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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 6 - "Coucy-le-Château" to "Crocodile"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 6 - "Coucy-le-Château" to "Crocodile"" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. When letters are subscripted, they are
      preceded by an underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were originally printed in

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective

(4) Letters topped by Macron are represented as [=x].

(5) Letters topped by Breve are represented as [)x].

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    Article COUNCIL: "Although the Frankish monarchs were not absolute
      rulers, nevertheless they exercised the right of changing or
      rejecting synodal decrees which ran counter to the interests of the
      state." 'absolute' amended from 'abolute'.

    Article COUNCIL: "The last of the Reform councils, that of Basel,
      approved these principles, and at length passed a sentence of
      deposition against Pope Eugenius IV." 'approved' amended from

    Article COUNT: "It is difficult to give briefly a clear idea of the
      functions of the three important officials comes sacrarum
      largitionum, comes rei privatae and comes sacri patrimonii."
      'patrimonii' amended from 'partrimonii'.

    Article COVENANT: "The covenant not to sue belongs to the law of
      contract and needs no explanation." 'explanation' amended from

    Article COWLEY, WELLESLEY: "and also during the excitement and
      assassinate the emperor of the French." 'emperor' amended from

    Article CRAIG, JOHN: "James VI., like Henry VIII., accepted this
      compromise, and the oath in this form was taken by Craig, the royal
      chaplains and some others." 'like' amended from 'Like'.

    Article CREEDS: "The confession of the Four Cities, Strassburg,
      Constance, Memmingen and London, was drawn up by M. Bucer and was
      presented to Charles V. at Augsburg in 1530." 'Augsburg' amended
      from 'Ausburg'.

      and was presented, not as a scholastic or critical confession of
      faith, but merely such a statement as any intelligent member of the
      body might offer as containing its leading principles." 'of'
      amended from 'or'.

    Article CREEK: "a small inlet on a low coast, an inlet in a river
      formed by the mouth of a small stream, a shallow narrow harbour for
      small vessels." 'vessels' amended from 'vessles'.

    Article CREIGHTON, MANDELL: "His irrepressible and often daring
      humour, together with his frank distaste for much conventional
      religious phraseology, was a stumbling-block to some pious people."
      'irrepressible' amended from 'irrespressible'.

    Article CRICKET: "The distance that constitutes "good length" is
      not, however, to be defined by precise measurement; it depends on
      the condition of the ground, and on the reach of the batsman."
      'constitutes' amended from 'consistutes'.

    Article CRITICISM: The Poetics of Aristotle (1898); H. L. Havell
      and Andrew Lang, Longinus on the Sublime (1890). 'Aristotle'
      amended from 'Artistotle'.



              ELEVENTH EDITION

            VOLUME VII, SLICE VI

       Coucy-le-Château to Crocodile

Articles in This Slice:

  COUCY-LE-CHÂTEAU                   CRANK
  COUES, ELLIOTT                     CRANMER, THOMAS
  COULISSE                           CRANNOG
  COULOMMIERS                        CRANSTON
  COUMARIN                           CRANTOR
  COUNCIL                            CRAPE
  COUNCIL BLUFFS                     CRASH
  COUNT                              CRASSULACEAE
  COUNTER                            CRASSUS
  COUNTERFEITING                     CRATER
  COUNTERFORT                        CRATES (Athenian actor)
  COUNTERPOINT                       CRATES (Greek philosophers)
  COUNTERSCARP                       CRATES (of Mallus)
  COUNTERSIGN                        CRATINUS
  COUNTRY                            CRATIPPUS (Greek historian)
  COUNTY                             CRATIPPUS (of Mitylene)
  COUNTY COURT                       CRAU
  COUPÉ                              CRAUCK, GUSTAVE
  COUPLET                            CRAUFURD, QUINTIN
  COUPON                             CRAUFURD, ROBERT
  COURANTE                           CRAVAT
  COURBEVOIE                         CRAWFORD, EARLS OF
  COURCI, JOHN DE                    CRAWFORD, THOMAS
  COURIER                            CRAWFORDSVILLE
  COURLAND                           CRAWFURD, JOHN
  COURSING                           CRAYFISH
  COURT, ANTOINE                     CRAYON
  COURT                              CREASY, SIR EDWARD SHEPHERD
  COURTENAY                          CRÈCHE
  COURTENAY, RICHARD                 CRÉCY
  COURTESY                           CREDENTIALS
  COURT LEET                         CREDIT
  COURT-MARTIAL                      CRÉDIT FONCIER
  COUSCOUS                           CREECH, THOMAS
  COUSIN, JEAN                       CREEDS
  COUSIN, VICTOR                     CREEK
  COUSIN                             CREEK or MUSKOGEE INDIANS
  COUSINS, SAMUEL                    CREETOWN
  COUSTOU                            CREEVEY, THOMAS
  COUTANCES                          CREIGHTON, MANDEL
  COUTHON, GEORGES                   CREIL
  COUTTS, THOMAS                     CRELL NICHOLAS
  COUTURE, THOMAS                    CREMA
  COUVADE                            CREMATION
  COVE                               CREMER, JAKOBUS JAN
  COVELLITE                          CREMERA
  COVENANT (mutual agreement)        CRÉMIEUX, ISAAC MOÏSE
  COVENANT (law term)                CREMONA, LUIGI
  COVENANTERS                        CREMONA
  COVENTRY                           CREON (king of Corinth)
  COVER                              CREON (king of Thebes)
  COVERTURE                          CREOSOTE
  COVILHÃ                            CREPUSCULAR
  COVILHAM PERO                      CRÉQUY
  COVIN                              CRÉQUY, RENÉE DE FROULLAY
  COVINGTON                          CRESCAS, HASDAI BEN ABRAHAM
  COWARD                             CRESCENT
  COWDENBEATH                        CRESILAS
  COWELL, JOHN                       CRESOLS
  COWES                              CRESPI, GIUSEPPE MARIA
  COWL                               CRESS
  COWLEY FATHERS                     CREST (town of France)
  COWPENS                            CREST (plume or tuft)
  COWRY                              CRESWICK
  COW-TREE                           CRETACEOUS SYSTEM
  COX, DAVID                         CRETE
  COX, JACOB DOLSON                  CRETONNE
  COX, KENYON                        CREUSE
  COX, RICHARD                       CREUTZ, GUSTAF FILIP
  COX, SAMUEL                        CREUZER, GEORG FRIEDRICH
  COXE, WILLIAM                      CREW, NATHANIEL CREW
  COXSWAIN                           CREW
  COYOTE                             CREWE
  COYPEL                             CREWKERNE
  COYPU                              CRIB
  CRAB                               CRICCIETH
  CRABBE, GEORGE                     CRICHTON, JAMES
  CRACKER                            CRICKET (insect)
  CRACOW                             CRICKET (game)
  CRADLE                             CRICKLADE
  CRADOCK                            CRIEFF
  CRAFT                              CRIME
  CRAG                               CRIMEA
  CRAGGS, JAMES                      CRIMEAN WAR
  CRAIG, JOHN                        CRIMINAL LAW
  CRAIK, DINAH MARIA                 CRIMP
  CRAIL                              CRINAGORAS
  CRAILSHEIM                         CRINOLINE
  CRAIOVA                            CRINUM
  CRAMBO                             CRIOBOLIUM
  CRAMER, JOHN ANTONY                CRISA
  CRAMP                              CRITIAS
  CRAMP-RINGS                        CRITICISM
  CRANACH, LUCAS                     CRITIUS and NESIOTES
  CRANBERRY                          CRITOLAUS
  CRANBROOK                          CRIVELLI, CARLO
  CRANE, STEPHEN                     CROCIDOLITE
  CRANE, WALTER                      CROCKET
  CRANE                              CROCKETT, SAMUEL RUTHERFORD
  CRANES                             CROCKFORD, WILLIAM
  CRANIOMETRY                        CROCODILE

COUCY-LE-CHÂTEAU, a village of northern France, in the department of
Aisne, 18 m. W.S.W. of Laon on a branch of the Northern railway. Pop.
(1906) 663. It has extensive remains of fortifications of the 13th
century, the most remarkable feature of which is the Porte de Laon, a
gateway flanked by massive towers and surmounted by a fine apartment.
Coucy also has a church of the 15th century, preserving a façade in the
Romanesque style. The importance of the place is due, however, to the
magnificent ruins of a feudal fortress (see CASTLE) crowning the
eminence on the slope of which the village is built. The remains, which
embrace an area of more than 10,000 sq. yds., form an irregular
quadrilateral built round a court-yard and flanked by four huge towers.
The nucleus of the stronghold is a donjon over 200 ft. high and over 100
ft. in diameter, standing on the south side of the court. Three large
vaulted apartments, one above the other, occupy its interior. The
court-yard was surrounded on the ground-floor by storehouses, kitchens,
&c., above which on the west and north sides were the great halls known
as the _Salle des preux_ and the _Salle des preuses_. A chapel projected
from the west wing. The bailey or base-court containing other buildings
and covering three times the area of the château extended between it and
the village. The architectural unity of the fortress is due to the
rapidity of its construction, which took place between 1230 and 1242,
under Enguerrand III., lord of Coucy. A large part of the buildings was
restored or enlarged at the end of the 14th century by Louis d'Orléans,
brother of Charles VI., by whom it had been purchased. The place was
dismantled in 1652 by order of Cardinal Mazarin. It is now state
property. In 1856 researches were carried on upon the spot by
Viollet-le-Duc, and measures for the preservation of the ruins were
subsequently undertaken.

_Sires de Coucy._--Coucy gave its name to the sires de Coucy, a feudal
house famous in the history of France. The founder of the family was
Enguerrand de Boves, a warlike lord, who, at the end of the 11th century
seized the castle of Coucy by force. Towards the close of his life, he
had to fight against his own son, Thomas de Marle, who in 1115 succeeded
him, subsequently becoming notorious for his deeds of violence in the
struggles between the communes of Laon and Amiens. He was subdued by
King Louis VI. in 1117, but his son Enguerrand II. continued the
struggle against the king. Enguerrand III., the Great, fought at
Bouvines under Philip Augustus (1214), but later he was accused of
aiming at the crown of France, and he took part in the disturbances
which arose during the regency of Blanche of Castile. These early lords
of Coucy remained till the 14th century in possession of the land from
which they took their name. Enguerrand IV., sire de Coucy, died in 1320
without issue and was succeeded by his nephew Enguerrand, son of Arnold,
count of Guines, and Alix de Coucy, from whom is descended the second
line of the house of Coucy. Enguerrand VI. had his lands ravaged by the
English in 1339 and died at Crécy in 1346. Enguerrand VII., sire de
Coucy, count of Soissons and Marle, and chief butler of France, was sent
as a hostage to England, where he married Isabel, the eldest daughter of
King Edward III. Wishing to remain neutral in the struggle between
England and France, he went to fight in Italy. Having made claims upon
the domains of the house of Austria, from which he was descended through
his mother, he was defeated in battle (1375-1376). He was entrusted with
various diplomatic negotiations, and took part in the crusade of Hungary
against the Sultan Bayezid, during which he was taken prisoner, and died
shortly after the battle of Nicopolis (1397). His daughter Marie sold
the fief of Coucy to Louis, duke of Orleans, in 1400. The Châtelain de
Coucy (see above) did not belong to the house of the lords of Coucy, but
was castellan of the castle of that name.

COUES, ELLIOTT (1842-1899), American naturalist, was born at Portsmouth,
New Hampshire, on the 9th of September 1842. He graduated at Columbian
(now George Washington) University, Washington, D.C., in 1861, and at
the Medical school of that institution in 1863. He served as a medical
cadet at Washington in 1862-1863, and in 1864 was appointed
assistant-surgeon in the regular army. In 1872 he published his _Key to
North American Birds_, which, revised and rewritten in 1884 and 1901,
has done much to promote the systematic study of ornithology in America.
In 1873-1876 Coues was attached as surgeon and naturalist to the United
States Northern Boundary Commission, and in 1876-1880 was secretary and
naturalist to the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of
the Territories, the publications of which he edited. He was lecturer on
anatomy in the medical school of the Columbian University in 1877-1882,
and professor of anatomy there in 1882-1887. He resigned from the army
in 1881 to devote himself entirely to scientific research. He was a
founder of the American Ornithologists' Union, and edited its organ,
_The Auk_, and several other ornithological periodicals. He died at
Baltimore, Maryland, on the 25th of December 1899. In addition to
ornithology he did valuable work in mammalogy; his book _Fur-Bearing
Animals_ (1877) being distinguished by the accuracy and completeness of
its description of species, several of which are already becoming rare.
In 1887 he became president of the Esoteric Theosophical Society of
America. Among the most important of his publications, in several of
which he had collaboration, are _A Field Ornithology_ (1874); _Birds of
the North-west_ (1874); _Monographs on North American Rodentia_, with J.
A. Allen (1877); _Birds of the Colorado Valley_ (1878); _A Bibliography
of Ornithology_ (1878-1880, incomplete); _New England Bird Life_ (1881);
_A Dictionary and Check List of North American Birds_ (1882); _Biogen, A
Speculation on the Origin and Motive of Life_ (1884); _The Daemon of
Darwin_ (1884); _Can Matter Think?_ (1886); and _Neuro-Myology_ (1887).
He also contributed numerous articles to the Century Dictionary, wrote
for various encyclopaedias, and edited the _Journals of Lewis and Clark_
(1893), and _The Travels of Zebulon M. Pike_ (1895).

COULISSE (French for "groove," from _couler_, to slide), a term for a
groove in which a gate of a sluice, or the side-scenes in a theatre,
slide up and down, hence applied to the space on the stage between the
wings, and generally to that part of the theatre "behind the scenes" and
out of view of the public. It is also a term of the Paris Bourse,
derived from a _coulisse_, or passage in which transactions were carried
on without the authorized _agents de change_. The name _coulissier_ was
thus given to unauthorized _agents de change_, or "outside brokers" who,
after many attempts at suppression, were finally given a recognized
status in 1901. They bring business to the _agents de change_, and act
as intermediaries between them and other parties. (See STOCK EXCHANGE:

COULOMB, CHARLES AUGUSTIN (1736-1806), French natural philosopher, was
born at Angoulême on the 14th of June 1736. He chose the profession of
military engineer, spent three years, to the decided injury of his
health, at Fort Bourbon, Martinique, and was employed on his return at
Rochelle, the Isle of Aix and Cherbourg. In 1781 he was stationed
permanently at Paris, but on the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789 he
resigned his appointment as _intendant des eaux et fontaines_, and
retired to a small estate which he possessed at Blois. He was recalled
to Paris for a time in order to take part in the new determination of
weights and measures, which had been decreed by the Revolutionary
government. Of the National Institute he was one of the first members;
and he was appointed inspector of public instruction in 1802. But his
health was already very feeble, and four years later he died at Paris on
the 23rd of August 1806. Coulomb is distinguished in the history alike
of mechanics and of electricity and magnetism. In 1779 he published an
important investigation of the laws of friction (_Théorie des machines
simples, en ayant regard au frottement de leurs parties et à la roideur
des cordages_), which was followed twenty years later by a memoir on
fluid resistance. In 1785 appeared his _Recherches théoriques et
expérimentales sur la force de torsion et sur l'élasticité des fils de
métal_, &c. This memoir contained a description of different forms of
his torsion balance, an instrument used by him with great success for
the experimental investigation of the distribution of electricity on
surfaces and of the laws of electrical and magnetic action, of the
mathematical theory of which he may also be regarded as the founder. The
practical unit of quantity of electricity, the _coulomb_, is named after

COULOMMIERS, a town of northern France, capital of an arrondissement in
the department of Seine-et-Marne, 45 m. E. of Paris by rail. Pop. (1906)
5217. It is situated in the fertile district of Brie, in a valley
watered by the Grand-Morin. The church of St Denis (13th and 16th
centuries), and the ruins of a castle built by Catherine of Gonzaga,
duchess of Longueville, in the early 17th century, are of little
importance. There is a statue to Commandant Beaurepaire, who, in 1792,
killed himself rather than surrender Verdun to the Prussians.
Coulommiers is the seat of a subprefect, and has a tribunal of first
instance and a communal college. Printing is the chief industry,
tanning, flour-milling and sugar-making being also carried on. Trade is
in agricultural products, and especially in cheeses named after the

COUMARIN, C9H6O2, a substance which occurs naturally in sweet woodruff
(_Asperula odorata_), in the tonka bean and in yellow melilot
(_Melilotus officinalis_). It can be obtained from the tonka bean by
extraction with alcohol. It is prepared artificially by heating
aceto-ortho-coumaric acid (which is formed from sodium salicyl aldehyde)
or from the action of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate on salicyl
aldehyde (Sir W. H. Perkin, _Berichte_, 1875, 8, p. 1599). It can also
be prepared by heating a mixture of phenol and malic acid with sulphuric
acid, or by passing bromine vapour at 107° C. over the anhydride of
melilotic acid. It forms rhombic crystals (from ether) melting at 67° C.
and boiling at 290° C., which are readily soluble in alcohol, and
moderately soluble in hot water. It is applied in perfumery for the
preparation of the _Asperula_ essence. On boiling with concentrated
caustic potash it yields the potassium salt of coumaric acid, whilst
when fused with potash it is completely decomposed into salicylic and
acetic acids. Sodium amalgam reduces it, in aqueous solution, to
melilotic acid. It forms addition products with bromine and hydrobromic
acid. By the action of phosphorus pentasulphide it is converted into
thiocoumarin, which melts at 101° C.; and in alcoholic solution, on the
addition of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and soda, it yields coumarin

Ortho-coumaric acid (o-oxycinnamic acid) is obtained from coumarin as
shown above, or by boiling coumarin for some time with sodium ethylate.
It melts at 208° C. and is easily soluble in hot water and in alcohol.
It cannot be converted into coumarin by heating alone, but it is readily
transformed on heating with acetic anhydride or acetyl chloride. By the
action of sodium amalgam it is readily converted into _melilotic acid_,
which melts at 81° C., and on distillation furnishes its lactone,
_hydrocoumarin_, melting at 25° C. For the relations of coumaric and
coumarinic acid see _Annalen_, 254, p. 181. The homologues of coumarin
may be obtained by the action of sulphuric acid on phenol and the higher
fatty acids (propionic, butyric and isovaleric anhydrides), substitution
taking place at the carbon atom in the [alpha] position to the -CO-
group, whilst by the condensation of acetoacetic ester and phenols with
sulphuric acid the [beta] substituted coumarins are obtained.

_Umbelliferone_ or 4-oxycoumarin, occurs in the bark of _Daphne
mezereum_ and may be obtained by distilling such resins as galbanum or
asafoetida. It may be synthesized from resorcin and malic anhydride or
from [beta] resorcyl aldehyde, acetic anhydride and sodium acetate.
_Daphnetin_ and _Aesculetin_ are dioxycoumarins.

The structural formulae of coumarin and the related substances are:

     / \_CH:CH·CO2H    / \ / \\CH    / \ /CH2·CH2·CO2H
    |   |             |   |   |     |   |
    |   |_            |   |   |     |   |
     \ /  OH           \ / \ / CO    \ / \OH
  Orthocoumaric      Coumarin.    Melilotic
      acid.                         acid.

         CH2                CH
    / \ / \ CH2        / \ / \\CH
   |   |   |          |   |   |
   |   |   |          |   |   |
    \ / \ / CO      HO \ / \ / CO
         O                  O
 Hydrocoumarin.    Umbelliferone.

COUMARONES or BENZOFURFURANES, organic compounds containing the ring

  C6H4   CH.
      \ /

This ring system may be synthesized in many different ways, the chief
methods employed being as follows: by the action of hot alcoholic potash
on [alpha]-bromcoumarin (R. Fittig, _Ann._, 1883, 216, p. 162),

      CH:C·Br           CH                CH
      /                 /\\               /\\
  C6H4        ---> C6H4   C·COOH ---> C6H4   CH;
      \  .              \ /               \ /
       O·CO              O                 O

from sodium salts of phenols and [alpha]-chloracetoacetic ester (A.
Hantzsch, _Ber._, 1886, 19, p. 1292),

       H                           C·CH3
      /         COCH3             /\\
  C6H4   --->   .        ---> C6H4  C·COOR;
      \      Cl·CH·COOR           \ /
       ONa                         O

or from ortho-oxyaldehydes by condensation with ketones (S. Kostanecki
and J. Tambor, _Ber._, 1896, 29, p. 237), or with chloracetic acid (A.
Rossing, _Ber._, 1884, 17, p. 3000),

      /OH CH3CO·C6H5      /OH
  C6H4    ----------> C6H4              2 Br
      \CHO                \CH:CH·COC6H5 ----->

      /OH                KHO      / O \
  C6H4                  ----> C6H4     C·COC6H5,
      \CHBr·CHBr·COC6H5           \CH//

      /OH  Cl·CH2·COOH      /CHO       CH3COONa
  C6H4    ------------> C6H4           -------->
      \CHO                  \O·CH2·COOH

                                C6H4     C·COOH.
                                    \ O /

The parent substance coumarone, C8H6O, is also obtained by heating
[omega]-chlor-ortho-oxystyrol with concentrated potash solution (G.
Komppa, _Ber._, 1893, 26. p. 2971),

      /CH:CHCl  KOH      /CH\\
  C6H4         ----> C6H4     CH.
      \OH                \ O /

It is a colourless liquid which boils at 171-172° C. and is readily
volatile in steam, but is insoluble in water and in potash solution.
Concentrated acids convert it into a resin. When heated with sodium and
absolute alcohol, it is converted into _hydrocoumarone_, C8H8O, and
ethyl phenol.

COUNCIL (Lat. _concilium_, from _cum_, together, and the root cal, to
call), the general word for a convocation, meeting, assembly. The Latin
word was frequently confused with _consilium_ (from _consulere_, to
deliberate, cf. _consul_), advice, i.e. counsel, and thus specifically
an advisory assembly. Du Cange (_Gloss. Med. Infim. Latin._) quotes the
Greek words [Greek: synodos, synedrion, symboulion] as the equivalent of
_concilium_. In French the distinction between _conseil_ (from
_consilium_), advice, and _concile_, council (i.e. ecclesiastical--its
only meaning) has survived, but the two English derivatives are much
confused. In the New Testament, "council" is the rendering of the Hebrew
Sanhedrin, Gr. [Greek: synedrion]. The word is generally used in English
for all kinds of congregations or convocations assembled for
administrative and deliberative purposes.[1]

The present article is confined to a history of the development of the
ecclesiastical council, summoned to adjust matters in dispute with the
civil authority or for the settlement of doctrinal and other internal
disputes. For details see under separate headings, NICAEA, &c.

From a very early period in the history of the Church, councils or
synods have been held to decide on matters of doctrine and discipline.
They may be traced back to the second half of the 2nd century A.D., when
sundry churches in Asia Minor held consultations about the rise of
Montanism. Their precise origin is disputed. The common Roman Catholic
view is that they are apostolic though not prescribed by divine law, and
the apostolic precedent usually cited is the "council" of Jerusalem
(Acts xv.; Galatians ii.). Waiving the consideration of vital critical
questions and accepting Acts xv. at its face value, the assembly at
Jerusalem would scarcely seem to have been a council in the technical
sense of the word; it was in essence a meeting of the Jerusalem church
at which delegates from Antioch were heard but apparently had no vote,
the decision resting solely with the mother church. R. Sohm argues that
synods grew from the custom of certain local churches which, when
confronted with a serious problem of their own, augmented their numbers
by receiving delegates from the churches of the neighbourhood. Hauck,
however, holds that these augmented church meetings, which dealt with
the affairs of but a single church, are to be distinguished from the
synods, which took cognizance of matters of general interest. Older
Protestant writers have contented themselves with saying either that
synods were of apostolic origin, or that they were the inevitable
outcome of the need of the leaders of churches to take counsel together,
and that they were perhaps modelled on the secular provincial assemblies
(_concilia provincialia_).

Every important alteration in the constitution of the Church has
affected the composition and function of synods; but the changes were
neither simultaneous nor precisely alike throughout the Roman empire.
The synods of the 2nd century were extraordinary assemblies which met to
deliberate upon pressing problems. They had no fixed geographical limits
for membership, no _ex-officio_ members, nor did they possess an
authority which did away with the independence of the local church. In
the course of the 3rd century came the decisive change, which increased
the prestige of the councils: the right to vote was limited to bishops.
This was the logical outgrowth of the belief that each local church
ought to have but one bishop (monarchical episcopate), and that these
bishops were the sole legitimate successors of the apostles (apostolic
succession), and therefore official organs of the Holy Spirit. Although
as late as 250 the consensus of the priests, the deacons and the people
was still considered essential to the validity of a conciliar decision
at Rome and in certain parts of the East, the development had already
run its course in northern Africa. It was a further step in advance when
synods began to meet at regular intervals. They were held annually in
Cappadocia by the middle of the 3rd century, and the council of Nicaea
commanded in 325 that semiannual synods be held in every province, an
arrangement which was not systematically enforced, and was altered in
692, when the Trullan Council reduced the number to one a year.

With the multiplication of synods came naturally a differentiation of
type. In text-books we find clear lines drawn between diocesan,
provincial, national, patriarchal and oecumenical synods; but the first
thousand years of church history do not justify the sharpness of the
traditional distinction. The _provincial_ synods, presided over by the
metropolitan (archbishop), were usually held at the capital of the
province, and attempted to legislate on all sorts of questions. The
state had nothing to do with calling them, nor did their decrees require
governmental sanction. Various abortive attempts were made to set up
synods of _patriarchal_ or at least of more than provincial rank. In
North Africa eighteen such synods were held between 393 and 424; during
part of the 5th and 6th centuries _primatial_ councils assembled at
Arles; and the patriarchs of Constantinople were accustomed to invite to
their "_endemic_ synods" ([Greek: synodoi endêmousai]) all bishops who
happened to be sojourning at the capital. _Papal_ synods from the 5th
and especially from the 9th century onward included members such as the
archbishops of Ravenna, Milan, Aquileia and Grado, who resided outside
the Roman archdiocese; but the territorial limits from which the
membership was drawn do not appear to have been precisely defined.

Before the form of the provincial synod had become absolutely fixed,
there arose in the 4th century the _oecumenical_ council. The Greek term
[Greek: synodos oikoumenikê][2] (1) (used by Eusebius, _Vita
Constantini_, iii. 6) is preferable to the Latin _concilium universale_
or _generale_, which has been applied loosely to national and even to
provincial synods. The oecumenical synods were not the logical outgrowth
of the network of provincial synods; they were creations of the imperial
power. Constantine, who had not even been baptized, laid the foundations
when, in response to a petition of the Donatists, he referred their case
to a committee of bishops that convened at Rome, which meeting Eusebius
calls a synod. After that the emperor summoned the council of Arles to
settle the matter. For both of these assemblies it was the emperor that
decided who should be summoned, paid the travelling expenses of the
bishops, determined where the council should be held and what topics
should be discussed. He regarded them as temporary advisory bodies, to
whose recommendations the imperial authority might give the force of
law. In the same manner he appointed the time and place for the council
of Nicaea, summoned the episcopate, paid part of the expenses out of the
public purse, nominated the committee in charge of the order of
business, used his influence to bring about the adoption of the creed,
and punished those who refused to subscribe. To be sure, the council of
Nicaea commanded great veneration, for it was the first attempt to
assemble the entire episcopate; but no more than the synods of Rome and
of Arles was it an organ of ecclesiastical self-government--it was
rather a means whereby the Church was ruled by the secular power. The
subsequent oecumenical synods of the undivided Church were patterned on
that of Nicaea. Most Protestant scholars maintain that the secular
authorities decided whether or not they should be convened, and issued
the summons; that imperial commissioners were always present, even if
they did not always preside; that on occasion emperors have confirmed or
refused to confirm synodal decrees; and that the papal confirmation was
neither customary nor requisite. Roman Catholic scholars to-day tend to
recede from the high ground very generally taken several centuries ago,
and Funk even admits that the right to convoke oecumenical synods was
vested in the emperor regardless of the wishes of the pope, and that it
cannot be proved that the Roman see ever actually had a share in calling
the oecumenical councils of antiquity. Others, however, while
acknowledging the futility of seeking historical proofs that the popes
_formally_ called, directed and confirmed these synods, yet assert that
the emperor performed these functions not of his own right but in his
quality as protector of the Church, that this involved his acting at the
request or at least with the permission and approval of the Church, and
in particular of the pope, and that a special though not a stereotyped
papal confirmation of conciliar decrees was necessary to their validity.

In the Germanic states which arose on the ruins of the Western Empire we
find _national_ and _diocesan_ synods; provincial synods were unusual.
National synods were summoned by the king or with his consent to meet
special needs; and they were frequently _concilia mixta_, at which lay
dignitaries appeared. Although the Frankish monarchs were not absolute
rulers, nevertheless they exercised the right of changing or rejecting
synodal decrees which ran counter to the interests of the state. Clovis
held the first French national synod at Orleans in 511; Reccared, the
first in Spain in 589 at Toledo. Under Charlemagne they were
occasionally so representative that they might almost be ranked as
general synods of the West (Regensburg, 792, Frankfort, 794).
Contemporaneous with the evolution of the national synod was the
development of a new type of diocesan synod, which included the priests
of separate and mutually independent parishes and also the leaders of
the monastic clergy.

The papal synods came into the foreground with the success of the
Cluniac reform of the Church, especially from the Lateran synod of 1059
on. They grew in importance until at length Calixtus II. summoned to the
Lateran the synod of 1123 as "_generale concilium_." The powers which
the pope as bishop of the church in Rome had exercised over its synods
he now extended to the oecumenical councils. They were more completely
under his control than the ancient ones had been under the sway of the
emperor. The Pseudo-Isidorean principle that all major synods need papal
authorization was insisted on, and the decrees were formulated as papal

The absolutist principles cherished by the papal court in the 12th and
13th centuries did not pass unchallenged; but the protests of Marsilius
of Padua and the less radical William of Occam remained barren until the
Great Schism of 1378. As neither the pope in Rome nor his rival in
Avignon would give way, recourse was had to the idea that the supreme
power was vested not in the pope but in the oecumenical council. This
"conciliar theory," propounded by Conrad of Gelnhausen and championed by
the great Parisian teachers Pierre d'Ailly and Gerson, proceeded from
the nominalistic axiom that the whole is greater than its part. The
decisive revolutionary step was taken when the cardinals independently
of both popes ventured to hold the council of Pisa (1409). The council
of Constance asserted the supremacy of oecumenical synods, and ordered
that these be convened at regular intervals. The last of the Reform
councils, that of Basel, approved these principles, and at length passed
a sentence of deposition against Pope Eugenius IV. Eugenius, however,
succeeded in maintaining his power, and at the council of Florence
(1439) secured the condemnation of the conciliar theory; and this was
reiterated still more emphatically, on the eve of the Reformation, by
the fifth Lateran council (1516). Thenceforward the absolutist theories
of the 13th and 14th centuries increasingly dominated the Roman Church.
The popes so distrusted oecumenical councils that between 1517 and 1869
they called but one; at this (Trent, 1545-1563), however, all treatment
of the question of papal versus conciliar authority was purposely
avoided. Although the Declaration of the French clergy of 1682
reaffirmed the conciliar doctrines of Constance, since the French
Revolution this "Gallicanism" has shown itself to be but a passing phase
of constitutional theory; and in the 19th century the ascendancy of
Ultramontanism became so secure that Pius IX. could confidently summon
to the Vatican a synod which set its seal on the doctrine of papal
infallibility. Yet it would be a misconception to suppose that the
Vatican decrees mean the surrender of the ancient belief in the
infallibility of oecumenical synods; their decisions may still be
regarded as more solemn and more impressive than those of the pope
alone; their authority is fuller, though not higher. At present it is
agreed that the pope has the sole right of summoning oecumenical
councils, of presiding or appointing presidents and of determining the
order of business and the topics which shall come up. The papal
confirmation is indispensable; it is conceived of as the stamp without
which the expression of conciliar opinion lacks legal validity. In other
words, the oecumenical council is now practically in the position of the
senate of an absolute monarch. It is in fact an open question whether a
council is to be ranked as really oecumenical until after its decrees
have been approved by the pope. (See VATICAN COUNCIL, ULTRAMONTANISM,

The earlier oecumenical councils have well been called "the pitched
battles of church history." Summoned to combat heresy and schism, in
spite of degrading pressure from without and tumultuous disorder within,
they ultimately brought about a modicum of doctrinal agreement. On the
one side as time went on they bound scholarship hand and foot in the
winding-sheet of tradition, and also fanned the flames of intolerance;
yet on the other side they fostered the sense of the Church's corporate
oneness. The diocesan and provincial synods have formed a valuable
system of regularly recurring assemblies for disposing of ecclesiastical
business. They have been held most frequently, however, in times of
stress and of reform, for instance in the 11th, 16th and 19th centuries;
at other periods they have lapsed into disuse: it is significant that
to-day the prelate who neglects to convene them suffers no penalty. At
present the main function of both provincial and oecumenical synods
seems to be to facilitate obedience to the wishes of the central
government of the Church.

The _right to vote_ (_votum definitivum_) has been distinguished from
early times from the right to be heard (_votum consultativum_). The
Reform Synods of the 15th century gave a decisive vote to doctors and
licentiates of theology and of laws, some of them sitting as
individuals, some as representatives of universities. Roman Catholic
canonists now confine the right to vote at oecumenical councils to
bishops, cardinal deacons, generals or vicars general of monastic orders
and the _praelati nullius_ (exempt abbots, &c.); all other persons, lay
or clerical, who are admitted or invited, have merely the _votum
consultativum_--they are chiefly procurators of absent bishops, or very
learned priests. It was but a clumsy and temporary expedient, designed
to offset the preponderance of Italian bishops dependent on the pope
when the council of Constance subdivided itself into several groups or
"nations," each of which had a single vote. In voting, the simple
majority decides; yet such is the importance attached to a unanimous
verdict that an irreconcilable minority may absent itself from the final
vote, as was the case at the Vatican Council.

The numbering of oecumenical synods is not fixed; the list most used in
the Roman Church to-day is that of Hefele (_Conciliengeschichte_, 2nd
ed., I. 59 f.):

   1.  Nicaea I.                                        325
   2.  Constantinople I.                                381
   3.  Ephesus                                          431
   4.  Chalcedon                                        451
   5.  Constantinople II.                               553
   6.  Constantinople III.                              680
   7.  Nicaea II.                                       787
   8.  Constantinople IV.                               869
   9.  Lateran I.                                      1123
  10.  Lateran II.                                     1139
  11.  Lateran III.                                    1179
  12.  Lateran IV.                                     1215
  13.  Lyons I.                                        1245
  14.  Lyons II.                                       1274
  15.  Vienne                                          1311
  16.  Constance (in part)                        1414-1418
  17a. Basel (in part)                                 1431 ff.
  17b. Ferrara-Florence (a continuation of Basel) 1438-1442
  18.  Lateran V.                                 1512-1517
  19.  Trent                                      1545-1563
  20.  Vatican                                    1869-1870

(Each of these and certain other important synods are treated in
separate articles.)

By including Pisa (1409) and by treating Florence as a separate synod,
certain writers have brought the number of oecumenical councils up to
twenty-two. These standard lists are of the type which became
established through the authority of Cardinal R. F. Bellarmine
(1542-1621), who criticized Constance and Basel, while defending
Florence and the fifth Lateran council against the Gallicans. As late as
the 16th century, however, "the majority did not regard those councils
in which the Greek Church did not take part as oecumenical at all"
(Harnack, _History of Dogma_, vi. 17). The Greek Church accepts only the
first seven synods as oecumenical; and it reckons the Trullan synod of
692 (the Quinisextum) as a continuation of the sixth oecumenical synod
of 680. But concerning the first seven councils it should be remarked
that Constantinople I. was but a general synod of the East; its claim to
oecumenicity rests upon its reception by the West about two centuries
later. Similarly the only representatives of the West present at
Constantinople II. were certain Africans; the pope did not accept the
decrees till afterwards and they made their way in the West but
gradually. Just as there have been synods which have come to be
considered oecumenical though not convoked as such, so there have been
synods which though summoned as oecumenical, failed of recognition: for
instance Sardica (343), Ephesus (449), Constantinople (754). The last
two received the imperial confirmation and from the legal point of view
were no whit inferior to the others; their decrees, however, were
overthrown by subsequent synods. As the Protestant leaders of the 16th
century held fast the traditional christology, they regarded with
veneration the dogmatic decisions of Nicaea I., Constantinople I.,
Ephesus and Chalcedon. These four councils had enjoyed a more or less
fortuitous pre-eminence both in Roman and in canon law, and by many
Catholics at the time of the Reformation were regarded, along with the
three great creeds (Apostles', Nicene, Athanasian), as a sort of
irreducible minimum of orthodoxy. In the 17th century the liberal
Lutheran George Calixtus based his attempts at reuniting Christendom on
this _consensus quinquesaecularis_. Many other Protestants have accepted
Constantinople II. and III. as supporting the first four councils; and
still others, notably many Anglican high churchmen, have felt bound by
all the oecumenical synods of the undivided Church. The common
Protestant attitude toward synods is, however, that they may err and
have erred, and that the Scriptures and not conciliar decisions are the
sole infallible standard of faith, morals and worship.

_Protestant Councils._--The churches of the Reformation have all had a
certain measure of synodal life. The Church of England has maintained
its ancient provincial synods or convocations, though for the greater
part of the 18th and the first part of the 19th centuries they
transacted no business. In the Lutheran churches of Germany there was no
strong agitation in favour of introducing synods until the 19th century,
when a movement, designed to render the churches less dependent on the
governmental consistories, won its way, until at length Prussia itself
fell into line (1873 and 1876). As the powers granted to the German
synods are very limited, many of their advocates have been
disillusioned; but the Lutheran churches of America, being independent
of the state, have developed synods both numerous and potent. In the
Reformed churches outside Germany synodal life is vigorous; its forms
were developed by the Huguenots in days of persecution, and passed
thence to Scotland and other presbyterian countries. Even many of the
churches of congregational polity have organized national councils (see
CONGREGATIONALISM); but here the principle of the independence of the
local church prevents the decisions from binding those congregations
which do not approve of the decrees. Moreover, in the last decade of the
19th century a growing desire for a rapprochement between the Free
Churches in the United Kingdom as a whole led to the annual assembly of
the Free Church Council for the consideration of all matters affecting
the dissenting bodies. This body has no executive or doctrinal authority
and is rather a conference than a council. In general it may be said
that synods are becoming more and more powerful in Protestant lands, and
that they are destined to still greater prominence because of the
growing sentiment for Christian unity.

  AUTHORITIES.--GENERAL COLLECTIONS: _Collectio regia_ (Paris, 1644, 37
  vols.) (the first very extensive work); P. Labbe (not Labbé) and G.
  Cossart, _Sacrosancta concilia_ (Paris, 1672, 17 vols.), with
  supplement by Étienne Baluze (Baluzius), 1683 (based on above); J.
  Hardouin (Harduinus), _Conciliorum collectio regia maxima_ (Paris,
  1715), 11 tomi in 12 vols, (to 1714; more exact; indexed; serious
  omissions); enlarged edition by N. Coletus (Venice, 1728-1732),
  supplemented by J. D. Mansi, _Sanctorum conciliorum et decretorum nova
  collectio_ (Lucca, 1748, 6 tomi). Convenient but fallible is Mansi's
  _Sacrorum conciliorum et decretorum nova et amplissima collectio_
  (Florence, 1759-1767; completed Venice, 1769-1798, 31 vols.);
  facsimile reproduction by Welter (Paris, 1901 ff.), adding (tom. O)
  _Introductio seu apparatus ad sacrosancta concilia_, and (tom. 17B and
  18B) Baluze, _Capitularia regum Francorum_, and continuing to date by
  reproducing parts of Coletus and of Mansi's supplement to Coletus, and
  furnishing (tom. 37 ff.) a new edition of the councils from 1720 on by
  J. B. Martin and L. Petit. A careful text of Roman Catholic synods
  from 1682 to 1870 is _Collectio Lacensis_ (_Acta et decreta sacrorum
  conciliorum recentiorum_, Friburgi, 1870 ff.), 7 vols.

  SPECIAL COLLECTIONS: GREAT BRITAIN: _Concilia Magnae Britanniae et
  Hiberniae_, ed. D. Wilkins (London, 1737, 4 vols.); _Councils and
  Ecclesiastical Documents relating to Great Britain and Ireland_, ed.
  by A. W. Haddan and W. Stubbs (Oxford, 1869 ff., 4 vols.); J. W.
  Joyce, _Handbook of the Convocations or Provincial Synods of the
  Church of England_ (London, 1887); _Concilia Scotiae_ (1225-1559), ed.
  Joseph Robertson (Edinburgh, Bannatyne Club, 1866, 2 tom.).

  UNITED STATES: _Collectio Lacensis_ (Roman Catholic synods); _The
  American Church History Series_ (New York, 1893 ff. 13 vols.) gives
  information on the various Protestant synods.

  FRANCE.--_Concilia aevi Merovingici_, rec. F. Maassen (Hanover, 1893)
  (_Monumenta Germaniae historica, Legum sectio_ iii., _Concilia_, tom.
  i.); _Concilia antiqua Galliae_, cur. J. Sirmond (Paris, 1629, 3
  vols.); supplement by P. de la Lande (Paris, 1666); L. Odespun,
  _Concilia novissima Galliae_ (Paris, 1646); _Conciliorum Galliae tam
  editorum quam ineditorum, stud. congreg. S. Mauri_, tom. i. (Paris,
  1789). Synods of the Reformed Churches of France are contained in J.
  Quick, _Synodicon in Gallia reformata_ (London, 1692, 2 vols.); J.
  Aymon, _Tous les synodes nationaux des églises réformées de France_
  (La Haye, 1710, 2 vols.); E. Hugues, _Les Synodes du désert_ (Paris,
  1885 f., 3 vols.). For the synods of other countries see Herzog-Hauck,
  3rd ed., 19,262 f., and Wetzer and Welte, 2nd ed., 3809 f.

  LESS ELABORATE TEXTS: _Canones apostolorum et conciliorum saeculorum_,
  iv.-vii., rec. H. T. Bruns (Berlin, 1839, 2 vols.) (still useful); J.
  Fulton, _Index Canonum_ (3rd ed., New York, 1892) (3rd and 4th
  centuries); W. Bright, _Notes on the Canons of the First Four General
  Councils_ (2nd ed., Oxford, 1892); _Die Kanones der wichtigsten
  altkirchlichen Conzilien nebst den apostolischen Kanones_, ed. F.
  Lauchert (Freiburg i. B., 1896); _Enchiridion symbolorum et
  definitionum, quae de rebus fidei et morum a conciliis oecumenicis et
  summis pontificibus emanarunt_, ed. H. Denzinger (7th ed., Würzburg,
  1895); _Bibliothek der Symbole und Glaubensregeln der alten Kirche_,
  ed. by A. Hahn (3rd edition, revised and enlarged, Breslau, 1897),
  with variant readings; C. Mirbt, _Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums
  und des römischen Katholizismus_ (2nd much enlarged ed., Tübingen,
  1901); E. F. Karl Müller, Die Bekenntnisschriften der reformierten
  Kirche (Leipzig, 1903) (for all countries). These last five are
  elaborately indexed.

  TRANSLATIONS: John Johnson, _A Collection of the Laws and Canons of
  the Church of England_ [601-1519], 2 parts (London, 1720; reprinted
  Oxford, 1850 f., in the _Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology_); P.
  Schaff, _The Creeds of Christendom_ (New York, 1877, 3 vols.) (texts
  and translations parallel); _Canons and Creeds of the First Four
  Councils_, ed. by E. K. Mitchell, in _Translations and Reprints from
  the Original Sources of European History, published by the Department
  of History of the University of Pennsylvania_, vol. iv. 2 (1897); H.
  R. Percival, _The Ecumenical Councils_ (New York, 1900) (_Nicene and
  Post-Nicene Fathers_, second series, vol. xiv.; translates canons and
  compiles notes; bibliography in Introduction).

  GENERAL HISTORIES OF COUNCILS: C. J. von Hefele, _Conciliengeschichte_
  (Freiburg i. B., 1855); English translation of the earlier volumes to
  A.D. 787, from A.D. 326 on, based on the second German edition
  (Edinburgh, 1871 ff.); French, by Delarc (Paris, 1869-1874, 10 vols.).
  This first edition not entirely superseded by the second, made after
  the Vatican council, and continued by Knöpfler and by Hergenröther
  (Freiburg, 1873-1890, 9 vols.); a French translation, with
  continuation and critical and bibliographical notes, _par un religieux
  bénédictin de Farnborough_, tome i. 1^re partie (Paris, Létouzey,
  1907); Paul Viollet, _Examen de l'histoire des conciles de Mgr Hefele_
  (Paris, 1876) (_Extrait de la Revue historique_); W. P. du Bose, _The
  Ecumenical Councils_ (New York, 1896) (popular); P. Guérin, _Les
  Conciles généraux et particuliers_ (Paris, 1868, 3rd impression, 1897,
  3 tom.); see also A. Harnack, _History of Dogma_ (Boston, 1895-1900, 7
  vols.); F. Loofs, _Leitfaden der Dogmengeschichte_ (4th ed., enlarged,
  Halle, 1906).

  LITERATURE: _Dictionnaire universel et complet des conciles_, rédigé
  par A. C. Peltier, publié par Migne (Paris, 1847, 2 vols.) (Migne,
  _Encyclopédie théologique_, vol. 13 f.); Z. Zitelli-Natali, _Epitome
  historico-canonica conciliorum generalium_ (Rome, 1881); F. X. Kraus,
  _Realencyklopädie der christlichen Altertümer_, vol. i.
  (Freiburg-i.-B., 1882) (art. "Concilien" by Funk); William Smith and
  S. Cheetham, _Dictionary of Christian Antiquities_ (London, 1876-1880,
  2 vols.) (erudite detail); Wetzer und Welte's _Kirchenlexikon_, 2nd
  ed. by Hergenröther and Kaulen (Freiburg i. B., 1882-1903, 13 vols.)
  (art. "Concil" by Scheeben); _La Grande Encyclopédie_ (Paris, s.d., 31
  vols.) (numerous articles); P. Hinschius, _Das Kirchenrecht der
  Katholiken und Protestanten in Deutschland_, vol. 3 (Berlin, 1883)
  (fundamental and masterly); R. von Scherer, _Handbuch des
  Kirchenrechtes_, vol. i. (Graz, 1886) (excellent notes and
  references); E. H. Landon, _A Manual of Councils of the Holy Catholic
  Church_, (revised ed., London, [1893], 2 vols.) (paraphrases chief
  canons; needs revision); Martigny, _Dictionnaire des antiquités
  chrétiennes_ (3rd ed., Paris, 1889) (for ceremonial); R. Sohm,
  _Kirchenrecht_, vol. i. (Leipzig, 1892) (brilliant); A. Kneer, _Die
  Entstehung der konziliaren Theorie_ (Rome, 1893); _Realencyklopädie
  für protestantische Theologie und Kirche_, begründet von J. J. Herzog,
  3rd revised ed. by A. Hauck (Leipzig, 1896 ff.) (in vol. 19 Hauck's
  excellent _Synoden_, 1907); F. X. Funk, _Kirchengeschichtliche
  Abhandlungen und Untersuchungen_ (Paderborn, 1897); A. V. G. Allen,
  _Christian Institutions_ (New York, 1897), chap. xi.; C. A. Kneller,
  "Papst und Konzil im ersten Jahrtausend" (_Zeitschrift für katholische
  Theologie_, vols. 27 and 28, Innsbruck, 1893 f.); F. Bliemetzrieder,
  _Das Generalkonzil im grossen abendländischen Schisma_ (Paderborn,
  1904); Wilhelm and Scannell, _Manual of Catholic Theology_ (3rd ed.,
  London, 1906, sect. 32); J. Forget, "Conciles," in A. Vacant and E.
  Mangeot, _Dictionnaire de théologie catholique_, tome 3, 636-676
  (Paris, 1906 ff.), with elaborate bibliography; _The Catholic
  Encyclopedia_ (New York, 1907 ff.).     (W. W. R.*)


  [1] For the Greek Council see BOULE; for the Hebdomadal Council see
    OXFORD; see also ENGLAND: Local Government.

  [2] From [Greek: hê oikoumenê (gê)]. the inhabited world; Latin
    _oecumenicus_ or _universalis_. The English forms "oecumenical" and
    "ecumenical" are both used.

COUNCIL BLUFFS, a city and the county-seat of Pottawattamie county,
Iowa, U.S.A., about 2½ m. E. of the Missouri river opposite Omaha,
Nebraska, with which it is connected by a road bridge and two railway
bridges. Pop. (1890) 21,474; (1900) 25,802, of whom 3723 were
foreign-born; (1910) 29,292. It is pre-eminently a railway centre, being
served by the Union Pacific, of which it is the principal eastern
terminus, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago, Milwaukee &
Saint Paul, the Chicago & Northwestern, the Chicago, Rock Island &
Pacific, the Chicago Great-Western, the Illinois Central, and the
Wabash, which together have given it considerable commercial importance.
It is built for the most part on level ground at the foot of high
bluffs; and has several parks, the most attractive of which, commanding
fine views, is Fairmount Park. With the exception of bricks and tiles,
carriages and wagons, agricultural implements, and the products of its
railway shops, its manufactures are relatively unimportant, the factory
product in 1905 being valued at only $1,924,109. Council Bluffs is the
seat of the Western Iowa Business College, and of the Iowa school for
the deaf. On or near the site of Council Bluffs, in 1804, Lewis and
Clark held a council with the Indians, whence the city's name. In 1838
the Federal government made this the headquarters of the Pottawattamie
Indians, removed from Missouri. They remained until 1846-1847, when the
Mormons came, built many cabins, and named the place Kanesville. The
Mormons remained only about five years, but on their departure for Utah
their places were speedily taken by new immigrants. During 1849-1850
Council Bluffs became an important outfitting point for California gold
seekers--the goods being brought by boat from Saint Louis--and in 1853
it was incorporated as a city.

COUNSEL AND COUNSELLOR, one who gives advice, more particularly in legal
matters. The term "counsel" is employed in England as a synonym for a
barrister-at-law, and may refer either to a single person who pleads a
cause, or collectively, to the body of barristers engaged in a case.
Counsellor or, more fully, counsellor-at-law, is practically an obsolete
term in England, but is still in use locally in Ireland as an equivalent
to barrister. In the United States, a counsellor-at-law is,
specifically, an attorney admitted to practice in all the courts; but as
there is no formal distinction of the legal profession into two classes,
as in England, the term is more often used loosely in the same sense as
"lawyer," i.e. one who is versed in, or practises law.

COUNT (Lat. _comes_, gen. _comitis_, Fr. _comte_, Ital. _conte_, Span.
_conde_), the English translation of foreign titles equivalent generally
to the English "earl."[1] In Anglo-French documents the word _counte_
was at all times used as the equivalent of earl, but, unlike the
feminine form "countess," it did not find its way into the English
language until the 16th century, and then only in the sense defined
above. The title of earl, applied by the English to the foreign counts
established in England by William the Conqueror, is dealt with elsewhere
(see EARL). The present article deals with (1) the office of count in
the Roman empire and the Frankish kingdom, (2) the development of the
feudal count in France and under the Holy Roman Empire, (3) modern

1. The Latin _comes_ meant literally a companion or follower. In the
early Roman empire the word was used to designate the companions of the
emperor (_comites principis_) and so became a title of honour. The
emperor Hadrian chose senators as companions on his travels and to help
him in public business. They formed a permanent council, and Hadrian's
successors entrusted these _comites_ with the administration of justice
and finance, or placed them in military commands. The designation
_comes_ thus developed into a formal official title of high officers of
state, some qualification being added to indicate the special duties
attached to the office in each case. Thus in the 5th century, among the
_comites_ attached to the emperor's establishment, we find, e.g., the
_comes sacrarum largitionum_ and the _comes rei privatae_; while others,
forming the council, were styled _comites consistorii_. Others were sent
into the provinces as governors, _comites per provincias constituti_;
thus in the _Notitia dignitatum_ we find a _comes Aegypti_, a _comes
Africae_, a _comes Belgicae_, a _comes Lugdunensis_ and others. Two of
the generals of the Roman province of Britain were styled the _comes
Britanniae_ and the _comes littoris Saxonici_ (count of the Saxon

At Constantinople in the latter Roman empire the Latin word _comes_
assumed a Greek garb as [Greek: komês] and was declined as a Greek noun
(gen. [Greek: komêtos]); the _comes sacrarum largitionum_ (count of the
sacred bounties) was called at Constantinople [Greek: ho komês tôn
sakrôn largitiônôn] and the _comes rerum privatarum_ (count of the
private estates) was called [Greek: komês tôn pribatôn]. The count of
the sacred bounties was the lord treasurer or chancellor of the
exchequer, for the public treasury and the imperial fisc had come to be
identical; while the count of the private estates managed the imperial
demesnes and the privy purse. In the 5th century the "sacred bounties"
corresponded to the _aerarium_ of the early Empire, while the _res
privatae_ represented the fisc. The officers connected with the palace
and the emperor's person included the count of the wardrobe (_comes
sacrae vestis_), the count of the residence (_comes domorum_), and, most
important of all, the _comes domesticorum et sacri stabuli_ (graecized
as [Greek: komês tou stablou]). The count of the stable, originally the
imperial master of the horse, developed into the "illustrious"
commander-in-chief of the imperial army (Stilicho, e.g., bore the full
title as given above), and became the prototype of the medieval
constable (q.v.).

An important official of the second rank (_spectabilis_, "respectable"
as contrasted with those of highest rank who were "illustrious") was the
count of the East, who appears to have had the control of a department
in which 600 officials were engaged. His power was reduced in the 6th
century, when he was deprived of his authority over the Orient diocese,
and became civil governor of Syria Prima, retaining his "respectable"
rank. Another important officer of the later Roman court was the _comes
sacri patrimonii_, who was instituted by the emperor Anastasius. In this
connexion it should be observed that the word _patrimonium_ gradually
changed in meaning. In the beginning of the 3rd century _patrimonium_
meant crown property, and _res privata_ meant personal property: at the
beginning of the 6th century _patrimonium_ meant personal property, and
_res privata_ meant crown property. It is difficult to give briefly a
clear idea of the functions of the three important officials _comes
sacrarum largitionum_, _comes rei privatae_ and _comes sacri
patrimonii_; but the terms have been well translated by a German author
as _Finanzminister des Reichsschatzes_ (finance minister of the treasury
of the Empire), _F. des Kronschatzes_ (of the crown treasury), and _F.
des kaiserlichen Privatvermögens_ (of the emperor's private property).

The Frankish kings of the Merovingian dynasty retained the Roman system
of administration, and under them the word _comes_ preserved its
original meaning; the _comes_ was a companion of the king, a royal
servant of high rank. Under the early Frankish kings some _comites_ did
not exercise any definite functions; they were merely attached to the
king's person and executed his orders. Others filled the highest
offices, e.g. the _comes palatii_ and _comes stabuli_ (see CONSTABLE).
The kingdom was divided for administrative purposes into small areas
called _pagi_ (_pays_, Ger. _Gau_), corresponding generally to the Roman
_civitates_ (see CITY).[2] At the head of the _pagus_ was the _comes_,
corresponding to the German _Graf_ (_Gaugraf_, cf. Anglo-Saxon
_scire-gerefa_,[3] sheriff). The _comes_ was appointed by the king and
removable at his pleasure, and was chosen originally from all classes,
sometimes from enfranchised slaves. His essential functions were
judicial and executive, and in documents he is often described as the
king's agent (_agens publicus_) or royal judge (_judex publicus_ or
_fiscalis_). As the delegate of the executive power he had the right to
military command in the king's name, and to take all the measures
necessary for the preservation of the peace, i.e. to exercise the royal
"ban" (_bannus regis_). He was at once public prosecutor and judge, was
responsible for the execution of the sentences of the courts, and as the
king's representative exercised the royal right of protection (_mundium
regis_) over churches, widows, orphans and the like. He enjoyed a triple
wergeld, but had no definite salary, being remunerated by the receipt of
certain revenues, a system which contained the germs of discord, on
account of the confusion of his public and private estates. He also
retained a third of the fines which he imposed in his judicial capacity.

Under the early Carolings the title count did not indicate noble birth.
A _comes_ was generally raised from childhood in the king's palace, and
rose to be a count through successive stages. The count's office was not
yet a dignity, nor hereditary; he was not independent nor appointed for
life, but exercised the royal power by delegation, as under the
Merovingians. While, however, he was theoretically paid by the king, he
seems to have been himself one of the sources of the royal revenue. The
counties were, it appears, farmed out; but in the 7th century the royal
choice became restricted to the larger landed proprietors, who gradually
emancipated themselves from royal control, and in the 8th century the
term _comitatus_ begins to denote a geographical area, though there was
little difference in its extent under the Merovingian kings and the
early Carolings. The count was about to pass into the feudatory stage.
Throughout the middle ages, however, the original official and personal
connotation of the title was never wholly lost; or perhaps it would be
truer to say, with Selden, that it was early revived with the study of
the Roman civil law in the 12th century. The unique dignity of count of
the Lateran palace,[4] bestowed in 1328 by the emperor Louis IV. the
Bavarian on Castrucio de' Antelminelli, duke of Lucca, and his heirs
male, was official as well as honorary, being charged with the
attendance and service to be performed at the palace at the emperor's
coronation at Rome (Du Cange, s.v. _Comites Palatii Lateranensis_;
Selden, op. cit. p. 321). This instance, indeed, remained isolated; but
the personal title of "count palatine," though honorary rather than
official, was conferred on officials--especially by the popes on those
of the Curia--had no territorial significance, and was to the last
reminiscent of those early comites palatii whose relations to the
sovereign had been purely personal and official (see PALATINE). A relic
of the old official meaning of "count" still survives in Transylvania,
where the head of the political administration of the Saxon districts is
styled count (_comes_, _Graf_) of the Saxon Nation.

2. _Feudal Counts._--The process by which the official counts were
transformed into feudal vassals almost independent is described in the
article FEUDALISM. In the confusion of the period of transition, when
the title to possession was usually the power to hold, designations
which had once possessed a definite meaning were preserved with no
defined association. In France, by the 10th century, the process of
decomposition of the old organization had gone far, and in the 11th
century titles of nobility were still very loosely applied. That of
"count" was, as Luchaire points out, "equivocal" even as late as the
12th century; any castellan of moderate rank could style himself _comte_
who in the next century would have been called _seigneur_ (_dominus_).
Even when, in the 13th century, the ranks of the feudal hierarchy in
France came to be more definitely fixed, the style of "count" might
imply much, or comparatively little. In the oldest register of Philip
Augustus counts are reckoned with dukes in the first of the five orders
into which the nobles are divided, but the list includes, besides such
almost sovereign rulers as the counts of Flanders and Champagne,
immediate vassals of much less importance--such as the counts of
Soissons and Dammartin--and even one mediate vassal, the count of
Bar-sur-Seine. The title was still in fact "equivocal," and so it
remained throughout French history. In the official lists it was early
placed second to that of duke (Luchaire, _Manuel_, p. 181, note 1), but
in practice at least the great _comtes-pairs_ (e.g. of Champagne) were
the equals of any duke and the superiors of many. Thus, too, in modern
times royal princes have been given the title of count (Paris, Flanders,
Caserta), the heir of Charles X. actually changing his style, without
sense of loss, from that of duc de Bordeaux to that of comte de
Chambord. From the 16th century onwards the equivocal nature of the
title in France was increased by the royal practice of selling it,
either to viscounts or barons in respect of their fiefs, or to rich

In Germany the change from the official to the territorial and
hereditary counts followed at the outset much the same course as in
France, though the later development of the title and its meaning was
different. In the 10th century the counts were permitted by the kings to
divide their benefices and rights among their sons, the rule being
established that countships (_Grafschaften_) were hereditary, that they
might be held by boys, that they were heritable by females and might
even be administered by females. The _Grafschaft_ became thus merely a
bundle of rights inherent in the soil; and, the count's office having
become his property, the old counties or _Gauen_ rapidly disappeared as
administrative units, being either amalgamated or subdivided. By the
second half of the 12th century the official character of the count had
quite disappeared; he had become a territorial noble, and the foundation
had been laid of territorial sovereignty (_Landeshoheit_). The first
step towards this was the concession to the counts of the military
prerogatives of dukes, a right enjoyed from the first by the counts of
the marches (see MARGRAVE), then given to counts palatine (see PALATINE)
and, finally, to other counts, who assumed by reason of it the style of
landgrave (_Landgraf_, i.e. count of a province). At first all counts
were reckoned as princes of the Empire (_Reichsfürsten_); but since the
end of the 12th century this rank was restricted to those who were
immediate tenants of the crown,[5] the other counts of the Empire
(_Reichsgrafen_) being placed among the free lords (_barones_, _liberi
domini_). Counts of princely rank (_gefürstete Grafen_) voted among the
princes in the imperial diet; the others (_Reichsgrafen_) were grouped
in the _Grafenbänke_--originally two, to which two more were added in
the 17th century--each of which had one vote. In 1806, on the formation
of the Confederation of the Rhine, the sovereign counts were all
mediatized (see MEDIATIZATION). Even before the end of the Empire (1806)
the right of bestowing the title of count was freely exercised by the
various German territorial sovereigns.

3. _Modern Counts._--Any political significance which the feudal title
of count retained in the 18th century vanished with the changes produced
by the Revolution. It is now simply a title of honour and one, moreover,
the social value of which differs enormously, not only in the different
European countries, but within the limits of the same country. In
Germany, for instance, there are several categories of counts: (1) the
mediatized princely counts (_gefürstete Grafen_), who are reckoned the
equals in blood of the European sovereign houses, an equality symbolized
by the "closed crown" surmounting their armorial bearings. The heads of
these countly families of the "high nobility" are entitled (by a decree
of the federal diet, 1829) to the style of _Erlaucht_ (illustrious, most
honourable); (2) Counts of the Empire[6] (_Reichsgrafen_), descendants
of those counts who, before the end of the Holy Roman Empire (1806),
were _Reichsständisch_ i.e. sat in one of the _Grafenbänke_ in the
imperial diet, and entitled to a ducal coronet; (3) Counts (a) descended
from the lower nobility of the old Empire, titular since the 15th
century, (b) created since; their coronet is nine-pointed (cf. the nine
points and strawberry leaves of the English earl). The difficulty of
determining in any case the exact significance of the title of a German
count, illustrated by the above, is increased by the fact that the title
is generally heritable by all male descendants, the only exception being
in Prussia, where, since 1840, the rule of primogeniture has prevailed
and the bestowal of the title is dependent on a rent-roll of £3000 a
year. The result is that the title is very widespread and in itself
little significant. A German or Austrian count may be a wealthy noble of
princely rank, a member of the Prussian or Austrian Upper House, or he
may be the penniless cadet of a family of no great rank or antiquity.
Nevertheless the title, which has long been very sparingly bestowed,
always implies a good social position. The style _Altgraf_ (old count),
occasionally found, is of some antiquity, and means that the title of
count has been borne by the family from time immemorial.

In medieval France the significance of the title of count varied with
the power of those who bore it; in modern France it varies with its
historical associations. It is not so common as in Germany or Italy;
because it does not by custom pass to all male descendants. The title
was, however, cheapened by its revival under Napoleon. By the decree of
the 1st of March 1808, reviving titles of nobility, that of count was
assigned _ex officio_ to ministers, senators and life councillors of
state, to the president of the Corps Législatif and to archbishops. The
title was made heritable in order of primogeniture, and in the case of
archbishops through their nephews. These Napoleonic countships,
increased under subsequent reigns, have produced a plentiful crop of
titles of little social significance, and have tended to lower the
status of the counts deriving from the _ancien régime_. The title of
marquis, which Napoleon did not revive, has risen proportionately in the
estimation of the Faubourg St Germain. As for that of count, it is safe
to say that in France its social value is solely dependent on its
historical associations.

Of all European countries Italy has been most prolific of counts. Every
petty Italian prince, from the pope downwards, created them for love or
money; and, in the absence of any regulating authority, the title was
also widely and loosely assumed, while often the feudal title passed
with the sale of the estate to which it was attached. Casanova remarked
that in some Italian cities all the nobles were _baroni_, in others all
were _conti_. An Italian _conte_ may or may not be a gentleman; he has
long ceased, _qua_ count, to have any social prestige, and his rank is
not recognized by the Italian government. As in France, however, there
are some Italian _conti_ whose titles are respectable, and even
illustrious, from their historic associations. The prestige belongs,
however, not to the title but to the name. As for the papal countships,
which are still freely bestowed on those of all nations whom the Holy
See wishes to reward, their prestige naturally varies with the religious
complexion of the country in which the titles are borne. They are
esteemed by the faithful, but have small significance for those outside.
In Spain, on the other hand, the title of _conde_, the earlier history
of which follows much the same development as in France, is still of
much social value, mainly owing to the fact that the rule of
primogeniture exists, and that, a large fee being payable to the state
on succession to a title, it is necessarily associated with some degree
of wealth. The Spanish counts of old creation, some of whom are grandees
and members of the Upper House, naturally take the highest rank; but the
title, still bestowed for eminent public services or other reasons, is
of value. The title, like others in Spain, can pass through an heiress
to her husband. In Russia the title of count (_graf_, fem. _grafinya_),
a foreign importation, has little social prestige attached to it, being
given to officials of a certain rank. In the British empire the only
recognized counts are those of Malta, who are given precedence with
baronets of the United Kingdom.

  See Selden, _Titles of Honor_ (London, 1672); Du Cange, _Glossarium
  Med. Lat._ (ed. Niort, 1883) s.v. "Comes"; _La Grande Encyclopédie_,
  s.v. "Comte"; A. Luchaire, _Manuel des institutions françaises_
  (Paris, 1892); P. Guilhiermoz, _Essai sur l'origine de la noblesse en
  France au moyen âge_ (Paris, 1902); Brunner, _Deutsche
  Rechtsgeschichte_, Band ii. (Leipzig, 1892).


  [1] The exact significance of a title is difficult to reproduce in a
    foreign language. Actually, only some foreign counts could be said to
    be equivalent to English earls; but "earl" is always translated by
    foreigners by words (_comte_, _Graf_) which in English are
    represented by "count," itself never used as the synonym of "earl."
    Conversely old English writers had no hesitation in translating as
    "earl" foreign titles which we now render "count."

  [2] The changing language of this epoch speaks of _civitates_,
    subsequently of _pagi_, and later of _comitatus_ (counties).

  [3] The A.S. _gerefa_, however, meaning "illustrious," "chief," has
    apparently, according to philologists, no connexion with the German
    _Graf_, which originally meant "servant" (cf. "knight," "valet,"
    &c.). It is the more curious that the _gerefa_ should end as a
    servant ("reeve"), the _Graf_ as a noble (count).

  [4] "Count of the Lateran Palace" (_Comes Sacri Lateranensis
    Palatii_) was later the title usually bestowed by the popes in
    creating counts palatine. The emperors, too, continued to make counts
    palatine under this title long after the Lateran had ceased to be an
    imperial palace.

  [5] Of these there were four who, as counts of the Empire _par
    excellence_, were sometimes styled "simple counts" (_Schlechtgrafen_),
    i.e. the counts of Cleves, Schwarzburg, Cilli and Savoy; they were
    entitled to the ducal coronet. Three of these had become dukes by the
    17th century, but the count (now prince) of Schwarzburg still styled
    himself "Of the four counts of the Holy Roman Empire, count of
    Schwarzburg" (see Selden, ed. 1672, p. 312).

  [6] This title is borne by certain English families, e.g. by Lord
    Arundell of Wardour. In other cases it has been assumed without due
    warrant. See J. H. Round, "English Counts of the Empire," in _The
    Ancestor_, vii. 15 (Westminster, October 1903).

COUNTER. (1) (Through the O. Fr. _conteoir_, modern _comptoir_, from
Lat. _computare_, to reckon), a round piece of metal, wood or other
material used anciently in making calculations, and now for reckoning
points in games of cards, &c., or as tokens representing actual coins or
sums of money in gambling games such as roulette. The word is thus used,
figuratively, of something of no real value, a sham. In the original
sense of "a means of counting money, or keeping accounts," "counter" is
used of the table or flat-topped barrier in a bank, merchant's office or
shop, on which money is counted and goods handed to a customer. The term
was also applied, usually in the form "compter," to the debtors' prisons
attached to the mayor's or sheriff's courts in London and some other
boroughs in England. The "compters" of the sheriff's courts of the city
of London were, at various times, in the Poultry, Bread St., Wood St.
and Giltspur St.; the Giltspur St. compter was the last to be closed, in
1854. (2) (From Lat. _contra_, opposite, against), a circular parry in
fencing, and in boxing, a blow given as a parry to a lead of an
opponent. The word is also used of the stiff piece of leather at the
back of a boot or shoe, of the rounded angle at the stern of a ship,
and, in a horse, of the part lying between the shoulder and the under
part of the neck. In composition, counter is used to express contrary
action, as in "countermand," "counterfeit," &c.

COUNTERFEITING (from Lat. _contra-facere_, to make in opposition or
contrast), making an imitation without authority and for the purpose of
defrauding. The word is more particularly used in connexion with the
making of imitations of money, whether paper or coin. (See COINAGE

COUNTERFORT (Fr. _contrefort_), in architecture, a buttress or pier
built up against the wall of a building or terrace to strengthen it, or
to resist the thrust of an arch or other constructional feature inside.

COUNTERPOINT (Lat. _contrapunctus_, "point counter point," "note against
note"), in music, the art happily defined by Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley
as that "of combining" melodies: this should imply that good
counterpoint is the production of beautiful harmony by a combination of
well-characterized melodies. The individual audibility of the melodies
is a matter of which current criticism enormously overrates the
importance. What is always important is the peculiar life breathed into
harmony by contrapuntal organization. Both historically and
aesthetically "counterpoint" and "harmony" are inextricably blended; for
nearly every harmonic fact is in its origin a phenomenon of
counterpoint. And if in later musical developments it becomes possible
to treat chords as, so to speak, harmonic lumps with a meaning
independent of counterpoint, this does not mean that they have really
changed their nature; but it shows a difference between modern and
earlier music precisely similar to that between modern English, in which
metaphorical and abstract expressions are so constantly used that they
have become a mere shorthand for the literal and concrete expression,
and classical Greek, where metaphors and abstractions can appear only as
elaborate similes or explicit philosophical ideas. The laws of
counterpoint are, then, laws of harmony with the addition of such laws
of melody as are not already produced by the interaction of harmonic and
melodic principles. In so far as the laws of counterpoint are derived
from purely harmonic principles, that is to say, derived from the
properties of concord and discord, their origin and development are
discussed in the article HARMONY. In so far as they depend entirely on
melody they are too minute and changeable to admit of general
discussion; and in so far as they show the interaction of melodic and
harmonic principles it is more convenient to discuss them under the head
of harmony, because they appear in such momentary phenomena as are more
easily regarded as successions of chords than as principles of design.
All that remains, then, for the present article is the explanation of
certain technical terms.

1. _Canto Fermo_ (i.e. plain chant) is a melody in long notes given to
one voice while others accompany it with quicker counterpoints (the term
"counterpoint" in this connexion meaning accompanying melodies). In the
simplest cases the _Canto Fermo_ has notes of equal length and is
unbroken in flow. When it is broken up and its rhythm diversified, the
gradations between counterpoint on a _Canto Fermo_ and ordinary forms of
polyphony, or indeed any kind of melody with an elaborate accompaniment,
are infinite and insensible.

2. _Double Counterpoint_ is a combination of melodies so designed that
either can be taken above or below the other. When this change of
position is effected by merely altering the octave of either or both
melodies (with or without transposition of the whole combination to
another key), the artistic value of the device is simply that of the
raising of the lower melody to the surface. The harmonic scheme remains
the same, except in so far as some of the chords are not in their
fundamental position, while others, not originally fundamental, have
become so. But double counterpoint may be in other intervals than the
octave; that is to say, while one of the parts remains stationary, the
other may be transposed above or below it by some interval other than an
octave, thus producing an entirely different set of harmonies.

_Double Counterpoint in the 12th_ has thus been made a powerful means of
expression and variety. The artistic value of this device depends not
only on the beauty and novelty of the second scheme of harmony obtained,
but also on the change of melodic expression produced by transferring
one of the melodies to another position in the scale. Two of the most
striking illustrations of this effect are to be found in the last chorus
of Brahms's _Triumphlied_ and in the fourth of his variations on a theme
by Haydn.

_Double Counterpoint in the 10th_ has, in addition to this, the property
that the inverted melody can be given in the new and in the original
positions simultaneously.

Double counterpoint in other intervals than the octave, 10th and 12th,
is rare, but the general principle and motives for it remain the same
under all conditions. The two subjects of the _Confiteor_ in Bach's B
minor Mass are in double counterpoint in the octave, 11th and 13th. And
Beethoven's Mass in D is full of pieces of double counterpoint in the
inversions of which a few notes are displaced so as to produce momentary
double counterpoint in unusual intervals, obviously with the intention
of varying the harmony. Technical treatises are silent as to this
purpose, and leave the student in the belief that the classical
composers used these devices, if at all, in a manner as meaningless as
the examples in the treatises.

3. _Triple, Quadruple and Multiple Counterpoint._--When more than two
melodies are designed so as to combine in interchangeable positions, it
becomes increasingly difficult to avoid chords and progressions of which
some inversions are incorrect. In triple counterpoint this difficulty is
not so great; although a complete triad is dangerous, as it is apt to
invert as a "6/4" which requires careful handling. On the other hand, in
triple counterpoint the necessity for strictness is at its greatest,
because there are only six possible inversions, and in a long polyphonic
work most of these will be required. Moreover, the artistic value of the
device is at its highest in three-part polyphonic harmony, which,
whether invertible or not, is always a fine test of artistic economy,
while the inversions are as evident to the ear, especially where the top
part is concerned, as those in double counterpoint. Triple counterpoint
(and a fortiori multiple counterpoint) is normally possible only at the
octave; for it will be found that if three parts are designed to invert
in some other interval this will involve two of them inverting in a
third interval which will give rise to incalculable difficulty. This
makes the fourth of Brahms's variations on a theme of Haydn almost
miraculous. The plaintive expression of the whole variation is largely
due to the fact that the flowing semiquaver counterpoint below the main
theme is on each repeat inverted in the 12th, with the result that its
chief emphasis falls upon the most plaintive parts of the scale. But in
the first eight bars of the second part of the variation a third
contrapuntal voice appears, and this too is afterwards inverted in the
12th, with perfectly natural and smooth effect. But this involves the
inversion of two of the counterpoints with each other in the 9th, a kind
of double counterpoint which is almost impossible. The case is unique,
but it admirably illustrates the difference between artistic and merely
academic mastery of technical resource.

_Quadruple Counterpoint_ is not rare with Bach. It would be more
difficult than triple, but for the fact that of its twenty-four possible
inversions not more than four or five need be correct. _Quintuple
counterpoint_ is admirably illustrated in the finale of Mozart's
_Jupiter Symphony_, in which everything in the successive statement and
gradual development of the five themes conspires to give the utmost
effect to their combination in the coda. Of course Mozart has not room
for more than five of the 120 possible combinations, and from these he
selects such as bring fresh themes into the outside parts, which are the
most clearly audible. _Sextuple Counterpoint_ may be found in Bach's
great double chorus, _Nun ist das Heil_, and in the finale of his
concerto for three claviers in C, and probably in other places.

4. _Added Thirds and Sixths._--An easy and effective imitation of triple
and quadruple counterpoint, embodying much of the artistic value of
inversion, is found in the numerous combinations of themes in thirds and
sixths which arise from an extension of the principle which we mentioned
in connexion with double counterpoint in the 10th, namely, the
possibility of performing it in its original and inverted positions
simultaneously. The _Pleni sunt coeli_ of Bach's B minor Mass is written
in this kind of transformation of double into quadruple counterpoint;
and the artistic value of the device is perhaps never so magnificently
realized as in the place, at bar 84, where the trumpet doubles the bass
three octaves and a third above while the alto and second tenor have the
counter subjects in close thirds in the middle.

Almost all other contrapuntal devices are derived from the principle of
the _canon_ and are discussed in the article CONTRAPUNTAL FORMS.

As a training in musical grammar and style, the rhythms of 16th-century
polyphony were early codified into "the five species of counterpoint"
(with various other species now forgotten) and practised by students of
composition. The classical treatise on which Haydn and Beethoven were
trained was Fux's _Gradus ad Parnassum_ (1725). This was superseded in
the 19th century by Cherubini's, the first of a long series of attempts
to bring up to date as a dead language what should be studied in its
original and living form.     (D. F. T.)

COUNTERSCARP ( = "opposite scarp," Fr. _contrescarpe_), a term used in
fortification for the outer slope of a ditch; see FORTIFICATION and

COUNTERSIGN, a military term for a sign, word or signal previously
arranged and required to be given by persons approaching a sentry, guard
or other post. In some armies the "countersign" is strictly the reply of
the sentry to the pass-word given by the person approaching.

COUNTRY (from the Mid. Eng. _contre_ or _contrie_, and O. Fr. _cuntrée_;
Late Lat. _contrata_, showing the derivation from _contra_, opposite,
over against, thus the tract of land which fronts the sight, cf. Ger.
_Gegend_, neighbourhood), an extent of land without definite limits, or
such a region with some peculiar character, as the "black country," the
"fen country" and the like. The extension from such descriptive
limitation to the limitation of occupation by particular owners or races
is easy; this gives the common use of the word for the land inhabited by
a particular nation or race. Another meaning is that part of the land
not occupied by towns, "rural" as opposed to "urban" districts; this
appears too in "country-house" and "country town"; so too "countryman"
is used both for a rustic and for the native of a particular land. The
word appears in many phrases, in the sense of the whole population of a
country, and especially of the general body of electors, as in the
expression "go to the country," for the dissolution of parliament
preparatory to a general election.

COUNTY (through Norm. Fr. _counté_, cf. O. Fr. _cunté_, _conté_, Mod.
Fr. _comté_, from Lat. _comitatus_, cf. Ital. _comitato_, Prov.
_comtat_; see COUNT), in its most usual sense the name given to certain
important administrative divisions in the United Kingdom, the British
dominions beyond the seas, and the United States of America. The word
was first introduced after the Norman Conquest as the equivalent of the
old English "shire," which has survived as its synonym, though
occasionally also applied to divisions smaller than counties, e.g.
Norhamshire, Hexhamshire and Hallamshire. The word "county" is also
sometimes used, alternatively with "countship," to translate foreign
words, e.g. the French _comté_ and the German _Grafschaft_, which
connote the territorial jurisdiction of a count (q.v.). The present
article is confined to a sketch of the origin and development of English
counties, which have served in a greater or less degree as the model
for the county organizations in the various countries of the
English-speaking world which are described under their proper headings.

About one-third of the English counties represent ancient kingdoms,
sub-kingdoms or tribal divisions, such as Kent, Sussex, Norfolk, Devon;
but most of the remaining counties take their names from some important
town within their respective boundaries. The counties to the south of
the Thames (except Cornwall) already existed in the time of Alfred, but
those of the midlands seem to have been created during the reign of
Edward the Elder (901-925) and to have been artificially bounded areas
lying around some stronghold which became a centre of civil and military
administration. There is reason, however, for thinking that the counties
of Bedford, Cambridge, Huntingdon and Northampton are of Danish origin.
Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmorland were not recognized as
English counties until some time after the Norman Conquest, the last two
definitely appearing as fiscal areas in 1177. The origin of Rutland as a
county is obscure, but it had its own sheriff in 1154.

In the period preceding the Norman Conquest two officers appear at the
head of the county organization. These are the ealdorman or earl, and
the _scirgerefa_ or sheriff. The shires of Wessex appear each to have
had an ealdorman, whose duties were to command its military forces, to
preside over the county assembly (_scirgemot_), to carry out the laws
and to execute justice. The name ealdorman gave way to that of earl,
probably under Danish influence, in the first half of the 11th century,
and it is probable that the office of sheriff came into existence in the
reign of Canute (1017-1035), when the great earldoms were formed and it
was no longer possible for the earl to perform his various
administrative duties in person in a group of counties. After the Norman
Conquest the earl was occasionally appointed sheriff of his county, but
in general his only official connexion with it was to receive the third
penny of its pleas, and the earldom ceased to be an office and became
merely a title. In the 12th century the office of coroner was created,
two or more of them being chosen in the county court as vacancies
occurred. In the same century verderers were first chosen in the same
manner for the purpose of holding inquisitions on vert and venison in
those counties which contained royal forests. It was the business of the
sheriff (_vicecomes_) as the king's representative to serve and return
all writs, to levy distresses on the king's behalf, to execute all royal
precepts and to collect the king's revenue. In this work he was assisted
by a large staff of clerks and bailiffs who were directly responsible to
him and not to the king. The sheriff also commanded the armed forces of
the crown within his county, and either in person or by deputy presided
over the county court which was now held monthly in most counties. In
1300 it was enacted that the sheriffs might be chosen by the county,
except in Worcestershire, Cornwall, Rutland, Westmorland and Lancashire,
where there were then sheriffs in fee, that is, sheriffs who held their
offices hereditarily by royal grant. The elective arrangement was of no
long duration, and it was finally decided in 1340 that the sheriffs
should be appointed by the chancellor, the treasurer and the chief baron
of the exchequer, but should hold office for one year only. The county
was from an early period regarded as a community, and approached the
king as a corporate body, while in later times petitions were presented
through the knights of the shire. It was also an organic whole for the
purpose of the conservation of the peace. The assessment of taxation by
commissioners appointed by the county court developed in the 13th
century into the representation of the county by two knights of the
shire elected by the county court to serve in parliament, and this
representation continued unaltered save for a short period during the
Protectorate, until 1832, when many of the counties received a much
larger representation, which was still further increased by later acts.

The royal control over the county was strengthened from the 14th century
onward by the appointment of justices of the peace. This system was
further developed under the Tudors, while in the middle of the 16th
century the military functions of the sheriff were handed over to a new
officer, the lord-lieutenant, who is now more prominently associated
with the headship of the county than is the sheriff. The lord-lieutenant
now usually holds the older office of _custos rotulorum_, or keeper of
the records of the county. The justices of the peace are appointed upon
his nomination, and until lately he appointed the clerk of the peace.
The latter appointment is now made by the joint committee of quarter
sessions and county council.

The Tudor system of local government received little alteration until
the establishment of county councils by the Local Government Act of 1888
handed over to an elected body many of the functions previously
exercised by the nominated justices of the peace. For the purposes of
this act the ridings of Yorkshire, the divisions of Lincolnshire, east
and west Sussex, east and west Suffolk, the soke of Peterborough and the
Isle of Ely are regarded as counties, so that there are now sixty
administrative counties of England and Wales. Between 1373 and 1692 the
crown granted to certain cities and boroughs the privilege of being
counties of themselves. There were in 1835 eighteen of these counties
corporate, Bristol, Chester, Coventry, Gloucester, Lincoln, Norwich,
Nottingham, York and Carmarthen, each of which had two sheriffs, and
Canterbury, Exeter, Hull, Lichfield, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Poole,
Southampton, Worcester and Haverfordwest, each of which had one sheriff.
All these boroughs, with the exception of Carmarthen, Lichfield, Poole
and Haverfordwest, which remain counties of themselves, and forty-seven
others, were created county boroughs by the Local Government Act 1888,
and are entirely dissociated from the control of a county council. The
City of London is also a county of itself, whose two sheriffs are also
sheriffs of Middlesex, while for the purposes of the act of 1888 the
house-covered district which extends for many miles round the City
constitutes a county.

The county has always been the unit for the organization of the militia,
and from about 1782 certain regiments of the regular army were
associated with particular counties by territorial titles. The army
scheme of 1907-1908 provided for the formation of county associations
under the presidency of the lords-lieutenant for the organization of the
new territorial army.

  See _Statutes of the Realm_; W. Stubbs, _Constitutional History of
  England_ (1874-1878); F. W. Maitland, _Domesday Book and Beyond_
  (1897); Sir F. Pollock and F. W. Maitland, _History of English Law_
  (1895); H. M. Chadwick, _Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions_ (1905),
  and _The Victoria History of the Counties of England_.     (G. J. T.)

COUNTY COURT, in England, a local court of civil jurisdiction. The
county court, it has been said, is at once the most ancient and the most
modern of English civil tribunals. The Saxon Curia Comitatus, maintained
after the Norman Conquest, was a local court and a small debts court. It
was instituted by Alfred the Great, its jurisdiction embracing civil,
and, until the reign of William I., ecclesiastical matters. The officers
of the court consisted of the earldorman, the bishop and the sheriff.
The court was held once in every four weeks, being presided over by the
earl, or, in his absence, the sheriff. The suitors of the court, i.e.
the freeholders, were the judges, the sheriff being simply a presiding
officer, pronouncing and afterwards executing the judgment of the court.
The court was not one of record. The appointment of judges of assize in
the reign of Henry II., as well as the expensive and dilatory procedure
of the court, brought about its gradual disuse, and other local courts,
termed courts of request or of conscience, were established. These, in
turn, proved unsatisfactory, owing both to the limited nature of their
jurisdiction (restricted to causes of debt not exceeding 40s. in value,
and to the fact that they were confined to particular places).
Accordingly, with the view of making justice cheaper and more accessible
the County Courts Act 1846 was passed. This act had the modest title of
"An Act for the Recovery of Small Debts and Demands in England." The
original limit of the jurisdiction of the new courts was £20, extended
in 1850 to £50 in actions of debt, and in 1903 (by an act which came
into force in 1905) to £100. Thirteen amending acts were passed, by
which new jurisdiction was from time to time conferred on the county
courts, and in the year 1888 an act was passed repealing the previous
acts and consolidating their provisions, with some amendment. This is
now the code or charter of the county courts.

The grain of mustard-seed sown in 1846 has grown into a goodly tree,
with branches extending over the whole of England and Wales; and they
embrace within their ambit a more multifarious jurisdiction than is
possessed by any other courts in the kingdom. England and Wales were
mapped out into 59 circuits (not including the city of London), with
power for the crown, by order in council, to abolish any circuit and
rearrange the areas comprised in the circuits (sec. 4). There is one
judge to each circuit, but the lord chancellor is empowered to appoint
two judges in a circuit, provided that the total number of judges does
not exceed 60. The salary of a county court judge was originally fixed
at £1200, but he now receives £1500. He must at the time of his
appointment be a barrister-at-law of at least seven years' standing, and
not more than sixty years of age; after appointment he cannot sit as a
member of parliament or practise at the bar.

Every circuit (except in Birmingham, Clerkenwell, and Westminster) is
divided into districts, in each of which there is a court, with a
registrar and bailiffs. The judges are directed to attend and hold a
court in each district at least once in every month, unless the lord
chancellor shall otherwise direct (secs. 10, 11). But in practice the
judge sits several times a month in the large centres of population, and
less frequently than once a month in the court town of sparsely
inhabited districts. By sec. 185 of the act of 1888 the judges and
officers of the city of London court have the like jurisdiction, powers,
and authority as those of a county court, and the county court rules
apply to that court.

The ordinary jurisdiction of the county courts may be thus tabulated:--

                                                         Pecuniary limit
                  Subject matter.                        of jurisdiction.

  Common-law actions, with written consent of both
    parties                                               Unlimited.
  Actions founded on contract (except for breach of
    promise of marriage, in which the county courts have
    no jurisdiction)                                         £100.

  Actions founded on tort (except libel, slander, and
    seduction, in which the county courts have no
    jurisdiction)                                            £100.

  Counter claims (unless plaintiff gives written notice
    of objection)                                         Unlimited.

  Ejectment or questions of title to reality          £100 annual value.

  Equity jurisdiction                                        £500.

  Probate jurisdiction                                 £200 personalty
                                                       and £300 realty.

  Admiralty jurisdiction                                     £300.

  Bankruptcy jurisdiction                                 Unlimited.

  Replevin                                                Unlimited.

  Interpleader transferred from High Court                   £500.

  Actions in contract transferred from High Court            £100.

  Actions in tort transferred from High Court             Unlimited.

  Companies (winding up), when the paid-up capital
    does not exceed                                        £10,000.

There is no discoverable principle upon which these limits of the
jurisdiction of the county courts have been determined. But the above
table is not by any means an exhaustive statement of the jurisdiction of
the county courts. For many years it has been the practice of parliament
to throw on the county court judges the duty of acting as judges or
arbitrators for the purpose of new legislation relating to social
subjects. It is impossible to classify the many statutes which have been
passed since 1846 and which confer some jurisdiction, apart from that
under the County Courts Act, on county courts or their judges. Some of
these acts impose exceptional duties on the judges of the county courts,
others confer unlimited jurisdiction concurrently with the High Court or
some other court, others, again, confer limited or, sometimes, exclusive
jurisdiction. A list of all the acts will be found in the _Annual County
Courts Practice_. A county court judge may determine all matters of fact
as well as law, but a jury may be summoned at the option of either
plaintiff or defendant when the amount in dispute exceeds £5, and in
actions under £5 the judge may in his discretion, on application of
either of the parties, order that the action be tried by jury. The
number of jurymen impanelled and sworn at the trial was, by the County
Courts Act 1903, increased from five to eight.

There is an appeal from the county courts on matters of law to a
divisional court of the High Court, i.e. to the admiralty division in
admiralty cases and to the king's bench division in other cases (sec.
120 of act of 1888). The determination of the divisional court is final,
unless leave be given by that court or the court of appeal (Judicature
Acts 1894). (See further APPEAL.) In proceedings under the Workmen's
Compensation Act the appeal from a county court judge is to the court of
appeal, with a subsequent appeal to the House of Lords. In 1908 a
Committee was appointed by the lord chancellor "to inquire into certain
matters of county court procedure." The committee presented a report in
1909 (H.C. 71), recommending the extension of existing county court
jurisdiction, but a bill introduced to give effect to the
recommendations was not proceeded with.

  See _Annual County Courts Practice_, also "Fifty Years of the English
  County Courts," by County Court Judge Sir T. W. Snagge, in _Nineteenth
  Century_, October 1897.

COUPÉ (French for "cut off"), a small closed carriage of the brougham
type, with four wheels and seats for two persons; the term is also used
of the front compartment on a _diligence_ or mail-coach on the continent
of Europe, and of a compartment in a railway carriage with seats on one
side only.

COUPLET, a pair of lines of verse, which are welded together by an
identity of rhyme. The _New English Dict._ derives the use of the word
from the French _couplet_, signifying two pieces of iron riveted or
hinged together. In rhymed verse two lines which complete a meaning in
themselves are particularly known as a couplet. Thus, in Pope's _Eloisa
to Abelard_:--

  "Speed the soft intercourse from soul to soul,
   And waft a sigh from Indus to the Pole."

In much of old English dramatic literature, when the mass of the
composition is in blank verse or even in prose, particular emphasis is
given by closing the scene in a couplet. Thus, in the last act of
Beaumont and Fletcher's _Thierry and Theodoret_ the action culminates in
an unexpected rhyme:--

  "And now lead on; they that shall read this story
   Shall find that virtue lives in good, not glory."

In French literature, the term couplet is not confined to a pair of
lines, but is commonly used for a stanza. A "square" couplet, in French,
for instance, is a strophe of eight lines, each composed of eight
syllables. In this sense it is employed to distinguish the more emphatic
parts of a species of verse which is essentially gay, graceful and
frivolous, such as the songs in a vaudeville or a comic opera. In the
18th century, Le Sage, Piron and even Voltaire did not hesitate to
engage their talents on the production of couplets, which were often
witty, if they had no other merit, and were well fitted to catch the
popular ear. This signification of the word _couplet_ is not unknown in
England, but it is not customary; it is probably used in a stricter and
a more technical sense to describe a pair of rhymed lines, whether
serious or merry. The normal type, as it may almost be called, of
English versification is the metre of ten-syllabled rhymed lines
designated as _heroic couplet_. This form of iambic verse, with five
beats to each line, is believed to have been invented by Chaucer, who
employs it first in the Prologue _The Legend of Good Women_ the
composition of which is attributed to the year 1385. That poem opens
with the couplet:--

  "A thousand times have I heard man tell
   That there is joy in heaven and pain in hell."

This is an absolutely correct example of the heroic couplet, which
ultimately reached such majesty in the hands of Dryden and such
brilliancy in those of Pope. It has been considered proper for didactic,
descriptive and satirical poetry, although in the course of the 19th
century blank verse largely took its place. Epigram often selects the
couplet as the vehicle of its sharpened arrows, as in Sir John

  "Treason doth never prosper: what's the reason?
   Why, if it prosper, none dare call it treason."
     (E. G.)

COUPON (from Fr. _couper_, to cut), a certificate entitling its owner to
some payment, share or other benefit; more specifically, one of a
series of interest certificates or dividend warrants attached to a bond
running for a number of years. The word coupon (a piece cut off)
possesses an etymological meaning so comprehensive that, while on the
Stock Exchange it is only used to denote such an interest certificate or
a certificate of stock of a joint-stock company, it may be as suitably,
and elsewhere is perhaps more frequently, applied to tickets sold by
tourist agencies and others. The coupons by means of which the interest
on a bond or debenture is collected are generally printed at the side or
foot of that document, to be cut off and presented for payment at the
bank or agency named on them as they become due. The last portion,
called a "talon," is a form of certificate, and entitles the holder,
when all the coupons have been presented, to obtain a fresh coupon
sheet. They pass by delivery, and are as a rule exempt from stamp duty.
Coupons for the payment of dividends are also attached to the share
warrants to bearer issued by some joint-stock companies. The coupons on
the bonds of most of the principal foreign loans are payable in London
in sterling as well as abroad.

COURANTE (a French word derived from _courir_, to run), a dance in 3-2
time march in vogue in France in the 17th century (see DANCE). It is
also a musical term for a movement or independent piece based on the
dance. In a _suite_ it followed the Allemande (q.v.), with which it is
contrasted in rhythm.

COURAYER, PIERRE FRANÇOIS LE (1681-1776), French Roman Catholic
theological writer, was born at Rouen on the 17th of November 1681.
While canon regular and librarian of the abbey of St Geneviève at Paris,
he conducted a correspondence with Archbishop Wake on the subject of
episcopal succession in England, which supplied him with material for
his work, _Dissertation sur la validité des ordinations des Anglais et
sur la succession des évêques de l'Église anglicane, avec les preuves
justificatives des faits avancés_ (Brussels, 1723; Eng. trans. by D.
Williams, London, 1725; reprinted Oxford, 1844, with memoir of the
author), an attempt to prove that there has been no break in the line of
ordination from the apostles to the English clergy. His opinions exposed
him to a prosecution, and with the help of Bishop Atterbury, then in
exile in Paris, he took refuge in England, where he was presented by the
university of Oxford with a doctor's degree. In 1736 he published a
French translation of Paolo Sarpi's _History of the Council of Trent_,
and dedicated it to Queen Caroline, from whom he received a pension of
£200 a year. Besides this he translated Sleidan's _History of the
Reformation_, and wrote several theological works. He died in London on
the 17th of October 1776, and was buried in the cloisters of Westminster
Abbey. In his will, dated two years before his death, he declared
himself still a member of the Roman Catholic Church, although dissenting
from many of its opinions.

COURBET, GUSTAVE (1819-1877), French painter, was born at Ornans (Doubs)
on the 10th of June 1819. He went to Paris in 1839, and worked at the
studio of Steuben and Hesse; but his independent spirit did not allow
him to remain there long, as he preferred to work out his own way by the
study of Spanish, Flemish and French painters. His first works, an
"Odalisque," suggested by Victor Hugo, and a "Lélia," illustrating
George Sand, were literary subjects; but these he soon abandoned for the
study of real life. Among other works he painted his own portrait with
his dog, and "The Man with a Pipe," both of which were rejected by the
jury of the Salon; but the younger school of critics, the neo-romantics
and realists, loudly sang the praises of Courbet, who by 1849 began to
be famous, producing such pictures as "After Dinner at Ornans" and "The
Valley of the Loire." The Salon of 1850 found him triumphant with the
"Burial at Ornans," the "Stone-Breakers" and the "Peasants of Flazey."
His style still gained in individuality, as in "Village Damsels" (1852),
the "Wrestlers," "Bathers," and "A Girl Spinning" (1852). Though
Courbet's realistic work is not devoid of importance, it is as a
landscape and sea painter that he will be most honoured by posterity.
Sometimes, it must be owned, his realism is rather coarse and brutal,
but when he paints the forests of Franche-Comté, the "Stag-Fight," "The
Wave," or the "Haunt of the Does," he is inimitable. When Courbet had
made a name as an artist he grew ambitious of other glory; he tried to
promote democratic and social science, and under the Empire he wrote
essays and dissertations. His refusal of the cross of the Legion of
Honour, offered to him by Napoleon III., made him immensely popular, and
in 1871 he was elected, under the Commune, to the chamber. Thus it
happened that he was responsible for the destruction of the Vendôme
column. A council of war, before which he was tried, condemned him to
pay the cost of restoring the column, 300,000 francs (£12,000). To
escape the necessity of working to the end of his days at the orders of
the State in order to pay this sum, Courbet went to Switzerland in 1873,
and died at La Tour du Peilz, on the 31st of December 1877, of a disease
of the liver aggravated by intemperance. An exhibition of his works was
held in 1882 at the École des Beaux-Arts.

  See Champfleury, _Les Grandes Figures d'hier et d'aujourd' hui_
  (Paris, 1861); Mantz, "G. Courbet," _Gaz. des beaux-arts_ (Paris,
  1878); Zola, _Mes Haines_ (Paris, 1879); C. Lemonnier, _Les Peintres
  de la Vie_ (Paris, 1888).     (H. FR.)

COURBEVOIE, a town of northern France, in the department of Seine, 5 m.
W.N.W. of Paris on the railway to Versailles. Pop. (1906) 29,339. It is
a residential suburb of Paris, and has a fine avenue opening on the
Neuilly bridge, and forming with it a continuation of the Champs
Elysées. It carries on bleaching and the manufacture of carriage bodies,
awnings, drugs, biscuits, &c.

COURCELLE-SENEUIL, JEAN GUSTAVE (1813-1892), French economist, was born
at Seneuil (Dordogne) on the 22nd of December 1813. Seneuil was an
additional name adopted from his native place. Devoting himself at first
to the study of the law, he was called to the French bar in 1835. Soon
after, however, he returned to Dordogne and settled down as a manager of
ironworks. He found leisure to study economic and political questions,
and was a frequent contributor to the republican papers. On the
establishment of the second republic in 1848 he became director of the
public domains. After the _coup d'état_ of Napoleon III. in 1851 he went
to South America, and held the professorship of political economy at the
National Institute of Santiago, in Chile, from 1853 to 1863, when he
returned to France. In 1879 he was made a councillor of state, and in
1882 was elected a member of the _Académie des sciences morales et
politiques_. He died at Paris on the 29th of June 1892.
Courcelle-Seneuil, as an economist, was strongly inclined towards the
liberal school, and was equally partial to the historical and
experimental methods; but his best energies were directed to applied
economy and social questions. His principal work is _Traité théorique et
pratique d'économie politique_ (2 vols., 1858); among his others may be
mentioned _Traité théorique et pratique des opérations de banque_
(1853); _Études sur la science sociale_ (1862); _La Banque libre_
(1867); _Liberté et socialisme_ (1868); _Protection et libre échange_
(1879); he also translated into French John Stuart Mill's _Principles_.

COURCI, JOHN DE (d. 1219?), Anglo-Norman conqueror of Ulster, was a
member of a celebrated Norman family of Oxfordshire and Somersetshire,
whose parentage is unknown, and around whose career a mass of legend has
grown up. It would appear that he accompanied William Fitz-Aldelm to
Ireland when the latter, after the death of Strongbow, was sent thither
by Henry II., and that he immediately headed an expedition from Dublin
to Ulster, where he took Downpatrick, the capital of the northern
kingdom. After some years of desultory fighting de Courci established
his power over that part of Ulster comprised in the modern counties of
Antrim and Down, throughout which he built a number of castles, where
his vassals, known as "the barons of Ulster," held sway over the native
tribes. After the accession of Richard I., de Courci in conjunction with
William de Lacy appears in some way to have offended the king by his
proceedings in Ireland. De Lacy quickly made his peace with Richard,
while de Courci defied him; and the subsequent history of the latter
consisted mainly in the vicissitudes of a lasting feud with the de
Lacys. In 1204 Hugh de Lacy utterly defeated de Courci in battle, and
took him prisoner. De Courci, however, soon obtained his liberty,
probably by giving hostages as security for a promise of submission
which he failed to carry out, seeking an asylum instead with the
O'Neills of Tyrone. He again appeared in arms on hearing that Hugh de
Lacy had obtained a grant of Ulster with the title of earl; and in
alliance with the king of Man he ravaged the territory of Down; but was
completely routed by Walter de Lacy, and disappeared from the scene till
1207, when he obtained permission to return to England. In 1210 he was
in favour with King John, from whom he received a pension, and whom he
accompanied to Ireland. There is some indication of his having sided
with John in his struggle with the barons; but of the later history of
de Courci little is known. He probably died in the summer of 1219. Both
de Courci and his wife Affreca were benefactors of the church, and
founded several abbeys and priories in Ulster.

A story is told that de Courci when imprisoned in the Tower volunteered
to act as champion for King John in single combat against a knight
representing Philip Augustus of France; that when he appeared in the
lists his French opponent fled in panic; whereupon de Courci, to gratify
the French king's desire to witness his prowess, "cleft a massive helmet
in twain at a single blow," a feat for which he was rewarded by a grant
of the privilege for himself and his heirs to remain covered in the
presence of the king and all future sovereigns of England. This tale,
which still finds a place in Burke's _Peerage_ in the account of the
baron Kingsale, a descendant of the de Courci family, is a legend
without historic foundation which did not obtain currency till centuries
after John de Courci's death. The statement that he was created earl of
Ulster, and that he was thus "the first Englishman dignified with an
Irish title of honour," is equally devoid of foundation. John de Courci
left no legitimate children.

  See J. H. Round's art. "Courci, John de," in _Dictionary of National
  Biography_, vol. xii. (London, 1887), to which is added a bibliography
  of the original and later authorities for the life of de Courci.

COURIER, PAUL LOUIS (1773-1825), French Hellenist and political writer,
was born in Paris on the 4th of January 1773. Brought up on his father's
estate of Méré in Touraine, he conceived a bitter aversion for the
nobility, which seemed to strengthen with time. He would never take the
name "de Méré," to which he was entitled, lest he should be thought a
nobleman. At the age of fifteen he was sent to Paris to complete his
education; his father's teaching had already inspired him with a
passionate devotion to Greek literature, and although he showed
considerable mathematical ability, he continued to devote all his
leisure to the classics. He entered the school of artillery at Châlons,
however, and immediately on receiving his appointment as sub-lieutenant
in September 1793 he joined the army of the Rhine. He served in various
campaigns of the Revolutionary wars, especially in those of Italy in
1798-99 and 1806-7, and in the German campaign of 1809. He became _chef
d'escadron_ in 1803.

He made his first appearance as an author in 1802, when he contributed
to the _Magasin encyclopédique_ a critique on Johannes Schweighäuser's
edition of Athenaeus. In the following year appeared his _Éloge
d'Hélène_, a free imitation rather than a translation from Isocrates,
which he had sketched in 1798. Courier had given up his commission in
the autumn of 1808, but the general enthusiasm in Paris over the
preparations for the new campaign affected him, and he attached himself
to the staff of a general of artillery. But he was horror-struck by the
carnage at Wagram (1809), refusing from that time to believe that there
was any art in war. He hastily quitted Vienna, escaping the formal
charge of desertion because his new appointment had not been confirmed.
The savage independence of his nature rendered subordination intolerable
to him; he had been three times disgraced for absenting himself without
leave, and his superiors resented his satirical humour. After leaving
the army he went to Florence, and was fortunate enough to discover in
the Laurentian Library a complete manuscript of Longus's _Daphnis and
Chloe_, an edition of which he published in 1810. In consequence of a
misadventure--blotting the manuscript--he was involved in a quarrel
with the librarian, and was compelled by the government to leave
Tuscany. He retired to his estate at Véretz (Indre-et-Loire), but
frequently visited Paris, and divided his attention between literature
and his farm.

After the second restoration of the Bourbons the career of Courier as
political pamphleteer began. He had before this time waged war against
local wrongs in his own district, and had been the adviser and helpful
friend of his neighbours. He now made himself by his letters and
pamphlets one of the most dreaded opponents of the government of the
Restoration. The first of these was his _Pétition aux deux chambres_
(1816), exposing the sufferings of the peasantry under the royalist
reaction. In 1817 he was a candidate for a vacant seat in the Institute;
and failing, he took his revenge by publishing a bitter _Lettre à
Messieurs de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres_ (1819). This
was followed (1819-1820) by a series of political letters of
extraordinary power published in _Le Censeur Européen_. He advocated a
liberal monarchy, at the head of which he doubtless wished to see Louis
Philippe. The proposal, in 1821, to purchase the estate of Chambord for
the duke of Bordeaux called forth from Courier the _Simple Discours de
Paul Louis, vigneron de la Chavonnière_, one of his best pieces. For
this he was tried and condemned to suffer a short imprisonment and to
pay a fine. Before he went to prison he published a _compte rendu_ of
his trial, which had a still larger circulation than the Discours
itself. In 1823 appeared the _Livret de Paul Louis_, the _Gazette de
village_, followed in 1824 by his famous _Pamphlet des pamphlets_,
called by his biographer, Armand Carrel, his swan-song. Courier
published in 1807 his translation from Xenophon, _Du commandement de la
cavalerie et de l'équitation_, and had a share in editing the
_Collections des romans grecs_. He also projected a translation of
Herodotus, and published a specimen, in which he attempted to imitate
archaic French; but he did not live to carry out this plan. In the
autumn of 1825, on a Sunday afternoon (August 18th), Courier was found
shot in a wood near his house. The murderers, who were servants of his
own, remained undiscovered for five years.

The writings of Courier, dealing with the facts and events of his own
time, are valuable sources of information as to the condition of France
before, during, and after the Revolution. Sainte-Beuve finds in
Courier's own words, "peu de matière et beaucoup d'art," the secret and
device of his talent, which gives his writings a value independent of
the somewhat ephemeral subject-matter.

  A _Collection complète des pamphlets politiques et opuscules
  littéraires de P. L. Courier_ appeared in 1826. See editions of his
  _OEuvres_ (1848), with an admirable biography by Armand Carrel,
  which is reproduced in a later edition, with a supplementary criticism
  by F. Sarcey (1876-1877); also three notices by Sainte-Beuve in the
  _Causeries du lundi_ and the _Nouveaux Lundis_.

COURIER (from the O. Fr. _courier_, modern _courrier_, from Lat.
_currere_, to run), properly a running messenger, who carried despatches
and letters; a system of couriers, mounted or on foot, formed the
beginnings of the modern post-office (see POST, and POSTAL SERVICE). The
despatches which pass between the foreign office and its representatives
abroad, and which cannot be entrusted to the postal service or the
telegraph, are carried by special couriers, styled, in the British
service, King's Messengers. "Courier," more particularly, is applied to
a travelling attendant, whose duties are to arrange for the carrying of
the luggage, obtaining of passports, settling of hotel accommodation,
and generally to look to the comfort and facility of travel. The name
"courier" and the similar word "_courant_" (Ital. _coranto_) have often
been used as the title of a newspaper or periodical (see NEWSPAPERS);
the _Courier_, founded in 1792, was for some time the leading London

COURLAND, or KURLAND, one of the Baltic provinces of Russia, lying
between 55° 45' and 57° 45' N. and 21° and 27° E. It is bounded on the
N.E. by the river Dvina, separating it from the governments of Vitebsk
and Livonia, N. by the Gulf of Riga, W. by the Baltic, and S. by the
province of East Prussia and the Russian government of Kovno. The area
is 10,535 sq. m., of which 101 sq. m. are occupied by lakes. The surface
is generally low and undulating, and the coast-lands flat and marshy.
The interior is characterized by wooded dunes, covered with pine, fir,
birch and oak, with swamps and lakes, and fertile patches between. The
surface nowhere rises more than 700 ft. above sea-level. The Mitau plain
divides it into two parts, of which the western is fertile and thickly
inhabited, except in the north, while the eastern is less fertile and
thinly inhabited. One-third of the area is still forest.

Courland is drained by nearly one hundred rivers, of which only three,
the Dvina, the Aa and the Windau, are navigable. They all flow
north-westwards and discharge into the Baltic Sea. Owing to the numerous
lakes and marshes, the climate is damp and often foggy, as well as
changeable, and the winter is severe. Agriculture is the chief
occupation, the principal crops being rye, barley, oats, wheat, flax and
potatoes. The land is mostly owned by nobles of German descent. In 1863
laws were issued to enable the Letts, who form the bulk of the
population, to acquire the farms which they held, and special banks were
founded to help them. By this means some 12,000 farms were bought by
their occupants; but the great mass of the population are still
landless, and live as hired labourers, occupying a low position in the
social scale. On the large estates agriculture is conducted with skill
and scientific knowledge. Fruit grows well. Excellent breeds of cattle,
sheep and pigs are kept. Libau and Mitau are the principal industrial
centres, with iron-works, agricultural machinery works, tanneries, glass
and soap works. Flax spinning is mostly a domestic industry. Iron and
limestone are the chief minerals; a little amber is found on the coast.
The only seaports are Libau, Windau and Polangen, there being none on
the Courland coast of the Gulf of Riga. The population was 619,154 in
1870; 674,437 in 1897, of whom 345,756 were women; 714,200 (estimate) in
1906. Of the whole, 79% are Letts, 8¼% Germans, 1.7% Russians, and 1%
each Poles and Lithuanians. In addition there are about 8% Jews and some
Lives. The chief towns of the ten districts are Mitau (Doblenskiy
district), capital of the government (pop. 35,011 in 1897), Bauske
(6543), Friedrichstadt (5223), Goldingen (9733), Grobin (1489),
Hasenpoth (3338), Illuxt (2340), Talsen (6215), Tuckum (7542) and Windau
(7132). The prevailing religion is the Lutheran, to which 76% of the
population belong; the rest belong to the Orthodox Eastern and the Roman
Catholic churches.

Anciently Courland was inhabited by the Cours or Kurs, a Lettish tribe,
who were subdued and converted to Christianity by the Brethren of the
Sword, a German military order, in the first quarter of the 13th
century. In 1237 it passed under the rule of the Teutonic Knights owing
to the amalgamation of this order with that of the Brethren of the
Sword. At that time it comprised the two duchies of Courland and
Semgallen. Under the increasing pressure of Russia (Muscovy) the
Teutonic Knights in 1561 found it expedient to put themselves under the
suzerainty of Poland, the grandmaster Gotthard Kettler (d. 1587)
becoming the first duke of Courland. The duchy suffered severely in the
Russo-Swedish wars of 1700-9. But by the marriage in 1710 of Kettler's
descendant, Duke Frederick William (d. 1711), to the princess Anne,
niece of Peter the Great and afterwards empress of Russia, Courland came
into close relation with the latter state Anne being duchess of Courland
from 1711 to 1730. The celebrated Marshal Saxe was elected duke in 1726,
but only managed to maintain himself by force of arms till the next
year. The last Kettler, William, titular duke of Courland, died in 1737,
and the empress Anne now bestowed the dignity on her favourite Biren,
who held it from 1737 to 1740 and again from 1763 till his death in
1772. During nearly the whole of the 18th century Courland, devastated
by continual wars, was a shuttlecock between Russia and Poland; until
eventually in 1795 the assembly of the nobles placed it under the
Russian sceptre. The Baltic provinces--Esthonia, Livonia and
Courland--ceased to form collectively one general government in 1876.

  See H. Hollmann, _Kurlands Agrarverhältnisse_ (Riga, 1893), and E.
  Seraphim, _Geschichte Liv-, Esth-, und Kurlands_ (2 vols., Reval,

COURNOT, ANTOINE AUGUSTIN (1801-1877), French economist and
mathematician, was born at Gray (Haute-Saône) on the 28th of August
1801. Trained for the scholastic profession, he was appointed assistant
professor at the Academy of Paris in 1831, professor of mathematics at
Lyons in 1834, rector of the Academy of Grenoble in 1835,
inspector-general of studies in 1838, rector of the Academy of Dijon and
honorary inspector-general in 1854, retiring in 1862. He died in Paris
on the 31st of March 1877. Cournot was the first who, with a competent
knowledge of both subjects, endeavoured to apply mathematics to the
treatment of economic questions. His _Recherches sur les principes
mathématiques de la théorie des richesses_ (English trans. by N. T.
Bacon, with bibliography of mathematics of economics by Irving Fisher,
1897) was published in 1838. He mentions in it only one previous
enterprise of the same kind (though there had in fact been
others)--that, namely, of Nicholas François Canard (c. 1750-1833), whose
book, _Principes d'économie politique_ (Paris, 1802), was crowned by the
French Academy, though "its principles were radically false as well as
erroneously applied." Notwithstanding Cournot's just reputation as a
writer on mathematics, the _Recherches_ made little impression. The
truth seems to be that his results are in some cases of little
importance, in others of questionable correctness, and that, in the
abstractions to which he has recourse in order to facilitate his
calculations, an essential part of the real conditions of the problem is
sometimes omitted. His pages abound in symbols representing unknown
functions, the form of the function being left to be ascertained by
observation of facts, which he does not regard as a part of his task, or
only some known properties of the undetermined function being used as
bases for deduction. In his _Principes de la théorie des richesses_
(1863) he abandoned the mathematical method, though advocating the use
of mathematical symbols in economic discussions, as being of service in
facilitating exposition. Other works of Cournot's were _Traité
élémentaire de la théorie des fonctions et du calcul infinitésimal_
(1841); _Exposition de la théorie des chances et des probabilités_
(1843); _De l'origine et des limites de la correspondance entre
l'algèbre et la géométrie_ (1847); _Traité de l'enchaînement des idées
fondamentales dans les sciences et dans l'histoire_ (1861); and _Revue
sommaire des doctrines économiques_ (1877).

COURSING (from Lat. _cursus_, _currere_, to run), the hunting of game by
dogs solely by sight and not by scent. From time to time the sport has
been pursued by various nations against various animals, but the
recognized method has generally been the coursing of the hare by
greyhounds. Such sport is of great antiquity, and is fully described by
Arrian in his _Cynegeticus_ about A.D. 150, when the leading features
appear to have been much the same as in the present day. Other Greek and
Latin authors refer to the sport; but during the middle ages it was but
little heard of. Apart from private coursing for the sake of filling the
pot with game, public coursing has become an exhilarating sport. The
private sportsman seldom possesses good strains of blood to breed his
greyhounds from or has such opportunities of trying them as the public

The first known set of rules in England for determining the merits of a
course were drawn up by Thomas, duke of Norfolk, in Queen Elizabeth's
reign; but no open trials were heard of until half a century later, in
the time of Charles I. The oldest regular coursing club of which any
record exists is that of Swaffham, in Norfolk, which was founded by Lord
Orford in 1766; and in 1780 the Ashdown Park (Berkshire) meeting was
established. During the next seventy years many other large and
influential societies sprang up throughout England and Scotland, the
Altcar Club (on the Sefton estates, near Liverpool) being founded in
1825. The season lasts about six months, beginning in the middle of
September. It was not until 1858 that a coursing parliament, so to
speak, was formed, and a universally accepted code of rules drawn up. In
that year the National Coursing Club was founded. It is composed of
representatives from all clubs in the United Kingdom of more than a
year's standing, and possessing more than twenty-four members. Their
rules govern meetings, and their committee adjudicate on matters of
dispute. A comparative trial of two dogs, and not the capture of the
game pursued, is the great distinctive trait of modern coursing. A
greyhound stud-book was started in 1882.

The breeding and training of a successful kennel is a precarious matter;
and the most unaccountable ups and downs of fortune often occur in a
courser's career. At a meeting an agreed-on even number of entries are
made for each stake, and the ties drawn by lot. After the first round
the winner of the first tie is opposed to the winner of the second, and
so on until the last two dogs left in compete for victory; but the same
owner's greyhounds are "guarded" as far as it is possible to do so. A
staff of beaters drive the hares out of their coverts or other
hiding-places, whilst the slipper has the pair of dogs in hand, and
slips them simultaneously by an arrangement of nooses, when they have
both sighted a hare promising a good course. The judge accompanies on
horseback, and the six points whereby he decides a course are--(1)
speed; (2) the go-by, or when a greyhound starts a clear length behind
his opponent, passes him in the straight run, and gets a clear length in
front; (3) the turn, where the hare turns at not less than a right
angle; (4) the wrench, where the hare turns at less than a right angle;
(5) the kill; (6) the trip, or unsuccessful effort to kill. He may
return a "no course" as his verdict if the dogs have not been fairly
tried together, or an "undecided course" if he considers their merits
equal. The open Waterloo meeting, held at Altcar every spring,--the name
being taken from its being originated by the proprietor of the Waterloo
Hotel, Liverpool,--is now the recognized fixture for the decision of the
coursing championship, and the Waterloo Cup (1836) is the "Blue Riband"
of the leash. In the United States, several British colonies, and other
countries, the name has been adopted, and Waterloo Coursing Cups are
found there as in England. In America an American Coursing Board
controls the sport, the chief meetings being in North and South Dakota,
Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa and Minnesota.

  The chief works on coursing are:--Arrian's _Cynegeticus_, translated
  by the Rev. W. Dansey (1831); T. Thacker, _Courser's Companion and
  Breeder's Guide_ (1835); Thacker's _Courser's Annual Remembrancer_
  (1849-1851); D. P. Blaine, _Encyclopaedia of Rural Sports_ (3rd ed.,
  1870); and J. H. Walsh, _The Greyhound_ (3rd ed., 1875). See also the
  _Coursing Calendar_ (since 1857); _Coursing and Falconry_ (Badminton
  Library, 1892); _The Hare_ ("Fur and Feather" series, 1896); and _The
  Greyhound Stud Book_ (since 1882).

COURT, ANTOINE (1696-1760), French Protestant divine, was born in the
village of Villeneuve-de-Berg, in the province of the Vivarais. He has
been designated the "Restorer of Protestantism in France," and was the
organizer of the "Church of the Desert." He was eight years old when the
Camisard revolt was finally suppressed, and nineteen when on the 8th of
March 1715 the edict of Louis XIV. was published, declaring that "he had
abolished entirely the exercise of the so-called reformed religion"
("qu'il avait aboli tout exercice de la religion prétendue réformée").
Antoine, taken to the secret meetings of the persecuted Calvinists,
began, when only seventeen, to speak and exhort in these congregations
of "the desert." He came to suspect after a time that many of the
so-called "inspired" persons were "dupes of their own zeal and
credulity," and decided that it was necessary to organize at once the
small communities of believers into properly constituted churches. To
the execution of this vast undertaking he devoted his life. On the 21st
of August 1715 he summoned all the preachers in the Cévennes and Lower
Languedoc to a conference or synod near the village of Monoblet. Here
elders were appointed, and the preaching of women, as well as pretended
revelations, was condemned. The village of Monoblet "thus seems entitled
to the honour of having had the first organized Protestant church after
the revocation of the edict of Nantes" (H. M. Baird). But there were as
yet no ordained pastors. Pierre Corteiz was therefore sent to seek
ordination. He was ordained at Zürich, and from him Court himself
received ordination. The scene of his labours for fifteen years was
Languedoc, the Vivarais, and Dauphiné. His beginnings were very small
prayer-meetings in "the desert." But the work progressed under his wise
direction, and he was able "to be present, in 1744, at meetings of ten
thousand souls." In 1724 Louis XV., again assuming that there were no
Protestants in France, prohibited the most secret exercise of the
Reformed religion, and imposed severe penalties. It was impossible fully
to carry out this menace. But persecution raged, especially against the
pastors. A price was set on the life of Court; and in 1730 he escaped to
Lausanne. He had already, with the aid of some of the Protestant
princes, established a theological college ("Seminaire de Lausanne")
there, and during the remaining thirty years of his life he filled the
post of director. He had the title of deputy-general of the churches,
and was really the pillar of their hope. The Seminary of Lausanne sent
forth all the pastors of the Reformed Church of France till the days of
the first French Empire. Court formed the design of writing a history of
Protestantism, and made large collections for the purpose, which have
been preserved in the Public Library of Geneva; but this he did not live
to carry out. He died at Lausanne in 1760. He wrote, amongst other
works, a _Histoire des troubles des Cévennes ou de la guerre des
Camisards_ (1760). He was the father of the more generally known Antoine
Court de Gebelin (q.v.).

  For details of his life see Napoléon Peyrat's _Histoire des pasteurs
  du désert_ (1842; English translation, 1852); Edmond Hugues, _Antoine
  Court, histoire de la restauration du protestantisme en France au
  XVIII^e siècle_ (2nd ed., 1872), _Les Synodes du désert_ (3 vols.,
  1885-1886), _Mémoires d'Antoine Court_ (1885); E. and E. Haag, _La
  France protestante_, vol. iv. (1884, new edition); H. M. Baird, _The
  Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes_ (1895), vol. ii.;
  cf. _Bulletin de la société de l'histoire du protestantisme français_

COURT (from the O. Fr. _court_, Late Lat. _cortis_, _curtis_, a popular
form of class. Lat. _cohors_, gen. _cohortis_; the mod. Fr. form _cour_
is due to the influence of the Lat. _curia_, the word used in medieval
documents to translate "court" in the feudal sense), a word originally
denoting an enclosed place, and so surviving in its architectural sense
(courtyard, &c.), but chiefly used as a general term for judicial
tribunals and in the special sense of the household of the king, called
"the court."[1] All law courts were not, however, purely judicial in
character; the old county court, for instance, was the assembly of the
freeholders of the county in which representatives and certain officers
were elected. Such assemblies in early times exercised political and
legislative as well as judicial functions. But these have now been
almost entirely separated everywhere, and only judicial bodies are now
usually called courts. In every court, says Blackstone, there must be
three parts,--an _actor_ or plaintiff, _reus_ or defendant, and _judex_,
or judge.

The language of legal fictions, which English lawyers invariably use in
all constitutional subjects, makes the king the ultimate source of all
judicial authority, and assumes his personal presence in all the courts.

  "As by our excellent constitution," says Blackstone, "the sole
  executive power of the laws is vested in the person of the king, it
  will follow that all courts of justice, which are the medium by which
  he administers the laws, are derived from the power of the crown. For
  whether created by act of parliament or letters patent, or subsisting
  by prescription (the only methods by which any court of judicature can
  exist), the king's consent in the two former is expressly, in the
  latter impliedly given. In all these courts the king is supposed in
  contemplation of law to be always present; but as that is in fact
  impossible, he is then represented by his judges, whose power is only
  an emanation of the royal prerogative."

These words might give a false impression of the historical and legal
relations of the courts and the crown, if it is not remembered that they
are nothing more than the expression of a venerable fiction. The
administration of justice was, indeed, one of the functions of the king
in early times; the king himself sat on circuit so late as the reign of
Edward IV.; and even after regular tribunals were established, a reserve
of judicial power still remained in the king and his council, in the
exercise of which it was possible for the king to participate
personally. The last judicial act of an English king, if such it can be
called, was that by which James I. settled the dispute between the court
of chancery and courts of common law. Since the establishment of
parliamentary government the courts take their law directly from the
legislature, and the king is only connected with them indirectly as a
member of the legislative body. The king's name, however, is still used
in this as in other departments of state action. The courts exercising
jurisdiction in England are divided by certain features which may here
be briefly indicated.

We may distinguish between (1) superior and inferior courts. The former
are the courts of common law and the court of chancery, now High Court
of Justice. The latter are the local or district courts, county courts,
&c. (2) Courts of record and courts not of record. "A court of record is
one whereof the acts and judicial proceedings are enrolled for a
perpetual memory and testimony, which rolls are called the records of
the court, and are of such high and supereminent authority that their
truth is not to be called in question. For it is a settled rule and
maxim that nothing shall be averred against a record, nor shall any plea
or even proof be admitted to the contrary. And if the existence of the
record shall be denied it shall be tried by nothing but itself; that is,
upon bare inspection whether there be any such record or no; else there
would be no end of disputes. All courts of record are the courts of the
sovereign in right of the crown and royal dignity, and therefore any
court of record has authority to fine and imprison for contempt of its
authority" (Stephen's _Blackstone_). (3) Courts may also be
distinguished as civil or criminal. (4) A further distinction is to be
made between courts of first instance and courts of appeal. In the
former the first hearing in any judicial proceeding takes place; in the
latter the judgment of the first court is brought under review. Of the
superior courts, the High Court of Justice in its various divisions is a
court of first instance. Over it is the court of appeal, and over that
again the House of Lords. The High Court of Justice is (through
divisional courts) a court of appeal for inferior courts. (5) There is a
special class of local courts, which do not appear to fall within the
description of either superior or inferior courts. Some, while
administering the ordinary municipal law, have or had jurisdiction
exclusive of their superior courts; such were the common pleas of Durham
and Lancaster. Others have concurrent jurisdiction with the superior
courts; such are the lord mayor's court of London, the passage court of
Liverpool, &c.

The distribution of judicial business among the various courts of law in
England may be exhibited as follows.

_Criminal Courts._--(1) The lowest is that of the justice of the peace,
sitting in petty sessions of two or more, to determine in a summary way
certain specified minor offences. In populous districts, such as London,
Manchester, &c., stipendiary magistrates are appointed, generally with
enlarged powers. Besides punishing by summary conviction, justices may
commit prisoners for trial at the assizes. (2) The justices in quarter
sessions are commissioned to determine felonies and other offences. An
act of 1842 (5 & 6 Vict. c. 38) contains a list of offences _not_
triable at quarter sessions--treason, murder, forgery, bigamy, &c. (see
QUARTER SESSIONS, COURT OF). The corresponding court in a borough is
presided over by a recorder. (3) The more serious offences are reserved
for the judges of the superior courts sitting under a commission of oyer
and terminer or gaol delivery for each county. The assize courts, as
they are called, sit in general in each county twice a year, following
the division of circuits; but additional assizes are also held under
acts of 1876 and 1877, which permit several counties to be united
together for that purpose (see CIRCUIT). London, which occupies an
exceptional position in all matters of judicature, has a high criminal
court of its own, established by the Central Criminal Court Act 1834,
under the name of the central criminal court. Its judges usually present
are a rota selected from the superior judges of common law, the
recorder, common serjeant, and the judge of the City of London court.[2]
The criminal appeal court, to which all persons convicted on indictment
may appeal, superseded in 1908 (by the Criminal Appeal Act 1907) the
court for crown cases reserved, to which any question of law arising on
the trial of a prisoner could after conviction be remitted by the judge
in his discretion. To the criminal appeal court there is an appeal both
on questions of fact and of law (see APPEAL).

_Civil Courts._--In certain special cases, civil claims of small
importance may be brought before justices or stipendiaries. Otherwise,
and excepting the special and peculiar jurisdictions above mentioned,
the civil business of England and Wales may be said to be divided
between the county courts (taking small cases) and the High Court of
Justice (taking all others).

The effect of the Judicature Acts on the constitution of the superior
courts may be briefly stated. There is now one Supreme Court of
Judicature, consisting of two permanent divisions called the High Court
of Justice and the court of appeal. The former takes the jurisdiction of
the court of chancery, the three common law courts, the courts of
admiralty, probate, and divorce, the courts of pleas at Lancaster and
Durham, and the courts created by commissions of assize, oyer and
terminer, and gaol delivery. The latter takes the jurisdiction of the
court of appeal in chancery (including chancery of Lancaster), the court
of the lord warden of the stannaries, and of the exchequer chamber, and
the appellate jurisdiction in admiralty and heresy matters of the
judicial committee; and power is given to the sovereign to transfer the
remaining jurisdiction of that court to the court of appeal. By the
Appellate Jurisdiction Act of 1876 the House of Lords is enabled to sit
for the hearing of appeals from the English court of appeal and the
Scottish and Irish courts during the prorogation and dissolution of
parliament. The lords of appeal, of whom three must be present, are the
lord chancellor, the lords of appeal in ordinary, and peers who have
held "high judicial office" in Great Britain or Ireland. The lords in
ordinary are an innovation in the constitution of the House. They hold
the rank of baron for life only, have a right to sit and vote in the
House during tenure of office only, and a salary of £6000 per annum.

There are also many obsolete or decayed courts, of which the most
noticeable are dealt with under their individual headings, as COURT

The history of English courts affords a remarkable illustration of the
continuity that characterizes English institutions. It might perhaps be
too much to say that all the courts now sitting in England may be traced
back to a common origin, but at any rate the higher courts are all
offshoots from the same original judicature. Leaving out of account the
local courts, we find the higher jurisdiction after the Norman Conquest
concentrated along with all other public functions in the king and
council. The first sign of a separation of the judicial from the other
powers of this body is found in the recognition of a Curia Regis, which
may be described as the king's council, or a portion of it, charged
specially with the management of judicial and revenue business. In
relation to the revenue it became the exchequer, under which name a
separate court grew up whose special field was the judicial business
arising out of revenue cases. By Magna Carta the inconvenience caused by
the curia following the king's person was remedied, in so far as private
litigation was concerned, by the order that common pleas (Communia
Placita) should be held at some fixed place; and hence arose the court
of common pleas. The Curia Regis, after having thrown off these
branches, is represented by the king's bench, so that from the same
stock we have now three courts, differing at first in functions, but
through competition for business, and the ingenious use of fictions,
becoming finally the co-ordinate courts of common law of later history.
But an inner circle of counsellors still surrounded the king, and in his
name claimed to exercise judicial as well as other power; hence the
chancellor's jurisdiction, which became, partly in harmony with the
supra-legal power claimed from which it sprang, and partly through the
influence of the ecclesiastical chancellors by whom it was first
administered, the equity of English law. Similar developments of the
same authority were the court of requests (which was destroyed by a
decision of the common pleas) and the court of star chamber--a court of
criminal equity, as it has been called,--which, having been made the
instrument of tyranny, was abolished in 1641. Even then the productive
power of the council was not exhausted; the judicial committee of the
privy council, established in 1832, superseding the previous court of
delegates, exercises the jurisdiction in appeal belonging to the king in
council. The appellate jurisdiction of the Lords rests on their claim to
be the representatives of the ancient great council of the realm.


_United States._--The Federal judicial system of the United States is
made by the Constitution independent both of the Legislature and of the
Executive. It consists of the Supreme Court, the circuit courts, and the
district courts.

The Supreme Court is created by the Constitution, and consisted in 1909
of nine judges, who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the
Senate. They hold office during good behaviour, i.e. are removable only
by impeachment, thus having a tenure even more secure than that of
English judges. The court sits at Washington from October to July in
every year. The sessions of the court are held in the Capitol. A rule
requiring the presence of six judges to pronounce a decision prevents
the division of the court into two or more benches; and while this
secures a thorough consideration of every case, it also retards the
despatch of business. Every case is discussed twice by the whole body,
once to ascertain the view of the majority, which is then directed to be
set forth in a written opinion; then again, when the written opinion,
prepared by one of the judges, is submitted for criticism and adoption
by the court as its judgment.

The other Federal courts have been created by Congress under a power in
the Constitution to establish "inferior courts." The circuit courts
consist of twenty-nine circuit judges, acting in nine judicial circuits,
while to each circuit there is also allotted one of the justices of the
Supreme Court. Circuit courts of appeals, established to relieve the
Supreme Court, consist of three judges (two forming a quorum), and are
made up of the circuit and district judges of each circuit and the
Supreme Court justice assigned to the circuit. Some cases may, however,
be appealed to the Supreme Court from the circuit court of appeals, and
others directly from the lower courts. The district courts number (1909)
ninety, in most cases having a single justice. There is also a special
tribunal called the court of claims, which deals with the claims of
private persons against the Federal government. It is not strictly a
part of the general judicial system, but is a creation of Congress
designed to relieve that body of a part of its own labours.

The jurisdiction of the Federal courts extends only to those cases in
which the Constitution makes Federal law applicable. All other cases are
left to the state courts, from which there is no appeal to the Federal
courts, unless where some specific point arises which is affected by the
Federal Constitution or a Federal law. The classes of cases dealt with
by the Federal courts are as follows:--

1. Cases in law and equity arising under the Constitution, the laws of
the United States, and treaties made under their authority;

2. Cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls;

3. Cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;

4. Controversies to which the United States shall be a party;

5. Controversies between two or more states, between a state and
citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between
citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different
states, and between a state or the citizens thereof and foreign states,
citizens or subjects (_Const._, Art. III., § 2). Part of this
jurisdiction has, however, been withdrawn by the eleventh Amendment to
the Constitution, which declares that "the judicial power of the United
States shall not be construed to extend to any suit commenced or
prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another
state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state."

The jurisdiction of the Supreme Court is original in cases affecting
ambassadors, and wherever a state is a party; in other cases it is
appellate. In some matters the jurisdiction of the Federal courts is
exclusive; in others it is concurrent with that of the state courts.

As it frequently happens that cases come before state courts in which
questions of Federal law arise, a provision has been made whereby due
respect for the latter is secured by giving the party to a suit who
relies upon Federal law, and whose contention is overruled by a state
court, the right of having the suit removed to a Federal court. The
Judiciary Act of 1789 (as amended by subsequent legislation) provides
for the removal to the Supreme Court of the United States of "a final
judgment or decree in any suit rendered in the highest court of a state
in which a decision could be had, where is drawn in question the
validity of a treaty or statute of, or an authority exercised under the
United States, and the decision is against their validity; or where is
drawn in question the validity of a statute of, or an authority
exercised under, any state, on the ground of their being repugnant to
the Constitution, treaties or laws of the United States, and the
decision is in favour of their validity; or where any title, right,
privilege or immunity is claimed under the Constitution, or any treaty
or statute of, or commission held, or authority exercised under the
United States, and the decision is against the title, right, privilege
or immunity specially set up or claimed by either party under such
Constitution, treaty, statute, commission or authority." If the decision
of the state court is in favour of the right claimed under Federal law
or against the validity or applicability of the state law set up, there
is no ground for removal, because the applicability or authority of
Federal law in the particular case could receive no further protection
from a Federal court than has in fact been given by the state court.

The power exercised by the Supreme Court in declaring statutes of
Congress or of state legislatures (or acts of the Executive) to be
invalid because inconsistent with the Federal Constitution, has been
deemed by many Europeans a peculiar and striking feature of the American
system. There is, however, nothing novel or mysterious about it. As the
Federal Constitution, which emanates directly from the people, is the
supreme law of the land everywhere, any statute passed by any lower
authority (whether the Federal Congress or a state legislature), which
contravenes the Constitution, must necessarily be invalid in point of
law, just as in the United Kingdom a railway by-law which contravened an
act of parliament would be invalid. Now, the functions of judicial
tribunals--of all courts alike, whether Federal or state, whether
superior or inferior--is to interpret the law, and if any tribunal finds
a Congressional statute or state statute inconsistent with the
Constitution, the tribunal is obliged to hold such statute invalid. A
tribunal does this not because it has any right or power of its own in
the matter, but because the people have, in enacting the Constitution as
a supreme law, declared that all other laws inconsistent with it are
_ipso jure_ void. When a tribunal has ascertained that an inferior law
is thus inconsistent, that inferior law is therewith, so far as
inconsistent, to be deemed void. The tribunal does not enter any
conflict with the Legislature or Executive. All it does is to declare
that a conflict exists between two laws of different degrees of
authority, whence it necessarily follows that the weaker law is extinct.
This duty of interpretation belongs to all tribunals, but as
constitutional cases are, if originating in a lower court, usually
carried by appeal to the Supreme Court, men have grown accustomed to
talk of the Supreme Court as in a special sense the guardian of the

The Federal courts never deliver an opinion on any constitutional
question unless or until that question is brought before them in the
form of a lawsuit. A judgment of the Supreme Court is only a judgment on
the particular case before it, and does not prevent a similar question
being raised again in another lawsuit, though of course this seldom
happens, because it may be assumed that the court will adhere to its
former opinion. There have, however, been instances in which the court
has virtually changed its view on a constitutional question, and it is
understood to be entitled so to do.


  [1] Cf. the German _Hof_ for court-yard, court of law, and royal

  [2] The sittings are held in the court-house in the Old Bailey. The
    old sessions house was destroyed in the Gordon riots of 1780. The
    building erected in its place, although enlarged from time to time,
    was very incommodious, and a new structure, occupying the site of
    Newgate Prison, which was pulled down for the purpose, was completed
    in 1907.

COURT BARON, an English manorial court dating from the middle ages and
still in existence. It was laid down by Coke that a manor had two
courts, "the first by the common law, and is called a court baron," the
freeholders ("barons") being its suitors; the other a customary court
for the copyholders. Stubbs adopted this explanation, but the latest
learning, expounded by Professor Maitland, holds that court baron means
_curia baronis_, "_la court de seigneur_," and that there is no evidence
for there being more than one court. The old view that at least two
freeholders were required for its composition is also now discarded.
Prof. Maitland's conclusion is that the "court baron" was not even
differentiated from the "court-leet" at the close of the 13th century,
but that there was a distinction of jurisdictional rights, some courts
having only feudal rights, while others had regalities as well. When the
court-leet was differentiated, the court baron remained with feudal
rights alone. These rights he was disposed to trace to a lord's
jurisdiction over his men rather than to his possession of the manor,
although in practice, from an early date, the court was associated with
the manor. Its chief business was to administer the "custom of the
manor" and to admit fresh tenants who had acquired copyholds by
inheritance or purchase, and had to pay, on so doing, a "fine" to the
lord of the manor. It is mainly for the latter purpose that the court is
now kept. It is normally presided over by the steward of the lord of the
manor, who is a lawyer, and its proceedings are recorded on "the court
rolls," of which the older ones are now valuable for genealogical as
well as for legal purposes.

  See _Select Pleas in Manorial and other Seignorial Courts_, vol. i.,
  and _The Court Baron_ (Selden Society).     (J. H. R.)

COURT DE GEBELIN, ANTOINE (1728-1784), French scholar, son of Antoine
Court (q.v.), was born at Nîmes in 1728. He received a good education,
and became, like his father, a pastor of the Reformed Church. This
office, however, he soon relinquished, to devote himself entirely to
literary work. He had conceived the project of a work which should set
in a new light the phenomena, especially the languages and mythologies,
of the ancient world; and, after his father's death, he went to Paris in
order to be near the necessary books. After long years of research, he
published in 1775 the first volume of his vast undertaking under the
title of _Le Monde primitif, analysé et comparé avec le monde moderne_.
The ninth volume appeared in 1784, leaving the work still unfinished.
The literary world marvelled at the encyclopaedic learning displayed by
the author, and supposed that the French Academy, or some other society
of scholars, must have combined their powers in its production. Now,
however, the world has well-nigh forgotten the huge quartos. These
learned labours did not prevent Gebelin from pleading earnestly the
cause of religious tolerance. In 1760 he published a work entitled _Les
Toulousaines_, advocating the rights of the Protestants; and he
afterwards established at Paris an agency for collecting information as
to their sufferings, and for exciting general interest in their cause.
He co-operated with Franklin and others in the periodical work entitled
_Affaires de l'Angleterre et de l'Amérique_ (1776, sqq.), which was
devoted to the support of American independence. He was also a supporter
of the principles of the economists, and Quesnay called him his
well-beloved disciple. In the last year of his life he became acquainted
with Mesmer, and published a _Lettre sur le magnétisme animal_. He was
imposed upon by speculators in whom he placed confidence, and was
reduced to destitution by the failure of a scheme in which they engaged
him. He died at Paris on the 10th of May 1784.

  See _La France protestante_, by the brothers Haag, tome iv.; Charles
  Dardier, _Court de Gebelin_ (Nîmes, 1890).

COURTENAY, the name of a famous English family. French genealogists head
the pedigree of this family with one Athon or Athos, who is said to have
fortified Courtenay in Gâtinois about the year 1010. His son Josselin
had, with other issue, Miles, lord of Courtenay, founder of the
Cistercian abbey of Fontaine-Jean. By his wife Ermengarde, daughter of
Renaud, count of Nevers, Miles left a son Renaud, one of the magnates
who followed Louis le Jeune to the Holy Land. This was the last lord of
Courtenay of the line of Athon. Elizabeth, his elder daughter--a younger
daughter died without issue,--carried Courtenay and other lordships to
her husband Pierre, seventh and youngest son of the French king Louis
VI. the Fat, the marriage taking place about 1150, and the many
descendants of this royal match bore the surname of Courtenay.

Pierre, the eldest son, was founder of a short-lived dynasty of emperors
of Constantinople, which ended in 1261 when Baldwin (Baudouin), last of
the Frankish emperors, fled before Michael Palaeologus from a capital in
flames. Baldwin's son Philip, however, bore the empty title, and his
granddaughter Catherine, wife of Charles, count of Valois, was titular
empress. Other lines of the royal Courtenays, sprung from Pierre of
France, were lords of Champignolles, Tanlai, Yerre, Bleneau, La Ferté
Loupière and Chevillon. On the death of Gaspard, sieur de Bleneau, in
1655, his cousin Louis de Courtenay, comte de Cési (_jure uxoris_) and
sieur de Chevillon, had Bleneau, and reckoned himself the surviving
chief of his house. He styled himself Prince de Courtenay and his family
made attempts to obtain recognition for their royal blood. But their
laboriously constructed genealogies availed nothing to this impoverished
race. The last "Prince de Courtenay," an ex-captain of dragoons, died in
1730; his uncle Roger de Courtenay, abbé des Eschalis, who died in 1733,
was the last recognized member of the line of Pierre of France.

A younger branch of the first house of Courtenay came from Josselin,
second son of Josselin, son of Athon. This Josselin, a notable crusader,
went to the Holy Land with the count of Blois, and held by the sword for
eleven years the county of Edessa, given him by his cousin King Baldwin
II. Edessa was won back by the infidel from his son Josselin, who died a
prisoner in Aleppo in 1147. A grandson, also a Josselin, was seneschal
of the kingdom of Jerusalem.

In England a house of Courtenay has flourished with varying fortunes
since the reign of the first Angevin king. The monks of Ford, to whom
they were benefactors, complacently set down their patrons as the
offspring of the royal Courtenays, of whose origin they had some dim
knowledge, deriving them from "Florus," son of Louis the Fat. A
comparison of dates destroys the story. But they were, doubtless,
Courtenays of the stock of Athon. Josselin, the first count of Edessa,
has been suggested by modern writers as their founder, but the name
Reinaud, borne by the first known ancestor of the English house,
suggests that they may have sprung from a younger son of Josselin I. of
Courtenay by his marriage about 1095 with Ermengarde, daughter of
Reinaud, count of Nevers. It is also notable that the English Courtenays
have, from the first introduction of armorial bearings, borne with
various differences the three red roundels in a golden field, the arms
of the Courtenays in France, the shield of the earls of Devonshire being
identical with that of the lords of La Ferté Loupière.

Several Courtenays whose kinship cannot be exactly ascertained, appear
in English records of the 12th century. One of them, Robert de
Courtenay, married the daughter and heir of Reynold fitz Urse, the
leader of the murderers of Archbishop Thomas Becket. His son, William, a
Shropshire baron, held the castle of Montgomery, as heir by his mother
of Baldwin de Buslers, or Bollers, to whom Henry I. had given it with
his "niece" Sibil de Falaise. This William married Ada of Dunbar,
daughter of Patrick, earl of Dunbar, but died in the reign of King John,
without issue.

Reinaud de Courtenay, ancestor of the main English line, may well have
been a brother of the Robert above named. The English pedigrees confuse
him with his son of the same name. He was a favourite with Henry II.,
his attestations of charters showing him as a constant companion at home
and abroad of the king, whom he followed to Wexford in the Irish
expedition of 1172. Henry gave him Berkshire lands at Sutton, still
known as Sutton Courtenay, by a charter to which the date of 1161 can be
assigned. In England he had to wife Maude, daughter of Robert fitz Roy
by Maude of Avranches, the elder Maude being the heir of the house of
Brionne. By her, who survived him, dying before January 1224, he had no
issue, but by a wife who may have died before his coming to England he
had, with other issue, Robert and Reinaud. Robert, who succeeded to
Sutton about 1192, was husband of Alice de Rumeli, widow of Gilbert
Pipard, and one of the three sisters and co-heirs of William, the boy of
Egremond, of whose drowning in the Strid Wordsworth has made a ballad.
Robert died childless in 1209. Of his brother Reinaud or Reynold de
Courtenay little is known, save that he was a married man in 1178 when
he and his wife Hawise were given by the pope a licence to have a free
chapel at Okehampton. This wife, Hawise de Ayencourt, was, with Maude
his father's second wife, a daughter and co-heir of Maude of Avranches,
her father being the lord of Ayencourt, first husband of the last named
Maude. Her great inheritance included the honour of Okehampton in
Devonshire of which, as a widow, she had livery about 1205. Her son,
Robert de Courtenay, succeeded to her land in 1219, having been his
uncle Robert's heir in Sutton ten years before. Like his father he
advanced his house by a great marriage, his wife being Mary, the younger
daughter of William de Vernon, earl of Devon and of the Isle of Wight.
He was succeeded in 1242 by his son John, who by Isabel, a daughter of
Hugh de Vere, earl of Oxford, has issue Hugh, whose wife was Eleanor,
daughter of the earl of Winchester, elder of the two favourites of
Edward II. The son of this marriage, another Hugh, followed his father
at Okehampton in 1291. Two years later died Isabel, surviving sister and
heir of Baldwin de Reviers, earl of Devon, and widow of William de Forz,
last earl of Aumerle (Albemarle). On her death-bed she had granted her
lordship of the Wight to the king, but her cousin Hugh de Courtenay
succeeded her in the unalienated estates of the house of Reviers. He was
summoned as a baron on the 6th of February 1298/9, and in 1300 he
displayed his banner before the castle of Caerlaverock. Claiming the
"third penny" of the county of Devon, he was refused by the exchequer as
he did not claim in the name of an earl. Following, however, a writ of
inquiry, a patent of the 22nd of February 1334/5 declared him earl of
Devon and qualified to take such style as his ancestors, earls of Devon,
were wont to take. Hugh, his son, the second earl, a warrior who drove
the French back from their descent on Cornwall in 1339, made another of
the brilliant marriages of this family, his wife being Eleanor, daughter
of Humfrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex, by Elizabeth daughter
of Edward I. Their eldest son, Sir Hugh de Courtenay, shared in the
honours of Crécy and Calais, and was one of the knights founders of the
order of the Garter, the stall-plate of his arms being yet in St
George's chapel at Windsor. This knight died in the lifetime of the
earl, as did his only son Hugh, summoned as a baron on the 3rd of
January 1370/1, a companion at Najara of the Black Prince, whose
step-daughter Maude of Holland he had married. The earl was therefore
succeeded by his grandson Edward (son of Edward his third son), earl
marshal of England in 1385, who died blind in 1419, the year after the
death of Sir Edward his heir apparent, one of the conquerors at
Agincourt. Hugh, a second son of Earl Edward, succeeded as fourth earl
of the Courtenay line. By his wife, a sister of the renowned Talbot,
earl of Shrewsbury, he had issue Thomas the fifth earl, a partisan of
Henry VI., whose wife was Margaret Beaufort, daughter of John, earl of
Somerset. The effigy of this grandaughter of John of Gaunt, with the
shields of Courtenay and Beaufort above it, is in Colyton church. It is
less than life size, a fact which has given rise to a village legend
that it represents "Little choke-a-bone," an infant daughter of the
tenth earl, who died "choked by a fish bone." In spite of the evidence
of the shields and the 15th century dress of the effigy, the legend has
now been strengthened by an inscription upon a brass plate, and in the
year 1907 ignorance engaged a monumental sculptor to deface the effigy
by giving its broken features the newly carved face of a young child.
Both sons of this marriage fell in the Wars of the Roses, Thomas the
sixth earl being taken at Towton by the Yorkists and beheaded at York in
1462, his younger brother Henry having the same fate at Salisbury in

The earldom being extinguished by attainder, Sir Humphrey Stafford was
created earl of Devon in 1469, but in the same year, having retired with
his men from the expedition against Robin of Redesdale, another earl of
Devon suffered at the headsman's hands, his patent being afterwards
annulled by a statute of Henry VII. On the restoration of Henry VI. John
Courtenay, only surviving brother of Thomas and Henry, was restored to
the earldom by the reversal of attainder. He, too, died in the
Lancastrian cause, being killed on the 4th of May 1471 at Tewkesbury,
where he led the rear of the host. The representation of the Reviers
earls and of the Courtenay barony fell then to his sisters and their
descendants. Beside him at Tewkesbury died his cousin Sir Hugh Courtenay
of Boconnoc, son of Hugh, a younger brother of the blind earl, leaving a
son Edward, who thus became the heir male of the house though not its
heir general. Joining in the cause which had cost so many of his kinsmen
their lives, he and his brother Walter shared the duke of Buckingham's
rising. On its failure they fled into France to the earl of Richmond,
beside whom Sir Edward fought at Bosworth. By a patent of the 26th of
October 1485 he was created earl of Devon with remainder to the heirs
male of his body, and by an act of 1485 he was restored to all honours
lost in his attainder by the Yorkist parliament. He defended Exeter
against Warbeck's rebels and was a knight of the Garter in 1489, dying
twenty years later, when the earldom became again forfeit by his son's
attainder. That son, William Courtenay, had drawn the jealousy of Henry
VII. by a marriage with Catherine, sister of the queen and daughter of
King Edward IV., the Yorkist sovereign whose hand had been so heavy on
the Courtenays. After the queen's death, Henry sent his wife's
brother-in-law to the Tower on a charge of corresponding with Edmund
Pole, an attainder following. But on the accession of Henry VIII., the
young king released his uncle, who although styled an earl was not fully
restored in blood at his death in 1511. His son Henry Courtenay obtained
from parliament in December 1512 a reversal of his father's attainder,
thus succeeding to the earldom of his grandfather. At the Field of Cloth
of Gold he ran a course with the king of France. He was knight of the
Garter and on the 15th of June 1525 had a patent as marquess of Exeter.
Profiting by the suppression of the monasteries he increased his estate,
his power being all but supreme in the west country. But Cromwell was
his enemy and the royal strain in his blood was a dangerous thing.
Involved in correspondence with Cardinal Pole, he was sent to the Tower
with his wife and his young son, and on the 9th of December 1538 he was
beheaded as a traitor. The misfortunes of the house were heavy upon the
son, who at twelve years old was a prisoner for the sake of his high
descent. His honours had been forfeited, and release did not come until
the accession of Queen Mary, who took him into favour. Noailles the
ambassador found him _le plus beau et le plus agréable gentilhomme
d'Angleterre_, and he had some hopes of becoming king consort. The queen
created him earl of Devonshire by a patent of the 3rd of September 1553
and in the next month he was restored in blood. But, disappointed in his
hopes, he formed some wild plans for marrying the Lady Elizabeth and
making her queen. He could raise Devon and Cornwall. Wyat did raise
Kent, but the plot was soon crushed. The earl was sent back to the Tower
and thence to Fotheringhay. At Easter of 1555 he was released on parole
and exiled, dying suddenly at Padua in 1556. His co-heirs were the
descendants of the four sisters of Earl Edward (d. 1519), the wives of
four Cornish squires, and with him was extinguished, to the belief of
all men, the Courtenays' earldom of Devon. His heir male was Sir William
Courtenay, his sixth cousin once removed, head of a knightly line of
Courtenays whose seat was Powderham Castle, a line which, during the
civil wars, stood for the White Rose. Sir William, who is said to have
been killed at St Quintin in 1557, was succeeded by his son, another Sir
William, one of the undertakers for the settling of Ireland, where the
family obtained great estates. William Courtenay of Powderham, of whose
marriage with the daughter of Sir William Waller (the parliament's
general) it is remarked that the years of bride and bridegroom added
together were less than thirty when their first child was born, was
created a baronet by writ of privy seal in February 1644, the patent
being never enrolled. His great grandson, Sir William Courtenay, many
years a member of parliament, was on the 6th of May 1762, ten days
before his death, created Viscount Courtenay of Powderham Castle.

Since the death at Padua in 1556 of Edward, earl of Devon, that ancient
title had been twice revived. Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, who was
created earl of Devon in 1603, died without lawful issue in 1606. In
1618 Sir William Cavendish, son of the famous Bess of Hardwick, was
given the same title, which is still among the peerage honours of the
ducal house descending from him. For the Courtenays, who had without
protest accepted a baronetcy and a viscounty, their earldom was dead. In
the reign of William IV., the third and last Viscount Courtenay was
living unmarried in Paris, an exile who for sufficient reasons was
keeping out of the reach of the English criminal law. In the name of
this man, his presumptive heir male, William Courtenay, clerk assistant
of the parliament, succeeded in persuading the House of Lords that the
Courtenay earldom under the patent of 1553 was still in existence, the
plea being that the terms of the remainder--to him and his heirs male
for ever--did not limit the succession to heirs male of the body of the
grantee. Five other cases wherein the words _de corpore suo_ had been
omitted from the patent are known to peerage lawyers. In no case had a
peerage before been claimed by collateral heirs male. "I have often
rallied Brougham," writes Lord Campbell, "upon his creating William
Courtenay earl of Devon. He says he consulted Chief Justice Tenterden.
But Tenterden knew nothing of peerage law." After the death of the exile
in 1835 the clerk of the parliament succeeded him as an earl by force of
the House of Lords decision of the 15th of March 1831. His second son,
the Rev. Henry Hugh Courtenay (1811-1904), succeeded, as 13th earl, a
nephew whose extravagance had impoverished the estates. He in turn was
followed, as 14th earl, by his grandson Charles Pepys Courtenay (b.

No other recognized branch of this house, once so widely spread in the
western counties, is now among the landed houses of England. Among its
cadets were many famous warriors, but three prelates must be reckoned as
the most eminent of the Courtenays. William, a younger son of the match
of Courtenay and Bohun, was bishop of Hereford in 1370, bishop of London
in 1375 and archbishop of Canterbury in 1381. Proceeding against
Wycliffe he opposed John of Gaunt, who, taunting him with his trust in
his great kinsfolk, threatened to drag him out of St Paul's by his hair,
a threat which roused the angry Londoners in his defence. He died in
1396 and lies buried at the feet of the Black Prince in his cathedral of
Canterbury. By his will he left his best mitre to his nephew Richard
Courtenay--son and pupil, as he styles him--against the time he should
be a bishop. This Richard, a friend of Henry V. when prince, and
treasurer of his household, was bishop of Norwich in 1413. Twice
chancellor of Oxford, he repelled Archbishop Arundel and all his train
when that primate would have had a visitation of the university,
although the claim of the university to independence was at last broken
down. Tall of stature, eloquent and learned, he kept the favour of the
king, who was with him when he died of dysentery in the host before
Harfleur. Heir of this bishop was his nephew Sir Philip of Powderham,
whose younger son Peter Courtenay was the third of the Courtenay
prelates, being bishop of Exeter from 1478 to 1487, when he was
translated to Winchester. Although of the Yorkist Courtenays, he was of
Buckingham's party and, being attainted by Richard III. for joining with
certain of his kinsfolk in an attempt to raise the west, he escaped to
Brittany, whence he returned with the first Tudor sovereign, who had him
in high favour. A fourth prelate of this family was Henry Reginald
Courtenay, who was bishop of Bristol 1794-1797 and bishop of Exeter from
1797 to his death in 1803.

  See charter, patent, close, fine and plea rolls, inquests _post
  mortem_ and other records. G. E. C.'s _Complete Peerage_; _Dictionary
  of National Biography_; _Notes and Queries_, series viii. vol. 7; J.
  H. Round's _Peerage Studies_; _Calendars of State Papers_; Machyn's
  _Diary_ (Camden Society); Chronicles of Capgrave, Wavrin, Adam of Usk,
  &c.     (O. BA.)

COURTENAY, RICHARD (d. 1415), English prelate, was a son of Sir Philip
Courtenay of Powderham Castle, near Exeter, and a grandson of Hugh
Courtenay, earl of Devon (d. 1377). He was a nephew of William
Courtenay, archbishop of Canterbury, and a descendant of Edward I.
Educated at Exeter College, Oxford, he entered the church, where his
advance was rapid. He held several prebends, was dean of St Asaph and
then dean of Wells, and became bishop of Norwich in 1413. As chancellor
of the university of Oxford, an office to which he was elected in 1407
and again in 1410, Courtenay asserted the independence of the university
against Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, in 1411; but the
archbishop, supported by Henry IV. and Pope John XXIII, eventually
triumphed. Courtenay was a personal friend of Henry V. both before and
after he came to the throne; and in 1413, immediately after Henry's
accession, he was made treasurer of the royal household. On two
occasions he went on diplomatic errands to France, and he was also
employed by Henry on public business at home. Having accompanied the
king to Harfleur in August 1415, Courtenay was attacked by dysentery and
died on the 15th of September 1415, his body being buried in Westminster

Another member of this family, PETER COURTENAY (d. 1492), a grandnephew
of Richard, also attained high position in the English Church. Educated
at Exeter College, Oxford, Peter became dean of Windsor, then dean of
Exeter; in 1478 bishop of Exeter; and in 1487 bishop of Winchester in
succession to William of Waynflete. With Henry Stafford, duke of
Buckingham, and others he attempted to raise a rebellion against Richard
III. in 1483, and fled to Brittany when this enterprise failed.
Courtenay was restored to his dignities and estates in 1485 by Henry
VII., whom he had accompanied to England, and he died on the 23rd of
September 1492.

  See J. H. Wylie, _History of England under Henry IV_. (London,

COURTENAY, WILLIAM (c. 1342-1396), English prelate, was a younger son of
Hugh Courtenay, earl of Devon (d. 1377), and through his mother
Margaret, daughter of Humphrey Bohun, earl of Hereford, was a
great-grandson of Edward I. Being a native of the west of England he was
educated at Stapledon Hall, Oxford, and after graduating in law was
chosen chancellor of the university in 1367. Courtenay's ecclesiastical
and political career began about the same time. Having been made
prebendary of Exeter, of Wells and of York, he was consecrated bishop of
Hereford in 1370, was translated to the see of London in 1375, and
became archbishop of Canterbury in 1381, succeeding Simon of Sudbury in
both these latter positions. As a politician the period of his activity
coincides with the years of Edward III.'s dotage, and with practically
the whole of Richard II.'s reign. From the first he ranged himself among
the opponents of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster; he was a firm
upholder of the rights of the English Church, and was always eager to
root out Lollardry. In 1373 he declared in convocation that he would not
contribute to a subsidy until the evils from which the church suffered
were removed; in 1375 he incurred the displeasure of the king by
publishing a papal bull against the Florentines; and in 1377 his decided
action during the quarrel between John of Gaunt and William of Wykeham
ended in a temporary triumph for the bishop. Wycliffe was another cause
of difference between Lancaster and Courtenay. In 1377 the reformer
appeared before Archbishop Sudbury and Courtenay, when an altercation
between the duke and the bishop led to the dispersal of the court, and
during the ensuing riot Lancaster probably owed his safety to the good
offices of his foe. Having meanwhile become archbishop of Canterbury
Courtenay summoned a council, or synod, in London, which condemned the
opinions of Wycliffe; he then attacked the Lollards at Oxford, and urged
the bishops to imprison heretics. He was for a short time chancellor of
England during 1381, and in January 1382 he officiated at the marriage
of Richard II. with Anne of Bohemia, afterwards crowning the queen. In
1382 the archbishop's visitation led to disputes with the bishops of
Exeter and Salisbury, and Courtenay was only partially able to enforce
the payment of a special tax to meet his expenses on this occasion.
During his concluding years the archbishop appears to have upheld the
papal authority in England, although not to the injury of the English
Church. He protested against the confirmation of the statute of
provisors in 1390, and he was successful in slightly modifying the
statute of praemunire in 1393. Disliking the extravagance of Richard II.
he publicly reproved the king, and after an angry scene the royal
threats drove him for a time into Devonshire. In 1386 he was one of the
commissioners appointed to reform the kingdom and the royal household,
and in 1387 he arranged a peace between Richard and his enemies under
Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester. Courtenay died at Maidstone on
the 31st of July 1396, and was buried in Canterbury cathedral.

  See W. F. Hook, _Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury_, vol. iv.
  (London, 1860-1876); and W. Stubbs, _Constitutional History_, vols.
  ii. and iii. (Oxford, 1895-1896).

COURTESY (O. Fr. _curtesie_, later _courtoisie_), manners or behaviour
that suit a court, politeness, due consideration for others. A special
application of the word is in the expression "by courtesy," where
something is granted out of favour and not of right, hence "courtesy"
titles, i.e. those titles of rank which are given by custom to the
eldest sons of dukes, marquesses and earls, usually the second title
held by the father; to the younger sons and to the daughters of dukes
and marquesses, viz. the prefix "lord" and "lady" with the Christian and
surname. For "tenure by the courtesy" see CURTESY. Another form of the
word, "curtsey" or "curtsy," was early confined to the expression of
courtesy or respect by a gesture or bow, now only of the reverence made
by a woman, consisting in a bending of the knees accompanied by a
lowering of the body.

COURTHOPE, WILLIAM JOHN (1842-   ), English writer and historian of
poetry, whose father was rector of South Malling, Essex, was born on the
17th of July 1842. From Harrow school he went to New College, Oxford;
took first-classes in classical "moderations" and "greats"; and won the
Newdigate prize for poetry (1864) and the Chancellor's English essay
(1868). He seemed destined for distinction as a poet, his volume of
_Ludibria Lunae_ (1869) being followed in 1870 by the remarkably fine
_Paradise of Birds_. But a certain academic quality of mind seemed to
check his output in verse and divert it into the field of criticism.
Apart from many contributions to the higher journalism, his literary
career is associated mainly with his continuation of the edition of
Pope's works, begun by Whitwell Elwin (1816-1900), which appeared in ten
volumes from 1871-1889; his life of Addison (Men of Letters series,
1882); his _Liberal Movement in English Literature_ (1885); and his
tenure of the professorship of Poetry at Oxford (1895-1901), which
resulted in his elaborate _History of English Poetry_ (the first volume
appearing in 1895), and his _Life in Poetry_ (1901). He deals with the
history of English poetry as a whole, and in its unity as a result of
the national spirit and thought in succeeding ages, and attempts to
bring the great poets into relation with this. In 1887 he was appointed
a civil service commissioner, being first commissioner in 1892, and
being made a C.B. He was made an honorary fellow of his old college at
Oxford in 1896, and was given the honorary degrees of D.Litt. by Durham
in 1895 and of LL.D. by Edinburgh University in 1898.

COURT LEET, an English petty criminal court for the punishment of small
offences. It has been usual to make a distinction between court baron
and court leet[1] as being separate courts, but in the early history of
the court leet no such distinction can be drawn. At a very early time
the lords of manors exercised or claimed certain jurisdictional
franchises. Of these the most important was the "view of frankpledge"
and its attendant police jurisdiction. Some time in the later middle
ages the court baron when exercising these powers gained the name of
_leet_, and, later, of "court leet." The _quo warranto_ proceedings of
Edward I. established a sharp distinction between the court baron,
exercising strictly manorial rights, and the court leet, depending for
its jurisdiction upon royal franchise. The court leet was a court of
record, and its duty was not only to view the pledges but to present by
jury all crimes that might happen within the jurisdiction, and punish
the same. The steward of the court acted as judge, presiding wholly in a
judicial character, the ministerial acts being executed by the bailiff.
The court leet began to decline in the 14th century, being superseded by
the more modern courts of the justices, but in many cases courts leet
were kept up until nearly the middle of the 19th century. Indeed, it
cannot be said that they are now actually extinct, as many still survive
for formal purposes, and by s. 40 of the Sheriffs Act 1887 they are
expressly kept up.


  [1] The history of the word "leet" is very obscure. It appears in
    Anglo-French documents as _lete_ and in Anglo-Latin as _leta_.
    Professor W. W. Skeat has connected it with Old English _láetan_, to
    let, which is very doubtful, though this is the origin of the use of
    the word in such expressions as "two-" "three-way leet," a place
    where cross-roads meet. The _New English Dictionary_ suggests a
    connexion with "lathe," a term which survives as a division of the
    county of Kent, containing several "hundreds." This is of Old
    Norwegian origin, and seems to have meant "landed possessions." There
    is also another Old Norwegian _léith_, a court or judicial assembly,
    and modern Danish has _laegd_, a division of the country for military
    purposes. J. H. Round (_Feudal England_, p. 101) points out that the
    Suffolk hundred was divided for assessment into equal blocks called
    "leets" (see further F. W. Maitland, _Select Pleas in Manorial
    Courts_, Selden Soc. Publications I. lxxiii-lxxvi). "Leet" is also
    used, chiefly in Scotland, for a list of persons nominated for
    election to an office. This is, apparently, a shortened form of the
    French _élite_, elected.

COURT-MARTIAL, a court for the trial of offences against military or
naval discipline, or for the administration of martial law. In England
courts-martial have inherited part of the jurisdiction of the old _Curia
militaris_, or court of the chivalry, in which a single marshal and at
one time the high constable proceeded "according to the customs and
usages of that court, and, in cases omitted according to the civil law,
_secundum legem armorum_" (Coke, 4 _Ins._ 17). The modern form of the
courts was adopted by ordinance in the time of Charles I., when English
soldiers were studying the "articles and military laws" of Gustavus
Adolphus and the Dutch military code of Arnheim; it is first recognized
by statute in the first Mutiny Act of 1689. The Mutiny Act (with various
extensions and amendments) and the statutory articles of war continued
to be the sources of military law which courts-martial administered
until 1879, when they were codified in the Army Discipline and
Regulation Act 1879, which was, in turn, superseded by the Army Act
1881. This act is re-enacted annually by the Army (Annual) Act. The
constitution of courts-martial, their procedure, &c., are dealt with

_Naval Courts-Martial._--The administration of the barbarous naval law
of England was long entrusted to the discretion of commanders acting
under instructions from the lord high admiral, who was supreme over both
the royal and merchant navy. It was the leaders of the Long Parliament
who first secured something like a regular tribunal by passing in 1645
an ordinance and articles concerning martial law for the government of
the navy. Under this ordinance Blake, Monk and Penn issued instructions
for the holding general and ship courts-martial with written records,
the one for captains and commanders, the other for subordinate officers
and men. Of the latter the mate, gunner and boatswain were members, but
the admirals reserved a control over the more serious sentences. Under
an act of 1661 the high admiral again received power to issue
commissions for holding courts-martial--a power which continues to be
exercised by the board of admiralty. During the 18th century, under the
auspices of Anson, the jurisdiction was greatly extended, and the
Consolidation Act of 1749 was passed in which the penalty of death
occurs as frequently as the curses in the commination service. The Naval
Articles of War have always been statutory, and the whole system may now
be said to rest on the Naval Discipline Act 1866, as amended by the act
of 1884. The navy has its courts of inquiry for the confidential
investigation of charges "derogatory to the character of an officer and
a gentleman." Under the act of 1866 a court-martial must consist of from
five to nine officers of a certain rank, and must be held publicly on
board of one of H.M. ships of war, and where at least two such ships are
together. The rank of the president depends on that of the prisoner. A
judge-advocate attends, and the procedure resembles that in military
courts, except that the prisoner is not asked to plead, and the
sentence, if not one of death, does not require the confirmation of the
commander-in-chief abroad or of the admiralty at home. The court has a
large and useful power of finding the prisoner guilty of a less serious
offence than that charged, which might well be imitated in the ordinary
criminal courts. The death sentence is always carried out by hanging at
the yard-arm; Admiral Byng, however, was shot in 1757. The board of
admiralty have, under the Naval Discipline Acts, a general power of
suspending, annulling, and modifying sentences which are not capital.
The jurisdiction extends to all persons belonging to the navy, to land
forces and other passengers on board, shipwrecked crews, spies, persons
borne on the books of H.M. ships in commission, and civilians on board
who endeavour to seduce others from allegiance. The definition of the
jurisdiction by locality includes harbours, havens or creeks, lakes or
rivers, in or out of the United Kingdom; all places within the
jurisdiction of the admiralty; all places on shore out of the United
Kingdom; the dockyards, barracks, hospitals, &c., of the service
wherever situated; all places on shore in or out of the United Kingdom
for all offences punishable under the Articles of War except those
specified in section 38 of the Naval Discipline Act 1860, which are
punishable by ordinary law. The Royal Marines, while borne on the books
of H.M. ships, are subject to the Naval Discipline Acts, and, by an
order in council, 1882, when they are embarked on board ship for service
on shore; otherwise they are under the Army Acts. By s. 179, sub.-sec.
7, of the Army Act, in the application of the act to the Royal Marines
the admiralty is substituted for military authorities.

  AUTHORITIES.--Simmons, _On the Constitution and Practice of
  Courts-Martial_; Clode, _Military and Martial Law_; Stephens, Gifford
  and Smith, _Manual of Naval Law and Court-Martial Procedure_. The
  earlier writers on courts-martial are Adye (1796), M'Arthur (1813),
  Maltby (1813, Boston), James (1820), D'Aguilar (1843), and Hough,
  _Precedents in Military Law_ (1855).

COURTNEY, LEONARD HENRY COURTNEY, BARON (1832-   ), English politician
and man of letters, eldest son of J. S. Courtney, a banker, was born at
Penzance on the 6th of July 1832. At Cambridge, Leonard Courtney was
second wrangler and first Smith's prizeman, and was elected a fellow of
his college, St John's. He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in
1858, was professor of political economy at University College from 1872
to 1875, and in December 1876, after a previous unsuccessful attempt,
was elected to parliament for Liskeard in the Liberal interest. He
continued to represent the borough, and the district into which it was
merged by the Reform Act of 1885, until 1900, when his attitude towards
the South African War--he was one of the foremost of the so-called
"Pro-Boer" party--compelled his retirement. Until 1885 he was a devoted
adherent of Mr Gladstone, particularly in finance and foreign affairs.
In 1880 he was under-secretary of state for the home department, in 1881
for the colonies, and in 1882 secretary to the treasury; but he was
always a stubborn fighter for principle, and upon finding that the
government's Reform Bill in 1884 contained no recognition of the scheme
for proportional representation, to which he was deeply committed, he
resigned office. He refused to support Mr Gladstone's Home Rule Bill in
1885, and was one of those who chiefly contributed to its rejection, and
whose reputation for unbending integrity and intellectual eminence gave
solidity to the Liberal Unionist party. In 1886 he was elected chairman
of committees in the House of Commons, and his efficiency in this office
seemed to mark him out for the speakership in 1895. A Liberal Unionist,
however, could only be elected by Conservative votes, and he had made
himself objectionable to a large section of the party by his independent
attitude on various questions, on which his Liberalism outweighed his
party loyalty. He would in any case have been incapacitated by an
affection of the eyesight, which for a while threatened to withdraw him
from public life altogether. After 1895 Mr Courtney's divergences from
the Unionist party on questions other than Irish politics became
gradually more marked. He became known in the House of Commons
principally for his candid criticism of the measures introduced by his
nominal leaders, and he was rather to be ranked among the Opposition
than as a Ministerialist; and when the crisis with the Transvaal came
in 1899, Mr Courtney's views, which remained substantially what they
were when he supported the settlement after Majuba in 1881, had plainly
become incompatible with his position even as a nominal follower of Lord
Salisbury and Mr Chamberlain. He gradually reverted to formal membership
of the Liberal party, and in January 1906 unsuccessfully contested a
division of Edinburgh as a supporter of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman at
the general election. Among the birthday honours of 1906 he was elevated
to the peerage as Baron Courtney of Penwith (Cornwall). Lord Courtney,
who in 1883 married Miss Catherine Potter (an elder sister of Mrs Sidney
Webb), was a prominent supporter of the women's movement. In earlier
years he was a regular contributor to _The Times_, and he wrote numerous
essays in the principal reviews on political and economic subjects. In
1901 he published a book on _The Working Constitution of the United

Two of his brothers, John Mortimer Courtney (b. 1838), and William
Prideaux Courtney (b. 1845), also attained public distinction, the
former in the government service in Canada (from 1869, retiring in
1906), rising to be deputy-minister of finance, and the latter in the
British civil service (1865-1892), and as a prominent man of letters and

COURTOIS, JACQUES (1621-1676) and GUILLAUME (1628-1679). The two French
painters who bore these names are also called by the Italian equivalents
Giacomo (or Jacopo) Cortese and Guglielmo Cortese. Each of the brothers
is likewise named, from his native province, Le Bourguignon, or Il

Jacques Courtois was born at St Hippolyte, near Besançon, in 1621. His
father was a painter, and with him Jacques remained studying up to the
age of fifteen. Towards 1637 he came to Italy, was hospitably received
at Milan by a Burgundian gentleman, and entered, and for three years
remained in, the French military service. The sight of some
battle-pictures revived his taste for fine art. He went to Bologna, and
studied under the friendly tutelage of Guido; thence he proceeded to
Rome, where he painted, in the Cistercian monastery, the "Miracle of the
Loaves." Here he took a house and after a while entered upon his own
characteristic style of art, that of battle-painting, in which he has
been accounted to excel all other old masters; his merits were cordially
recognized by the celebrated Cerquozzi, named Michelangelo delle
Battaglie. He soon rose from penury to ease, and married a painter's
beautiful daughter, Maria Vagini; she died after seven years of wedded
life. Prince Matthias of Tuscany employed Courtois on some striking
works in his villa, Lappeggio, representing with much historical
accuracy the prince's military exploits. In Venice also the artist
executed for the senator Sagredo some remarkable battle-pieces. In
Florence he entered the Society of Jesus, taking the habit in Rome in
1655; it was calumniously rumoured that he adopted this course in order
to escape punishment for having poisoned his wife. As a Jesuit father,
Courtois painted many works in churches and monasteries of the society.
He lived piously in Rome, and died there of apoplexy on the 20th of May
1676 (some accounts say 1670 or 1671). His battle-pieces have movement
and fire, warm colouring (now too often blackened), and great command of
the brush,--those of moderate dimensions are the more esteemed. They are
slight in execution, and tell out best from a distance. Courtois etched
with skill twelve battle-subjects of his own composition. The Dantzig
painter named in Italy Pandolfo Reschi was his pupil.

Guillaume Courtois, born likewise at St Hippolyte, came to Italy with
his brother. He went at once to Rome, and entered the school of Pietro
da Cortona. He studied also the Bolognese painters and Giovanni
Barbieri, and formed for himself a style with very little express
mannerism, partly resembling that of Maratta. He painted the "Battle of
Joshua" in the Quirinal Gallery, the "Crucifixion of St Andrew" in the
church of that saint on Monte Cavallo, various works for the Jesuits,
some also in co-operation with his brother. His last production was
Christ admonishing Martha. His draughtsmanship is better than that of
Jacques, whom he did not, however, rival in spirit, colour or
composition. He also executed some etchings. Guillaume Courtois died of
gout on the 15th of June 1679.

COURTRAI (Flemish, _Kortryk_), an important and once famous town of West
Flanders, Belgium, situated on the Lys. Pop. (1904) 34,564. It is now
best known for its fine linen, which ranks with that of Larne. The lace
factories are also important and employ 5000 hands. But considerable as
is the prosperity of modern Courtrai it is but a shadow of what it was
in the middle ages during the halcyon period of the Flemish communes.
Then Courtrai had a population of 200,000, now it is little over a sixth
of that number. On the 11th of July 1302 the great battle of Courtrai
(see INFANTRY) was fought outside its walls, when the French army, under
the count of Artois, was vanquished by the allied burghers of Bruges,
Ypres and Courtrai with tremendous loss. As many as 700 pairs of golden
spurs were collected on the field from the bodies of French knights and
hung up as an offering in an abbey church of the town, which has long
disappeared. There are still, however, some interesting remains of
Courtrai's former grandeur. Perhaps the Pont de Broel, with its towers
at either end of the bridge, is as characteristic and complete as any
monument of ancient Flanders that has come down to modern times. The
hôtel de ville, which dated from the earlier half of the 16th century,
was restored in 1846, and since then statues have also been added to
represent those that formerly ornamented the façade. Two richly and
elaborately carved chimney-pieces in the hôtel de ville merit special
notice. The one in the council chamber upstairs dates from 1527 and
gives an allegorical representation of the Virtues and the Vices. The
other, three-quarters of a century later, contains an heraldic
representation of the noble families of the town. The church of St
Martin dates from the 15th century, but was practically destroyed in
1862 by a fire caused by lightning. It has been restored. The most
important building at Courtrai is the church of Notre Dame, which was
begun by Count Baldwin IX. in 1191 and finished in 1211. The portal and
the choir were reconstructed in the 18th century. In the chapel behind
the choir is hung one of Van Dyck's masterpieces, "The Erection of the
Cross." The chapel of the counts attached to the church dates from 1373,
and contained mural paintings of the counts and countesses of Flanders
down to the merging of the title in the house of Burgundy. Most if not
all of these had become obliterated, but they have now been carefully
restored. With questionable judgment portraits have been added of the
subsequent holders of the title down to the emperor Francis II. (I. of
Austria), the last representative of the houses of Flanders and Burgundy
to rule in the Netherlands. Courtrai celebrated the 600th anniversary of
the battle mentioned above by erecting a monument on the field in 1902,
and also by fêtes and historical processions that continued for a

Courtrai, the _Cortracum_ of the Romans, ranked as a town from the 7th
century onwards. It was destroyed by the Normans, but was rebuilt in the
10th century by Baldwin III. of Flanders, who endowed it with market
rights and laid the foundation of its industrial importance by inviting
the settlement of foreign weavers. The town was once more burnt, in
1382, by the French after the battle of Roosebeke, but was rebuilt in
1385 by Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy.

COURVOISIER, JEAN JOSEPH ANTOINE (1775-1835), French magistrate and
politician, was born at Besançon on the 30th of November 1775. During
the revolutionary period he left the country and served in the army of
the _émigrés_ and later in that of Austria. In 1801, under the
Consulate, he returned to France and established himself as an advocate
at Besançon, being appointed _conseiller-auditeur_ to the court of
appeal there in 1808. At the Restoration he was made advocate-general by
Louis XVIII., resigned and left France during the Hundred Days, and was
reappointed after the second Restoration in 1815. In 1817, after the
modification of the constitution by the _ordonnance_ of the 5th of
September, he was returned to the chamber of deputies, where he attached
himself to the left centre and supported the moderate policy of
Richelieu and Decazes. He was an eloquent speaker, and master of many
subjects; and his proved royalism made it impossible for the
ultra-Royalists to discredit him, much as they resented his consistent
opposition to their short-sighted violence. After the revolt at Lyons
in 1817 he was nominated _procureur-général_ of the city, and by his
sense and moderation did much to restore order and confidence. He was
again a member of the chamber from 1819 to 1824, and vigorously opposed
the exceptional legislation which the second administration of Richelieu
passed under the influence of the ultra-Royalists. In 1824 he failed to
secure re-election, and occupied himself with his judicial duties until
his nomination as councillor of state in 1827. On the 8th of August 1829
he accepted the offer of the portfolio of justice in the Polignac
ministry, but resigned on the 19th of May 1830, when he realized that
the government intended to abrogate the Charter and the inevitable
revolution that would follow. During the trial of the ex-ministers, in
December, he was summoned as a witness, and paid a tribute to the
character of his former colleagues which, under the circumstances,
argued no little courage. He refused to take office under Louis
Philippe, and retired into private life, dying on the 18th of September

COUSCOUS, or KOUS-KOUS (an Arabic word derived from _kaskasa_, to
pound), a dish common among the inhabitants of North Africa, made of
flour rubbed together and steamed over a stew of mutton, fowl, &c., with
which it is eaten.

COUSIN, JEAN (1500-1590), French painter, was born at Soucy, near Sens,
and began as a glass-painter, his windows in the Sainte Chapelle at
Vincennes being considered the finest in France. As a painter of subject
pictures he is ranked as the founder of the French school, as having
first departed from the practice of portraits. His "Last Judgment,"
influenced by Parmigiano, is in the Louvre, and a "Descent from the
Cross" (1523) in the museum at Mainz is attributed to him. He was known
also as a sculptor, and an engraver, both in etching and on wood, his
wood-cuts for Jean le Clerc's Bible (1596) and other books being his
best-known work. He also wrote a _Livre de perspective_ (1560), and a
_Livre de portraiture_ (1571).

  See Ambroise Firmin-Didot, _Étude sur J. Cousin_ (1872), and _Recueil
  des oeuvres choisies de J. Cousin_ (1873).

COUSIN, VICTOR (1792-1867), French philosopher, the son of a watchmaker,
was born in Paris, in the Quartier St Antoine, on the 28th of November
1792. At the age of ten he was sent to the grammar school of the
Quartier St Antoine, the Lycée Charlemagne. Here he studied until he was
eighteen. The lycée had a connexion with the university, and when Cousin
left the secondary school he was "crowned" in the ancient hall of the
Sorbonne for the Latin oration delivered by him there, in the general
concourse of his school competitors. The classical training of the lycée
strongly disposed him to literature. He was already known among his
compeers for his knowledge of Greek. From the lycée he passed to the
Normal School of Paris, where Laromiguière was then lecturing on
philosophy. In the second preface to the _Fragmens philosophiques_, in
which he candidly states the varied philosophical influences of his
life, Cousin speaks of the grateful emotion excited by the memory of the
day in 1811, when he heard Laromiguière for the first time. "That day
decided my whole life. Laromiguière taught the philosophy of Locke and
Condillac, happily modified on some points, with a clearness and grace
which in appearance at least removed difficulties, and with a charm of
spiritual _bonhomie_ which penetrated and subdued." Cousin was set
forthwith to lecture on philosophy, and he speedily obtained the
position of master of conferences (_maître de conférences_) in the
school. The second great philosophical impulse of his life was the
teaching of Royer-Collard. This teacher, as he tells us, "by the
severity of his logic, the gravity and weight of his words, turned me by
degrees, and not without resistance, from the beaten path of Condillac
into the way which has since become so easy, but which was then painful
and unfrequented, that of the Scottish philosophy." In 1815-1816 Cousin
attained the position of _suppléant_ (assistant) to Royer-Collard in the
history of modern philosophy chair of the faculty of letters. There was
still another thinker who influenced him at this early period,--Maine de
Biran, whom Cousin regarded as the unequalled psychological observer of
his time in France.

These men strongly influenced both the method and the matter of Cousin's
philosophical thought. To Laromiguière he attributes the lesson of
decomposing thought, even though the reduction of it to sensation was
inadequate. Royer-Collard taught him that even sensation is subject to
certain internal laws and principles which it does not itself explain,
which are superior to analysis and the natural patrimony of the mind. De
Biran made a special study of the phenomena of the will. He taught him
to distinguish in all cognitions, and especially in the simplest facts
of consciousness, the fact of voluntary activity, that activity in which
our personality is truly revealed. It was through this "triple
discipline," as he calls it, that Cousin's philosophical thought was
first developed, and that in 1815 he entered on the public teaching of
philosophy in the Normal School and in the faculty of letters.[1] He
then took up the study of German, worked at Kant and Jacobi, and sought
to master the _Philosophy of Nature_ of Schelling, by which he was at
first greatly attracted. The influence of Schelling may be observed very
markedly in the earlier form of his philosophy. He sympathized with the
principle of faith of Jacobi, but regarded it as arbitrary so long as it
was not recognized as grounded in reason. In 1817 he went to Germany,
and met Hegel at Heidelberg. In this year appeared Hegel's _Encyclopädie
der philosophischen Wissenschaften_, of which Cousin had one of the
earliest copies. He thought Hegel not particularly amiable, but the two
became friends. The following year Cousin went to Munich, where he met
Schelling for the first time, and spent a month with him and Jacobi,
obtaining a deeper insight into the _Philosophy of Nature_.

  Political troubles.

  Fragmens philosophiques.

The political troubles of France interfered for a time with his career.
In the events of 1814-1815 he took the royalist side. He at first
adopted the views of the party known as _doctrinaire_, of which
Royer-Collard was the philosophical chief. He seems then to have gone
farther than his party, and even to have approached the extreme Left.
Then came a reaction against liberalism, and in 1821-1822 Cousin was
deprived of his offices alike in the faculty of letters and in the
Normal School. The Normal School itself was swept away, and Cousin
shared at the hands of a narrow and illiberal government the fate of
Guizot, who was ejected from the chair of history. This enforced
abandonment of public teaching was not wholly an evil. He set out for
Germany with a view to further philosophical study. While at Berlin in
1824-1825 he was thrown into prison, either on some ill-defined
political charge at the instance of the French police, or on account of
certain incautious expressions which he had let fall in conversation.
Liberated after six months, he continued under the suspicion of the
French government for three years. It was during this period, however,
that he thought out and developed what is distinctive in his
philosophical doctrine. His eclecticism, his ontology and his philosophy
of history were declared in principle and in most of their salient
details in the _Fragmens philosophiques_ (Paris, 1826). The preface to
the second edition (1833) and the _Avertissement_ to the third (1838)
aimed at a vindication of his principles against contemporary criticism.
Even the best of his later books, the _Philosophie écossaise_ (4th ed.,
1863), the _Du vrai, du beau, et du bien_ (12th ed., 1872; Eng. trans.,
3rd ed., Edinburgh, 1854), and the _Philosophie de Locke_ (4th ed.,
1861) were simply matured revisions of his lectures during the period
from 1815 to 1820. The lectures on Locke were first sketched in 1819,
and fully developed in the course of 1829.

During the seven years of enforced abandonment of teaching he produced,
besides the _Fragmens_, the edition of the works of Proclus (6 vols.,
1820-1827), and the works of Descartes (11 vols., 1826). He also
commenced his _Translation of Plato_ (13 vols.), which occupied his
leisure time from 1825 to 1840.

We see in the _Fragmens_ very distinctly the fusion of the different
philosophical influences by which his opinions were finally matured. For
Cousin was as eclectic in thought and habit of mind as he was in
philosophical principle and system. It is with the publication of the
_Fragmens_ of 1826 that the first great widening of his reputation is
associated. In 1827 followed the _Cours de l'histoire de la

  Career as a lecturer.

In 1828 M. de Vatimesnil, minister of public instruction in Martignac's
ministry, recalled Cousin and Guizot to their professorial positions in
the university. The three years which followed were the period of
Cousin's greatest triumph as a lecturer. His return to the chair was the
symbol of the triumph of constitutional ideas and was greeted with
enthusiasm. The hall of the Sorbonne was crowded as the hall of no
philosophical teacher in Paris had been since the days of Abelard. The
lecturer had a singular power of identifying himself for the time with
the system which he expounded and the historical character he portrayed.
Clear and comprehensive in the grasp of the general outlines of his
subject, he was methodical and vivid in the representation of details.
In exposition he had the rare art of unfolding and aggrandizing. There
was a rich, deep-toned, resonant eloquence mingled with the speculative
exposition; his style of expression was clear, elegant and forcible,
abounding in happy turns and striking antitheses. To this was joined a
singular power of rhetorical climax. His philosophy exhibited in a
striking manner the generalizing tendency of the French intellect, and
its logical need of grouping details round central principles.

There was withal a moral elevation in his spiritual philosophy which
came home to the hearts of his hearers, and seemed to afford a ground
for higher development in national literature and art, and even in
politics, than the traditional philosophy of France had appeared capable
of yielding. His lectures produced more ardent disciples, imbued at
least with his spirit, than those of any other professor of philosophy
in France during the 18th century. Tested by the power and effect of his
teaching influence, Cousin occupies a foremost place in the rank of
professors of philosophy, who like Jacobi, Schelling and Dugald Stewart
have united the gifts of speculative, expository and imaginative power.
Tested even by the strength of the reaction which his writings have in
some cases occasioned, his influence is hardly less remarkable. The
taste for philosophy--especially its history--was revived in France to
an extent unknown since the 17th century.

  Disciples and followers.

Among the men who were influenced by Cousin we may note T. S. Jouffroy,
J. P. Damiron, Garnier, J. Barthélemy St Hilaire, F. Ravaisson-Mollien,
Rémusat, Jules Simon and A. Franck. Jouffroy and Damiron were first
fellow-students and then disciples. Jouffroy, however, always kept firm
to the early--the French and Scottish--impulses of Cousin's teaching.
Cousin continued to lecture regularly for two years and a half after his
return to the chair. Sympathizing with the revolution of July, he was at
once recognized by the new government as a friend of national liberty.
Writing in June 1833 he explains both his philosophical and his
political position:--

  "I had the advantage of holding united against me for many years both
  the sensational and the theological school. In 1830 both schools
  descended into the arena of politics. The sensational school quite
  naturally produced the demagogic party, and the theological school
  became quite as naturally absolutism, safe to borrow from time to time
  the mask of the demagogue in order the better to reach its ends, as in
  philosophy it is by scepticism that it undertakes to restore
  theocracy. On the other hand, he who combated any exclusive principle
  in science was bound to reject also any exclusive principle in the
  state, and to defend representative government."

The government was not slow to do him honour. He was induced by the
ministry of which his friend Guizot was the head to become a member of
the council of public instruction and counsellor of state, and in 1832
he was made a peer of France. He ceased to lecture, but retained the
title of professor of philosophy. Finally, he accepted the position of
minister of public instruction in 1840 under Thiers. He was besides
director of the Normal School and virtual head of the university, and
from 1840 a member of the Institute (Academy of the Moral and Political
Sciences). His character and his official position at this period gave
him great power in the university and in the educational arrangements
of the country. In fact, during the seventeen and a half years of the
reign of Louis Philippe, Cousin mainly moulded the philosophical and
even the literary tendencies of the cultivated class in France.

  Relation to primary education in France.

But the most important work he accomplished during this period was the
organization of primary instruction. It was to the efforts of Cousin
that France owed her advance, in primary education, between 1830 and
1848. Prussia and Saxony had set the national example, and France was
guided into it by Cousin. Forgetful of national calamity and of personal
wrong, he looked to Prussia as affording the best example of an
organized system of national education; and he was persuaded that "to
carry back the education of Prussia into France afforded a nobler (if a
bloodless) triumph than the trophies of Austerlitz and Jena." In the
summer of 1831, commissioned by the government, he visited Frankfort and
Saxony, and spent some time in Berlin. The result was a series of
reports to the minister, afterwards published as _Rapport sur l'état de
l'instruction publique dans quelques pays de l'Allemagne et
particulièrement en Prusse_. (Compare also _De l'instruction publique en
Hollande_, 1837.) His views were readily accepted on his return to
France, and soon afterwards through his influence there was passed the
law of primary instruction. (See his _Exposé des motifs et projet de loi
sur l'instruction primaire, présentés à la chambre des députés, séance
du 2 janvier 1833_.)

In the words of the _Edinburgh Review_ (July 1833), these documents
"mark an epoch in the progress of national education, and are directly
conducive to results important not only to France but to Europe." The
_Report_ was translated into English by Mrs Sarah Austin in 1834. The
translation was frequently reprinted in the United States of America.
The legislatures of New Jersey and Massachusetts distributed it in the
schools at the expense of the states. Cousin remarks that, among all the
literary distinctions which he had received, "None has touched me more
than the title of foreign member of the American Institute for
Education." To the enlightened views of the ministries of Guizot and
Thiers under the citizen-king, and to the zeal and ability of Cousin in
the work of organization, France owes what is best in her system of
primary education,--a national interest which had been neglected under
the Revolution, the Empire and the Restoration (see _Exposé_, p. 17). In
the first two years of the reign of Louis Philippe more was done for the
education of the people than had been either sought or accomplished in
all the history of France. In defence of university studies he stood
manfully forth in the chamber of peers in 1844, against the clerical
party on the one hand and the levelling or Philistine party on the
other. His speeches on this occasion were published in a tractate
_Défense de l'université et de la philosophie_ (1844 and 1845).

  Philosophical writings.

This period of official life from 1830 to 1848 was spent, so far as
philosophical study was concerned, in revising his former lectures and
writings, in maturing them for publication or reissue, and in research
into certain periods of the history of philosophy. In 1835 appeared _De
la Métaphysique d'Aristote, suivi d'un essai de traduction des deux
premiers livres_; in 1836, _Cours de philosophie professé à la faculté
des lettres pendant l'année 1818_, and _Ouvrages inédits d'Abélard_.
This _Cours de philosophie_ appeared later in 1854 as _Du vrai, du beau,
et du bien_. From 1825 to 1840 appeared _Cours de l'histoire de la
philosophie_, in 1829 _Manuel de l'histoire de la philosophie de
Tennemann_, translated from the German. In 1840-1841 we have _Cours
d'histoire de la philosophie morale au XVIII^e siècle_ (5 vols.). In
1841 appeared his edition of the _OEuvres philosophiques de
Maine-de-Biran_; in 1842, _Leçons de philosophie sur Kant_ (Eng. trans.
A. G. Henderson, 1854), and in the same year _Des Pensées de Pascal_.
The _Nouveaux fragments_ were gathered together and republished in 1847.
Later, in 1859, appeared _Petri Abaelardi Opera_.

  Literary studies.

During this period Cousin seems to have turned with fresh interest to
those literary studies which he had abandoned for speculation under the
influence of Laromiguière and Royer-Collard. To this renewed interest we
owe his studies of men and women of note in France in the 17th century.
As the results of his work in this line, we have, besides the _Des
Pensêes de Pascal_, 1842, _Études sur les femmes et la société du XVII^e
siècle_, 1853. He has sketched Jacqueline Pascal (1844), Madame de
Longueville (1853), the marquise de Sablé (1854), the duchesse de
Chevreuse (1856), Madame de Hautefort (1856).

When the reign of Louis Philippe came to a close through the opposition
of his ministry, with Guizot at its head, to the demand for electoral
reform and through the policy of the Spanish marriages, Cousin, who was
opposed to the government on these points, lent his sympathy to
Cavaignac and the Provisional government. He published a pamphlet
entitled _Justice et charité_, the purport of which showed the
moderation of his political views. It was markedly anti-socialistic. But
from this period he passed almost entirely from public life, and ceased
to wield the personal influence which he had done during the preceding
years. After the _coup d'état_ of the 2nd of December, he was deprived
of his position as permanent member of the superior council of public
instruction. From Napoleon and the Empire he stood aloof. A decree of
1852 placed him along with Guizot and Villemain in the rank of honorary
professors. His sympathies were apparently with the monarchy, under
certain constitutional safeguards. Speaking in 1853 of the political
issues of the spiritual philosophy which he had taught during his
lifetime, he says,--"It conducts human societies to the true republic,
that dream of all generous souls, which in our time can be realized in
Europe only by constitutional monarchy."[2]

During the last years of his life he occupied a suite of rooms in the
Sorbonne, where he lived simply and unostentatiously. The chief feature
of the rooms was his noble library, the cherished collection of a
lifetime. He died at Cannes on the 13th of January 1867, in his
sixty-fifth year. In the front of the Sorbonne, below the lecture rooms
of the faculty of letters, a tablet records an extract from his will, in
which he bequeaths his noble and cherished library to the halls of his
professorial work and triumphs.

_Philosophy._--There are three distinctive points in Cousin's
philosophy. These are his method, the results of his method, and the
application of the method and its results to history,--especially to the
history of philosophy. It is usual to speak of his philosophy as
eclecticism. It is eclectic only in a secondary and subordinate sense.
All eclecticism that is not self-condemned and inoperative implies a
system of doctrine as its basis,--in fact, a criterion of truth.
Otherwise, as Cousin himself remarks, it is simply a blind and useless
syncretism. And Cousin saw and proclaimed from an early period in his
philosophical teaching the necessity of a system on which to base his
eclecticism. This is indeed advanced as an illustration or confirmation
of the truth of his system,--as a proof that the facts of history
correspond to his analysis of consciousness. These three points--the
method, the results, and the philosophy of history--are with him
intimately connected; they are developments in a natural order of
sequence. They become in practice Psychology, Ontology and Eclecticism
in history.


First, as to method. On no point has Cousin more strongly insisted than
the importance of method in philosophy. That which he adopts, and the
necessity of which he so strongly proclaims, is the ordinary one of
observation, analysis and induction. This observational method Cousin
regards as that of the 18th century,--the method which Descartes began
and abandoned, and which Locke and Condillac applied, though
imperfectly, and which Reid and Kant used with more success, yet not
completely. He insists that this is the true method of philosophy as
applied to consciousness, in which alone the facts of experience appear.
But the proper condition of the application of the method is that it
shall not through prejudice of system omit a single fact of
consciousness. If the authority of consciousness is good in one
instance, it is good in all. If not to be trusted in one, it is not to
be trusted in any. Previous systems have erred in not presenting the
facts of consciousness, i.e. consciousness itself, in their totality.
The observational method applied to consciousness gives us the science
of psychology. This is the basis and the only proper basis of ontology
or metaphysics--the science of being--and of the philosophy of history.
To the observation of consciousness Cousin adds induction as the
complement of his method, by which he means inference as to reality
necessitated by the data of consciousness, and regulated by certain laws
found in consciousness, viz. those of reason. By his method of
observation and induction as thus explained, his philosophy will be
found to be marked off very clearly, on the one hand from the deductive
construction of notions of an absolute system, as represented either by
Schelling or Hegel, which Cousin regards as based simply on hypothesis
and abstraction, illegitimately obtained; and on the other, from that of
Kant, and in a sense, of Sir W. Hamilton, both of which in the view of
Cousin are limited to psychology, and merely relative or phenomenal
knowledge, and issue in scepticism so far as the great realities of
ontology are concerned. What Cousin finds psychologically in the
individual consciousness, he finds also spontaneously expressed in the
common sense or universal experience of humanity. In fact, it is with
him the function of philosophy to classify and explain universal
convictions and beliefs; but common-sense is not with him philosophy,
nor is it the instrument of philosophy; it is simply the material on
which the philosophical method works, and in harmony with which its
results must ultimately be found.


The three great results of psychological observation are Sensibility,
Activity or Liberty, and Reason.

These three facts are different in character, but are not found apart in
consciousness. Sensations, or the facts of the sensibility, are
necessary; we do not impute them to ourselves. The facts of reason are
also necessary, and reason is not less independent of the will than the
sensibility. Voluntary facts alone are marked in the eyes of
consciousness with the characters of imputability and personality. The
will alone is the person or _Me_. The me is the centre of the
intellectual sphere without which consciousness is impossible. We find
ourselves in a strange world, between two orders of phenomena which do
not belong to us, which we apprehend only on the condition of our
distinguishing ourselves from them. Further, we apprehend by means of a
light which does not come from ourselves. All light comes from the
reason, and it is the reason which apprehends both itself and the
sensibility which envelops it, and the will which it obliges but does
not constrain. Consciousness, then, is composed of these three integrant
and inseparable elements. But Reason is the immediate ground of
knowledge and of consciousness itself.

  Spontaneity in will.

But there is a peculiarity in Cousin's doctrine of activity or freedom,
and in his doctrine of reason, which enters deeply into his system. This
is the element of spontaneity in volition and in reason. This is the
heart of what is new alike in his doctrine of knowledge and being.
Liberty or freedom is a generic term which means a cause or being
endowed with self-activity. This is to itself and its own development
its own ultimate cause. Free-will is so, although it is preceded by
deliberation and determination, i.e. reflection, for we are always
conscious that even after determination we are free to will or not to
will. But there is a primary kind of volition which has not reflection
for its condition, which is yet free and spontaneous. We must have
willed thus spontaneously first, otherwise we could not know, before our
reflective volition, that we could will and act. Spontaneous volition is
free as reflective, but it is the prior act of the two. This view of
liberty of will is the only one in accordance with the facts of
humanity; it excludes reflective volition, and explains the enthusiasm
of the poet and the artist in the act of creation; it explains also the
ordinary actions of mankind, which are done as a rule spontaneously and
not after reflective deliberation.

  Impersonality of reason.

But it is in his doctrine of the Reason that the distinctive principle
of the philosophy of Cousin lies. The reason given to us by
psychological observation, the reason of our consciousness, is
impersonal in its nature. We do not make it; its character is precisely
the opposite of individuality; it is universal and necessary. The
recognition of universal and necessary principles in knowledge is the
essential point in psychology; it ought to be put first and emphasized
to the last that these exist, and that they are wholly impersonal or
absolute. The number of these principles, their enumeration and
classification, is an important point, but it is secondary to that of
the recognition of their true nature. This was the point which Kant
missed in his analysis, and this is the fundamental truth which Cousin
thinks he has restored to the integrity of philosophy by the method of
the observation of consciousness. And how is this impersonality or
absoluteness of the conditions of knowledge to be established? The
answer is in substance that Kant went wrong in putting necessity first
as the criterion of those laws. This brought them within the sphere of
reflection, and gave as their guarantee the impossibility of thinking
them reversed; and led to their being regarded as wholly relative to
human intelligence, restricted to the sphere of the phenomenal,
incapable of revealing to us substantial reality--necessary, yet
subjective. But this test of necessity is a wholly secondary one; these
laws are not thus guaranteed to us; they are each and all given to us,
given to our consciousness, in an act of spontaneous apperception or
apprehension, immediately, instantaneously, in a sphere above the
reflective consciousness, yet within the reach of knowledge. And "all
subjectivity with all reflection expires in the spontaneity of
apperception. The reason becomes subjective by relation to the voluntary
and free self; but in itself it is impersonal; it belongs not to this or
to that self in humanity; it belongs not even to humanity. We may say
with truth that nature and humanity belong to it, for without its laws
both would perish."

  Laws of reason.

But what is the number of those laws? Kant reviewing the enterprise of
Aristotle in modern times has given a complete list of the laws of
thought, but it is arbitrary in classification and may be legitimately
reduced. According to Cousin, there are but two primary laws of thought,
that of causality and that of substance. From these flow naturally all
the others. In the order of nature, that of substance is the first and
causality second. In the order of acquisition of our knowledge,
causality precedes substance, or rather both are given us in each other,
and are contemporaneous in consciousness.

These principles of reason, cause and substance, given thus
psychologically, enable us to pass beyond the limits of the relative and
subjective to objective and absolute reality,--enable us, in a word, to
pass from psychology, or the science of knowledge, to ontology or the
science of being. These laws are inextricably mixed in consciousness
with the data of volition and sensation, with free activity and fatal
action or impression, and they guide us in rising to a personal being, a
self or free cause, and to an impersonal reality, a not-me--nature, the
world of force--lying out of us, and modifying us. As I refer to myself
the act of attention and volition, so I cannot but refer the sensation
to some cause, necessarily other than myself, that is, to an external
cause, whose existence is as certain for me as my own existence, since
the phenomenon which suggests it to me is as certain as the phenomenon
which had suggested my reality, and both are given in each other. I thus
reach an objective impersonal world of forces which corresponds to the
variety of my sensations. The relation of these forces or causes to each
other is the order of the universe.

  The infinite or absolute.

But these two forces, the me and the not-me, are reciprocally
limitative. As reason has apprehended these two simultaneous phenomena,
attention and sensation, and led us immediately to conceive the two
sorts of distinct causes, correlative and reciprocally finite, to which
they are related, so, from the notion of this limitation, we find it
impossible under the same guide not to conceive a supreme cause,
absolute and infinite, itself the first and last cause of all. This is
relatively to self and not-self what these are to their proper effects.
This cause is self-sufficient, and is sufficient for the reason. This is
God; he must be conceived under the notion of cause, related to humanity
and the world. He is absolute substance only in so far as he is absolute
cause, and his essence lies precisely in his creative power. He thus
creates, and he creates necessarily.

  Charge of Pantheism.

This theodicy of Cousin laid him open obviously enough to the charge of
pantheism. This he repels, and his answer may be summed up as follows.
Pantheism is properly the deification of the law of phenomena, the
universe God. But I distinguish the two finite causes self and not-self
from each other and from the infinite cause. They are not mere
modifications of this cause or properties, as with Spinoza,--they are
free forces having their power or spring of action in themselves, and
this is sufficient for our idea of independent finite reality. I hold
this, and I hold the relation of these as effects to the one supreme
cause. The God I plead for is neither the deity of Pantheism, nor the
absolute unity of the Eleatics, a being divorced from all possibility of
creation or plurality, a mere metaphysical abstraction. The deity I
maintain is creative, and necessarily creative. The deity of Spinoza and
the Eleatics is a mere substance, not a cause in any sense. As to the
necessity under which Deity exists of acting or creating, this is the
highest form of liberty, it is the freedom of spontaneity, activity
without deliberation. His action is not the result of a struggle between
passion and virtue. He is free in an unlimited manner; the purest
spontaneity in man is but the shadow of the freedom of God. He acts
freely but not arbitrarily, and with the consciousness of being able to
choose the opposite part. He cannot deliberate or will as we do. His
spontaneous action excludes at once the efforts and the miseries of will
and the mechanical operation of necessity.

  History of philosophy.

The elements found in consciousness are also to be found in the history
of humanity and in the history of philosophy. In external nature there
are expansion and contraction which correspond to spontaneity and
reflection. External nature again in contrast with humanity expresses
spontaneity; humanity expresses reflection. In human history the East
represents the spontaneous stage; the Pagan and Christian world
represent stages of reflection.

This was afterwards modified, expanded and more fully expressed by
saying that humanity in its universal development has three principal
moments. First, in the spontaneous stage, where reflection is not yet
developed, and art is imperfect, humanity has thought only of the
immensity around it. It is preoccupied by the infinite. Secondly, in the
reflective stage, mind has become an object to itself. It thus knows
itself explicitly or reflectively. Its own individuality is now the only
or at least the supreme thing. This is the moment of the finite.
Thirdly, there comes an epoch in which the self or me is subordinated.
Mind realizes another power in the universe. The finite and the infinite
become two real correlatives in the relation of cause and product. This
is the third and highest stage of development, the relation of the
finite and the infinite. As philosophy is but the highest expression of
humanity, these three moments will be represented in its history. The
East typifies the infinite, Greece the finite or reflective epoch, the
modern era the stage of relation or correlation of infinite and finite.
In theology, the dominant philosophical idea of each of these epochs
results in pantheism, polytheism, theism. In politics we have in
correspondence also with the idea, monarchy, democracy,


Eclecticism thus means the application of the psychological method to
the history of philosophy. Confronting the various systems co-ordinated
as sensualism, idealism, scepticism, mysticism, with the facts of
consciousness, the result was reached "that each system expresses an
order of phenomena and ideas, which is in truth very real, but which is
not alone in consciousness, and which at the same time holds an almost
exclusive place in the system; whence it follows that each system is not
false but incomplete, and that in re-uniting all incomplete systems, we
should have a complete philosophy, adequate to the totality of
consciousness." Philosophy, as thus perfected, would not be a mere
aggregation of systems, as is ignorantly supposed, but an integration of
the truth in each system after the false or incomplete is discarded.

  Relations to Kant, Schelling and Hegel.

Such is the system in outline. The historical position of the system
lies in its relations to Kant, Schelling and Hegel. Cousin was opposed
to Kant in asserting that the unconditioned in the form of infinite or
absolute cause is but a mere unrealizable tentative or effort on the
part of the mind, something different from a mere negation, yet not
equivalent to a positive thought. With Cousin the absolute as the ground
of being is grasped positively by the intelligence, and it renders all
else intelligible; it is not as with Kant a certain hypothetical or
regulative need.

With Schelling again Cousin agrees in regarding this supreme ground of
all as positively apprehended, and as a source of development, but he
utterly repudiates Schelling's method. The intellectual intuition either
falls under the eye of consciousness, or it does not. If not, how do you
know it and its object which are identical? If it does, it comes within
the sphere of psychology; and the objections to it as thus a relative,
made by Schelling himself, are to be dealt with. Schelling's
intellectual intuition is the mere negation of knowledge.

Again the pure being of Hegel is a mere abstraction,--a hypothesis
illegitimately assumed, which he has nowhere sought to vindicate. The
very point to be established is the possibility of reaching being per se
or pure being; yet in the Hegelian system this is the very thing assumed
as a starting-point. Besides this, of course, objections might be made
to the method of development, as not only subverting the principle of
contradiction, but as galvanizing negation into a means of advancing or
developing the whole body of human knowledge and reality. The
intellectual intuition of Schelling, as above consciousness, the pure
being of Hegel, as an empty abstraction, unvindicated, illegitimately
assumed, and arbitrarily developed, are equally useless as bases of
metaphysics. This led Cousin, still holding by essential knowledge of
being, to ground it in an analysis of consciousness,--in psychology.

The absolute or infinite--the unconditioned ground and source of all
reality--is yet apprehended by us as an immediate datum or reality; and
it is apprehended in consciousness--under its condition, that, to wit,
of distinguishing subject and object, knower and known. The doctrine of
Cousin was criticized by Sir W. Hamilton in the _Edinburgh Review_ of
1829, and it was animadverted upon about the same time by Schelling.
Hamilton's objections are as follows. The correlation of the ideas of
infinite and finite does not necessarily imply their correality, as
Cousin supposes; on the contrary, it is a presumption that finite is
simply positive and infinite negative of the same--that the finite and
infinite are simply contradictory relatives. Of these "the positive
alone is real, the negative is only an abstraction of the other, and in
the highest generality even an abstraction of thought itself." A study
of the few sentences under this head might have obviated the trifling
criticism of Hamilton's objection which has been set afloat recently,
that the denial of a knowledge of the absolute or infinite implies a
foregone knowledge of it. How can you deny the reality of that which you
do not know? The answer to this is that in the case of contradictory
statements--A and not A--the latter is a mere negation of the former,
and posits nothing; and the negation of a notion with positive
attributes, as the finite, does not extend beyond abolishing the given
attributes as an object of thought. The infinite or non-finite is not
necessarily known, ere the finite is negated, or in order to negate it;
all that needs be known is the finite itself; and the contradictory
negation of it implies no positive. Non-organized may or may not
correspond to a positive--i.e. an object or notion with qualities
contradictory of the organized; but the mere sublation of the organized
does not posit it, or suppose that it is known beforehand, or that
anything exists corresponding to it. This is one among many flaws in the
Hegelian dialectic, and it paralyzes the whole of the _Logic_. Secondly,
the conditions of intelligence, which Cousin allows, necessarily exclude
the possibility of knowledge of the absolute--they are held to be
incompatible with its unity. Here Schelling and Hamilton argue that
Cousin's absolute is a mere relative. Thirdly, it is objected that in
order to deduce the conditioned, Cousin makes his absolute a relative;
for he makes it an absolute cause, i.e. a cause existing absolutely
under relation. As such it is necessarily inferior to the sum total of
its effects, and dependent for reality on these--in a word, a mere
potence or becoming. Further, as a theory of creation, it makes creation
a necessity, and destroys the notion of the divine. Cousin made no reply
to Hamilton's criticism beyond alleging that Hamilton's doctrine
necessarily restricted human knowledge and certainty to psychology and
logic, and destroyed metaphysics by introducing nescience and
uncertainty into its highest sphere--theodicy.

  Criticism of his philosophy. Impersonality of reason.

The attempt to render the laws of reason or thought impersonal by
professing to find them in the sphere of spontaneous apperception, and
above reflective necessity, can hardly be regarded as successful. It may
be that we first of all primitively or spontaneously affirm cause,
substance, time, space, &c., in this way. But these are still in each
instance given us as realized in a particular form. In no single act of
affirmation of cause or substance, much less in such a primitive act, do
we affirm the universality of their application. We might thus get
particular instances or cases of these laws, but we could never get the
laws themselves in their universality, far less absolute impersonality.
And as they are not supposed to be mere generalizations from experience,
no amount of individual instances of the application of any one of them
by us would give it a true universality. The only sure test we have of
their universality in our experience is the test of their reflective
necessity. We thus after all fall back on reflection as our ground for
their universal application; mere spontaneity of apprehension is futile;
their universality is grounded in their necessity, not their necessity
in their universality. How far and in what sense this ground of
necessity renders them personal are of course questions still to be

But if these three correlative facts are immediately given, it seems to
be thought possible by Cousin to vindicate them in reflective
consciousness. He seeks to trace the steps which the reason has
spontaneously and consciously, but irreflectively, followed. And here
the question arises--Can we vindicate in a reflective or mediate process
this spontaneous apprehension of reality?

The self is found to be a cause of force, free in its action, on the
ground that we are obliged to relate the volition of consciousness to
the self as its cause, and its ultimate cause. It is not clear from the
analysis whether the self is immediately observed as an acting or
originating cause, or whether reflection working on the principle of
causality is compelled to infer its existence and character. If self is
actually so given, we do not need the principle of causality to infer
it; if it is not so given, causality could never give us either the
notion or the fact of self as a cause or force, far less as an ultimate
one. All that it could do would be to warrant a cause of some sort, but
not this or that reality as the cause. And further, the principle of
causality, if fairly carried out, as universal and necessary, would not
allow us to stop at personality or will as the ultimate cause of its
effect--volition. Once applied to the facts at all, it would drive us
beyond the first antecedent or term of antecedents of volition to a
still further cause or ground--in fact, land us in an infinite regress
of causes.

The same criticism is even more emphatically applicable to the influence
of a not-self, or world of forces, corresponding to our sensations, and
the cause of them. Starting from sensation as our basis, causality could
never give us this, even though it be allowed that sensation is
impersonal to the extent of being independent of our volition. Causality
might tell us that a cause there is of sensation somewhere and of some
sort; but that this cause is a force or sum of forces, existing in
space, independently of us, and corresponding to our sensations, it
could never tell us, for the simple reason that such a notion is not
supposed to exist in our consciousness. Causality cannot add to the
number of our notions,--cannot add to the number of realities we know.
All it can do is to necessitate us to think that a cause there is of a
given change, but _what_ that cause is it cannot of itself inform us, or
even suggest to us, beyond implying that it must be adequate to the
effect. Sensation might arise, for aught we know, so far as causality
leads us, not from a world of forces at all, but from a will like our
own, though infinitely more powerful, acting upon us, partly furthering
and partly thwarting us. And indeed such a supposition is, with the
principle of causality at work, within the limits of probability, as we
are already supposed to know such a reality--a will--in our own
consciousness. When Cousin thus set himself to vindicate those points by
reflection, he gave up the obvious advantage of his other position that
the realities in question are given us in immediate and spontaneous
apprehension. The same criticism applies equally to the inference of an
absolute cause from the two limited forces which he names self and
not-self. Immediate spontaneous apperception may seize this supreme
reality; but to vindicate it by reflection as an inference on the
principle of causality is impossible. This is a mere paralogism; we can
never infer either absolute or infinite from relative or finite.

The truth is that Cousin's doctrine of the spontaneous apperception of
impersonal truth amounts to little more than a presentment in
philosophical language of the ordinary convictions and beliefs of
mankind. This is important as a preliminary stage, but philosophy
properly begins when it attempts to co-ordinate or systematize those
convictions in harmony, to conciliate apparent contradiction and
opposition, as between the correlative notions of finite and infinite,
the apparently conflicting notions of personality and infinitude, self
and not-self; in a word, to reconcile the various sides of consciousness
with each other. And whether the laws of our reason are the laws of all
intelligence and being--whether and how we are to relate our
fundamental, intellectual and moral conceptions to what is beyond our
experience, or to an infinite being--are problems which Cousin cannot be
regarded as having solved. These are in truth the outstanding problems
of modern philosophy.


Cousin's doctrine of spontaneity in volition can hardly be said to be
more successful than his impersonality of the reason through spontaneous
apperception. Sudden, unpremeditated volition may be the earliest and
the most artistic, but it is not the best. Volition is essentially a
free choice between alternatives, and that is best which is most
deliberate, because it is most rational. Aristotle touched this point in
his distinction between [Greek: boulêsis] and [Greek: proairesis]. The
sudden and unpremeditated wish represented by the former is wholly
inferior in character to the free choice of the latter, guided and
illumined by intelligence. In this we can deliberately resolve upon what
is in our power; in that we are subject to the vain impulse of wishing
the impossible. Spontaneity is pleasing, sometimes beautiful, but it is
not in this instance the highest quality of the thing to be obtained.
That is to be found in a guiding and illumining reflective activity.

  General estimate.

Eclecticism is not open to the superficial objection of proceeding
without a system or test in determining the complete or incomplete. But
it is open to the objection of assuming that a particular analysis of
consciousness has reached all the possible elements in humanity and in
history, and all their combinations. It may be asked, Can history have
that which is not in the individual consciousness? In a sense not; but
our analysis may not give all that is there, and we ought not at once to
impose that analysis or any formula on history. History is as likely to
reveal to us in the first place true and original elements, and
combinations of elements in man, as a study of consciousness. Besides,
the tendency of applying a formula of this sort to history is to assume
that the elements are developed in a certain regular or necessary order,
whereas this may not at all be the case; but we may find at any epoch
the whole mixed, either crossing or co-operative, as in the
consciousness of the individual himself. Further, the question as to how
these elements may possibly have grown up in the general consciousness
of mankind is assumed to be non-existent or impossible.

It was the tendency of the philosophy of Cousin to outline things and to
fill up the details in an artistic and imaginative interest. This is
necessarily the case, especially in the application to history of all
formulas supposed to be derived either from an analysis of
consciousness, or from an abstraction called pure thought. Cousin was
observational and generalizing rather than analytic and discriminating.
His search into principles was not profound, and his power of rigorous
consecutive development was not remarkable. He left no distinctive
permanent principle of philosophy. But he left very interesting
psychological analyses, and several new, just, and true expositions of
philosophical systems, especially that of Locke and the philosophers of
Scotland. He was at the same time a man of impressive power, of rare and
wide culture, and of lofty aim,--far above priestly conception and
Philistine narrowness. He was familiar with the broad lines of nearly
every system of philosophy ancient and modern. His eclecticism was the
proof of a reverential sympathy with the struggles of human thought to
attain to certainty in the highest problems of speculation. It was
eminently a doctrine of comprehension and of toleration. In these
respects it formed a marked and valuable contrast to the arrogance of
absolutism, to the dogmatism of sensationalism, and to the doctrine of
church authority, preached by the theological school of his day. His
spirit, while it influenced the youth of France, saved them from these
influences. As an educational reformer, as a man of letters and
learning, who trod "the large and impartial ways of knowledge," and who
swayed others to the same paths, as a thinker influential alike in the
action and the reaction to which he led, Cousin stands out conspicuously
among the memorable Frenchmen of the 19th century.

Sir W. Hamilton (_Discussions_, p. 541), one of his most resolute
opponents, described Cousin as "A profound and original thinker, a lucid
and eloquent writer, a scholar equally at home in ancient and in modern
learning, a philosopher superior to all prejudices of age or country,
party or profession, and whose lofty eclecticism, seeking truth under
every form of opinion, traces its unity even through the most hostile

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--J. Barthélemy St Hilaire, _V. Cousin, sa vie et sa
  correspondence_ (3 vols., Paris, 1895); H. Höffding, _Hist. of Mod.
  Phil._ ii. 311 (Eng. trans., 1900); C. E. Fuchs, _Die Philosophie
  Victor Cousins_ (Berlin, 1847); J. Alaux, _La Philos. de M. Cousin_
  (Paris, 1864); P. Janet, _Victor Cousin et son oeuvre_ (Paris,
  1885); Jules Simon, _V. Cousin_ (1887); Adolphe Franck, _Moralistes et
  philosophes_ (1872); J. P. Damiron, _Souvenirs de vingt ans
  d'enseignement_ (Paris, 1859); H. Taine in _Les Philosophes_ (Paris,
  1868), pp. 79-202.     (J. V.; X.)


  [1] _Fragmens philosophiques--préface deuxième._

  [2] _Du vrai, du beau, et du bien_ (preface).

COUSIN (Fr. _cousin_, Ital. _cugino_, Late Lat. _cosinus_, perhaps a
popular and familiar abbreviation of _consobrinus_, which has the same
sense in classical Latin), a term of relationship. Children of brothers
and sisters are to each other first cousins, or cousins-german; the
children of first cousins are to each other second cousins, and so on;
the child of a first cousin is to the first cousin of his father or
mother a first cousin once removed.

The word cousin has also, since the 16th century, been used by
sovereigns as an honorific style in addressing persons of exalted, but
not equal sovereign, rank, the term "brother" being reserved as the
style used by one sovereign in addressing another. Thus, in Great
Britain, dukes, marquesses and earls are addressed by the sovereign in
royal writs, &c., as "cousin." In France the kings thus addressed
princes of the blood royal, cardinals and archbishops, dukes and peers,
the marshals of France, the grand officers of the crown and certain
foreign princes. In Spain the right to be thus addressed is a privilege
of the grandees.

COUSINS, SAMUEL (1801-1887), English mezzotint engraver, was born at
Exeter on the 9th of May 1801. He was preeminently the interpreter of
Sir Thomas Lawrence, his contemporary. During his apprenticeship to S.
W. Reynolds he engraved many of the best amongst the three hundred and
sixty little mezzotints illustrating the works of Sir Joshua Reynolds
which his master issued in his own name. In the finest of his numerous
transcripts of Lawrence, such as "Lady Acland and her Sons," "Pope Pius
VII." and "Master Lambton," the distinguishing characteristics of the
engraver's work, brilliancy and force of effect in a high key,
corresponded exactly with similar qualities in the painter. After the
introduction of steel for engraving purposes about the year 1823,
Cousins and his contemporaries were compelled to work on it, because the
soft copper previously used for mezzotint plates did not yield a
sufficient number of fine impressions to enable the method to compete
commercially against line engraving, from which much larger editions
were obtainable. The painter-like quality which distinguished the
18th-century mezzotints on copper was wanting in his later works,
because the hardness of the steel on which they were engraved impaired
freedom of execution and richness of tone, and so enhanced the labour of
scraping that he accelerated the work by stipple, etching the details
instead of scraping them out of the "ground" in the manner of his
predecessors. To this "mixed style," previously used by Richard Earlom
on copper, Cousins added heavy roulette and rocking-tool textures,
tending to fortify the darks, when he found that the "burr" even on
steel failed to yield enough fine impressions to meet the demand. The
effect of his prints in this method after Reynolds and Millais was
mechanical and out of harmony with the picturesque technique of these
painters, but the phenomenal popularity which Cousins gained for his
works at least kept alive and in favour a form of mezzotint engraving
during a critical phase of its history. Abraham Raimbach, the line
engraver, dated the decline of his own art in England from the
appearance in 1837 of Cousins's print (in the "mixed style") after
Landseer's "Bolton Abbey." Such plates as "Miss Peel," after Lawrence
(published in 1833); "A Midsummer Night's Dream," after Landseer (1857);
"The Order of Release" and "The First Minuet," after Millais (1856 and
1868); "The Strawberry Girl" and "Lavinia, Countess Spencer," after
Reynolds; and "Miss Rich," after Hogarth (1873-1877), represent various
stages of Cousins's mixed method. It reached its final development in
the plates after Millais's "Cherry Ripe" and "Pomona," published in 1881
and 1882, when the invention of coating copper-plates with a film of
steel to make them yield larger editions led to the revival of pure
mezzotint on copper, which has since rendered obsolete the steel plate
and the mixed style which it fostered. The fine draughtsmanship of
Cousins was as apparent in his prints as in his original lead-pencil
portraits exhibited in London in 1882. In 1885 he was elected a full
member of the Royal Academy, to which institution he later gave in trust
£15,000 to provide annuities for superannuated artists who had not been
so successful as himself. One of the most important figures in the
history of British engraving, he died in London, unmarried, on the 7th
of May 1887.

  See George Pycroft, M.R.C.S.E., _Memoir of Samuel Cousins, R.A.,
  Member of the Legion of Honour_ (published for private circulation by
  E. E. Leggatt, London, 1899); Algernon Graves, _Catalogue of the Works
  of Samuel Cousins, R.A._ (published by H. Graves and Co., London,
  1888); and Alfred Whitman, _Samuel Cousins_ (published by George Bell
  & Sons, London, 1904), which contains a catalogue, good illustrations,
  and much detail useful to the collector and dealer.     (G. P. R.)

COUSTOU, the name of a famous family of French sculptors.

NICOLAS COUSTOU (1658-1733) was the son of a wood-carver at Lyons, where
he was born. At eighteen he removed to Paris, to study under C. A.
Coysevox, his mother's brother, who presided over the recently-established
Academy of Painting and Sculpture; and at three-and-twenty he gained the
Colbert prize, which entitled him to four years' education at the French
Academy at Rome. He afterwards became rector and chancellor of the Academy
of Painting and Sculpture. From the year 1700 he was a most active
collaborator with Coysevox at the palaces of Marly and Versailles. He was
remarkable for his facility; and though he was specially influenced by
Michelangelo and Algardi, his numerous works are among the most typical
specimens of his age now extant. The most famous are "La Seine et la
Marne," "La Saône," the "Berger Chasseur" in the gardens of the Tuileries,
the bas-relief "Le Passage du Rhin" in the Louvre, and the "Descent from
the Cross" placed behind the choir altar of Notre Dame at Paris.

His younger brother, GUILLAUME COUSTOU (1677-1746), was a sculptor of
still greater merit. He also gained the Colbert prize; but refusing to
submit to the rules of the Academy, he soon left it, and for some time
wandered houseless through the streets of Rome. At length he was
befriended by the sculptor Legros, under whom he studied for some time.
Returning to Paris, he was in 1704 admitted into the Academy of Painting
and Sculpture, of which he afterwards became director; and, like his
brother, he was employed by Louis XIV. His finest works are the famous
group of the "Horse Tamers," originally at Marly, now in the Champs
Elysées at Paris, the colossal group "The Ocean and the Mediterranean"
at Marly, the bronze "Rhône" which formed part of the statue of Louis
XIV. at Lyons, and the sculptures at the entrance of the Hôtel des
Invalides. Of these latter, the bas-relief representing Louis XIV.
mounted and accompanied by Justice and Prudence was destroyed during the
Revolution, but was restored in 1815 by Pierre Cartellier from Coustou's
model; the bronze figures of Mars and Minerva, on either side of the
doorway, were not interfered with.

Another GUILLAUME COUSTOU (1716-1777), the son of Nicolas, also studied
at Rome, as winner of the Colbert prize. While to a great extent a
copyist of his predecessors, he was much affected by the bad taste of
his time, and produced little or nothing of permanent value.

  See Louis Gougenot, _Éloge de M. Coustou le jeune_ (1903); Arsène
  Houssaye, _Histoire de l'art français au XVIII^e siècle_ (1860); Lady
  Dilke, _Gazette des beaux-arts_, vol. xxv. (1901) (2 articles).

COUTANCES, WALTER OF (d. 1207), bishop of Lincoln and archbishop of
Rouen, commenced his career in the chancery of Henry II., was elected
bishop of Lincoln in 1182, and in 1184 obtained, with the king's help,
the see of Rouen. Throughout his career he was much employed in
diplomatic and administrative duties. He started with Richard I. for the
Third Crusade, but was sent back from Messina to investigate the charges
which the barons and the official class had brought against the
chancellor, William Longchamp. There was no love lost between the two;
and they were popularly supposed to be rivals for the see of Canterbury.
The archbishop of Rouen sided with the barons and John, and sanctioned
Longchamp's deposition--a step which was technically warranted by the
powers which Richard had given, but by no means calculated to protect
the interests of the crown. The Great Council now recognized the
archbishop as chief justiciar, and he remained at the head of the
government till 1193, when he was replaced by Hubert Walter. The
archbishop did good service in the negotiations for Richard's release,
but subsequently quarrelled with his master and laid Normandy under an
interdict, because the border stronghold of Château Gaillard in the
Vexin had been built on his land without his consent. After Richard's
death the archbishop accepted John as the lawful heir of Normandy and
consecrated him as duke. But his personal inclinations leaned to Arthur
of Brittany, whom he was with difficulty dissuaded from supporting. The
archbishop accepted the French conquest of Normandy with equanimity
(1204), although he kept to his old allegiance while the issue of the
struggle was in doubt. He did not long survive the conquest, and his
later history is a blank.

  See W. Stubbs's editions of _Benedictus Abbas_, _Hoveden_ and _Diceto_
  (Rolls series); R. Howlett's edition of "William of Newburgh" and
  "Richard of Devizes" in _Chronicles, &c., of the Reigns of Stephen,
  Henry II. and Richard I._ (Rolls series). See also the preface to the
  third volume of Stubbs's _Hoveden_, pp. lix.-xcviii.; J. H. Round's
  _Commune of London_, and the French poem on _Guillaume le Maréchal_
  (ed. P. Meyer, _Soc. de l'Histoire de France_).     (H. W. C. D.)

COUTANCES, a town of north-western France, capital of an arrondissement
of the department of Manche, 7 m. E. of the English Channel and 58 m. S.
of Cherbourg on the Western railway. Pop. (1906) 6089. Coutances is
beautifully situated on the right bank of the Soulle on a granitic
eminence crowned by the celebrated cathedral of Notre-Dame. The date of
this church has been much disputed, but while traces of Romanesque
architecture survive, the building is, in the main, Gothic in style and
dates from the first half of the 13th century. The slender turrets
massed round the western towers and the octagonal central tower, which
forms a lantern within, are conspicuous features of the church. In the
interior, which comprises the nave with aisles, transept and choir with
ambulatory and side chapels, there are fine rose-windows with stained
glass of the 14th century, and other works of art. Of the other
buildings of Coutances the church of St Pierre, in which Renaissance
architecture is mingled with Gothic, and that of St Nicolas, of the 16th
and 17th centuries, demand mention. There is an aqueduct of the 14th
century to the west of the town. Coutances is a quiet town with winding
streets and pleasant boulevards bordering it on the east; on the western
slope of the hill there is a public garden. The town is the seat of a
bishop, a court of assizes and a sub-prefect; it has tribunals of first
instance and of commerce, a lycée for boys, a communal college and a
training college for girls, and an ecclesiastical seminary.
Leather-dressing and wool-spinning are carried on and there is trade in
live-stock, in agricultural produce, especially eggs, and in marble.

Coutances is the ancient _Cosedia_, which before the Roman conquest was
one of the chief towns in the country of the Unelli. Towards the end of
the 3rd century its name was changed to _Constantia_, in honour of the
emperor Constantius Chlorus, who fortified it. It became the capital of
the _pagus Constantinus_ (Cotentin), and in the middle ages was the seat
of a viscount. It has been an episcopal see since the 5th century. In
the 17th century it was the centre of the revolt of the _Nu-pieds_,
caused by the imposition of the salt-tax (_gabelle_).

  A good bibliography of general works and monographs on the archaeology
  and the history of the town and diocese of Coutances is given in U.
  Chevalier, _Répertoire des sources, &c., Topo-Bibliographie_
  (Montbéliard, 1894-1899), s.v.

COUTHON, GEORGES (1755-1794), French revolutionist, was born at Orcet, a
village in the district of Clermont in Auvergne. He studied law, and was
admitted advocate at Clermont in 1785. At this period he was noted for
his integrity, gentle-heartedness and charitable disposition. His health
was feeble and both legs were paralysed. In 1787 he was a member of the
provincial assembly of Auvergne. On the outbreak of the Revolution
Couthon, who was now a member of the municipality of Clermont-Ferrand,
published his _L'Aristocrate converti_, in which he revealed himself as
a liberal and a champion of constitutional monarchy. He became very
popular, was appointed president of the tribunal of the town of Clermont
in 1791, and in September of the same year was elected deputy to the
Legislative Assembly. His views had meanwhile been embittered by the
attempted flight of Louis XVI., and he distinguished himself now by his
hostility to the king. A visit to Flanders for the sake of his health
brought him into close intercourse and sympathy with Dumouriez. In
September 1792 Couthon was elected member of the National Convention,
and at the trial of the king voted for the sentence of death without
appeal. He hesitated for a time as to which party he should join, but
finally decided for that of Robespierre, with whom he had many opinions
in common, especially in matters of religion. He was the first to demand
the arrest of the proscribed Girondists. On the 30th of May 1793 he
became a member of the Committee of Public Safety, and in August was
sent as one of the commissioners of the Convention attached to the army
before Lyons. Impatient at the slow progress made by the besieging
force, he decreed a _levée en masse_ in the department of Puy-de-Dôme,
collected an army of 60,000 men, and himself led them to Lyons. When the
city was taken, on the 9th of October 1793, although the Convention
ordered its destruction, Couthon did not carry out the decree, and
showed moderation in the punishment of the rebels. The Republican
atrocities began only after Couthon was replaced, on the 3rd of November
1793, by Collot d'Herbois. Couthon returned to Paris, and on the 21st of
December was elected president of the Convention. He contributed to the
prosecution of the Hébertists, and was responsible for the law of the
22nd Prairial, which in the case of trials before the Revolutionary
Tribunal deprived the accused of the aid of counsel or of witnesses or
their defence, on the pretext of shortening the proceedings. During the
crisis preceding the 9th Thermidor, Couthon showed considerable courage,
giving up a journey to Auvergne in order, as he wrote, that he might
either die or triumph with Robespierre and liberty. Arrested with
Robespierre and Saint-Just, his colleagues in the triumvirate of the
Terror, and subjected to indescribable sufferings and insults, he was
taken to the scaffold on the same cart with Robespierre on the 28th of
July 1794 (10th Thermidor).

  See Fr. Mège, _Correspondance de Couthon ... suivie de "l'Aristocrate
  converti," comédie en deux actes de Couthon_ (Paris, 1872); and
  _Nouveaux Documents sur Georges Couthon_ (Clermont-Ferrand, 1890);
  also F. A. Aulard, _Les Orateurs de la Législative et de la
  Convention_ (Paris, 1885-1886), ii. 425-443.

COUTTS, THOMAS (1735-1822), English banker and founder of the banking
house of Coutts & Co., was born on the 7th of September 1735. He was the
fourth son of John Coutts (1699-1751), who carried on business in
Edinburgh as a corn factor and negotiator of bills of exchange, and who
in 1742 was elected lord provost of the city. The family was originally
of Montrose, but one of its members had settled at Edinburgh about 1696.
Soon after the death of John Coutts the business was divided into two
branches, one carried on in Edinburgh, the other in London. The banking
business in London was in the hands of James and Thomas Coutts, sons of
John Coutts. From the death of his brother in 1778, Thomas, as surviving
partner, became sole head of the firm; and under his direction the
banking house rose to the highest distinction. His ambition was to
establish his character as a man of business and to make a fortune; and
he lived to succeed in this aim and long to enjoy his reputation and
wealth. A gentleman in manners, hospitable and benevolent, he counted
amongst his friends some of the literary men and the best actors of his
day. Of the enormous wealth which came into his hands he made munificent
use. His private life was not without its romantic elements. Soon after
his settlement in London he married Elizabeth Starkey, a young woman of
humble origin, who was in attendance on the daughter of his brother
James. They lived happily together, and had three daughters--Susan,
married in 1796 to the 3rd earl of Guilford; Frances, married in 1800 to
John, 1st marquess of Bute; and Sophia, married in 1793 to Sir Francis
Burdett. Mrs Coutts dying in 1815, her husband soon after married the
popular actress, Harriet Mellon; and to her he left the whole of his
immense fortune. He died in London on the 24th of February 1822. His
widow married in 1827 the 9th duke of St Albans, and died ten years
later, having bequeathed her property to Angela, youngest daughter of
Sir Francis Burdett, who then assumed the additional name and arms of
Coutts. In 1871 this lady was created Baroness Burdett-Coutts (q.v.).

  See C. Rogers, _Genealogical Memoirs of the Families of Colt and
  Coutts_ (1879); and R. Richardson, _Coutts & Co._ (1900).

COUTURE, THOMAS (1815-1879), French painter, was born at Senlis (Oise),
and studied under Baron A. J. Gros and Paul Delaroche, winning a Prix de
Rome in 1837. He began exhibiting historical and _genre_ pictures at the
Salon in 1840, and obtained several medals. His masterpiece was his
"Romans in the Decadence of the Empire" (1847), now in the Luxembourg;
and his "Love of Money" (1844; at Toulouse), "Falconer" (1855), and
"Damocles" (1872), are also good examples.

COUVADE (literally a "brooding," from Fr. _couver_, to hatch, Lat.
_cubare_, to lie down), a custom so called in Béarn, prevalent among
several peoples in different parts of the world, requiring that the
father, at and sometimes before the birth of his child, shall retire to
bed and fast or abstain from certain kinds of food, receiving the
attentions generally shown to women at their confinements. The existence
of the custom in ancient classical times is testified to by Apollonius
Rhodius, Diodorus (who refers to its existence among the Corsicans), and
Strabo (who noticed it among the Spanish Basques, by whom, as well as by
the Gascons, it has been said to be still observed, though the most
recent researches entirely discredit this). Travellers, from the time of
Marco Polo, who relates its observance in Chinese Turkestan, have found
the custom to prevail in China, India, Borneo, Siam, Africa and the
Americas. Even in Europe it cannot be said to have entirely disappeared.
In certain of the Baltic provinces of Russia the husband, on the
lying-in of the wife, takes to his bed and groans in mock pain. One
writer believes he found traces of it in the little island of Marken in
the Zuyder Zee. Even in rural England, notably in East Anglia, a
curiously obstinate belief survives (the prevalence of which in earlier
times is proved by references to it in Elizabethan drama) that the
pregnancy of the woman affects the man, and the young husband who
complains of a toothache is assailed by pleasantries as to his wife's
condition. In Guiana the custom is observed in its most typical form.
The woman works to within a few hours of the birth, but some days before
her delivery the father leaves his occupations and abstains from certain
kinds of animal food lest the child should suffer. Thus the flesh of the
agouti is forbidden, lest the child should be lean, and that of the
capibara or water-cavy, for fear he should inherit through his father's
gluttony that creature's projecting teeth. A few hours before delivery
the woman goes alone, or with one or two women-friends, into the forest,
where the baby is born. She returns as soon as she can stand, to her
work, and the man then takes to his hammock and becomes the invalid. He
must do no work, must touch no weapons, is forbidden all meat and food,
except at first a fermented liquor and after the twelfth day a weak
gruel of _cassava_ meal. He must not even smoke, or wash himself, but is
waited on hand and foot by the women. So far is the comedy carried that
he whines and groans as if in actual pain. Six weeks after the birth of
the child he is taken in hand by his relatives, who lacerate his skin
and rub him with a decoction of the pepper-plant. A banquet is then held
from which the patient is excluded, for he must not leave his bed till
several days later; and for six months he must eat the flesh of neither
fish nor bird. Almost identical ceremonies have been noticed among the
natives of California and New Mexico; while in Greenland and Kamchatka
the husband may not work for some time before and after his wife's
confinement. Among the Larkas of Bengal a period of isolation and
uncleanness, synchronous with that compulsory on the woman, is
imperative for the man, on the conclusion of which the child's parentage
is publicly proclaimed.

No certain explanation can be offered for the custom. The most
reasonable view is that adopted by E. B. Tylor, who traces in it the
transition from the earlier matriarchal to the later patriarchal system
of tribe-organization. Among primitive tribes, and probably in all ages,
the former order of society, in which descent and inheritance are
reckoned through the mother alone, as being the earliest form of family
life, is and was very common, if not universal. The acknowledgment of a
relationship between father and son is characteristic of the progress of
society towards a true family life. It may well be that the Couvade
arose in the father's desire to emphasize the bond of blood between
himself and his child. It is a fact that in some countries the father
has to purchase the child from its mother; and in the Roman ceremony of
the husband raising the baby from the floor we may trace the savage idea
that the male parent must formally proclaim his adoption of and
responsibility for the offspring. Max Müller, in his _Chips from a
German Workshop_, endeavoured to find an explanation in primitive
"henpecking," asserting that the unfortunate husband was tyrannized over
by "his female relatives and afterwards frightened into
superstition,"--that, in fact, the whole fabric of ceremony is reared on
nothing but masculine hysteria; but this theory can scarcely be taken
seriously. The missionary, Joseph François Lafitau, suspected a
psychological reason, assuming the custom to be a dim recollection of
original sin, the isolation and fast types of repentance. The
explanation of the American Indians is that if the father engaged in any
hard or hazardous work, e.g. hunting, or was careless in his diet, the
child would suffer and inherit the physical faults and peculiarities of
the animals eaten. This belief that a person becomes possessed of the
nature and form of the animal he eats is widespread, being as prevalent
in the Old World as in the New, but it is insufficient to account for
the minute ceremonial details of La Couvade as practised in many lands.
It is far more likely that so universal a practice has no trivial
beginnings, but is to be considered as a mile-stone marking a great
transitional epoch in human progress.

  AUTHORITIES.--E. B. Tylor's _Early History of Man_ (1865; 2nd ed. p.
  301); F. Max Müller, _Chips from a German Workshop_ (1868-1875), ii.
  281; Lord Avebury, _Origin of Civilisation_ (1900); Brett's _Indian
  Tribes of Guiana_; Johann Baptist von Spix and Karl F. P. von Martius,
  _Travels in Brazil_ (1823-1831), ii. 281; J. F. Lafitau, _Moeurs des
  sauvages américains_ (1st ed., 1724); W. Z. Ripley, _Races of Europe_
  (1900); A. H. Keane's _Ethnology_ (1896), p. 368 and footnote; A.
  Giraud-Teulon, _Les Origines du mariage et de la famille_ (Paris,

COVE, a word mostly used in the sense of a small inlet or sheltered bay
in a coast-line. In English dialect usage it is also applied to a cave
or to a recess in a mountain-side. The word in O. Eng. is _cofa_, and
cognate forms are found in the Ger. _Koben_, Norwegian _kove_, and in
various forms in other Teutonic languages. It has no connexion with
"alcove," recess in a room or building, which is derived through the
Span. _alcoba_ from Arab. _al_, the, and _qubbah_, vault, arch, nor with
"cup" or "coop," nor with "cave" (Lat. _cava_). The use of the word was
first confined to a small chamber or cell or inner recess in a room or
building. From this has come the particular application in architecture
to any kind of concave moulding, the term being usually applied to the
quadrantal curve rising from the cornice of a lofty room to the moulded
borders of the horizontal ceiling. The term "coving" is given in
half-timbered work to the curved soffit under a projecting window, or in
the 18th century to that occasionally found carrying the gutter of a
house. In the Musée Plantin at Antwerp the hearth of the fireplace of
the upper floor is carved on coving, which forms part of the design of
the chimney-piece in the room below. The slang use of "cove" for any
male person, like a "fellow," "chap," &c., is found in the form "cofe"
in T. Harman's _Caveat for Cursetors_ (1587) and other early quotations.
This seems to be identical with the Scots word "cofe," a pedlar, hawker,
which is formed from "coff," to sell, purchase, cognate with the Ger.
_kaufen_, to buy, and the native English "cheap." The word "cove,"
therefore, is in ultimate origin the same as "chap," short for
"chapman," a pedlar.

COVELLITE, a mineral species consisting of cupric sulphide, CuS,
crystallizing in the hexagonal system. It is of less frequent occurrence
in nature than copper-glance, the orthorhombic cuprous sulphide.
Crystals are very rare, the mineral being usually found as compact and
earthy masses or as a blue coating on other copper sulphides. Hardness
1½-2; specific gravity 4.6. The dark indigo-blue colour is a
characteristic feature, and the mineral was early known as indigo-copper
(Ger. _Kupferindig_). The name covellite is taken from N. Covelli, who
in 1839 observed crystals of cupric sulphide encrusting Vesuvian lava,
the mineral having been formed here by the interaction of hydrogen
sulphide and cupric chloride, both of which are volatile volcanic
products. Covellite is, however, more commonly found in copper-bearing
veins, where it has resulted by the alteration of other copper
sulphides, namely chalcopyrite, copper-glance and erubescite. It is
found in many copper mines; localities which may be specially mentioned
are Sangerhausen in Prussian Saxony, Butte in Montana, and Chile; in the
Medicine Bow Mountains of Wyoming a platiniferous covellite is mined,
the platinum being present as sperrylite (platinum arsenide).
     (L. J. S.)

COVENANT (an O. Fr. form, later _convenant_, from _convenir_, to agree,
Lat. _convenire_), a mutual agreement of two or more parties, or an
undertaking made by one of the parties. In the Bible the Hebrew word
[Hebrew: briia], _b[)e]r[=i]th_, is used widely for many kinds of
agreements; it is then applied to a contract between two persons or to a
treaty between two nations, such as the covenant made between Abimelech
and Isaac, representing a treaty between the Israelites and the
Philistines (Gen. xxvi. 26, seq.); more particularly to an engagement
made between God and men, or such agreements as, by the observance of a
religious rite, regarded God as a party to the engagement. Two
suggestions have been made for the derivation of _b[)e]r[=i]th_: (1)
tracing the word from a root "to cut," and the reference is to the
primitive rite of cutting victims into parts, between which the parties
to an agreement passed, cf. the Greek [Greek: horkia temnein], and the
account (Gen. xv. 17) of the covenant between God and Abraham, where "a
smoking furnace and burning lamp passed between the pieces" of the
victims Abraham had sacrificed; (2) connecting it with an
Assyrio-Babylonian _biritu_, fetter, alliance. _B[)e]r[=i]th_ was
translated in the Septuagint by [Greek: diathêkê], which in classical
Greek had the meaning of "will"; hence the Vulgate, in the Psalms and
the New Testament, translates the word by _testamentum_, but elsewhere
in the Old Testament by _foedus_ or _pactum_; similarly Wycliffe's
version gives "testament" and "covenant" respectively. The books of
Scripture dealing with the old or Mosaic, and new or Christian
dispensation are sometimes known as the Books of the Old and the New
Covenant. The word appears in the system of theology developed by
Johannes Cocceius (q.v.), and known as the "Covenant" or "Federal"
Theology, based on the two Covenants of Works or Life made by God with
Adam, on condition of obedience, and of grace or redemption, made with
Christ. In Scottish ecclesiastical history, covenant appears in the two
agreements signed by the members of the Scottish Church in defence of
their religious and ecclesiastical systems (see COVENANTERS).

COVENANT, in law, is the English equivalent of the Lat. _conventio_,
which, although not technical, was the most general word in Roman law
for "agreement." It was frequently used along with _pactum_, also a
general term, but applied especially to agreements to settle a question
without carrying it before the courts of law.

The word "covenant" has been used in a variety of senses in English law.

1. In its strict sense, covenant means an agreement _under seal_, that
something has or has not already been done, or shall or shall not be
done hereafter (Shep. _Touchstone_, 160, 162). It is most commonly used
with reference to sales or leases of land, but is sometimes applied to
any promise or stipulation, whether under seal or not. The person who
makes, and is bound to perform, the promise or stipulation is the
covenantor: the person in whose favour it is made is the covenantee.

2. Covenants have been subdivided into numerous classes, only a few of
which need to be described. It is unnecessary to do more than mention
affirmative and negative covenants, joint or several, alternative or
disjunctive covenants, dependent or independent covenants. As to
collateral covenants, covenants "running with the land," and covenants
in leases (including "usual," "proper" and "restrictive" covenants), see
LANDLORD and TENANT. But there are other classes as to which something
must be said.

A covenant is said to be _express_ when it is created by the express
words of the parties to the deed declaratory of their intention. It is
not indispensable that the word "covenant" should be used. Any word
which clearly indicates the intention of the parties to covenant will
suffice. An _implied_ covenant, or _covenant in law_, "depends for its
existence on the intendment and construction of law. There are some
words which of themselves do not import an express covenant, yet, being
made use of in certain contracts, have a similar operation and are
called covenants in law; and they are as effectually binding on the
parties as if expressed in the most unequivocal terms" (Platt on
_Covenants_, p. 40). Thus, the word "demise," used in a lease of deed,
raises the implication of a covenant both for "quiet enjoyment" and for
title to let; and it has been judicially suggested that a covenant for
quiet enjoyment may be implied from any word or words of like import
(_Budd-Scott_ v. _Daniell_, 1902, 2 K.B. p. 359). The Conveyancing Act
1881 provides (§ 7) that in a conveyance for valuable consideration,
other than a mortgage, there shall be implied, as against the person who
conveys and is expressed to convey as "beneficial owner," certain
_qualified_ covenants--i.e. covenants extending only to the acts or
omissions of the vendor, persons through whom he derives title otherwise
than by purchase for value, and persons claiming under them--for "right
to convey," "quiet enjoyment," "freedom from incumbrances" and "further
assurance." Of these statutory covenants for title the only one which
requires explanation is the covenant for further assurance. It imports
an agreement on the part of the covenantor to do such reasonable acts,
in addition to those already performed, as may be necessary for the
completion of the transfer made (or intended to be made) at the
requirements of the covenantee (Platt on _Covenants_, p. 341). All these
statutory implied covenants "run with the land" (see LANDLORD and
TENANT). Where a mortgagor conveys, and is expressed to convey, as
"beneficial owner," there are implied _absolute_ covenants--i.e.
covenants amounting to a warranty against and for the acts and omissions
of the whole world--that he has a right to convey, that the mortgagee
shall have quiet enjoyment of the property after default, free from
incumbrances and for further assurance. Special provisions as to implied
covenants by the lessor in leases are made in England by § 7 (B) of the
Conveyancing Act 1881 and in Ireland by the Land Act (Ireland) 1860, §
41. The distinction between _real_ and _personal_ covenants is that the
former do, while the latter do not, run with the land. An _inherent_
covenant is another name for a _real_ covenant (Shep. _Touchstone_, 176;
Platt, 60). When a covenant relates to an act already done, it is
usually termed a covenant _executed_; where the performance is future,
the covenant is termed _executory_. The _covenant for seisin_ was an
assurance to the grantee that the grantor had the estate which he
purported to convey. In England it is now included in the covenant for
right to convey; but is still in separate use in several states in
America. The _covenant to stand seised to uses_ was an assurance by
means of which, under the Statute of Uses [1536] (see USES), a
conveyance of an estate might be effected. When such a covenant is made,
the legal estate in the land passes at once to the covenantee under the
statute. The consideration for the covenant must be relationship by
blood or marriage. It is still occasionally though very rarely employed.
The _covenant not_ to _sue_ belongs to the law of contract and needs no

  Most of the classes of covenants above mentioned are in use in the
  United States. In New York, Michigan, Minnesota, Oregon, Wisconsin and
  Wyoming the implication of covenants for title has been, with certain
  exceptions, prohibited by statute. In Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware,
  Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico,
  Pennsylvania and Texas the words _grant_, _bargain_ and _sell_, in
  conveyances in fee, unless specially restricted, amount to qualified
  covenants that the grantor was seised in fee, free from incumbrances,
  and for quiet enjoyment (4 Kent, _Commentaries_, § 473; Bouvier, _Law
  Dictionary_, s.v. Covenant). In some of the states a _covenant of
  non-claim_, or of _warranty_, an assurance by the grantor that neither
  he nor his heirs, nor any other person shall claim any title in the
  premises conveyed, is in general use.

3. An _action of covenant_ lay for breaking covenant. As to the history
of this action see Pollock and Maitland, _History of English Law_, ii.
106; and Holmes, _The Common Law_, p. 272. There was also a _writ of
covenant_. But this remedy had fallen into disuse before 1830 (see Platt
on _Covenants_, p. 543), and was abolished by the Common Law Procedure
Acts. Since the Judicature Acts, an action on a covenant follows the
same course as, and is indistinguishable from, any ordinary action for
breach of contract. The remedy is by damages, decree of specific
performance or injunction to prevent the breach.

  The term "covenant" is unknown to Scots law. But its place is filled
  to some extent by the doctrine of "warrandice." Many of the British
  colonies have legislated, as to the implication of covenants for
  title, on the lines of the English Conveyancing Act 1881; e.g.
  Tasmania, Conveyancing and Law of Property Act 1884 (47 Vict. No. 10).

  As to covenants in restraint of trade see RESTRAINT.

  AUTHORITIES.--In addition to the authorities cited in the text see:
  _English Law_; Goodeve, _Law of Real Property_ (5th ed., London,
  1906); C. Foa, _Landlord and Tenant_ (3rd ed., London, 1901);
  Hamilton, _Law of Covenants_ (London); Fawcett, _Law of Landlord and
  Tenant_ (3rd ed., London, 1905). _American Law: Rawle, Law of
  Covenants for Title_ (Boston, 1887); _Encyclopaedia of American Law_
  (3rd ed., 1890), vol. viii., tit. "Covenants."     (A. W. R.)

COVENANTERS, the name given to a party which, originating in the
Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of
Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th
century. The Covenanters were thus named because in a series of _bands_
or _covenants_ they bound themselves to maintain the Presbyterian
doctrine and polity as the sole religion of their country. The first
"godly band" is dated December 1557; but more important is the covenant
of 1581, drawn up by John Craig in consequence of the strenuous efforts
which the Roman Catholics were making to regain their hold upon
Scotland, and called the King's Confession or National Covenant. Based
upon the Confession of Faith of 1560, this document denounced the pope
and the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church in no measured terms. It
was adopted by the General Assembly, signed by King James VI. and his
household, and enjoined on persons of all ranks and classes; and was
again subscribed in 1590 and 1596. In 1637 Scotland was in a state of
turmoil. Charles I. and Archbishop Laud had just met with a reverse in
their efforts to impose the English liturgy upon the Scots; and fearing
further measures on the part of the king, it occurred to Archibald
Johnston, Lord Warriston, to revive the National Covenant of 1581.
Additional matter intended to suit the document to the special
circumstances of the time was added, and the covenant was adopted and
signed by a large gathering in Greyfriars' churchyard, Edinburgh, on the
28th of February 1638, after which copies were sent throughout the
country for additional signatures. The subscribers engaged by oath to
maintain religion in the state in which it existed in 1580, and to
reject all innovations introduced since that time, while professed
expressions of loyalty to the king were added. The General Assembly of
1638 was composed of ardent Covenanters, and in 1640 the covenant was
adopted by the parliament, and its subscription was required from all
citizens. Before this date the Covenanters were usually referred to as
_Supplicants_, but from about this time the former designation began to

A further development took place in 1643. The leaders of the English
parliament, worsted in the Civil War, implored the aid of the Scots,
which was promised on condition that the Scottish system of church
government was adopted in England. After some haggling a document called
the Solemn League and Covenant was drawn up. This was practically a
treaty between England and Scotland for the preservation of the reformed
religion in Scotland, the reformation of religion in England and Ireland
"according to the word of God and the example of the best reformed
churches," and the extirpation of popery and prelacy. It was subscribed
by many in both kingdoms and also in Ireland, and was approved by the
English parliament, and with some slight modifications by the
Westminster Assembly of Divines. Charles I. refused to accept it when he
surrendered himself to the Scots in 1646, but he made important
concessions in this direction in the "Engagement" made with the Scots in
December 1647. Charles II. before landing in Scotland in June 1650
declared by a solemn oath his approbation of both covenants, and this
was renewed on the occasion of his coronation at Scone in the following

From 1638 to 1651 the Covenanters were the dominant party in Scotland,
directing her policy both at home and abroad. Their power, however,
which had been seriously weakened by Cromwell's victory at Dunbar in
September 1651, was practically destroyed when Charles II. was restored
nine years later. Firmly seated upon the throne Charles renounced the
covenants, which in 1662 were declared unlawful oaths, and were to be
abjured by all persons holding public offices. Episcopacy was restored,
the court of high commission was revived, and ministers who refused to
recognize the authority of the bishops were expelled from their livings.
Gathering around them many of the Covenanters who clung tenaciously to
their standards of faith, these ministers began to preach in the fields,
and a period of persecution marked by savage hatred and great brutality
began. Further oppressive measures were directed against the
Covenanters, who took up arms about 1665, and the struggle soon assumed
the proportions of a rebellion. The forces of the crown under John
Graham of Claverhouse and others were sent against them, and although
the insurgents gained isolated successes, in general they were worsted
and were treated with great barbarity. They maintained, however, their
cherished covenants with a zeal which persecution only intensified; in
1680 the more extreme members of the party signed a document known as
the "Sanquhar Declaration," and were afterwards called Cameronians from
the name of their leader, Richard Cameron (q.v.). They renounced their
allegiance to King James and were greatly disappointed when their
standards found no place in the religious settlement of 1689, continuing
to hold the belief that the covenants should be made obligatory upon the
entire nation. The Covenanters had a martyrology of their own, and the
halo of romance has been cast around their exploits and their
sufferings. Their story, however, especially during the time of their
political predominance, is part of the general history of Scotland

  The texts of the National Covenant and the Solemn League and Covenant
  are printed in S. R. Gardiner's _Constitutional Documents of the
  Puritan Revolution_ (Oxford, 1899). See also J. H. Burton, _History of
  Scotland_ (Edinburgh, 1905); A. Lang, _History of Scotland_
  (Edinburgh, 1900); S. R. Gardiner, _History of England_ (London,
  1883-1884); G. Grub, _Ecclesiastical History of Scotland_ (Edinburgh,
  1861); J. Macpherson, _History of the Church in Scotland_ (Paisley,
  1901); and J. K. Hewison, _The Covenanters_ (1908).

COVENT GARDEN, formerly an open space north of the Strand, London,
England, now occupied by the principal flower, fruit and vegetable
market in the metropolis. This was originally the so-called "convent
garden" belonging to the abbey of St Peter, Westminster. In the first
half of the 17th century the site of the garden was laid out as a square
by Inigo Jones, with a piazza on two sides; and as early as 1656 it was
becoming a market place for the same commodities as are now sold in it.
Covent Garden Theatre (1858) is the chief seat of grand opera in London.
The site has carried a theatre since 1733, but earlier buildings were
burnt in 1809 and 1856.

COVENTRY, SIR JOHN (d. 1682), son of John Coventry, the second son of
Thomas, Lord Keeper Coventry, was returned to the Long Parliament in
1640 as member for Evesham. During the Civil War he served for the king,
and at the Restoration was created a knight. In 1667, and in the
following parliaments of 1678, 1679 and 1681, he was elected for
Weymouth, and opposed the government. On the 21st of December 1670,
owing to a jest made by Coventry in the House of Commons on the subject
of the king's amours, Sir Thomas Sandys, an officer of the guards, with
other accomplices, by the order of Monmouth, and (it was said) with the
approval of the king himself, waylaid him as he was returning home to
Suffolk Street and slit his nose to the bone. The outrage created an
extraordinary sensation, and in consequence a measure known as the
"Coventry Act" was passed, declaring assaults accompanied by personal
mutilation a felony without benefit of clergy. Sir John died in 1682.
Sir William Coventry, his uncle, speaks slightingly of him, ridicules
his vanity and wishes him out of the House of Commons to be "out of
harm's way."

COVENTRY, THOMAS COVENTRY, 1ST BARON (1578-1640), lord keeper of
England, eldest son of Sir Thomas Coventry, judge of the common pleas (a
descendant of John Coventry, lord mayor of London in the reign of Henry
VI.), and of Margaret Jeffreys of Earls Croome, or Croome D'Abitot, in
Worcestershire, was born in 1578. He entered Balliol College, Oxford, in
1592, and the Inner Temple in 1594, becoming bencher of the society in
1614, reader in 1616, and holding the office of treasurer from 1617 till
1621. His exceptional legal abilities were rewarded early with official
promotion. On the 16th of November 1616 he was made recorder of London
in spite of Bacon's opposition, who, although allowing him to be "a well
trained and an honest man," objected that he was "bred by my Lord Coke
and seasoned in his ways."[1] On the 14th of March 1617 he was appointed
solicitor-general and was knighted; was returned for Droitwich to the
parliament of 1621; and on the 11th of January in that year was made
attorney-general. He took part in the proceedings against Bacon for
corruption, and was manager for the Commons in the impeachment of Edward
Floyd for insulting the elector and electress palatine.

On the 1st of November 1625 he was made lord keeper of the great seal;
in this capacity he delivered the king's reprimand to the Commons on the
29th of March 1626, when he declared that "liberty of counsel" alone
belonged to them and not "liberty of control." On the 10th of April 1628
he received the title of Baron Coventry of Aylesborough in
Worcestershire. At the opening of parliament in 1628 he threatened that
the king would use his prerogative if further thwarted in the matter of
supplies. In the subsequent debates, however, while strongly supporting
the king's prerogative against the claims of the parliament to executive
power, he favoured a policy of moderation and compromise. He defended
the right of the council to commit to prison without showing cause, and
to issue "general" warrants; though he allowed it should only be
employed in special circumstances, disapproved of the king's sudden
dissolution of parliament, and agreed to the liberation on bail of the
seven imprisoned members on condition of their giving security for their
good behaviour. He showed less subservience than Bacon to Buckingham,
and his resistance to the latter's pretensions to the office of lord
high constable greatly incensed the duke. Buckingham taunted Coventry
with having gained his place by his favour; to which the lord keeper
replied, "Did I conceive I had my place by your favour, I would
presently unmake myself by returning the seal to his Majesty."[2] After
this defiance Buckingham's sudden death alone probably prevented
Coventry's displacement. He passed sentence of death on Lord Audley in
1631, drafted and enforced the proclamation of the 20th of June 1632
ordering the country gentlemen to leave London, and in 1634 joined in
Laud's attack on the earl of Portland for peculation. The same year, in
an address to the judges, he supported the proposed levy of ship-money
on the inland as well as the maritime counties on the plea of the
necessity of effectually arming, "so that they might not be enforced to
fight," "the wooden walls" being in his opinion "the best walls of this
kingdom."[3] In the Star Chamber Coventry was one of Lilburne's judges
in 1637, but he generally showed conspicuous moderation, inclining to
leniency in the cases of Richard Chambers in 1629 for seditious
speeches, and of Henry Sherfield in 1632 for breaking painted glass in a
church. He prevented also the hanging of men for resistance to
impressment, and pointed out its illegality, since the men were not
subject to martial law. While contributing thirty horse to the Scottish
expedition in 1638, and lending the king £10,000 in 1639, he gave no
support to the forced loan levied upon the city in the latter year. He
died on the 14th of January 1640.

Lord Coventry held the great seal for nearly fifteen years, and was
enabled to collect a large fortune. He was an able judge, and he issued
some important orders in chancery, probably alluded to by Wood, who
ascribes to him a tract on "The Fees of all law Officers."[4] Whitelocke
accuses him of mediocrity,[4] but his contemporaries in general have
united in extolling his judicial ability, his quick despatch of business
and his sound and sterling character. Clarendon in particular praises
his statesmanship, and compares his capacity with Lord Strafford's,
adding, however, that he seldom spoke in the council except on legal
business and had little influence in political affairs; to the latter
circumstance he owed his exceptional popularity. He describes him as
having "in the plain way of speaking and delivery a strange power of
making himself believed," as a man of "not only firm gravity but a
severity and even some morosity," as "rather exceedingly liked than
passionately loved."

Lord Coventry married (1) Sarah, daughter of Sir Edward Sebright of
Besford in Worcestershire, by whom besides a daughter he had one son,
Thomas, who succeeded him as 2nd baron, and (2) Elizabeth, daughter of
John Aldersley of Spurstow, Cheshire, and widow of William Pitchford, by
whom he had four sons, John, Francis, Henry and Sir William Coventry,
the statesman.

Thomas Coventry, 5th baron (d. 1699), was created an earl in 1697 with a
special limitation, on failure of his own male issue, to that of Walter,
youngest brother of the lord keeper, from whom the present earl of
Coventry is descended.


  [1] Spedding's _Bacon_. vi. 97.

  [2] Hacket's _Life of Bishop Williams_, ii. 19.

  [3] Rushworth (1680), part ii. vol. i. 294.

  [4] _Ath. Oxon._ ii. 650.

  [5] There is an adverse opinion also expressed in Pepys's _Diary_,
    August 26, 1666, probably based on little real knowledge.

COVENTRY, SIR WILLIAM (c. 1628-1686), English statesman, son of the lord
keeper, Thomas, Lord Coventry, by his second wife Elizabeth Aldersley,
was born about 1628. He matriculated at Queen's College, Oxford, at the
age of fourteen. Owing to the outbreak of the Civil War he was obliged
to quit his studies, but according to Sir John Bramston "he had a good
tutor who made him a scholar, and he travelled and got the French
language in good perfection." "He was young whilst the war continued,"
wrote Clarendon, "yet he had put himself before the end of it into the
army and had the command of a foot company and shortly after travelled
into France." Here he remained till all hopes of obtaining foreign
assistance and of raising a new army had to be laid aside, when he
returned to England and kept aloof from the various royalist intrigues.
When, however, a new prospect of a restoration appeared in 1660,
Coventry hastened to Breda, was appointed secretary to James, duke of
York, lord high admiral of England, and headed the royal procession when
Charles entered London in triumph.

He was returned to the Restoration parliament of 1661 for Great
Yarmouth, became commissioner for the navy in May 1662 and in 1663 was
made D.C.L. at Oxford. His great talents were very soon recognized in
parliament, and his influence as an official was considerable. His
appointment was rather that of secretary to the admiralty than of
personal assistant to the duke of York,[1] and was one of large gains.
Wood states that he collected a fortune of £60,000. Accusations of
corruption in his naval administration, and especially during the Dutch
war, were brought against him, but there is nothing to show that he ever
transgressed the limits sanctioned by usage and custom in obtaining his
emoluments. Pepys in his diary invariably testifies to the excellence of
his administration and to his zeal for reform and economy. His ability
and energy, however, did little to avert the naval collapse, owing
chiefly to financial mismanagement and to the ill-advised appointments
to command. Coventry denied all responsibility for the Dutch War in
1665, which Clarendon sought to place upon his shoulders, and his
repudiation is supported by Pepys; it was, moreover, contrary to his
well-known political opinion. The war greatly increased his influence,
and shortly after the victory off Lowestoft, on the 3rd of June 1665, he
was knighted and made a privy councillor (26th of June) and was
subsequently admitted to the committee on foreign affairs. In 1667 he
was appointed to the board of treasury to effect financial reforms. "I
perceive," writes Pepys on the 23rd of August 1667, "Sir William
Coventry is the man and nothing done till he comes," and on his removal
in 1669 the duke of Albemarle, no friendly or partial critic, declares
that "nothing now would be well done." His appointment, however, came
too late to ward off the naval disaster at Chatham the same year and the
national bankruptcy in 1672.

Meanwhile Coventry's rising influence had been from the first the cause
of increasing jealousy to the old chancellor Clarendon, who especially
disliked and discouraged the younger generation. Coventry resented this
repression and thought ill of the conduct of the administration. He
became the chief mover in the successful attack made upon Clarendon, but
refused to take any part in his impeachment. Two days after Clarendon's
resignation (on the 31st of August), Coventry announced his intention of
leaving the duke's service and of terminating his connexion with the
navy.[2] As the principal agent in effecting Clarendon's fall he
naturally acquired new power and influence, and the general opinion
pointed to him as his successor as first minister of the crown. Personal
merit, patriotism and conspicuous ability, however, were poor passports
to place and power in Charles II.'s reign. Coventry retained merely his
appointment at the treasury, and the brilliant but unscrupulous and
incapable duke of Buckingham, a favourite of the king, succeeded to Lord
Clarendon. The relations between the two men soon became unfriendly.
Buckingham ridiculed Sir William's steady attention to business, and was
annoyed at his opposition to Clarendon's impeachment. Coventry rapidly
lost influence, was excluded from the cabinet council, and six months
after Clarendon's fall complains he has scarcely a friend at court.
Finally, in March 1669, Buckingham having written a play in which Sir
William was ridiculed, the latter sent him a challenge. Notice of the
challenge reached the authorities through the duke's second, and Sir
William was imprisoned in the Tower on the 3rd of March and subsequently
expelled from the privy council. He was superseded in the treasury on
the 11th of March by Buckingham's favourite, Sir Thomas Osborne,
afterwards earl of Danby and duke of Leeds, and was at last released
from the Tower on the 21st in disgrace. The real cause of his dismissal
was clearly the final adoption by Charles of the policy of subservience
to France and desertion of Holland and Protestant interests. Six weeks
before Coventry's fall, the conference between Charles, James,
Arlington, Clifford and Arundel had taken place, which resulted a year
and a half later in the disgraceful treaty of Dover. To such schemes Sir
William, with his steady hostility to France and active devotion to
Protestantism, was doubtless a formidable opponent. He now withdrew
definitely from official life, still retaining, however, his ascendancy
in the House of Commons, and leading the party which condemned and
criticized the reactionary and fatal policy of the government, his
credit and reputation being rather enhanced than diminished by his

In 1673 was published a pamphlet which went through five editions the
same year, entitled _England's appeal from the Private Cabal at
Whitehall to the Great Council of the Nation ... by a true Lover of his
Country_, an anonymous work universally ascribed to Sir William, which
forcibly reflects his opinions on the French entanglement. In the great
matter of the Indulgence, while refusing to discuss the limits of
prerogative and liberty, he argued that the dispensing power of the
crown could not be valid during the session of parliament, and
criticized the manner of the declaration while approving its ostensible
object. He supported the Test Act, but maintained a statesmanlike
moderation amidst the tide of indignation rising against the government,
and refused to take part in the personal attacks upon ministers, drawing
upon himself the same unpopularity as his nephew Halifax incurred later.
In the same year he warmly denounced the alliance with France. During
the summer of 1674 he was again received at court. In 1675 he supported
the bill to exclude Roman Catholics from both Houses, and also the
measure to close the House of Commons to placemen; and he showed great
activity in his opposition to the French connexion, especially
stigmatizing the encouragement given by the government to the levying of
troops for the French service. In May 1677 he voted for the Dutch
alliance. Like most of his contemporaries he accepted the story of the
popish plot in 1678. Coventry several times refused the highest court
appointments, and he was not included in Sir W. Temple's new-modelled
council in April 1679. In the exclusion question he favoured at first a
policy of limitations, and on his nephew Halifax, who on his retirement
became the leader of the moderate party, he enjoined prudence and
patience, and greatly regretted the violence of the opposition which
eventually excited a reaction and ruined everything. He refused to stand
for the new parliament, and retired to his country residence at Minster
Lovell near Witney, in Oxfordshire. He died unmarried on the 23rd of
June 1686, at Somerhill near Tunbridge Wells, where he had gone to take
the waters, and was buried at Penshurst, where a monument was erected to
his memory. In his will he ordered his funeral to be at small expense,
and left £2000 to the French Protestant refugees in England, besides
£3000 for the liberation of captives in Algiers. He had shortly before
his death already paid for the liberation of sixty slaves. He was much
beloved and respected in his family circle, his nephew, Henry Savile,
alluding to him in affectionate terms as "our dearest uncle" and
"incomparable friend."

Though Sir William Coventry never filled that place in the national
administration to which his merit and exceptional ability clearly
entitled him, his public life together with his correspondence are
sufficient to distinguish him from amongst his contemporaries as a
statesman of the first rank. Lord Halifax obviously derived from his
honoured mentor those principles of government which, by means of his
own brilliant intellectual gifts, originality and imaginative insight,
gained further force and influence. Halifax owed to him his interest in
the navy and his grasp of the necessity to a country of a powerful
maritime force. He drew his antagonism to France, his religious
tolerance, wide religious views but firm Protestantism doubtless from
the same source. Sir William was the original "Trimmer." Writing to his
nephew Viscount Weymouth, while denying the authorship of _The Character
of a Trimmer_, he says:--"I have not been ashamed to own myself to be a
trimmer ... one who would sit upright and not overturn the boat by
swaying too much to either side." He shared the Trimmer's dislike of
party, urging Halifax in the exclusion contest "not to be thrust by the
opposition of his enemies into another party, but that he keep upon a
national bottom which at length will prevail." His prudence is expressed
in his "perpetual unwillingness to do things which I cannot undo." "A
singular independence of spirit, a breadth of mind which refused to be
contracted by party formulas, a sanity which was proof against the
contagion of national delirium, were equally characteristic of uncle and
nephew."[4] Sir William Coventry's conceptions of statesmanship, under
the guiding hand of his nephew, largely inspired the future revolution
settlement, and continued to be an essential condition of English
political growth and progress.

Besides the tract already mentioned Coventry was the author of _A Letter
to Dr Burnet giving an Account of Cardinal Pool's Secret Powers ..._
(1685). _The Character of a Trimmer_, often ascribed to him, is now
known to have been written by Lord Halifax. "Notes concerning the Poor,"
and an essay "concerning the decay of rents and the remedy," are among
the Malet Papers (_Hist. MSS. Comm._ Ser. 5th Rep. app. 320 (a)) and
_Add. MSS._ Brit. Mus. (cal. 1882-1887); an "Essay concerning France"
(4th Rep. app. 229 (b)) and a "Discourse on the Management of the Navy"
(230b) are among the MSS. of the marquess of Bath, also a catalogue of
his library (233(a)).

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--No adequate life of Sir William Coventry has been
  written; the most satisfactory appreciation of his character and
  abilities is to be found in the several passages relating to him in
  the _Life of George Savile, Marquis of Halifax_, by Miss A. C.
  Foxcroft (1898); see also _Hist. MSS. Comm._ 3 and 4 Rep. (Longleat
  Collection), 5 Rep. (_Malet Collection_ and see Index) now in the
  Brit. Mus. add. Cal. (1882-1887), Some of his papers being also at
  Devonshire House; _MSS. of Marquis of Ormond_, iii. of _J. M.
  Heathcote and Miscellaneous Collections_; Clarendon's _Life and
  Continuation_ (Oxford, 1857); _Calendar of Clarendon Papers; Burnet's
  Hist, of His Own Times_ (Oxford, 1823); _Hallam's Constitutional
  Hist_. (1854), chap. xi.; John Evelyn's _Memoirs_; Pepys's _Diary_ and
  _Pepysiana_ (ed. H. B. Wheatley, 1903); _Calendar of State Papers,
  Domestic; Savile Correspondence_ (Camden Society, 1858, vol. lxxi.);
  A. Grey's _Debates_; Sir John Bramston's _Autobiography_ (Camden Soc.,
  1845); Wood's _Athenae Oxonienses_, iv. 190; _Saturday Review_ (Oct.
  11, 1873).     (P. C. Y.)


  [1] _Pepysiana_, by H. B. Wheatley (1903), 154.

  [2] Foxcroft, _Life of Sir G. Savile_, i. 54.

  [3] _Savile Correspondence_ (Camden Soc.), 295.

  [4] Foxcroft's _Life of Sir G. Savile_, i. 36.

COVENTRY, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Warwickshire,
England; 94 m. N.W. from London by the London & North Western railway.
Pop. (1901) 69,978. The Coventry canal communicates with the Trent and
Mersey and Birmingham canals, and the midland system generally. Coventry
stands on a gentle eminence, with higher ground lying to the west, and
is watered by the Sherbourne and the Radford Brook, feeders of the Avon,
which unite within the town. Of its ancient fortifications two gates and
some portions of the wall are still extant, and several of the older
streets are picturesque from the number of half-timbered houses
projecting over the footways.

The most remarkable buildings are the churches; of these the oldest are
St Michael's, one of the finest specimens of Perpendicular architecture
in England, with a beautiful steeple rising to a height of 303 ft.; Holy
Trinity church, a cruciform structure with a lofty steeple at the
intersection; and St John's, or Bablake church, which is nearly a
parallelogram on the ground plan, but cruciform in the clerestory with a
central tower. Christ church dates only from 1832, but it is attached to
the ancient spire of the Grey Friars' church. Of secular buildings the
most interesting is St Mary's hall, erected by the united gilds in the
early part of the 15th century. The principal chamber, situated above a
fine crypt, is 76 ft. long, 30 ft. wide and 34 ft. high; its roof is of
carved oak, and in the north end there is a large window of old stained
glass, with a curious piece of tapestry beneath nearly as old as the
building. In the treasury is preserved a valuable collection of ancient
muniments. A statue of Sir Thomas White, lord mayor of London
(1532-1533), founder of St John's College, Oxford, was erected in 1883.
The cemetery, laid out by Sir Joseph Paxton, the architect and landscape
gardener, and enlarged in 1887, is particularly beautiful. The
educational institutions include a well-endowed free grammar school,
founded in the reign of Elizabeth, in modern buildings (1885), a
technical school, school of art, endowed charity schools, and a county
reformatory for girls; and among the charitable foundations, which are
numerous and valuable, Bond's hospital for old men and Ford's hospital
for old women are remarkable as fine specimens of ancient timber work.
Swanswell and Spenser Parks were opened in 1883, and a recreation ground
in 1880.

Coventry was formerly noted for its woollens, and subsequently acquired
such a reputation for its dyeing that the expression "as true as
Coventry blue" became proverbial. Existing industries are the making of
motor cars, cycles and their accessories, for which Coventry is one of
the chief centres in Great Britain; sewing machines are also produced;
and carpet-weaving and dyeing, art metal working and watch making are
carried on. An ancient fair is held in Whit-week. A county of itself
till 1843, the town became a county borough in 1888. The corporation
consists of a mayor, 10 aldermen and 30 councillors. The parliamentary
borough returns one member. In 1894 a suffragan bishopric of Coventry
was established under the see of Worcester, but no longer exists. Area,
4149 acres.

The village which afterwards became important as Coventry (_Coventreu_,
_Coventre_) owed its existence to the foundation of a Benedictine
monastery by Earl Leofric and his wife Godgyfu, the famous Lady Godiva
(q.v.), in 1043. The manor, which in 1066 belonged to the latter,
descended to the earls of Chester and to Robert de Montalt, and from him
passed to Isabella queen of Edward II. and the crown. Ranulf, earl of
Chester, granted the earliest extant charter to the town in 1153, by
which his burgesses were to hold of him in free burgage as they held of
his father, and to have their portmote. This, with further privileges,
was confirmed by Henry II. in 1177, and by nearly every succeeding
sovereign until the 17th century. In 1345 Edward III. gave Coventry a
corporation, mayor and bailiffs empowered to hold pleas and keep the
town prison. Edward the Black Prince granted the mayor and bailiffs the
right to hold the town in fee farm of £50 and to build a wall. In 1452
Henry VI. formed the city and surrounding hamlets into a county, and
James I. incorporated Coventry in 1622. It first sent two
representatives to parliament in 1295, but the returns were irregular.
The prior's market on Fridays was probably of Saxon origin; a second
market was granted in 1348, while fairs, still held, were obtained in
1217 for the octave of Holy Trinity, and in 1348 and in 1442 for eight
days from the Friday after Corpus Christi. As early as 1216 Coventry was
important for its trade in wool, cloth and caps, its gilds later being
particularly numerous and wealthy. In 1568 Flemish weavers introduced
new methods, but the trade was destroyed in the wars of the 17th
century. During the middle of the 16th century there was a flourishing
manufacture of blue thread, but this decayed before 1581; in the 18th
century the manufacture of ribbon was introduced.

The popular phrase "to send to Coventry" (i.e. to refuse to associate
with a person) is of uncertain derivation. The _New English Dictionary_
selects the period of the Civil War of the 17th century as that in which
the origin of the phrase is probably to be found. Clarendon (_History of
the Great Rebellion_, 1647) states that the citizens of Birmingham rose
against certain small parties of the king's supporters, and sent the
prisoners they captured to Coventry, which was then strongly

  See _Victoria County History, Warwick_; William Dugdale, _The
  Antiquities of Coventre, illustrated from records_ (Coventry, 1765).

COVER (from the Fr. _couvert_, from _couvrir_, to cover, Lat.
_cooperire_), that which hides, shuts in or conceals, a lid to a box or
vessel, &c., the binding of a book or wrapper of a parcel; as a hunting
term, the wood or undergrowth which shelters game. As a commercial term,
the word means in its widest sense a security against loss, but is
employed more particularly in connexion with stock exchange transactions
to signify a "deposit made with a broker to secure him from being out of
pocket in the event of the stocks falling against his client and the
client not paying the difference" (_In re Cronmire_, 1898, 2 Q.B. 383).
It is a mode of speculation engaged in almost entirely by persons who
wish to limit their risk to a small amount, and, as a rule, the
transactions are largely carried out in England with "outside" brokers,
i.e. those dealers in securities who are not members of the Stock
Exchange. The deposit is so much per cent or per share, usually 1% on
the market value of the securities up to about twice the amount of the
turn of the market; the client being able to close the transaction at
any time during the currency of the cover, but the broker only when the
cover is exhausted or has "run off." Cover is not money deposited to
abide the event of a wager, but as security against a debt which may
arise from a gaming contract, and it may be recovered back, if

COVERDALE, MILES (1488?-1569), English translator of the Bible and
bishop of Exeter, was born of Yorkshire parents about 1488, studied
philosophy and theology at Cambridge, was ordained priest at Norwich in
1514, and then entered the convent of Austin friars at Cambridge. Here
he came under the influence of the prior, Robert Barnes, made the
acquaintance of Sir Thomas More and of Thomas Cromwell, and began a
thorough study of the Scriptures. He was one of those who met at the
White Horse tavern to discuss theological questions, and when Barnes was
arrested on a charge of heresy, Coverdale went up to London to assist
him in drawing up his defence. Soon afterwards he left the convent,
assumed the habit of a secular priest, and began to preach against
confession and the worship of images. In 1531 he graduated bachelor of
canon law at Cambridge, but from 1528 to 1534 he prudently spent most of
his time abroad. No corroboration has, however, been found for Foxe's
statement that in 1529 he was at Hamburg assisting Tyndale in his
translation of the Pentateuch. In 1534 he published two translations of
his own, the first Dulichius's _Vom alten und newen Gott_, and the
second a _Paraphrase upon the Psalms_, and in 1535 he completed his
translation of the Bible. The venture seems to have been projected by
Jacob van Meteren, who apparently employed Coverdale to do the
translation, and Froschover of Zürich to do the printing. No perfect
copy is known to exist, and the five or six which alone have title-pages
give no name of publisher or place of publication. The volume is
dedicated to the king of England, where Convocation at Cranmer's
instance had, in December 1534, petitioned for an authorized English
version of the Scriptures. As a work of scholarship it does not rank
particularly high. Some of the title-pages state that it had been
translated out of "Douche" (i.e. German) "and Latyn": and Coverdale
mentions that he used five interpreters, which are supposed to have been
the Vulgate, the Latin version of Pagninus, Luther's translation, the
Zürich version, and Tyndale's Pentateuch and New Testament. There is no
definite mention of the original Greek and Hebrew texts; but it has
considerable literary merit, many of Coverdale's phrases are retained in
the authorized version, and it was the first complete Bible to be
printed in English. Two fresh editions were issued in 1537, but none of
them received official sanction. Coverdale was, however, employed by
Cromwell to assist in the production of the Great Bible of 1539, which
was ordered to be placed in all English churches. The work was done at
Paris until the French government stopped it, when Coverdale and his
colleagues returned to England early in 1539 to complete it. He was also
employed in the same year in assisting at the suppression of
superstitious usages, but the reaction of 1540 drove him once more
abroad. His Bible was prohibited by proclamation in 1542, while
Coverdale himself defied the Six Articles by marrying Elizabeth
Macheson, sister-in-law to Dr John MacAlpine.

For a time Coverdale lived at Tübingen, where he was created D.D. In
1545 he was pastor and schoolmaster at Bergzabern in the duchy of
Pfalz-Zweibrücken. In March 1548 he was at Frankfort, when the new
English Order of Communion reached him; he at once translated it into
German and Latin and sent a copy to Calvin, whose wife had befriended
Coverdale at Strassburg. Calvin, however, does not seem to have approved
of it so highly as Coverdale.

Coverdale was already on his way back to England, and in October 1548 he
was staying at Windsor Castle, where Cranmer and some other divines,
inaccurately called the Windsor Commission, were preparing the First
Book of Common Prayer. His first appointment had been as almoner to
Queen Catherine Parr, then wife of Lord Seymour; and he preached her
funeral sermon in September 1548. He was also chaplain to the young king
and took an active part in the reforming measures of his reign. He was
one of the most effective preachers of the time. A sermon by him at St
Paul's on the second Sunday in Lent, 1549, was immediately followed by
the pulling down of "the sacrament at the high altar." A few weeks later
he preached at the penance of some Anabaptists, and in January 1550 he
was put on a commission to prosecute Anabaptists and all who infringed
the Book of Common Prayer. In 1549 he wrote a dedication to Edward for a
translation of the second volume of Erasmus's _Paraphrases_; and in 1550
he translated Otto Wermueller's _Precious Pearl_, for which Protector
Somerset, who had derived spiritual comfort from the book while in the
Tower, wrote a preface. He was much in request at funerals: he preached
at Sir James Wilford's in November 1550, and at Lord Wentworth's before
a great concourse in Westminster Abbey in March 1551.

Perhaps it was his gift of oratory which suggested his appointment as
bishop of the refractory men of Devon and Cornwall. He had already, in
August 1549, at some risk, gone down with Lord Russell to turn the
hearts of the rebels by preaching and persuasion, and two years later he
was appointed bishop of Exeter by letters patent, on the compulsory
retirement of his predecessor, Veysey, who had reached an almost
mythical age. He was an active prelate, and perhaps the vigorous
Protestantism of the West in Elizabeth's reign was partly due to his
persuasive powers. He sat on the commission for the reform of the canon
law, and was in constant attendance during the parliaments of 1552 and
1553. On Mary's accession he was at once deprived on the score of his
marriage, and Veysey in spite of his age was restored. Coverdale was
called before the privy council on the 1st of September, and required to
find sureties; but he was not further molested, and when Christian III.
of Denmark at the instance of Coverdale's brother-in-law, MacAlpine,
interceded in his favour, he was in February 1555 permitted to leave for
Denmark with two servants, and his baggage unsearched; one of these
"servants" is said to have been his wife. He declined Christian's offer
of a living in Denmark, and preferred to preach at Wesel to the numerous
English refugees there, until he was invited by Duke Wolfgang to resume
his labours at Bergzabern. He was at Geneva in December 1558, and is
said to have participated in the preparation of the Geneva version of
the Bible.

In 1559 Coverdale returned to England and resumed his preaching at St
Paul's and elsewhere. Clothed in a plain black gown, he assisted at
Parker's consecration, in spite of the facts that he had himself been
deprived, and did not resume his bishopric, and that his original
appointment had been by the uncanonical method of letters patent.
Conscientious objections were probably responsible for his
non-restoration to the see of Exeter, and his refusal of that of
Llandaff in 1563. He objected to vestments, and in his living of St
Magnus close to London Bridge, which he received in 1563, he took other
liberties with the Act of Uniformity. His bishop, Grindal, was his
friend, and his vagaries were overlooked until 1566, when he resigned
his living rather than conform. He still preached occasionally, and
always drew large audiences. He died in February 1568, and was buried on
the 19th in St Bartholomew's behind the Exchange. When this church was
pulled down in 1840 to make room for the new Exchange, his remains were
removed to St Magnus.

  Coverdale's works, most of them translations, number twenty-six in
  all; nearly all, with his letters, were published in a collected
  edition by the Parker Soc., 2 vols., 1846. An excellent account is
  given in the _Dict. Nat. Biog._ of his life, with authorities, to
  which may be added R. W. Dixon's _Church History_, Bishop and
  Gasquet's _Edward VI. and the Book of Common Prayer_; Acts of the
  Privy Council; Letters and Papers of Henry VIII.; _Lit. Rem. of Edward
  VI._ (Roxburghe Club); Whittingham's _Brief Discourse of Troubles at
  Frankfort_; Pocock's _Troubles connected with the Prayer-Book_ (Camden
  Soc.).     (A. F. P.)

COVERTURE (a covering, an old French form of the modern _couverture_), a
term in English law applied to the condition of a woman during marriage,
when she is supposed to be under the cover, influence and protection of
her husband, and so immune in certain cases from punishment for crime
committed in the presence and on the presumed coercion of her husband.
(See further HUSBAND AND WIFE.)

COVILHÃ, a town of Portugal, in the district of Castello Branco,
formerly included in the province of Beira; on the eastern slope of the
Serra da Estrella, and on the Abrantes-Guarda railway. Pop. (1900)
15,469. Covilhã, which has been often compared with a collection of
swallows' nests clinging to the rugged granitic mountain side, is shaped
like an amphitheatre of closely crowded houses, overlooking the river
Zezere and its wild valley from a height of 2180 ft. Over 4000
operatives are employed in the manufacture of _saragoça_, a coarse brown
cloth worn by the peasantry throughout Portugal. The village of Unhaes
da Serra (1507), 6 m. W.S.W., is noted for its sulphurous springs and

COVILHAM (COVILHÃO, COVILHÃ), PERO or PEDRO DE Portuguese explorer and
diplomatist (fl. 1487-1525), was a native of Covilhã in Beira. In early
life he had gone to Castile and entered the service of Alphonso, duke of
Seville; later, when war broke out between Castile and Portugal, he
returned to his own country, and attached himself, first as a "groom,"
then as a "squire," to King Alphonso V. and his successor John II. On
the 7th of May 1487, he was despatched, in company with Alphonso de
Payva, on a mission of exploration in the Levant and adjoining regions
of Asia and Africa, with the special object of learning where "cinnamon
and other spices could be found," as well as of discovering the land of
Prester John, by "overland" routes. Bartholomeu Diaz, at this very time,
went out to find the Prester's country, as well as the termination of
the African continent and the ocean route to India, by sea. Covilham and
Payva were provided with a "letter of credence for all the countries of
the world" and with a "map for navigating, taken from the map of the
world" and compiled by Bishop Calcadilha, and doctors Rodrigo and
Moyses. The first two of these were prominent members of the commission
which advised the Portuguese government to reject the proposals of
Columbus. The explorers started from Santarem and travelled by Barcelona
to Naples, where their bills of exchange were paid by the sons of Cosimo
de' Medici; thence they passed to Rhodes, where they lodged with two
other Portuguese, and so to Alexandria and Cairo, where they posed as
merchants. In company with certain Moors from Fez and Tlemçen they now
went by way of Tor to Suakin and Aden, where (as it was now monsoon
time) they parted, Covilham proceeding to India and Payva to
Ethiopia--the two companions agreeing to meet again in Cairo. Covilham
thus arrived at Cannanore and Calicut, whence he retraced his course to
Goa and Ormuz, the Red Sea and Cairo, making an excursion on his way
down the East African coast to Sofala, which he was probably the first
European to visit. At Cairo he heard of Payva's death, and met with two
Portuguese Jews--Rabbi Abraham of Beja, and Joseph, a shoe-maker of
Lamego--who had been sent by King John with letters for Covilham and
Payva. By Joseph of Lamego Covilham replied with an account of his
Indian and African journeys, and of his observations on the cinnamon,
pepper and clove trade at Calicut, together with advice as to the ocean
way to India. This he truly represented as quite practicable: "to this
they (of Portugal) could navigate by their coast and the seas of
Guinea." The first objective in the eastern ocean, he added, was Sofala
or the Island of the Moon, our Madagascar--"from each of these lands
one can fetch the coast of Calicut." With this information Joseph
returned to Portugal, while Covilham, with Abraham of Beja, again
visited Aden and Ormuz. At the latter he left the rabbi; and himself
came back to Jidda, the port of the Arabian holy land, and penetrated
(as he told Alvarez many years later) even to Mecca and Medina. Finally,
by Mount Sinai, Tor and the Red Sea, he reached Zeila, whence he struck
inland to the court of Prester John (i.e. Abyssinia). Here he was
honourably received; lands and lordships were bestowed upon him; but he
was not permitted to leave. When the Portuguese embassy under Rodrigo de
Lima, including Father Francisco Alvarez, entered Abyssinia in 1520,
Covilham wept with joy at the sight of his fellow-countrymen. It was
then forty years since he had left Portugal, and over thirty since he
had been a prisoner of state in "Ethiopia." Alvarez, who professed to
know him well, and to have heard the story of his life, both "in
confession and out of it," praises his power of vivid description "as if
things were present before him," and his extraordinary knowledge of "all
spoken languages of Christians, Moors and Gentiles." His services as an
interpreter were valuable to Rodrigo de Lima's embassy; but he never
succeeded in escaping from Abyssinia.

  See Francisco Alvarez, _Verdadera Informaçam das terras do Preste
  Joam_, esp. chs. 73, 89, 98, 102-103, 105 (pp. 177, 224, 254, 264,
  265-270, 275, of the Hakluyt Society's English edition, _The
  Portuguese Embassy to Abyssinia ... 1520-1727_, London, 1881); an
  abstract of this, with some inaccuracies, is given in Major's _Prince
  Henry the Navigator_ (London, 1868), pp. 339-340.

COVIN (from the Fr. _covine_, or _couvine_, from Lat. _convenire_, to
come together), an association of persons, so used in the Statute of
Labourers of 1360, which, _inter alia_, declared void "all alliances and
covins of masons and carpenters." The more common use of the term in
English law was for a secret agreement between persons to cheat and
defraud, but the word is now obsolete, and has been superseded by
"collusion" or "conspiracy to cheat and defraud."

COVINGTON, a city and one of the two county-seats of Kenton county,
Kentucky, U.S.A., on the Ohio river opposite Cincinnati, with which it
is connected by bridges; and at the mouth of the Licking river (also
spanned by bridges), opposite Newport, Ky. Pop. (1890) 37,371; (1900)
42,938, of whom 5223 were foreign-born and 2478 were negroes; (1910)
53,270. In 1900 it ranked second in population among the cities of
Kentucky. The city is served by the Chesapeake & Ohio, and the
Louisville & Nashville railways, by interurban electric railways, and by
steamboat lines to the Ohio river ports. It is built on a plain
commanding good views and partly shut in by neighbouring hills. Its
streets, mostly named from eminent Kentuckians, are paved chiefly with
asphalt, macadam and brick. There are numerous fine residences and
several attractive public buildings, including that of the United States
government--modern Gothic in style--the court-house and city hall
combined, and the public library. Covington is the seat of a Roman
Catholic bishopric, and its cathedral, in the flamboyant Gothic style,
is one of the finest church buildings in the state. In the city are the
Academy of Notre Dame and St Joseph's high school for boys, both Roman
Catholic. The principal charitable institutions are the hospital of
Saint Elizabeth, a German orphan asylum, a Protestant children's home, a
home for aged women and a Wayfarers' Rest. Covington is the trade centre
of an extensive district engaged in agriculture and stock raising, and
as a manufacturing centre it ranked second in the state in 1905 (value
of factory products $6,099,715), its products including tobacco, cotton
goods, structural iron and steel, foundry and machine shop products,
liquors and cordage. A settlement was established here in 1812, and
three years later a town was laid out and named in honour of Gen.
Leonard Covington (1768-1813), who was mortally wounded at Chrystler's
Field during the War of 1812. In 1834 Covington was chartered as a city;
and in 1908 it annexed Central Covington (pop. in 1900, 2155).

COWARD, a term of contempt for one who, before danger, pain or trouble,
shows fear, whether physical or moral. The derivation of the word has
been obscured by a connexion in sense with the verb "cow," to instil
fear into, which is derived from old Norse _kuga_, a word of similar
meaning, and with the verb "cower," to crouch, which is also
Scandinavian in origin.[1] The true derivation is from the French _coe_,
an old form of _queue_, a tail, from Lat. _cauda_, hence _couart_ or
_couard_. The reference to "tail" is either to the expression "turn
tail" in flight, or to the habit of animals dropping the tail between
the legs when frightened; in heraldry, a lion in this position is a
"lion coward." In the fable of _Reynard the Fox_ the name of the hare is
Coart, Kywart, Cuwaert or other variants.

COWBRIDGE, a market town and a municipal and contributory parliamentary
borough of Glamorganshire, Wales, with a station on the Taff Vale
railway branch from Llantrisant to Aberthaw on the coast, distant by
rail 162½ m. from London, 12 m. W. of Cardiff, 7 m. S.E. of Bridgend,
and 6 m. S. of Llantrisant station. The population in 1901 was 1202, a
decrease of over 12% since 1891. Less than one-third of the number was
Welsh-speaking. The town mainly consists of one long street running east
and west, and is in a wide valley through which runs the river Thaw
(Welsh, _Ddawan_), here crossed by a stone bridge.

Cowbridge is probably situated on the Roman road from Cardiff westwards,
which seems to have kept nearly the course of the present main road.
Roman coins have been discovered here. It has in fact been suggested,
mainly on etymological grounds, that the town occupies the site of the
Roman _Bovium_: the modern Welsh name, y Bontfaen ("stone bridge") is
probably a corruption of the medieval, Pont y fôn, the precise
equivalent of "Cowbridge," which is first found in documents of the
second half of the 13th century as Covbruge and Cubrigg. Others place
Bovium on a vicinal road, at Boverton near Llantwit Major, about 6 m. to
the south near the coast, though the most likely site is near Ewenny, 5
m. to the west of Cowbridge. After the Norman conquest of Glamorgan, the
town grew up as an appanage of the castle of St Quentin, which occupies
a commanding position half a mile south-west of the town. It was walled
round before the 13th century. A tower is mentioned in 1487 when it was
granted away by the burgesses. Leland in his itinerary (c. 1535)
describes the town wall as three-quarters of a mile round and as having
three gates. There was even then a considerable suburb on the west bank
of the river and outside the walls. The south wall and gateway are still

The town was a borough by prescription until 1682, when it received a
charter of incorporation from Charles II. confirming its previous
privileges. Under the Unreformed Corporations Act of 1883 the
corporation was dissolved, but on the petition of the inhabitants a new
charter was granted in March 1887. During the Tudor and Stuart periods
Cowbridge was almost if not quite the chief town of Glamorgan, its
importance being largely due to its central and accessible position in a
rich agricultural district where a large number of the county gentry
lived. The great sessions were held here alternately with Cardiff and
Swansea from 1542 till their abolition in 1830, and the quarter sessions
were held here once a year down to 1850. From 1536 to 1832 it was one of
the eight contributory boroughs within the county which returned a
member to parliament, but since 1832 it has been contributory with
Cardiff and Llantrisant in returning a member. It has a separate
commission of the peace. Sir Edward Stradling (1529-1609) established a
grammar school here, but died before endowing it; it was refounded in
1685 by Sir Leoline Jenkins, who provided that it should be administered
by Jesus College, Oxford, which body erected the present buildings in
1847. It has throughout its existence been one of the leading schools in
Wales. An intermediate school for girls was established here by the
county in 1896. The church of St Mary (formerly chapelry to
Llanblethian) is of early English style and has a fine embattled tower,
of the same military type as the towers of Llamblethian and Ewenny.
There are three Nonconformist chapels. There are a town hall and market
place. The town is now wholly dependent on agriculture, and has good
markets and cattle fairs, that on the 4th of May being a charter fair.


  [1] A connexion has also been imagined with cow (O. Eng. _cu_; common
    in Scandinavian languages, and of similar root to Skr. _go_, whence
    also Gr. [Greek: bous], Lat. _bos_), the female bovine animal, on
    account of its timidity.

COWDENBEATH, a police burgh, Fifeshire, Scotland, 5¾ m. N.E. of
Dunfermline by the North British railway. Pop. (1891) 4249; (1901) 7908.
The principal industry is coal-mining, and the public buildings include
churches, schools and a hall. Meetings in connexion with the adoption
and promulgation of the Covenant were held in the old parish church of

COWELL, JOHN (1554-1611), English jurist, was born at Ernsborough,
Devonshire. He was educated at Eton, and King's College, Cambridge,
ultimately becoming professor of civil law in that university, and
master of Trinity Hall. In 1607 he compiled a law dictionary, _The
Interpreter_, in which he exalted the king's prerogative so much that he
was prosecuted before the House of Commons by Sir Edward Coke, and saved
from imprisonment only by the interposition of James I. His book was
burnt by order of the House of Commons. Dr Cowell also wrote a work
entitled _Institutiones Juris Anglicani_. He died at Oxford on the 11th
of October 1611.

COWEN, FREDERIC HYMEN (1852-   ), English musical composer, was born at
Kingston, Jamaica, on the 29th of January 1852. At four years old he was
brought to England, where his father became treasurer to the opera at
Her Majesty's theatre, and private secretary to the earl of Dudley. His
first teacher was Henry Russell, and his first published composition
appeared when he was but six years old. He studied the piano with
Benedict, and composition with Goss; in 1865 he was at Leipzig under
Hauptmann, Moscheles, Reinecke and Plaidy. Returning home on the
outbreak of the Austro-Prussian War, he appeared as a composer for the
orchestra in an overture played at the Promenade Concerts at Covent
Garden in September 1866. In the following autumn he went to Berlin,
where he was under Kiel, at Stern's conservatorium. A symphony and a
piano concerto were given in St James's Hall in 1869, and from that time
Cowen has been recognized as primarily a composer, his talents as a
pianist being subordinate, although his public appearances were numerous
for some time afterwards. His cantata, _The Rose Maiden_, was given in
London in 1870, his second symphony by the Liverpool Philharmonic
Society in 1872, and his first festival work, _The Corsair_, in 1876 at
Birmingham. In that year his opera, _Pauline_, was given by the Carl
Rosa Company with moderate success. In 1884 he conducted five concerts
of the Philharmonic Society, and in 1888, on the resignation of Arthur
Sullivan, became the regular conductor of the society, resigning the
post in 1892. In the year of his appointment, 1888, he went to Melbourne
as the conductor of the daily concerts given in connexion with the
Exhibition there. In 1896 Cowen was appointed conductor of the Liverpool
Philharmonic Society and of the Manchester orchestra, in succession to
Sir Charles Hallé. In 1899 he was reappointed conductor of the
Philharmonic Society. His works include:--Operettas: _Garibaldi_ (1860)
and _One Too Many_ (1874); operas: _Pauline_ (1876), _Thorgrim_ (1890),
_Signa_ (Milan, 1893), and _Harold_ (1895); oratorios: _The Deluge_
(1878), _St Ursula_ (1881), _Ruth_ (1887), _Song of Thanksgiving_
(1888), _The Transfiguration_ (1895); cantatas: _The Rose Maiden_
(1870), _The Corsair_ (1876), _The Sleeping Beauty_ (1885), _St John's
Eve_ (1889), _The Water Lily_ (1893), _Ode to the Passions_ (1898),
besides short cantatas for female voices; a large number of songs,
ranging from the popular "ballad" to more artistic lyrics, anthems,
part-songs, duets, &c.; six symphonies, among which No 3, the
"Scandinavian," has had the greatest success; four overtures; suites,
_The Language of Flowers_ (1880), _In the Olden Times_ (1883), _In
Fairyland_ (1896); four English dances (1896); a concerto for piano and
orchestra, and a fantasia for the same played by M. Paderewski (1900); a
quartet in C minor, and a trio in A minor, both early works; pianoforte
pieces, &c. Cowen is never so happy as when treating of fantastic or
fairy subjects; and whether in his cantatas for female voices, his
charming _Sleeping Beauty_, his _Water Lily_ or his pretty overture,
_The Butterfly's Ball_ (1901), he succeeds wonderfully in finding
graceful expression for the poetical idea. His dance music, such as is
to be found in various orchestral suites, is refined, original and
admirably instrumented; and if he is seldom as successful in portraying
the graver aspects of emotion, the vogue of his semi-sacred songs has
been widespread.

COWEN, JOSEPH (1831-1900), English politician and journalist, son of Sir
Joseph Cowen, a prominent citizen and mine-owner of Newcastle-on-Tyne,
was born in 1831, and was educated at Edinburgh University. In 1874 he
was elected member of parliament for the borough on the death of his
father, who had held the seat as a Liberal since 1865. Joseph Cowen was
at that time a strong Radical on domestic questions, an advocate of
co-operation, an admirer of Garibaldi, Mazzini and Kossuth, a
sympathizer with Irish Nationalism, and one who in speech, dress and
manner identified himself with the North-country mining class. Short in
stature and uncouth in appearance, his individuality first shocked and
then by its earnestness impressed the House of Commons; and his sturdy
independence of party ties, combined with a gift of rough but genuine
eloquence (of which his speech on the Royal Title Bill of 1876 was an
example), rapidly made him one of the best-known public men in the
country. He was, moreover, an Imperialist and a Colonial Federationist
at a time when Liberalism was tied and bound to the Manchester
traditions; and, to the consternation of the official wire-pullers, he
vigorously supported Disraeli's foreign policy, and in 1881 opposed the
Gladstonian settlement with the Boers. His independence (which his
detractors attributed in some degree to his alleged susceptibility to
Tory compliments) brought him into collision both with the Liberal
caucus and with the party organization in Newcastle itself, but Cowen's
personal popularity and his remarkable powers as an orator triumphed in
his own birthplace, and he was again elected in 1885 in spite of Liberal
opposition. Shortly afterwards, however, he retired both from parliament
and from public life, professing his disgust at the party intrigues of
politics, and devoted himself to conducting his newspaper, the
_Newcastle Daily Chronicle_, and to his private business as a
mine-owner. In this capacity he exercised a wide influence on local
opinion, and the revolt of the Newcastle electorate in later years
against doctrinaire Radicalism was largely due to his constant preaching
of a broader outlook on national affairs. He continued behind the scenes
to play a powerful part in forming North-country opinion until his death
on the 18th of February 1900.

  His letters were published by his daughter in 1909.

COWES, a seaport and watering-place in the Isle of Wight, England, 12 m.
S.S.E. of Southampton. West Cowes is separated from East Cowes by the
picturesque estuary of the river Medina, the two towns (each of which is
an urban district) lying on opposite sides of its mouth at the apex of
the northern coast of the island. Pop. (1901) West Cowes, 8652; East
Cowes, 3196. The port between them is the chief on the island, and is
the headquarters of the Royal Yacht Squadron (founded in 1812); it is in
regular steamship communication with Southampton and Portsmouth. West
Cowes is served by the Isle of Wight Central railway. A steam ferry and
a floating bridge across the Medina, here 600 yds. broad, unite the
towns. Behind the harbour the houses rise picturesquely on gentle wooded
slopes, and numerous villas adorn the vicinity. The towns owe their
origin to two forts or castles, built on each side of the mouth of the
Medina by Henry VIII. in 1540, for the defence of the coast; the eastern
one has disappeared, but the west castle remains and is used as the
club-house of the Yacht Squadron. The marine parade of West Cowes, and
the public promenade called the Green, are close to the castle. The
industrial population is chiefly employed in the shipbuilding yards, in
the manufacture of ships' fittings, and in engineering works. The
harbour is under an elective body of commissioners. On the opposite side
of the Medina a broad carriageway leads to East Cowes Castle, a handsome
edifice built by John Nash, the favourite architect of George IV., in
1798, and immediately beyond it are the grounds surrounding Osborne
House (see OSBORNE), built in 1845 after the property had been purchased
by Queen Victoria, the church of St Mildred, Whippingham, lying a mile
to the south.

COWL (through Fr. _coule_, from Lat. _cucullus_ or _cuculla_, a
covering; the word is found in various forms in most European languages,
cf. Ger. _Kugel_ or _Kigel_, Dutch _kovel_, Irish _cochal_ or _cochull_;
the ultimate origin may be the root _kal_, found in Lat. _clam_,
secretly, and Gr. [Greek: kalyptein], to hide, cover up), an outer
garment worn by both sexes in the middle ages; a part of the monastic
dress, hence the phrase "to take the cowl," signifying entry upon the
religious life. The _cucullus_ worn by the early Egyptian anchorites was
a hood covering the head and neck. Later generations lengthened the
garment until it reached to the heels, and St Benedict issued a rule
restricting its length to two cubits. Chapter 55 of his _Institute_
prescribes the following dress in temperate climates: a cowl and tunic,
thick in winter and thin in summer, with a scapular for working hours
and shoes and stockings, all of simple material and make. In the 14th
century the cowl and the frock were frequently confounded, but the
council of Vienne defined the former as "a habit long and full without
sleeves," and the latter as "a long habit with long and wide sleeves."
While the term thus seems strictly to imply a hooded gown it is often
applied to the hood alone. It is also used to describe a loose vestment
worn over the frock in the winter season and during the night office.

The word "cowl" is also applied to a hood-shaped covering to a chimney
or ventilating shaft, to help down-draught, and to clear the up-current
of foul air (see VENTILATION).

COWLEY, ABRAHAM (1618-1667), English poet, was born in the city of
London late in 1618. His father, a wealthy citizen, who died shortly
before his birth, was a stationer. His mother was wholly given to works
of devotion, but it happened that there lay in her parlour a copy of
_The Faery Queen_. This became the favourite reading of her son, and he
had twice devoured it all before he was sent to school. As early as
1628, that is, in his tenth year, he composed his _Tragicall History of
Piramus and Thisbe_, an epical romance written in a six-line stanza, of
his own invention. It is not too much to say that this work is the most
astonishing feat of imaginative precocity on record; it is marked by no
great faults of immaturity, and possesses constructive merits of a very
high order. Two years later the child wrote another and still more
ambitious poem, _Constantia and Philetus_, being sent about the same
time to Westminster school. Here he displayed the most extraordinary
mental precocity and versatility, and wrote in his thirteenth year yet
another poem, the _Elegy on the Death of Dudley, Lord Carlton_. These
three poems of considerable size, and some smaller ones, were collected
in 1633, and published in a volume entitled _Poetical Blossoms_,
dedicated to the head master of the school, and prefaced by many
laudatory verses by schoolfellows. The author at once became famous,
although he had not, even yet, completed his fifteenth year. His next
composition was a pastoral comedy, entitled _Love's Riddle_, a
marvellous production for a boy of sixteen, airy, correct and harmonious
in language, and rapid in movement. The style is not without resemblance
to that of Randolph, whose earliest works, however, were at that time
only just printed. In 1637 Cowley was elected into Trinity College,
Cambridge, where he betook himself with enthusiasm to the study of all
kinds of learning, and early distinguished himself as a ripe scholar. It
was about this time that he composed his scriptural epic on the history
of King David, one book of which still exists in the Latin original, the
rest being superseded in favour of an English version in four books,
called the _Davideis_, which he published a long time after. This his
most grave and important work is remarkable as having suggested to
Milton several points which he afterwards made use of. The epic, written
in a very dreary and turgid manner, but in good rhymed heroic verse,
deals with the adventures of King David from his boyhood to the smiting
of Amalek by Saul, where it abruptly closes. In 1638 _Love's Riddle_ and
a Latin comedy, the _Naufragium Joculare_, were printed, and in 1641 the
passage of Prince Charles through Cambridge gave occasion to the
production of another dramatic work, _The Guardian_, which was acted
before the royal visitor with much success. During the civil war this
play was privately performed at Dublin, but it was not printed till
1650. It is bright and amusing, in the style common to the "sons" of Ben
Jonson, the university wits who wrote more for the closet than the
public stage.

The learned quiet of the young poet's life was broken up by the Civil
War; he warmly espoused the royalist side. He became a fellow of Trinity
College, Cambridge, but was ejected by the Parliamentarians in 1643. He
made his way to Oxford, where he enjoyed the friendship of Lord
Falkland, and was tossed, in the tumult of affairs, into the personal
confidence of the royal family itself. After the battle of Marston Moor
he followed the queen to Paris, and the exile so commenced lasted twelve
years. This period was spent almost entirely in the royal service,
"bearing a share in the distresses of the royal family, or labouring in
their affairs. To this purpose he performed several dangerous journeys
into Jersey, Scotland, Flanders, Holland, or wherever else the king's
troubles required his attendance. But the chief testimony of his
fidelity was the laborious service he underwent in maintaining the
constant correspondence between the late king and the queen his wife. In
that weighty trust he behaved himself with indefatigable integrity and
unsuspected secrecy; for he ciphered and deciphered with his own hand
the greatest part of all the letters that passed between their
majesties, and managed a vast intelligence in many other parts, which
for some years together took up all his days, and two or three nights
every week." In spite of these labours he did not refrain from literary
industry. During his exile he met with the works of Pindar, and
determined to reproduce their lofty lyric passion in English. At the
same time he occupied himself in writing a history of the Civil War,
which he completed as far as the battle of Newbury, but unfortunately
afterwards destroyed. In 1647 a collection of his love verses, entitled
_The Mistress_, was published, and in the next year a volume of wretched
satires, _The Four Ages of England_, was brought out under his name,
with the composition of which he had nothing to do. In spite of the
troubles of the times, so fatal to poetic fame, his reputation steadily
increased, and when, on his return to England in 1656, he published a
volume of his collected poetical works, he found himself without a rival
in public esteem. This volume included the later works already
mentioned, the _Pindarique Odes_, the _Davideis_, the _Mistress_ and
some _Miscellanies_. Among the latter are to be found Cowley's most
vital pieces. This section of his works opens with the famous

  "What shall I do to be for ever known,
   And make the coming age my own?"

It contains elegies on Wotton, Vandyck, Falkland, William Hervey and
Crashaw, the last two being among Cowley's finest poems, brilliant,
sonorous and original; the amusing ballad of _The Chronicle_, giving a
fictitious catalogue of his supposed amours; various gnomic pieces; and
some charming paraphrases from Anacreon. The _Pindarique Odes_ contain
weighty lines and passages, buried in irregular and inharmonious masses
of moral verbiage. Not more than one or two are good throughout, but a
full posy of beauties may easily be culled from them. The long cadences
of the Alexandrines with which most of the strophes close, continued to
echo in English poetry from Dryden down to Gray, but the _Odes_
themselves, which were found to be obscure by the poet's contemporaries,
immediately fell into disesteem. _The Mistress_ was the most popular
poetic reading of the age, and is now the least read of all Cowley's
works. It was the last and most violent expression of the amatory
affectation of the 17th century, an affectation which had been endurable
in Donne and other early writers because it had been the vehicle of
sincere emotion, but was unendurable in Cowley because in him it
represented nothing but a perfunctory exercise, a mere exhibition of
literary calisthenics. He appears to have been of a cold, or at least of
a timid, disposition; in the face of these elaborately erotic volumes,
we are told that to the end of his days he never summoned up courage to
speak of love to a single woman in real life. The "Leonora" of _The
Chronicle_ is said to have been the only woman he ever loved, and she
married the brother of his biographer, Sprat.

Soon after his return to England he was seized in mistake for another
person, and only obtained his liberty on a bail of £1000. In 1658 he
revised and altered his play of _The Guardian_, and prepared it for the
press under the title of _The Cutter of Coleman Street_, but it did not
appear until 1663. Late in 1658 Oliver Cromwell died, and Cowley took
advantage of the confusion of affairs to escape to Paris, where he
remained until the Restoration brought him back in Charles's train. He
published in 1663 _Verses upon several occasions_, in which _The
Complaint_ is included.

Wearied with the broils and fatigues of a political life, Cowley
obtained permission to retire into the country; through his friend, Lord
St Albans, he obtained a property near Chertsey, and here, devoting
himself to the study of botany, and buried in his books, he lived in
comparative solitude until his death. He took a great and practical
interest in experimental science, and he was one of those who were most
prominent in advocating the foundation of an academy for the protection
of scientific enterprise. Cowley's pamphlet on _The Advancement of
Experimental Philosophy_, 1661, led directly to the foundation of the
Royal Society, to which body Cowley, in March 1667, at the suggestion of
Evelyn, addressed an ode which is the latest and one of the strongest of
his poems. He died in the Porch House, in Chertsey, on the 28th of July
1667, in consequence of having caught a cold while superintending his
farm-labourers in the meadows late on a summer evening. On the 3rd of
August Cowley was buried in Westminster Abbey beside the ashes of
Chaucer and Spenser, where in 1675 the duke of Buckingham erected a
monument to his memory. His _Poëmata Latina_, including six books
"Plantarum," were printed in 1668.

Throughout their parallel lives the fame of Cowley completely eclipsed
that of Milton, but posterity instantly and finally reversed the
judgment of their contemporaries. The poetry of Cowley rapidly fell into
a neglect as unjust as the earlier popularity had been. As a prose
writer, especially as an essayist, he holds, and will not lose, a high
position in literature; as a poet it is hardly possible that he can
enjoy more than a very partial revival. The want of nature, the obvious
and awkward art, the defective melody of his poems, destroy the interest
that their ingenuity and occasional majesty would otherwise excite. He
had lofty views of the mission of a poet and an insatiable ambition, but
his chief claim to poetic life is the dowry of sonorous lyric style
which he passed down to Dryden and his successors of the 18th century.

  The works of Cowley were collected in 1668, when Thomas Sprat,
  afterwards bishop of Rochester, brought out a splendid edition in
  folio, to which he prefixed a graceful and elegant life of the poet.
  There were many reprints of this collection, which formed the standard
  edition till 1881, when it was superseded by A. B. Grosart's privately
  printed edition in two volumes, for the Chertsey Worthies library. The
  Essays have frequently been revived with approval.     (E. G.)

COWLEY, HANNAH (1743-1809), English dramatist and poet, daughter of
Philip Parkhouse, a bookseller at Tiverton, Devonshire, was born in
1743. When about twenty-five years old she married Mr Cowley, of the
East India Company's service, who died in 1797. Some years after her
marriage, being at the theatre with her husband, she expressed the
opinion that she could write as good a piece as the one being performed,
and within a fortnight she had written her first play, _The Runaway_.
She sent it to Garrick, who produced it at Drury Lane in 1776. Between
then and 1795 she wrote twelve more plays, all of which (with one
exception) were produced at Drury Lane or Covent Garden; and _The
Belle's Stratagem_ (1782), with one or two others, still survives in the
list of acting plays. Among other, pieces were _Albina_, _Countess
Raimond_, _A Bold Stroke for a Husband_, _More Ways than One_, and _A
School for Greybeards, or The Mourning Bride_. Mrs Cowley was the author
of a number of indifferent poems, mainly historical, and under the name
of "Anna Matilda," which has since become proverbial, she carried on a
sentimental correspondence in the _World_ with Robert Merry. She died at
Tiverton on the 11th of March 1809.

diplomatist, was the eldest son of Henry Wellesley, 1st Baron Cowley
(1773-1847), and Charlotte, daughter of Charles, 1st Earl Cadogan, and
was consequently a nephew of the duke of Wellington and of the marquess
Wellesley. Born on the 17th of June 1804, he entered the diplomatic
service in 1824, receiving his first important appointment in 1848, when
he became minister plenipotentiary to the Swiss cantons; and in the same
year he was sent to Frankfort to watch the proceedings of the German
parliament. This was followed by his appointment as envoy extraordinary
to the new Germanic confederation, a position which he only held for a
short time, as he was chosen in 1852 to succeed the 1st marquess of
Normanby as the British ambassador in Paris. Baron Cowley, as Wellesley
had been since his father's death in 1847, held this important post for
fifteen years, and the story of his diplomatic life in Paris cannot be
separated from the general history of England and France. As minister
during the greater part of the reign of Napoleon III., he conducted the
delicate negotiations between the two countries during the time of those
eastern complications which preceded and followed the Crimean War, and
also during the excitement and unrest produced by the attempt made in
1858 by Felice Orsini to assassinate the emperor of the French; while
his diplomatic skill was no less in evidence during the war between
France and Austria and the subsequent course of events in Italy. In 1857
he had been created Earl Cowley and Viscount Dangan; in 1866 he was made
a knight of the Garter; and having assisted Richard Cobden to conclude
the commercial treaty between Great Britain and France in 1860, he
retired in 1867 from a position which he had filled with distinction to
himself and with benefit to his country. In 1863 Cowley had inherited
the estate of Draycot in Wiltshire from his kinsman the 5th earl of
Mornington, and he lived in retirement until his death on the 15th of
July 1884. He had married in 1833 Olivia Cecilia (d. 1885), daughter of
Charlotte, baroness de Ros and Lord Henry Fitzgerald, by whom he had
three sons and two daughters, and was succeeded in his titles by his
eldest son, William Henry, 2nd Earl Cowley (1834-1895), father of Henry
Arthur Mornington, 3rd earl (b. 1866).

COWLEY FATHERS, the name commonly given to the members of the Society of
Mission Priests of St John the Evangelist, an Anglican religious
community, the headquarters of which are in England, at Cowley St John,
close to Oxford. The society was founded in 1865 by the Rev. R. M.
Benson "for the cultivation of a life dedicated to God according to the
principles of poverty, chastity and obedience." The society, which is
occupied both with educational and missionary work, has a house in
London and branch houses at Bombay and Poona in India, at Cape Town and
at St Cuthbert's, Kaffraria, in South Africa; and at Boston in the
United States of America. The costume of the Cowley Fathers consists of
a black frock or cassock confined by a black cord and a long black

COWPENS, a town of Spartanburg county, South Carolina, U.S.A., in the N.
part of the state. Pop. (1900) 692; (1910) 1101. It is served by the
Southern railway. In colonial days cattle were rounded up and branded
here--whence the name. Seven miles N. of the town is the field of the
battle of Cowpens, fought on the 17th of January 1781, during the War of
American Independence, between the Americans under Gen. Daniel Morgan
and the British under Gen. Banastre Tarleton, the British being
defeated. A monument was erected on the battlefield in 1859, but was
much defaced during the Civil War. The town of Cowpens was founded in
1876, and was incorporated in 1880.

COWPER, WILLIAM COWPER, 1ST EARL (c. 1665-1723), lord chancellor of
England, was the son of Sir William Cowper, Bart., of Ratling Court,
Kent, a Whig member of parliament of some mark in the two last Stuart
reigns. Educated at St Albans school, Cowper was called to the bar in
1688; having promptly given his allegiance to the prince of Orange on
his landing in England, he was made recorder of Colchester in 1694, and
in 1695 entered parliament as member for Hertford. He enjoyed a large
practice at the bar, and had the reputation of being one of the most
effective parliamentary orators of his generation. He lost his seat in
parliament in 1702 owing to the unpopularity caused by the trial of his
brother Spencer on a charge of murder. In 1705 he was appointed lord
keeper of the great seal, and took his seat on the woolsack without a
peerage. In the following year he conducted the negotiations between the
English and Scottish commissioners for arranging the union with
Scotland. In November of the same year (1706) he succeeded to his
father's baronetcy; and on the 14th of December he was raised to the
peerage as Baron Cowper of Wingham, Kent.

When the union with Scotland came into operation in May 1707 the queen
in council named Cowper lord high chancellor of Great Britain, he being
the first to hold this office. He presided at the trial of Dr
Sacheverell in 1710, but resigned the seal when Harley and Bolingbroke
took office in the same year. On the death of Queen Anne, George I.
appointed Cowper one of the lords justices for governing the country
during the king's absence, and a few weeks later he again became lord
chancellor. A paper which he drew up for the guidance of the new king on
constitutional matters, entitled _An Impartial History of Parties_,
marks the advance of English opinion towards party government in the
modern sense. It was published by Lord Campbell in his _Lives of the
Lord Chancellors_. Cowper supported the impeachment of Lord Oxford for
high treason in 1715, and in 1716 presided as lord high steward at the
trials of the peers charged with complicity in the Jacobite rising, his
sentences on whom have been censured as unnecessarily severe. He warmly
supported the septennial bill in the same year. On the 18th of March
1718 he was created Viscount Fordwich and Earl Cowper, and a month later
he resigned office on the plea of ill-health, but probably in reality
because George I. accused him of espousing the prince of Wales's side in
his quarrel with the king. Taking the lead against his former
colleagues, Cowper opposed the proposal brought forward in 1719 to limit
the number of peers, and also the bill of pains and penalties against
Atterbury in 1723. In his last years he was accused, but probably
without reason, of active sympathy with the Jacobites. He died at his
residence, Colne Green, built by himself on the site of the present
mansion of Panshanger on the 10th of October 1723.

Cowper was not a great lawyer, but Burnet says that "he managed the
court of chancery with impartial justice and great despatch"; the most
eminent of his contemporaries agreed in extolling his oratory and his
virtues. He was twice married--first, about 1686, to Judith, daughter
and heiress of Sir Robert Booth, a London merchant; and secondly, in
1706, to Mary, daughter of John Clavering, of Chopwell, Durham. Swift
(_Examiner_, xvii., xxii.) alludes to an allegation that Cowper had been
guilty of bigamy, a slander for which there appears to have been no
solid foundation. His younger brother, Spencer Cowper (1669-1728), was
tried for the murder of Sarah Stout in 1699, but was acquitted; the
lady, who had fallen in love with Cowper, having in fact committed
suicide on account of his inattention. He was one of the managers of the
impeachment of Sacheverell; was attorney-general to the prince of Wales
(1714), chief justice of Chester (1717), and judge of the common pleas
(1727). He was grandfather of William Cowper, the poet.

The 1st earl left two sons and two daughters by his second wife. The
eldest son, William (1709-1764), who succeeded to the title, assumed the
name of Clavering in addition to that of Cowper on the death of his
maternal uncle. His wife was a daughter of the earl of Grantham, and
grand-daughter of the earl of Ossory. The son of this marriage, George
Nassau, 3rd Earl Cowper (1738-1789), inherited the estates of the earl
of Grantham; and in 1778 he was created by the emperor Joseph II. a
prince of the Holy Roman Empire. The 5th earl (1778-1837) married a
daughter of Lord Melbourne, the prime minister, by whom he had two sons;
and his widow married as her second husband Lord Palmerston, who devised
his property of Broadlands to her second son, William Francis
Cowper-Temple (1811-1888), who was created Baron Mount Temple in 1880.
The elder son, George Augustus Frederick (1806-1856), 6th Earl Cowper,
married Anne Florence, daughter of Thomas Philip, earl de Grey; and this
lady at her father's death became _suo jure_ baroness Lucas of Cradwell.
Francis Thomas de Grey, 7th Earl Cowper (1834-1905), in addition to the
other family titles, became in 1871 10th Baron Dingwall in the peerage
of Scotland, and 8th Baron Butler of Moore Park in the peerage of
Ireland as heir-general of Thomas, earl of Ossory, son of the 1st duke
of Ormonde; the attainder of 1715 affecting those titles having been
reversed in July 1871. On the death of his mother he also inherited the
barony of Lucas of Cradwell. On the death without issue in 1905 of the
7th earl, who was lord lieutenant of Ireland 1880-1882, the earldom and
barony of Cowper, together with the viscountcy of Fordwich, became
extinct; the barony of Butler fell into abeyance among his sisters and
their heirs, and the baronies of Lucas and Dingwall devolved on his
nephew, Auberon Thomas Herbert (b. 1876).

  See _Private Diary of Earl Cowper_, edited by E. C. Hawtrey for the
  Roxburghe Club (Eton, 1833); _The Diary of Mary, Countess Cowper_,
  edited by the Hon. Spencer Cowper (London, 1864); Lord Campbell,
  _Lives of the Lord Chancellors and Keepers of the Great Seal_ (8
  vols., London, 1845-1869); Edward Foss, _The Judges of England_ (9
  vols., London, 1848-1864); Gilbert Burnet, _History of his Own Time_
  (6 vols., Oxford, 1833); T. B. Howell, _State Trials_, vol. xii.-xv.
  (33 vols., London, 1809-1828); G. E. C., _Complete Peerage_ (London,
  1889).     (R. J. M.)

COWPER, WILLIAM (1731-1800), English poet, was born in the rectory (now
rebuilt) of Great Berkhampstead, Hertfordshire, on the 26th of November
(O.S. 15th) 1731, his father the Rev. John Cowper being rector of the
parish as well as a chaplain to George II. On both the father's and the
mother's side he was of ancient lineage. The father could trace his
family back to the time of Edward IV. when the Cowpers were Sussex
landowners, while his mother, Ann, daughter of Roger Donne of Ludham
Hall, Norfolk, was of the same race as the poet Donne, and the family
claimed to have Plantagenet blood in its veins. Of more human interest
were Cowper's immediate predecessors. His grandfather was that Spencer
Cowper who, after being tried for his life on a charge of murder, lived
to be a judge of the court of common pleas, while his elder brother
became lord chancellor and Earl Cowper, a title which became extinct in
1905. Here is the poet's genealogical tree.

            John Cooper,[1] Alderman of London (d. 1609).
                Sir William Cowper, Bart. (d. 1642).
                John Cowper (died in prison 1643).
              Sir William Cowper, 2nd Bart. (d. 1706).
                  |                        |
  William, Earl Cowper,            Spencer Cowper,
  Lord Chancellor (d. 1723).       Judge (1669-1728).
         |                       |                     |
  William Cowper         Rev. John Cowper        Ashley Cowper
  (d. 1740).               (d. 1756).             (d. 1788).
                                 |                     |
                                 |             ________|________
                         William Cowper,      |                 |
                            the poet     Lady Hesketh.      Theodora.

The Rev. John Cowper was twice married. Cowper's mother, to whom the
memorable lines were written beginning "Oh that these lips had
language," was his first wife. She died in 1737 at the age of
thirty-four, when the poet was but six years old, and she is buried in
Berkhampstead church. Cowper's stepmother is buried in Bath, and a
tablet on the walls of the cathedral commemorates her memory. The
father, who appears to have been a conscientious clergyman with no
special interest in his sons, died in 1756 and was buried in the Cowper
tomb at Panshanger. Only one other of his seven children grew to
manhood--John, who was born in 1737.

The poet appears to have attended a dame's school in earliest infancy,
but on his mother's death, when he was six years old, he was sent to
boarding-school, to a Dr Pitman at Markyate, a village 6 m. from
Berkhampstead. From 1738 to 1741 he was placed in the care of an
oculist, as he suffered from inflammation of the eyes. In the latter
year he was sent to Westminster school, where he had Warren Hastings,
Impey, Lloyd, Churchill and Colman for schoolfellows. It was at the
Markyate school that he suffered the tyranny that he commemorated in
_Tirocinium_. His days at Westminster, Southey thinks, were "probably
the happiest in his life," but a boy of nervous temperament is always
unhappy at school. At the age of eighteen Cowper entered a solicitor's
office in Ely Place, Holborn. Here he had Thurlow, the future lord
chancellor, as a fellow-clerk, and it is stated that Thurlow promised to
help his less pushful comrade in the days of realized ambition. Three
years in Ely Place were rendered happy by frequent visits to his uncle
Ashley's house in Southampton Row, where he fell deeply in love with his
cousin Theodora Cowper. At twenty-one years of age he took chambers in
the Middle Temple, where we first hear of the dejection of spirits that
accompanied him periodically through manhood. He was called to the bar
in 1754. In 1759 he removed to the Inner Temple and was made a
commissioner of bankrupts. His devotion to his cousin, however, was a
source of unhappiness. Her father, possibly influenced by Cowper's
melancholy tendencies, perhaps possessed by prejudices against the
marriage of cousins, interposed, and the lovers were separated--as it
turned out for ever. During three years he was a member of the Nonsense
Club with his two schoolfellows from Westminster, Churchill and Lloyd,
and he wrote sundry verses in magazines and translated two books of
Voltaire's _Henriade_. A crisis occurred in Cowper's life when his
cousin Major Cowper nominated him to a clerkship in the House of Lords.
It involved a preliminary appearance at the bar of the house. The
prospect drove him insane, and he attempted suicide; he purchased
poison, he placed a penknife at his heart, but hesitated to apply either
measure of self-destruction. He has told, in dramatic manner, of his
more desperate endeavour to hang himself with a garter. Here he all but
succeeded. His friends were informed, and he was sent to a private
lunatic asylum at St Albans, where he remained for eighteen months under
the charge of Dr Nathaniel Cotton, the author of _Visions_. Upon his
recovery he removed to Huntingdon in order to be near his brother John,
who was a fellow of St Benet's College, Cambridge. John had visited his
brother at St Albans and arranged this. An attempt to secure suitable
lodgings nearer to Cambridge had been ineffectual. In June 1765 he
reached Huntingdon, and his life here was essentially happy. His illness
had broken him off from all his old friends save only his cousin Lady
Hesketh, Theodora's sister, but new acquaintances were made, the Unwins
being the most valued. This family consisted of Morley Unwin (a
clergyman), his wife Mary, and his son (William) and daughter
(Susannah). The son struck up a warm friendship which his family shared.
Cowper entered the circle as a boarder in November (1765). All went
serenely until in July 1767 Morley Unwin was thrown from his horse and
killed. A very short time before this event the Unwins had received a
visit from the Rev. John Newton (q.v.), the curate of Olney in
Buckinghamshire, with whom they became friends. Newton suggested that
the widow and her children with Cowper should take up their abode in
Olney. This was achieved in the closing months of 1767. Here Cowper was
to reside for nineteen years, and he was to render the town and its
neighbourhood memorable by his presence and by his poetry. His residence
in the Market Place was converted into a Cowper Museum a hundred years
after his death, in 1900. Here his life went on its placid course,
interrupted only by the death of his brother in 1770, until 1773, when
he became again deranged. It can scarcely be doubted that this second
attack interrupted the contemplated marriage of Cowper with Mary Unwin,
although Southey could find no evidence of the circumstance and Newton
was not informed of it. J. C. Bailey brings final evidence of this (_The
Poems of Cowper_, page 15). The fact was kept secret in later years in
order to spare the feelings of Theodora Cowper, who thought that her
cousin had remained as faithful as she had done to their early love.

It was not until 1776 that the poet's mind cleared again. In 1779 he
made his first appearance as an author by the _Olney Hymns_, written in
conjunction with Newton, Cowper's verses being indicated by a "C." Mrs
Unwin suggested secular verse, and Cowper wrote much, and in 1782 when
he was fifty-one years old there appeared _Poems of William Cowper of
the Inner Temple, Esq.: London, Printed for J. Johnson, No. 72 St Paul's
Churchyard_. The volume contained "Table Talk," "The Progress of Error,"
"Truth," "Expostulation" and much else that survives to be read in our
day by virtue of the poet's finer work. This finer work was the outcome
of his friendship with Lady Austen, a widow who, on a visit to her
sister, the wife of the vicar of the neighbouring village of Clifton,
made the acquaintance of Cowper and Mrs Unwin. The three became great
friends. Lady Austen determined to give up her house in London and to
settle in Olney. She suggested _The Task_ and inspired _John Gilpin_ and
_The Royal George_. But in 1784 the friendship was at an end, doubtless
through Mrs Unwin's jealousy of Lady Austen. Cowper's second volume
appeared in 1785;--_The Task: A Poem in Six Books. By William Cowper of
the Inner Temple, Esq.; To which are added by the same author An Epistle
to Joseph Hill, Esq., Tirocinium or a Review of Schools, and the History
of John Gilpin: London, Printed for J. Johnson, No. 72 St Paul's Church
Yard; 1785._ His first book had been a failure, one critic even
declaring that "Mr Cowper was certainly a good, pious man, but without
one spark of poetic fire." This second book was an instantaneous
success, and indeed marks an epoch in literary history. But before its
publication--in 1784--the poet had commenced the translation of Homer.
In 1786 his life at Olney was cheered by Lady Hesketh taking up a
temporary residence there. The cousins met after an interval of
twenty-three years, and Lady Hesketh was to be Cowper's good angel to
the end, even though her letters disclose a considerable impatience with
Mrs Unwin. At the end of 1786 a removal was made to Weston Underwood,
the neighbouring village which Cowper had frequently visited as the
guest of his Roman Catholic friends the Throckmortons. This was to be
his home for yet another ten years. Here he completed his translation of
Homer, materially assisted by Mr Throckmorton's chaplain Dr Gregson.
There are six more months of insanity to record in 1787. In 1790, a year
before the _Homer_ was published, commenced his friendship with his
cousin John Johnson, known to all biographers of the poet as "Johnny of
Norfolk." Johnson also aspired to be a poet, and visited his cousin
armed with a manuscript. Cowper discouraged the poetry, but loved the
writer, and the two became great friends. New friends were wanted, for
in 1792 Mrs Unwin had a paralytic stroke, and henceforth she was a
hopeless invalid. A new and valued friend of this period was Hayley,
famous in his own day as a poet and in history for his association with
Romney and Cowper. He was drawn to Cowper by the fact that both were
contemplating an edition of "Milton," Cowper having received a
commission to edit, writing notes and translating the Latin and Italian
poems. The work was never completed. In 1794 Cowper was again insane and
his lifework was over. In the following year a removal took place into
Norfolk under the loving care of John Johnson. Johnson took Cowper and
Mary Unwin to North Tuddenham, thence to Mundesley, then to Dunham
Lodge, near Swaffham, and finally in October 1796 they moved to East
Dereham. In December of that year Mrs Unwin died. Cowper lingered on,
dying on the 25th of April 1800. The poet is buried near Mrs Unwin in
East Dereham church.

Cowper is among the poets who are epoch-makers. He brought a new spirit
into English verse, and redeemed it from the artificiality and the
rhetoric of many of his predecessors. With him began the "enthusiasm of
humanity" that was afterwards to become so marked in the poetry of Burns
and Shelley, Wordsworth and Byron. With him began the deep sympathy with
nature, and love of animal life, which was to characterize so much of
later poetry.

Although Cowper cannot rank among the world's greatest poets or even
among the most distinguished of poets of his own country, his place is a
very high one. He had what is a rare quality among English poets, the
gift of humour, which was very singularly absent from others who
possessed many other of the higher qualities of the intellect. Certain
of his poems, moreover,--for example, "To Mary," "The Receipt of my
Mother's Portrait," and the ballad "On the Loss of the Royal
George,"--will, it may safely be affirmed, continue to be familiar to
each successive generation in a way that pertains to few things in
literature. Added to this, one may note Cowper's distinction as a
letter-writer. He ranks among the half-dozen greatest letter-writers in
the English language, and he was perhaps the only great letter-writer
with whom the felicity was due to the power of what he has seen rather
than what he has read.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The first important life of Cowper was by Hayley in
  1803. In its complete form it appeared in 4 volumes in 1806 and was
  reprinted in 1809 and 1812. It was reprinted again by the Rev. T. S.
  Grimshawe with the Correspondence in 8 volumes in 1835. Robert
  Southey's much more valuable _Life and Letters_ appeared also in 15
  volumes in 1834-1837. The _Private Correspondence_, edited by John
  Johnson, appeared in 2 volumes in 1824 and again in 1835. The
  _Complete Correspondence_, edited by Thomas Wright, was published in
  1904, but more correspondence appeared in _Notes and Queries_, July,
  August and September 1904, and in _The Poems of William Cowper_,
  edited by J. C. Bailey (1905). Edward Dowden unearthed new
  correspondence with William Hayley in _The Atlantic Monthly_ (1907).
  Short lives of Cowper have appeared in many quarters, from Thomas
  Taylor's (1833) to Goldwin Smith's in the "English Men of Letters"
  series (1880). Another brief biography of great merit is attached to
  the Globe edition of Cowper's _Works_. Essays by Leslie Stephen,
  Stopford Brooke, Whitwell Elwin, George Eliot and Walter Bagehot
  deserve attention. See also St Beuve's _Causeries du Lundi_ (1868),
  vol. xi.; _Letters of Lady Hesketh to John Johnson_ (1901); _John
  Newton_, by the Rev. Josiah Bull (1868); _Cowper and Mary Unwin_, by
  Caroline Gearey (1900); and _A Concordance to the Poetic Works of
  William Cowper_, by John Neave (1887).     (C. K. S.)


   [1] Alderman Cooper thus spelt his name and all the family from that
   day to this, including the poet, have so pronounced it.

COWRY, the popular name of the shells of the _Cypraeida_, a family of
mollusks. Upwards of 100 species are recognized, and they are widely
distributed over the world--their habitat being the shallow water along
the sea-shore. The best known is the money cowry or _Cypraea moneta_, a
small shell about half an inch in length, white and straw-coloured
without and blue within, which derives its distinctive name from the
fact that in various countries it has been employed as a kind of
currency. (See SHELL-MONEY.) In Africa among those tribes, such as the
Niam-Niam, who do not recognize their monetary value, the shells are in
demand as fashionable decorations, just as in Germany they were in use
as an ornament for horses' harness, and were popular enough to acquire
several native names, such as _Brustharnisch_ or breastplates, and
_Otterköpfchen_ or little adders' heads. Besides the _Cypraea moneta_
various species are employed in this decorative use. The _Cypraea
aurora_ is a mark of chieftainship among the natives of the Friendly
Islands; the _Cypraea annulus_ is a favourite with the Asiatic
islanders; and several of the larger kinds have been used in Europe for
the carving of cameos. The tiger cowry, _Cypraea tigris_, so well known
as a mantelpiece ornament in England and America, is commonly used by
the natives of the Sandwich Islands to sink their nets; and they have
also an ingenious plan of cementing portions of several shells into a
smooth oval ball which they then employ as a bait to catch the
cuttle-fish. While the species already mentioned occur in myriads in
their respective habitats, the _Cypraea princeps_ and the _Cypraea
umbilicata_ are extremely rare.

COW-TREE, or MILK-TREE, _Brosimum Galactodendron_ (natural order
Moraceae), a native of Venezuela. As in other members of the order, the
stem contains a milky latex, which flows out in considerable quantities
when a notch is cut in it. The "milk" is sweet and pleasant tasting.
Another species, _B. Alicastrum_, the bread-nut tree, a native of
central America and Jamaica, bears a fruit which is cooked and eaten.
The bread-fruit (_Artocarpus_) is an allied genus of the same natural

COX, DAVID (1783-1859), English painter, was born on the 29th of April
1783, in a small house attached to the forge of his father, a
hardworking master smith, in a mean suburb of Birmingham. Turning his
hand to what he could get to do, Joseph Cox, the father, was both
blacksmith and whitesmith, and when the war with France began took to
the making of bayonets and horse shoes, on wholesale commission, and
immediately the boy David was thought able to assist he was taken from
the poor elementary school in the neighbourhood, and set to the anvil.
The attempt to turn the boy to this kind of labour had, however, been
made too early; it was too heavy for his strength, and he was sent to
what was called by the cyclops of Birmingham a "toy trade," making
lacquered buckles, painted lockets, tin snuff-boxes and other "fancy"
articles. Here David very soon acquired some power of painting
miniatures, and his talents might have been misdirected had his master,
Fieldler by name, not released him from his apprenticeship by dying by
his own hand; and David found an opening as colour-grinder and
scene-painter's fag in the theatre then leased, with several others, by
the father of Macready, the tragedian.

This obscure step, not one of promotion at the time, was really the most
important incident in the uneventful career of Cox. The boy, who had
inherited a rather weakly body, and had been trained with care by a
pious mother, while intellectually negative and unable to cope with any
kind of learning whatever, had endless perseverance, great strength of
application, and all through life remained genial, gentle, simple-minded
and modest, his penetration and self-reliance being wholly professional,
inspired by his love of nature and his knowledge of his subject. Not
very quick, and with little versatility, he went step by step in one
line of study from the time he began to get the smallest remuneration
for his pictures to the age of seventy-five, when he painted large in
oil very much the same class of subjects he had of old produced small in
water-colours, with the same impressive and unaffectedly noble
sentiment, only increased by the mastery of almost infinite practice. He
was never led astray by fictitious splendour of any kind, except once
indeed in 1825, when he imitated Turner, and produced a classic subject
he called "Carthage, Aeneas, and Achates." He never visited Venice or
Egypt, or crossed the Channel except for a week or two in Belgium and
Paris, and never even went to Scotland for painting purposes.
Bettws-y-Coed and its neighbourhood was everything to him, and
characteristics most truly English were beloved by him with a sort of
filial instinct. So completely did he love the country, that even
London, where it was his interest to live, had few attractions, and did
not retain him long.

This residence in the metropolis which began in 1804 was, however, of
the most essential educational advantage to him. The Water-Colour
Society was established the year after he arrived, and was mainly
supported by landscape-painters. He was not, of course, admitted at
first into membership, not till 1813, before which time an attempt to
establish a rival exhibition had been made. In this Cox joined, the
result being very serious to him, an entire failure entailing the
seizure and forced sale of all the pictures. At that time the tightest
economy was the rule with him, and to save the trifling cost of new
strainers or stretching boards, he covered up one picture by another.
When these works were prepared for re-sale, fifty years afterwards, some
of them yielded picture after picture, peeled off the boards like the
waistcoats from the body of the gravedigger in Hamlet!

While lodging near Astley's Circus he married his landlady's daughter,
and then took a modest cottage at Dulwich, where he gradually left off
scene-painting and became teacher, giving lessons at ten shillings a
lesson. This entailed walking to the pupils' homes, and the gift of the
paintings done before the pupils. These have since been frequently sold
for large sums, but his own price, when lucky enough to sell his best
works, was never over a few pounds, and more frequently about fifteen
shillings. Sometimes, indeed, he sold them in quantities at two pounds a
dozen to be resold to country teachers. By and by he resisted the
leaving of the work done to the pupil, but with little advantage to
himself, as he saw no end to the accumulation of his own productions,
and actually tore them up, and threw them into areas, or pushed them
into drains during his trudge homeward. A number of years after he
pointed out a particular drain to a friend, and said, "Many a work of
mine has gone down that way to the Thames!"

Shortly after he had turned thirty, his stay in London suddenly ended.
He was offered the enormous sum of £100 per annum, by a ladies' college
in Hereford, and thither he went. This sum he supplemented by teaching
in the Hereford grammar school for many years, at six guineas a year,
and in other schools at better pay, but still, and up to his fortieth
year, we find his prices for pictures from eight to twenty-five
shillings. Cox has no history apart from his productions, and these
particulars as to his remuneration possess an interest almost dramatic
when we contrast them with the enormous sums realized by his later
works, and with the "honours and observance, troops of friends," that
accompanied old age with him, when settled down in his own home at
Harborne, near his native town, where he died on the 7th of June 1859.

Cox's second short residence in London, dating from 1835 to 1840, marks
the period of his highest powers. During those years, and for twelve
years after, his productiveness kept pace with his mastery, and it would
be difficult to overrate the impressiveness of effect, and high feeling,
within the narrow range of subject displayed by many of these works. He
was now surrounded by dealers, and wealth flowed in upon him. Still he
remained the same, a man with few wants and scarcely any enjoyments
except those furnished by his brush and his colours. The home at
Harborne was a pleasant one, but the approach to the front was useless
as the door was kept fastened up, the only entrance being through the
garden at the back, and the principal room appropriated as his studio he
was content to reach by a narrow stair from the kitchen. Neither in it
nor elsewhere was there any luxury or even taste visible:--no
_bric-à-brac_, no objects of interest, few or no books, no pictures
except landscapes by his friends. When in winter, after his wife's
death, the fire went out, and the cold at last surprised him, he lifted
his easel into the little dining-room and began again. A union of his
friends was formed in 1855 to procure a portrait of him, which was
painted by Sir J. Watson Gordon; and an exhibition of his works was
opened in London in 1858 and again another in 1859. This was actually
open when the news of his death arrived.

The number of David Cox's works, great and small, is enormous. He
produced hundreds annually for perhaps forty-five years. Before his
death and for ten years thereafter, their prices were remarkable, as
witness the following obtained at auction--"Going to the Mill," £1575;
"Old Mill at Bettws-y-Coed," £1575; "Outskirts of a Wood, with Gipsies,"
£2305; "Peace and War," £3430.

  See Hall, _Biography of David Cox_ (1881).     (W. B. Sc.)

COX, SIR GEORGE WILLIAM (1827-1902), English divine and scholar, was
born on the 10th of January 1827, at Benares, India, and was educated at
Rugby and Trinity College, Oxford. In 1850 he was ordained, and in 1860
took a mastership at Cheltenham College, which he held for only a year.
He had already contributed to the _Edinburgh Review_, and had published
in 1850 _Poems, Legendary and Historical_ (with E. A. Freeman), and in
1853 a _Life of St Boniface_. From 1861 he devoted himself entirely to
literary work, chiefly in connexion with history and comparative
mythology. Many of his works were avowedly popular in character, and the
most important, the _History of Greece_, has been superseded and is now
of little value. His studies in mythology were inspired by Max Müller,
but his treatment of the subjects was his own. He was an extreme
supporter of the solar and nebular theory as the explanation of myths.
He also edited (with W. T. Brande) _A Dictionary of Science, Literature
and Art_ (1875). Sir George Cox (who succeeded to the baronetcy in 1877)
was a Broad Churchman, and a prominent supporter of Bishop Colenso in
1863-1865; and five years after Colenso's death he published (1888) his
_Life_ of the bishop. He was himself nominated to the see of Natal, but
was refused consecration. In 1881 he was made vicar of Scrayingham,
York, but resigned the living in 1897. In 1896 he was given a civil list
pension. He died at Walmer on the 9th of February 1902.

  WORKS.--_Tales from Greek Mythology_ (1861); _A Manual of Mythology_
  (1867); _Latin and Teutonic Christendom_ (1870); _The Mythology of the
  Aryan Nations_ (1870, new ed., 1882); _History of Greece_ (1874);
  _General History of Greece_ (1876); _History of the Establishment of
  British Rule in India_, and _An Introduction to the Science of
  Comparative Mythology_ (1881); _Lives of Greek Statesmen_ (1885);
  _Concise History of England_ (1887).

COX, JACOB DOLSON (1828-1900), American general, political leader and
educationalist, was born on the 27th of October 1828 in Montreal,
Canada. His father, a shipbuilder of German descent (Koch), and his
mother, a descendant of William Brewster, were natives of New York City,
where the boy grew up, studying law in an office in 1842-1844, and
working in a broker's office in 1844-1846, and where, under the
influence of Charles G. Finney (1792-1875), whose daughter he afterwards
married, he prepared himself for the ministry. He graduated at Oberlin
College in 1851, having in the meantime given up his theological studies
in rebellion at Finney's dogmatism. In 1851-1853 he was superintendent
of schools at Warren, Ohio; in 1853 was admitted to the Ohio bar, being
at that time an anti-slavery Whig; and in 1859 was elected to the state
senate, in which with Garfield and James Monroe (1821-1898) he formed
the "Radical Triumvirate," Cox himself presenting a petition for a
personal liberty law and urging woman's rights, especially larger
property rights to married women. Appointed by Governor Dennison one of
three brigadiers-general of militia in 1860, he eagerly undertook the
study of tactics, strategy and military history. He rendered great
assistance in raising troops for the Union service in 1861, enlisted
himself in spite of poor health and a family of six small children, and
in April was commissioned a brigadier-general, U.S.V. He took part in
the West Virginia campaign of 1861, served in the Kanawha region, in
supreme command after Rosecrans's relief in the spring, until August
1862, when his troops were ordered to join Burnside's 9th Corps in
Virginia. After the death at his side of General Reno in the battle of
South Mountain, and during Antietam, Cox commanded the corps, and at the
close of the campaign (6th Oct. 1862) he was appointed major-general,
U.S.V., but the appointment was not confirmed. In April-December 1863 he
was head of the department of Ohio. In 1864 he took part in the Atlanta
campaign under Sherman, as a divisional and subsequently
corps-commander: at the battle of Franklin he commanded the 23rd Corps,
and he served at Nashville also. He led an expedition following Sherman
into the Carolinas and fought two successful actions with Bragg at
Kinston, N.C. He was governor of Ohio in 1866-1867, and as such
advocated the colonization of the freedmen in a restricted area, and
sympathized with President Johnson's programme of Reconstruction and
worked for a compromise between Johnson and his opponents, although he
finally deserted Johnson. In 1868 he was chairman of the Republican
national convention which nominated Grant. He was secretary of the
interior in 1869-1870; opposed the confirmation of the treaty for the
annexation of Santo Domingo, negotiated by O. E. Babcock and urged by
President Grant; introduced the merit system in his department, and
resigned in October 1870 because of pressure put on him by politicians
piqued at his prohibition of campaign levies on his clerks, and because
of the interference of Grant in favour of William McGarrahan's attempt
by legal proceedings to obtain from Cox a patent to certain California
mining lands. He took up legal practice in Cincinnati, became president
in 1873, and until 1877 was receiver, of the Toledo & Wabash & Western.
In 1877-1879 he was a representative in Congress. From 1881 to 1897 he
was dean of the Cincinnati law school, and from 1885 to 1889 president
of the University of Cincinnati. He died at Magnolia, Massachusetts, on
the 4th of August 1900. A successful lawyer, and in his later years a
prominent microscopist, who won a gold medal of honour for
microphotography at the Antwerp Exposition of 1891, he is best known as
one of the greatest "civilian" generals of the Civil War, and, with the
possible exception of J. C. Ropes, the highest American authority of his
time on military history, particularly the history of the American Civil
War. He wrote _Atlanta_ (New York, 1882) and _The March to the Sea,
Franklin and Nashville_ (New York, 1882), both in the series _Campaigns
of the Civil War_; _The Second Battle of Bull Run, as Connected with
the Fitz-John Porter Case_ (Cincinnati, 1882); and the valuable
_Military Reminiscences of the Civil War_ (2 vols., New York, 1900)
published posthumously.

  See J. R. Ewing, _Public Services of Jacob Dolson Cox_ (Washington,
  1902), a Johns Hopkins University dissertation; and W. C. Cochran,
  "Early Life and Military Services of General Jacob Dolson Cox," in
  _Bibliotheca Sacra_, vol. 58 (Oberlin, Ohio, 1901).

COX, KENYON (1856-   ), American painter, was born at Warren, Ohio, on
the 27th of October 1856, being the son of Gen. Jacob Dolson Cox. He was
a pupil of Carolus-Duran and of J. L. Gérôme in Paris from 1877 to 1882,
when he opened a studio in New York, subsequently teaching with much
success in the Art Students' League. His earlier work was mainly of the
nude drawn with great academic correctness in somewhat conventional
colour. Receiving little encouragement for such pictures, he turned to
mural decorative work, in which he achieved prominence. Among his
better-known examples are the frieze for the court room of the Appellate
Court, New York, and decorations for the Walker Art Gallery, Bowdoin
College; for the Capitol at Saint Paul, Minnesota, and for other public
and private buildings. He wrote with much authority on art topics, and
is the author of the critical reviews, _Old Masters and New_ (1905) and
_Painters and Sculptors_ (1907), besides some poems. He became a
National Academician in 1903. His wife, _née_ Louise H. King (b. 1865),
whom he married in 1892, also became a figure and portrait-painter of

COX, RICHARD (1500?-1581), dean of Westminster and bishop of Ely, was
born of obscure parentage at Whaddon, Buckinghamshire, in 1499 or 1500.
He was educated at the Benedictine priory of St Leonard Snelshall near
Whaddon, at Eton, and at King's College, Cambridge, where he graduated
B.A. in 1524. At Wolsey's invitation he became a member of the
cardinal's new foundation at Oxford, was incorporated B.A. in 1525, and
created M.A. in 1526. In 1530 he was engaged in persuading the more
unruly members of the university to approve of the king's divorce. A
premature expression of Lutheran views is said to have caused his
departure from Oxford and even his imprisonment, but the records are
silent on these sufferings which do not harmonize with his appointment
as master of the royal foundation at Eton. In 1533 he appears as author
of an ode on the coronation of Anne Boleyn, in 1535 he graduated B.D. at
Cambridge, proceeding D.D. in 1537, and in the same year subscribing the
Institution of a Christian Man. In 1540 he was one of the fifteen
divines to whom were referred crucial questions on the sacraments and
the seat of authority in the Church; his answers (printed in Pocock's
_Burnet_, iii. 443-496) indicate a mind tending away from Catholicism,
but susceptible to "the king's doctrine"; and, indeed, Cox was one of
the divines by whom Henry said the "King's Book" had been drawn up when
he wished to impress upon the Regent Arran that it was not exclusively
his own doing. Moreover, he was present at the examination of Barnes,
subscribed the divorce of Anne of Cleves, and in that year of reaction
became archdeacon and prebendary of Ely and canon of Westminster. He was
employed on other royal business in 1541, was nominated to the projected
bishopric of Southwell, and was made king's chaplain in 1542. In 1543 he
was employed to ferret out the "Prebendaries' Plot" against Cranmer, and
became the archbishop's chancellor. In December he was appointed dean of
Oseney (afterwards Christ Church) Oxford, and in July was made almoner
to Prince Edward, in whose education he took an active part. He was
present at Dr Crome's recantation in 1546, denounced it as insincere and
insufficient, and severely handled him before the privy council.

After Edward's accession, Cox's opinions took a more Protestant turn,
and he became one of the most active agents of the Reformation. He was
consulted on the compilation of the Communion office in 1548, and the
first and second books of Common Prayer, and sat on the commission for
the reform of the canon law. As chancellor of the university of Oxford
(1547-1552) he promoted foreign divines such as Peter Martyr, and was a
moving spirit of the two commissions which sought with some success to
eradicate everything savouring of popery from the books, MSS.,
ornaments and endowments of the university, and earned Cox the sobriquet
of its cancellor rather than its chancellor. He received other rewards,
a canonry of Windsor (1548), the rectory of Harrow (1547) and the
deanery of Westminster (1549). He lost these preferments on Mary's
accession, and was for a fortnight in August 1553 confined to the
Marshalsea. He was not of the stuff of which martyrs are made; he
remained in obscurity until after the failure of Wyatt's rebellion, and
then in May 1554 escaped in the same ship as the future archbishop
Sandys, to Antwerp. Thence in March 1555 he made his way to Frankfort,
where he played an important part in the first struggle between
Anglicanism and Puritanism. The exiles had, under the influence of Knox
and Whittingham, adopted Calvinistic doctrine and a form of service far
more Puritanical than the Prayer-Book of 1552. Cox stood up for that
service, and the exiles were divided into Knoxians and Coxians. Knox
attacked Cox as a pluralist, Cox accused Knox of treason to the emperor
Charles V. This proved the more dangerous charge: Knox and his followers
were expelled, and the Prayer-Book of 1552 was restored.

In 1559 Cox returned to England, and was elected bishop of Norwich, but
the queen changed her mind and Cox's destination to Ely, where he
remained twenty-one years. He was an honest, but narrow-minded
ecclesiastic, who held what views he did hold intolerantly, and was
always wanting more power to constrain those who differed from him (see
his letter in _Hatfield MSS._ i. 308). While he refused to minister in
the queen's chapel because of the crucifix and lights there, and was a
bitter enemy to the Roman Catholics, he had little more patience with
the Puritans. He was grasping, or at least tenacious of his rights in
money matters, and was often brought into conflict with courtiers who
coveted episcopal lands. The queen herself intervened, when he refused
to grant Ely House to her favourite, Sir Christopher Hatton; but the
well-known letter beginning "Proud Prelate" and threatening to unfrock
him seems to be an impudent forgery which first saw the light in the
_Annual Register_ for 1761. It hardly, however, misrepresents the
queen's meaning, and Cox was forced to give way. These and other trials
led him to resign his see in 1580, and it is significant that it
remained vacant for nineteen years. Cox died on the 22nd of July 1581: a
monument erected to his memory twenty years later in Ely cathedral was
defaced, owing, it was said, to his evil repute. Strype (Whitgift, i. 2)
gives Cox's hot temper and marriage as reasons why he was not made
archbishop in 1583 in preference to Whitgift, who had been his chaplain;
but Cox had been dead two years in 1583. His first wife's name is
unknown; she was the mother of his five children, of whom Joanna married
the eldest son of Archbishop Parker. His second wife was the widow of
William Turner (d. 1568), the botanist and dean of Wells.

  Voluminous details about Cox's life are given in Strype's Works,
  Parker Soc. Publ., and Cooper's _Athenae Cantab._ i. 437-445. See also
  Letters and Papers of Henry VIII.; Acts of the Privy Council; Cal.
  Dom. State Papers; Cal. Hatfield MSS.; Lit. Rem. of Edward VI.;
  Whittingham's _Troubles at Frankfort_; Machyn's _Diary_; Pocock's
  _Burnet_; Bentham's _Ely_; Willis's _Cathedrals_; Le Neve's _Fasti_;
  R. W. Dixon's _Church History_.     (A. F. P.)

COX, SAMUEL (1826-1893), English nonconformist divine, was born in
London on the 19th of April 1826. For some years he worked as an
apprentice in the London docks, and then entered the Baptist College at
Stepney. In 1851 he became pastor of a Baptist church at Southsea,
removing in 1855 to Ryde, and in 1863 to Nottingham. He was president of
the Baptist Association in 1873 and received the degree of D.D. from St
Andrews in 1882. Cox had distinct gifts as a biblical expositor and was
the founder and first editor of a monthly journal _The Expositor_
(1875-1884). Among the best known of his numerous theological
publications are _Salvator Mundi_ (1877), _A Commentary on the Book of
Job_ (1880), _The Larger Hope_ (1883).

COX, SAMUEL HANSON (1793-1880), American Presbyterian divine, was born
at Rahway, N.J., on the 25th of August 1793, of Quaker stock. He was
pastor of the Presbyterian church at Mendham, N.J., in 1817-1821, and of
two churches in New York from 1821 to 1834. He helped to found the
University of the City of New York, and from 1834 to 1837 was professor
of pastoral theology at Auburn. The next seventeen years were passed in
active ministry at Brooklyn, whence in 1854, owing to a throat
affection, he removed to Owego, N.Y. He died at Bronxville, N.Y., on the
2nd of October 1880. Cox was a fine orator, and a speech made in Exeter
Hall in 1833, in which he put the responsibility for slavery in America
on the British government, made a great impression. It was he who
described the appellation D.D. as a couple of "semi-lunar fardels."

His son, ARTHUR CLEVELAND COXE (1818-1896), who changed the spelling of
the family name, graduated at the University of the City of New York in
1838 and at the General Theological Seminary in 1841. He was rector of
St John's Church, Hartford, in 1843-1854, of Grace Church, Baltimore, in
1854-1863, and of Calvary Church, New York City, in 1863. In 1863 he
became assistant bishop and in 1865 bishop of western New York. He was
strongly influenced by the Oxford Movement. Bishop Coxe wrote spirited
defences of Anglican orders and published several volumes of verse,
notably _Christian Ballads_ (1845).

COXCIE, MICHAEL (1499-1592), Flemish painter, was born at Malines, and
studied under Bernard van Orley, who probably induced him to visit
Italy. At Rome in 1532 he painted the chapel of Cardinal Enckenvoort in
the church of Santa Maria dell' Anima; and Vasari, who knew him, says
with truth "that he fairly acquired the manner of an Italian." But
Coxcie's principal occupation was designing for engravers; and the fable
of Psyche in thirty-two sheets by Agostino Veneziano and the Master of
the Die are favourable specimens of his skill. During a subsequent
residence in the Netherlands Coxcie greatly extended his practice in
this branch of art. But his productions were till lately concealed under
an interlaced monogram M.C.O.K.X.I.N. Coxcie returned in 1539 to
Malines, where he matriculated, and painted for the chapel of the gild
of St Luke the wings of an altarpiece now in Sanct Veit of Prague. The
centre of this altarpiece, by Mabuse, represents St Luke portraying the
Virgin; the side pieces contain the Martyrdom of St Vitus and the Vision
of St John in Patmos. At van Orley's death in 1541 Coxcie succeeded to
the office of court painter to the regent Mary of Hungary, for whom he
decorated the castle of Binche. He was subsequently patronized by
Charles V., who often coupled his works with those of Titian; by Philip
II., who paid him royally for a copy of van Eyck's "Agnus Dei"; and by
the duke of Alva, who once protected him from the insults of Spanish
soldiery at Malines. There are large and capital works of his
(1587-1588) in St Rombaud of Malines, in Ste Gudule of Brussels, and in
the museums of Brussels and Antwerp. His style is Raphaelesque grafted
on the Flemish, but his imitation of Raphael, whilst it distantly
recalls Giulio Romano, is never free from affectation and stiffness. He
died at Malines on the 5th of March 1592.

COXE, HENRY OCTAVIUS (1811-1881), English librarian and scholar, was
born at Bucklebury, in Berkshire, on the 20th of September 1811. He was
educated at Westminster school and Worcester College, Oxford.
Immediately on taking his degree in 1833, he began work in the
manuscript department of the British Museum, became in 1838
sub-librarian of the Bodleian, at Oxford, and in 1860 succeeded Dr
Bandinel as head librarian, an office he held until his death in 1881.
Having proved himself an able palaeographer, he was sent out by the
British government in 1857 to inspect the libraries in the monasteries
of the Levant. He discovered some valuable manuscripts, but the monks
were too wise to part with their treasures. One valuable result of his
travels was the detection of the forgery attempted by Constantine
Simonides. He was the author of various catalogues, and under his
direction that of the Bodleian, in more than 720 volumes, was completed.
He published _Rogeri de Wendover Chronica_, 5 vols. (1841-1844); the
_Black Prince, an historical poem written in French by Chandos Herald_
(1842); and _Report on the Greek Manuscripts yet remaining in the
Libraries of the Levant_ (1858). He was not only an accurate librarian
but an active and hardworking clergyman, and was for the last
twenty-five years of his life in charge of the parish of Wytham, near
Oxford. He was likewise honorary fellow of Worcester and Corpus Christi
Colleges. He died on the 8th of July 1881.

COXE, WILLIAM (1747-1828), English historian, son of Dr William Coxe,
physician to the royal household, was born in London on the 7th of March
1747. Educated at Marylebone grammar school and at Eton College, he
proceeded to King's College, Cambridge, and was elected a fellow of this
society in 1768. In 1771 he took holy orders, and afterwards visited
many parts of Europe as tutor and travelling companion to various
noblemen and gentlemen. In 1786 he was appointed vicar of
Kingston-on-Thames, and in 1788 rector of Bemerton, Wiltshire. He also
held the rectory of Stourton from 1801 to 1811 and that of Fovant from
1811 until his death. In 1791 he was made prebendary of Salisbury, and
in 1804 archdeacon of Wiltshire. He married in 1803 Eleanora, daughter
of William Shairp, consul-general for Russia, and widow of Thomas
Yeldham of St Petersburg. He died on the 8th of June 1828.

During a long residence at Bemerton Coxe was mainly occupied in literary
work. His _Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole_ (London, 1798), _Memoirs of
Horatio, Lord Walpole_ (London, 1802), _Memoirs of John, duke of
Marlborough_ (London, 1818-1819), _Private and Original Correspondence
of Charles Talbot, duke of Shrewsbury_ (London, 1821), _Memoirs of the
Administrations of Henry Pelham_ (London, 1829), are very valuable for
the history of the 18th century. His _History of the House of Austria_
(London, 1807, new ed. 1853 and 1873), and _Memoirs of the Bourbon Kings
of Spain_ (London, 1813), give evidence of careful and painstaking work
on the part of the author. The style, however, as in all his works, is
remarkably dull. His other works are mainly accounts of his travels:
_Sketches of the Natural, Political and Civil State of Switzerland_
(London, 1779), _Account of the Russian Discoveries between Asia and
America_ (London, 1780), _Account of Prisons and Hospitals in Russia,
Sweden and Denmark_ (London, 1781), _Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden
and Denmark_ (London, 1784), _Travels in Switzerland_ (London, 1789),
_Letter on Secret Tribunals of Westphalia_ (London, 1796), _Historical
Tour in Monmouthshire_ (London, 1801). He also edited Gay's _Fables_,
and wrote a _Life of John Gay_ (Salisbury, 1797), _Anecdotes of G. F.
Handel and J. C. Smith_ (London, 1798), and a few other works of minor
importance. Some of his books have been translated into French, and
several have gone through two or more editions.

COXSWAIN (properly "cockswain," and pronounced _cox'n_, usually
shortened to "cox"; from "cock," a small boat, and _swain_, a servant),
in the navy, a petty officer in charge of a ship's boat and its crew,
who steers; the coxswain of the captain's gig takes a special rank among
petty officers. In the National Lifeboat Institution of Great Britain
the "coxswain" is a paid permanent official on each station, who has
charge of the lifeboat and house, is responsible for its care, and
steers and takes command when afloat. The word is also used, generally,
of any one who steers a boat.

COXWELL, HENRY TRACEY (1819-1900), English aeronaut, was born at
Wouldham, Kent, on the 2nd of March 1819, the son of a naval officer. He
was educated for the army, but became a dentist. From a boy he had been
greatly interested in ballooning, then in its infancy, but his own first
ascent was not made until 1844. In 1848 he became a professional
aeronaut, making numerous public ascents in the chief continental
cities. Returning to London, he gave exhibitions from the Cremorne and
subsequently from the Surrey Gardens. By 1861 he had made over 400
ascents. In 1862 in company with Dr James Glaisher, he attained the
greatest height on record, about 7 m. His companion became insensible,
and he himself, unable to use his frost-bitten hands, opened the
gas-valve with his teeth, and made an extremely rapid but safe descent.
The result of this and other aerial voyages by Coxwell and Glaisher was
the making of some important contributions to the science of
meteorology. Coxwell was most pertinacious in urging the practical
utility of employing balloons in time of war. He says: "I had hammered
away in _The Times_ for little less than a decade before there was a
real military trial of ballooning for military purposes at Aldershot."
His last ascent was made in 1885, and he died on the 5th of January

  See his _My Life and Balloon Experiences_ (1887).

COYOTE, the Indian name for a North American member of the dog family,
also known as the prairie-wolf, and scientifically as _Canis latrans_.
Ranging from Canada in the north to Guatemala in the south, and chiefly
frequenting the open plains on both sides of the chain of the Rocky
Mountains, the coyote, under all its various local phases, is a smaller
animal than the true wolf, and may apparently be regarded as the New
World representative of the jackals, or perhaps, like the Indian wolf
(_C. pallipes_), as a type intermediate between wolves and jackals. In
addition to its inferior size, the coyote is also shorter in the leg
than the wolf, and carries a more luxuriant coat of hair. The average
length is about 40 in., and the general tone of colour tawny mingled
with black and white above and whitish below, the tail having a black
tip and likewise a dark gland-patch near the root of the upper surface.
There is, however, considerable local variation both in the matter of
size and of colour from the typical coyote of Iowa, which measures about
50 in. in total length and is of a full rich tint. The coyote of the
deserts of eastern California, Nevada and Utah is, for instance, a
smaller and paler-coloured animal, whose length is usually about 42 in.
On this and other local variations a number of nominal species have been
founded; but it is preferable to regard them in the light of
geographical phases or races, such as the above-mentioned _C. latrans
estor_ of Nevada and Utah, _C. l. mearnsi_ of Arizona and Sonora, and
_C. l. frustor_ of Oklahoma and the Arkansas River district.

It is to distinguish them from the grey, or timber, wolves that coyotes
have received the name of "prairie-wolves"; the two titles indicating
the nature of the respective habitats of the two species. Coyotes are
creatures of slinking and stealthy habits, living in burrows in the
plains, and hunting in packs at night, when they utter yapping cries and
blood-curdling yells as they gallop. Hares ("jack-rabbits"), chipmunks
or ground-squirrels, and mice form a large portion of their food; but
coyotes also kill the fawns of deer and prongbuck, as well as sage-hens
and other kinds of game-birds. "In the flat lands," write Messrs Witmer
Stone and W. E. Cram, in their _American Animals_ (1902), "they dig
burrows for themselves or else take possession of those already made by
badgers and prairie-dogs. Here in the spring the half-dozen or more
coyote pups are brought forth; and it is said that at this season the
old ones systematically drive any large game they may be chasing as near
to their burrow, where the young coyotes are waiting to be fed, as
possible before killing it, in order to save the labour of dragging it
any great distance. When out after jack-rabbits two coyotes usually work
together. When a jack-rabbit starts up before them, one of the coyotes
bounds away in pursuit while the other squats on his haunches and waits
his turn, knowing full well that the hare prefers to run in a circle,
and will soon come round again, when the second wolf takes up the chase
and the other rests in his turn.... When hunting antelope (prongbuck)
and deer the coyotes spread out their pack into a wide circle,
endeavouring to surround their game and keep it running inside their
ring until exhausted. Sage-hens, grouse and small birds the coyote hunts
successfully alone, quartering over the ground like a trained pointer
until he succeeds in locating his bird, when he drops flat in the grass
and creeps forward like a cat until close enough for the final spring."

When hard put to it for food, coyotes will, it is reported, eat hips,
juniper-berries and other wild fruits.     (R. L.*)

COYPEL, the name of a French family of painters. Noel Coypel
(1628-1707), also called, from the fact that he was much influenced by
Poussin, COYPEL LE POUSSIN, was the son of an unsuccessful artist.
Having been employed by Charles Errard to paint some of the pictures
required for the Louvre, and having afterwards gained considerable fame
by other pictures produced at the command of the king, in 1672 he was
appointed director of the French Academy at Rome. After four years he
returned to France; and not long after he became director of the Academy
of Painting. The Martyrdom of St James in Notre Dame is perhaps his
finest work.

His son, ANTOINE COYPEL (1661-1772), was still more celebrated than his
father. Antoine studied under his father, with whom he spent four years
at Rome. At the age of eighteen he was admitted into the Academy of
Painting, of which he became professor and rector in 1707, and director
in 1714. In 1716 he was appointed king's painter, and he was ennobled in
the following year. Antoine Coypel received a careful literary
education, the effects of which appear in his works; but the graceful
imagination displayed by his pictures is marred by the fact that he was
not superior to the artificial taste of his age. He was a clever etcher,
and engraved several of his own works. His _Discours prononcés dans les
conférences de l' Académie royale de Peinture, &c._; appeared in 1741.

Antoine's half-brother, NOEL NICHOLAS COYPEL (1692-1734), was also an
exceedingly popular artist; and his son, Charles Antoine (1694-1752),
was painter to the king and director of the Academy of Painting. The
latter published interesting academical lectures in _Le Mercure_ and
wrote several plays which were acted at court, but were never published.

COYPU, the native name of a large South American aquatic rodent mammal,
known very generally among European residents in the country as nutria
(the Spanish word for otter) and scientifically as _Myocastor_ (or
_Myopotamus_) _coypu_. Its large size, aquatic habits, partially webbed
hind-toes, and the smooth, broad, orange-coloured incisors, are
sufficient to distinguish this rodent from the other members of the
family _Capromyidae_. Coypu are abundant in the fresh waters of South
America, even small ponds being often tenanted by one or more pairs.
Should the water dry up, the coypu seek fresh homes. Although subsisting
to a considerable extent on aquatic plants, these rodents frequently
come ashore to feed, especially in the evening. Several young are
produced at a birth, which are carried on their mother's back when
swimming. The fur is of some commercial value, although rather stiff and
harsh; its colour being reddish-brown. (See RODENTIA.)

COYSEVOX, CHARLES ANTOINE (1640-1720), French sculptor, was born at
Lyons on the 29th of September 1640, and belonged to a family which had
emigrated from Spain. The name should be pronounced Coëzevo. He was only
seventeen when he produced a statue of the Madonna of considerable
merit; and having studied under Lerambert and trained himself by taking
copies in marble from the Greek masterpieces (among others from the
Venus de Medici and the Castor and Pollux), he was engaged by the bishop
of Strassburg, Cardinal Fürstenberg, to adorn with statuary his château
at Saverne (Zabern). In 1666 he married Marguerite Quillerier,
Lerambert's niece, who died a year after the marriage. In 1671, after
four years spent on Saverne, which was subsequently destroyed by fire in
1780, he returned to Paris. In 1676 his bust of the painter Le Brun
obtained admission for him to the Académie Royale. A year later he
married Claude Bourdict.

In consequence of the influence exercised by Le Brun between the years
1677 and 1685, he was employed by Louis XIV. in producing much of the
decoration and a large number of statues for Versailles; and he
afterwards worked, between 1701 and 1709, with no less facility and
success, for the palace at Marly, subsequently destroyed in the

Among his works are the "Mercury and Fame," first at Marly and
afterwards in the gardens of the Tuileries; "Neptune and Amphitrite," in
the gardens at Marly; "Justice and Force," at Versailles; and statues,
in which the likenesses are said to have been remarkably successful, of
most of the celebrated men of his age, including Louis XIV. and Louis
XV. at Versailles, Colbert (at Saint-Eustache), Mazarin (in the church
des Quatre-Nations), Condé the Great (in the Louvre), Maria Theresa of
Austria, Turenne, Vauban, Cardinals de Bouillon and de Polignac,
Fénelon, Racine, Bossuet (in the Louvre), the comte d'Harcourt, Cardinal
Fürstenberg and Charles Le Brun (in the Louvre). Coysevox died in Paris
on the 10th of October 1720.

Besides the works given above he carved about a dozen memorials,
including those to Colbert (at Saint-Eustache), to Cardinal Mazarin (in
the Louvre), and to the painter Le Brun (in the church of Saint

Among the pupils of Coysevox were Nicolas and Guillaume Coustou.

  See Henry Jouin, _A. Coysevox, sa vie, son oeuvre_ (1883); Jean du
  Seigneur, _Revue universelle des arts_, vol. i. (1855), pp. 32 et seq.

CRAB (Ger. _Krabbe_, _Krebs_), a name applied to the Crustacea of the
order _Brachyura_, and to other forms, especially of the order
_Anomura_, which resemble them more or less closely in appearance and

The _Brachyura_, or true crabs, are distinguished from the long-tailed
lobsters and shrimps which form the order _Macrura_, by the fact that
the abdomen or tail is of small size and is carried folded up under the
body. In most of them the body is transversely oval or triangular in
outline and more or less flattened, and is covered by a hard shell, the
carapace. There are five pairs of legs. The first pair end in nippers or
chelae and are usually much more massive than the others which are used
in walking or swimming. The eyes are set on movable stalks and can be
withdrawn into sockets in the front part of the carapace. There are six
pairs of jaws and foot-jaws (maxillipeds) enclosed within a "buccal
cavern," the opening of which is covered by the broad and flattened
third pair of foot-jaws. The abdomen is usually narrow and triangular in
the males, but in the females it is broad and rounded and bears
appendages to which the eggs are attached after spawning (fig. 1).

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Side view of Crab (Morse), the abdomen extended
and carrying a mass of eggs beneath it; e, eggs.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Zoëa of Common Shore-Crab in its second stage.
r, Rostral spine; s, Dorsal spine; m, Maxillipeds; t, Buds of thoracic
feet; a, Abdomen. (Spence Bate.)]

As in most Crustacea, the young of nearly all crabs, when newly hatched,
are very different from their parents. The first larval stage is known
as a Zoëa, this name having been given to it when it was believed by
naturalists to be a distinct and independent species of animal. The Zoëa
is a minute transparent organism, swimming at the surface of the sea. It
has a rounded body, armed with long spines, and a long segmented tail.
The eyes are large but not set on stalks, the legs are not yet
developed, and the foot-jaws form swimming paddles. After casting its
skin several times as it grows in size, the young crab passes into a
stage known as the _Megalopa_ (fig. 2), also formerly regarded as an
independent animal, in which the body and limbs are more crab-like, but
the abdomen is large and not filled up. After a further moult the
animal assumes a form very similar to that of the adult. There are a few
crabs, living on land or in fresh water, which do not pass through a
metamorphosis but leave the egg as miniature adults.

Most crabs live in the sea, and even the land-crabs, which are abundant
in tropical countries, nearly all visit the sea occasionally and pass
through their early stages in it. Many shore-crabs living between
tide-marks are more or less amphibious, and the river-crab of southern
Europe or Lenten crab (_Potamon edule_, better known as _Thelphusa
fluviatilis_) is an example of the freshwater crabs which are abundant
in most of the warmer regions of the world. As a rule, crabs breathe by
gills, which are lodged in a pair of cavities at the sides of the
carapace, but in the true land-crabs the cavities become enlarged and
modified so as to act as lungs for breathing air.

Walking or crawling is the usual mode of locomotion, and the peculiar
sidelong gait familiar to most people in the common shore-crab, is
characteristic of most members of the group. The crabs of the family
_Portunidae_, and some others, swim with great dexterity by means of
their flattened paddle-shaped feet.

Like many other Crustacea, crabs are often omnivorous and act as the
scavengers of the sea, but many are predatory in their habits and some
are content with a vegetable diet.

Though no crab, perhaps, is truly parasitic, some live in relations of
"commensalism" with other animals. The best known examples of this are
the little "mussel-crabs" (_Pinnotheridae_) which live within the shells
of mussels and other bivalve mollusca and probably share the food of
their hosts. Some crabs live among corals, and one species at least
gives rise to hollow swellings on the branches of a coral like the
"galls" which are formed on plants by certain insects. Another crab
(_Melia tesselata_) carries in each of its claws a living sea-anemone
which it uses as an animated weapon of defence and an implement for the
capture of prey. Many of the sluggish spider-crabs (_Maiidae_) have
their shells covered by a forest of growing sea-weeds, zoophytes and
sponges, which are "planted" there by the crab itself, and which afford
it a very effective disguise.

Many of the larger crabs are sought for as food by man. The most
important and valuable are the edible crab of British and European
coasts (_Cancer pagurus_) and the blue crab of the Atlantic coast of the
United States (_Callinectes sapidus_).

Among the _Anomura_, the best known are the hermit-crabs, which live in
the empty shells of Gasteropod Mollusca, which they carry about with
them as portable dwellings. In these, the abdomen is soft-skinned and
spirally twisted so as to fit into the shells which they inhabit. The
common hermit-crab of the British coasts (_Pagurus_ or _Eupagurus
Bernhardus_) is sometimes called the soldier-crab from its pugnacity.
Small specimens are found between tide-marks inhabiting the shells of
periwinkles and other small molluscs, but the full-grown specimens live
in deeper water and are usually found in the shell of the whelk
(_Buccinum_). As the crab grows it changes its dwelling from time to
time, often having to fight with its fellows for the possession of an
empty shell. Sometimes an annelid worm lives inside the shell along with
the hermit and often the outside is covered with zoophytes. In some
species, as in the British _Eupagurus prideauxi_, a sea-anemone is
constantly found attached to the shell, profiting by the active
locomotion of the crab and probably sharing the crumbs of its food,
while it affords its host protection by its stinging powers.

In tropical countries the hermit-crabs of the family _Coenobitidae_ live
on land, often at considerable distances from the sea, to which,
however, they return for the purpose of hatching out their spawn. The
large robber-crab or cocoa-nut crab of the Indo-Pacific islands (_Birgus
latro_), which belongs to this family, has given up the habit of
carrying a portable dwelling, and the upper surface of its abdomen has
become covered by shelly plates. The stories of its climbing palm-trees
to get the fruit were long doubted, but it has been seen, and even
photographed in the act.     (W. T. CA.)

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--_Gecarcinus ruricola_ (Violet Land Crab).]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--_Portunus puber_ (Velvet Swimming Crab).]

[Illustration: FIG. 5. _Podophthalmus vigil_ (Sentinel Spinous Crab).]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--_Eupagurus Bernhardus_ (Soldier Crab).]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--_Pinnotheres pisum_ (Pea Crab).]

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--_Corystes Cassivelaunus_ (Masked Crab).]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--_Eupagurus angulatus_ (a Hermit Crab).]

CRABBE, GEORGE (1754-1832), English poet, was born at Aldeburgh in
Suffolk on the 24th of December 1754. His family was partly of Norfolk,
partly of Suffolk origin, and the name was doubtless originally derived
from "crab." His grandfather, Robert Crabbe, was the first of the family
to settle at Aldeburgh, where he held the appointment of collector of
customs. He died in 1734, leaving one son, George, who practised many
occupations, including that of a schoolmaster, in the adjoining village
of Orford. Finally the poet's father obtained a small post in the
customs of Aldeburgh, married Mary Lodwick, the widow of a publican, and
had six children, of whom George was the eldest.

The sea has swept away the small cottage that was George Crabbe's
birthplace, but one may still visit the quay at Slaughden, some
half-mile from the town, where the father worked and the son was at a
later date to work with him. At first attending a dame's school in
Aldeburgh, when nine or ten years of age he was sent to a
boarding-school at Bungay, and at twelve to a school at Stowmarket,
where he remained two years. His father dreamt of the medical profession
for his clever boy, and so in 1768 he went to Wickham Brook near
Newmarket as an apothecary's assistant. In 1771 we find him assisting a
surgeon at Woodbridge, and it was while here that he met Sarah Elmy.
Crabbe was now only eighteen years of age, but he became "engaged" to
this lady in 1772. It was not until 1783 that the pair were married. The
intervening years were made up of painful struggle, in which, however,
not only the affection but the purse of his betrothed assisted him.
About the time of Crabbe's return from Woodbridge to Aldeburgh he
published at Ipswich his first work, a poem entitled _Inebriety_ (1775).
He found his father fallen on evil days. There was no money to assist
him to a partnership, and surgery for the moment seemed out of the
question. For a few weeks Crabbe worked as a common labourer, rolling
butter casks on Slaughden quay. Before the year was out, however, the
young man bought on credit "the shattered furniture of an apothecary's
shop and the drugs that stocked it." This was at Aldeburgh. A year later
Crabbe installed a deputy in the surgery and paid his first visit to
London. He lodged in Whitechapel, took lessons in midwifery and walked
the hospitals. Returning to Aldeburgh after nine months--in 1777--he
found his practice gone. Even as a doctor for the poor he was an utter
failure, poetry having probably taken too firm a hold upon his mind. At
times he suffered hunger, so utterly unable was he to earn a livelihood.
After three years of this, in 1780 Crabbe paid his second visit to
London, enabled thereto by the loan of five pounds from Dudley Lang, a
local magnate. This visit to London, which was undertaken by sea on
board the "Unity" smack, made for Crabbe a successful career. His poem
_The Candidate_, issued soon after his arrival, helped not at all. For a
time he almost starved, and was only saved, it is clear, by gifts of
money from his sweetheart Sarah Elmy. He importuned the great, and the
publishers also. Everywhere he was refused, but at length a letter which
reached Edmund Burke in March 1781 led to the careful consideration on
the part of that great man of Crabbe's many manuscripts. Burke advised
the publication of _The Library_, which appeared in 1781. He invited him
to Beaconsfield, and made interest in the right quarters to secure
Crabbe's entry into the church. He was ordained in December 1781 and was
appointed curate to the rector of Aldeburgh.

Crabbe was not happy in his new post. The Aldeburgh folk could not
reverence as priest a man they had known as a day labourer. Crabbe again
appealed to Burke, who persuaded the duke of Rutland to make him his
chaplain (1782), and Crabbe took up his residence in Belvoir Castle,
accompanying his new patron to London, when Lord Chancellor Thurlow (who
told him he was "as like Parson Adams as twelve to the dozen") gave him
the two livings of Frome St Quentin and Evershot in Dorsetshire, worth
together about £200 a year. In May 1783 Crabbe's poem _The Village_ was
published by Dodsley, and in December of this year he married Sarah
Elmy. Crabbe continued his duties as ducal chaplain, being in the main a
non-resident priest so far as his Dorsetshire parishes were concerned.
In 1785 he published _The Newspaper_. Shortly after this he moved with
his wife from Belvoir Castle to the parsonage of Stathern, where he took
the duties of the non-resident vicar Thomas Parke, archdeacon of
Stamford. Crabbe was at Stathern for four years. In 1789, through the
persuasion of the duchess of Rutland (now a widow, the duke having died
in Dublin as lord-lieutenant of Ireland in 1787), Thurlow gave Crabbe
the two livings of Muston in Leicestershire and West Allington in
Lincolnshire. At Muston parsonage Crabbe resided for twelve years,
divided by a long interval. He had been four years at Muston when his
wife inherited certain interests in a property of her uncle's that
placed her and her husband in possession of Ducking Hall, Parham,
Suffolk. Here he took up his residence from 1793 to 1796, leaving
curates in charge of his two livings. In 1796 the loss of their son
Edmund led the Crabbes to remove from Parham to Great Glemham Hall,
Suffolk, where they lived until 1801. In that year Crabbe went to live
at Rendham, a village in the same neighbourhood. In 1805 he returned to
Muston. In 1807 he broke a silence of more than twenty years by the
publication of _The Parish Register_, in 1810 of _The Borough_, and in
1812 of _Tales in Verse_. In 1813 Crabbe's wife died, and in 1814 he was
given the living of Trowbridge, Wiltshire, by the duke of Rutland, a son
of his early patron, who, it is interesting to recall, wanted the living
of Muston for a cousin of Lord Byron. From 1814 to his death in 1832
Crabbe resided at Trowbridge.

These last years were the most prosperous of his life. He was a constant
visitor to London, and in friendship with all the literary celebrities
of the time. "Crabbe seemed to grow young again," remarks his
biographer, M. René Huchon. He certainly carried on a succession of mild
flirtations, and one of his parishioners, Charlotte Ridout, would have
married him. The elderly widower had proposed to her and had been
accepted in 1814, but he drew out of the engagement in 1816. He proposed
to yet another friend, Elizabeth Charter, somewhat later. In his visits
to London Crabbe was the guest of Samuel Rogers, in St James's Place,
and was a frequent visitor to Holland House, where he met his brother
poets Moore and Campbell. In 1817 his _Tales of the Hall_ were
completed, and John Murray offered £3000 for the copyright, Crabbe's
previous works being included. The offer after much negotiation was
accepted, but Crabbe's popularity was now on the wane.

In 1822 Crabbe went to Edinburgh on a visit to Sir Walter Scott. The
adventure, complicated as it was by the visit of George IV. about the
same time, is most amusingly described in Lockhart's biography of Scott,
although one episode--that of the broken wine-glass--is discredited by
Crabbe's biographer, M. Huchon. Crabbe died at Trowbridge on the 3rd of
February 1832, and was buried in Trowbridge church, where an ornate
monument was placed over his tomb in August 1833.

Never was any poet at the same time so great and continuous a favourite
with the critics, and yet so conspicuously allowed to fall into oblivion
by the public. All the poets of his earlier and his later years, Cowper,
Scott, Byron, Shelley in particular, have been reprinted again and
again. With Crabbe it was long quite otherwise. His works were collected
into eight volumes, the first containing his life by his son, in 1832.
The edition was intended to continue with some of his prose writings,
but the reception of the eight volumes was not sufficiently encouraging.
A reprint, however, in one volume was made in 1847, and it has been
reproduced since in 1854, 1867 and 1901. The exhaustion of the
copyright, however, did no good for Crabbe's reputation, and it was not
until the end of the century that sundry volumes of "selections" from
his poems appeared; Edward FitzGerald, of Omar Khayyám fame, always a
loyal admirer, made a "Selection," privately printed by Quaritch, in
1879. A "Selection" by Bernard Holland appeared in 1899, another by C.
H. Herford in 1902 and a third by Deane in 1903. The _Complete Works_
were published by the Cambridge University Press in three volumes,
edited by A. W. Ward, in 1906.

Crabbe's poems have been praised by many competent pens, by Edward
FitzGerald in his _Letters_, by Cardinal Newman in his _Apologia_, and
by Sir Leslie Stephen in his _Hours in a Library_, most notably. His
verses comforted the last hours of Charles James Fox and of Sir Walter
Scott, while Thomas Hardy has acknowledged their influence on the
realism of his novels. But his works have ceased to command a wide
public interest. He just failed of being the artist in words who is able
to make the same appeal in all ages. Yet to-day his poems will well
repay perusal. His stories are profoundly poignant and when once read
are never forgotten. He is one of the great realists of English fiction,
for even considered as a novelist he makes fascinating reading. He is
more than this: for there is true poetry in Crabbe, although his most
distinctively lyric note was attained when he wrote under the influence
of opium, to which he became much addicted in his later years.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--_The Works of Crabbe_ (8 vols., Murray, 1834; 1 vol.,
  Murray, 1901), and the _Works_ in the Cambridge Press Classics, edited
  by A. W. Ward (1906), have already been referred to. The life by
  Crabbe's son in one volume, _The Life of the Rev. George Crabbe,
  LL.B., by his son the Rev. George Crabbe, A.M._ (1834), has not been
  separately reprinted as it deserves to be. A recent biography is
  _George Crabbe and His Times, 1754-1832; A Critical and Biographical
  Study_, by René Huchon, translated from the French by Frederick Clarke
  (1907). Brief biographies by T. H. Kebbel ("Great Writers" series) and
  by Canon Ainger ("English Men of Letters" series) also deserve
  attention.     (C. K. S.)

CRACKER (from "crack," a common Teutonic word, cf. Ger. _krachen_, Dutch
_kraken_, meaning to break with a sharp sound), that which "cracks"; it
is, therefore, applied (1) to a firework so constructed that it explodes
with several reports and jumps at each explosion, when placed on the
ground (see FIREWORKS); (2) to a roll of coloured and ornamented paper
containing sweets, small articles of cheap jewelry, paper caps and other
trifles, together with a strip of card with a fulminant which explodes
with a "crack" on being pulled; (3) to a thin crisp biscuit (q.v.); in
America the general name for a biscuit. In the southern states of
America, "cracker" is a term of contempt for the "poor" or "mean
whites," particularly of Georgia and Florida; the term is an old one and
dates back to the Revolution, and is supposed to be derived from the
"cracked corn" which formed the staple food of the class to whom the
term refers.

CRACOW (Pol. _Krakov_; Ger. _Krakau_), a town and episcopal see of
Austria, in Galicia, 212 m. W. by N. of Lemberg by rail. Pop. (1900)
91,310, of which 21,000 were Jews, 5000 Germans and the remainder Poles.
Although in regard to its population it is only the second place in
Galicia, Cracow is the most interesting town in the whole of Poland. No
other Polish town possesses so many old and historic buildings, none of
them contains so many national relics, or has been so closely associated
with the development and destinies of Poland as Cracow. And the ancient
capital is still the intellectual centre of the Polish nation.

Cracow is situated in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Vistula
(which becomes navigable here) and occupies a position of great
strategical importance. It consists of the old inner town and seven
suburbs. The only relics of the fortifications of the old town, whose
place is now occupied by shady promenades, is the Florian's Gate and the
Rondell, a circular structure, built in 1498. Cracow has 39
churches--about half the number it formerly had--and 25 convents for
monks and nuns. Of these the most important is the Stanislaus cathedral,
in Gothic style, consecrated in 1359, and built on the Wawel, the rocky
eminence to the S.W. of the old town. Here the kings of Poland were
crowned, and this church is also the Pantheon of the Polish nation, the
burial place of its kings and its great men. Here lie the remains of
John Sobieski, of Thaddaeus Kosciuszko, of Joseph Poniatowski and of
Adam Mickiewicz. Here also are conserved the remains of St Stanislaus,
the patron saint of the Poles, who, as bishop of Cracow, was slain
before the altar by King Boleslaus in 1079. The cathedral is adorned
with many valuable objects of art, paintings and sculptures, by such
artists as Veit Stoss, Guido Reni, Peter Vischer, Thorwaldsen, &c. Part
of the ancient Polish regalia is also kept here. The Gothic church of St
Mary, founded in 1223, rebuilt in the 14th century with several chapels
added in the 15th and 16th centuries, was restored in 1889-1893, and
decorated with paintings from the designs by Matejko. It contains a huge
high altar, the masterpiece of Veit Stoss, who was a native of Cracow,
executed in 1477-1489; a colossal stone crucifix, dating from the end
of the 15th century, and several sumptuous tombs of noble families from
the 16th and 17th centuries. The Dominican church, a Gothic building of
the 13th century, but practically rebuilt after a fire in 1850; the
Franciscan church, also of the 13th century, also much modernized; the
church of St Florian of the 12th century, rebuilt in 1768, which
contains the late-Gothic altar by Veit Stoss, executed in 1518, during
his last sojourn in Cracow; the church of St Peter, with a colossal
dome, built in 1597, after the model of that of St Peter at Rome, and
the beautiful Augustinian church in the suburb of Kazimierz, are all
worth mentioning. Of the principal secular buildings, the royal castle
(_Zamek Królowsk_), a huge building, begun in the 13th century, and
successively enlarged by Casimir the Great and by Sigismund I. Jagiello
(1510-1533), is situated on the Wawel, and was until 1610 the residence
of the Polish kings. It suffered much from fires and other disasters,
and from 1846 onward was used as a barracks and a military hospital; it
has now, however, been cleared out and restored. The Jagellonian
university, now housed in a magnificent Gothic building erected in
1881-1887, was attended in 1901 by 1255 students, and had 175 professors
and lecturers. The language of instruction is Polish. It is the second
oldest university in Europe--the oldest being that of Prague--and was
famous during the 15th and 16th centuries. It was founded by Casimir the
Great in 1364, and completed by Ladislaus Jagiello in 1400. Its rich
library is now housed in the old university buildings, erected in the
15th century, in the beautiful Gothic court of which a bronze statue of
Copernicus was placed in 1900. The Polish Academy of Science, founded in
1872, is housed in the new university buildings. In the Ring-Platz, or
the principal square, opposite the church of St Mary, is the _Tuchhaus_
(cloth-hall, Pol. _Sukiennice_), a building erected in 1257, several
times renovated and enlarged, most recently in 1879, which contains the
Polish national museum of art. Behind it is a Gothic tower, the only
relic of the old town hall, demolished in 1820. The Czartoryski museum
contains a large collection of objects of art, a rich library and a
precious collection of manuscripts, relating to the history of Poland.

Among the manufactures of the town are machinery, agricultural
implements, chemicals, soap, tobacco, &c. But Cracow is more important
as a trading than as an industrial centre. Its position on the Vistula
and at the junction of several railways makes it the natural mart for
the exchange of the products of Silesia, Hungary and Russian and
Austrian Poland. Its trade in timber, salt, textiles, cattle, wine and
agricultural produce of all kinds is very considerable. In the
neighbourhood of Cracow there are mines of coal and zinc, and not far
away lies the village of Krzeszowice with sulphur baths. About 2½ m.
N.W. lies the Kosciuszko Hill, a mound of earth 100 ft. high, thrown up
in 1820-1823 on the Borislava hill (1093 ft.), in honour of Thaddaeus
Kosciuszko, the hero of Poland. On the opposite bank of the Vistula,
united to Cracow by a bridge, lies the town of Podgorze (pop. 18,142);
near it is the Krakus Hill, smaller than the Kosciuszko Hill, and a
thousand years older than it, erected in honour of Krakus, the founder
of Cracow. About 8 m. S.E. of Cracow is situated Wieliczka (q.v.), with
its famous salt mines.

_History._--Tradition assigns the foundation of Cracow to the mythical
Krak, a Polish prince who is said to have built a stronghold here about
A.D. 700. Its early history is, however, entirely obscure. In the latter
part of the 10th century it was annexed to the Bohemian principality,
but was recaptured by Boleslaus Chrobry, who made it the seat of a
bishopric, and it became the capital of one of the most important of the
principalities into which Poland was divided from the 12th century
onwards. The city was practically ruined during the first Tatar invasion
in 1241, but the introduction of German colonists restored its
prosperity, and in 1257 it received "Magdeburg rights," i.e. a civic
constitution modelled on that of Magdeburg. In this year the _Tuchhalle_
was built. The town, however, had yet to pass through many vicissitudes.
It suffered again from Tatar invasions; in 1290 it was captured by
Wenceslaus II. of Bohemia and was held by the Bohemians until, in 1305,
the Polish king Ladislaus Lokietek recovered it from Wenceslaus III.
Ladislaus made it his capital, and from this time until 1764 it remained
the coronation and burial place of the Polish kings, even after the
royal residence had been removed by Siegmund III. (1587-1632) to Warsaw.
On the third partition of Poland in 1795 Austria took possession of
Cracow; but in 1809 Napoleon wrested it from that power, and
incorporated it with the duchy of Warsaw, which was placed under the
rule of the king of Saxony. In the campaign of 1812 the emperor
Alexander made himself master of this and the other territory which
formed the duchy of Warsaw. At the general settlement of the affairs of
Europe by the great powers in 1815, it was agreed that Cracow and the
adjoining territory should be formed into a free state; and, by the
Final Act of the congress signed at Vienna in 1815, "the town of Cracow,
with its territory, is declared to be for ever a free, independent and
strictly neutral city, under the protection of Russia, Austria and
Prussia." In February 1846, however, an insurrection broke out in
Cracow, apparently a ramification of a widely spread conspiracy
throughout Poland. The senate and the other authorities of Cracow were
unable to subdue the rebels or to maintain order, and, at their request,
the city was occupied by a corps of Austrian troops for the protection
of the inhabitants. The three powers, Russia, Austria and Prussia, made
this a pretext for extinguishing this independent state; and as the
outcome of a conference at Vienna (November 1846) the three courts,
contrary to the assurance previously given, and in opposition to the
expressed views of the British and French governments, decided to
extinguish the state of Cracow and to incorporate it with the dominions
of Austria.

CRADDOCK, CHARLES EGBERT (1850-   ), the pen-name of MARY NOAILLES
MURFREE, American author, who was born near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, on
the 24th of January 1850, the great-granddaughter of Col. Hardy Murfree.
She was crippled in childhood by paralysis. She attended school in
Nashville and Philadelphia. Spending her summers in the mountains of
eastern Tennessee, she came to know the primitive people there with
whose life her writings deal. She contributed to _Appleton's Journal_,
and, first in 1878, to _The Atlantic Monthly_. No one, apparently,
suspected that the author of these stories was a woman, and her identity
was not disclosed until 1885, a year after the publication of her first
volume of short stories, _In the Tennessee Mountains_. She deals mainly
with the narrow, stern life of the Tennessee mountaineers, who, left
behind in the advance of civilization, live amid traditions and customs,
and speak a dialect, peculiarly their own; and her work abounds in
exquisite descriptions of scenery. Among her other books are: _Where the
Battle was Fought_ (1884), a novel dealing with the old aristocratic
southern life; _Down the Ravine_ (1885) and _The Story of Keedon Bluffs_
(1887) for young people; _The Prophet of the Great Smoky Mountains_
(1885), a novel; _In the Clouds_ (1886), a novel; _The Despot of
Broomsedge Cove_ (1888), a novel; _In the "Stranger-People's" Country_
(1891); _His Vanished Star_ (1894), a novel; _The Mystery of Witch-Face
Mountain and Other Stories_ (1895); _The Phantoms of the Footbridge and
Other Stories_ (1895); _The Young Mountaineers_ (1897), short stories;
_The Juggler_ (1897); _The Story of Old Fort Loudon_ (1899); _The
Bushwhackers and Other Stories_ (1899); _The Champion_ (1902); _A
Spectre of Power_ (1903); _The Frontiersman_ (1904); _The Storm Centre_
(1905); _The Amulet_ (1906); _The Windfall_ (1907); and _Fair
Mississippian_ (1908).

CRADLE (of uncertain etymology, possibly connected with "crate" and
"creel," i.e. basket; the derivation from a Celtic word, with a sense of
rocking, is scouted by the _New English Dictionary_), a child's bed of
wood, wicker or iron, with enclosed sides, slung upon pivots or mounted
on rockers. It is a very ancient piece of furniture, but the date when
it first assumed its characteristic swinging or rocking form is by no
means clear. A miniature in an illuminated _Histoire de la belle
Hélaine_ in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris (end of the 14th or
beginning of the 15th century) shows an infant sleeping in a tiny
four-post bed slung upon rockers. In its oldest forms the cradle is an
oblong oak box without a lid--originally the rockers appear to have
been detachable--but, like all other household appliances, it has been
subject to changes of fashion alike in shape and adornment. It has been
panelled and carved, supported on Renaissance pillars, inlaid with
marqueterie or mounted in gilded bronze. The original simple shape
persisted for two or three centuries--even the hood made its appearance
very early. In the 18th century, however, cradles were often very
elaborate--indeed in France they had begun to be so much earlier, but
the richly carved and upholstered examples were used chiefly for
purposes of state, being in fact miniature _lits de parade_. In modern
times they have become lighter and simpler, the old hood being very
often replaced by a draped curtain dependent from a carved or shaped
upright. About the middle of the 19th century iron cradles were
introduced, along with iron bedsteads. A number of undoubted historic
cradles have been preserved, together with many others with doubtful
attributions. Two alleged cradles of Henry V. exist; one which claims to
have been used by the unhappy earl of Derwentwater is in the Victoria
and Albert Museum in London; the other is at Windsor Castle. That of
Henry IV. of France, now in the Château de Pau, is mounted upon a large
tortoiseshell. That of the king of Rome ("Napoleon II.") was designed by
Prud'hon, and along with that of the comte de Chambord is preserved in
the Garde Meuble. In England a cradle is now often called a "bassinet"
(i.e. little basket), and the "cot" has to some extent taken its place.
By analogy, the word "cradle" is also applied to various sorts of
framework in engineering, and to a rocking-tool used in engraving.

CRADOCK, a town of South Africa, capital of a division of the Cape
province, in the upper valley of the Great Fish river, 181 m. by rail N.
by E. of Port Elizabeth. Pop. (1904) 7762. It is one of the chief
centres of the wool industry of the Cape, and does also a large trade in
ostrich feathers, mohair, &c. The town enjoys a reputation as one of the
best health resorts in the province. It stands at an altitude of 2856
ft.; the climate is very dry, the average annual rainfall being 14.50
in. The mean maximum temperature is 77.6° F. Three miles N. of the town
are sulphur baths (temp. 100° F.) used for the treatment of rheumatism.
In the neighbouring district survive a few herds of zebras, now
protected by the game laws. The town dates from the beginning of the
19th century and is named after Sir John Cradock, governor of the Cape
1811-1813. The division has an area of 3048 sq. m. and a pop. (1904) of
18,803, of whom 41% are white.

CRAFT (a word common to Teutonic languages for strength, or power; cf.
Ger. _Kraft_), a word confined in English only, of the Teutonic
languages in which it occurs, to intellectual power, and used as a
synonym of "art." It then means skill or ingenuity, especially in the
manual arts, hence its use in the expression "Arts and Crafts" (q.v.),
and it is thus applied to the trade or profession in which such skill is
displayed, to an association of workmen of a particular trade, a trade
gild, and in particular to Freemasons, "the craft"; the word appears
also in words such as "handicraft" or "craftsman." Skill applied to
outwit or deceive gives the common sense of cunning or trickery, and it
is this meaning which is implied in such combined words as
"priestcraft," "witchcraft" and the like. A more particular use of the
word is in the nautical sense of vessels of transport by water; this is
probably a colloquially shortened form either of "vessels of a
fisherman's, lighterman's &c., craft," i.e. "art," or of "vessels of a
heavier or lighter craft," i.e. burden or capacity; in both cases the
qualifying words are dropped and the word comes to be used of vessels in

CRAG (a Celtic word, cf. Gael. _creag_, Manx _creg_, and Welsh and
modern Scots _craig_), a steep rock. The word appears in many
place-names in the north of England and in Scotland, and is also
connected with "carrick," a word of similar meaning, also found in
place-names. In geology, the term is applied to the strata in which a
shelly sand deposit is found, and, in the expression "crag and tail," to
a formation of hills, in which one side is precipitous and lofty and the
other slopes or "tails" gradually away, as in the Castle Rock in

CRAGGS, JAMES (1657-1721), English politician, was a son of Anthony
Craggs of Holbeck, Durham, and was baptized on the 10th of June 1657.
After following various callings in London, Craggs, who was a person of
considerable financial ability, entered the service of the duchess of
Marlborough, and through her influence became in 1702 member of
parliament for Grampound, retaining his seat until 1713. He was in
business as an army clothier and held several official positions,
becoming joint postmaster-general in 1715; and, making the most of his
opportunities in all these capacities, he amassed a great deal of money.
Craggs also increased his wealth by mixing in the affairs of the South
Sea Company, but after his death an act of parliament confiscated all
the property which he had acquired since December 1719. He left an
enormous fortune when he died on the 16th of March 1721. It is possible
that Craggs committed suicide.

His son, JAMES CRAGGS the younger (1686-1721), was born at Westminster
on the 9th of April 1686. Part of his early life was spent abroad, where
he made the acquaintance of George Louis, elector of Hanover, afterwards
King George I. In 1713 he became member of parliament for Tregoney, in
1717 secretary-at-war, and in the following year one of the principal
secretaries of state. Craggs was implicated in the South Sea Bubble, but
not so deeply as his father, whom he predeceased, dying on the 16th of
February 1721. Among Craggs's friends were Pope, who wrote the epitaph
on his monument in Westminster Abbey, Addison and Gay.

CRAIG, JOHN (1512?-1600), Scottish reformer, born about 1512, was the
son of Craig of Craigston, Aberdeenshire, who was killed at Flodden in
1513. After an education at St Andrews, and acting as tutor to the
children of Lord Darcy, the English warden of the North, he became a
Dominican, but was soon in trouble as a heretic. In 1536 he made his way
to England, but failing to obtain the preferment he desired at
Cambridge, he went on to Italy, where the influence of Cardinal Pole,
who was himself accused of heresy, secured him the post of master of the
novices in the Dominican convent at Bologna. For some years he was busy
travelling in the Levant in the interests of his order, but a perusal of
Calvin's _Institutes_ revived his heretical tendencies, and he was
condemned to be burnt. Like the English scholar and statesman, Thomas
Wilson, he owed his escape to the riot which broke out on the death of
Paul IV. on the 18th of August 1559, when the mob burst open the prison
of the Inquisition. After various adventures he reached Vienna, where he
preached, and was protected by the semi-Lutheran archduke (afterwards
the emperor) Maximilian II.

In 1560 he returned to Scotland, where in 1561 he was ordained minister
of Holyrood, and in 1562 Knox's colleague in the High Church. His
defence of church property and privilege against the predatory instincts
of the nobles and the pretensions of the state brought him into conflict
with Lethington and others; but he seems to have condoned, if he was not
privy to, Riccio's murder. At first he refused to publish the banns of
marriage between Mary and Bothwell, though in the end he yielded with a
protest that he "abhorred and detested the marriage." He had been
associated with Knox in various commissions for the organization of the
church, but he wished to compromise between the two extreme parties.
From 1571-1579 Craig was in the north, whither he had been sent to
"illuminate those dark places in Mar, Buchan and Aberdeen." In 1579 he
was appointed chaplain to the young James VI., and returned to
Edinburgh. In 1581 episcopacy was abolished as a result of the report of
a commission on which Craig had sat; he also assisted at the composition
of the _Second Book of Discipline_ and the National Covenant of 1580,
and in 1581 compiled "Ane Shorte and Generale Confession" called the
"King's Confession," which was imposed on all parish ministers and
graduates and became the basis of the Covenant of 1638. He approved of
the Ruthven raid, and admonished James in terms which made him weep, but
produced no alteration in his conduct, and before long Craig was
denouncing the supremacy of Arran. But he was averse from the violence
of Melville, and was willing to admit the royal supremacy "as far as the
word of God allows." James VI., like Henry VIII., accepted this
compromise, and the oath in this form was taken by Craig, the royal
chaplains and some others. In 1592 was published Craig's _Catechism_. He
died on the 12th of December 1600.

  See T. G. Law's Pref. to Craig's _Catechism_ (1885); Bain's _Cal.
  Scottish State Papers_; Reg. P. C. Scotl.; Hew Scott's _Fasti Eccles._
  Scot.; Knox's, Calderwood's and Grub's _Eccles. Histories_; McCrie's
  _Life of Melville_; Hay Fleming's _Mary, Queen of Scots_; Bannatyne's
  _Memorials_.     (A. F. P.)

CRAIG, SIR THOMAS (c. 1538-1608), Scottish jurist and poet, was born
about 1538. It is probable that he was the eldest son of William Craig
of Craigfintray, or Craigston, in Aberdeenshire, but beyond the fact
that he was in some way related to the Craigfintray family nothing
regarding his birth is known with certainty. He was educated at St
Andrews, where he took the B.A. degree in 1555. From St Andrews he went
to France, to study the canon and the civil law. He returned to Scotland
about 1561, and was admitted advocate in February 1563. In 1564 he was
appointed justice-depute by the justice-general, Archibald, earl of
Argyll; and in this capacity he presided at many of the criminal trials
of the period. In 1573 he was appointed sheriff-depute of Edinburgh, and
in 1606 procurator for the church. He never became a lord of session, a
circumstance that was unquestionably due to his own choice. It is said
that he refused the honour of knighthood which the king wished to confer
on him in 1604, when he came to London as one of the Scottish
commissioners regarding the union between the kingdoms--the only
political object he seems to have cared about; but in accordance with
James's commands he has always been styled and reputed a knight. Craig
was married to Helen, daughter of Heriot of Lumphoy in Midlothian, by
whom he had four sons and three daughters. His eldest son, Sir Lewis
Craig (1569-1622), was raised to the bench in 1604, and among his other
descendants are several well-known names in the list of Scottish
lawyers. He died on the 26th of February 1608.

Except his poems, the only one of Craig's works which appeared during
his lifetime was his _Jus feudale_ (1603; ed. R. Burnet, 1655; Leipzig,
1716; ed. J. Baillie 1732). The object of this treatise was to
assimilate the laws of England and Scotland, but, instead of this, it
was an important factor in building up and solidifying the law of
Scotland into a separate system. Other works were _De unione regnorum
Britanniae tractatus, De jure successionis regni Angliae_ and _De
hominio disputatio_. Translations of the last two have been published,
and in 1910 an edition of the _De Unione_ appeared, with translation and
notes by C. S. Terry. Craig's first poem, an _Epithalamium_ in honour of
the marriage of Mary queen of Scots and Darnley, appeared in 1565. Most
of his poems have been reprinted in the _Delitiae poëtarum Scotorum_.

  See P. F. Tytler, _Life of Craig_ (1823); Life prefixed to Baillie's
  edition of the _Jus feudale_.

CRAIGIE, PEARL MARY TERESA (1867-1906), Anglo-American novelist and
dramatist, who wrote under the pen-name of "JOHN OLIVER HOBBES," was
born at Boston, U.S.A., on the 3rd of November 1867. She was the elder
daughter of John Morgan Richards, and was educated in London and Paris.
When she was nineteen she married Reginald Walpole Craigie, by whom she
had one son, John Churchill Craigie: but the marriage proved an unhappy
one, and was dissolved on her petition in July 1895. She was brought up
as a Nonconformist, but in 1892 was received into the Roman Catholic
Church, of which she remained a devout and serious member. Her first
little book, the brilliant and epigrammatic _Some Emotions and a Moral_,
was published in 1891 in Mr Fisher Unwin's "Pseudonym Library," and was
followed by _The Sinner's Comedy_ (1892), _A Study in Temptations_
(1893), _A Bundle of Life_ (1894), _The Gods, Some Mortals, and Lord
Wickenham_. _The Herb Moon_ (1896), a country love story, was followed
by _The School for Saints_ (1897), with a sequel, _Robert Orange_
(1900). Mrs Craigie had already written a one-act "proverb," _Journeys
end in Lovers Meeting_, produced by Ellen Terry in 1894, and a three-act
tragedy, "Osbern and Ursyne," printed in the _Anglo-Saxon Review_
(1899), when her successful piece, _The Ambassador_, was produced at the
St James's Theatre in 1898. _A Repentance_ (one act, 1899) and _The
Wisdom of the Wise_ (1900) were produced at the same theatre, and _The
Flute of Pan_ (1904) first at Manchester and then at the Shaftesbury
theatre; she was also part author of _The Bishop's Move_ (Garrick
Theatre, 1902). Later books are _The Serious Wooing_ (1901), _Love and
the Soul Hunters_ (1902), _Tales about Temperament_ (1902), _The
Vineyard_ (1904). Mrs Craigie died suddenly of heart failure in London
on the 13th of August 1906.

CRAIK, DINAH MARIA (1826-1887), English novelist, better known by her
maiden name of Mulock, and still better as "the author of _John Halifax,
Gentleman_," was the daughter of Thomas Mulock, an eccentric religious
enthusiast of Irish extraction, and was born on the 20th of April 1826
at Stoke-upon-Trent, in Staffordshire, where her father was the minister
of a small congregation. She settled in London about 1846, determined to
obtain a livelihood by her pen, and, beginning with fiction for
children, advanced steadily until _John Halifax, Gentleman_ (1857),
placed her in the front rank of the women novelists of her day. _A Life
for a Life_ (1859), though inferior, maintained a high position, but she
afterwards wrote little of importance except some very charming tales
for children. Her most remarkable novels, after those mentioned above,
were _The Ogilvies_ (1849), _Olive_ (1850), _The Head of the Family_
(1851), _Agatha's Husband_ (1853). There is much passion and power in
these early works, and all that Mrs Craik wrote was characterized by
high principle and deep feeling. Some of the short stories in _Avillion
and other Tales_ also exhibit a fine imagination. She published some
poems distinguished by genuine lyrical spirit, narratives of tours in
Ireland and Cornwall, and _A Woman's Thoughts about Women_. She married
Mr G. L. Craik, a partner in the house of Macmillan & Company, in 1864,
and died at Shortlands, near Bromley, Kent, on the 12th of October 1887.

CRAIK, GEORGE LILLIE (1798-1866), English man of letters, the son of a
schoolmaster, was born at Kennoway, Fifeshire, in 1798. He studied at
the university of St Andrews with the intention of entering the church,
but, altering his plans, became the editor of a local newspaper, and
went to London in 1824 to devote himself to literature. He became
connected with a short-lived literary paper called the _Verulam_; in
1831 he published his _Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties_ among
the works of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge; he
contributed a considerable number of biographical and historical
articles to the _Penny Cyclopaedia_; and he edited the _Pictorial
History of England_, himself writing much of the work. In 1844 he
published his _History of Literature and Learning in England from the
Norman Conquest to the Present Time_, illustrated by extracts. Craik is
best known for his abridged version of this work, _The History of
English Literature and the English Language_ (1861), which passed
through several editions. In the next year appeared his _Spenser and his
Poetry_, an abstract of Spenser's poems, with historical and
biographical notes and frequent quotations; and in 1847 his _Bacon, his
Writings and his Philosophy_, a work of a similar kind. The two
last-mentioned works appeared among _Knight's Weekly Volumes_. Two years
later Craik obtained the chair of history and English literature at
Queen's College, Belfast, a position which he held till his death, which
took place on the 25th of June 1866. He had married Miss Jeannette
Dempster (d. 1856) in 1826, and his daughter, Georgiana Marion Craik
(Mrs A. W. May), wrote over thirty novels, of which _Lost and Won_
(1859) was the best. Besides the works already noticed, Craik published
the _History of British Commerce from the Earliest Times_ (1844),
_Romance of the Peerage_ (1848-1850) and _The English of Shakespeare_

CRAIL (formerly KAREL), a royal and police burgh of Fifeshire, Scotland,
2 m. from Fife Ness, the most easterly point of the county, and 11 m.
S.E. of St Andrews by the North British railway, but 2 m. nearer by
road. Pop. (1901) 1077. It is said to have been a town of some note as
early as the 9th century; and its castle, of which there are hardly any
remains, was the residence of David I. and other Scottish kings. It was
constituted a royal burgh by a charter of Robert Bruce in 1306, and had
its privileges confirmed by Robert II. in 1371, by Mary in 1553, and by
Charles I. in 1635. Of its priory, dedicated to St Rufus, a few ruins
still exist. The church of Maelrubha, the patron saint of Crail, is an
edifice of great antiquity. Many of the ordinary houses are massive and
quaint. The public buildings include a library and reading-room and town
hall. The chief industries comprise fisheries, especially for crabs,
shipping and brewing. It is growing in favour as a summer resort. It
unites with St Andrews, the two Anstruthers, Kilrenny, Pittenweem and
Cupar in returning one member to parliament.

Balcomie Castle, about 2 m. to the N.E., dates from the 14th century.
Here Mary of Guise landed in 1538, a few days before her marriage to
James V. in St Andrews cathedral. In the 18th century it passed through
the hands of various proprietors and was ultimately shorn of much of its
original size and grandeur. The East Neuk is a term applied more
particularly to the country round Fife Ness, and more generally to all
of the peninsula east of an imaginary line drawn from St Andrews to
Elie. For fully half the year the cottages of its villages are damp with
the haar, or dense mist, borne on the east wind from the North Sea.

CRAILSHEIM, or KRAILSHEIM, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of
Württemberg, on the Jagst, a tributary of the Neckar, at the junction of
railways to Heilbronn and Fürth. Pop. (1900) 5251. There are two
Evangelical churches and a Roman Catholic church, and a handsome town
hall, with a tower 225 ft. high. The industrial establishments include
extensive tanneries and machine workshops, and there is a brisk trade in
cattle and agricultural produce.

Crailsheim was incorporated as a town in 1338, successfully withstood a
siege by the forces of several Swabian imperial cities (1379-1380), a
feat which is annually celebrated, passed later into the possession of
the burgraves of Nuremberg, and came in 1791 to Prussia, in 1806 to
Bavaria and 1810 to Württemberg.

CRAIOVA, or KRAJOVA, the capital of the department of Doljiu, Rumania,
situated near the left bank of the river Jiu, and on the main Walachian
railway from Verciorova to Bucharest. Pop. (1900) 45,438. A branch
railway to Calafat facilitates the export trade with Bulgaria. Craiova
is the chief commercial town west of Bucharest; the surrounding uplands
are very rich in grain, pasturage and vegetable products, and contain
extensive forests. The town has rope and carriage factories, and close
by is a large tannery, worked by convict labour, and supplying the army.
The principal trade is in cattle, cereals, fish, linen, pottery, glue
and leather. In the town, which is the headquarters of the First Army
Corps, there are military and commercial academies, an appeal court and
a chamber of commerce, besides many churches, Greek Orthodox, Roman
Catholic, and Protestant, with synagogues for the Jews.

Craiova, which occupied the site of the Roman Castra Nova, was formerly
the capital of Little Walachia. Its ancient _bans_ or military governors
were, next to the princes, the chief dignitaries of Walachia, and the
district is still styled the banat of Craiova. Among the holders of this
office were Michael the Brave (1593-1601), and several members of the
celebrated BASSARAB family (q.v.). The bans had the right of coining
money stamped with their own effigies, and hence arose the name of
_bani_ (centimes). The Rumanian franc, or _leu_ ("lion"), so called from
the image it bore, came likewise from Craiova. In 1397 Craiova was the
scene of a victory won by Prince Mircea over Bayezid I. sultan of the
Turks; and in October 1853, of an engagement between Turks and Russians.

CRAMBO, an old rhyming game which, according to Strutt (_Sports and
Pastimes_), was played as early as the 14th century under the name of
the _ABC of Aristotle_. In the days of the Stuarts it was very popular,
and is frequently mentioned in the writings of the time. Thus Congreve's
_Love for Love_, i. 1, contains the passage, "Get the Maids to Crambo in
an Evening, and learn the knack of Rhiming." Crambo, or capping the
rhyme, is now played by one player thinking of a word and telling the
others what it rhymes with, the others not naming the actual word they
guess but its meaning. Thus one says "I know a word that rhymes with
_bird_." A second asks "Is it ridiculous?" "No, it is not absurd." "Is
it a part of speech?" "No, it is not a word." This proceeds until the
right word is guessed.

In _Dumb Crambo_ the guessers, instead of naming the word, express its
meaning by dumb show, a rhyme being given them as a clue.

CRAMER, JOHANN BAPTIST (1771-1858), English musician, of German
extraction, was born in Mannheim, on the 24th of February 1771. He was
the son of Wilhelm Cramer (1743-1799). a famous London violinist and
musical conductor, one of a numerous family who were identified with the
progress of music during the 18th and 19th centuries. Johann Baptist was
brought to London as a child, and it was in London that the greater part
of his musical efforts was exercised. From 1782 to 1784 he studied the
pianoforte under Muzio Clementi, and soon became known as a professional
pianist both in London and on the continent; he enjoyed a world-wide
reputation, and was particularly appreciated by Beethoven. He died in
London on the 16th of April 1858. Apart from his pianoforte-playing
Cramer is important as a composer, and as principal founder in 1824 of
the London music-publishing house of Cramer & Co. He wrote a number of
sonatas, &c., for pianoforte, and other compositions; but his _Études_
is the work by which he lives as a composer. These "studies" have
appeared in numerous editions, from 1810 onwards, and became the staple
pieces in the training of pianists.

CRAMER, JOHN ANTONY (1793-1848), English classical scholar and
geographer, was born at Mitlödi in Switzerland. He was educated at
Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford. He resided in Oxford till 1844,
during which time he held many important offices, being public orator,
principal of New Inn Hall (which he rebuilt at his own expense), and
professor of modern history. In 1844 he was appointed to the deanery of
Carlisle, which he held until his death at Scarborough on the 24th of
August 1848. His works are of considerable importance: _A Dissertation
on the Passage of Hannibal over the Alps_, published anonymously with H.
L. Wickham (2nd ed., 1828), "a scholar-like work of first-rate ability";
geographical and historical descriptions of _Ancient Italy_ (1826),
_Ancient Greece_ (1828), _Asia Minor_ (1832); _Travels of Nicander
Nucius of Corcyra_ [Greek traveller of the 16th century] _in England_
(1841); _Catenae Graecorum Patrum in Novum Testamentum_ (1838-1844);
_Anecdota Graeca_ (from the MSS. of the royal library in Paris,

CRÄMER, KARL VON (1818-1902), Bavarian politician, had a very remarkable
career, rising gradually from a mere workman in a factory at Doos near
Nuremberg to the post of manager, and finally becoming part proprietor
of the establishment. Leaving business in 1870 he devoted his time
entirely to politics. From 1848 he had been a member of the Bavarian
second chamber, at first representing the district of Erlangen-Fürth,
and afterwards Nuremberg, which city also sent him after the war of 1866
as its deputy to the German customs parliament, and from 1871 to 1874 to
the first German _Reichstag_. He sat in these bodies as a member of the
Progressive party (_Fortschrittspartei_), and in Bavaria was one of the
leaders of the Liberal (_Freisinnige_) party. His eloquence had a great
hold upon the masses. As a parliamentarian he was very clear-headed, and
thoroughly understood how to lead a party. For many years he was the
reporter of the finance committee of the chamber. In 1882, on account of
his great services in connexion with the Bavarian National Exhibition of
Nuremberg, the order of the crown of Bavaria was conferred upon him,
carrying with it the honour of nobility. He died at Nuremberg on the
31st of December 1902.

CRAMP, CHARLES HENRY (1828-   ), American shipbuilder, was born in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the 9th of May 1828, of German descent,
his family name having been Krampf. He was the eldest of eleven children
of William Cramp (1807-1869), a pioneer American shipbuilder, who in
1830 established shipyards on the Delaware river near Philadelphia. The
son was educated at the Philadelphia Central high school, after which he
was employed in his father's shipyards and made himself master of every
detail of ship construction. He showed especial aptitude as a naval
architect and designer, and after becoming his father's partner in 1849
it was to that branch of the work that he devoted himself. His
inventive capacity and resourcefulness, together with the complete
success of his innovations in naval construction, soon gave him high
rank as an authority on shipbuilding, and made his influence in that
industry widely felt. In the Mexican War he designed surf boats for the
landing of troops at Vera Cruz; during the Civil War he designed and
built several ironclads for the United States navy, notably the "New
Ironsides" in 1862, and the light-draught monitors used in the Carolina
sounds; and after 1887 constructed wholly or in part from his own
designs many of the most powerful ships in the "new" navy, including the
cruisers "Columbia," "Minneapolis" and "Brooklyn," and the battleships
"Indiana," "Iowa," "Massachusetts," "Alabama" and "Maine." In every
progressive step in ocean shipbuilding, in the transformation from sail
to steam, and from wood to iron and steel, Cramp had a prominent part.
His fame as a shipbuilder extended to Europe, and he built warships for
several foreign navies, among others the "Retvizan" and the "Variag" for
the Russian government. He also constructed a number of freight and
passenger steamships for several trans-Atlantic lines.

  See A. C. Buel, _Memoirs of C. H. Cramp_ (Philadelphia, 1906).

CRAMP, a painful spasmodic contraction of muscles, most frequently
occurring in the limbs, but also apt to affect certain internal organs.
This disorder belongs to the class of diseases known as local spasms, of
which other varieties exist in such affections as spasmodic asthma and
colic. The cause of these painful seizures resides in the nervous
system, and operates either directly from the great nerve centres, or,
as is generally the case, indirectly by reflex action, as, for example,
when attacks are brought on by some derangement of the digestive organs.

In its most common form, that of cramp in the limbs, this disorder comes
on suddenly, often during sleep, the patient being aroused by an
agonizing feeling of pain in the calf of the leg or back of the thigh,
accompanied in many instances with a sensation of sickness or faintness
from the intensity of the suffering. During the paroxysm the muscular
fibres affected can often be felt gathered up into a hard knot. The
attack in general lasts but a few seconds, and then suddenly departs,
the spasmodic contraction of the muscles ceasing entirely, or, on the
other hand, relief may come more gradually during a period of minutes or
even hours. A liability to cramp is often associated with a rheumatic or
gouty tendency, but occasional attacks are common enough apart from
this, and are often induced by some peculiar posture which a limb has
assumed during sleep. Exposure of the limbs to cold will also bring on
cramp, and to this is probably to be ascribed its frequent occurrence in
swimmers. Cramp of the extremities is also well known as one of the most
distressing accompaniments of cholera. It is likewise of frequent
occurrence in the process of parturition, just before delivery.

This painful disorder can be greatly relieved and often entirely removed
by firmly grasping or briskly rubbing the affected part with the hand,
or by anything which makes an impression on the nerves, such as warm
applications. Even a sudden and vigorous movement of the limb will often
succeed in terminating the attack.

What is termed cramp of the stomach, or gastralgia, usually occurs as a
symptom in connexion with some form of gastric disorder, such as
aggravated dyspepsia, or actual organic disease of the mucous membrane
of the stomach.

The disease known as _Writer's Cramp_, or _Scrivener's Palsy_, is a
spasm which affects certain muscles when engaged in the performance of
acts, the result of education and long usage, and which does not occur
when the same muscles are employed in acts of a different kind. This
disorder owes its name to the relative frequency with which it is met in
persons who write much, although it is by no means confined to them, but
is liable to occur in individuals of almost any handicraft. It was
termed by Dr Duchenne _Functional Spasm_.

The symptoms are in the first instance a gradually increasing difficulty
experienced in conducting the movements required for executing the work
in hand. Taking, for example, the case of writers, there is a feeling
that the pen cannot be moved with the same freedom as before, and the
handwriting is more or less altered in consequence. At an early stage of
the disease the difficulty may be to a large extent overcome by
persevering efforts, but ultimately, when the attempt is persisted in,
the muscles of the fingers, and occasionally also those of the forearm,
are seized with spasm or cramp, so that the act of writing is rendered
impossible. Sometimes the fingers, instead of being cramped, move in a
disorderly manner and the pen cannot be grasped, while in other rare
instances a kind of paralysis affects the muscles of the fingers, and
they are powerless to make the movements necessary for holding the pen.
It is to be noted that it is only in the act of writing that these
phenomena present themselves, and that for all other movements the
fingers and arms possess their natural power. The same symptoms are
observed and the same remarks apply _mutatis mutandis_ in the case of
musicians, artists, compositors, seamstresses, tailors and many
mechanics in whom this affection may occur. Indeed, although actually a
rare disease, no muscle or group of muscles in the body which is
specially called into action in any particular occupation is exempt from
liability to this functional spasm.

The exact pathology of writer's cramp has not been worked out, but it is
now generally accepted that the disease is not a local one of muscles or
nerves, but that it is an affection of the central nervous system. The
complaint never occurs under thirty years of age, and is more frequent
in males than females. Occasionally there is an inherited tendency to
the disease, but more usually there is a history of alcoholism in the
parents, or some neuropathic heredity. In its treatment the first
requisite is absolute cessation from the employment which caused it.
Usually, however, complete rest of the arm is undesirable, and recovery
takes place more speedily if other actions of a different kind are
regularly practised. If a return to the same work is a necessity, then
Sir W. R. Gowers insists on some modification of method in performing
the act, as writing from the shoulder instead of the wrist.

CRAMP-RINGS, rings anciently worn as a cure for cramp and
"falling-sickness" or epilepsy. The legend is that the first one was
presented to Edward the Confessor by a pilgrim on his return from
Jerusalem, its miraculous properties being explained to the king. At his
death it passed into the keeping of the abbot of Westminster, by whom it
was used medically and was known as St Edward's Ring. From that time the
belief grew that the successors of Edward inherited his powers, and that
the rings blessed by them worked cures. Hence arose the custom for the
successive sovereigns of England each year on Good Friday formally to
bless a number of cramp-rings. A service was held; prayers and psalms
were said; and water "in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost" was
poured over the rings, which were always of gold or silver, and made
from the metal that the king offered to the Cross on Good Friday. The
ceremony survived to the reign of Queen Mary, but the belief in the
curative powers of similar circlets of sacred metal has lingered on even
to the present day.

  For an account of the ceremony see F. G. Waldron, _The Literary
  Museum_ (London, 1792); see also _Notes and Queries_, vol. vii., 1853;
  vol. ix., 1878.

CRANACH, LUCAS (1472-1553), German painter, was born at Cronach in upper
Franconia, and learnt the art of drawing from his father. It has not
been possible to trace his descent or the name of his parents. We are
not informed as to the school in which he was taught, and it is a mere
guess that he took lessons from the south German masters to whom Mathew
Grunewald owed his education. But Grunewald practised at Bamberg and
Aschaffenburg, and Bamberg is the capital of the diocese in which
Cronach lies. According to Gunderam, the tutor of Cranach's children,
Cranach signalized his talents as a painter before the close of the 15th
century. He then drew upon himself the attention of the elector of
Saxony, who attached him to his person in 1504. The records of
Wittenberg confirm Gunderam's statement to this extent that Cranach's
name appears for the first time in the public accounts on the 24th of
June 1504, when he drew 50 gulden for the salary of half a year, as
_pictor ducalis_. The only clue to Cranach's settlement previous to his
Wittenberg appointment is afforded by the knowledge that he owned a
house at Gotha, and that Barbara Brengbier, his wife, was the daughter
of a burgher of that city.

Of his skill as an artist we have sufficient evidence in a picture dated
1504. But as to the development of his manner prior to that date we are
altogether in ignorance. In contrast with this obscurity is the light
thrown upon Cranach after 1504. We find him active in several branches
of his profession,--sometimes a mere house-painter, more frequently
producing portraits and altar-pieces, a designer on wood, an engraver of
copper-plates, and draughtsman for the dies of the electoral mint. Early
in the days of his official employment he startled his master's
courtiers by the realism with which he painted still life, game and
antlers on the walls of the country palaces at Coburg and Lochau; his
pictures of deer and wild boar were considered striking, and the duke
fostered his passion for this form of art by taking him out to the
hunting field, where he sketched "his grace" running the stag, or Duke
John sticking a boar. Before 1508 he had painted several altar-pieces
for the Schlosskirche at Wittenberg in competition with Dürer, Burgkmair
and others; the duke and his brother John were portrayed in various
attitudes and a number of the best woodcuts and copper-plates were
published. Great honour accrued to Cranach when he went in 1509 to the
Netherlands, and took sittings from the emperor Maximilian and the boy
who afterwards became Charles V. Till 1508 Cranach signed his works with
the initials of his name. In that year the elector gave him the winged
snake as a motto, and this motto or _Kleinod_, as it was called,
superseded the initials on all his pictures after that date. Somewhat
later the duke conferred on him the monopoly of the sale of medicines at
Wittenberg, and a printer's patent with exclusive privileges as to
copyright in Bibles. The presses of Cranach were used by Luther. His
chemist's shop was open for centuries, and only perished by fire in
1871. Relations of friendship united the painter with the Reformers at a
very early period; yet it is difficult to fix the time of his first
acquaintance with Luther. The oldest notice of Cranach in the Reformer's
correspondence dates from 1520. In a letter written from Worms in 1521,
Luther calls him his gossip, warmly alluding to his "Gevatterin," the
artist's wife. His first engraved portrait by Cranach represents an
Augustinian friar, and is dated 1520. Five years later the friar dropped
the cowl, and Cranach was present as "one of the council" at the
betrothal festival of Luther and Catherine Bora. The death at short
intervals of the electors Frederick and John (1525 and 1532) brought no
change in the prosperous situation of the painter; he remained a
favourite with John Frederick I., under whose administration he twice
(1537 and 1540) filled the office of burgomaster of Wittenberg. But 1547
witnessed a remarkable change in these relations. John Frederick was
taken prisoner at the battle of Mühlberg, and Wittenberg was subjected
to stress of siege. As Cranach wrote from his house at the corner of the
market-place to the grand-master Albert of Brandenburg at Königsberg to
tell him of John Frederick's capture, he showed his attachment by
saying, "I cannot conceal from your Grace that we have been robbed of
our dear prince, who from his youth upwards has been a true prince to
us, but God will help him out of prison, for the Kaiser is bold enough
to revive the Papacy, which God will certainly not allow." During the
siege Charles bethought him of Cranach, whom he remembered from his
childhood and summoned him to his camp at Pistritz. Cranach came,
reminded his majesty of his early sittings as a boy, and begged on his
knees for kind treatment to the elector. Three years afterwards, when
all the dignitaries of the Empire met at Augsburg to receive commands
from the emperor, and when Titian at Charles's bidding came to take the
likeness of Philip of Spain, John Frederick asked Cranach to visit the
Swabian capital; and here for a few months he was numbered amongst the
household of the captive elector, whom he afterwards accompanied home in
1552. He died on the 16th of October 1553 at Weimar, where the house in
which he lived still stands in the market-place.

The oldest extant picture of Cranach, the "Rest of the Virgin 365
during the Flight into Egypt," marked with the initials L.C., and the
date of 1504, is by far the most graceful creation of his pencil. The
scene is laid on the margin of a forest of pines, and discloses the
habits of a painter familiar with the mountain scenery of Thuringia.
There is more of gloom in landscapes of a later time; and this would
point to a defect in the taste of Cranach, whose stag hunts are
otherwise not unpleasing. Cranach's art in its prime was doubtless
influenced by causes which but slightly affected the art of the
Italians, but weighed with potent consequence on that of the Netherlands
and Germany. The business of booksellers who sold woodcuts and
engravings at fairs and markets in Germany naturally satisfied a craving
which arose out of the paucity of wall-paintings in churches and secular
edifices. Drawing for woodcuts and engraving of copper-plates became the
occupation of artists of note, and the talents devoted in Italy to
productions of the brush were here monopolized for designs on wood or on
copper. We have thus to account for the comparative unproductiveness as
painters of Dürer and Holbein, and at the same time to explain the
shallowness apparent in many of the later works of Cranach; but we
attribute to the same cause also the tendency in Cranach to neglect
effective colour and light and shade for strong contrasts of flat tint.
Constant attention to mere contour and to black and white appears to
have affected his sight, and caused those curious transitions of pallid
light into inky grey which often characterize his studies of flesh;
whilst the mere outlining of form in black became a natural substitute
for modelling and chiaroscuro. There are, no doubt, some few pictures by
Cranach in which the flesh-tints display brightness and enamelled
surface, but they are quite exceptional. As a composer Cranach was not
greatly gifted. His ideal of the human shape was low; but he showed some
freshness in the delineation of incident, though he not unfrequently
bordered on coarseness. His copper-plates and woodcuts are certainly the
best outcome of his art; and the earlier they are in date the more
conspicuous is their power. Striking evidence of this is the "St
Christopher" of 1506, or the plate of "Elector Frederick praying before
the Madonna" (1509). It is curious to watch the changes which mark the
development of his instincts as an artist during the struggles of the
Reformation. At first we find him painting Madonnas. His first woodcut
(1505) represents the Virgin and three saints in prayer before a
crucifix. Later on he composes the marriage of St Catherine, a series of
martyrdoms, and scenes from the Passion. After 1517 he illustrates
occasionally the old gospel themes, but he also gives expression to some
of the thoughts of the Reformers. In a picture of 1518 at Leipzig, where
a dying man offers "his soul to God, his body to earth, and his worldly
goods to his relations," the soul rises to meet the Trinity in heaven,
and salvation is clearly shown to depend on faith and not on good works.
Again sin and grace become a familiar subject of pictorial delineation.
Adam is observed sitting between John the Baptist and a prophet at the
foot of a tree. To the left God produces the tables of the law, Adam and
Eve partake of the forbidden fruit, the brazen serpent is reared aloft,
and punishment supervenes in the shape of death and the realm of Satan.
To the right, the Conception, Crucifixion and Resurrection symbolize
redemption, and this is duly impressed on Adam by John the Baptist, who
points to the sacrifice of the crucified Saviour. There are two examples
of this composition in the galleries of Gotha and Prague, both of them
dated 1529. One of the latest pictures with which the name of Cranach is
connected is the altarpiece which Cranach's son completed in 1555, and
which is now in the _Stadtkirche_ (city church) at Weimar. It represents
Christ in two forms, to the left trampling on Death and Satan, to the
right crucified, with blood flowing from the lance wound. John the
Baptist points to the suffering Christ, whilst the blood-stream falls on
the head of Cranach, and Luther reads from his book the words, "The
blood of Christ cleanseth from all sin." Cranach sometimes composed
gospel subjects with feeling and dignity. "The Woman taken in Adultery"
at Munich is a favourable specimen of his skill, and various repetitions
of Christ receiving little children show the kindliness of his
disposition. But he was not exclusively a religious painter. He was
equally successful, and often comically naïve, in mythological scenes,
as where Cupid, who has stolen a honeycomb, complains to Venus that he
has been stung by a bee (Weimar, 1530; Berlin, 1534), or where Hercules
sits at the spinning-wheel mocked by Omphale and her maids. Humour and
pathos are combined at times with strong effect in pictures such as the
"Jealousy" (Augsburg, 1527; Vienna, 1530), where women and children are
huddled into telling groups as they watch the strife of men wildly
fighting around them. Very realistic must have been a lost canvas of
1545, in which hares were catching and roasting sportsmen. In 1546,
possibly under Italian influence, Cranach composed the "Fons Juventutis"
of the Berlin Gallery, executed by his son, a picture in which hags are
seen entering a Renaissance fountain, and are received as they issue
from it with all the charms of youth by knights and pages.

Cranach's chief occupation was that of portrait-painting, and we are
indebted to him chiefly for the preservation of the features of all the
German Reformers and their princely adherents. But he sometimes
condescended to depict such noted followers of the papacy as Albert of
Brandenburg, archbishop elector of Mainz, Anthony Granvelle and the duke
of Alva. A dozen likenesses of Frederick III. and his brother John are
found to bear the date of 1532. It is characteristic of Cranach's
readiness, and a proof that he possessed ample material for mechanical
reproduction, that he received payment at Wittenberg in 1533. for "sixty
pairs of portraits of the elector and his brother" in one day. Amongst
existing likenesses we should notice as the best that of Albert, elector
of Mainz, in the Berlin museum, and that of John, elector of Saxony, at

Cranach had three sons, all artists:--John Lucas, who died at Bologna in
1536; Hans Cranach, whose life is obscure; and Lucas, born in 1515, who
died in 1586.

  See Heller, _Leben und Werke Lukas Cranachs_ (2nd ed., Bamberg, 1844);
  Chr. Schuchard, _Lukas Cranachs des älteren Leben und Werke_ (3 vols.,
  Leipzig, 1851-1871); Warnecke, _Cranach der ältere_ (Görlitz, 1879);
  M. B. Lindau, _Lucas Cranach_ (1883); Lippmann, _Lukas Cranach,
  Sammlung, &c._ (Berlin, 1895), reproductions of his most notable
  woodcuts and engravings; Woermann, _Verzeichnis der Dresdener
  Cranach-Ausstellung von 1899_ (Dresden, 1899); Flechsig, _Tafelbilder
  Cranach's des ältern und seiner Werkstatt_ (Leipzig, 1900); Muther,
  _Lukas Cranach_ (Berlin, 1902); Michaelson, _L. Cranach der ältere_
  (Leipzig, 1902).     (J. A. C.)

CRANBERRY, the fruit of plants of the genus _Oxycoccus_, (natural order
Vacciniaceae), often considered part of the genus _Vaccinium. O.
palustris_ (or _Vaccinium Oxycoccus_), the common cranberry plant, is
found in marshy land in northern and central Europe and North America.
Its stems are wiry, creeping and of varying length; the leaves are
evergreen, dark and shining above, glaucous below, revolute at the
margin, ovate, lanceolate or elliptical in shape, and not more than half
an inch long; the flowers, which appear in May or June, are small and
stalked, and have a four-lobed, rose-tinted corolla, purplish filaments,
and anther-cells forming two long tubes. The berries ripen in August and
September; they are pear-shaped and about the size of currants, are
crimson in colour and often spotted, and have an acid and astringent
taste. The American species, _O. macrocarpus_, is found wild from Maine
to the Carolinas. It attains a greater size than _O. palustris_, and
bears bigger and finer berries, which are of three principal sorts, the
_cherry_ or round, the _bugle_ or oblong, and the _pear_ or bell-shaped,
and vary in hue from light pink to dark purple, or may be mottled red
and white. _O. erythrocarpus_ is a species indigenous in the mountains
from Virginia to Georgia, and is remarkable for the excellent flavour of
its berry.

Air and moisture are the chief requisites for the thriving of the
cranberry plant. It is cultivated in America on a soil of peat or
vegetable mould, free from loam and clay, and cleared of turf, and
having a surface layer of clean sand. The sand, which needs renewal
every two or three years, is necessary for the vigorous existence of the
plants, and serves both to keep the underlying soil cool and damp, and
to check the growth of grass and weeds. The ground must be thoroughly
drained, and should be provided with a supply of water and a dam for
flooding the plants during winter to protect them from frost, and
occasionally at other seasons to destroy insect pests; but the use of
spring water should be avoided. The flavour of the fruit is found to be
improved by growing the plants in a soil enriched with well-rotted dung,
and by supplying them with less moisture than they obtain in their
natural habitats. Propagation is effected by means of cuttings, of which
the wood should be wiry in texture, and the leaves of a greenish-brown
colour. In America, where, in the vicinity of Cape Cod, Massachusetts,
the cultivation of the cranberry commenced early in the last century,
wide tracts of waste land have been utilized for that purpose--low,
easily flooded, marshy ground, worth originally not more than from $10
to $20 an acre, having been made to yield annually $200 or $300 worth of
the fruit per acre. The yield varies between 50 and 400 bushels an acre,
but 100 bushels, or about 35 barrels, is estimated to be the average
production when the plants have begun to bear well. The approximate
cranberry crop of the United States from 1890 to 1899 varied from
410,000 to 1,000,000 bushels.

Cranberries should be gathered when ripe and dry, otherwise they do not
keep well. The darkest-coloured berries are those which are most
esteemed. The picking of the fruit begins in New Jersey in October, at
the close of the blackberry and whortleberry season, and often lasts
until the coming in of cold weather. From 3 to 4 bushels a day may be
collected by good workers. New York, Philadelphia, Boston and Baltimore
are the leading American markets for cranberries, whence they are
exported to the West Indies, England and France in great quantities.
England was formerly supplied by Lincolnshire and Norfolk with abundance
of the common cranberry, which it now largely imports from Sweden and
Russia. The fruit is much used for pies and tarts, and also for making
an acid summer beverage. The cowberry, or red whortleberry, _Vaccinium
Vitis-Idaea_, is sometimes sold for the cranberry. The Tasmanian and the
Australian cranberries are the produce respectively of _Astroloma
humifusum_ and _Lissanthe sapida_, plants of the order _Epacridaceae_.

  For literature of the subject see the _Proceedings of the American
  Cranberry Growers' Association_ (Trenton, N. J.). There is a good
  article on the American cranberry in L. H. Bailey's _Cyclopaedia of
  American Horticulture_ (1900).

statesman, was born at Bradford on the 1st of October 1814, the son of
John Hardy, and belonged to a Yorkshire family. Entering upon active
political life in 1847, eleven years after his graduation at Oxford, and
nine years after his call to the bar, he offered himself as a candidate
for Bradford, but was unsuccessful. In 1856 he was returned for
Leominster, and in 1865 defeated Mr Gladstone at Oxford. In 1866 he
became president of the Poor Law Board in Lord Derby's new
administration. When in 1867 Mr Walpole resigned, from dissatisfaction
with Mr Disraeli's Reform Bill, Mr Hardy succeeded him at the home
office. In 1874 he was secretary for war; and when in 1878 Lord
Salisbury took the foreign office upon the resignation of Lord Derby,
Viscount Cranbrook (as Mr Hardy became within a month afterwards)
succeeded him at the India office. At the same time he had assumed the
additional family surname of Gathorne, which had been that of his
mother. In Lord Salisbury's administrations of 1885 and 1886 Lord
Cranbrook was president of the council, and upon his retirement from
public life concurrently with the resignation of the cabinet in 1892 he
was raised to an earldom. He died on the 30th of October 1906, being
succeeded as 2nd earl by his son John Stewart Gathorne-Hardy, previously
known as Lord Medway (b. 1839), who from 1868 to 1880 sat in parliament
as a conservative for Rye, and from 1884 to 1892 for a division of Kent.

  See _Gathorne Hardy, 1st earl of Cranbrook, a memoir with extracts
  from his correspondence_, edited by the Hon. A. E. Gathorne-Hardy

CRANBROOK, a market-town in the southern parliamentary division of Kent,
England, 45 m. S.E. of London on a branch of the South-Eastern & Chatham
railway from Paddock Wood. Pop. (1901) 3949. It lies on the Crane brook,
a feeder of the river Beult, in a pleasant district, hilly and well
wooded. It has a fine church (mainly Perpendicular) dedicated to St
Dunstan, which is remarkable for a baptistery, built in the early part
of the 18th century, and some ancient stained glass. As the centre of
the agricultural district of the Kentish Weald, it carries on an
extensive trade in malt, hops and general goods; but its present
condition is in striking contrast to the activity it displayed from the
14th to the 17th century, when it was one of the principal seats of the
broadcloth manufacture. Remains of some of the old factories still
exist. The town has a grammar school of Elizabethan foundation, which
now ranks as one of the smaller public schools. In the neighbourhood are
the ruins of the old mansion house of Sissinghurst, or Saxenhurst, built
in the time of Edward VI.

CRANDALL, PRUDENCE (1803-1889), American school-teacher, was born, of
Quaker parentage, at Hopkinton, Rhode Island, on the 3rd of September
1803. She was educated in the Friends' school at Providence, R. I.,
taught school at Plainfield, Conn., and in 1831 established a private
academy for girls at Canterbury, Windham county, Connecticut. By
admitting a negro girl she lost her white patrons, and in March 1833, on
the advice of William Lloyd Garrison and Samuel J. May (1797-1871), she
opened a school for "young ladies and little misses of colour." For this
she was bitterly denounced, not only in Canterbury but throughout
Connecticut, and was persecuted, boycotted and socially ostracized;
measures were taken in the Canterbury town-meeting to break up the
school, and finally in May 1833 the state legislature passed the
notorious Connecticut "Black Law," prohibiting the establishment of
schools for non-resident negroes in any city or township of Connecticut,
without the consent of the local authorities. Miss Crandall, refusing to
submit, was arrested, tried and convicted in the lower courts, whose
verdict, however, was reversed on a technicality by the court of appeals
in July 1834. Thereupon the local opposition to her redoubled, and she
was finally in September 1834 forced to close her school. Soon afterward
she married the Rev. Calvin Philleo. She died at Elk Falls, Kansas, on
the 28th of January 1889. The Connecticut Black Law was repealed in
1838. Miss Crandall's attempt to educate negro girls at Canterbury
attracted the attention of the whole country; and the episode is of
considerable significance as showing the attitude of a New England
community toward the negro at that time.

  See J. C. Kimball's _Connecticut Canterbury Tale_ (Hartford, Conn.,
  1889), and Samuel J. May's _Recollections of Our Anti-Slavery
  Conflict_ (Boston, 1869).

CRANE, STEPHEN (1870-1900), American writer, was born at Newark, New
Jersey, on the 1st of November 1870, and was educated at Lafayette
College and Syracuse University. His first story, _Maggie, a Girl of the
Streets_, was published in 1891, but his greatest success was made with
_The Red Badge of Courage_ (1896), a brilliant and highly realistic,
though of course imaginary, description of the experiences of a private
in the Civil War. He was also the author of various other stories, and
acted as a war correspondent in the Greco-Turkish War (1897) and the
Spanish American War (1898). His health became seriously affected in
Cuba, and on his return he settled down in England. He died at
Badenweiler, Germany, on the 5th of June 1900.

CRANE, WALTER (1845-   ), English artist, second son of Thomas Crane,
portrait painter and miniaturist, was born in Liverpool on the 15th of
August 1845. The family soon removed to Torquay, where the boy gained
his early artistic impressions, and, when he was twelve years old, to
London. He early came under the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites, and
was a diligent student of Ruskin. A set of coloured page designs to
illustrate Tennyson's "Lady of Shalott" gained the approval of William
James Linton, the wood-engraver, to whom Walter Crane was apprenticed
for three years (1859-1862). As a wood-engraver he had abundant
opportunity for the minute study of the contemporary artists whose work
passed through his hands, of Rossetti, Millais, Tenniel and F. Sandys,
and of the masters of the Italian Renaissance, but he was more
influenced by the Elgin marbles in the British Museum. A further and
important element in the development of his talent, was the study of
Japanese colour-prints, the methods of which he imitated in a series of
toy-books, which started a new fashion. In 1862 a picture of his, "The
Lady of Shalott," was exhibited at the Royal Academy, but the Academy
steadily refused his maturer work; and after the opening of the
Grosvenor Gallery in 1877 he ceased to send pictures to Burlington
House. In 1864 he began to illustrate for Mr Edmund Evans, the colour
printer, a series of sixpenny toy-books of nursery rhymes, displaying
admirable fancy and beauty of design, though he was limited to the use
of three colours. He was allowed more freedom in a delightful series
begun in 1873, _The Frog Prince, &c._, which showed markedly the
influence of Japanese art, and of a long visit to Italy following on his
marriage in 1871. _The Baby's Opera_ was a book of English nursery songs
planned in 1877 with Mr Evans, and a third series of children's books
with the collective title, _A Romance of the Three R's_, provided a
regular course of instruction in art for the nursery. In his early "Lady
of Shalott" the artist had shown his preoccupation with unity of design
in book illustration by printing in the words of the poem himself, in
the view that this union of the calligrapher's and the decorator's art
was one secret of the beauty of the old illuminated books. He followed
the same course in _The First of May: A Fairy Masque_ by his friend John
R. Wise, text and decoration being in this case reproduced by
photogravure. The "Goose Girl" illustration taken from his beautiful
_Household Stories from Grimm_ (1882) was reproduced in tapestry by
William Morris, and is now in the South Kensington Museum. _Flora's
Feast, A Masque of Flowers_ had lithographic reproductions of Mr Crane's
line drawings washed in with water colour; he also decorated in colour
_The Wonder Book_ of Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Margaret Deland's _Old
Garden_; in 1894 he collaborated with William Morris in the page
decoration of _The Story of the Glittering Plain_, published at the
Kelmscott press, which was executed in the style of 16th-century Italian
and German woodcuts; but in purely decorative interest the finest of his
works in book illustration is Spenser's _Faerie Queene_ (12 pts.,
1894-1896) and the _Shepheard's Calendar_. The poems which form the text
of _Queen Summer_ (1891), _Renascence_ (1891), and _The Sirens Three_
(1886) are by the artist himself.

In the early 'eighties under Morris's influence he was closely
associated with the Socialist movement. He did as much as Morris himself
to bring art into the daily life of all classes. With this object in
view he devoted much attention to designs for textile stuffs, for
wall-papers, and to house decoration; but he also used his art for the
direct advancement of the Socialist cause. For a long time he provided
the weekly cartoons for the Socialist organs, _Justice_ and _The
Commonweal_. Many of these were collected as _Cartoons for the Cause_.
He devoted much time and energy to the work of the Art Workers' Guild,
and to the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, founded by him in 1888.
His own easel pictures, chiefly allegorical in subject, among them "The
Bridge of Life" (1884) and "The Mower" (1891), were exhibited regularly
at the Grosvenor Gallery and later at the New Gallery. "Neptune's
Horses," which, with many other of Mr Crane's pictures, came into the
possession of Herr Ernst Seeger of Berlin, was exhibited at the New
Gallery in 1893, and with it may be classed his "The Rainbow and the

His varied work includes examples of plaster relief, tiles, stained
glass, pottery, wall-paper and textile designs, in all of which he
applied the principle that in purely decorative design "the artist works
freest and best without direct reference to nature, and should have
learned the forms he makes use of by heart." An exhibition of his work
of different kinds was held at the Fine Art Society's galleries in Bond
Street in 1891, and taken over to the United States in the same year by
the artist himself. It was afterwards exhibited in the chief German,
Austrian and Scandinavian towns, arousing great interest throughout the

Mr Crane became an associate of the Water Colour Society in 1888; he was
an examiner of the science and art department at South Kensington;
director of design at the Manchester Municipal school (1894); art
director of Reading College (1896); and in 1898 for a short time
principal of the Royal College of Art. His lectures at Manchester were
published with illustrated drawings as _The Bases of Design_ (1898) and
_Line and Form_ (1900). _The Decorative Illustration of Books, Old and
New_ (2nd ed., London and New York, 1900) is a further contribution to

  A well-known portrait of Mr Crane by G. F. Watts, R.A., was exhibited
  at the New Gallery in 1893. There is a comprehensive and sumptuously
  illustrated book on _The Art of Walter Crane_, by P. G. Konody; a
  monograph (1902) by Otto von Schleinitz in the _Künstler Monographien_
  series (Bielefeld and Leipzig); and an account of himself by the
  artist in the Easter number of 1898 of the _Art Journal_.

CRANE, WILLIAM HENRY (1845-   ), American actor, was born on the 30th of
April 1845, in Leicester, Massachusetts, and made his first appearance
at Utica, New York, in Donizetti's _Daughter of the Regiment_ in 1863.
Later he had a great success as Le Blanc the Notary, in the burlesque
_Evangeline_ (1873). He made his first hit in the legitimate drama with
Stuart Robson (1836-1903), in _The Comedy of Errors_ and other
Shakespearian plays, and in _The Henrietta_ (1881) by Bronson Howard
(1842-1908). This partnership lasted for twelve years, and subsequently
Crane appeared in various eccentric character parts in such plays as
_The Senator_ and _David Harum_. In 1904 he turned to more serious work
and played Isidore Izard in _Business is Business_, an adaptation from
Octave Mirbeau's _Les Affaires sont les affaires_.

CRANE (in Dutch, _Kraan_; O. Ger. _Kraen_; cognate, as also the Lat.
_grus_, and consequently the Fr. _grue_ and Span. _grulla_, with the Gr.
[Greek: geranos]), the _Grus communis_ or _G. cinerea_ of
ornithologists, one of the largest wading-birds, and formerly a native
of England, where William Turner, in 1544, said that he had very often
seen its young ("_earum pipiones saepissime vidi_"). Notwithstanding the
protection afforded it by sundry acts of parliament, it has long since
ceased from breeding in England. Sir T. Browne (ob. 1682) speaks of it
as being found in the open parts of Norfolk in winter. In Ray's time it
was only known as occurring at the same season in large flocks in the
fens of Lincolnshire and Cambridgeshire; and though mention is made of
cranes' eggs and young in the fen-laws passed at a court held at Revesby
in 1780, this was most likely but the formal repetition of an older
edict; for in 1768 Pennant wrote that after the strictest inquiry he
found the inhabitants of those counties to be wholly unacquainted with
the bird. The crane, however, no doubt then appeared in Britain, as it
does now, at uncertain intervals and in unwonted places, having strayed
from the migrating bands whose movements have been remarked from almost
the earliest ages. Indeed, the crane's aerial journeys are of a very
extended kind; and on its way from beyond the borders of the Tropic of
Cancer to within the Arctic Circle, or on the return voyage, its flocks
may be descried passing overhead at a marvellous height, or halting for
rest and refreshment on the wide meadows that border some great river,
while the seeming order with which its ranks are marshalled during
flight has long attracted attention. The crane takes up its winter
quarters under the burning sun of Central Africa and India, but early in
spring returns northward. Not a few examples reach the chill polar soils
of Lapland and Siberia, but some tarry in the south of Europe and breed
in Spain, and, it is supposed, in Turkey. The greater number, however,
occupy the intermediate zone and pass the summer in Russia, north
Germany, and Scandinavia. Soon after their arrival in these countries
the flocks break up into pairs, whose nuptial ceremonies are accompanied
by loud and frequent trumpetings, and the respective breeding-places of
each are chosen.

The nest is formed with little art on the ground in large open marshes,
where the herbage is not very high--a tolerably dry spot being selected
and used apparently year after year. Here the eggs, which are of a rich
brown colour with dark spots, and always two in number, are laid. The
young are able to run soon after they are hatched, and are at first
clothed with tawny down. In the course of the summer they assume nearly
the same grey plumage that their parents wear, except that the elongated
plumes, which in the adults form a graceful covering of the hinder
parts of the body, are comparatively undeveloped, and the clear black,
white and red (the last being due to a patch of papillose skin of that
colour) of the head and neck are as yet indistinct. During this time
they keep in the marshes, but as autumn approaches the different
families unite by the rivers and lakes, and ultimately form the enormous
bands which after much more trumpeting set out on their southward

The crane's power of uttering its sonorous and peculiar trumpet-like
notes is commonly ascribed to the formation of its trachea, which on
quitting the lower end of the neck passes backward between the branches
of the furcula and is received into a hollow space formed by the bony
walls of the carina or keel of the sternum. Herein it makes three turns,
and then runs upwards and backwards to the lungs. The apparatus on the
whole much resembles that found in the whooping swans (_Cygnus musicus_,
_C. buccinator_ and others), though differing in some not unimportant
details; but at the same time somewhat similar convolutions of the
trachea occur in other birds which do not possess, so far as is known,
the faculty of trumpeting. The crane emits its notes both during flight
and while on the ground. In the latter case the neck and bill are
uplifted and the mouth kept open during the utterance of the blast,
which may be often heard from birds in confinement, especially at the
beginning of the year.

As usually happens in similar cases, the name of the once familiar
British species is now used in a general sense, and applied to all
others which are allied to it. Though by former systematists placed near
or even among the herons, there is no doubt that the cranes have only a
superficial resemblance and no real affinity to the _Ardeidae_. In fact
the _Gruidae_ form a somewhat isolated group. Huxley included them
together with the _Rallidae_ in his _Geranomorphae_; but a more extended
view of their various characters would probably assign them rather as
relatives of the Bustards--not that it must be thought that the two
families have not been for a very long time distinct. _Grus_, indeed, is
a very ancient form, its remains appearing in the Miocene of France and
Greece, as well as in the Pliocene and Post-pliocene of North America.
In France, too, during the "Reindeer Period" there existed a huge
species--the _G. primigenia_ of Alphonse Milne-Edwards--which has
doubtless been long extinct. At the present time cranes inhabit all the
great zoogeographical regions of the earth, except the Neotropical, and
some sixteen or seventeen species are discriminated. In Europe, besides
the _G. communis_ already mentioned, the Numidian or demoiselle-crane
(_G. virgo_) is distinguished from every other by its long white
ear-tufts. This bird is also widely distributed throughout Asia and
Africa, and is said to have occurred in Orkney as a straggler. The
eastern part of the Palaearctic Region is inhabited by four other
species that do not frequent Europe (_G. antigone_, _G. japonensis_, _G.
monachus_, and _G. leucogeranus_), of which the last is perhaps the
finest of the family, with nearly the whole plumage of a snowy white.
The Indian Region, besides being visited in winter by four of the
species already named, has two that are peculiar to it (_G. torquata_
and _G. indica_, both commonly confounded under the name of _G.
antigone_). The Australian Region possesses a large species known to the
colonists as the "native companion" (_G. australis_), while the Nearctic
is tenanted by three species (_G. americana_, _G. canadensis_ and _G.
fraterculus_), to say nothing of the possibility of a fourth (_G.
schlegeli_), a little-known and somewhat obscure bird, finding its
habitat here. In the Ethiopian Region are two species (_G. paradisea_
and _G. carunculata_), which do not occur out of Africa, as well as
three others forming the group known as "crowned cranes"--differing much
from other members of the family, and justifiably placed in a separate
genus, _Balearica_. One of these (_B. pavonina_) inhabits northern and
western Africa, while another (_B. regulorum_) is confined to the
eastern and southern parts of that continent. The third (_B. ceciliae_),
from the White Nile, has been described by Dr P. Chalmers Mitchell
(_P.Z.S._, 1904).

  With regard to the literature of this species, a paper "On the
  Breeding of the Crane in Lapland" (_Ibis_, 1859, p. 191), by John
  Wolley, is one of the most pleasing contributions to natural history
  ever written, and an admirably succinct account of all the different
  species was communicated by Blyth to _The Field_ in 1873 (vol. xl. p.
  631, vol. xli. pp. 7, 61, 136, 189, 248, 384, 408, 418). A beautiful
  picture representing a flock of cranes resting by the Rhine during one
  of their annual migrations is to be found in Wolf's _Zoological
  Sketches_.     (A. N.)

CRANES (so called from the resemblance to the long neck of the bird, cf.
Gr. [Greek: geranos], Fr. _grue_), machines by means of which heavy
bodies may be lifted, and also displaced horizontally, within certain
defined limits. Strictly speaking, the name alludes to the arm or jib
from which the load to be moved is suspended, but it is now used in a
wider sense to include the whole mechanism by which a load is raised
vertically and moved horizontally. Machines used for lifting only are
not called cranes, but winches, lifts or hoists, while the term elevator
or conveyor is commonly given to appliances which continuously, not in
separate loads, move materials like grain or coal in a vertical,
horizontal or diagonal direction (see CONVEYORS). The use of cranes is
of great antiquity, but it is only since the great industrial
development of the 19th century, and the introduction of other motive
powers than hand labour, that the crane has acquired the important and
indispensable position it now occupies. In all places where finished
goods are handled, or manufactured goods are made, cranes of various
forms are in universal use.


Cranes may be divided into two main classes--revolving and
non-revolving. In the first the load can be lifted vertically, and then
moved round a central pivot, so as to be deposited at any convenient
point within the range. The type of this class is the ordinary jib
crane. In the second class there are, in addition to the lifting motion,
two horizontal movements at right angles to one another. The type of
this class is the overhead traveller. The two classes obviously
represent respectively systems of polar and rectangular coordinates. Jib
cranes can be subdivided into fixed cranes and portable cranes; in the
former the central-post or pivot is firmly fixed in a permanent
position, while in the latter the whole crane is mounted on wheels, so
that it may be transported from place to place.

  Motive powers.

The different kinds of motive power used to actuate cranes--manual,
steam, hydraulic, electric--give a further classification. Hand cranes
are extremely useful where the load is not excessive, and the quantities
to be dealt with are not great; also where speed is not important, and
first cost is an essential consideration. The net effective work of
lifting that can be performed by a man turning a handle may be taken,
for intermittent work, as being on an average about 5000 foot-lb per
minute; this is equivalent to 1 ton lifted about 2¼ ft. per minute, so
that four men can by a crane raise 1 ton 9 ft. in a minute or 9 tons 1
ft. per minute. It is at once evident that hand power is only suitable
for cranes of moderate power, or in cases where heavy loads have to be
lifted only very occasionally. This point is dwelt upon, because the
speed limitations of the hand-crane are often overlooked by engineers.
Steam is an extremely useful motive power for all cranes that are not
worked off a central power station. The steam crane has the immense
advantage of being completely self-contained. It can be moved (by its
own locomotive power, if desired) long distances without requiring any
complicated means of conveying power to it; and it is rapid in work,
fairly economical, and can be adapted to the most varying circumstances.
Where, however, there are a number of cranes all belonging to the same
installation, and these are placed so as to be conveniently worked from
a central power station, and where the work is rapid, heavy and
continuous, as is the case at large ports, docks and railway or other
warehouses, experience has shown that it is best to produce the power in
a generating station and distribute it to the cranes. Down to the
closing decades of the 19th century hydraulic power was practically the
only system available for working cranes from a power station. The
hydraulic crane is rapid in action, very smooth and silent in working,
easy to handle, and not excessive in cost or upkeep,--advantages which
have secured its adoption in every part of the world. Electricity as a
motive power for cranes is of more recent introduction. The electric
transmission of energy can be performed with an efficiency not reached
by any other method, and the electric motor readily adapts itself to
cranes. When they are worked from a power station the great advantage is
gained that the same plant which drives them can be used for many other
purposes, such as working machine tools and supplying current for
lighting. For dock-side jib cranes the use of electric power is making
rapid strides. For overhead travellers in workshops, and for most of the
cranes which fall into our second class, electricity as a motive power
has already displaced nearly every other method. Cranes driven by
shafting, or by mechanical power, have been largely superseded by
electric cranes, principally on account of the much greater economy of
transmission. For many years the best workshop travellers were those
driven by quick running ropes; these performed admirable service, but
they have given place to the more modern electric traveller.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

    Lifting mechanisms.

  The principal motion in a crane is naturally the hoisting or lifting
  motion. This is effected by slinging the load to an eye or hook, and
  elevating the hook vertically. There are three typical methods: (1) A
  direct pull may be applied to the hook, either by screws, or by a
  cylinder fitted with piston and rod and actuated by direct hydraulic
  or other pressure, as shown diagrammatically in fig. 1. These methods
  are used in exceptional cases, but present the obvious difficulty of
  giving a very short range of lift. (2) The hook may be attached to a
  rope or chain, and the pulling cylinder connected with a system of
  pulleys around which the rope is led; by these means the lift can be
  very largely increased. Various arrangements are adopted; the one
  indicated in fig. 2 gives a lift of load four times the stroke of the
  cylinder. This second method forms the basis of the lifting gear in
  all hydraulic cranes. (3) The lifting rope or chain is led over pulley
  to a lifting barrel, upon which it is coiled as the barrel is rotated
  by the source of power (fig. 3). Sometimes, especially in the case of
  overhead travelling cranes for very heavy loads, the chain is a
  special pitch chain, formed of flat links pinned together, and the
  barrel is reduced to a wheel provided with teeth, or "sprockets,"
  which engage in the links. In this case the chain is not coiled, but
  simply passes over the lifting wheel, the free end hanging loose. All
  the methods in this third category require a rotating lifting or
  barrel shaft, and this is the important difference between them and
  the hydraulic cranes mentioned above. Cranes fitted with rotating
  hydraulic engines may be considered as coming under the third

  When the loads are heavy the above mechanisms are supplemented by
  systems of purchase blocks suspended from the jib or the traveller
  crab; and in barrel cranes trains of rotating gearing are interposed
  between the motor, or manual handle, and the barrel (fig. 3).


  When a load is lifted, work has to be done in overcoming the action of
  gravity and the friction of the mechanism; when it is lowered, energy
  is given out. To control the speed and absorb this energy, brakes have
  to be provided. The hydraulic crane has a great advantage in
  possessing an almost ideal brake, for by simply throttling the exhaust
  from the lifting cylinder the speed of descent can be regulated within
  very wide limits and with perfect safety. Barrel cranes are usually
  fitted with band brakes, consisting of a brake rim with a friction
  band placed round it, the band being tightened as required. In
  ordinary cases conduction and convection suffice to dissipate the heat
  generated by the brake, but when a great deal of lowering has to be
  rapidly performed, or heavy loads have to be lowered to a great depth,
  special arrangements have to be provided. An excellent brake for very
  large cranes is Matthew's hydraulic brake, in which water is passed
  from end to end of cylinders fitted with reciprocating pistons,
  cooling jackets being provided. In electric cranes a useful method is
  to arrange the connexions so that the lifting motor acts as a dynamo,
  and, driven by the energy of the falling load, generates a current
  which is converted into heat by being passed through resistances. That
  the quantity of heat to be got rid of may become very considerable is
  seen when it is considered that the energy of a load of 60 tons
  descending through 50 ft. is equivalent to an amount of heat
  sufficient to raise nearly 6 gallons of water from 60° F. to boiling
  point. Crane brakes are usually under the direct control of the
  driver, and they are generally arranged in one of two ways. In the
  first, the pressure is applied by a handle or treadle, and is removed
  by a spring or weight; this is called "braking on." In the second, or
  "braking off" method, the brake is automatically applied by a spring
  or weight, and is released either mechanically or, in the case of
  electric cranes, by the pull of a solenoid or magnet which is
  energized by the current passing through the motor. When the motor
  starts the brake is released; when it stops, or the current ceases,
  the brake goes on. The first method is in general use for steam
  cranes; it allows for a far greater range of power in the brake, but
  is not automatic, as is the second.

  In free-barrel cranes the lifting barrel is connected to the revolving
  shaft by a powerful friction clutch; this, when interlocked with the
  brake and controller, renders electric cranes exceedingly rapid in
  working, as the barrel can be detached and lowering performed at a
  very high speed, without waiting for the lifting motor to come to rest
  in order to be reversed. This method of working is very suitable for
  electric dock-side cranes of capacities up to about 5 or 7 tons, and
  for overhead travellers where the height of lift is moderate. Where
  high speed lowering is not required it is usual to employ a reversing
  motor and keep it always in gear.

  In steam cranes it is usual to work all the motions from one double
  cylinder engine. In order to enable two or more motions to be worked
  together, or independently as required, reversing friction cones are
  used for the subsidiary motions, especially the slewing motion. With
  the exception of a few special cranes in which friction wheels are
  employed, it is universally the practice, in steam cranes, to connect
  the engine shaft with the barrel shaft by spur toothed gearing, the
  gear being connected or disconnected by sliding pinions. In electric
  cranes the motor is connected to the barrel, either in a similar
  manner by spur gear or by worm gear. The toothed wheels give a
  slightly better efficiency, but the worm gear is somewhat smoother in
  its action and entirely silent; the noise of gearing can, however, be
  considerably reduced by careful machining of the teeth, as is now
  always done, and also by the use of pinions made of rawhide leather or
  other non-resonant material. When quick-running metal pinions are used
  they are arranged to run in closed oil-baths. Leather pinions must be
  protected from rats, which eat them freely. Worm wheel gearing is of
  very high efficiency if made very quick in pitch, with properly formed
  teeth perfectly lubricated, and with the end thrust of the worm taken
  on ball bearings. Much attention has been paid to the improvement of
  the mechanical details of the lifting and other motions of cranes, and
  in important installations the gearing is now usually made of cast
  steel. In revolving cranes ease of slewing can be greatly increased by
  the use of a live ring of conical rollers.

    Power required.

  Electric motors for barrel cranes are not essentially different from
  those used for other purposes, but in proportioning the sizes the
  intermittent output has to be taken into consideration. This fact has
  led to the introduction of the "crane rated" motor, with a given "load
  factor." This latter gives the ratio of the length of the working
  periods to the whole time; e.g. a motor rated for a quarter load
  factor means that the motor is capable of exerting its full normal
  horse-power for three minutes out of every twelve, the pause being
  nine minutes, or one minute out of every four, the pause being three
  minutes. The actual load factor to be chosen depends on the nature of
  the work and the kind of crane. A dock-side crane unloading cargo with
  high lifts following one another in rapid succession will require a
  higher load factor than a workshop traveller with a very short lift
  and only a very occasional maximum load; and a traveller with a very
  long longitudinal travel will require a higher load factor for the
  travelling motor than for the lifting motor. In practice, the load
  factor for electric crane motors varies from 1/3 to 1/6. In steam
  cranes much the same principle obtains in proportioning the boiler;
  e.g. the engines of a 10-ton steam crane have cylinders capable of
  indicating about 60 horse-power when working at full speed, but it is
  found that, in consequence of the intermittent working, sufficient
  steam can be supplied with a boiler whose heating surface is only 1/3
  to ¼ of that necessary for the above power, when developed
  continuously by a stationary engine.

  In well-designed, quick-running cranes the mechanical efficiency of
  the lifting gear may be taken as about 85%; a good electric jib crane
  will give an efficiency of 72%, i.e. when actually lifting at full
  speed the mechanical work of lifting represents about 72% of the
  electric energy put into the lifting motor. A very convenient rule is
  to allow one brake horse-power of motor for every 10 foot-tons of work
  done at the hook: this is equivalent to an efficiency of 66-2/3%, and
  is well on the safe side.

  The motor in most common use for electric cranes is the series wound,
  continuous current motor, which has many advantages. It has a very
  large starting torque, which enables it to overcome the inertia of
  getting the load into motion, and it lifts heavy loads at a slower
  speed and lighter loads at a quicker one, behaving, under the action
  of the controller in a somewhat similar manner to that in which the
  cylinders of the steam crane respond to the action of the stop-valve.
  Three-phase motors are also much used for crane-driving, and it is
  probable that improvements in single and two-phase motors will
  eventually largely increase their use for this class of work.

  Tests of the comparative efficiencies of hydraulic and electric cranes
  tend to show that, although they do not vary to any very considerable
  extent with full load, yet the efficiency of the hydraulic crane falls
  away very much more rapidly than that of the electric crane when
  working on smaller loads. This drawback can be corrected to a slight
  extent by furnishing the hydraulic crane with more than one cylinder,
  and thus compounding it, but the arrangement does not give the same
  economical range of load as in an electric crane. In first cost the
  hydraulic crane has the advantage, but the power mains are much less
  expensive and more convenient to arrange in the electric crane.


  The limit of speed of lift of hand cranes has already been mentioned;
  for steam jib cranes average practice is represented by the formula V
  = 30 + 200/T, where V is the speed of lift in feet per minute, and T
  the load in tons. Where electric or hydraulic cranes are worked from a
  central station the speed is greater, and may be roughly represented
  by V = 5 + 300/T; e.g. a 30-cwt. crane would lift with a speed of
  about 200 ft. per minute, and 100-ton crane with a speed of about 8
  ft. per minute, but these speeds vary with local circumstances. The
  lifting speed of electric travellers is generally less, because the
  lift is generally much shorter, and may in ordinary cases be taken as
  V = 3 + 85/T. The cross-traversing speed of travellers varies from 60
  to 120 ft. per minute, and the longitudinal from 100 to 300 ft. per
  minute. The speed of these two motions depends much on the length of
  the span and of the longitudinal run, and on the nature of the work to
  be done; in certain cases, e.g. foundries, it is desirable to be able
  to lift, on occasions, at an extremely slow speed. In addition to the
  brakes on the lifting gear of cranes it is found necessary, especially
  in quick-running electric cranes, to provide a brake on the subsidiary
  motions, and also devices to stop the motor at the end of the lift or
  travel, so as to prevent over-running.

  There are many other important points of crane construction too
  numerous to mention here, but it may be said generally that the advent
  of electricity has tended to increase speeds, and in consequence great
  attention is paid to all details that reduce friction and wear, such
  as roller and ball bearings and improved methods of lubrication; and,
  as in all other quick-running machinery, great stress has to be laid
  on accuracy of workmanship. The machinery, thus being of a higher
  class, requires more protection, and cranes that work in the open are
  now fitted with elaborate crane-houses or cabins, furnished with
  weather-tight doors and windows, and more care is taken to provide
  proper platforms, hand-rails and ladders of access, and also guards
  for the revolving parts of gearing.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.]

    Fixed Cranes.

  _Typical Forms of Cranes._--Fig. 4 is a diagram of a fixed hand
  revolving jib crane, of moderate size, as used in railway goods yards
  and similar places. It consists of a heavy base, which is securely
  bolted to the foundation, and which carries the strong crane-post, or
  pillar, around which the crane revolves. The revolving part is made
  with two side frames of cast iron or steel plates, and to these the
  lifting gear is attached. The load is suspended from the crane jib;
  this jib is attached at the lower end to the side frames, and the
  upper end is supported by tie-rods, connected to the framework, the
  whole revolving together. This simple form of crane thus embodies the
  essential elements of foundation, post, framework, jib, tie-rods and

  Fig. 5 shows another type of fixed crane, known as a derrick crane.
  Here the crane-post is extended into a long mast and is furnished with
  pivots at the top and bottom; the mast is supported by two "back
  ties," and these are connected to the socket of the bottom pivot by
  the "sleepers." This is a very good and comparatively cheap form of
  crane, where a long and variable radius is required, but it cannot
  slew through a complete circle. Derrick cranes are made of all powers,
  from the timber 1-ton hand derrick to the steel 150-ton derrick used
  in shipbuilding yards. The derrick crane introduces a problem for
  which many solutions have been sought, that of preventing the load
  from being lifted or lowered when the jib is pivoted up or down to
  alter the radius. To keep the load level, there are various devices
  for automatically coupling the jib-raising and the load-lowering

  Somewhat allied to the derrick are the sheer legs (fig. 6). Here the
  place of the jib is taken by two inclined legs joined together at the
  top and pivoted at the bottom; a third back-leg is connected at the
  top to the other two, and at the bottom is coupled to a nut which runs
  on a long horizontal screw. This horizontal movement of the lower end
  of the back leg allows the whole arrangement to assume the position
  shown in fig. 7, so that a load can be taken out of a vessel and
  deposited on a quay wall. The same effect can be produced by
  shortening the back leg by a screw placed in the direction of its
  length. Sheer legs are generally built in very large sizes, and their
  use is practically confined to marine work.

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.]

  Another type of fixed crane is the "Fairbairn" crane, shown in fig. 8.
  Here the jib, superstructure and post are all united in one piece,
  which revolves in a foundation well, being supported at the bottom by
  a toe-step and near the ground level by horizontal rollers. This type
  of crane used to be in great favour, in consequence of the great
  clearance it gives under the jib, but it is expensive and requires
  very heavy foundations.

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.]

  The so-called "hammer-headed" crane (fig. 9) consists of a steel
  braced tower, on which revolves a large horizontal double cantilever;
  the forward part of this cantilever or jib carries the lifting crab,
  and the jib is extended backwards in order to form a support for the
  machinery and counter-balance. Besides the motions of lifting and
  revolving, there is provided a so-called "racking" motion, by which
  the lifting crab, with the load suspended, can be moved in and out
  along the jib without altering the level of the load. Such horizontal
  movement of the load is a marked feature of later crane design; it
  first became prominent in the so-called "Titan" cranes, mentioned
  below (fig. 14). Hammer-headed cranes are generally constructed in
  large sizes, up to 200 tons.

  Another type of fixed revolving crane is the foundry or smithy crane
  (fig. 10). It has the horizontal racking motion mentioned above, and
  revolves either on upper and lower pivots supported by the structure
  of the workshop, or on a fixed pillar secured to a heavy foundation.
  The type is often used in foundries, or to serve heavy hammers in a
  smithy, whence the name.

    Portable cranes.

  Portable cranes are of many kinds. Obviously, nearly every kind of
  crane can be made portable by mounting it on a carriage, fitted with
  wheels; it is even not unusual to make the Scottish derrick portable
  by using three trucks, one under the mast, and the others under the
  two back legs.

  Fig. 11 represents a portable steam jib crane; it contains the same
  elements as the fixed crane (fig. 4), but the foundation bed is
  mounted on a truck which is carried on railway or road wheels. With
  portable cranes means must be provided to ensure the requisite
  stability against overturning; this is done by weighting the tail of
  the revolving part with heavy weights, and in steam cranes the boiler
  is so placed as also to form part of the counterbalance. Where the
  rail-gauge is narrow and great weight is not desired, blocking girders
  are provided across the under side of the truck; these are arranged so
  that, by means of wedges or screws, they can be made to increase the
  base. In connexion with the stability of portable cranes, it may be
  mentioned that accidents more often arise from overturning backwards
  than forwards. In the latter case the overturning tendency begins as
  soon as the load leaves the ground, but ceases as soon as the load
  again touches the ground and thus relieves the crane of the extra
  weight, whereas overturning backwards is caused either by the reaction
  of a chain breaking or by excessive counterweight. When portable
  cranes are fitted with springs and axle-boxes, drawgear and buffers,
  so that they can be coupled to an ordinary railway train, they are
  called "breakdown" or "wrecking" cranes.

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 13.]

  Dock-side jib cranes for working general cargo are almost always made
  portable, in order to enable them to be placed in correct position in
  regard to the hatchways of the vessels which they serve. Fig. 12 shows
  an ordinary hydraulic dock-side jib crane. This type is usually fitted
  with a very high jib, so as to lift goods in and out of high-sided
  vessels. The hydraulic lifting cylinders are placed inside the
  revolving steel mast or post, and the cabin for the driver is arranged
  high up in the front of the post, so as to give a good view of the
  work. The pressure is conveyed to the crane by means of jointed
  "walking" pipes, or flexible hose, connected to hydrants placed at
  regular intervals along the quay. It is often very desirable to have
  the quay space as little obstructed by the cranes as possible, so as
  not to interfere with railway traffic; this has led to the
  introduction of cranes mounted on high trucks or gantries, sometimes
  also called "portal" cranes. Where warehouses or station buildings run
  parallel to the quay line, the high truck is often extended, so as to
  span the whole quay; on one side the "long leg" runs on a rail at the
  quay edge, and on the other the "short leg" runs on a runway placed on
  the building. Cranes of this type are called "half-portal" cranes.
  Fig. 13 shows an electric crane of this class. They give the minimum
  of interference with quay space and have rapidly come into favour.
  Where the face of the warehouse is sufficiently close to the water to
  permit of the crane rope plumbing the hatches without requiring a jib
  of excessive radius, it is a very convenient plan to place the whole
  crane on the warehouse roof.

  [Illustration: FIG. 14.]

  A special form of jib crane, designed to meet a particular purpose, is
  the "Titan" (fig. 14) largely used in the construction of piers and
  breakwaters. It contains all the essential elements of the
  hammer-headed crane, of which it may be considered to be the parent;
  in fact, the only essential difference is that the Titan is portable
  and the hammer-head crane fixed. The Titan was the first type of large
  portable crane in which full use was made of a truly horizontal
  movement of the load; for the purpose for which the type is designed,
  viz. setting concrete blocks in courses, this motion is almost a

  [Illustration: FIG. 15.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 16.]

    Non-revolving cranes.

  As types of non-revolving cranes, fig. 15 shows an overhead traveller
  worked by hand, and fig. 16 a somewhat similar machine worked by
  electric power. The principal component parts of a traveller are the
  main cross girders forming the _bridge_, the two _end carriages_ on
  which the bridge rests, the _running wheels_ which enable the end
  carriages to travel on the longitudinal gantry girders or _runway_,
  and the _crab_ or _jenny_, which carries the hoisting mechanism, and
  moves across the span on rails placed on the bridge girders. There are
  numerous and important variations of these two types, but the above
  contain the elements out of which most cranes of the class are built.

  [Illustration: FIG. 17.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 18.]

  One variation is illustrated in fig. 17, and is called a "Goliath" or
  "Wellington." It is practically a traveller mounted on high legs, so
  as to permit of its being travelled on rails placed on the ground
  level, instead of on an elevated gantry. Of other variations and
  combinations of types, fig. 18 shows a modern design of crane intended
  to command the maximum of yard space, and having some of the
  characteristics both of the Goliath and of the revolving jib crane,
  and fig. 19 depicts a combination of a traveller and a hanging jib

  [Illustration: FIG. 19.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 20.]


  When the cross traverse motion of a traveller crab is suppressed, and
  the longitudinal travelling motion is increased in importance we come
  to a type of crane, the use of which is rapidly increasing; it goes by
  the name of "transporter." Transporters can only move the load to any
  point on a vertical surface (generally a plane surface); they have a
  lifting motion and a movement of translation. They are of two kinds:
  (1) those in which the motive power and lifting gear are
  self-contained on the crab; and (2) those in which the motive power is
  placed in a fixed position. A transporter of the first class is shown
  in fig. 20. From the lower flange of a suspended runway, made of a
  single I section, run wheels, from the axles of which the transporter
  is suspended. The latter consists of a framework carrying the hoisting
  barrel, with its driving motor and gearing, and a travelling motor,
  which is geared to the running wheels in such a manner as to be able
  to propel the whole machine; a seat is provided for the driver who
  manipulates the controllers. A transporter of this kind, when fitted
  with a grab, is a very efficient machine for taking coal from barges
  and depositing it in a coal store.

  In the other class of transporter the load is not usually moved
  through such long distances. It consists essentially of a jib made of
  single I-sections, and supported by tie-rods (fig. 21), the load to be
  lifted being suspended from a small travelling carriage which runs on
  the lower flange. The lifting gear is located in any convenient fixed
  position. In order that only one motor may be used, and also that the
  load may be lifted by a single part of rope, various devices have been
  invented. The jib is usually inclined, so as to enable the travel to
  be performed by gravity in one direction, and the object of the
  transporter mechanism is to ensure that pulling in or slacking out the
  lifting rope shall perform the cycle of operations in the following
  order:--Supposing the load is ready to be lifted out of a vessel on to
  a quay, the pull of the lifting rope raises the load, the travelling
  jenny being meanwhile locked in position. On arriving at a certain
  height the lift ceases and the jenny is released, and by the continued
  pull of the rope, it runs up the jib; on arriving at an adjustable
  stop, the jenny is again locked, and the load can be lowered out; the
  hook can then be raised, when the jenny is automatically unlocked, and
  on paying out the rope the jenny gravitates to its first position,
  when the load is lowered and the cycle repeated. The jibs of
  transporters are often made to slide forward, or lift up, so as to be
  out of the way when not in use. Transporters are largely used for
  dealing with general cargo between vessels and warehouses, and also
  for coaling vessels; they have a great advantage in not interfering
  with the rigging of vessels.

  [Illustration: FIG. 21.]

  Nearly all recent advances in crane design are the result of the
  introduction of the electric motor. It is now possible to apply motive
  power exactly where it is wanted, and to do so economically, so that
  the crane designer has a perfectly free hand in adding the various
  motions required by the special circumstances of each case.

  The literature which deals specially with cranes is not a large one,
  but there are some good German text-books on the subject, amongst
  which may be mentioned _Die Hebezeuge_ by Ernst (4th ed., Berlin,
  1903), and _Cranes_, by Anton Böttcher, translated with additions by
  A. Tolhausen (London, 1908).     (W. P.*)

CRANIOMETRY. The application of precise methods of measurement marks a
definite phase in the development of most branches of modern science,
and thus craniometry, a comprehensive expression for all methods of
measuring the skull (cranium), provides a striking landmark in the
progress of anthropological studies. The origin of craniometry appears
to be twofold. Certain artists made measurements of heads and skulls
with a view to attaining greater accuracy in their representation of
those parts of the human frame. Bernard de Palissy and A. Dürer may be
mentioned as pioneers in such researches. Again, it is clearly shown in
the literature of this subject, that anatomists were led to employ
methods of measurement in their study of the human skull. The
determining cause of this improvement in method is curious, for it
appeared at the end of a famous anatomical controversy of the later
middle ages, namely the dispute as to whether the Galenic anatomy was
based on the study of the human body or upon those of apes. In the
description of the dissection of a chimpanzee (in 1680) Tyson explains
that the measurements he made of the skull of that animal were devised
with a view to exhibiting the difference between this and the human

The artists did not carry their researches very far. The anatomists on
the contrary continued to make measurements, and in 1764 Daubenton
published a noteworthy contribution to craniometry. Six years later,
Pieter Camper, distinguished both as an artist and as an anatomist,
published some lectures containing an account of his craniometrical
methods, and these may be fairly claimed as having laid the foundation
of all subsequent work. That work has been described above as
anthropological, but as the studies thus defined are very varied in
extent, it is necessary to consider the subdivisions into which they
naturally fall.

In the first place (and omitting further reference to the contributions
of artists), it has been explained that the measurements were first made
with a view to elucidating the comparison of the skulls of men with
those of other animals. This wide comparison constitutes the first
subdivision of craniometric studies. And craniometric methods have
rendered the results of comparison much more clear and comprehensible
than was formerly the case. It is further remarkable that among the
first measurements employed angular determinations occur, and indeed the
name of Camper is chiefly perpetuated in anthropological literature by
the "facial angle" invented by that artist-anatomist (fig. 1). It
appears impossible to improve on the simple terms in which Camper
describes the general results of the employment of this angle for
comparative purposes, as will appear from the following brief extract
from the translation of the original work: "The two extremities of the
facial line are from 70 to 80 degrees from the negro to the Grecian
antique: make it under 70, and you describe an ourang or an ape: lessen
it still more, and you have the head of a dog. Increase the minimum, and
you form a fowl, a snipe for example, the facial line of which is nearly
parallel with the horizon." (Camper's Works, p. 42, translated by Cogan,

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--The Skull and head of a young orang-utan, and of
a negro, showing the lines including the facial angle (MGND) devised by
Pieter Camper.]

In the 19th century the names of notable contributors to the literature
of craniometry quickly increase in number; while it is impossible to
analyse each contribution, or even record a complete list of the names
of the authors, it must be added that for the purposes of far-reaching
comparisons of the lower animals with mankind, craniometric methods were
used by P. P. Broca in France and by T. H. Huxley (figs. 2 and 3) in
England, with such genius and success as have not yet been surpassed.

The second division of craniometric studies includes those in which the
skulls of the higher and lower races of mankind are compared. And in
this domain, the advent of accurate numerical methods of recording
observations brought about great advances. In describing the facial
angle, it will be seen that the modern European, the Greek of classical
antiquity and the Negro are compared. Thus it is that Camper's name
appears as that of a pioneer in this second main division of the
subject. Broca and Huxley cultivated similar comparative racial fields
of research, but to these names that of Anders Retzius of Stockholm must
be added here. The chief claim of Retzius to distinction rests on the
merits of his system of comparing various dimensions of the skull, and
of a classification based on such comparisons. These indices will be
further defined below. It is convenient to mention here that the first
aim of all these investigators was to obtain from the skull reliable
data having reference to the conformation or size of the brain once
contained within it. Only in later days did the tendency to overlook
this, the fundamental aim and end of craniometry, make its appearance;
such nevertheless was the case, much to the detriment of craniometric
science, which for a time seems to have become purely empirical.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--The spheno-ethmoidal, spheno-maxillary and
foramino-basal angles are shown in the crania of:--A, a New Britain
native (male); B, a gorilla (male) C, a dog. _N.Pr.B_, Spheno-ethmoidal
angle; _P.Pr.B_, Spheno-maxillary angle; _Pr.B.Op_, Foramino-basal
angle. The spheno-ethmoidal and spheno-maxillary angles were first
employed by Huxley.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--The spheno-ethmoidal, spheno-maxillary and
foramino-basal angles are shown in the crania of:--A, a New Guinea
native (male); B, a European woman. _N.Pr.B_, Spheno-ethmoidal angle;
_P.Pr.B_, Spheno-maxillary angle; _Pr.B.Op_, Foramina-basal angle.]

The third subdivision of craniometric researches is one in which the
field of comparison is still further narrowed. For herein the various
sub-racial types such as the dark and fair Europeans are brought
together for the purposes of comparison or contrast. But although the
range of research is thus narrowed and restricted, the guiding
principles and the methods remain unchanged. In this department of
craniometry, Anders Retzius has gained the foremost place among the
pioneers of research. Retzius's name is, as already mentioned,
associated not with any particular angle or angular measurement, but
rather with a method of expressing as a formula two cranial dimensions
which have been measured and which are to be compared. Thus for instance
one skull may be so proportioned that its greatest width measures 75% of
its greatest length (i.e. its width is to its length as three to four).

[Illustration: From Tylor's _Anthropology_, by permission of Macmillan &
Co., Ltd.

FIG. 4.--Top view of skulls. (A) Negro, index 70, dolichocephalic; (B)
European, index 80, mesaticephalic; (C) Samoyed, index 85,

This ratio (of 75%) is termed the cephalic or breadth-index, which in
such an instance would be described as equal to 75. A skull providing a
breadth-index of 75 will naturally possess very different proportions
from another which provides a corresponding index equal to 85. And in
fact this particular index in human skulls varies from about 58 to 90 in
undistorted examples (fig. 4). Such is the general scheme of Retzius's
system of classification of skulls by means of indices, and one of his
earliest applications of the method was to the inhabitants of Sweden.
One striking result was to exhibit a most marked contrast in respect of
the breadth-index of the skull, between the Lapps and their Scandinavian
neighbours, and thus a craniometric difference was added to the list of
characters (such as stature, hair-colour and complexion) whereby these
two types were already distinguished. Since the publication of Retzius's
studies, the cephalic or breadth-index of the skull has retained a
premier position among its almost innumerable successors, though it is
of historical interest to note that, while Retzius had undoubtedly
devised the method of comparing "breadth-indices," he always qualified
the results of its use by reference to other data. These qualifications
were overlooked by the immediate successors of Retzius, much to the
disadvantage of craniometry. In addition to the researches on the skull
forms of Lapps and Swedes, others dealing with the comparison of Finns
and Swedes (by Retzius) as well as the investigation of the form of
skull in Basques and Guanches (by Broca) possess historic interest.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Callipers used in Craniometry, Professor
Martin's (P. Hermann, Zürich) model.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Flower's Craniometer as modified by Dr W. L. H.

Thus far little or nothing has been said with regard to instruments.
Camper devised a four-sided open frame with cross-wires, through which
skulls were viewed and by means of which accurate drawings could be
projected on to paper. The methods of Retzius as here described require
the aid of callipers of various sorts, and such instruments were quickly
devised and applied to the special needs of the case. Such instruments
are still in use, and two forms of simple craniometer are shown in the
accompanying illustrations (figs. 5 and 6). For the more accurate
comparison required in the study of various European types, delicate
instruments for measuring angles were invented by Anthelme in Paris
(1836) and John Grattan in Belfast (1853). These instruments enabled the
observer to transmit to the plane surface of a sheet of drawing paper a
correct tracing of the contour of the specimen under investigation. A
further modification was devised by the talented Dr Busk in the year
1861, and since that date the number and forms of these instruments have
been greatly multiplied. With reference to contributors to the advance
of knowledge in this particular department of craniometry, there should
be added to the foregoing names those of Huxley, Sir W. H. Flower and
Sir W. Turner in England, J. L. A. de Quatrefages in France, J. C. G.
Lucae and H. Welcker in Germany. Moreover, the methods have also been
multiplied, so that in addition to angular and linear measurements,
those of the capacity or cubical contents of the cranium and those of
the curvature of its surface demand reference. The masterly work of
Cleland claims special mention in this connexion. And finally while two
dimensions are combined in the cephalic index of Retzius, the
combination of three dimensions (in a formula called a modulus)
distinguishes some recent work, although the employment of the modulus
is actually a return to a system devised in 1859 by Karl E. von Baer.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--The facial angle of the Frankfort Agreement is
shown in the crania of:--A, a New Britain native (male) 62°; B, a
gorilla (male) 50°; C, a dog 42°. This angle has now replaced the facial
angle of Camper (cf. fig. 1).]

The fourth subdivision of craniometry is closely allied to that which
has just been described, and it deals with the comparison of the
prehistoric and the recent types of mankind. The methods are exactly
similar to those employed in the comparison of living races; but in some
particular instances where the prehistoric individual is represented
only by a comparatively minute portion of the skull, some special
modifications of the usual procedures have been necessitated. In this
field the works of W. His and L. Rütimeyer on the prehistoric races of
Switzerland, those of Ecker (South Germany), of Broca in France, of
Thurnam and Davis in England, must be cited. G. Schwalbe, Kramberger, W.
J. Sollas and H. Klaatsch are the most recent contributors to this
department of craniometry.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--The facial angle of the Frankfort Agreement is
shown in the crania of:--A, a Guinea native (male) 75°; B, a European
(woman) 93°; C, a new-born infant (93°).]

Thus the complexity of craniometric studies has inevitably increased. In
the hands of von Török of Budapest, as in those of M. Benedikt of Vienna
at an earlier date, the number of measurements regarded as necessary for
the complete "diagnosis" of a skull has reached a colossal total. Of the
trend and progress of craniometry at the present day, three particular
developments are noteworthy. First come the attempts made at various
times to co-ordinate the systems of measurements so as to ensure
uniformity among all observers; of these attempts two, viz. that of the
German anthropologists at Frankfort in 1882 (figs. 7 and 8), and that of
the Anthropometric Committee of the British Association (1906) seem to
require at least a record. In the second place, the application of the
methods of statistical science in dealing with large numbers of
craniometric data has been richly rewarded in Prof. Karl Pearson's
hands. Thirdly, and in connexion with such methods, there may be
mentioned the extension of these systems of measurement, and of the
methods of dealing with them on statistical principles, to the study of
large numbers of the skulls of domestic and feral animals, such as white
rats or the varieties of the horse. And lastly no account of craniometry
would be complete without mention of the revolt, headed by the Italian
anthropologist Sergi, against metrical methods of all kinds. It cannot,
however, be alleged that the substitutes offered by the adherents of
Sergi's principles encourage others to forsake the more orthodox
numerical methods.

  LITERATURE.--Tyson, _The Anatomy of a Pygmie_ (London, 1699);
  Daubenton, "Sur la différence de la situation du tron occipital dans
  l'homme et dans les animaux," _Comptes rendus de l'académie des
  sciences_ (Paris, 1764); Camper, _Works_ (1770, translated by Cogan,
  1821); Broca, _Mémoires_ (1862 and following years); Huxley, _Journal
  of Anatomy and Physiology_, vol. 1 (1867); Retzius, _Über die
  Schädelformen der Nordbewohner_ (Stockholm, 1842); Anthelme,
  _Physiologie de la pensée_ (Paris, 1836); Grattan, _Ulster Journal of
  Archaeology_, vol. 1 (1853); Busk, "A System of Craniometry,"
  _Transactions of the Ethnological Society_ (1861); Flower, Catalogue
  of the Hunterian Museum, _Osteology_, part 1 (London, 1879); Turner,
  "'Challenger' Reports," _Zoology_, vol. x. pt. 29, "Human Crania"
  (1884); de Quatrefages, _Crania ethnica_ (Paris, 1873); Lucae,
  _Architectur des menschlichen Schädels_ (Frankfort, 1855); Welcker,
  _Bau und Wachsthum des menschlichen Schädels_ (1862); Cleland, "An
  Inquiry into the Variations of the Human Skull," _Phil. Trans. Roy.
  Society_ (1870), vol. 160, pp. 117 et seq.; von Baer, "Crania
  selecta," Académie impériale des sciences de S. Pétersbourg (1859);
  His and Rütimeyer, _Crania Helvetica_ (Basel, 1866); Ecker, _Crania
  Germaniae meridionalis_ (1865); Thurnam and Davis, _Crania
  Britannica_; von Török, _Craniometrie_ (Stuttgart, 1890); Benedikt,
  _Manuel technique et pratique d'anthropométrie cranio-céphalique_
  (Paris, 1889); Pearson, _Biometrika_, from vol. 1 (in 1902) onwards;
  Sergi, "The Varieties of the Human Species," English translation,
  Smithsonian Institution (Washington, 1894); Schwalbe, "Der
  Neanderthalschädel," _Bonner Jahrbücher_, Heft 106; also _Sonderheft
  der Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie_; Kramberger, _Der
  paläolithische Mensch von Krapina_ (Nägele, Stuttgart, 1901); Sollas,
  "The Cranial Characters of the Neanderthal Race," _Phil. Transactions
  of the Royal Society_, vol. 199, Series B, p. 298, 1908; Klaatsch,
  "Bericht über einen anthropologischen Streifzug nach London,"
  _Zeitschrift für Ethnologie_, Heft 6, 1903, p. 875.

  _Handbooks._--Topinard, _Éléments d'anthropologie générale_ (Paris,
  1885); Schmidt, _Anthropologische Methoden_ (Leipzig, 1888);
  Duckworth, _Morphology and Anthropology_ (Cambridge, 1904).

  _Journals._--_Bulletins de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris_,
  _Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and
  Ireland_, _Archiv für Anthropologie_, _Zeitschrift für Morphologie und
  Anthropologie_.     (W. L. H. D.)

CRANK, a word of somewhat obscure etymology, probably connected with a
root meaning "crooked," and appearing in the Ger. _krank_, ill, a
figurative use of the original word; among other words in English
containing the same original meaning are "cringe" and "crinkle." In
mechanics, a crank is a device by which reciprocating motion is
converted into circular motion or vice versa, consisting of a
_crank-arm_, one end of which is fastened rigidly at right angles to the
rotating shaft or axis, while the other end bears a _crank-pin_,
projecting from it at right angles and parallel to the shaft. When the
reciprocating part of a machine, as the piston and piston-rod of a steam
engine, is linked to this crank by a _crank-rod_ or _connecting rod_,
one end of which works on the crank-pin and the other on a pin in the
end of the reciprocating part, the to-and-fro motion of the latter
imparts a circular motion to the shaft and vice versa. The crank,
instead of being made up as described above, may be formed by bending
the shaft to the required shape, as sometimes in the handle of a winch.
A _bell-crank_, so called because of its use in bell-hanging to change
the direction of motion of the wires from horizontal to vertical or vice
versa, consists of two arms rigidly connected at an angle, say of 90°,
to each other and pivoted on a pin placed at the point of junction.

Crank is also the name given to a labour machine used in prisons as a
means of punishment (see TREAD-MILL). Other uses of the word, connected
with the primary meaning, are for a crooked path, a crevice or chink;
and a freakish turn of thought or speech, as in Milton's phrase "quips
and cranks." It is also used as a slang expression, American in origin,
for a harmless lunatic, or a faddist, whose enthusiasm for some one
idea or hobby becomes a monomania. "Crank" or "crank-sided" is a
nautical term used of a ship which by reason of her build or from want
of balance is liable to overturn. This strictly nautical sense is often
confused with "crank" or "cranky," that is, rickety or shaky, probably
derived direct from the German _krank_, weak or ill.

CRANMER, THOMAS (1489-1556), archbishop of Canterbury, born at Aslacton
or Aslockton in Nottinghamshire on the 2nd of July 1489, was the second
son of Thomas Cranmer and of his wife Anne Hatfield. He received his
early education, according to Morice his secretary, from "a marvellous
severe and cruel schoolmaster," whose discipline must have been severe
indeed to deserve this special mention in an age when no schoolmaster
bore the rod in vain. The same authority tells us that he was initiated
by his father in those field sports, such as hunting and hawking, which
formed one of his recreations in after life. To early training he also
owed the skilful horsemanship for which he was conspicuous. At the age
of fourteen he was sent by his mother, who had in 1501 become a widow,
to Cambridge. Little is known with certainty of his university career
beyond the facts that he became a fellow of Jesus College in 1510 or
1511, that he had soon after to vacate his fellowship, owing to his
marriage to "Black Joan," a relative of the landlady of the Dolphin Inn,
and that he was reinstated in it on the death of his wife, which
occurred in childbirth before the lapse of the year of grace allowed by
the statutes. During the brief period of his married life he held the
appointment of lecturer at Buckingham Hall, now Magdalene College. The
fact of his marrying would seem to show that he did not at the time
intend to enter the church; possibly the death of his wife caused him to
qualify for holy orders. He was ordained in 1523, and soon after he took
his doctor's degree in divinity. According to Strype, he was invited
about this time to become a fellow of the college founded by Cardinal
Wolsey at Oxford; but Dean Hook shows that there is some reason to doubt
this. If the offer was made, it was declined, and Cranmer continued at
Cambridge filling the offices of lecturer in divinity at his own college
and of public examiner in divinity to the university. It is interesting,
in view of his later efforts to spread the knowledge of the Bible among
the people, to know that in the capacity of examiner he insisted on a
thorough acquaintance with the Holy Scriptures, and rejected several
candidates who were deficient in this qualification.

It was a somewhat curious concurrence of circumstances that transferred
Cranmer, almost at one step, from the quiet seclusion of the university
to the din and bustle of the court. In August 1529 the plague known as
the sweating sickness, which prevailed throughout the country, was
specially severe at Cambridge, and all who had it in their power forsook
the town for the country. Cranmer went with two of his pupils named
Cressy, related to him through their mother, to their father's house at
Waltham in Essex. The king (Henry VIII.) happened at the time to be
visiting in the immediate neighbourhood, and two of his chief
counsellors, Gardiner, secretary of state, afterwards bishop of
Winchester, and Edward Fox, the lord high almoner, afterwards bishop of
Hereford, were lodged at Cressy's house. Meeting with Cranmer, they were
naturally led to discuss the king's meditated divorce from Catherine of
Aragon. Cranmer suggested that if the canonists and the universities
should decide that marriage with a deceased brother's widow was illegal,
and if it were proved that Catherine had been married to Prince Arthur,
her marriage to Henry could be declared null and void by the ordinary
ecclesiastical courts. The necessity of an appeal to Rome was thus
dispensed with, and this point was at once seen by the king, who, when
Cranmer's opinion was reported to him, is said to have ordered him to be
summoned in these terms: "I will speak to him. Let him be sent for out
of hand. This man, I trow, has got the right sow by the ear."

At their first interview Cranmer was commanded by the king to lay aside
all other pursuits and to devote himself to the question of the divorce.
He was to draw up a written treatise, stating the course he proposed,
and defending it by arguments from scripture, the fathers and the
decrees of general councils. His material interests certainly did not
suffer by compliance. He was commended to the hospitality of Anne
Boleyn's father, the earl of Wiltshire, in whose house at Durham Place
he resided for some time; the king appointed him archdeacon of Taunton
and one of his chaplains; and he also held a parochial benefice, the
name of which is unknown. When the treatise was finished Cranmer was
called upon to defend its argument before the universities of Oxford and
Cambridge, which he visited, accompanied by Fox and Gardiner.
Immediately afterwards he was sent to plead the cause before a more
powerful if not a higher tribunal. An embassy, with the earl of
Wiltshire at its head, was despatched to Rome in 1530, that "the matter
of the divorce should be disputed and ventilated," and Cranmer was an
important member of it. He was received by the Pope with marked
courtesy, and was appointed "Grand Penitentiary of England," but his
argument, if he ever had the opportunity of stating it, did not lead to
any practical decision of the question.

Cranmer returned in September 1530, but in January 1531 he received a
second commission from the king appointing him "Conciliarius Regius et
ad Caesarem Orator." In the summer of 1531 he accordingly proceeded to
Germany as sole ambassador to the emperor. He was also to sound the
Lutheran princes with a view to an alliance, and to obtain the removal
of some restrictions on English trade. At Nuremberg he became acquainted
with Osiander, whose somewhat isolated theological position he probably
found to be in many points analogous to his own. Both were convinced
that the old order must change; neither saw clearly what the new order
should be to which it was to give place. They had frequent interviews,
which had doubtless an important influence on Cranmer's opinions. But
Osiander's house had another attraction of a different kind from
theological sympathy. His niece Margaret won the heart of Cranmer, and
in 1532 they were married. Hook finds in the fact of the marriage
corroboration of Cranmer's statement that he never expected or desired
the primacy; and it seems probable enough that, if he had foreseen how
soon the primacy was to be forced upon him, he would have avoided a
disqualification which it was difficult to conceal and dangerous to

Expected or not, the primacy was forced upon him within a very few
months of his marriage. In August 1532 Archbishop Warham died, and the
king almost immediately afterwards intimated to Cranmer, who had
accompanied the emperor in his campaign against the Turks, his
nomination to the vacant see. Cranmer's conduct was certainly consistent
with his profession that he did not desire, as he had not expected, the
dangerous promotion. He sent his wife to England, but delayed his own
return in the vain hope that another appointment might be made. The
papal bulls of confirmation were dated February and March 1533, and the
consecration took place on the 30th March. One peculiarity of the
ceremony had occasioned considerable discussion. It was the custom for
the archbishop elect to take two oaths, the first of episcopal
allegiance to the pope, and the second in recognition of the royal
supremacy. The latter was so wide in its scope that it might fairly be
held to supersede the former in so far as the two were inconsistent.
Cranmer, however, was not satisfied with this. He had a special protest
recorded, in which he formally declared that he swore allegiance to the
pope only in so far as that was consistent with his supreme duty to the
king. The morality of this course has been much canvassed, though it
seems really to involve nothing more than an express declaration of what
the two oaths implied. It was the course that would readily suggest
itself to a man of timid nature who wished to secure himself against
such a fate as Wolsey's. It showed weakness, but it added nothing to
whatever immorality there might be in successively taking two
incompatible oaths.

In the last as in the first step of Cranmer's promotion Henry had been
actuated by one and the same motive. The business of the divorce--or
rather, of the legitimation of Anne Boleyn's expected issue--had now
become very urgent, and in the new archbishop he had an agent who might
be expected to forward it with the needful haste. The celerity and skill
with which Cranmer did the work intrusted to him must have fully
satisfied his master. During the first week of April Convocation sat
almost from day to day to determine questions of fact and law in
relation to Catherine's marriage with Henry as affected by her previous
marriage with his brother Arthur. Decisions favourable to the object of
the king were given on these questions, though even the despotism of the
most despotic of the Tudors failed to secure absolute unanimity. The
next step was taken by Cranmer, who wrote a letter to the king, praying
to be allowed to remove the anxiety of loyal subjects as to a possible
case of disputed succession, by finally determining the validity of the
marriage in his archiepiscopal court. There is evidence that the request
was prompted by the king, and his consent was given as a matter of
course. Queen Catherine was residing at Ampthill in Bedfordshire, and to
suit her convenience the court was held at the priory of Dunstable in
the immediate neighbourhood. Declining to appear, she was declared
contumacious, and on the 23rd of May the archbishop gave judgment
declaring the marriage null and void from the first, and so leaving the
king free to marry whom he pleased. The Act of Appeals had already
prohibited any appeal from the archbishop's court. Five days later he
pronounced the marriage between Henry and Anne--which had been secretly
celebrated about the 25th of January 1533--to be valid. On the 1st of
June he crowned Anne as queen, and on the 10th of September stood
godfather to her child, the future Queen Elizabeth.

The breach with Rome and the subjection of the church in England to the
royal supremacy had been practically achieved before Cranmer's
appointment as archbishop: and he had little to do with the other
constitutional changes of Henry's reign. But his position as chief
minister of Henry's ecclesiastical jurisdiction forced him into
unpleasant prominence in connexion with the king's matrimonial
experiences. In 1536 he was required to revise his own sentence in
favour of the validity of Henry's marriage with Anne Boleyn; and on the
17th of May the marriage was declared invalid. The ground on which this
sentence is pronounced is fairly clear. Anne's sister, Mary Boleyn, had
been Henry VIII.'s mistress; this by canon law was a bar to his marriage
with Anne--a bar which had been removed by papal dispensation in 1527,
but now the papal power to dispense in such cases had been repudiated,
and the original objection revived. The sentence was grotesquely legal
and unjust. With Anne's condemnation by the House of Lords Cranmer had
nothing to do. He interceded for her in vain with the king, as he had
done in the cases of Fisher, More and the monks of Christchurch. His
share in the divorce of Anne of Cleves was less prominent than that of
Gardiner, though he did preside over the Convocation in which nearly all
the dignitaries of the church signified their approval of that measure.
To his next and last interposition in the matrimonial affairs of the
king no discredit attaches itself. When he was made cognizant of the
charges against Catherine Howard, his duty to communicate them to the
king was obvious, though painful.

Meanwhile Cranmer was actively carrying out the policy which has
associated his name more closely, perhaps, than that of any other
ecclesiastic with the Reformation in England. Its most important feature
on the theological as distinct from the political side was the endeavour
to promote the circulation of the Bible in the vernacular, by
encouraging translation and procuring an order in 1538 that a copy of
the Bible in English should be set up in every church in a convenient
place for reading. Only second in importance to this was the
re-adjustment of the creed and liturgy of the church, which formed
Cranmer's principal work during the latter half of his life. The
progress of the archbishop's opinion towards that middle Protestantism,
if it may be so called, which he did so much to impress on the
formularies of the Church of England, was gradual, as a brief
enumeration of the successive steps in that progress will show. In 1538
an embassy of German divines visited England with the design, among
other things, of forming a common confession for the two countries. This
proved impracticable, but the frequent conferences Cranmer had with the
theologians composing the embassy had doubtless a great influence in
modifying his views. Both in parliament and in Convocation he opposed
the Six Articles of 1539, but he stood almost alone. During the period
between 1540 and 1543 the archbishop was engaged at the head of a
commission in the revision of the "Bishop's Book" (1537) or
_Institutions of a Christian Man_, and the preparation of the _Necessary
Erudition_ (1543) known as the "King's Book," which was a modification
of the former work in the direction of Roman Catholic doctrine. In June
1545 was issued his Litany, which was substantially the same as that now
in use, and shows his mastery of a rhythmical English style.

The course taken by Cranmer in promoting the Reformation exposed him to
the bitter hostility of the reactionary party or "men of the old
learning," of whom Gardiner and Bonner were leaders, and on various
occasions--notably in 1543 and 1545--conspiracies were formed in the
council or elsewhere to effect his overthrow. The king, however,
remained true to him, and all the conspiracies signally failed. It
illustrates a favourable trait in the archbishop's character that he
forgave all the conspirators. He was, as his secretary Morice testifies,
"a man that delighted not in revenging."

Cranmer was present with Henry VIII. when he died (1547). By the will of
the king he was nominated one of a council of regency composed of
sixteen persons, but he acquiesced in the arrangement by which Somerset
became lord protector. He officiated at the coronation of the boy king
Edward VI., and is supposed to have instituted a sinister change in the
order of the ceremony, by which the right of the monarch to reign was
made to appear to depend upon inheritance alone, without the concurrent
consent of the people. But Edward's title had been expressly sanctioned
by act of parliament, so that there was no more room for election in his
case than in that of George I., and the real motive of the changes was
to shorten the weary ceremony for the frail child.

During this reign the work of the Reformation made rapid progress, the
sympathies both of the Protector and of the young king being decidedly
Protestant. Cranmer was therefore enabled without let or hindrance to
complete the preparation of the church formularies, on which he had been
for some time engaged. In 1547 appeared the _Homilies_ prepared under
his direction. Four of them are attributed to the archbishop
himself--those on Salvation, Faith, Good Works and the Reading of
Scripture. His translation of the German Catechism of Justus Jonas,
known as Cranmer's Catechism, appeared in the following year. Important,
as showing his views on a cardinal doctrine, was the _Defence of the
True and Catholic Doctrine of the Sacrament_, which he published in
1550. It was immediately answered from the side of the "old learning" by
Gardiner. The first prayer-book of Edward VI. was finished in November
1548, and received legal sanction in March 1549; the second was
completed and sanctioned in April 1552. The archbishop did much of the
work of compilation personally. The forty-two articles of Edward VI.
published in 1553 owe their form and style almost entirely to the hand
of Cranmer. The last great undertaking in which he was employed was the
revision of his codification of the canon law, which had been all but
completed before the death of Henry. The task was one eminently well
suited to his powers, and the execution of it was marked by great skill
in definition and arrangement. It never received any authoritative
sanction, Edward VI. dying before the proclamation establishing it could
be made, and it remained unpublished until 1571, when a Latin
translation by Dr Walter Haddon and Sir John Cheke appeared under the
title _Reformatio legum ecclesiasticarum_. It laid down the lawfulness
and necessity of persecution to the death for heresy in the most
absolute terms; and Cranmer himself condemned Joan Bocher to the flames.
But he naturally loathed persecution, and was as tolerant as any in that

Cranmer stood by the dying bed of Edward as he had stood by that of his
father, and he there suffered himself to be persuaded to take a step
against his own convictions. He had pledged himself to respect the
testamentary disposition of Henry VIII. by which the succession devolved
upon Mary, and now he violated his oath by signing Edward's "device" of
the crown to Lady Jane Grey. On grounds of policy and morality alike
the act was quite indefensible; but it is perhaps some palliation of his
perjury that it was committed to satisfy the last urgent wish of a dying
man, and that he alone remained true to the nine days' queen when the
others who had with him signed Edward's device deserted her. On the
accession of Mary he was summoned to the council--most of whom had
signed the same device--reprimanded for his conduct, and ordered to
confine himself to his palace at Lambeth until the queen's pleasure was
known. He refused to follow the advice of his friends and avoid the fate
that was clearly impending over him by flight to the continent. Any
chance of safety that lay in the friendliness of a strong party in the
council was more than nullified by the bitter personal enmity of the
queen, who could not forgive his share in her mother's divorce and her
own disgrace. On the 14th of September 1553 he was sent to the Tower,
where Ridley and Latimer were also confined. The immediate occasion of
his imprisonment was a strongly worded declaration he had written a few
days previously against the mass, the celebration of which, he heard,
had been re-established at Canterbury. He had not taken steps to publish
this, but by some unknown channel a copy reached the council, and it
could not be ignored. In November, with Lady Jane Grey, her husband, and
two other Dudleys, Cranmer was condemned for treason. Renard thought he
would be executed, but so true a Romanist as Mary could scarcely have an
ecclesiastic put to death in consequence of a sentence by a secular
court, and Cranmer was reserved for treatment as a heretic by the
highest of clerical tribunals, which could not act until parliament had
restored the papal jurisdiction. Accordingly in March 1554 he and his
two illustrious fellow-prisoners, Ridley and Latimer, were removed to
Oxford, where they were confined in the Bocardo or common prison. Ridley
and Latimer were unflinching, and suffered bravely at the stake on the
16th of October 1555. Cranmer had been tried by a papal commission, over
which Bishop Brooks of Gloucester presided, in September 1555. Brooks
had no power to give sentence, but reported to Rome, where Cranmer was
summoned, but not permitted, to attend. On the 25th of November he was
pronounced contumacious by the pope and excommunicated, and a commission
was sent to England to degrade him from his office of archbishop. This
was done with the usual humiliating ceremonies in Christ Church, Oxford,
on the 14th of February 1556, and he was then handed over to the secular
power. About the same time Cranmer subscribed the first two of his
"recantations." His difficulty consisted in the fact that, like all
Anglicans of the 16th century, he recognized no right of private
judgment, but believed that the state, as represented by monarchy,
parliament and Convocation, had an absolute right to determine the
national faith and to impose it on every Englishman. All these
authorities had now legally established Roman Catholicism as the
national faith, and Cranmer had no logical ground on which to resist.
His early "recantations" are merely recognitions of his lifelong
conviction of this right of the state. But his dilemma on this point led
him into further doubts, and he was eventually induced to revile his
whole career and the Reformation. This is what the government wanted.
Northumberland's recantation had done much to discredit the Reformation,
Cranmer's, it was hoped, would complete the work. Hence the enormous
effect of Cranmer's recovery at the final scene. On the 21st of March he
was taken to St Mary's church, and asked to repeat his recantation in
the hearing of the people as he had promised. To the surprise of all he
declared with dignity and emphasis that what he had recently done
troubled him more than anything he ever did or said in his whole life;
that he renounced and refused all his recantations as things written
with his hand, contrary to the truth which he thought in his heart; and
that as his hand had offended, his hand should be first burned when he
came to the fire. As he had said, his right hand was steadfastly exposed
to the flames. The calm cheerfulness and resolution with which he met
his fate show that he felt that he had cleared his conscience, and that
his recantation of his recantations was a repentance that needed not to
be repented of.

It was a noble end to what, in spite of its besetting sin of infirmity
of moral purpose, was a not ignoble life. The key to his character is
well given in what Hooper said of him in a letter to Bullinger, that he
was "too fearful about what might happen to him." This weakness was the
worst blot on Cranmer's character, but it was due in some measure to his
painful capacity for seeing both sides of a question at the same time, a
temperament fatal to martyrdom. As a theologian it is difficult to class
him. As early as 1538 he had repudiated the doctrine of
Transubstantiation; by 1550 he had rejected also the Real Presence
(Pref. to his _Answer to Dr Richard Smith_). But here he used the term
"real" somewhat unguardedly, for in his _Defence_ he asserts a real
presence, but defines it as exclusively a spiritual presence; and he
repudiates the idea that the bread and wine were "bare tokens." His
views on church polity were dominated by his implicit belief in the
divine right of kings (not of course the divine _hereditary_ right of
kings) which the Anglicans felt it necessary to set up against the
divine right of popes. He set practically no limits to the
ecclesiastical authority of kings; they were as fully the
representatives of the church as the state, and Cranmer hardly
distinguished between the two. Church and state to him were one.

  AUTHORITIES.--_Letters and Papers of Henry VIII._ vols. iv.-xx.: _Acts
  of the Privy Council, 1542-1556_; _Cal. of State Papers, Dom. and
  Foreign_; Foxe's _Acts and Monuments_; Strype's _Memorials of Cranmer_
  (1694); _Anecdotes and Character of Archbishop Cranmer_, by Ralph
  Morice, and two contemporary biographies (Camden Society's
  publications); _Remains of Thomas Cranmer_, by Jenkyns (1833); _Lives
  of Cranmer_, by Gilpin (1784), Todd (1831), Le Bas, in Hook's _Lives
  of the Archbishops of Canterbury_, vols. vi. and vii. (1868), by Canon
  Mason (1897), A. D. Innes (1900) and A. F. Pollard (1904); Froude's
  _History_; R. W. Dixon's _History_; J. Gairdner's _History of the
  Church, 1485-1558_; Bishop Cranmer's _Recantacyons_, ed. Gairdner
  (1885). R. E. Chester Waters's _Chesters of Chicheley_ (1877) contains
  a vast amount of genealogical information about Cranmer which has only
  been used by one of his biographers.     (A. F. P.)

CRANNOG (Celt. _crann_, a tree), the term applied in Scotland and
Ireland to the stockaded islands so numerous in ancient times in the
lochs of both countries. The existence of these lake-dwellings in
Scotland was first made known by John Mackinlay, a fellow of the Society
of Antiquaries of Scotland, in a letter sent to George Chalmers, the
author of _Caledonia_, in 1813, describing two crannogs, or fortified
islands in Bute. The crannog of Lagore, the first discovered in Ireland,
was examined and described by Sir William Wilde in 1840. But it was not
until after the discovery of the pile-villages of the Swiss lakes, in
1853, had drawn public attention to the subject of lake-dwellings, that
the crannogs of Scotland and Ireland were systematically investigated.

The results of these investigations show that they have little in common
with the Swiss lake-dwellings, except that they are placed in lakes. Few
examples are known in England, although over a hundred and fifty have
been examined in Ireland, and more than half that number in Scotland. As
a rule they have been constructed on islets or shallows in the lochs,
which have been adapted for occupation, and fortified by single or
double lines of stockaded defences drawn round the margin. To enlarge
the area, or raise the surface-level where that was necessary, layers of
logs, brushwood, heather and ferns were piled on the shallow, and
consolidated with gravel and stones. Over all there was laid a layer of
earth, a floor of logs or a pavement of flagstones. In rare instances
the body of the work is entirely of stones, the stockaded defence and
the huts within its enclosure being the only parts constructed of
timber. Occasionally a bridge of logs, or a causeway of stones, formed a
communication with the shore, but often the only means of getting to and
from the island was by canoes hollowed out of a single tree. Remains of
huts of logs, or of wattled work, are often found within the enclosure.
Three crannogs in Dowalton Loch, Wigtownshire, examined by Lord Lovaine
in 1863, were found to be constructed of layers of fern and birch and
hazel branches, mixed with boulders and penetrated by oak piles, while
above all there was a surface layer of stones and soil. The remains of
the stockade round the margin were of vertical piles mortised into
horizontal bars, and secured by pegs in the mortised holes. The crannog
of Lochlee, near Tarbolton, Ayrshire, explored by Dr R. Munro in 1878,
was 100 ft. in diameter, and had a double row of piles, bound by
horizontal stretchers with square mortise-holes, enclosing an area 60
ft. in diameter. In the centre was a space 40 ft. square, bounded by the
remains of a wooden wall and paved inside with split logs. A partition
divided it into two equal parts, one of which had a doorway opening to
the south, and close by it an extensive refuse-heap. In the middle of
the other part was a stone-paved hearth, with remains of three former
hearths underneath. The substructure was built up from the bottom of the
loch, partly of brushwood but chiefly of logs and trunks of trees with
the branches lopped off, placed in layers, each disposed transversely or
obliquely across the one below it. A crannog in Loch-an-Dhugael,
Balinakill, Argyllshire, described by the same explorer in 1893,
revealed a substructure similar to that at Lochlee, with a double row of
piles enclosing an area 45 to 50 ft. in diameter, within which was a
circular construction 32 ft. in diameter, which had been supported by a
large central post and about twenty uprights ranged round the

From their common feature of a substructure of brushwood and logs built
up from the bottom, the crannogs have been classed as fascine-dwellings,
to distinguish them from the typical pile-dwellings of the earlier
periods in Switzerland, whose platforms are supported by piles driven
into the bed of the lake. The crannog of Cloonfinlough in Connaught had
a triple stockade of oak piles, connected by horizontal stretchers and
enclosing an area 130 ft. in diameter, laid with trunks of oak trees. In
the crannog of Lagore, county Meath, there were about 150 cartloads of
bones, chiefly of oxen, deer, sheep and swine, the refuse of the food of
the occupants. In the crannog of Lisnacroghera, county Antrim, iron
swords, with sheaths of thin bronze ornamented with scrolls
characteristic of the Late Celtic style, iron daggers, an iron
spear-head 16½ in. in length, and pieces of what are called large
caldrons of iron, were found. Among the few remains of lacustrine
settlements in England and Wales, some are suggestive of the typical
crannog structure. The most important of these is the Glastonbury lake
village, excavated by Mr A. Bulleid and Mr St George Gray. It consists
of more than sixty separate dwellings, grouped within a triangular
palisaded defence, formed in the midst of a marsh now partially
reclaimed. The dwellings were circular, from 18 to 35 ft. in diameter,
the substructure formed of logs and brushwood mingled with stones and
clay, and outlined by piles driven into the bottom of the shallow lake.
The walls of the houses seem to have been made of wattle-work, supported
by posts sometimes not more than a single foot apart. The floors are of
clay, with a hearth of stones in the centre, often showing several
renewals over the original. The relics recovered show unmistakably that
the occupation must be dated within the Iron Age, but probably
pre-Roman, as no evidence of contact with Roman civilization has been
discovered. The stage of civilization indicated is nevertheless not a
low one. Besides the implements and weapons of iron there are fibulae
and brooches of bronze, weaving combs and spindle-whorls, a bronze
mirror and tweezers, wheel-made pottery as well as hand-made, ornamented
with Late Celtic patterns, a bowl of thin bronze decorated with bosses,
the nave of a wooden wheel with holes for twelve spokes, and a dug-out
canoe. Another site in Holderness, Yorkshire, examined by Mr Boynton in
1881, yielded evidence of fascine construction, with suggestions of
occupation in the latter part of the Bronze Age. Similar indications are
adduced by Professor Boyd Dawkins from the site on Barton Mere. On the
other hand, the implements and weapons found in the Scottish and Irish
crannogs are usually of iron, or, if objects of bronze and stone are
found, they are commonly such as were in use in the Iron Age. Crannogs
are frequently referred to in the Irish annals. Under the year 848 the
_Annals of the Four Masters_ record the burning of the island of Lough
Gabhor (the crannog of Lagore), and the same stronghold is noticed as
again destroyed by the Danes in 933. Under the year 1246 it is recorded
that Turlough O'Connor made his escape from the crannog of Lough Leisi,
and drowned his keepers. Many other entries occur in the succeeding
centuries. In the register of the privy council of Scotland, April 14,
1608, it is ordered that "the haill houssis of defence, strongholds, and
_crannokis_ in the Yllis (the western isles) pertaining to Angus
M'Conneill of Dunnyvaig and Hector M'Cloyne of Dowart sal be delyverit
to His Majestie." Judging from the historical evidence of their late
continuance, and from the character of the relics found in them, the
crannogs may be included among the latest prehistoric strongholds,
reaching their greatest development in early historic times, and
surviving through the middle ages. In Ireland, Sir William Wilde has
assigned their range approximately to the period between the 9th and
16th centuries; while Dr Munro holds that the vast majority of them,
both in Ireland and in Scotland, were not only inhabited, but
constructed during the Iron Age, and that their period of greatest
development was as far posterior to Roman civilization as that of the
Swiss _Pfahlbauten_ was anterior to it. (See LAKE DWELLINGS.)

  AUTHORITIES.--Dr R. Munro, _The Lake Dwellings of Europe: being the
  Rhind Lectures in Archaeology for 1888_ (with a bibliography of the
  subject) (London, 1890); _Ancient Scottish Lake-Dwellings or Crannogs_
  (Edinburgh, 1882); Col. W. G. Wood-Martin, _The Lake-Dwellings of
  Ireland, or Ancient Lacustrine Habitations of Erin, commonly called
  Crannogs_ (Dublin, 1886); Sir W. Wilde, _Descriptive Catalogue of the
  Antiquities in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy_, article
  "Crannogs," pp. 220-233 (Dublin, 1857); John Stuart, "Scottish
  Artificial Islands or Crannogs," in the _Proceedings of the Society of
  Antiquaries of Scotland_, vol. vi. (Edinburgh, 1865); A. Bulleid, "The
  Lake Village near Glastonbury," in _Proceedings of the Somersetshire
  Archaeological Society_, vol. xl. (1894).     (J. AN.)

CRANSAC, a town of southern France, in the department of Aveyron, 28m.
N.W. of Rodez by rail. Pop. (1906) town, 4988; commune, 6953. The town
is a coal-mining centre and has cold mineral springs, known in the
middle ages. There are iron-mines in the neighbourhood. Hills to the
north of the town contain disused coal-mines which have been on fire for
centuries. About 5 m. to the south is the fine Renaissance château of
Bournazel, built for the most part by Jean de Buisson, baron of
Bournazel, about 1545. The barony of Bournazel became a marquisate in

CRANSTON, a city of Providence county, Rhode Island, U.S.A., adjoining
the city of Providence on the S. Pop. (1890) 8099; (1900) 13,343; (1910)
21,107; area, 30 sq. m. It is served by the New York, New Haven &
Hartford railway. The surface of the E. part is level, that of the W.
part is somewhat rolling. Within the city are several villages,
including Arlington, Auburn, Edgewood, Fiskeville and Oaklawn. The
inhabitants of the country districts are engaged largely in the growing
of hay, Indian corn, rye, oats and market-garden produce; in the several
villages cotton and print goods, fuses for electrical machinery, and
automatic fire-protection sprinklers are manufactured. The value of
Cranston's factory product increased from $1,402,359 in 1900 to
$2,130,969 in 1905, or 52%. The state has a farm of 667 acres in the S.
part of the city; on this are the state prison, the Providence county
jail, the state workhouse and the house of correction, the state
almshouse, the state hospital for the insane, the Sockanosset school for
boys, and the Oaklawn school for girls--the last two being departments
of the state reform school. The post-office address of all these state
institutions is Howard. Cranston was settled as a part of Providence
about 1640 by associates of Roger Williams, and in 1754 was incorporated
as a separate township, but in 1868, in 1873 and in 1892 portions of it
were reannexed to Providence. The township is said to have been named in
honour of Samuel Cranston (1659-1727), governor of Rhode Island from
1698 until his death. It was incorporated as a city in 1910.

CRANTOR, a Greek philosopher of the Old Academy, was born, probably
about the middle of the 4th century B.C., at Soli in Cilicia. He was a
fellow-pupil of Polemo in the school of Xenocrates at Athens, and was
the first commentator on Plato. He is said to have written some poems
which he sealed up and deposited in the temple of Athens at Soli (Diog.
Laërtius iv. 5. 25). Of his celebrated work _On Grief_ ([Greek: Peri
penthous]), a letter of condolence to his friend Hippocles on the death
of his children, numerous extracts have been preserved in Plutarch's
_Consolatio ad Apollonium_ and in the _De consolatione_ of Cicero, who
speaks of it (_Acad._ ii. 44. 135) in the highest terms (_aureolus et ad
verbum ediscendus_). Crantor paid especial attention to ethics, and
arranged "good" things in the following order--virtue, health, pleasure,

  See F. Kayser, _De Crantore Academico_ (1841); M. H. E. Meier,
  _Opuscula academica_, ii. (1863); F. Susemihl, _Geschichte der
  griechischen Litteratur in der Alexandrinerzeit_, i. (1891), p. 118.

CRANWORTH, ROBERT MONSEY ROLFE, BARON (1790-1868), lord chancellor of
England, elder son of the Rev. E. Rolfe, was born at Cranworth, Norfolk,
on the 18th of December 1790. Educated at Bury St Edmunds, Winchester,
and Trinity College, Cambridge, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's
Inn in 1816, and attached himself to the chancery courts. He represented
Penryn and Falmouth in parliament from 1832 till his promotion to the
bench as baron of the exchequer in 1839. In 1850 he was appointed a
vice-chancellor and created Baron Cranworth, and in 1852 he became lord
chancellor in Aberdeen's ministry. He continued to hold the
chancellorship in the administration of Palmerston until the latter's
resignation in 1857. He was not reappointed when Palmerston returned to
office in 1859, but on the retirement of Lord Westbury in 1865 he
accepted the great seal for a second time, and held it till the fall of
the Russell administration in 1866. Cranworth died in London on the 26th
of July 1868. Never a very zealous law reformer, Cranworth's name is
associated in the statute book with only one small measure on
conveyancing. But as a judge he will continue to hold first rank. His
judgments were marked by sound common sense, while he himself was
remarkably free from the prejudices of his profession. Few men of his
day enjoyed greater personal popularity than Cranworth. He left no issue
and the title became extinct on his death.

  See _The Times_, 27th of July 1868; E. Manson, _The Builders of our
  Law_ (1904); E. Foss, _The Judges of England_ (1848-1864); J. B.
  Atlay, _Lives of the Chancellors_, vol. ii. (1908).

CRAPE (an anglicized version of the Fr. _crêpe_), a silk fabric of a
gauzy texture, having a peculiar crisp or crimpy appearance. It is woven
of hard spun silk yarn "in the gum" or natural condition. There are two
distinct varieties of the textile--soft, Canton or Oriental crape, and
hard or crisped crape. The wavy appearance of Canton crape results from
the peculiar manner in which the weft is prepared, the yarn from two
bobbins being twisted together in the reverse way. The fabric when woven
is smooth and even, having no _crêpé_ appearance, but when the gum is
subsequently extracted by boiling it at once becomes soft, and the weft,
losing its twist, gives the fabric the waved structure which constitutes
its distinguishing feature. Canton crapes are used, either white or
coloured, for ladies' scarves and shawls, bonnet trimmings, &c. The
Chinese and Japanese excel in the manufacture of soft crapes. The crisp
and elastic structure of hard crape is not produced either in the
spinning or in the weaving, but is due to processes through which the
gauze passes after it is woven. What the details of these processes are
is known to only a few manufacturers, who so jealously guard their
secret that, in some cases, the different stages in the manufacture are
conducted in towns far removed from each other. Commercially they are
distinguished as single, double, three-ply and four-ply crapes,
according to the nature of the yarn used in their manufacture. They are
almost exclusively dyed black and used in mourning dress, and among
Roman Catholic communities for nuns' veils, &c. In Great Britain hard
crapes are made at Braintree in Essex, Norwich, Yarmouth, Manchester and
Glasgow. The crape formerly made at Norwich was made with a silk warp
and worsted weft, and is said to have afterwards degenerated into
bombazine. A very successful imitation of real crape is made in
Manchester of cotton yarn, and sold under the name of Victoria crape.

CRASH, a technical textile term applied to a species of narrow towels,
from 14 to 20 in. wide. The name is probably of Russian origin, the
simplest and coarsest type of the cloth being known as "Russia crash."
The latter is made from grey flax or tow yarns, and sometimes from
boiled yarns. The simple term "crash" is given to all these narrow
cloths, but the above distinction is very convenient, as also are the
following: grey, boiled, bleached, plain, twilled and fancy crash. A
large variety obtains with and without fancy borders, while of late
years cotton has been introduced as warp, as well as mixed and jute
yarns for weft. After the cloth has passed through all the finishing
operations, it is cut up into lengths of about 3 yds., the two ends sewn
together and it is then ready to be placed over a suspended roller; for
this reason it is often termed "roller towelling."

CRASHAW, RICHARD (1613-1650), English poet, styled "the divine," was
born in London about 1613. He was the son of a strongly anti-papistical
divine, Dr William Crashaw (1572-1626), who distinguished himself, even
in those times, by the excessive acerbity of his writings against the
Catholics. In spite of these opinions, however, he was attracted by
Catholic devotion, for he translated several Latin hymns of the Jesuits.
Richard Crashaw was originally put to school at Charterhouse, but in
July 1631 he was admitted to Pembroke College, Cambridge, where he took
the degree of B.A. in 1634. The publication of Herbert's _Temple_ in
1633 seems to have finally determined the bias of his genius in favour
of religious poetry, and next year he published his first book,
_Epigrammatum sacrorum liber_, a volume of Latin verses. In March 1636
he removed to Peterhouse, was made a fellow of that college in 1637, and
proceeded M.A. in 1638. It was about this time that he made the
acquaintance and secured the lasting friendship of Abraham Cowley. He
was also on terms of intimacy with the Anglican monk Nicholas Ferrar,
and frequently visited him at his religious house at Little Gidding. In
1641 he is said to have gone to Oxford, but only for a short time; for
when in 1643 Cowley left Cambridge to seek a refuge at Oxford, Crashaw
remained behind, and was forcibly ejected from his fellowship in 1644.
In the confusion of the civil wars he escaped to France, where he
finally embraced the Catholic religion, towards which he had long been

During his exile his religious and secular poems were collected by an
anonymous friend, and published under the title of _Steps to the Temple_
and _The Delights of the Muses_, in one volume, in 1646. The first part
includes the hymn to St Teresa and the version of Marini's _Sospetto d'
Herode_. This same year Cowley found him in great destitution at Paris,
and induced Queen Henrietta Maria to extend towards him what influence
she still possessed. At her introduction he proceeded to Italy, where he
became attendant to Cardinal Palotta at Rome. In 1648 he published two
Latin hymns at Paris. He remained until 1649 in the service of the
cardinal, to whom he had a great personal attachment; but his retinue
contained persons whose violent and licentious behaviour was a source of
ceaseless vexation to the sensitive English mystic. At last his
denunciation of their excesses became so public that the animosity of
those persons was excited against him, and in order to shield him from
their revenge he was sent by the cardinal in 1650 to Loretto, where he
was made a canon of the Holy House. In less than three weeks, however,
he sickened of fever, and died on the 25th of August, not without grave
suspicion of having been poisoned. He was buried in the Lady chapel at
Loretto. A collection of his religious poems, entitled _Carmen Deo
nostro_, was brought out in Paris in 1652, dedicated at the dead poet's
desire to the faithful friend of his sufferings, the countess of
Denbigh. The book is illustrated by thirteen engravings after Crashaw's
own designs.

Crashaw excelled in all manner of graceful accomplishments; besides
being an excellent Latinist and Hellenist, he had an intimate knowledge
of Italian and Spanish; and his skill in music, painting and engraving
was no less admired in his lifetime than his skill in poetry. Cowley
embalmed his memory in an elegy that ranks among the very finest in our
language, in which he, a Protestant, well expressed the feeling left on
the minds of contemporaries by the character of the young Catholic

  "His faith, perhaps, in some nice tenets might
   Be wrong; his life, I'm sure, was in the right:
   And I, myself, a Catholic will be,
   So far at least, dear saint, to pray to thee!"

The poetry of Crashaw will be best appreciated by those who can with
most success free themselves from the bondage of a traditional sense of
the dignity of language. The custom of his age permitted the use of
images and phrases which we now justly condemn as incongruous and
unseemly, and the fervent fancy of Crashaw carried this licence to
excess. At the same time his verse is studded with fiery beauties and
sudden felicities of language, unsurpassed by any lyrist between his own
time and Shelley's. There is no religious poetry in English so full at
once of gross and awkward images and imaginative touches of the most
ethereal beauty. The temper of his intellect seems to have been delicate
and weak, fiery and uncertain; he has a morbid, almost hysterical,
passion about him, even when his ardour is most exquisitely expressed,
and his adoring addresses to the saints have an effeminate falsetto that
makes their ecstasy almost repulsive. The faults and beauties of his
very peculiar style can be studied nowhere to more advantage than in the
_Hymn to Saint Teresa_. Among the secular poems of Crashaw the best are
_Music's Duel_, which deals with that strife between the musician and
the nightingale which has inspired so many poets, and _Wishes to his
supposed Mistress_. In his latest sacred poems, included in the _Carmen
Deo nostro_, sudden and eminent beauties are not wanting, but the
mysticism has become more pronounced, and the ecclesiastical mannerism
more harsh and repellent. The themes of Crashaw's verses are as distinct
as possible from those of Shelley's, but it may, on the whole, be said
that at his best moments he reminds the reader more closely of the
author of _Epipsychidion_ than of any earlier or later poet.

  Crashaw's works were first collected, in one volume, in 1858 by W. B.
  Turnbull. In 1872 an edition, in 2 volumes, was printed for private
  subscription by the Rev. A. B. Grosart. A complete edition was edited
  (1904) for the Cambridge University Press by Mr A. R. Waller.
     (E. G.)

CRASSULACEAE, in botany, a natural order of dicotyledons, containing 13
genera and nearly 500 species; of cosmopolitan distribution, but most
strongly developed in South Africa. The plants are herbs or small
shrubs, generally with thick fleshy stems and leaves, adapted for life
in dry, especially rocky places. The fleshy leaves are often reduced to
a more or less cylindrical structure, as in the stonecrops (_Sedum_), or
form closely crowded rosettes as in the house-leek (_Sempervivum_).
Correlated with their life in dry situations, the bulk of the tissue is
succulent, forming a water-store, which is protected from loss by
evaporation by a thickly cuticularized epidermis covered with a waxy
secretion which gives a glaucous appearance to the plant. The flowers
are generally arranged in terminal or axillary clusters, and are
markedly regular with the same number of parts in each series. This
number is, however, very variable, and often not constant in one and the
same species. The sepals and petals are free or more or less united, the
stamens as many or twice as many as the petals; the carpels, usually
free, are equal to the petals in number, and form in the fruit follicles
with two or more seeds. Opposite each carpel is a small scale which
functions as a nectary. Means of vegetative propagation are general.
Many species spread by means of a creeping much-branched rootstock, or
as in house-leek, by runners which perish after producing a terminal
leaf-rosette. In other cases small portions of the stem or leaves give
rise to new plants by budding, as in _Bryophyllum_, where buds develop
at the edges of the leaf and form new plants.

[Illustration: Stonecrop (_Sedum acre_) slightly reduced. 1, Horizontal
plan of arrangement of flower of stonecrop; 2, flower of _Sedum

The order is almost absent from Australia and Polynesia, and has but few
representatives in South America; it is otherwise very generally
distributed. The largest genus, _Sedum_, contains about 140 species in
the temperate and colder parts of the northern hemisphere; eight occur
wild in Britain, including _S. Telephium_ (orpine) and _S. acre_ (common
stonecrop) (see fig.). The species are easily cultivated and will thrive
in almost any soil. They are readily propagated by seeds, cuttings or
divisions. _Crassula_ has about 100 species, chiefly at the Cape.
_Cotyledon_, a widely distributed genus with about 90 species, is
represented in the British Isles by _C. Umbilicus_, pennywort, or
navelwort, which takes its name from the succulent peltate leaves. It
grows profusely on dry rocks and walls, especially on the western
coasts, and bears a spike of drooping greenish cup-shaped flowers. The
_Echeveria_ of gardens is now included in this genus. _Sempervivum_ has
about 50 species in the mountains of central and southern Europe, in the
Himalayas, Abyssinia, and the Canaries and Madeira; _S. tectorum_,
common house-leek, is seen often growing on tops of walls and
house-roofs. The hardy species will grow well in dry sandy soil, and are
suitable for rockeries, old walls or edgings. They are readily
propagated by offsets or by seed.

The order is closely allied to Saxifragaceae, from which it is
distinguished by its fleshy habit and the larger number of carpels.

CRASSUS (literally "dense," "thick," "fat"), a family name in the Roman
gens Licinia (plebeian). The most important of the name are the

1. PUBLIUS LICINIUS CRASSUS, surnamed _Dives Mucianus_, Roman statesman,
orator and jurist, consul, 131 B.C. He was the son of P. Mucius Scaevola
(consul 175) and was adopted by a P. Licinius Crassus Dives. An intimate
friend of Tiberius Gracchus, he was chosen after his death to take his
place on the agrarian commission (see GRACCHUS). In 131 when Crassus was
consul with L. Valerius Flaccus, Aristonicus, an illegitimate son of
Eumenes II. of Pergamum, laid claim to the kingdom, which had been
bequeathed by Attalus III. to Rome. Both consuls were anxious to obtain
the command against him; Crassus was pontifex maximus, and Flaccus a
flamen of Mars. Crassus declared that Flaccus could not neglect his
sacred office, and imposed a conditional fine on him in the event of his
leaving Rome. The popular assembly remitted the fine, but Flaccus was
ordered to obey the pontifex maximus. Crassus accordingly proceeded to
Asia, although in doing so he violated the rule which forbade the
pontifex maximus to leave Italy. Nothing is known of his military
operations. But in the following year, when he was making preparations
to return, he was surprised near Leucae. He was himself taken prisoner
by a Thracian band, and provoked his captors, who were ignorant of his
identity, to put him to death. Crassus does not seem to have possessed
much military ability, but he was greatly distinguished for his
knowledge of law and his accomplished oratory. He had acquired such a
mastery of the Greek language that, when he presided over the courts in
Asia, he was able to answer each suitor in ordinary Greek or any of the
dialects in use.

  Cicero, _De oratore_, i. 50; _Philippics_, xi. 8; Plutarch, _Tib.
  Gracchus_, 21; Livy, _Epit._ 59; Val. Max. iii. 2. 12, viii. 7. 6;
  Vell. Pat. ii. 4; Justin xxxvi. 4; Orosius v. 10.

2. LUCIUS LICINIUS CRASSUS (140-91 B.C.), the orator, of unknown
parentage. At the age of nineteen (or twenty-one) he made his reputation
by a speech against C. Papirius Carbo, the friend of the Gracchi. The
law passed by him and his colleague Q. Mucius Scaevola during their
consulship (95), to prevent those passing as Roman citizens who had no
right to the title, was one of the prime causes of the Social War
(Cicero, _Pro Balbo_, xxi., _De officiis_, iii. 11). During his
censorship Crassus suppressed the newly founded schools of Latin
rhetoricians (Aulus Gellius xv. 11). He died from excitement caused by
his passionate speech against the consul L. Marcius Philippus, who had
insulted the Senate. Crassus is one of the chief speakers in the _De
oratore_ of Cicero, who has also preserved a few fragments of his

3. PUBLIUS LICINIUS CRASSUS, called _Dives_, father of the triumvir.
Little is known of him before he became consul in 97, except that he
proposed a law regulating the expenses of the table, which met with
general approval. During his consulship the practice of magic arts was
condemned by a decree of the senate, and human sacrifice was abolished.
He was subsequently governor of Spain for some years, during which he
gained several successes over the Lusitanians, and on his return in 93
was honoured with a triumph. After the Social War, as censor with L.
Julius Caesar, he had the task of enrolling in new tribes certain of the
Latins and Italians as a reward for their loyalty to the Romans, but the
proceedings seem to have been interrupted by certain irregularities.
They also forbade the introduction of foreign wines and unguents.
Crassus committed suicide in 87, to avoid falling into the hands of the
Marian party.

  Plutarch, Crassus, 4; Aulus Gellius ii. 24; Macrobius, _Saturnalia_,
  ii. 13; Livy, _Epit._ 80; Pliny, _Nat. Hist._ xxx. 3; Appian, _Bell.
  Civ._ i. 72; Festus, under _Referri_.

4. MARCUS LICINIUS CRASSUS (c. 115-53 B.C.), the Triumvir, surnamed
_Dives_ (rich) on account of his great wealth. His wealth was acquired
by traffic in slaves, the working of silver mines, and judicious
purchases of lands and houses, especially those of proscribed citizens.
The proscription of Cinna obliged him to flee to Spain; but after
Cinna's death he passed into Africa, and thence to Italy, where he
ingratiated himself with Sulla. Having been sent against Spartacus, he
gained a decisive victory, and was honoured with a minor triumph. Soon
afterwards he was elected consul with Pompey, and (70) displayed his
wealth by entertaining the populace at 10,000 tables, and distributing
sufficient corn to last each family three months. In 65 he was censor,
and in 60 he joined Pompey and Caesar in the coalition known as the
first triumvirate. In 55 he was again consul with Pompey, and a law was
passed, assigning the provinces of the two Spains and Syria to the two
consuls for five years. Crassus was satisfied with Syria, which promised
to be an inexhaustible source of wealth. Having crossed the Euphrates he
hastened to make himself master of Parthia; but he was defeated at
Carrhae (53 B.C.) and taken prisoner by Surenas, the Parthian general,
who put him to death by pouring molten gold down his throat. His head
was cut off and sent to Orodes, the Parthian king. Crassus was a man of
only moderate abilities, and owed his importance to his great wealth.

  See Plutarch's _Life_; also CAESAR, GAIUS JULIUS; POMPEY; ROME:
  _History_, II. "The Republic."

CRATER, the cavity at the mouth of a volcanic duct, usually
funnel-shaped or presenting the form of a bowl, whence the name, from
the Gr. [Greek: kratêr], a bowl. A volcanic hill may have a single
crater at, or near, its summit, or it may have several minor craters on
its flanks: the latter are sometimes called "adventitious craters" or
"craterlets." Much of the loose ejected material, falling in the
neighbourhood of the vent, rolls down the inner wall of the crater, and
thus produces a stratification with an inward dip. The crater in an
active volcano is kept open by intermittent explosions, but in a volcano
which has become dormant or extinct the vent may become plugged, and the
bowl-shaped cavity may subsequently be filled with water, forming a
crater-lake, or as it is called in the Eifel a _Maar_. In some basaltic
cones, like those of the Sandwich Islands, the crater may be a broad
shallow pit, having almost perpendicular walls, with horizontal
stratification. Such hollows are consequently called pit-craters. The
name _caldera_ (Sp. for cauldron) was suggested for such pits by Capt.
C. E. Dutton, who regarded them as having been formed by subsidence of
the walls. The term caldera is often applied to bowl-shaped craters in
Spanish-speaking countries. (See VOLCANO.)

CRATES, Athenian actor and author of comedies, flourished about 470 B.C.
He was regarded as the founder of Greek comedy proper, since he
abandoned political lampoons on individuals, and introduced more general
subjects and a well-developed plot (Aristotle, _Poëtica_, 5). He is
stated to have been the first to represent the drunkard on the stage
(Aristophanes, _Knights_, 37 ff.).

  Fragments in Meineke, _Poëtarum Comicorum Graecorum fragmenta_, i.

CRATES, the name of two Greek philosophers.

1. CRATES, of Athens, successor of Polemo as leader of the Old Academy.

2. CRATES, of Thebes, a Cynic philosopher of the latter half of the 4th
century. He was the famous pupil of Diogenes, and the last great
representative of Cynicism. It is said that he lost his ample fortune
owing to the Macedonian invasion, but a more probable story is that he
sacrificed it in accordance with his principles, directing the banker,
to whom he entrusted it, to give it to his sons if they should prove
fools, but to the poor if his sons should prove philosophers. He gave up
his life to the attainment of virtue and the propagation of ascetic
self-control. His habit of entering houses for this purpose, uninvited,
earned him the nickname [Greek: Thyrepanoiktês] ("Door-opener"). His
marriage with Hipparchia, daughter of a wealthy Thracian family, was in
curious contrast to the prosaic character of his life. Attracted by the
nobility of his character and undeterred by his poverty and ugliness,
she insisted on becoming his wife in defiance of her father's commands.
The date of his death is unknown, though he seems to have lived into the
3rd century. His writings were few. According to Diogenes Laërtius, he
was the author of a number of letters on philosophical subjects; but
those extant under the name of Crates (R. Hercher, _Epistolographi
Graeci_, 1873) are, spurious, the work of later rhetoricians. Diogenes
Laërtius credits him with a short poem, [Greek: Paignia], and several
philosophic tragedies. Plutarch's life of Crates is lost. The great
importance of Crates' work is that he formed the link between Cynicism
and the Stoics, Zeno of Citium being his pupil.

  See N. Postumus, _De Cratete Cynico_ (1823); F. Mullach, _Frag.
  Philosophorum Graecorum_, ii. (1867); E. Wellmann in Ersch and
  Gruber's _Allgemeine Encyklopädie_; Diog. Laërt. vi. 85-93, 96-98.

CRATES, of Mallus in Cilicia, a Greek grammarian and Stoic philosopher
of the 2nd century B.C., leader of the literary school and head of the
library of Pergamum. His principles were opposed to those of
Aristarchus, the leader of the Alexandrian school. He was the chief
representative of the allegorical theory of exegesis, and maintained
that Homer intended to express scientific or philosophical truths in the
form of poetry. About 170 B.C. he visited Rome as ambassador of Attalus
II., king of Pergamum; and having broken his leg and been compelled to
stay there for some time, he delivered lectures which gave the first
impulse to the study of grammar and criticism among the Romans
(Suetonius, _De grammaticis_, 2). His chief work was a critical and
exegetical commentary on Homer.

  See C. Wachsmuth, _De Cratete Mallota_ (1860), containing an account
  of the life, pupils and writings of Crates; J. E. Sandys, _Hist. of
  Class. Schol._ i. 156 (ed. 2, 1906).

CRATINUS (c. 520-423 B.C.), Athenian comic poet, chief representative of
the old, and founder of political, comedy. Hardly anything is known of
his life, and only fragments of his works have been preserved. But a
good idea of their character can be gained from the opinions of his
contemporaries, especially Aristophanes. His comedies were chiefly
distinguished by their direct and vigorous political satire, a marked
exception being the burlesque [Greek: Odysseis], dealing with the story
of Odysseus in the cave of Polyphemus, probably written while a law was
in force forbidding all political references on the stage. They were
also remarkable for the absence of the parabasis and chorus. Persius
calls the author "the bold," and even Pericles at the height of his
power did not escape his vehement attacks, as in the _Nemesis_ and
_Archilochi_, the last-named a lament for the loss of the recently
deceased Cimon, with whose conservative sentiments Cratinus was in
sympathy. The _Panoptae_ was a satire on the sophists and omniscient
speculative philosophers of the day. Of his last comedy the plot has
come down to us. It was occasioned by the sneers of Aristophanes and
others, who declared that he was no better than a doting drunkard.
Roused by the taunt, Cratinus put forth all his strength, and in 423
B.C. produced the [Greek: Pytinê], or _Bottle_, which gained the first
prize over the _Clouds_ of Aristophanes. In this comedy, good-humouredly
making fun of his own weakness, Cratinus represents the comic muse as
the faithful wife of his youth. His guilty fondness for a rival--the
bottle--has aroused her jealousy. She demands a divorce from the archon;
but her husband's love is not dead and he returns penitent to her side.
In Grenfell and Hunt's _Oxyrhynchus Papyri_, iv. (1904), containing a
further instalment of their edition of the Behnesa papyri discovered by
them in 1896-1897, one of the greatest curiosities is a scrap of paper
bearing the argument of a play by Cratinus,--the _Dionysalexandros_
(i.e. Dionysus in the part of Paris), aimed against Pericles; and the
epitome reveals something of its wit and point. The style of Cratinus
has been likened to that of Aeschylus; and Aristophanes, in the
_Knights_, compares him to a rushing torrent. He appears to have been
fond of lofty diction and bold figures, and was most successful in the
lyrical parts of his dramas, his choruses being the popular festal songs
of his day. According to the statement of a doubtful authority, which is
not borne out by Aristotle, Cratinus increased the number of actors in
comedy to three. He wrote 21 comedies and gained the prize nine times.

  Fragments in Meineke, _Fragmenta Comicorum Graecorum_, or Kock,
  _Comicorum Atticorum fragmenta_. A younger Cratinus flourished in the
  time of Alexander the Great. It is considered that some of the
  comedies ascribed to the elder Cratinus were really the work of the

CRATIPPUS (fl. c. 375 B.C.), Greek historian. There are only three or
four references to him in ancient literature, and his importance is due
to the fact that he has been identified by several scholars (e.g. Blass)
with the author of the historical fragment discovered by Grenfell and
Hunt, and published by them in _Oxyrhynchus Papyri_, vol. v. It may be
regarded as a fairly certain inference from a passage in Plutarch (_De
Gloria Atheniensium_, p. 345 E, ed. Bernardakis, ii. p. 455) that he was
an Athenian writer, intermediate in date between Thucydides and
Xenophon, and that his work continued the narrative of Thucydides, from
the point at which the latter historian stopped (410 B.C.) down to the
battle of Cnidus (394 B.C.).

  The fragments are published in C. Müller's _Fragmenta Historicorum
  Graecorum_. For authorities see under THEOPOMPUS.

CRATIPPUS, of Mitylene (1st century B.C.), Peripatetic philosopher,
contemporary with Cicero, whose son he taught at Athens, and by whom he
is praised in the _De officiis_ as the greatest of his school. He was
the friend of Pompey also and shared his flight after the battle of
Pharsalia, for the purpose, it is said, of convincing him of the justice
of providence. Brutus, while at Athens after the assassination of
Caesar, attended his lectures. The freedom of Rome was conferred upon
him by Caesar, at the request of Cicero. The only work attributed to him
is a treatise on divination, but his reputation may be gauged by the
fact that in 44 B.C. the Areopagus invited him to succeed Andronicus of
Rhodes as scholarch. He seems to have held that, while motion, sense and
appetite cannot exist apart from the body, thought reaches its greatest
power when most free from bodily influence, and that divination is due
to the direct action of the divine mind on that faculty of the human
soul which is not dependent on the body.

  Cicero, _De divinatione_, i. 3, 32, 50, ii. 48, 52; _De officiis_, i.
  1, iii. 2; Plutarch, _Cicero_, 24.

CRAU (from a Celtic root meaning "stone"), a region of southern France,
comprised in the department of Bouches-du-Rhone, and bounded W. by the
canal from Arles to Port du Bouc and the Rhone, N. by the chain of the
Alpines separating it from an analogous region, the Petite Crau, E. by
the hills around Salon and Istres, S. by the gulf of Fos, an inlet of
the Mediterranean Sea. Covering an area of about 200 sq. m., the Crau is
a low-lying, waterless plain, owing its formation to a sudden
inundation, according to some authorities, of the Rhone and the Durance,
according to others of the Durance alone. Its surface is formed chiefly
of stones varying in size from an egg to a man's head; these, mixed with
a proportion of fine soil, overlie a subsoil formed of stones cemented
into a hard mass by deposits of calcareous mud, beneath which lies a bed
of loose stones, once the sea-bed. Naturally sterile and poor in lime,
the Crau is adapted for agriculture by the process of warping, carried
out by means of the Canal de Craponne, which dates from the middle of
the 16th century; about one-quarter of the region in the north and east
has thus been covered by the rich deposits of the waters of the Durance.
The soil also responds in places to deep cultivation and the application
of artificial manures. By these aids, uncultivated land, which before
supplied only rough and scanty pasture for a few sheep, has been fitted
for the growth of the vine, olive and other fruits; where irrigation is
practicable, water-meadows have been formed. The dryness of the climate
is unfavourable to the production of cereals.

CRAUCK, GUSTAVE (1827-1905), French sculptor, was born and died at
Valenciennes, where a special museum for his works was erected in his
honour. Though little known to the world at large during his long life,
he ranks among the best modern sculptors of France. At Paris his
"Coligny" monument is in the rue de Rivoli; his "Victory" in the Place
des Arts et Métiers; and "Twilight" in the Avenue de l'Observatoire.
Among his finest works is his "Combat du Centaure," on which he was
engaged for thirty years, the figure of the Lapith having been modelled
after the athlete, Eugene Sandow. In 1907 an exhibition of his works was
held in the École des Beaux-Arts.

CRAUFURD, QUINTIN (1743-1819), British author, was born at Kilwinnock on
the 22nd of September 1743. In early life he went to India, where he
entered the service of the East India Company. Returning to Europe
before the age of forty with a handsome fortune, he settled in Paris,
where he gave himself to the cultivation of literature and art, and
formed a good library and collection of paintings, coins and other
objects of antiquarian interest. Craufurd was on intimate terms with the
French court, especially with Marie Antoinette, and was one of those who
arranged the flight to Varennes. He escaped to Brussels, but in 1792 he
returned to Paris in the hope of rescuing the royal prisoners. He lived
among the French _émigrés_ until the peace of Amiens made it possible to
return to Paris. Through Talleyrand's influence he was able to remain in
Paris after the war was renewed, and he died there on the 23rd of
November 1819.

  He wrote, among other works, _The History, Religion, Learning and
  Manners of the Hindus_ (1790), _Secret History of the King of France
  and his Escape from Paris_ (first published in 1885), _Researches
  concerning the Laws, Theology, Learning and Commerce of Ancient and
  Modern India_ (1817), _History of the Bastille_ (1798), _On Pericles
  and the Arts in Greece_ (1815), _Essay on Swift and his Influence on
  the British Government_ (1808), _Notice sur Marie Antoinette_ (1809),
  _Mémoires de Mme du Hausset_ (1808).

CRAUFURD, ROBERT (1764-1812), British major-general, was born at Newark,
Ayrshire, on the 5th of May 1764, and entered the 25th Foot in 1779. As
captain in the 75th regiment he first saw active service against Tippoo
Sahib in 1790-92. The next year he was employed, under his brother
Charles, with the Austrian armies operating against the French.
Returning to England in 1797, he soon saw further service, as a
lieutenant-colonel, on Lake's staff in the Irish rebellion. A year later
he was British commissioner on Suvarov's staff when the Russians invaded
Switzerland, and at the end of 1799 was in the Helder expedition. From
1801 to 1805 Lieutenant-Colonel Craufurd sat in parliament for East
Retford, but in 1807 he resumed active service with Whitelock in the
unfortunate Buenos Aires expedition. He was almost the only one of the
senior officers who added to his reputation in this affair, and in 1808
he received a brigade command under Sir John Moore. His regiments were
heavily engaged in the earlier part of the famous retreat, but were not
present at Corunna, having been detached to Vigo, whence they returned
to England. Later in 1809, once more in the Peninsula, Brigadier-General
Craufurd was three marches or more in rear of Wellesley's army when a
report came in that a great battle was in progress. The march which
followed is one almost unparalleled in military annals. The three
battalions of the "Light Brigade" (43rd, 52nd and 95th) started in full
marching order, and arrived at the front on the day after the battle of
Talavera, having covered 62 m. in twenty-six hours. Beginning their
career with this famous march, these regiments and their chief, under
whom served such men as Charles and William Napier, Shaw and Colborne,
soon became celebrated as one of the best corps of troops in Europe, and
every engagement added to their laurels. Craufurd's operations on the
Coa and Agueda in 1810 were daring to the point of rashness, but he knew
the quality of the men he led better than his critics did, and though
Wellington censured him for his conduct, he at the same time increased
his force to a division by the addition of two picked regiments of
Portuguese _Caçadores_. The conduct of the renowned "Light Division" at
Busaco is described by Napier in one of his most vivid passages. The
winter of 1810-1811 Craufurd spent in England, and his division was
commanded in the interim by another officer, who did not display much
ability. He reappeared on the field of the battle of Fuentes d'Onoro
amidst the cheers of his men, and nothing could show his genius for war
better than his conduct on this day, in covering the strange
readjustment of his line which Wellington was compelled to make in the
face of the enemy. A little later he obtained major-general's rank; and
on the 19th of January 1812, as he stood on the glacis of Ciudad
Rodrigo, directing the stormers of the Light Division, he fell mortally
wounded. His body was carried out of action by his staff officer,
Lieutenant Shaw of the 43rd (see SHAW KENNEDY), and, after lingering
four days, he died. He was buried in the breach of the fortress where he
had met his death, and a monument in St Paul's cathedral commemorates
Craufurd and Mackinnon, the two generals killed at the storming of
Ciudad Rodrigo. The exploits of Craufurd and the Light Division are
amongst the most cherished traditions of the British and Portuguese
armies. One of the quickest and most brilliant, if not the very first,
of Wellington's generals, he had a fiery temper, which rendered him a
difficult man to deal with, but to the day of his death he possessed the
confidence and affection of his men in an extraordinary degree.

His elder brother, Lieutenant-General Sir CHARLES CRAUFURD (1761-1821),
entered the 1st Dragoon Guards in 1778. Made captain in the Queen's Bays
in 1785, he became the equerry and intimate friend of the duke of York.
He studied in Germany for some time, and, with his brother Robert's
assistance, translated Tielcke's book on the Seven Years' War (_The
Remarkable Events of the War between Prussia, Austria and Russia from
1756 to 1763_). As aide-de-camp he accompanied the duke of York to the
French War in 1793, and was at once sent as commissioner to the Austrian
headquarters, with which he was present at Neerwinden, Caesar's Camp,
Famars, Landrecies, &c. Major in 1793, and lieutenant-colonel in 1794,
he returned to the English army in the latter year, and on one occasion
distinguished himself at the head of two squadrons, taking 3 guns and
1000 prisoners. When the British army left the continent Craufurd was
again attached to the Austrian army, and was present at the actions on
the Lahn, the combat of Neumarkt, and the battle of Amberg. At the last
battle a severe wound rendered him incapable of further service, and cut
short a promising career. He succeeded his brother Robert as member of
parliament for East Retford (1806-1812). He died in 1821, having become
a lieutenant-general and a G.C.B.

CRAVAT (from the Fr. _cravate_, a corruption of "Croat"), the name given
by the French in the reign of Louis XIV. to the scarf worn by the
Croatian soldiers enlisted in the royal Croatian regiment. Made of linen
or muslin with broad edges of lace, it became fashionable, and the name
was applied both in England and France to various forms of neckerchief
worn at different times, from the loosely tied lace cravat with long
flowing ends, called a "Steinkirk" from the battle of 1692 of that name,
to the elaborately folded and lightly starched linen or cambric
neckcloth worn during the period of Beau Brummell.

CRAVEN, PAULINE MARIE ARMANDE AGLAÉ (1808-1891), French author, the
daughter of an _émigré_ Breton nobleman, was born in London on the 12th
of April 1808. Her father, the comte Auguste de la Ferronays, was a
close friend of the duc de Berri, whom he accompanied on his return to
France in 1814. He and his wife were attached to the court of Charles X.
at the Tuileries, but a momentary quarrel with the duc de Berri made
retirement imperative to the count's sense of honour. He was appointed
ambassador at St Petersburg, and in 1827 became foreign minister in
Paris. Pauline was thus brought up in brilliant surroundings, but her
strongest impressions were those which she derived from the group of
Catholic thinkers gathered round Lamennais, and her ardent piety
furnishes the key of her life. In 1828 her father was sent to Rome, and
Pauline, at the suggestion of Alexis Rio, the art critic, made her first
literary essay with a description of the emotions she experienced on a
visit to the catacombs. At the revolution of July, M. de la Ferronays
resigned his position, and retired with his family to Naples. Here
Pauline met her future husband, Augustus Craven, who was then attaché to
the British embassy. His father, Keppel Richard Craven, the well-known
supporter of Queen Caroline, objected to his son's marriage with a
Catholic; but his scruples were overcome, and immediately after the
marriage (1834) Augustus Craven was received into the Roman Catholic
Church. Mrs Craven, whose family life as revealed in the _Récit d'une
soeur_ was especially tender and intimate, suffered several severe
bereavements in the years following on her marriage. The Cravens lived
abroad until 1851, when the death of Keppel Craven made his son
practically independent of his diplomatic career, in which he had not
been conspicuously successful. He stood unsuccessfully for election to
parliament for Dublin in 1852, and from that time retired into private
life. They went to live at Naples in 1853, and Mrs Craven began to write
the history of the family life of the la Ferronays between 1830 and
1836, its incidents being grouped round the love story of her brother
Albert and his wife Alexandrine. This book, the _Récit d'une soeur_
(1866, Eng. trans. 1868), was enthusiastically received and was awarded
a prize by the French Academy. Straitened circumstances made it
desirable for Mrs Craven to earn money by her pen. _Anne Sévérin_
appeared in 1868, _Fleurange_ in 1871, _Le Mot d'énigme_ in 1874, _Le
Valbriant_ (Eng. trans., _Lucia_) in 1886. Among her miscellaneous works
may be mentioned _La Soeur Natalie Narischkin_ (1876), _Deux Incidents
de la question catholique en Angleterre_ (1875), _Lady Georgiana
Fullerton, sa vie et ses oeuvres_ (1888). Mrs Craven's charming
personality won her many friends. She was a frequent guest with Lord
Palmerston, Lord Ellesmere and Lord Granville. She died in Paris on the
1st of April 1891. Her husband, who died in 1884, translated the
correspondence of Lord Palmerston and of the Prince Consort into French.

  See _Memoir of Mrs Augustus Craven_ (1894), by her friend Mrs Mary
  Catherine Bishop; also _Paolina Craven_, by T. F. Ravaschieri Fieschi
  (1892). There is a biography of Mrs Craven's father, "En Emigration,"
  in Étienne Lamy's _Témoins des jours passés_ (1907).

CRAVEN, WILLIAM CRAVEN, EARL OF (1608-1697), eldest son of Sir William
Craven, lord mayor of London, and of Elizabeth, daughter of Alderman
William Whitmore, was born in June 1608, matriculated at Trinity
College, Oxford, in 1623, and joined the society of the Middle Temple in
1624. He had already inherited his father's vast fortune by the latter's
death in 1618, and before he came of age he had distinguished himself in
the military service of the princes of Orange. Returning home he was
knighted and created Baron Craven of Hampstead Marshall in Berkshire in
1627. He early showed enthusiasm for the cause of the unfortunate king
and queen of Bohemia, driven from their dominions, and in 1632 joined
Frederick in a military expedition to recover the Palatinate, meeting
Gustavus Adolphus at Höchst, whose praise he gained by being the first,
though wounded, to mount the breach at the capture of Kreuznach on the
22nd of February. The Swedish king, however, refused to allow the
elector an independent command for the defence of the Palatinate, and
Craven returned to England. In May 1633 he was placed on the council of
Wales. In 1637 he took part in a second expedition in aid of the
palatine family on the Lower Rhine, with the young elector Charles Louis
and his brother Rupert, and offered as a contribution the sum of
£30,000, but their forces were defeated near Wessel and Craven wounded
and taken prisoner together with Rupert. He purchased his freedom in
1639, and then joined the small court of the exiled queen Elizabeth at
the Hague and at Rhenen, supplying her generously with funds on the
cessation of her English pension owing to the outbreak of the Civil War.
He contributed also large sums in aid of Charles I., and, after his
execution, of Charles II., the amount bestowed upon the latter being
alone computed at £50,000,[1] notwithstanding that since 1651 the
greater part of his estates had been confiscated by the parliament and
his house at Caversham reduced to ruins.[2] At the Restoration he
accompanied Charles to England, regained his estates, and was rewarded
with offices and honours. He was made colonel of several regiments
including the Coldstream, and in 1667 lieutenant-general and also high
steward of Cambridge University. In 1666 he became a privy councillor,
but was not included later in 1679 in Sir William Temple's remodelled
council.[3] In 1668 he became a governor of the Charterhouse, was
appointed lord-lieutenant of Middlesex, and master of the Trinity House
in 1670; and in 1673 a commissioner for Tangier. He was one of the lords
proprietors of Carolina and a member of the Fishery Committee.

In March 1664 he was created viscount and earl of Craven. Meanwhile his
devotion to the interests of the queen of Bohemia was unceasing, and on
her return to England he offered her hospitality at his house in Drury
Lane, where she remained till February 1662. At her death, within a
fortnight afterwards, she bequeathed to Craven her papers and her
valuable collection of portraits, but there is no foundation for the
belief entertained later that she had married him. In 1682 he became the
guardian of Ruperta, the natural daughter of his old comrade in arms,
Prince Rupert. He was again made a privy councillor and
lieutenant-general of the forces by James on his accession, and at the
age of eighty was in command of the Coldstreams at Whitehall on the 17th
of December 1688 when the Dutch troops arrived. He refused to withdraw
them at the bidding of Count Solms, the Dutch commander, but obeyed
later James's own orders to retire. His public career now closed and he
filled no office after the revolution. Although his claims upon the
gratitude of the Stuart royal family were immense, Craven had never been
considered a possible candidate for high political place. His ability
was probably small, and he is spoken of with little respect in the
_Verney Papers_ and by the electress Sophia in her _Memoirs_. The latter
retails some foolish observations made by Craven, and Pepys was
disgusted at his coarse and stupid jests at the Fishery Board, where his
"very confused and very ridiculous proceedings" are also censured.[4]
His military prowess, however, his generosity and his public spirit are
undoubted. He showed great activity during the plague and fire of
London. He was a patron of letters and a member of the Royal Society. He
inherited Combe Abbey near Coventry from his father, and purchased
Hampstead Marshall in Berkshire, where he built a house on the model of
Heidelberg Castle.

He died unmarried on the 9th of April 1697, when the earldom became
extinct, the barony passing by special remainder to his cousin William,
2nd Baron Craven; the present earl of Craven (the earldom being revived
in 1801) is descended from John, a younger brother of the latter. The
first Lord Craven's brother John, who was created Baron Craven of Ryton
in Shropshire and who died in 1648, was the founder of the Craven
scholarships at Oxford and Cambridge universities, of which the first
was awarded in 1649.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See the article in the _Dict. of Nat. Biography_ (and
  Errata); _Lives of the Princesses of England (Elizabeth, eldest
  daughter of James I.)_, vol. vi., by M. A. E. Green (1854); _Memoirs
  of Elizabeth Stuart_, by Miss Benger (1825); _Memoiren der Herzogin
  Sophie_, ed. by A. Köcher in _Publ. aus den k. preussischen
  Staatsarchiven_, Bd. iv. (1879); "Briefe der Elisabeth Stuart" in
  _Bibliothek des litterarischen Vereins_ (Stuttgart, 1903), 155, 157;
  G. E. C.'s _Complete Peerage_ (1889), ii. 404; _Lives and Characters
  of the Most Illustrious Persons_ (1713), p. 546; Macaulay's _Hist. of
  England_, ii. 584 (1858); _Verney Papers_ (Camden Soc., 1853); _Cal.
  of St. Pap. Dom._; Tracts relating to the confiscation of his estate
  in Cat. of the British Museum. Much information also doubtless exists
  in the Craven MSS. at Combe Abbey.     (P. C. Y.)


  [1] _Verney Papers_, 189 note.

  [2] Evelyn's _Diary_, June 8th, 1654.

  [3] _Hist. MSS. Com.; Various Collections_, ii. 394.

  [4] _Diary_, Oct. 18th and Nov. 18th, 1664, and March 10th, 1665.

CRAWFORD, EARLS OF. The house of Lindsay, of which the earl of Crawford
is the head, traces its descent back to the barons of Crawford who
flourished in the 12th century, and has included a number of men who
have played leading parts in the history of Scotland. It is said that
"though other families in Scotland may have been of more historic, none
can in genealogical importance equal that of Lindsay," and the Lindsays
claim that "the predecessors of the 1st earl of Crawford were barons at
the period of the earliest parliamentary records, and that, in fact,
they were never enrolled in the modern sense of the term, but were among
the _pares_, of which kings are _primi_, from the commencement of
recorded history." Again we are told, "the earldom of Crawford,
therefore, like those of Douglas, of Moray, Ross, March and others of
the earlier times of feudalism, formed a petty principality, an
_imperium in imperio_." Moreover, the earls "had also a _concilium_, or
petty parliament, consisting of the great vassals of the earldom, with
whose advice they acted on great and important occasions."

Sir James Lindsay (d. 1396), 9th lord of Crawford in Lanarkshire, was
the only son of Sir James Lindsay, the 8th lord (d. c. 1357), and was
related to King Robert II.; he was descended from Sir Alexander Lindsay
of Luffness (d. 1309), who obtained Crawford and other estates in 1297
and who was high chamberlain of Scotland. The 9th lord fought at
Otterburn, and Froissart tells of his wanderings after the fight. He was
succeeded by his cousin, Sir David Lindsay (c. 1360-1407), son of Sir
Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk (d. 1382), and in 1398 Sir David, who
married a daughter of Robert II., was made earl of Crawford.

The most important of the early earls of Crawford are the 4th and the
5th earls. Alexander Lindsay, the 4th earl (d. 1454), called the "tiger
earl," was, like his father David the 3rd earl, who was killed in 1446,
one of the most powerful of the Scottish nobles; for some time he was in
arms against King James II., but he submitted in 1452. His son David,
the 5th earl (c. 1440-1495), was lord high admiral and lord chamberlain;
he went frequently as an ambassador to England and was created duke of
Montrose in 1488, but the title did not descend to his son. Montrose
fought for James III. at the battle of Sauchieburn, and his son John,
the 6th earl (d. 1513), was slain at Flodden.

David Lindsay, 8th earl of Crawford (d. 1542), son of Alexander, the 7th
earl (d. 1517), had a son Alexander, master of Crawford (d. 1542),
called the "wicked master," who quarrelled with his father and tried to
kill him. Consequently he was sentenced to death, and the 8th earl
conveyed the earldom to his kinsman, David Lindsay of Edzell (d. 1558),
a descendant of the 3rd earl of Crawford, thus excluding Alexander and
his descendants, and in 1542 David became 9th earl of Crawford. But the
9th earl, although he had at least two sons, named the wicked master's
son David as his heir, and consequently in 1558 the earldom came back to
the elder line of the Lindsays, the 9th earl being called the
"interpolated earl."

David Lindsay, 10th earl of Crawford (d. 1574), was a supporter of Mary
Queen of Scots; he was succeeded by his son David (c. 1547-1607) as 11th
earl. This David, a grandson of Cardinal Beaton, was concerned in some
of the risings under James VI.; he was converted to Roman Catholicism
and was in communication with the Spaniards about an invasion of
England. After his death the earldom passed to his son David (d. 1621),
a lawless ruffian, and then to his brother, Sir Henry Lindsay or
Charteris (d. 1623), who became 13th earl of Crawford. Sir Henry's three
sons became in turn earls of Crawford, the youngest, Ludovic, succeeding
in 1639.

Ludovic Lindsay, 16th earl of Crawford (1600-1652), took part in the
strange plot of 1641 called the "incident." Having joined Charles I. at
Nottingham in 1642, he fought at Edgehill, at Newbury and elsewhere
during the Civil War; in 1644, just after Marston Moor, the Scottish
parliament declared he had forfeited his earldom, and, following the
lines laid down when this was regranted in 1642, it was given to John
Lindsay, 1st earl of Lindsay. Ludovic was taken prisoner at Newcastle in
1644 and was condemned to death, but the sentence was not carried out,
and in 1645 he was released by Montrose, under whom he served until the
surrender of the king at Newark. Later he was in Ireland and in Spain
and he died probably in France in 1652. He left no issue.

The earl of Lindsay, who thus supplanted his kinsman, belonged to the
family of Lindsay of the Byres, a branch of the Lindsays descended from
Sir David Lindsay of Crawford (d. c. 1355), the grandfather of the 1st
earl of Crawford. Sir David's descendant, Sir John Lindsay of the Byres
(d. 1482), was created a lord of parliament as Lord Lindsay of the Byres
in 1445, and his son David, the 2nd lord (d. 1490), fought for James
III. at the battle of Sauchieburn. The most prominent member of this
line was Patrick, 6th Lord Lindsay of the Byres (d. 1589), a son of John
the 5th lord (d. 1563), who was a temperate member of the reforming
party. Patrick was one of the first of the Scottish nobles to join the
reformers, and he was also one of the most violent. He fought against
the regent, Mary of Lorraine, and the French; then during a temporary
reconciliation he assisted Mary, queen of Scots, to crush the northern
rebels at Corrichie in 1562, but again among the enemies of the queen he
took part in the murder of David Rizzio and signed the bond against
Bothwell, whom he wished to meet in single combat after the affair at
Carberry Hill in 1565. Lindsay, who was a brother-in-law and ally of the
regent Murray, carried Mary to Lochleven castle and obtained her
signature to the deed of abdication; he fought against her at Langside,
and after Murray's murder he was one of the chiefs of the party which
supported the throne of James VI. In 1578, however, he was among those
who tried to drive Morton from power, and in 1582 he helped to seize the
person of the king in the plot called the "raid of Ruthven," afterwards
escaping to England. Lindsay had returned to Scotland when he died on
the 11th of December 1589. His successor was his son, James the 7th lord
(d. 1601).

Patrick's great-grandson, John Lindsay, 17th earl of Crawford and 1st
earl of Lindsay (c. 1598-1678), was the son of Robert Lindsay, 9th Lord
Lindsay of the Byres, whom he succeeded as 10th lord in 1616. In 1633 he
was created earl of Lindsay, and having become a leader of the
Covenanters he marched with the Scottish army into England in 1644 and
was present at Marston Moor; in 1644 also he obtained the earldom of
Crawford in the manner already mentioned. In the same year he became
lord high treasurer of Scotland, and in 1645 president of the
parliament. Having fought against Montrose at Kilsyth, the earl of
Crawford-Lindsay, as he was called, changed sides, and in 1647 he signed
the "engagement" for the release of Charles I., losing all his offices
by the act of classes when his enemy, the marquess of Argyll, obtained
the upper hand. After the defeat of the Scots at Dunbar, however,
Crawford regained his influence in Scottish politics, but from 1651 to
1660 he was a prisoner in England. In 1661 he was restored to his former
dignities, but his refusal to abjure the covenant compelled him to
resign them two years later. His son, William, 18th earl of Crawford and
2nd earl of Lindsay (1644-1698), was, like his father, an ardent
covenanter; in 1690 he was president of the Convention parliament. Mr
Andrew Lang says this earl was "very poor, very presbyterian, and his
letters, almost alone among those of the statesmen of the period, are
rich in the texts and unctuous style of an older generation."

William's grandson, John Lindsay, 20th earl of Crawford and 4th earl of
Lindsay (1702-1749), won a high reputation as a soldier. He held a
command in the Russian army, seeing service against the Turk, and he
also served against the same foe under Prince Eugene. Having returned to
the English army he led the life-guards at Dettingen and distinguished
himself at Fontenoy; later he served against France in the Netherlands.
He left no sons when he died in December 1749, and his kinsman, George
Crawford-Lindsay, 4th Viscount Garnock (c. 1723-1781), a descendant of
the 17th earl, became 21st earl of Crawford and 5th earl of Lindsay.
When George's son, George, the 22nd earl (1758-1808), died unmarried in
January 1808, the earldoms of Crawford and Lindsay were separated,
George's kinsman, David Lindsay (d. 1809), a descendant of the 4th Lord
Lindsay of the Byres, becoming 7th earl of Lindsay. Both David and his
successor Patrick (d. 1839) died without sons, and in 1878 the House of
Lords decided that Sir John Trotter Bethune, Bart. (1827-1894), also a
descendant of the 4th Lord Lindsay of the Byres, was entitled to the
earldom. In 1894 John's cousin, David Clark Bethune (b. 1832), became
11th earl of Lindsay.

The earldom of Crawford remained dormant from 1808, when this separation
took place, until 1848, when the House of Lords adjudged it to James
Lindsay, 7th earl of Balcarres.

The earls of Balcarres are descended from John Lindsay, Lord Menmuir
(1552-1598), a younger son of David Lindsay, 9th earl of Crawford. John,
who bought the estate of Balcarres in Fifeshire, became a lord of
session as Lord Menmuir in 1581; he was a member of the Scottish privy
council and one of the commissioners of the treasury called the
Octavians. He had great influence with James VI., helping the king to
restore episcopacy after he had become, in 1595, keeper of the privy
seal and a secretary of state. Menmuir, a man of great intellectual
attainments, left two sons, the younger, David, succeeding to the family
estates on his brother's death in 1601. David (c. 1586-1641), a notable
alchemist, was created Lord Lindsay of Balcarres in 1633, and in 1651
his son Alexander was made earl of Balcarres.

Alexander Lindsay, 1st earl of Balcarres (1618-1659), the "Rupert of the
Covenant," fought against Charles I. at Marston Moor, at Alford and at
Kilsyth, but later he joined the royalists, signing the "engagement" for
the release of the king in 1647, and having been created earl of
Balcarres took part in Glencairn's rising in 1653. Richard Baxter speaks
very highly of the earl, who died at Breda in August 1659. His son
Charles (d. 1662) became 2nd earl of Balcarres, and another son, Colin
(c. 1654-1722), became 3rd earl. Colin, who was perhaps the most trusted
of the advisers of James II., wrote some valuable _Memoirs touching the
Revolution in Scotland, 1688-1690_; these were first published in 1714,
and were edited for the Bannatyne Club by the 25th earl of Crawford in
1841. Having been allowed to return to Scotland after an exile in
France, the earl joined the Jacobite rising in 1715. His successor was
his son Alexander, the 4th earl (d. 1736), who was followed by another
son, James, the 5th earl (1691-1768), who fought for the Stuarts at
Sheriffmuir. Afterwards James was pardoned and entered the English army,
serving under George II. at Dettingen. This earl wrote some _Memoirs of
the Lindsays_, which were completed by his son Alexander, the 6th earl
(1752-1825). Alexander was with the English troops in America during the
struggle for independence, and was governor of Jamaica from 1794 to
1801, filling a difficult position with great credit to himself. He
became a general in 1803, and died at Haigh Hall, near Wigan, which he
had received through his wife, Elizabeth Dalrymple (1759-1816), on the
27th of May 1825. This earl did not claim the earldom of Crawford,
although he became earl _de jure_ in 1808, but in 1843 his son James
Lindsay (1783-1869) did so, and in 1848 the claim was allowed by the
House of Lords. James was thus 24th earl of Crawford and 7th earl of
Balcarres; in 1826 he had been created a peer of the United Kingdom as
Baron Wigan of Haigh Hall.

His son, Alexander William Crawford Lindsay, 25th earl of Crawford
(1812-1880), was born at Muncaster Castle, Cumberland, on the 16th of
October 1812, and educated at Eton and Cambridge. He travelled much in
Europe and the East, and was most learned in genealogy and history. His
more important works include _Lives of the Lindsays_ (3 vols., 1849),
_Letters on Egypt, Edom and the Holy Land_ (1838), _Sketches of the
History of Christian Art_ (1847 and 1882), _Etruscan Inscriptions
Analysed_ (1872), and _The Earldom of Mar during 500 years_ (1882). He
succeeded to the title in September 1869, and died at Florence on the
13th of December 1880. A year later it was discovered that the family
vault at Dunecht had been broken into and the body stolen. It was not
until the 18th of July 1882 that the police, acting on the confession of
an eye-witness of the desecration, found the remains, which were then
reinterred at Haigh Hall, Wigan.

His only son, James Ludovic Lindsay, 26th earl of Crawford (1847-   ),
British astronomer and orientalist, was born at St Germain-en-Laye,
France, on the 28th of July 1847. Educated at Eton and Trinity College,
Cambridge, he devoted himself to astronomy, in which he early achieved
distinction. In 1870 he went to Cadiz to observe the eclipse of the sun,
and, in 1874, to Mauritius to observe the transit of Venus. In the
interval, with the assistance of his father, he had built an observatory
at Dunecht, Aberdeenshire, which in 1888 he presented, together with his
unique library of astronomical and mathematical works, to the New Royal
Observatory on Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, where they were installed in
1895. His services to science were recognized by his election to the
presidentship of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1878 and 1879 in
succession to Sir William Huggins, and to the fellowship of the Royal
Society in 1878. He also received the degree of LL.D. from Edinburgh
University in 1882, and in the following year was nominated honorary
associate of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. An enthusiastic
bibliophile, he became a trustee of the British Museum, and acted for a
term as president of the Library Association. To the free library of
Wigan, Lancashire, he gave a series of oriental and English MSS. of the
9th to the 19th centuries in illustration of the progress of
handwriting, while for the use of specialists and students he issued the
invaluable _Bibliotheca Lindesiana_. He represented Wigan in the House
of Commons from 1874 till his succession to the title in 1880.

Another title held by the Lindsays was that of Spynie, Sir Alexander
Lindsay (c. 1555-1607), created Baron Spynie in 1590, being a younger
son of the 10th earl of Crawford. The 2nd Lord Spynie was Alexander's
son, Alexander (d. 1646), who served in Germany under Gustavus Adolphus
and assisted Charles I. in Scotland during the Civil War; and the 3rd
lord was the latter's son, George. When George, a royalist who was taken
prisoner at the battle of Worcester, died in 1671 this title became

The dukedom of Montrose, which had lapsed on the death of the 5th earl
of Crawford in 1495 and had been revived in 1707 in the Graham family,
was claimed in 1848 by the 24th earl of Crawford, but in 1853 the House
of Lords gave judgment against the earl.

The Lindsays have furnished the Scottish church with several prelates.
John Lindsay (d. 1335) was bishop of Glasgow; Alexander Lindsay (d.
1639) was bishop of Dunkeld until he was deposed in 1638; David Lindsay
(d. c. 1641) was bishop of Brechin and then of Edinburgh until he, too,
was deposed in 1638; and a similar fate attended Patrick Lindsay
(1566-1644), bishop of Ross from 1613 to 1633 and archbishop of Glasgow
from 1633 to 1638. Perhaps the most famous of the Lindsay prelates was
David Lindsay (c. 1531-1613), a nephew of the 9th earl of Crawford.
David, who married James VI. to Anne of Denmark at Upsala, was one of
the leaders of the Kirk party; he became bishop of Ross under the new
scheme for establishing episcopacy in 1600.

  See Lord Lindsay (25th earl of Crawford), _Lives of the Lindsays_
  (1849); A. Jervise, _History and Traditions of the Land of the
  Lindsays_ (1882); G. E. C(okayne), _Complete Peerage_ (1887-1898); H.
  T. Folkard, _A Lindsay Record_ (1899); and Sir J. B. Paul's edition of
  the _Scots Peerage_ of Sir R. Douglas, vol. iii. (1906).

CRAWFORD, FRANCIS MARION (1854-1909), American author, was born at Bagni
di Lucca, Italy, on the 2nd of August 1854, being the son of the
American sculptor Thomas Crawford (q.v.), and the nephew of Julia Ward
Howe, the American poet. He studied successively at St Paul's school,
Concord, New Hampshire; Cambridge University; Heidelberg; and Rome. In
1879 he went to India, where he studied Sanskrit and edited the
Allahabad _Indian Herald_. Returning to America he continued to study
Sanskrit at Harvard University for a year, contributed to various
periodicals, and in 1882 produced his first novel, _Mr Isaacs_, a
brilliant sketch of modern Anglo-Indian life mingled with a touch of
Oriental mystery. This book had an immediate success, and its author's
promise was confirmed by the publication of _Dr Claudius_ (1883). After
a brief residence in New York and Boston, in 1883 he returned to Italy,
where he made his permanent home. This accounts perhaps for the fact
that, in spite of his nationality, Marion Crawford's books stand apart
from any distinctively American current in literature. Year by year he
published a number of successful novels: _A Roman Singer_ (1884), _An
American Politician_ (1884), _To Leeward_ (1884), _Zoroaster_ (1885), _A
Tale of a Lonely Parish_ (1886), _Marzio's Crucifix_ (1887),
_Saracinesca_ (1887), _Paul Patoff_ (1887), _With the Immortals_ (1888),
_Greifenstein_ (1889), _Sant' Ilario_ (1889), _A Cigarette-maker's
Romance_ (1890), _Khaled_ (1891), _The Witch of Prague_ (1891), _The
Three Fates_ (1892), _The Children of the King_ (1892), _Don Orsino_
(1892), _Marion Darche_ (1893), _Pietro Ghisleri_ (1893), _Katharine
Lauderdale_ (1894), _Love in Idleness_ (1894), _The Ralstons_, (1894),
_Casa Braccio_ (1895), _Adam Johnston's Son_ (1895), _Taquisara_ (1896),
_A Rose of Yesterday_ (1897), _Corleone_ (1897), _Via Crucis_ (1899),
_In the Palace of the King_ (1900), _Marietta_ (1901), _Cecilia_ (1902),
_Whosoever Shall Offend_ (1904), _Soprano_ (1905), _A Lady of Rome_
(1906). He also published the historical works, _Ave Roma Immortalis_
(1898), _Rulers of the South_ (1900)--renamed _Sicily, Calabria and
Malta_ in 1904,--and _Gleanings from Venetian History_ (1905). In these
his intimate knowledge of local Italian history combines with the
romancist's imaginative faculty to excellent effect. But his place in
contemporary literature depends on his novels. He was a gifted narrator,
and his books of fiction, full of historic vitality and dramatic
characterization, became widely popular among readers to whom the
realism of "problems" or the eccentricities of subjective analysis were
repellent, for he could unfold a romantic story in an attractive way,
setting his plot amid picturesque surroundings, and gratifying the
reader's intelligence by a style at once straightforward and
accomplished. The _Saracinesca_ series shows him perhaps at his best. _A
Cigarette-maker's Romance_ was dramatized, and had considerable
popularity on the stage as well as in its novel form; and in 1902 an
original play from his pen, _Francesco da Rimini_, was produced in Paris
by Sarah Bernhardt. He died at Sorrento on the 9th of April 1909.

CRAWFORD, THOMAS (1814-1857), American sculptor, was born of Irish
parents in New York on the 22nd of March 1814. He showed at an early age
great taste for art, and learnt to draw and to carve in wood. In his
nineteenth year he entered the studio of a firm of monumental sculptors
in his native city; and in the summer of 1835 he went to Rome and became
a pupil of Thorwaldsen. The first work which made him generally known as
a man of genius was his group of "Orpheus entering Hades in Search of
Eurydice," executed in 1839. This was followed by other poetical
sculptures, among which were the "Babes in the Wood," "Flora," "Hebe and
Ganymede," "Sappho," "Vesta," the "Dancers," and the "Hunter." Among his
statues and busts are especially noteworthy the bust of Josiah Quincy,
executed for Harvard University (now in the Boston Athenaeum), the
equestrian statue of Washington at Richmond, Virginia, the statue of
Beethoven in the Boston music hall, statues of Channing and Henry Clay,
and the colossal figure of "Armed Liberty" for the Capitol at
Washington. For this building he executed also the figures for the
pediment and began the bas-reliefs for the bronze doors, which were
afterwards completed by W. H. Rinehart. The groups of the pediment
symbolize the progress of civilization in America. Crawford's works
include a large number of bas-reliefs of Scriptural subjects taken from
both the Old and the New Testaments. He made Rome his home, but he
visited several times his native land--first in 1844 (in which year he
married Louisa Ward), next in 1849, and lastly in 1856. He died in
London on the 10th of October 1857.

  See _Das Lincoln Monument, eine Rede des Senator Charles Sumner_, to
  which are appended the biographies of several sculptors, including
  that of Thomas Crawford (Frankfort a. M., 1868); Thomas Hicks, _Eulogy
  on Thomas Crawford_ (New York, 1865).

CRAWFORD, WILLIAM HARRIS (1772-1834), American statesman, was born in
Amherst county, Virginia, on the 24th of February 1772. When he was
seven his parents moved into Edgefield district, South Carolina, and
four years later into Columbus county, Georgia. The death of his father
in 1788 left the family in reduced circumstances, and William made what
he could by teaching school for six years. He then studied at Carmel
Academy for two years, was principal, for a time, of one of the largest
schools in Augusta, and in 1798 was admitted to the bar. From 1800 to
1802, with Horatio Marbury, he prepared a digest of the laws of Georgia
from 1755 to 1800. From 1803 to 1807 he was a member of the State House
of Representatives, becoming during this period the leader of one of two
personal-political factions in the state that long continued in bitter
strife, occasioning his fighting two duels, in one of which he killed
his antagonist, and in the other was wounded in his wrist. From 1807 to
1813 he was a member of the United States Senate, of which he was
president _pro tempore_ from March 1812 to March 1813. In 1813 he
declined the offer of the post of secretary of war, but from that year
until 1815 was minister to the court of France. He was then secretary of
war in 1815-1816, and secretary of the treasury from 1816 to 1825. In
1816 in the congressional caucus which nominated James Monroe for the
presidency Crawford was a strong opposing candidate, a majority being at
first in his favour, but when the vote was finally cast 65 were for
Monroe and 54 for Crawford. In 1824, when the congressional caucus was
fast becoming extinct, Crawford, being prepared to control it, insisted
that it should be held, but of 216 Republicans only 66 attended; of
these, 64 voted for Crawford. Three other candidates, however, Andrew
Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and Henry Clay, were otherwise put in the
field. During the campaign Crawford was stricken with paralysis, and
when the electoral vote was cast Jackson received 99, Adams 84, Crawford
41, and Clay 37. It remained for the house of representatives to choose
from Jackson, Adams and Crawford, and through Clay's influence Adams
became president. Crawford was invited by Adams to continue as secretary
of the treasury, but declined. He recovered his health sufficiently to
become (in 1827) a circuit judge in his own state, but died while on
circuit, in Elberton, Georgia, on the 15th of September 1834. In his day
he was undoubtedly one of the foremost political leaders of the country,
but his reputation has not stood the test of time. He was of imposing
presence and had great conversational powers; but his inflexible
integrity was not sufficiently tempered by tact and civility to admit of
his winning general popularity. Consequently, although a skilful
political organizer, he incurred the bitter enmity of other leaders of
his time--Jackson, Adams and Calhoun. He won the admiration of Albert
Gallatin and others by his powerful support of the movement in 1811 to
recharter the Bank of the United States; he earned the condemnation of
posterity by his authorship in 1820 of the four-years-term law, which
limited the term of service of thousands of public officials to four
years, and did much to develop the "spoils system." He was a Liberal
Democrat, and advised the calling of a constitutional convention as
preferable to nullification or secession.

CRAWFORDSVILLE, a city and the county-seat of Montgomery county,
Indiana, U.S.A., situated about 40 m. N.W. of Indianapolis. Pop. (1890)
6089; (1900) 6649, including 230 negroes and 221 foreign-born; (1910)
9371. It is served by the Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville, the
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, and the Vandalia railways,
and by interurban electric lines. Wabash College, founded here in 1832
by Presbyterian missionaries but now non-sectarian, had in 1908 27
instructors, 345 students, and a library of 43,000 volumes. Among
manufactures are flour, iron, wagons and carriages, acetylene lights,
wire and nails, matches, brick paving blocks, and electrical machinery.
North-east of the city there are valuable mineral springs, from which
the city obtains its water-supply. Crawfordsville, named in honour of W.
H. Crawford, was first settled about 1820, was laid out as a town in
1823, and was chartered as a city in 1863. It was for many years the
home of Gen. Lew Wallace.

CRAWFURD, JOHN (1783-1868), Scottish orientalist, was born in the island
of Islay, Scotland, on the 13th of August 1783. After studying at
Edinburgh he became surgeon in the East India Company's service. He
afterwards resided for some time at Penang, and during the British
occupation of Java from 1811 to 1817 his local knowledge made him
invaluable to the government. In 1821 he served as envoy to Siam and
Cochin-China, and in 1823 became governor of Singapore. His last
political service in the East was a difficult mission to Burma in 1827.
In 1861 he was elected president of the Ethnological Society. He died at
South Kensington on the 11th of May 1868.

  Crawfurd wrote a _History of the Indian Archipelago_ (1820),
  _Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands and Adjacent Countries_
  (1856), _Journal of an Embassy to the Court of Ava in 1827_ (1829),
  _Journal of an Embassy to the Courts of Siam and Cochin-China,
  exhibiting a view of the actual State of these Kingdoms_ (1830),
  _Inquiry into the System of Taxation in India, Letters on the Interior
  of India_, an attack on the newspaper stamp-tax and the duty on paper
  entitled _Taxes on Knowledge_ (1836), and a valuable Malay grammar and
  dictionary (1852).

CRAYER, GASPARD DE (1582-1669), Flemish painter, was born at Antwerp,
and learnt the art of painting from Raphael Coxcie. He matriculated in
the guild of St Luke at Brussels in 1607, resided in the capital of
Brabant till after 1660, and finally settled at Ghent. Amongst the
numerous pictures which he painted in Ghent, one in the town museum
represents the martyrdom of St Blaise, and bears the inscription A° 1668
aet. 86. Crayer was one of the most productive yet one of the most
conscientious artists of the later Flemish school, second to Rubens in
vigour and below Vandyck in refinement, but nearly equalling both in
most of the essentials of painting. He was well known and always well
treated by Albert and Isabella, governors of the Netherlands. The
cardinal-infant Ferdinand made him a court-painter. His pictures abound
in the churches and museums of Brussels and Ghent; and there is scarcely
a country chapel in Flanders or Brabant that cannot boast of one or more
of his canvases. But he was equally respected beyond his native country;
and some important pictures of his composition are to be found as far
south as Aix in Provence and as far east as Amberg in the Upper
Palatinate. His skill as a decorative artist is shown in the panels
executed for a triumphal arch at the entry of Cardinal Ferdinand into
the Flemish capital, some of which are publicly exhibited in the museum
of Ghent. Crayer died at Ghent. His best works are the "Miraculous
Draught of Fishes" in the gallery of Brussels, the "Judgment of Solomon"
in the gallery of Ghent, and "Madonnas with Saints" in the Louvre, the
Munich Pinakothek, and the Belvedere at Vienna. His portrait by Vandyck
was engraved by P. Pontius.

CRAYFISH (Fr. _écrevisse_), the name of freshwater crustaceans closely
allied to and resembling the lobsters, and, like them, belonging to the
order Macrura. They are divided into two families, the _Astacidae_ and
_Parastacidae_, inhabiting respectively the northern and the southern

The crayfishes of England and Ireland (_Astacus_, or _Potamobius_,
_pallipes_) are generally about 3 or 4 in. long, of a dull green or
brownish colour above and paler brown or yellowish below. They are
abundant in some rivers, especially where the rocks are of a calcareous
nature, sheltering under stones or in burrows which they dig for
themselves in the banks and coming out at night in search of food. They
are omnivorous feeders, killing and eating insects, snails, frogs and
other animals, and devouring any carrion that comes in their way. It is
stated that they sometimes come on land in search of vegetable food.

[Illustration: Crayfish (_Cambarus_ sp.) from the Mississippi River.
(After Morse.)]

On the continent of Europe, _Astacus pallipes_ occurs chiefly in the
west and south, being found in France, Spain, Italy and the Balkan
Peninsula. It is known in France as _écrevisse à pattes blanches_ and in
Germany as _Steinkrebs_, and is little used as food. The larger _Astacus
fluviatilis_ (_écrevisse à pattes rouges_, _Edelkrebs_) is not found in
Britain, but occurs in France and Germany, southern Sweden, Russia, &c.
It is distinguished, among other characters, by the red colour of the
under side of the large claws. It is the species most highly esteemed
for the table. Other species of the genus are found in central and
eastern Europe and as far east as Turkestan. Farther east a gap occurs
in the distribution and no crayfishes are met with till the basin of the
Amur is reached, where a group of species occurs, extending into
northern Japan. In North America, west of the Rocky Mountains, the genus
_Astacus_ again appears, but east of the watershed it is replaced by the
genus _Cambarus_, which is represented by very numerous species, ranging
from the Great Lakes to Mexico. Several blind species inhabit the
subterranean waters of caves. The best known is _Cambarus pellucidus_,
found in the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky.

The area of distribution occupied by the southern crayfishes or
_Parastacidae_ is separated by a broad equatorial zone from that of the
northern group, unless, as has been asserted, the two come into contact
or overlap in Central America. None is found in any part of Africa,
though a species occurs in Madagascar. They are absent also from the
oriental region of zoologists, but reappear in Australia and New
Zealand. Some of the Australian species, such as the "Murray River
lobster" (_Astacopsis spinifer_), are of large size and are used for
food. In South America crayfishes are found in southern Brazil,
Argentina and Chile.     (W. T. CA.)

CRAYON (Fr. _craie_, chalk, from Lat. _creta_), a coloured material for
drawing, employed generally in the form of pencils, but sometimes also
as a powder, and consisting of native earthy and stony friable
substances, or of artificially prepared mixtures of a base of pipe or
china clay with Prussian blue, orpiment, vermilion, umber and other
pigments. Calcined gypsum, talc and compounds of magnesium, bismuth and
lead are occasionally used as bases. The required shades of tints are
obtained by adding varying amounts of colouring matter to equal
quantities of the base. Crayons are used by the artist to make groupings
of colours and to secure landscape and other effects with ease and
rapidity. The outline as well as the rest of the picture is drawn in
crayon. The colours are softened off and blended by the finger, with the
assistance of a stump of leather or paper; and shading is produced by
cross-hatching and stippling. The art of painting in crayon or pastel is
supposed to have originated in Germany in the 17th century. By Johann
Alexander Thiele (1685-1752) it was carried to great perfection, and in
France it was early practised with much success. Amongst the earlier
pastellists may be mentioned Rosalba Carriera (1675-1757), W. Hoare
(1707-1792), F. Cotes (1726-1770), and J. Russell (1744-1806); and in
recent years the art has been successfully revived. (See PASTEL.)

CREASY, SIR EDWARD SHEPHERD (1812-1878), English historian, was born at
Bexley in Kent, and educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge. He
became a fellow of King's College in 1834, and having been called to the
bar at Lincoln's Inn three years later, was made assistant judge at the
Westminster sessions court. In 1840 he was appointed professor of modern
and ancient history in the university of London, and in 1860 became
chief justice of Ceylon and a knight. Broken down in health he returned
to England in 1870, and after a further but short stay in Ceylon died in
London on the 27th of January 1878. Creasy's most popular work is his
_Fifteen decisive Battles of the World_, which, first published in 1851,
has passed through many editions. He also wrote _The History of the
Ottoman Turks_ (London, 1854-1856); _History of England_ (London,
1869-1870); _Rise and Progress of the English Constitution_ (London,
1853, and other editions); _Historical and Critical Account of the
several Invasions of England_ (London, 1852); a novel entitled _Old Love
and the New_ (London, 1870); and various other works.

CREATIANISM AND TRADUCIANISM. Traducianism is the doctrine about the
origin of the soul which was taught by Tertullian in his _De
anima_--that souls are generated from souls in the same way and at the
same time as bodies from bodies: creatianism is the doctrine that God
creates a soul for each body that is generated. The Pelagians taunted
the upholders of original sin with holding Tertullian's opinion, and
called them Traduciani (from _tradux_: vid. Du Cange s. vv.), a name
which was perhaps suggested by a metaphor in _De an._ 19, where the soul
is described "velut surculus quidam ex matrice Adam in propaginem
deducta." Hence we have formed "traducianist," "traducianism," and by
analogy "creatianist," "creatianism." Augustine denied that traducianism
was necessarily connected with the doctrine of original sin, and to the
end of his life was unable to decide for or against it. His letter to
Jerome (_Epist. Clas._ iii. 166) is a most valuable statement of his
difficulties. Jerome condemned it, and said that creatianism was the
opinion of the Church, though he admitted that most of the Western
Christians held traducianism. The question has never been
authoritatively determined, but creatianism, which had always prevailed
in the East, became the general opinion of the medieval theologians, and
Peter Lombard's _creando infundit animas Deus et infundendo creat_ was
an accepted formula. Luther, like Augustine, was undecided, but
Lutherans have as a rule been traducianists. Calvin favoured

  Peter Lombard's phrase perhaps shows that even in his time it was felt
  that some union of the two opinions was needed, and Augustine's
  toleration pointed in the same direction, for the traducianism he
  thought possible was one in which God _operatur institutas
  administrando non novas instituendo naturas_ (_Ep._ 166. 5. 11).
  Modern psychologists teach that while "personality" can be discerned
  in its "becoming," nothing is known of its origin. Lotze, however, who
  may be taken as representing the believers in the immanence of the
  divine Being, puts forth--but as a "dim conjecture"--something very
  like creatianism (_Microcosmus_, bk. iii. chap. v. ad fin.). It is
  still, as in the days of Augustine, a question whether a more exact
  division of man into body, soul _and spirit_ may help to throw light
  on this subject.

  See indices to _Augustine_, vol. xi., and _Jerome_, vol. xi. in
  Migne's _Patrologia_, s.v. "Anima"; Franz Delitzsch, _Biblical
  Psychology_, ii. § 7; G. P. Fisher, _History of Chr. Doct._ pp. 187
  ff.; A. Harnack, _History of Dogma_ (passim; see Index); Liddon,
  _Elements of Religion_, Lect. iii.; Mason, _Faith of the Gospel_, iv.
  §§ 3, 4, 9, 10.     (A. N.*)

CRÉBILLON, PROSPER JOLYOT DE (1674-1762), French tragic poet, was born
on the 13th of January 1674 at Dijon, where his father, Melchior Jolyot,
was notary-royal. Having been educated at the Jesuits' school of the
town, and at the Collège Mazarin, he became an advocate, and was placed
in the office of a lawyer named Prieur at Paris. With the encouragement
of his master, son of an old friend of Scarron's, he produced a _Mort
des enfants de Brutus_, which, however, he failed to bring upon the
stage. But in 1705 he succeeded with _Idoménée_; in 1707 his _Atrée et
Thyeste_ was repeatedly acted at court; _Électre_ appeared in 1709; and
in 1711 he produced his finest play, the _Rhadamiste et Zénobie_, which
is his masterpiece and held the stage for a long period, although the
plot is so complicated as to be almost incomprehensible. But his
_Xerxes_ (1714) was only once played, and his _Sémiramis_ (1717) was an
absolute failure. In 1707 Crébillon had married a girl without fortune,
who had since died, leaving him two young children. His father also had
died, insolvent. His three years' attendance at court had been
fruitless. Envy had circulated innumerable slanders against him.
Oppressed with melancholy, he removed to a garret, where he surrounded
himself with a number of dogs, cats and ravens, which he had befriended;
he became utterly careless of cleanliness or food, and solaced himself
with constant smoking. But in 1731, in spite of his long seclusion, he
was elected member of the French Academy; in 1735 he was appointed royal
censor; and in 1745 Mme de Pompadour presented him with a pension of
1000 francs and a post in the royal library. He returned to the stage in
1726 with a successful play, _Pyrrhus_; in 1748 his _Catilina_ was
played with great success before the court; and in 1754, when he was
eighty years old, appeared his last tragedy, _Le Triumvirat_. Crébillon
died on the 17th of June 1754. The enemies of Voltaire maintained that
Crébillon was his superior as a tragic poet. The spirit of rivalry thus
provoked induced Voltaire to take the subjects of no less than five of
Crébillon's tragedies--_Sémiramis_, _Électre_, _Catilina_, _Le
Triumvirat_, _Atrée_--as subjects for tragedies of his own. The
so-called _Éloge de Crébillon_ (1762), really a depreciation, which
appeared in the year of the poet's death, is generally attributed to
Voltaire, though he strenuously denied the authorship. Crébillon's drama
is marked by a force too often gained at the expense of scenes of
unnatural horror; his pieces show lack of culture and a want of care
which displays itself even in the mechanism of his verse, though fine
isolated passages are not infrequent.

  There are numerous editions of his works, among which may be noticed:
  _OEuvres_ (1772), with preface and "éloge," by Joseph de la Porte;
  _OEuvres_ (1828), containing D'Alembert's _Éloge de Crébillon_ (1775);
  and _Théâtre complet_ (1885) with a notice by Auguste Vitu. A complete
  bibliography is given by Maurice Dutrait, in his _Étude sur la vie et
  le théâtre de Crébillon_ (1895).

His only son, CLAUDE PROSPER JOLYOT CRÉBILLON (1707-1777), French
novelist, was born at Paris on the 14th of February 1707. His life was
spent almost entirely in Paris, but the publication of _L'Écumoire, ou
Tanzaï et Neadarné, histoire japonaise_ (1734), which contained veiled
attacks on the bull _Unigenitus_, the cardinal de Rohan and the duchesse
du Maine, brought Crébillon into disgrace. He was first imprisoned and
afterwards forced to live in exile for five years at Sens and elsewhere.
With Alexis Piron and Charles Collé he founded in 1752 the gay society
which met regularly to dine at the famous "Caveau," where many good
stories were elaborated. From 1759 onwards he was to be found at the
Wednesday dinners of the Pelletier, at which Garrick, Sterne and Wilkes
were sometimes guests. He married in 1748 an English lady of noble
family, Lady Henrietta Maria Stafford, who had been his mistress from
1744. Their life is said to have been passed in much affection and
mutual fidelity; and there could be no greater contrast than that
between Crébillon's private life and the tone of his novels, the
immorality of which lent irony to the author's tenure of the office of
censor, bestowed on him in 1759 through the favour of Mme de Pompadour.
He died in Paris on the 12th of April 1777. The most famous of his
numerous novels are: _Les Amours de Zéokinizul, roi des Kofirans_
(1740), in which "Zéokinizul" and "Kofirans" may be translated Louis
XIV. and the French respectively; and _Le Sopha, conte moral_ (1740),
where the moral is supplied in the title only. This last novel is given
by some authorities as the reason for his imprisonment.

  His _OEuvres_ were collected and printed in 1772. See a notice of
  Crébillon prefixed to O. Uzanne's edition of his _Contes dialogués_ in
  the series of _Conteurs du XVIII^e siècle_. Crébillon's novels might
  be pronounced immoral to the last degree if it were not that two
  writers slightly later in date surpassed even his achievements in this
  particular. André Robert de Nerciat (1739-1800) produced under a false
  name a number of licentious tales, and was followed by Donatien,
  marquis de Sade.

CRÈCHE (Fr. for a "crib" or cradle), the name given to a day-nursery, a
public institution for the feeding and care of infants while the mothers
are engaged in work outside their homes, or are otherwise prevented from
giving them proper attention. Infants are usually admitted when over a
month old, and are kept till they are capable of looking after
themselves. The advantages of such institutions are that the attention
of skilled and trained nurses is given to the children, the food is
better and more adapted to their needs than that given in their homes,
the surroundings are cleaner and healthier, and habits of discipline and
cleanliness are instilled, which, in many cases, react on the mothers.
The nurseries are usually under medical supervision, and the small fees
charged, which average in London from 3d. to 4d. a day, and on the
continent of Europe about 2d., are much less than the cost to the mother
who places her young children under the care of neighbours when at work
or away from home. Institutions of this kind were started in France in
1844, and have been established in the majority of the large towns on
the continent of Europe. In the industrial centres of France and Germany
they have helped to check infantile mortality. The state or municipality
in nearly every case grants subsidies, but few are maintained entirely
by public authorities; voluntary contributions are depended upon for the
main support, and the organization and management are left in the hands
of private societies and charitable institutions, although some outside
official supervision with regard to the number of infants admitted to
each institution, air-space, and ventilation and general hygienic
conditions is considered useful. In Great Britain the establishment of
such institutions has been left almost entirely to private initiative;
and in comparison with the continent the provision is inadequate and
unsatisfactory, Paris having nearly double the proportion of
accommodation for infants to the population that is provided in London.
The National Society of Day Nurseries was founded in 1901 for the
purpose of providing a bureau where information may be found of good
methods of founding and managing a crèche.

  See the _Report of the Consultative Committee upon the School
  Attendance of Children below the Age of Five_, issued by the Board of
  Education (1908).

CRÉCY (Cressy), a town of northern France, in the department of Somme,
on the Maye, 12 m. N. by E. of Abbeville by road. It is famous in
history for the great victory gained here on the 26th of August 1346 by
the English under Edward III. over the French of King Philip of Valois.
After its campaign in northern France, the English army retired into
Ponthieu, and encamped on the 25th of August at Crécy, the French king
in the meantime marching from Abbeville on Braye. Early on the 26th
Edward's army took up its position for battle, and Philip's, hearing of
this, moved to attack him, though the French army marched in much
disorder, and on arrival formed only an imperfect line of battle. The
English lay on the forward slope of a hillside, with their right in
front of the village of Crécy, their left resting on Wadicourt. Two of
the three divisions or "battles" were in first line, that of the young
prince of Wales (the Black Prince) on the right, that of the earls of
Northampton and Arundel on the left; the third, under the king's own
command, in reserve, and the baggage was packed to the rear. Each battle
consisted of a centre of dismounted knights and men-at-arms, and two
wings of archers. The total force was 3900 men-at-arms, 11,000 English
archers, and 5000 Welsh light troops (Froissart, first edition, the
second gives a different estimate). The French were far stronger, having
at least 12,000 men-at-arms, 6000 mercenary crossbowmen (Genoese),
perhaps 20,000 of the _milice des communes_, besides a certain number of
foot of the feudal levy. Along with these served a Luxemburg contingent
of horse under John, king of Bohemia, and other feudatories of the Holy
Roman Empire, and the whole force was probably about 60,000 strong.

[Illustration: CRECY (Map of the Battle)]

The day was far advanced when the French came upon the English position.
Philip, near Estrées, decided to halt and bivouac, deferring the battle
until the army was better closed up, but the indiscipline of his army
committed him to an immediate action, and he ordered forward the Genoese
crossbowmen, while a line of men-at-arms deployed for battle behind
them; the rest of the army was still marching in an irregular column of
route along the road from Abbeville. A sudden thunderstorm caused a
short delay, then the archers and the crossbowmen opened the battle.
Here, for the first time in continental warfare, the English long-bow
proved its worth. After a brief contest the crossbowmen, completely
outmatched, were driven back with enormous loss. Thereupon the first
line of French knights behind them charged down upon the "faint-hearted
rabble" of their own fugitives, and soon the first two lines of the
French were a mere mob of horse and foot struggling with each other. The
archers did not neglect the opportunity, and shot coolly and rapidly
into the helpless target in front of them. The second attack was made by
another large body of knights which had arrived, and served but to
increase the number of the casualties, though here and there a few
charged up to the English line and fell near it, among them the blind
king of Bohemia, who with a party of devoted knights penetrated, and was
killed amongst, the ranks of the prince of Wales's men-at-arms. The
battle was now one long series of desperate but ill-conducted charges, a
fresh onslaught being made as each new corps of troops appeared on the
scene. The English archers on the flanks of the two first line battles
had been wheeled up, the centres of dismounted men-at-arms held back, so
that the whole line resembled a "herse" or harrow with three points
formed by the archers (see sketch). Each successive body of the French
sought to come to close quarters with the men-at-arms, and exposed
themselves therefore at short range to the arrows on either flank. Under
these circumstances there could be but one issue of the battle. Though
sixteen distinct attacks were made, and the fighting lasted until long
after dark, no impression was made on the English line. At one moment
the prince was so far in danger that his barons sent to the king for
aid. Even then Edward was not disquieted and he sent a mere handful of
knights to the prince's battle, saying, "Let the boy win his spurs." The
left battle of the English, hitherto somewhat to the rear, moved up into
line with the prince, and the French attack slackened. By midnight the
army of France was practically annihilated; 1542 men of gentle blood
were left dead on the field and counted by Edward's heralds, the losses
of the remainder are unknown. Some fifty of the victors fell in the
battle. The story that the Black Prince adopted from the fallen king of
Bohemia the crest and motto now borne by the princes of Wales lacks
foundation (see JOHN, KING OF BOHEMIA). A memorial to the French and
their allies was erected, by public subscription in France, Luxemburg
and Bohemia, in 1905.

  See H. B. George, _Battles of English History_ (London, 1895), and C.
  W. C. Oman, _A History of the Art of War; The Middle Ages_ (London,

CREDENCE, or CREDENCE TABLE, a small side-table, originally an article
of furniture placed near the high table in royal or noble houses, at
which the ceremony of the _praegustatio_, Italian _credenziare_, the
"assay" or tasting of food and drink for poisons was performed by an
official of the household, the _praegustator_ or _credentiarius_ as he
was called in Medieval Latin. Both the ceremony and the table were known
as _credentia_ (Lat. _credere_, to believe, trust), Ital. _credenza_,
Fr. _crédence_. After the need for the ceremony had disappeared the name
still survived, and the table developed a back and several shelves for
the display of plate, and gradually merged into the buffet (q.v.). It
is, however, as an article of ecclesiastical furniture that the credence
table is most familiar. It takes the form of a small table of wood or
stone, sometimes fixed and sometimes merely a shelf above or near the
piscina. It usually stands on the south or Epistle side of the altar,
and on it are placed, in the Roman Catholic Church, the cruets
containing the wine and water, the chalice, the candlesticks to be
carried by the acolytes, and other objects to be used in the ceremony of
the Mass. The use of such a table, to which earlier the name of
_paratorium_ or _oblationarium_ was given, appears to have come into use
when the personal presentation of the oblations at the Mass became
obsolete. When the pope celebrates Mass a special credence table on the
Gospel side of the altar is used, and the ceremony of tasting for poison
in the unconsecrated elements is still observed. In some churches in
England the old credence tables still exist, as at the church of St
Cross near Winchester, where there is a fine stone 15th-century example;
more frequent are examples of the stone shelf near the piscina. There
are some carved wooden ones surviving, one type being with a
semicircular top and three legs placed in a triangle with a lower shelf.
The formal use of the credence table for the unconsecrated elements and
the holy vessels before the celebration has been revived in the English

CREDENTIALS (_lettres de créance_), a document which ambassadors,
ministers plenipotentiary, and chargés d'affaires hand to the government
to which they are accredited, for the purpose, chiefly, of communicating
to the latter the envoy's diplomatic rank. It also contains a request
that full credence be accorded to his official statements. Until his
credentials have been presented and found in proper order, an envoy
receives no official recognition. The credentials of an ambassador or
minister plenipotentiary are signed by the chief of the state, those of
a chargé d'affaires by the foreign minister.

CREDI, LORENZO DI (1459-1537), Italian artist, whose surname was
Barducci, was born at Florence. He was the least gifted of three artists
who began life as journeymen with Andrea del Verrocchio. Though he was
the companion and friend of Leonardo da Vinci and Perugino, and closely
allied in style to both, he had neither the genius of the one nor the
facility of the other. We admire in Da Vinci's heads a heavenly
contentment and smile, in his technical execution great gloss and
smoothness of finish. Credi's faces disclose a smiling beatitude; his
pigments have the polish of enamel. But Da Vinci imparted life to his
creations and modulation to his colours, and these are qualities which
hardly existed in Credi. Perugino displayed a well-known form of
tenderness in heads, moulded on the models of the old Umbrian school.
Peculiarities of movement and attitude become stereotyped in his
compositions; but when put on his mettle, he could still exhibit power,
passion, pathos. Credi often repeated himself in Perugino's way; but
being of a pious and resigned spirit, he generally embodied in his
pictures a feeling which is yielding and gentle to the verge of
coldness. Credi had a respectable local practice at Florence. He was
consulted on most occasions when the opinion of his profession was
required on public grounds, e.g. in 1491 as to the fronting, and in 1498
as to the lantern of the Florentine cathedral, in 1504 as to the place
due to Michelangelo's "David." He never painted frescoes; at rare
intervals only he produced large ecclesiastical pictures. The greater
part of his time was spent on easel pieces, upon which he expended
minute and patient labour. But he worked with such industry that numbers
of his Madonnas exist in European galleries. The best of his
altar-pieces is that which represents the Virgin and Child with Saints
in the cathedral of Pistoia. A fine example of his easel rounds is in
the gallery of Mainz. Credi rivalled Fra Bartolommeo in his attachment
to Savonarola; but he felt no inclination for the retirement of a
monastery. Still, in his old age, and after he had outlived the perils
of the siege of Florence (1527), he withdrew on an annuity into the
hospital of Santa Maria Nuova, where he died. The National Gallery,
London, has two pictures of the Virgin and Child by him.

CREDIT (Lat. _credere_, to believe), in a general sense, belief or
trust. The word is used also to express the repute which a person has,
or the estimation in which he is held. In a commercial sense credit is
the promise to pay at a future time for valuable consideration in the
present: hence, a reputation of solvency and ability to make such
payments is also termed credit. In bookkeeping credit is the side of the
account on which payments are entered; hence, sometimes, the payments

  The part which credit plays in the production and exchange of wealth
  is discussed in all economic text-books, but special reference may be
  made to K. Knies, _Geld und Kredit_ (1873-1879), and H. D. Macleod,
  _Theory of Credit_ (1889-1891). See also Hartley Withers, _The Meaning
  of Money_ (1909).

CRÉDIT FONCIER, in France, an institution for advancing money on
mortgage of real securities. Due to a great extent to the initiative of
the economist L. Wolowski, it was created by virtue of a governmental
decree of the 28th of February 1852. This decree empowered the issue of
loans at a low rate of interest, secured by mortgage bonds, extending
over a long period, and repayable by annuities, including instalments of
capital. On its inception it had a capital of 25,000,000 francs and took
the title of Banque Foncière de Paris. The parent institution in Paris
was followed by similar institutions in Nevers and Marseilles. These two
were afterwards amalgamated with the first under the title of Crédit
Foncier de France. The capital was increased to 60,000,000 francs, the
government giving a subvention of 10,000,000 francs, and exercising
control over the bank by directly appointing the governor and two
deputy-governors. The administration was vested in a council chosen by
the shareholders, but its decisions have no validity without the
approval of the governor. The Crédit Foncier has the right to issue
bonds, repayable in fifty or sixty years, and bearing a fixed rate of
interest. A certain number of the bonds carry prizes. The loans must not
exceed half the estimated value of the property mortgaged, upon which
the bank has the first mortgage. The bank also makes advances to local
bodies, departmental and communal, for short or long periods, and with
or without mortgage. Its capital amounts to £13,500,000. Its charter was
renewed in 1881 for a period of ninety-nine years.

In 1860 the Crédit Foncier lent its support to the foundation of an
organization for supplying capital and credit for agricultural and
allied industries. This Crédit Agricole rendered but trifling services
to agriculture, however, and soon threw itself into speculation. Between
1873 and 1876 it lent enormous sums to the Egyptian government,
obtaining the money by opening credit with the Crédit Foncier and
depositing with it the securities of the Egyptian government. On the
failure of the Egyptian government to meet its payments the Crédit
Agricole went into liquidation, and the Crédit Foncier suffered severely
in consequence. The impracticability of the credit system to aid
agriculture as worked by the Crédit Agricole was very marked, and, as a
consequence, the financing of agricultural associations is now entirely
in the hands of the Banque de France.

The _Crédit Mobilier_ is an institution for advancing loans on personal
or movable estate. It was constituted in 1871, on the liquidation of the
Société Générale de Crédit Mobilier, founded in 1852, which it absorbed.

CRÉDIT MOBILIER OF AMERICA, a construction company whose operations in
connexion with the building of the Union Pacific Railroad gave rise to
the most serious political scandal in the history of the United States
Congress. The company was originally chartered as the Pennsylvania
Fiscal Agency in 1859. In March 1864 a controlling interest in the stock
was secured by Thomas Durant, vice-president of the Union Pacific
Railroad Company, and the Pennsylvania legislature authorized the
adoption of the name Crédit Mobilier of America. Durant proposed to
utilize it as a construction company, pay it an extravagant sum for the
work, and thus secure for the stockholders of the Union Pacific, who now
controlled the Crédit Mobilier, the bonds loaned by the United States
government. The net proceeds from the government and the first mortgage
bonds issued to the construction company were $50,863,172.05, slightly
more than enough to pay the entire cost of construction. According to
the report of the Wilson Congressional Committee, the Crédit Mobilier
received in addition, in the form of stock, income bonds, and land grant
bonds, $23,000,000--a profit of about 48%. The defenders of the company
assert that several items of expense were not included in this report,
and that the real net profit was considerably smaller, although they
admit that it was still unusually large. The work extended over the
years 1865-1867. During the winter of 1867-1868, when adverse
legislation by Congress was feared, it is alleged that Oakes Ames
(q.v.), a representative from Massachusetts and principal promoter of
the Crédit Mobilier, distributed a number of shares among congressmen
and senators to influence their attitude. Shares were sold at par when a
few dividends repaid a purchaser at this price. Some in fact received
dividends without any initial outlay at all. As the result of a lawsuit
between Ames and H. S. McComb, some private letters were brought out in
September 1872 which gave publicity to the entire proceedings. The House
appointed two investigating committees, the Poland and the Wilson
committees, and on the report of the former (1873) Ames and James Brooks
of New York were formally censured by the House, the former for
disposing of the stock and the latter for improperly using his official
position to secure part of it. Charges were also made against Schuyler
Colfax, then vice-president but Speaker of the House at the time of the
transaction, James A. Garfield, William D. Kelley (1814-1880), John A.
Logan, and several other members either of the House or of the Senate.
The Senate later appointed a special committee to investigate the
charges against its members. This committee, on the 27th of February
1873, recommended the expulsion from the Senate of James W. Patterson,
of New Hampshire; but as his term expired within five days no action was
taken. The evidence was exaggerated by the Democrats for partisan
purposes, but the investigation showed clearly that many of those
accused were at least indiscreet if not dishonest. The company itself
was merely a type of the construction companies by which it was the
custom to build railways between 1860 and about 1880.

  See J. B. Crawford, _The Crédit Mobilier of America_ (Boston, 1880),
  and R. Hazard, _The Crédit Mobilier of America_ (Providence, 1881),
  both of which defend Ames; also the histories of the Union Pacific
  Railroad Company by J. P. Davis (Chicago, 1894) and H. K. White
  (Chicago, 1895); and for a succinct and impartial account, James Ford
  Rhodes, _History of the United States_, vol. vii. (New York, 1906).
  The Poland and Wilson reports are to be found in _House of
  Representatives Reports_, 42nd Congress, 3rd session, Nos. 77 and 78,
  and the report of the Senate Committee in _Senate Reports_, 42nd
  Congress, 3rd session, No. 519.

CREDITON, a market town in the South Molton parliamentary division of
Devonshire, England, 8 m. N.W. of Exeter by the London & South-Western
railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 3974. It is situated in the
narrow vale of the river Creedy near its junction with the Exe, between
two steep hills, and is divided into two parts, the east or old town and
the west or new town. The church of Holy Cross, formerly collegiate, is
a noble Perpendicular building with Early English and other early
portions, and a fine central tower. The grammar school, founded by
Edward VI. and refounded by Elizabeth, has exhibitions to Oxford and
Cambridge universities. Shoe-making, tanning, agricultural trade,
tin-plating, and the manufacture of confectionery and cider have
superseded the former large woollen and serge industries. In 1897
Crediton was made the seat of a suffragan bishopric in the diocese of

The first indication of settlement at Crediton (_Credington_,
_Cryditon_, _Kirton_) is the tradition that Winfrith or Boniface was
born there in 680. Perhaps in his memory (for the great extent of the
parish shows that it was thinly populated) it became in 909 the seat of
the first bishopric in Devonshire. It was probably only a village in
1049, when Leofric, bishop of Crediton, requested Leo IX. to transfer
the see to Exeter, as Crediton was "an open town and much exposed to the
incursions of pirates." At the Domesday Survey much of the land was
still uncultivated, but its prosperity increased, and in 1269 each of
the twelve prebends of the collegiate church had a house and farmland
within the parish. The bishops, to whom the manor belonged until the
Reformation, had difficulty in enforcing their warren and other rights;
in 1351 Bishop Grandison obtained an exemplification of judgments of
1282 declaring that he had pleas of withernam, view of frank pledge, the
gallows and assize of bread and ale. Two years later there was a serious
riot against the increase of copyhold. Perhaps it was at this time that
the prescriptive borough of Crediton arose. The jury of the borough are
mentioned in 1275, and Crediton returned two members to parliament in
1306-1307, though never afterwards represented. A borough seal dated
1469 is extant, but the corporation is not mentioned in the grant made
by Edward VI. of the church to twelve principal inhabitants. The borough
and manor were granted by Elizabeth to William Killigrew in 1595, but
there is no indication of town organization then or in 1630, and in the
18th century Crediton was governed by commissioners. In 1231 the bishop
obtained a fair, still held, on the vigil, feast and morrow of St
Lawrence. This was important as the wool trade was established by 1249
and certainly continued until 1630, when the market for kersies is
mentioned in conjunction with a saying "as fine as Kirton spinning."

  See Rev. Preb. Smith, "Early History of Credition," in _Devonshire
  Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature and Art,
  Transactions_, vol. xiv. (Plymouth, 1882); Richard J. King, "The
  Church of St Mary and of the Holy Cross, Credition," in _Exeter
  Diocesan Architectural Society, Transactions_, vol. iv. (Exeter,

CREDNER, CARL FRIEDRICH HEINRICH (1809-1876), German geologist, was born
at Waltershausen near Gotha, on the 13th of March 1809. He investigated
the geology of the Thüringer Waldes, of which he published a map in
1846. He was author of a work entitled _Über die Gliederung der oberen
Juraformation und der Wealden-Bildung im nordwestlichen Deutschland_
(Prague, 1863), also of a geological map of Hanover (1865). He died at
Halle on the 28th of September 1876.

His son, CARL HERMANN CREDNER (1841-   ), was born at Gotha on the 1st
of October 1841, educated at Breslau and Göttingen, and took the degree
of Ph.D. at Breslau in 1864. In 1870 he was appointed professor of
geology in the university of Leipzig, and in 1872 director of the
Geological Survey of Saxony. He is author of numerous publications on
the geology of Saxony, and of an important work, _Elemente der Geologie_
(2 vols., 1872; 7th ed., 1891), regarded as the standard manual in
Germany. He has also written memoirs on Saurians and Labyrinthodonts.

CREE, a tribe of North American Indians of Algonquian stock. They are
still a considerable tribe, numbering some 15,000, and living chiefly in
Manitoba and Assiniboia, about Lake Winnipeg and the Saskatchewan river.
They gave trouble by their constant attacks upon the Sioux and
Blackfeet, but are now peaceable and orderly.

  See _Handbook of American Indians_ (Washington, 1907).

CREECH, THOMAS (1659-1700), English classical scholar, was born at
Blandford, Dorsetshire, in 1659. He received his early education from
Thomas Curgenven, master of Sherborne school. In 1675 he entered Wadham
College, Oxford, and obtained a fellowship in 1683 at All Souls'. He was
headmaster of Sherborne school from 1694 to 1696, and in 1699 he
received a college living, but in June 1700 he hanged himself. The
immediate cause of the act was said to be a money difficulty, though
according to some it was a love disappointment; both of these
circumstances no doubt had their share in a catastrophe primarily due to
an already pronounced melancholia. Creech's fame rests on his
translation of Lucretius (1682) in rhymed heroic couplets, in which,
according to Otway, the pure ore of the original "somewhat seems
refined." He also published a version of Horace (1684), and translated
the _Idylls of Theocritus_ (1684), the _Thirteenth Satire_ of Juvenal
(1693), the _Astronomicon_ of Manilius (1697), and parts of Plutarch,
Virgil and Ovid.

CREEDS (Lat. _credo_, I believe), or CONFESSIONS OF FAITH. We are
accustomed to regard the whole conception of creeds, i.e. reasoned
statements of religious belief, as inseparably connected with the
history of Christianity. But the new study of comparative religion has
something to teach us even here. The saying _lex orandi lex credendi_ is
true of all times and of all peoples. And since we must reckon praise as
the highest form of prayer, such an early Christian hymn as is found in
1 Tim. iii. 16 must be acknowledged to be of the nature of a creed: "He
who was manifested in the flesh, justified in the spirit, seen of
angels, preached among the nations, believed on in the world, received
up in glory." It justifies the expansion of the second article of the
developed Christian creed from the standpoint of the earliest Christian
tradition. It also supplies a reason for including in our survey of
creeds some reference to pre-Christian hymns and beliefs. The pendulum
has swung back. Rather than despise the faulty presentation of truth
which we find in heathen religions and their more or less degraded
rites, we follow the apostle Paul in his endeavour to trace in them
attempts "to feel after God" (Acts vii. 27). Augustine, the great
teacher of the West, was true to the spirit of the great Alexandrians,
when he wrote (_Ep._ 166): "Let every good and true Christian understand
that truth, wherever he finds it, belongs to _his_ Lord."

We are not concerned with the question whether the earliest forms of
recorded religious consciousness such as animism, or totemism, or
fetishism, were themselves degradations of a primitive revelation or
not.[1] We are only concerned with the fact of experience that the human
soul yearns to express its belief. The hymn to the rising and setting
sun in the _Book of the Dead_ (ch. 15), which is said by Egyptologists
to be the oldest poem in the world, carries us back at once to the dawn
of history.

  "Hail to thee, Ra, the self-existent.... Glorious is
   thine uprising from the horizon. Both worlds are
   illumined by thy rays.... Hail to thee, Ra, when thou
   returnest home in renewed beauty, crowned and almighty."

In a later hymn Amen-Ra is confessed as "the good god beloved, maker of
men, creator of beasts, maker of things below and above, lord of mercy
most loving." A similar note is struck in the Indian Vedas. In the more
ethical religion of the Avesta the creator is more clearly distinguished
from the creature: "I desire to approach Ahura and Mithra with my
praise, the lofty eternal, and the holy two."[2] The Persian poet is not
far from the kingdom into which Hebrew psalmists and prophets entered.

The whole history of the Jewish religion is centred in the gradual
purification of the idea of God. The morality of the Jews did not
outgrow their religion, but their interest was always ethical and not
speculative. The highest strains of the psalmists and the most fervent
appeals of the prophets were progressively directed to the great end of
praising and preaching the One true God, everlasting, with sincere and
pure devotion. The creed of the Jew, to this day, is summed up in the
well-remembered words, which have been ever on his lips, living or
dying: "Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord" (Deut. vi. 4).

The definiteness and persistence of this creed, which of course is the
strength also of Mahommedanism, presents a contrast to the fluid
character of the statements in the Vedas, and to the chaos of
conflicting opinions of philosophers among the Greeks and Romans. As Dr
J. R. Illingworth has said very concisely: "The physical speculations of
the Ionians and Atomists rendered a God superfluous, and the
metaphysical and logical reasoning of the Eleatics declared Him to be
unknowable."[3] Plato regarding the world as an embodiment of eternal,
archetypal ideas, which he groups under the central idea of Good,
identified with the divine reason, at the same time uses the ordinary
language of the day, and speaks of God and the gods, feeling his way
towards the conception of a personal God, which, to quote Dr Illingworth
again, neither he nor Aristotle could reach because they had not "a
clear conception of human personality." They were followed by an age of
philosophizing which did little to advance speculation. The Stoics, for
example, were more successful in criticizing the current creed than in
explaining the underlying truth which they recognized in polytheism. The
final goal of Greek philosophy was only reached when the great thinkers
of the early Christian Church, who had been trained in the schools of
Alexandria and Athens, used its modes of thought in their analysis of
the Christian idea of God. "In this sense the doctrine of the Trinity
was the synthesis, and summary, of all that was highest in the Hebrew
and Hellenic conceptions of God, fused into union by the electric touch
of the Incarnation."[4]

Space does not permit enlargement on this theme, but enough has been
said to introduce the direct study of the ancient creeds of Christendom.

I. THE ANCIENT CREEDS OF CHRISTENDOM.--The three creeds which may be
called oecumenical, although the measure of their acceptance by the
universal church has not been uniform, represent three distinct types
provided for the use of the catechumen, the communicant, and the church
teacher respectively. The Apostles' Creed is the ancient baptismal
creed, held in common both by East and West, in its final western form.
The Nicene Creed is the baptismal creed of an eastern church enlarged in
order to combine theological interpretation with the facts of the
historic faith. Its use in the Eucharist of the undivided Church has
been continued since the great schism, although the Eastern Church
protests against the interpolation of the words "And the Son" in clause
9. The Athanasian Creed is an instruction designed to confute heresies
which were current in the 5th century.

  Apostles' Creed.

1. _The Apostles' Creed._--The increased interest which has been shown
in the history of all creed-forms since the latter part of the 19th
century is due in a great measure to the work of the veteran pioneer,
Professor P. Caspari of Christiania, who began the herculean task of
classifying the enormous number of creed-forms which have been recovered
from obscure pages of early Christian literature. In England we owe much
to Professors C. A. Heurtley and Swainson. In Germany the monumental
work of Professor Kattenbusch has overshadowed all other books on the
subject, providing even his most ardent critics with an indispensable
record of the literature of the subject.

The majority of critics agree that the only trace of a formal creed in
the New Testament is the simple confession of Jesus as the Lord, _or_
the Son of God (Rom. x. 9; 1 Cor. xii. 3). While the apostles were
agreed on an outline of teaching (Rom. vi. 17) which included the
doctrine of God, the person and work of Christ, and the person and work
of the Holy Spirit, it does not appear that they provided any summary,
which would cover this ground, as an authoritative statement of their
belief. The tradition which St Paul received included, so to speak, the
germ of the central prayer in the Eucharist (1 Cor. xi. 23 ff.), and no
doubt included also teaching on conduct, "the way of a Christian life"
(1 Thess. iv. 1; Gal. v. 21). The creed in all its forms lies behind
worship, which it preserves from idolatry, and behind ethics, to which
it supplies a motive power which the pre-Christian system so manifestly
lacked. Whether the first creed of the primitive Church was of the
simple Christological character which confession of Jesus as the Lord
expresses, or of an enlarged type based on the baptismal formula (Matt.
xxviii. 19), makes no difference to the statement that the faith which
overcame the world derived its energy from convictions which strove for
utterance. "With the heart man believeth unto righteousness, and with
the mouth confession is made unto salvation" (Rom. x. 10).

When St Paul reminds Timothy (1 Tim. vi. 13) of his confession before
many witnesses he does not seem to imply more than confession of Christ
as king. He calls it "the beautiful confession" to which Christ Jesus
had borne witness before Pontius Pilate, and charges Timothy before God,
who quickeneth all things, to keep this commandment. Some writers,
notably Professor Zahn,[5] piecing together this text with 2 Tim. i. 13,
ii. 8, iv. 1, 2, reconstructs a primitive Apostles' Creed of Antioch,
the city from which St Paul started on his missionary journeys. But
there is no mention of a third article in the creed, beyond a reference
to the Holy Ghost in the context of 2 Tim. i. 14, which would prove the
apostolic use of a Trinitarian confession imaginable as the parent of
the later Eastern and Western forms. The eunuch's creed interpolated in
Acts viii. 57, "I believe that Jesus is the Son of God," since the
reading was known to Irenaeus, probably represents the form of baptismal
confession used in some church of Asia Minor, and supplies us with the
type of a primitive creed. This theory is confirmed by the evidence of
the Johannine epistles (1 John iv. 15, v. 5; cf. Heb. iv. 14).

From this point of view it is easy to explain the occurrence of
creed-like phrases in the New Testament as fragments of early hymns (1
Tim. iii. 16) or reminiscences of oral teaching (1 Cor. xv. 1 ff.). The
following form which Seeberg gives as the creed of St Paul is an
artificial combination of fragments of oral teaching, which naturally
reappear in the teaching of St Peter, but finds no attestation in the
later creeds of particular churches which would prove its claim to be
their parent form:

  "The living God who created all things sent His Son Jesus Christ, born
  of the seed of David, who died for our sins according to the
  scriptures, and was buried, who was raised on the third day according
  to the scriptures, and appeared to Cephas and the XII., who sat at the
  right hand of God in the heavens, all rule and authority and power
  being made subject unto Him, and is coming on the clouds of heaven
  with power and great glory."

The evidence of the apostolic fathers is disappointing. Clement (_Cor._
lviii. 2) supplies only parallels to the baptismal formula (Matt.
xxviii. 19). Polycarp (_Ep._ 7) echoes St John. But Ignatius might seem
to offer in the following passage some confirmation of Zahn's theory of
a primitive creed of Antioch (_Trall._ 9): "Be ye deaf, therefore, when
any man speaketh to you apart from Jesus Christ, who was of the race of
David, who was the Son of Mary, who was truly born and ate and drank,
was truly persecuted under Pontius Pilate, was truly crucified and died
in the sight of those in heaven and those on earth and those under the
earth; who, moreover, was truly raised from the dead, His Father having
raised Him, who in the like fashion will so raise us also who believe on
Him--His Father, I say, will raise us--in Christ Jesus, apart from whom
we have not true life."

The differences, however, which divide this from the later creed forms
are scarcely less noticeable than their agreement, and the evidence of
the Ignatian epistles generally (_Eph_. xviii.; _Smyrn._ i.), while it
confirms the conclusion that instruction was given in Antioch on all
points characteristic of the developed creed, e.g. the Miraculous Birth,
Crucifixion, Resurrection, the Catholic Church, forgiveness of sins, the
hope of resurrection, does not prove that this teaching was as yet
combined in a Trinitarian form which classified the latter clauses under
the work of the Holy Ghost.

At this point a word must be said on the important question of
interpretation. While we may hope for eventual agreement on the history
of the different types of creed forms, there can be no hope of agreement
on the interpretation of the words Holy Spirit between Unitarian and
Trinitarian critics. Writers who follow Harnack explain "holy spirit" as
the gift of impersonal influence, and between wide limits of difference
agree in regarding Christ as Son of God by adoption and not by nature.
Amid the chaos of conflicting opinions as to the original teaching of
Jesus, the Gospel within the Gospel, the central question "What think ye
of Christ?" emerges as the test of all theories. "No man can say that
Jesus is the Lord save in the Holy Ghost" (1 Cor. xii. 3). Belief in the
fact of the Incarnation of the eternal Word, as it is stated in the
words of Ignatius quoted above, or in any of the later creeds, stands or
falls with belief in the Holy Ghost as the guide alike of their
convictions and destinies, no mere impersonal influence, but a living

If the essence of Christianity is winnowed down to a bare imitation of
the Man Jesus, and his religion is accepted as Buddhists accept the
religion of Buddha, still it cannot be denied that the early Christians
put their trust in Christ rather than his religion. "I am the life," not
"I teach the life," "I am the truth," not merely "I teach the truth,"
are not additions of Johannine theology but the central aspect of the
presentation of Christ as the good physician, healer of souls and
bodies, which the most rigid scrutiny of the Synoptic Gospels leaves as
the residuum of accepted fact about Jesus of Nazareth. To say more would
be out of place in this article, but enough has been said to introduce
the exhaustive discussion by Kattenbusch (ii. 471-728) of the meaning of
the theological teaching both of the New Testament and of the earliest

To return within our proper limits. Kattenbusch, with whom Harnack is in
general agreement, regards the Old Roman Creed, which comes to light in
the 4th century, as the parent of all developed forms, whether Eastern
or Western. Marcellus, the exiled bishop of Ancyra, is quoted by
Epiphanius as presenting it to Bishop Julius of Rome c. A.D. 340.
Ussher's recognition of the fact that this profession of faith by
Marcellus was the creed of Rome, not of Ancyra, is the starting-point of
modern discussions of the history of the creeds. Some sixty years later
Rufinus, a priest of Aquileia, wrote a commentary on the creed of his
native city and compared it with the Roman Creed. His Latin text is
probably as ancient as the Greek text of Marcellus, because the Roman
Church must always have been bilingual in its early days. It was as

    I. 1. I believe in God (the) Father almighty;
   II. 2. And in Christ Jesus His only Son our Lord,
       3. who was born of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary,
       4. crucified under Pontius Pilate and buried
       5. the third day He rose from the dead,
       6. He ascended into heaven,
       7. sitteth at the right hand of the Father,
       8. thence He shall come to judge living and dead.
  III. 9. And in the Holy Ghost,
      10. (the) holy Church,
      11. (the) remission of sins,
      12. (the) resurrection of the flesh.

This Old Roman Creed may be traced back in the writings of Bishops Felix
and Dionysus (3rd century), and in the writings of Tertullian in the 2nd

Tertullian calls the creed the "token" which the African Church shares
with the Roman (_de Praescr._ 36): "The Roman Church has made a common
token with the African Churches, has recognized one God, creator of the
universe, and Christ Jesus, of the Virgin Mary, Son of God the Creator,
and the resurrection of the flesh." The reference is to the earthenware
token which two friends broke in order that they might commend a
stranger for hospitality by sending with him the broken half. Their
creed became the passport by which Christians in strange cities could
obtain admission to assemblies for worship and to common meals. The
passage quoted is obviously a condensed quotation of the Roman Creed,
which reappears also in the following (_de Virg. vel._ i.):

  "The rule of faith is one altogether ... of believing in one God
  Almighty, maker of the world, and in His Son Jesus Christ, born of
  Mary the Virgin, crucified under Pontius Pilate; the third day raised
  from the dead, received in the heavens, sitting now at the right hand
  of the Father, about to come and judge quick and dead through the
  resurrection also of the flesh."

There are many references in Tertullian to the teaching of the Gnostic
Marcion, whose breach with the Roman Church may be dated A.D. 145. He
seems to have still held to the Roman creed interpreted in his own way.
An ingenious conjecture by Zahn enables us to add the words "holy
Church" to our reconstruction of the creed from the writings of
Tertullian. In his revised New Testament Marcion speaks of "the covenant
which is the mother of us all, which begets us in the holy Church, to
which we have vowed allegiance." He uses a word used by Ignatius of the
oath taken on confession of the Christian faith. It follows that the
words "holy Church" were contained in the Roman Creed.[6]

While all critics agree in tracing back this form to the earliest years
of the 2nd century, and regard it as the archetype of all similar
Western creeds, there is great diversity of opinion on its relation to
Eastern forms. Kattenbusch maintains that the Roman Creed reached Gaul
and Africa in the course of the 2nd century, and perhaps all districts
of the West that possessed Christian congregations, also the western end
of Asia Minor possibly in connexion with Polycarp's visit to Rome A.D.
154. He finds that materials fail for Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia,
Syria, Palestine, Egypt. Further, he holds that all the Eastern creeds
which are known to us as existing in the 4th century, or may be traced
back to the 3rd, lead to Antioch as their starting-point. He concludes
that the Roman Creed was accepted at Antioch after the fall of Paul of
Samosata in A.D. 272, and was adapted to the dogmatic requirements of
the time, all the later creeds of Palestine, Asia Minor and Egypt being
dependent on it.

On the other hand, Kunze, Loofs, Sanday, and Zahn find evidence of the
existence of an Eastern type of creed of equal or greater antiquity and
distinguished from the Roman by such phrases as "One" (God), "Maker of
heaven and earth," "suffered," "shall come again in glory." Thus Kunze
reconstructs a creed of Antioch for the 3rd century, and argues that it
is independent of the Roman Creed.

_Creed of Antioch._

   I. 1. I believe in one and one only true God, Father Almighty, maker
           of all things, visible and invisible.

  II. 2. And in our Lord Jesus Christ, His Son, the only-begotten and
           first born of all creation, begotten of Him before all the
           ages, through whom also the ages were established, and all
           things came into existence;
      3. Who for our sakes, came down, and was born of Mary the Virgin.
      4. And crucified under Pontius Pilate, and buried,
      5. And the third day rose according to the scriptures,
      6. and ascended into heaven.
      8. And is coming again to judge quick and dead.
      9. [The beginning of the third article has not been recorded.]
     11. Remission of sins.
     12. Resurrection of the dead, life everlasting.

Along similar lines Loofs selects phrases as typical of creeds which go
back to a date preceding the Nicene Council.

A. Creed of Eusebius of Caesarea, presented to the Nicene Council.

B. Revised Creed of Cyril of Jerusalem.

C. Creed of Antioch quoted by Cassian.

D. Creed of Antioch quoted in the Apostolic Constitutions.

E. Creed of Lucian the Martyr (Antioch).

F. Creed of Arius (Alexandria).

   1. One (God), A, B, C, D, E, F.
      Maker of heaven and earth and of all things visible and invisible
        (or a like phrase), A, B, C, D, E.
   2. Lord Jesus Christ, His Son, the only begotten (or a like phrase),
        A, B, C, D, E, F.
   3. Crucified under Pontius Pilate, B, C, D (A, E, F omit because
        they are theological creeds. Loofs thinks that the baptismal
        creeds on which they are based may have contained the words).
   5. Rose the third day, A, B, D, E (F omits "the third day" being
        a theological creed; the translation of C is uncertain).
   6. Went up, A, B, D, E, F.
      + and ... and ... and, A, B, C, D, E, F.
   8. And is coming, B, C, D, E, F; and is about to come, A;
      + again, A, C, D, E, F(B?); + in glory, A, B; with glory, D, E.
  10. + Catholic, B, D, F (A, C, E?)
  12. + life eternal, B, C; + life of the age to come, D, F.

Sanday (_Journal Theol. Studies_, iii. 1) does not attempt a
reconstruction on this elaborate scale, but contents himself with
pointing out evidence, which Kattenbusch seems to him to have missed,
for the existence of creeds of Egypt, Cappadocia and Palestine before
the time of Aurelian. He criticizes Harnack's theory that there existed
in the East, that is, in Asia Minor, or in Asia Minor and Syria as far
back as the beginning of the 2nd century, a Christological instruction
([Greek: mathêma]) organically related to the second article of the
Roman Creed, and formulas which taught that the "One God" was "Creator
of heaven and earth," and referred to the holy prophetic spirit, and
lasted on till they influenced the course of creed-development in the
4th century. He asks, is it not simpler to believe that there was a
definite type in the background?

Another English student, the Rev. T. Barns, engaged specially in work
upon the history of the creed of Cappadocia, points out the importance
of the extraordinary influence of Firmilian of Caesarea in the affairs
of the church of Antioch in the early part of the 3rd century. He is led
to argue that the creed of Antioch came rather from Cappadocia than
Rome. Whether his conclusion is justified or not, it helps to show how
strongly the trend of contemporary research is setting against the
theory of Kattenbusch that the Roman Creed when adopted at Antioch
became the parent of all Eastern forms. It does not, however, militate
against the possibility that the Roman Creed was carried from Rome to
Asia Minor and to Palestine in the 2nd century. It is evidently
impossible to arrive at a final decision until much more spade work has
been done in the investigation of early Eastern creeds. Connolly's study
of the early Syrian creed (_Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche
Wissenschaft_, 1906, p. 202) deserves careful consideration. His
reconstruction of the creed of Aphraates is interesting in relation to
the other traces of a Syriac creed form existing prior to the 4th

  [I believe] in God the Lord of all, that made the heavens and the
  earth and the seas and all that in them is; [And in our Lord Jesus
  Christ] [the Son of God,] God, Son of God, King, Son of the King,
  Light from Light, (Son and Counsellor, and Guide, and Way, and
  Saviour, and Shepherd, and Gatherer, and Door, and Pearl, and Lamb,)
  and first-born of all creatures, who came and put on a body from Mary
  the Virgin (of the seed of the house of David, from the Holy Spirit),
  and put on our manhood, and suffered, _or_ and was crucified, went
  down to the place of the dead, _or_ to Sheol, and lived again, and
  rose the third day, and ascended to the height, _or_ to heaven, and
  sat on the right hand of His Father, and He is the Judge of the dead
  and of the living, who sitteth on the throne; [And in the Holy
  Spirit;] [And I believe] in the coming to life of the dead; [and] in
  the mystery of Baptism (of the remission of sins).

The probable battle-ground of the future between the opposing theories
lies in the writings of Irenaeus. He has most of the characteristic
expressions of the Eastern creeds. He inserts "one" in clause 1 and 2.
He has the phrases "Maker of heaven and earth," "suffered," and
"crucified," with "under Pontius Pilate" after instead of before it.
Probably also he had "in glory" in clause 8. But there is always the
possibility to be faced that Irenaeus drew his creed from Rome rather
than Asia Minor. Kattenbusch does not shrink from suggesting that he
shows acquaintance with the Roman Creed, and that Justin Martyr also
knew it, in which case all the so-called Eastern characteristics have
been imprinted on the original Roman form, and are not derived from an
Eastern archetype. But the ordinary reader need not feel concern about
the future victory of either theory. The plain fact is that the same
facts were taught in Palestine, Asia Minor and Gaul, whether gathered up
in a parallel creed form or not. The contrast which Rufinus draws
between the Roman Creed and others, both of the East and the West, is
justified. In comparison with them it was guarded more carefully from
change.[7] We have yet to inquire how it received the additions which
distinguish the derived form now in use as the baptismal creed of all
Western Christendom. Some had already found an entrance into Western
creeds. We find "suffered" in the creed of Milan, "descended into hell"
in the creed of Aquileia, the Danubian lands and Syria; the words "God"
and "almighty" were shortly added to clause 7 in the Spanish creed;
"life everlasting" had stood from an early date in the African creed.
The creed of Caesarius of Arles (d. 543) proves that these variations
had all been united in one Gallican creed together with "catholic" and
"communion of saints," but this Gallican form still lacked "Maker of
heaven and earth" and the additions in clause 7.

Two newly-discovered creeds help us greatly to narrow down the limits of
the problem. The creed of Niceta of Remesiana in Dacia proves that c.
A.D. 400 the Dacian church had added to the Roman Creed "maker of heaven
and earth," "suffered," "dead," "Catholic," "communion of saints" and
"life everlasting." Parallel to it is the Faith of St Jerome discovered
in 1903 by Dom. Morin.[8]

  _The Faith of St Jerome_.

  "I believe in one God the Father almighty, maker of things visible and
  invisible. I believe in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, born of
  God, God of God, Light of Light, almighty of almighty, true God of
  true God, born before the ages, not made, by whom all things were made
  in heaven and in earth. Who for our salvation descended from heaven,
  was conceived of the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered by
  suffering under Pontius Pilate, under Herod the King, crucified,
  buried, descended into hell, trod down the sting of death, rose again
  the third day, appeared to the apostles. After this He ascended into
  heaven, sitteth at the right of God the Father, thence shall come to
  judge the quick and the dead. And I believe in the Holy Ghost, God not
  unbegotten nor begotten, not created nor made, but co-eternal with the
  Father and the Son. I believe (that there is) remission of sins in the
  holy catholic church, communion of saints, resurrection of the flesh
  unto eternal life. Amen."

This creed may be the form which Jerome mentions in one of his letters
(_Ep._ 17, n. 4) as sent to Cyril of Jerusalem. It is important as
connecting the creeds of East and West. Since Jerome was born in
Pannonia we may conjecture that he is inserting Nicene phrases from the
Jerusalem creed into his baptismal creed, and that this form added to
Niceta's creed proves that the creed of the Danube lands possessed the
clauses "maker of heaven and earth" and "communion of saints."

The first occurrence of the completed form is in a treatise
(_Scarapsus_) of the Benedictine missionary Pirminius, abbot of
Reichenau (c. A.D. 730). The difficulty hitherto has been to trace the
source from which the clause "maker of heaven and earth" has come into
it. It has been known that the forms in use in the south of France
approximated to it but without those words. In the 6th century we find
creed forms in use in Gaul which include them, but include also other
variations distinguishing them from the form which we seek. The missing
link which has hitherto been lacking in the evidence has been found by
Barns in the influence of Celtic missionaries who streamed across from
Europe until they came in touch with the remnants of the Old Latin
Christianity of the Danube. The chief documents of the date A.D. 700,
which contain forms almost identical with the received text, are
connected with monasteries founded by Columban and his friends: Bobbio,
Luxeuil, S. Gallen, Reichenau. From one of these monasteries the
received text seems to have been taken to Rome. Certainly it was from
Rome that it was spread. We can trace the use of the received text along
the line of the journeys both of Pirminius and Boniface, and there is
little doubt that they received it from the Roman Church, with which
Boniface was in frequent communication. Pope Gregory II. sent him
instructions to use what seems to have been an official Roman order of
Baptism, which would doubtless include a Roman form of creed. Pirminius,
who was far from being an original writer, made great use of a treatise
by Martin of Braga, but substituted a Roman form of Renunciation, and
refers to the Roman rite of Unction in a way which leads us to suppose
that the form of creed which he substituted for Martin's form was also
Roman. It seems clear, therefore, that the received text was either made
or accepted in Rome, c. A.D. 700, and disseminated through the
Benedictine missionaries. At the end of the 8th century Charlemagne
inquired of the bishops of his empire as to current forms. The reply of
Amalarius of Trier is important because it shows that he not only used
the received text, but also connected it with the Roman order of
Baptism. The emperor's wish for uniformity doubtless led in a measure to
its eventual triumph over all other forms.

  Nicene Creed.

2. _The Nicene Creed_ of the liturgies, often called the
Constantinopolitan creed, is the old baptismal creed of Jerusalem
revised by the insertion of Nicene terms. The idea that the council
merely added to the last section has been disproved by Hort's famous
dissertation in 1876.[9] The text of the creed of the Nicene Council was
based on the creed of Eusebius of Caesarea, and a comparison of the four
creeds side by side proves to demonstration their distinctness, in spite
of the tendency of copyists to confuse and assimilate the forms.[10]

  _Creed of Eusebius, A.D. 325      | _Revision by the Council of Nicaea,
          (Caesarea)._              |          A.D. 325._
           We believe               |          We believe
               I.                   |              I.
  1. In one God the Father          | 1. In one God the Father Almighty,
      Almighty, the maker of all    |     visible the maker of all things
      things visible and invisible. |     and invisible.
               II.                  |              II.
  2. And in one Lord Jesus Christ,  | 2. And in one Lord Jesus Christ,
      the Word of God.              |     the Son of God, begotten of the
                                    |     Father, only begotten, that is
     God of God, Light of Light,    |     of the substance of the Father,
      (Life of Life,) only begotten |     God of God, Light of Light, very
      Son (first-born of all        |     God of very God, begotten not
      creation, before all worlds   |     made, of one substance with the
      begotten of God the Father),  |     Father, by whom all things were
      by whom all things were made; |     made, both those in heaven and
      all things were made;         |     those on earth.
  3. Who for our Salvation was      | 3. Who for us men and for our
      incarnate (and lived as a     |     salvation came down and was
      citizen amongst men),         |     incarnate, was made man,
  4. And Suffered,                  | 4. And suffered,
  5. And rose the third day,        | 5. And rose the third day,
  6. And ascended (to the Father),  | 6. Ascended into Heaven,
  7. And shall come again (in glory)| 7. Is coming to judge quick and
      to judge quick and dead.      |     dead.
               III.                 |              III.
  8. And (we believe) in (one) Holy | 8. And in the Holy Ghost.
      Ghost.                        |
                                    | _Revision by Cyril, A.D. 362.
                                    |   Council of Constantinople, A.D.
  _Creed of Jerusalem, A.D. 348._   |   381. Council of Chalcedon, A.D.
                                    |   451._
        I (or We) believe           |         We believe
               I.                   |              I.
  1. In one God the Father,         | 1. In one God the Father Almighty,
      Almighty, maker of heaven     |     maker of heaven and earth, and
      and earth, and of all things  |     of all things visible and
      visible and invisible.        |     invisible.
               II.                  |              II.
  2. And in one Lord Jesus Christ,  | 2. And in one Lord Jesus Christ,
      the only begotten Son of God, |     the only begotten Son of God,
      begotten of His Father,       |     begotten of His Father before
                                    |     all worlds, [God of God,]
                                    |     Light of Light,
      very God before all worlds,   |     very God of very God,
                                    |     begotten, not made, being of
                                    |     one substance with the Father,
      by whom all things were made; |     by whom all things were made;
  3.                                | 3. Who for us men and for our
                                    |     salvation came down from
      was incarnate,                |     heaven and incarnate of the
                                    |     Holy Ghost and the Virgin
      and was made Man,             |     Mary, and was made Man.
  4. Crucified and buried.          | 4. And was crucified also for us
                                    |     under Pontius Pilate, and
                                    |     suffered and
  5. Rose again the third day,      | 5. He rose again the third day,
                                    |     according to the Scriptures,
  6. And ascended into heaven and   | 6. And ascended into heaven and
      _sat_ on the right hand of    |     sitteth on the right hand of
      the Father,                   |     the Father,
  7. And shall come _in glory_      | 7. And He shall come again to
      to judge the quick and the    |     judge the quick and the
      dead, whose kingdom shall     |     dead, whose kingdom shall
      have no end.                  |     have no end.
               III.                 |              III.
  8. And in _One_ Holy Ghost,       |  8. And in the Holy Ghost, the
      _the Paraclete_,              |      Lord and Giver of Life. who
                                    |      proceedeth from the Father
                                    |      [_and the Son_], who with the
                                    |      Father and the Son together is
                                    |      worshipped and glorified,
      who spake _in_ the Prophets,  |      who spake by the Prophets,
  9. And in one baptism of          |  9. In the Catholic and Apostolic
      repentance for remission of   |    Church.
      sins,                         |
 10. And in one holy Catholic       | 10. We acknowledge one baptism
       Church,                      |      for remission of sins.
 11. And in resurrection _of the    | 11. We look for the resurrection
      flesh_,                       |      of the dead,
 12. And in life eternal.           | 12. And in the life of the world
                                    |      to come.

The revised Jerusalem Creed was quoted by Epiphanius in his treatise
_The Anchored One_, c. A.D. 374, some years before the council of
Constantinople (A.D. 381). We gather that it had already been introduced
into Cyprus as a baptismal creed. Hort's identification of it as the
work of Cyril of Jerusalem is now generally accepted. On his return from
exile in A.D. 362 Cyril would find "a natural occasion for the revision
of the public creed by the skilful insertion of some of the conciliar
language, including the term which proclaimed the restoration of full
communion with the champions of Nicaea, and other phrases and clauses
adapted for impressing on the people positive truth." Some of Cyril's
personal preferences expressed in his catechetical lectures find
expression, e.g. "resurrection of the _dead_" for "flesh."

The weak point in Hort's theory was the suggestion that the creed was
brought before the council by Cyril in self justification. The election
of Meletius of Antioch as the first president of the council carried
with it the vindication of his old ally Cyril. Kunze's suggestion is far
more probable that it was used at the baptism of Nektarius, praetor of
the city, who was elected third president of the council while yet
unbaptized. Unfortunately the acts of the council have been lost, but
they were quoted at the council of Chalcedon in A.D. 451, and the
revised Jerusalem Creed was quoted as "the faith of the 150 Fathers,"
that is, as confirmed in some way by the council of Constantinople,
while at the time it was distinguished from "the faith of the 318
Fathers" of Nicaea. One of the signatories of the Definition of Faith
made at Chalcedon, in which both creeds were quoted in full, Kalemikus,
bishop of Apamea in Bithynia, refers to the council of Constantinople as
having been held at the ordination of the most pious Nektarius the
bishop. Obviously there was some connexion in his mind between the creed
and the ordination.

The reasons which brought the revised creed into prominence at Chalcedon
are still obscure. It is possible that Leo's letter to Flavian gave the
impulse to put it forward because it contained a parallel to words which
Leo quoted from the Old Roman Creed, "born of the Holy Ghost and the
Virgin Mary," "crucified and buried," which do not occur in the first
Nicene Creed. If, as is probable, it was from the election of Nektarius
the baptismal creed of Constantinople, we may even ask whether the pope
did not refer to it when he wrote emphatically of the "common and
indistinguishable confession" of all the faithful. Kattenbusch supposes
that Anatolius, bishop of Constantinople, or his archdeacon Aetius, who
read the creed at the 2nd session of the council, took up the idea that
through its likeness to the Roman Creed it would be a useful weapon
against Eutyches and others who were held to interpret the Nicene Creed
in an Apollinarian sense. But Kunze thinks that it was not used as a
base of operations against Eutyches because there is some evidence that
Monophysites were willing to accept it. Certainly it won its way to
general acceptance in the East as the creed of the church of the
imperial city; regarded as an improved recension of the Nicene Faith.
The history of the introduction of the creed into liturgies is still
obscure. Peter Fullo, bishop of Antioch, was the first to use it in the
East, and in the West a council held by King Reccared at Toledo in 589.
The theory of Probst that it had been used in Rome before this time has
not been confirmed. King Reccared's council is usually credited with the
introduction of the words "And the Son" into clause 9 of the creed. But
some MSS.[11] omit them in the creed-text while inserting them in a
canon of the faith drawn up at the time. Probably they were interpolated
in the creed by mistake of copyists. When attention was called to the
interpolation in the 9th century it became one cause of the schism
between East and West. Charlemagne was unable to persuade Pope Leo III.
to alter the text used in Rome by including the words. But it was so
altered by the pope's successor.

The interpolation really witnessed to a deep-lying difference between
Eastern and Western theology. Eastern theologians expressed the
mysterious relationship of the Holy Spirit to the Father and the Son in
such phrases as "Who proceedeth from the Father and receiveth from the
Son," rightly making the Godhead of the Father the foundation and
primary source of the eternally derived Godhead of the Son and the
Spirit. Western theologians approached the problem from another point of
view. Hilary, starting from the thought of Divine self-consciousness as
the explanation of the coinherence of the Father in the Son and the Son
in the Father, says that the Spirit receives of both. Augustine teaches
that the Father and the Son are the one principle of the Being of the
Spirit. From this it is a short step to say with the _Quicumque vult_
that the Spirit proceeds from the Son, while guarding the idea that the
Father is the one fountain of Deity. Since Eastern theologians would be
willing to say "proceeds from the Father through the Son," it is clear
that the two views are not irreconcilable.

  Athanasian Creed.

3. _The Athanasian Creed_, so called because in many MSS. it bears the
title "The Faith of S. Athanasius," is more accurately designated by its
first words _Quicumque vult_.[12] Its history has been the subject of
much controversy for years past, but no longer presents an insoluble
problem. Critics indeed agree on the main outline. Until 1870 the
standard work on the subject was Waterland's _Critical History of the
Athanasian Creed_, first published in 1723. Having traced "the opinions
of the learned moderns" from Gerard Vossius, A.D. 1642, "who led the way
to a more strict and critical inquiry," Waterland passed in review all
the known MSS. and commentaries, and after a searching investigation
concluded that the creed was written in Gaul between 420 and 430,
probably by Hilary of Arles.

In 1870 the controversy on the use of the creed in the Book of Common
Prayer led to fresh investigation of the MSS., and a theory known as the
"Two-portion theory" was started by C. A. Swainson, developed by J. R.
Lumby, and adopted by Harnack. Swainson thought that the _Quicumque_ was
brought into its present shape in the 9th century. The so-called
profession of Denebert, bishop-elect of Worcester, in A.D. 798 presented
to the archbishop of Canterbury (which includes clauses 1, 3-6, 20-22,
24, 25), and the Trèves fragment (a portion of a sermon in _Paris bibl.
nat. Lat._ 3836, _saec._ viii., which quoted clauses 27-34, 36-40),
seemed to him to represent the component parts of the creed as they
existed separately. He conjectured that they were brought together in
the province of Rheims c. 860.

This theory, however, depended upon unverified assumptions, such as the
supposed silence of theologians about the creed at the beginning of the
9th century; the suggestion that the completed creed would have been
useful to them if they had known it as a weapon against the heresy of
Adoptianism; the assertion that no MS. containing the complete text was
of earlier date than c. 813. This was Lumby's revised date, but the
progress of palaeographical studies has made it possible to demonstrate
that MSS. of the 8th century do exist which contain the complete creed.

The two-portion theory was vigorously attacked by G. D. W. Ommanney, who
was successful in the discovery of new documents, notably early
commentaries, which contained the text of the creed embedded in them,
and thus supplied independent testimony to the fact that the creed was
becoming fairly widely known at the end of the 8th century. Other new
MSS. and commentaries were found and collated by the Rev. A. E. Burn and
Dom Morin. In 1897 Loofs, summing up the researches of 25 years in his
article _Athanasianum_ (_Realencyclopädie f. prot. Theol. u. Kirche_,
3rd ed. ii. p. 177), declared that the two-portion theory was dead.

This conclusion has never been seriously challenged. It has been greatly
strengthened by the discovery of a MS. which was presented by Bishop
Leidrad of Lyons with an autograph inscription to the altar of St
Stephen in that town, some time before 814. As M. Delisle at once
pointed out (_Notices et extraits des manuscrits_, 1898), this MS.
supplies a fixed date from which palaeographers can work in dating MSS.
The _Quicumque_ occurs in a collection of materials forming an
introduction to the psalter. The suggestion has been made that Leidrad
intended to use the _Quicumque_ in his campaign against the Adoptianists
in 798. But the phrases of the creed seem to have needed sharpening
against the Nestorian tendency of the Adoptianists. It is more probable
that Leidrad was interested in the growing use of the creed as a
canticle, and was consulted in the preparation of the famous Golden
Psalter, now at Vienna, which contains the same collection of documents
as an introduction. This MS. may now without hesitation be assigned to
the date 772-788. The earliest known MS. is at Milan (_Cod. Ambros._ O,
212, _sup._), and is dated by Traube as early as c. 700.

There is a reference to the _Quicumque_ in the first canon of the fourth
council of Toledo of the year 633, which quotes part or the whole of
clauses 4, 20-22, 28 f., 31, 33, 35 f., 40. The council also quoted
phrases from the so-called _Creed of Damasus_, a document of the 4th
century, which in some cases they preferred to the phrases of the
_Quicumque_. Their quotations form a connecting link in the chain of
evidence by which the use of the creed may be traced back to the
writings of Caesarius, bishop of Arles (503-543). Dom Morin has now
demonstrated ("Le Symbole d'Athanase et son premier témoin S. Césaire
d'Arles," _Rev. Bénédictine_, Oct. 1901) that Caesarius used the creed
continually as a sort of elementary catechism. The fact that it exactly
reproduces both the qualities and the literary defects of Caesarius is a
strong argument in favour of Morin's suggestion that he may have been
the author. Further, Caesarius was in the habit of putting some words of
a distinguished writer at the head of his compositions, which would
account for the fact that the name of Athanasius was subsequently
attached to the creed.

The use, however, of the _Quicumque_ by Caesarius as a catechism may be
explained by the suggestion that it had been taught him in his youth, so
that his style had been moulded by it. He was not an original thinker.
Moreover, the creed is quoted by his rival Avitus, bishop of Vienne
490-523, who quotes clause 22, as from the Rule of Catholic Faith, but
was not likely to value a composition of Caesarius so highly. Morin does
not deal fully with the arguments from internal evidence which point
back to the beginning of the 5th century as the date of the creed. If
the creed-phrases needed sharpening against the revived Nestorian error
of the Adoptianists, it is scarcely likely to have been written during
the generation following the condemnation of Nestorius in 431. Burn
suggests that it was written to meet the Sabellian and Apollinarian
errors of the Spanish heretic Priscillian, possibly by Honoratus, bishop
of Arles (d. 429). He suggests further that the _Creed of Damasus_ was
the reply of that pope to Priscillian's appeal. This would explain the
quotation of the two documents together by the council of Toledo, since
the heresy lasted on for a long time in Spain. But the theory has been
carried to extravagant lengths by Künstle, who thinks that the creed was
written in Spain in the 5th century, and soon taken to the monastery of
Lerins. There are phrases in the writings of Vincentius of Lerins and of
Faustus, bishop of Riez, which are parallel to the teaching of the
creed, though they cannot with any confidence be called quotations. They
tend in any case to prove that the _Quicumque_ comes to us from the
school of Lerins, of which Honoratus was the first abbot, and to which
Caesarius also belonged.

The earliest use of the _Quicumque_ was in sermons, in which the clauses
were quoted, as by the council of Toledo without reference to the creed
as a whole. From the 8th century, if not from earlier times,
commentaries were written on it. The writer of the Oratorian Commentary
(Theodulf of Orleans?) addressing a synod which instructed him to
provide an exposition of this work on the faith, writes of it, as "here
and there recited in our churches, and continually made the subject of
meditation by our priests." It was soon used as a canticle. Angilbert,
abbot of St Riquier (c. 814), records that it was sung by his school in
procession on rogation days. It passed into the office of Prime,
apparently first at Fleury. In the first Prayer Book of Edward VI. it
was "sung or said" after the Benedictus on the greater feasts, and this
use was extended in the second Prayer Book. In 1662 the rubric was
altered and it was substituted for the Apostles' Creed. It has no place
in the offices of the Eastern Orthodox Church, but is found, without the
words "And the Son" of clause 22, in the appendix of many modern
editions. In the Russian service books it appears at the beginning of
the psalter.

The controversy on its use in modern times has turned mainly on the
interpretation of the warning clauses. No new translation can put an end
to the difficulty. While it is true that the Church has never condemned
individuals, and that the warnings refer only to those who have received
the faith, and do not touch the question of the unbaptized, there is a
growing feeling that they go beyond the teaching of Holy Scripture on
the responsibility of intellect in matters of faith.[13]

On the other hand the creed is a valuable statement of Catholic faith on
the Trinity and the Incarnation, and its use for students and teachers
at least is by no means obsolete. The special characteristic of its
theology is in the first part where it owes most to the teaching of
Augustine, who in his striving after self-knowledge analysed the mystery
of his own triune personality and illustrated it with psychological
images, "I exist and I am conscious that I exist, and I love the
existence and the consciousness; and all this independently of any
external influence." Such a riper analysis of the mystery of his own
personality enabled him to arrive at a clearer conception of the idea of
divine personality, "whose triunity has nothing potential or unrealized
about it; whose triune elements are eternally actualized, by no outward
influence, but from within; a Trinity in Unity."[14]

II. MODERN CONFESSIONS OF FAITH.--The second great creed-making epoch of
Church history opens in the 16th century with the Confession of
Augsburg. The famous theses which Luther nailed to the door of the
church at Wittenberg in 1517 cannot be called a confession, but they
expressed a protest which could not rest there. Some reconstruction of
popular beliefs was needed by many consciences. There is a striking
contrast between the crudeness of much and widely accepted medieval
theology and the decrees of the council of Trent. Even from the Roman
Catholic standpoint such a need was felt. Luther himself had a gift of
words which through his catechisms made the reformed theology popular in
Germany. In 1530 it became necessary to define his position against both
Romanists and Zwinglians.

  Augsburg confession.

1. _The Confession of Augsburg_ was drawn up by Melanchthon, revised by
Luther, and presented to the emperor Charles V. at the diet of Augsburg.
Some 21 of its articles dealt with doctrine, 7 with ecclesiastical
abuses. It expounded in terse and significant teaching the doctrine (1)
of God, (2) of original sin, (3) of the Son of God, (4) of
justification..., (21) of the worship of saints. The abuses which it was
maintained had been corrected by Lutheranism were discussed in articles
(1) on Communion in both kinds, (2) on the marriage of clergy, (3) on
the Mass, &c. (see AUGSBURG, CONFESSION OF).

The main difference between these, the first of a long series of
articles of religion and the ancient creeds, lies in the fact that they
are manifestoes embodying creeds and answering more than one purpose.
This is the reason of their frequent failure to convey any sense of
proportion in the expression of truth. The disciplinary question of
clerical marriage is not of the same primary importance as the doctrinal
questions involved in the restoration of the cup to the laity, or
discussed in the subsequent article on the mass. As has been well said
by a learned Baptist theologian, Dr Green: "It was by a true divine
instinct that the early theologians made Christ Himself, in His
divine-human personality, their centre of the creeds."[15] The
fundamental questions of Christianity, exhibited in the Apostles' Creed,
should be marked off as standing on a higher plane than others. In this
respect catechisms of modern times, from Luther's down to the recent
Evangelical catechism of the Free Churches, and including from their
respective points of view both the catechism of the Church of England
and the catechism of the council of Trent, are markedly superior to
articles and synodical decrees. The failure of the latter was really
inevitable. In the 16th century a spirit of universal questioning was
rife, and it is this utter unsettlement of opinion which is reflected in
the discussions of doubts on matters only remotely connected with "the
faith once for all delivered unto the saints" (Jude 3). Moreover, fresh
complications arose from the confusion in which the question of the
duties and rights of the civil power was entangled. In an age when the
foundations of the system on which society had rested for centuries were
seriously shaken, such subjects as the right of the magistrate to
interfere with the belief of the individual, and the limits of his
authority over conscience, naturally assumed a prominence hitherto

2. _Other Lutheran Formularies._--For the purpose of classification it
will be convenient to discuss Lutheran, Zwinglian and Calvinistic
confessions separately.


An elaborate _Apology_ for the confession of Augsburg was drawn up by
Melanchthon in reply to Roman Catholic criticisms. This, together with
the confession, the articles of Schmalkalden, drawn up by Luther in
1536, Luther's catechisms, and the Formula of Concord which was an
attempt to settle doctrinal divisions promulgated in 1580, sum up what
is called "the confessional theology of Lutheranism." Of less influence
in the subsequent history of Lutheranism, but of interest as used by
Archbishop Parker in the preparation of the Elizabethan articles of
1563, is the confession of Württemberg. It was presented to the council
of Trent by the ambassador of the state of Württemberg in 1552. Its
thirty-five articles contain a moderate statement of Lutheran teaching.

  Zwinglian and Calvinist.

3. _Zwinglian and Calvinistic Confessions._--The confession of the Four
Cities, Strassburg, Constance, Memmingen and London, was drawn up by M.
Bucer and was presented to Charles V. at Augsburg in 1530. These cities
were inclined to follow Zwingli in his sacramental teaching which was
more fully expressed in the Confession of Basel (1534) and the First
Helvetic Confession (1536). Calvin's views were expressed in the
Gallican Confession, containing forty articles, which was drawn up in
1559, and was presented both to Francis II. of France and to Charles IX.
On the same lines the Belgian Confession of 1561, written by Guido de
Brès in French, and translated into Dutch was widely accepted in the
Netherlands and confirmed by the synod of Dort (1619). The second
Helvetic Confession was the work of Bullinger, published at the request
of the Elector Palatine Frederick III. in 1566, and was held in repute
in Switzerland, Poland and France as well as the Palatinate. It was
sanctioned in Scotland and was well received in England.

These confessions teach the root idea of Calvin's theology, the
immeasurable awfulness of God, His eternity, and the immutability of His
decrees. Such strict Calvinism was the strength also of the Westminster
Confession (see below), but was soon weakened in Germany. This same
Elector Frederick invited two young divines, Zacharias Ursinus and
Caspar Olevianus, to prepare the afterwards celebrated Heidelberg
catechism, which in 1563 superseded Calvin's catechism in the
Palatinate. While Calvin began sternly with the question: "What is the
chief end of human life?" Ans.: "That men may know God by whom they were
created,"--the Heidelberg catechism has: "What is thy only comfort in
life and death?" Ans.: "That I with body and soul, both in life and
death, am not my own, but belong to my faithful Saviour Jesus Christ."
This catechism has been called the charter of the German Reformed
Church. It contains three divisions dealing with (1) man's sin, misery,
redemption, (2) the Trinity, (3) thankfulness, under which is included
all practical Christian life lived in gratitude for mercies received.

  Articles of religion.

4. _English Articles of Religion._--The ten articles of 1536 were drawn
up by Convocation at the bidding of Henry VIII. "to stablysh Christian
Quietnes and Unitie." They exhibit a traditional character, a compromise
between the old and the new learning. Thus the doctrine of the Real
Presence is asserted, but no mention is made of Transubstantiation.
Medieval ceremonies are described as useful but without power to remit
sins. Two years later, after negotiations with the Lutheran princes, a
conference on theological matters was held at Lambeth with Lutheran
envoys. Thirteen articles were drawn up, which, though never published
(they were found among Cranmer's papers at the beginning of the 19th
century), had some influence on the forty-two articles. Some of them
were taken from the confession of Augsburg, but the sections on Baptism,
the Eucharist and penance, show that the English theologians desired to
lay more emphasis on the character of sacraments as channels of grace.
The Statute of the Six Articles (1539), "the whip with six strings," was
the outcome of the retrograde policy which distinguished the latter
years of Henry VIII.

With the accession of Edward VI. liturgical reforms were set on foot
before an attempt was made to systematize doctrinal teaching. But as
early as 1549 Cranmer had in hand "Articles of Religion" to which he
required all preachers and lecturers to subscribe. In 1552 they were
revised by other bishops and were laid before the council and the royal
chaplains. They were then published as "Articles agreed on by the
bishops and other learned men in the Synod of London." But there is
considerable doubt whether they really received the sanction of
Convocation (Gibson, p. 15). They were not devised as a complete scheme
of doctrine, but only as a guide in dealing with current errors of (i.)
the Medievalists and (ii.) the Anabaptists. Under (i.) they condemned
the doctrine of the school authors on congruous merit (Art. xii.), the
doctrine of grace _ex opere operato_ (xxvi.). Transubstantiation
(xxix.). Under (ii.) they laid stress on the fundamental articles of the
faith (Art. i.-iv.), affirmed the Three Creeds (vii.), since many
Anabaptists held Arian and Socinian opinions which were rife in
Switzerland, Italy and Poland, condemning also their views on original
sin (viii.), community of goods (xxxvii.), and on other subjects in
articles which do not mention them by name.

The revision undertaken in 1563 by Archbishop Parker, aided by Edm.
Guest, bishop of Rochester, shows "an attempt to give greater
completeness to the formulary," and to make clearer the Catholic
position of the Church of England. For the clause (Art. xxviii.) which
denied the Real Presence was substituted one by Guest with the desire
"not to deny the reality of the presence of the Body of Christ in the
Supper, but only the grossness and sensibleness in the receiving
thereof." At the same time the substitution of "Romish doctrine" for
"doctrine of School authors" (Art. xxii.) marks an effort to define the
line of the Church of England sharply against current Roman teaching.
The revision was passed by Convocation and again revised in 1571, when
the queen had been excommunicated by papal bull, and an act was passed
ordering all clergy to subscribe to them. They have remained unchanged
ever since, though the terms of subscription have been modified.

An attempt was made to add nine articles of a strong Calvinistic tone,
which were drawn up by Dr Whitaker, regius professor of divinity at
Cambridge, and submitted to Archbishop Whitgift. They were rejected both
by Queen Elizabeth, and, after the Hampton Court Conference petitioned
about them, by King James I.

The first Scottish confession dates from 1560. It is a memorial of the
intellectual power and enthusiasm of John Knox. It exhibits the leading
features of the Reformed theology, but "disclaims Divine authority for
any fixed form of church government or worship." It also asks that "if
anyone shall note in this our confession any articles or sentence
repugnant of God's Holy Word, that it would please him of his gentleness
and for Christian charity's sake, to admonish of the same in writing,"
promising that if the teaching cannot be proved, to reform it. Between
this and the Westminster Confession must be noted the first Baptist
confession, published in Amsterdam in 1611. It shows the influence of
Arminian theology against Calvinism, which was vigorously upheld in the
_Quin-particular_ formula, put forward by the synod of Dort in 1619 to
uphold the five points of Calvinism, after heated discussion, in which
English delegates took part, of the problems of divine omniscience and
human free-will.

  Westminster Confession.

5. _The Westminster Confession_ (1648), with its two catechisms, is
perhaps the ablest of the reformed confessions from the standpoint of
Calvinism. Its keynote is sovereignty. "The Decrees of God are His
eternal Purpose according to the Counsel of His Will, whereby for His
Own Glory He hath foreordained whatsoever comes to pass." Man's part is
to accept them with submission. As the Anglican divines soon ceased to
attend the assembly, and the Independents were few in number, it was the
work of Presbyterians only, the Scottish members carrying their proposal
to make it an independent document and not a mere revision of the
Thirty-nine Articles. After discussions lasting for two years it was
debated in parliament, finished on the 22nd of March 1648, and was
adopted by the Scottish parliament in the following year. It is the only
confession which has been imposed by authority of parliament on the
whole of the United Kingdom. This lasted in England for ten years. In
Scotland its influence has continued to the present day, contributing
not a little to mould the high qualities of religious insight and
courage and perseverance which have honourably distinguished Scottish
Presbyterians all the world over. This was the last great effort in
constructive theology of the Reformation period. When Cromwell before
his death in 1658 allowed a conference to prepare a new confession of
faith for the whole commonwealth, the Westminster Confession was
accepted as a whole with an added statement on church order and
discipline. We must note, however, that the Baptist divines who were
excluded from the Westminster Assembly issued a declaration of their
principles under the title, "A Confession of Faith of seven
Congregations or Churches in London which are commonly but unjustly
called Anabaptists, for the Vindication of the Truth and Information of
the Ignorant."

Two other declarations may be quoted to show how necessary such
confessions are even to religious societies which refuse to be bound by
them. In 1675 Robert Barclay published an "Apology for the Society of
Friends," in which he declared what they held concerning revelation,
scripture, the fall, redemption, the inward light, freedom of

In 1833 the Congregational Union published a Declaration or Confession
of Faith, Church Order and Discipline. It was prepared by Dr George
Redford of Worcester, and was presented, not as a scholastic or critical
confession of faith, but merely such a statement as any intelligent
member of the body might offer as containing its leading principles. It
deals with the Bible as the final appeal in controversy, the doctrines
of God, man, sin, the Incarnation, the Resurrection of our Lord Jesus
Christ, "both the Son of man and the Son of God," the work of the Holy
Spirit, justification by faith, the perpetual obligation of Baptism and
the Lord's Supper, final judgment, the law of Christian fellowship. The
same principles have been lucidly stated in the Evangelical Free Church

  Greek church.

6. _Confessions in the Eastern Orthodox Church._--The Eastern Church has
no general doctrinal tests beyond the Nicene Creed, but from time to
time synods have approved expositions of the faith such as the
Athanasian Creed (without the words "And the Son"), and the Orthodox
Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. This was the
work of Petrus Mogilas, metropolitan of Kiev, and other theologians. It
was written in 1640 in Russian, was translated into Greek, and approved
by the council of Jassy and the patriarchs of Constantinople,
Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem. It was affirmed by the council of
Jerusalem in 1672, which also affirmed the Confession of Dositheus,
patriarch of Jerusalem. Both of these confessions were drawn up to
confute the teaching of a remarkable man who had been patriarch of
Constantinople, Cyril Lucar. He was a student of Western theology, a
correspondent of Archbishop Laud, and had travelled in Germany and
Switzerland. In 1629 he published a confession in which he attempted to
incorporate ideas of the reformers while preserving the leading ideas of
Eastern traditional theology. The controversy chiefly turned on the
question of the necessity of episcopacy. Dositheus taught that the
existence of bishops is as necessary to the Church as "breath to a man
and the sun to the world." Christ is the universal and perpetual Head of
the Church, but he exercises his rule by means of "the holy Fathers,"
that is, the bishops whom the Holy Ghost has appointed to be in charge
of local churches.

Mention may also be made of the longer catechism of the Orthodox
Catholic Church compiled by Philaret, metropolitan of Moscow, revised
and adopted by the Russian Holy Synod in 1839. The Church is defined as
"a divinely-instituted community of men, united by the orthodox faith,
the law of God, the hierarchy and the sacraments."

  Roman Catholic.

7. _Roman Catholic Formularies._--For our present purpose the distinctive
features of Roman Catholicism may be said to be summed up in the decrees
of the council of Trent and the creed of Pope Pius IV. The council sat at
intervals from 1545-1563, but there was a marked divergence between the
opinions advocated by prominent members of the council and its final
decrees. Cardinal Pole had to leave the council because he advocated the
doctrine of justification by faith. Even at the later sessions the
cardinal of Lorraine with the French prelates supported the German
representatives in requests for the cup for the laity, the permission of
the marriage of priests, and the revision of the breviary. Finally the
decisions of the council were promulgated in a declaration of XII.
articles, usually called the Creed of Pius IV., which reaffirmed the
Nicene Creed, and dealt with the preservation of the apostolic and
ecclesiastical traditions, the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures
"according to the sense which our Holy Mother Church has held," the seven
sacraments, the offering of the mass, transubstantiation, purgatory, the
veneration of saints, relics, images, the efficacy of indulgences, the
supremacy of the Roman Church and of the bishop of Rome as vicar of
Christ. To this summary of doctrine should be added the dogmas of the
immaculate conception of the Blessed Virgin declared in 1854, and of
papal infallibility decreed by the Vatican council of 1870.

_Conclusion._--In this survey of Christian confessions it has been
impossible to do more than barely name many which deserve discussion.
This is a subject which has grown in importance and is likely to grow
further. The very intensity of that phase of modern thought which
declaims fervently against all creeds, and would maintain what George
Eliot called "the right of the individual to general haziness," is
likely to draw all Christian thinkers nearer to one another in sympathy
through acceptance of the Apostles' Creed as the common basis of
Christian thought. In the words of Hilary of Poitiers, "Faith gathers
strength through opposition."

The question at once arises. Can the simple historic faith be maintained
without adding theological interpretations, those arid wastes of dogma
in which the springs of faith and reverence run dry? The answer is No.
We cannot ask to be as if through nineteen centuries no one had ever
asked a question about the relation of the Lord Jesus Christ to the
Father and the Holy Spirit. If we could come back to the Bible and use
biblical terms only, as Cyril of Jerusalem wished in his early days, we
know from experience that the old errors would reappear in the form of
new questions, and that we should have to pass through the dreary
wilderness of controversy from implicit to explicit dogma, from "I
believe that Jesus is the Lord" to the confession that the Only Begotten
Son is "of one substance with the Father." In the words of Hilary again:

  "Faithful souls would be contented with the word of God which bids us:
  'Go teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of
  the Son and of the Holy Ghost.' But also we are drawn by the faults of
  our heretical opponents to do things unlawful, to scale heights
  inaccessible, to speak out what is unspeakable, to presume where we
  ought not. And whereas it is by faith alone that we should worship the
  Father and reverence the Son, and be filled with the Spirit, we are
  now obliged to strain our weak human language in the utterance of
  things beyond its scope; forced into this evil procedure by the evil
  procedure of our foes. Hence what should be matter of silent religious
  meditation must now needs be imperilled by exposition in words."

The province of reverent theology is to aid accurate thinking by the use
of metaphysical or psychological terms. Its definitions are no more an
end in themselves than an analysis of good drinking water, which by
itself leaves us thirsty but encourages us to drink. So the Nicene Creed
is the analysis of the river of the water of life of which the Sermon on
the Mount is a description, flowing on from age to age, freely offered
to the thirsty souls of men.

This justification of the ancient creeds carries with it the
justification of later confessions so far as they answered questions
which would be fatal to religion if they were not answered. As Principal
Stewart puts it very clearly: "The answer given is based on the
philosophy or science of the period. It does not necessarily form part
of the religion itself, but is the best which with the materials at its
command, in its own defence and in its love for truth, the religion (and
its advocates) can give. But the answers may be superseded by better
answers, or they may be rendered unnecessary because the questions are
no longer asked. Thus the Calvinism of the 16th and 17th centuries
elaborated answers to questions, which if no attempt had been made to
answer them, would have perplexed earnest souls and condemned the
system; but many parts of the system are now obsolete, because the
conditions which suggested the questions which they sought to answer no
longer exist or have no longer any interest or importance."

  LITERATURE.--See J. Pearson, _Exposition of the Creed_ (new ed.,
  1849); A. E. Burn, _Introduction to the Creeds_ (1899), and _The
  Athanasian Creed_ in vol. iv. of _Texts and Studies_ (1896); H. B.
  Swete, _The Apostles' Creed_ (1899); F. Kattenbusch, _Das apostolische
  Symbol_ (1894-1900); C. A. Heurtley, _Harmonia Symbolica_ (1858): C.
  P. Caspari, _Quellen zur Geschichte des Taufsymbols und der
  Glaubensregel_ (Christiania, 1866); and _Alte und neue Quellen_
  (1879). T. Zahn, _Das apostolische Symbolum_ (1893); C. A. Swainson,
  _The Nicene and Apostles' Creed_ (1875); G. D. W. Ommanney, _The
  Athanasian Creed_ (1897); B. F. Westcott, _The Historic Faith_ (1882);
  J. Jayne, _The Athanasian Creed_ (1905); J. A. Robinson, _The
  Athanasian Creed_ (1905); E. C. S. Gibson, _The Three Creeds_ (1908);
  F. J. A. Hort, _Two Dissertations_ (1876); D. Waterland, _Crit. Hist._
  edited by E. King (Oxford, 1870); F. Loofs and A. Harnack articles in
  Herzog-Hauck's _Realencyklopädie_ ("Athanasianum" and
  "Konstantino-politanisches Symbol") (1896), &c.; K. Künstle,
  _Antipriscilliana_ (Freiburg i. B., 1905); A. Stewart, _Croall
  Lectures_ (in the press); S. G. Green, _The Christian Creed_ (1898);
  P. Hall, _Harmony of Protestant Confessions_ (London, 1842); F.
  Kattenbusch, _Confessionskunde_ (Freiburg i. B., 1890); Winex's
  _Confessions of Christendom_ (Eng. trans., Edinburgh, 1865); A.
  Seeberg, _Der Katechismus der Urchristenheit_ (Leipzig, 1903); F.
  Wiegand, _Die Stellung des apostolischen Symbols_ (Leipzig, 1899); H.
  Goodwin, _The Foundations of the Creed_ (London, 1889); T. H. Bindley,
  _The Oecumenical Documents of the Faith_ (London, 1906); J. Kunze,
  _Das nicänisch-konstantinopolitanische Symbol_; S. Baeumer, _Das
  apostolische Glaubensbekenntnis_ (Mainz, 1893); B. Döxholt, _Das
  Taufsymbol. der alten Kirche_ (Paderborn, 1898); L. Hahn, _Bibliothek
  der Symbole u. Glaubensregeln_ (Breslau, 1897); A. C. McGiffert, _The
  Apostles' Creed_ (Edinburgh, 1902); and F. Loofs, _Symbolik_ (Leipzig,
  1902).     (A. E. B.)


  [1] Jevons, _Introd. to the History of Religion_, p. 394.

  [2] _Sacred Books of the East_, xxxi.

  [3] _Personality, Human and Divine_ (cheap edition), p. 36.

  [4] Ib. p. 38.

  [5] _Der Katechismus der Urchristenheit_, p. 85. Zahn's reasoned
    argument stands in contrast to the blind reliance on tradition shown
    by Macdonald, _The Symbol of the Apostles_, and the fanciful
    reconstruction of the primitive creed by Baeumer, Harnack or Seeberg.

  [6] McGiffert, on the other hand, argues that the Roman Creed was
    composed to meet the errors of Marcion, p. 58 ff. He omits, however,
    to mention this, which is Zahn's strongest argument.

  [7] It is probable that "one" has dropped out of the first clause.
    Zahn acutely suggests that it was omitted in the time of Zephyrinus
    to counteract Monarchian teaching such as the formula: "believe in
    one God, Jesus Christ."

  [8] _Anecdota Maredsolana_, iii. iii. p. 199.

  [9] Dörholt has shown that Petavius (d. 1652) was the first to remark
    that the so-called Constantinopolitan form was quoted by Epiphanius
    before the Council met, but was not able to explain the fact.

  [10] Burn, "Note on the Old Latin text," _Journal of Theol. Studies._

  [11] e.g. Cod. Escurial J.c. 12, _saec._ x. xi. In Cod. Matritensis,
    p. 21 (1872), _saec._ x. xi., and Cod. Matritensis 10041 (begun in
    the year A.D. 948), the words are omitted under the heading council of
    Constantinople but inserted under the heading council of Toledo, in
    the former MS., above the line and in a later hand, which shows
    conclusively how the interpolation crept in.

  [12] The first person who doubted the authorship seems to have been
    Joachim Camerarius, 1551, who was so fiercely attacked in consequence
    that he omitted the passage from his Latin edition. _Zeitschrift für
    K.G._ x. (1889), p. 497.

  [13] In response to an invitation issued by the archbishop of
    Canterbury, acting on a resolution of the Lambeth Conference of 1908,
    a committee of eminent scholars met in April and May 1909 for the
    purpose of preparing a new translation. Their report, issued on the
    18th of October, stated that they had "endeavoured to represent the
    Latin original more exactly in a large number of cases." The general
    effect of the new version is to make the creed more comprehensible,
    e.g. by the substitution of "infinite" and "reasoning" for such
    archaisms as "incomprehensible" and "reasonable." The sense of the
    damnatory clauses has, however, not been weakened. [Ed.]

  [14] Illingworth, _Personality, Human and Divine_, p. 40.

  [15] _The Christian Creed and the Creeds of Christendom_, p. 181.

  [16] Gibson, _The Thirty-nine Articles_, p. 2.

CREEK (Mid. Eng. _crike_ or _creke_, common to many N. European
languages), a small inlet on a low coast, an inlet in a river formed by
the mouth of a small stream, a shallow narrow harbour for small vessels.
In America and Australia especially there are many long streams which
can be everywhere forded and sometimes dry up, and are navigable only at
their tidal estuaries, mere brooks in width which are of great economic
importance. They form complete river-systems, and are the only supply of
surface water over many thousand square miles. They are at some seasons
a mere chain of "water-holes," but occasionally they are strongly
flooded. Since exploration began at the coast and advanced inland, it is
probable that the explorers, advancing up the narrow inlets or "creeks,"
used the same word for the streams which flowed into these as they
followed their courses upward into the country. The early settlers would
use the same word for that portion of the stream which flowed through
their own land, and in Australia particularly the word has the same
local meaning as brook in England. On a map the whole system is called a
river, e.g. the river Wakefield in South Australia gives its name to
Port Wakefield, but the stream is always locally called "the creek."

CREEK or MUSKOGEE (MUSCOGEE) INDIANS (Algonquin _maskoki_, "creeks," in
reference to the many creeks and rivulets running through their
country), a confederacy of North American Indians, who formerly occupied
most of Alabama and Georgia. The confederacy seems to have been in
existence in 1540, and then included the Muskogee, the ruling tribe,
whose language was generally spoken, the Alabama, the Hichiti, Koasati
and others of the Muskogean stock, with the Yuchi and the Natchez, a
large number of Shawano and the Seminoles of Florida as a branch. The
Creeks were agriculturists living in villages of log houses. They were
brave fighters, but during the 18th century only had one struggle, of
little importance, with the settlers. The Creek War of 1813-14 was,
however, serious. The confederacy was completely defeated in three
hard-fought battles, and the peace treaty which followed involved the
cession to the United States government of most of the Creek country. In
the Civil War the Creeks were divided in their allegiance and suffered
heavily in the campaigns. The so-called Creek nation is now settled in
Oklahoma, but independent government virtually ceased in 1906. In 1904
they numbered some 16,000, some two-thirds being of pure or mixed Creek

CREETOWN, a seaport of Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 991. It
is situated near the head of Wigtown Bay, 18 m. W. of Castle Douglas,
but 23½ m. by the Portpatrick and Wigtownshire Railway. The granite
quarries in the vicinity constitute the leading industry, the stone for
the Liverpool docks and other public works having been obtained from
them. The village dates from 1785, and it became a burgh of barony in
1792. Sir Walter Scott laid part of the scene of _Guy Mannering_ in this
neighbourhood. Dr Thomas Brown, the metaphysician (1778-1820), was a
native of the parish (Kirkmabreck) in which Creetown lies.

CREEVEY, THOMAS (1768-1838), English politician, son of William Creevey,
a Liverpool merchant, was born in that city in March 1768. He went to
Queen's College, Cambridge, and graduated as seventh wrangler in 1789.
The same year he became a student at the Inner Temple, and was called to
the bar in 1794. In 1802 he entered parliament through the duke of
Norfolk's nomination as member for Thetford, and married a widow with
six children, Mrs Ord, who had a life interest in a comfortable income.
Creevey was a Whig and a follower of Fox, and his active intellect and
social qualities procured him a considerable intimacy with the leaders
of this political circle. In 1806, when the brief "All the Talents"
ministry was formed, he was given the office of secretary to the Board
of Control; in 1830, when next his party came into power, Creevey, who
had lost his seat in parliament, was appointed by Lord Grey treasurer of
the ordnance; and subsequently Lord Melbourne made him treasurer of
Greenwich hospital. After 1818, when his wife died, he had very slender
means of his own, but he was popular with his friends and was well
looked after by them; Greville, writing of him in 1829, remarks that
"old Creevey is a living proof that a man may be perfectly happy and
exceedingly poor. I think he is the only man I know in society who
possesses nothing." He died in February 1838. He is remembered through
the _Creevey Papers_, published in 1903 under the editorship of Sir
Herbert Maxwell, which, consisting partly of Creevey's own journals and
partly of correspondence, give a lively and valuable picture of the
political and social life of the late Georgian era, and are
characterized by an almost Pepysian outspokenness. They are a useful
addition and correction to the _Croker Papers_, written from a Tory
point of view. For thirty-six years Creevey had kept a "copious diary,"
and had preserved a vast miscellaneous correspondence with such people
as Lord Brougham, and his step-daughter, Elizabeth Ord, had assisted
him, by keeping his letters to her, in compiling material avowedly for a
collection of Creevey Papers in the future. At his death it was found
that he had left his mistress, with whom he had lived for four years,
his sole executrix and legatee, and Greville notes in his _Memoirs_ the
anxiety of Brougham and others to get the papers into their hands and
suppress them. The diary, mentioned above, did not survive, perhaps
through Brougham's success, and the papers from which Sir Herbert
Maxwell made his selection came into his hands from Mrs Blackett Ord,
whose husband was the grandson of Creevey's eldest step-daughter.

CREFELD, or KREFELD, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province,
on the left side of and 3 m. distant from the Rhine, 32 m. N.W. from
Cologne, and 15 m. N.W. from Düsseldorf, with which it is connected by a
light electric railway. Pop. (1875) 62,905; (1905) 110,410. The town is
one of the finest in the Rhine provinces, being well and regularly
built, and possessing several handsome squares and attractive public
gardens. A striking point about the inner town is that it forms a large
rectangle, enclosed by four wide boulevards or "walls." This feature,
rare in German towns, is due to the fact that Crefeld was always an
"open place," and that therefore the circular form of a fortress town
could be dispensed with. It has six Roman Catholic and four Evangelical
churches (of which the Gothic Friedenskirche with a lofty spire, and the
modern church of St Joseph, in the Romanesque style, are alone worth
special mention); there are also a Mennonite and an Old Catholic church.
The town hall, decorated with frescoes by P. Janssen (b. 1844), and the
Kaiser Wilhelm Museum are the most noteworthy secular buildings. In the
promenades are monuments to Moltke, Bismarck and Karl Wilhelm, the
composer of the _Wacht am Rhein_. Among the schools and scientific
institutions of the town the most important is the higher grade
technical school for the study of the textile industries, which is
attended by students from all parts of the world. Connected with this
are subsidiary schools, notably one for dyeing and finishing.

Crefeld is the most important seat of the silk and velvet manufactures
in Germany, and in this industry the larger part of the population of
town and neighbourhood is employed. There are upwards of 12,000 silk
power-looms in operation, and the value of the annual output in this
branch alone is estimated at £3,000,000. A special feature is the
manufacture of silk for covering umbrellas; while of its velvet
manufacture that of velvet ribbon is the chief. The other industries of
the town, notably dyeing, stuff-printing and stamping, are very
considerable, and there are also engineering and machine shops,
chemical, cellulose, soap, and other factories, breweries, distilleries
and tanneries. The surrounding fertile district is almost entirely laid
out in market gardens. Crefeld is an important railway centre, and has
direct communication with Cologne, Rheydt, München-Gladbach and Holland
(via Zevenaar).

Crefeld is first mentioned in records of the 12th century. From the
emperor Charles IV. it received market rights in 1361 and the status of
a town in 1373. It belonged to the counts of Mörs, and was annexed to
Prussia, with the countship, in 1702. It remained a place of little
importance until the 17th century, when religious persecution drove to
it a number of Calvinists and Separatists from Jülich and Berg (followed
later by Mennonites), who introduced the manufacture of linen. The
number of such immigrants still further increased in the 18th century,
when, the silk industry having been introduced from Holland, the town
rapidly developed. The French occupation in 1795 and the resulting
restriction of trade weighed for a while heavily upon the new industry;
but with the termination of the war and the re-establishment of Prussian
rule the old prosperity returned.

CREIGHTON, MANDELL (1843-1901), English historian and bishop of London,
was born at Carlisle on the 5th of July 1843, being the eldest son of
Robert Creighton, a well-to-do upholsterer of that city. He was educated
at Durham grammar school and at Merton College, Oxford, where he was
elected to a postmastership in 1862. He obtained a first-class in
_literae humaniores_, and a second in law and modern history in 1866. In
the same year he became tutor and fellow of Merton. He was ordained
deacon, on his fellowship, in 1870, and priest in 1873; in 1872 he had
married Louise, daughter of Robert von Glehn, a London merchant (herself
a writer of several successful books of history). Meanwhile he had
published several small historical works; but his college and university
duties left little time for writing, and in 1875 he accepted the
vicarage of Embleton, a parish on the coast of Northumberland, near
Dunstanburgh, with an ancient and beautiful church and a fortified
parsonage house, and within reach of the fine library in Bamburgh Keep.
Here he remained for nearly ten years, acquiring that experience of
parochial work which afterwards stood him in good stead, taking private
pupils, studying and writing, as well as taking an active part in
diocesan business. Here too he planned and wrote the first two volumes
of his chief historical work, the _History of the Papacy_; and it was in
part this which led to his being elected in 1884 to the newly-founded
Dixie professorship of ecclesiastical history at Cambridge, where he
went into residence early in 1885. At Cambridge his influence at once
made itself felt, especially in the reorganization of the historical
school. His lectures and conversation classes were extraordinarily good,
possessing as he did the rare gift of kindling the enthusiasm without
curbing the individuality of his pupils. In 1886 he combined with other
leading historians to found the _English Historical Review_, of which he
was editor for five years. Meanwhile the vacations were spent at
Worcester, where he had been nominated a canon residentiary in 1885. In
1891 he was made canon of Windsor; but he never went into residence,
being appointed in the same year to the see of Peterborough. He threw
himself with characteristic energy into his new work, visiting,
preaching and lecturing in every part of his diocese. He also found time
to preach and lecture elsewhere, and to deliver remarkable speeches at
social functions; he worked hard with Archbishop Benson on the Parish
Councils Bill (1894); he became the first president of the Church
Historical Society (1894), and continued in that office till his death;
he took part in the Laud Commemoration (1895); he represented the
English Church at the coronation of the tsar (1896). He even found time
for academical work, delivering the Hulsean lectures (1893-1894) and the
Rede lecture (1894) at Cambridge, and the Romanes lecture at Oxford

In 1897, on the translation of Dr Temple to Canterbury, Bishop Creighton
was transferred to London. During Dr Temple's episcopate ritual
irregularities of all kinds had grown up, which left a very difficult
task to his successor, more especially in view of the growing public
agitation on the subject, of which he had to bear the brunt. As was only
natural, his studied fairness did not satisfy partisans on either side;
and his efforts towards conciliation laid him open to much
misunderstanding. His administration, none the less, did much to preserve
peace. He strained every nerve to induce his clergy to accept his ruling
on the questions of the reservation of the Sacrament and of the
ceremonial use of incense in accordance with the archbishop's judgment in
the Lincoln case; but when, during his last illness, a prosecutor brought
proceedings against the clergy of five recalcitrant churches, the bishop,
on the advice of his archdeacons, interposed his veto. One other effort
on behalf of peace may be mentioned. In accordance with a vote of the
diocesan conference, the bishop arranged the "Round Table Conference"
between representative members of various parties, held at Fulham in
October 1900, on "the doctrine of the Holy Eucharist and its expression
in ritual," and a report of its proceedings was published with a preface
by him. The true work of his episcopate was, however, positive, not
negative. He was an excellent administrator; and his wide knowledge,
broad sympathies, and sound common sense, though they placed him outside
the point of view common to most of his clergy, made him an invaluable
guide in correcting their too often indiscreet zeal. He fully realized
the special position of the English Church in Christendom, and firmly
maintained its essential teaching. Yet he was no narrow Anglican. His
love for the English Church never blinded him to its faults, and no man
was less insular than he. As he was a historian before he became a
bishop, so it was his historical sense which determined his general
attitude as a bishop. It was this, together with a certain native taste
for ecclesiastical pomp, which made him--while condemning the
unhistorical extravagances of the ultra-ritualists--himself a ritualist.
He was the first bishop of London, since the Reformation, to
"pontificate" in a mitre as well as the cope, and though no man could
have been less essentially "sacerdotal" he was always careful of correct
ceremonial usage. His interests and his sympathies, however, extended far
beyond the limits of the church. He took a foremost part in almost every
good work in his diocese, social or educational, political or religious;
while he found time also to cultivate friendly relations with thinking
men and women of all schools, and to help all and sundry who came to him
for advice and assistance. It was this multiplicity of activities and
interests that proved fatal to him. By degrees the work, and especially
the routine work, began to tell on him. He fell seriously ill in the late
summer of 1900, and died on the 14th of January 1901. He was buried in St
Paul's cathedral, where a statue surmounts his tomb.

He was a man of striking presence and distinguished by a fine courtesy
of manner. His irrepressible and often daring humour, together with his
frank distaste for much conventional religious phraseology, was a
stumbling-block to some pious people. But beneath it all lay a deep
seriousness of purpose and a firm faith in what to him were the
fundamental truths of religion.

Bishop Creighton's principal published works are: _History of the Papacy
during the Period of the Reformation_ (5 vols., 1882-1897, new ed.);
_History of the Papacy from the Great Schism to the Sack of Rome_ (6
vols., 1897); _The Early Renaissance in England_ (1895); _Cardinal
Wolsey_ (1895); _Life of Simon de Montfort_ (1876, new ed. 1895); _Queen
Elizabeth_ (1896). He also edited the series of _Epochs of English
History_, for which he wrote "The Age of Elizabeth" (13th ed., 1897);
_Historical Lectures and Addresses by Mandell Creighton, &c._, edited by
Mrs Creighton, were published in 1903.

  See _Life and Letters of Mandell Creighton, &c._, by his wife (2
  vols., 1904); and the article "Creighton and Stubbs" in _Church
  Quarterly Review_ for Oct. 1905.

CREIL, a town of northern France, in the department of Oise, 32 m. N. of
Paris on the Northern railway, on which it is an important junction.
Pop. (1906) 9234. The town is situated on the Oise, on which it has a
busy port. The manufacture of machinery, heavy iron goods and nails, and
copper and iron founding, are important industries, and there are
important metallurgical and engineering works at Montataire, about 2 m.
distant; bricks and tiles and glass are also manufactured, and the
Northern railway has workshops here. The church (12th to 15th centuries)
is in the Gothic style. There are some traces of a castle in which
Charles VI. resided during the period of his madness. Creil played a
part of some importance in the wars of the 14th, 15th and 16th

CRELL (or KRELL), NICHOLAS (c. 1551-1601), chancellor of the elector of
Saxony, was born at Leipzig, and educated at the university of his native
town. About 1580 he entered the service of Christian, the eldest son of
Augustus I., elector of Saxony, and when Christian succeeded his father
as elector in 1586, became his most influential counsellor. Crell's
religious views were Calvinistic or Crypto-Calvinistic, and both before
and after his appointment as chancellor in 1589 he sought to substitute
his own form of faith for the Lutheranism which was the accepted religion
of electoral Saxony. Calvinists were appointed to many important
ecclesiastical and educational offices; a translation of the Bible with
Calvinistic annotations was brought out; and other measures were taken by
Crell to attain his end. In foreign politics, also, he sought to change
the traditional policy of Saxony, acting in unison with John Casimir,
administrator of the Rhenish Palatinate, and promising assistance to
Henry IV. of France. These proceedings, coupled with the jealousy felt at
Crell's high position and autocratic conduct, made the chancellor very
unpopular, and when the elector died in October 1591 he was deprived of
his offices and thrown into prison by order of Frederick William, duke of
Saxe-Altenburg, the regent for the young elector Christian II. His trial
was delayed until 1595, and then, owing partly to the interference of the
imperial court of justice (_Reichskammergericht_), dragged on for six
years. At length it was referred by the emperor Rudolph II. to a court
of appeal at Prague, and sentence of death was passed. This was carried
out at Dresden on the 9th of October 1601.

  See A. V. Richard, _Der kurfürstliche sächsische Kanzler Dr Nicolaus
  Krell_ (Frankfort, 1860); B. Bohnenstädt, _Das Prozessverfahren gegen
  den kursächsischen Kanzler Dr Nikolaus Krell_ (Halle, 1901); F.
  Brandes, _Der Kanzler Krell, ein Opfer des Orthodoxismus_ (Leipzig,
  1873); and E. L. T. Henke, _Caspar Peucer und Nicolaus Krell_
  (Marburg, 1865).

CREMA, a town and episcopal see of Lombardy, Italy, in the province of
Cremona, 26 m. N.E. by rail from the town of Cremona. Pop. (1901) town,
8027; commune, 9609. It is situated on the right bank of the Serio, 240
ft. above sea-level, in the centre of a rich agricultural district. The
cathedral has a fine Lombard Gothic façade of the second half of the
14th century; the campanile belongs to the same period; the rest of the
church has been restored in the baroque style. The clock tower opposite
dates from the period of Venetian dominion in the 16th and 17th
centuries. The castle, which was one of the strongest in Italy, was
demolished in 1809. The church of S. Maria, ¾ m. E. of the town, was
begun in 1490 by Giov. Batt. Battaggio; it is in the form of a Greek
cross, with a central dome, and the exterior is a fine specimen of
polychrome Lombard work (E. Gussalli in _Rassegna d' arte_, 1905, p.

The date of the foundation of Crema is uncertain. In the 10th century it
appears to have been the principal place of the territory known as Isola
Fulcheria. In the 12th century it was allied with Milan and attacked by
Cremona, but was taken and sacked by Barbarossa in 1160. It was rebuilt
in 1185. It fell under the Visconti in 1338, and joined the Lombard
republic in 1447; but was taken by the Venetians in 1449, and, except
from 1509 to 1529, remained under their dominion until 1797.

CREMATION (Lat. _cremare_, to burn), the burning of human corpses. This
method of disposal of the dead may be said to have been the general
practice of the ancient world, with the important exceptions of Egypt,
where bodies were embalmed, Judaea, where they were buried in
sepulchres, and China, where they were buried in the earth. In Greece,
for instance, so well ascertained was the law that only suicides,
unteethed children, and persons struck by lightning were denied the
right to be burned. At Rome, one of the XII. Tables said, "Hominem
mortuum in urbe ne sepelito, neve urito"; and in fact, from the close of
the republic to the end of the 4th Christian century, burning on the
pyre or rogus was the general rule.[1] Whether in any of these cases
cremation was adopted or rejected for sanitary or for superstitious
reasons, it is difficult to say. Embalming would probably not succeed in
climates less warm and dry than the Egyptian. The scarcity of fuel might
also be a consideration. The Chinese are influenced by the doctrine of
Feng-Shui, or incomprehensible wind water; they must have a properly
placed grave in their own land, and with this view their corpses are
sent home from long distances abroad. Even the Jews used cremation in
the vale of Tophet when a plague came; and the modern Jews of Berlin and
the Spanish and Portuguese Jews at Mile End cemetery were among the
first to welcome the lately revived process. Probably also, some nations
had religious objections to the pollution of the sacred principle of
fire, and therefore practised exposure, suspension, throwing into the
sea, cave-burial, desiccation or envelopment.[2] Some at least of these
methods must obviously have been suggested simply by the readiest means
at hand. Cremation is still practised over a great part of Asia and
America, but not always in the same form. Thus, the ashes may be stored
in urns, or buried in the earth, or thrown to the wind, or (as among the
Digger Indians) smeared with gum on the heads of the mourners. In one
case the three processes of embalming, burning and burying are gone
through; and in another, if a member of the tribe die at a great
distance from home, some of his money and clothes are nevertheless
burned by the family. As food, weapons, &c., are sometimes buried with
the body, so they are sometimes burned with the body, the whole ashes
being collected.[3] The Siamese have a singular institution, according
to which, before burning, the embalmed body lies in a temple for a
period determined by the rank of the dead man,--the king for six months,
and so downwards. If the poor relatives cannot afford fuel and the other
necessary preparations, they bury the body, but exhume it for burning
when an opportunity occurs.

There can be little doubt that the practice of cremation in modern
Europe was at first stopped, and has since been prevented in great
measure, by the Christian doctrine of the resurrection of the body;
partly also by the notion that the Christian's body was redeemed and
purified.[4] Some clergymen, however, as the late Mr Haweis in his
_Ashes to Ashes, a Cremation Prelude_ (London, 1874), have been
prominent in favour of cremation. The objection of the clergy was
disposed of by the philanthropist Lord Shaftesbury when he asked, "What
would in such a case become of the blessed martyrs?" The very general
practice of burying bodies in the precincts of a church in order that
the dead might take benefit from the prayers of persons resorting to the
church, and the religious ceremony which precedes both European burials
and Asiatic cremations, have given the question a religious aspect. It
is, however, in the ultimate resort, really a sanitary one. The
disgusting results of pit-burial made cemeteries necessary. But
cemeteries are equally liable to overcrowding, and are often nearer to
inhabited houses than the old churchyards. It is possible, no doubt, to
make a cemetery safe approximately by selecting a soil which is dry,
close and porous, by careful drainage, and by rigid enforcement of the
rules prescribing a certain depth (8 to 10 ft.) and a certain
superficies (4 yds.) for graves. But a great mass of sanitary objections
may be brought against even recent cemeteries in various countries. A
dense clay, the best soil for preventing the levitation of gas, is the
worst for the process of decomposition. The danger is strikingly
illustrated in the careful planting of trees and shrubs to absorb the
carbonic acid. Vault-burial in metallic coffins, even when sawdust
charcoal is used, is still more dangerous than ordinary burial. It must
also be remembered that the cemetery system can only be temporary. The
soil is gradually filled with bones; houses crowd round; the law itself
permits the reopening of graves at the expiry of fourteen years. We
shall not, indeed, as Browne says, "be knaved out of our graves to have
our skulls made drinking bowls and our bones turned into pipes!" But on
this ground of sentiment cremation would certainly prevent any
interruption of that "sweet sleep and calm rest" which the old prayer
that the earth might lie lightly has associated with the grave. And in
the meantime we should escape the horror of putrefaction and of the
"small cold worm that fretteth the enshrouded form."

In Europe Christian burial was long associated entirely with the
ordinary practice of committing the corpse to the grave. But in the
middle of the 19th century many distinguished physicians and chemists,
especially in Italy, began prominently to advocate cremation. In 1874, a
congress called to consider the matter at Milan resolved to petition the
Chamber of Deputies for a clause in the new sanitary code, permitting
cremation under the supervision of the syndics of the commune. In
Switzerland Dr Vegmann Ercolani was the champion of the cause (see his
_Cremation the most Rational Method of Disposing of the Dead_, 4th ed.,
Zurich, 1874). So long ago as 1797 cremation was seriously discussed by
the French Assembly under the Directory, and the events of the
Franco-Prussian War again brought the subject under the notice of the
medical press and the sanitary authorities. The military experiments at
Sédan, Chalons and Metz, of burying large numbers of bodies with
quicklime, or pitch and straw, were not successful, but very dangerous.
The matter was considered by the municipal council of Paris in connexion
with the new cemetery at Méry-sur-Oise; and the prefect of the Seine in
1874 sent a circular asking information to all the cremation societies
in Europe. In Britain the subject had slumbered for two centuries, since
in 1658 Sir Thomas Browne published his quaint _Hydriotaphia, or
Urn-burial_, which was mainly founded on the _De funere Romanorum_ of
the learned Kirchmannus. In 1817 Dr J. Jamieson gave a sketch of the
"Origin of Cremation" (_Proc. Royal Soc. Edin._, 1817), and for many
years prior to 1874 Dr Lord, medical officer of health for Hampstead,
continued to urge the practical necessity for the introduction of the

It was Sir Henry Thompson, however, who first brought the question
prominently before the public. Thompson's problem was--"Given a dead
body, to resolve it into carbonic acid, water and ammonia, rapidly,
safely and not unpleasantly." To solve this problem, experiments were
made by Dr Polli at the Milan gas works, fully described in Dr Pietra
Santa's book, _La Crémation des morts en France et à l'étranger_, and by
Professor Brunetti, who exhibited an apparatus at the Vienna Exhibition
of 1873, and who stated his results in _La Cremazione dei cadaveri_
(Padua, 1873). Polli obtained complete incineration or calcination of
dogs by the use of coal-gas mixed with atmospheric air, applied to a
cylindrical retort of refracting clay, so as to consume the gaseous
products of combustion. The process was complete in two hours, and the
ashes weighed about 5% of the weight before cremation. Brunetti used an
oblong furnace of refracting brick with side-doors to regulate the
draught, and above a cast-iron dome with movable shutters. The body was
placed on a metallic plate suspended on iron wire. The gas generated
escaped by the shutters, and in two hours carbonization was complete.
The heat was then raised and concentrated, and at the end of four hours
the operation was over; 180 lb. of wood costing 2s. 4d. sterling was
burned. In a reverberating furnace used by Sir Henry Thompson a body,
weighing 144 lb., was reduced in fifty minutes to about 4 lb. of lime
dust. The noxious gases, which were undoubtedly produced during the
first five minutes of combustion, passed through a flue into a second
furnace and were entirely consumed. In the ordinary Siemens regenerative
furnace (which was adapted by Reclam in Germany for cremation, and also
by Sir Henry Thompson) only the hot-blast was used, the body supplying
hydrogen and carbon; or a stream of heated hydrocarbon mixed with heated
air was sent from a gasometer supplied with coal, charcoal, peat or
wood,--the brick or iron-cased chamber being thus heated to a high
degree before cremation begins.

Steps were at once taken to form an English society to promote the
practice of cremation. A declaration of its objects was drawn up and
signed on the 13th January 1874 by the following persons--Shirley
Brooks, William Eassie, Ernest Hart, the Rev. H. R. Haweis, G. H.
Hawkins, John Cordy Jeaffreson, F. Lehmann, C. F. Lord, W. Shaen, A.
Strahan, (Sir) Henry Thompson, Major Vaughan, Rev. C. Voysey and (Sir)
T. Spencer Wells; and they frequently met to consider the necessary
steps in order to attain their object. The laws and regulations having
been thoroughly discussed, the membership of the society was constituted
by an annual contribution for expenses, and a subscription to the
following declaration:--

  "We disapprove the present custom of burying the dead, and desire to
  substitute some mode which shall rapidly resolve the body into its
  component elements by a process which cannot offend the living, and
  shall render the remains absolutely innocuous. Until some better
  method is devised, we desire to adopt that usually known as

Finally, on 29th April a meeting was held, a council was formed, and Sir
H. Thompson was elected president and chairman. Mr Eassie (who in 1875
published a valuable work on _Cremation of the Dead_) was at the same
time appointed honorary secretary.[5] In 1875 the following were
added:--Mrs Rose Mary Crawshay, Mr Higford Burr, Rev. J. Long, Mr W.
Robinson and the Rev. Brooke Lambert. Subsequently followed Lord
Bramwell, Sir Chas. Cameron, Dr Farquharson, Sir Douglas Galton, Lord
Playfair, Mr Martin Ridley Smith, Mr James A. Budgett, Mr Edmund Yates,
Mr J. S. Fletcher, Mr J. C. Swinburne-Hanham, the duke of Westminster
(on Lord Bramwell's death), and Sir Arthur Arnold. These may be
considered the pioneers of the movement for reform.

On account of difficulties and prejudices[6] the council was unable to
purchase a freehold until 1878, when an acre was obtained at Woking, not
far distant from the cemetery. At this time the furnace employed by
Professor Gorini of Lodi, Italy, appeared to be the best for working
with on a small scale; and he was invited to visit England to
superintend its erection. This was completed in 1879, and the body of a
horse was cremated rapidly and completely without any smoke or effluvia
from the chimney. No sooner was this successful step taken than the
president received a communication from the Home Office, which resulted
in a personal interview with the home secretary; the issue of which was
that if the society desired to avoid direct hostile action, an assurance
must be given that no cremation should be attempted without leave first
obtained from the minister. This of course was given, no further
building took place, and the society's labours were confined to
employing means to diffuse information on the subject. Sir Spencer Wells
brought it before the annual meeting of the British Medical Association
in 1880, when a petition to the home secretary for permission to adopt
cremation was largely signed by the leading men in town and country, but
without any immediate result. The next important development was an
application to the council in 1882, by Captain Hanham in Dorsetshire, to
undertake the cremation of two deceased relatives who had left express
instructions to that effect. The home secretary was applied to, and
refused. The bodies were preserved, and Captain Hanham erected a
crematorium on his estate, and the cremation took place there. He
himself, dying a year later, was cremated also; in both cases the result
was attained under the supervision of Mr J. C. Swinburne-Hanham, who
succeeded Mr Eassie in 1888 as honorary secretary to the society. The
government took no notice. But in 1883 a cremation was performed in
Wales by a man on the body of his child, and legal proceedings were
taken against him. Mr Justice Stephen, in February 1884, delivered his
well-known judgment at the Assizes there, declaring cremation to be a
legal procedure, provided no nuisance were caused thereby to others. The
council of the society at once declared themselves absolved from their
promise to the Home Office, and publicly offered to perform cremation,
laying down strict rules for careful inquiry into the cause of death in
every case. They stated that they were fully aware that the chief
practical objection to cremation was that it removed traces of poison or
violence which might have caused death. Declining to trust the very
imperfect statement generally made respecting the cause of death in the
ordinary death certificate (unless a coroner's inquest had been held),
they adopted a system of very stringent inquiry, the result of which in
each case was to be submitted to the president, to be investigated and
approved by him before cremation could take place, with the right to
decline or require an inquest if he thought proper; and this course has
been followed ever since the first cremation.

It was on 26th March 1885 that the first cremation at Woking took place,
the subject being a lady.[7] In 1888 it became necessary, nearly 100
bodies having been by this date cremated, to build a large hall for
religious service, as well as waiting-rooms, in connexion with the
crematorium there. The dukes of Bedford and Westminster headed the
appeal for funds, each with £105. The former (the 9th duke of Bedford)
especially took great interest in the progress of the society, and
offered to furnish further donations to any extent necessary. During the
next two years he generously defrayed costs to the amount of £3500, and
built a smaller crematorium adjacent for himself and family. The latter
building was first used on the 18th of January 1891, a few days after
the duke's own death. The number of cremations slowly increased year by
year, and the total at the end of 1900 was 1824. Many of these were
persons of distinction--by rank, or by attainments in art, literature
and science, or in public life.

  Death certification.

The council next turned their attention to the need for a national system
of death certification, to be enforced by law as an essential and
much-needed reform in connexion with cremation. On the 6th of January 1893
the duke of Westminster introduced a deputation to the secretary of state
for the home department, Mr Asquith, and the president of the Cremation
Society opened the case, showing that no less than 7% of the burials in
England took place without any certificate, while in some districts it was
far greater. In consequence of this the home secretary appointed a select
committee of the House of Commons, which was presided over by Sir Walter
Foster, of the Local Government Board, to "inquire into the sufficiency of
the existing law as to the disposal of the dead ... and especially for
detecting the causes of death due to poison, violence, and criminal
neglect." After a prolonged inquiry and careful consideration of the
evidence, a full report and conclusions drawn therefrom were unanimously
agreed to, and published as a blue-book in the autumn of 1893.[8]

  The following conclusions are quoted from this volume:--Page iii. "So
  far as affording a record of the true cause of death and the detection
  of it in cases where death may have been due to violence, poison, or
  where criminal neglect is concerned, the class of certified deaths
  leaves much to be desired." Page iv. Certification is extremely
  important as a deterrent of crime, and numerous proofs are given at
  length in support of the statement.... "Contrast this class with that
  of uncertified deaths, when the result is such as to force upon your
  Committee the conviction that vastly more deaths occur annually from
  foul play and criminal neglect than the law recognizes." Page vii.
  Great uncertainty in resorting to the coroner's court, and want of
  system in connexion with the practice of it, are affirmed to exist.
  Page x. It is stated that the opportunity for perpetrating crime is
  great in the considerable class of uncertified cases ... "in short,
  the existing procedure plays into the hands of the criminal classes."
  "Your Committee are much impressed with the serious possibilities
  implied in a system which permits death and burial to take place
  without the production of satisfactory medical evidence of the cause
  of death." Page xii. "Your Committee have arrived at the conclusion
  that the appointment of medical officials, who should investigate all
  cases of death which are not certified by a medical practitioner in
  attendance, is a proposal which deserves their support."

  In considering cremation, the committee reported as follows:--Page
  xxii. "Your Committee are of opinion that there is only one question
  in connexion with this method of disposing of a dead body to which it
  is necessary for them to refer. That question is the supposed danger
  to the community arising from the fact that with the destruction of
  the body the possibility of obtaining evidence of the cause of death
  by _post-mortem_ examination also disappears." The mode of proceeding
  adopted by the Cremation Society of England having been described,
  "your Committee are of opinion that with the precautions adopted in
  connexion with cremation, as carried out by the Cremation Society,
  there is little probability that cases of crime would escape
  detection, but inasmuch as these precautions are purely voluntary,
  your Committee consider that in the interests of public safety such
  regulations should be enforced by law."

The Cremation Society felt that this report much strengthened the case
for legislation amending the law of death certification. In August 1894
the president of the society laid the results of the select committee
before the British Medical Association at Bristol, and a unanimous vote
was obtained in favour of the suggestions made by it. In November a
second deputation waited on Mr Asquith, in which the president of the
society begged him to carry out the system recommended. The home
secretary replied that the business belonged to the department of the
Local Government Board, and that it was already dealing with the
question and bringing it to a satisfactory solution. Soon afterwards,
however, the government changed, other questions became pressing and
further consideration of the subject was postponed.

  With reference to the recommendations of the select committee before
  mentioned, the regulations necessary for registration of death and the
  disposal of the dead may be outlined as follows:--(1) That no body
  should be buried, cremated, or otherwise disposed of without a medical
  certificate of death signed, after personal knowledge and observation,
  or by information obtained after investigation made by a qualified
  medical officer appointed for the purpose. (2) A qualified medical man
  should be appointed as official certifier in every parish, or district
  of neighbouring parishes, his duty being to inquire into all cases of
  death and report the cause in writing, together with such other
  details as may be deemed necessary. This would naturally fall within
  the duties of the medical officer of health for the district, and
  registration should be made at his office. (3) If the circumstances of
  death obviously demand a coroner's inquest, the case should be
  transferred to his court and the cause determined, with or without
  autopsy. If there appears to be no ground for holding an inquest, and
  autopsy be necessary to the furnishing of a certificate, the official
  certifier should make it, and state the result in his report. (4) No
  person or company should be henceforth permitted to construct or use
  an apparatus for cremating human bodies without license from the Local
  Government Board or other authority. (5) No crematory should be so
  employed unless the site, construction, and system of management have
  been approved after survey by an officer appointed by government for
  the purpose. But the licence to construct or use a crematory should
  not be withheld if guarantees are given that the conditions required
  are or will be complied with. All such crematories to be subject at
  all times to inspection by an officer appointed by the government. (6)
  The burning of a human body, otherwise than in an officially
  recognized crematory, should be illegal, and punishable by penalty.
  (7) No human body should be cremated unless the official examiner
  added the words "Cremation permitted." This he should be bound to do
  if, after due inquiry, he can certify that the deceased has died from
  natural causes, and not from ill-treatment, poison or violence.

The Cremation Act 1902 (2 Ed. VII. ch. 8), and the regulations[9] made
thereunder by the home secretary, have since given legislative effect to
some of the foregoing recommendations and have laid down a code of laws
applicable and binding where cremation is resorted to. But the
amendments in the law of death certification generally, so long pressed
for by the Cremation Society of England and recommended by the select
committee, are none the less necessary.

Undoubtedly in populous communities and in crowded districts the burial
of dead bodies is liable to be a source of danger to the living. As
early as 1840 a commission had been appointed, including some of the
earliest authorities on sanitary science,--namely, Drs Southwood Smith,
Chadwick, Milroy, Sutherland, Waller Lewis and others,--to conduct a
searching inquiry into the state of the burial-grounds of London and
large provincial towns. By the report[10] the existence of such a danger
was strikingly demonstrated, and intramural interments were in
consequence made illegal. The advocates of burial then declared that
interment in certain light soils would safely and efficiently decompose
the putrefying elements which begin to be developed the moment death
takes place, and which rapidly become dangerous to the living, still
more so in the case of deaths from contagious disease. But these light
dry soils and elevated spots are precisely those best adapted for human
habitation; to say nothing of their value for food-production. Granted
the efficiency of such burial, it only effects in the course of a few
years what exposure to a high temperature accomplishes with absolute
safety in an hour. In a densely populated country the struggle between
the claims of the dead and the living to occupy the choicest sites
becomes a serious matter. All decaying animal remains give off
effluvia--gases--which are transferred through the medium of the
atmosphere to become converted into vegetable growth of some
kind--trees, crops, garden produce, grass, &c. Every plant absorbs these
gases by its leaves, each one of which is provided with hundreds of
stomata--open mouths--by which they fix or utilize the carbon to form
woody fibre, and give off free oxygen to the atmosphere. Thus it is that
the air we breathe is kept pure by the constant interaction between the
animal and vegetable kingdoms. It may be taken as certain that the
gaseous products arising from a cremated body--amounting, although
invisible, to no less than 97% of its weight, 3% only remaining as
solids, in the form of a pure white ash--become in the course of a few
hours integral and active elements in some form of vegetable life. The
result of this reasoning has been that, by slow degrees, crematoria have
been constructed at many of the populous cities in Great Britain and
abroad (see _Statistics_ below).

The subject of employing cremation for the bodies of those who die of
contagious disease is a most important one. Sir H. Thompson advocated
this course in a paper read before the International Congress of Hygiene
held in London in 1891; and a resolution strongly approving the practice
was carried unanimously at a large meeting of experts and medical
officers of health. Such diseases are small-pox, scarlet fever,
diphtheria, consumption, malignant cholera, enteric, relapsing and
puerperal fevers, the annual number of deaths from which in the United
Kingdom is upwards of 80,000. Complete disinfection takes place by means
of the high temperature to which the body is exposed. At the present day
it is compulsory to report any case in the foregoing list, whenever it
occurs, to the medical officer of health for the district; and it is
customary to disinfect the rooms themselves, as well as the clothes and
furniture used by the patient if the case be fatal; but the body, which
is the source and origin of the evil, and is itself loaded with the
germs of a specific poison, is left to the chances which attach to its
preservation in that condition, when buried in a fit or unfit soil or

The process of preparing a body for cremation requires a brief notice.
The plan generally adopted is to place it (in the usual shroud) in a
light pine shell, discarding all heavy oak or other coffin, and to
introduce it into the furnace in that manner. Thus there is no handling
or exposure of the body after it reaches the crematorium. The type of
furnace in general use is on the reverberatory principle, the body being
consumed in a separate chamber heated to over 2000° Fahr. by a coke
fire. In a few instances a furnace burning ordinary illuminating gas
instead of coke is in use.     (H. TH.)

_Statistics._--The following statistics show the history of modern
cremation and its progress at home and abroad:--

  _Foreign Countries._--The first experiment in Italy was made by
  Brunetti in 1869, his second and third in 1870. Gorini and Polli
  published their first cases in 1872. Brunetti exhibited his at Vienna
  in 1873. All were performed in the open air. The next in Europe was a
  single case at Breslau in 1874. Soon after, an English lady was
  cremated in a closed apparatus (Siemens) at Dresden. The next
  cremation in a closed receptacle took place at Milan in 1876. In the
  same year a Cremation Society was formed, a handsome building was
  erected, and two Gorini furnaces were at work in 1880. In 1899 the
  total number of cremations was 1355. In Italy 28 crematoria exist,
  viz. at Alessandria, Asti, Bologna, Bra, Brescia, Como, Cremona,
  Florence, Genoa, Leghorn, Lodi, Mantua, Milan, Modena, Novara, Padua,
  Perugia, Pisa, Pistoia, Rome, San Remo, Siena, Spezia, Turin, Udine,
  Verona and Venice. The total number of cremations in Italy in 1906 was

  In Germany the first crematorium was erected at Gotha; it was opened
  in 1878, and the total cremations down to September 1st, 1907,
  numbered 4584. At Ohlsdorf, Hamburg, the crematorium was opened in
  November 1892, and the total cremations down to September 1st, 1907,
  numbered 2521. At Heidelberg the crematorium was opened in 1891, and
  the total cremations down to September 1st, 1907, numbered 1741.
  Throughout the German empire there are, in addition to the above,
  crematoria at Bremen, Eisenach, Jena, Karlsruhe, Mannheim, Mainz,
  Offenbach, Heilbronn, Ulm, Chemnitz and Stuttgart, besides over eighty
  societies for promoting cremation. The total number of cremations
  which took place in Germany in 1906 was 2057, making a total of 13,614
  down to September 1st, 1907.

  Other societies exist in Denmark, Holland, Belgium, Sweden, Norway and
  Switzerland. At the crematorium at Copenhagen 77 bodies were cremated
  in 1906, the total being 500. The Stockholm crematorium was opened in
  October 1887, and the cremations in 1906 numbered 56. The Gothenburg
  crematorium (also in Sweden) was opened in January 1890, and the
  cremations there in 1906 were 14. Switzerland has four crematoria,
  viz. at Basel, Geneva, Zurich and St Gallen--524 cremations took place
  in that country in 1906.

  In Paris a cremation society was founded in 1880, and in 1886-1887 a
  large crematorium was constructed by the municipal council at Père
  Lachaise, containing three Gorini furnaces. It was first used in
  October 1887 for two men who died of small-pox. The demand became
  large; an improved furnace was soon devised, the unclaimed bodies at
  the hospitals and the remains at the dissecting rooms being cremated
  there, besides a large number of embryos. In 1906 the number,
  including the last-named class, was 6906. The total number of
  incinerations at Père Lachaise down to December 31st, 1906 (including
  both classes) was 86,962; but the employment of cremation for the
  purposes named has deterred a resort to it by many. Had a separate
  establishment been organized for the public, its success would have
  been greater. A magnificent edifice has been constructed by the
  municipality of Paris for the conservation of the ashes of persons who
  have been cremated. Crematoria have been established also at Rouen,
  Rheims and Marseilles, and the construction of crematoria in other of
  the great provincial centres of France was in contemplation.

  In Buenos Aires, since 1844, the bodies of all persons dying of
  contagious disease are cremated, and there is also a separate
  establishment for the use of the public.

  At Tokio in Japan no fewer than 22 crematoria exist, and about an
  equal number of cremations and burials in earth take place.

  At Calcutta a crematorium was opened in 1906.

  At Montreal, Canada, there is a crematorium which began operations in
  1902, and completed 44 cremations up to the 31st of December 1905.

  _United States._--There were 33 crematoria in the United States on
  September 1st, 1907. At Fresh Pond, New York, erected in 1885, the
  total number of cremations to December 31st, 1906, being 8514. At
  Buffalo, N.Y., the first cremation taking place in 1885, and the total
  number down to December 31st, 1905, being 787. At Troy (Earl
  Crematorium), N. Y., the first cremation taking place in 1890, and the
  total number down to December 31st, 1905, 249. At Swinburne Island,
  N.Y., cremations beginning in 1890, total to December 31st, 1905, 123.
  At Waterville, N.Y., cremations beginning in 1893, total to December
  31st, 1906, 62. At St Louis, Missouri, cremations beginning in 1888,
  total to September 1st, 1907, 2151. At Philadelphia, Penn., cremations
  beginning in 1888, total to September 1st, 1907, 1685. At San
  Francisco, Cal., "Odd Fellows," opened in 1895, total to December
  31st, 1906, 6151. Also at San Francisco, Cal., "Cypress Lawn," opened
  in 1893, total to December 31st, 1905, 1492. At Los Angeles, Cal., No.
  1, Rosedale, opened in 1887, total to December 31st, 1905, 866; No. 2,
  Evergreen, opened in 1902, total to December 31st, 1905, 413; No. 3,
  Gower Street, opened in 1907 with 54 down to September 1st. At Boston,
  Mass., opened in 1893, total to September 1st, 1907, 2493. At
  Cincinnati, Ohio, opened in 1887, total to September 1st, 1907, 1245.
  At Chicago, opened in 1893, total to September 1st, 1907, 2188. At
  Detroit, Michigan, opened in 1887, total to December 31st, 1905, 689.
  At Pittsburg, Penn., opened in 1886, total to September 1st, 1907,
  377. At Baltimore, opened in 1889, total to December 31st, 1905, 263.
  At Lancaster, Penn., opened in 1884, total to December 31st, 1906,
  106. At Davenport, Iowa, opened in 1891, total to September 1st, 1907,
  331. At Milwaukee, opened in 1896, total to October 1905, 442. At
  Washington, opened in 1897, total to December 31st, 1905, 275. The Le
  Moyne (Washington, Pa.) crematory, the first in the United States, was
  erected by Dr F. Julius le Moyne in 1876, for private use. The first
  cremation was that of the baron de Palin, of New York, December 6th,
  1876. Dr F. Julius le Moyne died October 1879, and his remains were
  cremated in his own crematory. Total number of cremations (to 1907)
  41. At Pasadena, Cal., opened in 1895, total to September 1st, 1907,
  491. At St. Paul, Minn., opened in 1897, total to December 31st, 1905,
  145. At Fort Wayne, Ind., opened in 1897, total to September 1st,
  1907, 41. At Cambridge, Mass., opened in 1900, total to September 1st,
  1907, 1090. At Cleveland, Ohio, opened in 1901, total to December
  31st, 1905, 283. At Denver, Col., opened in 1904, total to December
  31st, 1905, 109. At Indianapolis, opened in 1904, total to December
  31st, 1905, 32. At Oakland, Cal., opened in 1902, total to September
  1st, 1907, 2196. At Portland, Ore., opened in 1901, total to December
  31st, 1905, 327. At Seattle, Washington, opened in 1905, with 21 to
  the end of that year.

  _United Kingdom._--There were 13 crematoria in operation in the United
  Kingdom on September 1st, 1907. The oldest is that at Woking, Surrey,
  which was first used for the cremation of human remains in 1885. In
  that year three cremations took place there, the number gradually
  increasing each year until in 1901 301 bodies were cremated. Up to
  September 1st, 1907, the total number of cremations at Woking was
  2939. Then followed the crematorium at Manchester, opened in 1892 with
  90 in 1906 and a total of 1085; at Glasgow, opened in 1895 with 45 in
  1906 and a total of 252; at Liverpool, opened in 1896, with 46 in 1906
  and a total of 374; at Hull, opened in 1901 (the first municipal
  crematorium), with 17 in 1906 and a total of 116; at Darlington, also
  opened in 1901, with 13 in 1906 and a total of 33. The Leicester
  Corporation crematorium was opened in 1902, with 12 in 1906 and a
  total of 50. Next in order came the Golder's Green crematorium,
  Hampstead, London, which was opened in December 1902. In 1906 298
  cremations took place there, making a total of 1091. After this
  followed the Birmingham crematorium, opened in 1903, with 21 in 1906
  and a total of 84; the City of London crematorium at Little Ilford,
  opened in 1905, with 23 for 1906 and a total of 46; the Leeds
  crematorium, opened in 1905, with 15 in 1906 and a total of 42; the
  Bradford Corporation crematorium, opened in 1905, with 13 in 1906, and
  a total of 20; and the Sheffield Corporation crematorium, opened in
  1905, with 6 in 1906 and a total of 26. Thus there were 739
  cremations in the United Kingdom in 1906, making a total at the above
  crematoria down to September 1st, 1907, of 6158. The Golder's Green
  crematorium, situated on the northern boundary of Hampstead Heath,
  stands in its own grounds of 12 acres, and is but 35 minutes' drive
  from Oxford Circus. London thus has two crematoria within driving
  distance of its centre, and the Woking crematorium within easy reach
  of the south-west suburbs.     (J. C. S.-H.)


  [1] Macrobius says it was disused in the reign of the younger
    Theodosius (Gibbon v. 411).

  [2] The Colchians, says Sir Thos. Browne, made their graves in the
    air, i.e. on trees.

  [3] In the case of a great man there was often a burnt offering of
    animals and even of slaves (see Caesar, _De bell. Gall._ iv.).

  [4] A temple of the Holy Ghost (see Tertullian, _De anima_, c. 51,
    cited in Müller, _Lex. des Kirchenrechts_, s.v. "Begräbniss").

  [5] This was the first society formed in Europe for the promotion of

  [6] For a full account of these, see _Modern Cremation: Its History
    and Practice to the Present Date_, by Sir H. Thompson, Bart.,
    F.R.C.S., &c. (4th ed., Smith, Elder, Waterloo Place, 1901).

  [7] _The Times_, 27th March 1885.

  [8] _Reports on Death Certification_ (1893), Eyre & Spottiswoode,
    London (373,472).

  [9] _Statutory Rules and Orders_, 1903, No. 286, Eyre & Spottiswoode.

  [10] _A Special Inquiry into the Practice of Interment in Towns_, by
    Edwin Chadwick (London, 1843), is replete with evidence, and should
    be read by those who desire to pursue the inquiry further.

CREMER, JAKOBUS JAN (1837-1880), Dutch novelist, born at Arnhem in
September 1837, started life as a painter, but soon exchanged the brush
for the pen. The great success of his first novelettes (_Betuwsche
Novellen_ and _Overbetuwsche Novellen_), published about 1855--reprinted
many times since, and translated into German and French--showed Cremer
the wisdom of his new departure. These short stories of Dutch provincial
life are written in the quaint dialect of the Betuwe, the large flat
Gelderland island, formed by the Rhine, the name recalling the presumed
earliest inhabitants, the Batavi. Cremer is strongest in his delineation
of character. His picturesque humour, coming out, perhaps, most forcibly
in his numerous readings of the Betuwe novelettes, soon procured him the
name of the "Dutch Fritz Reuter." In his later novels Cremer abandons
both the language and the slight love-stories of the Betuwe, depicting
the Dutch life of other centres in the national tongue. The principal
are: _Anna Rooze_ (1867), _Dokter Helmond en zijn Vrouw_ (1870), _Hanna
de Freule_ (1873), _Daniel Sils_, &c. Cremer was less successful as a
playwright, and his two comedies, _Peasant and Nobleman_ and _Emma
Bertholt_, did not enhance his fame; nor did a volume of poems,
published in 1873. He died at the Hague in June 1880. His collected
novels have appeared at Leiden. An English novel, founded by Albert
Vandam upon _Anna Rooze_, considered by many his best work, was
published in London (1877, 3 vols.) under the title of _An Everyday

CREMERA (mod. _Fosso della Valchetta_), a small stream in Etruria which
falls into the Tiber about 6 m. N. of Rome. The identification with the
Fosso della Valchetta is fixed as correct by the account in Livy ii. 49,
which shows that the Saxa Rubra were not far off, and this we know to be
the Roman name of the post station of Prima Porta, about 7 m. from Rome
on the Via Flaminia. It is famous for the defeat of the three hundred
Fabii, who had established a fortified post on its banks.

CRÉMIEUX, ISAAC MOÏSE [known as ADOLPHE] (1796-1880), French statesman,
was born at Nîmes, of a rich Jewish family. He began life as an advocate
in his native town. After the revolution of 1830 he came to Paris,
formed connexions with numerous political personages, even with King
Louis Philippe, and became a brilliant defender of Liberal ideas in the
law courts and in the press,--witness his _Éloge funèbre_ of the bishop
Grégoire (1830), his _Mémoire_ for the political rehabilitation of
Marshal Ney (1833), and his plea for the accused of April (1835).
Elected deputy in 1842, he was one of the leaders in the campaign
against the Guizot ministry, and his eloquence contributed greatly to
the success of his party. On the 24th of February 1848 he was chosen by
the Republicans as a member of the provisional government, and as
minister of justice he secured the decrees abolishing the death penalty
for political offences, and making the office of judge immovable. When
the conflict between the Republicans and Socialists broke out he
resigned office, but continued to sit in the constituent assembly. At
first he supported Louis Napoleon, but when he discovered the prince's
imperial ambitions he broke with him. Arrested and imprisoned on the 2nd
of December 1851, he remained in private life until November 1869, when
he was elected as a Republican deputy by Paris. On the 4th of September
1870 he was again chosen member of the government of national defence,
and resumed the ministry of justice. He then formed part of the
Delegation of Tours, but took no part in the completion of the
organization of defence. He resigned with his colleagues on the 14th of
February 1871. Eight months later he was elected deputy, then life
senator in 1875. He died on the 10th of February 1880. Crémieux did much
to better the condition of the Jews. He was president of the Universal
Israelite Alliance, and while in the government of the national defence
he secured the franchise for the Jews in Algeria. This famous _Décret
Crémieux_ was the origin of the anti-Semitic movement in Algiers.
Crémieux published a _Recueil_ of his political cases (1869), and the
_Actes de la délégation de Tours et de Bordeaux_ (2 vols., 1871).

CREMONA, LUIGI (1830-1903), Italian mathematician, was born at Pavia on
the 7th of December 1830. In 1848, when Milan and Venice rose against
Austria, Cremona, then only a lad of seventeen, joined the ranks of the
Italian volunteers, and remained with them, fighting on behalf of his
country's freedom, till, in 1849, the capitulation of Venice put an end
to the hopeless campaign. He then returned to Pavia, where he pursued
his studies at the university under Francesco Brioschi, and determined
to seek a career as teacher of mathematics. His first appointment was as
elementary mathematical master at the gymnasium and lyceum of Cremona,
and he afterwards obtained a similar post at Milan. In 1860 he was
appointed to the professorship of higher geometry at the university of
Bologna, and in 1866 to that of higher geometry and graphical statics at
the higher technical college of Milan. In this same year he competed for
the Steiner prize of the Berlin Academy, with a treatise entitled
"Memoria sulle superficie de terzo ordine," and shared the award with J.
C. F. Sturm. Two years later the same prize was conferred on him without
competition. In 1873 he was called to Rome to organize the college of
engineering, and was also appointed professor of higher mathematics at
the university. Cremona's reputation had now become European, and in
1879 he was elected a corresponding member of the Royal Society. In the
same year he was made a senator of the kingdom of Italy. He died on the
10th of June 1903.

As early as 1856 Cremona had begun to contribute to the _Annali di
scienze matematiche e fisiche_, and to the _Annali di matematica_, of
which he became afterwards joint editor. Papers by him have appeared in
the mathematical journals of Italy, France, Germany and England, and he
has published several important works, many of which have been
translated into other languages. His manual on _Graphical Statics_ and
his _Elements of Projective Geometry_ (translated by C. Leudesdorf),
have been published in English by the Clarendon Press. His life was
devoted to the study of higher geometry and reforming the more advanced
mathematical teaching of Italy. His reputation mainly rests on his
_Introduzione ad una teoria geometrica delle curve piane_, which
proclaims him as a follower of the Steinerian or synthetical school of
geometricians. He notably enriched our knowledge of curves and surfaces.

CREMONA, a city and episcopal see of Lombardy, Italy, the capital of the
province of Cremona, situated on the N. bank of the Po, 155 ft. above
sea-level, 60 m. by rail S.E. of Milan. Pop. (1901) town, 31,655;
commune, 39,344. It is oval in shape, and retains its medieval
fortifications. The line of the streets is as a rule irregular, but the
town as a whole is not very picturesque.

The finest building is the cathedral, in the Lombard Romanesque style,
begun in 1107 and consecrated in 1190. The wheel window of the main
façade dates from 1274. The transepts, added in the 13th and 14th
centuries (before 1370), have picturesque brick façades, with fine
terra-cotta ornamentation. The great Torrazzo, a tower 397 ft. high,
which stands by the cathedral, and is connected with it by a series of
galleries, dates from 1267-1291. It is square below, with an octagonal
summit of a slightly later period. The main façade of the cathedral was
largely altered in 1491, to which date the statues upon it belong; the
portico in front was added in 1497. The building would be much improved
by isolation, which it is hoped may be effected. The interior is fine,
and is covered with frescoes by Cremonese masters of the 16th century
(Boccaccio Boccaccino, Romanino, Pordenone, the Campi, &c.), which are
not of first-rate importance. The choir has fine stalls of 1489-1490,
upon one of which there is a view of the façade of the cathedral before
its alteration in 1491. The treasury contains a richly worked silver
crucifix 9 ft. high, of 1478, the base of which was added in 1774-1775.
It contains 408 statues and busts altogether, the central three of which
belong to an earlier cross of 1231. Adjacent to the cathedral is the
octagonal baptistery of 1167, 92 ft. in height and 75 ft. in external
diameter, also in the Lombard Romanesque style. The so-called Campo
Santo, close to the baptistery, contains a mosaic pavement with
emblematic figures belonging probably to the 8th and 9th centuries, and
running under the cathedral. Of the other churches, S. Michele has a
simple and good Lombard Romanesque 13th-century façade, and a plain
interior of the 10th century; and S. Agata a good campanile in the
former style. Many of them contain paintings by the later Cremonese
masters, especially Galeazzo Campi (d. 1536) and his sons Giulio and
Antonio. The latter are especially well represented in S. Sigismondo, 1½
m. outside the town to the E. On the side of the Piazza del Comune
opposite to the cathedral are two 13th-century Gothic palaces in brick,
the Palazzo Comunale and the former Palazzo dei Giureconsulti, now the
seat of the commissioners for the water regulation of the district.
Another palace of the same period is now occupied by the Archivio
Notarile. The modern Palazzo Ponzoni contains a museum and a technical
institute. In front of it is a statue of the composer Amilcare
Ponchielli, who was a native of Cremona. The Palazzo Fodri, now the
Monte di Pietà, has a beautiful 15th-century frieze of terra-cotta
bas-reliefs, as have some other palaces in private hands.

Cremona was founded by the Romans in 218 B.C. (the same year as
Placentia) as an outpost against the Gallic tribes. It was strengthened
in 190 B.C. by the sending of 6000 new settlers and soon became one of
the most flourishing towns of upper Italy. It probably acquired
municipal rights in 90 B.C., but Augustus, owing to the fact that it did
not support him, assigned a part of its territory to his veterans in 41
B.C., and henceforth it is once more called _colonia_. It remained
prosperous (we may note that Virgil came here to school from Mantua)
until it was taken and destroyed by the troops of Vespasian after the
second battle of Betriacum (Bedriacum) in A.D. 69; the temple of Mefitis
alone being left standing (see Tacitus, _Hist._ iii. 15 seq.). One of
the bronze plates which decorated the exterior of the war-chest of the
_legio III. Macedonica_, one of the legions which had been defeated at
Betriacum, has been found near Cremona itself (F. Barnabei in _Notiz.
scavi_, 1887, p. 210). Vespasian ordered its immediate reconstruction,
but it never recovered its former prosperity, though its position on the
N. bank of the Po, at the meeting-point of roads from Placentia, Mantua
(the Via Postumia in both cases), Brixellum (where the roads from
Cremona and Mantua to Parma met and crossed the river), Laus Pompeia and
Brixia, still gave it considerable importance. It was destroyed once
more by the Lombards under Agilulf in A.D. 605, and rebuilt in 615, and
was ruled by dukes; but in the 9th century the bishops of Cremona began
to acquire considerable temporal power. Landulf, a German to whom the
see was granted by Henry II., was driven out in 1022, and his palace
destroyed, but other Germans were invested with the see afterwards. The
commune of Cremona is first mentioned in a document of 1098, recording
its investiture by the countess Matilda with the territory known as
Isola Fulcheria. It had to sustain many wars with its neighbours in
order to maintain itself in its new possessions. In the war of the
Lombard League against Barbarossa, Cremona, after having shared in the
destruction of Crema in 1160 and Milan in 1162, finally joined the
league, but took no part in the battle of Legnano, and thus procured
itself the odium of both sides. In the Guelph and Ghibelline struggles
Cremona took the latter side, and defeated Parma decisively in 1250. It
was during this period that Cremona erected its finest buildings. There
was, however, a Guelph reaction in 1264; the city was taken and sacked
by Henry VII. in 1311, and was a prey to struggles between the two
parties, until Galeazzo Visconti took possession of it in 1322. In 1406
it fell under the sway of Cabrino Fondulo, who received with great
festivities both the emperor Sigismund and Pope John XXIII., the latter
on his way to the council at Constance; he, however, handed it over to
Filippo Maria Visconti in 1419. In 1499 it was occupied by Venetians,
but in 1512 it came under Massimiliano Sforza. In 1535, like the rest of
Lombardy, it fell under Spanish domination, and was compelled to
furnish large money contributions. The population fell to 10,000 in
1668. The surprise of the French garrison on the 2nd of February 1702,
by the Imperialists under Prince Eugene, was a celebrated incident of
the War of the Spanish Succession. The Imperialists were driven from
Cremona after a sharp struggle, but captured Marshal Villeroi, the
French commander. Hence the celebrated verse:

  "Français, rendons grâce à Bellone;
   Notre bonheur est sans égal;
   Nous avons conservé Cremoneé,
   Et perdu notre général."

In the 18th century the prosperity of Cremona revived. In the Italian
republic it was the capital of the department of the upper Po. Like the
rest of Lombardy it fell under Austria in 1814, and became Italian in

  See _Guida di Cremona_ (Cremona, 1904).     (T. AS.)

CREMORNE GARDENS, formerly a popular resort by the side of the Thames in
Chelsea, London, England. Originally the property of the earl of
Huntingdon (c. 1750), father of Steele's "Aspasia," who built a mansion
here, the property passed through various hands into those of Thomas
Dawson, Baron Dartrey and Viscount Cremorne (1725-1813), who greatly
beautified it. It was subsequently sold and converted into a proprietary
place of entertainment, being popular as such from 1845 to 1877. It
never, however, acquired the fashionable fame of Vauxhall, and finally
became so great an annoyance to residents in the neighbourhood that a
renewal of its licence was refused; and the site of the gardens was soon
built over. The name survives in Cremorne Road.

CRENELLE (an O. Fr. word for "notch," mod. _créneau_; the origin is
obscure; cf. "cranny"), a term generally considered to mean an embrasure
of a battlement, but really applying to the whole system of defence by
battlements. In medieval times no one could "crenellate" a building
without special licence from his supreme lord.

CREODONTA, a group of primitive early Tertiary Carnivora, characterized
by their small brains, the non-union in most cases of the scaphoid and
lunar bones of the carpus, and the general absence of a distinct pair of
"sectorial" teeth (see CARNIVORA). In many respects the Lower Eocene
creodonts come very close to the primitive ungulates, or Condylarthra
(see PHENACODUS), from which, however, they are distinguished by the
approximation in the form of the skull to the carnivorous type, the more
trenchant teeth (at least in most cases) and the more claw-like
character of the terminal joints of the toes. The general character of
the dentition in the more typical forms, such as _Hyaenodon_ (see fig.),
recalls that of the carnivorous marsupials, this being especially the
case with the Patagonian species, which have been separated as a
distinct group under the name of Sparassodonta (q.v.). The skull,
however, is not of the marsupial type, and in the European forms at any
rate there is a complete replacement of the milk-molars by pre-molars,
while the minute structure of the enamel of the teeth is of the
carnivorous as distinct from the marsupial type. The head is large in
proportion to the body, the lumbar region is unusually rigid, owing to
the complexity of the articulations, and the tail and hind-limbs are
relatively long and powerful. In life the tail probably passed almost
imperceptibly into the body, as in the Tasmanian thylacine.

[Illustration: Dentition of _Hyaenodon leptorhynchus_, from the Lower
Oligocene of France. The last upper molar is concealed by the
penultimate tooth.]

That the Creodonta are the ancestors of the modern Carnivora is now
generally admitted. They are apparently the most generalized and
primitive of all (placental?) mammals, and probably the direct
descendants of the mammal-like anomodont or theromorphous reptiles of
the Triassic epoch; the evolution from that group having perhaps taken
place in Africa or in the lost area connecting that continent with
India. The relationship of the creodonts to the carnivorous marsupials
is not yet determined, but it seems scarcely probable that the
remarkable resemblance existing between the teeth of the two groups can
be solely due to parallelism; and it has been suggested by Dr L. Wortman
that both creodonts and marsupials are descended from a common
non-placental stock. In other words, the latter are a side-branch from
the anomodont-creodont line of descent. Dr C. W. Andrews has pointed out
that certain of the Egyptian creodonts appear to have been aquatic or
subaquatic in their habits; and it is possible that from such types are
derived the true seals, or _Phocidae_.

With the exception of Australasia, and perhaps South Africa, creodonts
(on the supposition that the Patagonian forms are rightly included)
appear to have had a nearly world-wide distribution. In Europe and North
America they date from the Lowest Eocene and lived till the early
Oligocene, while in India they apparently survived till a much later
epoch. Some of the Oligocene forms, alike as regards dentition, the
union of the scaphoid and lunar of the carpus, and the complexity of the
brain, approximated to modern Carnivora.

As regards classification Mr W. D. Matthew includes in the typical
family _Hyaenodontidae_ not only the widely spread genera _Hyaenodon_
and _Pterodon_, but likewise _Sinopa_ (_Stypolophus_), _Cynohyaenodon_
and _Proviverra_; but _Viverravus_ (_Didymictis_) and _Vulpavus_
(_Miacis_) are assigned to a separate family (_Viverravidae_). It is
these latter forms which come nearest to modern Carnivora, most of them
being of Oligocene age. The American and European _Oxyaena_ apparently
represents a family by itself, as does the American _Oxyclaena_; and
_Palaeonictis_ and _Patriofelis_ are assigned to yet another family;
while the North American Lower Eocene and Eocene _Arctocyon_ typifies a
family characterized by the somewhat bear-like type of dentition.
_Mesonyx_ is also a very distinct type, from the North American Eocene
and Oligocene. Some of the species of _Patriofelis_ and _Hyaenodon_
attained the size of a tiger, although with long civet-like skulls. In
the earlier forms the claws often retained somewhat of a hoof-like

The South American _Borhyaenidae_ include _Borhyaena_, _Prothylacinus_,
_Amphiproviverra_, and allied forms from the Santa Cruz beds of
Patagonia, and have been referred to a distinct group, the
Sparassodonta, mainly on account of the alleged replacement of some only
of the milk-molars by premolars. By their first describer, Dr F.
Ameghino, they were regarded as nearly related to the marsupials, to
which group they were definitely referred in 1905 by Mr W. J. Sinclair,
by whom they are considered near akin to _Thylacinus_, but this view
seems to be disproved by the investigations of Mr C. S. Tomes into the
structure of the dental enamel.

It should be added that Dr J. L. Wortman transfers _Viverravus_ and its
allies, together with _Palaeonictis_, to the true Carnivora, the latter
genus being regarded as the ancestral type of the sabre-toothed cats

  AUTHORITIES.--J. L. Wortman, "Eocene Mammalia in the Peabody Museum,
  pt. i. Carnivora," _Amer. J. Sci._ vols. xi.-xiv. (1901-1902); W. D.
  Matthew, "Additional Observations on the Creodonta," _Bull. Amer.
  Mus._ vol. xiv. p. i. (1901); C. W. Andrews, _Descriptive Catalogue of
  the Tertiary Vertebrata of the Fayum_, British Museum (1906); W. J.
  Sinclair, "The Marsupial Fauna of the Santa Cruz Beds," _Proc. Amer.
  Phil. Soc._ vol. xlix. p. 73 (1905).     (R. L.*)

CREOLE (the Fr. form of _criollo_, a West Indian, probably a negro
corruption of the Span, _criadillo_, the dim. of _criado_, one bred or
reared, from _criar_, to breed, a derivative of the Lat. _creare_, to
create), a word used originally (16th century) to denote persons born in
the West Indies of Spanish parents, as distinguished from immigrants
direct from Spain, aboriginals, negroes or mulattos. It is now used of
the descendants of non-aboriginal races born and settled in the West
Indies, in various parts of the American mainland and in Mauritius,
Reunion and some other places colonized by Spain, Portugal, France, or
(in the case of the West Indies) by England. In a similar sense the name
is used of animals and plants. The use of the word by some writers as
necessarily implying a person of mixed blood is totally erroneous; in
itself "creole" has no distinction of colour; a Creole may be a person
of European, negro, or mixed extraction--or even a horse.

Local variations occur in the use of the word as applied to people. In
the West Indies it designates the descendants of any European race; in
the United States the French-speaking native portion of the white race
in Louisiana, whether of French or Spanish origin. The French Canadians
are never termed creoles, nor is the word now used of the South
Americans of Spanish or Portuguese descent, but in Mexico whites of pure
Spanish extraction are still called creoles. In all the countries named,
when a non-white creole is indicated the word negro is added. In
Mauritius, Reunion, &c., on the other hand, creole is commonly used to
designate the black population, but is also occasionally used of the
inhabitants of European descent. The difference in type between the
white creoles and the European races from whom they have sprung, a
difference often considerable, is due principally to changed
environment--especially to the tropical or semi-tropical climate of the
lands they inhabit. The many patois founded on French and Spanish, and
used chiefly by creole negroes, are spoken of as creole languages, a
term extended by some writers to include similar dialects spoken in
countries where the word creole is rarely used.

  See G. W. Cable, _The Creoles of Louisiana_ (1884); A. Coelho, "Os
  Dialetos romanicos on neo latinos na Africa, Asia e America," _Bol.
  Soc. Geo. Lisboa_ (1884-1886), with bibliography. For the Creole
  French of Haiti see an article by Sir H. H. Johnston in _The Times_,
  April 10th, 1909.

CREON, in Greek legend, son of Lycaethus, king of Corinth and father of
Glauce or Creusa, the second wife of Jason.

CREON, in Greek legend, son of Menoeceus, king of Thebes after the death
of Laius, the husband of his sister Jocasta. Thebes was then suffering
from the visitation of the Sphinx, and Creon offered his crown and the
hand of the widowed queen to whoever should solve the fatal riddle.
Oedipus, the son of Laius, ignorant of his parentage, successfully
accomplished the task and married Jocasta, his mother. By her he had two
sons, Eteocles and Polyneices, who agreed after their father's death to
reign in alternative years. Eteocles first ascended the throne, being
the elder, but at the end of the year refused to resign, whereupon his
brother attacked him at the head of an army of Argives. The war was to
be decided by a single combat between the brothers, but both fell.
Creon, who had resumed the government during the minority of Leodamas,
the son of Eteocles, commanded that the Argives, and above all
Polyneices, the cause of all the bloodshed, should not receive the rites
of sepulture, and that any one who infringed this decree should be
buried alive. Antigone, the sister of Polyneices, refused to obey, and
sprinkled dust upon her brother's corpse. The threatened penalty was
inflicted; but Creon's crime did not escape unpunished. His son, Haemon,
the lover of Antigone, killed himself on her grave; and he himself was
slain by Theseus. According to another account he was put to death by
Lycus, the son or descendant of a former ruler of Thebes (Euripides,
_Herc. Fur._ 31; Apollodorus iii. 5, 7; Pausanias ix. 5).

CREOPHYLUS of Samos, one of the earliest Greek epic poets. According to
an epigram of Callimachus (quoted in Strabo xiv. p. 638) he was the
author of a poem called [Greek: Oichalias halôsis], which told the story
of the conquest of Oechalia by Heracles. Creophylus was said to have
been a friend or relative of Homer, who, according to another
tradition, was himself the author of the [Greek: Halôsis], and presented
it to Creophylus in return for the latter's hospitality.

  See F. G. Welcker, _Der epische Cyclus_ (1865-1882).

CREOSOTE, CREASOTE or KREASOTE (from Gr. [Greek: kreas], flesh, and
[Greek: sôzein], to preserve), a product of the distillation of coal,
bone oil, shale oil, and wood-tar (more especially that made from
beech-wood). The creosote is extracted from the distillate by means of
alkali, separated from the filtered alkaline solution by sulphuric acid,
and then distilled with dilute alkali; the distillate is again treated
with alkali and acid, till its purification is effected; it is then
redistilled at 200° C., and dried by means of calcium chloride. It is a
highly refractive, colourless, oily liquid, and was first obtained in
1832 by K. Reichenbach from beech-wood tar. It consists mainly of a
mixture of phenol, cresol, guaiacol, creosol, xylenol, dimethyl
guaiacol, ethyl guaiacol, and various methyl ethers of pyrogallol.
Creosote has a strong odour and hot taste, and burns with a smoky flame.
It dissolves sulphur, phosphorus, resins, and many acids and colouring
matters; and is soluble in alcohol, ether, and carbon disulphide, and in
80 parts by volume of water. It is distinguished from carbolic acid by
the following properties:--it rotates the plane of polarized light to
the right, forms with collodion a transparent fluid, and is nearly
insoluble in glycerin; whereas carbolic acid has no effect on polarized
light, gives with about two-thirds of its volume of collodion a
gelatinous mass, and is soluble in all proportions in glycerin; further,
alcohol and ferric chloride produce with creosote a green solution,
turned brown by water, with carbolic acid a brown, and on the addition
of water a blue solution. Creosote, like carbolic acid, is a powerful
antiseptic, and readily coagulates albuminous matter; wood-smoke and
pyroligneous acid or wood-vinegar owe to its presence their efficacy in
preserving animal and vegetable substances from putrefaction.

_Creosote oil_ is the name generally applied to the fraction of the coal
tar distillate which boils between 200° and 300° C. (see COAL TAR). It
is a greenish-yellow fluorescent liquid, usually containing phenol,
cresol, naphthalene, anthracene, pyridine, quinoline, acridine and other
substances. Its chief use is for the preservation of timber.

_Pharmacology and Therapeutics._--Creosote derived from wood-tar is
given medicinally in doses of from one to five minims, either suspended
in mucilage, or in capsules. It should always be administered after a
meal, when the gastric contents dilute it and prevent irritation.
Creosote and carbolic acid (q.v.) have a very similar pharmacology; but
there is one conspicuous exception. Beech-wood creosote alone should be
used in medicine, as its composition renders it much more valuable than
other creosotes. Its constituents circulate unchanged in the blood and
are excreted by the lungs. Although carbolic acid has no value in
phthisis (pulmonary tuberculosis) or in any other bacterial condition of
the lungs, creosote, having volatile constituents which are excreted in
the expired air and which are powerfully antiseptic, may well be of much
value in these conditions. In phthisis creosote is now superseded by
both its carbonate (creosotal)--given in the same doses--which causes
less gastric disturbance, and by guaiacol itself, which may be given in
doses up to thirty minims in capsules. The phosphate (phosote or
phosphote), phosphite (phosphotal), and valerianate (eosote) also find
application. Similarly the carbonate of guaiacol may be given in doses
even as large as a drachm. Creosote may also be used as an inhalation
with a steam atomizer. It is applicable not only in phthisis but in
bronchiectasis, bronchitis, broncho-pneumonia, lobar pneumonia and all
other bacterial lung diseases. Like carbolic acid, creosote may be used
in toothache, and the local antiseptic and anaesthetic action which it
shares with that substance is often of value in relieving gastric pain
due to simple ulcer or cancer, and in those forms of vomiting which are
due to gastric irritation.

  For the determination and separation of the various constituents of
  creosote see F. Tiemann, _Ber._ (1881), 14, p. 2005; A. Béhal and C.
  Choay, _Comptes rendus_ (1893), 116, p. 197; and L. F. Kebler, _Amer.
  Jour. Pharm._ (1899), p. 409.

CREPUSCULAR (from Lat. _crepusculum_, twilight), of or belonging to the
twilight, hence indistinct or glimmering; in zoology the word is used of
animals that appear before sunrise or nightfall.

CRÉQUY, a French family which originated in Picardy, and took its name
from a small lordship in the present Pas-de-Calais. Its genealogy goes
back to the 10th century, and from it originated the noble houses of
Blécourt, Canaples, Heilly and Royon. Henri de Créquy was killed at the
siege of Damietta in 1240; Jacques de Créquy, marshal of Guienne, was
killed at Agincourt with his brothers Jean and Raoul; Jean de Créquy,
lord of Canaples, was in the Burgundian service, and took part in the
defence of Paris against Joan of Arc in 1429, received the order of the
Golden Fleece in 1431, and was ambassador to Aragon and France; Antoine
de Créquy was one of the boldest captains of Francis I., and died in
consequence of an accident at the siege of Hesdin in 1523. Jean VIII.,
sire de Créquy, prince de Poix, seigneur de Canaples (d. 1555), left
three sons, the eldest of whom, Antoine de Créquy (1535-1574), inherited
the family estates on the death of his brothers at St Quentin in 1557.
He was raised to the cardinalate, and his nephew and heir, Antoine de
Blanchefort, assumed the name and arms of Créquy.

Charles I. de Blanchefort, marquis de Créquy, prince de Poix, duc de
Lesdiguières (1578-1638), marshal of France, son of the last-named, saw
his first fighting before Laon in 1594, and was wounded at the capture
of Saint Jean d'Angély in 1621. In the next year he became a marshal of
France. He served through the Piedmontese campaign in aid of Savoy in
1624 as second in command to the constable, François de Bonne, duc de
Lesdiguières, whose daughter Madeleine he had married in 1595. He
inherited in 1626 the estates and title of his father-in-law, who had
induced him, after the death of his first wife, to marry her half-sister
Françoise. He was also lieutenant-general of Dauphiné. In 1633 he was
ambassador to Rome, and in 1636 to Venice. He fought in the Italian
campaigns of 1630, 1635, 1636 and 1637, when he helped to defeat the
Spaniards at Monte Baldo. He was killed on the 17th of March 1638 in an
attempt to raise the siege of Crema, a fortress in the Milanese. He had
a quarrel extending over years with Philip, the bastard of Savoy, which
ended in a duel fatal to Philip in 1599; and in 1620 he defended
Saint-Aignan, who was his prisoner of war, against a prosecution
threatened by Louis XIII. Some of his letters are preserved in the
Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, and his life was written by N. Chorier
(Grenoble, 1683).

His eldest son, François, comte de Sault, due de Lesdiguières
(1600-1677), governor and lieutenant-general of Dauphiné, took the name
and arms of Bonne. The younger, Charles II. de Créquy, seigneur de
Canaples, was killed at the siege of Chambéry in 1630, leaving three
sons--Charles III., sieur de Blanchefort, prince de Poix, duc de Créquy
(1623?-1687); Alphonse de Créquy, comte de Canaples (d. 1711), who
became on the extinction of the elder branch of the family in 1702 duc
de Lesdiguières, and eventually succeeded also to his younger brother's
honours; and François, chevalier de Créquy and marquis de Marines,
marshal of France (1625-1687).

The last-named was born in 1625, and as a boy took part in the Thirty
Years' War, distinguishing himself so greatly that at the age of
twenty-six he was made a _maréchal de camp_, and a lieutenant-general
before he was thirty. He was regarded as the most brilliant of the
younger officers, and won the favour of Louis XIV. by his fidelity to
the court during the second Fronde. In 1667 he served on the Rhine, and
in 1668 he commanded the covering army during Louis XIV.'s siege of
Lille, after the surrender of which the king rewarded him with the
marshalate. In 1670 he overran the duchy of Lorraine. Shortly after this
Turenne, his old commander, was made marshal-general, and all the
marshals were placed under his orders. Many resented this, and Créquy,
in particular, whose career of uninterrupted success had made him
over-confident, went into exile rather than serve under Turenne. After
the death of Turenne and the retirement of Condé, he became the most
important general officer in the army, but his over-confidence was
punished by the severe defeat of Conzer Brück (1675) and the surrender
of Trier and his own captivity which followed. But in the later
campaigns of this war (see DUTCH WARS) he showed himself again a cool,
daring and successful commander, and, carrying on the tradition of
Turenne and Condé, he was in his turn the pattern of the younger
generals of the stamp of Luxembourg and Villars. He died in Paris on the
3rd of February 1687.

Alphonse de Créquy had not the talent of his brothers, and lost his
various appointments in France. He went to London in 1672, where he
became closely allied with Saint Évremond, and was one of the intimates
of King Charles II.

Charles III. de Créquy served in the campaigns of 1642 and 1645 in the
Thirty Years' War, and in Catalonia in 1649. In 1646, after the siege of
Orbitello, he was made lieutenant-general by Louis. By faithful service
during the king's minority he had won the gratitude of Anne of Austria
and of Mazarin, and in 1652 he became duc de Créquy and a peer of
France. The latter half of his life was spent at court, where he held
the office of first gentleman of the royal chamber, which had been
bought for him by his grandfather. In 1659 he was sent to Spain with
gifts for the infanta Maria Theresa, and on a similar errand to Bavaria
in 1680 before the marriage of the dauphin. He was ambassador to Rome
from 1662 to 1665, and to England in 1677; and became governor of Paris
in 1675. He died in Paris on the 13th of February 1687. His only
daughter, Madeleine, married Charles de la Trémoille (1655-1709).

The marshal François de Créquy had two sons, whose brilliant military
abilities bade fair to rival his own. The elder, François Joseph,
marquis de Créquy (1662-1702), already held the grade of
lieutenant-general when he was killed at Luzzara on the 13th of August
1702; and Nicolas Charles, sire de Créquy, was killed before Tournai in
1696 at the age of twenty-seven.

A younger branch of the Créquy family, that of Hémont, was represented
by Louis Marie, marquis de Créquy (1705-1741), author of the _Principes
philosophiques des saints solitaires d'Égypte_ (1779), and husband of
the marquise separately noticed below, and became extinct with the death
in 1801 of his son, Charles Marie, who had some military reputation.

  For a detailed genealogy of the family and its alliances see Moreri,
  _Dictionnaire historique; Annuaire de la noblesse française_ (1856 and
  1867). There is much information about the Créquys in the _Mémoires_
  of Saint-Simon.

the 19th of October 1714, at the château of Monfleaux (Mayenne), the
daughter of Lieutenant-General Charles François de Froullay. She was
educated by her maternal grandmother, and married in 1737 Louis Marie,
marquis de Créquy (see above), who died four years after the marriage.
Madame de Créquy devoted herself to the care of her only son, who
rewarded her with an ingratitude which was the chief sorrow of her life.
In 1755 she began to receive in Paris, among her intimates being
D'Alembert and J. J. Rousseau. She had none of the frivolity generally
associated with the women of her time and class, and presently became
extremely religious with inclinations to Jansenism. D'Alembert's visits
ceased when she adopted religion, and she was nearly seventy when she
formed the great friendship of her life with Sénac de Meilhan, whom she
met in 1781, and with whom she carried on a correspondence (edited by
Édouard Fournier, with a preface by Sainte-Beuve in 1856). She commented
on and criticized Meilhan's works and helped his reputation. She was
arrested in 1793 and imprisoned in the convent of Les Oiseaux until the
fall of Robespierre (July 1794). The well-known _Souvenirs de la
marquise de Créquy_ (1710-1803), printed in 7 volumes, 1834-1835, and
purporting to be addressed to her grandson, Tancrède de Créquy, was the
production of a Breton adventurer, Cousin de Courchamps. The first two
volumes appeared in English in 1834 and were severely criticized in the
_Quarterly Review_.

  See the notice prefixed by Sainte-Beuve to the _Lettres_; P. L. Jacob,
  _Énigmes et découvertes bibliographiques_ (Paris, 1866); Quérard,
  _Superchéries littéraires_, s.v. "Créquy"; _L'Ombre de la marquise de
  Créquy aux lecteurs des souvenirs_ (1836) exposes the forgery of the

CRESCAS, HASDAI BEN ABRAHAM (1340-1410), Spanish philosopher. His work,
_The Light of the Lord_ (_'Or 'Adonai_), deeply affected Spinoza, and
thus his philosophy became of wide importance. Maimonides (q.v.) had
brought Jewish thought entirely under the domination of Aristotle. The
work of Crescas, though it had no immediate success, ended in effecting
its liberation. He refused to base Judaism on speculative philosophy
alone; there was a deep emotional side to his thought. Thus he based
Judaism on love, not on knowledge; love was the bond between God and
man, and man's fundamental duty was love as expressed in obedience to
God's will. Spinoza derived from Crescas his distinction between
attributes and properties; he shared Crescas's views on creation and
free will, and in the whole trend of his thought the influence of
Crescas is strongly marked.

  See E. G. Hirsch, _Jewish Encyclopaedia_, iv. 350.     (I. A.)

CRESCENT (Lat. _crescens_, growing), originally the waxing moon, hence a
name applied to the shape of the moon in its first quarter. The crescent
is employed as a charge in heraldry, with its horns vertical; when they
are turned to the dexter side of the shield, it is called increscent,
when to the sinister, decrescent. A crescent is used as a difference to
denote the second son of a house; thus the earls of Harrington place a
crescent upon a crescent, as descending from the second son of a second
son. An order of the crescent was instituted by Charles I. of Naples and
Sicily in 1268, and revived by René of Anjou in 1464. A Turkish order or
decoration of the crescent was instituted by Sultan Selim III. in 1799,
in memory of the diamond crescent which he had presented to Nelson after
the battle of the Nile, and which Nelson wore on his coat as if it were
an order.

The crescent is the military and religious symbol of the Ottoman Turks.
According to the story told by Hesychius of Miletus, during the siege of
Byzantium by Philip of Macedon the moon suddenly appeared, the dogs
began to bark and aroused the inhabitants, who were thus enabled to
frustrate the enemy's scheme of undermining the walls. The grateful
Byzantines erected a statue to "torch-bearing" Hecate, and adopted the
lunar crescent as the badge of the city. It is generally supposed that
it was in turn adopted by the Turks after the capture of Constantinople
in 1453, either as a badge of triumph, or to commemorate a partial
eclipse of the moon on the night of the final attack. In reality, it
seems to have been used by them long before that event. Ala ud-din, the
Seljuk sultan of Iconium (1245-1254), and Ertoghrul, his lieutenant and
the founder of the Ottoman branch of the Turkish race, assumed it as a
device, and it appeared on the standard of the janissaries of Sultan
Orkhan (1326-1360). Since the new moon is associated with special acts
of devotion in Turkey--where, as in England, there is a popular
superstition that it is unlucky to see it through glass--it may
originally have been adopted in consequence of its religious
significance. According to Professor Ridgeway, however, the Turkish
crescent, like that seen on modern horse-trappings, has nothing to do
with the new moon, but is the result of the base-to-base conjunction of
two claw or tusk amulets, an example of which has been brought to light
during the excavations of the site of the temple of Artemis Orthia at
Sparta (see _Athenaeum_, March 21, 1908). There is nothing distinctively
Turkish in the combination of crescent and star which appears on the
Turkish national standard; the latter is shown by coins and inscriptions
to have been an ancient Illyrian symbol, and is of course common in
knightly and decorative orders. It is doubtful whether any opposition
between crescent and cross, as symbols of Islam and Christianity, was
ever intended by the Turks; and it is an historical error to attribute
the crescent to the Saracens of crusading times or the Moors in Spain.

Crescent is also the name of a Turkish musical instrument. In
architecture, a crescent is a street following the arc of a circle; the
name in this sense was first used in the Royal Crescent at Bath.

CRESCIMBENI, GIOVANNI MARIO (1663-1728), Italian critic and poet, was
born at Macerata in 1663. Having been educated by a French priest at
Rome, he entered the Jesuits' college of his native town, where he
produced a tragedy on the story of Darius, and versified the
_Pharsalia_. In 1679 he received the degree of doctor of laws, and in
1680 he removed again to Rome. The study of Filicaja and Leonico having
convinced him that he and all his contemporaries were working in a wrong
direction, he resolved to attempt a general reform. In 1690, in
conjunction with fourteen others, he founded the celebrated academy of
the Arcadians, and began the contest against false taste and its
adherents. The academy was most successful; branch societies were opened
in all the principal cities of Italy; and the influence of Marini,
opposed by the simplicity and elegance of such models as Costanzo, soon
died away. Crescimbeni officiated as secretary to the Arcadians for
thirty-eight years. In 1705 he was made canon of Santa Maria; in 1715 he
obtained the chief curacy attached to the same church; and about two
months before he died (1728) he was admitted a member of the order of

  His principal work is the _Istoria della volgar poesia_ (Rome, 1698),
  an estimate of all the poets of Italy, past and contemporary, which
  may yet be consulted with advantage. The most important of his
  numerous other publications are the _Commentarij_ (5 vols., Rome,
  1702-1711), and _La Bellezza della volgar poezia_ (Rome, 1700).

CRESILAS, a Cretan sculptor of Cydonia. He was a contemporary of
Pheidias, and one of the sculptors who vied in producing statues of
amazons at Ephesus (see GREEK ART) about 450 B.C. As his amazon was
wounded (_volnerata_; Pliny, _Nat. Hist._ xxxiv. 75), we may safely
identify it with the figure, of which several copies are extant, who is
carefully removing her blood-stained garment from a wound under the
right breast. Another work of Cresilas of which copies survive is the
portrait of Pericles, the earliest Greek portrait which has been with
certainty identified, and which fully confirms the statement of ancient
critics that Cresilas was an artist who idealized and added nobility to
men of noble type. An extant portrait of Anacreon is also derived from

CRESOLS or METHYL PHENOLS, C7H8O or C6H4·CH3·OH. The three isomeric
cresols are found in the tar obtained in the destructive distillation of
coal, beech-wood and pine. The crude cresol obtained from tar cannot be
separated into its different constituents by fractional distillation,
since the boiling points of the three isomers are very close together.
The pure substances are best obtained by fusion of the corresponding
toluene sulphonic acids with potash.

Ortho-cresol, CH3(1)·C6H4·OH(2), occurs as sulphate in the urine of the
horse. It may be prepared by fusion of ortho-toluene sulphonic acid with
potash; by the action of phosphorus pentoxide on carvacrol; or by the
action of zinc chloride on camphor. It is a crystalline solid, which
melts at 30° C. and boils at 190.8° C. Fusion with alkalis converts it
into salicylic acid.

Meta-cresol, CH3(1)·C6H4·OH(3), is formed when thymol
(para-isopropyl-meta-cresol) is heated with phosphorus pentoxide.
Propylene is liberated during the reaction, and the phosphoric acid
ester of meta-cresol which is formed is then fused with potash. It can
also be prepared by distilling meta-oxyuvitic acid with lime, or by the
action of air on boiling toluene in the presence of aluminium chloride
(C. Friedel and J. M. Crafts, _Ann. Chim. Phys._, 1888 [6], 14, p. 436).
It solidifies in a freezing mixture, on the addition of a crystal of
phenol, and then melts at 3°-4° C. It boils at 202°.8 C. Its aqueous
solution is coloured bluish-violet by ferric chloride.

Para-cresol, CH3(1)·C6H4·OH(4), occurs as sulphate in the urine of the
horse. It is also found in horse's liver, being one of the putrefaction
products of tyrosine. It may be prepared by the fusion of para-toluene
sulphonic acid with potash; by the action of nitrous acid on
para-toluidine; or by heating para-oxyphenyl acetic acid with lime. It
crystallizes in prisms which melt at 36° C. and boil at 201°.8 C. It is
soluble in water, and the aqueous solution gives a blue coloration with
ferric chloride. When treated with hydrochloric acid and potassium
chlorate, no chlorinated quinones are obtained (M. S. Southworth, _Ann._
(1873), 168, p. 271), a behaviour which distinguishes it from ortho- and

  On the composition of commercial cresylic acid see A. H. Allen, _Jour.
  Soc. Chem. Industry_ (1890), 9, p. 141. See also CREOSOTE.

CRESPI, DANIELE (1590-1630), Italian historical painter, was born near
Milan, and studied under Giovanni Battista Crespi and Giulio Procaccini.
He was an excellent colourist; his drawing was correct and vigorous, and
he grouped his compositions with much ability. His best work, a series
of pictures from the life of Saint Bruno, is in the monastery of the
Carthusians at Milan. Among the most famous of his paintings is a
"Stoning of St Stephen" at Brera, and there are several excellent
examples of his work in the city of his birth and at Pavia.

CRESPI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1557-1663), called Il Cerano, Italian
painter, sculptor, and architect, was born at Cerano in the Milanese. He
was a scholar of considerable attainments, and held a position of
dignity in his native city. He was head of the Milanese Academy founded
by Cardinal Frederigo Borromeo, and he was the teacher of Guercino. He
is most famous as a painter; and, though his figures are neither natural
nor graceful, his colouring is good, and his designs full of ideal

CRESPI, GIUSEPPE MARIA (1665-1747), Italian painter, called "Lo
Spagnuolo" from his fondness for rich apparel, was born at Bologna, and
was trained under Angelo Toni, Domenico Canuti and Carlo Cignani. He
then went through a course of copying from Correggio and Barocci; this
he followed up with a journey to Venice for the sake of Titian and Paul
Veronese; and late in life he proclaimed himself a follower of Guercino
and Pietro da Cortona. He was a good colourist and a facile executant,
and was wont to employ the camera obscura with great success in the
treatment of light and shadow; but he was careless and unconscientious.
He was a clever portrait-painter and a brilliant caricaturist; and his
etchings after Rembrandt and Salvator are in some demand. His greatest
work, a "Massacre of the Innocents," is at Bologna; but the Dresden
gallery possesses twelve examples of him, among which is his celebrated
series of the Seven Sacraments.

CRESS, in botany. "Garden Cress" (_Lepidium sativum_) is an annual plant
(nat. ord. Cruciferae), known as a cultivated plant at the present day
in Europe, North Africa, western Asia and India, but its origin is
obscure. Alphonse de Candolle (_L'Origine des plantes cultivées_) says
its cultivation must date from ancient times and be widely diffused, for
very different names for it exist in the Arab, Persian, Albanian,
Hindustani and Bengali tongues. He considered the plant to be of Persian
origin, whence it may have spread after the Sanskrit epoch (there is no
Sanskrit name for it) into the gardens of India, Syria, Greece and North
Africa. It is used in salads, the young plants being cut and eaten while
still in the seed-leaf, forming, along with plants of the white mustard
in the same stage of growth, what is commonly called "small salad." The
seeds should be sown thickly broadcast or in rows in succession every
ten or fourteen days, according to the demand. The sowings may be made
in the open ground from March till October, the earliest under
hand-glasses, and the summer ones in a cool moist situation, where water
from trees, shrubs, walls, &c., cannot fall on or near them. The grit
thrown up by falling water pierces the tender tissues of the cress, and
cannot be thoroughly removed by washing. During winter they must be
raised on a slight hotbed, or in shallow boxes or pans placed in any of
the glass-houses where there is a temperature of 60° or 65°. Cress is
subject to the attack of a fungus (_Pythium debaryanum_) if kept too
close and moist. The pest very quickly infects a whole sowing. There is
no cure for it; preventive measures should therefore be taken by keeping
the sowings fairly dry and well ventilated. The seed should be sown on
new soil, and should not be covered.

The "Golden" or "Australian" cress is a dwarf, yellowish-green,
mild-flavoured sort, which is cut and eaten when a little more advanced
in growth but while still young and tender. It should be sown at
intervals of a month from March onwards, the autumn sowing, for winter
and spring use, being made in a sheltered situation.

The "curled" or "Normandy" cress is a very hardy sort, of good flavour.
In this, which is allowed to grow like parsley, the leaves are picked
for use while young; and, being finely cut and curled, they are well
adapted for garnishing. It should be sown thinly, in drills, in good
soil in the open borders, in March, April and May, and for winter and
spring use at the foot of a south wall early in September, and about the
middle of October.

_Water-cress._--"Water-cress" (_Nasturtium officinale_) is a member of
the same natural order, and a native of Great Britain. Although now so
largely used, it does not appear to have been cultivated in England
prior to the 19th century, though in Germany, especially near Erfurt, it
had been grown long previously. Its flavour is due to an essential oil
containing sulphur. Water-cress is largely cultivated in shallow
ditches, prepared in wet, low-lying meadows, means being provided for
flooding the ditches at will. Where the amount of water available is
limited, the ditches are arranged at successively higher levels, so as
to allow of the volume admitted to the upper ditch being passed
successively to the others. The ditches are usually puddled with clay,
which is covered to the depth of 9 to 12 in. with well-manured soil.

A stock of plants may be raised in two ways--by cuttings, and by seeds.
If a stock is to be raised from cuttings, the desired quantity of young
shoots is gathered--those sold in bunches for salad serve the purpose
well--and reduced where necessary to about 3 in. in length, the basal
and frequently rooted portion being rejected. They are dibbled thickly
into one of the ditches, and only enough water admitted to just cover
the soil. If the start is made in late spring, the cuttings will be
rooted in a week. They are allowed to remain for another week or two,
and are then taken up and dropped about 9 in. apart into the other
ditches, which have been slightly flooded to receive them. There is no
need to plant them--the young roots will very soon be securely anchored.
The volume of water is increased as the plants grow. If raised from
seed, the seed-bed is prepared as for cuttings, and seed sown either in
drills or broadcast. No flooding is done until the seedlings are up.
Water is then admitted, the level being raised as the plants grow. When
5 or 6 in. high, they are taken up and dropped into their permanent
quarters precisely like those raised from cuttings.

Cultivated as above described, the plants afford frequent cuttings of
large clean cress of excellent flavour for market purposes. Sooner or
later growth will become less vigorous and flowering shoots will be
produced. This will be accompanied by a pronounced deterioration of the
remaining vegetative shoots. These signs will be interpreted by the
grower to mean that his plants, as a market crop, are worn out. He will
therefore take steps to repeat the routine of culture above described.
In the winter the ditches are flooded to protect the cress from frost.

The best-flavoured water-cress is produced in the pure water of running
streams over chalk or gravel soil. Should the water be contaminated by
sewage or other undesirable matter, the plants not only absorb some of
the impurities but also serve to anchor much of the solid particles
washed as scum among them. This is extremely difficult to dislodge by
washing, and renders the cress a source of danger as food.

Water-cress for domestic use may be raised as a kitchen-garden crop if
frequently watered overhead. Beds to afford cress during the summer
should be made in broad trenches on a border facing north. It may also
be raised in pots or pans stood in saucers of water and frequently
watered overhead.

In recent years in America attention has been paid to the injury done to
water-cress beds by the "water-cress sow-bug" (_Mancasellus
brachyurus_), and the "water-cress leaf-beetle" (_Phaedon aeruginosa_).
Another species of _Phaedon_ is known in England as "blue beetle" or
"mustard beetle," and is a pest also of mustard, cabbage and kohlrabi
(see F. H. Chittenden, in _Bulletin_ 66, part ii. of Bureau of
Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture, 1907).

The name "nasturtium" is applied in gardens, but incorrectly, to species
of _Tropaeolum_.

CRESSENT, CHARLES (1685-1768), French furniture-maker, sculptor and
_fondeur-ciseleur_. As the second son of François Cressent, _sculpteur
du roi_, and grandson of Charles Cressent, a furniture-maker of Amiens,
who also became a sculptor, he inherited the tastes and aptitudes which
were likely to make a finished designer and craftsman. Even more
important perhaps was the fact that he was a pupil of André Charles
Boulle. Trained in such surroundings, it is not surprising that he
should have reached a degree of achievement which has to a great extent
justified the claim that he was the best decorative artist of the 18th
century. Cressent's distinction is closely connected with the regency,
but his earlier work had affinities with the school of Boulle, while his
later pieces were full of originality. He was an artist in the widest
sense of the word. He not only designed and made furniture, but created
the magnificent gilded enrichments which are so characteristic of his
work. He was likewise a sculptor, and among his plastic work is known to
have been a bronze bust of Louis, duc d'Orléans, the son of the regent,
for whom Cressent had made one of the finest examples of French
furniture of the 18th century--the famous _médaillier_ now in the
Bibliothèque Nationale. Cressent's bronze mounts were executed with a
sharpness of finish and a grace and vigour of outline which were hardly
excelled by his great contemporary Jacques Caffieri. His female figures
placed at the corners of tables are indeed among the most delicious
achievements of the great days of the French metal worker. Much of
Cressent's work survives, and can be identified; the Louvre and the
Wallace collection are especially rich in it, and his commode at
Hertford House with gilt handles representing Chinese dragons is perhaps
the most elaborate piece he ever produced. The work of identification is
rendered comparatively easy in his case by the fact that he published
catalogues of three sales of his work. These catalogues are highly
characteristic of the man, who shared in no small degree the personal
_bravoura_ of Cellini, and could sometimes execute almost as well. He
did not hesitate to describe himself as the author of "a clock worthy to
be placed in the very finest cabinets," "the most distinguished
bronzes," or pieces of "the most elegant form adorned with bronzes of
extra richness." He worked much in marqueterie, both in tortoiseshell
and in brilliant coloured woods. He was indeed an artist to whom colour
appealed with especial force. The very type and exemplar of the
"feeling" of the regency, he is worthy to have given his own name to
some of the fashions which he deduced from it.

CRESSWELL, SIR CRESSWELL (1794-1863), English judge, was a descendant of
an old Northumberland family, and was born at Newcastle in 1794. He was
educated at the Charterhouse and at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. He
graduated B.A. in 1814, and M.A. four years later. Having chosen the
profession of the law he studied at the Middle Temple, and was called to
the bar in 1819. He joined the northern circuit, and was not long in
earning a distinguished position among his professional brethren. In
1837 he entered parliament as Conservative member for Liverpool, and he
soon gained a reputation as an acute and learned debater on all
constitutional questions. In January 1842 he was made a judge of the
court of common pleas, being knighted at the same time; and this post he
occupied for sixteen years. When the new court for probate, divorce and
matrimonial causes was established (1858), Sir Cresswell Cresswell was
requested by the Liberal government to become its first judge and
undertake the arduous task of its organization. Although he had already
earned a right to retire, and possessed large private wealth, he
accepted this new task, and during the rest of his life devoted himself
to it most assiduously and conscientiously, with complete satisfaction
to the public. In one case only, out of the very large number on which
he pronounced judgment, was his decision reversed. His death was sudden.
By a fall from his horse on the 11th of July 1863 his knee-cap was
injured. He was recovering from this when on the 29th of the same month
he died of disease of the heart.

  See Foss's _Lives of the Judges_; E. Manson, _Builders of our Law_

CRESSY, HUGH PAULINUS DE (c. 1605-1674), English Benedictine monk, whose
religious name was Serenus, was born at Wakefield, Yorkshire, about
1605. He went to Oxford at the age of fourteen, and in 1626 became a
fellow of Merton College. Having taken orders, he rose to the dignity of
dean of Leighlin, Ireland, and canon of Windsor. He also acted as
chaplain to Lord Wentworth, afterwards the celebrated earl of Strafford.
For some time he travelled abroad as tutor to Lord Falmouth, and in
1646, during a visit to Rome, joined the Roman Catholic Church. In the
following year he published his _Exomologesis_ (Paris, 1647), or account
of his conversion, which was highly valued by Roman Catholics as an
answer to William Chillingworth's attacks. Cressy entered the
Benedictine Order in 1649, and for four years resided at Somerset House
as chaplain to Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II. He died at
West Grinstead on the 10th of August 1674. Cressy's chief work, _The
Church History of Brittanny or England, from the beginning of
Christianity to the Norman Conquest_ (1st vol. only published, Rouen,
1668), gives an exhaustive account of the foundation of monasteries
during the Saxon heptarchy, and asserts that they followed the
Benedictine rule, differing in this respect from many historians. The
work was much criticized by Lord Clarendon, but defended by Antony à
Wood in his _Athenae Oxoniensis_, who supports Cressy's statement that
it was compiled from original MSS. and from the _Annales Ecclesiae
Britannicae_ of Michael Alford, _Dugdale's Monasticon_, and the _Decem
Scriptores Historiae Anglicanae_. The second part of the history, which
has never been printed, was discovered at Douai in 1856. To Roman
Catholics Cressy's name is familiar as the editor of Walter Hilton's
_Scale of Perfection_ (London, 1659); of Father A. Baker's _Sancta
Sophia_ (2 vols., Douai, 1657); and of Juliana of Norwich's _Sixteen
Revelations on the Love of God_ (1670). These books, which would have
been lost but for Cressy's zeal, have been frequently reprinted, and
have been favourably regarded by a section of the Anglican Church.

  For a complete list of Cressy's works see J. Gillow's _Bibl. Dict. of
  Eng. Catholics_, vol. i.

CREST, a town of south-eastern France, in the department of Drôme, on
the right bank of the Drôme, 20 m. S.S.E. of Valence by rail. Pop.
(1906) town, 3971; commune, 5660. It carries on silk-worm breeding,
silk-spinning, and the manufacture of woollens, paper, leather and
cement. There is trade in truffles. On the rock which commands the town
stands a huge keep, the sole survival of a castle (12th century) to
which Crest was indebted for its importance in the middle ages and the
Religious Wars. The rest of the castle was destroyed in the first half
of the 17th century, after which the keep was used as a state prison.
Crest ranked for a time as the capital of the duchy of Valentinois, and
in that capacity belonged before the Revolution to the prince of Monaco.
The communal charter, graven on stone and dating from the 12th century,
is preserved in the public archives. Ten miles south-east of Crest lies
the picturesque Forest of Saon.

CREST (Lat. _crista_, a plume or tuft), the "comb" on an animal's head,
and so any feathery tuft or excrescence, the "cone" of a helmet (by
transference, the helmet itself), and the top or summit of anything. In
heraldry (q.v.) a crest is a device, originally borne as a cognizance on
a knight's helmet, placed on a wreath above helmet and shield in
armorial bearings, and used separately on a seal or on articles of

_Cresting_, in architecture, is an ornamental finish in the wall or
ridge of a building, which is common on the continent of Europe. An
example occurs at Exeter cathedral, the ridge of which is ornamented
with a range of small _fleurs-de-lis_ in lead.

CRESTON, a city and the county-seat of Union county, Iowa, U.S.A., about
60 m. S.W. of Des Moines, at the crossing of the main line and two
branches of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railway. Pop. (1890) 7200;
(1900) 7752; (1905, state census) 8382 (753 foreign-born); (1910) 6924.
The city is on the crest of the divide between the Mississippi and the
Missouri basins at an altitude of about 1310 ft.--whence its name. It is
situated in a fine farming and stock-raising region, for which it is a
shipping point. The site was chosen in 1869 by the Burlington & Missouri
River Railroad Company (subsequently merged in the Chicago, Burlington &
Quincy Railroad Company) for the location of its shops. Creston was
incorporated as a town in 1869, and was chartered as a city in 1871.

CRESWICK, THOMAS (1811-1869), English landscape-painter, was born at
Sheffield, and educated at Hazelwood, near Birmingham. At Birmingham he
first began to paint. His earliest appearance as an exhibitor was in
1827, at the Society of British Artists in London; in the ensuing year
he sent to the Royal Academy the two pictures named "Llyn Gwynant,
Morning," and "Carnarvon Castle." About the same time he settled in
London; and in 1836 he took a house in Bayswater. He soon attracted some
attention as a landscape-painter, and had a career of uniform and
encouraging, though not signal success. In 1842 he was elected an
associate, and in 1850 a full member of the Royal Academy, which, for
several years before his death, numbered hardly any other full members
representing this branch of art. In his early practice he set an
example, then too much needed, of diligent study of nature out of doors,
painting on the spot all the substantial part of several of his
pictures. English and Welsh streams may be said to have formed his
favourite subjects, and generally British rural scenery, mostly under
its cheerful, calm and pleasurable aspects, in open daylight. This he
rendered with elegant and equable skill, colour rather grey in tint,
especially in his later years, and more than average technical
accomplishment; his works have little to excite, but would, in most
conditions of public taste, retain their power to attract. Creswick was
industrious and extremely prolific; he produced, besides a steady
outpouring of paintings, numerous illustrations for books. He was
personally genial--a dark, bulky man, somewhat heavy and graceless in
aspect in his later years. He died at his house in Bayswater, Linden
Grove, on the 28th of December 1869, after a few years of declining
health. Among his principal works may be named "England" (1847); "Home
by the Sands, and a Squally Day" (1848); "Passing Showers" (1849); "The
Wind on Shore, a First Glimpse of the Sea, and Old Trees" (1850); "A
Mountain Lake, Moonrise" (1852); "Changeable Weather" (1865); also the
"London Road, a Hundred Years ago"; "The Weald of Kent"; the "Valley
Mill" (a Cornish subject); a "Shady Glen"; the "Windings of a River";
the "Shade of the Beech Trees"; the "Course of the Greta"; the "Wharfe";
"Glendalough," and other Irish subjects, 1836 to 1840; the "Forest
Farm." Frith for figures, and Ansdell for animals, occasionally worked
in collaboration with Creswick.

  In 1873 T. O. Barlow, the engraver, published a catalogue of
  Creswick's works.

CRESWICK, a borough of Talbot county, Victoria, Australia. 85½ m. by
rail N.W. of Melbourne. Pop. (1901) 3060. It is the centre of a mining,
pastoral and agricultural district. Gold is found both in alluvial and
quartz formations, the quartz being especially rich. The surrounding
country is fertile and well-timbered, and there is a government
plantation and nursery in connexion with the forests department.

CRETACEOUS SYSTEM, in geology, the group of stratified rocks which
normally occupy a position above the Jurassic system and below the
oldest Tertiary deposits; therefore it is in this system that the
closing records of the great Mesozoic era are to be found. The name
furnishes an excellent illustration of the inconvenience of employing a
local lithological feature in the descriptive title of a wide-ranging
rock-system. The white chalk (Lat. _creta_), which gives its name to the
system, was first studied in the Anglo-Parisian basin, where it takes a
prominent place; but even in this limited area there is a considerable
thickness and variety of rocks which are not chalky, and the Cretaceous
system as a whole contains a remarkable diversity of types of sediment.

_Classification._--The earlier subdivisions of the Cretaceous rocks were
founded upon the uncertain ground of similarity in lithological
characters, assisted by observed stratigraphical sequence. This method
yielded poor results even in a circumscribed area like Great Britain,
and it breaks down utterly when applied to the correlation of rocks of
similar age in Europe and elsewhere. Study of the fossils, however, has
elicited the fact that certain forms characterize certain "zones," which
are preceded and succeeded by other zones each bearing a peculiar
species or distinctive assemblage of species. By these means the
Cretaceous rocks of the world have now been correlated zone with zone,
with a degree of exactitude proportional to the palaeontological
information gained in the several areas of occurrence.

The Cretaceous system falls naturally into two divisions, an upper and a
lower, in all but a few limited regions. In the table on page 288 the
names of the principal stages are enumerated; these are capable of
world-wide application. The sub-stages are of more local value, and too
much importance must not be attached to them for the correlation of
distant deposits. The general table is designed to show the relative
position in the system of some of the more important and better-known
formations; but it must be remembered that the Cretaceous rocks of
Europe can now be classified in considerable detail by their fossils,
the most accurate group for this purpose being the cephalopods. The
smaller table was compiled by T. C. Chamberlin and R. D. Salisbury to
show the main subdivisions of the North American Cretaceous rocks. The
correlation of the minor subdivisions of Europe and America are only

[Illustration: Distribution of Cretaceous Rocks]

_Relation of the Cretaceous Strata to the Systems above and below._--In
central and northern Europe the boundary between the Cretaceous and
Tertiary strata is sharply defined by a fairly general unconformity,
except in the Danian and Montian beds, where there is a certain
commingling of Tertiary with Cretaceous fossils. The relations with the
underlying Jurassic rocks are not so clearly defined, partly because the
earliest Cretaceous rocks are obscured by too great a thickness of
younger strata, and partly because the lowest observable rocks of the
system are not the oldest, but are higher members of the system that
have overlapped on to much older rocks. However, in the south of
England, in the Alpine area, and in part of N.W. Germany the passage
from Jurassic to Cretaceous is so gradual that there is some divergence
of opinion as to the best position for the line of separation. In the
Alpine region this passage is formed by marine beds, in the other two by
brackish-water deposits. In a like manner the Potomac beds of N. America
grade downwards into the Jurassic; while in the Laramie formation an
upward passage is observed into the Eocene deposits. There is a very
general unconformity and break between the Lower and Upper Cretaceous;
this has led Chamberlin and Salisbury to suggest that the Lower
Cretaceous should be regarded as a separate period with the title

_Physiographical Conditions and Types of Deposit._--With the opening of
the Cretaceous in Europe there commenced a period of marine
transgression; in the central and western European region this took
place from the S. towards the N., slow at first and local in effect, but
becoming more decided at the beginning of the upper division. During the
earlier portion of the period, S. England, Belgium and Hanover were
covered by a great series of estuarine sands and clays, termed the
Wealden formation (q.v.), the delta of a large river or rivers flowing
probably from the N.W. Meanwhile, in the rest of Europe alternations of
marine and estuarine deposits were being laid down; but over the Alpine
region lay the open sea, where there flourished coral reefs and great
banks of clam-like molluscs. The sea gradually encroached upon the
estuarine Wealden area, and at the time of the Aptian deposits uniform
marine conditions prevailed from western Europe through Russia into
Asia. This extension of the sea is illustrated in England by the overlap
of the Gault over the Lower Greens and on to the older rocks, and by
similar occurrences in N. France and Germany.

Almost throughout the Upper Cretaceous period the marine invasion
continued, varied here and there by slight movements in the opposite
sense which did not, however, interfere with the quiet general advance
of the sea. This marine extension made itself felt over the old central
plateau of France, the N. of Great Britain, the Spanish peninsula, the
Armorican peninsula, and also in the Bavarian Jura and Bohemia; it
affected the northern part of Africa and East Africa; in N. America the
sea spread over the entire length of the Rocky Mountain region; and in
Brazil, eastern Asia and western Australia, Upper Cretaceous deposits
are found resting directly upon much older rocks. Indeed, at this time
there happened one of the greatest changes in the distribution of land
and water that have been recorded in geological history.

We have seen that in early Cretaceous times marine limestones were being
formed in southern Europe, while estuarine sands and muds were being
laid down in the Anglo-German delta, and that beds of intermediate
character were being made in parts of N. France and Germany. During
later Cretaceous times this striking difference between the northern and
southern facies was maintained, notwithstanding the fact that the later
deposits were of marine origin in both regions. In the northern region
the gradual deepening and accompanying extension of the sea caused the
sandy deposits to become finer grained in N.W. Europe. The sandy beds
and clays then gave way to marly deposits, and in these early stages
glauconitic grains are very characteristically present both in the sand
and in the marls. In their turn these marly deposits in the
Anglo-Parisian basin were succeeded gradually and somewhat
intermittently by the purer, soft limestone of the chalk sea, and by
limestones, similar in character, in N. France, extra-Alpine Germany, S.
Scandinavia, Denmark and Russia. Meanwhile, the S. European deposits
maintained the characters already indicated; limestones (not chalk)
prevailed, except in certain Alpine and Carpathian tracts where detrital
sandstones were being laid down.

The great difference between the lithological characters of the northern
and southern deposits is accompanied by an equally striking difference
between their respective organic contents. In the north, the genera
_Inoceramus_ and _Belemnitella_ are particularly abundant. In the south,
the remarkable, large, clam-like, aberrant pelecypods, the
_Hippuritidae_, _Rudistes_, _Caprotina_, &c., attained an extraordinary
development; they form great lenticular banks, like the clam banks of
warm seas, or like our modern oyster-beds; they appear in successive
species in the different stages of the Cretaceous system of the south,
and can be used for marking palaeontological horizons as the cephalopods
are used elsewhere. Certain genera of ammonites, _Haploceras_,
_Lytoceras_, _Phylloceras_, rare in the north, are common in the south;
and the southern facies is further characterized by the peculiar group
of swollen belemnites (_Dumontia_), by the gasteropods _Actionella_,
_Nerinea_, &c., and by reef-building corals. The southern facies is far
more widespread and typical of the period than is the chalk; it not only
covers all southern Europe, but spreads eastwards far into Asia and
round the Mediterranean basin into Africa. It is found again in Texas,
Alabama, Mexico, the West Indies and Colombia; though limestones of the
chalk type are found in Texas, New Zealand, and locally in one or two
other places. The marine deposits are organically formed limestones, in
which foraminifera and large bivalve mollusca play a leading part, marls
and sandstones; dolomite and oolitic and pisolitic limestones are also

  |           |    European Classification.    |                     | Germany, &c., several |
  |           +--------------+-----------------+       Britain.      | other parts of Europe.|
  |           |    Stages.   |   Sub-stages.   |                     |                       |
  |           |              |                 |                     |                       |
  |           |Montian.      |(placed by some  |                     | Marls and pisolitic   |
  |           |              |in the Tertiary).|                     |  Limestone of Meudon. |
  |           |              |                 |                     |                       |
  |           |Danian.       |                 |Chalk of Trimingham. | Limestone of Saltholm |
  |           |              |Maestrichtian    |                     |  and Faxö (Denmark).  |
  |           |              |  (Dordonian).   |Upper Chalk with     |                       |
  |           |Aturian.   \  |                 |  Flints.            |Upper Quader Sandstone.|
  |           |            | |Campanian.       |                     |                       |
  |   Upper   |    Senonian. |                 |                     |                       |
  |Cretaceous.|            | |Santonian.       |                     | Quader Marls and      |
  |           |Emscherian./  |                 |                     |  Pläner Marls.        |
  |           |              |Coniacian.       |                     |                       |
  |           |              |                 |Middle Chalk without |                       |
  |           |              |Angoumian.       |  Flints.            | Upper Pläner.         |   \
  |           |Turonian.     |                 |                     |                       |    \
  |           |              |Ligerian.        |                     |                       |     |
  |           |              |                 |                     |                       |     |
  |           |              |Carentonian.     |Grey Chalk.          | Lr. Pläner and Lr.    |     |
  |           |Cenomanian.   |                 |Chalk marl.          |  Quader.              | Hippurite
  |           |              |Rothomagian.     |Cambridge Greensand. |                       | limestones
  |           |              |                 +---------------------+ Tourtia of Mons, &c.  | of
  +-----------+--------------+-----------------| Selbornian.         +-----------------------+ Southern
  |           |              |                 |                     |                       | France
  |           |              |                 |     Gault and Upper |                       | and
  |           |              |                 |       Greensand.    |                       | Mediterranean
  |           |Albian.       |Gault.           |                     | Flammen mergel. Clay  | Region
  |           |              |                 +---------------------+  of N. Germany.       |     |
  |           |              |Gargasian.       |                     | Urgonian              |     |
  |           |Aptian.       |                 |Lower Greensand.     | Requienia             |     |
  |   Lower   |              |Bedoulian.       |                     |  (caprotina) Kalk     |    /
  |Cretaceous.|              |                 |                     |  or Schrattenkalk.    |   /
  |           |Barremian.    |                 |Weald Clay           |                       |
  |           |              |Hauterivian.     |    and              |                       |
  |           |Neocomian.    |                 |Hastings sands.      |         North         |
  |           |              |Valangian.       |                     |        German         |
  |           |              |                 |       Marine        |         Hills         |
  |           |              |Berriasian.      |      Beds of        |       formation       |
  |           |              |                 |      Specton.       |                       |
  |           |              |                 |                     |                       |
  |           |              |                 |                     |                       |

  |           |                Upper Cretaceous.                 :           Lower Cretaceous.         |
  |           | Aptychenkalk in E. Alps ... Cretaceous Flysch... : ... Cretaceous Flysch ...           |
  |           | Biancone of S. Alps.                             : Carpathian and Vienna Sandstones,   |
  |  Alpine   |                                                  :   Gosau formation of E. Alps.       |
  |  Region.  |                                                  : Seewan beds of N. Alps.             |
  |           |                                                  : Scaglia of S. Alps.                 |
  |  Africa.  |                          Nubian Sandstone of ... : ... N. Africa and Syria.            |
  |           | Uitenhage Beds S. Africa.                        :           Pondoland Beds S. Africa. |
  |  India.   | Oomia and Utatur Group.                          :        Arialoor Beds (Deccan Trap). |
  |Australia. | Rolling Down Formation.                          :                   Desert Sandstone. |
  |    New    | Thick conglomeratic Series with Bitumous coals.  : Waipara Beds and Limestones, Chalk, |
  |  Zealand. |                                                  :   with Flints, Marls and Greensand. |
  |S. America.| Puegiredon Series.                  Belgrano ... : ... Series.  San Martin Series.     |
  |   Japan.  | Torinosa Limestone and Ryoseki Series.           : Izumi Sandstone and Hokkaido Series.|
  |Greenland. | Kome Group.                                      : Atani Group.  Patoot Group (part).  |

    _Note to Tables._

  Montian      from Mons in Belgium.
  Danian         "  Denmark = _Garumnien_ of Leymerie.
  Aturian        "  Adour.
  Maestrichtian  "  Maestricht.
  Campanian      "  Champagne.
  Emscherian     "  Emscher river in Westphalia.
  Santonian      "  Saintonge.
  Coniacian      "  Cognac.
  Senonian       "  Sens in department of Yonne.
  Turonian       "  Touraine.
  Angoumian      "  Angoumois.
  Ligerian       "  the Loire.
  Cenomanian     "  Le Mans (Cenomanum).
  Carentonian    "  Charente.
  Rothomagian    "  Rouen (_Rothomagus_).
  Albian         "  dept. of Aube.
  Selbornian     "  Selborne in Hampshire.
  Aptian         "  Apt in Vaucluse.
  Gargasian      "  Gargas near Apt.
  Bedoulian      "  la Bedoule (Var) = _Rhodanien_ of Renevie
  Barremian      "  Barrême in Basses Alpes.
  Hauterivian    "  Hauterive on Lake of Neuchâtel.
  Valangian      "  Château de Valangin near Neuchâtel.
  Neocomian      "  Neuchâtel (_Neocomum_).
  Berriasian     "  Berrias (_Ardéche_) near Besseges.
  Urgonian       "  Orgon near Arles.

The Cretaceous seas were probably comparatively shallow; this was
certainly the case where the deposits are sandy, and in the regions
occupied by the hippuritic fauna. Much discussion has taken place as to
the depth of the chalk sea. Stress has been laid upon the resemblance of
this deposit to the modern deep-sea globigerina-ooze; but on the whole
the evidence is in favour of moderate depth, perhaps not more than 1000
fathoms; the freedom of the deposit from detrital matter being regarded
as due to the low elevation of the surrounding land, and the main lines
of drainage being in other directions. Sandy and shore deposits are
common throughout the system in every region. Besides the Weald, there
were great lacustrine and terrestrial deposits in N. America (the
Potomac, Kootenay, Morrison, Dakota and Laramie formations) as well as
in N. Spain, and in parts of Germany, &c. The general distribution of
land and sea is indicated in the map.

_Earth Movements and Vulcanicity._--During the greater part of the
Cretaceous period crustal movements had been small and local in effect,
but towards the close a series of great deformative movements was
inaugurated and continued into the next period. These movements make it
possible to discriminate between the Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks,
because the conditions of sedimentation were profoundly modified by
them, and in most parts of the world there resulted a distinct break in
the sequence of fossil remains. Great tracts of our modern continental
land areas gradually emerged, and several mountainous tracts began to be
elevated, such as the Appalachians, parts of the Cordilleras, and the
Rocky Mountains, and their northern continuation, and indeed the greater
part of the western N. American continent was intensely affected; the
uplifting was associated with extensive faulting. Volcanic activity was
in abeyance in Europe and in much of Asia, but in America there were
many eruptions and intrusions of igneous rock towards the close of the
period. Diabases and peridotites had been formed during the Lower
Cretaceous in the San Luis Obispo region. Great masses of ash and
conglomerate occur in the Crow's Nest Pass in Canada; porphyries and
porphyritic tuffs of later Cretaceous age are important in the Andes;
while similar rocks are found in the Lower Cretaceous of New Zealand. It
is, however, in the Deccan lava flows of India that we find eruptions on
a scale more vast than any that have been recorded either before or
since. These outpourings of lava cover 200,000 sq. m. and are from 4000
to 6000 ft. thick. They lie upon an eroded Cenomanian surface and are to
some extent interbedded with Upper Cretaceous sediments.

  |           |Atlantic Coast.|Eastern Gulf|  Western Gulf  |  Western Interior. | Pacific Coast.|  European.  |
  |           |               |   Region.  |     Region.    |                    |               |             |
  |       /   | Manasquan.    |            |                |Denver, Livingstone,|               |             |
  |      |    |               |   ......   |     ......     |  (possibly Eocene).| Not           |             |
  |      |    |               |            |                |  &c.               | differentiated|             |
  |      |    | Rancocas.     |            |                | Laramie.           | or wanting.   | Danian.     |
  |      |    +---------------+------------+----------------+--------------------+---------------+-------------+
  |      |    |               | Ripley.    |                | Montana Series     |               |             |
  |CRETACEOUS | Monmouth.     |            | Montana Series |  2. Fox Hills.     |               | Senonian.   |
  |      |    |               | Selma.     | Navarro.       |  1. Fort Pierre and|               |             |
  |   Upper   |               |            |                |    Belly River.    |               |             |
  |Cretaceous.| Matawan.      | Eutaw.     | Colorado Series| Colorado Series.   |               |             |
  |      |    |               |            |  2. Austin     |  2. Niobrara.      | Chico.        | Turonian.   |
  |      |    |               |            |  1. Eagle Ford |  1. Benton.        |               |             |
  |      |    +---------------+------------+----------------|--------------------+               +-------------+
  |      |    |               |            | Dakota.        | Dakota.            |               | Cenomanian. |
  |      |    |    ......     |   ......   | Woodbine.      |                    |               | Albian.     |
  |      |    |               |            |                |                    |               | Unconformity|
  |       \   |               |     U n c o|n f o r m i t y.|                    |               |   in places.|
  |           |...............|............|................|....................|...............|.............|
  |       /   |               |            |                |                    | Horsetown     | Aptian.     |
  |      |    |               |            | Washita.       |                    |               |             |
  |      |    |               |            |                |                    | Knoxville.    | Urgonian.   |
  |      |    |               | Tuskaloosa | Fredericksburg.| Kootenay and       | \__  ___/     |             |
  |COMANCHEAN |               |    Series. |                |   Morrison (or     |    \/         | Neocomian.  |
  |      |    |Potomac Series.|            |                |   Como).           |  Shastan.     | Wealden.    |
  |  Lower    |  4. Raritan.  |            |                |                    |               |             |
  |Cretaceous.|  3. Patapsco. |            | Trinity.       |                    |               |             |
  |      |    |               |            |                |                    |               |             |
  |      |    |      Jurassic?|            |                |                    |               |             |
  |       \   | 2. Arundel    |            |                |                    |               |             |
  |           | 1. Patuxent   |            |                |                    |               |             |

_Economic Products of Cretaceous Rocks._--Coal is one of the most
important products of the rocks of this system. The principal Cretaceous
coal-bearing area is in the western interior of N. America, where an
enormous amount of coal--mostly lignitic, but in places converted into
anthracite--lies in the rocks at the foot of the Rocky Mountains; most
of this is of Laramie age. Similar beds occur locally in Montana. Coal
seams of Lower Cretaceous age are found in the Black Hills (S. Dakota),
Alaska, Greenland, and in New Zealand; and the "Upper Quader" of
Löwenberg in Silesia also contains coal seams. Coals also occur in the
brackish and fresh-water deposits of Carinthia, Dalmatia and Istria,
while unimportant lignitic beds are known in many other regions. The
Fort Pierre beds are oil-bearing at Boulder, Colorado; and the Trinity
formation bears asphalt and bitumen. Important clay deposits are worked
in the Raritan formation of New Jersey, &c., and pottery clays are found
in the Löwenberg district in Germany. The Washita beds yield the
well-known hone stone. Great beds of gypsum exist in the Cretaceous
rocks of S. America. Near Salzburg a variety of the hippuritic limestone
is quarried for marble. Lithographic stone occurs in the Pyrenees. The
economic products peculiar to the chalk are mentioned in the article
CHALK. Beds of iron ore are found in the Lower Cretaceous of Germany and

_The Life of the Cretaceous Period._--The fossils from the Cretaceous
series comprise marine, fresh-water and terrestrial animals and plants.
Foremost in interest and importance is the appearance in the Lower
Potomac (Lower Cretaceous) of eastern and central N. America of the
earliest representatives of angiospermous dicotyledons, and undoubted
monocotyledons, the progenitors of our modern flowering plants. The
angiosperms spread outward from the Atlantic coast region of N. America,
and first appeared in Europe in the Aptian of Portugal; towards the
close of the Lower Cretaceous period they occupied parts of Greenland,
the remaining land areas of N. America, and were steadily advancing in
every quarter of the globe. At first the Jurassic plants, the Cycads,
ferns and conifers, lived on and were the dominant plant forms.
Gradually, however, they took a subordinate place, and by the close of
the Cretaceous period the angiosperms had gained the upper hand. The
earliest of these fossil angiosperms is not in a true sense a primitive
form, and no records of such types have yet been discovered. Some of the
early forms of the Lower Cretaceous are distinctly similar to modern
genera, such as _Ficus_, _Sassafras_ and _Aralia_; others bore leaves
closely resembling our elm, maple, willow, oak, eucalyptus, &c. Before
the close of the period many other representatives of living genera had
appeared, beech, walnut, tamarisk, plane, laurel (_Laurus_), cinnamon,
ivy, ilex, viburnum, buckthorn, breadfruit, oleander and others; there
were also junipers, thujas, pines and sequoias and monocotyledons such
as _Potamogeton_ and _Arundo_. This flora was widely spread and uniform;
there was great similarity between that of Europe and N. America, and in
parts of the United States (Virginia and Maryland) the plants were very
like those in Greenland. The general aspect of the flora was
sub-tropical; the eucalyptus and other plants then common in Europe and
N. America are now confined to the southern hemisphere.

The marine fauna comprised foraminifera which must have swarmed in the
Chalk and some of the limestone seas; their shells have formed great
thickness of rock. Common forms are the genera _Alveolina_,
_Cristellaria_, _Rotalia_, _Textularia_, _Orbitolina_, _Globigerina_.
Radiolarians were doubtless abundant, but their remains are rare.
Sponges with calcareous (_Peronidilla_, _Barroisia_) and siliceous
skeletons (_Siphonia_, _Coeloptychium_, _Ventriculites_) were very
numerous in certain of the Cretaceous waters. Corals were comparatively
rare, _Trochosmilia_, _Parasmilia_, _Holocystis_ being typical genera;
reefs were formed in the Maestricht beds of Denmark and Faxoe, in the
Neocomian and Turonian of France, in the Turonian of the Alps and
Pyrenees, and also in the Gosau beds and in the Utatur group of India.
Sea-urchins were a conspicuous feature, and many nearly allied forms are
still living; _Cidaris_, _Micraster_, _Discoidea_ are examples. Crinoids
were represented by _Marsupites_, _Uintacrinus_ and _Bourgueticrinus_;
starfish (_Calliderma_ and _Pentagonaster_) were not uncommon. Polyzoa
were abundant; brachiopods were fairly common, though subordinate to the
pelecypods; they were mostly rhynchonellids and terebratulids, which
lived side by side with the ancient forms, like _Crania_ and _Discina_.
The bivalve mollusca were very important during this period,
_Inoceramus_, _Ostrea_, _Spondylus_, _Gervillia_, _Exogyra_, _Pecten_,
_Trigonia_ being particularly abundant in the northern seas, while in
the southern waters the remarkable _Hippurites_, _Radiolites_,
_Caprotina_, _Caprina_, _Monopleura_ and _Requienia_ prevailed.
Gasteropods were well represented and included many modern genera.
Cephalopods were important as a group, but the ammonites, so vigorous in
the foregoing period, were declining and were assuming curious
degenerate forms, often with a tendency to uncoil the shell;
_Baculites_, _Hoplites_, _Turrilites_, _Ptychoceras_, _Hamites_ are some
of the typical genera, while _Belemnites_ and _Belemnitella_ were
abundant in the northern seas.

The vertebrate fauna of the Cretaceous period differed in many features
from that of the present day; mammals appear to have been only poorly
represented by puny forms, related to Triassic and Jurassic types; they
were mainly marsupials (_Batodon_, _Cimolestes_) with a few
monotreme-like forms; carnivores, rodents and ungulates were still
unknown. As in Jurassic times, reptiles were the dominant forms, and not
a few genera lived on from the former period into the Cretaceous; but,
on the whole, the reptilian assemblage was no longer so varied, and most
of the distinctive mesozoic types had passed away before the close of
this period. Dinosaurs were represented by herbivorous and carnivorous
genera as in the Jurassic period, but the latter were less abundant than
before. The _Iguanodon_ of the Sussex-Weald and Bernissart in Belgium is
perhaps the best-known genus; but there were many others, their remains
being particularly abundant and well-preserved in the Cretaceous
deposits of N. America. _Titanosaurus_, _Acanthopholis_, _Megalosaurus_
and _Hypsilophodon_ may be mentioned, some of these being of great size,
while _Diclonius_ was a curious duck-billed creature; but most
remarkable in appearance must have been the horned Dinosaurs, _Ceratops_
and _Triceratops_, gross, unwieldy creatures, 25 to 30 ft. long, whose
huge heads were grotesquely armed with horns and bony frills.

Coincident, perhaps, with the widespread extension of the sea was the
development of aquatic habits and structures suitable thereto amongst
all the reptilian groups including also the birds. The foremost place
was undoubtedly taken by the pythonomorphs or sea-serpents, including
_Mosasaurus_ and many others; these were enormously elongated creatures,
reaching up to 75 ft., with swimming flappers and powerful swimming
tails, and they lived a predatory life in the open sea. Ichthyosaurians
soon disappeared from Cretaceous waters; but the plesiosaurians
(_Cimoliosaurus_ and others) reached their maximum development in this
period. The remarkable flying lizards, pterosaurs, likewise attained
their great development and then passed away; they ranged in size from
that of a pigeon to creatures with a wing-spread of 25 ft.; notable
genera are _Pteranodon_, _Ornithocheirus_, _Nyctiosaurus_. Ordinary
lizard-like forms were represented by _Coniosaurus_, _Dolichosaurus_,
&c.; and true crocodiles, _Goniopholis_, _Suchosaurus_, appeared in this
period, and continued to approximate to modern genera. The earliest
known river turtles are found in the Belly River deposits of Canada;
marine turtles also made their first appearance and were widely
represented, some of them, _Archelon_ and _Protostega_, being of great
size. True snakes appeared later in the period.

The birds, as far as existing evidence goes, were aquatic; some, like
_Ichthyornis_, were built for powerful flight; others, like
_Hesperornis_, were flightless. _Enaliornis_ is a form well known from
the Cambridge Greensand. They were toothed birds having structural
affinities with the Dinosaurs and Pterodactyles.

Fish remains of this period show that a marked change was taking place;
teleosteans (with bony internal skeleton) were taking a more prominent
place, and although ganoids were still represented (_Macropoma_,
_Lepidotus_, _Amiopris_, &c.) they had quite ceased to be the dominant
types before the close of Cretaceous times. Sharks and rays were of the
modern types, though distinct in species. Amongst the early forms of
Cretaceous teleosteans may be mentioned _Elopopsis_, _Ichthyodectes_,
_Diplomystus_ (herring), _Haplopteryx_ and _Urenchelys_ (eel).

  For further information see the articles CHALK; GREENSAND; WEALDEN.
  Sir A. Geikie's _Text-book of Geology_, vol. ii. (4th ed., 1903),
  contains in addition to a full general account of the system very full
  references to the literature.

CRETE (Gr. [Greek: Krêtê]; Turk. _Kirid_, Ital. _Candia_), after Sicily,
Sardinia and Cyprus the largest island in the Mediterranean, situated
between 34° 50' and 35° 40' N. lat. and between 23° 30' and 26° 20' E.
long. Its north-eastern extremity, Cape Sidero, is distant about 110 m.
from Cape Krio in Asia Minor, the interval being partly filled by the
islands of Carpathos and Rhodes; its north-western, Cape Grabusa, is
within 60 m. of Cape Malea in the Morea. Crete thus forms the natural
limit between the Mediterranean and the Archipelago. The island is of
elongated form; its length from E. to W. is 160 m., its breadth from N.
to S. varies from 35 to 7½ m., its area is 3330 sq. m. The northern
coast-line is much indented. On the W. two narrow mountainous
promontories, the western terminating in Cape Grabusa or Busa (ancient
Corycus), the eastern in Cape Spada, shut in the Bay of Kisamos; beyond
the Bay of Canea, to the E., the rocky peninsula of Akrotiri shelters
the magnificent natural harbour of Suda (8½ sq. m.), the only completely
protected anchorage for large vessels which the island affords. Farther
E. are the bays of Candia and Malea, the deep Mirabello Bay and the Bay
of Sitia. The south coast is less broken, and possesses no natural
harbours, the mountains in many parts rising almost like a wall from the
sea; in the centre is Cape Lithinos, the southernmost point of the
island, partly sheltering the Bay of Messará on the W. Immediately to
the E. of Cape Lithinos is the small bay of Kali Liménes or Fair Havens,
where the ship conveying St Paul took refuge (Acts xxvii. 8). Of the
islands in the neighbourhood of the Cretan coast the largest is Gavdo
(ancient Clauda, Acts xxvii. 16), about 25 m. from the south coast at
Sphakia, in the middle ages the see of a bishop. On the N. side the
small island of Dia, or Standia, about 8 m. from Candia, offers a
convenient shelter against northerly gales. Three small islands on the
northern coast--Grabusa at the N.W. extremity, Suda, at the entrance to
Suda harbour, and Spinalonga, in Mirabello Bay--remained for some time
in the possession of Venice after the conquest of Crete by the Turks.
Grabusa, long regarded as an impregnable fortress, was surrendered in
1692, Suda (where the flags of Turkey and the four protecting powers are
now hoisted) and Spinalonga in 1715.

[Illustration: Map of Crete]

_Natural Features._--The greater part of the island is occupied by
ranges of mountains which form four principal groups. In the western
portion rises the massive range of the White Mountains (_Aspra Vouna_),
directly overhanging the southern coast with spurs projecting towards
the W. and N.W. (highest summit, Hagios Theodoros, 7882 ft.). In the
centre is the smaller, almost detached mass of Psiloriti ([Greek:
Hypsiloreition], ancient Ida), culminating in Stavros (8193 ft.), the
highest summit in the island. To the E. are the Lassithi mountains with
Aphenti Christos (7165 ft.), and farther E. the mountains of Sitia with
Aphenti Kavousi (4850 ft.). The Kophino mountains (3888 ft.) separate
the central plain of Messará from the southern coast. The isolated peak
of Iuktas (about 2700 ft.), nearly due S. of Candia, was regarded with
veneration in antiquity as the burial-place of Zeus. The principal
groups are for the greater part of the year covered with snow, which
remains in the deeper clefts throughout the summer; the intervals
between them are filled by connecting chains which sometimes reach the
height of 3000 ft. The largest plain is that of Monofatsi and Messará, a
fertile tract extending between Mt. Psiloriti and the Kophino range,
about 37 m. in length and 10 m. in breadth. The smaller plain, or rather
slope, adjoining Canea and the valley of Alikianú, through which the
Platanos (ancient Iardanos) flows, are of great beauty and fertility. A
peculiar feature is presented by the level upland basins which furnish
abundant pasturage during the summer months; the more remarkable are the
Omalo in the White Mountains (about 4000 ft.) drained by subterranean
outlets ([Greek: katábothra]), Nida ([Greek: eis tên Idan]) in Psiloriti
(between 5000 and 6000 ft.), and the Lassithi plain (about 3000 ft.), a
more extensive area, on which are several villages. Another remarkable
characteristic is found in the deep narrow ravines ([Greek: pharángia]),
bordered by precipitous cliffs, which traverse the mountainous
districts; into some of these the daylight scarcely penetrates. Numerous
large caves exist in the mountains; among the most remarkable are the
famous Idaean cave in Psiloriti, the caves of Melidoni, in Mylopotamo,
and Sarchu, in Malevisi, which sheltered hundreds of refugees after the
insurrection of 1866, and the Dictaean cave in Lassithi, the birth-place
of Zeus. The so-called Labyrinth, near the ruins of Gortyna, was a
subterranean quarry from which the city was built. The principal rivers
are the Metropoli Potamos and the Anapothiari, which drain the plain of
Monofatsi and enter the southern sea E. and W. respectively of the
Kophino range; the Platanos, which flows northwards from the White
Mountains into the Bay of Canea; and the Mylopotamo (ancient Oaxes)
flowing northwards from Psiloriti to the sea E. of Retimo.

  _Geology._[1]--The metamorphic rocks of western Crete form a series
  some 9000 to 10,000 ft. in thickness, of very varied composition. They
  include gypsum, dolomite, conglomerates, phyllites, and a basic series
  of eruptive rocks (gabbros, peridotites, serpentines). Glaucophane
  rocks are widely spread. In the centre of the folds fossiliferous beds
  with crinoids have been found, and the black slates at the top of the
  series contain _Myophoria_ and other fossils, indicating that the
  rocks are of Triassic age. It is, however, not impossible that the
  metamorphic series includes also some of the Lias. The later beds of
  the island belong to the Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary systems. At
  the western foot of the Ida massif calcareous beds with corals,
  brachiopods (_Rhynchonella inconstans_, &c.) have been found, the
  fossils indicating the horizon of the Kimmeridge clay. Lower
  Cretaceous limestones and schists, with radiolarian cherts, arc
  extensively developed; and in many parts of the island Upper
  Cretaceous limestones with _Rudistes_ and Eocene beds with nummulites
  have been found. All these are involved in the earth movements to
  which the mountains of the island owe their formation, but the Miocene
  beds (with _Clypeaster_) and later deposits lie almost undisturbed
  upon the coasts and the low-lying ground. With the Jurassic beds is
  associated an extensive series of eruptive rocks (gabbro, peridotite,
  serpentine, diorite, granite, &c.); they are chiefly of Jurassic age,
  but the eruptions may have continued into the Lower Cretaceous.

  The structure of the island is complex. In the west the folds run from
  north to south, curving gradually westward towards the southern and
  western coasts; but in the east the folds appear to run from west to
  east, and to be the continuation of the Dinaric folds of the Balkan
  peninsula. The structure is further complicated by a great
  thrust-plane which has brought the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous beds
  upon the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene beds.

_Vegetation._--The forests which once covered the mountains have for the
most part disappeared and the slopes are now desolate wastes. The
cypress still grows wild in the higher regions; the lower hills and the
valleys, which are extremely fertile, are covered with olive woods.
Oranges and lemons also abound, and are of excellent quality, furnishing
almost the whole supply of continental Greece and Constantinople.
Chestnut woods are found in the Selino district, and forests of the
valonia oak in that of Retimo; in some parts the carob tree is abundant
and supplies an important article of consumption. Pears, apples,
quinces, mulberries and other fruit-trees flourish, as well as vines;
the Cretan wines, however, no longer enjoy the reputation which they
possessed in the time of the Venetians. Tobacco and cotton succeed well
in the plains and low grounds, though not at present cultivated to any
great extent.

_Animals._--Of the wild animals of Crete, the wild goat or _agrimi
(Capra aegagrus)_ alone need be mentioned; it is still found in
considerable numbers on the higher summits of Psiloriti and the White
Mountains. The same species is found in the Caucasus and Mount Taurus,
and is distinct from the ibex or bouquetin of the Alps. Crete, like
several other large islands, enjoys immunity from dangerous serpents--a
privilege ascribed by popular belief to the intercession of Titus, the
companion of St Paul, who according to tradition was the first bishop of
the island, and became in consequence its patron saint. Wolves also are
not found in the island, though common in Greece and Asia Minor. The
native breed of mules is remarkably fine.

_Population._--The population of Crete under the Venetians was estimated
at about 250,000. After the Turkish conquest it greatly diminished, but
afterwards gradually rose, till it was supposed to have attained to
about 260,000, of whom about half were Mahommedans, at the time of the
outbreak of the Greek revolution in 1821. The ravages of the war from
1821 to 1830, and the emigration that followed, caused a great
diminution, and the population was estimated by Pashley in 1836 at only
about 130,000. In the next generation it again materially increased; it
was calculated by Spratt in 1865 as amounting to 210,000. According to
the census taken in 1881, the complete publication of which was
interdicted by the Turkish authorities, the population of the island was
279,165, or 35.78 to the square kilometre. Of this total, 141,602 were
males, 137,563 females; 33,173 were literate, 242,114 illiterate;
205,010 were orthodox Christians, 73,234 Moslems, and 921 of other
religious persuasions. The Moslem element predominated in the principal
towns, of which the population was--Candia, 21,368; Canea, 13,812;
Retimo, 9274. According to the census taken in June 1900, the population
of the island was 301,273, the Christians having increased to 267,266,
while the Moslems had diminished to 33,281. The Moslems, as well as the
Christians, are of Greek origin and speak Greek.

_Towns._--The three principal towns are on the northern coast and
possess small harbours suitable for vessels of light draught. Candia,
the former capital and the see of the archbishop of Crete (pop. in 1900,
22,501), is officially styled Herákleion; it is surrounded by remarkable
Venetian fortifications and possesses a museum with a valuable
collection of objects found at Cnossus, Phaestus, the Idaean cave and
elsewhere. It has been occupied since 1897 by British troops. Canea
(Xaviá), the seat of government since 1840 (pop. 20,972), is built in
the Italian style; its walls and interesting galley-slips recall the
Venetian period. The residence of the high commissioner and the
consulates of the powers are in the suburb of Halepa. Retimo [Greek:
Rethumnos] is, like Canea, the see of a bishop (pop. 9311). The other
towns, Hierapetra, Sitia, Kisamos, Selino and Sphakia, are unimportant.

  _Production and Industries._--Owing to the volcanic nature of its
  soil, Crete is probably rich in minerals. Recent experiments lead to
  the conclusion that iron, lead, manganese, lignite and sulphur exist
  in considerable abundance. Copper and zinc have also been found. A
  large number of applications for mining concessions have been received
  since the establishment of the autonomous government. The principal
  wealth of the island is derived from its olive groves; notwithstanding
  the destruction of many thousands of trees during each successive
  insurrection, the production is apparently undiminished, and will
  probably increase very considerably owing to the planting of young
  trees and the improved methods of cultivation which the Government is
  endeavouring to promote. The orange and lemon groves have also
  suffered considerably, but new varieties of the orange tree are now
  being introduced, and an impulse will be given to the export trade in
  this fruit by the removal of the restriction on its importation into
  Greece. Agriculture is still in a primitive condition; notwithstanding
  the fertility of the arable land the supply of cereals is far below
  the requirements of the population. A great portion of the central
  plain of Monofatsi, the principal grain-producing district, is lying
  fallow owing to the exodus of the Moslem peasantry. The cultivation of
  silk cocoons, formerly a flourishing industry, has greatly declined in
  recent years, but efforts are now being made to revive it. There are
  few manufactures. Soap is produced at fifteen factories in the
  principal towns, and there are two distilleries of cognac at Candia.

  _Commerce._--The expansion of Cretan commerce has been retarded by
  many drawbacks, such as the unsatisfactory condition of the harbours,
  the want of direct steamship lines to England and other countries, and
  the deficiency of internal communications. The total value of imports
  in the four years 1901-1904 was £1,756,888, of exports £1,386,777;
  excess of imports over exports, £370,111. Exports in 1904 were valued
  at £419,642, the principal items being agricultural products (oranges,
  lemons, carobs, almonds, grapes, valonia, &c.), value £153,858, olives
  and products of olives (oil, soap, &c.), £134,788, and wines and
  liquors, £48,544. The countries which accept the largest share of
  Cretan produce are Turkey, England, Egypt, Austria and Russia. Imports
  in 1904 were valued at £549,665, including agricultural products
  (mainly flour and corn), value £162,535, and textiles, £129,349.
  Cereals are imported from the Black Sea and Danube ports, ready-made
  clothing from Austria and Germany, articles of luxury from Austria and
  France, and cotton textiles from England. Imports are charged 8%,
  exports 1% _ad valorem_ duty. According to a law published in 1899,
  Turkish merchandise became subjected to the same rates as that of
  foreign nations.

_Constitution and Government._--During the past half-century the affairs
of Crete have repeatedly occupied the attention of Europe. Owing to the
existence of a strong Mussulman minority among its inhabitants, the
warlike character of the natives, and the mountainous configuration of
the country, which enabled a portion of the Christian population to
maintain itself in a state of partial independence, the island has
constantly been the scene of prolonged and sanguinary struggles in which
the numerical superiority of the Christians was counterbalanced by the
aid rendered to the Moslems by the Ottoman troops. This unhappy state of
affairs was aggravated and perpetuated by the intrigues set on foot at
Constantinople against successive governors of the island, the conflicts
between the Palace and the Porte, the duplicity of the Turkish
authorities, the dissensions of the representatives of the great powers,
the machinations of Greek agitators, the rivalry of Cretan politicians,
and prolonged financial mismanagement. A long series of
insurrections--those of 1821, 1833, 1841, 1858, 1866-1868, 1878, 1889
and 1896 may be especially mentioned--culminated in the general
rebellion of 1897, which led to the interference of Greece, the
intervention of the great powers, the expulsion of the Turkish
authorities, and the establishment of an autonomous Cretan government
under the suzerainty of the sultan. According to the autonomous
constitution of 1899 the supreme power was vested in Prince George of
Greece, acting as high commissioner of the protecting powers. The
authority thus conferred was confided exclusively to the prince, and was
declared liable to modification by law in the case of his successor. The
modified constitution of February 1907 curtailed the large exceptional
legislative and administrative powers then accorded. The high
commissioner is irresponsible, but his decrees, except in certain
specified cases, must be countersigned by a member of his council. He
convokes, prorogues and dissolves the chamber, sanctions laws, exercises
the right of pardon in case of political offences, represents the island
in its foreign relations and is chief of its military forces. The
chamber ([Greek: boulê]), which is elected in the proportion of one
deputy to every 5000 inhabitants, meets annually for a session of two
months. New elections are held every two years. The chamber exercises a
complete financial control, and no taxes can be imposed without its
consent. The high commissioner is aided in the administration by a
cabinet of three members, styled "councillors" ([Greek: symbouloi]), who
superintend the departments of justice, finance, education, public
security and the interior. The councillors, who are nominated and
dismissed by the high commissioner, are responsible to the chamber,
which may impeach them before a special tribunal for any illegal act or
neglect of duty.

In general the Cretan constitution is characterized by a conservative
spirit, and contrasts with the ultra-democratic systems established in
Greece and the Balkan States. A further point of difference is the more
liberal payment of public functionaries in Crete. For administrative
purposes the departmental divisions existing under the Turkish
government have been retained. There are 5 _nomoi_ or prefectures
(formerly _sanjaks_) each under a prefect ([Greek: nomárchos]), and 23
eparchies (formerly _kazas_) each under a sub-prefect ([Greek:
éparchos]). All these functionaries are nominated by the high
commissioner. The prefects are assisted by departmental councils. The
system of municipal and communal government remains practically
unchanged. The island is divided into 86 communes, each with a mayor, an
assistant-mayor, and a communal council elected by the people. The
councils assess within certain limits the communal taxes, maintain
roads, bridges, &c., and generally superintend local affairs. Public
order is maintained by a force of gendarmerie ([Greek: chôrophulakê])
organized and at first commanded by Italian officers, who were replaced
by Greek officers in December 1906. The constitution authorizes the
formation of a militia ([Greek: politophulakê]) to be enrolled by
conscription, but in existing circumstances the embodiment of this force
seems unnecessary.

_Justice._--The administration of justice is on the French model. A
supreme court of appeal, which also discharges the functions of a court
of cassation, sits at Canea. There are two assize courts at Canea and
Candia respectively with jurisdiction in regard to serious offences
([Greek: kakourgêmata ]). Minor offences ([Greek: plêmmelêmata]) and
civil causes are tried by courts of first instance in each of the five
departments. There are 26 justices of peace, to whose decision are
referred slight contraventions of the law ([Greek: ptaismata]) and civil
causes in which the amount claimed is below 600 francs. These
functionaries also hold monthly sessions in the various communes. The
judges are chosen without regard to religious belief, and precautions
have been taken to render them independent of political parties. They
are appointed, promoted, transferred or removed by order of the council
of justice, a body composed of the five highest judicial dignitaries,
sitting at Canea. An order for the removal of a judge must be based upon
a conviction for some specified offence before a court of law. The jury
system has not been introduced. The Greek penal code has been adopted
with some modifications. The Ottoman civil code is maintained for the
present, but it is proposed to establish a code recently drawn up by
Greek jurists which is mainly based on Italian and Saxon law. The
Mussulman cadis retain their jurisdiction in regard to religious
affairs, marriage, divorce, the wardship of minors and inheritance.

_Religion and Education._--The vast majority of the Christian population
belongs to the Orthodox (Greek) Church, which is governed by a synod of
seven bishops under the presidency of the metropolitan of Candia. The
Cretan Church is not, strictly speaking, autocephalous, being dependent
on the patriarchate of Constantinople. There were in 1907 3500 Greek
churches in the island with 53 monasteries and 3 nunneries; 55 mosques,
4 Roman Catholic churches and 4 synagogues. Education is nominally
compulsory. In 1907 there were 547 primary schools (527 Christian and 20
Mahommedan), and 31 secondary schools (all Christian). About £20,000 is
granted annually by the state for the purposes of education.

  _Finance._--Owing to the havoc wrought during repeated insurrections,
  the impoverishment of the peasants, the desolation of the districts
  formerly inhabited by the Moslem agricultural population, and the
  drain of gold resulting from the sale of Moslem lands and emigration
  of the former proprietors, together with other causes, the financial
  situation has been unsatisfactory. Notwithstanding the advance of
  £160,000 made by the four protecting powers after the institution of
  autonomous government and the profits (£61,937) derived from the issue
  of a new currency in 1900, there was at the beginning of 1906 an
  accumulated deficit of £23,470, which represents the floating debt. In
  addition to the above-mentioned debt to the powers, the state
  contracted a loan of £60,000 in 1901 to acquire the rights and
  privileges of the Ottoman Debt, to which the salt monopoly has been
  conceded for 20 years. In the budgets for 1905 and 1906 considerable
  economies were effected by the curtailment of salaries, the abolition
  of various posts, and the reduction of the estimates for education and
  public works. The estimated revenue and expenditure for 1906 were as

           Revenue.                           Expenditure.
                 Drachmae (gold).                      Drachmae (gold).

    Direct taxes    1,494,000     High Commissioner        200,000
    Indirect taxes  1,715,000     Financial
                                     administration        694,670
    Stamp dues        351,700     Interior (including
                                     gendarmerie)        1,678,566
    Other sources     780,967     Education and Justice  1,453,500
                    ---------                            ---------
                    4,341,667                            4,026,736
                    ---------                            ---------

  The salary of the high commissioner was reduced in 1907 to 100,000

  Improved communications are much needed for the transport of
  agricultural produce, but the state of the treasury does not admit of
  more than a nominal expenditure on road-making and other public works.
  On these the average yearly expenditure between 1898 and 1905 was
  £13,404. The prosperity of the island depends on the development of
  agriculture, the acquirement of industrious habits by the people, and
  the abandonment of political agitation. The Cretans were in 1906 more
  lightly taxed than any other people in Europe. The tithe had been
  replaced by an export tax on exported agricultural produce levied at
  the custom-houses, and the smaller peasant proprietors and shepherds
  of the mountainous districts were practically exempt from any
  contribution to the state. The communal tax did not exceed on the
  average two francs annually for each family. The poorer communes are
  aided by a state subvention.     (J. D. B.)


  Early, Middle and Late "Minoan" periods.

The recent exploration and excavation of early sites in Crete have
entirely revolutionized our knowledge of its remote past, and afforded
the most astonishing evidence of the existence of a highly advanced
civilization going far back behind the historic period. Great "Minoan"
palaces have been brought to light at Cnossus and Phaestus, together
with a minor but highly interesting royal abode at Hagia Triada near
Phaestus. "Minoan" towns, some of considerable extent, have been
discovered at Cnossus itself, at Gournia, Palaikastro, and at Zakro. The
cave sanctuary of the Dictaean Zeus has been explored, and throughout
the whole length and breadth of the island a mass of early materials has
now been collected. The comparative evidence afforded by the discovery
of Egyptian relics shows that the Great Age of the Cretan palaces covers
the close of the third and the first half of the second millennium
before our era. But the contents of early tombs and dwellings and
indications supplied by such objects as stone vases and seal-stones show
that the Cretans had already attained to a considerable degree of
culture, and had opened out communication with the Nile valley in the
time of the earliest Egyptian dynasties. This more primitive phase of
the indigenous culture, of which several distinct stages are traceable,
is known as the Early Minoan, and roughly corresponds with the first
half of the third millennium B.C. The succeeding period, to which the
first palaces are due and to which the name of Middle Minoan is
appropriately given, roughly coincides with the Middle Empire of Egypt.
An extraordinary perfection was at this time attained in many branches
of art, notably in the painted pottery, often with polychrome
decoration, of a class known as "Kamares" from its first discovery in a
cave of that name on Mount Ida. Imported specimens of this ware were
found by Flinders Petrie among XIIth Dynasty remains at Kahun. The
beginnings of a school of wall painting also go back to the Middle
Minoan period, and metal technique and such arts as gem engraving show
great advance. By the close of this period a manufactory of fine faience
was attached to the palace of Cnossus. The succeeding Late Minoan
period, best illustrated by the later palace at Cnossus and that at
Hagia Triada, corresponds in Egypt with the Hyksos period and the
earlier part of the New Empire. In the first phase of this the Minoan
civilization attains its acme, and the succeeding style already shows
much that may be described as rococo. The later phase, which follows on
the destruction of the Cnossian palace, and corresponds with the
diffused Mycenaean style of mainland Greece and elsewhere, is already
partly decadent. Late Minoan art in its finest aspect is best
illustrated by the animated ivory figures, wall paintings, and _gesso
duro_ reliefs at Cnossus, by the painted stucco designs at Hagia Triada,
and the steatite vases found on the same site with zones in reliefs
exhibiting life-like scenes of warriors, toreadors, gladiators,
wrestlers and pugilists, and of a festal throng perhaps representing a
kind of "harvest home." Of the more conventional side of Late Minoan
life a graphic illustration is supplied by the remains of miniature wall
paintings found in the palace of Cnossus, showing groups of court ladies
in curiously modern costumes, seated on the terraces and balustrades of
a sanctuary. A grand "palace style" of vase painting was at the same
time evolved, in harmony with the general decoration of the royal halls.

  Minoan script.

It had been held till lately that the great civilization of prehistoric
Greece, as first revealed to us by Schliemann's discoveries at Mycenae,
was not possessed of the art of writing. In 1893, however, Arthur Evans
observed some signs on seal-stones from Crete which led him to believe
that a hieroglyphic system of writing had existed in Minoan times.
Explorations carried out by him in Crete from 1894 onwards, for the
purpose of investigating the prehistoric civilization of the island,
fully corroborated this belief, and showed that a linear as well as a
semi-pictorial form of writing was diffused in the island at a very
early period ("Cretan Pictographs and Prae-Phoenician Script," _Journ.
of Hellenic Studies_, xiv. pt. 11). In 1895 he obtained a libation-table
from the Dictaean cave with a linear dedication in the prehistoric
writing ("Further Discoveries," &c., _J.H.S._ xvii.). Finally in 1900
all scepticism in the learned world was set at rest by his discovery in
the palace of Cnossus of whole archives consisting of clay tablets
inscribed both in the pictographic (hieroglyphic) and linear forms of
the Minoan script (Evans, "Palace of Knossos," _Reports of Excavation,
1900-1905_; _Scripta Minoa_, vol. i., 1909). Supplementary finds of
inscribed tablets have since been found at Hagia Triada (F. Halbherr,
_Rapporto, &c., Monumenti antichi_, 1903) and elsewhere (Palaikastro,
Zakro and Gournia). It thus appears that a highly developed system of
writing existed in Minoan Crete some two thousand years earlier than the
first introduction under Phoenician influence of Greek letters. In this,
as in so many other respects, the old Cretan tradition receives striking
confirmation. According to the Cretan version preserved by Diodorus (v.
74), the Phoenicians did not invent letters but simply altered their

  Earlier pictographic script.

There is evidence that the use in Crete of both linear and pictorial
signs existed in the Early Minoan period, contemporary with the first
Egyptian dynasties. It is, however, during the Middle Minoan age, the
centre point of which corresponds with the XIIth Egyptian dynasty,
according to the Sothic system of dating, c. 2000-1850 B.C., that a
systematized pictographic or hieroglyphic script makes its appearance
which is common both to signets and clay tablets. During the Third
Middle Minoan period, the lower limits of which approach 1600 B.C., this
pictographic script finally gives way to a still more developed linear
system--which is itself divided into an earlier and a later class. The
earlier class (A) is already found in the temple repositories of Cnossus
belonging to the age immediately preceding the great remodelling of the
palace, and this class is specially well represented in the tablets of
Hagia Triada (M.M. iii. and L.M. i.). The later class (B) of the linear
script is that used on the great bulk of the clay tablets of the
Cnossian palace, amounting in number to nearly 2000.

These clay archives are almost exclusively inventories and business
documents. Their general purport is shown in many cases by pictorial
figures relating to various objects which appear on them--such as
chariots and horses, ingots and metal vases, arms and implements, stores
of corn, &c., flocks and herds. Many showing human figures apparently
contain lists of personal names. A decimal system of numeration was
used, with numbers going up to 10,000. But the script itself is as yet
undeciphered, though it is clear that certain words have changing
suffixes, and that there were many compound words. The script also
recurs on walls in the shape of graffiti, and on vases, sometimes
ink-written; and from the number of seals originally attached to
perishable documents it is probable that parchment or some similar
material was also used. In the easternmost district of Crete, where the
aboriginal "Eteocretan" element survived to historic times (Praesus,
Palaikastro), later inscriptions have been discovered belonging to the
5th and succeeding centuries B.C., written in Greek letters but in the
indigenous language (Comparetti, _Mon. Ant._ iii. 451 sqq.; R. S.
Conway, _British School Annual_, viii. 125 sqq. and ib. xl.). In 1908 a
remarkable discovery was made by the Italian Mission at Phaestus of a
clay disk with imprinted hieroglyphic characters belonging to a
non-Cretan system and probably from W. Anatolia.

  Character of Minoan religion.

The remains of several shrines within the building, and the religious
element perceptible in the frescoes, show that a considerable part of
the Palace of Cnossus was devoted to purposes of cult. It is clear that
the rulers, as so commonly in ancient states, fulfilled priestly as well
as royal functions. The evidence supplied by this and other Cretan sites
shows that the principal Minoan divinity was a kind of _Magna Mater_, a
Great Mother or nature goddess, with whom was associated a male
satellite. The cult in fact corresponds in its main outlines with the
early religious conceptions of Syria and a large part of Anatolia--a
correspondence probably explained by a considerable amount of ethnic
affinity existing between a large section of the primitive Cretan
population and that of southern Asia Minor. The Minoan goddess is
sometimes seen in her chthonic form with serpents, sometimes in a more
celestial aspect with doves, at times with lions. One part of her
religious being survives in that of the later Rhea, another in that of
Aphrodite, one of whose epithets, _Ariadne_ ( = the exceeding holy),
takes us back to the earliest Cnossian tradition. Under her native name,
Britomartis ( = the sweet maiden) or Dictynna, she approaches Artemis
and Leto, again associated with an infant god, and this Cretan virgin
goddess was worshipped in Aegina under the name of Aphaea. It is
noteworthy that whereas, in Greece proper, Zeus attains a supreme
position, the old superiority of the Mother Goddess is still visible in
the Cretan traditions of Rhea and Dictynna and the infant Zeus.

Although images of the divinities were certainly known, the principal
objects of cult in the Minoan age were of the aniconic class; in many
cases these were natural objects, such as rocks and mountain peaks, with
their cave sanctuaries, like those of Ida or of Dicte. Trees and
curiously shaped stones were also worshipped, and artificial pillars of
wood or stone. These latter, as in the well-known case of the Lion's
Gate at Mycenae, often appear with guardian animals as their supporters.
The essential feature of this cult is the bringing down of the celestial
spirit by proper incantations and ritual into these fetish objects, the
dove perched on a column sometimes indicating its descent. It is a
primitive cult similar to that of Early Canaan, illustrated by the
pillow stone set up by Jacob, which was literally "Bethel" or the "House
of God." The story of the _baetylus_, or stone swallowed by Saturn under
the belief that it was his son, the Cretan Zeus, seems to cover the same
idea and has been derived from the same Semitic word.

A special form of this "baetylic" cult in Minoan Crete was the
representation of the two principal divinities in their fetish form by
double axes. Shrines of the Double Axes have been found in the palace of
Cnossus itself, at Hagia Triada, and in a small palace at Gournia, and
many specimens of the sacred emblem occurred in the Cave Sanctuary of
Dicte, the mythical birthplace of the Cretan Zeus. Complete scenes of
worship in which libations are poured before the Sacred Axes are,
moreover, given on a fine painted sarcophagus found at Hagia Triada.

  Labyrinth and Minotaur.

The same cult survived to later times in Caria in the case of Zeus
Labrandeus, whose name is derived from _labrys_, the native name for the
double axe, and it had already been suggested on philological grounds
that the Cretan "labyrinthos" was formed from a kindred form of the same
word. The discovery that the great Minoan foundation at Cnossus was at
once a palace and a sanctuary of the Double Axe and its associated
divinities has now supplied a striking and it may well be thought an
overwhelming confirmation of this view. We can hardly any longer
hesitate to recognize in this vast building, with its winding corridors
and subterranean ducts, the Labyrinth of later tradition; and as a
matter of fact a maze pattern recalling the conventional representation
of the Labyrinth in Greek art actually formed the decoration of one of
the corridors of the palace. It is difficult, moreover, not to connect
the repeated wall-paintings and reliefs of the palace illustrating the
cruel bull sports of the Minoan arena, in which girls as well as youths
took part, with the legend of the Minotaur, or bull of Minos, for whose
grisly meals Athens was forced to pay annual tribute of her sons and
daughters. It appears certain from the associations in which they are
found at Cnossus, that these Minoan bull sports formed part of a
religious ceremony. Actual figures of a monster with a bull's head and
man's body occurred on seals of Minoan fabric found on this and other
Cretan sites.

  Historic substratum of Cretan myths.

It is abundantly evident that whatever mythic element may have been
interwoven with the old traditions of the spot, they have a solid
substratum of reality. With such remains before us it is no longer
sufficient to relegate Minos to the regions of sun-myths. His legendary
presentation as the "Friend of God," like Abraham, to whom as to Moses
the law was revealed on the holy mountain, calls up indeed just such a
priest-king of antiquity as the palace-sanctuary of Cnossus itself
presupposes. It seems possible even that the ancient tradition which
recorded an earlier or later king of the name of Minos may, as suggested
above, cover a dynastic title. The earlier and later palaces at Cnossus
and Phaestus, and the interrupted phases of each, seem to point to a
succession of dynasties, to which, as to its civilization as a whole, it
is certainly convenient to apply the name "Minoan." It is interesting,
as bringing out the personal element in the traditional royal seat, that
an inscribed sealing belonging to the earliest period of the later
palace of Cnossus bears on it the impression of two official signets
with portrait heads of a man and of a boy, recalling the "associations"
on the coinage of imperial Rome. It is clear that the later traditions
in many respects accurately summed up the performances of the "Minoan"
dynast who carried out the great buildings now brought to light. The
palace, with its wonderful works of art, executed for Minos by the
craftsman Daedalus, has ceased to belong to the realms of fancy. The
extraordinary architectural skill, the sanitary and hydraulic science
revealed in details of the building, bring us at the same time face to
face with the power of mechanical invention with which Daedalus was
credited. The elaborate method and bureaucratic control visible in the
clay documents of the palace point to a highly developed legal
organization. The powerful fleet and maritime empire which Minos was
said to have established will no doubt receive fuller illustration when
the sea-town of Cnossus comes to be explored. The appearance of ships on
some of the most important seal-impressions is not needed, however, to
show how widely Minoan influence made itself felt in the neighbouring
Mediterranean regions.

  Early relations with Egypt.

  The Kefts and Philistines.

  Early relations with Cyprus and N. Aegean.

The Nilotic influence visible in the vases, seals and other fabrics of
the Early Minoan age, seems to imply a maritime activity on the part of
the islanders going back to the days of the first Egyptian dynasties. In
a deposit at Kahun, belonging to the XIIth Dynasty, c. 2000 B.C., were
already found imported polychrome vases of "Middle Minoan" fabric. In
the same way the important part played by Cretan enterprise in the days
of the New Egyptian empire is illustrated by repeated finds of Late
Minoan pottery on Egyptian sites. A series of monuments, moreover,
belonging to the early part of the XVIIIth Dynasty show the
representatives of the Kefts or p