and the same from Bosa. At the time of the
Second Punic War it is spoken of as the principal city of the district,
and its capture by the Romans was the last act in the suppression of the
rebellion of 215 B.C., it having served as a place of refuge for the
fugitives after the defeat of the combined forces of the rebels and the
Carthaginians. The site of the ancient acropolis, covered with débris,
may still be made out. Here were found three inscriptions in 1831, with
dedications by the _ordo_, or town council, of Cornus to various
patrons, from one of which it seems that it was a colony, though when it
became so is unknown (Th. Mommsen, _Corp. Inscr. Lat._ X. 7915 sqq.).
Unimportant remains of an aqueduct and (perhaps) of a church exist.
Excavations in the necropolis of the Roman period are recorded by F.
Nissardi, _Notizie degli Scavi_, 1887, p. 47. Phoenician rock-cut tombs
may also be seen.



CORNUTUS, LUCIUS ANNAEUS, Stoic philosopher, flourished in the reign of
Nero. He was a native of Leptis in Libya, but resided for the most part
in Rome. He is best known as the teacher and friend of Persius, whose
satires he revised for publication after the poet's death, but handed
them over to Caesius Bassus to edit, at the special request of the
latter. He was banished by Nero (in 66 or 68) for having indirectly
disparaged the emperor's projected history of the Romans in heroic verse
(Dio Cassius lxii. 29), after which time nothing more is heard of him.
He was the author of various rhetorical works in both Greek and Latin
([Greek: Rhêtorikai Technai], _De figuris sententiarum_). Another
rhetorician, also named Cornutus, who flourished A.D. 200-250 (or in the
second half of the 2nd century) was the author of a treatise [Greek:
Technê tou politikou logou] (ed. J. Graeven, 1890). A philosophical
treatise, _Theologiae Graecae compendium_ (of which the Greek title is
uncertain; perhaps, [Greek: Hellênikê theologia], or [Greek: Peri tês
tôn theôn physeôs], though the latter may be the title of an abridgment
of the former) is still extant. It is a manual of "popular mythology as
expounded in the etymological and symbolical interpretations of the
Stoics" (Sandys), and although marred by many absurd etymologies,
abounds in beautiful thoughts (ed. C. Lang, 1881). Simplicius and
Porphyry refer to his commentary on the _Categories_ of Aristotle, whose
philosophy he is said to have defended against an opponent Athenodorus
in a treatise [Greek: Antigraphêpros Athênodôron]. His Aristotelian
studies were probably his most important work. A commentary on Virgil
(frequently quoted by Servius) and _Scholia_ to Persius are also
attributed to him; the latter, however, are of much later date, and are
assigned by Jahn to the Carolingian period. Excerpts from his treatise
_De enuntiatione vel orthographia_ are preserved in Cassiodorus. The
so-called _Disticha Cornuti_ (ed. Liebl, Straubing, 1888) belong to the
late middle ages.

  See G. Martini, _De L. Annaeo Cornuto_ (1825); O. Jahn, _Prolegomena_
  to his edition of Persius; H. von Arnim in Pauly-Wissowa's
  _Realencyclopädie_, i. pt. ii. (1894); M. Schanz, _Geschichte der
  römischen Litteratur_, i. 2 (1901), p. 285; W. Christ, _Geschichte der
  griechischen Litteratur_ (1898), pp. 702, 755; Teuffel-Schwabe, _Hist.
  of Roman Literature_ (Eng. trans.), § 299, 2.



CORNWALL, the capital of the united counties of Stormont, Dundas and
Glengarry, Ontario, Canada, 67 m. S.W. of Montreal, on the left bank of
the St Lawrence river. Pop. (1901) 6704. It is an important station on
the Grand Trunk and the Ottawa & New York railways, and is a port of
call for all steamers between Montreal and Lake Ontario ports. The
surplus from the Cornwall canal furnishes excellent water privileges for
its factories, which include cotton and woollen mills and grist and saw
mills. The town has long been celebrated for its lacrosse club. On the
opposite bank of the river is St Régis, inhabited chiefly by Indians of
the Iroquois tribe.



CORNWALL, the south-westernmost county of England, bounded N. and N.W.
by the Atlantic Ocean, E. by Devonshire, and S. and S.W. by the English
Channel. The area is 1356.6 sq. m. The most southerly extension is
Lizard Point, and the most westerly point of the mainland Land's End,
but the county also includes the Scilly Isles (q.v.), lying 25 m. W. by
S. of Land's End. No county in England has a stronger individuality than
Cornwall, whether in economic or social conditions, in history,
nomenclature, tradition, or even in the physical characteristics of the
land. Such individuality is hardly to be compassed within political
boundaries, and in some respects it is shared by the neighbouring county
of Devon, yet the traveller hardly feels its influence before passing
west of the Tamar.

Physically, Cornwall is a great promontory with a direct length of 75 m.
from N.N.E. to S.S.W., and an extreme breadth, at the junction with
Devonshire, of 45 m. The river Tamar here forms the greater part of the
boundary, and its valley divides the high moors of Devonshire and the
succession of similar broad-topped hills which form the backbone of the
Cornish promontory. The scenery is full of contrast. To the west of
Launceston the principal mass of high land rises to 1375 ft. in Brown
Willy, the highest point in the county. This district is broken and
picturesque, with rough _tors_ or hills and boulders. A remarkable pile
of rocks called the Cheese-wring, somewhat resembling an inverted
pyramid in form, is seen on the moor north of Liskeard. This district is
for the most part a region of furze and heather; but after passing
Bodmin, the true Cornish moorland asserts itself, bare, desolate and
impracticable, broken and dug into hillocks, which are sometimes due to
early mining works, sometimes to more modern search for metals. The
seventy miles from Launceston to Mount's Bay have been called not
untruly "the dreariest strip of earth traversed by any English high
road." There is hardly more cultivation on the higher ground west of
Mount's Bay, or in the Meneage or "rocky country," the old Cornish name
for the promontory which ends in the Lizard. Long combes and valleys,
however, descend from this upper moorland towards the coast on both
sides. These are in general well wooded, and, in the luxuriance of their
vegetation, strongly characteristic. The small rivers traversing them in
several cases enter fine estuaries, which ramify deeply into the land.
Such are, on the south coast, the great estuary of the Tamar, and other
streams, on which the port of Plymouth is situated (but only the western
shore is Cornish), the Looe and Fowey rivers, Falmouth Harbour, the most
important of the purely Cornish inlets and accessible for the largest
vessels, and the Helford river. On the north are the estuaries of the
Camel and the Hayle, debouching into Padstow Bay and St Ives Bay
respectively. The Fowey and Camel valleys almost completely break the
continuation of the central high ground, and the uplands west of Mount's
Bay are similarly parted from the main mass by the low tract between
Hayle and Marazion. Except at the mouth of a stream or estuary the coast
is almost wholly rock-bound, and the cliff scenery is unsurpassed in
England. Three different types are found. On the north coast, from
Tintagel Head and Boscastle northward to Hartland Point in Devonshire,
the dark slate cliffs, with their narrow and distorted strata, are
remarkably rugged of outline, owing to the ease with which the waves
fret the loosely-bound rock. On the south, in the beautiful little bays
in the neighbourhood of the Lizard Point, the serpentine rock is noted
for its exquisite colouring. Between Treryn and Land's End, at the
south-west, a majestic barrier of granite is presented to the sea. The
beautiful Scilly Isles continue the line of the granite, and the
intervening sea is said to have submerged a tract of land named
Lyonesse, containing, according to tradition, 140 parish churches, and
intimately connected with the Arthurian romances.

  _Geology._--One of the most striking features of Cornwall is the
  presence of the four great masses of granite which rise up and form as
  many elevated areas out of a lower-lying region occupied by rocks
  almost entirely slaty in character, generally known as "Killas." The
  granite is not the oldest of the Cornish rocks; these are found in the
  Lizard peninsula and are represented by serpentine, gabbro and
  metamorphic schists. With the exception of a small tract about Veryan
  and Gorran, of Ordovician age, all the sedimentary rocks, as far as a
  line joining Boscastle and South Petherwin, were formerly classed as
  Devonian; to the north of the line are the Culm measures--slates,
  grits and limestones--of Carboniferous age. The extensive spread of
  Killas is not, however, entirely Devonian, as it is shown on most
  maps. In the northern portion, Lower, Middle and Upper Devonian can be
  distinguished; the lower beds at Polperro, Looe and Watergate, the
  higher beds along the line indicated above. Farther south it has been
  shown that an older set of Palaeozoic rocks constitutes at least a
  part of the Killas; the Veryan series, with Caradoc fossils, is
  succeeded in descending order by the Portscatho series, the Falmouth
  series and the Mylor series; the lowest Devonian beds represented here
  by the Menaccan series, rest unconformably upon these Ordovician beds.
  Upper Silurian fossils have been found near Veryan. All these rocks
  have been subjected to severe thrusting from the south, consequently
  they are much contorted and folded. After this thrusting and folding
  had taken place, intrusions of diabase, &c., penetrated the
  sedimentary Strata in numerous places, but it was not until
  post-Carboniferous times that the granite masses were intruded. The
  principal granite masses are those of St Just and Land's End, Penryn,
  St Austell and Bodmin Moor. To the granite Cornwall owes much of its
  prosperity; it has altered the Killas for some distance around each
  mass, and the veins of tin and copper ore, though richest in the
  Killas, are evidently genetically related to the granite. The
  principal metalliferous districts, Camborne, Redruth, St Just, &c.,
  all lie near the granite margins. The china clay and china stone
  industry is dependent on the fact that the granite was itself altered
  in patches during the later phases of eruptive activity by the agency
  of boric and fluoric vapours which kaolinized the felspar of the
  granite. Later eruptions produced dykes of quartz-porphyry and other
  varieties, all locally called "elvans," which penetrate both the
  granite and the Killas. Small patches of Pliocene strata are found at
  St Erth and St Agnes Beacon. Blown sand is an important feature at St
  Pirran, Lelant, Gwythian and elsewhere, and raised beaches are
  frequent round the coast. A characteristic Cornish deposit is the
  "Head," an old consolidated scree or talus. Many rare minerals have
  been obtained from the mines and much tin ore has been taken from the
  river gravels. The river gravel at Carnon has yielded native gold.

_Climate._--The climate of Cornwall is peculiar. Snow seldom lies for
more than a few days, and the winters are less severe than in any other
part of England, the average temperature for January being 34° F. at
Bude and 43.7° at Falmouth. The sea-winds, except in a few sheltered
places, prevent timber trees from attaining to any great size, but the
air is mild, and the lower vegetation, especially in the Penzance
district, is almost southern in its luxuriance. Geraniums, fuchsias,
myrtles, hydrangeas and camellias grow to a considerable size, and
flourish through the winter at Penzance and round Falmouth; and in the
Scilly Isles a great variety of exotics may be seen flourishing in the
open air. Stone fruit, and even apples and pears, do not attain the same
full flavour as in the neighbouring county, owing to the want of dry
heat. The pinaster, the _Pinus_ _austriaca_, _Pinus insignis_ and other
firs succeed well in the western part of the county. All native plants
display a perfection of beauty hardly to be seen elsewhere, and the
furze, including the double-blossomed variety, and the heaths, among
which _Erica vagans_ and _ciliaris_ are characteristic, cover the
moorland and the cliff summits with a blaze of the richest colour. On
the whole the climate is healthy, though the prevalent westerly and
south-westerly winds, bringing with them great bodies of cloud from the
Atlantic, render it damp; the mean annual rainfall, though only 32.85 in.
at Bude, reaches 44.41 at Falmouth, and 50.57 at Bodmin.

_Agriculture._--About seven-tenths of the total area is under
cultivation, but oats form the only important grain-crop. Turnips,
swedes and mangolds make up the bulk of the green crops. The number of
cattle (chiefly of the Devonshire breed) is large, and many sheep are
kept; nearly 60,000 acres of hill pasture being recorded. As regards
agricultural produce, however, Cornwall is chiefly famous for the
market-gardening carried on in the neighbourhood of Penzance, where the
climate is specially suitable for the growth of early potatoes, broccoli
and asparagus. These are despatched in large quantities to the London
market; the Scilly Isles sharing in the industry. Fruit and flowers are
also grown for the market. In the valleys the soil is frequently rich
and deep; there are good arable and pasture farms, and the natural
oak-wood of these coombes has been preserved and increased by
plantation.

_Mining._--The wealth of Cornwall, however, lies not so much in the
soil, as underground and in the surrounding seas. Hence the favourite
Cornish toast, "fish, tin and copper." The tin of Cornwall has been
known and worked from a period anterior to certain history. There is no
direct proof that the Phoenician traders came to Cornwall for tin;
though it has been sought to identify the Cassiterides (q.v.) or Tin
Islands with the county or the Scilly Isles. By ancient charters the
"tinners" were exempt from all jurisdiction (save in cases affecting
land, life and limb) other than that of the Stannary Courts, and
peculiar laws were enacted in the Stannary parliaments (see STANNARIES).
For many centuries a tax on the tin, after smelting, was paid to the
earls and dukes of Cornwall. The smelted blocks were carried to certain
towns to be coined, that is, stamped with the duchy seal before they
could be sold. By an act of 1838 the dues payable on the coinage of tin
were abolished, and a compensation was awarded to the duchy instead of
them. The Cornish miners are an intelligent and independent body, and
the assistance of a Cornishman has been found necessary to the
successful development of mining in many parts of the world, while many
miners have emigrated from Cornwall to more remunerative fields abroad.
The industry has suffered from periods of depression, as before the
accession of Queen Elizabeth, who introduced miners from Germany to
resuscitate it; and in modern times the shallow workings, from which tin
could be easily "streamed," have become practically exhausted. The
deeper workings to which the miners must needs have recourse naturally
render production more costly, and the competition of foreign mines has
been detrimental. The result is that the industry is comparatively less
prosperous than formerly, and employs far fewer of the inhabitants.
However, in the district of Camborne, Carn Brea, Illogan and Redruth,
and near St Just in the extreme west, the mines are still active, while
there are others of less importance elsewhere, as near Callington in the
south-east. And when, as in 1906, circumstances affecting the production
of foreign mines cause a rise in the price of tin, the Cornish mines
enjoy a period of greater prosperity; the result being the recent
reopening of many of the mines which had been closed for twenty years.
The largest tin-mine is that of Dolcoath near Camborne. Copper is
extracted at St Just and at Carn Brea; but the output has decreased much
further than that of tin. As it lies deeper in the earth, and
consequently could not be "streamed" for, it was almost unnoticed in the
county until the end of the 15th century, and little attention was paid
to it until the last years of the 17th. No mine seems to have been
worked exclusively for copper before the year 1770; and up to that time
the casual produce had been bought by Bristol merchants, to their great
gain, at rates from £2:10s. to £4 per ton. In 1718 John Coster gave a
great impulse to the trade by draining some of the deeper mines, and
instructing the men in an improved method of dressing the ore. The trade
thereafter progressively increased, and in 1851 the mines of Devon and
Cornwall together were estimated to furnish one-third of the copper
raised throughout Europe, including the British Isles. Antimony ores and
manganese are found, and some lead occurs, being worked without great
result. Iron in lodes, as brown haematite, has been worked near
Lostwithiel and elsewhere. In the St Austell district the place of tin
and copper mining has been taken by that of the raising and preparation
of china clay. Granite is largely quarried in various districts, as at
Luxulian (between St Austell and Lostwithiel), and in the neighbourhood
of Penryn. This is the material of London and Waterloo Bridges, the
Chatham docks, and many other great works. It is for the most part
coarse-grained, though differing greatly in different places in this
respect. Fine slate is quarried and largely exported, as from the
Delabole quarries near Tintagel. These slates were in great repute in
the 16th century and earlier. Serpentine is quarried in the Lizard
district, and is worked there into small ornamental objects for sale to
visitors; it is in favour as a decorative stone. Pitchblende also
occurs, and is mined for the extraction of radium.

_Fisheries._--The fisheries of Cornwall and Devon are the most important
on the south-west coasts. The pilchard is in great measure confined to
Cornwall, living habitually in deep water not far west of the Scilly
Isles, and visiting the coast in great shoals,--one of which is
described as having extended from Mevagissey to the Land's End, a
distance, including the windings of the coast, of nearly 100 m. In
summer and autumn pilchards are caught by drift nets; later in the year
they are taken off the northern coast by seine nets. Forty thousand
hogsheads, or 120 million fish, have been taken in the course of a
single season, requiring 20,000 tons of salt to cure them. Twelve
millions have been taken in a single day; and the sight of this great
army of fish passing the Land's End, and pursued by hordes of dog-fish,
hake, and cod, besides vast flocks of sea-birds, is most striking. The
principal fishing stations are on Mount's Bay and at St Ives, but boats
are employed all along the coast. When brought to shore the pilchards
are carried to the cellars to be cured. They are then packed in
hogsheads, each containing about 2400 fish. These casks are largely
exported to Naples and other Italian ports--whence the fisherman's
toast, "Long life to the pope, and death to thousands." Besides
pilchards, mackerel and herring are taken in great numbers, and conger
eels of great size; mullet and John Dory may be mentioned. There is also
a trade in "sardines," young pilchards taking the place of the real
Mediterranean fish.

_Communications._--The principal ports are Falmouth and Penzance, but
that of Hayle is of some importance, and there are large engineering
works here. It lies on the estuary of the Hayle river, which opens into
St Ives Bay, the township of Phillack adjoining on the north-east. A
brisk coasting trade is maintained at many small ports along the coast.
Communications are provided chiefly by the Great Western railway, the
main line of which passes through the county and terminates at Penzance.
Fowey, Penryn and Falmouth, and Helston on the south, and Bodmin and
Wadebridge, Newquay and St Ives, are served by branch lines. A light
railway runs from Liskeard to Looe. The north-eastern parts of the
county (Launceston, Bude, Wadebridge) are served by the London &
South-Western railway. Coaches are run in several districts during the
summer, and in some parts, as in the neighbourhood of Penzance, and
between Helston and the Lizard, the Great Western company provides a
motor-car service to places beyond the reach of the railway. Many of the
small seaside towns have become favourite holiday resorts, such as Bude,
Newquay and St Ives, and the south-coast ports.

_Population and Administration._--The area of the ancient county is
868,220 acres, with a population in 1891 of 322,571, and in 1901 of
322,334. In 1861 the population was 369,390, and had shown an increase
up to that census. The area of the administrative county is 886,384
acres. The county contains 9 hundreds. The municipal boroughs are Bodmin
(pop. 5353), the county town; Falmouth (11,789), Helston (3088),
Launceston (4053), Liskeard (4010), Lostwithiel (1331), Penryn (3190),
Penzance (13,136), St Ives (6699), Saltash (3357), Truro (11,562), an
episcopal city. The other urban districts are Callington (1714),
Camborne (14,726), Hayle (1084), Looe (2548), Ludgvan (2274), Madron
(3486), Newquay (3115), Padstow (1566), Paul (6332), Phillack (3881),
Redruth (10,451), St Austell (3340), St Just (5646), Stratton and Bude
(2308), Torpoint (4200), Wadebridge (2186). Small market and other
towns, beyond those in the above lists, are numerous. Such are Calstock
in the east, St Germans in the south-east near Saltash, St Blazey near
St Austell, Camelford, St Columb Major, and Perranzabuloe in the north,
with the mining towns of Gwennap and Illogan in the Redruth district and
Wendron near Helston, all inland towns; while on the south coast may be
mentioned Fowey and Mevagissey, on either side of St Austell Bay, and
Marazion on Mount's Bay, close by St Michael's Mount. Cornwall is in the
western circuit, and assizes are held at Bodmin. It has one court of
quarter sessions, and is divided into 17 petty sessional divisions. The
boroughs of Bodmin, Falmouth, Helston, Launceston, Liskeard, Penryn,
Penzance, St Ives and Truro have separate commissions of the peace, and
Penzance has a separate court of quarter sessions. The Scilly Isles are
administered by a separate council, and form one of the petty sessional
divisions. There are 239 civil parishes, of which 5 are in the Scilly
Isles. Cornwall is in the diocese of Truro, and there are 227
ecclesiastical parishes or districts wholly or in part within the
county. The parliamentary divisions are the North-Eastern or Launceston,
South-Eastern or Bodmin, Mid or St Austell, Truro, North-Western or
Camborne, and Western or St Ives, each returning one member; while the
parliamentary borough of Penryn and Falmouth returns one member.

_Language._--The old Cornish language survives in a few words still in
use in the fishing and mining communities, as well as in the names of
persons and places, but the last persons who spoke it died towards the
end of the 18th century. It belonged to the Cymric division of Celtic,
in which Welsh and Armorican are also included. The most important
relics of the language known to exist are three dramas or miracle plays,
edited and translated by Edwin Norris, Oxford, 1859. A sketch of Cornish
grammar is added, and a Cornish vocabulary from a MS. of the 13th
century (Cotton MSS. Vespasian A. 14, p. 7a). (See CELT: Language and
Literature.) It may be mentioned that the great numbers of saints whose
names survive in the topography of the county are largely accounted for
by the fact that here, as in Wales, it was the practice to canonize the
founder of a church. The natives have many traits in common with the
Welsh, such as their love of oratory and their strong tribal attachment
to the county.

_History._--Cornwall was the last portion of British territory in the
south to submit to the Saxon invader. Viewed from its eastern boundary
it doubtless appeared less attractive than the rich, well-wooded lands
of Wessex, while it unquestionably afforded greater obstacles in the way
of conquest. In 815 Ecgbert directed his efforts towards the subjugation
of the West-Welsh of Cornwall, and after eight years' fighting compelled
the whole of Dyvnaint to acknowledge his supremacy. Assisted by the
Danes the Cornish revolted but were again defeated, probably in 836, at
the battle of Hengestesdun, Hingston Down in Stoke-Climsland. Ninety
years later Aethelstan banished the West-Welsh from Exeter and made the
Tamar the boundary of their territory. The thoroughness of the Saxon
conquest is evident from the fact that in the days of the Confessor
nearly the whole of the land in Cornwall was held by men bearing English
names. As the result of the Norman conquest less than one-twelfth of the
land (exclusive of that held by the Church) remained in English hands.
Six-sevenths of the manors were assigned to Robert, count of Mortain,
and became the foundation of the territorial possessions and revenues of
the earldom which was held until 1337, usually by special grant, by the
sons or near relatives of the kings of England. On the death of John of
Eltham the last earl, in 1337, Edward the Black Prince was created duke
of Cornwall. By the terms of the statute under which the dukedom was
created the succession was restricted to the eldest son of the king, but
in 1613, on the death of Prince Henry, an extended interpretation, given
by the king's advisers, enabled his brother Charles (afterwards Charles
I.) to succeed as son of the king and next heir to the realm of England.

Traces of jurisdictional differentiation anterior to Domesday survive in
the names of at least five of the hundreds, although these names do not
appear in the Survey itself. The hundreds into which the county was
divided at the time of the _Inquisitio Geldi_ were as follows:--Straton,
which embraced the present hundreds of Stratton, Lesnewth and Trigg;
Fawiton, approximately conterminous with West; Panton, now included in
Pydasr, Tibeste, Wineton, Conarditon and Rileston, very nearly identical
with Powder, Kerrier, Penwith and East. The shire court was held at
Launceston except from about 1260 to 1386, when it was held at
Lostwithiel. In 1716 the summer assize was transferred to Bodmin. Since
1836 both assizes have been held at Bodmin. The jurisdiction of the
hundred courts became early attached to various manors, and their
bailiwicks and bedellaries descended with the real estate of their
owners. There is much obscurity concerning the early ecclesiastical
organization. It is certain, however, that Cornwall had its own bishops
from the middle of the 9th century until the year 1018, when the see was
removed to Crediton. During the interval the see had been placed
sometimes at Bodmin and sometimes at St Germans. In 1049 the see of the
united dioceses of Devon and Cornwall was fixed at Exeter. Cornwall was
formed into an archdeaconry soon after, and, as such, continued until
1876, when it was reconstituted a diocese with its see at Truro. The
parishes of St Giles-on-the-Heath, North Petherwin and Wellington,
wholly in Devon, and Boyton, partly in Devon and partly in Cornwall,
which were portions of the ancient archdeaconry, and also the parishes
of Broadwoodwidger and Virginstowe, both in Devon, which had been added
to it in 1875, thus came to be included in the Truro diocese. The
present archdeaconries of Bodmin embracing the eastern, and of Cornwall
embracing the western portion of the newly constituted diocese were
formed, by order in council, in 1878. Aethelstan's enactment had
doubtless roughly determined the civil boundary of the Celtic-speaking
county. In 1386 disputes having arisen, a commission was appointed to
determine the Cornish border between North Tamerton and Hornacot.

For the first four centuries after the Norman conquest the part played
by Cornwall in England's political history was comparatively
unimportant. In her final attempt in 1471 to restore the fortunes of the
house of Lancaster, Queen Margaret received the active support of the
Cornish, who, under Sir Hugh Courtenay and Sir John Arundell,
accompanied her to the fatal field of Tewkesbury, and in 1473 John de
Vere, earl of Oxford, held St Michael's Mount in her behalf until the
following February, when he surrendered to John Fortescue. A rising of
considerable magnitude in 1497 at the instigation of Thomas Flamank,
occasioned by the levy of a tax for the Scottish war, was only repelled
after the arrival of the insurgents at Blackheath in Kent. Perkin
Warbeck, who landed at Whitsand Bay in the parish of Sennen, obtained
general support in the same year. The imposition of the Book of Common
Prayer and the abrogation of various religious ceremonies led to a
rebellion in 1549 under Sir Humphry Arundell of Lanherne, the rebels,
who knew little English, demanding the restoration of the Latin service,
but a fatal delay under the walls of Exeter led to their early defeat
and the execution of their leaders. During the Civil War of the 17th
century Cornwall won much glory in the royal cause. In 1643 Sir Ralph
Hopton, who commanded the king's Cornish troops, defeated General Ruthen
on Bradoc Down, while General Chudleigh, another parliamentary general,
was repulsed near Launceston, and the earl of Stamford at Stratton. The
whole county was thereby secured to the king. Led by Sir Beville
Grenville of Stow the Cornish troops now marched into Somersetshire,
where in the indecisive battle of Lansdowne they greatly distinguished
themselves, but lost their brave leader. In July 1644 the earl of Essex
marched into Cornwall and was followed soon afterwards by the king's
troops in pursuit. Numerous engagements were fought, in which the latter
were uniformly successful. The troops of Essex were surrounded and their
leader escaped in a boat from Fowey to Plymouth. In 1646, owing to
dissensions amongst the king's officers, and in particular to the
refusal of Sir Richard Grenville to serve under Lord Hopton, and to the
defection of Colonel Edgcumbe, the royal cause declined and became
desperate. On the 16th of August 1646 articles of capitulation were
signed by the defenders of Pendennis Castle.

Two members for the county were summoned by Edward I. to the parliament
of 1295, and two continued to be the number of county members until
1832. Six boroughs--Launceston, Liskeard, Lostwithiel, Bodmin, Truro and
Helston--were granted the like privilege by the same sovereign. To
strengthen and augment the power of the crown as against the House of
Commons, between 1547 and 1584, fifteen additional towns and villages
received the franchise, with the result that, between the latter date
and 1821, Cornwall sent no less than forty-four members to parliament.
In 1821 Grampound lost both its members, and by the Reform Act in 1832
fourteen other Cornish boroughs shared the same fate. Cornwall was, in
fact, notorious for the number of its rotten boroughs. In the vicinity
of Liskeard "within an area, which since 1885 ... is represented by only
one member, there were until 1832 nine parliamentary boroughs returning
eighteen members. In this area, on the eve of the Reform Act, there was
a population of only 14,224" (Porrit, _Unreformed House of Commons_,
vol. i. p. 92). Bossiney, a village near Camelford, Camelford itself,
Lostwithiel, East Looe, West Looe, Fowey and several others were
disfranchised in 1832, but even until the act of 1885 Bodmin, Helston,
Launceston, Liskeard and St Ives were separately represented, whereas
Penzance was not. Until this act was passed Truro, and Penryn with
Falmouth, returned two members each.

_Antiquities._--No part of England is so rich as Cornwall in prehistoric
antiquities. These chiefly abound in the district between Penzance and
the Land's End, but they occur in all the wilder parts of the county.
They may be classed as follows. (1) _Cromlechs._ These in the west of
Cornwall are called "quoits," with reference to their broad and flat
covering stones. The largest and most important are those known as
Lanyon, Mulfra, Chûn and Zennor quoits, all in the Land's End district.
Of these Chûn is the only one which has not been thrown down. Zennor is
said to be the largest in Europe, while Lanyon, when perfect, was of
sufficient height for a man on horseback to ride under. Of those in the
eastern part of Cornwall, Trevethy near Liskeard and Pawton in the
parish of St Breock are the finest. (2) Rude uninscribed _monoliths_ are
common to all parts of Cornwall. Those at Boleigh or Boleit, in the
parish of St Buryan, S.W. of Penzance, called the Pipers, are the most
important. (3) _Circles_, none of which is of great dimensions. The
principal are the Hurlers, near Liskeard; the Boskednan, Boscawen-ûn,
and Tregeseal circles; and that called the Dawns-ûn, or Merry Maidens,
at Boleigh. All of these, except the Hurlers, are in the Land's End
district. Other circles that may be mentioned are the Trippet Stones, in
the parish of Blisland, near Bodmin, and one at Duloe, near Liskeard.
(4) Long _alignments_ or _avenues_ of stones, resembling those on
Dartmoor, but not so perfect, are to be found on the moors near Rough
Tor and Brown Willy. A very remarkable monument of this kind exists in
the neighbourhood of St Columb Major, called the Nine Maidens. It
consists of nine rude pillars placed in a line, but now imperfect, while
near them is a single stone known as the Old Man. (5) _Hut dwellings._
Of these there are at least two kinds, those in the eastern part of the
county resembling the beehive structures and enclosures of Dartmoor, and
those in the west comprising "hut-clusters," having a central court, and
a surrounding wall sometimes of considerable height and thickness. The
beehive masonry is also found in connexion with these, as are also (6)
_Caves_, or subterraneous structures, resembling those of Scotland and
Ireland. (7) _Cliff castles_ are a characteristic feature of the Cornish
coast, especially in the west, such as Treryn, Mên, Kenedjack, Bosigran
and others. These are all fortified on the landward side. At Treryn
Castle is the Logan Stone, a mass of granite so balanced as to rock upon
its support. (8) _Hill castles_, or camps, are very numerous.
Castelan-Dinas, near St Columb, is the best example of the earthwork
camp, and Chûn Castle, near Penzance, of the stone.

Early Christian remains in Cornwall include crosses, which occur all
over the country and are of various dates from the 6th century onward;
inscribed sepulchral stones, generally of the 7th and 8th centuries; and
oratories. These last have their parallels in Ireland, which is natural,
since from that country and Wales Cornwall was christianized. The
buildings (also called baptisteries) are very small and rude, a simple
parallelogram in form, always placed near a spring. The best example is
St Piran's near Perranzabuloe, which long lay buried in sand dunes. St
Piran was one of the missionaries sent from Ireland by St Patrick in the
5th century, and became the patron saint of the tin-miners.

The individuality of Cornwall is reflected in its ecclesiastical
architecture. The churches are generally massive, plain structures of
granite, built as it were to resist the storms which sweep up from the
sea, low in the body, but with high unadorned towers. Within, a common
feature is the absence of a chancel arch. In a few cases, of which
Gwennap church is an illustration, where the body of the church lies low
in a valley, there is a detached campanile at a higher level. The
prevalent style is Perpendicular, much rebuilding having taken place in
this period, but there are fine examples of the earlier styles. The west
front and part of the towers of the church of St Germanus of Auxerre at
St Germans form the best survival of Norman work in the county; there
are good Norman doorways at Manaccan and Kilkhampton churches, and the
church of Morwenstow, near the coast north of Bude, is a remarkable
illustration of the same style. This church has the further interest of
having had as its rector the Cornish poet Robert Stephen Hawker
(1803-1875). The Early English style is not commonly seen, but the small
church of St Anthony in Roseland, near the east shore of Falmouth
harbour (with an ornate Norman door), and portions of the churches of
Camelford and Manaccan, are instances of this period. Decorated work is
similarly scanty, but the churches of Sheviock, in the south-east, and
St Columb Major have much that is good, and that of St Bartholomew,
Lostwithiel, has a beautiful and rich lantern and spire in this style
surmounting an Early English tower, while the body of the church is also
largely Decorated. Perpendicular churches are so numerous that it is
only needful to mention those possessing some peculiar characteristic.
Thus, the high ornamentation of Launceston and St Austell churches is
unusual in Cornwall, as is the rich and graceful tower of Probus church.
St Neot's church, near Liskeard, has magnificent stained glass of the
15th and 16th centuries.

The ruined castles of Launceston, Trematon near Saltash, Restormel near
Lostwithiel, and Tintagel, date, at least in part, from Norman times. St
Michael's Mount was at once a fortress and an ecclesiastical foundation.
Pendennis Castle, Falmouth, is of the time of Henry VIII. The mansions
of Cornwall are generally remarkable rather for their position than for
architectural interest, but Trelawne, partly of the 15th century, near
Looe, and Place House, a Tudor building, at Fowey, may be noted.

  AUTHORITIES.--See Richard Carew, _Survey of Cornwall_ (London, 1602);
  W. Borlase, _Antiquities of Cornwall_ (Oxford, 1754 and 1769); D.
  Gilbert, _Parochial History of Cornwall_ (London, 1837-1838),
  incorporating collections of W. Hals and Tonkin; J. T. Blight,
  _Ancient Crosses in the East of Cornwall_ (London, 1858), and
  _Churches of West Cornwall_ (London, 1865); G. C. Boase and W. P.
  Courtney, _Bibliotheca Cornubiensis_, a catalogue of the writings,
  both MS. and printed, of Cornishmen, and of works relating to Cornwall
  (Truro and London, 1864-1881); R. Hunt, _Popular Romances and Drolls
  of the West of England_ (London, 1865); W. Bottrell, _Traditions and
  Hearthside Stories of West Cornwall_ (Penzance, 1870-1873); J. H.
  Collins, _Handbook to the Mineralogy of Cornwall and Devon_ (Truro,
  1871); W. C. Borlase, _Naenia Cornubiae_ (1872); _Early Christianity
  in Cornwall_ (London, 1893); J. Bannister, _Glossary of Cornish Names_
  (London, 1878); W. P. Courtney, _Parliamentary Representation of
  Cornwall to 1832_ (London, 1889); G. C. Boase, _Collectanea
  Cornubiensia_ (Truro, 1890); J. R. Allen, _Old Cornish Crosses_
  (Truro, 1896); A. H. Norway, _Highways and Byways in Cornwall_ (1904);
  Lewis Hind, _Days in Cornwall_ (1907); _Victoria County History,
  Cornwall._



CORNWALLIS, CHARLES CORNWALLIS, 1st MARQUESS (1738-1805), eldest son of
Charles, 1st earl of Cornwallis (1700-1762), was born on the 31st of
December 1738. Having been educated at Eton and Clare College,
Cambridge, he entered the army. For some time he was member of
parliament for Eye; in 1761 he served a campaign in Germany, and was
gazetted to a lieutenant-colonelcy in the 12th Foot. In 1762 he
succeeded to the earldom and estates of his father; in 1765 he was made
aide-de-camp to the king and gentleman of the bedchamber; in 1766 he
obtained a colonelcy in the 33rd Foot; and in 1770 he was appointed
governor of the Tower. In public life he was distinguished by
independence of character and inflexible integrity; he voted without
regard to party, and opposed the ministerial action against Wilkes and
in the case of the American colonies. But when the American War of
Independence broke out, he accompanied his regiment across the Atlantic,
and served not without success as major-general. In 1780 he was
appointed to command the British forces in South Carolina, and in the
same year he routed Gates at Camden. In 1781 he defeated Greene at
Guilford Court House, and made a destructive raid into Virginia; but he
was besieged at Yorktown by French and American armies and a French
fleet, and was forced to capitulate on the 19th of October 1781. With
him fell the English cause in the United States. He not only escaped
censure, however, but in 1786 received a vacant Garter, and was
appointed governor-general of India and commander-in-chief in Bengal. As
an administrator he projected many reforms, but he was interrupted in
his work by the quarrel with Tippoo Sahib. In 1791 he assumed in person
the conduct of the war and captured Bangalore; and in 1792 he laid siege
to Seringapatam, and concluded a treaty with Tippoo Sahib, which
stripped the latter of half his realm, and placed his two sons as
hostages in the hands of the English. For the permanent settlement of
the land revenue under his administration, see BENGAL. He returned to
England in 1793, received a marquessate and a seat in the privy council,
and was made master-general of the ordnance with a place in the Cabinet.
In June 1798 he was appointed to the viceroyalty of Ireland, and the
zeal with which he strove to pacify the country gained him the respect
and good-will of both Roman Catholics and Orangemen. On the 17th of July
a general amnesty was proclaimed, and a few weeks afterwards the French
army under Humbert was surrounded and forced to surrender. In 1801
Cornwallis was replaced by Lord Hardwicke, and soon after he was
appointed plenipotentiary to negotiate the treaty of Amiens (1802). In
1805 he was again sent to India as governor-general, to replace Lord
Wellesley, whose policy was too advanced for the directors of the East
India Company. He was in ill-health when he arrived at Calcutta, and
while hastening up the country to assume command of the troops, he died
at Ghazipur, in the district of Benares, on the 5th of October 1805. He
was succeeded as 2nd marquess by his only son, Charles (1774-1823). On
his death the marquessate became extinct, but the title of Earl
Cornwallis passed to his uncle, James (1743-1824), who was bishop of
Lichfield from 1781 until his death. His son and successor, James, the
5th earl, whose son predeceased him in 1835, died in May 1852, when the
Cornwallis titles became extinct.

  See W. S. Seton-Karr, _The Marquess Cornwallis_, "Rulers of India"
  Series (1890).



CORNWALLIS, SIR WILLIAM (1744-1819), British admiral, was the brother of
the 1st Marquess Cornwallis, governor-general of India. He was born on
the 20th of February 1744, and entered the navy in 1755. His promotion
was naturally rapid, and in 1766 he had reached post-rank. Until 1779 he
held various commands doing the regular work of the navy in convoy. In
that year he commanded the "Lion" (64) in the fleet of Admiral Byron.
The "Lion" was very roughly handled in the battle off Grenada on the
6th of July 1779, and had to make her way alone to Jamaica. In March
1780 he fought an action in company with two other vessels against a
much superior French force off Monti Cristi, and had another encounter
with them near Bermuda in June. The force he engaged was the fleet
carrying the troops of Rochambeau to North America, and was too strong
for his squadron of two small liners, two fifty-gun ships and a frigate.
After taking part in the second relief of Gibraltar, he returned to
North America, and served with Hood in the actions at the Basse Terre of
St Kitts, and with Rodney in the battle of Dominica on the 12th of April
1782. Some very rough verses which he wrote on the action have been
printed in Leyland's "_Brest-Papers_," published for the Navy Record
Society, which show that he thought very ill of Rodney's conduct of the
battle. In 1788 he went to the East Indies as commodore, where he
remained till 1794. He had some share in the war with Tippoo Sahib, and
helped to reduce Pondicherry. His promotion to rear-admiral dates from
the 1st of February 1793, and on the 4th of July 1794 he became
vice-admiral.

In the Revolutionary War his services were in the Channel. The most
signal of them was performed on the 16th of June 1795, when he carried
out what was always spoken of with respect as "the retreat of
Cornwallis." He was cruising near Brest with four sail of the line and
two frigates, when he was sighted by a French fleet of twelve sail of
the line, and many large frigates commanded by Villarat Joyeuse. The
odds being very great he was compelled to make off. But two of his ships
were heavy sailers and fell behind. He was consequently overtaken, and
attacked on both sides. The rearmost ship, the "Mars" (74), suffered
severely in her rigging and was in danger of being surrounded by the
French. Cornwallis turned to support her, and the enemy, impressed by a
conviction that he must be relying on help within easy reach, gave up
the pursuit. The action affords a remarkable proof of the moral
superiority which the victory of the 1st of June, and the known
efficiency of the crews, had given to the British navy. The reputation
of Cornwallis was immensely raised, and the praise given him was no
doubt the greater because he was personally very popular with officers
and men. In 1796 he incurred a court-martial in consequence of a
misunderstanding and apparently some temper on both sides, on the charge
of refusing to obey an order from the Admiralty. He was practically
acquitted. The substance of the case was that he demurred on the ground
of health at being called upon to go to the West Indies, in a small
frigate, and without "comfort." He became full admiral in 1799, and held
the Channel command for a short interval in 1801 and from 1803 to 1806,
but saw no further service. He was made a G.C.B. in 1815, and died on
the 5th of July 1819. His various nicknames among the sailors, "Billy go
tight," given on account of his rubicund complexion, "Billy Blue,"
"Coachee," and "Mr Whip," seem to show that he was regarded with more of
affection than reverence.

  See also Ralfe, _Nav. Biog._ i. 387; _Naval Chronicle_, vii. 1;
  Charnock, _Biogr. Nav._ vi. 523.



CORO, a small city and the capital of the state of Falcón, Venezuela, 7
m. W. of La Vela de Coro (its port on the Caribbean coast), with which
it is connected by rail, and 199 m. W.N.W. of Carácas. Pop. (1904,
estimate) 9500. Coro stands on a sandy plain between the Caribbean and
the Gulf of Venezuela, and near the isthmus connecting the peninsula of
Paraguaná with the mainland. Its elevation above sea-level is only 105
ft., and its climate is hot but not unhealthy. The city is badly built,
its streets are unpaved, and it has no public buildings of note except
two old churches. Its water-supply is derived from springs some distance
away. Coro is the commercial centre for an extensive district on the E.
side of Lake Maracaibo and the Gulf of Venezuela, which exports large
quantities of goat-skins, an excellent quality of tobacco, and some
coffee, cacao, castor beans, timber and dyewoods. It was founded in 1527
by Juan de Ampués, who gave to it the name of Santa Ana de Coriana
(afterwards corrupted to Santa Ana de Coro) in honour of the day and of
the tribe of Indians inhabiting this locality. It was also called
Venezuela (little Venice) because of an Indian village on the gulf coast
built on piles over the shallow water; this name was afterwards bestowed
upon the province of which Coro was the capital. Coro was also made the
chief factory of the Welsers, the German banking house to which Charles
V. mortgaged this part of his colonial possessions, and it was the
starting-point for many exploring and colonizing expeditions into the
interior. It was made a bishopric in 1536, and for a time Coro was one
of the three most important towns on the northern coast. The seat of
government was removed to Carácas in 1578 and the bishopric five years
later. Coro is celebrated in Venezuelan history as the scene of
Miranda's first attempt to free his country from Spanish rule. It
suffered greatly in the war which followed.



COROMANDEL COAST, a name formerly applied officially to the eastern
seaboard of India approximately between Cape Calimere, in 10° 17' N.,
79° 56' E., and the mouths of the Kistna river. The shore, which is low,
is without a single good natural harbour, and is at all times beaten by
a heavy sea. Communication with ships can be effected only by catamarans
and flat-bottomed surf-boats. The north-east monsoon, which lasts from
October till April, is exceedingly violent for three months after its
commencement. From April till October hot southerly winds blow by day;
at night the heat is tempered by sea-breezes. The principal places
frequented by shipping are Pulicat, Madras, Sadras, Pondicherry,
Cuddalore, Tranquebar, Nagore, and Negapatam. The name Coromandel is
said to be derived from _Cholamandal_, the mandal or region of the
ancient dynasty of the Chola. Its official use has lapsed.



CORONA (Lat. for "crown"), in astronomy, the exterior envelope of the
sun, being beyond the photosphere and chromosphere, invisible in the
telescope and unrecognized by the spectroscope, except during a total
eclipse (see SUN; ECLIPSE).

_Corona Borealis_, also known as the _Corona septentrionalis_, and the
Northern Crown or Garland, is a constellation of the Northern
hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th cent. B.C.) and Aratus (3rd cent.
B.C.). In the catalogues of Ptolemy, Tycho Brahe, and Hevelius, eight
stars are mentioned; but recent uranographic surveys have greatly
increased this number. The most interesting members are: [sigma]
_Coronae_, a binary consisting of a yellow star of the 6th magnitude,
and a bluish star of the 7th magnitude; _R Coronae_, an irregular
variable star; and _T Coronae_ or _Nova Coronae_, a temporary or new
star, first observed in 1866. _Corona Australis_, also known as _Corona
meridionalis_, or the Southern Crown, is a constellation of the Southern
hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus and Aratus. In Ptolemy's catalogue
thirteen stars are described.

In physical science, coronae (or "glories") are the coloured rings
frequently seen closely encircling the sun or moon. Formerly classified
by the ancient Greeks with halos, rainbows, &c., under the general group
of "meteors," they came to receive considerable attention at the hands
of Descartes, Christiaan Huygens, and Sir Isaac Newton; but the correct
explanation of coronae was reserved until the beginning of the 19th
century, when Thomas Young applied the theories of the diffraction and
interference of light to this phenomenon. Prior to Young, halos and
coronae had not been clearly differentiated; they were both regarded as
caused by the refraction of light by atmospheric moisture and ice,
although observation had shown that important distinctions existed
between these phenomena. Thus, while halos have certain definite radii,
viz. 22° and 46°, the radii of coronae vary very considerably; also,
halos are coloured red on the _inside_, whereas coronae are coloured red
on the _outside_ (see HALO).

It has now been firmly established, both experimentally and
mathematically, that coronae are due to diffraction by the minute
particles of moisture and dust suspended in the atmosphere, and the
radii of the rings depend on the size of the diffracting particles. (See
DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT.)

Other meteorological phenomena caused by the diffraction of light
include the _anthelia_, and the chromatic rings seen encircling shadows
thrown on a bank of clouds, mist or fog. These appearances differ from
halos and coronae inasmuch as their centres are at the anti-solar point;
they thus resemble the rainbow. The anthelia (from the Greek [Greek:
anti], opposite, and [Greek: hêlios], the sun) are coloured red on the
inside, the outside being generally colourless owing to the continued
overlapping of many spectra. The diameter increases with the size of the
globules making up the mist. The chromatic rings seen encircling the
"spectre of the Brocken" are similarly explained.

The blue colour of the sky (q.v.), supernumerary rainbows, and the
gorgeous sunsets observed after intense volcanic disturbances, when the
atmosphere is charged with large quantities of extremely minute dust
particles (e.g. Krakatoa), are also explicable by the diffraction of
light. (See DUST.)

  See E. Mascart, _Traité d'optique_ (1899-1903); J. Pernter,
  _Meteorologische Optik_ (1902-1905).

In architecture, the term "corona" is used of that part of a cornice
which projects over the bed mould and constitutes the chief protection
to the wall from rain; it is always throated, and its soffit rises
towards the wall. The term is also given to the apse or semicircular
termination of the choir; as at Canterbury in the part called "Becket's
crown." The large circular chandelier suspended in churches, of which
the finest example is that given by Barbarossa to Aix-la-Chapelle, is
often called a corona. The term is also used in botany of the crown-like
appendage at the top of compound flowers, the diminutive being
_coronule_.



CORONACH (a Gaelic word, from _comh_, with, and _ranach_, wailing), the
lamentation or dirge for the dead which accompanied funerals in the
Highlands of Scotland and in Ireland. The more usual term in Ireland is
"keen" or "keening."



CORONADO, FRANCISCO VASQUEZ DE (c. 1500-c. 1545), Spanish explorer of
the south-western part of the United States of America. He accompanied
Antonio de Mendoza to New Spain in 1535; by a brilliant marriage, became
a leading grandee, and in 1539 was appointed governor of the province of
New Galicia. The report presented by Fray Marcos de Niza concerning the
"Seven cities of Cibola" (now identified almost certainly with the Zuñi
pueblos of New Mexico) aroused great interest in Mexico; Melchior Diaz
was sent late in 1539 to retrace Fray Marcos's route and report on his
story; and an expedition under Coronado left Compostela for the "Seven
Cities" in February 1540. This expedition consisted of a provision train
and droves of live-stock; several hundred friendly Indians, Spanish
footmen, and more than 250 horsemen. Coronado, with a part of this
force, captured the "Seven Cities." The fabled wealth, however, was not
there. In the autumn (1540) Coronado was joined by the rest of his army.
Meanwhile exploring parties were sent out: Tusayan, the Hopi or Moki
(Moqui) country of north-eastern Arizona, was visited; Garcia Lopez de
Cardenas discovered and described the Grand Canyon of the Colorado; and
expeditions were sent along the Rio Grande (Tuguez), where the army
wintered. The Indians revolted but were put down. The army, reinspirited
by the tales of a plains-Indian slave[1] about vast herds of cows
(bison) on the plains, and about an Eldorado called "Quivira" far to the
N.E., started thither in April 1541, and, with a few horsemen,
penetrated at least to what is now central Kansas. Here Coronado found a
few permanent settlements of Indians; in October he was again on the Rio
Grande; and in the spring of 1542 he led his followers home. Thereafter
he practically disappears from history. The first description of the
bison and the prairie plains, the first trustworthy account of the Zuñi
pueblos, the discovery of the Grand Canyon, a vast increase of the
nominal dominion of Spain and Christianity (the priests did not return
from Cibola), and a notable addition to geographical knowledge, which,
however, was long forgotten, were the results of this expedition; which
is, besides, for its duration and the vast distance covered, over
mountains, desert and plains, one of the most remarkable expeditions in
the history of American discovery. In connexion with it, in 1540,
Hernando de Alarcon ascended the Gulf of California to its head and the
Colorado river for a long distance above its mouth.

  All the essential sources with a critical narrative are available in
  G. P. Winship's _The Coronado Expedition_ (in the 14th Report of the
  United States Bureau of Ethnology, for 1892-1893, Washington, 1896),
  except the _Tratado del descubrimiento de las Yndias y su conquesta_
  of Juan Suarez de Peralta (written in the last third of the 16th
  century, republished at Madrid, 1878). See also especially Justo
  Zaragoza, _Noticias historicas de la Nueva España_ (Madrid, 1878), the
  various writings of A. F. A. Bandelier (q.v.); General J. H. Simpson
  in Smithsonian Institution _Report_ (Washington, 1869), with an
  excellent map; and Winship for a full bibliography. H. H. Bancroft's
  account in his _Pacific States_ (vols. 5, 10, 12) is less
  authoritative.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] He was later killed for deception, and confessed that the Pecos
     Indians induced him to lure Coronado to destruction.



CORONATION (Lat. _corona_, crown), a solemnity whereby sovereigns are
inaugurated in office. In pre-Christian times in Europe the king or
ruler, upon his election, was raised on a shield, and, standing upon it,
was borne on the shoulders of certain of the chief men of the tribe, or
nation, round the assembled people. This was called the _gyratio_, and
it was usually performed three times. At its conclusion a spear was
placed in the king's hand, and the diadem, a richly wrought band of silk
or linen, which must not be confused with the crown (see CROWN AND
CORONET), was bound round his forehead, as a token of regal authority.
When Europe became Christian, a religious service of benediction was
added to the older form, which, however, was not abandoned. Derived from
the Teutons, the Franks continued the _gyratio_, and Clovis, Sigebert,
Pippin and others were thus elevated to the royal estate. From a
combination of the old custom with the religious service, the later
coronation ceremonies were gradually developed. In the ceremonial
procession of the English king from the Tower to Westminster (first
abandoned at the coronation of James II.), in the subsequent elevation
of the king into what was known as the marble chair in Westminster Hall,
and in the showing of the king of France to the people, as also in the
universal practice of delivering a sceptre to the new ruler, traces, it
is thought, may be detected of the influence of the original function.

The added religious service was naturally derived from the Bible, where
mention is frequently made, in the Old Testament, of the anointing and
crowning of kings. The anointing of the king soon came to be regarded as
the most important, if not essential, feature of the service. By virtue
of the unction which he received, the sovereign was regarded, in the
middle ages, as a _mixta persona_, in part a priest, and in part a
layman. It was a strange theory, and Lyndwode, the great English
canonist, is cautious as to it, and was content to say that it was the
opinion of some people. It gained very wide acceptance, and the anointed
sovereign was generally regarded as, in some degree, possessed of the
priestly character. By virtue of the unction he had received, the
emperor was made a canon of St John Lateran and of St Peter at Rome, and
also of the collegiate church of Aachen, while the king of France was
_premier chanoine_ of the primatial church of Lyons, and held canonries
at Embrun, Le Mans, Montpellier, St Pol-de-Léon, Lodève, and other
cathedral churches in France. There are, moreover, trustworthy records
that, on more than one occasion, a king of France, habited in a surplice
and choir robes, took part with the clergy in the services of some of
those churches. Martène quotes an order, which directs that at the
imperial coronation at Rome, the pope ought to sing the mass, the
emperor read the gospel, and the king of Sicily, or if present the king
of France, the epistle. Nothing like this was known in England, and a
theory, which has prevailed of late, that the English sovereign is, in a
personal sense, canon of St David's, is based on a misconception. The
canonry in question was attached to St Mary's College at St David's
before the Reformation, and, at the dissolution of the college, became
crown property, which it has remained ever since; but the king of
England is not, and never was personally, a canon of St David's, nor did
he ever perform any quasi-clerical function.

At first a single anointing on the head was the practice, but afterwards
other parts of the body, as the breast, arms, shoulders and hands
received the unction. From a very early period in the West three kinds
of oil have been blessed each year on Maundy Thursday, the oil of the
catechumens, the oil of the sick, and the chrism. The last, a compound
of olive oil and balsam, is only used for the most sacred purposes, and
the oil of the catechumens was that used for the unction of kings. In
France, however, a legend gained credence that, as a special sign of
divine favour, the Holy Dove had miraculously descended from heaven,
bearing a vessel (afterwards called the Sainte Ampoule), containing holy
oil, and had placed it on the altar for the coronation of Clovis. A drop
of oil from the Sainte Ampoule mixed with chrism was afterwards used for
anointing the kings of France. Similarly the chrism was introduced into
English coronations, for the first time probably at the coronation of
Edward II. To rival the French story another miracle was related that
the Virgin Mary had appeared to Thomas Becket, and had given him a
vessel with holy oil, which at some future period was to be used for the
sacring of the English king. A full account of this miracle, and the
subsequent finding of the vessel, is contained in a letter written in
1318 by Pope John XXII. to Edward II. The chrism was used in addition to
the holy oil. The king was first anointed with the oil, and then signed
on the head with the chrism. In all other countries the oil of the
catechumens was alone used. In consequence of the use of chrism the
kings of England and France were thought to be able to cure scrofula by
the imposition of their hands, and hence arose the practice in those
countries of touching for the king's evil, as it was called. In England
the chrism disappeared at the Reformation, but touching for the evil was
continued till the accession of the house of Hanover in 1714.

The oldest of all existing rituals for the coronation of a king is
contained in what is known as the Pontifical of Egbert, who was
archbishop of York in the middle of the 8th century. The coronation
service in it is entitled _Missa pro rege in die benedictionis ejus_,
and the coronation ceremony is interpolated in the middle of the mass.
After the Gospel the officiant recites some prayers of benediction, and
then pours oil from a horn on the king's head, while the anthem "Zadok
the priest," &c., is sung. After this the assembled bishops and nobles
place a sceptre in the king's hands, while a form of intercessory
benediction is recited. Then the staff (_baculus_) is delivered to him,
and finally a helmet (_galea_) is set upon his head, the whole assembly
repeating thrice "May King N. live for ever. Amen. Amen. Amen." The
enthronement follows, with the kisses of homage and of fealty, and the
mass, with special prayers, is concluded.

Another coronation service of Anglo-Saxon date bearing, but with no good
reason, the name of Æthelred II., has also been preserved, and is of
importance as it spread from England to the continent, and was used for
the coronations of the kings of France. It differs from the Egbert form
as the coronation precedes the mass, while the use of a ring, and the
definite allusion to a crown (_corona_ not _galea_) occur in it. Joined
to it is the form for the coronation of a queen consort. It may have
been used for the crowning of Harold and of William the Conqueror.

A third English coronation form, of the 12th century, bears the name of
Henry I., but also without good reason. The ceremonial is more fully
developed, and the king is anointed on the head, breast, shoulders and
elbows. The royal mantle appears for the first time, as does the
sceptre. The queen consort is to be crowned _secundum ordinem Romanum_,
and the whole function precedes the mass.

The fourth and most important of all English coronation services is that
of the _Liber Regalis_, a manuscript still in the keeping of the dean of
Westminster. It was introduced in 1307, and continued in use till the
Reformation, and, in an English translation and with the Communion
service substituted for the Latin mass, it was used for the coronation
of James I. In it the English coronation ceremonies reached their
fullest development. The following is a bare outline of its main
features:--

The ceremonies began the day before the coronation, the king being
ceremonially conducted in a procession from the Tower of London to
Westminster. There he reposed for the night, and was instructed by the
abbot as to the solemn obligations of the kingly office. Early next
morning he went to Westminster Hall, and there, among other ceremonies,
as _rex regnaturus_ was elevated into a richly adorned seat on the
king's bench, called the Marble Chair. Then a procession with the
regalia was marshalled, and led into the abbey church, the king wearing
a cap of estate on his head, and supported by the bishops of Bath and
Durham. A platform with thrones, &c., having been previously prepared
under the crossing, the king ascended it, and all being in order, the
archbishop of Canterbury called for the Recognition, after which the
king, approaching the high altar, offered a pall to cover it, and a
pound of gold. Then a sermon appropriate to the occasion was preached by
one of the bishops, the oath was administered by the archbishop, and the
_Veni Creator_ and a litany were sung. Then the king was anointed with
oil on his hands, breast, between the shoulders, on the shoulders, on
the elbows, and on the head; finally he was anointed with the chrism on
his head. Thus blessed and anointed, the king was vested, first with a
silk dalmatic, called the _colobium sindonis_, then a long tunic,
reaching to the ankles and woven with great golden images before and
behind, was put upon him. He then received the buskins (_caligae_), the
sandals (_sandalia_), and spurs (_calcaria_), then the sword and its
girdle; after this the stole, and finally the royal mantle, four-square
in shape and woven throughout with golden eagles. Thus vested, the crown
of St Edward was set on his head, the ring placed on his wedding finger,
the gloves drawn over his hands, and the golden sceptre, in form of an
orb and cross, delivered to him. Lastly, the golden rod with the dove at
the top was placed in the king's left hand. Thus consecrated, vested and
crowned, the king kissed the bishops who, assisted by the nobles,
enthroned him, while the _Te Deum_ was sung. When a queen consort was
also crowned, that ceremony immediately followed, and the mass with
special collect, epistle, gospel and preface was said, and during it
both king and queen received the sacrament in one kind. At the
conclusion the king retired to a convenient place, surrounded with
curtains, where the great chamberlain took off certain of the robes, and
substituted others for them, and the archbishop, still wearing his mass
vestments, set other crowns on the heads of the king and queen, and with
these they left the church.

This service, in English, was used at the coronation of James I.,
Elizabeth having been crowned with the Latin service. Little change was
made till 1685, when it was considerably altered for the coronation of
James II. The Communion was necessarily omitted in the case of a Roman
Catholic, but other changes were introduced quite needlessly by
Archbishop Sancroft, and four years later the old order was still more
seriously changed, with the result that the revisions of 1685 and 1689
have grievously mutilated the service, by confusing the order of its
different sections, while the meaning of the prayers has been completely
changed for no apparent reason. Alterations since then have been verbal
rather than essential, but at each subsequent coronation some feature
has disappeared, the proper preface having been abandoned at the
coronation of Edward VII.

In connexion with the English coronation a number of claims to do
certain services have sprung up, and before each coronation a court of
claims is constituted, which investigates and adjudicates on the claims
that are made. The most striking of all these services is that of the
challenge made by the king's champion, an office which has been
hereditary in the Dymoke family for many centuries. Immediately
following the service in the church a banquet was held in Westminster
Hall, during the first course of which the champion entered the hall on
horseback, armed _cap-à-pie_, with red, white and blue feathers in his
helmet. He was supported by the high constable on his right, and the
earl marshal on his left, both of whom were also mounted. On his
appearance in the hall a herald in front of him read the challenge, the
words of which have not materially varied at any period, as follows: "If
any person, of what degree soever, high or low, shall deny or gainsay
our sovereign lord ..., king of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Ireland, defender of the faith (son and), next heir unto our sovereign
lord the last king deceased, to be the right heir to the imperial crown
of this realm of Great Britain and Ireland, or that he ought not to
enjoy the same; here is his champion, who saith that he lieth, and is a
false traitor, being ready in person to combat with him; and in this
quarrel will adventure his life against him, on what day soever he shall
be appointed." The champion then threw down the gauntlet. The challenge
was again made in the centre of the hall, and a third time before the
high table, at which the king was seated. The king then drank to the
champion out of a silver-gilt cup, with a cover, which he handed to him
as his fee. The banquet was last held, and the challenge made, at the
coronation of George IV. in 1821. The champion's claim was admitted in
1902, but as there was no banquet the duty of bearing the standard of
England was assigned to him. There is no record of the challenge having
been ever accepted.

The revival of the western empire under Charlemagne was marked by his
coronation by the pope at Rome in the year 800. His successors, for
several centuries, went to Rome, where they received the imperial crown
in St Peter's from the pope, the crown of Lombardy being conferred in
the church of St Ambrose (Sant' Ambrogio) at Milan, that of Burgundy at
Arles, and the German crown, which came to be the most important of all,
most commonly at Aix-la-Chapelle. It must suffice to speak of the
coronations at Rome and Aix-la-Chapelle. From Martène we learn the early
form of the ceremony at Rome. The emperor was met at the silver door of
St Peter's, where the first coronation prayer was recited over him by
the bishop of Albano. He was then conducted within the church, where in
_medio rotae majoris_, the bishop Of Porto said the second prayer.
Thence the emperor went to the confessio of St Peter, where the litany
was said, and there, or before the altar of St Maurice, the bishop of
Ostia anointed him on the right arm and between the shoulders. Then he
ascended to the high altar, where the pope delivered the naked sword to
him. This he flourished, and then sheathed in its scabbard. The pope
then delivered the sceptre to the emperor, and placed the crown on his
head. The ceremony was concluded by the coronation mass said by the
pope. The custom of the emperors going to Rome to be crowned was last
observed by Frederick III. in 1440, and after that the German coronation
was alone celebrated. The form followed was mainly thus: the electors
first met at Frankfort, under the presidency of the elector-archbishop
of Mainz, and, the election having been made, the emperor was led to the
high altar of the cathedral and seated at it. He was then conducted to a
gallery over the entrance to the choir, where, seating himself with the
electors, proclamation was made of the election, and on a subsequent day
the coronation took place. If the coronation was performed, as it most
commonly was, at Aix-la-Chapelle, then the archbishop of Cologne, as
diocesan, was the chief officiant, and the emperor was presented to him
by the two other clerical electors, the archbishops of Mainz and Trier.
The emperor was anointed on the head, the nape of the neck, the breast,
the right arm between the wrist and the elbow, and on the palms of both
hands. After this, he was vested in what were called the imperial and
pontifical robes, which included the buskins, a long alb, the stole
crossed priest-wise over the breast, and the mantle. The regalia were
then delivered to him, and the crown was set on his head conjointly by
the three archbishop-electors. Mass was then said, during which the
emperor communicated in one kind. When the coronation was performed at
Aix-la-Chapelle, the emperor was at once made, at its conclusion, a
canon of the church.

The coronation form in France bore much resemblance, in its general
features, to the English coronation, and was, it is believed originally
based on the English form. The unction was given, first on the top of
the head in the form of a cross, on the breast, between the shoulders,
and at the bending and joints of both arms. Then, standing up, the king
was vested in the dalmatic, tunic and royal robe, all of purple velvet
sprinkled with fleurs-de-lys of gold, and representing, it was said, the
three orders of subdeacon, deacon and priest. Then, kneeling again, he
was anointed in the palms of the hands, after which the gloves, ring and
sceptre were delivered. Then the peers were summoned by name to come
near and assist, and the archbishop of Reims, taking the crown of
Charlemagne from the altar, set it on the king's head. After which the
enthronement, and showing of the king to the people, took place. All the
unctions were made with the chrism, mixed with a drop of oil from the
Sainte Ampoule. After the enthronement, mass was said, and at its
conclusion the king communicated in both kinds. The third day after the
coronation, the king touched for the evil.

On the "11 Frimaire an 13" Napoleon and Josephine were jointly crowned
at Paris, by the pope. Napoleon entered Notre-Dame wearing a crown, and
before him were carried the imperial ornaments, to wit: _"la couronne de
l'empereur, l'épée, la main de justice, le sceptre, le manteau de
l'empereur, son anneau, son collier, le globe impérial, la couronne de
l'impératrice, son manteau, son anneau."_ Each of these was blessed, and
delivered with a benediction to the emperor and empress, kneeling, side
by side, to receive them, both having previously received the unction on
the head and on each hand. Napoleon placed the crown on his head
himself. Mass with special prayers followed.

In Spain the coronation ceremony never assumed the fullness, or
magnificence, that might have been expected. It was usually performed at
Toledo, or in the church of St Jerome at Madrid, the king being anointed
by the archbishop of Toledo. The royal ornaments were the sword,
sceptre, crown of gold and the apple of gold, which the king himself
assumed after the unction. In recent years the unction and coronation
have been disused.

In Sweden the king was anointed and crowned at Upsala by the archbishop.
The ceremony is now performed in the Storkyrka, at Stockholm, where the
archbishop of Upsala anoints the king on the breast, temples, forehead
and palms of both hands. The crown is placed on the king's head by the
archbishop and the minister of justice jointly, whereupon the state
marshal proclaims: "Now is crowned king of the Swedes, Goths and Wends,
he and no other." When there is a queen consort, she is then anointed,
crowned and proclaimed, in the same manner.

In Norway, according to the law of 1814, the coronation is performed in
the cathedral at Trondhjem, when the Lutheran superintendent, or bishop,
anoints the king. The crown is placed on the king's head jointly by the
bishop and the prime minister.

In Russia the coronation is celebrated at Moscow, and is full of
religious significance. The tsar is anointed by the metropolitan, but
places the crown on his head himself. He receives the sacrament among
the clergy, the priestly theory of his office being recognized. In some
other European countries the coronation ceremony, as in Austria and
Hungary, is also performed with much significant ritual. In other
countries, as Prussia, it is retained in a modified form; but in the
remaining states such as Denmark, Belgium, Italy, &c., it has been
abandoned, or never introduced.

  AUTHORITIES.--L. G. Wickham Legg, _English Coronation Records_;
  Roxburgh Club--_Liber Regalis_; Anon., _A Complete Account of the
  Ceremonies observed in the Coronations of the Kings and Queens of
  England_ (London, 1727); F. Sandford, _Description of the Coronation
  of James II._ (1687); Menin, _The Form, Order and Ceremonies of
  Coronations_, trans. from the French (1727); Martène, _De Antiquis
  Ecclesiae Ritibus_, lib. ii.     (T. M. F.)



CORONER, an ancient officer of the English common law, so called,
according to Coke, because he was a _keeper_ of the pleas of the crown
(_custos placitorum coronae_). At what period the office of coroner was
instituted is a matter of considerable doubt; some modern authorities
(Stubbs, _Select Charters_, 260; Pollock and Maitland, _Hist. Eng. Law_,
i. 519) date its origin from 1194, but C. Gross (_Political Science
Quarterly_, vol. vii.) has shown that it must have existed before that
date. The office was always elective, the appointment being made by the
freeholders of the county assembled in county court. By the Statute of
Westminster the First it was ordered that none but lawful and discreet
knights should be chosen as coroners, and in one instance a person was
actually removed from office for insufficiency of estate. Lands to the
value of £20 per annum (the qualification for knighthood) were
afterwards deemed sufficient to satisfy the requirements as to estate
which ought to be insisted on in the case of a coroner. The complaint of
Blackstone shows the transition of the office from its original
dignified and honorary character to a paid appointment in the public
service, "Now, indeed, through the culpable neglect of gentlemen of
property, this office has been suffered to fall into disrepute, and get
into low and indigent hands; so that, although formerly no coroners
would condescend to be paid for serving their country, and they were by
the aforesaid Statute of Westminster expressly forbidden to take a
reward, under pain of a great forfeiture to the king; yet for many years
past they have only desired to be chosen for their perquisites; being
allowed fees for their attendance by the statute 3 Henry VII. c. 1,
which Sir Edward Coke complains of heavily; though since his time those
fees have been much enlarged." The mercenary character of the office,
thus deprecated by Coke and Blackstone, is now firmly established,
without, however (it need hardly be said), affording the slightest
ground for such reflections as the above. The coroner is in fact a
public officer, and like other public officers receives payment for his
services. The person appointed is almost invariably a qualified legal or
medical practitioner; how far one is a more "fit person" than another
has frequently been a matter of dispute--a Bill of 1879, which, however,
failed to pass, decided in favour of the legal profession. The property
qualification for a county coroner ("having land in fee sufficient in
the same county whereof he may answer to all manner of people," 14 Ed.
III. st. 1, c. 8), although re-enacted in the Coroners Act 1887, is now
virtually dispensed with. The appointment is for life, but is vacated by
the holder being made sheriff. A coroner may be removed by the writ _de
coronatore exonerando_, for sufficient cause assigned, or the lord
chancellor may, if he thinks fit, remove any coroner from his office for
inability or misbehaviour in the discharge of his duty.

Coroners are of three kinds: (1) coroners by virtue of their office,
e.g. the lord chief justice of the king's bench is the principal coroner
of England; the puisne judges of the king's bench are sovereign
coroners--they may exercise their jurisdiction within any part of the
realm, even in the verge[1] or other exempt liberties or franchises; (2)
coroners by charter or commission, e.g. in certain liberties and
franchises coroners are appointed by the crown or by lords holding a
charter from the crown; (3) coroners by virtue of election, e.g. county
and borough coroners. County coroners in England were, until 1888,
elected by the freeholders, but by the Local Government Act 1888 the
appointment was given to the county council, who may appoint any fit
person, not being a county alderman or county councillor, to fill the
office. By an act of 1860 the system of payment by fees, established by
an act of 1843, was abolished and payment made by salary calculated on
the average amount of the fees, mileage, and allowances usually received
by the coroner for a period of five years, and the calculation revised
every five years. In boroughs having a separate court of quarter
sessions, and whose population exceeds 10,000, the coroner is appointed
by the town council and is paid by fees. A county coroner must reside
within his district or not more than two miles out of it. Deputy
coroners are also appointed in both counties and boroughs, and the law
relating to their appointment is contained in the Coroners Act 1892. The
duties of a coroner were ascertained by 4 Edward I. st. 2:--"A coroner
of our Lord the king ought to inquire of these things, first, when
coroners are commanded by the king's bailiffs or by the honest men of
the county, they shall go to the places where any be slain, or suddenly
dead or wounded, or where houses are broken, or where treasure is said
to be found, and shall forthwith command four of the next towns, or
five, or six, to appear before him in such a place; and when they are
come thither, the coroner upon the oath of them shall inquire in this
manner, that is, to wit, if it concerns a man slain, if they know when
the person was slain, whether it were in any house, field, bed, tavern,
or company, and if any, and who, were there, &c. It shall also be
inquired if the dead person were known, or else a stranger, and where he
lay the night before. And if any person is said to be guilty of the
murder, the coroner shall go to their house and inquire what goods they
have, &c." Similar directions were given for cases of persons found
drowned or suddenly dead, for attachment of criminals in cases of
violence, &c. His functions are now, by the Coroners Act 1887, limited
to an inquiry upon "the dead body of a person lying within his
jurisdiction, where there is reasonable cause to suspect that such
person has died either a violent or an unnatural death, or has died a
sudden death of which the cause is unknown, or that such person has died
in prison, or in such place or under such circumstances as to require an
inquest in pursuance of any act" (S. 3), and upon treasure-trove (S.
36). The inquisition must be _super visum corporis_ (that is, after
"viewing the body"); the evidence is taken on oath; and any party
suspected may tender evidence. The Coroners Act 1887, S. 21, gives power
to the coroner to summon medical witnesses and to direct the performance
of a post-mortem examination. The verdict must be that of twelve at
least of the jury. If any person is found guilty of murder or other
homicide, the coroner shall commit him to prison for trial; he shall
also certify the material evidence to the court, and bind over the
proper persons to prosecute or to give evidence at the trial. He may in
his discretion accept bail for a person found guilty of manslaughter.
Since the abolition of public executions, the coroner is required to
hold an inquest on the body of any criminal on whom sentence of death
has been carried into effect. The duty of coroners to inquire into
treasure-trove (q.v.) is still preserved by the Coroners Act 1887,
which, however, repealed certain other jurisdictions, as,--inquests of
royal fish (whale, sturgeon) thrown ashore or caught near the coast;
inquest of wrecks, and of felonies, except felonies on inquisitions of
death. By the City of London Fire Inquests Act 1888 the duty is imposed
upon the coroner for the city to hold inquests in cases of loss or
injury by fire in the city of London and the liberties thereof situated
in the county of Middlesex. This is a practice which exists in several
European countries.

In Scotland the duties of a coroner are performed by an officer called a
procurator-fiscal.

In the United States and in most of the colonies of Great Britain the
duties of a coroner are substantially the same. In some cases his duties
are more enlarged, his inquisition embracing the origin of fires; in
others they are confined to holding inquests in cases of suspicious
deaths. Unlike a coroner in England, he is elected generally only for a
specified period.

  AUTHORITIES.--Jervis, _Office and Duties of Coroners_ (6th ed., 1898);
  R. H. Wellington, _The King's Coroner_ (2 vols., 1905-1906). In 1908 a
  committee was appointed to inquire into the law relating to coroners
  and coroners' inquests and into the practice in coroners' courts.
      (T. A. I.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] _Coroner of the Verge._--The verge comprised a circuit of 12 m.
    round the king's court, and the coroner of the king's house, called
    the coroner of the verge, has jurisdiction within this radius. By the
    Coroners Act 1887 the jurisdiction of the verge was abolished and
    became absorbed in that of the county, but the appointment of the
    king's coroner was left with the lord steward, while his jurisdiction
    was limited to the precincts of the palace.



CORONIUM, that constituent (otherwise unknown) of the sun's corona,
which emits the characteristic green coronal ray, of which the
wave-length is 5303.



COROT, JEAN-BAPTISTE CAMILLE (1796-1875), French landscape painter, was
born in Paris, in a house on the Quai by the rue du Bac, now demolished,
on the 26th of July 1796. His family were well-to-do bourgeois people,
and whatever may have been the experience of some of his artistic
colleagues, he never, throughout his life, felt the want of money. He
was educated at Rouen and was afterwards apprenticed to a draper, but
hated commercial life and despised what he called its "business tricks,"
yet he faithfully remained in it until he was twenty-six, when his
father at last consented to his adopting the profession of art. Corot
learned little from his masters. He visited Italy on three occasions:
two of his Roman studies are now in the Louvre. He was a regular
contributor to the Salon during his lifetime, and in 1846 was
"decorated" with the cross of the Legion of Honour. He was promoted to
be officer in 1867. His many friends considered nevertheless that he was
officially neglected, and in 1874, only a short time before his death,
they presented him with a gold medal. He died in Paris, on the 22nd of
February 1875, and was buried at Père Lachaise.

Of the painters classed in the Barbizon school it is probable that
Corot will live the longest, and will continue to occupy the highest
position. His art is more individual than Rousseau's, whose works are
more strictly traditional; more poetic than that of Daubigny, who is,
however, Corot's greatest contemporary rival; and in every sense more
beautiful than J. F. Millet, who thought more of stern truth than of
aesthetic feeling.

Corot's works are somewhat arbitrarily divided into periods, but the
point of division is never certain, as he often completed a picture
years after it had been begun. In his first style he painted
traditionally and "tight"--that is to say, with minute exactness, clear
outlines, and with absolute definition of objects throughout. After his
fiftieth year his methods changed to breadth of tone and an approach to
poetic power, and about twenty years later, say from 1865 onwards, his
manner of painting became full of "mystery" and poetry. In the last ten
years of his work he became the Père Corot of the artistic circles of
Paris, in which he was regarded with personal affection, and he was
acknowledged as one of the five or six greatest landscape painters the
world has ever seen, along with Hobbema, Claude, Turner and Constable.
During the last few years of his life he earned large sums by his
pictures, which became greatly sought after. In 1871 he gave £2000 for
the poor of Paris (where he remained during the siege), and his
continued charity was long the subject of remark. Besides landscapes, of
which he painted several hundred, Corot produced a number of figure
pictures which are much prized. These were mostly studio pieces,
executed probably with a view to keep his hand in with severe drawing,
rather than with the intention of producing pictures. Yet many of them
are fine in composition, and in all cases the colour is remarkable for
its strength and purity. Corot also executed a few etchings and pencil
sketches. In his landscape pictures Corot was more traditional in his
method of work than is usually believed. If even his latest
tree-painting and arrangement are compared with such a Claude as that
which hangs in the Bridgewater gallery, it will be observed how similar
is Corot's method and also how masterly are his results.

The works of Corot are scattered over France and the Netherlands, Great
Britain and America. The following may be considered as the first
half-dozen: "Une Matinée" (1850), now in the Louvre; "Macbeth" (1859),
in the Wallace collection: "Le Lac" (1861); "L'Arbre brisé" (1865):
"Pastorale--Souvenir d'Italie" (1873), in the Glasgow Corporation Art
Gallery; "Biblis" (1875). Corot had a number of followers who called
themselves his pupils. The best known are Boudin, Lepine, Chintreuil,
Français and Le Roux.

  AUTHORITIES.--H. Dumesnil. _Souvenirs intimes_ (Paris, 1875);
  Roger-Milès, _Les Artistes célèbres: Corot_ (Paris, 1891);
  Roger-Milès, _Album classique des chefs-d'oeuvres de Corot_ (Paris,
  1895); J. Rousseau, _Bibliothèque d'art moderne: Camille Corot_
  (Paris, 1884); J. Claretie, _Peintres et sculpteurs contemporains:
  Corot_ (Paris, 1884); Ch. Bigot, _Peintres français contemporains:
  Corot_ (Paris, 1888); Geo. Moore, _Ingres and Corot in Modern
  Painting_ (London, 1893); David Croal Thomson, _Corot_ (4to, London,
  1892); Mrs Schuyler van Rensselaer, "Corot," _Century Magazine_ (June
  1889); Corot, _The Portfolio_ (1870), p. 60, (1875) p. 146; R. A. M.
  Stevenson, "Corot as an Example of Style in Painting," _Scottish Art
  Review_ (Aug. 1888); Ethel Birnstigl and Alice Pollard, _Corot_
  (London, 1904); Alfred Robaut, _L'OEuvre de Corot, catalogue
  raisonné et illustré, précédé de l'histoire de Corot et de ses
  oeuvres par Étienne Morceau-Nélaton_ (Paris, 1905).     (D. C. T.)



CORPORAL. 1. (From Lat. _corporalis_, belonging to the _corpus_ or
body), an adjective appearing in several expressions, such as "corporal
punishment" (see below), or in "corporal works of mercy," for those acts
confined to the succouring of the bodily needs, such as feeding the
hungry, visiting the sick, rescuing captives. A "corporal oath" was
sworn with the body in contact with a sacred object (see OATH).

2. (From Lat. _corporalis_, sc. _palla_, or _corporale_, sc. _pallium_),
in the Roman Catholic Church, a small square linen cloth, which at the
service of the Mass is placed on the altar under the chalice and paten.
It was originally large enough to cover the whole surface of the altar,
and was folded over so as to cover the chalice--a custom still observed
by the Carthusians. The chalice is now, however, covered by another
small square of linen, stiffened with cardboard, &c., known as the pall
(_palla_). When not in use both corporal and pall are carried in a
square silken pocket called the burse. The corporal must be blessed by
the bishop, or by a priest with special faculties, the ritual prayers
invoking the divine blessing that the linen may be worthy to cover and
enwrap the body and blood of the Lord. It represents the winding-sheet
in which Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of the dead Christ.

3. (Of uncertain derivation; the French form _caporal_, and Ital.
_caporale_, point to an origin from _capo_, Italian for head; the _New
English Dictionary_, however, favours the derivation from Lat. _corpus_,
Ital. _corpo_, body), a non-commissioned officer of infantry, cavalry
and artillery, ranking below a sergeant. This rank is almost universal
in armies. In the 16th and 17th centuries there were corporals but no
sergeants in the cavalry, and this custom is preserved in the three
regiments of British household cavalry, the rank of sergeant being
replaced by that of "corporal of horse," and that of sergeant-major by
"corporal-major." In the 16th and early 17th centuries the title
"corporal of the field" was often given to a superior officer who acted
as a staff-officer to the sergeant-major-general. In the navy the
"ship's corporal," formerly a semi-military instructor to the crew, is
now a petty officer charged with assisting the master-at-arms in police
duties on board ship.



CORPORAL PUNISHMENT, chastisement inflicted by one person on the body
(_corpus_) of another. By the common law of England, Scotland and
Ireland, the infliction of corporal punishment is illegal unless it is
done in self-defence or in defence of others, or is done either by some
person having punitive authority over the person chastised or under the
authority of a competent court of justice. Corporal punishment in
defence of self or others needs no comment, except that, like all other
acts done in defence, its justification depends on whether or not it was
reasonably necessary for the protection of the person attacked. Among
persons invested with punitive authority, mention must first be made of
parents and guardians, and of teachers, who have, by implied delegation
from the parents, and as incidental to the relation of master and pupil,
powers of reasonable corporal punishment. Such powers are not limited to
offences committed by the pupil upon the premises of the school, but
extend to acts done on the way to and from school and during what may be
properly regarded as school hours (_Cleary_ v. _Booth_, 1893, 1 Q.B.
465). The rights of parents, guardians and teachers, in regard to the
chastisement of children, were expressly recognized in English law by
the Prevention of Cruelty to Children Act 1904 (§ 28). Poor law
authorities and managers of reformatories are in the same position in
this respect as teachers. The punitive authority of elementary school
teachers is subject to the regulations of the education authority: that
of poor law authorities to the regulation of the Home Office and the
Local Government Board. A master has a right to inflict moderate
chastisement upon his apprentice for neglect or other misbehaviour,
provided that he does so himself, and that the apprentice is under age
(Archbold, _Cr. Pl._, 23rd ed., 795). Where a legal right of
chastisement is exercised immoderately, the person so exercising it
incurs both civil and criminal liability.

In some of the older English legal authorities (e.g. Bacon, Abridg. tit.
"Baron and Feme," B), it was stated that a husband might inflict
moderate corporal punishment on his wife in order to keep her "within
the bounds of duty." But these authorities were definitely discredited
in 1891 in the case of _R._ v. _Jackson_ (1 Q.B. 671). By the unmodified
Mahommedan law, a husband may administer moderate corporal punishment to
his wife; but it is doubtful whether this right could be legally
exercised in British India (Wilson, _Digest of Anglo-Mahommedan Law_,
2nd ed., pp. 153, 154). In Hawkins's _Pleas of the Crown_ (Bk. 1, c. 63,
§ 29) it is laid down that "churchwardens, and perhaps private persons,
may whip boys playing in church" during divine service. But while the
right to remove such offenders is undoubted, the right of castigation
could not now safely be exercised. At common law the master of a ship is
entitled to inflict reasonable chastisement on a seaman for gross breach
of duty. But such offences are now specially provided for by the
Merchant Shipping Act 1894 (§§ 220-238); and where the provisions of
that statute are available, corporal punishment would probably be
illegal.

  As to corporal punishment in the army and navy, see articles MILITARY
  LAW; NAVY. In civil prisons, whether they are convict prisons or local
  prisons, corporal punishment may not be inflicted except under
  sentence of a competent court, or except in the case of prisoners
  under sentence of penal servitude, or convicted of felony, or
  sentenced to hard labour, who have been guilty of mutiny or incitement
  to mutiny, or of gross personal violence to an officer or servant of
  the prison (Act of 1898, § 5). Flogging for these offences in prison
  may not be inflicted except by order of the board of visitors or
  visiting committee of the prison, made at a meeting specially
  constituted, and confirmed by a secretary of state (Prison Act of
  1898, § 5; Convict Prison Rules 1899; Stat. R. and O. 1899, No. 321,
  rr. 77-79; Local Prison Rules 1899; Stat. R. and O. 1899, No. 322, rr.
  84, 85). The mode of inflicting the punishment is prescribed by the
  Convict Prison Rules (rr. 82-85) and the Local Prison Rules (rr.
  88-91), which limit the number of strokes and prescribe the instrument
  to be used for inflicting them, the cat or birch for prisoners over
  18, and the birch for prisoners under 18.

  Corporal punishment for breaches of prison discipline in Scottish
  prisons is not authorized by any statute nor under the Scottish Prison
  Rules (see _Stat. R. and O. Revised_, ed. 1904, vol. X. tit. "Prison,
  Scotland," p. 60). In Irish convict prisons corporal punishment may be
  inflicted by order of justices specially appointed by the
  lord-lieutenant under § 3 of the Penal Servitude Act 1864, but the
  Irish Prison Rules of 1902 (Stat. R. and O. 1902, No. 590) contain no
  reference to this power.

At common law, courts of justice had jurisdiction to impose a sentence
of whipping on persons convicted on indictment for petty larceny or
misdemeanours of the meaner kind (see 1 Bishop, _Amer. Cr. Law_, 8th
ed., § 942). But they do not now impose such sentence except under
statutory authority. The whipping of women was absolutely prohibited in
1820 by the Whipping of Female Offenders Abolition Act of that year. But
there are numerous statutes authorizing the imposition of a sentence of
whipping on male offenders. The following cases may be noted. 1.
_Adults_: (a) who are incorrigible rogues (Vagrancy Act 1824, § 10); (b)
who discharge fire-arms, &c., with intent to injure or alarm the
sovereign (Treason Act 1842, § 2, and see 8 St. Tr. N.S. 1, and
_O'Connor's Case_, 1872, ib. p. 3 n.); (c) who are guilty of robbery
with violence (Larceny Act 1861, § 43), or offences against § 21 of the
Offences against the Person Act of 1861; there has been much controversy
as to whether the Garrotters Act of 1861, which authorized the ordering
of more than one whipping in the case of an offender over 16 years of
age, was the effective cause of the diminution of the offences against
which it was directed, but the best judicial opinion is in the
affirmative. 2. _Males under sixteen_: (a) in any of the cases above
noted; (b) for many statutory offences, e.g. larceny (Larceny Act 1861),
malicious damage (Malicious Damage Act 1861, § 75; Criminal Law
Amendment Act 1885, § 4); (c) by courts of summary jurisdiction (Summary
Jurisdiction Act 1879, §§ 10, 11, and 1899; First Offenders Act 1887);
if a boy is over 7 and under 12, not more than 6 strokes, if he is over
12, but under 14, not more than 12 strokes may be inflicted; the
birch-rod is to be used, and the punishment is to be given by a police
constable in the presence of a superior officer, and of the parent or
guardian if he desire it.

  In Scotland the whipping of male offenders under 14 is regulated by
  the Prisons (Scotland) Act 1860, § 74, the Whipping Act 1862, and §
  514 of the Burgh Police (Scotland) Act 1892; and offenders over 16 may
  not be whipped for offences against person or property (Whipping Act
  1862, § 2).

  In Ireland the law is in substance the same as in England; for special
  statutes see official _Index to Statutes_ (ed. 1905), p. 985, art.
  Punishment, 6.

  The flogging of women is prohibited throughout British India (Code of
  Criminal Procedure, Act v. of 1898, § 393) and the British colonies,
  where the infliction of corporal punishment by judicial order is in
  the main regulated on the lines of modern English legislation. In some
  British colonies the list of offences punishable by whipping is larger
  than in England (see Queensland Criminal Code 1899, arts. 212, 213,
  216).

In the United States whipping is not a legal punishment under the
Federal Law (Revised Stats. U.S. § 5327). But in some of the states of
the Union whipping is inflicted under statute, and is not held cruel or
unusual within the Federal Constitution (1 Bishop, _Amer. Crim. Law_,
8th ed., § 947). In Delaware wife-beating and certain offences against
property by males are punishable with flogging; and in Maryland the same
punishment is applicable for wife-beating. Flogging is in force as a
disciplinary measure in some penal institutions.

It has been suggested by Laurent (_Principes de droit civil français_
(1870), vol. iv. § 275) that the express definition in the French Code
Civil (arts. 371 et seq.) of parental rights over children excludes the
power of corporal punishment. But this view is not generally accepted.
The parental right of moderate chastisement is expressly reserved in the
Civil Code of Spain (art. 155, 2). Flogging is not recognized as a legal
punishment by the French Code Pénal, nor by the Penal Codes of Germany,
Italy, Spain or Portugal. (See also WHIPPING OR FLOGGING.)     (A. W. R.)



CORPORATION (from Lat. _corporare_, to form into a body, _corpus_,
_corporis_), in English law, an association of persons which is treated
in many respects as if it were itself a person. It has rights and duties
of its own which are not the rights and duties of the individual members
thereof. Thus a corporation may own land, but the individual members of
the corporation have no rights therein. A corporation may owe money, but
the corporators as individuals are under no obligation to pay the debt.
The rights and duties descend to the successive members of the
corporation. This capacity of perpetual succession is regarded as the
distinguishing feature of corporations as compared with other societies.
One of the phrases most commonly met with in law-books describes a
corporation as a society with perpetual succession and a common seal.
The latter point, however, is not conclusive of the corporate character.

The legal attributes of a corporation have been worked out with great
fulness and ingenuity in English law, but the conception has been taken
full-grown from the law of Rome. The term in Roman law corresponding to
the modern corporation is _collegium_; a more general term is
_universitas_. A _collegium_ or _corpus_ must have consisted of at least
three persons, who were said to be _corporati--habere corpus_. They
could hold property in common and had a common chest. They might sue and
be sued by their agent (_syndicus_ or _actor_). There was a complete
separation in law between the rights of the _collegium_ as a body and
those of its individual members. The _collegium_ remained in existence
although all its original members were changed. It was governed by its
own by-laws, provided these were not contrary to the common law. The
power of forming _collegia_ was restrained, and societies pretending to
act as corporations were often suppressed. In all these points the
_collegia_ of Roman closely resemble the corporations of English law.
There is a similar parallel between the purposes for which the formation
of such societies is authorized in English and in Roman law. Thus among
the Roman _collegia_ the following classes are distinguished:--(1)
Public governing bodies, or municipalities, _civitates_; (2) religious
societies, such as the _collegia_ of priests and Vestal Virgins; (3)
official societies, e.g. the _scribae_, employed in the administration
of the state; (4) trade societies, e.g. _fabri_, _pictores_,
_navicularii_, &c. This class shades down into the _societates_ not
incorporated, just as our own trading corporations partake largely of
the character of ordinary partnerships. In the later Roman law the
distinction of corporations into civil and ecclesiastical, into lay and
eleemosynary, is recognized. The latter could not alienate without just
cause, nor take land without a licence--a restriction which may be
compared with modern statutes of mortmain. All these privileged
societies are what we should call _corporations aggregate_. The
_corporation sole_ (i.e. consisting of only a single person) is a later
refinement, for although Roman law held that the corporation subsisted
in full force, notwithstanding that only one member survived, it did not
impute to the successive holders of a public office the character of a
corporation. When a public officer in English law is said to be a
corporation sole, the meaning is that the rights acquired by him in that
capacity descend to his successor in office, and not (as the case is
where a public officer is not a corporation) to his ordinary legal
representative. The best known instances of corporation sole are the
king and the parson of a parish. The conception of the king as a
corporation is the key to many of his paradoxical attributes in
constitutional theory--his invisibility, immortality, &c.

The term _quasi-corporation_ is applied to holders for the time being of
certain official positions, though not incorporated, as the
churchwardens of a parish, guardians of the poor, &c.

The Roman conception of a corporation was kept alive by ecclesiastical
and municipal bodies. When English lawyers came to deal with such
societies, the corporation law of Rome admitted of easy application.
Accordingly, in no department has English law borrowed so copiously and
so directly from the civil law. The corporations known to the earlier
English law were mainly the municipal, the ecclesiastical, and the
educational and eleemosynary. To all of these the same principles,
borrowed from Roman jurisprudence, were applied. The different purposes
of these institutions brought about in course of time differences in the
rules of the law applicable to each. In particular, the great
development of trading companies under special statutes has produced a
new class of corporations, differing widely from those formerly known to
the law. The reform of municipal corporations has also restricted the
operation of the principles of the older corporation law. These
principles, however, still apply when special statutes have not
intervened.

The legal origin of corporation is ascribed by J. Grant (_Treatise on
the Law of Corporations_, 1850) to five sources, viz. common law,
prescription, act of parliament, charter and implication. Prescription
in legal theory implies a grant, so that corporations by prescription
would be reducible to the class of chartered or statutory corporations.
A corporation is said to exist by implication when the purposes of a
legally constituted society cannot be carried out without corporate
powers. Corporations are thus ultimately traceable to the authority of
charters and acts of parliament. The power of creating corporations by
charter is an important prerogative of the crown, but in the present
state of the constitution, when all the powers of the crown are
practically exercised by parliament, there is no room for any jealousy
as to the manner in which it may be exercised. The power of chartering
corporations belonged also to subjects who had _jura regalia_, e.g. the
bishops of Durham granted a charter of incorporation to the city of
Durham in 1565, 1602 and 1780. The charter of a corporation is regarded
as being of the nature of a contract between the king and the
corporation. It will be construed more favourably for the crown, and
more strictly as against the grantee. It cannot alter the law of the
land, and it may be surrendered, so that, if the surrender is accepted
by the crown and enrolled in chancery, the corporation is thereby
dissolved. Great use was made of this power of the crown in the reigns
of Charles II. and James II.

Every corporation, it is said, must have a name, and it may have more
names than one, but two corporations cannot have the same name. And
corporations cannot change their name save by charter or some equivalent
authority.

The possession of a common seal, though, as already stated, not
conclusive of the corporate character, is an incident of every
corporation aggregate. The inns of courts have common seals, but they
are only voluntary societies, not corporations. Generally speaking, all
corporate acts affecting strangers must be performed under the common
seal; acts of internal administration affecting only the corporators,
need not be under seal. The rule has been defended as following
necessarily from the impersonal character of a corporation; either a
seal or something equivalent must be fixed upon so that the act of the
corporation may be recognized by all.

A corporation may be abolished by statute, but not by the mere authority
of the crown. It may also become extinct by the disappearance of all its
members or of any integral part, by surrender of charter if it is a
chartered society, by process of law, or by forfeiture of privileges.

The power of the majority to bind the society is one of the first
principles of corporation law, even in cases where the corporation has a
head. It is even said that only by an act of parliament can this rule
be avoided. The binding majority is that of the number present at a
corporate meeting duly summoned.

In corporations which have a head (as colleges), although the head
cannot veto the resolution of the majority, he is still considered an
integral part of the society, and his death suspends its existence, so
that a head cannot devise or bequeath to the corporation, nor can a
grant be made to a corporation during vacancy of the headship.

A corporation has power to make such regulations (by-laws) as are
necessary for carrying out its purposes, and these are binding on its
members and on persons within its local jurisdiction if it has any.

The power to acquire and hold land was incident to a corporation at
common law, but its restriction by the statutes of mortmain dates from a
very early period. The English law against mortmain was dictated by the
jealousy of the feudal lords, who lost the services they would otherwise
have been entitled to, when their land passed into the hands of a
perpetual corporation. The vast increase in the estates of
ecclesiastical corporations constituted by itself a danger which might
well justify the operation of the restricting statutes.

The Mortmain Acts applied only to cases of alienation _inter vivos_.
There was no power to devise lands by will until 32 Henry VIII. c. 1
(1540), and when the power was granted corporations were expressly
excluded from its benefits. No devise to a corporation, whether for its
own use or in trust, was allowed to be good; land so devised went to the
heir, either absolutely or charged with the trusts imposed upon it in
the abortive devise. A modification, however, was gradually wrought by
the judicial interpretations of the Charitable Trusts Act 1601, and it
was held that a devise to a corporation for a charitable purpose might
be a good devise, and would stand unless voided by the Mortmain Acts; so
that no corporation could take land, without a licence, for any purpose
or in any way; and no localised corporation could take lands by devise,
save for charitable purposes. Then came the act of 1736, commonly but
improperly called the Mortmain Act. Its effect was generally to make it
impossible for land to be left by will for charitable uses, whether
through a corporation or a natural person[1]. The Wills Act 1837 did not
renew the old provision against devises to corporations, which therefore
fell under the general law of mortmain. The law was consolidated by the
Mortmain and Charitable Uses Act 1888, and the result is simply that
corporations cannot take land for any purpose without a licence, and no
licence in mortmain is granted by the crown, except in certain statutory
cases in the interests of religion, charity or other definite public
object.

The power of corporations at common law to alienate their property is
usually restricted, as is their power to lease it for more than a
certain number of years, except by sanction of a public authority. The
more important classes of corporations, however, are now governed by
special statutes which exclude or modify the operation of the common law
principles. The most considerable class of societies still unaffected by
such special legislation are the Livery Companies (q.v.). Under COMPANY
will be found an account of the important enactments regulating
joint-stock companies.

The question to what extent the common law incidents of a corporation
have been interfered with by special legislation has become one of much
importance, especially under the acts relating to joint-stock companies.
The most important case on this subject is that of _Riche_ v. _The
Ashbury Railway Carriage Company_, 1875 (L.R. 9 Ex. 224; L.R. 7 H.L.
653), in which, the judges of the exchequer chamber being equally
divided, the decision of the court below was affirmed. The view taken by
the affirming judges, viz. that the common law incidents of a
corporation adhere unless expressly removed by the legislature, may be
illustrated by a short extract from the judgment of Mr Justice
Blackburn:--

  "If I thought it was at common law an incident to a corporation that
  its capacity should be limited by the instrument creating it, I should
  agree that the capacity of a company incorporated under the act of
  1862 was limited to the object in the memorandum of association. But
  if I am right in the opinion which I have already expressed, that the
  general power of contracting is an incident to a corporation which it
  requires an indication of intention in the legislature to take away, I
  see no such indication here. If the question was whether the
  legislature had conferred on a corporation, created under this act,
  capacity to enter into contracts beyond the provisions of the deed,
  there could be only one answer. The legislature did not confer such
  capacity. But if the question be, as I apprehend it is, whether the
  legislature have indicated an intention to take away the power of
  contracting which at common law would be incident to a body corporate,
  and not merely to limit the authority of the managing body and the
  majority of the share-holders to bind the minority, but also to
  prohibit and make illegal contracts made by the body corporate, in
  such a manner that they would be binding on the body if incorporated
  at common law, I think the answer should be the other way."

On the other hand, the House of Lords, agreeing with the three
dissentient judges in the exchequer chamber, pronounced the effect of
the Companies Act to be the opposite of that indicated by Mr Justice
Blackburn, "It was the intention of the legislature, not implied, but
actually expressed, that the corporations, should not enter, having
regard to this memorandum of association, into a contract of this
description. The contract in my judgment could not have been ratified by
the unanimous assent of the whole corporation." In such companies,
therefore, objects beyond the scope of the memorandum of association are
_ultra vires_ of the corporation. The doctrine of _ultra vires_, as it
is called, is almost wholly of modern and judicial creation. The first
emphatic recognition of it appears to have been in the case of companies
created for special purposes with extraordinary powers, by act of
parliament, and, more particularly, railway companies. The funds of such
companies, it was held, must be applied to the purposes for which they
were created, and to no other. Whether this doctrine is applicable to
the older or, as they are sometimes called, ordinary corporations,
appears to be doubtful. S. Brice (_Ultra Vires_) writes:--

  "Take, as a strong instance, a university or a London guild. Either
  can undoubtedly manage, invest, transform and expend the corporate
  property in almost any way it pleases, but if they proposed to exhaust
  the same on the private pleasures of existing members, or to abandon
  the promotion, the one of education, the other of their art and
  mystery, it is very probable, if not absolutely certain, that the
  court of chancery would restrain the same, as being _ultra vires_."


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Devises to colleges are excepted from the operation of the act,
    but such devises must be for purposes identical with or closely
    resembling the original purposes of the college; and the exception
    from this act does not supersede the necessity for a licence in
    mortmain.



CORPS (pronounced as in French, from which it is taken, being a late
spelling of _cors_, from Lat. _corpus_, a body; cf. "corpse"), a word in
very general use since the 17th century to denote a body of troops,
varying from a few hundred to the greater part of an army. In a special
sense "corps" is used as synonymous with "army corps" (_corps d'armée_).
The word is applied to any organized body, as in _corps diplomatique_,
the general body of foreign diplomatic agents accredited to any
government (see DIPLOMACY), or _corps de ballet_, the members of a troop
of dancers at a theatre; so in _esprit de corps_, the common spirit of
loyalty which animates any body of associated persons.



CORPSE (Lat. _corpus_, the body), a dead human body. By the common law
of England a corpse is not the subject of property nor capable of
holding property. It is not therefore larceny to steal a corpse, but any
removal of the coffin or grave-cloths is otherwise, such remaining the
property of the persons who buried the body. It is a misdemeanour to
expose a naked corpse to public view, to prevent the burial of a dead
body, or to disinter it without authority; also to bury or otherwise
dispose of a dead body on which an inquest ought to be held, without
giving notice to a coroner. Anyone who, having the means, neglects to
bury a dead body which he is legally bound to bury, is guilty of a
misdemeanour, but no one is bound to incur a debt for such a purpose. It
is incumbent on the relatives and friends of a deceased person to
provide Christian burial for him; failing relatives and friends, the
duty devolves upon the parish. No corpse can be attached, taken in
execution, arrested or detained for debt. See further BODY-SNATCHING,
and BURIAL AND BURIAL ACTS.



CORPULENCE (Lat. _corpus_, body), or OBESITY (Lat. _ob_, against, and
_edere_, to eat), a condition of the animal body characterized by the
over-accumulation of fat under the skin and around certain of the
internal organs. In all healthy persons a greater or less amount of fat
is present in these parts, and serves important physiological ends,
besides contributing to the proper configuration of the body (see
NUTRITION). Even a considerable measure of fatness, however
inconvenient, is not inconsistent with a high degree of health and
activity, and it is only when in great excess or rapidly increasing that
it can be regarded as a pathological state (see METABOLIC DISEASES). The
extent to which excess of fat may proceed is illustrated by numerous
well-authenticated examples recorded in medical works, of which only a
few can be here mentioned. Thus Bright, a grocer of Maldon, in Essex,
who died in 1750, in his twenty-ninth year, weighed 616 [lb]. Dr F.
Dancel (_Traité de l'obésité_, Paris, 1863) records the case of a young
man of twenty-two, who died from excessive obesity, weighing 643 [lb].
In the _Philosophical Transactions_ for 1813 a case is recorded of a
girl of four years of age who weighed 256 [lb]. But the most celebrated
case is that of Daniel Lambert (q.v.) of Leicester, who died in 1809 in
his fortieth year. He is said to have been the heaviest man that ever
lived, his weight being 739 [lb] (52 st. 11 [lb]). Health cannot be long
maintained under excessive obesity, for the increase in bulk of the
body, rendering exercise more difficult, leads to relaxation and
defective nutrition of muscle, while the accumulations of fat in the
chest and abdomen occasion serious embarrassment to the functions of the
various organs in those cavities. In general the mental activity of the
highly corpulent becomes impaired, although there have always been many
notable exceptions to this rule.

Various causes are assigned for the production of corpulence (see
METABOLIC DISEASES). In some families there exists an hereditary
predisposition to an obese habit of body, the manifestation of which no
precautions as to living appear capable of averting. But it is
unquestionable that certain habits favour the occurrence of corpulence.
A luxurious, inactive, or sedentary life, with over-indulgence in sleep
and absence of mental occupation, are well recognized predisposing
causes. The more immediate exciting causes are over-feeding and the
large use of fluids of any kind, but especially alcoholic liquors. Fat
persons are not always great eaters, though many of them are, while
leanness and inordinate appetite are not infrequently associated. Still,
it may be stated generally that indulgence in food, beyond what is
requisite to repair daily waste, goes towards the increase of flesh,
particularly of fat. This is more especially the case when the
non-nitrogenous (the fatty, saccharine and starchy) elements of the food
are in excess. The want of adequate bodily exercise will in a similar
manner produce a like effect, and it is probable that many cases of
corpulence are to be ascribed to this cause alone, from the well-known
facts that many persons of sedentary occupation become stout, although
of most abstemious habits, and that obesity frequently comes on in the
middle-aged and old, who take relatively less exercise than the young,
in whom it is comparatively rare. Women are more prone to become
corpulent than men, and appear to take on this condition more readily
after the cessation of the function of menstruation.

For the prevention of corpulence and the reduction of superfluous fat
many expedients have been resorted to, and numerous remedies
recommended. These have included bleeding, blistering, purging, starving
(see FASTING), the use of different kinds of baths, and of drugs
innumerable. The drinking of vinegar was long popularly, but
erroneously, supposed to be a remedy for obesity. It is related of the
marquis of Cortona, a noted general of the duke of Alva, that by
drinking vinegar he so reduced his body from a condition of enormous
obesity that he could fold his skin about him like a garment.

In 1863 a pamphlet entitled "Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the
Public by William Banting," in which was narrated the remarkable
experience of the writer in accomplishing the reduction of his own
weight in a short space of time by the adoption of a particular kind of
diet, started the modern dietetic treatment, at first called "Banting"
after the author. After trying almost every known remedy without effect,
Banting was induced, on the suggestion of Mr Harvey, a London aurist, to
place himself upon an entirely new form of diet, which consisted chiefly
in the removal, as far as possible, of all saccharine, starchy and fat
food, the reduction of liquids, and the substitution of meat or fish and
fruit in moderate quantity at each meal, together with the daily use of
an antacid draught. Under this regimen his weight was reduced 46 [lb] in
the course of a few weeks, while his health underwent a marked
improvement. His experience, as might have been expected, induced many
to follow his example; and since then various regimens have been
propounded, all aiming at treating corpulence on modern physiological
principles (see also DIETETICS, METABOLIC DISEASES and NUTRITION). It is
important, however, to bear in mind that the treatment should be
followed under medical advice and observation; for, however desirable it
be to get rid of superabundant fat, it would be manifestly no gain were
this to be achieved by the sacrifice of the general health.



CORPUS CHRISTI, a city and the county-seat of Nueces county, Texas,
U.S.A., situated on Corpus Christi Bay opposite the mouth of the Nueces
river, 192 m. W.S.W. of Galveston and about 150 m. S.S.E. of San
Antonio. Pop. (1890) 4387; (1900) 4703, including 963 foreign-born and
460 negroes; (1910) 8299. It is served by the National of Mexico, the St
Louis, Brownsville & Mexico, and the San Antonio & Aransas Pass
railways. In 1908 the Federal government began work on a project to
connect Corpus Christi harbour with Aransas Pass by a channel 8½ ft.
deep at low water and 75 ft. wide at the bottom, following a natural
depression between the two bays. Corpus Christi is a summer and winter
resort, with a very dry equable climate (average annual mean, 70.2° F.)
and good bathing on the horseshoe beach of Corpus Christi Bay. The city
has an extensive coasting trade, and exports fruit, early vegetables,
fish and oysters. There was a small Spanish settlement here at an early
date, but no American settlement was made until after the Mexican War.
Corpus Christi was the base from which General Zachary Taylor made his
forward movement to the Rio Grande in 1846. It was chartered as a city
in 1876.



CORPUS CHRISTI, FEAST OF (Lat. _festum corporis Christi_, i.e. festival
of the Body of Christ, Fr. _fête-Dieu_ or _fête du sacrement_, Ger.
_Frohnleichnamsfest_), a festival of the Roman Catholic Church in honour
of the Real Presence of Christ in the sacrament of the altar, observed
on the first Thursday after Trinity Sunday. The doctrine of
transubstantiation was defined by the Lateran Council in 1215, and
shortly afterwards the elevation and adoration of the Host were formally
enjoined. This naturally stimulated the popular devotion to the Blessed
Sacrament, which had been already widespread before the definition of
the dogma. The movement was especially strong in the diocese of Liége,
and when Julienne, prioress of Mont-Cornillon near Liége (1222-1258),
had a vision in which the need for the establishment of a festival in
honour of the Sacrament was revealed to her, the matter was taken up
with enthusiasm by the clergy, and in 1246 Robert de Torote, bishop of
Liége, instituted such a festival for his diocese. The idea, however,
did not spread until, in 1261, Jacob Pantaleon, archdeacon of Liége,
ascended the papal throne as Urban IV. By a bull of 1264 Urban made the
festival, hitherto practically confined to the diocese of Liége,
obligatory on the whole Church,[1] and a new office for the festival was
written by Thomas Aquinas himself. As yet the stress was laid on
reverence for the Holy Sacrament as a whole; there is no mention in
Urban's bull of the solemn procession and exposition of the Host for the
adoration of the faithful, which are the main features of the festival
as at present celebrated. Urban's bull was once more promulgated, at the
council of Vienne in 1311, by Pope Clement V.; and the procession of
the Host in connexion with the festival was instituted, if the accounts
we possess are trustworthy, by Pope John XXII.

From this time onwards the festival increased in popularity and in
splendour. It became in effect the principal feast of the Church, the
procession of the Sacrament a gorgeous pageant, in which not only the
members of the trade and craft gilds, with the magistrates of the
cities, took part, but princes and sovereigns. It thus became in a high
degree symbolical of the exaltation of the sacerdotal power.[2] In the
15th century the custom became almost universal of following the
procession with the performance of miracle-plays and mysteries,
generally arranged and acted by members of the gilds who had formed part
of the pageant.

The rejection of the doctrine of transubstantiation at the Reformation
naturally involved the suppression of the festival of Corpus Christi in
the reformed Churches. Luther, in spite of his belief in the Real
Presence, regarded it as the most harmful of all the medieval festivals
and, though he fully realized its popularity, it was the first that he
abolished. This attitude of the reformers towards the festival, however,
intensified by their abhorrence of the traffic in indulgences with which
it had become closely associated, only tended to establish it more
firmly among the adherents of the "old religion." The procession of the
Host on Corpus Christi day became, as it were, a public demonstration of
Catholic orthodoxy against Protestantism and later against religious
Liberalism. In most countries where religious opinion is sharply divided
the procession of Corpus Christi is therefore now forbidden, even when
Catholicism is the dominant religion. In England occasional breaches of
the law in this respect have been for some time tolerated, as in the
case of the Corpus Christi procession annually held by the Italian
community in London. An attempt to hold a public procession of the Host
in connexion with the Eucharistic Congress at Westminster in 1908,
however, was the signal for the outburst of a considerable amount of
opposition, and was eventually abandoned owing to the personal
intervention of the prime minister.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The pope's decision, so the story goes, was hastened by a
    miracle. A priest, saying mass at the church of Santa Christina at
    Bolsena, was troubled, after the consecration, with grave doubts as
    to the truth of the doctrine of transubstantiation. His temptation
    was removed by the Host beginning to bleed, the blood soaking through
    the corporal _into_ the marble of the altar.

  [2] Nothing caused more offence to Liberal sentiment in France after
    the Restoration than the spectacle of King Louis XVIII. walking and
    carrying a candle in the procession through the streets of Paris.



CORRAL (Span. from _corro_, a circle), a word used chiefly in Spanish
America and the United States for an enclosure for cattle and horses,
and also for a defensive circle formed of wagons against attacks from
Indians. It is also used as a verb, meaning to drive into a corral, and
so figuratively to enclose, hem in. The word is probably connected with
the South African Dutch word kraal (q.v.). In Ceylon it is especially
used for an enclosure meant for the capture of wild elephants. In this
last sense of the word the corresponding term in India is keddah (q.v.).



CORREA, a genus of Australian plants belonging to the natural order
Rutaceae, named after the Portuguese botanist José Francisco Correa da
Serra. The plants are evergreen shrubs and extremely useful for winter
flowering. They are increased by cuttings, and grown in a cool
greenhouse in rough peaty soil, with a slight addition of loam and sand.
After the plants have done flowering, they should all get a little
artificial warmth, plenty of moisture, and a slight shade, while they
are making their growth, during which period the tips of the young
shoots should be nipped out when 6 or 8 in. long. When the growth is
complete, a half-shady place outdoors during August and September will
be suitable, with protection from parching winds and hot sunshine.



CORREA DA SERRA, JOSÉ FRANCISCO (1750-1823), Portuguese politician and
man of science, was born at Serpa, in Alemtejo, in 1750. Educated at
Rome, he took orders under the protection of the duke of Alafoès, uncle
of Mary I. of Portugal. In 1777 he returned to Lisbon, where he resided
with his patron, with whose assistance he founded the Portuguese Academy
of Sciences. Of this institution he was named perpetual secretary, and
he received the privilege of publishing its transactions without
reference to any censor whatever. His use of this right brought him into
conflict with the Holy Office; and consequently in 1786 he fled to
France, and remained there till the death of Pedro III., when he again
took up his residence with Alafoès. But having given a lodging in the
palace to a French Girondist, he was forced to flee to England, where he
found a protector in Sir Joseph Banks, and became a member of the Royal
Society. In 1797 he was appointed secretary to the Portuguese embassy,
but a quarrel with the ambassador drove him once more to Paris (1802),
and in that city he resided till 1813, when he crossed over to New York.
In 1816 he was made Portuguese minister-plenipotentiary at Washington,
and in 1820 he was recalled home, appointed a member of the financial
council, and elected to a seat in the Cortes. Three years after, and in
the same year with the fall of the constitutional government, he died.
Correa da Serra ranks high as a botanist, though he published no great
special work. His principal claim to renown is the _Colecção de livros
ineditos da historia Portugueza_, (4 vols., 1790-1816), an invaluable
selection of documents, exceedingly well edited.



CORREGGIO, or COREGGIO, the name ordinarily given to Antonio Allegri
(1494-1534), the celebrated Italian painter, one of the most vivid and
impulsive inventors in expression and pose and the most consummate
executants. The external circumstances of his life have been very
diversely stated by different writers, and the whole of what has been
narrated regarding him, even waiving the question of its authenticity,
is but meagre.

The first controversy is as to his origin. Some say that he was born of
poor and lowly parents; others, that his family was noble and rich.
Neither account is accurate. His father was Pellegrino Allegri, a
tradesman in comfortable circumstances, living at Correggio, a small
city in the territory of Modena; his mother Bernardina Piazzoli degli
Aromani, also of a creditable family of moderate means. Antonio was born
at Correggio, and was carefully educated. He was not (as has been often
alleged) strictly self-taught in his art--a supposition which the
internal evidence of his pictures must of itself refute. They show a
knowledge of optics, perspective, architecture, sculpture and anatomy.
The last-named science he studied under Dr Giovanni Battista Lombardi,
whom he is believed to have represented in the portrait currently named
"II Medico del Correggio" (Correggio's physician). It is concluded that
he learned the first elements of design from his uncle, Lorenzo Allegri,
a painter of moderate ability at Correggio, and from Antonio Bartolotti,
named Tognino, and that he afterwards went to the school of Francesco
Ferrari Bianchi (named Frarè), and perhaps to that of the successors of
Andrea Mantegna in Mantua. He is said to have learned modelling along
with the celebrated Begarelli at Parma; and it has even been suggested
that, in the "Pietà" executed by Begarelli for the church of Santa
Margherita, the three finest figures are the work of Correggio, but, as
the group appears to have been completed three years after the painter's
death, there is very little plausibility in this story. Another
statement connecting Begarelli with Correggio is probably true, namely,
that the sculptor executed models in relief for the figures which the
painter had to design on the cupolas of the churches in Parma. This was
necessarily an expensive item, and it has been cited as showing that
Correggio must have been at least tolerably well off,--an inference
further supported by the fact that he used the most precious and costly
colours, and generally painted on fine canvases or sometimes on sheets
of copper.

The few certain early works of Correggio show a rapid progression
towards the attainment of his own original style. Though he never
achieved any large measure of reputation during his brief lifetime, and
was perhaps totally unknown beyond his own district of country, he found
a sufficiency of employers, and this from a very youthful age. One of
his early pictures, painted in 1514 when he was nineteen or twenty years
old, is a large altar-piece commissioned for the Franciscan convent at
Carpi, representing the Virgin enthroned, with Saints; it indicates a
predilection for the style of Leonardo da Vinci, and has certainly even
greater freedom than similarly early works of Raphael. This picture is
now in the Dresden gallery. Another painting of Correggio's youth is the
"Arrest of Christ." A third is an Ancona (or triple altar-piece--the
"Repose in Egypt, with Sts Bartholomew and John") in the church of the
Conventuali at Correggio, showing the transition from the painter's
first to his second style. Between 1514 and 1520 Correggio worked much,
both in oil and in fresco, for churches and convents. In 1521 he began
his famous fresco of the "Ascension of Christ," on the cupola of the
Benedictine church of San Giovanni in Parma; here the Redeemer is
surrounded by the twelve apostles and the four doctors of the church,
supported by a host of wingless cherub boys amid the clouds. This he
finished in 1524, and soon afterwards undertook his still vaster work on
another cupola, that of the cathedral of the same city, presenting the
"Assumption of the Virgin," amid an unnumbered host of saints and angels
rapt in celestial joy. It occupied him up to 1530. The astounding
boldness of scheme in these works, especially as regards their incessant
and audacious foreshortenings--the whole mass of figures being portrayed
as in the clouds, and as seen from below--becomes all the more startling
when we recall to mind the three facts--that Correggio had apparently
never seen any of the masterpieces of Raphael or his other great
predecessors and contemporaries, in Rome, Florence, or other chief
centres of art; that he was the first artist who ever undertook the
painting of a large cupola; and that he not only went at once to the
extreme of what can be adventured in foreshortening, but even
forestalled in this attempt the mightiest geniuses of an elder
generation--the "Last Judgment" of Michelangelo, for instance, not
having been begun earlier than 1533 (although the ceiling of the Sixtine
chapel, in which foreshortening plays a comparatively small part, dates
from 1508 to 1512). The cupola of the cathedral has neither skylight nor
windows, but only light reflected from below; the frescoes, some
portions of which were ultimately supplied by Giorgio Gandini, are now
dusky with the smoke of tapers, and parts of them, in the cathedral and
in the church of St John, have during many past years been peeling off.
The violent foreshortenings were not, in the painter's own time, the
object of unmixed admiration; some satirist termed the groups a
"guazzetto di rane," or "hash of frogs." This was not exactly the
opinion of Titian, who is reported to have said, on seeing the pictures,
and finding them lightly esteemed by local dignitaries, "Reverse the
cupola, and fill it with gold, and even that will not be its money's
worth." Annibale Caracci and the Eclectics generally evinced their
zealous admiration quite as ardently. Parma is the only city which
contains frescoes by Correggio. For the paintings of the cupola of San
Giovanni he received the moderate sum of 472 sequins; for those of the
cathedral, much less proportionately, 350. On these amounts he had to
subsist, himself and his family, and to provide the colours, for about
ten years, having little time for further work meanwhile. Parma was in
an exceedingly unsettled and turbulent condition during some of the
years covered by Correggio's labours there, veering between the
governmental ascendancy of the French and of the Pope, with wars and
rumours of wars, alarms, tumults and pestilence.

Other leading works by Correggio are the following:--The frescoes in the
Camera di San Paolo (the abbess's saloon) in the monastery of S.
Lodovico at Parma, painted towards 1519 in fresco,--"Diana returning
from the Chase," with auxiliary groups of lovely and vivacious boys of
more than life size, in sixteen oval compartments. In the National
Gallery, London, the "Ecce Homo," painted probably towards 1520
(authenticity not unquestioned); and "Cupid, Mercury and Venus," the
latter more especially a fine example. The oil-painting of the Nativity
named "Night" ("La Notte"), for which 40 ducats and 208 livres of old
Reggio coin were paid, the nocturnal scene partially lit up by the
splendour proceeding from the divine Infant. This work was undertaken at
Reggio in 1522 for Alberto Pratoneris, and is now in the Dresden
gallery. The oil-painting of St Jerome, termed also "Day" ("Il Giorno"),
as contrasting with the above-named "Night." Jerome is here with the
Madonna and Child, the Magdalene, and two Angels, of whom one points out
to the Infant a passage in the book held by the Saint. This was painted
for Briseida Bergonzi from 1527 onwards, and was remunerated by 400 gold
imperials, some cartloads of faggots and measures of wheat, and a fat
pig. It is now in the gallery at Parma. The "Magdalene lying at the
entrance of her Cavern": this small picture (only 18 in. wide) was
bought by Augustus III. of Saxony for 6000 louis d'or, and is in
Dresden. In the same gallery, the two works designated "St George"
(painted towards 1532) and "St Sebastian." In the Parma gallery, the
Madonna named "della Scala," a fresco which was originally in a recess
of the Porta Romana, Parma; also the Madonna "della Scodella" (of the
bowl, which is held by the Virgin--the subject being the Repose in
Egypt): it was executed for the church of San Sepolcro. Both these works
date towards 1526. In the church of the Annunciation, "Parma," a fresco
of the Annunciation, now all but perished. Five celebrated pictures
painted or begun in 1532,--"Venus," "Leda," "Danaë," "Vice," and
"Virtue": the "Leda," with figures of charming girls bathing, is now in
the Berlin gallery, and is a singularly delightful specimen of the
master. In Vienna, "Jupiter and Io." In the Louvre, "Jupiter and
Antiope," and the "Mystic Marriage of St Catharine." In the Naples
Museum, the "Madonna Reposing," commonly named "La Zingarella," or the
"Madonna del Coniglio" (Gipsy-girl, or Madonna of the Rabbit). On some
of his pictures Correggio signed "Lieto," as a synonym of "Allegri."
About forty works can be confidently assigned to him, apart from a
multitude of others probably or manifestly spurious.

The famous story that this great but isolated artist was once, after
long expectancy, gratified by seeing a picture of Raphael's, and closed
an intense scrutiny of it by exclaiming "Anch' io son pittore" (I too am
a painter), cannot be traced to any certain source. It has nevertheless
a great internal air of probability; and the most enthusiastic devotee
of the Umbrian will admit that in technical _bravura_, in enterprizing,
gifted, and consummated execution, not Raphael himself could have
assumed to lord it over Correggio.

In 1520 Correggio married Girolama Merlino, a young lady of Mantua, who
brought him a good dowry. She was but sixteen years of age, very lovely,
and is said by tradition to have been the model of his Zingarella. They
lived in great harmony together, and had a family of four children. She
died in 1529. Correggio himself expired at his native place on the 5th
of March 1534. His illness was a short one, and has by some authors been
termed pleurisy. Others, following Vasari, allege that it was brought on
by his having had to carry home a sum of money, 50 scudi, which had been
paid to him for one of his pictures, and paid in copper coin to
humiliate and annoy him; he carried the money himself, to save expense,
from Parma to Correggio on a hot day, and his fatigue and exhaustion led
to the mortal illness. In this curious tale there is no symptom of
authenticity, unless its very singularity, and the unlikelihood of its
being invented without any foundation at all, may be allowed to count
for something. He is said to have died with Christian piety; and his
eulogists (speaking apparently from intuition rather than record) affirm
that he was a good citizen, an affectionate son and father, fond and
observant of children, a sincere and obliging friend, pacific,
beneficent, grateful, unassuming, without meanness, free from envy and
tolerant of criticism. He was buried with some pomp in the Arrivabene
chapel, in the cloister of the Franciscan church at Correggio.

Regarding the art of Correggio from an intellectual or emotional point
of view, his supreme gift may be defined as suavity,--a vivid,
spontaneous, lambent play of the affections, a heartfelt inner grace
which fashions the forms and features, and beams like soft and glancing
sunshine in the expressions. We see lovely or lovable souls clothed in
bodies or corresponding loveliness, which are not only physically
charming, but are so informed with the spirit within as to become one
with that in movement and gesture. In these qualities of graceful
naturalness, not heightened into the sacred or severe, and of joyous
animation, in momentary smiles and casual living turns of head or limb,
Correggio undoubtedly carried the art some steps beyond anything it had
previously attained, and he remains to this day the unsurpassed or
unequalled model of pre-eminence. From a technical point of view, his
supreme gift--even exceeding his prodigious faculty in foreshortening
and the like--is chiaroscuro, the power of modifying every tone, from
bright light to depth of darkness, with the sweetest and most subtle
gradations, all being combined into harmonious unity. In this again he
far distanced all predecessors, and defied subsequent competition. His
colour also is luminous and precious, perfectly understood and blended;
it does not rival the superb richness or deep intense glow of the
Venetians, but on its own showing is a perfect achievement, in exact
keeping with his powers in chiaroscuro and in vital expression. When we
come, however, to estimate painters according to their dramatic faculty,
their power of telling a story or impressing a majestic truth, their
range and strength of mind, we find the merits of Correggio very feeble
in comparison with those of the highest masters, and even of many who
without, being altogether great have excelled in these particular
qualities. Correggio never _means_ much, and often, in subjects where
fulness of significance is demanded, he means provokingly little. He
expressed his own miraculous facility by saying that he always had his
thoughts at the end of his pencil; in truth, they were often thoughts
rather of the pencil and its controlling hand than of the teeming brain.
He has the faults of his excellences--sweetness lapsing into mawkishness
and affectation, empty in elevated themes and lasciviously voluptuous in
those of a sensuous type, rapid and forceful action lapsing into
posturing and self-display, fineness and sinuosity of contour lapsing
into exaggeration and mannerism, daring design lapsing into
incorrectness. No great master is more dangerous than Correggio to his
enthusiasts; round him the misdeeds of conventionalists and the follies
of connoisseurs cluster with peculiar virulence, and almost tend to
blind to his real and astonishing excellences those practitioners or
lovers of painting who, while they can acknowledge the value of
_technique_, are still more devoted to greatness of soul, and grave or
elevated invention, as expressed in the form of art.

Correggio was the head of the school of painting of Parma, which forms
one main division of the Lombardic school. He had more imitators than
pupils. Of the latter one can name with certainty only his son Pomponio,
who was born in 1521 and died at an advanced age; Francesco Capelli;
Giovanni Giarola; Antonio Bernieri (who, being also a native of the town
of Correggio, has sometimes been confounded with Allegri); and Bernardo
Gatti, who ranks as the best of all. The Parmigiani (Mazzuoli) were his
most highly distinguished imitators.

  A large number of books have been written concerning Correggio. The
  principal modern authority is Conrado Ricci, _Life and Times of
  Correggio_ (1896); see also Pungileoni, _Memorie storiche di Antonio
  Allegri_ (1817); Julius Meyer, _Antonio Allegri_ (1870, English
  translation, 1876); H. Thode, _Correggio_ (1898); Bigi, _Vita ed
  opere_ (1881); Colnaghi, _Correggio Frescoes at Parma_ (1845); Fagan,
  _Works of Correggio_ (1873); and T. Sturge Moore, _Correggio_ (1906)
  (a work which includes some adverse criticism on the views of Bernhard
  Berenson, in his _Study of Italian Art_, 1901, and elsewhere).
      (W. M. R.)



CORRENTI, CESARE (1815-1888), Italian revolutionist and politician, was
born on the 3rd of January 1815, at Milan, of a poor but noble family.
While employed in the public debt administration, he flooded Lombardy
with revolutionary pamphlets designed to excite hatred against the
Austrians, and in 1848 proposed the general abstention of the Milanese
from smoking, which gave rise to the insurrection known as the Five
Days. During the revolt he was one of the leading spirits of the
operations of the insurgents. Until the reoccupation of Milan by the
Austrians he was secretary-general of the provisional government, but
afterwards he fled to Piedmont, whence he again distributed his
revolutionary pamphlets throughout Lombardy, earning a precarious
livelihood by journalism. Elected deputy in 1849, he worked strenuously
for the national cause, supporting Cavour in his Crimean policy,
although he belonged to the Left. After the annexation of Lombardy he
was made commissioner for the liquidation of the Lombardo-Venetian debt,
in 1860 was appointed councillor of state, and received various other
public positions, especially in connexion with the railway and financial
administration. He veered round to the Right, and in 1867 and again in
1869 he held the portfolio of education; he played an important part in
the events consequent upon the occupation of Rome, and helped to draft
the Law of Guarantees. As minister of education he suppressed the
theological faculties in the Italian universities, but eventually
resigned office and allied himself with the Left again on account of
conservative opposition to his reforms. His defection from the Right
ultimately assured the advent of the Left to power in 1876; and while
declining office, he remained chief adviser of Agostino Depretis until
the latter's death. On several occasions--notably in connexion with the
redemption of the Italian railways, and with the Paris exhibition of
1878--he acted as representative of the government. In 1877 he was given
the lucrative appointment of secretary of the order of Saints Maurice
and Lazarus by Depretis, and in 1886 was created senator. He died at
Rome on the 4th of October 1888. He left a considerable body of writings
on a variety of subjects, none of which is of exceptional merit.

  See E. Massarani, _Cesare Correnti nella vita e nelle opere_ (1890);
  and L. Carpi, _Il Risorgimento italiano_, vol. iv. (Milan, 1888).
       (L. V.*)



CORRESPONDENCE (from med. scholastic Lat. _correspondentia_,
_correspondere_, compounded of Lat. _cum_, with, and _respondere_, to
answer; cf. Fr. _correspondence_), strictly a mutual agreement or
fitness of parts or character, that which fits or answers to a
requirement in another, or more generally a similarity or parallelism.
In the 17th and 18th centuries the word was frequently applied to
relations and communications between states. It is now, outside special
applications, chiefly applied to the interchange of communications by
letter, or to the letters themselves, between private individuals,
states, business houses, or from individuals to the press. The "doctrine
of correspondence or correspondences," one of the leading tenets of
Swedenborgianism, is that every natural object corresponds to and
typifies some spiritual principle or truth, this being the only key to
the true interpretation of Scripture. In mathematics, the term
"correspondence" implies the existence of some relation between the
members of two groups of objects. If each object of one group
corresponds to one and only one object of the second, and vice versa,
then a one-to-one correspondence exists between the groups. If each
object of the first group corresponds to [beta] objects of the second
group, and each object of the second group corresponds to a objects of
the first group, then an [alpha] to [beta] correspondence exists between
the two groups. For examples of the application of this notion see
CURVE.



CORRÈZE, a department of south-central France, formed from the southern
portion of the old province of Limousin, bounded N. by the departments
of Haute-Vienne and Creuse, E, by Puy-de-Dôme, S.E. by Cantal, S. by
Lot, and W. by Dordogne. Area, 2273 sq. m. Pop. (1906) 317,430. Corrèze
is situated on the western fringe of the central plateau of France. It
forms a hilly tableland elevated in the east and north, and intersected
by numerous fertile river valleys, trending for the most part to the
south and south-west. The highest points, many of which exceed 3000 ft.,
are found in the north, where the Plateau de Millevaches separates the
basins of the Loire and the Garonne. Except for a small district in the
extreme north, which is watered by the Vienne, Corrèze belongs to the
basin of the Garonne. The Dordogne waters its south-eastern region. The
Corrèze, from which the department takes its name, and the Vézère, of
which the Corrèze is the chief tributary, rise in the Plateau de
Millevaches, flow south-west, and unite to the west of Brive. The
climate of Corrèze is, in general, cold, damp and variable, except in
the south-west, where it is mild and agreeable. The majority of the
inhabitants live by agriculture. About one-third of the department is
arable land, most of which is found in the south-west. Rye, buckwheat
and wheat (in the order named) are the most abundant cereals. Hemp, flax
and tobacco are also grown. The more elevated regions of the north and
east are given over to pasture, sheep being specially numerous on the
Plateau de Millevaches. Pigs and goats are reared to a considerable
extent; and poultry-farming and cheese-making are much practised. The
vineyards of the neighbourhood of Brive produce wine of medium quality.
Chestnuts, largely used as an article of food, walnuts and cider-apples
are the chief fruits. Coal in small quantities, slate, building-stone
and other stone are the mineral products, and clay, used in potteries
and tile-works, is also worked. The most important industrial
establishment is the government manufactory of fire-arms at Tulle. There
are flour-mills, breweries, oil-works, saw-mills and dye-works; and hats
(Bort), coarse woollens, silk, preserved foods, wooden shoes, chairs,
paper and leather are manufactured. Coal and raw materials for textile
industries are leading imports; live stock and agricultural products are
the chief exports. The department is served by the Orléans railway, and
the Dordogne is navigable. The department is divided into the
arrondissements of Tulle, Brive and Ussel, containing 29 cantons and 289
communes. It belongs to the archdiocese of Bourges, the region of the
XII. army corps, and the _Académie_ (educational division) of
Clermont-Ferrand. Its court of appeal is at Limoges. Tulle, the capital,
and Brive are the principal towns of the department. Uzerche is a
picturesque old town on the Vézère, with a Romanesque church, old
houses, a gate and other remains of medieval fortifications. At Aubazine
(or Obazine) there is a Romanesque church of the 12th century, formerly
belonging to the celebrated Cistercian abbey, of which Étienne "of
Obazine" (d. 1159 and subsequently beatified) was the founder and first
abbot. It contains the fine sculptured tomb of the founder. To the same
style belong the abbey church of Beaulieu, the south portal of which is
elaborately carved, the abbey church of Meymac, and the abbey church of
Vigeois. Treignac, with its church, bridge and ramparts of the 15th
century, and Turenne, dominated by the ruins of the castle of the famous
family of that name, are ancient and interesting towns. The dolmen at
Espartignac and the cromlech of Aubazine are the chief megalithic
remains in the department. A Roman eagle and other antiquities have been
found close to Ussel, which at the end of the 16th century became the
centre of the duchy of Ventadour.



CORRIB, LOUGH, a lake of western Ireland, in the counties Galway and
Mayo. It lies N.W. and S.E., and is 27 m. long, including a long
projecting arm at the north-west. The extreme breadth is 7 m., but the
outline is extremely irregular, and the lough narrows near the centre to
a few hundred yards. Lough Corrib is very shallow, hardly exceeding 30
ft. in depth at any point, and it is covered with islands, of which
there are some 300. It lies 29 ft. above sea-level, and drains by the
short river Corrib to Galway Bay. The large Lough Mask lies to its north
and is connected with it by a partly subterranean channel. The scenery
is pleasant, but the shores are low, except at the north-west, where the
wild foothills of Joyce's Country rise.



CORRIDOR (Fr. _corridor_, from Ital. _corridore_, Med. Lat.
_corridorium_, a "running-place," from _currere_, to run), a main
passage in a large building, on which various apartments open. In public
offices, prisons, workhouses, hospitals, &c., the corridors are usually
of severe simplicity; but in mansions and palaces large corridors
(galleries) are often adorned with works of art, whence comes the term
"picture gallery" applied to many collections. The term "corridor
carriage" is applied to the modern style of railway carriage in which a
narrow passage connects the separate compartments, the object being to
combine a certain degree of privacy for the traveller with access from
one compartment to another whilst the train is in motion.



CORRIE (Gaelic _coire_, cauldron; hence whirlpool, or circular hollow),
a term used in the Highlands of Scotland for a steep-sided, rounded
hollow in a mountain-side, from the lower part of which a stream usually
issues as the outlet of a small lake ponded by glacial debris.
Corrie-lakes are common in all glaciated mountain regions. (See CIRQUE.)



CORRIENTES, a north-eastern province of the Argentine Republic, and part
of a region known as the Argentine Mesopotamia, bounded N. by Paraguay,
N.E. by Misiones (territory), E. by Brazil, S. by Entre Rios, and W. by
Santa Fé and the Chaco. Pop. (1895) 239,618; (1904 estimate) 299,479;
area, 32,580 sq. m. Nearly one-third of the province is covered by
swamps and lagoons, or is so little above their level as to be
practically unfit for permanent settlement unless drained. The Iberá
lagoon (c. 8500 sq. m., according to the _Argentine Year Book_ for
1905-1906) includes a large part of the central and north-eastern
departments, and the Maloya lagoon covers a large part of the
north-western departments. Several streams flowing into the Paraná and
Uruguay have their sources in these lagoons, the Iberá sending its
waters in both directions. The southern districts of the province,
however, are high and rolling, similar to the neighbouring departments
of Entre Rios, and are admirably adapted to grazing and agriculture. The
north-eastern corner is also high, but it is broken by ranges of hills
and is heavily forested, like the adjacent territory of Misiones. The
climate on the higher plains is sub-tropical, but in the northern swamps
it is essentially tropical. Corrientes is the hottest province of
Argentina, notwithstanding its large area of water and forest. The
exports include cattle and horses, jerked beef, hides, timber and
firewood, cereals and fruit. The principal towns are Corrientes, the
capital; Goya, a flourishing agricultural town (1906 estimate, 7000) on
a side channel of the Paraná, 150 m. S. of Corrientes, the seat of a
modern normal school and the market-town of a prosperous district; Bella
Vista (pop. 1906 estimate, 3000), prettily situated on the Paraná, 80 m.
S. of Corrientes, the commercial centre of a large district; Esquina
(pop. 1906 estimate, 3000) on the Paraná at the mouth of the Corrientes
river, 86 m. S. of Goya, which exports timber and firewood from the
neighbouring forest of Payubre; Monte Caseros (pop. 1906 estimate, 4000)
on the Uruguay river, from which cattle are shipped to Brazil, the
eastern terminus of the Argentine North-Eastern railway (which crosses
the province in a N.W. direction to Corrientes), and a station on the
East Argentine railway (which runs northward to Paso de Los Libres,
opposite Uruguayana, Brazil and to San Tomé, and southward to a junction
with the Entre Rios railways). A considerable district on the upper
Uruguay was once occupied by prosperous Jesuit missions, all of which
fell into decay and ruins after the expulsion of that order from the
Spanish possessions in 1767. The population of the province is composed
very largely of Indian and mixed races, and Guarani is still the
language of the country people.



CORRIENTES (_San Juan de Corrientes_), a city and river port, and the
capital of the above province, in the north of the Argentine Republic,
on the left bank of the Paraná river, 20 m. below the junction of the
Upper Paraná and Paraguay, and 832 m. N. of Buenos Aires. The name is
derived from the _siete corrientes_ (seven currents) caused by rocks in
the bed of the river just above the town. Pop. (1895) 16,129; (1907
local estimate) 30,172, largely Indian and of mixed descent. The
appearance of Corrientes is not equal to its commercial and political
importance, the buildings both public and private being generally poor
and antiquated. There are four churches, the more conspicuous of which
are the Matriz and San Francisco. The government house, originally a
Jesuit college, is an antiquated structure surrounding an open court
(_patio_). There is a national college. The commercial importance of
Corrientes results from its unusually favourable situation near the
confluence of the Upper Paraná and Paraguay, and a short distance below
the mouth of the Bermejo. The navigation of the Upper Paraná and Bermejo
rivers begins here, and freight for the Upper Paraná and Chaco rivers is
transhipped at Corrientes, which practically controls the trade of the
extensive regions tributary to them. Corrientes is the western terminus
of the Argentine North-Eastern railway, which crosses the province S.E.
to Monte Caseros, where it connects with the East Argentine line running
S. to Concordia and N. to San Tomé. The principal exports are timber,
cereals, maté, sugar, tobacco, hides, jerked beef, fruit and quebracho.



CORRIGAN, MICHAEL AUGUSTINE (1839-1902), third archbishop of the Roman
Catholic archdiocese of New York, in the United States, was born in
Newark, New Jersey, on the 13th of August 1839. In 1859 he graduated at
Mount St Mary's College, Emmittsburg, Maryland, and began his studies
for the priesthood as the first of the twelve students with whom the
American College at Rome was opened. On the 19th of September 1863 he
was ordained priest, and in 1864 obtained the degree of D.D. Returning
to America, he was appointed professor of Dogmatic Theology and Sacred
Scripture, and director of the ecclesiastical seminary of Seton Hall
College at South Orange, New Jersey; soon afterwards he was made
vice-president of the institution; and in 1868 became president,
succeeding Rev. Bernard J. M'Quaid (b. 1823), the first Roman Catholic
bishop of Rochester. In October 1868 Corrigan became vicar-general of
Newark, a diocese then including all the state of New Jersey. When
Archbishop Bayley was transferred to the see of Baltimore in 1873, Pius
IX. appointed Corrigan bishop of Newark. In 1876 he resigned the
presidency of Seton Hall College. In 1880 Bishop Corrigan was made
coadjutor, with the right of succession, to Cardinal McCloskey,
archbishop of New York, under the title of archbishop of Petra; and
thereafter nearly all the practical work of the archdiocese fell to his
hands. He was at the time the youngest archbishop in the Catholic Church
in America. On the death of Cardinal McCloskey in 1885 Archbishop
Corrigan became metropolitan of the diocese of New York. He died on the
5th of May 1902. He was a scholar of much erudition, with great power of
administrative organization, simple, generous and kindly in character.
The earlier years of his archiepiscopate were disturbed by his
controversy with Edward McGlynn (1839-1900), a New York priest (and a
fellow-student with Corrigan at Rome), who disapproved of parochial
schools, refused to go to Rome for examination, and was excommunicated
in July 1887, but returned to the church five years later.

  See _Michael Augustine Corrigan: A Memorial_, with biographical sketch
  by John A. Mooney (New York, 1902).



CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE, MERCURIC CHLORIDE, PERCHLORIDE OF MERCURY (HgCl2),
a white solid obtained by the action of chlorine on mercury or calomel,
by the addition of hydrochloric acid to a hot, strong solution of
mercurous nitrate, Hg2(NO3)2 + 4HCl = 2HgCl2 + 2H2O + 2NO2, and,
commercially, by heating a mixture of mercuric sulphate and common salt,
the mercuric chloride subliming and being condensed in the form of small
rhombic crystals. It melts at 288°, and boils at 303°; it is sparingly
soluble in cold water, more so in hot; it is very soluble in alcohol and
ether. It is soluble in hydrochloric acid forming compounds such as
HgCl2·2HCl, 3HgCl2·4HCl, 2HgCl2·HCl, according to the temperature and
concentration; it also forms double salts with many chlorides; _sal
alembroth_, 2NH4Cl·HgCl2·H2O, is the compound with ammonium chloride. It
absorbs ammonia to form HgCl2·NH3, which may be distilled without
decomposition. Various oxychlorides are formed by digesting corrosive
sublimate with mercuric oxide. Corrosive sublimate has important
applications in medicine--as an astringent, stimulant, caustic and
antiseptic (see MERCURY).



CORRUPT PRACTICES, a term used in English election law, as defined by
the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention Act 1883, to include
bribery, treating, undue influence, personation, and aiding, abetting,
counselling and procuring personation. Bribery and corruption at
elections have been the subject of much legislation, statutes for their
prevention have been passed in 1729, 1809, 1827, 1842, 1854, 1868 and
1883.

By the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention Act 1883 (which
incorporated the Corrupt Practices Prevention Act 1854, an act that
repealed all former legislation) the following persons are to be deemed
guilty of _bribery_:--

1. Every person who shall directly or indirectly, by himself or by any
other person on his behalf, give, lend, &c., or offer, promise, or
promise to procure, &c., any money or valuable consideration to or for
any voter or any other person in order to induce any voter to vote or
refrain from voting, or shall corruptly do any such act on account of
such voter having voted or refrained from voting at any election.

2. Every person who shall similarly give or procure or promise, &c.,
any office, place or employment to or for any voter or other person in
order to induce him to vote, &c.

3. Every person who shall make any gift, loan, promise, &c., as
aforesaid to any person to induce such person to procure the return of
any person to serve in parliament or the vote of any voter.

4. Every person who shall, in consequence of such gift, procure or
engage, promise or endeavour to procure the return of any person or the
vote of any voter.

5. Every person who shall pay any money with the intent that it should
be spent in bribery, or who shall pay money in repayment of any money
wholly or in part expended in bribery.

6. Every person who before or during an election shall receive or
contract for any money, &c., for voting, or refraining, or agreeing to
vote or to refrain from voting.

7. Every person who, after the election, receives money, &c., on account
of any person having voted or refrained, &c.

_Treating._--Any person who corruptly by himself or by any other person
either before, during or after an election, directly or indirectly gives
or provides, or pays wholly or in part the expense of giving or
providing any meat, drink or entertainment, or provision to or for any
person in order to be elected, or for being elected, or for the purpose
of corruptly influencing such person to give or refrain from giving his
vote at an election, &c., shall be deemed guilty of treating, and every
elector corruptly accepting such meat, drink, &c., shall also be guilty
of treating.

_Undue Influence._--Every person who shall directly or indirectly make
use of or threaten to make use of any force, violence, &c., or inflict
or threaten to inflict any temporal or spiritual injury, &c., upon any
person to induce or compel such person to vote or refrain from voting,
or who shall by abduction, duress, or any fraudulent device or
contrivance impede or prevent the exercise of the franchise of any
elector, or shall thereby compel, induce, &c., any elector to give or
refrain from giving his vote, shall be guilty of undue influence.

Illegal, as distinguished from "corrupt," practices are certain acts and
omissions in regard to an election which are now prohibited, whether
done or omitted, honestly or dishonestly. They may be classified under
the following heads:--(1) Acts which are illegal practices by whomsoever
committed. These are as follows: Payment or receipt or contracts to pay
or receive money for conveyance of voters to or from the poll, on
account of any committee room beyond the number allowed by the act, or
to an elector for use of house or land to exhibit addresses, &c., or for
exhibition by him (otherwise than in the ordinary course of his business
of advertising agent) of such addresses, &c.; payment of election
expenses otherwise than by or through the election agent, and payment
otherwise than to a candidate or election agent of money provided by any
other person for election expenses; voting or procuring to vote of any
person prohibited from voting, if the person offending knows of the
prohibition; knowingly publishing a false statement that a candidate has
withdrawn, or publishing with a view to affect the return of a candidate
a false statement as to his character or conduct. (2) Acts and omissions
which are illegal practices in the case of candidates and agents only,
being breaches of duties specially imposed on them. These are the
payment or incurring expenses in excess of the maximum authorized by the
legislature, the omitting without lawful excuse to make a return and
declaration of expenses in due time, and the payment by an election
agent of any election expense amounting to 40s. not vouched by bill of
particulars and receipt, of any claim for expenses not sent in in due
time, or of any such claim after the time allowed for payment thereof.
(3) Acts which are illegal practices when done by a candidate or agent,
and are a minor offence when done by any one else. These are illegal
payments, employment and hiring, and printing, publishing or posting a
bill, placard or poster not bearing on its face the name of the printer
or publisher. Illegal payments are knowingly providing money for
prohibited payments or expenses in excess of the maximum, corruptly
inducing a candidate to withdraw by payment or promise of payment (the
candidate so induced being guilty of the like offence), paying or
agreeing to pay for torches, flags, banners, cockades, ribbons and
other marks of distinction (the receiver being guilty of the like
offence if he is aware of the illegality). Illegal employment is the
employment for payment or promise of payment of persons beyond the
number allowed by the legislature or for purposes not authorized. The
employé is guilty of the like offence if he knows of the illegality.
Illegal hiring is the letting or lending, or the employing, hiring,
borrowing or using to carry voters to the poll of stage, or hackney
carriages, or horses, or of carriages or horses ordinarily let for hire,
and the hiring of committee rooms in premises licensed for the sale of
intoxicants, in a club (not being a permanent political club) where
intoxicants are sold, in premises where refreshments are ordinarily
sold, or in a public elementary school in receipt of a parliamentary
grant. Personation and aiding, abetting, &c., of personation are
felonies punishable with two years' imprisonment with hard labour. All
other corrupt practices are indictable misdemeanours (in Scotland,
crimes and offences) punishable with one year's imprisonment, with or
without hard labour, or a fine not exceeding £200. Conviction of any
corrupt practice also renders the offender incapable for seven years of
being registered as an elector, or voting at any election, parliamentary
or other, in the United Kingdom, or of holding any public or judicial
office, or of being elected to or sitting in the House of Commons; and
any such office or seat held by him at the time is vacated. In the case
of a parliamentary candidate, if an election court finds that there has
been treating or undue influence by him, or any other corrupt practice
with his knowledge or consent, he becomes incapable of ever being
elected for the same constituency, and incurs the like incapacities as
if he had been convicted on indictment; if it is found by the election
court that he has been guilty by his agents of a corrupt practice, he
becomes incapable for seven years of being elected for the same
constituency. Illegal practices are offences punishable on summary
conviction with a fine not exceeding £100, and with five years'
incapacity for being registered or voting as a parliamentary elector, or
an elector to public office within the county or borough where the
offence was committed. Illegal payments, employment and hiring, and
printing and publishing of bills, &c., not bearing the printer's or
publisher's name, are, when committed by any one who is not a candidate
or agent, offences punishable on summary conviction with a fine not
exceeding £100, but carry with them no incapacities. Where an election
court finds that any illegal practice has been committed with the
knowledge or consent of a parliamentary candidate, he becomes incapable
for seven years of being elected to or sitting in the House of Commons
for the same constituency. He incurs the like incapacity, limited to the
duration of the parliament for which the election was held, if the
election court finds that he was guilty by his agents of an illegal
practice. A prosecution for any of the above offences cannot be
instituted more than a year after the offence was committed, unless an
inquiry by election commissioners takes place, in which case it may be
instituted at any time within two years from the commission of the
offence, not being more than three months after the date of the
commissioners' report.

The law as to corrupt and illegal practices, as above stated, applies
equally to parliamentary, municipal, county and parish council
elections. Incapacities corresponding to those incurred by parliamentary
candidates found guilty by an election court are incurred by municipal
and other candidates in the like case, e.g. a municipal candidate found
personally guilty of a corrupt practice is incapacitated forever, and a
candidate found guilty by his agents is incapacitated for three years
from holding corporate office in the borough.

  See Rogers, _On Elections_, 3 vols.; Fraser, _Law of Parliamentary
  Elections_.



CORRY, a city of Erie county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 37 m. S.E. of Erie,
in the N.W. part of the state, at an elevation of about 1430 ft. Pop.
(1890) 5677; (1900) 5369 (671 foreign-born); (1910) 5991. It is served
by the Erie and the Pennsylvania railways. Corry is situated in the
midst of a fine farming region, which is rich in petroleum and natural
gas, and is widely known for its mineral springs. One mile W. of the
city is a state fish hatchery, and there are fine trout streams in the
neighbourhood. Among the city's manufactures are steel, engines,
locomotives, radiators, shovels, bricks, flour, furniture and leather.
Corry was settled in 1860, and was incorporated as a borough in 1863 and
as a city in 1866.



CORSAIR (through the Fr. from the Med. Lat. _cursarius_, a pirate;
_cursus_, or _cursa_, from _currere_, to run, being Late Latin for a
plundering foray), the name given by the Mediterranean peoples to the
privateers of the Barbary coast who plundered the shipping of Christian
nations; they were not strictly pirates, as they were commissioned by
their respective governments, but the word came to be synonymous, in
English, with "pirate." The French word _corsaire_ is still used for
"privateer," and _guerre de course_ is applied to the use in naval
warfare of "commerce-destroyers." (See PIRATE, BARBARY PIRATES and
PRIVATEER.)



CORSICA (Fr. _Corse_), a large island of the Mediterranean, forming a
department of France. It is situated immediately to the north of
Sardinia (from which it is separated by the narrow strait of Bonifacio),
between 41° 21' and 43° N. and 8° 30' and 9° 30' E. Area, 3367 sq.m.
Pop. (1906) 291,160. Corsica lies within 54 m. W. of the coast of
Tuscany, 98 m. S. of Genoa and 106 m. S.E. of the French coast at Nice.
The extreme length of the island is 114 m. and its breadth 52 m. The
greater part of the surface of Corsica is occupied by forest-clad
mountains, whose central ridge describes a curve from N.W. to S.W.,
presenting its convexity towards the E. Secondary chains diverge in all
directions from this main range, enclosing small basins both
geographically and socially isolated; on the west and south of the
island they either terminate abruptly on the shore or run out to a great
distance into the sea, forming picturesque bays and gulfs, some of which
afford excellent harbours. The highest peaks are the Monts Cinto (8881
ft.), Rotondo (8612), Paglia Orba (8284), Padro (7851) and d'Oro (7845).
On the eastern side of the island, between Bastia and Porto Vecchio,
there intervenes between the mountains and the sea a considerable tract
of low and unhealthy, but fertile country, and the coast is fringed in
places by lagoons.

  _Geology._--Corsica may be divided into two parts, which are
  geologically distinct, by a line drawn from Belgodere through Corte to
  the east coast near Favone. West of this line the island is composed
  chiefly of granite, with a large mass of granophyres, quartz
  porphyries and similar rocks forming the high mountains around Mt.
  Cinto; but between the Gulfs of Porto and Galeria, schists, limestones
  and anthracite, containing fossils of Upper Carboniferous age, occur.
  The famous orbicular diorite of Corsica is found near Sta.
  Lucia-di-Tallano in the arrondissement of Sartène. In the eastern part
  of the island the predominant rocks are schists of unknown age, with
  intrusive masses of serpentine and euphotide. Folded amongst the
  schists are Strips of Upper Carboniferous beds similar to those of the
  west coast. Overlying these more ancient rocks are limestones with
  Rhaetic and Liassic fossils, occurring in small patches at Oletta,
  Morosaglia, &c. Nummulitic limestone of Eocene age is found near St
  Florent, and occupies several large basins near the boundary between
  the granite and the schist. Miocene molasse with _Clypeaster_, &c.,
  forms the plain of Aleria on the east coast, and occurs also at St
  Florent in the north and Bonifacio in the south. A small patch of
  Pliocene has been found near Aleria. The caves of Corsica, especially
  in the neighbourhood of Bastia, contain numerous mammalian remains,
  the commonest of which belong to _Lagomys corsicanus_, Cuv.

  See Hollande, "Géologie de la Corse," _Ann. sci. géol._, vol. ix.
  (1877); Nentien, "Études sur les gîtes minéraux de la Corse," _Ann.
  Mines Paris_, ser. 9, vol. xii. pp. 231-296, pi. v. (1897).

Corsica is well watered by rivers and torrents, which, though short in
their course, bring down large volumes of water from the mountains. The
longest is the Golo, which rises in the pastoral region of Niolo,
isolated among the mountains to the west of Corte and inhabited by a
distinct population of obscure origin. It enters the sea on the east
coast to the south of the salt-water lake of Biguglia; farther south, on
the same side of the island, is the Tavignano, while on the west there
are the Liamone, the Gravone and the Taravo. The other streams are all
comparatively small. Owing to the rugged and indented outline of the
western coast there are an unusual number of bays and harbours. Of the
bays the most important are Porto, Sagone, Ajaccio and Valinco; of the
ports, St Florent (San Fiorenzo), Ile Rousse (Isola Rossa), Calvi,
Ajaccio and Propriano. On the eastern side, which is much less rugged
and broken, the only harbours worth mentioning are those of Bastia and
Porto Vecchio (the _Portus Syracusanus_ of the ancients), and the only
gulfs those of Porto Vecchio and Santa Manza. At the extreme south are
the harbour and town of Bonifacio, giving name to the strait which
separates Corsica from Sardinia.

The climate of the island ranges from warmth in the lowlands to extreme
rigour in the mountains. The intermediate region is the most temperate
and healthy. The mean annual temperature at Ajaccio is 63° F. The
dominant winds are those from the south-west and south-east.

There are mines of anthracite, antimony and copper; the island produces
granite, building stone, marble, and amianthus, and there are salt
marshes. Among other places Guagno, Pardina Guitera, and Orezza have
mineral springs.

The agriculture of Corsica suffers from scarcity of labour, due partly
to the apathy of the inhabitants, and from scarcity of capital. The
cultivation of cereals, despite the fertility of the soil, is neglected;
wheat is grown to some extent, but in this respect, the population is
dependent to a large degree on outside supplies. The culture of fruit,
especially of the vine, cedrates, citrons and olives (for which the
Balagne region, in the north-west, is noted), of vegetables and of
tobacco, and sheep and goat rearing are the main rural industries, to
which may be added the rearing of silk-worms. The exploitation of the
fine forests, which contain the well-known Corsican pine, beeches, oaks
and chestnuts, is also an important resource, but tends to proceed too
rapidly. Chestnuts are exported, and, ground into flour, are used as
food by the mountaineers. Most of the inhabitants are proprietors of
land, but often the properties are so split up that many hours, or even
a whole day, are spent in going from the vineyard or olive plantation to
the arable land in the plain or the chestnut-wood in the mountain. A
great part of the agricultural labour is performed by labourers from
Tuscany and Lucca, who periodically visit the island for that purpose.
Sheep of a peculiar breed, resembling chamois and known as _mouflons_,
inhabit the more inaccessible parts of the mountains. The uncultivated
districts are generally overgrown with a thick tangled underwood,
consisting of arbutus, myrtle, thorn, laurel broom and other fragrant
shrubs, and known as the _maquis_, the fragrance of which can be
distinguished even from the sea.

Fishing and shooting are allowed almost everywhere to the possessor of a
government licence; special permission, where it is necessary, is easily
obtained. Wild boars, stags, in the eastern districts, and hares as well
as the _mouflon_ are found, while partridges, quail, woodcock, wild duck
and water-fowl are abundant. Trout and eels are the chief fish. The
flesh of the Corsican blackbird is considered a delicacy. The fisheries
of tunny, pilchard and anchovy are extensively prosecuted for the supply
of the Italian markets; but comparatively few of the natives are engaged
in this industry.

The Corsican is simple and sober but unenterprising; dignified and
proud, he is possessed of a native courtesy, manifested in his
hospitality to strangers, the refusal of which is much resented. He is,
however, implacable towards his own countrymen when his enmity is once
aroused, and the practice of the blood-feud or _vendetta_ has not died
out. Each individual is attached to some powerful family, and the
influence of this usage is specially marked in politics, the individual
voting with his clan on pain of arousing the vindictiveness of his
fellow-members. Another dominant factor in social life in Corsica is the
almost universal ambition on the part of the natives towards an official
career, a tendency from which commerce and agriculture inevitably
suffer.

The manufactures of the island are of small importance. They include the
extraction of gallic acid from chestnut-bark, the preparation of
preserved citrons and other delicacies, and of macaroni and similar
foods and the manufacture of fancy goods and cigars.

The chief ports are Bastia, Ajaccio and Ile Rousse. A railway runs from
Bastia to Ajaccio with branches to Calvi and Ghisonaccia, but, in
general, lack of means of communication as well as of capital are a
barrier to commercial activity. In 1905 imports reached a value of
£113,000. The chief were tobacco furniture and wooden goods, wine,
cereals, coal, cheese and bran. Exports were valued at £336,000, and
included chestnut-extract, charcoal, timber, citrons and other fruits,
seeds, casks, skins, chestnuts and tanning bark.

Corsica is divided into five arrondissements (chief towns--Ajaccio,
Bastia, Calvi, Corte and Sartène), with 62 cantons and 364 communes. It
forms part of the _académie_ (educational circumscription) and
archiepiscopal province of Aix (Bouches-du-Rhône) and of the region of
the XV. army corps. The principal towns are Ajaccio, the capital and the
seat of the bishop of the island and of the prefect; Bastia, the seat of
the court of appeal and of the military commander; Calvi, Corte and
Bonifacio. Other places of interest are St Florent, near which stand the
ruins of the cathedral (12th century) of the vanished town of Nebbio;
Murato, which has a church (12th or 13th century) of Pisan architecture,
which is exemplified in other Corsican churches; and Cargese, where
there is a Greek colony, dating from the 17th century. Near Lucciana are
the ruins of a fine Romanesque church called La Canonica. Megalithic
monuments are numerous, chief among them being the dolmen of Fontanaccia
in the arrondissement of Sartène.

_History._--The earliest inhabitants of Corsica were probably Ligurian.
The Phocaeans of Ionia were the first civilized people to establish
settlements there. About 560 B.C. they landed in the island and founded
the town of Alalia. By the end of the 6th century, however, their power
had dwindled before that of the Etruscans, who were in their turn driven
out by the Carthaginians. The latter were followed by the Romans, who
gained a footing in the island at the time of the First Punic War, but
did not establish themselves there till the middle of the 2nd century
B.C. Both Marius and Sulla founded colonies--the one at Mariana (near
Lucciana) in 104, the second at Aleria in 88. In the early centuries of
the Christian era Corsica formed one of the senatorial provinces of the
Empire, but though it was in continuous commercial communication with
Italy, it was better known as a place of banishment for political
offenders. One of the most distinguished of those was the younger
Seneca, who spent in exile there the eight years ending A.D. 49.

During the break-up of the Roman empire in the West the possession of
Corsica was for a while disputed between the Vandals and the Gothic
allies of the Roman emperors, until in 469 Genseric finally made himself
master of the island. For 65 years the Vandals maintained their
domination, the Corsican forests supplying the wood for the fleets with
which they terrorized the Mediterranean. After the destruction of the
Vandal power in Africa by Belisarius, his lieutenant Cyril conquered
Corsica (534) which now, under the exarchate of Africa, became part of
the East Roman empire. The succeeding period was one of great misery.
Goths and Lombards in turn ravaged the island, which in spite of the
prayers of Pope Gregory the Great the exarch of Africa did nothing to
defend; the rule of the Byzantines was effective only in grinding
excessive taxes out of the wretched population; and, to crown all, in
713 the Mussulmans from the northern coast of Africa made their first
descent upon the island. Corsica remained nominally attached to the East
Roman empire until Charlemagne, having overthrown the Lombard power in
Italy (774), proceeded to the conquest of the island, which now passed
into the hands of the Franks. In 806, however, occurred the first of a
series of Moorish incursions from Spain. Several times defeated by the
emperor's lieutenants, the Moors continually returned, and in 810 gained
temporary possession of the island. They were crushed and exterminated
by an expedition under the emperor's son Charles, but none the less
returned again and again. In 828 the defence of Corsica was entrusted to
Boniface II., count of the Tuscan march, who conducted a successful
expedition against the African Mussulmans, and returning to Corsica
built a fortress in the south of the island which formed the nucleus of
the town (Bonifacio) that bears his name. Boniface's war against the
Saracens was continued by his son Adalbert, after he had been restored
to his father's dignities in 846; but, in spite of all efforts, the
Mussulmans seem to have remained in possession of part of the island
until about 930. Corsica, of which Berengar II., king of Italy, had made
himself master, became in 962, after his dethronement by Otto the Great,
a place of refuge for his son Adalbert, who succeeded in holding the
island and in passing it on to his son, another Adalbert. This latter
was, however, defeated by the forces of Otto II., and Corsica was once
more attached to the marquisate of Tuscany, of which Adalbert was
allowed to hold part of the island in fee.


  The Terra di Comune.

The period of feudal anarchy now began, a general mellay of petty lords
each eager to expand his domain. The counts of Cinarca, especially, said
to be descended from Adalbert, aimed at establishing their supremacy
over the whole island. To counteract this and similar ambitions, in the
11th century, a sort of national diet was held, and Sambucuccio, lord of
Alando, put himself at the head of a movement which resulted in
confining the feudal lords to less than half of the island to the south,
and in establishing in the rest, henceforth known as the Terra di
Comune, a sort of republic composed of autonomous parishes. This system,
which survived till the Revolution, is thus described by Jacobi (tom. i.
p. 137), "Each parish or commune nominated a certain number of
councillors who, under the name of 'fathers of the commune,' were
charged with the administration of justice under the direction of a
_podestà_, who was as it were their president. The podestas of each of
the states or enfranchised districts chose a member of the supreme
council charged with the making of laws and regulations for the Terra di
Comune. This council or magistracy was called the Twelve, from the
number of districts taking a share in its nomination. Finally, in each
district the fathers of the commune elected a magistrate who, under the
name of _caporale_, was entrusted with the defence of the interests of
the poor and weak, with seeing that justice was done to them, and that
they were not made the victims of the powerful and rich."


  Papal sovereignty

  Rule of Pisa.

Meanwhile the south remained under the sway of the counts of Cinarca,
while in the north feudal barons maintained their independence in the
promontory of Cape Corso. Internal feuds continued; William, marquis of
Massa, of the family known later as the Malaspina, was called in by the
communes (1020), drove out the count of Cinarca, reduced the barons to
order, and in harmony with the communes established a dominion which he
was able to hand on to his son. Towards the end of the 11th century,
however, the popes laid claim to the island in virtue of the donation of
Charlemagne, though the Frankish conqueror had promised at most the
reversion of the lands of the Church. The Corsican clergy supported the
claim, and in 1077 the Corsicans declared themselves subjects of the
Holy See in the presence of the apostolic legate Landolfo, bishop of
Pisa. Pope Gregory VII. thereupon invested the bishop and his successors
with the island, an investiture confirmed by Urban II. in 1190 and
extended into a concession of the full sovereignty. The Pisans now took
solemn possession of the island and their "grand judges" (_judices_)
took the place of the papal legates. Corsica, valued by the Pisans as by
the Vandals as an inexhaustible storehouse of materials for their fleet,
flourished exceedingly under the enlightened rule of the great
commercial republic. Causes of dissension remained, however, abundant.
The Corsican bishops repented their subjection to the Pisan archbishop;
the Genoese intrigued at Rome to obtain a reversal of the papal gift to
the rivals with whom they were disputing the supremacy of the seas.
Successive popes followed conflicting policies in this respect; until in
1138 Innocent II., by way of compromise, divided the ecclesiastical
jurisdiction of the island between the archbishops of Pisa and Genoa.
This gave the Genoese great influence in Corsica, and the contest
between the Pisans and Genoese began to distract the island. It was not,
however, till 1195 that the Genoese, by capturing Bonifacio--a nest of
pirates preying on the commerce of both republics--actually gained a
footing in the country. For twenty years the Pisans fought to recover
the fortress for themselves, until in 1217 the pope settled the matter
by taking it into his own hands.

Throughout the 13th century the struggle between Pisans and Genoese
continued, reproducing in the island the feud of Ghibellines and Guelphs
that was desolating Italy. In order to put a stop to the ruinous anarchy
the chiefs of the Terra di Comune called in the marquis Isnard
Malaspina; the Pisans set up the count of Cinarca once more; and the war
between the marquis, the Pisans and Genoese dragged on with varying
fortunes, neither succeeding in gaining the mastery. Then, in 1298, Pope
Boniface VIII. added to the complication by investing King James of
Aragon with the sovereignty of Corsica and of Sardinia. In 1325, after
long delay, the Aragonese attacked and reduced Sardinia, with the result
that the Pisans, their sea-power shattered, were unable to hold their
own in Corsica. A fresh period of anarchy followed until, in 1347, a
great assembly of _caporali_ and barons decided to offer the sovereignty
of the island to Genoa. A regular tribute was to be paid to the
republic; the Corsicans were to preserve their laws and customs, under
the council of Twelve in the north and a council of Six in the south;
Corsican interests were to be represented at Genoa by an _orator_.


  Genoese domination.

The Genoese domination, which began under evil auspices--for the Black
Death killed off some two-thirds of the population--was not destined to
bring peace to the island. The feudal barons of the south and the
hereditary _caporali_ of the north alike resisted the authority of the
Genoese governors; and King Peter of Aragon took advantage of their
feuds to reassert his claims. In 1372 Arrigo, count of La Rocca, with
the assistance of Aragonese troops, made himself master of the island;
but his very success stirred up against him the barons of Cape Corso,
who once more appealed to Genoa. The republic, busied with other
affairs, hit upon the luckless expedient of investing with the
governorship of the island a sort of chartered company, consisting of
five persons, known as the _Maona_. They attempted to restore order by
taking Arrigo della Rocca into partnership, with disastrous results. In
1380 four of the "governors of the Maona" resigned their rights to the
Genoese republic, and Leonello Lomellino was left as sole governor. It
was he who, in 1383, built Bastia on the north coast, which became the
bulwark of the Genoese power in the island. It was not till 1401, after
the death of Count Arrigo, that the Genoese domination was temporarily
re-established.

Meanwhile Genoa itself had fallen into the hands of the French, and in
1407 Leonello Lomellino returned as governor with the title of count of
Corsica bestowed on him by Charles VI. of France. But Vincentello d'
Istria, who had gained distinction in the service of the king of Aragon,
had captured Cinarca, rallied round him all the communes of the Terra di
Comune, proclaimed himself count of Corsica at Biguglia and even seized
Bastia. Lomellino was unable to make headway against him, and by 1410
all Corsica, with the exception of Bonifacio and Calvi, was lost to
Genoa, now once more independent of France. A feud of Vincentello with
the bishop of Mariana, however, led to the loss of his authority in the
Terra di Comune; he was compelled to go to Spain in search of
assistance, and in his absence the Genoese reconquered the island. Not,
however, for long. The Great Schism was too obvious an opportunity for
quarrelling for the Corsicans to neglect; and the Corsican bishops and
clergy were more ready with the carnal than with spiritual weapons. The
suffragans of Genoa fought for Benedict XIII., those of Pisa for John
XXIII.; and when Vincentello returned with an Aragonese force he was
able to fish profitably in troubled waters. He easily captured Cinarca
and Ajaccio, came to terms with the Pisan bishops, mastered the Terra di
Comune and built a strong castle at Corte; by 1419 the Genoese
possessions in Corsica were again reduced to Calvi and Bonifacio.


  Aragonese intervention.

At this juncture Alphonso of Aragon arrived, with a large fleet, to take
possession of the island. Calvi fell to him; but Bonifacio held out, and
its resistance gave time for the Corsicans, aroused by the tyranny and
exactions of the Aragonese, to organize revolt. In the end the siege of
Bonifacio was raised, and the town, confirmed in its privileges, became
practically an independent republic under Genoese protection. As for
Vincentello he managed to hold his own for a while; but ultimately the
country rose against him, and in 1435 he was executed as a rebel by the
Genoese, who had captured him by surprise in the port of Bastia.

The anarchy continued, while rival factions, nominal adherents of the
Aragonese and Genoese, contended for the mastery. Profiting by the
disturbed situation, the Genoese doge, Janus da Fregoso, succeeded in
reducing the island, his artillery securing him an easy victory over the
forces of Count Paolo della Rocca (1441). To secure his authority he
built and fortified the new city of San Fiorenzo, near the ruins of
Nebbio. But again the Aragonese intervened, and the anarchy reached its
height. An appeal to Pope Eugenius IV. resulted in the despatch of a
pontifical army of 14,000 men (1444), which was destroyed in detail by a
league of some of the _caporali_ and most of the barons under the bold
leadership of Rinuccio da Leca. A second expedition was more fortunate,
and Rinuccio was killed before Biguglia. In 1447 Eugenius was succeeded
on the papal throne by Nicholas V., a Genoese, who promptly made over
his rights in Corsica, with all the strong places held by his troops, to
Genoa. The island was now, in effect, divided between the Genoese
republic; the lords of Cinarca, who held their lands in the south under
the nominal suzerainty of Aragon; and Galeazzo da Campo Fregoso, who was
supreme in the Terra di Comune.


  The Bank of San Giorgio.

  Milanese intervention.

An assembly of the chiefs of the Terra di Comune now decided to offer
the government of the island to the Company or Bank of San Giorgio, a
powerful commercial corporation established at Genoa in the 14th
century.[1] The bank accepted; the Spaniards were driven from the
country; and a government was organized. But the bank soon fell foul of
the barons, and began a war of extermination against them. Their
resistance was finally broken in 1460, when the survivors took refuge in
Tuscany. But order had scarcely been established when the Genoese
Tommasinoda Campo Fregoso, whose mother was a Corsican, revived the
claims of his family and succeeded in mastering the interior of the
island (1462). Two years later the duke of Milan, Francesco Sforza,
overthrew the power of the Fregoso family at Genoa, and promptly
proceeded to lay claim to Corsica. His lieutenant had no difficulty in
making the island accept the overlordship of the duke of Milan; but
when, in 1466, Francesco Sforza died, a quarrel broke out, and Milanese
suzerainty became purely nominal save in the coast towns. Finally, in
1484, Tommasino da Campo Fregoso persuaded the duke to grant him the
government of the island. The strong places were handed over to him; he
entered into marriage relations with Gian Paolo da Leca, the most
powerful of the barons, and was soon supreme in the island.

Within three years the Corsicans were up in arms again. A descendant of
the Malaspinas who had once ruled in Corsica, Jacopo IV. (d'Appiano),
was now prince of Piombino, and to him the malcontents applied. His
brother Gherardo, count of Montagnano, accepted the call, proclaimed
himself count of Corsica, and, landing in the island, captured Biguglia
and San Fiorenzo; whereupon Tommasino da Campo Fregoso discreetly sold
his rights to the bank of San Giorgio. No sooner, however, had the
bank--with the assistance of the count of Leca--beaten Count Gherardo
than the Fregoso family tried to repudiate their bargain. Their claims
were supported by the count of Leca, and it cost the agents of the bank
some hard fighting before the turbulent baron was beaten and exiled to
Sardinia. Twice he returned, and he was not finally expelled from the
country till 1501; it was not till 1511 that the other barons were
crushed and that the bank could consider itself in secure possession of
the island.

If the character of the Corsicans has been distinguished in modern times
for a certain wild intractableness and ferocity, the cause lies in their
unhappy past, and not least in the character of the rule established by
the bank of San Giorgio. The power which the bank had won by ruthless
cruelty, it exercised in the spirit of the narrowest and most
short-sighted selfishness. Only a shadow of the native institutions was
suffered to survive, and no adequate system of administration was set up
in the place of that which had been suppressed. In the absence of
justice the blood-feud or _vendetta_ grew and took root in Corsica just
at the time when, elsewhere in Europe, the progress of civilization was
making an end of private war. The agents of the bank, so far from
discouraging these internecine quarrels, looked on them as the surest
means for preventing a general rising. Concerned, moreover, only with
squeezing taxes out of a recalcitrant population, they neglected the
defence of the coast, along which the Barbary pirates harried and looted
at will; and to all these woes were added, in the 16th century,
pestilences and disastrous floods, which tended still further to
impoverish and barbarize the country.


  First French Intervention, 1553.

In these circumstances King Henry II. of France conceived the project of
conquering the island. From Corsican mercenaries in French service, men
embittered by wrongs suffered at the hands of the Genoese, he obtained
all the necessary information; by a treaty of alliance concluded at
Constantinople (February 1, 1553) with Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
he secured the co-operation of the Turkish fleet. The combined forces
attacked the island the same year; the citadel of Bastia fell almost
without a blow, and siege was at once laid simultaneously to all the
other fortresses. The capitulation of Bonifacio to the Turks, after an
obstinate resistance, was followed by the treacherous massacre of the
garrison; soon, of all the strong places, the Genoese held Calvi alone.
At this juncture the emperor Charles V. intervened; a strong force of
imperial troops and Genoese was poured into the island, and the tide of
war turned. The details of the struggle that followed, in which the
Corsican national hero Sampiero da Bastelica gained his first laurels,
are of little general importance. Fortresses were captured and
recaptured; and for three years French, Germans, Spaniards, Genoese and
Corsicans indulged in a carnival of mutual slaughter and outrage. The
outcome of all this was a futile reversion to the _status quo_. In 1556,
indeed, the conclusion of a truce left Corsica--with the exception of
Bastia--in the hands of the French, who proceeded to set up a tolerable
government; but in 1559, by the treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis, the island
was restored to the bank of San Giorgio, from which it was at once taken
over by the Genoese republic.


  Sampiero da Bastelica.

Trouble at once began again. The Genoese attempted to levy a tax which
the Corsicans refused to pay; in violation of the terms of the treaty,
which had stipulated for a universal amnesty, they confiscated the
property of Sampiero da Bastelica. Hereupon Sampiero again put himself
at the head of the national movement. The suzerainty of the Turk seemed
preferable to that of Genoa, and, armed with letters from the king of
France, he went to Constantinople to ask the aid of a fleet for the
purpose of reducing Corsica to the status of an Ottoman province.[2] All
his efforts to secure foreign help were, however, vain; he determined to
act alone, and in June 1564 landed at Valinco with only fifty followers.
His success was at first extraordinary, and he was soon at the head of
8000 men; but ultimate victory was rendered impossible by the
indiscipline among the Corsicans and by the internecine feuds of which
the Genoese well knew how to take advantage. For over two years a war
was waged in which quarter was given on neither side; but after the
assassination of Sampiero in 1567 the spirit of the insurgents was
broken. In 1568 an honourable peace, including a general amnesty, was
arranged with the Genoese commander Giorgio Doria by Sampiero's son
Alphonso d'Ornano, who with 300 of his friends emigrated to France,
where he rose to be a marshal under Henry IV.

From this time until 1729 Corsica remained at peace under the government
of Genoa. It was, however, a peace due to lassitude and despair rather
than contentment. The settlement of 1568 had reserved a large measure of
autonomy to the Corsicans; during the years that followed this was
withdrawn piecemeal, until, disarmed and powerless, they were excluded
from every office in the administration. Nor did the Genoese substitute
any efficient system for that which they had destroyed. In the absence
of an effective judiciary the _vendetta_ increased; in the absence of
effective protection the sea-board was exposed to the ravages of the
Barbary pirates, so that the coast villages and towns were abandoned and
the inhabitants withdrew into the interior, leaving the most fertile
part of the country to fall into the condition of a malarious waste. To
add to all this, in 1576 the population had been decimated by a
pestilence. Emigration _en masse_ continued, and an attempt to remedy
this by introducing a colony of Greeks in 1688 only added one more
element of discord to the luckless island. To the Genoese Corsica
continued to be merely an area to be exploited for their profit; they
monopolized its trade; they taxed it up to and beyond its capacity; they
made the issue of licences to carry firearms a source of revenue, and
studiously avoided interfering with the custom of the _vendetta_ which
made their fiscal expedient so profitable.[3]


  Revolt of 1729.

  King Theodore of Corsica.

In 1729 the Corsicans, irritated by a new hearth-tax known as the _due
seini_, rose in revolt, their leaders being Andrea Colonna Ceccaldi and
Luigi Giafferi. As usual, the Genoese were soon confined to a few coast
towns; but the intervention of the emperor Charles VI. and the despatch
of a large force of German mercenaries turned the tide of war, and in
1732 the authority of Genoa was re-established. Two years later,
however, Giacinto Paoli once more raised the standard of revolt; and in
1735 an assembly at Corte proclaimed the independence of Corsica, set up
a constitution, and entrusted the supreme leadership to Giafferi, Paoli
and Ceccaldi. Though the Genoese were again driven into the fortresses,
lack of arms and provisions made any decisive success of the insurgents
impossible, and when, on the 12th of March 1736, the German adventurer
Baron Theodor von Neuhof arrived with a shipload of muskets and stores
and the assurance of further help to come, leaders and people were glad
to accept his aid on his own conditions, namely that he should be
acknowledged as king of Corsica. On the 15th of April, at Alesani, an
assembly of clergy and of representatives of the communes, solemnly
proclaimed Corsica an independent kingdom under the sovereignty of
Theodore "I." and his heirs. The new king's reign was not fated to last
long. The _opéra bouffe_ nature of his entry on the stage--he was clad
in a scarlet caftan, Turkish trousers and a Spanish hat and feather, and
girt with a scimitar--did not, indeed, offend the unsophisticated
islanders; they were even ready to take seriously his lavish bestowal of
titles and his knightly order "della Liberazione"; they appreciated his
personal bravery; and the fact that the Genoese government denounced him
as an impostor and set a price on his head could only confirm him in
their affection. But it was otherwise when the European help that he had
promised failed to arrive, and, still worse, the governments with which
he had boasted his influence disclaimed him. In November he thought it
expedient to proceed to the continent, ostensibly in search of aid,
leaving Giafferi, Paoli and Luca d'Ornano as regents. In spite of
several attempts, he never succeeded in returning to the island. The
Corsicans, weary of the war, opened negotiations with the Genoese; but
the refusal of the latter to regard the islanders as other than rebels
made a mutual agreement impossible. Finally the republic decided to seek
the aid of France, and in July 1737 a treaty was signed by which the
French king bound himself to reduce the Corsicans to order.


  Intervention of France, 1738.

The object of the French in assisting the Genoese was not the
acquisition of the island for themselves so much as to obviate the
danger, of which they had long been aware, of its falling into the hands
of another power, notably Great Britain. The Corsicans, on the other
hand, though ready enough to come to terms with the French king, refused
to acknowledge the sovereignty of Genoa even when backed by the power of
France. A powerful French force, under the comte de Boissieux, arrived
in the spring of 1738, and for some months negotiations proceeded. But
the effect of the French guarantee of Corsican liberties was nullified
by the demand that the islanders should surrender their arms, and the
attempt of Boissieux to enforce the order for disarmament was followed,
in the winter of 1738-39, by his defeat at the hands of the Corsicans
and by the cutting up of several isolated French detachments. In
February 1739 Boissieux died. His successor, the marquis de Maillebois,
arrived in March with strong reinforcements, and by a combination of
severity and conciliation soon reduced the island to order. Its
maintenance, however, depended on the presence of the French troops, and
in October 1740 the death of the emperor Charles VI. and the outbreak of
the War of the Austrian Succession necessitated their withdrawal.
Genoese and Corsicans were once more left face to face, and the
perennial struggle began anew.


  Sardinian and British Intervention, 1746.

  Renewed French Intervention.

In 1743 "King Theodore," supported by a British squadron, made a descent
on the island, but finding that he no longer possessed a following,
departed never to return. The Corsicans, assembled in diet at Casinca,
now elected Giampietro Gaffori and Alerio Matra as generals and
"protectors of the fatherland" (_protettori della patria_), and began a
vigorous onslaught on the Genoese strongholds. They were helped now by
the sympathy and active aid of European powers, and in 1746 Count
Domenico Rivarola, a Corsican in Sardinian service, succeeded in
capturing Bastia and San Fiorenzo with the aid of a British squadron and
Sardinian troops. The factious spirit of the Corsicans themselves was,
however, their worst enemy. The British commander judged it inexpedient
to intervene in the affairs of a country of which the leaders were at
loggerheads; Rivarola, left to himself, was unable to hold Bastia--a
place of Genoese sympathies--and in spite of the collapse of Genoa
itself, now in Austrian hands, the Genoese governor succeeded in
maintaining himself in the island. By the time of the signature of the
peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, the situation of the island had again
changed. Rivarola and Matra had departed, and Gaffori was left nominally
supreme over a people torn by intestine feuds. Genoa, too, had expelled
the Austrians with French aid, and, owing to a report that the king of
Sardinia was meditating a fresh attempt to conquer the island, a strong
French expedition under the marquis de Cursay had, at the request of the
republic, occupied Calvi, Bonifacio, Ajaccio and Bastia. By the terms of
the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Corsica was once more assigned to Genoa,
but the French garrison remained, pending a settlement between the
republic and the islanders. In view of the intractable temper of the two
parties no agreement could be reached; but Cursay's personal popularity
served to preserve the peace for a while. His withdrawal in 1752,
however, was the signal for a general rising, and once more, at a diet
held at Orezza, Gaffori was elected general and protector. In October of
the following year, however, he fell victim to a _vendetta_ and the
nation was once more leaderless. His place was taken for a while by
Clemente Paoli, son of Giacinto, who for a year or two succeeded, with
the aid of other lieutenants of Gaffori, in holding the Genoese at bay.
He was, however, by temperament unfitted to lead a turbulent and
undisciplined people in time of stress, and in 1755, at his suggestion,
his brother Pasquale was invited to come from Naples and assume the
command.


  Pasquale Paoli.

The first task of Pasquale Paoli, elected general in April at an
assembly at San Antonio della Casabianca, was to suppress the rival
faction led by Emanuele Matra, son of Gaffori's former colleague. By the
spring of 1756 this was done, and the Corsicans were able to turn a
united front against the Genoese. At this juncture the French, alarmed
by a supposed understanding between Paoli and the British, once more
intervened, and occupied Calvi, Ajaccio and San Fiorenzo until 1757,
when their forces were once more called away by the wars on the
continent. In 1758 Paoli renewed the attack on the Genoese, founding the
new port of Isola Rossa as a centre whence the Corsican ships could
attack the trading vessels of Genoa. The republic, indeed, was now too
weak to attempt seriously to reassert its sway over the island, which,
with the exception of the coast towns, Paoli ruled with absolute
authority and with conspicuous wisdom. In the intervals of fighting he
was occupied in reducing Corsican anarchy into some sort of civilized
order. The vendetta was put down, partly by religious influence, partly
with a stern hand; the surviving oppressive rights of the feudal
_signori_ were abolished; and the traditional institutions of the Terra
di Comune were made the basis of a democratic constitution for the whole
island.


  Corsica sold to France.

As regarded the relations of Corsica all now depended on the attitude of
France to which both Paoli and the republic made overtures. In 1764 a
French expedition under the comte de Marbeuf arrived, and, by agreement
with Genoa, garrisoned three of the Genoese fortresses. Though Genoese
sovereignty had been expressly recognized in the agreement authorizing
this, it was in effect non-existent. French and Corsicans remained on
amicable terms, and the inhabitants of the nominally Genoese towns
actually sent representatives to the national _consulta_ or parliament.
The climax came early in 1767 when the Corsicans captured the Genoese
island of Capraja, and occupied Ajaccio and other places, evacuated by
the French as a protest against the asylum given to the Jesuits exiled
from France. Genoa now recognized that she had been worsted in the long
contest, and on the 15th of May 1768 signed a treaty selling the
sovereignty of the island to France.


  French conquest.

The Corsicans, intent on independence, were now faced with a more
formidable enemy than the decrepit republic of Genoa. A section of the
people indeed, were in favour of submission; but Paoli himself declared
for resistance; and among those who supported him at the _consulta_
summoned to discuss the question was his secretary Carlo Buonaparte,
father of Napoleon Bonaparte, the future emperor of the French. Into the
details of the war that followed, it is impossible to enter here; in the
absence of the hoped-for help from Great Britain its issue could not be
doubtful; and, though the task of the French was a hard one, by the
summer of 1769 they were masters of the island. On the 16th of June
Pasquale and Clemente Paoli, with some 400 of their followers, embarked
on a British ship for Leghorn. On the 15th of September 1770, a general
assembly of the Corsicans was summoned and the deputies swore allegiance
to King Louis XV.


  Corsica and the revolution of 1789.

  Revolt under Paoli.

For twenty years Corsica, while preserving many of its old institutions,
remained a dependency of the French crown. Then came the Revolution, and
the island, conformed to the new model, was incorporated in France as a
separate department (see Renucci, ii. p. 271 seq.). Paoli, recalled from
exile by the National Assembly on the motion of Mirabeau, after a visit
to Paris, where he was acclaimed as "the hero and martyr of liberty" by
the National Assembly and the Jacobin Club, returned in 1790 to Corsica,
where he was received with immense enthusiasm and acclaimed as "father
of the country." With the new order in the island, however, he was
little in sympathy. In the towns branches of the Jacobin Club had been
established, and these tended, as elsewhere, to usurp the functions of
the regular organs of government and to introduce a new element of
discord into a country which it had been Paoli's life's work to unify.
Suspicions of his loyalty to revolutionary principles had already been
spread at Paris by Bartolomeo Arena, a Corsican deputy and ardent
Jacobin, so early as 1791; yet in 1792, after the fall of the monarchy,
the French government, in its anxiety to secure Corsica, was rash enough
to appoint him lieutenant-general of the forces and governor (_capo
comandante_) of the island. Paoli accepted an office which he had
refused two years before at the hands of Louis XVI. With the men and
methods of the Terror, however, he was wholly out of sympathy. Suspected
of throwing obstacles in the way of the expedition despatched in 1793
against Sardinia, he was summoned, with the procurator-general Pozzo di
Borgo, to the bar of the Convention. Paoli now openly defied the
Convention by summoning the representatives of the communes to meet in
diet at Corte on the 27th of May. To the remonstrances of Saliceti, who
attended the meeting, he replied that he was rebelling, not against
France, but against the dominant faction of whose actions the majority
of Frenchmen disapproved. Saliceti thereupon hurried to Paris, and on
his motion Paoli and his sympathizers were declared by the Convention
_hors la loi_ (June 26).


  British occupation, 1794-1796.

Paoli had already made up his mind to raise the standard of revolt
against France. But though the _consulta_ at Corte elected him
president, Corsican opinion was by no means united. Napoleon Bonaparte,
whom Paoli had expected to win over to his views, indignantly rejected
the idea of a breach with France, and the Bonapartes were henceforth
ranked with his enemies. Paoli now appealed for assistance to the
British government, which despatched a considerable force. By the summer
of 1794, after hard fighting, the island was reduced, and in June the
Corsican assembly formally offered the sovereignty to King George III.
The British occupation lasted two years, the island being administered
by Sir Gilbert Elliot. Paoli, whose presence was considered inexpedient,
was invited to return to England, where he remained till his death. In
1796 Bonaparte, after his victorious Italian campaign, sent an
expedition against Corsica. The British, weary of a somewhat thankless
task, made no great resistance, and in October the island was once more
in French hands. It was again occupied by Great Britain for a short time
in 1814, but in the settlement of 1815 was restored to the French crown.
Its history henceforth is part of that of France.

  See F. Girolami-Cortona, _Géographie générale de la Corse_ (Ajaccio,
  1893); A. Andrei, _À travers la Corse_ (Paris, 1893); Forcioli-Conti,
  _Notre Corse_ (Ajaccio, 1897); R. Le Joindre, _La Corse et les Corses_
  (Paris, 1904); F. O. Renucci, _Storia di Corsica_ (2 vols., Bastia,
  1833), fervidly Corsican, but useful; Antonio Pietro Filippini,
  _Istoria di Corsica_ (1st ed., 1594; 2nd ed., corrected and
  illustrated with unpublished documents by G. C. Gregori, 5 vols.,
  Pisa, 1827-1832); J. M. Jacobi, _Hist. gén. de la Corse_, 2 vols.,
  (Paris, 1833-1835), with many unpublished documents; L. H. Caird,
  _History of Corsica_ (London, 1899). Further works and references to
  articles in reviews, &c., are given in Ulysse Chevalier's _Répertoire
  des sources_, &c., _Topo-bibliographie_, t. ii. s.v.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See "Conventions entre quelques seigneurs Corses et l'office de
    St Georges (1453)," in _Bulletin soc. scientif. Corse_ (1881-1882),
    pp. 286, 305, 413, 501, 549 and (1883) 147; also the report of the
    deputies sent by the bank to Pope Nicholas V. in 1453, ib. p. 141.

  [2] Hammer-Purgstall, _Gesch. des Osmanischen Reichs_ (Pest, 1840),
    ii. 288.

  [3] Father Cancellotti, who visited every part of the island,
    estimated the number of murders committed in 20 years at 28,000
    (quoted in the article on Corsica in _La Grande Encyclopédie_).



CORSICANA, a city and the county-seat of Navarro county, Texas, U.S.A.,
situated in the N.E. part of the state, about 55 m. S. of Dallas. Pop.
(1890) 6285; (1900) 9313, of whom 2399 were of negro descent; (1910
census) 9749. It is served by the Houston & Texas Central, the St Louis
South Western, and the Trinity & Brazos Valley railways. It is the
centre of a large and productive wheat- and cotton-growing region, which
has also numerous oil wells (with a total production in 1907 of 226,311
barrels). The city has two oil refineries, a large cotton gin and a
cotton compress, and among its manufactures are cotton-seed oil,
cotton-cloth, flour and ice. The total value of the factory product in
1905 was $1,796,805, being an increase of 50.3% since 1900. Natural gas
is extensively used for fuel and for lighting. Corsicana is the seat of
the Texas state orphan home and of an Odd Fellows widows' and orphans'
home, and has a Carnegie library. Corsicana was named in honour of the
wife of a Mexican, Navarro, who owned a large tract of land in the
county and from whom the county was named. The first permanent
settlement here was made in 1848, and Corsicana was incorporated as a
village in 1850 and chartered as a city in 1871.



CORSINI, the name of a Florentine princely family, of which the founder
is said to be Neri Corsini, who flourished about the year 1170. Like
other Florentine nobles the Corsini had at first no titles, but in more
recent times they received many from foreign potentates and from the
later grand dukes of Tuscany. The emperor Charles IV. created the head
of the house a count palatine in 1371; the marquisate of Sismano was
conferred on them in 1620, those of Casigliano and Civitella in 1629,
of Lajatico and Orciatico in 1644, of Giovagallo and Tresana in 1652; in
1730 Lorenzo Corsini was elected pope as Clement XII., and conferred the
rank of Roman princes and the duchy of Casigliano on his family, and in
1732 they were created grandees of Spain. They own two palaces in
Florence, one of which on the Lung' Arno Corsini contains the finest
private picture gallery in the city, and many villas and estates in
various parts of Italy.

  See L. Passerini, _Genealogia e storia della famiglia Corsini_
  (Florence, 1858); A. von Reumont, _Geschichte der Stadt Rom_ (Berlin,
  1868); _Almanach de Gotha_.     (L. V.*)



CORSON, HIRAM (1828-   ), American scholar, was born on the 6th of
November 1828, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He held a position in the
library of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. (1849-1856), was
a lecturer on English literature in Philadelphia (1859-1865), and was
professor of English at Girard College, Philadelphia (1865-1866), and in
St John's College, Annapolis, Maryland (1866-1870). In 1870-1871 he was
professor of rhetoric and oratory at Cornell University, where he was
professor of Anglo-Saxon and English literature (1872-1886), of English
literature and rhetoric (1886-1890), and from 1890 to 1903 (when he
became professor emeritus) of English literature, a chair formed for
him. He edited Chaucer's _Legende of Goode Women_ (1863) and _Selections
from Chaucer's Canterbury Tales_ (1896), and wrote a _Hand-Book of
Anglo-Saxon and Early English_ (1871), and, among other text-books, _An
Elocutionary Manual_ (1864), _A Primer of English Verse_ (1892), and
_Introductions_ to the study of Browning (1886, 1889), of Shakespeare
(1889) and of Milton (1899). The volume on Shakespeare and the _Jottings
on the Text of Macbeth_ (1874) contain some excellent Shakespearian
criticism. He also published _The University of the Future_ (1875), _The
Aims of Literary Study_ (1895), and _The Voice and Spiritual Education_
(1896). He translated the _Satires of Juvenal_ (1868) and edited a
translation by his wife, Caroline Rollin (d. 1901), of Pierre Janet's
_Mental State of Hystericals_ (1901).



CORSSEN, WILHELM PAUL (1820-1875), German philologist, was born at
Bremen on the 20th of January 1820, and received his school education in
the Prussian town of Schwedt, to which his father, a merchant, had
removed. After spending some time at the Joachimsthal Gymnasium in
Berlin, where his interest in philological pursuits was awakened by the
rector, Meinike, he proceeded to the university, and there came
especially under the influence of Böckh and Lachmann. His first
important appearance in literature was as the author of _Origines poesis
romanae_, by which he had obtained the prize offered by the
"philosophical" or "arts" faculty of the university. In 1846 he was
called from Stettin, where he had for nearly two years held a post in
the gymnasium, to occupy the position of lecturer in the royal academy
at Pforta (commonly called Schulpforta), and there he continued to
labour for the next twenty years. In 1854 he won a prize offered by the
Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences for the best work on the
pronunciation and accent of Latin, a treatise which at once took rank,
on its publication under the title of _Über Aussprache, Vocalismus, und
Betonung der lateinischen Sprache_ (1858-1859), as one of the most
erudite and masterly works in its department. This was followed in 1863
by his _Kritische Beiträge zur lat. Formenlehre_, which were
supplemented in 1866 by _Kritische Nachträge zur lat. Formenlehre_. In
the discussion of the pronunciation of Latin he was naturally led to
consider the various old Italian dialects, and the results of his
investigations appeared in miscellaneous communications to Kuhn's
_Zeitschrift für vergleichende Schriftforschung_. Ill-health obliged him
to give up his professorship at Pforta, and return to Berlin, in 1866;
but it produced almost no diminution of his literary activity. In 1867
he published an elaborate archaeological study entitled the _Alterthümer
und Kunstdenkmale des Cistercienserklosters St Marien und der
Landesschule Pforta_, in which he gathers together all that can be
discovered about the history of the Pforta academy, the German "Eton,"
and in 1868-1869 he brought out a new edition of his work on Latin
pronunciation. From a very early period he had been attracted to the
special study of Etruscan remains, and had at various times given
occasional expression to his opinions on individual points; but it was
not till 1870 that he had the opportunity of visiting Italy and
completing his equipment for a formal treatment of the whole subject by
personal inspection of the monuments. In 1874 appeared the first volume
of _Über die Sprache der Etrusker_, in which with great ingenuity and
erudition he endeavoured to prove that the Etruscan language was cognate
with that of the Romans. Before the second volume (published
posthumously under the editorship of Kuhn) had received the last touches
of his hand, he was cut off in 1875 by a comparatively early death.



CORT, CORNELIS (1536-1578), Dutch engraver, was born at Horn in Holland,
and studied engraving under Hieronymus Cockx of Antwerp. About 1565 he
went to Venice, where Titian employed him to execute the well-known
copperplates of St Jerome in the Desert, the Magdalen, Prometheus, Diana
and Actaeon, and Diana and Calisto. From Italy he wandered back to the
Netherlands, but he returned to Venice soon after 1567, proceeding
thence to Bologna and Rome, where he produced engravings from all the
great masters of the time. At Rome he founded the well-known school in
which, as Bartsch tells us, the simple line of Marcantonio was modified
by a brilliant touch of the burin, afterwards imitated and perfected by
Agostino Caracci in Italy and Nicolas de Bruyn in the Netherlands.
Before visiting Italy, Cort had been content to copy Michael Coxcie, F.
Floris, Heemskerk, G. Mostaert, Bartholomäus Spranger and Stradan. In
Italy he gave circulation to the works of Raphael, Titian, Polidoro da
Caravaggio, Baroccio, Giulio Clovio, Muziano and the Zuccari. His
connexion with Cockx and Titian is pleasantly illustrated in a letter
addressed to the latter by Dominick Lampson of Liége in 1567. Cort is
said to have engraved upwards of one hundred and fifty-one plates. In
Italy he was known as Cornelio Fiammingo.



CORTE, a town of central Corsica, 52 m. N.E. of Ajaccio by the railway
between that town and Bastia. Pop. (1906) 4839. The upper town is
situated on a precipitous rock overhanging the confluence of the
Tavignano and Restonica, the rest of the town lying below it on both
banks of the rivers. On the summit of the rock stands a citadel built by
Vincentello d'Istria (see CORSICA). Other interesting buildings are the
house in which Pasquale Paoli lived while Corte was the seat of his
government (1755 to 1769), and the house of another patriot, Giampietro
Gaffori, whose wife defended it from the Genoese in 1750. There are
statues of Paoli, of General Gaffori, and of General Arrighi di
Casanova, duke of Padua (d. 1853). Corte is capital of an arrondissement
of the island, has a subprefecture, a tribunal of first instance and a
communal college, and manufactures alimentary paste. There are marble
quarries in the vicinity, and the town has trade in wine and timber. In
the 18th century Corte was the centre of the resistance to the Genoese,
and it was the seat of a university erected by Paoli.



CORTE-REAL, JERONYMO (1533-1588), Portuguese epic poet, came of a noble
Portuguese stock. Of the same family were Gaspar Corte-Real, who in 1500
and 1501 sailed to Labrador and the Arctic seas; and his brothers Miguel
and Vasco. Their voyages opened the way for important Portuguese
fisheries on the Newfoundland coast (see Henry Harrisse, _Les Corte-Real
et leurs voyages au Nouveau-Monde_, and _Gasper Corte-Real: la date
exacte de sa dernière expédition au Nouveau-Monde_, Paris, 1883). In his
youth Jeronymo fought in Africa and Asia according to the custom of
noblemen in that age. There is a tradition that he was present at the
affair of Tangier on the 18th of May 1553, when D. Pedro de Menezes met
his death. Returning home, it is supposed about 1570, he spent the rest
of his days in retirement. In 1578 he placed his sword at the disposal
of King Sebastian for the fatal expedition to Africa, but the monarch
dispensed him from the journey (it is said) on account of his age, and
in 1586 we find him acting as _provedor_ of the _Misericordia_ of Evora.
He married D. Luiza da Silva, but left no legitimate issue. Corte-Real
was painter as well as soldier and poet, and one of his pictures is
still preserved in the church of S. Antão at Evora. His poetical works
are believed to have been composed in his old age at the mansion on his
estate near Evora, known as "Valle de Palma." _O Segundo cerco de Diu_,
an epic in 21 cantos, deals with the historic siege of that Indian
island-fortress of the Portuguese. First printed in 1574, it had a
second edition in 1783, while a Spanish version appeared at Alcalá in
1597. _Austriada_, an epic in 15 cantos celebrating the victory of Don
John of Austria over the Turks at Lepanto, was written in Spanish and
published in 1578. King Philip II. accepted the dedication in flattering
terms and visited the poet when he came to Portugal. _Naufragio de
Sepulveda_, an epic in 17 cantos, describes the tragic shipwreck on the
South African coast and the death of D. Manoel de Sepulveda with his
beautiful wife and young children, a disaster which drew some feeling
stanzas from Camoens (_Lusiads_, v. 46). The poem was published four
years after the death of Corte-Real by his heirs, and had two later
editions, while a Spanish version appeared in Madrid in 1624 and a
French in Paris in 1844. _Auto dos quatro novissimos do homem_ is a
short poem printed in 1768. Except the _Naufragio de Sepulveda_, which
is highly considered in Portugal, Corte-Real's poetry has hardly stood
the test of time, and critics of later generations have refused to
ratify the estimate formed by contemporaries, who considered him the
equal, if not the superior, of Camoens. His lengthy epics suffer from a
want of sustained inspiration, and are marred by an abuse of epithet,
though they contain episodes of considerable merit, vigorous and
well-coloured descriptive passages, and exhibit a pure diction.

  See _Subsidios para a biographia do poeta Jeronymo Corte-Real_ (Evora,
  1899); also Ernesto do Canto's Memoir on the family in Nos. 23 and 24
  of the _Archivo dos Azores_, and Dr Sousa Viterbo's _Trabalhos
  nauticos dos Portuguezes_, ii. 153 et seq.     (E. PR.)



CORTES, HERNAN or HERNANDO (1485-1547), Spanish soldier, the conqueror
of Mexico, was born at Medellin, a small town of Estremadura, in 1485.
He belonged to a noble family of decayed fortune, and, being destined
for the law, was sent, at fourteen years of age, to the university of
Salamanca; but study was distasteful to him, and he returned home in
1501, resolved to enter upon a life of adventure. He arranged to
accompany Ovando, who had been appointed to the command of San Domingo,
but was prevented from joining the expedition by an accident that
happened to him in a love adventure. He next sought military service
under the celebrated Gonsalvo de Córdoba, but a serious illness
frustrated his purpose. At last, in 1504, he set out, according to his
first plan, for San Domingo, where he was kindly received by Ovando. He
was then only nineteen, and remarkable for a graceful physiognomy and
amiable manners, as well as for skill and address in all military
exercises. He remained in San Domingo, where Ovando had successively
conferred upon him several lucrative and honourable employments, until
1511, when he accompanied Diego Velazquez in his expedition to the
island of Cuba. Here he became alcalde of Santiago, and displayed great
ability on several trying occasions.

An opportunity was soon afforded him of showing his powers as a military
leader. Juan Grijalva, lieutenant of Velazquez, had just discovered
Mexico, but had not attempted to effect a settlement. This displeased
the governor of Cuba, who superseded Grijalva, and entrusted the
conquest of the newly discovered country to Cortes. The latter hastened
his preparations, and, on the 18th of November 1518, he set out from
Santiago, with 10 vessels, 600 or 700 Spaniards, 18 horsemen and some
pieces of cannon. Scarcely had he set sail, however, when Velazquez
recalled the commission which he had granted to Cortes, and even ordered
him to be put under arrest; but the attachment of the troops, by whom he
was greatly beloved, enabled him to persevere in spite of the governor;
and on the 4th of March 1519 he landed on the coast of Mexico. Advancing
along the gulf, sometimes taking measures to conciliate the natives, and
sometimes spreading terror by his arms, he took possession of the town
of Tobasco. The noise of the artillery, the appearance of the floating
fortresses which had transported the Spaniards over the ocean, and the
horses on which they fought, all new objects to the natives, inspired
them with astonishment mingled with terror and admiration; they regarded
the Spaniards as gods, and sent them ambassadors with presents. Cortes
here learned that the native sovereign was called Montezuma; that he
reigned over an extensive empire, which had lasted for three centuries;
that thirty vassals, called caciques, obeyed him; and that his riches
were immense and his power absolute. No more was necessary to inflame
the ambition of the invader, who did not hesitate to undertake the
conquest of this great empire, which could only be effected by combining
stratagem and address with force and courage. He laid the foundation of
the town of Vera Cruz, caused himself to be elected captain-general of
the new colony, and burned his vessels to cut off the possibility of
retreat and show his soldiers that they must either conquer or perish.
He then penetrated into the interior of the country, drew to his camp
several caciques hostile to Montezuma, and induced these native princes
to facilitate his progress. The republic of Tlaxcala, which was hostile
to Montezuma, opposed him; but he routed its army, which had resisted
all the forces of the Mexican empire, dictated peace on moderate terms
and converted the people into powerful auxiliaries. His farther advance
was in vain attempted to be checked by an ambuscade laid by the
inhabitants of Cholula, on whom he took signal vengeance.

Surmounting all other obstacles he arrived, with 6000 natives and a
handful of Spaniards, in sight of the immense lake on which was built
the city of Mexico, the capital of the empire. Montezuma received him
with great pomp, and his subjects, believing Cortes to be a descendant
of the sun, prostrated themselves before him. The first care of Cortes
was to fortify himself in one of the beautiful palaces of the prince,
and he was planning how to possess himself of the riches of so opulent
an empire, when intelligence reached him that a general of the emperor,
who had received secret orders, had just attacked the garrison of Vera
Cruz and killed several of his soldiers. The head of one of the
Spaniards was sent to the capital. This event undeceived the Mexicans,
who had hitherto believed the Spaniards to be immortal, and necessarily
altered the whole policy of Cortes. Struck with the greatness of the
danger, surrounded by enemies, and having only a handful of soldiers, he
conceived and instantly executed a most daring project. Having repaired
with his officers to the palace of the emperor, he announced to
Montezuma that he must either accompany him or perish. Being thus master
of the person of the monarch, he next demanded that the Mexican general
and his officers who had attacked the Spaniards should be delivered into
his hands; and when this had been done he caused these unfortunate men,
who had only obeyed the orders of their sovereign, to be burned alive
before the gates of the imperial palace. During this cruel execution
Cortes entered the apartment of Montezuma, and caused him to be loaded
with irons, in order to force him to acknowledge himself a vassal of
Charles V. The unhappy prince yielded, and was restored to a semblance
of liberty on presenting the fierce conqueror with 600,000 marks of pure
gold, and a prodigious quantity of precious stones. Scarcely had he
reaped the fruits of his audacity, however, when he was informed of the
landing of a Spanish army, under Narvaez, which had been sent by
Velazquez to compel him to renounce his command. In this emergency
Cortes acted with his usual decision and courage. Leaving 200 men at
Mexico, under the orders of his lieutenant (Alvarado), he marched
against Narvaez, whom he defeated and made prisoner, and he then
enlisted under his standard the Spanish soldiers who had been sent to
attack him. On his return to the capital, however, he found that the
Mexicans had revolted against the emperor and the Spaniards, and that
dangers thickened around him. Montezuma perished in attempting to
address his revolted subjects; the latter, having chosen a new emperor,
attacked the headquarters of Cortes with the utmost fury, and, in spite
of the advantage of firearms, forced the Spaniards to retire, as the
only means of escaping destruction. Their rear-guard, however, was cut
in pieces, and they suffered severely during the retreat, which was
continued during six days. Elated with their success, the Mexicans
offered battle in the plain of Otumba. This was what Cortes desired, and
it proved their destruction. Cortes gave the signal for battle, and, on
the 7th of July 1520, gained a victory which decided the fate of Mexico.
Immediately afterwards he proceeded to Tlaxcala, assembled an auxiliary
army of natives, subjected the neighbouring provinces, and then marched
a second time against Mexico, which, after a gallant defence of several
months, was retaken on the 13th of August 1521.

These successes were entirely owing to the genius, valour and profound
but unscrupulous policy of Cortes; and the account of them which he
transmitted to Spain excited the admiration of his countrymen. The
extent of his conquests, and the ability he had displayed, effaced the
censure which he had incurred by the irregularity of his operations; and
public opinion having declared in his favour, Charles V., disregarding
the pretensions of Velazquez, appointed him governor and captain-general
of Mexico, at the same time conferring on him the valley of Oaxaca,
which was erected (1529) into a marquisate, with a considerable revenue.
But although his power was thus confirmed by royal authority, and
although he exerted himself to consolidate Spanish domination throughout
all Mexico, the means he employed were such that the natives, reduced to
despair, took arms against the Spaniards. This revolt, however, was
speedily subdued, and the Mexicans were everywhere forced to yield to
the ascendancy of European discipline and valour. Guatemotzin, who had
been recognized as emperor, and a great number of caciques, accused of
having conspired against the conquerors, were publicly executed, with
circumstances of great cruelty, by order of Cortes. Meanwhile the court
of Madrid, dreading the ambition and popularity of the victorious chief,
sent commissioners to watch his conduct and thwart his proceedings; and
whilst he was completing the conquest of New Spain his goods were seized
by the fiscal of the Council of the Indies, and his retainers imprisoned
and put into irons. Indignant at the ingratitude of his sovereign,
Cortes returned in person to Spain to appeal to the justice of the
emperor, and appeared there with great splendour. The emperor received
him with every mark of distinction, and decorated him with the order of
St Iago. Cortes returned to Mexico with new titles but diminished
authority, a viceroy having been entrusted with the administration of
civil affairs, whilst the military department, with permission to push
his conquests, was all that remained to Cortes. This division of powers
became a source of continual dissension, and caused the failure of the
last enterprises in which he engaged. Nevertheless, in 1536, he
discovered the peninsula of Lower California, and surveyed a part of the
gulf which separates it from Mexico.

At length, tired of struggling with adversaries unworthy of him, whom
the court took care to multiply, he returned to Europe, hoping to
confound his enemies. But Charles V. received him coldly. Cortes
dissembled, redoubled the assiduity of his attendance on the emperor,
accompanied him in the disastrous expedition to Algiers in 1541, served
as a volunteer, and had a horse killed under him. This was his last
appearance in the field, and if his advice had been followed the Spanish
arms would have been saved from disgrace, and Europe delivered nearly
three centuries earlier from the scourge of organized piracy. Soon
afterwards he fell into neglect, and could scarcely obtain an audience.
The story goes that, having forced his way through the crowd which
surrounded the emperor's carriage, and mounted on the door-step,
Charles, astonished at an act of such audacity, demanded to know who he
was. "I am a man," replied the conqueror of Mexico proudly, "who has
given you more provinces than your ancestors left you cities." So
haughty a declaration of important services ill-requited could scarcely
fail to offend a monarch on whom fortune had lavished her choicest
favours. Cortes, overwhelmed with disgust, withdrew from court, passed
the remainder of his days in solitude, and died, near Seville, on the
2nd of December 1547.

  The only writings of Cortes are five letters on the subject of his
  conquests, which he addressed to Charles V. The best edition of them
  is that of Don Francisco Antonio Lorenzana, archbishop of Mexico,
  entitled _Historia de Nueva-España escrita par su esclarecido
  conquistador, Hernan Cortes, aumentada con otros documientos y notas_
  (Mexico, 1770, 4to), a work the noble simplicity of which attests the
  truth of the recital it contains. An English translation of the
  letters, edited by Francis A. MacNutt, was published in 1908. The
  conquests of Cortes have been described with pompous elegance by
  Antonio de Solis in his _Historia de la conquista de Mejico_ (1684),
  and with more truth and simplicity by Bernardo Diaz del Castillo in
  his work under the same title (1632). See also Sir Arthur Helps's
  _Life of Hernando Cortes_ (2 vols., London, 1871), F. A. MacNutt's
  _Fernando Cortes_ ("Heroes of the Nations" Series, 1909), and the
  bibliography to MEXICO.



CORTES, a Spanish term literally signifying the "courts," and applied to
the states, or assembly of the states, of the kingdom. (See SPAIN and
PORTUGAL.)



CORTI, LODOVICO, COUNT (1823-1888), Italian diplomatist, was born at
Gambarano on the 28th of October 1823. Early involved with Benedetto
Cairoli in anti-Austrian conspiracies, he was exiled to Turin, where he
entered the Piedmontese foreign office. After serving as artillery
officer through the campaign of 1848, he was in 1850 appointed secretary
of legation in London, whence he was promoted minister to various
capitals, and in 1875 ambassador to Constantinople. Called by Cairoli to
the direction of foreign affairs in 1878, he took part in the congress
of Berlin, but unwisely declined Lord Derby's offer for an Anglo-Italian
agreement in defence of common interests. At Berlin he sustained the
cause of Greek independence, but in all other respects remained
isolated, and excited the wrath of his countrymen by returning to Italy
with "clean hands." For a time he withdrew from public life, but in 1881
was again sent to Constantinople by Cairoli, where he presided over the
futile conference of ambassadors upon the Egyptian question. In 1886 he
was transferred to the London embassy, but was recalled by Crispi in the
following year through a misunderstanding. He died in Rome on the 9th of
April 1888.



CORTLAND, a city and the county-seat of Cortland county, New York,
U.S.A., in the central part of the state, on Tioughnioga river, at the
junction of its E. and W. branches. Pop. (1890) 8590; (1900) 9014, of
whom 682 were foreign born; (1905) 11,272;(1910) 11,504. It is served by
the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western and the Lehigh Valley railways. The
Franklin Hatch library and a state normal and training school (opened in
1869) are in Cortland. The city has important manufactories of wire, and
wire-cloth and netting (one of the largest in America), cabs, carriages
and waggons, iron and steel, wall-paper, dairy supplies, corundum
wheels, and clothing. The value of the city's factory products increased
from $3,063,828 in 1900 to $4,574,191 in 1905 or 49.3%. The town of
Cortlandville, which formed a part of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase,
was first settled in 1792, and until 1829 was a part of the town of
Homer; from which in the latter year it was separated, and made the
county-seat. In 1900 the village of Cortland in the town of
Cortlandville was chartered as a city.

  See H. C. Goodwin, _Cortland County and the Border Wars of New York_
  (New York, 1859).



CORTONA, a town and episcopal see of Italy, in the province of Arezzo,
18 m. S. by E. from the town of Arezzo by rail. The ancient and modern
names are identical. Pop. (1901) of town, 3579; commune, 29,296. The
highest point of Cortona, a medieval castle (Fortezza), is situated 2130
ft. above sea-level on a hill commanding a splendid view, and is
approached by a winding road. It is surrounded by its ancient Etruscan
walls, which for the greater part of the circuit are fairly well
preserved. They are constructed of parallelepipedal blocks of limestone,
finely jointed (though the jointing has often been spoilt by
weathering), and arranged in regular courses which vary in size in
different parts of the enceinte. Near the N.W. angle some of the blocks
are 7 to 8½ ft. long and 2½ ft. high, while on the W. side they are a
good deal smaller--sometimes only 1 ft. high (see F. Noack in _Römische
Mitteilungen_, 1897, 184). Within the town are two subterranean vaulted
buildings in good masonry, of uncertain nature, some other remains under
modern buildings, and a concrete ruin known as the "Bagni di Bacco." The
museum of the Accademia Etrusca, a learned body founded by Ridolfino
Venuti in 1726, is situated in the Palazzo Pretorio; it contains some
Etruscan objects, among which may be specially noted a magnificent
bronze lamp with 16 lights, of remarkably fine workmanship, found in
1740, at the foot of the hill, two votive hands and a few other bronzes,
and a little gold jewellery. The library has a good MS. of Dante. The
cathedral, originally a Tuscan Romanesque building of the 11th-12th
centuries, is now a fine Renaissance basilica restored in the 18th
century, containing some paintings by Luca Signorelli, a native of the
place. Opposite is the baptistery, with three fine pictures by Fra
Angelico. S. Margherita, just below the Fortezza, is an ugly modern
building occupying the site of a Gothic church of 1294, and containing a
fine original rose window and reliefs from the tomb of the saint by
Angelo e Francesco di maestro Pietro d'Assisi. Other works by Signorelli
are to be seen elsewhere in the town, especially in S. Domenico; Pietro
Berettini (Pietro da Cortona, 1596-1669) is hardly represented here at
all. Below the town is the massive tomb chamber (originally
subterranean, but now lacking the mound of the earth which covered it)
known as the Grotta di Pitagora (grotto of Pythagoras). To the E. is the
church of S. Maria del Calcinaio, a fine early Renaissance building by
Francesco di Giorgio Martini of Siena, with fine stained glass windows.

The foundation of Cortona belongs to the legendary period of Italy. It
appears in history as one of the strongholds of the Etruscan power; but
in Roman times it is hardly mentioned. Dionysius's statement that it was
a colony (i. 26) is probably due to confusion.

  See G. Dennis, _Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria_ (London, 1883), ii.
  394 seq.; A. Della Cella, _Cortona Antica_ (Cortona, 1900).
       (T. AS.)



CORUMBÁ, a town and river port of Brazil on the W. bank of the Paraguay
river, 1986 m. above Buenos Aires and 486 m. above the Paraguayan
frontier. Pop. (1890) 8414. Corumbá is a fortified military post, has
the large Ladario naval arsenal, where small river boats are built and
repaired, and is the commercial entrepôt of the state of Matto Grosso.
It is near the Bolivian frontier and is strongly garrisoned. Although
the climate is extremely hot, the neighbouring country has many large
cattle farms. Corumbá is one of the most important places in the
interior of Brazil.



CORUNDUM, a mineral composed of native alumina (Al2O3). remarkable for
its hardness, and forming in its finer varieties a valuable gem-stone.
Specimens were sent from India to England in the 18th century, and were
described in 1798 by the Hon. C. Greville under the name of corundum--a
word which he believed to be the native name of the stone (Hindi,
_kurund_; Tamil, _kurundam_; Sanskrit, _kuruvinda_, "ruby"). The finely
coloured, transparent varieties include such gem-stones as the ruby and
sapphire, whilst the impure granular and massive forms are known as
emery. The term corundum is often restricted to the remaining kinds,
i.e. those crystallized and crystalline varieties which are not
sufficiently transparent and brilliant for ornamental purposes, and
which were known to the older mineralogists as "imperfect corundum."
Such varieties were termed by J. Black, in consequence of their
hardness, adamantine spar, but this name is now usually restricted to a
hair-brown corundum, remarkable for a pearly sheen on the basal plane.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

Corundum crystallizes in the hexagonal system. In fig. 1, which is a
form of ruby, the prism a is combined with a hexagonal pyramid n, a
rhombohedron R, and the basal pinacoid C. In fig. 2, which represents a
typical crystal of sapphire, the prism s is associated with the acute
pyramids b, r, and a rhombohedron a. Other crystals show a tabular
habit, consisting usually of the basal pinacoid with a rhombohedron, and
it is notable that this habit is said to be characteristic of corundum
which has consolidated from a fused magma. Corundum has no true
cleavage, but presents parting planes due to the structure of the
crystal, which have been studied by Prof. J. W. Judd.

Next to diamond, corundum is the hardest known mineral. Its hardness is
generally given as 9, but there are slight variations in different
stones, sapphire being rather harder than ruby, and ruby than common
corundum. The colours are very varied, and it is probable that iron is
responsible for many of the tints, though chromium is a possible agent
in certain cases. The transparent varieties are often distinguished as
"Oriental" stones. (See RUBY and SAPPHIRE.) Corundum is used largely for
watch-jewels, and for bearings in electrical apparatus.

The coloured corundums fit for gem-stones come chiefly from Ceylon,
Burma, Siam and Montana. Coarse dull corundum is found in many
localities, and usually has higher commercial value as an abrasive agent
than emery, which is less pure. The coarse corundum, however, is often
partially hydrated or otherwise altered, whereby its hardness is
diminished. In India, where the native lapidaries use corundum-sticks
and rubbers formed of the powdered mineral cemented with lac, it occurs
in the Salem district, Madras, in Mysore and in Rewa. Large deposits of
corundum exist in the United States, especially in N. Carolina and
Georgia, where they are associated with peridotites, often near contact
with gneiss. The mineral has been extensively worked, as at Corundum
Hill, Macon county, N.C., near which, in 1871, were discovered numerous
rubies, sapphires and pebbles of coarse corundum in the bed of a river.
Corundum occurs also at many localities in Montana, where the crystals
are often of gem quality. They are found mostly as loose crystals in
gravel, but are known also in igenous rocks like andesite and
lamprophyre. Prof. J. H. Pratt, who has studied the occurrence both in
Montana and in N. Carolina, considers that the alumina was dissolved in
a molten magma, from which it separated at an early period of
consolidation, as illustrated by the experiments of J. Morozewicz.
Corundum occurs also in Canada in an igneous rock, a nepheline-syenite,
associated with Laurentian gneiss. Important deposits were discovered by
the Geological Survey in 1896, in Hastings county, Ontario; and corundum
is now worked there and in Renfrew county. New South Wales, Queensland
and Victoria are other localities for corundum. The mineral is found
also in the Urals and the Ilmen Mountains, in the Alps (in dolomite), in
the basalts of the Rhine, and indeed as a subordinate rock-constituent
corundum seems to enjoy a wide distribution, being found even in the
British Isles.

  See Joseph Hyde Pratt, "Corundum and its Occurrence and Distribution
  in the United States," _Bulletin U.S. Geol. Surv._, No. 269 (1906); T.
  H. Holland, _Economic Geology of India_ (2nd ed.), Part i. (1898).
       (F. W. R.*)



CORUNNA, a maritime province in the extreme north-west of Spain; forming
part of Galicia, and bounded on the E. by Lugo, S. by Pontevedra, W. and
N. by the Atlantic Ocean. Pop. (1900) 653,556; area, 3051 sq. m. The
coast of Corunna is exposed to the full force of the Atlantic; it forms
one succession of fantastically shaped promontories, divided by bays and
estuaries which often extend for many miles inland, with reefs and small
islands in their midst. Though well lighted, this coast is very
dangerous to navigation, gales and fogs being frequent in winter and
spring. The most conspicuous headlands are Cape Ortegal and Cape de
Vares, the most northerly points of the Spanish seaboard, and Capes
Finisterre and Toriñana in the extreme west. The principal bays are
those of Santa Marta, Ferrol and Corunna, on the north; Corcubion, Muros
y Noya and Arosa, on the west. Wild and rugged though this region
appears to travellers at sea, the mountains which overspread the
interior are covered with forests and pastures, and watered by an
abundance of small rivers and streams. The climate is mild and
singularly equable, but the rainfall is very heavy. All the fruits and
vegetables of northern Europe thrive in the sheltered valleys, and the
cultivation of cherries, strawberries, peas and onions, for export,
ranks among the most profitable local industries. Heavy crops of wheat,
rye, maize and sugar-beet are raised. The wines of Corunna are heady and
of inferior flavour. Cattle-breeding, once a flourishing industry, had
greatly declined by the beginning of the 20th century, owing to foreign
competition. All along the coast there are valuable fisheries of
sardines, lobsters, cod, hake and other fish. Copper, tin and gold are
procured in small quantities, and other minerals undoubtedly exist. The
exports consist chiefly of farm produce and fish; the imports, of coal
and textiles from England, petroleum from the United States, marble from
Italy, salt fish from Norway and Newfoundland, and hides. The principal
towns are Corunna, the capital and chief port (pop. 1900, 43,971);
Ferrol (25,281), another seaport; Santiago de Compostela (24,120),
famous as a place of pilgrimage; Carballo (13,032); Ortigueira (18,426)
and Ribeira (12,218). These are described under separate headings. Along
the coast there are numerous trading and fishing stations of minor
importance. Railway communication is very defective. From Corunna a line
passes south-eastward to Lugo and Madrid, and from Santiago another line
goes southward to Vigo and Oporto; but the centre and the north-west of
the province are, to a great extent, inaccessible except by road; and
many, even of the main highways, are ill-constructed and ill-kept. Very
few Spanish provinces have so high a birthrate, but the population
increases very slowly owing to emigration. For a description of the
peasantry, who are distinguished in may respects from those inhabiting
other parts of Spain, see GALICIA.



CORUNNA (Span. _La Coruña_; Fr. _La Corogne_; Eng. formerly often _The
Groyne_), the capital of the province described above; in 43° 22' N.,
and 8° 22' W.; on the bay of Corunna, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean.
Pop. (1900) 43,971. The principal railways of north-western Spain
converge on Corunna, and afford direct communication with Madrid and
Oporto. Corunna consists of an upper and a lower town, built
respectively on the eastern side of a small peninsula, and on the
isthmus connecting the peninsula with the mainland. The upper town is
the more ancient, and is still surrounded by walls and bastions, and
defended by a citadel; but it has been gradually outgrown by the lower,
which, though at first a mere fishing village, as its name of
_Pescaderia_ implies, is now comparatively well built, and has many
broad and handsome streets. There is little remarkable in the public
buildings, although the churches of Santiago and the Colegiata date
respectively from the 12th and 13th centuries, and there are several
convents, two hospitals, a palace for the captain-general of Galicia, a
theatre, a school of navigation, an arsenal and barracks. The harbour is
on the east. Though difficult to approach in stormy weather, it is
completely sheltered, and accommodates vessels drawing 22 ft. It is
defended by several forts, of which the most important are San Diego, on
the east, and San Antonio, on the west. These fortifications are of
little practical value on the landward side, as they are commanded by a
hill which overlooks the town. The so-called Tower of Hercules, on the
north, has been increased by modern additions to a height of nearly 400
ft., and is surmounted by a fine revolving light. Many foreign steamers
call here, for emigrants or mails, on their way to South America.
Upwards of 1200 merchant ships, mostly British, entered the port in
1905. The exports are chiefly agricultural produce, wine and fish; the
imports are coal, colonial products, and manufactured goods. Chief among
the industrial establishments is a state tobacco factory; the sardine
and herring fisheries also employ a large number of the inhabitants.

Corunna, possibly at first a Phoenician settlement, is usually
identified with the ancient _Ardobrica_, a seaport mentioned by the
1st-century historian, Pomponius Mela, as in the country of the
_Artabri_, from whom the name of _Portus Artabrorum_ was given to the
bay on which the city is situated. In the middle ages, and probably at
an earlier period, it was called _Caronium_; and this name is much more
probably the origin of the present designation than the Latin _Columna_
which is sometimes put forward. The harbour has always been of
considerable importance, but it is only in comparatively modern times
that it has made a figure in history. In 1588 it gave shelter to the
Invincible Armada; in 1598 the town was captured and burned by the
British under Drake and Norris. In 1747, and again in 1805, the bay was
the scene of a naval victory of the British over the French; and on the
16th of January 1809 a battle took place in the neighbourhood, which is
celebrated in British military annals (see PENINSULAR WAR). The French
under Marshal Soult attempted to prevent the embarcation of the English
under Sir John Moore, but were successfully repulsed in spite of their
superior numbers. Moore was mortally wounded and died shortly
afterwards. He was hastily buried in the ramparts near the sea; a
monument in the Jardin de San Carlos raised by the British government
commemorates his death. The town joined the revolutionary movement of
1820, but in 1823 it was forced to capitulate by French troops. In 1836
it was captured by the Carlists. Corunna suffered heavily when Spain was
deprived of Cuba and Porto Rico by the Spanish-American War of 1898, for
it had hitherto had a thriving trade with these colonies.



CORVÉE, in feudal law, the term used to designate the unpaid labour due
from tenants, whether free or unfree, to their lord; hence any forced
labour, especially that exacted by the state, the word being applied
both to each particular service and to the system generally. Though the
corvée formed a characteristic feature of the feudal system, it was, as
an institution, much older than feudalism, and was already developed in
its main features under the Roman Empire. Thus, under the Roman system,
personal services (_operae_) were due from certain classes of the
population not only to the state but to private proprietors. Apart from
the obligations (_operae officiales_) imposed on freedmen as a condition
of their enfranchisement, which in the country usually took the form of
unpaid work on the landlord's domain, the semi-servile _coloni_ were
bound, besides paying rent in money or kind, to do a certain number of
days' unremunerated labour on that part of the estate reserved by the
landed proprietor. The state also exacted personal labour (_operae
publicae_), in lieu of taxes, from certain classes for such purposes as
the upkeep of roads, bridges and dykes; while the inhabitants of the
various regions were responsible for the maintenance of the posting
system (_cursus publicus_), for which horses, carts or labour would be
requisitioned.

Under the Frankish kings, who in their administration followed the Roman
tradition, this system was preserved. Thus for the repair of roads, or
other public works, within their jurisdiction the counts were empowered
to requisition the labour of the inhabitants of the _pagus_, while the
_missi_ and other public functionaries on their travels were entitled to
demand from the population _en route_ entertainment and the means of
transport for themselves and their belongings. It was, however, the
economic revolution which between the 6th and 10th centuries converted
the Gallo-Roman estates into the feudal model, and the political
conditions under which the officials of the Frankish empire developed
into hereditary feudal nobles, that evolved the system of the corvée as
it existed throughout the middle ages and, in some countries, survived
far into the 19th century. The Roman estate had been cultivated by free
farmers, by _coloni_, and by slave labour. Under Frankish rule the
farmers became _coloni_ or _hospites_, the slaves, serfs. The estate was
now habitually divided into the lord's domain (_terra indominicata_,
_dominicum_) and a series of allotments (_mansi_), parcels of land
distributed by lot to the cultivators of the domain, who held them,
partly by payment of rent in money or kind, partly by personal service
and labour on the domain, these obligations both as to their nature and
amount being very rigorously defined and permanently fixed in the case
of each _mansus_ and passing with the land to each new tenant. They
varied, of course, very greatly according to the size of the holding and
the needs of the particular estate, but they possessed certain common
characteristics which are everywhere found. Luchaire (_Manuel_, p. 346)
divides all corvées into two broad categories, (1) corvées properly so
called, (2) military services. The second of these, so far as the
obligation to serve in the host (_Hostis et equitatus_) is concerned,
was common to all classes of feudal society; though the obligation of
villeins to keep watch and ward (_gueta_, _warda_) and to labour at the
building or strengthening of fortifications (_muragium_, _munitio
castri_) are special corvées. We are, however, mainly concerned with the
first category, which may again be subdivided into two main groups, (1)
personal service of men and women (_manoperae_, _manuum operae_, Fr.
_manoeuvres_, manual labour), (2) carriage (_carroperae_, _carragia_,
_carrata_, &c., Fr. _charrois_), i.e. service rendered by means of
carts, barrows or draught animals. These again were divided into fixed
services (_operae rigae_) and exceptional services, demanded when the
others proved insufficient. To these latter was given in the 8th century
the name of _operae corrogatae_ (i.e. requisitioned works, from
_rogare_, to request). From this term (corrupted into _corvatae_,
_curvadae_, _corveiae_, &c.) is derived the word corvée, which was
gradually applied as a general term for all the various services.

As to the nature of these corvées it must be noted that in the middle
ages the feudal lords had replaced the centralized state for all
administrative purposes, and the services due to them by their tenants
and serfs, were partly in the nature of rent in the form of labour,
partly those which under the Roman and Frankish monarchs had been
exacted in lieu of taxes, and which the feudal lords continued to impose
as sovereigns of their domains. To the former class belonged the service
of personal labour in the fields, of repairing buildings, felling trees,
threshing corn, and the like, as well as the hauling of corn, wine or
wood; to the latter belonged that of labouring on the roads, of building
and repairing bridges, castles and churches, and of carrying letters and
despatches. Corvées were further distinguished as _real_, i.e. attached
to certain parcels of land, and _personal_, i.e. due from certain
persons.

In spite of the fact that the corvées were usually strictly defined by
local custom and by the contracts of tenancy, and that, in an age when
currency was rare, payment in personal labour was a convenience to the
poor, the system was open to obvious abuses. With the growth of communal
life in the towns the townsmen early managed to rid themselves of these
burdensome obligations either by purchase, or by exchanging the
obligation of personal work for that of supplying carts, draught animals
and the like. In the country, however, the system survived all but
intact; and, so far as it was modified, was modified for the worse.
Whatever safeguards the free cultivators may have possessed, the serfs
were almost everywhere--especially in the 10th and 11th
centuries--actually as well as nominally in this respect at the mercy of
their lords (_corvéables à merci_), there being no limit to the amount
of money or work that could be demanded of them. The system was
oppressive even when the nobles to whom these services were paid gave
something in return, namely, protection to the cultivator, his family
and his land; they became intolerable when the development of the modern
state deprived the land-owners of their duties, but not of their rights.
In the case of France, in the 17th century the so-called _corvée royale_
was added to the burden of the peasants, i.e. the obligation to do
unpaid labour on the public roads, an obligation made general in 1738;
and this, together with the natural resentment of men at the fact that
the land which their ancestors had bought was still subject to
burdensome personal obligations in favour of people whom they rarely saw
and from whom they derived no benefit, was one of the most potent causes
of the Revolution. By the Constituent Assembly personal corvées were
abolished altogether, while owners of land were allowed the choice of
continuing real corvées or commuting them for money. The corvée as an
incident of land tenure has thus disappeared in France. The _corvée
royale_ of repairing the roads, however, abolished in 1789, was revived,
under the name of _prestation_, under the Consulate, by the law of 4
Thermidor an X., modified by subsequent legislation in 1824, 1836 and
1871. Under these laws the duty of keeping the roads in repair is still
vested in the local communities, and all able-bodied men are called upon
either to give three days' work or its equivalent in money to this
purpose. It is precisely the same system as that in force under the
Roman Empire, and if it differ from the corvée it is mainly in the fact
that the burden is equitably distributed, and that the work done is of
actual value to those who do it.

As regards other countries, the corvée was everywhere, sooner or later,
abolished with the serfdom of which it was the principal incident (see
SERFDOM). Though so early as 1772 Maria Theresa had endeavoured to
mitigate its hardships in her dominions (in Hungary unpaid labour was
only to be demanded of the serfs on 52 days in the year!) it survived
longest in the Austrian empire, being finally abolished by the
revolution of 1848. The duty of personal labour on the public roads is,
however, still maintained in other countries besides France. This was
formerly the case in England also, where the occupiers of each parish
who, by the common law, had access to the roads were responsible also
for their upkeep. An act of 1555 imposed four days of forced labour for
the repair of roads, and an act of Elizabeth (5 Eliz. c. 13) raised the
number of days to six, or the payment of a composition instead. The
system of turnpikes, dating from 1663, which gradually extended over the
whole of England, lessened the burden of this system of taxation, so far
as main roads were concerned, but the greater number of the local roads
were subject to repair by statutory labour until the Highways Act 1835,
by which highways were put under the direction of a parish surveyor, and
the necessary expenses met by a rate levied on the occupiers of land. In
Scotland, statutory labour on highways was created by an act of 1719,
and abolished in 1883.

In Egypt, the corvée has been employed from time immemorial, more
especially for the purpose of cleaning out the irrigation canals. In the
days when only one harvest a year was reaped, this forced labour was not
a very great burden, but the introduction of cotton and the sugar-cane
under Mehemet Ali changed the conditions. These latter are crops which
require watering at various seasons of the year, and very often the
fellah was called away for work in the canals at times when his own
crops required the utmost attention. Moreover, the inequality of the
corvée added to the evil. In some districts it was possible to purchase
exemption, and the more wealthy paid no more for the privilege than the
humblest fellah, consequently the corvée fell with undue hardship on the
poorer classes. Under the premiership of Riaz Pasha the corvée was
gradually abolished in Egypt between the years 1888 and 1891, and a
small rate on the land substituted to provide the labour necessary for
cleaning the canals. The corvée is now employed only to a limited extent
to guard the banks of the Nile during flood.

  See Du Cange, _Glossarium inf. et med. Lat. s.v._ "Corvatae"; A
  Luchaire, _Manuel des institutions françaises_ (Paris, 1892), pp.
  346-349; _La Grande Encyclopédie, s.v._, with bibliography. For
  further works see the bibliography to the article SERFDOM.



CORVEY, a place in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the Weser, a
mile north of the town of Höxter, with which it communicates by an
avenue of lime trees. During the middle ages it was famous for its great
Benedictine abbey, which was founded and endowed by the emperor Louis
the Pious about 820, and received its name from having been first
occupied by a body of monks coming from Corbie in Picardy. The bones of
St Vitus, the patron saint of Saxony, were removed thither according to
legend in 836, but apart from this attraction, Corvey became the centre
of Christianity in Saxony and a nursery of classical studies. The abbot
was a prince of the Empire, and Corvey was made a bishopric in 1783. In
1803 the abbey was secularized, in 1815 its lands were given to Prussia,
and in 1822 they were bestowed on Victor Amadeus, landgrave of
Hesse-Rotenburg, by whom they were bequeathed, in 1834, to Prince Victor
of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst, duke of Ratibor. The abbey, which is now
used as a residence, possesses a magnificent library of 150,000 volumes
especially rich in old illustrated works, though the ancient collection
due to the literary enthusiasm of the Benedictines is no longer extant.
Here in 1517 the manuscript of the five first books of the _Annals_ of
Tacitus was discovered. Here Widukind wrote his _Res gestae Saxonicae_.
Here, also, the librarian and poet Hoffmann von Fallersleben lived and
worked. The _Annales Corbejenses 648-1148_ of the monks can be read in
the _Monumenta Germaniae historica_, Band iii. The _Chronicon
Corbejense_, published by A. C. Wedekind in 1823, has been declared by
S. Hirsch and Waitz (_Kritische Prüfung_, Berlin, 1839) to be a forgery.

  See P. Wigand, _Geschichte der Abtei Korvey_ (Höxter, 1819); and M.
  Meyer, _Zur ältern Geschichte Corveys und Höxters_ (Paderborn, 1893).



CORVINUS, JÁNOS [JOHN] (1473-1504), illegitimate son of Matthias
Hunyadi, king of Hungary, and one Barbara, supposed to be the daughter
of a burgess of Breslau. He took his name from the raven (_corvus_) in
his father's escutcheon. Matthias originally intended him for the
Church, but on losing all hope of offspring from his consort Queen
Beatrice, determined, towards the end of his life, to make the youth his
successor on the throne. He loaded him with honours and riches, till he
was by far the wealthiest magnate in the land. He publicly declared him
his successor, created him a prince with vast apanages in Silesia, made
the commandants of all the fortresses in the kingdom take an oath of
allegiance to him, and tried to arrange a marriage for him with Bianca
Maria Sforza of Milan, a project which was frustrated by the intrigues
of Queen Beatrice. Matthias also intended to make the recognition of
János as prince royal of Hungary by the emperor Frederick a condition
precedent of relinquishing all or part of the conquered hereditary
domains of the house of Habsburg; but his sudden death left the matter
still pending, and the young prince suddenly found himself alone in the
midst of enemies. The inexperienced and irresolute youth speedily became
the victim of the most shameful chicanery. He was first induced formally
to resign his claims to the throne, on the understanding that he was to
be compensated with the crown of Bosnia. He was then persuaded to retire
southwards with the royal treasures which Matthias had confided to him,
whereupon an army immediately started in pursuit, scattered his forces,
and robbed him of everything. Meanwhile the diet had elected Vladislav
of Bohemia king (July 15, 1490), to whom János hastened to do homage, in
order to save something from the wreck of his fortunes. He was also
recognized as prince of Slavonia and duke of Troppau, but compelled to
relinquish both titles five years later. On the invasion of Hungary by
Maximilian, he shewed his loyalty to the crown by relinquishing into the
hands of Vladislav the three important fortresses of Pressburg, Komárom
and Tata, which had been entrusted to him by his father. But now,
encouraged by his complacency, the chief dignitaries, headed by the
palatine Stephen Zapolya, laid claim to nearly all his remaining estates
and involved him in a whole series of costly processes. This they could
do with perfect impunity, as they had poisoned the mind of the indolent
and suspicious king against their victim. In 1496 Corvinus married
Beatrice, the daughter of Bernard Frangepán. His prospects now improved,
and in 1498 he was created perpetual ban of Croatia and Slavonia. From
1499 to 1502 he successfully defended Bosnia against the Turks, and in
the following year aspired to the dignity of palatine, but was defeated
by a combination of Queen Beatrice and his other enemies. He died on the
12th of October 1504, leaving one son, Prince Christopher, who died on
the 17th of March 1505.

  See Gyula Schönherr, _János Corvinus Hunyadi_ (Hung.) (Budapest,
  1894).     (R. N. B.)



CORVUS, MARCUS VALERIUS (c. 370-270 B.C.), Roman general of the early
republican period. According to the legend a raven settled on his helmet
during his combat with a gigantic Gaul, and distracted the enemy's
attention by flying in his face. He was twice dictator and six times
consul, and occupied the curule chair twenty-one times. In his various
campaigns he defeated successively the Gauls, the Volscians, the
Samnites, the Etruscans and the Marsians. His most important victory
(343) was over the Samnites at Mount Gaurus.

  See Livy vii. 26-42, x. 2-11.



CORWEN ("the white choir"), a market town of Merionethshire, Wales, on
branches of the London & North Western and the Great Western railways;
10 m. from Llangollen, through the Glyn Dyfrdwy (Dee Vale). Pop. (1901)
2680. Telford's road, raised on the lower Berwyn range side and
overlooking the Dee, opens up the picturesqueness of Corwen,
historically interesting from the reminiscences of Wales's last struggle
for independence under Owen Glendower. In the old parish church was
traditionally Owen's pew; his knife, fork and dagger, are at the
neighbouring Rûg (Rhûg); his palace, 3 m. distant at Sychnant (dry
stream). Here is the church dedicated to St Julian, archbishop of St
David's (d. 1009), with "the college," an almshouse endowed by William
Eyton of Plâs Warren, Shropshire. The old British fort, Caer Drewyn, one
of a chain of forts from Dyserth to Canwyd, is the supposed scene of
Glendower's retreat under Henry IV., and here Owen Cwynedd is said to
have prepared to repulse Henry II. To the N.E. are the Clwyd hills; to
the S. the Berwyn range, to the S.W. Arran Mawddy and Cadair (Cader)
Idris; to the W. the two Arenigs; to the N.W. Snowdon. Corwen is a
favourite station for artists and anglers. Besides the Dee, there are
several streamlets, such as the Trystion, which forms the Rhaiadr Cynwyd
(waterfall), the Ceudiog, and the Alwen.



CORWIN, THOMAS (1794-1865), American statesman and orator, was born in
Bourbon county, Kentucky, on the 29th of July 1794. In 1798 his father,
Matthias Corwin (1761-1829), removed to what later became Lebanon, Ohio,
where the son worked on a farm, read much, and in 1817 was admitted to
the bar. As an advocate he was at once successful, but after 1831 he
devoted his attention chiefly to politics, identifying himself first
with the Whig and after 1858 with the Republican party. He was a member
of the lower house of the Ohio legislature in 1821, 1822 and 1829, and
of the national House of Representatives from 1831 to 1840; was governor
of Ohio in 1840-1842; served in the United States Senate from 1845 to
1850; was secretary of the treasury in the cabinet of President Fillmore
in 1850-1853; was again a member of the national House of
Representatives from 1859 to 1861; and from 1861 to 1864 was minister of
the United States to Mexico--a position of peculiar difficulty at that
time. As a legislator he spoke seldom, but always with great ability,
his most famous speech being that of the 11th of February 1847 opposing
the Mexican War. In 1860 he was chairman of the House "Committee of
Thirty-three," consisting of one member from each state, and appointed
to consider the condition of the nation and, if possible, to devise some
scheme for reconciling the North and the South. He is remembered chiefly
as an orator. Many anecdotes have been told to illustrate his
kindliness, his inimitable humour, and his remarkable eloquence. He died
at Washington, D.C., on the 18th of December 1865.

  See the _Life and Speeches of Thomas Corwin_ (Cincinnati, 1896),
  edited by Josiah Morrow; and an excellent character sketch, _Thomas
  Corwin_ (Cincinnati, 1881), by A. P. Russell.



CORY, WILLIAM JOHNSON (1823-1892), English schoolmaster and author, son
of Charles Johnson of Torrington, Devonshire, was born on the 9th of
January 1823. He was educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge. At
Cambridge he gained the chancellor's medal for an English poem on Plato
in 1843, and the Craven Scholarship in 1844. In 1845, after graduating
at the university, he was made an assistant master at Eton, where he
remained for some twenty-six years. He has been called "the most
brilliant Eton tutor of his day." He had a great influence on his
pupils, and he defended the Etonian system against the criticism of
Matthew James Higgins. In 1872, having inherited an estate at Halsdon
and assumed the name of Cory, he left Eton. He married late in life, and
after four years spent in Madeira he settled in 1882 at Hampstead. He
died on the 11th of June 1892. He proved his genuine lyrical power in
_Ionica_ (1858), which was republished with some additional poems in
1891. He also produced _Lucretilis_ (1871), a work on the writing of
Latin verses; _Iophon_ (1873), on Greek Iambics; and _Guide to Modern
History from 1815 to 1835_ (1882). Extracts from the _Letters and
Journals of William Cory_, which contains much paradoxical and
suggestive criticism, were edited by F.W. Cornish and published by
private subscription in 1897.

His elder brother, Charles Wellington Johnson Furse (1821-1900), who, on
the death of his father in 1854, took the name of Furse, was canon and
archdeacon of Westminster from 1894 till his death. The artist Charles
Wellington Furse, A.R.A. (1868-1904), was a son of Archdeacon Furse.



CORYATE, THOMAS (1577?-1617), English traveller and writer, was born at
Odcombe, Somersetshire, where his father, the Rev. George Coryate,
prebendary of York Cathedral, was rector. Educated at Westminster
school and at Oxford, he became a kind of court fool, eventually
entering the household of Prince Henry, the eldest son of James I. In
1611 he published a curious account of a prolonged walking tour
undertaken in 1608, under the title of _Coryate's Crudities hastily
gobbled up in Five Months Travels in France, Italy, &c_. At the command
of Prince Henry, verses in mock praise of the author, and intended
originally to persuade some bookseller to undertake the publication of
the _Crudities_, were added to the volume. These commendatory verses,
written in a number of languages, and some in a mixture of languages, by
Ben Jonson, Donne, Chapman, Drayton and others, were afterwards
published (1611) by themselves as the _Odcombian Banquet_. The book
contains a clear and interesting account of Coryate's travels, and,
being the first of its kind, was extremely popular. It is now very rare,
and the copy in the Chetham library is said to be the only perfect one.
In the same year was published a second volume of a similar kind,
_Coryats Crambe, or his Coleworte twice Sodden_. In 1612 he set out on
another journey, which also was mostly performed on foot. He visited
Greece, the Holy Land, Persia and India; from Agra and Ajmere he sent
home an account of his adventures. Some of his letters were published in
1616 under the title of _Letters from Asmere, the Court of the Great
Mogul, to several Persons of Quality in England_, and some fragments of
his writings were included in _Purchas his Pilgrimes_ in 1625. Coryate
was a curious and observant traveller; he gives accounts of inscriptions
he had copied, of the antiquities of the towns he passed through, and of
manners and customs, from the Italian pronunciation of Latin to the
new-fangled use of forks. He acquired a knowledge of Turkish, Persian
and Hindustani in the course of his travels, and on being presented by
the English ambassador, Sir Thomas Roe, to the Great Mogul, he delivered
a speech in Persian. His journeys were performed at small expense, for
he says that he spent only three pounds between Aleppo and Agra, and
often lived "competently" for a penny a day. Coryate died at Surat in
1617.

  _Coryate's Crudities_, with his letters from India, was reprinted from
  the edition of 1611 in 1776, and at the Glasgow University Press (2
  vols., 1905). The _Odcombian Banquet_ was ridiculed by John Taylor,
  the Water Poet, in his _Laugh and be Fat, or a Commentary on the
  Odcombian Banket_ (1613) and two other satires.



CORYBANTES (Gr. [Greek: Korybantes]), in Greek mythology, half divine,
half demonic beings, bearing the same relation to the Asiatic Great
Mother of the Gods that the Curetes bear to Rhea. From their first
appearance in literature, they are already often identified or confused
with them, and are distinguished only by their Asiatic origin and by the
more pronouncedly orgiastic nature of their rites. Various accounts of
their origin are given: they were earth-born, sons of Cronus, sons of
Zeus and Calliope, sons of Rhea, of Ops, of the Great Mother and a
mystic father, of Apollo and Thalia, of Athena and Helios. Their names
and number were as indistinct even to the ancients as those of the
Curetes and Idaean Dactyli. Like the Curetes, Dactyli, Telchines and
Cabeiri (q.v.), however, they represent primitive gods of procreative
significance, who survived in the historic period as subordinate deities
associated with a form of the Great Mother goddess, their relation to
the Great Mother of the Gods, Cybele, being comparable with that of
Attis (q.v.). They may have been represented or impersonated by priests
in her rites as Attis was, but they were also, like him, not actual
priests in the first instance, but objects of worship in which a
frenzied dance, with accompaniment of flute music, the beating of
tambourines, the clashing of cymbals and castanets, wild cries and
self-infliction of wounds--the whole culminating in a state of ecstasy
and exhaustion--were the most prominent features. The dance of the
Corybantic priests, like that of the priests who represented the
Curetes, may have originated in a primitive faith in the power of noise
to avert evil. Its psychic effect, both upon the dancer and upon the
mystic about whom he danced during the initiation of the Cybele-Attis
mysteries, made it a widely known and popular feature of the cult.

In art the Corybantes appear, usually not more than two or three in
number, fully armed and executing their orgiastic dance in the presence
of the Great Mother, her lions and Attis. They sometimes appear with the
child Dionysus, between whose cult and that of the Mother there was a
close affinity. (G. SN.)



CORYDON, a town and the county-seat of Harrison county, Indiana, U.S.A.,
on Indian Creek, about 21 m. W. by S. of Louisville, Kentucky. Pop.
(1900) 1610; (1910) 1703. Corydon is served by the Louisville, New
Albany & Corydon railway, which connects at Corydon Junction, 8 m. N.,
with the Southern railway. There are sulphur springs here, and the town
is a summer and health resort. Wyandotte Cave is several miles W. of
Corydon. Corydon is in an agricultural region, and there are valuable
quarries in the neighbourhood; among the town's manufactures are
waggons, and building and lithographic stone. Corydon was settled about
1805, and was the capital of Indiana Territory from 1813 to 1816, and of
the state until 1824. The convention which framed the first state
constitution met here in June 1816. The original state house, an
unpretentious two-storey stone building, is still standing. Corydon was
captured by the Confederates during Gen. Morgan's raid on the 9th of
July 1863.



CORYPHAEUS (from Gr. [Greek: koruphê], the top of the head), in Attic
drama, the leader of the chorus. Hence the term (sometimes in an
Anglicized form "coryphe") is used for the chief or leader of any
company or movement. In 1856 in the university of Oxford there was
founded the office of Coryphaeus or Praecentor, whose duty it was to
lead the musical performances directed by the Choragus (q.v.). The
office ceased to exist in 1899.



COS, or STANKO (Ital. _Stanchio_, Turk. _Istan-keui_, by corruption from
[Greek: Eis tan Kô]), an island in that part of the Turkish archipelago
which was anciently known as the Myrtoan Sea, not far from the
south-western corner of Asia Minor, at the mouth of the Gulf of
Halicarnassus, or Bay of Budrum. Its total length is about 25 m. and its
circumference about 74. Its population is estimated at about 10,000, of
whom nearly all are Greeks.

A considerable chain of mountains, known to the ancients as Oromedon, or
Prion, extends along the southern coast with hardly a break except near
the island of Nisyros; so that the greatest versant and most important
streams turn towards the north. The whole island is little more than a
mass of limestone, and consequently unites great aridity in the drier
mountain regions with the richest fertility in the alluvial districts.
As the attention of the islanders is mainly directed to the culture of
their vineyards, which yield the famous sultana raisins, a considerable
proportion of the arable land is left untouched, though wheat, barley
and maize are sown in some quarters, and melons and sesamum seed appear
among the exports. The Cos lettuce is well known. Fruit, especially
grapes, is exported in large quantities to Egypt, mostly in local
sailing boats. The wild olive is abundant enough, but neglected; and
cotton, though it thrives well, is grown only in small quantities. As
the principal harbour, in spite of dredging operations, is fit only for
smaller vessels, the island is not of so much commercial importance as
it would otherwise be; but since 1868 it has been regularly visited by
steamers. The only town in the island is Cos, or Stanko, at the eastern
extremity, remarkable for its fortress, founded by the knights of
Rhodes, and for the gigantic plane-tree in the public square. The
fortress preserves in its walls a number of interesting architectural
fragments. The plane-tree has a circumference of about 30 ft., and its
huge and heavy branches have to be supported by pillars; of its age
there is no certain knowledge, but the popular tradition connects it
with Hippocrates. The town is supplied by an aqueduct, about 4 m. in
length, with water from a hot chalybeate spring, which is likewise named
after the great physician of the island. The villages of Pyli and
Kephalas are interesting, the former for the Greek tomb of a certain
Charmylos, and the latter for a castle of the knights of St John and the
numerous inscriptions that prove that it occupies the site of the chief
town of the ancient deme of Isthmos. The most interesting site on the
island is the precinct of Asclepius, which was excavated in 1900-1904 on
the slope of Mount Prion, about 2 m. from the town of Cos. It consists
of three terraces, the uppermost containing a temple, a cypress grove
and porticoes; the middle, which is the earliest portion, two or three
temples, an altar, and other buildings; and the lower a kind of sacred
agora enclosed by porticoes. The precinct had been enlarged and
reconstructed at various times. The earliest buildings on the middle
terrace probably date from the 6th century B.C. The temple on the upper
terrace, with the imposing flight of steps by which it is approached,
seems to belong to the 2nd century B.C. when the whole precinct was
enlarged and reconstructed. After a destructive earthquake, the whole
appears to have been rebuilt by Xenophon, the physician and poisoner of
the emperor Claudius. The final destruction was brought about by the
earthquake of A.D. 554. Among other things the precinct contains a
fountain of water with medicinal properties. It is doubtful whether this
water is brought from Burinna, the famous fountain of Hippocrates in the
mountain above.

_History._--Cos was a Dorian colony with a large contingent of settlers
from Epidaurus who took with them their Asclepius cult and made their
new home famous for its sanatoria. The other chief sources of the
island's wealth lay in its wines, and in later days, in its silk
manufacture. Its early history is obscure. During the Persian wars it
was ruled by tyrants, but as a rule it seems to have been under an
oligarchic government. In the 5th century it joined the Delian League,
and after the revolt of Rhodes served as the chief Athenian station in
the south-eastern Aegean (411-407). In 366 a democracy was instituted.
After helping, in the Social War (357-355), to weaken Athenian power it
fell for a few years to the Carian prince Maussollus. In the Hellenistic
age Cos attained the zenith of its prosperity. Its alliance was valued
by the kings of Egypt, who used it as an outpost for their navy to watch
the Aegean. As a seat ef learning it rose to be a kind of provincial
branch of the museum of Alexandria, and became a favourite resort for
the education of the princes of the Ptolemaic dynasty; among its most
famous sons were the physician Hippocrates, the painter Apelles, the
poets Philetas and, perhaps, Theocritus (q.v.). Following the lead of
its great neighbour, Rhodes, Cos generally displayed a friendly attitude
towards the Romans; in A.D. 53 it was made a free city. In A.D. 1315 it
was occupied by the Knights of St John; in 1523 it passed under Ottoman
sway. Except for occasional incursions by corsairs and some severe
earthquakes the island has rarely had its peace disturbed.

  AUTHORITIES.--L. Ross, _Reisen nach Kos, &c._ (Halle, 1852), pp.
  11-29, and _Reisen auf den griechischen Inseln_ (Stuttgart,
  1840-1845), ii. 86 ff.; O. Rayet, _Mémoire sur l'île de Cos_ (Paris,
  1876); M. Dubois, _De Co Insula_ (Paris and Nancy, 1884); W. Paton and
  E. Hicks, _The Inscriptions of Cos_ (Oxford, 1891); B. V. Head,
  _Historia Numorum_ (Oxford, 1887), pp. 535-537; _Archäol. Anzeiger_,
  1905, i.; for coins see also NUMISMATICS: Greek, § "Calymna and Cos."
       (E. GR.; M. O. B. C.)



COSA, an ancient city of Etruria, on the S.W. coast of Italy, close to
the Via Aurelia, 4½ m. E.S.E. of the modern town of Orbetello.
Apparently it was not an independent Etruscan town, but was founded as a
colony by the Romans in the territory of the Volceientes, whom they had
recently conquered, in 273 B.C. The town was strongly fortified, and the
walls, about a mile in circuit, with three gates, and seventeen
projecting rectangular towers at intervals, are in places preserved to a
height of over 30 ft. on the outside, and 15 on the inside. The lower
part is built of polygonal, the upper of rectangular, blocks, and the
masonry is of equal fineness all through, so that a difference of date
cannot be assumed; such a change of technique is not without parallel in
Greece (F. Noack in _Römische Mitteilungen_, 1897, 194). Within the city
no remains are visible. The place was of importance as a fortress; it
was approached by a branch road which diverged from the Via Aurelia at
the post station of Succosa, at the foot of the hill on which the town
stood. The harbour, too, was of some importance. In the 5th century we
hear of it as deserted, and in the 9th a town called Ansedonia took its
place for a short time, but itself soon perished, though it has left its
name to the ruins.

  See G. Dennis, _Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria_ (London, 1883), ii.
  245.     (T. AS.)



COSEL, or KOSEL, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia,
at the junction of the Klodnitz and the Oder, 29 m. S.E. of Oppeln by
rail. Pop. (1905) 7085. It has an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic
church, an old château and a grammar-school (Progymnasium). Its
industries are of some importance, including a manufactory of cellulose
(employing 1200 hands), steam saw- and flour-mills and a petroleum
refinery. There is a lively trade by river.

The first record of Cosel dates from 1286. From 1306 to 1359 it was the
seat of an independent duchy held by a cadet line of the dukes of
Teschen. In 1532 it fell to the emperor, was several times besieged
during the Thirty Years' War, and came into Prussian possession by the
treaty of Breslau in 1742. Frederick II. converted it into a fortress,
which was besieged in vain by the Austrians in 1758, 1759, 1760 and
1762. In 1807 it withstood another siege, by the Bavarian allies of
Napoleon. The fortifications were razed and their site converted into
promenades in 1874.



COSENZ, ENRICO (1812-1898), Italian soldier, was born at Gaeta, on the
12th of January 1812. As captain of artillery in the Neapolitan army he
took part in the expedition sent by Ferdinand II. against the Austrians
in 1848; but after the _coup d'état_ at Naples he followed General
Guglielmo Pepe in disobeying Ferdinand's order for the withdrawal of the
troops, and proceeded to Venice to aid in defending that city. As
commandant of the fort of Marghera, Cosenz displayed distinguished
valour, and after the fall of the fort assumed the defence of the
Piazzale, where he was twice wounded. Upon the fall of Venice he fled to
Piedmont, where he remained until, in 1859, he assumed the command of a
Garibaldian regiment. In 1860 he conducted the third Garibaldian
expedition to Sicily, defeated two Neapolitan brigades at Piale (August
23), and marched victoriously upon Naples, where he was appointed
minister of war, and took part in organizing the _plébiscite_. During
the war of 1866 his division saw but little active service. After the
war he repeatedly declined the portfolio of war. In 1881, however, he
became chief of the general staff, and held that position until a short
time before his death at Rome on the 7th of August 1898.



COSENZA (anc. _Consentia_), a town and archiepiscopal see of Calabria,
Italy, the capital of the province of Cosenza, 755 ft. above sea-level,
43 m. by rail S. by W. of Sibari, which is a station on the E. coast
railway between Metaponto and Reggio. Pop. (1901) town, 13,841; commune,
20,857. It is situated on the slope of a hill between the Crati and
Busento, just above the junction, and is commanded by a castle (1250
ft.). The Gothic cathedral, consecrated in 1222, on the site of another
ruined by an earthquake in 1184, goes back to French models in
Champagne, and is indeed unique in Italy. It contains the Gothic tomb of
Isabella of Aragon, wife of Philip III. of France, and also the tomb of
Louis III., duke of Anjou; but it has been spoilt by restoration both
inside and out. S. Domenico has a fine rose window. The Palazzo del
Tribunale (law courts) is a fine building, and the upper town contains
several good houses of rich proprietors of the province; while the lower
portion is unhealthy. Earthquakes, and a fire in 1901, have done
considerable damage to the town.

The ancient Consentia is first named as the burial place of Alexander of
Epirus in about 330 B.C. In 204 it became Roman, though it was more
under the influence of Greek culture. It is mentioned by Strabo as the
chief town of the Bruttii, and frequently spoken of in classical authors
as an important place. It lay on the Via Popillia. Varro speaks of its
apple trees which gave fruit twice in the year and Pliny praises its
wine also. It is the more surprising that in the whole of its territory
no inscriptions, either Greek or Latin, have ever been found, those that
are recorded by some writers being fabrications. in A.D. 410 Alaric fell
in battle here and was buried, it is said, in the bed of the Busento,
which was temporarily diverted and then allowed to resume its natural
course. Cosenza became an archbishopric in the 11th century. In 1461 it
was taken by Roberto Orsini, and suffered severely. It was the home of a
scientific academy founded by the philosopher Bernardino Telesio
(1509-1588). In 1555-1561 it was the centre of the persecution by the
Inquisition of the Waldenses who had settled there towards the end of
the 14th century.     (T. AS.)



COSHOCTON, a city and the county-seat of Coshocton county, Ohio, U.S.A.,
at the confluence of the Tuscarawas and the Walhonding rivers, with the
Muskingum river, and about 70 m. E.N.E. of Columbus. Pop. (1890) 3672;
(1900) 6473 (364 foreign-born); (1910) 9603. It is served by the
Pennsylvania, the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (controlled
by the Pennsylvania), and the Wheeling & Lake Erie railways. The city is
built on a series of four broad terraces, the upper one of which has an
elevation of 824 ft. above sea-level, and commands pleasant views of the
river and the valley. It has a public library. Coshocton is the
commercial centre of an extensive agricultural district and has
manufactories of paper, glass, flour, china-ware, cast-iron pipes and
especially of advertising specialities. The municipality owns and
operates its water-works. Coshocton occupies the site of a former Indian
village of the same name--the chief village of the Turtle tribe of the
Delawares. This village was destroyed by the whites in 1781. The first
settlement by whites was begun in 1801; and in 1802 the place was laid
out as a town and named Tuscarawas. In 1811, when it was made the
county-seat, the present name was adopted. Coshocton was first
incorporated in 1833.



COSIN, JOHN (1594-1672), English divine, was born at Norwich on the 30th
of November 1594. He was educated at Norwich grammar school and at Caius
College, Cambridge, where he was scholar and afterwards fellow. On
taking orders he was appointed secretary to Bishop Overall of Lichfield,
and then domestic chaplain to Bishop Neile of Durham. In December 1624
he was made a prebendary of Durham, and in the following year archdeacon
of the East Riding of Yorkshire. In 1628 he took his degree of D.D. He
first became known as an author in 1627, when he published his
_Collection of Private Devotions_, a manual stated to have been prepared
by command of Charles I., for the use of the queen's maids of honour.[1]
This book, together with his insistence on points of ritual in his
cathedral church and his friendship with Laud, exposed him to the
suspicions and hostility of the Puritans; and the book was rudely
handled by William Prynne and Henry Burton. In 1628 Cosin took part in
the prosecution of a brother prebendary, Peter Smart, for a sermon
against high church practices; and the prebendary was deprived. In 1634
Cosin was appointed master of Peterhouse, Cambridge; and in 1640 he
became vice-chancellor of the university. In October of this year he was
promoted to the deanery of Peterborough. A few days before his
installation the Long Parliament had met; and among the complainants who
hastened to appeal to it for redress was the ex-prebendary, Smart. His
petition against the new dean was considered; and early in 1641 Cosin
was sequestered from his benefices. Articles of impeachment, were, two
months later, presented against him, but he was dismissed on bail, and
was not again called for. For sending the university plate to the king,
he was deprived of the mastership of Peterhouse (1642). He thereupon
withdrew to France, preached at Paris, and served as chaplain to some
members of the household of the exiled royal family. At the Restoration
he returned to England, was reinstated in the mastership, restored to
all his benefices, and in a few months raised to the see of Durham
(December 1660). At the convocation in 1661 he played a prominent part
in the revision of the prayer-book, and endeavoured with some success to
bring both prayers and rubrics into completer agreement with ancient
liturgies. He administered his diocese with conspicuous ability and
success for about eleven years; and applied a large share of his
revenues to the promotion of the interests of the Church, of schools and
of charitable institutions. He died in London on the 15th of January
1672.

Cosin occupies an interesting and peculiar position among the churchmen
of his time. Though a ritualist and a rigorous enforcer of outward
conformity, he was uncompromisingly hostile to Roman Catholicism, and
most of his writings illustrate this antagonism. In France he was on
friendly terms with Huguenots, justifying himself on the ground that
their non-episcopal ordination had not been of their own seeking, and at
the Savoy conference in 1661 he tried hard to effect a reconciliation
with the Presbyterians. He differed from the majority of his colleagues
in his strict attitude towards Sunday observance and in favouring, in
the case of adultery, both divorce and the re-marriage of the innocent
party. He was a genial companion, frank and outspoken, and a good man of
business.

  Among his writings (most of which were published posthumously) are a
  _Historia Transubstantiationis Papalis_ (1675), _Notes and Collections
  on the Book of Common Prayer_ (1710) and _A Scholastical History of
  the Canon of Holy Scripture_ (1657). A collected edition of his works,
  forming 5 vols. of the Oxford _Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology_,
  was published between 1843 and 1855; and his _Correspondence_ (2
  vols.) was edited by Canon Ornsby for the Surtees Society (1868-1870).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] See John Evelyn's _Diary_ (Oct. 12, 1651).



COSMAS, of Alexandria, surnamed from his maritime experiences
_Indicopleustes_, merchant and traveller, flourished during the 6th
century A.D. The surname is inaccurate, since he never reached India
proper; further, it is doubtful whether Cosmas is a family name, or
merely refers to his reputation as a cosmographer. In his earlier days
he had sailed on the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, visiting Abyssinia
and Socotra and apparently also the Persian Gulf, western India and
Ceylon. He subsequently became a monk, and about 548, in the retirement
of a Sinai cloister, wrote a work called _Topographia Christiana_. Its
chief object is to denounce the false and heathen doctrine of the
rotundity of the earth, and to vindicate the scriptural account of the
world. Photius, who had read it, calls it a "commentary on the
Octateuch" (meaning the eight books of Ptolemy's great geographical
work; according to some, the first eight books of the Old Testament).
According to Cosmas the earth is a rectangular plane, covered by the
vaulted roof of the firmament, above which lies heaven. In the centre of
the plane is the inhabited earth, surrounded by ocean, beyond which lies
the paradise of Adam. The sun revolves round a conical mountain to the
north--round the summit in summer, round the base in winter, which
accounts for the difference in the length of the day. Cosmas is supposed
by some to have been a Nestorian. Although not to be commended from a
theological standpoint, the _Topographia_ contains some curious
information. Especially to be noticed is the description of a marble
seat discovered by him at Adulis (Zula) in Abyssinia, with two
inscriptions recounting the heroic deeds and military successes of
Ptolemy Euergetes and an Axumitic king. It also contains in all
probability the oldest Christian maps. From allusions in the
_Topographia_ Cosmas seems to have been the author of a larger
cosmography, a treatise on the motions of the stars, and commentaries on
the Psalms and Canticles. Photius (_Cod._ 36) speaks contemptuously of
the style and language of Cosmas, and throws doubt upon his
truthfulness. But the author himself expressly disclaims any claims to
literary elegance, which in fact he considers unsuited to a Christian
circle of readers, and the accuracy of his statements has been confirmed
by later travellers.

  The _Topographia_ will be found in Migne, _Patrologia Graeca_,
  lxxxviii.; an edition by G. Siefert is promised in the Teubner series.
  See H. Gelzer, "Kosmas der Indienfahrer," in _Jahrbücher für
  protestantische Theologie_, ix. (1883) and C. R. Beazley, _The Dawn of
  Modern Geography_, i. (1897). There is an English translation, with
  introduction and notes, by J. W. McCrindle (1897), published by the
  Hakluyt society.



COSMAS, of Prague (1045-1125), dean of the cathedral and the earliest
Bohemian historian. His _Chronicae Bohemorum libri iii._, which contains
the history and traditions of Bohemia up to nearly the time of his
death, has earned him the title of the Herodotus of his country. This
work, which his continuators brought down to the year 1283, is of the
highest value to historians in spite of the fact that its reputation for
disingenuousness and credibility has been greatly affected by the
critical attacks of J. Loserth (_Studien zu Cosmas von Prag_, Vienna,
1880, &c.).

  The work was first published at Hanover in 1602, from the imperfect
  Strassburg codex. A perfected edition was brought out at the same
  place in 1607; this was reprinted, with notes by C. G. Schwarz in I.
  B. Menckenius, _Scriptores rer. Germ._ (3 vols., Lips., 1728-1730).
  It is included in Pelzel and Dobrowsky, _Script. rer. Bohem._ i. pp.
  1-282, after collation with Dresden MS., edited very fully by R. Köpke
  in _Mon. Germ. Hist. Scrip._ ix. 1-132, and repeated in Migne,
  _Patrol. lat._ clxvi. pp. 55-388, and in _Fontes rer. Bohem._ ii.
  (1874), 1-370 (Latin and Czech), by W. Wl. Tomek. See A. Potthast,
  _Bibliotheca Hist. Med. Aevi_.



COSMATI, the name of a Roman family, seven members of which, for four
generations, were skilful architects, sculptors and workers in mosaic.
The following are the names and dates known from existing
inscriptions:--

        Lorenzo (born in the second half of the 12th century).
           |
        Jacopo (dated works 1205 and 1210).
           |
        Cosimo (  "     "   1210-1235).
           |
        +---------------+-------------+--------------+
        |               |             |              |
       Luca          Jacopo        Adeodato       Giovanni
  (1231 and 1235).  (1231-1293).    (1294).   (1296 and 1303).

Their principal works in Rome are: ambones of S. Maria in Ara Coeli
(Lorenzo); door of S. Saba, 1205, and door with mosaics of S. Tommaso in
Formis (Jacopo); chapel of the Sancta Sanctorum, by the Lateran
(Cosimo); pavement of S. Jacopo alla Lungara, and (probably) the
magnificent episcopal throne and choir-screen in S. Lorenzo fuori le
Mura, of 1254 (Jacopo the younger); baldacchino of the Lateran and of S.
Maria in Cosmedin, c. 1294 (Adeodato); tombs in S. Maria sopra Minerva
(c. 1296), in S. Maria Maggiore, and in S. Balbina (Giovanni). The chief
signed works by Jacopo the younger and his brother Luca are at Anagni
and Subiaco. A large number of other works by members and pupils of the
same family, but unsigned, exist in Rome. These are mainly altars and
baldacchini, choir-screens, paschal candlesticks, ambones, tombs and the
like, all enriched with sculpture and glass mosaic of great brilliance
and decorative effect.

Besides the more mechanical sort of work, such as mosaic patterns and
architectural decoration, they also produced mosaic pictures and
sculpture of very high merit, especially the recumbent effigies, with
angels standing at the head and foot, in the tombs of Ara Coeli, S.
Maria Maggiore and elsewhere. One of their finest works is in S.
Cesareo; this is a marble altar richly decorated with mosaic in
sculptured panels, and (below) two angels drawing back a curtain (all in
marble) so as to expose the open grating of the confessio. The
magnificent cloisters of S. Paolo fuori le Mura, built about 1285 by
Giovanni, the youngest of the Cosmati, are one of the most beautiful
works of this school. The baldacchino of the same basilica is a signed
work of the Florentine Arnolfo del Cambio, 1285, "cum suo socio Petro,"
probably a pupil of the Cosmati. Other works of Arnolfo, such as the
Braye tomb at Orvieto (q.v.), show an intimate artistic alliance between
him and the Cosmati. The equally magnificent cloisters of the Lateran,
of about the same date, are very similar in design; both these triumphs
of the sculptor-architect's and mosaicist's work have slender marble
columns, twisted or straight, richly inlaid with bands of glass mosaic
in delicate and brilliant patterns. The shrine of the Confessor at
Westminster is a work of this school, executed about 1268. The general
style of works of the Cosmati school is Gothic in its main lines,
especially in the elaborate altar-canopies, with their pierced
geometrical tracery. In detail, however, they differ widely from the
purer Gothic of northern countries. The richness of effect which the
English or French architect obtained by elaborate and carefully worked
mouldings was produced in Italy by the beauty of polished marbles and
jewel-like mosaics--the details being mostly rather coarse and often
carelessly executed.

  An excellent account of the Cosmati is given by Boito, _Architettura
  del media evo_ (Milan, 1880), pp. 117-182.



COSMIC (from Gr. [Greek: kosmos], order or universe), pertaining to the
universe, universal or orderly. In ancient astronomy, the word
"cosmical" means occurring at sunrise, and designates especially the
rising or setting of the stars at that time. "Cosmical physics" is a
term broadly applied to the totality of those branches of science which
treat of cosmical phenomena and their explanation by the laws of
physics. It includes terrestrial magnetism, the tides, meteorology as
related to cosmical causes, the aurora, meteoric phenomena, and the
physical constitution of the heavenly bodies generally. It differs from
astrophysics only in dealing principally with phenomena in their wider
aspects, and as the products of physical causes, while astrophysics is
more concerned with minute details of observation.



COSMOGONY (from Gr. [Greek: kosmos], world and [Greek: gignesthai], to
be born), a theory, however incomplete, of the origin of heaven and
earth, such as is produced by primitive races in the myth-making age,
and is afterwards expanded and systematized by priests, poets or
philosophers. Such a theory must be mythical in form, and, after gods
have arisen, is likely to be a theogony ([Greek: theos], god) as well as
a cosmogony (Babylonia, Egypt, Phoenicia, Polynesia).

1. To many the interest of such stories will depend on their parallelism
to the Biblical account in Genesis i.; the anthropologist, however, will
be attracted by them in proportion as they illustrate the more primitive
phases of human culture. In spite of the frequent overgrowth of a
luxuriant imagination, the leading ideas of really primitive cosmogonies
are extremely simple. Creation out of nothing is nowhere thought of, for
this is not at all a simple idea. The pre-existence of world-matter is
assumed; sometimes too that of heaven, as the seat of the earth-maker,
and that of preternatural animals, his coadjutors. The earth-making
process may, among the less advanced races, be begun by a bird, or some
other animal (whence the term "theriomorphism"), for the high idea of a
god is impossible, till man has fully realized his own humanity. Of
course, the earth-forming animal is a preternaturally gifted one, and is
on the line of development towards that magnified man who, in a later
stage, becomes the demiurge.[1] Between the two comes the animal--man,
i.e. a being who has not yet shed the slough of an animal shape, but
combines the powers--natural and preternatural--of some animal with
those of a man. Let us now collect specimens of the evidence for
different varieties of cosmogony, ranging from those of the Red Indian
tribes to that of the people of Israel.

2. _North American Stories._--Theriomorphic creators are most fully
attested for the Red Indian tribes, whose very backwardness renders them
so valuable to an anthropologist. There is a painted image from Alaska,
now in the museum of the university of Pennsylvania, which represents
such an one. We see a black crow tightly holding a human mask which he
is in the act of incubating. Let us pass on to the Thlinkît Indians of
the N.W. coast. A cycle of tales is devoted to a strange humorous being
called Yehl or Yelch, i.e. the Raven, miraculously born, not to be
wounded, and at once a semi-developed creator and a culture hero.[2] His
bitter foe is his uncle; the germs of dualism appear early. Like some
other culture-heroes, he steals sun, moon and stars out of a box, so
enlightening the dark earth. These people are at any rate above the
Greenlanders, but are surpassed by the Algonkins described by Nicholas
Perrot in 1700, and by the Iroquois, whom the heroic Father Brébeuf
(1593-1649) learned to know so well.[3] The earth-maker of the former
was called Michabo, i.e. the Great Hare.[4] He is the leader of some
animals on a raft on a shoreless sea. Three of these in succession are
sent to dive for a little earth. A grain of sand is brought; out of it
he makes an island (America?). Of the carcases of the dead animals he
makes the present men (N. Americans?). There is also a Flood-story, an
episode in which has a bearing on the great dragon-myth[5] (see
DELUGE). The Iroquois are in advance of the Algonkins; their
creator-hero has no touch of the animal in him. Above the waters there
existed a heaven, or a heavenly earth (cf. Mexico, Babylonia, Egypt),
through a hole in which Aataentsic fell to the water. The broad back of
a tortoise (cf. § 6) on which a diving animal had placed some mud,
received her. Here, being already pregnant, she gave birth to a
daughter, who in turn bore the twins Joskeha and Tawiscara (myth of
hostile brothers). By his violence (cf. Gen. xxv. 22) the latter killed
his mother, out of whose corpse grew plants. Tawiscara fled to the west,
where he rules over the dead. Joskeha made the beasts and also men.
After acting as culture-giver he disappeared to the east, where he is
said to dwell with his grandmother as her husband.[6]

3. _Mexican._--The most interesting feature in the Mexican cosmology is
the theory of the ages of the world. Greece, Persia and probably
Babylon, knew of four such ages.[7] The Priestly Writer in the
Pentateuch also appears to be acquainted with this doctrine; it is the
first of four ages which begins with the Creation and ends with the
Deluge. The Mexicans, however, are said to have assumed five ages called
"suns." The first was the sun of earth; the second, of fire; the third,
of air; the fourth, of water; the fifth (which is the present) was
unnamed. Each of these closed with a physical catastrophe.[8] The
speculations which underlie the Mexican theory have not come down to us.
For the Iranian parallel, see § 8, and on the Hebrew Priestly Writer,
Gunkel, _Genesis_[2], pp. 233 ff.

4. _Peruvian._--In Peru, as in Egypt, the sun-god obtained universal
homage. But there were creator-gods in the background. A theoretical
supremacy was accorded by the Incas to Pachacamac, whose worship, like
that of Viracocha, they appear to have already found when they conquered
the land. Pachacamac means, in Quichua, "world-animator."[9] The
"philosophers" of Peru declared that he desired no temples or
sacrifices, no worship but that of the heart. This is conceivable; Maui,
too, in New Zealand had no temple or priests. But most probably this
deity had another less abstract name, and the horrible worship offered
in the one temple which he really had under the Incas, accorded with his
true cosmic significance as the god of the subterranean fire. Viracocha
too had a cosmic position; an old Peruvian hymn calls him "world-former,
world-animator."[10] He was connected with water. A third creator was
Manco Capac ("the mighty man"), whose sister and wife is called Mama
Oello, "the mother-egg." Afterwards, the creator and the mother-egg
became respectively the sun and the moon, represented by the Inca
priest-king and his wife, the supposed descendants of Manco Capac.[11]
Dualistic tendencies were also developed. Las Casas[12] reports a story
that before creation the creator-god had a bad son who sought, after
creation, to undo all that his father had done. Angered at this, his
father hurled him into the sea. We need not suspect Christian
influences, but the parallelism of Rev. xx. 3, Isa. xiv. 12, 15, Ezek.
xxviii. 16 is obvious.

5. _Polynesian._--Polynesia, that classic land of mythology, is
specially rich in myths of creation. The Maori story, told by Grey and
others, of the rending apart of Rangi ( = Langi, heaven) and Papa
(earth) can be paralleled in China, India and Greece, and more remotely
in Egypt and Babylonia. The son of Rangi and Papa was Tangaloa (also
called Tangaroa and Taaroa), the sea-god and the father of fishes and
reptiles.[13] In other parts of Polynesia he is the Heaven God, to whom
there is no like, no second. In Samoa he is even called Tangaloa-Langi
(Tangaloa = heaven). And if he is the sea-god, we must remember that
there is a heavenly as well as an earthly ocean; hence the clouds are
sometimes called Tangaloa's ships. It is true, the popular imagery is
unworthy of such a god. Sometimes he is said to live in a shell, by
throwing off which from time to time he increases the world; or in an
egg, which at last he breaks in pieces; the pieces are the islands. We
also hear that long ago he hovered as an enormous bird over the waters,
and there deposited an egg. The egg may be either the earth with the
overarching vault of heaven or (as in Egypt--but this is a later view)
the sun. The latter received mythical representation in that most
interesting god (but originally rather culture-hero) Maui, who, in New
Zealand practically supplants Tangaloa, and becomes the god of the air
and of the heaven, the creator and the causer of the flood.[14]
Speculation opened the usual deep problem; whence came the gods? It was
answered that Po, i.e. darkness, was the begetter of all things, even of
Tangaloa.

6. _Indian._--India, however, is the natural home of a mythology recast
by speculation. The classical specimen of an advanced cosmogony is to be
found in the Rig Veda (x. 129); it is the hymn which begins, "There then
was neither Aught nor Naught!"[15] Another such cosmogony is given in
Manu. It is "the self-existent Lord," who, "with a thought, created the
waters, and deposited in them a seed which became a golden egg, in which
egg he himself is born as Brahm[=a], the progenitor of the worlds."[16]
The doctrine of creation by a thought is characteristically Indian. In
the satapatha Brahmana (cf. Deluge), we meet again with the primeval
waters and the world-egg, and with the famous mythological
tortoise-theory,[17] also found among the Algonkins (§ 2)--antique
beliefs gathered up by the framers of philosophic systems, who felt the
importance of maintaining such links with the distant past.

7. _Egyptian._--In Egypt too the systematizers were busily engaged in
the co-ordination of myths. They retained the belief that the germs of
all things slept for ages within the dark flood, personified as Nûn or
Nû. How they were drawn forth was variously told.[18] In some districts
the demiurge was called Khn[=u]mu; it was he who modelled the egg (of
the world?) and also man.[19] Elsewhere he was the artizan-god Ptah,
who with his hammer broke the egg; sometimes Thoth, the moon-god and
principle of intelligence, who spoke the world into existence.[20] A
strange episode in the legend of the destruction of man by the gods
tells how Ra (or Re), the first king of the world, finding in his old
age that mankind ceased to respect him, first tried the remedy of
massacre, and then ascended the heavenly cow, and organized a new
world--that of heaven.[21]

8. _Iranian._--The Iranian account of creation[22] is specially
interesting because its religious spirit is akin to that of Genesis i.
From a literary point of view, indeed, it cannot compare with the
dignified Hebrew narrative, but considering the misfortunes which have
befallen the collection of Zoroastrian traditions now represented by the
Bundahish (the Parsee Genesis) we cannot reasonably be surprised. The
work referred to begins by describing the state of things in the
beginning; the good spirit in endless light and omniscient, and the evil
spirit in endless darkness and with limited knowledge. Both produced
their own creatures, which remained apart, in a spiritual or ideal
state, for 3000 years, after which the evil spirit began his opposition
to the good creation under an agreement that his power was not to last
more than 9000 years, of which only the middle 3000 were to see him
successful. By uttering a sacred formula the good spirit throws the evil
one into a state of confusion for a second 3000 years, while he produces
the archangels and the material creation, including the sun, moon and
stars. At the end of that period the evil spirit, encouraged by the
demons he had produced, once more rushes upon the good creation to
destroy it. The demons carry on conflicts with each of the six classes
of creation, namely, the sky, water, earth, plants, animals represented
by the primeval ox, and mankind represented by G[=a]y[=o]mard or
Kayumarth (the "first man" of the _Avesta_).[23] Four points to be
noticed here: (1) the belief in the four periods of the world, each of
3000 years (cf. § 3); (2) the comparative success for a time of Angra
Mainyu (the evil principle personified); (3) the absence of any
recognition of pre-existent matter; (4) the mention of six classes of
good creatures. Each of these deserves a comment which we cannot,
however, here give, and the third may seem to suggest direct influence
of the Iranian upon the Jewish cosmogony. But though there are in Gen.
i. six days of creative activity, and the creative works are not six,
but eight, if not ten in number, and indirect Babylonian influence is
more strongly indicated. Jewish thinkers would have been attracted by
the emphatic assertion of the creatorship of the One God in the royal
Persian inscriptions more than by the traditional cosmogony. See further
_Ency. Bib._, "Creation," § 9.

9. _Phoenician and Greek._--Phoenician cosmogonies would appear, from
the notices which have come down to us,[24] to have been composite. The
traditions are pale and obscure. It is clear, however, that the primeval
flood and the world-egg (out of which came heaven and earth) are
referred to. See _Ency. Bib._, "Creation" § 7; "Phoenicia" § 15;
Lagrange, _Religions sémitiques_, pp. 351 ff. Greek cosmogonies (the
orientalism of which is clear) will be found in Hesiod, _Theog._ 116
ff.; Aristophanes, _Birds_, 692 ff.; cf. Clem. Rom., _Homil._ vi. 4. See
Miss Harrison, _Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion_, chap. xii,
"Orphic Cosmogony."

10. _Babylonian and Israelitish._--Of the Babylonian and Israelitish
cosmogonies we have several more or less complete records. For details
as to the former, see BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN RELIGION. With regard to
the latter, we may notice that in Gen. ii. 4b-25 we have an account of
creation which, though in its present form very incomplete, is highly
attractive, because it is pervaded by a breath from primitive times. It
has, however, been interwoven with an account of the Garden of Eden from
some other source (see EDEN; PARADISE), and perhaps in order to
concentrate the attention of the reader, the description of the origin
of "earth and heaven" as well as of the plants and of the rain, appears
to have been omitted. In fact, both the creation-stories at the opening
of Genesis must have undergone much editorial manipulation. Originally,
for instance, Gen. i. 26 must have said that man was made out of earth;
this point of contact between the two cosmogonic traditions has,
however, been effaced.

The other narrative, Gen. i. 1-ii. 4a, is a much more complete
cosmogony, and since the theory of P. A. Lagarde (1887), which ascribes
it to Iranian influence (see § 8), has no very solid ground, whereas the
theory which explains it as largely Babylonian is in a high degree
plausible, we must now consider the relations between the Israelitish
and Babylonian cosmogonies. The short account of creation first
translated in 1890 by T. G. Pinches is distinguished by its non-mythical
character; in particular, the dragon of chaos and darkness is
conspicuous by her absence. This may illustrate the fact that the dragon
is also unmentioned in the Hebrew cosmogony; to some writers the
dragon-element may have seemed grotesque and inappropriate. We must,
however, study this element in the most important Babylonian tradition,
even if only for its relation to non-Semitic myths and especially to
some striking passages in the Bible (Isa. xxvii. 1, li. 9b; Ps. lxxiv.
14, lxxxix. 10, 11; Job iii. 8, ix. 13, xxvi. 12, 13; Rev. xii. 3, 4,
xx. 1-3). One may also be permitted to hold that the mythic figure of
the dragon, if used poetically, is a highly serviceable one, and
consider that "in the beginning God fought with the dragon, and slew
him" would have formed an admirable illustration of the passages just
now referred to, especially to those in the Apocalypse.

The student should, however, notice that the dragon-element is not
entirely unrepresented even in the priestly Hebrew cosmogony. It is said
in Gen. i. 9, 10, 14, 15, that God divided the primeval waters into two
parts by an intervening "firmament" or "platform," on which the sun,
moon and stars (planets) were placed to mark times and to give light.
This division (cp. Ps. lxxiv. 13) is really a pale version of the old
mythic statement respecting the cleaving of the carcase of Ti[=a]mat
(the Dragon) into two parts, one of which kept the upper waters from
coming down.[25] And we must affirm that the technical term _t[)e]
h[=o]m_ (rendered in the English Bible "the deep"), which evidently
signifies the enveloping primeval flood, and which closely resembles
Ti[=a]mat, the name given to the dragon or serpent in the epic (cf.
_tiamtu_ and _tamtu_, Babylonian words for "the ocean"), can only be due
to the influence--probably the very early influence--of Babylonia.

But we are far from having exhausted the evidence of Babylonian
influence on the Hebrew cosmogony. The description of chaos in v. 2 not
only mentions the great water (_t[)e]h[=o]m_), but the earth, i.e. the
earth-matter, out of which the earth and (potentially) its varied
products (vv. 9-11), and (as we know from the Babylonian epic) the
"firmament" or "platform" of the heaven were to appear. This
earth-matter is called "_t[=o]hu_ and _b[=o]hu_"; there is nothing like
this phrase in the epic, but we may infer from Jer. iv. 23, where the
same phrase occurs, that it means "devoid of living things." For a
commentary on this see the opening of the Babylonian account referred to
above, which refers to the period of chaos as one in which there were
neither reeds nor trees, and where "the lands altogether were sea." As
to the creative acts, we may admit that the creation of light does not
form one of them in the epic (cf. Gen. i. 3), but the existence of light
apart from the sun is presupposed; Marduk the creator is in fact a god
of light. Nor ought we to find a discrepancy between the Babylonian and
the Hebrew accounts in the creation of the heavenly bodies after the
plants, related in Gen. i. 14-18. For the position of this creative act
is due to the necessity of bringing all the divine acts into the
framework of six working days. On the whole, the Hebrew statement of the
successive stages of creation corresponds so nearly to that in the
Babylonian epic that we are bound to assume that one has been influenced
by the other. And if we are asked, "Which is the more original?" we
answer by appealing to the well-established fact of the profound
influence of Babylonian culture upon Canaan in remote times (see
CANAAN). An important element in this culture would be mythic
representations of the origin of things, such as the Babylonian Creation
and Deluge-stories in various forms. Indeed, not only Canaan but all the
neighbouring regions must have been pervaded by Babylonian views of the
universe and its origin. Myths of origins there must indeed have been in
those countries before Babylonian influence became so overpowering, but,
if so, these myths must have become recast when the great Teacher of the
Nations half-attracted and half-compelled attention. More than this we
need not assert. Zimmern's somewhat different treatment of the subject
in _Ency. Biblica_, "Creation," § 4, may be compared.

Popular writers are in some danger of misrepresenting this important
result. It is tempting, but incorrect, to suppose that a docile
Israelitish writer accepted one of the chief forms of the Babylonian
cosmogony, merely omitting its polytheism and substituting "Yahweh" for
"Marduk." As we have seen, various myths of Creation may have been
current both in N. Arabia (whence the Israelites may have come) and in
Canaan prior to the great extension of Babylonian influence. These myths
doubtless had peculiarities of their own. From one of them may have come
that remarkable statement in Gen. i. 2b, "and the spirit of God (Elohim)
was hovering over the face of the waters," which, until we find some
similar myth nearer home, is best illustrated and explained by a
Polynesian myth (see Cheyne, _Traditions and Beliefs of Ancient Israel_,
ad loc.). It is also probably to a non-Babylonian source that we owe the
prescription of vegetarian or herb diet in Gen. i. 29, 30, which has a
Zoroastrian parallel[26] and is evidently based on a myth of the Golden
Age, independent of the Babylonian cosmogony. Gen. i., therefore, has
not, as it stands, been directly borrowed from Babylonia, and yet the
infused Babylonian element is so considerable that the story is, in a
purely formal aspect, much more Babylonian than either Israelitish or
Canaanitish or N. Arabian. We say "in a purely formal aspect," because
the strictness with which Babylonian mythic elements have been adapted
in Gen. i. to the wants of a virtually monotheistic community is in the
highest degree remarkable.

  On the literary scheme of the Creation-story in Gen. i. see the
  commentaries (e.g. Dillman's and Driver's). On the other Old Testament
  references to creation, and on the prophetic doctrine of creation, see
  _Ency. Bib._, "Creation," §§ 27-29. On the traces of dragon and
  serpent myths in the Old Testament and their significance, see Gunkel,
  _Schöpfung und Chaos_ (1895)--a pioneering work of the highest
  merit--and _Ency. Bib._, "Behemoth," "Dragon," "Rahab," "Serpent." On
  the connexion of the Creation and the Deluge-stories, see DELUGE. Cf.
  also the article on BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN RELIGION; and Cheyne,
  _Traditions and Beliefs of Ancient Israel_ (1907).     (T. K. C.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Cf. Miss Harrison, _Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion_,
    chaps. vi., vii., "The Making of a Goddess and of a God."

  [2] See Ratzel. _Hist. of Mankind_, ii. 147-148; Breysig, _Die
    Entstehung des Gottesgedankens_ (1905), pp. 10-12.

  [3] See Chamberlain, _Journ. of American Folklore_, iv. 208-209
    (analysis of Perrot's account); Brinton, _Myths of the New World_,
    pp. 176-179; Breysig, op. cit., pp. 15-20.

  [4] On Michabo see Brinton, op. cit. (1876), pp. 176 ff., _Essays of
    an Americanist_ (1890), p. 132. This scholar holds that "Michabo" has
    properly nothing to do with "Great Hare," but should be translated
    "the Great White One," i.e. the light of the dawn. The Algonkins,
    however, thought otherwise, and the myth itself suggests a
    theriomorphic earth-maker.

  [5] See Schoolcraft, _Myth of Hiawatha_ (1856), pp. 35-39; and cf.
    the myth of Manabush, analysed in _Journ. of Amer. Folklore_, iv.
    210-213.

  [6] The latest explanation of Joskeha is "dear little sprout," and of
    Tawiscara, "the ice-one," while Aataentsic becomes "she of the
    swarthy body." Hewitt, _Journ. of Amer. Folklore_, x. 68. Brébeuf
    (1635) says that Iouskeha gives growth and fair weather (Tylor,
    _Prim. Cult._ i. 294).

  [7] See Jeremias, _Das Alte Testament im Lichte des Alten Orients_,
    p. 121, 1; Winckler, _Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament_[3],
    p. 333.

  [8] Réville, _Religions of Mexico and Peru_, p. 129.

  [9] Garcilasso el Inca, _Comment. de los Incas_, lib. ii. c. 2; cf.
    Lang, _The Making of Religion_, pp. 262-270.

  [10] Réville, p. 187.

  [11] Réville, p. 158. Garcilasso (lib. i. c. 18) says that Manco
    Capac "taught the subject nations to be men," and also founded the
    imperial city of Cuzco ( = navel).

  [12] _De las antiquas gentes del Peru_ (ed. 1892), pp. 55, 56.

  [13] See especially Waitz-Gerland, _Anthropologie der Naturvölker_,
    vi. 229-302; Gill, _Myths and Songs of the South Pacific_; Schirren,
    _Wandersagen der Neuseeländer_; also an older work (Sir George)
    Grey's _Polynesian Mythology_.

  [14] See Schirren, op. cit., pp. 64-89.

  [15] J. Muir, _Metrical Translations_, pp. 188-189.

  [16] J. Muir, _Sanscrit Texts_, iv. 26.

  [17] See Tylor, _Early History of Mankind_, p. 340; _Primitive
    Culture_, i. 329; Oldenberg, _Religion des Veda_, pp. 85 f.

  [18] See Maspero, _Dawn of Civilization_, p. 127; also Brugoch,
    _Religion und Mythologie der alten Ägypter_.

  [19] See illustration in Maspero, p. 157.

  [20] See Maspero, pp. 146-147.

  [21] Maspero, pp. 160-169.

  [22] See ZOROASTER, and cf. _Ency. Bib._, "Creation," § 9:
    "Zoroastrianism," §§ 20, 21.

  [23] West, _Pahlavi Texts_ (S.B.E.), vol. i., introd. p. xxiii. We
    need not deny that, late as the Bundahish may be as a whole, the
    traditions which it contains are often old.

  [24] Fragments of older works are cited by Philo of Byblus (in
    Eusebius, _Praep. Evang._ i. 10) and Mochus and Endemus (in
    Damascius, _De primis principiis_, c. 125).

  [25] See Jastrow, _Religion of Babylonia and Assyria_, p. 428.

  [26] See _Bundahish_, xv. 2 (_S.B.E._, v. 53).



COSMOPOLITAN (Gr. [Greek: kosmos], world, and [Greek: politês],
citizen), of or belonging to a "citizen of the world," i.e. one whose
sympathies, interests, whether commercial, political or social, and
culture are not confined to the nation or race to which he may belong,
opposed therefore to "national" or "insular." As an attribute the word
may be applied to a cultured man of the world, who has travelled widely
and is at home in many forms of civilization, to such races as the
Jewish, scattered through the civilized world, yet keeping beneath their
cosmopolitanism the racial type pure, and also to mark a profound line
of cleavage in economic and political thought.



COSNE, a town of central France, capital of an arrondissement in the
department of Nièvre, on the right bank of the Loire at its junction
with the Nohain, 37 m. N.N.W. of Nevers by the Paris-Lyon railway. Pop.
(1906) town, 5750; commune, 8437. Two suspension bridges unite it to the
left bank of the Loire. The church of St Aignan is a building of the
12th century, restored in the 16th and 18th centuries; the only portions
in the Romanesque style are the apse and the north-west portal. It
formerly belonged to a Benedictine priory depending on the abbey of La
Charité (Nièvre). The manufacture of files, flour-milling and tanning
are carried on in the town which has a subprefecture, a tribunal of
first instance and a communal college. Cosne is mentioned in the
Antonine Itinerary under the name of _Condate_, but it was not till the
middle ages that it rose into importance as a military post. In the 12th
century the bishop of Auxerre and the count of Nevers agreed to a
division of the supremacy over the town and its territory.



COSSA, LUIGI (1831-1896), Italian economist, was born at Milan on the
27th of May 1831. Educated at the universities of Pavia, Vienna and
Leipzig, he was appointed professor of political economy at Pavia in
1858. He died at Pavia on the 10th of May 1896. Cossa was the author of
several works which established for him a high reputation; including
_Scienza delle finanze_ (1875, English translation 1888 under title
_Taxation, its Principles and Methods_); _Guida allo studio dell'
economia politica_ (1876, English translation 1880), an admirable
compendium of the theoretical preliminaries of economics, with a brief
critical history of the science and an excellent bibliography;
_Introduzione allo studio dell' economia politica_, (1876, English
translation by L. Dyer, 1893); and _Saggi di economia politica_, 1878.



COSSA, PIETRO (1830-1880), Italian dramatist, was born at Rome in 1830,
and claimed descent from the family of Pope John XXIII., deposed by the
council of Constance. He manifested an independent spirit from his
youth, and was expelled from a Jesuit school on the double charge of
indocility and patriotism. After fighting for the Roman republic in
1849, he emigrated to South America, but failing to establish himself
returned to Italy, and lived precariously as a literary man until 1870,
when his reputation was established by the unexpected success of his
first acted tragedy, _Nero_. From this time to his death in 1880 Cossa
continued to produce a play a year, usually upon some classical subject.
_Cleopatra_, _Messalina_, _Julian_, enjoyed great popularity, and his
dramas on subjects derived from Italian history, _Rienzi_ and _The
Borgias_, were also successful. _Plautus_, a comedy, was preferred by
the author himself, and is more original. Cossa had neither the
divination which would have enabled him to reconstruct the ancient
world, nor the imagination which would have enabled him to idealize it.
But he was an energetic writer, never tame or languid, and at the same
time able to command the attention of an audience without recourse to
melodramatic artifice; while his sonorous verse, if scarcely able to
support the ordeal of the closet, is sufficiently near to poetry for the
purposes of the stage.

  His collected _Teatro poetico_ was published in 1887.



COSSACKS (Russ. _Kazak_; plural, _Kazaki_, from the Turki _quzz[=a]q_,
"adventurer, free-booter"), the name given to considerable portions of
the population of the Russian empire, endowed with certain special
privileges, and bound in return to give military service, all at a
certain age, under special conditions. They constitute ten separate
_voiskos_, settled along the frontiers: Don, Kuban, Terek, Astrakhan,
Ural, Orenburg, Siberian, Semiryechensk, Amur and Usuri. The primary
unit of this organization is the _stanitsa_, or village, which holds its
land as a commune, and may allow persons who are not Cossacks (excepting
Jews) to settle on this land for payment of a certain rent. The assembly
of all householders in villages of less than 30 households, and of 30
elected men in villages having from 30 to 300 households (one from each
10 households in the more populous ones), constitutes the village
assembly, similar to the _mir_, but having wider attributes, which
assesses the taxes, divides the land, takes measures for the opening and
support of schools, village grain-stores, communal cultivation, and so
on, and elects its _ataman_ (elder) and its judges, who settle all
disputes up to £10 (or above that sum with the consent of both sides).
Military service is obligatory for all men, for 20 years, beginning with
the age of 18. The first 3 years are passed in the preliminary division,
the next 12 in active service, and the last 5 years in the reserve.
Every Cossack is bound to procure his own uniform, equipment and horse
(if mounted)--the government supplying only the arms. Those on active
service are divided into three equal parts according to age, and the
first third only is in real service, while the two others stay at home,
but are bound to march out as soon as an order is given. The officers
are supplied in the usual way by the military schools, in which all
Cossack _voiskos_ have their own vacancies, or are non-commissioned
Cossack officers, with officers' grades. In return for this service the
Cossacks have received from the state considerable grants of land for
each _voisko_ separately.

The total Cossack population in 1893 was 2,648,049 (1,331,470 women),
and they owned nearly 146,500,000 acres of land, of which 105,000,000
acres were arable and 9,400,000 under forests. This land was divided
between the _stanitsas_, at the rate of 81 acres per each soul, with
special grants to officers (personal to some of them, _in lieu_ of
pensions), and leaving about one-third of the land as a reserve for the
future. The income which the Cossack _voiskos_ receive from the lands
which they rent to different persons, also from various sources (trade
patents, rents of shops, fisheries, permits of gold-digging, &c.), as
also from the subsidies they receive from the government (about
£712,500 in 1893), is used to cover all the expenses of state and local
administration. They have besides a special reserve capital of about
£2,600,000. The expenditure of the village administration is covered by
village taxes. The general administration is kept separately for each
_voisko_, and differs with the different _voiskos_. The central
administration, at the Ministry of War, is composed of representatives
of each _voisko_, who discuss the proposals of all new laws affecting
the Cossacks. In time of war the ten Cossack _voiskos_ are bound to
supply 890 mounted _sotnias_ or squadrons (of 125 men each), 108
infantry _sotnias_ or companies (same number), and 236 guns,
representing 4267 officers and 177,100 men, with 170,695 horses. In time
of peace they keep 314 squadrons, 54 infantry _sotnias_, and 20
batteries containing 108 guns (2574 officers, 60,532 men, 50,054
horses). Altogether, the Cossacks have 328,705 men ready to take arms in
case of need. As a rule, popular education amongst the Cossacks stands
at a higher level than in the remainder of Russia. They have more
schools and a greater proportion of their children go to school. In
addition to agriculture, which (with the exception of the Usuri
Cossacks) is sufficient to supply their needs and usually to leave a
certain surplus, they carry on extensive cattle and horse breeding, vine
culture in Caucasia, fishing on the Don, the Ural, and the Caspian,
hunting, bee-culture, &c. The extraction of coal, gold and other
minerals which are found on their territories is mostly rented to
strangers, who also own most factories.

A military organization similar to that of the Cossacks has been
introduced into certain districts, which supply a number of mounted
infantry _sotnias_. Their peace-footing is as follows:--Daghestan, 6
regular squadrons and 3 of militia; Kuban Circassians, 1 _sotnia_;
Terek, 8 _sotnias_; Kars, 3 _sotnias_; Batum, 2 infantry and 1 mounted
_sotnia_; Turkomans, 3 _sotnias_; total, 25 squadrons and 2 companies.

  For the origin and history of the Cossacks see POLAND: History, and
  the biographies of Razin, Chmielnicki and Mazepa.     (P. A. K.)



COSSIMBAZAR, or KASIMBAZAR, a decayed town on the river Bhagirathi in
the Murshidabad district of Bengal, India, now included in the Berhampur
municipality. Pop. (1901) 1262. Though the history of the place cannot
be traced back earlier than the 17th century, it was of great importance
long before the foundation of Murshidabad. From the first European
traders set up factories here, and after the ruin of Satgaon by the
silting up of the mouth of the Saraswati it gained a position, as the
great trading centre of Bengal, which was not challenged until after the
foundation of Calcutta. In 1658 the first English agent was established
at Cossimbazar, and in 1667 the chief of the factory there became an
_ex-officio_ member of council. In English documents of this period, and
till the early 19th century, the Bhagirathi was described as the
Cossimbazar river, and the triangular piece of land between the
Bhagirathi, Padma and Jalangi, on which the city stands, as the island
of Cossimbazar. The proximity of the factory to Murshidabad, the
Mahommedan capital, while it was the main source of its wealth and of
its political importance, exposed it to constant danger. Thus in 1757 it
was the first to be taken by Suraj-ud-dowlah, the nawab; ana the
resident with his assistant (Warren Hastings) were taken as prisoners to
Murshidabad.

At the beginning of the 19th century the city still flourished; so late
as 1811 it was described as famous for its silks, hosiery, _koras_ and
beautiful ivory work. But an insidious change in its once healthy
climate had begun to work its decay; the area of cultivated land round
it had shrunk to vanishing point, jungle haunted by wild beasts taking
its place; and in 1813 its ruin was completed by a sudden change in the
course of the Bhagirathi, which formed a new channel 3 m. from the old
town, leaving an evil-smelling swamp around the ancient wharves. Of its
splendid buildings the fine palace of the maharaja of Cossimbazar alone
remains, the rest being in ruins or represented only by great mounds of
earth. The first wife of Warren Hastings was buried at Cossimbazar,
where her tomb with its inscription still remains.

  See _Imp. Gaz. of India_ (Oxford, 1908), s.v.



COSTA, GIOVANNI (1826-1903), Italian painter, was born in Rome. He
fought under Garibaldi in 1848, and served as a volunteer in the war of
1859; and his enthusiasm for Italian unity was actively shown again in
1870, when he was the first to mount the breach in the assault of Rome
near the Porta Pia. He had settled meanwhile at Florence, where his
fight for the independence of art from worn-out traditions was no less
strenuous, and he became known as a landscape-painter of remarkable
originality, and of great influence in the return to minute observation
of nature. He had many English friends and followers, notably Matthew
Ridley Corbet (1850-1902), and Lord Carlisle, and was closely associated
with Corot and the Barbizon school. In later years he lived and worked
mainly in Rome, where his studio was an important centre. An exhibition
of his pictures was held in London in 1904, and he is represented in the
Tate Gallery. He died at Rome in 1903.

  See also Madame Agresti's _Giovanni Costa_ (1904).



COSTA, LORENZO (1460-1535), Italian painter, was born at Ferrara, but
went in early life to Bologna and ranks with the Bolognese school. In
1438 he painted his famous "Madonna and Child with the Bentivoglio
family," and other frescoes, on the walls of the Bentivoglio chapel in
San Giacomo Maggiore, and he followed this with many other works. He was
a great friend of Francia, who was much influenced by him. In 1509 he
went to Mantua, where his patron was the Marquis Francesco Gonzaga, and
he eventually died there. His "Madonna and Child enthroned" is in the
National Gallery, London, but his chief works are at Bologna. His sons,
Ippolito (1506-1561) and Girolamo, were also painters, and so was
Girolamo's son Lorenzo the younger (1537-1583).



COSTA, SIR MICHAEL ANDREW AGNUS (1808-1884), British musical conductor
and composer, the son of Cavalière Pasquale Costa, a Spaniard, was born
at Naples on the 14th of February 1808. Here he became at an early age a
scholar at the Royal College of Music. His cantata _L'Immagine_ was
composed when he was fifteen. In 1826 he wrote his first opera _Il
Delitto Punito_; in 1827 another opera _Il sospetto funesto_. To this
period belong also his oratorio _La Passione_, a grand Mass for four
voices, a _Dixit Dominus_, and three symphonies. The opera _Il Carcere
d'Ildegonda_ was composed in 1828 for the Teatro Nuovo, and in 1829
Costa wrote his _Malvina_ for Barbaja, the impresario of San Carlo. In
this latter year he visited Birmingham to conduct Zingarelli's _Cantata
Sacra_, a setting of some verses from Isaiah ch. xii. Instead, however,
of conducting, he sang the tenor part. In 1830 he settled in London,
having a connexion with the King's theatre. His ballet _Kenilworth_ was
written in 1831, the ballet _Une Heure à Naples_ in 1832, and the ballet
_Sir Huon_ (composed for Taglioni) in 1833. In this latter year he wrote
his famous quartet _Ecco quel fiero istante. Malek Adhel_, an opera, was
produced in Paris in 1837. In 1842 he wrote the ballet music of _Alma_
for Cerito, and in 1844 his opera _Don Carlos_ was produced in London.
Costa became a naturalized Englishman and received the honour of
knighthood in 1869. He conducted the opera at Her Majesty's from 1832
till 1846, when he seceded to the Italian Opera at Covent Garden; he was
conductor of the Philharmonic Society from 1846 to 1854, of the Sacred
Harmonic Society from 1848, and of the Birmingham festival from 1849. In
1855 Costa wrote _Eli_, and in 1864 _Naaman_, both for Birmingham.
Meanwhile he had conducted the Bradford (1853) and Handel festivals
(1857-1880), and the Leeds festivals from 1874 to 1880. On the 29th of
April 1884 he died at Brighton. Costa was the great conductor of his
day, but both his musical and his human sympathies were somewhat
limited; his compositions have passed into oblivion, with the exception
of the least admirable of them--his arrangement of the national anthem.



COSTAKI, ANTHOPOULOS (1835-1902), Turkish pasha, was born in 1835. He
became a professor at the Turkish naval college; then entered the legal
branch of the Turkish service, rising to the post of _procureur
impérial_ at the court of cassation. He was governor-general of Crete;
and in 1895 was appointed Ottoman ambassador in London, a post which he
continued to hold until his death at Constantinople in 1902. He bore
throughout his career the reputation of an intelligent and upright
public servant.



COSTANZO, ANGELO DI (c 1507-1591), Italian historian and poet, was born
at Naples about 1507. He lived in a literary circle, and fell in love
with the beautiful Vittoria Colonna. His great work, _Le Istorie del
regno di Napoli dal 1250 fino al 1498_, first appeared at Naples in
1572, and was the fruit of thirty or forty years' labour; but nine more
years were devoted to the task before it was issued in its final form at
Aquila (1581). It is still one of the best histories of Naples, and the
style is distinguished by clearness, simplicity and elegance. The _Rime_
of di Costanzo are remarkable for finical taste, for polish and frequent
beauty of expression, and for strict obedience to the poetical canons of
his time.

  See G. Tiraboschi, _Storia della letteratura italiana_, vol. vii.
  (Florence, 1812).



COSTA RICA, a republic of Central America, bounded on the N. by
Nicaragua, E. by the Caribbean Sea, S.E. and S. by Panama, S.W., W. and
N.W. by the Pacific Ocean. (For map, see CENTRAL AMERICA.) The territory
thus enclosed has an area of about 18,500 sq. m., and may be roughly
described as an elevated tableland, intersected by lofty mountain
ranges, with their main axis trending from N.W. to S.E. It is fringed,
along the coasts, by low-lying marshes and lagoons, alternating with
tracts of rich soil and wastes of sand.

_Physical Description._--The northern frontier, drawn 2 m. S. of the
southern shores of the river San Juan and of Lake Nicaragua, terminates
at Salinas Bay on the Pacific; its southern frontier skirts the valley
of the Sixola or Tiliri, strikes south-east along the crests of the
Talamanca Mountains as far as 9° N., and then turns sharply south,
ending in Burica Point. The monotonous Atlantic littoral is unbroken by
any large inlet or estuary, and thus contrasts in a striking manner with
the varied outlines of the Pacific coast, which includes the three bold
promontories of Nicoya, Golfo Dulce and Burica, besides the broad sweep
of Coronada Bay and several small harbours. The Gulf of Nicoya, a
shallow landlocked inlet, containing a whole archipelago of
richly-wooded islets, derives its name from Nicoya, an Indian chief who,
with his tribe, was here converted to Christianity in the 16th century.
It is famous for its purple-yielding murex, pearls and mother-of-pearl.
The Golfo Dulce has an average depth of 100 fathoms and contains no
islands. Two volcanic _Cordilleras_ or mountain chains, separated from
one another by the central plateau of San José and Cartago, traverse the
interior of Costa Rica, and form a single watershed, often precipitous
on its Pacific slope, but descending more gradually towards the
Atlantic, where there is a broad expanse of plain in the north-east. The
more northerly range, in which volcanic disturbances on a great scale
have been comparatively recent, extends transversely across the country,
from a point a little south of Salinas Bay, to the headland of Carreta,
the southern extremity of the Atlantic seaboard, also known as Monkey
Point. Its direction changes from south-east to east-south-east opposite
to the entrance into the Gulf of Nicoya, where it is cut into two
sections by a depression some 20 m. wide. At first it is rather a
succession of isolated volcanic cones than a continuous ridge, the most
conspicuous peaks being Orosi (5185 ft.), the four-crested Rincon de la
Vieja (4500), Miravalles (4698) and Tenorio (6800). In this region it is
known as the Sierra de Tilaran. Then succeed the Cerros de los Guatusos,
a highland stretching for more than 50 m. without a single volcano. Poas
(8895), the scene of a violent eruption in 1834, begins a fresh series
of igneous peaks, some with flooded craters, some with a constant escape
of smoke and vapour. From Irazú (11,200), the culminating point of the
range, both oceans and the whole of Costa Rica are visible; its altitude
exceeds that of Aneto, the highest point in the Pyrenees, but so gradual
is its acclivity that the summit can easily be reached by a man on
horseback. Turialba (10,910), adjoining Irazú on the east, was in
eruption in 1866. Its name, though probably of Indian origin, is
sometimes written Turrialba, and connected with the Latin _Turris Alba_,
"White Tower." The more southerly of the two Costa Rican ranges, known
as the Cordillera de Talamanca, rises south of the Gulf of Nicoya, and
extends midway between the two oceans towards the south-east. It follows
exactly the curve of the mainland, and is continued into Panama, under
the name of the Cordillera de Chiriqui. Its chief summits are Chirripo
Grande (11,485), the loftiest in the whole country, Buena Vista
(10,820), Ujum (8695), Pico Blanco (9645) and Rovalo (7050), on the
borders of Panama. Throughout the volcanic area earthquakes and
landslides are of frequent occurrence.

The narrowness of the level ground between the mountains and the sea
renders almost impossible the formation of any navigable river. The most
important streams are those of the Atlantic seaboard, notably the San
Juan, which drains Lake Nicaragua. Issuing from the lake within
Nicaraguan territory, the San Juan has a course of 95 m., mostly along
the frontier, to the Colorado Mouth, which is its main outfall, and
belongs wholly to Costa Rica. Its chief right-hand tributaries are the
San Carlos and Sarapiqui. The Reventazon, or Parismina, flows from the
central plateau to the Caribbean Sea; despite the shortness of its
valley, its volume is considerable, owing to the prevalence of moist
trade-winds near its sources. Six small streams and one large river, the
Rio Frio, flow across the northern frontier into Lake Nicaragua. On the
Pacific coast all the rivers are rapid and liable to sudden floods. None
is large, although three bear the prefix _Rio Grande_, "great river."
The Tempisque enters the Pacific at the head of the Gulf of Nicoya, and
tends to silt up that already shallow inlet (5-10 fathoms) with its
alluvial deposits. The Rio Grande de Tarcoles also enters the gulf, and
the Rio Grande de Pirris and Rio Grande de Terrabis or Diquis flow into
Coronada Bay. The Rio Grande de Tarcoles rises close to the Ochomogo
Pass and the sources of the Reventazon, at the base of Irazú; and the
headwaters of these two streams indicate precisely the depression in the
central plateau which severs the northern from the southern mountains.

Costa Rica is not differentiated from the neighbouring lands by any very
marked peculiarities of geological formation, or of plant and animal
life. Its geology, flora and fauna are therefore described under Central
America (q.v.).

_Climate._--Owing to the proximity of two oceans, and the varied
configuration of the surface of Costa Rica, an area of a few square
miles may exhibit the most striking extremes of climate; but, over the
entire country, it is possible to distinguish three climatic
zones--tropical, temperate and cold. These generally succeed one another
as the altitude increases, although the heat is greater at the same
elevation on the Pacific than on the Atlantic coast. It is, however,
less oppressive, as cool breezes prevail and damp is comparatively rare.
The tropical zone comprises the coast and the foothills, and ranges, in
its mean annual temperature, from 72° F. to 82°. In the San José plateau
(3000-5000 ft.), which is the most densely populated portion of the
temperate zone, the average is 68°, with an average variation for all
seasons of only 5°. Above 7500 ft. frosts are frequent, but snow rarely
falls. The wet season, lasting during the prevalence of the south-west
monsoon, from April to December, is clearly defined on the Pacific
slope. It is curiously interrupted by a fortnight of dry weather, known
as the _Veranillo de San Juan_, in June. Towards the Atlantic the
trade-winds may bring rain in any month. Winter lasts from December to
February. The normal rainfall is about 80 in., but as cloud-bursts are
common, it may rise to 150 in. or even more. Rheumatism on the Atlantic
seaboard, and malaria on both coasts, are the commonest forms of
disease; but, as a whole, Costa Rica is one of the healthiest of
tropical lands.

_Population._--In 1904, according to the official returns, the total
population numbered 331,340; having increased by more than one-fourth in
a decade. Spanish, with various modifications of dialect, and the
introduction of many Indian words, is the principal language; and the
majority of the inhabitants claim descent from the Spanish
colonists--chiefly Galicians--who came hither during the 16th and
subsequent centuries. The percentage of Spanish blood is greater than in
the other Central American republics; but there is also a large
population of half-castes (_ladinos_ or _mestizos_) due to intermarriage
with native Indians. The resident foreigners, who are mostly Spaniards,
Italians, Germans and British subjects, numbered less than 8000 in 1904;
immigration is, however, encouraged by the easy terms on which land can
be purchased from the state. The native Indians, though exterminated in
many districts, and civilized in others, remain in a condition of
complete savagery along parts of the Nicaraguan border, where they are
known as Prazos or Guatusos, in the Talamanca country and elsewhere.
Their numbers may be estimated at 4000. They are a quiet and inoffensive
folk, who dwell in stockaded encampments, and preserve their ancestral
language and customs. For an account of early Indian civilization in
Costa Rica, see CENTRAL AMERICA: Archaeology. The Mosquito Indians come
every summer to fish for turtle off the Atlantic coast. As only 200
negroes were settled in Costa Rica when slavery was abolished in 1824,
and no important increase ever took place through immigration, the black
population is remarkably small, amounting only to some 1200.

_Chief Towns and Communications._--The whites are congregated in or near
the chief towns, which include the capital, San José (pop. 1904 about
24,500), the four provincial capitals of Alajuela (4860), Cartago
(4536), Heredia (7151) and Liberia or Guanacaste (2831), with the
seaportsof Puntarenas (3569), on the Pacific, and Limon (3171) on the
Atlantic. These, with the exception of Heredia and Liberia, are
described in separate articles. The transcontinental railway from Limon
to Puntarenas was begun in 1871, and forms the nucleus of a system
intended ultimately to connect all the fertile parts of the country, and
to join the railways of Nicaragua and Panama. It skirts the Atlantic
coast as far as the small port of Matina; thence it passes inland to
Reventazon, and bifurcates to cross the northern mountains; one branch
going north of Irazú, while the other traverses the Ochomogo Pass. At
San José these lines reunite, and the railway is continued to Alajuela,
the small Pacific port of Tivives, and Puntarenas. The railways are
owned partly by the state, partly by the Costa Rica railway company,
which, in 1904, arranged to build several branch lines through the
banana districts of the Atlantic littoral. Apart from the main lines of
communication the roads are very rough, often mere tracks; and the
principal means of transport are ox-carts or pack-mules. The postal and
telegraphic services are also somewhat inadequate.

_Agriculture and Industries._--The name "Costa Rica," meaning "rich
coast," is well deserved; for, owing to the combination of ample
sunshine and moisture with a wonderfully fertile soil, almost any kind
of fruit or flower can be successfully cultivated; while the vast tracts
of virgin forest, which remain along the Atlantic slopes, contain an
abundance of cedar, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and ebony, with fustic
and other precious dye-woods. The country is essentially agricultural,
and owes its political stability to the presence of a large class of
peasant proprietors, who number more than two-thirds of the population.
Coffee, first planted in 1838, is grown chiefly on the plateau of San
José. The special adaptability of this region to its growth is
attributed to the nature of the soil, which consists of layers of black
or dark-brown volcanic ash, varying in depth from 1 to 6 yds. Bananas
are grown over a large and increasing area; rice, maize, barley,
potatoes and beans are cultivated to some extent in the interior; cocoa,
vanilla, sugar-cane, cotton and indigo are products of the warm
coast-lands, but are hardly raised in sufficient quantities to meet the
local demand. Stock-farming, a relatively undeveloped industry, tends to
become more important, owing to the assistance which the state renders
by the importation of horses, cattle, sheep and swine, from Europe and
the United States, in order to improve the native breeds. In the
south-east farmers are often compelled to retire with their flocks and
herds before the thousands of huge, migratory vampires, which descend
suddenly on the pastures and are able in one night to bleed the
strongest animal to death. The manufactures are insignificant; and
although silver, copper, iron, zinc, lead and marble are said to exist
in considerable quantities, the only ores that have been worked are
gold, silver and copper. At the beginning of the 20th century the silver
and copper mines had been abandoned. The goldfields are exploited with
American capital, and yield a fair return.

_Commerce._--The exports, which comprise coffee, bananas, cocoa,
cabinet-woods and dye-woods, with hides and skins, mother-of-pearl,
tortoiseshell and gold, were officially valued at £1,398,000 in 1904;
and in the same year the imports, including foodstuffs, dry goods and
hardware, were valued at £1,229,000. Over £1,250,000 worth of the
exports consisted of coffee and bananas, and these commodities were of
almost equal value. Nearly 85% of the coffee, or more than 20,000,000
lb., were sent to Great Britain. The development of the banana trade
dates from 1881, when 3500 bunches of fruit were exported to New
Orleans. This total increased very rapidly, and in 1902 a monthly
service of steamers was established from Limon to Bristol and
Manchester. The service to England soon became a weekly one, while there
are at least three weekly sailings to the United States. In 1904 the
number of bunches sent abroad exceeded 6,000,000. So important is this
crop that the rate of wages to labourers in the banana districts is
nearly 3s. daily, as compared with an average of 1s. 8d. in the coffee
plantations. The bulk of the imports comes from the United States (52%
in 1904), Great Britain (19%) and Germany (13%). Almost the whole
foreign trade passes through Limon and Puntarenas. In 1904, exclusive of
banana steamers, there were regular steamship services weekly from Limon
to the United States and Germany, fortnightly to Great Britain, and
monthly to France, Italy and Spain; while at Puntarenas four American
liners called monthly on the voyage between San Francisco and Panama.

_Finance._--The valuable resources of the republic, and its comparative
immunity from revolution, formerly attracted the attention of European
and American investors, who supplied the capital for internal
development. In 1871 the government contracted a loan of £1,000,000 in
London, and in 1872 it borrowed an additional £2,400,000 for railway
construction. The outstanding foreign debt amounted in 1887 to
£2,691,300, while the arrears of interest were no less than £2,119,500.
An arrangement with the creditors was concluded in 1888; but in 1895 the
republic again became bankrupt, and a fresh arrangement was sanctioned
in March 1897, by which the interest on £1,475,000 was reduced to 2½%
and that on £525,000 to 3%. It was provided that amortization, at
£10,000 yearly, should begin in 1917. In 1904 the service of the
external debt, which then amounted to £2,500,000, including £500,000
arrears of interest, was again suspended; the total of the internal debt
was £815,000. About one-half of the national revenue is derived from
customs, the remainder being principally furnished by railways, stamps,
and the salt and tobacco monopolies. In the financial year 1904-1905 the
revenue was £503,000, the expenditure £390,000. Education, internal
development and the service of the internal debt were the chief sources
of expenditure.

_Money and Credit._--There are three important banks, the Anglo-Costa
Rican Bank, with a capital of £120,000, the Bank of Costa Rica
(£200,000), and the Commercial Bank of Costa Rica (£100,000), founded in
1905. On the 25th of April 1900 a law was enacted for the regulation of
the constitution, capital, note emission and metallic reserves of banks.
On the 24th of October 1896 an act was passed for the adoption of a gold
coinage, and the execution of this act was decreed on the 17th of April
1900. The monetary unit is the gold colon weighing .778 gramme, .900
fine, and thus worth about 23d. It is legally equivalent to the silver
peso, which continues in circulation. The gold coins of the United
States, Great Britain, France and Germany are legally current. The
metric system of weights and measures was introduced by law in 1884, but
the old Spanish system is still in use.

_Constitution and Government._--Costa Rica is governed under a
constitution of 1870, which, however, only came into force in 1882, and
has often been modified. The legislative power resides in a House of
Representatives, consisting of about 30 to 40 deputies, or one for every
8000 inhabitants. The deputies are chosen for a term of four years by
local electoral colleges, whose members are returned by the votes of all
self-supporting citizens. One-half of the chamber retires automatically
every two years. The president and three vice-presidents constitute the
executive. They are assisted by a cabinet of four ministers,
representing the departments of the interior, police and public works;
foreign affairs, justice, religion and education; finance and commerce;
war and marine. For purposes of local administration the state is
divided into five provinces, Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia and
San José, and two maritime districts (_comarcas_), Limon and Puntarenas.
All these divisions except Guanacaste--which takes its name from a
variety of mimosa very common in the province--are synonymous with their
chief towns; and each is controlled by a governor or prefect appointed
by the president. Justice is administered by a supreme court, two courts
of appeal, and the court of cassation, which sit in San José, and are
supplemented by various inferior tribunals.

_Religion and Education._--The Roman Catholic Church is supported by the
state, and the vast majority of the people accept its doctrines; but
complete religious liberty is guaranteed by the constitution. The
Jesuits, who formerly exercised widespread influence, were expelled in
1884. Of the other religious communities, the most important are the
Protestants, numbering 3000, and the Buddhists, about 250. Primary
education is free and compulsory; the standard of attendance is high and
the instruction fair, but a large proportion of the older inhabitants
were illiterate at the beginning of the 20th century. In the matter of
secondary education considerable neglect has been shown. In 1904 there
were only six secondary schools, including the institute of law and
medicine and the training-school for teachers at San José. The state
grants scholarships tenable at European universities to promising
pupils, and there are three important public libraries.

_Defence._--Military service in time of war is compulsory for all
able-bodied citizens aged 18-50. There are a permanent army, of about
600; a militia, comprising an active service branch to which all under
40 belong, with a reserve for those between 40 and 50; and a national
guard, including all males under 18 and over 50 who are capable of
bearing arms. On a war footing these forces would number about 36,000. A
gunboat and a torpedo boat constitute the navy, which, however, requires
the services of an admiral, subordinate to the ministry of marine.

_History._--The origin of the name _Costa Rica_ (Spanish for "Rich
Coast") has been much disputed. It is often stated that the territories
to which the name is now applied were first known as _Nueva Cartago_,
while _Costa Rica_ was used in a wider sense to designate the whole
south-western coast of the Caribbean Sea, from the supposed mineral
wealth of this region. Then, in 1540, the name was restricted to an area
approximately equal to that of modern Costa Rica. In such a case it must
have been bestowed ironically, for the country proved very unprofitable
to the gold-seekers, who were its earliest European settlers. Col.
Church, in the paper cited below, derives it from _Costa de Oreja_,
"Earring Coast," in allusion to the earrings worn by the Indians and
remarked by their conquerors. He quotes evidence to show that this name
was known to 16th-century cartographers.

With the rest of Central America, Costa Rica remained a province of the
Spanish captaincy-general of Guatemala until 1821. Its conquest was
completed by 1530, and ten years later it was made a separate province,
the limits of which were fixed, by order of Philip II., between 1560 and
1573. This task was principally executed by Juan Vazquez de Coronado (or
Vasquez de Coronada), an able and humane governor appointed in 1562,
whose civilizing work was undone by the almost uninterrupted
maladministration of his fifty-eight successors. The Indians were
enslaved, and their welfare was wholly subordinated to the quest for
gold. From 1666 onwards both coasts were ravaged by pirates, who
completed the ruin of the country. Diego de la Haya y Fernandez,
governor in 1718, reported to the crown that no province of Spanish
America was in so wretched a condition. Cocoa-beans were the current
coinage. Tomás de Acosta, governor from 1797 to 1809, confirmed this
report, and stated that the Indians were clothed in bark, and compelled
in many cases to borrow even this primitive attire when the law required
their attendance at church.

On the 15th of September 1821 Costa Rica, with the other Central
American provinces, revolted and joined the Mexican empire under the
dynasty of Iturbide; but this subjection never became popular, and, on
the establishment of a Mexican republic in 1823, hostilities broke out
between the Conservatives, who desired to maintain the union, and the
Liberals, who wished to set up an independent republic. The opposing
factions met near the Ochomogo Pass; the republicans were victorious,
and the seat of government was transferred from Cartago, the old
capital, to San José, the Liberal headquarters. From 1824 to 1839 Costa
Rica joined the newly formed Republic of the United States of Central
America; but the authority of the central government proved little more
than nominal, and the Costa Ricans busied themselves with trade and
abstained from politics. The exact political status of the country was
not, however, definitely assured until 1848, when an independent
republic was again proclaimed. In 1856-60 the state was involved in war
with the adventurer William Walker (see CENTRAL AMERICA); but its
subsequent history has been one of immunity from political disturbances,
other than boundary disputes, and occasional threats of revolution, due
chiefly to unsatisfactory economic conditions. The attempt of J. R.
Barrios, president of Guatemala, to restore federal unity to Central
America failed in 1885, and had little influence on Costa Rican affairs.
In 1897 the state joined the Greater Republic of Central America,
established in 1895 by Honduras, Nicaragua and Salvador, but dissolved
in 1898. The boundary question between Costa Rica and Nicaragua was
referred to the arbitration of the president of the United States, who
gave his award in 1888, confirming a treaty of 1858; further
difficulties arising from the work of demarcation were settled by treaty
in 1896. The boundary between Costa Rica and Panama (then a province of
Colombia) was fixed by the arbitration of the French president, who gave
his award on the 15th of September 1900. The frontiers delimited in
accordance with these awards have already been described.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--In addition to the works on Central America cited under
  that heading, the following give much general information: G.
  Niederlein, _The Republic of Costa Rica_ (Philadelphia, 1898); R.
  Villafranca, _Costa Rica_ (New York, 1895); L. Z. Baron, _Compendio
  geographico y estadistico de la Republica de Costa Rica_ (San José,
  1894); H. Pittier, _Apuntaciones sobre el clima y geographia de la
  Republica de Costa Rica_ (San José, 1890); P. Biolley, _Costa Rica and
  her Future_ (Washington, 1889); M. M. de Peralta, _Costa Rica_
  (London, 1873). For an account of immigration, commerce and other
  mainly statistical matters, see J. Schroeder, _Costa Rica State
  Immigration_ (San José, 1894); _Bulletins_ of the Bureau of American
  Republics (Washington); British _Diplomatic and Consular Reports_
  (London); U.S.A. _Consular Reports_ (Washington); _Reports of the
  Ministries_ (San José). For the history of Costa Rica, see L. Z.
  Baron, _Compendio de la historia de Costa Rica_ (San José, 1894); F.
  M. Barrantes, _Elementos de historia de Costa Rica_ (San José, 1892);
  J. B. Calvo, _The Republic of Costa Rica_ (Chicago, 1890), gives a
  partisan account of local politics, trade and finance, authorized by
  the government. Frontier questions are discussed fully in Col. G. E.
  Church's "Costa Rica," a very valuable paper in vol. x. of the
  _Journal of the Royal Geographical Society_ (London, 1897); and, by Dr
  E. Seler, in "Der Grenzstreit zwischen den Republiken Costa Rica und
  Colombia," in _Petermann's Mittheilungen_, vol. xlvi. (1900). For a
  detailed bibliography see D. J. Maluquer, _Republica de Costa Rica_
  (Madrid, 1890). The best maps are that of the Bureau of American
  Republics (1903), and, for physical features, that of Col. Church,
  published by the R.G.S. (London, 1897).



COSTELLO, DUDLEY (1803-1865), English journalist and novelist, son of
Colonel J. F. Costello, was born in Ireland in 1803. He was educated for
the army at Sandhurst, and served for a short time in India, Canada and
the West Indies. His literary and artistic tastes led him to quit the
army in 1828, and he then passed some years in Paris. He was introduced
to Baron Cuvier, who employed him as draughtsman in the preparation of
his _Règne animal_. He next occupied himself in copying illuminated
manuscripts in the Bibliothèque Royale; and to him and his sister
belongs the merit of being the first to draw general attention to this
beautiful forgotten art, and of thus leading to its revival. About 1838
Costello became foreign correspondent to the _Morning Herald_; in 1846
he became foreign correspondent of the _Daily News_; and during the last
twenty years of his life he held the post of sub-editor of the
_Examiner_. He wrote _A Tour through the Valley of the Meuse_ (1845) and
_Piedmont and Italy, from the Alps to the Tiber_ (1859-1861). Among his
novels are _Stories from a Screen_ (1855), _The Millionaire_ (1858),
_Faint Heart never won Fair Lady_ (1859) and _Holidays with Hobgoblins_
(1860). He died on the 30th of September 1865.

His elder sister, LOUISA STUART COSTELLO (1799-1870), author and
miniature painter, was born in Ireland in 1799. Her father died while
she was young, and Louisa, who removed to Paris with her mother in 1814,
helped to support her mother and brother by her skill as an artist. At
the age of sixteen she published a volume of verse entitled _The Maid of
the Cyprus Isle, and other poems_. This was followed in 1825 by _Songs
of a Stranger_, dedicated to W. L. Bowles. Ten years later appeared her
_Specimens of the Early Poetry of France_, illustrated by beautifully
executed illuminations, the work of her brother and herself. It was
dedicated to Moore, and procured her his friendship as well as that of
Sir Walter Scott. Her principal works are--_A Summer among the Bocages
and Vines_ (1840); _The Queen's Poisoner_ (or _The Queen-Mother_), a
historical romance (1841); _Béarn and the Pyrenees_ (1844); _Memoirs of
Eminent Englishwomen_ (1844); _The Rose Garden of Persia_ (1845), a
series of translations from Persian poets, with illuminations by herself
and her brother; _The Falls, Lakes and Mountains of North Wales_ (1845);
_Clara Fane_ (1848), a novel; _Memoirs of Mary of Burgundy_ (1853); and
_Memoirs of Anne of Brittany_ (1855). She died at Boulogne on the 24th
of April 1870.



COSTER-MONGER (originally COSTARD-MONGER, a seller of costards, a
species of large ribbed apple). The word "monger" is common, in various
forms, in Teutonic languages in the sense of trader or dealer, and
appears in "iron-monger" and "fish-monger," and with a derogatory
significance of petty or under-hand dealing in such words as
"scandal-monger." A "coster-monger," or "coster," originally, therefore,
one who sold apples and fruit in the street, is now an itinerant dealer
in fruit, vegetables or fish, but more particularly, as distinguished
from a "hawker" on the one hand, and "general dealer" on the other, is a
street trader in the above commodities who uses a barrow. The
coster-monger's trade in London, so far as it falls under clause 6 of
the Metropolitan Streets Act 1867, which deals with obstruction by goods
to footways and streets is subject to regulations of the commissioner of
police. So long as these are carried out, coster-mongers, street hawkers
and itinerant traders are exempted, by an amending act, from the
liabilities imposed by clause 6 of the above act.



COSTS, a term used in English law to denote the expenses incurred (1) in
employing a lawyer in his professional capacity for purposes other than
litigation; (2) in instituting and carrying on litigation whether with
or without the aid of a lawyer.

_Solicitor and Client._--The retainer of a solicitor implies a contract
to pay to him his proper charges and disbursements with respect to the
work done by him as a solicitor. In cases of conveyancing his
remuneration is now for the most part regulated by scales _ad valorem_
on the value of the property dealt with (Solicitors' Remuneration Order
1882), and clients are free to make written agreements for the conduct
of any class of non-litigious business, fixing the costs by a percentage
on the value of the amount involved. So far as litigious business is
concerned, the arrangement known as "no cure no pay" is objected to by
the courts and the profession as leading to speculative actions, and
stipulations as to a share of the proceeds of a successful action are
champertous and illegal. An English solicitor's bill drawn in the old
form is a voluminous itemized narrative of every act done by him in the
cause or matter with a charge set against each entry and often against
each letter written. Before the solicitor can recover from his client
the amount of his charges, he must deliver a signed bill of costs and
wait a month before suing.

The High Court has a threefold jurisdiction to deal with solicitors'
costs:--(1) by virtue of its jurisdiction over them as its officers;
(2) statutory, under the Solicitors Act 1843 and other legislation; (3)
ordinary, to ascertain the reasonableness of charges made the subject of
a claim.

The client can, as a matter of course, get an order for taxation within
a month of the delivery of the solicitor's bill, and either client or
solicitor can get such an order as of course within twelve months of
delivery. After expiry of that time the court may order taxation if the
special circumstances call for it, and even so late as twelve months
after actual payment.

Costs as between solicitor and client are taxed in the same office as
litigious costs, and objections to the decisions of the taxing officer,
if properly made, can be taken for review to a judge of the High Court
and to the Court of Appeal.

_Litigious Costs._--The expenses of litigation fall in the first
instance on the person who undertakes the proceedings or retains and
employs the lawyer. It is in accordance with the ordinary ideas of
justice that the expenses of the successful party to litigation should
be defrayed by the unsuccessful party, a notion expressed in the phrase
that "costs follow the event." But there are many special circumstances
which interfere to modify the application of this rule. The action,
though successful, may be in its nature frivolous or vexatious, or it
may have been brought in a higher court where a lower court would have
been competent to deal with it. On the other hand the defendant,
although he has escaped a judgment against him, may by his conduct have
rendered the action necessary or otherwise justifiable. In such cases
the rule that costs should follow the event would be felt to work an
injustice, and exceptions to its operation have therefore been devised.
In the law of England the provisions as to litigious costs, though now
simpler than of old, are still elaborate and complicated, and the costs
themselves are on a higher scale than is known in most other countries.

Except as regards appeals to the House of Lords and suits in equity, the
right to recover costs from the opposite party in litigation has always
depended on statute law or on rules made under statutory authority,
"Costs are the creature of statute." The House of Lords has declared its
competence to grant costs on appeals independently of statute.

In the judicial committee of the privy council the power to award, in
its discretion, costs on appeals from the colonies or other matters
referred to it, is given by § 15 of the Judicial Committee Act 1833; and
the costs are taxed by the registrar of the council.

Courts of equity have always claimed a discretion independently of
statute to give or refuse costs, but as a general rule the maxim of the
civil law, _victus victori in expensis condemnatus est_, was followed.
The successful party was recognized to have a prima facie claim to
costs, but the court might, on sufficient cause shown, not only deprive
him of his costs, but even in some rare cases order him to pay the costs
of his unsuccessful opponent. There was a class of cases in which the
court generally gave costs to parties sustaining a certain character,
whatever might be the result of the suit (e.g. trustees, executors and
mortgagees).

In the courts of common law, costs were not given either to plaintiff or
defendant, although the damages given to a successful plaintiff might
suffice to cover not only the loss sustained by the wrong done, but also
the expense he had been put to in taking proceedings. The defendant in a
baseless or vexatious action could not even recover his costs thus
indirectly, and the indirect costs given to a plaintiff under the name
of damages were often inadequate and uncertain. Costs were first given
under the Statute of Gloucester (1277, 6 Edward I. c. 1), which enacted
that "the demandant shall recover damages in an assize of novel
disseisin and in writs of mort d'ancestor, cosinage, aiel and beziel,
and further that the demandant may recover against the tenant the costs
of his writ purchased together with the damages above said. And this act
shall hold in all cases when the party is to recover damages." The words
"costs of his writ" were extended to mean all the legal costs in the
suit. The statute gave costs, wherever damages were recovered, and no
matter what the amount of the damages may be. Costs were first given to
a defendant by the Statute of Marlbridge (1267) in a case relating to
wardship in chivalry (52 Henry III. C. 6); but costs were not given
generally to successful defendants until 1531 (23 Henry VIII. c. 15),
when it was enacted that "if in the actions therein mentioned the
plaintiff after appearance of the defendant be non-suited, or any
verdict happen to pass by lawful trial against the plaintiff, the
defendant shall have judgment to recover his costs against the
plaintiff, to be assessed and taxed at the discretion of the court, and
shall have such process and execution for the recovery and paying his
costs against the plaintiff, as the plaintiff should or might have had
against the defendant, in case the judgment had been given for the
plaintiff." In 1606 by 4 James I. c. 3, this "good and profitable law"
was extended to other actions not originally specified, although within
the mischief of the act, so that in any action wherein the plaintiff
might have costs if judgment were given for him, the defendant if
successful should have costs against the plaintiff. The policy of these
enactments is expressed to be the discouragement of frivolous and unjust
suits. This policy was carried out by other and later acts. The
Limitations Act 1623, § 6, ordered that if the plaintiff in an action of
slander recovered less than 40s. damages, the plaintiff should be
allowed no more as costs than he got as damages. By 43 Elizabeth c. 6 it
was enacted that in any personal action not being for any title or
interest in land, nor concerning the freehold or inheritance of lands
nor for battery, where the damages did not amount to 40s. no more costs
than damages could be allowed. By 3 & 4 Vict. c. 24 (Lord Denman's Act
1840), where the plaintiff in an action of tort recovered less than
40s., he was not allowed costs unless the judge certified that the
action was really brought to try a right besides the right to recover
damages, or that the injury was wilful or malicious.

All these enactments have been superseded by the Judicature Acts, but in
the case of slander on women the provisions of the act of 1623 were
re-enacted in the Slander of Women Act 1891.

_Supreme Court._--The general rule now in force in the Supreme Court of
Judicature is as follows:--"Subject to the provisions of the Judicature
Acts and the rules of the court made thereunder, and to the express
provision of any statute whether passed before or after the 14th of
August 1890, the costs of and incident to all proceedings in the Supreme
Court, including the administration of estates and trusts, shall be in
the discretion of the court or judge, and the court or judge shall have
full power to determine by whom and to what extent such costs are to be
paid. Provided (1) that nothing herein contained shall deprive an
executor, administrator, trustee or mortgagee who has not unreasonably
carried on or resisted any proceedings of any right to costs out of a
particular estate or fund to which he would be entitled under the rules
hitherto (i.e. before 1883) acted upon in the chancery division as
successor of the court of chancery; (2) that where an action, cause,
matter or issue is tried with a jury, the costs shall follow the event
unless the judge who tried the case or the court shall for good cause
otherwise order." (R.S.C., O. 65, r. 1.)

The rule above stated applies to civil proceedings on the crown side of
the king's bench division, including mandamus, prohibition _quo
warranto_, and certiorari (_R._ v. _Woodhouse_, 1906, 2 K.B. 502, 540);
and to proceedings on the revenue side of that division (O. 68, r. 1);
but it does not apply to criminal proceedings in the High Court, which
are regulated by the crown office rules of 1906, or by statutes dealing
with particular breaches of the law, and as to procedure in taxing costs
by O. 65, r. 27, of the Rules of the Supreme Court.

The rule is also subject to specific provision empowering the courts to
limit the costs to be adjudged against the unsuccessful party in
proceedings in the High Court, which could and should have been
instituted in a county court, e.g. actions of contract under £100, or
actions of tort in which less than £10 is recovered (County Courts Act
1888, §§ 65, 66, 116; County Courts Act 1903, § 3).

For instance, in actions falling within the Public Authorities
Protection Act 1893 against public bodies or officials, the defendant,
if successful, is entitled to recover costs as between solicitor and
client unless a special order to the contrary is made by the court; and
under some statutes still unrepealed, double or treble costs are to be
allowed. Besides the rules above stated, there is also a provision,
adopted from the practice of courts of equity, that if tender was made
before action of a sum sufficient to satisfy the plaintiff's just demand
and is followed by payment into court in the action of the sum tendered,
the court will make the plaintiff pay the costs of action as having been
unnecessarily brought.

Costs of interlocutory proceedings in the course of a litigation are
sometimes said to be "costs in the cause," that is, they abide the
result of the principal issue. A party succeeding in interlocutory
proceedings, and paying the costs therein made "costs in the cause,"
would recover the amount of such costs if he had a judgment for costs on
the result of the whole trial, but not otherwise. But it is usual now
not to tax the costs of interlocutory proceedings till after final
judgment.

_Taxation._--When an order to pay the costs of litigation is made the
costs are taxed in the central office of the High Court, unless the
court when making the order fixes the amount to be paid (R.S.C., O. 65,
r. 23). Recent changes in the organization for taxing have tended to
create a uniformity of system and method which had long been needed.

The taxation is effected, under an elaborate set of regulations, by
reference to the prescribed scales, and on what is known as the lower
scale, unless the court has specially ordered taxation on the higher
scale (R.S.C., O. 65, rr. 8, 9, appendix N).

In the taxation of litigious costs two methods are still adopted, known
as "between party and party" and "between solicitor and client." Unless
a special order is made the first of the two methods is adopted. Until
very recently "party and party" costs were found to be a very imperfect
indemnity to the successful litigant; because many items which his
solicitor would be entitled to charge against him for the purposes of
the litigation were not recoverable from his unsuccessful opponent. The
High Court can now, in exercise of the equitable jurisdiction derived
from the court of chancery, make orders on the losing party to pay the
costs of the winner as between solicitor and client. These orders are
not often made except in the chancery division. But even where party and
party costs only are ordered to be paid under the present practice
(dating from 1902), the taxing office allows against the unsuccessful
party all costs, charges and expenses necessary or proper for the
attainment of justice or defending the rights of the successful party,
but not costs incurred through over-caution, negligence, or by paying
special fees to counsel or special fees to witnesses or other persons,
or by any other unusual expenses (R.S.C., O. 65, rr. 27, 29). This
practice tends to give an approximate indemnity, while preventing
oppression of the losing party by making him pay for lavish expenditure
by his opponent. The taxation is subject to review by a judge on formal
objections carried on, and an appeal lies to the Court of Appeal.

_County Courts._--The costs of all proceedings in county courts follow
the event, unless the judge in his discretion otherwise orders. The
amount allowed is regulated by scales included in the county court
rules, and is ascertained by the registrar of the court subject to any
special direction by the judge, and to review by him. The costs are
allowed as between party and party, but the registrar on the application
of solicitor or party, and subject to the like review, taxes costs as
between solicitor and client. Nothing is allowed which is not sanctioned
by the scales, unless it is proved that the client has agreed in writing
to pay (County Courts Act 1888, § 118).

_Costs in Criminal Cases._--In criminal cases the right to recover the
expenses of prosecution or defence from public funds or the opposite
party depends wholly on statute. According to the common law rule the
crown neither pays nor receives costs, but the rule is in some cases
altered by statute (_Thomas_ v. _Pritchard_, 1903, 1 K.B. 209).

Courts of summary jurisdiction may order costs to be paid by the
unsuccessful to the successful party (Summary Jurisdiction Act 1848, §
18).

On prosecutions for treason or felony the court may order the accused
person, if convicted, to pay the costs of his prosecution (Forfeiture
Act 1870); and the like power exists as to persons convicted of offences
indictable under the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 (see § 18), and as
to persons convicted on indictment of assault, corrupt practices at
elections, offences against the Merchandise Marks Acts, or of defamatory
libel, if they have unsuccessfully pleaded jurisdiction.

Provision is also made for the payment out of the local rate of the
district of the costs of prosecuting all felonies (except treason
felony) and a number of misdemeanours. A list of these offences will be
found in Archbold, _Criminal Pleading_, 23rd ed., 246. The legislation
on this subject authorizes the payment of the expenses of witnesses and
of the prosecutor, both at a preliminary inquiry before justices and at
the trial, and in the case of summary conviction for any of the
indictable offences in question. It has been extended so as to include
the expenses of witnesses for the defence in any indictable case if they
have given evidence at the preliminary inquiry, and the costs of the
defence of poor prisoners in every indictable case in which the
committing justices or the court of trial certify for legal aid (Poor
Prisoners' Defence Act 1903). The costs are taxed by the proper officer
of the court of assize or the clerk of the peace in accordance with
scales issued by the Home Office in 1903 and 1904. These scales do not
fix the fees to be allowed to counsel or solicitor for the prosecution.
The costs, when taxed, are paid by the treasurer of the county or
borough on whom the order for payment is made.

Where a prosecution or indictment fails, the prosecutor cannot as a rule
be made to pay the costs of the defence: except in cases within the
Vexatious Indictments Act 1859 and its amendments (i.e. where he has,
after a refusal by justices to commit for trial, insisted on continuing
the prosecution); or where a defamatory libel is successfully justified,
or where prosecutions in respect of merchandise marks or corrupt
practices at elections have failed.     (W. F. C.)



COSTUME (through the Fr. _costume_, from Ital. _costume_, Late Lat.
_costuma_, a contracted form of Lat. _consuetudinem_, acc. of
_consuetudo_, custom, habit, manner, &c.), dress or clothing, especially
the distinctive clothing worn at different periods by different peoples
or different classes of people. The word appears in English in the 18th
century, and was first applied to the correct representation, in
literature and art, of the manners, dress, furniture and general
surroundings of the scene represented. By the early part of the 19th
century it became restricted to the fashion or style of personal
apparel, including the head-dresses, jewelry and the like.

The subject of clothing is far wider than appears at first sight. To the
average man there is a distinction between clothing and ornament, the
first being regarded as that covering which satisfies the claims of
modesty, the second as those appendages which satisfy the aesthetic
sense. This distinction, however, does not exist for science, and indeed
the first definition involves a fallacy of which it will be as well to
dispose forthwith.

Modesty is not innate in man, and its conventional nature is easily seen
from a consideration of the different ideas held by different races on
this subject. With Mahommedan peoples it is sufficient for a woman to
cover her face; the Chinese women would think it extremely indecent to
show their artificially compressed feet, and it is even improper to
mention them to a woman; in Sumatra and Celebes the wild tribes consider
the exposure of the knee immodest; in central Asia the finger-tips, and
in Samoa the navel are similarly regarded. In Tahiti and Tonga clothing
might be discarded without offence, provided the individual were
tattooed; and among the Caribs a woman might leave the hut without her
girdle but not unpainted. Similarly, in Alaska, women felt great shame
when seen without the plugs they carried in their lips. Europeans are
considered indelicate in many ways by other races, and a remark of
Peschel[1] is to the point: "Were a pious Mussulman of Ferghana to be
present at our balls and see the bare shoulders of our wives and
daughters, and the semi-embraces of our round dances, he would silently
wonder at the long-suffering of Allah who had not long ago poured fire
and brimstone on this sinful and shameless generation." Another point of
interest lies in the difference of outlook with which nudity is regarded
by the English and Japanese. Among the latter it has been common for the
sexes to take baths together without clothing, while in England mixed
bathing, even in full costume, is even now by no means universal. Yet in
England the representation of the nude in art meets with no reproach,
though considered improper by the Japanese. Even more striking is the
fact that in civilized countries what is permitted at certain times is
forbidden at others; a woman will expose far more of her person at
night, in the ballroom or theatre, than would be considered seemly by
day in the street; and a bathing costume which would be thought modest
on the beach would meet with reprobation in a town.

Modesty therefore is highly conventional, and to discover its origin the
most primitive tribes must be observed. Among these, in Africa, South
America, Australia and so forth, where clothing is at a minimum, the men
are always more elaborately ornamented than the women. At the same time
it is noticeable that no cases of spinsterhood are found; celibacy, rare
as it is, is confined to the male sex. It is reasonable, therefore, to
conclude that ornament is a stimulus to sexual selection, and this
conclusion is enforced by the fact that among many comparatively nude
peoples clothing is assumed at certain dances which have as their
confessed object the excitation of the passions of the opposite sex.
Many forms of clothing, moreover, seem to call attention to those parts
of the body of which, under the conditions of Western civilization at
the present day, it aims at the concealment; certain articles of dress
worn by the New Hebrideans, the Zulu-Xosa tribes, certain tribes of
Brazil and others, are cases in point. Clothing, moreover--and this is
true also of the present day--almost always tends to accentuate rather
than to conceal the difference between the sexes. Looking at the
question then from the point of view of sexual selection it would seem
that a stage in the progress of human society is marked by the discovery
that concealment affords a greater stimulus than revelation; that the
fact is true is obvious,--even to modern eyes a figure partially clad
appears far more indecent than a nude. That the stimulus is real is seen
in the fact that among nude races flagrant immorality is far less common
than among the more clothed; the contrast between the Polynesians and
Melanesians, living as neighbours under similar conditions, is striking
evidence on this point. Later, when the novelty of clothing has spent
its force, the stimulus is supplied by nudity complete or partial.

One more point must be considered: there is the evidence of competent
observers to show that members of a tribe accustomed to nudity, when
made to assume clothing for the first time, exhibit as much confusion as
would a European compelled to strip in public. This fact, considered
together with what has been said above, compels the conclusion that
modesty is a feeling merely of acute self-consciousness due to appearing
unusual, and is the result of clothing rather than the cause. In the
words of Westermarck: "The facts appear to prove that the feeling of
shame, far from being the cause of man's covering his body, is, on the
contrary, a result of this custom; and that the covering, if not used as
a protection from the climate, owes its origin, at least in a great many
cases, to the desire of men and women to make themselves mutually
attractive."

Primitive adornment in its earliest stages may be divided into three
classes; first the moulding of the body itself to certain local
standards of beauty. In this category may be placed head-deformation,
which reached its extreme development among the Indians of North-West
America and the ancient Peruvians; foot-constriction as practised by the
Chinese; tooth-chipping among many African tribes; and waist-compression
common in Europe at the present day. Many forms of deformation, it may
be remarked in passing, emphasize some natural physical characteristic
of the people who practise them. Secondly, the application of extraneous
matter to the body, as painting and tattooing, and the raising of
ornamental scars often by the introduction of foreign matter into
flesh-wounds (this practice belongs partly to the first category also).
Thirdly, the suspension of foreign bodies from, or their attachment to,
convenient portions of the body. This category, by far the largest,
includes ear-, nose- and lip-ornaments, head-dresses, necklets, armlets,
wristlets, leglets, anklets, finger-and toe-rings and girdles. The last
are important, as it is from the waist-ornaments chiefly that what is
commonly considered clothing at the present day has been developed.

Setting aside for the moment the less important, historically, of these,
nearly all of which exist in Western civilization of the present day, it
will be as well to consider that form of dress which is marked by the
greatest evolution. It is generally supposed that man originated in
tropical or subtropical latitudes, and spread gradually towards the
poles. Naturally, as the temperature became lower, a new function was
gradually acquired by his clothing, that of protecting the body of the
wearer. Climate then is one of the forces which play an important part
in the evolution of dress; at the same time care must be taken not to
attribute too much influence to it. It must be remembered that the
Arabs, who inhabit an extremely hot country, are very fully clothed,
while the Fuegians at the extremity of Cape Horn, exposed to all the
rigours of an antarctic climate, have, as sole protection, a skin
attached to the body by cords, so that it can be shifted to either side
according to the direction of the wind.

Dr. C. H. Stratz divides clothing climatically into two classes:
tropical, which is based on the girdle (or, when the attachment is
fastened round the neck, the cloak), and the arctic, based on the
trouser. This classification is ingenious and convenient as far as it
goes, but it seems probable that the trouser, which also has the waist
as its point of attachment, may itself be a further development of the
girdle. Certainly, however, in historical times the division holds good,
and it is worthy of remark that one of the points about the northern
barbarians which struck the ancient Greeks and Romans most forcibly was
the fact that they wore trousers. Amongst the most northerly races the
latter garb is worn by both sexes alike; farther south by the men, the
women retaining the tropical form; farther south still the latter reigns
supreme. No distinct latitude can be assigned as a boundary between the
two forms, from the simple fact that where migration in comparatively
recent times has taken place a natural conservatism has prevented the
more familiar garb from being discarded; at the same time the two forms
can often be seen within the limits of the same country; as, for
instance, in China, where the women of Shanghai commonly wear trousers,
those of Hong-Kong skirts. The retention by women in Europe of the
tropical garb can be explained by the fact that her sphere has been
mainly confined to the house, and her life has been less active than
that of man; consequently the adoption of the arctic dress has been in
her case less necessary. But it is noticeable that where women engage in
occupations of a more than usually strenuous nature, they frequently don
male costume while at their work; as, for instance, women who work in
mines (Belgium) and who tend cattle (Switzerland, Tirol). The retention
of the tropical pattern by the Highlanders is due directly to
environment, since the kilt is better suited than trousers for walking
over wet heather.

Another factor besides climate which has exerted a powerful influence on
dress--more perhaps on what is commonly regarded as "jewelry" as
distinct from "clothing"--is superstition. Doubtless many of the smaller
objects with which primitive man adorned himself, especially trophies
from the animal world, were supposed to exert some beneficial or
protective influence on the wearer, or to produce in him the
distinguishing characteristics attributed to the object, or to the whole
of which the object was a part. Such objects might be imitated in other
materials and by successive copying lose their identity, or their first
meaning might be otherwise forgotten, and they would ultimately exercise
a purely decorative function. Though this factor may be responsible for
much, or even the greater part, of primitive "jewelry," yet it does not
seem likely that it is the cause of all forms of ornament; much must be
attributed to the desire to satisfy an innate aesthetic sense, which is
seen in children and of which some glimmerings appear among the lower
animals also.

  See Ed. Westermarck, _The History of Human Marriage_ (London, 1901);
  Racinet, _Le Costume historique_ (Paris, 1888); C. H. Stratz,
  _Frauenkleidung_ (Stuttgart).     (T. A. J.)


I. ANCIENT COSTUME

i. _Ancient Oriental._--Although the numerous discoveries of monuments,
sculptures, wall-paintings, seals, gems, &c., combine with the evidence
from inscriptions and from biblical and classical writers to furnish a
considerable accumulation of material, the methodical study of costume
(in its widest sense) in the ancient oriental world (western Asia and
Egypt) has several difficulties of its own. It is often difficult to
obtain quite accurate or even adequate reproductions of scenes and
subjects, and, when this is done, it is obviously necessary to refrain
from treating the work of the old artists and sculptors as equivalent to
photographic representations. Art tended to become schematic, artists
were bound by certain limitations and conventions (Egypt under Amenophis
IV. is a notable exception), and their work was apt to be stilted. In
Egypt, too, the spirit of caricature occasionally shows itself. But when
every allowance is made for the imperfections or the cunning of the
workman, one need only examine any collection of antiquities to see that
there was a distinct appreciation of foreign physical types (not so much
for personal portraiture), costumes, toilet, armour and decoration,
often markedly different from native forms, and that a single scene
(e.g. war, tribute-bearers, captives) will represent varieties of dress
which are consistently observed in other scenes or which can be
substantiated from native sources.[2] Important evidence can thus be
obtained on ethnological relations, foreign influences and the like.
Speaking generally, it has been found that the East as opposed to the
West has undergone relatively little alteration in the principal
constituents of dress among the bulk of the population, and, although it
is often difficult to interpret or explain some of the details as
represented (one may contrast, for example, worn sculptures or seals
with the vivid Egyptian paintings), comparison with later descriptions
and even with modern usage is frequently suggestive. The vocabulary of
old oriental costume is surprisingly large, and some perplexity is
caused by the independent evolution both of the technical terms (where
they are intelligible) and of the articles of dress themselves. In
reality there were numerous minor variations in the cut and colour of
ancient dress even as there are in the present day in or around
Palestine. These differences have depended upon climate, occupation,
occasion (e.g. marriage, worship, feasts), and especially upon
individual status and taste. Rank has accounted for much, and ceremonial
dress--the apparel of the gods, their representatives and their
ministers--opens out several interesting lines of inquiry. The result of
intercourse, whether with other Orientals, or (in later times) with
Greeks and Romans, naturally left its mark, and there have been ages of
increasing luxury followed by periods of reaction, with a general
levelling and nationalization on religious grounds (Judaism, Islam). All
in all the study of oriental costume down to the days of Hellenism
proves to be something more than that of mere apparel, and any close
survey of the evidence speedily raises questions which concern old
oriental history and thought.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Egyptian Loin-cloth.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Asiatics visiting Egypt (Beni-Hasan Tombs).]


  Body-Covering.

The simplest of all coverings is the loin-cloth characteristic of warm
climates, and a necessary protection where there are trying extremes of
temperature. Clothing did not originate in ideas of decency (Gen. ii. 25,
iii. 7). Children ran and still run about naked, the industrious workman
upon the Egyptian monuments is often nude, and the worshipper would even
appear before his deity in a state of absolute innocence.[3] The Hebrews
held that the leaves of the fig-tree (the largest available tree in
Palestine) served primitive man and that the Deity gave them skins for a
covering--evidently after he had slain the animals (Gen. iii. 21). With
this one may compare the Phoenician myth (now in a late source) which
ascribed the novelty of the use of skins to the hero Us[=o]os (cf. the
biblical Esau, q.v.). The loin-or waist-cloth prevailed under a very
great variety of minor differentiated forms. In Egypt it was the plain
short linen cloth wrapped around the loins and tied in front (see fig.
1). It was the usual garb of scribes, servants and peasants, and in the
earlier dynasties was worn even by men of rank. Sometimes, however, it
was of matting or was seated with leather, or it would take the form of
a narrow fringed girdle resembling that of many African tribes. The
Semites who visited Egypt wore a larger and coloured cloth, ornamented
with parallel stripes of patterns similar to those found upon some early
specimens of Palestinian pottery. The border was fringed or was
ornamented with bunches of tassels. But a close-fitting skirt or tunic
was more usual, and the Semites on the famous Beni-Hasan tombs (about
the 20th or 19th century B.C.) wear richly decorated cloth (pattern
similar to the above), while the leader is arrayed in a magnificent
wrapper in blue, red and white, with fringed edges, and a neck-ribbon to
keep it in position (see fig. 2).[4] In harmony with prevailing custom
the women's dress is rather longer than that of the men, but both sexes
have the arms free and the right shoulder is exposed. Returning to Egypt
we find that the loin-cloth developed downwards into a skirt falling
below the knees. Among the upper classes it was unusually broad and was
made to stand out in front in triangular form. In the Middle Kingdom an
outer fine light skirt was worn over the loin-cloth; ordinary people,
however, used thicker material. Egyptian women had a tight foldless
tunic which exposed the breasts; it was generally kept up by means of
braces over the shoulders. This plain diaphanous garment, without
distinction of colour (white, red or yellow), and with perhaps only an
embroidered hem at the top, was worn by the whole nation, princess and
peasant, from the IVth to the XVIIIth Dynasties (Erman, _Life in Ancient
Egypt_, p. 212). Variation, such as it was, consisted of a sleeveless
dress covering the shoulders, the neck being cut in the shape of a V.
Female servants and peasants when engaged at work, however, had a short
skirt which left the legs free and the upper part of the body bare; a
like simplicity was probably customary among female servants or captives
throughout (cf. Isa. xlvii. 2). Even at the present day the wardrobe of
the Sinaitic Bedouin is much more complicated than that of their female
folk.

[Illustration: From Hilprecht's _Explorations in Bible Lands_, by
permission of A. J. Holman & Co. and T. & T. Clark.

FIG. 3.--Old Babylonian Costume.]

The earliest dress of Babylonia also covered only the lower half of the
body. As worn by gods and men it was a long and rather loose kind of
skirt suspended from a girdle. It is sometimes smooth; but sometimes it
is a shaggy skin (or woollen) skirt with horizontal rows of vertically
furrowed stuff. It allowed a certain freedom to the legs, but often it
is not clear whether it was joined down the middle. An instructive
development shows the upper part of the skirt hanging over the girdle so
that an elementary mantle would be obtained by drawing the loose end up
over the shoulders (Meyer, p. 93, cf. pp. 55, 76). The characteristic
skirt is sometimes supplemented by a coarse cloth, perhaps a fleece,
thrown over the shoulders; and in later times it is seen fastened
outside a tunic by means of a girdle (see fig. 3).

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Naram-Sin on the Stele of Victory.]

The favourite attitude, one leg planted firmly before the other, shows
the right leg fully exposed. A tunic or skirt is found as early as the
time of Naram-Sin, son of the great Sargon; it reaches to his knees and
appears to be held up by ornamental shoulder-bands (Meyer, pp. 11, 115;
fig. 4). Egyptian monuments depict Semites with long bordered tunics
reaching from neck to ankle; they have sleeves, which are sometimes
curiously decorated, and are tied at the neck with tasselled cords;
sometimes there is a peculiar design at the neck resembling a cross
(Müller, _Asien und Europa_, pp. 298 seq.). The Hittite warriors upon
north Syrian sculptures (Zenj[=i]rli, perhaps 11th to 9th centuries)
have a short-sleeved tunic which ends above the knees, and this type of
garment recurs over a large area with numerous small variations (with or
without girdle, slits at the neck, or bordering). An interesting example
of the long plain variety is afforded by the prisoners of Lachish before
Sennacherib (701 B.C.); the circumstances and a comparison of the
details would point to its being essentially a simple dress indicative
of mourning and humiliation. It may be compared in its general form with
the woollen _jubba_ of Arabia, which reached to the knees and was sewn
down the front (except at the top and bottom). A modern Bedouin
equivalent has long sleeves; it is common to both sexes, the chief
difference lying in the colour--white for men, dyed with indigo for
women.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Asiatic Envoys in Egypt.]

Another very characteristic garment suggests an original loin-cloth
considerably longer than the elementary article which was noticed above.
The Arab _iz[=a]r_, though now a large outer wrapper, was once a
loin-cloth (like the Hebrew _[)e]z[=o]r_), which, however, was long
enough to be trodden upon. At the present day male and female pilgrims
at Mecca wear such a cloth (the _ihr[=a]m_); it covers the knees and
one end of it may be cast over the shoulder. In Egyptian tombs have been
found linen bands no less than 30 ft. in length and 3 ft. in width. The
distinctive feature is the spiral arrangement of the garment, the body
being wrapped to a greater or less extent with a bandage of varying
length in more or less parallel stripes. In old Babylonia both the arms
and the whole of the right shoulder were originally uncovered, and one
end of the garment was allowed to hang loose over the left arm. It is
frequently found upon deities, kings and magnates, and appears to have
been composed of some thick furrowed or fluted material, sometimes of
bright and variegated design. Not seldom it is difficult to distinguish
between the true spiral garment and a dress with parallel horizontal
stripes, and one could sometimes suppose that the flounced dress with
volants, well known in the Aegean area, had its parallel in
Babylonia.[5] Egypt furnishes admirable painted and sculptured
representations of the forms taken by the Semitic spiral dress in the
XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties; the highly-coloured and gay apparel of
Palestine and Syria standing in the strongest contrast to the plain,
simple and often scanty garments of the Egyptians (fig. 5). While the
common Semite wore a short skirt, often with tassels and sometimes with
an upper tunic, the more important had an elaborate scarf (extending
from waist to knee) wound over the long tunic, or a longer and
close-fitting variety coloured blue and red and generally adorned with
rich embroidery. A significant feature is the kind of cape which covers
the shoulders, it would not and no doubt was not intended to leave play
for the arms; it was the dress of the leisured classes, and a typical
scene depicts the chiefs of Lebanon thus arrayed submissively felling
cedars for Seti I. (about 1300 B.C.).

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--An Egyptian Officer.]

Not until the XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties does a change come over
Egyptian costume. The Asiatic conquests made Egypt politically supreme,
the centre of life and intercourse, and the tendency arose to pay some
attention to outward appearance. From the highest to the lowest--with
the important exception of the priests--the new age of luxury wiped out
the earlier simplicity. The upper part of the body was covered with a
tunic fastened over the girdle. Often the left arm had a short sleeve
while the right was bare, but flowing sleeves came into use and various
pleated skirts became customary. Garments were multiplied, and the cape
and long mantle, which had previously been uncommon, were now usual.
Fashions changed in quick succession; upper classes were successively
copied by those beneath them and were forced to ensure their dignity by
assuming new styles. Whether for ordinary or for special occasions a
great variety of costume prevailed, and several types can be
distinguished among both sexes (Erman, pp. 207 seq., 213 sqq.; see fig.
6). The fashionable material was linen, and although, according to
Herodotus (ii. 81), a woollen mantle was worn over the fringed linen
skirt, wool was forbidden to the priests in the temple. The preference
for fine white linen, quite in keeping with the exaggerated Egyptian
ideas of cleanliness, brought the art of spinning and weaving to a
singularly high level; in embroidery, as in tapestry, however, it is
probable that western Asia more than held its own (see figs. 7 and 8).

[Illustration: Drawn from a photo by Giraudon.

FIG. 7. Sargon and his Commander-in-Chief.]

Quite distinct from the spiral is the old Babylonian cloak, which was
thrown over the left shoulder, passed under the right armpit, and hung
down, leaving sufficient freedom for the legs. It is often decorated
with a fringed border from top to bottom. In time this mantle covered
both shoulders and assumed sleeves, and in one form or another it is
frequently represented. So Jehu's tribute-bearers wear short sleeves,
trimmed border, and the general effect could even suggest an Assyrian
dress (see fig 9). Not unlike this is the style on the bilingual Hittite
boss of Tarkudimme, where the skirt ends in a point nearly to the ground
and one leg stands out bare to the front--the very favourite attitude.
Long fringed robes were worn by Hittites of both sexes, and the women
represented at Mar'ash and Zenj[=i]li wear it hung over the
characteristic Hittite cylindrical head-dress (fig. 10). On the other
hand, the unhappy females of Lachish have a long plain mantle which
covers the head and forehead (fig. 11), and the same principle recurs in
modern usage, where the tunic will be supplemented by a veil or shawl
which (generally bound to the head by a band) frames the face and falls
back to the waist. A large mantle could thus serve as a veil, and
Rebekah covered her face with her square or oblong wrapper on meeting
Isaac (Gen. xxiv. 65). Veiling was ceremonial (1 Cor. xi. 5), and
customary on meeting a future bridegroom or at marriage (see Gen. xxix.
23-25). Nevertheless veils were not usually worn out of doors, the
countrywoman of to-day is not veiled, and it is uncertain whether there
is any early parallel for the yashmak, the narrow strip which covers the
face below the eyes and hangs down to the feet.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Assyrian Officers.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Israelite Tribute-bearers introduced by two
Assyrian Officers.]

[Illustration: From _Der alte Orient_, by permission of J. C.
Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung.

FIG. 10.--Hittite Women.]

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--Prisoners of Lachish.]

Before passing to the special covering for the feet and head some
further reference to the Old Testament usage may be made. Among the
Hebrews the outer garment, as distinct from the inner loin wrapper
([)e]z[=o]r) or tunic, evidently took many forms. The tunic
(_kutt[=o]neth_, cf. [Greek: chitôn], _tunica_), like its Greek
counterpart, was apparently of two kinds, for, although essentially a
simple and probably sleeveless garment, there was a special variety worn
by royal maidens and men of distinction, explicitly described as a tunic
of palms or soles (_pass[=i]m_), that is, one presumably reaching to the
hands and feet (Gen. xxxvii. 3; 2 Sam. xiii. 18 sq.).[6] The
_kutt[=o]neth_ could be removed at night (Cant. v. 3). For the outer
garments the most distinctive term is the _simlah_. This was worn by
both sexes, though obviously there was some difference as regards
length, &c. (Deut. xxii. 5). Ruth put one on before going out of doors,
and its folds could be used for carrying small loads (Ruth iii. 9; Ex.
xii. 34). The law forbade the creditor to retain it over-night as a
pledge (Ex. xxii. 26 sq.), and consequently we may assume that it was a
large outer wrapper which could be dispensed with out of doors by men,
or indoors by women. The _simlah_ of the warrior (Isa. ix. 5) can be
illustrated from the Assyrian sculptures (Ency. Bib., art. "Siege");
according to Herodotus (vii. 69) the Arabs under Xerxes wore a long
cloak fastened by a girdle. The outer girdle (Heb. _hag[=o]rah_; the
Arabic equivalent term is a kilt from thigh to knee) varied, as the
monuments show, in richness and design, and could be used as a
sword-belt or pocket much in the same way as the modern native uses the
long cloth twined twice or thrice around his body. The more ornate
variety, called _ab[=n][=e]t_, was worn by prominent officials (Isa.
xxii. 21) and by the high priest. The modern oriental open waistcoat
finds its fellow in the jacket or bolero from ancient Crete, and seems
to have been distinctively Aegean. The same may also be true of
breeches. The pantaloons worn by modern females, with short tunic and
waistcoat, are not found among the Bedouin (e.g. of Sinai), trousers
being considered undignified even for men. But a baggy kind of
knickerbockers is represented in old Aegean scenes, and it is
noteworthy that the Arab _mi'zar_ (drawers such as were worn by
wrestlers or sailors) takes its name from the _iz[=a]r_ or loin-cloth
(_Ency. Bib._ 1734). Such a cloth may once have passed between the legs,
being kept in position by the waistband (examples in Perrot and Chipiez,
_Greece_, ii. 198 sq., 456). On the other hand, among the Africans of
Punt the waistcloth passes from each knee to the opposite thigh, and two
sashes hang down to conceal the parts where they intersect (Müller,
108). The people of Keft (Aegeans) wore a similar arrangement which is a
step in the direction of the proper drawers. The latter are found
exceptionally upon Semitic Bedouin with an upper covering of bands wound
round the body (Müller, 140). However, the woven decorated drawers in
Cyprus do not appear to be of Semitic origin (J. L. Myres, _Classical
Review_, x. 355), and it is not until later that they were prescribed to
the Israelite priests (Ezek. xliv. 18). But the garment as explained by
Josephus (_Ant._ iii. 7. 1) was properly a loin-cloth (cf. the examples
from Punt), and the reason given for its use (Ex. xxviii. 42) points to
a later date than the law which enforced the same regard for decency by
forbidding the priests to ascend altars with steps (ib. xx. 26). As
trousers were distinctively Persian--though the Persians had the
reputation for borrowing Median and foreign dress (Herod. i. 71, vii.
61)--they were no doubt familiar in Palestine in the post-exilic age,
and in the Roman period the _braccae_ and _feminalia_ were certainly
known. On supposed references to breeches in Dan. iii. 21, see _Journ.
of Philology_, xxvi. 307-313.

[Illustration: FIG. 12. Assyrian Warriors with captured Idols.]


  Footgear.

Special protection for the feet was chiefly necessary in rocky districts
or upon long journeys. In early Egypt men of rank would be followed by a
servant carrying a pair of sandals in case of need; but in the New
Kingdom they were in common use, although a typical difference is
observed when princes appear unshod in the presence of the Pharaoh, who
wears sandals himself. The simplest kind was a pad or sole of leather or
papyrus bound to the foot by two straps, one passing over the instep,
the other between the toes.[7] A third was sometimes fastened behind the
heel, and the front is often turned up to protect the toe (Egypt and
elsewhere). The Semites of the XIIth Dynasty wore on their journeys
sandals of black leather, those of the women and children being more
serviceable, and, in the case of women, parti-coloured. Practically the
same simple sandal came into use everywhere when required. But the
warrior had something stouter, and the Hittites wore a turned-up shoe
bound round the legs with thongs. Among the latter is also found a piece
of protecting leather reaching halfway up the shin, and similar
developments with tight-fitting bandages, buskins or laced garters were
worn in Assyria and Asia Minor (see fig. 12). Such coverings find their
analogies among the peasants of modern Cilicia and Cappadocia.
Stockings, it may be added, do not appear, and are quite exceptional at
the present day.

[Illustration: From Palestine Exploration Fund _Quarterly Statement_,
Oct, 1907.

FIG. 13.--Sacrificial Scene on a Seal from Gezer.]

[Illustration: FIG. 14.--Hittite Weather-god.]


  Headgear.

The treatment of the hair, moustache and beard is extremely interesting
in the study of oriental archaeology (see Müller, Meyer, opp. citt.). A
special covering for the head was not indispensable. The Semites often
bound their bushy locks with a fillet, which varies from a single band
(so often, e.g. Palestinian captives, 10th century) to a fourfold one,
from a plain band to highly decorated diadems. The Ethiopians of
Tirhakah's army (7th cent.) stuck a single feather in the front of their
fillet, and a feathered ornament recurs from the old Babylonian goddess
with two large feathers on her head to the feathered crown common from
Assur-bani-pal's Arabians to Ararat, and is familiar from the later
distinctive Persian head-dress.[8] But the ordinary Semitic head
covering was a cloth which sometimes appears with two ends tied in
front, the third falling behind. Or it falls over the nape of the neck
and is kept in position with a band; or again as a cloth cap has lappets
to protect the ears. Sometimes it has a more bulky appearance. In
general, the use of a square or rectangular cloth (whether folded
diagonally or not) corresponds to the modern _keffiyeh_ woven with long
fringes which are plaited into cords knitted at the ends or worked into
little balls sewn over with coloured silks and golden threads.[9] The
_keffiyeh_ covering cheek, neck and throat, is worn over a small
skull-cap and will be accompanied with the relatively modern fez
(_tarb[=u]sh_) and a woollen cloth. Probably the oldest head-dress is
the circular close-fitting cap (plain or braided), which, according to
Meyer, is of Sumerian (non-Semitic) origin. But it has a long history.
Palestinian captives in the Assyrian age wear it with a plain
close-fitting tunic, and it appears upon the god Hadad in north Syria
(cf. also the Gezer seal, fig. 13). With some deities (e.g. the moon-god
Sin) it has a kind of straight brim which gives it a certain resemblance
to a low-crowned "bowler." Very characteristic is the conical cap which,
like the Persian hat (Gr. _kurbasia_), resembled a cock's comb. It is
worn by gods and men, and with the latter sometimes has ear-flaps (at
Lachish, with other varieties, Ball, 190) or is surmounted by a feather
or crest. It was probably made of plaited leather or felt. Veritable
helmets of metal, such as Herodotus ascribes to Assyrians and Chalybians
(vii. 63, 76), and metal armour, though known farther west, scarcely
appear in old oriental costume, and the passage which attributes bronze
helmets and coats of mail to the Philistine Goliath and the Israelite
Saul cannot be held (on other grounds) to be necessarily reliable for
the middle or close of the 11th century (1 Sam. xvii). A loftier
head-covering was sometimes spherical at the top and narrowed in the
middle; with a brim or border turned up back and front it is worn by
Hittite warriors of Zenj[=i]rli and by their god of storm and war (fig.
14). Elongated and more pointed it is the archaic crown of the Pharaohs
(symbolical of upper Egypt), is worn by a Hittite god of the 14th
century, and finds parallels upon old cultus images from Asia Minor,
Crete and Cyprus. Later, Herodotus describes it as distinctively
Scythian (vii. 64). Finally the cylindrical hat of Hittite kings and
queens reappears with lappets in Phoenicia (Perrot and Chipiez, _Phoen._
ii. 77); without the brim it resembles the crown ofthe Babylonian
Merodach-nadin-akhi, with a feathered top it distinguishes Adad (god of
storm, &c.) at Babylonia. Narrower at the top and surmounted by a spike
it distinguishes the Assyrian kings.


  Costume of the Gods.

When the deities were regarded as anthropomorphic they naturally wore
clothing which, on the whole, was less subject to change of fashion and
was apt to be symbolical of their attributes. The old Babylonian hero
Gilgamesh and the Egyptian Bes (perhaps of foreign extraction) are nude,
and so in general are the figurines of the Ishtar-Astarte type. Numerous
bronze images of a kneeling god at Telloh give him only a loin-cloth,
and often the deity, like the monarch, has only a skirt. In course of
time various plaids or mantles are assumed, and in Babylonia the
goddesses were the first to have both shoulders covered. Distinctive
features are found in the head-dress, e.g. crowns (cf. the Ammonite god,
2 Sam. xii. 30) or horns (a single pair or an arrangement of four
pairs), and in Babylonia symbolical emblems are attached to the
shoulders (e.g. the rays of the sun-god, stalks, running water). Long
garments ornamented with symbolical designs (stars, &c.) are worn by
Marduk and Adad. The custom of clothing images is well known in the
ancient world, and at the restoration of an Egyptian temple care was
taken to anoint the divine limbs and to prepare the royal linen for the
god. The ceremonial clothing of the god on the occasion of festal
processions, undertaken in Egypt by the "master of secret things," may
be compared with the well-known Babylonian representations of such
promenades. The Babylonian temples received garments as payment in kind,
and the Egyptian lists in the Papyrus Harris (Rameses III.) enumerate an
enormous number of skirts, tunics and mantles, dyed and undyed, for the
various deities. A priest, "master of the wardrobe," is named as early
as the VIth Dynasty, and later texts refer to the weavers and laundry
servants of the temple. It is probable that 2 Kings xxiii. 7 originally
referred to the women who wove garments for the goddess in the temple at
Jerusalem.


  Royal costume.

In Egypt the king was regarded as the incarnation of the deity, his son
and earthly likeness. The underlying conception shows itself under
differing though not unrelated forms over western Asia, and in their
light the question of religious and ceremonial dress is of great
interest. Throughout Egyptian history the official costume was
conventionalized, and the latest kings and even the Roman emperors are
arrayed like their predecessors of the IVth Dynasty. The crook which
figures among royal and divine insignia may go back to the
boomerang-like object which was a prominent weapon in antiquity (Müller,
123 sq.). It appears in old Babylonia as a curved stick, and, like the
club, is a distinctive symbol of god and king. It resembles the sceptre
curved at the end, which was carried by old Hittite gods. The Pharaoh's
characteristic crown (or crowns) symbolized his royal domains, the
sacred uraeus marked his divine ancestry, and he sometimes appeared in
the costume of the gods with their fillets adorned with double feathers
and horns. In Babylonia Naram-Sin in the guise of a god wears the
pointed helmet and two great horns distinctive of the deities.[10] This
relationship between the gods and their human representatives is
variously expressed. Khammurabi and the sun-god Shamash, on the former's
famous code of laws, have the same features and almost the same frizzled
beard, and, according to Meyer, the king in claiming supremacy over
Sumer and Akkad wears the costume of the lands.[11] Ordinary folk could
not claim these honours, and in Egypt, where shaving was practically
universal, artificial beards were worn upon solemn occasions as a
peculiar duty. But the appendage of the official was shorter than that
of the king, and the gods had a distinctive shape for themselves; if it
appears upon the dead it is because they in their death had become
identified with the god Osiris (Erman, 59, 225 sq.). Young Egyptian
princes and youthful kings had a long plaited lock (or later a lappet)
on the side of their head in imitation of the youthful Horus, and the
peculiar tonsure adopted by the later Arabs of Sinai was inspired by the
desire to copy their god Orotal-Dionysus.[12] Thus we perceive that
ancient costume and toilet involves the relations between the gods and
men, and also, what is extremely important, the political conditions
among the latter. When the king symbolizes both the god and the extent
of his kingdom, ceremonies which could appear commonplace often acquire
a new significance, any discussion of which belongs to the intricacies
of the history of religion and pre-monarchical society. It must suffice,
therefore, to record the Pharaoh's simple girdle (with or without a
tunic) from which hangs the lion's tail, or the tail-like band suspended
from the extremity of his head-dress (above), or the panther or leopard
skin worn over the shoulders by the high priest at Memphis, subsequently
a ceremonial dress of men of rank. That the Pharaoh's skirt, sometimes
decorated with a pleated golden material, should become an honorific
garment, the right of wearing which was proudly recorded among the
bearer's titles, is quite intelligible, but many difficulties arise when
one attempts to identify the individuals represented, or to trace the
evolution of ideas.[13]


  Ceremonial costume.

The well-known conservatism of religious practice manifests itself in
ceremonial festivals (where there is a tendency for the original
religious meaning to be obscured) and among the priests, and it is
interesting to observe that despite the great changes in Egyptian
costume in the New Kingdom the priests still kept to the simple linen
skirt of earlier days (Erman, 206). Religious dress (whether of priests
or worshippers) was regulated by certain fundamental ideas concerning
access to the deity and its consequences. That it was proper to wear
special garments (or at least to rearrange one's weekday clothes) on the
Jewish sabbath was recognized in the Talmud, and Mahommedans, after
discussing at length the most suitable raiment for prayer, favoured the
use of a single simple garment (Bukh[=a]ri, viii.). It was a deep-seated
belief that those who took part in religious functions were liable to
communicate this "holiness" to others (compare the complex ideas
associated with the Polynesian taboo). Hence priests would remove their
ceremonial dress before leaving the sanctuary "that they sanctify not
the people with their garments" (Ezek. xliv. 19; cf. xlii. 14), and
every precaution was taken on religious occasions to ensure purity by
special ablutions and by cleansing the clothes.[14] In the old ritual at
Mecca, the man who wore his own garments must leave them in the
sanctuary, as they had become "taboo"; hence the sacred circumambulation
of the Ka'ba was performed naked (prohibited by Mahomet), or in clothes
provided for the occasion. The old archaic waist-cloth was used, and at
the present day both male and female pilgrims enter bare-footed and clad
in the scanty _ihr[=a]m_ (C. M. Doughty, _Arabia Deserta_, ii. 479,
481, 537). In several old Babylonian representations the priests or
worshippers appear before the deity in a state of nature.[15] It is
known that laymen were required to wear special garments, and the
priests (who wore dark-red or purple) were sometimes called upon to
change their garments in the course of a ceremony. Thus the temples
required clothing not merely for the gods but also for the attendants
(so at Samaria, 2 Kings x. 22).

  In the late usage at Harran the worshipper, after purifying his
  garments and his heart, was advised to put on the clothing of the
  particular god he addressed (de Goeje, _Oriental Congress_, Leiden,
  1883, pp. 341 sqq.). The reason is obvious, and the principle could
  be variously expressed. But we are not told whether the prophetess who
  wore bands on her arm and drew a mantle over her head (so read in
  Ezek. xiii. 17-23) actually used the clothing peculiar to some deity,
  nor is it quite clear what is meant when a Babylonian ritual text
  refers to the magical use of the linen garment of Eridu (seat of the
  cult of Ea). The Bishop Gregentius denounced as heathenish the rites
  in which the Arabs wore masks (W. R. Smith, 438), and one is tempted
  to compare the use of masks elsewhere in animal worship. Next, one may
  observe upon old Babylonian seals, eagle-headed deities with short
  feathered skirts attended by human beings similarly arrayed (Ball,
  151) or figures draped in a fish skin (Menant, _Rev. de l'hist. des
  relig._ xi. 295-301) or a worshipper arrayed somewhat like a cock
  (Meyer, 63; cf. Lucian's _De Dea Syria_, § 48; for "bees," &c., as
  titles of sacred attendants, see J. G. Frazer, _Pausanias_, iv. 223,
  v. 621). Although there is much that is obscure in this line of
  research, it is a natural assumption that, in those ritual functions
  where the gods were supposed to participate, the rôle was taken by
  men, and the general idea of assimilating oneself to the god (and the
  reverse process) manifests itself in too many ways to be ignored (cf.
  W. R. Smith, 293, 437 sq., 474; C. J. Ball, _Ency. Bib._, art.
  "Cuttings"). But the deities were not originally anthropomorphic, and
  it is with the earlier stages in their development that some of the
  more remarkable costumes are apparently concerned.

Of all priestly costumes[16] the most interesting is undoubtedly that of
the Jewish Levitical high-priest. In addition to a tunic (kutt[=o]neth)
and a seamless mantle or robe (_m[)e]'[=i]l_), he wore the breastplate
(_h[=o]shen_), the ephod, and a rich outer girdle. Breeches were
assumed on the Day of Atonement. His head-dress was as distinctive as
that of the high priest at Hierapolis, who wore a golden tiara and a
purple dress, while the ordinary priests had a _pilos_ (conical cap,
also worn in Israel, Ex. xxviii. 40) and white garments. But the various
descriptions cannot be easily reconciled.[17] The robe had pomegranates
and golden bells that the sound might give warning as he went in and out
of the sanctuary, and "that he died not" (Ex. xxviii. 35). According to
Josephus they symbolized the lightning and thunder respectively. The
"ephod of prophecy" (so _Test. of Levi_, viii. 2) was essentially once
an object of divination (see EPHOD). The "breastplate of judgment" was
set with twelve jewels engraved with the names of the tribes; the
foreordained covering of the semi-divine being in the garden of the gods
bore the same number of stones (Ezek. xxviii. 13, Septuagint). This
breast ornament finds analogies in the royal and high priestly dress of
Egypt, and in the six jewels of the Babylonian king.[18] The sacred lots
which gave "judgment" in accordance with the divine oracle (Num. xxvii.
21) have been plausibly compared with the Babylonian tablets of destiny
worn by the gods and the mystic lots upon the bosom of Noah.[19] The two
jewels also engraved with the names of the tribes in a suitable setting,
worn upon the _shoulder_ (see p. 102, c.), served, like the twelve
mentioned, for a memorial before the Deity, effectively bringing them to
remembrance, without any action on the part of the bearer, and thus
tacitly involving supernatural intervention as amulets are regularly
expected to do. The golden plate inscribed "holy to Yahweh" placed over
the head (the details are discrepant) had a mystic atoning force (Ex.
xxviii. 38), and in general writers recognized the peculiar efficacy of
the costume and its symbolical meaning (Philo, _Vita Mosis_, iii. 14;
Jos. _Ant._ iii. 7. 7; Talm. _Zeb._ 88b). Although Jewish tradition
ascribed this gorgeous and significant array to the Mosaic age (if not
to the pre-Mosaic days of Levi, so the _Test. of Levi_), its very
character, in common with the high priest's status, combines kingly and
priestly powers in a manner which is impossible for the period (about
15th-13th cent.). Where the king is the human representative of the
Deity he is theoretically and officially the priesthood, although the
priests carry on the ordinary subordinate functions. The Hebrew kings,
at all events, undertook priestly duties, and not until after the fall
of Jerusalem does the history allow that usurpation of monarchical
rights upon which the prophet Ezekiel (q.v.) encroaches. The embodiment
of political and religious supremacy displayed in the high priest's
authority, clothing and symbols can only reflect exilic or rather
post-exilic conditions.[20] (See further PRIEST.) In the Maccabaean age
the high priest Jonathan received the purple robe and crown and the
buckle of gold worn on the shoulder as a sign of priestly and secular
rank (1 Macc. x. 20, 38, 89, xi. 58). His brother Simon received similar
honours (xiv. 48 sq.), and Hyrcanus, the "second David," was supposed to
have had two crowns, one royal and the other priestly (Talm. _Kidd._
66a). The later Rabbis wore most sumptuous apparel, and were crowned
until the death of Eliezer ben Azarya.

  Thus there was a real significance in ceremonial investiture (cf. Num.
  xx. 26, 28) and in the transference of clothes (cf. Elisha and
  Elijah's mantle, 2 Kings ii. 13). Further the exchange of garments was
  not meaningless, and the prohibition in Deut. xxii. 5 points to
  religious or superstitious beliefs, on which see J. G. Frazer,
  _Adonis, Attis and Osiris_ (2nd ed.), pp. 428-435. On the claim
  involved by the act of throwing a garment over another (Ruth iii. 9;
  cf. 1 Kings xix. 19), see W. R. Smith, _Kinship and Marriage_[21], 105
  sq.; J. Wellhausen, _Archiv f. Religionswiss_. (1907), pp. 40 sqq.;
  and on some interesting ideas associated with sandals, see _Ency.
  Bib._, s.v. "Shoes." As a sign of grief, or on any occasion when the
  individual felt himself brought into closer contact with his deity,
  the garments were rent (subsequently a conventional slit at the breast
  sufficed) and he donned the _sak_, a loin-cloth or wrapper which
  appears to be a survival of older and more primitive dress.[21] Later
  tradition (Mish., Kil. ix. 1) does not endorse Ezekiel's prohibition
  of woollen garments among the priests in the sanctuary (xliv. 17 sq.).
  Why the layman was forbidden a mixture of wool and linen
  (_sha'atn[=e]z_, Deut. xxii. 11) is difficult to explain, though
  Maimonides perhaps correctly regarded the law as a protest against
  heathenism (on the magical use of representatives of the animal and
  vegetable kingdom, in conjunction with a metal ring, see I. Goldziher,
  _Zeit. f. alttest. Wissens._ xx. 36 sq.).

Ancient oriental costume then cannot be severed from the history and
development of thought. On the one side we may see the increase of rich
apparel and the profusion of clothes by which people of rank indicated
their position. On the other are such figures as the Hebrew prophets,
distinguished by their hairy garment and by their denunciation of the
luxury of both sexes.[22] Superfluous clothing was both weakening and
deteriorating; this formed the point of the advice of Croesus to Cyrus
(Herod. i. 155). But "foreign apparel" was only too apt to involve ideas
of foreign worship (Zeph. i. 8. sq.), and the recognition that national
costume, custom and morality were inseparable underlay the objection to
the Greek cap (the [Greek: petasos]) introduced among the Jews under
Antiochus Epiphanes (2 Macc. iv. 10-17, with the parallel 1 Macc. i.
11-15). The Israelite distinctive costume and toilet as part of a
distinctive national religion was in harmony with oriental thought, and,
as a people chosen and possessed by Yahweh, "a kingdom of priests and an
holy nation" (Ex. xix. 5 sq.; cf. Is. lxi. 6), certain outward signs
assumed a new significance and continued to be cherished by orthodox
Jews as tokens of their faith. The tassels attached by blue threads to
the four corners of the outer garment were unique only as regards the
special meaning attached to them (Num. xv. 37-41; Deut. xxii. 12), and
when in the middle ages they marked out the Jew for persecution they
were transferred to a small under-garment (the little _t[=a]l[=i]th_),
the proper _t[=a]l[=i]th_ being worn over the head in the synagogue.
Similarly, sentences bound on the left arm or placed upon the forehead
(Deut. xi. 18, cf. the high priest's plate) find analogies in the means
taken elsewhere to ensure the protection of or to manifest one's
adherence to a deity; the novelty lies in the part these sentences took
in the religion (see PHYLACTERY). While the particular prohibition
regarding the beard and hair in Lev. xix. 27 (cf. Ezek. xliv. 20) was
for the avoidance of heathen customs, the _p[=e]y[=o]th_ or long curls
which became typical in the middle ages are reminiscent of the
Horns-curl of Egypt and the Mahommedan "heaven lock" and evidently
served as positive distinctive marks. Apart from these details later
Jewish dress does not belong to this section. In the Greek and Roman
period foreign influence shows itself very strongly in the introduction
of novelties of costume and of classical terms, and the subject belongs
rather to the Greek and Roman dress of the age.[23] Two conflicting
tendencies were constantly at work, and reached their climax in the
middle ages. There was an anxiety to avoid articles of dress peculiar to
other religions, especially when these were associated with religious
practices; and there was a willingness to refrain from costume contrary
to the customs of an unsympathetic land. On the one hand, there was a
conservatism which is exemplified when the Jews in course of immigration
took with them the characteristic dress of their former adopted home, or
when they remained unmoved by the changes of the Renaissance. On the
other hand, the prominent badge enforced by Pope Innocent III. in 1215
was intended to prevent Jews from being mistaken for Christians, and
similarly in Mahommedan lands they were compelled to wear some
distinctive indication of their sect. Thus the many quaint and
interesting features of later Jewish costume have arisen from certain
specific causes, any consideration of which concerns later and medieval
costume generally. See I. Abrahams, _Jewish Life in the Middle Ages_
(1896), chap. xv. sq.; and especially the _Jew. Encyc._, s.v. "Dress"
(with numerous illustrations).

  AUTHORITIES.--Much useful material will be found in popular
  illustrated books (especially C. J. Ball, _Light from the East_,
  London, 1899) and in the magnificent volumes on the history of ancient
  art by G. Perrot and C. Chipiez. On Egyptian costume see especially J.
  G. Wilkinson, _Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians_ (ed. by
  S. Birch, 1878), and A. Erman _Life in Ancient Egypt_ (1894,
  especially pp. 200-233); for Egyptian evidence, see W. M. Müller,
  _Asien und Europa nach altägypt. Denkmäler_ (Leipzig, 1893), _Mitteil.
  d. vorderasiat. Gesellschaft_ (1904), ii. (and elsewhere). The most
  important study on old Babylonian dress is that of E. Meyer, "Sumerier
  und Semiten in Babylonien," in the _Abhandlungen_ of the Berlin
  University (1906). For Hittite material, see the collection by L.
  Messerschmidt, _Mitteil. d. vorderas. Ges._ (1900 and 1902). For
  special discussions, see H. Weiss, _Kostümkunde_, i. (Stuttgart,
  1881), articles in _Dict. Bible_ (Hastings), _Ency. Biblica_, and
  _Jewish Encyc._, and I. Benzinger, Hebr. _Archäologie_ (Tubingen,
  1907), pp. 73 sqq. See also the general bibliography at the end.
       (S. A. C.)

[Illustration: From Petsofá (Annual of the Brit. School at Athens).

FIG. 15.--Terra-cotta Statuette.]

ii. _Aegean Costume._--The discoveries made at Mycenae and other centres
of "Mycenaean" civilization, and those of more recent date due to the
excavations of Dr A. J. Evans and others in Crete, have shown that
Hellenic culture was preceded in the Aegean by a civilization differing
from it in many respects (see AEGEAN CIVILIZATION), and not least in
costume. The essential feature both of male and female dress during the
"Minoan" and "Mycenaean" periods was the loin-cloth, which is best
represented by the votive terra-cotta statuettes from Petsofá in Crete
discovered by Professor J. L. Myres and published in the ninth volume of
the _Annual of the British School at Athens_ (fig. 15). J. L. Myres
shows that the costume consists of three parts--the loin-cloth itself, a
white wrapper or kilt worn over it, and a knotted girdle which secured
the whole and perhaps played its part in producing and maintaining the
wasp waists characteristic of the Aegean race. The loin-cloth was the
only costume (except for high boots, probably made of pale leather,
since they are represented with white paint) regularly worn by the male
sex, though we sometimes find a hood or wrapper, as on a lead statuette
found in Laconia (fig. 16), but the Aegean women developed it into a
bodice-and-skirt costume, well represented by the frescoes of Cnossus
and the statuettes of the snake-goddess and her votaries there
discovered. This transformation of the loin-cloth has been illustrated
by Mr D. Mackenzie (see below) from Cretan seal-impressions. In place of
the belted kilt of the men we find a belted panier or polonaise,
considerably elongated in front, worn by Aegean women; and Mackenzie
shows that this was repeated several times until it formed the compound
skirt with a number of flounces which is represented on many Mycenaean
gems. On a fresco discovered at Phaestus (Hagia Triada) (fig. 17) and a
sealing from the same place this multiple skirt is clearly shown as
divided; but this does not seem to have been the general rule. On other
sealings we find a single overskirt with a pleated underskirt. The
skirts were held in place by a thick rolled belt, and the upper part of
the body remained quite nude in the earliest times; but from the middle
Minoan period onward we often find an important addition in the shape of
a low-cut bodice, which sometimes has sleeves, either tight-fitting or
puffed, and ultimately develops into a laced corsage. A figurine from
Petsofá (fig. 18) shows the bodice-and-skirt costume, together with a
high pointed head-dress, in one of its most elaborate forms. The bodice
has a high peaked collar at the back. Other forms of head-dress are seen
on the great signet from Mycenae. The fact that both male and female
costume amongst the primitive Aegean peoples is derivable from the
simple loin-cloth with additions is rightly used by Mackenzie as a proof
that their original home is not to be sought in the colder regions of
central Europe, but in a warm climate such as that of North Africa. It
is not until the latest Mycenaean period that we find brooches, such as
were used in historical Greece, to fasten woollen garments, and their
presence in the tombs of the lower city of Mycenae indicates the coming
of a northern race.

[Illustration: Perrot et Chipiez's _Art in Primitive Greece_, by
permission of Chapman & Hall.

FIG. 16.--Lead Statuette from Kampos.]

[Illustration: From _Monumenti antichi_ (Acad. Lincei).

FIG. 17.--Part of a Fresco discovered at Phaestus.]

[Illustration: From _Annual of the Brit. School at Athens_.

FIG. 18.--Terra-cotta Statuette from Petsofá.]

  See _Annual of the British School at Athens_, ix. 356 sqq. (Myres);
  xii. 233 sqq. (Mackenzie); Tsountas and Manatt, _The Mycenaean Age_,
  ch. vii.

iii. _Greek Costume._--All articles of Greek costume belong either to
the class of [Greek: endymata], more or less close-fitting, sewn
garments, or of [Greek: periblêmata], loose pieces of stuff draped round
the body in various ways and fastened with pins or brooches. For the
former class the generic name is [Greek: chitôn], a word of Semitic
origin, which denotes the Eastern origin of the garment; for the latter
we find in Homer and early poetry [Greek: peplos], in later times
[Greek: himation]. The [Greek: peplos] (also called [Greek: eanos] and
[Greek: pharos] in Homer) was the sole indispensable article of dress in
early Greece, and, as it was always retained as such by the women in
Dorian states, is often called the "Doric dress" ([Greek: esthês Dôris]).
It was a square piece of woollen stuff about a foot longer than the
height of the wearer, and equal in breadth to twice the span of the arms
measured from wrist to wrist. The upper edge was folded over for a
distance equal to the space from neck to waist--this folded portion was
called [Greek: apoptygma] or [Greek: diplois],--and the whole garment
was then doubled and wrapped round the body below the armpits, the left
side being closed and the right open. The back and front were then
pulled up over the shoulders and fastened together with brooches like
safety-pins ([Greek: peronai]). This was the Doric costume, which left
the right side of the body exposed and provoked the censure of Euripides
(_Andr_. 598). It was usual, however, to hold the front and back of the
[Greek: peplos] together by a girdle ([Greek: zônê]), passed round the
waist below the [Greek: apoptygma]; the superfluous length of the
garment was pulled up through the girdle and allowed to fall over in a
baggy fold ([Greek: kolpos]) (see GREEK ART, fig. 75). Sometimes the
[Greek: apoptygma] was made long enough to fall below the waist, and the
girdle passed outside it (cf. the figure of Artemis on the vase shown in
GREEK ART, fig. 29); this was the fashion in which the Athena Parthenos
of Pheidias was draped. The "Attic" or "Corinthian" [Greek: peplos] was
sewn together on the right side from below the arm, and thus became an
[Greek: endyma]. The [Greek: peplos] was worn in a variety of colours
and often decorated with bands of ornament, both horizontal and
vertical; Homer uses the epithets [Greek: krokopeplos] and [Greek:
kyanopeplos], which show that yellow and dark blue [Greek: peploi] were
worn, and speaks of embroidered [Greek: peploi] ([Greek: poikiloi]). Such
embroideries are indicated by painting on the statues from the Acropolis
and are often shown on vase paintings.

The chiton, [Greek: chitôn], was formed by sewing together at the sides
two pieces of linen, or a double piece folded together, leaving spaces
at the top for the arms and neck, and fastening the top edges together
over the shoulders and upper arm with buttons or brooches; more rarely
we find a plain sleeveless chiton. The length of the garment varied
considerably. The [Greek: chitôniskos], worn in active exercise, as by
the so-called "Atalanta" of the Vatican, or the well-known Amazon
statues (Greek Art, fig. 40), reached only to the knee; the [Greek:
chitôn podêrês] covered the feet. This long, trailing garment was
especially characteristic of Ionia; in the Homeric poems (Il. xiii. 685)
we read of the [Greek: Iaones helkechitônes]. If worn without a girdle
it went by the name of [Greek: chitôn orthostadios]. The long chiton was
regularly used by musicians (e.g. Apollo the lyre-player) and
charioteers. In ordinary life it was generally pulled up through the
girdle and formed a [Greek: kolpos] (GREEK ART, fig. 2).

Herodotus (v. 82-88) tells a story (cf. Aegina), the details of which
are to all appearance legendary, in order to account for a change in the
fashion of female dress which took place at Athens in the course of the
6th century B.C. Up to that time the "Dorian dress" had been universal,
but the Athenians now gave up the use of garments fastened with pins or
brooches, and adopted the linen chiton of the Ionians. The statement of
Herodotus is illustrated both by Attic vase-paintings and also by the
series of archaic female statues from the Acropolis of Athens, which
(with the exception of one clothed in the Doric [Greek: peplos]) wear
the Ionic chiton, together with an outer garment, sometimes laid over
both shoulders like a cloak (GREEK ART, fig. 3), but more usually
fastened on the right shoulder only, and passed diagonally across the
body so as to leave the left arm free. The garment (which resembles the
Doric [Greek: peplos], but seems to have been rectangular rather than
square) is folded over at the top, and the central part is drawn up
towards the right shoulder to produce an elaborate system of zigzag
folds (GREEK ART, fig. 22). The borders of the garment are painted with
geometrical patterns in vivid colours; a broad stripe of ornament runs
down the centre of the skirt.[24]

This fashion of dress was only temporary. Thucydides (i. 6) tells us
that in his own time the linen chiton of Ionia had again been discarded
in favour of the Doric dress, and the monuments show that after the
Persian wars a reaction against Orientalism showed itself in a return to
simpler fashions. The long linen chiton, which had been worn by men as
well as women, was now only retained by the male sex on religious and
festival occasions; a short chiton was, however, worn at work or in
active exercise (GREEK ART, fig. 3) and often fastened on the left
shoulder only, when it was called [Greek: chitôn heteromaschalos] or
[Greek: exômis]. But the garment usually worn by men of mature age was
the [Greek: himation], which was (like the [Greek: peplos]) a plain
square of woollen stuff. One corner of this was pulled over the left
shoulder from the back and tucked in under the left arm; the rest of the
garment was brought round the right side of the body and either carried
under the right shoulder, across the chest and over the left shoulder,
if it was desired that the right arm should be free, or wrapped round
the right arm as well as the body, leaving the right hand in a fold like
a sling (GREEK ART, fig. 2). The [Greek: himation] was also worn by
women over the linen chiton, and draped in a great variety of ways,
which may be illustrated by the terra-cotta figurines from Tanagra
(4th-3rd cent. B.C.) and the numerous types of female statues, largely
represented by copies of Roman date, made to serve as grave-monuments.
The upper part of the [Greek: himation] was often drawn over the head as
in the example here shown (Plate, fig. 21), a statue formerly in the
duke of Sutherland's collection at Trentham and now in the British
Museum.

A lighter garment was the [Greek: chlamys], chlamys, a mantle worn by
young men, usually over a short chiton girt at the waist, and fastened
on the right shoulder (cf. the figure of Hermes in GREEK ART, fig. 2).
The [Greek: chlaina] was a heavy woollen cloak worn in cold weather.
Peasants wore sheepskins or garments of hide called [Greek: baitê] or
[Greek: sisura]; slaves, who were required by custom to conceal their
limbs as much as possible, wore a sleeved chiton and long hose.

A woman's head was usually covered by drawing up the [Greek: himation]
(see above), but sometimes instead of this, a separate piece of cloth
was made to perform this service, the end of it falling over the
_himation_. This was the [Greek: kalyptra], or veil called [Greek:
krêdemnon] in Homer. A cap merely intended to cover in the hair and hold
it together was called [Greek: kekryphalos]. When the object was only to
hold up the hair from the neck, the [Greek: sphendonê] was used, which,
as its name implies, was in the form of a sling; but in this case it was
called more particularly [Greek: opisthosphendonê], as a distinction
from the _sphendon[=e]_ when worn in front of the head. The head
ornaments include the [Greek: diadêma], a narrow band bound round the
hair a little way back from the brow and temples, and fastened in the
knot of the hair behind; the [Greek: ampux], a variety of the diadem;
the [Greek: stephanê], a crown worn over the forehead, its highest point
being in the centre, and narrowing at each side into a thin band which
is tied at the back of the head. It is doubtful whether this should be
distinguished from the [Greek: stephanos], a crown of the same breadth
and design all round, as on the coins of Argos with the head of Hera,
who is expressly said by Pausanias to wear a _stephanos_. This word is
also employed for crowns of laurel, olive or other plant. High crowns
made of wicker-work ([Greek: poloi, kalathoi]) were also worn (see
Gerhard, _Antike Bildwerke_, pls. 303-305). When the hair, as was most
usual, was gathered back from the temples and fastened in a knot behind,
hair-pins were required, and these were mostly of bone or ivory, mounted
with gold or plain; so also when the hair was tied in a large knot above
the forehead, as in the case of Artemis, or of Apollo as leader of the
Muses. The early Athenians wore their hair in the fashion termed [Greek:
krôbylos], with fastenings called "grasshoppers" ([Greek: tettiges]), in
allusion to their claim of having originally sprung from the soil (Thuc.
i. 6). The [Greek: tettiges] have been identified by Helbig with small
spirals of gold wire, such as are found in early Etruscan tombs lying
near the head of the skeleton. Such spirals were used in early Athens to
confine the back hair, and this fashion may therefore be identified as
the [Greek: krôbylos]. In archaic figures the hair is most frequently
arranged over the brow and temples in parallel rows of small curls which
must have been kept in their places by artificial means. Ear-rings
([Greek: enôtia, ellobia, heliktêres]) of gold, silver, or bronze plated
with gold, and frequently ornamented with pearls, precious stones, or
enamel, were worn attached to the lobes of the ear. For necklaces
([Greek: hormoi]), bracelets ([Greek: opheis]), brooches ([Greek:
peronai]), and finger-rings ([Greek: daktylioi] or [Greek: sphragides])
the same variety and preciousness of material was employed. For the feet
the sandal ([Greek: sandalon, pedilon]) was the usual wear; for hunting
and travelling high boots were worn. The hunting-boot ([Greek:
endromis]) was laced up the front, and reached to the calves; the
[Greek: kothornos] (cothurnus) was a high boot reaching to the middle of
the leg, and as worn by tragic actors had high soles. Slippers ([Greek:
persikai]) were adopted from the East by women; shoes ([Greek: embades])
were worn by the poorer classes. Gloves ([Greek: cheirides]) were worn
by the Persians, but apparently never by the Greeks unless to protect
the hands when working (_Odyssey_, xxiv. 230). Hats, which were as a
rule worn only by youths, workmen and slaves, were of circular shape,
and either of some stiff material, as the Boeotian hat observed in
terra-cottas from Tanagra, or of pliant material which could be bent
down at the sides like the [Greek: petasos] worn by Hermes and sometimes
even by women. The [Greek: kausia], or Macedonian hat, seems to have
been similar to this. The [Greek: kyrbasia], or [Greek: kidaris], was a
high-pointed hat of Persian origin, as was also the [Greek: tiara],
which served the double purpose of an ornament and a covering for the
head. Workmen wore a close-fitting felt cap ([Greek: pilos]).

  See F. Studniczka, "Beiträge zur Geschichte der altgriechischen
  Tracht" (_Abhandlungen des arch.-epigr_. _Seminars in Wien_, vii.
  1886); Lady Evans, _Chapters on Greek Dress_ (1893); W. Kalkmann, "Zur
  Tracht archäischer Gewandfiguren" (_Jahrb. des k. deutschen arch.
  Instituts_, 1896, pp. 19 ff.); S. Cybulski, _Tabulae quibus
  antiquitates Graecae et Romanae illustrantur_, Nos. 16-18 (1903), with
  text by W. Amelung; Ethel B. Abrahams, _Greek Dress_ (1908).

[Illustration: Fig. 19.]

iv. _Etruscan Costume._--The female dress of the Etruscans did not
differ in any important respect from that of the Greeks; it consisted of
the _chiton_ and _himation_, which was in earlier times usually worn as
a shawl, not after the fashion of the Doric [Greek: peplos]. Two
articles of costume, however, were peculiar to the Etruscans--the high
conical hat known as the _tutulus_,[25] and the shoes with turned-up
points (Latin _calcei repandi_). These have oriental analogies, and lend
support to the tradition that the Etruscans came from Asia. Both are
represented on a small bronze figure in the British Museum (fig. 19). On
a celebrated terra-cotta sarcophagus in the British Museum of much later
date (fig. 20), the female figure reclining on the lid wears a Greek
chiton of a thin white material, with short sleeves fastened on the
outside of the arm, by means of buttons and loops; a _himation_ of dark
purple thick stuff is wrapped round her hips and legs; on her feet are
sandals, consisting of a sole apparently of leather, and attached to the
foot and leg with leather straps; under the straps are thin socks which
do not cover the toes; she wears a necklace of heavy pendants; her ears
are pierced for ear-rings; her hair is partly gathered together with a
ribbon at the roots behind, and partly hangs in long tresses before and
behind; a flat diadem is bound round her head a little way back from the
brow and temples. Purple, pale green and white, richly embroidered, are
favourite colours in the dresses represented on the painted tombs.

[Illustration: Redrawn from photo (Mansell).

FIG. 20.]

The chief article of male dress was called the tebenna. We are told by
ancient writers that the _toga praetexta_, with its purple border
([Greek: periporphyros têbenna]), as worn by Roman magistrates and
priests, had been derived from the Etruscans (Pliny, N.H. ix. 63,
"praetextae apud Etruscos originem invenere"); and the famous statue of
the orator in Florence (Plate, fig. 22), an Etruscan work of the 3rd
century B.C., represents a man clothed in this garment, which will be
described below. Under the tebenna, or toga, which was necessary only
for public appearance, the Etruscans wore a short tunic similar to the
Greek chiton. For workmen and others of inferior occupation this appears
to have been the only dress. Youths, when engaged in horsemanship and
other exercises, wore a chlamys round the shoulders, which, however, was
semicircular in cut, and was fastened on the breast by buttons and a
loop, or tied in a knot, whereas the Greek chlamys was oblong and
fastened on the shoulder by a brooch. On public or festal occasions the
Etruscan noble wore, besides the tebenna, a _bulla_, or necklace of
_bullae_, and a wreath, _corona Etrusca_. The bulla was a circular gold
locket containing a charm of some kind against evil.[26] On the later
sarcophagi the male figures wear not only a wreath or _corona_ proper,
but also a garland of flowers hung round the neck. The male head-dress
was the _galerus_, a hat of leather, said to have been worn by the
Lucumos in early times, or the _apex_, a pointed hat corresponding to
the _tutulus_ worn by females. The fashion of shoes worn by Roman
senators was said to have been derived from Etruria. Etruscan shoes were
prized both in Greece and in Rome.

  Helbig's articles, referred to at the close of the next section,
  should be consulted. J. Martha, _L'Art étrusque_, gives reproductions
  of the most important monuments. See also the works on Etruscan
  civilization named in the art. ETRURIA.

v. _Roman Costume._--We are told that the _toga_, the national garment
of the Romans, was originally worn both by men and by women; and though
the female dress of the Romans was in historical times essentially the
same as that of the Greeks, young girls still wore the _toga_ on festal
occasions, as we see from the reliefs of the Ara Pacis Augustae. In
early times no undergarment was worn save a loin-cloth (_subligaculum_),
which seems to be a survival of early Mediterranean fashions (see above,
sect. _Aegean Costume_), and candidates for office in historical times
appeared in the _toga_ and _subligaculum_ only. In this period, however,
the _tunica_, corresponding to the Greek chiton, was universally worn in
ordinary life, and the _toga_ gradually became a full-dress garment
which was only worn over the _tunica_ on important social occasions;
Juvenal (iii. 171) tells us that in a great part of Italy no one wore
the _toga_ except at his burial!

The _toga_ was a piece of woollen cloth in the form of a segment of a
circle,[27] the chord of the arc being about three times the height of
the wearer, and the height a little less than one-half of this length.
One end of this garment was thrown over the left shoulder and allowed to
hang down in front; the remainder was drawn round the body and disposed
in various ways. In the _cinctus Gabinus_, which was the fashion adopted
in early times when fighting was in prospect, the end of the _toga_ was
drawn tightly round the waist and formed a kind of girdle; this was
retained in certain official functions, such as the opening of the
temple of Janus in historical times.[28] In time of peace the _toga_ was
wrapped round the right arm, leaving the hand only free, much after the
fashion of the Greek _himation_, and thrown over the left shoulder so as
to fall down behind (see ROMAN ART, Plate II., fig. 11, male figure to
r.); or, if greater freedom were desired, it was passed under the right
arm-pit. In religious ceremonies, the magistrate presiding at the
sacrifice drew the back of the toga over his head; see in the same
illustration the priest with veiled head, _ritu Gabino_, who also wears
his _toga_ with the _cinctus Gabinus_. Towards the end of the republic a
new fashion was generally adopted. A considerable length of the toga was
allowed to hang from the left shoulder; the remainder was passed round
the body so as to rise like a baldric (_balteus_) from the right hip to
the left shoulder, being folded over in front (the fold was called
sinus), then brought round the back of the neck so that the end fell
over the right shoulder; the hanging portion on the left side was drawn
up through the _sinus_, and bulged out in an _umbo_ (Plate, fig. 24).
Later still, this portion, instead of forming a bundle of folds in the
centre, was carefully folded over and carried up over the left shoulder,
and in course of time these folds were carefully arranged in several
thicknesses resembling boards, _tabulae_, hence called _contabulatio_
(Plate, fig. 23). Yet another fashion was that adopted by the flamens,
who passed the right-hand portion of the _toga_ over the right shoulder
and arm and back over the left shoulder, so that it hung down in a curve
over the front of the body; the upper edge was folded over. The flamens
are thus represented on the Ara Pacis Augustae.

The plain white toga (_toga pura_) was the ordinary dress of the
citizen, but the _toga praetexta_, which had a border of purple, was
worn by boys till the age of sixteen, when they assumed the plain _toga
virilis_, and also by curule magistrates and some priests. A purple toga
with embroidery (_toga picta_) was worn together with a gold-embroidered
tunic (_tunica palmata_) by generals while celebrating a triumph and by
magistrates presiding at games; it represented the traditional dress of
the kings and was adopted by Julius Caesar as a permanent costume. The
emperors wore it on occasions of special importance. The _trabea_, which
in historical times was worn by the consuls when opening the temple of
Janus, by the _equites_ at their yearly inspection and on some other
occasions, and by the Salii at their ritual dances, and had (according
to tradition) formed the original costume of the augurs and flamens (who
afterwards adopted the _toga praetexta_), was apparently a _toga_
smaller in size than the ordinary civil dress, decorated with scarlet
stripes (_trabes_). It was fastened with brooches (fibulae) and appears
to have been worn by the _equites_, e.g. at the funeral ceremony of
Antoninus Pius.

The tunica was precisely like the Greek chiton; that of the senator had
two broad stripes of purple (latus clavus) down the centre, that of the
knight two narrow stripes (angustus clavus). A woollen undergarment
(subucula) was often worn by men; the women's under-tunic was of linen
(indusium). When women gave up the use of the toga, they adopted the
stola, a long tunic with a border of a darker colour (instita) along the
lower edge; the neck also sometimes had a border (patagium). The tunic
with long sleeves (tunica manicata) was a later fashion. Over this the
ricinium or rica, a shawl covering the head and shoulders, was worn in
early times, and retained by certain priestesses as an official
costume;[29] but it gave place to the palla, the equivalent of the Greek
himation, and the dress of the Roman women henceforward differed in no
essential particular from that of the Greek.

A variety of cloaks were worn by men during inclement weather; in
general they resembled the Greek chlamys, but often had a hood
(_cucullus_) which could be drawn over the head. Such were the _birrus_
(so-called from its red colour), _abolla_ and _lacerna_. The _paenula_,
which was the garment most commonly worn, especially by soldiers when
engaged on peace duties, was an oblong piece of cloth with a hole in the
centre for the neck; a hood was usually attached to the back. It
survives in the ritual chasuble of the Western Church. The Greek
military chlamys appears in two forms--the _paludamentum_ of the general
(e.g. Trajan as represented on the Arch of Constantine, ROMAN ART, Plate
III., fig. 16), and the _sagum_ worn by the common soldier (e.g. by some
of the horsemen on the base of the Antonine column, ROMAN ART, Plate V.,
fig. 21). When the toga went out of use as an article of everyday wear,
the _pallium_, i.e. the Greek _himation_, was at first worn only by
Romans addicted to Greek fashions, but from the time of Tiberius, who
wore it in daily life, its use became general. Long robes bearing Greek
names (_synthesis, syrma_, &c.) were worn at dinner-parties.

The Romans often wore sandals (_soleae_) or light shoes (_socci_), but
in full dress (i.e. with the toga) it was necessary to wear the
_calceus_, which had various forms by which classes were distinguished,
e.g. the _calceus patricius, mulleus_ (of red leather) and _senatorius_
(of black leather). This was a shoe with slits at the sides and straps
knotted in front; its forms may be seen on the relief from the Ara
Pacis. The senators' _calceus_ had four such straps (_quattuor
corrigiae_), which were wound round the ankle (cf. the _flamen_ on the
Ara Pacis), and was also adorned with an ivory crescent (_lunula_). A
leathern tongue (_lingula_) is often seen to project from beneath the
straps. The soldier's boot (_caliga_, from which the emperor Gaius
derived his nickname, Caligula) was in reality a heavy hobnailed sandal
with a number of straps wound round the ankle and lower leg. A high
hunting boot was called _compagus_. Women at times wore the _calceus_,
but are generally represented in art with soft shoes or sandals.

Hats were seldom worn except by those who affected Greek fashions, but
the close-fitting leather _pileus_ seems to have been an article of
early wear in Italy, since its use survived in the ceremony of
manumission, and the head-dress of the pontifices and flamines (cf. the
relief of the Ara Pacis already referred to) consisted in such a cap
(_galerus_) with an apex, or _spike_, of olive wood inserted in the
crown.

For personal ornament finger-rings of great variety in the material and
design were worn by men, sometimes to the extent of one or more on each
finger, many persons possessing small cabinets of them. But at first the
Roman citizen wore only an iron signet ring, and this continued to be
used at marriages. The _jus annuli aurei_, or right of wearing a gold
ring, originally a military distinction, became a senatorial privilege,
which was afterwards extended to the knights and gradually to other
classes. Women's ornaments consisted of brooches (_fibulae_), bracelets
(_armillae_), armlets (_armillae, bracchialia_), ear-rings (_inaures_),
necklaces (_monilia_), wreaths (_coronae_) and hair-pins (_crinales_).
The tore (_torques_), or cord of gold worn round the neck, was
introduced from Gaul. A profusion of precious stones, and absence of
skill or refinement in workmanship, distinguish Roman from Greek or
Etruscan jewelry; but in the character of the designs there is no real
difference.

  See Marquardt-Mau, _Privatleben der Römer_, pp. 550 seq. (gives a full
  collection of literary references); Cybulski, _op. cit_., pls. xix.,
  xx., with Amelung's text; articles by W. Helbig, especially
  _Sitzungsberichte der bayrischen Akademie_ (1880), pp. 487 seq. (on
  headgear); _Hermes_ xxxix. 161 seq. (on _toga_ and _trabea_), and
  _Mémoires de l'Académie des inscriptions_, xxxvii. (1905) (on the
  costume of the Salii); articles by L. Heuzey in Daremberg and Saglio's
  _Dictionnaire des antiquités_, also in _Revue de l'art_, i. 98 seq.,
  204 seq., ii. 193 seq., 295 seq. (on the _toga_). See also the general
  bibliography at the end.     (H. S. J.)


II. COSTUME IN MEDIEVAL AND MODERN EUROPE

i. _Pre-Roman and Roman Britain._--Men who had found better clothing
than the skins of beasts were in Britain when Caesar landed. Little as
we know of England before the English, we have at least the knowledge
that Britons, other than the poorer and wilder sort of the north and the
fens, wore cloaks and hats, sleeved coats whose skirts were cut above
the knee and loose trousers after the fashion of the Gauls. They were
not an armoured race, for they would commonly fight naked to the waist,
dreadful with tattooing and woad staining, but Pliny describes their
close-woven felts as all but sword-proof. Dyers as well as weavers,
their cloaks, squares of cloth like a Highland plaid, were of black or
blue, rough on the one side, while coats and trousers were bright
coloured, striped and checkered, red being the favourite hue. For
ornament the British chiefs wore golden torques about their necks and
golden arm-rings with brooches and pins of metal or ivory, beads of
brass, of jet and amber from their own coasts, and of glass bought of
the Southern merchants. Their women had gowns to the ankle, with shorter
tunics above them. The Druid bards had their vestments of blue, while
the star-gazers and leeches went in green.

Agricola's Romanizing work must have made great changes in dress as in
policy. The British chief with the Latin tongue in his mouth, living in
a Roman villa and taking his bath as did the Romans, wore the white
woollen toga and the linen tunic, his wife having the stole, the pall
and the veil.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.--Old English Dress. From the Benedictional of St
Æthelwold (c. 963-984).]

[Illustration: FIG. 26.--The Blessed Virgin. From the Benedictional of
St Æthelwold (c. 963-984).]


  Before the Conquest.

ii. _Old English Dress._--The skill of their artists gives us many
accurate pictures of the dress of the English before the Norman
Conquest, the simple dress of a nation whose men fight, hunt and plough.
The man's chief garment is a sleeved tunic hanging to the knee,
generally open at the side from hip to hem and in front from the throat
to the breast. Sleeves cut loosely above the elbow are close at the
forearm. The legs are in hose like a Highlander's or in long breeches
bandaged or cross-gartered below the knee. A short mantle to the calf is
brooched at the shoulder or breast (fig. 25). There are long gowns and
toga-like cloaks, but these as a rule seem garments for the old man of
rank. In the open air the cloak is often pulled over the head, for hats
and caps are rare, the Phrygian bonnet being the commonest form. Girdles
of folded cloth gather the loose tunic at the waist. Most paintings show
the ankle shoe as black, cut with a pointed tab before and behind, the
soles being sometimes of wood like the sole of the Lancashire clog of
our own days. A nobleman will have his shoes embroidered with silks or
coloured yarns, and the like decoration for the hem and collar of his
tunic. Poor men wear little but the tunic, often going barelegged,
although the hinds in the well-known pictures of the twelve months have
shoes, and the shepherd as he watches his flock covers himself with a
cloak. In every graveyard of the old English we find the brooches,
armlets, rings and pins of a people loving jewelry. Women wore a long
gown covering the feet, the loose sleeves sometimes hanging over the
hands to the knee. Over this there is often a shorter tunic with short
sleeves. Their mantles were short or long, the hood or head rail wrapped
round the chin (fig. 26). In broidery and ornament the women's dress
matched that of the men. The Danes, warriors of the sea, soon took the
English habit, becoming notable for their many changes of gay clothing.

PLATE

[Illustration: _Photo, Walker._

FIG. 21.--GRAVE-STATUE.]

[Illustration: _Photo, Alinari._

FIG. 22.--THE ORATOR (R. ARCH. MUS., FLORENCE). ]

[Illustration: _Photo, Anderson._

FIG. 23.--BUST OF PHILIP THE ARABIAN (VATICAN).]

[Illustration: _Photo, Moscioni._

FIG. 24.--TITUS (VATICAN).]


  The Normans.

The Norman Conquest is marked by no great change in English clothing,
the conquerors inclining towards the island fashions, as we may see by
the fact that they gave up their curious habit of shaving the back of
the head. But with the reign of the second William came the taste for
the luxury of clothing and that taste for flowing hair and shoes with
sharp points which is lamented by William of Malmesbury. In this reign
we have the story of the Red King refusing to put on boots that cost but
three shillings--the price of an ox--and wearing the same gladly when
his chamberlain told him that they were a new pair worth a mark. Even
more than the fashion of long cloaks and trailing gowns whose sleeves
hang far below the hands, the fantastic boot and shoe toes bring the
curses of the clergy and the moralizings of chroniclers. Fulk Rechin of
Anjou is said by Orderic to have invented such gear to hide the
monstrous bunions upon his toes, but a worthless Robert, a hanger-on of
the court of William II., distinguishes himself and gains the surname of
Cornard by stuffing his shoe tips with tow and twisting them like the
horns of the ram.


  12th and 13th centuries.

There are many illuminations which give us in plenty the details of all
costumes of the 12th century. Thus the devil in a well-known MS. wears
the gown of a lady of rank, the bodice tightly laced, the hanging sleeve
knotted to keep it out of the mud. A MS. at Corpus Christi College,
Oxford, shows in a picture of the vision of Henry I. that the men who
reap and dig are simply clad in loose skirted tunics with close sleeves,
that they have hats with brims, and cloaks caught by a brooch at the
shoulder. Hats and caps are common in all classes and take many
shapes--the Phrygian cap, the flat bonnet, the brimmed hat and the
skull-cap.

[Illustration: FIG. 27.--A Lady and a King (temp. Hen. III.). (From
Cotton MS. Nero, D. i.)]

With the coming of the house of Anjou English dress clears itself of the
more fantastic features of an earlier generation. Henry II. brought in
the short Angevin mantle and from it had his name of Curtmantle, but it
was not a mastering fashion and the long cloak holds its own. Rich
stuffs, cloth of gold or silk woven with gold, webs of damask wrought
with stripes or rays and figured with patterns are brought in from the
ports. Rare furs are eagerly sought. But the simplicity of line is
remarkable. The drawings made for Matthew Paris's lives of the two Offas
show people of all ranks clad without a trace of the tailor's fantasy.
Kings and lords, churchmen and men of substance go in long gowns to the
feet, the great folk having an orphrey or band of embroidery at the
somewhat low-cut neck (fig. 27). Some of the sleeves have wide ends cut
off at the mid-forearm, showing the tight sleeve of a shirt or smock
below. Fashion, however, tends to lengthen sleeves to a tight wrist, the
upper halves being cut wide and loose with the large armholes
characteristic of most ancient tailoring. Over this gown is worn an
ample cloak fastened at the neck with a brooch or clasp, and sometimes
fitted with a hood. The dress of the common folk and of men of rank when
actively employed is a tunic which is but the gown shortened to the
knee, a short cloak to the knee being worn with it (fig. 28). Belts and
girdles are narrow and plain, the thongs without enrichment, showing no
beginnings of the rich buckles and heavy bosses of a later fashion.
Shoes and low-cut boots are slightly pointed, and hats, caps, hoods and
coifs of many types cover the head. The women are like to the men in
their long gown, but the head is wrapped in a coverchef hanging over the
shoulder and bound with a fillet round the brow. Gloves are common in
this age; "scraps of the cloth or the skin," says a poet, "do not want
for a use: of them gloves are made."

[Illustration: FIG. 28.--Labourers (temp. Hen. III.). (From Cotton MS.
Nero, D.i.)]

[Illustration: FIG. 29.--A Group of Clerks (early 14th century). (From
Royal MS. 19 B. xv.)]

[Illustration: FIG. 30.--English Ploughmen of the 14th century.]


  14th century.

At the court of Edward II., son of a king who went simply clad, Piers
Gaveston and his like began to set the fashions for a century which to
the curious antiquary is a garden of delights. For the history of the
14th-century clothing illuminations are supplemented by a number of
effigies upon which the carver has wrought out the last details, by
monumental brasses, and by contemporary literature and records (fig.
29). Garments take many shapes; sleeves, skirts and head-dresses run
through many fashions; while personal ornaments are rich and beautiful
to a degree never yet surpassed. With the beginning of the century there
is seen a tendency to shorten the long gown, which had been the best
wear of a man of good estate, to a more convenient length, although the
knees are still well covered. Loose sleeves falling below the elbow
leave to view the sleeve of an under-garment, buttoned tightly to the
arm. In winter time a man's gown will have long sleeves that cover the
hands when the arms are at length. The full cloak, although still found,
is somewhat rare among a people that has, perhaps, learned to wear more
clothes and warmer upon the body. Hoods are worn in many fashions, to be
cast back upon the shoulders like a monk's cowl, the part at the back of
the head being drawn out into a "liripipe" long enough at times, when
the hood is drawn up, to be knotted round the brow turban-fashion (fig.
30). Long hose are drawn up the legs to join the short breech, and the
toes of the ankle-shoes are pointed so long that holy men see visions of
little devils using them as chariots. The women love trailing gowns.
They have under-skirts and loose over-garments, sometimes sleeveless.
Their hair at least would not shock those earlier prelates who cursed
the long plaits, for it is caught up in a caul or braided at the sides
of the head. In the second half of the century men of rank borrow from
Germany the fashion of the _cote-hardie_. In its plainest form this
short tunic, covering the fork of the leg, is cut closely to the body
and arms (fig. 31). Sometimes the sleeve ends at the elbow and then
another streamer is added to the one which falls from the hood, a strip
of stuff continuing the elbow-sleeve as low as the coat edge. This strip
and the hem of the skirt are often "slittered" with fanciful jags, a
fashion which soon draws down the satirist's anger. Parti-coloured
garments were an added offence; a gentleman would have his coat parted
down the middle in red and white, with hose of white and red to match.
Men and women of rank wear a twisted garland of rich stuff, crown-wise
on the head, set with pearls and precious stones, a fashion which is
followed on the great helm of the knights, being the "wreath" or "torce"
of heraldry. The dames of such as wear the _cote-hardie_ imitate its
tightness in the sleeves and bodices of their long gown. A curious
fashion which now begins is the sleeveless upper gown whose sides are
cut away in curved sweeps from the shoulder to below the waist, the
edges of the opening being deeply furred. The strange head-dress with a
steeple-horn draped with lawn kerchiefs makes its appearance to shock
the moralists. Although it was probably a rare sight in this century,
the horn could easily fulfil its mission of drawing notice to all its
wearers.

[Illustration: FIG. 31.--Sons and Daughters of Edward III. (From his
tomb in Westminster Abbey.)]

Of the _cote-hardie_ it might at least be said that it was the symbol of
a knightly age in arms, the garment of a man who must have hand and
limbs free, and, save for its sleeves, it faithfully copied the
coat-armour of the armed knight. The softer days of Richard II. are
remarkable for a dress which has also its significance, men of high rank
taking to themselves gowns of such fulness that the satirists may be
justified who declare that men so clad may be hardly known from women.
The close collar of these gowns rises high as the neckcloth of a French
_incroyable_, the upper edge turned slightly over and jagged. The full
skirts sweep on the ground, which is touched by the last jags of the
vast sleeves, whose openings, wide as a woman's skirts, are dagged like
the edges of vine or oak leaves. "And but if the slevis," says the
satirist, "slide on the erthe, thei wolle be wroth as the wynde."
Sometimes this gown is slit at the sides that the gallant may the better
show his coloured hose and tips of shoes that pike out two feet from
heel to toe. When not wearing the gown such a lord would have a
high-necked coat, shorter even than the _cote-hardie_, but looser in the
skirt, the sleeves ending full and loose with dagged edges turned over
at the cuff. Hats are more commonly worn in this century, and in its
latter half take many shapes, a notable one being that of a shortened
sugar-loaf or thimble with a brim turned up, either all round, or, more
frequently, behind or before. The long shoes, as their name of
_crackowes_ or _poleynes_ implies, were a fashion which, by repute, came
from Poland, a land ruled by the grandfather of Richard's first queen.
When medieval fashions were past, they were remembered as a type of the
old time, and a certain French _conteur_ begins a tale of old days, not
with _jadis_, but with "In the time when they wore poleynes." Even
parish priests, whose preaching should "dryve out the daggis and alle
the Duche cotis," went, in this age of fine apparel, gaily clad in gowns
of scarlet and green, "shape of the newe," in "cutted clothes" with
"long pikes on her shone." More than this, they made scandal by ruffling
with weapons--"bucklers brode and sweardes long, bandrike with
baselardes kene." The skill of goldsmiths and craftsmen decorates all
the appurtenances of the dress of this 14th century. Buttons, which
appear in the first Edward's time as a scandalous ornament on men of low
degree, have now become common, and, cunningly wrought, are used as much
for _queintise_ as for service. A close row of them will run from wrist
to elbow of tight sleeve. A row of buttons goes from the neck of a
woman's gown, and the _cote-hardie_ may be fastened down the front with
a dozen and a half of rich buttons. A purse or gipciere hung by a ring
to the girdle gives more room for ornament in the silver or brass bar on
which the bag depends. Above all the girdle, which--in harness or in
silk--rich men wear broad and bossed with jewels across the thigh below
the waist, makes work for the jeweller's craftsman. Such a girdle is for
great folk alone; but lesser men, wearing a strap about their waists,
will yet have a handsome buckle and a fanciful pendant of metal guarding
the loose end of the strap.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.--Henry, Prince of Wales, and Occleve the Poet
(c. 1410). (From Arundel MS. 38.)]

However fantastic the fashions of this or any other ages, folk of the
middling sort will avoid the extremes. From the Knight to the Reve, no
man of Chaucer's company calls to us by the fantasy of his clothing. The
Knight himself rides in his fustian _gipoun_, the grime of his habergeon
upon it, although his son's short gown, the gayest garment at the
Tabard, had long and wide sleeves and is embroidered with flowers like
any mead. A coat and hood of green mark the Yeoman, who has a silver
Christopher brooch for ornament. The Merchant is in motley stuff, his
beaver hat from Flanders and his clasped boots taking Chaucer's eye, as
do the _anlas_ and silken _gipser_ which hang at the rich Franklin's
belt. As for the London burgesses, their knife-chapes, girdles and
pouches are in clean silver. The Shipman wears his knife in a lanyard
about his neck, as his fellows do to this day, and his coat is of coarse
falding to the knee. The Wife of Bath has the wimple below her broad hat
and rides in a foot mantle about her hips. Poorer men's dress is on the
Reve and the Ploughman, the one in a long _surcote_ of sky-blue and the
other in the _tabard_ which we may recognize as that smock-frock which
goes down the ages with little change.


  15th century.

In the 15th century the middle ages run out. Fashions in this period
become, if not more fantastic, more various. Its earlier years see men
of rank still inclined to the rich modes of the last age: Harry of
Monmouth, drawn about 1410 by an artist who shows him as Occleve's
patron, wears a blue gown which might have passed muster at the court of
Richard II. for its trailing skirts and its long sleeves, their
slittered edges turned back (fig. 32). A strange fancy at this time was
the hanging of silver bells on the dress. One William Staunton, in 1409,
seeing in a vision at St Patrick's Purgatory the fate of earth's proud
ones, is exact to note that in the place of torment the jags in men's
clothes turn to adders, that women's trailing skirts are burnt over
their heads, and that those men whose garments are overset with silver
gingles and bells have burning nails of fire driven through each gingle.
As for the chaplets of gold, of pearls and precious stones, they turn
into nails of iron on which the fiends hammer.

[Illustration: FIG. 33.--The Squire. (From the Ellesmere MS. of the
_Canterbury Tales_.)]

[Illustration: FIG. 34.--An English Squire and his Wife. (From a brass
of 1409.)]

[Illustration: FIG. 35.--English Dress, c. 1433. (From Harl. MS. 2278.)]

The common habit of a well-clad man in the first half of this century is
a loose tunic, lined with fur, or edged with fur at neck, wrist and
skirt. At first the sleeves are long and bag-like, like to the Richard
II. sleeve but drawn in to the wrist, where early examples are fastened
with a button. A shorter tunic is worn below, whose tight sleeves are
seen beyond the furred edge of the upper garment, mittens being
sometimes attached to them. Over the shoulders the hood is thrown, or,
in foul weather, a hood and cloak. The gown is girdled at the waist with
a girdle from which hangs the anelace or baselard (fig. 34). Shoes are
pointed. Hats and caps are seen in many shapes, but the most remarkable
is the developed form of that head-dress which the 14th-century man
seems to have achieved by putting his pate into the face-hole of his
hood and twisting its liripipe round his brows. In the 15th century the
effect is produced with a thick, turban-like roll of stuff from the top
of which hung down on one side folds of cloth coming nigh to the
shoulder, and on the other the liripipe broadened and lengthened to 4 or
5 ft. of a narrower folded cloth. As the century advances the bagpipe
sleeves shrink in size and the tunic skirts are shortened (fig. 35). The
old habit of going armed with anelace or baselard dies away in spite of
troublous times. In the middle of the century the tunic is often no
longer than a modern frock-coat, its sleeves little wider than those of
a modern overcoat. Dress, indeed, becomes at this time convenient and
attractive to our modern eyes. The last quarter of the century sees a
new and important change. The tunic or gown, which was the garment of
ceremony answering at once to our dress coats and frock coats, runs down
to the feet. An act of 1463 ordered that coats should at least cover the
buttocks, but fashion achieved suddenly what law failed to enforce. Men
who had polled their hair short allowed it to grow and hang over the
shoulders. The belt carries the purse or gipciere more commonly,
although weapons are rarely seen, and it is notable that, as the
Reformation approaches, the fashion of wearing a large "pair of beads"
in the belt becomes a very common one. Last of all, the shoes change
their shape. The reign of Edward IV. had seen the pointed toes as
iniquitously long as ever the 14th century saw them. Even the long
riding boot has the curving point, although otherwise much resembling
the jack-boot of the 18th century. But after Bosworth Field the soles
broaden, the point shrinks back and then disappears, and the footprint
becomes shovel-shaped.

[Illustration: FIG. 36.--A Gentleman and his Wife. (From a brass of
1435.)]

Women's dress in the 15th century often follows the man's fashion of the
furred gown, the skirts being lengthened for all difference. But the
close-bodied and close-sleeved gown, with skirts broadening into many
folds below the hips, is often seen with the long and plain cloak drawn
with a cord at the breast, widows wearing this dress with the _barbe_, a
crimped cloth of linen drawn up under the chin and ears and covering the
collar-bone. With the barbe went the kerchief, draping head and
shoulders. The bossed cauls of the earlier head-dress, drawn high on
either side of the head until face and head-dress took the shape of a
heart, are characteristic of the age (fig. 36). In some cases the cauls
are drawn out at the sides to the form of a pair of bulls' horns or of a
mitre set sideways. In the time of Edward IV. we have a popular
head-dress to which has been given the name of the butterfly. The hair
in its caul is pulled backward, and wires set in it allow the ends of a
cambric veil to float behind like the wings of a butterfly settled on a
flower.

[Illustration: FIG. 37.--A Gentleman and his Wife. (From a brass of
1508.)]

[Illustration: Drawn from a photo by Mansell.

FIG. 38.--The Earl of Surrey (late in reign of Henry VIII.).]


  The 16th century.

The new England of the 16th century breaks with the past in most of its
fashions. Never again does an Englishman return to the piked shoes. High
fashion under Henry VIII. is all for broad toes, so broad that the
sumptuary laws, from banning long toes, swing about to condemn excess in
the new guise. Under Henry VII. the medieval influence is still strong
in the body-clothing. A bravely dressed man will go in long hose, cut
close to the body, and a short vest under which the shirt is seen at
waist and wrist. Over this he will wear the open gown, lined with fur,
and cut short as a jacket but having the sleeves hanging below the knee.
Such sleeves are commonly slashed open at the sides to allow the forearm
to pass through. Shorter false sleeves of this pattern had become
popular in the age of Edward IV. Graver men will wear, in place of this
short gown, a long one dropping to the broad shoe-toes, the sleeves
wide-mouthed (fig. 37). Sometimes it hangs loosely; sometimes it has the
girdle with purse and beads. Notaries and scriveners add to the girdle a
penner, or pen-case, and a stoppered ink-bottle. Wide hats are found,
crowned with huge plumes of feathers, but the characteristic headgear is
that made familiar by portraits of Henry VII., a low-crowned cap whose
upturned brim is nicked at one side. A few sober men wear coats
differing little from the short gown of forty years before. Among ladies
the butterfly head-dress and the steeple cap passed out of fashion, and
a grave headgear comes in which has been compared with a dog-kennel, a
hood-cap thrown over head and shoulders, the front being edged with a
broad band which was often enriched with needlework, the ends falling in
lappets to the breast. This band is stiffened until the face looks out
as from the open gable-end of a house. The gown is simple in form,
close-fitting to the body, the cuffs turned up with fur and the skirts
long. A girdle is worn loosely drawn below the waist, its long strap
letting the metal pendant fall nearly to the feet. Long cloaks, plainly
cut, are gathered at the neck with a pair of long cords, like tasselled
bell-pulls. While Henry VIII. is spending his father's hoards we have a
splendid court, gallantly dressed in new fashions. His own broad figure,
in cloth of gold, velvet and damask, plaits, puffs and slashes, stiff
with jewels, is well known through scores of portraits, and may stand
for the high-water mark of the modes of his age. The Hampton Court
picture of the earl of Surrey is characteristic of a great lord's dress
of a somewhat soberer style (see fig. 38). The king, proud of his own
broad shoulders, set the fashion to accent this breadth, and it will be
seen that the earl's figure, leaving out the head and hose, all but
fills a perfect square. Such men have the air of playing-card knaves.
Surrey's cap is flat, with a rich brooch and a small side-feather. His
short doublet of the new style is open in front to show a white shirt
covered with black embroidery whose ruffles cover his wrists. His
over-garment or jerkin has vast sleeves, rounded, puffed and slashed.
Under the doublet are seen wide trunk-breeches. He goes all in scarlet,
even to the shoes, which are of moderate size. The girdle carries a
sword with the new guard and a dagger of the Renascence art, graced with
a vast tassel. All is in the new fashion, nothing recalling the earlier
century save the hose and the immodest _braguette_ which, seen in the
latter half of the fourteen-hundreds, is defiantly displayed in the
dress and armour of this age of Henry VIII. Even the hair follows the
new French mode and is cropped close. Other fashionable suits of the
time give us the tight doublets, loose upper sleeves and trunk hose as a
mass of small slashes and puffs, a fashion which came in from the
Germans and Switzers whom Henry saw in the imperial service. Such
clothing goes with the shoes whose broad toes are slashed with silk, and
the wide and flat caps with slashed edges, bushed with feathers, which
headgear was often allowed to hang upon the shoulders by a pair of
knotted bonnet-strings, while a skull-cap covered the head. With all
this fantasy the dress of simpler folk has little concern, and a man in
a plain, short-skirted doublet, with a flat cap, trunk breeches, long
hose and plain shoes, has nothing grotesque or unserviceable in his
attire. The new sumptuary laws, which were not allowed to become a dead
letter, had their influence in restraining middle-class extravagance. No
man under a knight's degree was to wear a neck-chain of gold or gilded,
or a "garded or pinched shirte." Brooches of goldsmith's work were for
none below a gentleman. Women whose husbands could not afford to
maintain a light horse for the king's service had no business with gowns
or petticoats of silk, chains of gold, French hoods, or bonnets of
velvet. This French hood is the small bonnet, two of whose many forms
may be seen in the best-known portraits of Mary of England and Mary,
queen of Scots--a cap stiffened with wires. With its introduction the
fashionable skirt began to lose its graceful folds and to spread stiffly
outward in straight lines from the tight-laced waist, the front being
open to show a petticoat as stiff and enriched as the skirt. The neck of
the gown, cut low and square, showed the _partlet_ of fine linen pleated
to the neck. In the days of Edward VI. and Queen Mary the dress of most
men and women loses the fantastic detail of the earlier Tudor age. In
the dress of both sexes the joining of the sleeve to the shoulder has,
as a rule, that large puff which stage dressmakers bestow so lavishly
upon all old English costumes, but otherwise the woman's gown and hood
and the man's doublet, jerkin and trunk hose are plain enough, even the
shoes losing all the fanciful width. Mary, indeed, added to the statute
book more stringent laws against display of rich apparel, laws that
would fine even a gentleman of under £20 a year if silk were found in
his cap or shoe. Small ruffs, however, begin to appear at the neck, and
most wrists are ruffled. The ruff, which began simply enough in the
first half of this century as a little cambric collar with a goffered
edge, is for all of us the distinguishing note of Elizabethan dress. It
grew wide and flapping, therefore it was stiffened upon wires and spread
from a concealed frame, row on row of ruffs being added one above the
other until the wearer, man or woman, seemed to carry the head in a
cambric charger. Starch, cursed as a devilish liquor by the new Puritan,
gave it help, and English dress acquired a deformity which can only be
compared with the great farthingale or with the last follies of the wig.
The skirt of a woman of fashion, which had already begun to jut from the
waist, was drawn out before the end of Elizabeth's reign at right angles
from the waist until the dame had that air of standing within a great
drum which Sir Roger de Coverley remarked in the portrait of an
ancestress. Elizabeth herself, long-waisted and of meagre body, set the
fashions of her court, other women pinching their waists into the long
and straight stomacher ending in a peak before. She herself followed her
father's taste in ornament, and on great days was set about like the
Madonna of a popular shrine with decorations of all kinds, patterns in
pearl, quiltings, slashings, puffings and broidery, tassels and rich
buttons. Among men the important change is the disappearance of the last
of the long hose, all men taking to trunk-hose and nether-stocks or
stockings, while their doublets tend to follow the same long-waisted
fashion as the bodices of the women, whose doublets and jerkins,
buttoned up the breast, bring the Puritan satirists against them. Of
these satirists Philip Stubbes is the best-known, his _Anatomie of
Abuses_, published in 1583, being a very wardrobe of Elizabethan
fashions, although false or dyed hair, the ruff and its starch, and the
ear-rings worn by some women and many men draw his hottest anger.
William Harrison sings on a like note about the same time, declaiming
especially against the mutability of fashion, declaring that the
imported Spanish, French and German guises made it easier to inveigh
against such enormities than to describe the English attire with any
certainty. For him women were become men, and men transformed into
monsters. "Neither was it ever merrier with England than when an
Englishman was known abroad by his own cloth and contented himself at
home with his fine carsey hosen and a mean slop; his coat, gown and
cloak of brown, blue or puke, with some pretty furniture of velvet or
fur and a doublet of sad tawny or black velvet or other comely silk,
without such cuts and garish colours as are worn in these days, and
never brought in but by the consent of the French, who think themselves
the gayest men when they have most diversities of jags and change of
colours about them." He adds that "certes of all estates our merchants
do least alter their attire ... for albeit that which they wear be very
fine and costly, yet in form and colour it representeth a great piece of
the ancient gravity appertaining to citizens and burgesses." But as for
the "younger sort" of citizens' wives, Harrison finds in their attire
"all kind of curiosity ... in far greater measure than in women of a
higher calling."


  17th century.

The coming of King James is not marked by any sudden change of attire,
most of the Elizabethan fashions running on into his reign. The tight
doublet has stiff wings at the shoulders, close sleeves and short skirt.
The many fashions of breeches are still popular, most of them padded or
stuffed. There are trunk hose that have the air of petticoats rolled
inward half way up the thigh. There is the "great round abominable
breech," pegtop shaped from below the knee to waist, as it appears in
the well-known print of James himself with hawk on fist. Among women of
fashion obtained a remarkable mode of exposing the breast, when the ruff
and bodice were cut away; and the wheel fardingale was still worn, an
order against it in 1613 rather increasing than diminishing its size.
But simpler fashions were setting in, and with the reign of Charles I.
the extravagances of padding and slashing disappear. The ruff gives
place at last to the falling band, a wide collar of lace or plain linen.
The belt or girdle ceases to be common wear, save for those who hang a
sword from it. Parties in the state come to be known by their dress, and
we have the Puritan, his crop head covered by a wide-brimmed,
high-crowned felt, without hatband or feather, and his plain falling
band over a staidly-cut coat. Beside him we set the cavalier, lace at
his band edge, wrist and wide boot tops. His hat is feathered, his
doublet lets the fine cambric of the shirt be seen at the waist, his
short breeches are fringed with points or tags. His long hair has one
lock brought over the left shoulder to be marked as a lovelock by a
ribbon at the end. But the clothing of this age has been illustrated by
Van Dyck and by a hundred other portrait painters, who as illustrators
of costume take the place of the monumental sculptors, then less
commonly called on for an effigy in the habit of life. And the time of
the Commonwealth passes without notable change. Those who were in power
favoured a sober habit, although we find General Harrison in scarlet and
clinquant matching with Colonel Hutchinson in courtly apparel, and
before the Restoration the tract-writers find matter of condemnation,
especially in the items of patches, hair-powder and face paints.

[Illustration: FIG. 39.--An English Lady. From a brass of 1605.]

[Illustration: FIG. 40.--An English Lady of rank in 1643. After Hollar.]

[Illustration: FIG. 41.--The English Countrywoman of 1643. After
Hollar.]

So far as the court was concerned, King Charles II. brought in the
extravagant fashions of the courtiers of Louis XIV. The short-waisted
doublets with loose sleeves slashed open at the sides, the short and
wide petticoat breeches, their lining lower than the petticoat edge and
tied below the knee, and the hose whose tops bagged over the garter,
were in England before King Charles returned. He added to the breeches
the rows of looped ribbons, gave falling ruffles to the knees of the
hose and many feathers to the hat. The long, narrow-bladed rapier hung
in a broad, embroidered belt, passed over the right shoulder, and the
high-heeled shoes and knots of ribbons. Lely painted the women of this
court in a studied negligence, but many pictures show us the loose
sleeves turned up to the elbow with bows of ribbon, the close bodice
ending in a loose gown worn over a full skirted petticoat, a wide collar
covering the shoulders.

[Illustration: FIG. 42.--A Squire of a Knight of the Bath at the
Crowning of Charles II.]

Pepys is our chief authority for the remarkable resolution of Charles to
change the fashion of his dress to one which he would never alter, a
decision which the king communicated to his council in October 1666. On
the 15th of that month the diarist noted that "this day the king begins
to put on his vest, and I did see several persons of the House of Lords
and Commons too, great courtiers, who are in it; being a long cassocke
close to the body, of black cloth and pinked with white silk under it,
and a coat over it, and the legs ruffled with black riband like a
pigeon's leg ... a very fine and handsome garment." Rugge's diary
records the same change to "a close coat of cloth pinkt, with a white
taffety under the cutts. This in length reached the calf of the leg, and
upon that a sercoatt cutt at the breast, which hung loose and shorter
than the vest six inches. The breeches the Spanish cut, and buskins,
some of cloth, some of leather, but of the same colour as the vest or
garment." Says Evelyn, "a comely and manly habit, too good to hold."
Later in the same month Pepys saw the court "all full of vests, only my
Lord St Albans not pinked, but plain black; and they say the king says
the pinking upon whites makes them look too much like magpies, and
therefore hath bespoke one of plain velvet." The change, although the
court was fickle, is of the first importance in the history of costume,
for we have here the coat and waistcoat in a form from which our own
coats and waistcoats derive without a break. Another important change
affects dress for a century and a half. Just as costume begins to take
the modern path we have the wig or peruke, strangest of all the
fantasies of fashion, introduced as the wear for all men of standing.
Pepys, the son of a tailor and a man with a shy affection for fine
clothing, may again here be quoted. On a Sunday in February 1661 he
"began to go forth in my coat and sword, as the manner now among
gentlemen is." In November 1663 he takes another step with fashion,
going to the periwig-maker to have his hair cut off and to put on his
first periwig, for which he paid 3^l, another to be made up of the hair
with which he had parted. The next day he wore the periwig to his
office, and "no great matter was made of it." Two days later my Lord
Sandwich "wondered at first to see me in my peruque," but even in church
Pepys found that he drew little attention in the new guise. The same
month the duke of York announced that he would wear the periwig, "and
they say the king also will." Thus began this costly and inconvenient
mode. At home and at their ease men commonly replaced the wig with a
soft silk or velvet "night-cap," and the coat with a "morning gown" like
our modern dressing gown. Powder, which had been dusted about the hair
by a few courtiers and fashionable folk since the reign of Elizabeth,
was used by most wearers of the wig. Hair "dressed with a powder" was
often seen in London under the Commonwealth, and now the great periwig
brought powder into frequent use.

[Illustration: FIG. 43.--A Gentleman of the Privy Chamber at the
Crowning of James II.]

Before the end of the 17th century the periwig reached its greatest
height and breadth, the curls of a fine gentleman towering in a mass
above the brow and flowing far down over the shoulders or nigh to the
waist. Guardsmen wore them tossing over their corslets, although a
smaller variety, the campaign wig, had been introduced for war or
travel. Many portraits of this age show its locks contrasting strangely
with the soldier's steel breastplate and pauldrons, but it must be
remembered that martial gentlemen would often choose to be painted in
armour although such harness was disappearing from actual use.

[Illustration: FIG. 44.--The Herbwoman and her Maids at the Crowning of
James II.]

Under James II. the coat adopted in the late reign was firmly
established as the principal garment of a well-dressed man. Gowns
remained but to make a ceremonial dress for the great officers of state,
for the judges and the London liverymen, for such, indeed, as those who
wear them in our own days. As for "the comely cloak, altogether used in
the beginning of my time," Randle Holme notes that it was "now scarce
used but by old and grave persons." The coat was sometimes buttoned down
the front but was more often thrown open to display the waistcoat, a
lesser coat with skirts. The great turned over cuffs were now below the
elbow, although there was good space for the display of the ruffle, and
at the neck was the large cravat with laced ends. After the battle of
Steinkirk, in 1692, to which the young French nobles hastened with
disarranged neckcloths, the cravat was sometimes worn twisted, the ends
passed through a ring, although the word Steinkirk was in later years
often carelessly given to the neckcloth worn in any style. For riding,
the big jack-boot of earlier days, with spurs and broad spur-leathers,
remained in fashion, although the bell-shaped tops were turned up and
not down. Boots, however, were riding-gear. Gondomar, the Spanish
ambassador to James I., had laughed over the citizens of London "all
booted and ready to go out of town," but this custom died away, and a
man in boots showed that he was for the road. William III.'s grave court
was not one in which new fashions flourished, but it is remarkable that
feminine modes take curious variety before the century end. Long-waisted
and straitly cut stays were worn, the gown sleeve is short as the
coat-sleeve of a Charles II. courtier. The gown itself has the skirts
gathered to show the petticoat, and small aprons fringed with lace are
often seen. The simple head-dresses of the Restoration are changed for
caps with long lace lappets, or for a cap whose top-knot or commode
stood up stiff and fan-shaped like a section cut out of an old ruff.
When no commode was worn, a loose hood, thrown gracefully over the head
and gathered at the shoulders, sometimes took its place. As a riding or
walking dress, ladies of quality often wore coats, waistcoats, hats and
cravats, not to be distinguished from those of their lords.


  The 18th century.

For a distinguishing note of the 18th century, we may take the
three-cornered cocked hat. Even in the Elizabethan age we have the
gallant cocking up one side of his broad-brimmed, high-crowned felt or
beaver and securing it with a jewel. Brims were as wide at the end of
the 17th century, but the crown was lower. From the French court came
the fashion of cocking up three sides, one at least being fastened with
a loop of ribbon from which developed the cockade. A black cockade
became the sign of a military man in England before 1750, and the same
ornament, highly conventionalized, is now at the side of the tall hats
worn by the grooms and coachmen of military and naval officers.
Following varying fashions, the 18th-century cocked hat was laced with
gold and silver or edged with feathers. It was cocked in a hundred
forms, from that which has three sides slightly curled upward to the
great Khevenhueller cock, wherewith a very wide-brimmed hat was flapped
up at the front and rear, a military or martial hat. Wigs, worn by all
the upper- and middle-class men, were generally powdered, but the lesser
or Ramillie wig soon drove out the huge and costly full-bottomed
periwig, even for ceremonial occasions. Of Lord Bolingbroke it is told
that he once attended Queen Anne in haste with a tie or Ramillie wig on
his head. Her Majesty showed her displeasure by remarking that his
lordship would next come to court in a night-cap. Nevertheless, the
tie-wig soon became court wear, secured at the back with a huge bow of
ribbon below which hung the plaited pigtail, worn waist-long about 1740.
But by that time young bloods were leaving campaign-wigs for the bob-wig
which sat yet more closely to the head, the curls leaving the neck
uncovered. Bag-wigs, found early in the century, covered the looped up
pigtail in a black silk bag. Clergymen and grave physicians affected the
full-bottomed wig after it became old fashioned. Subject to slight
changes, eagerly followed by the beaux and mocked by the satirists, the
habit of well-dressed men shows no great variety--the large-cuffed,
collarless coats whose full skirts are now shortened, now lengthened,
the long waistcoat to match, the closely fitting breeches, the
stockings, the shoes and jack-boots. The coat tends to be thrown open to
show the waistcoat, upon which brocade and embroideries were lavished.
Stockings, until the middle of the century, were commonly drawn over the
ends of the breeches and gartered below the knee. By 1740 the long
cravat with hanging ends grows old fashioned. Young men take to the
solitaire, a black cravat which became a mere loop of ribbon passed
loosely round the neck and secured to the black tie of the wig.

[Illustration: FIG. 45.--An English Gentleman (c. 1730).]

George III.'s long reign begins with men's fashions little changed from
those of his great-grandfather's time, although his sixty years carry us
to the beginning of all the modern modes. The small wig long holds its
own. The coat begins to show the broad skirts cut away diagonally from
the waist to the skirt edge, and stockings are no longer rolled over the
knee. Perhaps the most remarkable fashion was that which distinguished
the Macaronis, travelled exquisites with whom the wig or long hair was
dragged high above the forehead in a tall "toupee" with two large rows
of curls at the side. This head-dress, clubbed into a heavy knot behind,
was surmounted by a very little hat. The coat with small cuffs was much
cut away before, the skimped skirts reaching midway down the thigh.
Waistcoat flaps were but little below the waist. Breeches, striped or
spotted like those of a Dresden china shepherd, were fastened at the
knee with a bunch of ribbon ends; a watch-guard hung from each fob. The
shirt-front was frilled and a white cravat was tied in a great bow at
the chin. Macaronis wore a little curved hanger, or replaced the sword
with a long, heavily tasselled cane, which served to lift the little hat
off the topmost peak of the toupee. The woman-Macaroni wore no hoop but
in full dress. Her gown was a loose wrapper, the sleeves short and wide
with many ruffles, the skirt pulled aside to show a petticoat laced and
embroidered with flowers. But her distinguishing mark was her
head-dress, which exaggerated the male fashion, towering upward until
the flowers and feathers at the top threatened the candelabra of the
assembly room. The Macaronis appear about 1772 and stay but a short
while, for the revolutionary fashions tread upon their heels.

[Illustration: FIG. 46.--An English Lady (c. 1730).]

Women's dress in this 18th century is dominated by the hoop-petticoat
which Sir Roger de Coverley recognizes in 1711 as a new fashion and an
old one revived. A stiff bodice laced in front, a gown, with short and
wide-ended sleeves, gathered up in folds above the petticoat, a laced
apron and a lace cap with hanging lappets, is the dress of the century's
beginning. So the women of fashion are compared with children in
go-carts, their tight-laced waists rising from vast bells of petticoats
over which the gown is looped up like a drawn curtain. By 1750 the
hoop-petticoat ringed with whalebone is so vast that architects begin to
allow for its passage up London stairways by curving the balusters
outward. Great variety of women's dress appears under George II., but
those in the height of the mode affected a shepherdess simplicity in
their walking clothes, wearing the flat-crowned or high-crowned hats and
long aprons of the dairymaid. At this time a new fashion comes in, the
_sacque_, a gown, sometimes sleeveless, open to the waist, hanging
loosely from the shoulders to near the edge of the hoop-petticoat.
George III.'s reign saw women's head-dressings reach an extravagance of
folly passing all that had come before it. Hair kneaded with pomatum and
flour was drawn up over a cushion or pad of wool, and twisted into curls
and knots and decorated with artificial flowers and bows of ribbon. As
this could not be achieved without the aid of a skilled barber, the
"head" sometimes remained unopened for several weeks. At the end of that
time sublimate powder was needed to kill off the tenantry which had
multiplied within. At the beginning of the last quarter of the century
the feathers grew larger, chains of beads looped about the curls, while
ships in full sail, coaches and horses, and butterflies in blown glass,
rocked upon the upper heights. Loose mob-caps or close "Joans" were worn
in undress, often as simple as the full dress was fantastic. Varieties
of the gown and sacque remained in fashion, the petticoat being still
much in evidence, flounced or quilted, or festooned with ribbons. Before
the 'eighties of this century were over, a new taste, encouraged by the
painters of the school of Reynolds, began to sweep away many follies,
and the revolutionary fashions of France, breaking with all that spoke
of the old régime, expelled many more. The age of powder and gold lace,
of peach-bloom brocade coats with muff-shaped cuffs, of bag-wigs and
three-cornered hats drew suddenly to an end. Mr Pitt killed hair-powder
by his tax of 1795, but before that time fashionable men, who since the
beginning of George III's. reign had been somewhat inconstant to the
wig, were wearing their own hair unpowdered and tied in a club at the
back of the coat collar. Before the century end the roughly cropped
"Brutus" head was seen. The wig remained here and there on some
old-fashioned pates. Bishops wore it until far into the Victorian age,
and it may still be seen in the Houses of Parliament and in the courts
of law. Even breeches were passing, tight pantaloons showing themselves
in the streets. The coat, cut away over the hips, began to take a high
collar and the beginnings of the lappel. Its cuffs were of the modern
shape, showing a narrow ruffle. The waistcoat ended at the waist. Loose
neck-cloths were worn above a frilled shirt-front. Great jack-boots were
given to postillions, and men of fashion walked the streets in short
top-boots of soft black leather. Most remarkable of the revolutionary
changes, the round hat came back, sometimes in a form which recalled the
earlier 17th century, and at last took shape as the predecessor of our
modern silk hat. Court dresses kept something of their magnificence, but
men at home or in the streets were giving up in this time of change
their ancient right to wear rich and figured stuffs. Laces and
embroideries were henceforward but for military and civil uniforms.

Before 1790 women had begun to dismantle their high headgear, returning
to nature by way of a frizzled bush, like a bishop's wig, with a few
curls hanging over the shoulders. Over such heads would be seen towering
mob-caps tied with ribbon and edged deeply with lace. Skirts took a
moderate size and even court hoops were but panniers hung on either side
of the hips. Short jackets with close half-sleeves were worn with the
neck and breast covered with a cambric _buffant_ that borrowed a mode
from the pouter pigeon. A riding habit follows as far as the short waist
the new fashions for men's coats, the wide-brimmed hat being to match.
Short waists came in soon after 1790, the bodice ending under the arm
pits, "a petticoat tied round the neck: the arms put through the
pocket-holes." With these French gowns came small coal-scuttle-shaped
bonnets of straw, hung with many ribbons and decorated with feathers. At
last the woman of fashion, dressed by a Parisian modiste after the
orders of David the painter, gathered her hair in a fillet and clothed
herself in little more than a diaphanous tunic gown over a light shift
and close, flesh-coloured drawers. Her shoes became sandals: her jewels
followed the patterns of old Rome. Yet the same woman, shivering
half-clad in something that wrapped her less than a modern
bathing-dress, appeared at court in the ancient hoop-skirt, tasselled,
ribboned and garlanded, hung with heavy swags of coloured silk, and this
until George IV. at last broke the antique order by a special command.


  19th century.

The 19th century soon made an end of 18th century fashions already
discredited by the revolutionary spirit. The three-cornered hat had
gone, the heavy coat cuff and the cravat with hanging ends. Civilians
had given up the ancient custom of going armed with a sword. The wig and
even the pigtail tied with black shalloon were abandoned by all but a
few old folk. Soldiers cut off their pigtails in 1808. But judges and
lawyers wear their wigs in court in the 20th century, state coachmen
wear them on the box, and physicians and the higher clergy wore them
even in the street long after laymen had given them up. George IV.
refused to receive a bishop of London who appeared at court without a
wig, and Sumner, archbishop of Canterbury, wore one until his death in
1862. A few powdered heads were seen as late as the 'forties. M. de Ste
Aulaire, the ambassador, made, as Lord Palmerston writes, a very deep
and general impression in London society of 1841, not because he wore
hair-powder but because he used so much of it. It is now used only by a
few lacqueys. In the early Victorian period the cropped "Brutus" head
was out of fashion, many men wearing their hair rather long and so
freely oiled that the "anti-macassar" came in to protect drawing-room
chair-backs.

[Illustration: From _Fraser's Magazine_, Dec. 1834.

FIG. 47.--Count D'Orsay. Dress of a man of Fashion in Early Victorian
Period.]

With powdered hair and the pigtail passed away the 18th century cloth
breeches. Here again some old-fashioned people made a stand against the
change, the opposition of the clergy being commemorated in the black
breeches still worn by bishops and other dignitaries of the church. But
in the regent's time pantaloons of closely fitting and elastic cloth
were worn with low shoes or Hessians, and pantaloons and Hessians did
not utterly disappear from the streets until the end of the 'fifties.
Squires and sportsmen put on buckskins of an amazing tightness and
walked the street in top-boots. But the loose Cossack trousers soon made
their appearance. The regent's influence made the blue coat with a very
high velvet collar, a high-waisted Marcella waistcoat and white duck
trousers strapped under the instep, a mode in which men even ventured to
appear at evening receptions, although, in the year before Waterloo, the
duke of Wellington was refused admittance to Almack's when thus clad.
Long skirted overcoats, fur-collared and tight in the waist, completed
this costume. Coats were blue, claret, buff and brown. "Pea-green Hayne"
was known among clubmen by a brighter coloured garment. Civilians, like
Jos Sedley, would sometimes affect a frock frogged and braided in
semi-military fashion. The shirt collar turned upward, the points
showing above vast cravats whose careful arrangement was maintained by
one or two scarf-pins. Brummel the master dandy of his age, may be
called the first dandy of the modern school. Dressing, as a rule, in
black, he distinguished himself, not as the bucks of an earlier age by
bright colours, rich materials or jewellery, but by his extravagant
neatness and by the superb fit of garments which set the fashion for
lesser men. To him, according to Grantley Berkeley, we owe the modern
dress-coat. An idle phrase in Bulwer-Lytton's _Pelham_ (1828), that
"people must be very distinguished in appearance" to look well in black,
made black henceforward the colour of evening coats and frock coats.
With the perfection of the silk hat in the 'thirties, English costume
enters on its last phase. The coat cut away squarely in front was then
out of the mode; it remains but in the evening-dress coat now always
worn unbuttoned, and in the dress of the hunting field. The rest is a
record of such slight changes as tailors may cautiously introduce among
customers, no one of whom will dare to lead a new fashion boldly. For
many decades the fashionably dressed man has been eager to conform to
the last authorized vogue and to lose himself among others as shyly
obedient. The tubular lines of 20th-century clothing advantage the
tailor by the tendency of new clothing to crease at the elbow and bag at
the knee. In preserving the necessary straight lines of his garments, in
following the season's fashions in details which only an expert eye
would mark, and in providing himself with clothes specialized for every
hour of the day, for a score of sports and for the gradations of social
ceremonial--in these things only can the modern dandy rival his
magnificent predecessors. For ornament, other than plain shirt studs, a
plain seal ring, a simple watch guard and a rarely-worn scarf pin, is
denied him.

Women at the beginning of the 19th century were clad in those fashions
which revolutionary France borrowed from the antique. The simplicity of
this style gave it a certain grace; it was at the other pole from the
absurdity of the court dress which, until George IV. ordered otherwise,
perpetuated the bunched draperies, the flounces and furbelows and even
the hoop of the worst period of the 18th century. The gown, lightly
girdled near the arm-pits with a tasselled cord, fell in straight
clinging folds. Soft muslin was the favourite material, and in muslin
fashionable women faced the winter winds, protected only by the long
pelisses which in summer were replaced by short spencers. Turbans,
varying from a light headscarf of lace or muslin to a velvet confection
like that of a Turk on a signboard, were the favourite headgear,
although bonnets, hats and caps are found in a hundred shapes. Muslin
handkerchiefs or small ruffs were worn about the neck in the morning
dress. About the Waterloo period the elegance of the classical gown
disappeared. The waist was still high at first but the gown was shorter
and wider at the skirt. For evening dress these skirts were stiffened
with buckram and trimmed with much tasteless trumpery. Large bonnets
were common, and the hair was dragged stiffly to the back of the head,
to be secured by a large comb. From 1830 begins a period of singular
ugliness. Tight stays came back again, the skirt swept the pavements, a
generation of over-clad matrons seemed to have followed a generation of
nymphs. The 'fifties showed even more barbarous devices, and about 1854
came in from France the crinoline, that strange revival of the ancient
hoop. Plaids, checks and bars, bright blues, crude violets and hideous
crimsons, were seen in French merinos, Irish poplins and English
alpacas. Women in short jackets, hooped skirts, hideous bonnets and
shawls seemed to have banished their youth. The empress Eugénie, a
leader of European fashion, decreed that white muslin should be the
evening mode, and at balls, where the steels and whalebones of the
crinoline were impossible, the women swelled their skirts by wearing a
dozen or fourteen muslin petticoats at once. Towards the end of the
'sixties the crinolines disappeared as suddenly as they came, and by
1875 skirts were so tight at the knees that walking upstairs in them was
an affair of deliberation. Before 1880 dress-reformers and aesthetes had
attacked on two sides the fashions which had halted at the "Princesse"
robe, draped and kilted. Both movements failed, but left marked effects.
From that time fashion has been less blindly followed, and women have
enjoyed some limited individual freedom in designing their costumes. Of
20th-century fashions it is most notable that they change year by year
with mechanical regularity. The clothes of smart women can no longer be
said to express any tendency of an age. Year by year the modes are
deliberately altered by a conclave of the great _modistes_ whose desire
is less to produce rich or beautiful garments than to make that radical
alteration from loose sleeve to tight sleeve, from draped skirt to plain
skirt, which will force every women to cast aside the last season's
garments and buy those of the newer device. But of modern dress it may
at least be said that cheaper materials, the sewing machine and the
popular fashion papers allow women of the humbler classes to dress more
decently and tastefully. Their dress is no longer that frowsy parody of
richer women's frippery which shocked observant foreigners a generation
ago.

_Underclothing._--Of the underclothing worn next the skin something may
be said apart from the general history of costume. Linen shirts were
worn by both men and women in the age before the Conquest, and even in
the 10th century it was a penance to wear a woollen one. After that time
we soon hear of embroidery and ornament applied to them, presumably at
the collar which would be visible above gown or tunic. Men added short
drawers, or breeches, a word which does not secure its modern value
until the end of the 16th century. "Drawers" signified various
descriptions of overall, Cotgrave explaining the word as coarse
stockings drawn over others although Randle Holme gives it in its later
sense. Isaac of Cyprus is named by Robert of Brunne as escaping "bare in
his serke and breke." Henry Christall, who brought four Irish kings to
London, told Froissart how, finding that they wore no breeches, he
bought linen cloth for them. Medieval romances and the like give us the
choice of shirts of linen, of fine Holland, of cloth of Rennes and even
of silk, and Chaucer speaks of women's smocks wrought with silk,
embroidered behind and before. Poorer folk went, like Thynne's poor
countryman, in shirts of "canvas hard and tough," or of coarse Breton
dowlas. Under the first Tudors, shirts are decorated with gold, silk and
black thread embroideries, the latter being seen in the ruffled shirt
worn by the earl of Surrey in our illustration (see fig. 38). Stubbes,
in his often-quoted _Anatomie of Abuses_ (1583) declaims against the
extravagant sums spent in shirts, the meanest of which would cost a
crown or a noble, while the most curiously stitched were valued at ten
pounds a piece, "which is horrible to hear." The Puritans, many of whom,
like the later Clapham sect, were careful of intimate luxuries, had a
curious fashion of wearing shirts and smocks worked with "holy
embroideries," Biblical sentences or figures, which recall a similar
custom among the early Christians. At this time underclothing had
increased in quantity, for there are many indications that the men and
women of the middle ages were often content with a bare change of linen
at the best. _The Book of Courtesy_ (temp. Hen. VII.) orders the servant
to provide "clene sherte and breche" against his master's uprising, but
the laundering of the linen of the Percy household, a hundred and
seventy people, costs but forty shillings a year in the reign of Henry
VIII.

[Illustration: FIG. 48.--A Man-at-arms and a Man in a Shirt (early 14th
century). From Royal MS. 19 B. xv.]

With that modern period of dress which may be said to begin with the
Restoration, shirts increased in number. Women shifted their smocks when
coming in from field sports, fine gentlemen became proud of the number
of their shirts, as was that 18th-century lord who boasted to Casanova
of his changing a shirt several times in the day, his chin being shaved
on each occasion. A valuable document concerning the underclothing worn
by a citizen in the reign of Charles II. is afforded by the evidence of
the man who helped to strip the body of the suicide Sir Edmond Berry
Godfrey. "I pulled off his shoes," says Fisher, "three pairs of
stockings and a pair of socks, his black breeches and his drawers." His
coat and waistcoat, his shirt and his flannel shirt are also named. The
knight came by his end on an October day. He was therefore warmly clad.
His three pair of stockings will be noted: two pair are worn at the
present day by most men in court dress. The socks are a rarely named
addition, and the flannel shirt may be remarked. Loose ruffles of lace
were attached to shirt cuffs until during the great part of the 18th
century, and the ruffled or goffered shirt-front, which became common
under George III., continued in use in the early Victorian period, the
stiffly starched shirt-front taking its place at last even in evening
dress. The last quarter of the 19th century, breaking through the
strange mock-modesty which spoke of breeches as "inexpressibles," saw
the question of hygienic underclothing a subject much in debate, and now
most men other than the poorer sort wear, besides the shirt, a light
woollen vest and short drawers or long pantaloons of wool or wool's
counterfeit. Woollen shirts are worn by bicyclists, cricketers and
tennis players. In morning dress the inconvenience of the starched
shirt-front is commonly avoided. A goffered shirt-front worn with
evening dress is the mark of a foreigner in London, but some few men
venture to clothe themselves for the evening in a shirt whose front is
pleated and but slightly starched. Loose collars, formerly known as
false collars, descendants of the Puritan's "plain band," have been
attached to the shirt by studs at least for the last fifty years. Their
fashions often change, but the older type turned down at the edge is not
often seen. To women's underclothing drawers have been added in the 19th
century. Brantôme, writing in the 16th, speaks of this garment as then
lately introduced since the time of Henri II., but the fashion,
apparently, did not long endure in France. In England they are noted as
in occasional use at the Restoration. After 1820 a sort of trouser with
a frilled edge was worn for a time by fashionable women in England. The
pantalette which afterwards appears in pictures of young girls was a
mere legging fastened by tapes above the knees. Many women of the better
class only adopted drawers at the end of the 'forties, and it may be
presumed that the fashion reached the humble sort at a much later date.
Towards the end of the 19th century both drawers and smock or "chemise"
were commonly exchanged for a more convenient "combination garment."

[Illustration: From Hottenroth, _Trachten der Völker_, by permission of
Gustav Weise Verlag.

FIG. 49.--German Dress (early 16th century).]

[Illustration: From Hottenroth, _Trachten der Völker_.

FIG. 50.--A French Nobleman (c. 1660).]

[Illustration: From Hottenroth, _Trachten der Völker_.

FIG. 51.--A Spanish Nobleman (latter half of 16th century). ]

_European Fashions._--Race, climate, poverty and wealth have all had
their part in the fashion of clothing. A mountaineer is not clad as a
lowlander; the Tirolese in his short breeches, the Highlanders of
Scotland and Albania in their tartan or white linen kilts go with
uncovered knees. The Russian moujik in winter has his frowsy sheepskin
coat, and the Russian prince imitates it in costly furs. While the rich
man's clothing alters with every fancy of the tailors, the poor man's
garments, fewer and cheaper, change slowly in the ages. An old
Lincolnshire peasant wearing his smock frock and leathern gaiters might
pass unnoted in a peasant crowd of centuries ago. Here and there in
Europe we find in the 20th century a peasantry in whose clothing fashion
seems to have been suddenly stayed. A Breton peasant in his holiday
dress gives us a man of the late 17th century, even as an Irish peasant
may keep the breeches, shoes and tailed coat of the early 19th. But the
old fashions are passing from Europe: the sewing machine and the railway
sweep before them the pleasant provincialisms of dress. A shirt with the
bosom heavily embroidered, a skirt with a year's stitching in the hem
are not to be imitated by the dealer in ready-made clothing, who offers,
instead, cheapness and the brisk variety of the town. Old writers, each
in turn, set up their wail that the time was come when you could not
tell Jack from his master, the burgess from the knight. And now that
time has come in some sort, for the town dress of the richer classes of
London or Paris is imitated by all peoples and by rich and poor.
Especially is this the case in England where the clean and honourable
blouse of the French workman is not, a journeyman painter or labourer
often going to his work in a frayed and greasy morning coat after the
cut of that in which a rich man will pay a London morning call. English
fashions for men are followed in Paris. London women follow the modes of
the rue de la Paix. Berlin tailors and dressmakers laboriously
misapprehend both styles. To those who do not understand the
international trafficking of the middle ages and the age of renascence
it is strange to note how little the fashions varied in European lands.
All kinds of folks, crusaders and merchants, diplomatists and religious,
carried between nation and nation the news of the latest cut of the
shears.

Nevertheless, national character touched each nation's dress--the
Venetian loving the stateliness of flowing line, the Germans grotesque
slashings and jaggings. Frenchmen, says Randle Holme in the 17th
century, keep warm and muff themselves in cold weather, "but in summer
through fantastical dresses go almost naked." For the same writer the
Spaniard was noted as a man in a high-crowned hat with narrow brim, a
ruff about his neck, a doublet with short and narrow skirts and broad
wings at the shoulders, ruff-cuffs at his hands, breeches narrow and
close to his thighs, hose gartered, shoes with rounded toes, a short
cloak and a long sword. In all of those points we may take it that the
Spaniard differed from the Englishman as observed by this observant one.
Even in our own days we may catch something of those national fashions.
The Spaniard may no longer walk with his long sword, his ruff and
gartered hose, but he keeps his fancy for sombre blacks, and so do the
citizens of those Netherlands which he once ruled.     (O. BA.)


III. NATIONAL AND CLASS COSTUME

Costume, as readers of Carlyle's _Sartor Resartus_ know, always has a
significance deeper than the mere whims of fashion. In the cosmopolitan
society of modern times dress everywhere tends to become assimilated to
a common model, and this assimilation, however regrettable from the
picturesque point of view, is one of the most potent forces in the
break-down of the traditional social distinctions. In the middle ages in
Europe, and indeed down to the French Revolution, the various classes of
the community were clearly differentiated by their dress. Everywhere, of
course, it happened that occasionally jackdaws strutted in peacock's
feathers; but even in England, where class distinctions were early less
clearly marked than on the continent of Europe, the assumption of a
laced coat and a sword marked the development of a citizen into a
"gentleman" (q.v.). Nothing has more powerfully contributed to the
social amalgamation of the "upper-middle" and the "upper" classes in
England than the fashion, introduced in the 19th century, of extreme
simplicity in the costume of men. But, apart from the properties of
richness in material or decoration as a symbol of class distinction--at
one time enforced by sumptuary laws--there have been, and still are,
innumerable varieties of costume more or less traditional as proper to
certain nationalities or certain classes within those nationalities. Of
national costumes properly so called the best known to the
English-speaking world is that of the Highlands of Scotland. This is,
indeed no longer generally worn, being usually confined to gentlemen of
birth and their dependents, but it remains a national dress and is
officially recognized as such by the English court and in the uniforms
of the Highland regiments in the British army. The chief peculiarity of
this costume, distinguishing it from any others, is the tartan, an
arrangement of a prevailing colour with more or less narrow checks of
other colours, by which the various clans or septs of the same race can
be distinguished, while a certain general uniformity symbolizes the
union of the clans in a common nationality. Thus, e.g. the tartan of the
clan McDonell is green with narrow checks of red, that of the clan
Gregarach red with narrow checks of black. The costume consists of a
short tunic, vest, a kilt--heavily pleated--fastened round the waist,
and reaching not quite to the knees (like a short petticoat), stockings
gartered below the bare knee, and shoes. In front of the person, hanging
from a belt round the waist, is the "sporran" or "spleuchan," a
pocket-purse covered with fur; and a large "plaid" or scarf, usually
wrapped round the body, the ends hanging down from a brooch fastened on
the left shoulder, but sometimes gathered up and hanging from the brooch
behind, completes the costume. The head-gear is a cloth cap or "bonnet,"
in which a sprig of heather is stuck, or an eagle's feather in the case
of chiefs. A dirk is worn thrust into the right stocking. Up to the end
of the 16th century the tunic and "philibeg" or kilt formed a single
garment; but otherwise the costume has come down the ages without
sensible modification. Kilt and plaid are of tartan; and sometimes
tartan "trews," i.e. trousers, are substituted for the former.

Among other national costumes still surviving in Europe may be mentioned
the Albanian-Greek dress (characterized by the spreading, pleated white
kilt, or _fustanella_), and the splendid full-dress of a Hungarian
gentleman, the prototype of the well-known hussar uniform; to which may
be added the Tirolese costume, which, so far as the men are concerned, is
characterized by short trousers, cut off above the knee, and a short
jacket, the colour varying in different districts. This latter trait
illustrates the fact that most of the still surviving "national" costumes
in Europe are in fact local and distinctive of class, though they conform
to a national type. These "folk-costumes" (_Volkstrachten_), as the
Germans call them, survive most strongly in the most conservative of all
classes, that of the peasants and naturally mainly in those districts
least accessible to modern "enterprise." These peasant costumes, often of
astonishing richness and beauty, vary more or less in every village, each
community having its own traditional type; and, since this type does not
vary, they can be handed down as valuable heirlooms from father to son
and from mother to daughter. But they are fast disappearing. In the
British islands, where there were no free peasant cultivators to maintain
the pride of class, they vanished long since; the white caps and
steeple-crowned hats of Welsh women were the last to go; and even the
becoming and convenient "sun bonnet," which survives in the United
States, has given place almost everywhere to the hideous "cloth cap" of
commerce; while the ancient smocked frock, the equivalent of the French
peasant's workmanlike _blouse_, has become a curiosity. The same process
is proceeding elsewhere; for the simple peasant women cannot resist the
blandishments of the commercial traveller and the temptation of change
and cheap finery. The transition is at once painful and amusing, and not
without interest as illustrating the force of tradition in its struggle
with fashion; for it is no uncommon thing, e.g. in France or Holland, to
see a "Paris model" perched lamentably on the top of the beautiful
traditional head-dress. Similarly in the richer Turkish families women
are rapidly acquiring a taste for Parisian costumes, frequently worn in
absurd combination with their ordinary garments.

The same process has extended far beyond the limits of Europe. Improved
communication and industrial enterprise have combined with the prestige
of European civilization to commend the European type of costume to
peoples for whom it is eminently unsuited. Even the peoples of the East,
whose costume has remained unchanged for untold centuries, and for whom
the type has been (as in India) often determined by religious
considerations, are showing an increasing tendency to yield to the
world-fashion. Turkey, as being most closely in touch with Europe, was
the first to feel the influence; the introduction of the fez and the
frock-coat, in place of the large turban and flowing caftan of the old
Turk, was the most conspicuous of the reforms of Sultan Mahmud II.; and
when, in 1909, the first Turkish parliament met, only a small minority
of its members wore their traditional costumes. The introduction of
Japan into the comity of nations was followed by the adoption of
European costume by the court and the upper classes, at least in public
and on ceremonial occasions; in private the wide-sleeved, loose,
comfortable _kimono_ continues to be worn. China, on the other hand, has
been more conservative, even her envoys in Europe preserving intact
(except sometimes in the matter of boots) the traditional costume of
their nation and class, while those of Japan, Corea and Siam appear in
the conventional diplomatic or "evening" dress in Europe. In the
Mussulman East, even when European dress has been adopted, an exception
has usually been made in favour of head-gear, which has a special
religious significance. In Turkey, for instance, the hat has not
succeeded in displacing the fez; and in India, though the Parsis had by
the beginning of the 20th century begun to modify their traditional high
turban-like hat into a modified "bowler," and Hindus--abroad at
least--were affecting the head-gear of the West, those Mussulman princes
who had adopted, wholly or partially, European dress continued to wear
the turban. On the other hand, the amir of Afghanistan, when he visited
India, had--out of doors at least--discarded the turban for the ugly
"solar topee." In spite of the natural conservatism, strengthened by
religious conventions, of the Eastern races, there is a growing danger
that the spread of European enlightenment will more or less rapidly
destroy that picturesque variety of costume which is the delight of the
traveller and the artist. For Indian costumes see INDIA: _Costume_; for
Chinese see CHINA; &c.


IV. OFFICIAL COSTUME

Official costumes, in so far as they are not, like the crowns and
tabards of heralds, the coronets of peers, or the gold keys tacked to
the coat-tails of royal chamberlains--consciously symbolical, are for
the most part ceremonious survivals of bygone general fashions. This is
as true of the official costume of the past as of the present; as may be
illustrated from ancient Rome, where the toga, once the general costume
of Roman citizens, in the 3rd and 4th centuries was the official robe of
senators and officials (see also under VESTMENTS). Thus, at the present
time, the lay chamberlains of the pope and the members of his Swiss
guard wear costumes of the 16th century, and the same is true of the
king's yeomen of the guard in England. In general, however (apart from
robes, which are much older in their origin), official costumes in
Europe, or in countries of European origin, are based on the fashions of
the 18th and early 19th centuries. Knee-breeches, however, which survive
in the full-dress of many British officials, as in ordinary court dress,
had practically disappeared on the continent of Europe, surviving only
in certain peasant costumes, when the emperor William II. reintroduced
them at the court of Berlin. The tendency in the modern democratic
communities of Anglo-Saxon race has been to dispense with official
costumes. In the United States the judges of the Supreme Court alone
wear robes; the president of the Republic wears on all occasions the
dress of an ordinary citizen, unrelieved by order or decoration, and
thus symbolizes his pride of place as _primus inter pares_; an American
ambassador appears on state occasions among his colleagues, gorgeous in
bullion-covered coats, in the ordinary black "evening dress" of a modern
gentleman. The principle, which tends to assert itself also in the
autonomous "British dominions beyond the seas," is not the result of
that native dislike of "dressing up" which characterizes many Englishmen
of the upper and middle classes; for modern democracy shares to the full
the taste of past ages for official or quasi-official finery, as is
proved by the costumes and insignia of the multitudinous popular orders,
Knights Templars, Foresters, Oddfellows and the like. It is rather
cherished as the outward and visible sign of that doctrine of the
equality of all men which remains the most generally gratifying of the
gifts of French 18th-century philosophy to the world. In Great Britain,
where equality has ever been less valued than liberty, official costumes
have tended to increase rather than to fall into disuse; mayors of new
boroughs, for instance, are not considered properly equipped until they
have their gown and chain of office. In France, on the other hand, the
taste of the people for pomp and display, and, it may be added, their
innate artistic sense, have combined with their passion for equality to
produce a somewhat anomalous situation as regards official costume.
Lawyers have their robes, judges their scarlet gowns, diplomatists their
gold-laced uniforms; but the state costume of the president of the
Republic is "evening dress," relieved only by the red riband and star of
the Legion of Honour. In the Latin states of South America, which tend
to be disguised despotisms rather than democracies, the actual rather
than the theoretical state of things is symbolized by the gorgeous
official uniforms which are among the rewards of those who help the
dictator for the time being to power. See also ROBES; for military
costume see UNIFORMS; for ecclesiastical costume see VESTMENTS and
subsidiary articles.     (W. A. P.)

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Apart from the enormous number of books especially
  devoted to costume, innumerable illustrated works exist which are, in
  various degrees, useful for the study of the history of this subject.
  It may be noted here, e.g. that the illuminators and painters of the
  middle ages did not affect historical accuracy in their presentment of
  biblical or secular subjects, but clothed their patriarchs, apostles
  or Roman warriors in the dress of their own ages, their pictures thus
  becoming invaluable records of the costume of their time. In this
  respect the knowledge of classical antiquity revived during the
  Renaissance introduced a certain confusion. Artists began to realize
  the incongruity of representing antique figures in modern garb, but,
  in the absence of exact knowledge, fancy began to play a greater part
  than research in the dressing of their characters. Portraits and
  representations of contemporary scenes (e.g. Rembrandt's "Night
  Watch") continue to be first-hand authorities for the costume of the
  period in which they were produced; but representations of biblical or
  historical scenes have little or no value from this point of view.
  Thus in Rubens's famous picture of St Ambrose repelling Theodosius
  from the door of his cathedral, the bishop is vested in the mitre and
  cope which only came into vogue centuries later, while the emperor
  wears a military costume modelled on that of Roman imperators of an
  earlier day. Even in portraiture, however, a certain conservatism
  tends to make the record untrustworthy; thus, great men continued to
  be painted in full armour long after it had in fact ceased to be worn.

  Of authorities for English costume the following may be selected as
  especially useful: J. C. Bruce, _The Bayeux Tapestry Elucidated_
  (London, 1856), with 17 plates; F. W. Fairholt, _Costume in England to
  the end of the 18th Century_ (2nd ed., ib., 1860); William Fowler,
  _Examples of Medieval Art_ (1796-1829), 116 plates; Froissart's
  _Chronicles_, translated by T. Johnes (4 vols., 1844), 72 plates and
  many woodcuts; R. N. Humphrey, _Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages_
  (ib., 1849); _Facsimiles of Original Drawings by Holbein, in the
  Collection of His Majesty, for Portraits of Persons of the Court of
  Henry VIII._, engraved by F. Bartolozzi, &c. (London, 1884); John
  Nichols, _Progresses, Pageants, &c., of Queen Elizabeth_ (3 vols.,
  1823), and _of James I._ (4 vols., 1828), with numerous plates;
  Hogarth's _Works_, engraved by himself, with descriptions by J.
  Nichols (1822), 153 plates; Edmund Lodge, _Portraits of Illustrious
  Personages of Great Britain_ (12 vols., 1823-1835), 240 plates; J. R.
  Planché, _Hist. of British Costume_ (3rd ed., Bohn, 1874), and
  _Cyclopaedia of Costume_ (2 vols., 1876-1877); Henry Shaw, _Dresses
  and Decorations of the Middle Ages_ (2 vols., 1840-1843), 94 plates
  and many woodcuts; Joseph Strutt, engraver, _Dress and Habits of the
  People of England_ (2 vols., 1796-1799), and _Regal and Ecclesiastical
  Antiquities of Great Britain_, new edition with notes by J. R. Planché
  (1842), 153 plates; Westwood, _Miniatures of Anglo-Saxon and Irish
  Manuscripts_ (1868), 54 plates; C. A. Stothard, _The Monumental
  Effigies of Great Britain_ (1817-1832; ed. Hewitt, 1876); Herbert
  Haines, _Manual of Monumental Brasses_ (Oxford, 1861), with many
  woodcuts; J. G. and L. A. B. Waller, _A Series of Monumental Brasses_
  (London, 1864); H. Druitt, _Costume on Brasses_ (London, 1906). Of
  foreign works on costume the most important are Hefner-Alteneck,
  _Trachten, &c., vom frühesten Mittelalter bis Ende des 18.
  Jahrhunderts_ (2nd ed., Frankfort, 1879-1890); Viollet-le-Duc,
  _Dictionnaire raisonné du mobilier français_ (6 vols., Paris,
  1858-1875), the first four volumes devoted to armour and costume;
  Friedrich Hottenroth, _Trachten der Völker alter und neuer Zeit_ (2nd
  ed., Stuttgart, 1882-1890), with excellent plates, Fr. transl. by J.
  Bernhoff, _Les Costumes chez les peuples, &c._ (Paris, 1885), and
  _Handbuch der deutschen Tracht_ (1898); Bonnard et Mercuri, _Costumes
  historiques des XII^e, XIII^e, XIV^e et XV^e siècles_ (2 vols., Paris,
  1867), 200 plates; Burgmair, _Triomphe de l'empereur Maximilien I_.
  (Vienna, 1796), 135 plates; Chapuy, _Le Moyen Age pittoresque_ (2
  vols., 1837), 180 plates; Chevignard et Duplessis, _Costumes
  historiques des XVI^e, XVII^e et XVIII^e siècles_ (2 vols., Paris,
  1867), 150 plates; du Sommerard, _Les Arts au moyen âge_ (10 vols.,
  Paris, 1838-1848), 510 plates; Duflos, _Recueil d'estampes,
  représentant les grades, les rangs, et les dignités, suivant le
  costume de toutes les nations existantes_ (Paris, 1779-1780), 240
  plates; _España artistica y monumental_ (3 vols., Paris, 1842-1859),
  145 plates; Fabri, _Raccolta di varii vestimenti ed arti del regno di
  Napoli_ (Naples, 1773), 27 plates; Jaquemin, _Iconographie méthodique
  du costume du V^e au XIX^e siècle_ (Paris), 200 plates; Lacombe,
  _Galerie de Florence et du palais Pitti_ (4 vols., Paris, 1789-1807),
  192 plates; Paul Lacroix, _Manners, Customs and Dress during the
  Middle Ages and the Renaissance_, Eng. trans. (London, 1874),
  _Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance_
  (London, 1874), and _The 18th Century, its Institutions, Customs,
  Costumes_ (London, 1875-1876); L. M. Lanté, _Galerie française de
  femmes célèbres_, atlas (Paris, 1841), 70 plates; Malliot et Martin,
  _Recherches sur les costumes, les moeurs, les usages religieux,
  civils et militaires des anciens peuples_ (3 vols., Paris, 1809), 228
  plates; Pauly, _Description ethnographique des peuples_ (St
  Petersburg, 1862); Pauquet Frères, _Modes et costumes historiques et
  étrangers_ (2 vols., Paris, 1873), 196 plates; Auguste Racinet, _Le
  Costume historique_, in two forms, large and small (Paris, 1876,
  another ed. in 6 vols., with 500 plates, 1888); G. M. Straub,
  _Trachten oder Stammbuch_ (1600), several hundreds of curious woodcuts
  of costumes; Vecellio, _Habiti antichi et moderni di tutto il mondo_
  (3 vols., Venice, 1859-1863).

  Examples and illustrations of early costume of great interest and
  value may be found in the _Archaeologia_, M. Didron's _Annales
  archéologiques_, the _Journals_ of the Archaeological Societies, the
  various county hi