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Title: Garden and Forest Weekly, Volume 1 No. 1, February 29, 1888
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Garden and Forest Weekly, Volume 1 No. 1, February 29, 1888" ***

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by the Library of Congress)



[Illustration:

VOL·I· NO·1·

GARDEN AND FOREST

·A·JOURNAL·OF·HORTICULTURE· ·LANDSCAPE·ART·AND·FORESTRY·

·FEBRUARY·29, 1888.]

PRICE TEN CENTS.]

Copyright, 1888, by THE GARDEN AND FOREST PUBLISHING COMPANY, LIMITED.

[$4.00 A YEAR, IN ADVANCE.]



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GARDEN AND FOREST:

An Illustrated Weekly Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art and
Forestry.


GARDEN AND FOREST will be devoted to Horticulture in all its branches,
Garden Botany, Dendrology and Landscape Gardening, and will discuss
Plant Diseases and Insects injurious to vegetation.

Professor C. S. SARGENT, of Harvard College, will have general
editorial control of GARDEN AND FOREST.

Professor WM. G. FARLOW, of Harvard College, will have editorial
charge of the Department of Cryptogamic Botany and Plant Diseases.

Professor A. S. PACKARD, of Brown University, will have editorial
charge of the Department of Entomology.

Mr. WM. A. STILES will be the Managing Editor.

GARDEN AND FOREST will record all noteworthy discoveries and all
progress in science and practice within its field at home and abroad.
It will place scientific information clearly and simply before
the public, and make available for the instruction of all persons
interested in garden plants the conclusions reached by the most
trustworthy investigators. Arrangements have been made to figure and
describe new and little-known plants (especially North American) of
horticultural promise. A department will be devoted to the history
and description of ornamental trees and shrubs. New florists' flowers,
fruits and vegetables will be made known, and experienced gardeners
will describe practical methods of cultivation.

GARDEN AND FOREST will report the proceedings of the principal
Horticultural Societies of the United States and the condition of the
horticultural trade in the chief commercial centres of the country.

GARDEN AND FOREST, in view of the growing taste for rural life, and
of the multiplication of country residences in all parts of the United
States, especially in the vicinity of the cities and of the larger
towns, will make a special feature of discussing the planning and
planting of private gardens and grounds, small and large, and will
endeavor to assist all who desire to make their home surroundings
attractive and artistic. It will be a medium of instruction for all
persons interested in preserving and developing the beauty of natural
scenery. It will co-operate with Village Improvement Societies
and every other organized effort to secure the proper ordering and
maintenance of parks and squares, cemeteries, railroad stations,
school grounds and roadsides. It will treat of Landscape Gardening in
all its phases; reviewing its history and discussing its connection
with architecture.

GARDEN AND FOREST will give special attention to scientific and
practical Forestry in their various departments, including Forest
Conservation and economic Tree Planting, and to all the important
questions which grow out of the intimate relation of the forests
of the country to its climate, soil, water supply and material
development.

Original information on all these subjects will be furnished by
numerous American and foreign correspondents.

Among those who have promised contributions to GARDEN AND FOREST are:

Mr. SERENO WATSON, Curator of the Herbarium, Harvard College.

Prof. GEO. L. GOODALE, Harvard College.

" WOLCOTT GIBBS, "

" WM. H. BREWER, Yale College.

" D. G. EATON,         "

" WM. J. BEAL, Agricultural College of Michigan.

" L. H. BAILEY, Jr.,          "

" J. L. BUDD, Agricultural College of Iowa.

" B. D. HALSTED,   "          "         "

" E. W. HILGARD, University of California.

" J. T. ROTHROCK, University of Pennsylvania.

" CHAS. E. BESSEY, University of Nebraska.

" WM. TRELEASE, Shaw School of Botany, St. Louis.

" T. J. BURRILL, University of Illinois.

" W. W. BAILEY, Brown University.

" E. A. POPENOE, Agricultural College, Kansas.

" RAPHAEL PUMPELLY. United States Geological Survey.

" JAMES H. GARDINER, Director New York State Survey.

" WM. R. LAZENBY, Director of the Ohio Agricultural Experiment
Station.

" W. W. TRACY, Detroit, Mich.

" C. V. RILEY, Washington, D. C.

Mr. DONALD G. MITCHELL, New Haven, Conn.

" FRANK J. SCOTT, Toledo, O.

Hon. ADOLPHE LEUÉ, Secretary of the Ohio Forestry Bureau.

" B. G. NORTHROP, Clinton, Conn.

Mr. G. W. HOTCHKISS, Secretary of the Lumber Manufacturers'
Association.

Dr. C. L. ANDERSON, Santa Cruz, Cal.

Mr. FREDERICK LAW OLMSTED, Brookline, Mass.

" FRANCIS PARKMAN, Boston.

Dr. C. C. PARRY, San Francisco.

Mr. PROSPER J. BERCKMANS, President of the American Pomological
Society.

" CHARLES A. DANA, New York.

" BURNET LANDRETH, Philadelphia.

" ROBERT RIDGEWAY, Washington, D. C.

" CALVERT VAUX, New York.

" J. B. HARRISON, Franklin Falls, N. H.

Dr. HENRY P. WALCOTT, President of the Massachusetts Horticultural
Society.

Mr. C. G. PRINGLE, Charlotte, Vt.

" ROBERT DOUGLAS, Waukegan, Ill.

" H. W. S. CLEVELAND, Minneapolis, Minn.

" CHAS. W. GARFIELD, Secretary of the American Pomological Society.

" C. R. ORCUTT, San Diego, Cal.

" B. E. FERNOW, Chief of the Forestry Division, Washington, D. C.

" JOHN BIRKENBINE, Secretary of the Pennsylvania Forestry Association.

" JOSIAH HOOPES, West Chester, Pa.

" PETER HENDERSON, New York.

" WM. FALCONER, Glen Cove, N. Y.

" JACKSON DAWSON, Jamaica Plain, Mass.

" WM. H. HALL, State Engineer, Sacramento, Cal.

" C. C. CROZIER, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

The Rev. E. P. ROE, Cornwall, N. Y.

Dr. C. C. ABBOTT, Trenton, N. J.

Mrs. SCHUYLER VAN RENSSELAER, New York.

" MARY TREAT, Vineland, N. J.

Dr. KARL MOHR, Mobile, Ala.

Hon. J. B. WALKER, Forest Commissioner of New Hampshire.

Mr. WM. HAMILTON GIBSON, Brooklyn, N. Y.

" EDGAR T. ENSIGN, Forest Commissioner of Colorado.

" E. S. CARMAN, Editor of the _Rural New Yorker_.

" WM. M. CANBY. Wilmington, Del.

" JOHN ROBINSON, Salem, Mass.

" J. D. LYMAN, Exeter, N. H.

" SAMUEL PARSONS, Jr., Superintendent of Central Park, N. Y.

" WM. MCMILLAN, Superintendent of Parks, Buffalo. N. Y.

" SYLVESTER BAXTER, Boston.

" CHARLES ELIOT, Boston.

" JOHN THORPE, Secretary of the New York Horticultural Society.

" EDWIN LONSDALE, Secretary of the Philadelphia Horticultural Society.

" ROBERT CRAIG, President of the Philadelphia Florists' Club.

" SAMUEL B. PARSONS, Flushing, N. Y.

" GEORGE ELLWANGER, Rochester.

" P. H. BARRY, Rochester.

" W. J. STEWART, Boston, Mass.

" W. A. MANDA, Botanic Gardens, Cambridge, Mass.

" DAVID ALLAN, Mount Vernon, Mass.

" WM. ROBINSON, North Easton, Mass.

" A. H. FEWKES, Newton Highlands, Mass.

" F. GOLDRING, Kenwood, N. Y.

" C. M. ATKINSON, Brookline, Mass.

       *       *       *       *       *

Dr. MAXWELL T. MASTERS, Editor of the Gardener's Chronicle.

Mr. GEO. NICHOLSON, Curator of the Royal Gardens, Kew.

" W. B. HEMSLEY, Herbarium, Royal Gardens, Kew.

" WM. GOLDRING, London.

Mr. MAX LEICHTLIN, Baden Baden.

M. EDOUARD ANDRÉ, Editor of the Revue Horticole, Paris, France.

Dr. G. M. DAWSON, Geological Survey of Canada.

Prof. JOHN MACOUN,    "         "        "

M. CHARLES NAUDIN, Director of the Gardens of The Villa Thuret,
Antibes.

Dr. CHAS. BOLLE, Berlin.

M. J. ALLARD, Angers, Maine & Loire, France.

Dr. H. MAYE, University of Tokio, Japan.

Prof. D. P. PENHALLOW, Director of the Botanical Gardens, Montreal.

Mr. WM. SAUNDERS, Director of the Agricultural Experiment Station,
Ontario.

" WM. LITTLE, Montreal.


Single numbers, 10 cents. Subscription price, Four Dollars a year, in
advance.

THE GARDEN AND FOREST PUBLISHING CO., Limited,

D. A. MUNRO, _Manager_. TRIBUNE BUILDING, NEW YORK


GARDEN AND FOREST.

PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY

THE GARDEN AND FOREST PUBLISHING CO. [LIMITED.]

OFFICE: TRIBUNE BUILDING, NEW YORK.


Conducted by Professor C. S. SARGENT.


ENTERED AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER AT THE POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK, N. Y.

NEW YORK, WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 29, 1888.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

                                                                    PAGE.

EDITORIAL ARTICLES:--Asa Gray. The Gardener's Monthly. The
White Pine in Europe                                                   1

  The Forests of the White Mountain                _Francis Parkman._  2

  Landscape Gardening.--A Definition  _Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer._  2

  Floriculture in the United States                _Peter Henderson._  2

  How to Make a Lawn                          _Professor W. J. Beal._  3

  Letter from London                                   _W. Goldring._  4

  A New Departure in Chrysanthemums                   _A. H. Fewkes._  5

  New Plants from Afghanistan                        _Max Leichtlin._  6

  Iris Tenuis, with figure                           _Sereno Watson._  6

  Hardy Shrubs for Forcing                            _Wm. Falconer._  6

  Plant Notes                 _C. C. Pringle; Professor W. Trelease._  7

  Wire Netting for Tree Guards                       _A. A. Crozier._  7

  Artificial Water, with Illustration                                  8

  Some New Roses                                    _Edwin Lonsdale._  8

  Two Ferns and Their Treatment                        _F. Goldring._  9

  Timely Hints about Bulbs                             _John Thorpe._  9

ENTOMOLOGY:

  Arsenical Poisons in the Orchard         _Professor A. S. Packard._  9

THE FOREST:

  The White Pine in Europe                       _Professor H. Mayr._ 10

  European Larch in Massachusetts                                     11

  Thinning Pine Plantations                           _B. E. Fernow._ 11

BOOK REVIEWS:

  Gray's Elements of Botany                _Professor G. L. Goodale._ 11

  Kansas Forest Trees                      _Professor G. L. Goodale._ 12

PUBLIC WORKS:--The Falls of Minnehaha--A Park for Wilmington          12

FLOWER MARKETS:--New York--Philadelphia--Boston                      12


       *       *       *       *       *

Asa Gray.


The whole civilized world is mourning the death of Asa Gray with a
depth of feeling and appreciation perhaps never accorded before to a
scholar and man of science.

To the editors of this Journal the loss at the very outset of their
labors is serious indeed. They lose a wise and sympathetic adviser of
great experience and mature judgment to whom they could always have
turned with entire freedom and in perfect confidence; and they lose a
contributor whose vast stores of knowledge and graceful pen might, it
was reasonable to hope, have long enriched their columns.

The career of Asa Gray is interesting from many points of view. It is
the story of the life of a man born in humble circumstances, without
the advantages of early education, without inherited genius--for
there is no trace in his yeoman ancestry of any germ of intellectual
greatness--who succeeded in gaining through native intelligence,
industry and force of character, a position in the very front rank
of the scientific men of his age. Among the naturalists who,
since Linnæus, have devoted their lives to the description and
classification of plants, four or five stand out prominently in the
character and importance of their work. In this little group Asa Gray
has fairly won for himself a lasting position. But he was something
more than a mere systematist. He showed himself capable of drawing
broad philosophical conclusions from the dry facts he collected
and elaborated with such untiring industry and zeal. This power
of comprehensive generalization he showed in his paper upon the
"Characters of Certain New Species of Plants Collected in Japan"
by Charles Wright, published nearly thirty years ago. Here he first
pointed out the extraordinary similarity between the Floras of Eastern
North America and Japan, and then explained the peculiar distribution
of plants through the northern hemisphere by tracing their direct
descent through geological eras from ancestors which flourished in
the arctic regions down to the latest tertiary period. This paper
was Professor Gray's most remarkable and interesting contribution
to science. It at once raised him to high rank among philosophical
naturalists and drew the attention of the whole scientific world to
the Cambridge botanist.

Asa Gray did not devote himself to abstract science alone; he wrote as
successfully for the student as for the professional naturalist.
His long list of educational works have no equals in accuracy and
in beauty and compactness of expression. They have had a remarkable
influence upon the study of botany in this country during the half
century which has elapsed since the first of the series appeared.

Botany, moreover, did not satisfy that wonderful intellect, which hard
work only stimulated but did not weary, and one of Asa Gray's chief
claims to distinction is the prominent and commanding position he took
in the great intellectual and scientific struggle of modern times, in
which, almost alone and single handed he bore in America the brunt of
the disbelief in the Darwinian theory shared by most of the leading
naturalists of the time.

But the crowning labor of Asa Gray's life was the preparation of
a descriptive work upon the plants of North America. This great
undertaking occupied his attention and much of his time during
the last forty years of his life. Less fortunate than his greatest
botanical contemporary, George Bentham, who turned from the last page
of corrected proof of his work upon the genera of plants to the bed
from which he was never to rise again, Asa Gray's great work is left
unfinished. The two volumes of the "Synoptical Flora of North America"
will keep his memory green, however, as long as the human race is
interested in the study of plants.

But his botanical writings and his scientific fame are not the most
valuable legacy which Asa Gray has left to the American people. More
precious to us is the example of his life in this age of grasping
materialism. It is a life that teaches how industry and unselfish
devotion to learning can attain to the highest distinction and the
most enduring fame. Great as were his intellectual gifts, Asa Gray was
greatest in the simplicity of his character and in the beauty of his
pure and stainless life.

       *       *       *       *       *


It is with genuine regret that we read the announcement of the
discontinuance of the _Gardener's Monthly_. It is like reading of
the death of an old friend. Ever since we have been interested in the
cultivation of flowers we have looked to the _Monthly_ for inspiration
and advice, and its pages have rarely been turned without finding
the assistance we stood in need of. But, fortunately, the _Gardener's
Monthly_, and its modest and accomplished editor, Mr. Thomas Meehan,
were one and the same thing. It is Mr. Meehan's long editorial
experience, high character, great learning and varied practical
knowledge, which made the _Gardener's Monthly_ what it was. These, we
are happy to know, are not to be lost to us, as Mr. Meehan will, in a
somewhat different field and with new associates, continue to delight
and instruct the horticultural public.


Americans who visit Europe cannot fail to remark that in the parks and
pleasure grounds of the Continent no coniferous tree is more graceful
when young or more dignified at maturity than our White Pine. The
notes of Dr. Mayr, of the Bavarian Forest Academy, in another column,
testify that it holds a position of equal importance as a forest tree
for economic planting. It thrives from Northern Germany to Lombardy,
corresponding with a range of climate in this country from New England
to Northern Georgia. It needs bright sunshine, however, and perhaps it
is for lack of this that so few good specimens are seen in England.
It was among the first of our trees to be introduced there, but it has
been universally pronounced an indifferent grower.



The Forests of the White Mountains.


New Hampshire is not a peculiarly wealthy State, but it has some
resources scarcely equaled by those of any of its sisters. The White
Mountains, though worth little to the farmer, are a piece of real
estate which yields a sure and abundant income by attracting tourists
and their money; and this revenue is certain to increase, unless blind
mismanagement interposes. The White Mountains are at present unique
objects of attraction; but they may easily be spoiled, and the yearly
tide of tourists will thus be turned towards other points of interest
whose owners have had more sense and foresight.

These mountains owe three-fourths of their charms to the primeval
forest that still covers them. Speculators have their eyes on it, and
if they are permitted to work their will the State will find a most
productive piece of property sadly fallen in value. If the mountains
are robbed of their forests they will become like some parts of the
Pyrenees, which, though much higher, are without interest, because
they have been stripped bare.

The forests of the White Mountains have a considerable commercial
value, and this value need not be sacrificed. When lumber speculators
get possession of forests they generally cut down all the trees and
strip the land at once, with an eye to immediate profit. The more
conservative, and, in the end, the more profitable management,
consists in selecting and cutting out the valuable timber when it has
matured, leaving the younger growth for future use. This process is
not very harmful to the landscape. It is practiced extensively in
Maine, where the art of managing forests with a view to profit is
better understood than elsewhere in this country. A fair amount
of good timber may thus be drawn from the White Mountains, without
impairing their value as the permanent source of a vastly greater
income from the attraction they will offer to an increasing influx
of tourists. At the same time the streams flowing from them, and
especially the Pemigewasset, a main source of the Merrimac, will be
saved from the alternate droughts and freshets to which all streams
are exposed that take their rise in mountains denuded of forests. The
subject is one of the last importance to the mill owners along these
rivers.

_F. Parkman._



Landscape Gardening.--A Definition.


Some of the Fine Arts appeal to the ear, others to the eye. The
latter are the Arts of Design, and they are usually named as
three--Architecture, Sculpture and Painting. A man who practices one
of these in any of its branches is an artist; other men who work with
forms and colors are at the best but artisans. This is the popular
belief. But in fact there is a fourth art which has a right to be
rated with the others, which is as fine as the finest, and which
demands as much of its professors in the way of creative power and
executive skill as the most difficult. This is the art whose purpose
it is to create beautiful compositions upon the surface of the ground.

The mere statement of its purpose is sufficient to establish its rank.
It is the effort to produce organic beauty--to compose a beautiful
whole with a number of related parts--which makes a man an artist;
neither the production of a merely useful organism nor of a single
beautiful detail suffices. A clearly told story or a single beautiful
word is not a work of art--only a story told in beautifully connected
words. A solidly and conveniently built house, if it is nothing more,
is not a work of architecture, nor is an isolated stone, however
lovely in shape and surface. A delightful tint, a graceful line, does
not make a picture; and though the painter may reproduce ugly models
he must put some kind of beauty into the reproduction if it is to be
esteemed above any other manufactured article--if not beauty of
form, then beauty of color or of meaning or at least of execution.
Similarly, when a man disposes the surface of the soil with an eye
to crops alone he is an agriculturist; when he grows plants for
their beauty as isolated objects he is a horticulturist; but when
he disposes ground and plants together to produce organic beauty of
effect, he is an artist with the best.

Yet though all the fine arts are thus akin in general purpose they
differ each from each in many ways. And in the radical differences
which exist between the landscape-gardener's and all the others we
find some reasons why its affinity with them is so commonly ignored.
One difference is that it uses the same materials as nature herself.
In what is called "natural" gardening it uses them to produce effects
which under fortunate conditions nature might produce without
man's aid. Then, the better the result, the less likely it is to be
recognized as an artificial--artistic--result. The more perfectly the
artist attains his aim, the more likely we are to forget that he
has been at work. In "formal" gardening, on the other hand, nature's
materials are disposed and treated in frankly unnatural ways; and
then--as a more or less intelligent love for natural beauty is very
common to-day, and an intelligent eye for art is rare--the artist's
work is apt to be resented as an impertinence, denied its right to its
name, called a mere contorting and disfiguring of his materials.

Again, the landscape-gardener's art differs from all others in the
unstable character of its productions. When surfaces are modeled and
plants arranged, nature and the artist must work a long time together
before the true result appears; and when once it has revealed itself,
day to day attention will be forever needed to preserve it from the
deforming effects of time. It is easy to see how often neglect or
interference must work havoc with the best intentions, how often the
passage of years must travesty or destroy the best results, how rare
must be the cases in which a work of landscape art really does justice
to its creator.

Still another thing which affects popular recognition of the art as
such is our lack of clearly understood terms by which to speak of it
and of those who practice it. "Gardens" once meant pleasure-grounds of
every kind and "gardener" then had an adequately artistic sound. But
as the significance of the one term has been gradually specialized,
so the other has gradually come to denote a mere grower of plants.
"Landscape gardener" was a title first used by the artists of
the eighteenth century to mark the new tendency which they
represented--the search for "natural" as opposed to "formal" beauty;
and it seemed to them to need an apology as savoring, perhaps, of
grandiloquence or conceit. But as taste declined in England it was
assumed by men who had not the slightest right, judged either by their
aims or by their results, to be considered artists; and to-day it is
fallen into such disesteem that it is often replaced by "landscape
architect." This title has French usage to support it and is in many
respects a good one. But its correlative--"landscape architecture"--is
unsatisfactory; and so, on the other hand, is "landscape artist,"
though "landscape art" is an excellent generic term. Perhaps the best
we can do is to keep to "landscape gardener," and try to remember that
it ought always to mean an artist and an artist only.

_M. G. van Rensselaer._



Floriculture in the United States.


At the beginning of the present century, it is not probable that there
were 100 florists in the United States, and their combined green-house
structures could not have exceeded 50,000 square feet of glass. There
are now more than 10,000 florists distributed through every State and
Territory in the Union and estimating 5,000 square feet of glass to
each, the total area would be 50,000,000 feet, or about 1,000 acres
of green-houses. The value of the bare structures, with heating
apparatus, at 60 cents per square foot would be $30,000,000, while the
stock of plants grown in them would not be less than twice that sum.
The present rate of growth in the business is about 25% per annum,
which proves that it is keeping well abreast of our most flourishing
industries.

The business, too, is conducted by a better class of men. No longer
than thirty years ago it was rare to find any other than a foreigner
engaged in commercial floriculture. These men had usually been private
gardeners, who were mostly uneducated, and without business habits.
But to-day, the men of this calling compare favorably in intelligence
and business capacity with any mercantile class.

Floriculture has attained such importance that it has taken its place
as a regular branch of study in some of our agricultural colleges. Of
late years, too, scores of young men in all parts of the country have
been apprenticing themselves to the large establishments near the
cities, and already some of these have achieved a high standing; for
the training so received by a lad from sixteen to twenty, better
fits him for the business here than ten years of European experience,
because much of what is learned there would prove worse than
useless here. The English or German florist has here to contend with
unfamiliar conditions of climate and a manner of doing business that
is novel to him. Again he has been trained to more deliberate methods
of working, and when I told the story a few years ago of a workman who
had potted 10,000 cuttings in two inch pots in ten consecutive hours,
it was stigmatized in nearly every horticultural magazine in Europe
as a piece of American bragging. As a matter of fact this same workman
two years later, potted 11,500 plants in ten hours, and since then
several other workmen have potted plants at the rate of a thousand per
hour all day long.

Old world conservatism is slow to adopt improvements. The practice
of heating by low pressure steam will save in labor, coal and
construction one-fifth of the expense by old methods, and nearly all
the large green-house establishments in this country, whether private
or commercial, have been for some years furnished with the best
apparatus. But when visiting London, Edinburgh and Paris in 1885, I
neither saw nor heard of a single case where steam had been used for
green-house heating. The stress of competition here has developed
enterprise, encouraged invention and driven us to rapid and prudent
practice, so that while labor costs at least twice as much as it does
in Europe, our prices both at wholesale and retail, are lower. And
yet I am not aware that American florists complain that their profits
compare unfavorably with those of their brethren over the sea.

Commercial floriculture includes two distinct branches, one for the
production of flowers and the other for the production of plants.
During the past twenty years the growth in the flower department of
the business has outstripped the growth of the plant department. The
increase in the sale of Rosebuds in winter is especially noteworthy.
At the present time it is safe to say that one-third of the entire
glass structures in the United States are used for this purpose; many
large growers having from two to three acres in houses devoted to
Roses alone, such erections costing from $50,000 to $100,000 each,
according to the style in which they are built.

More cut flowers are used for decoration in the United States than in
any other country, and it is probable that there are more flowers sold
in New York than in London with a population four times as great. In
London and Paris, however, nearly every door-yard and window of city
and suburb show the householder's love for plants, while with us,
particularly in the vicinity of New York (Philadelphia and Boston
are better), the use of living plants for home decoration is far less
general.

There are fashions in flowers, and they continually change. Thirty
years ago thousands of Camellia flowers were retailed in the holiday
season for $1 each, while Rosebuds would not bring a dime. Now, many
of the fancy Roses sell at $1 each, while Camellia flowers go begging
at ten cents. The Chrysanthemum is now rivaling the Rose, as well
it may, and no doubt every decade will see the rise and fall of some
floral favorite. But beneath these flitting fancies is the substantial
and unchanging love of flowers that seems to be an original instinct
in man, and one that grows in strength with growing refinement.
Fashion may now and again condemn one flower or another, but the
fashion of neglecting flowers altogether will never prevail, and
we may safely look forward in the expectation of an ever increasing
interest and demand, steady improvement in methods of cultivation, and
to new and attractive developments in form, color and fragrance.

_Peter Henderson._



How to Make a Lawn.


"A smooth, closely shaven surface of grass is by far the most
essential element of beauty on the grounds of a suburban home." This
is the language of Mr. F. J. Scott, and it is equally true of other
than suburban grounds. A good lawn then is worth working for, and if
it have a substantial foundation, it will endure for generations, and
improve with age.

We take it for granted that the drainage is thorough, for no one would
build a dwelling on water soaked land. No labor should be spared in
making the soil deep, rich and fine in the full import of the
words, as this is the stock from which future dividends of joy and
satisfaction are to be drawn. Before grading, one should read that
chapter of Downing's on "The Beauty in Ground." This will warn against
terracing or leveling the whole surface, and insure a contour with
"gentle curves and undulations," which is essential to the best
effects.

If the novice has read much of the conflicting advice in books and
catalogues, he is probably in a state of bewilderment as to the
kind of seed to sow. And when that point is settled it is really a
difficult task to secure pure and living seeds of just such species as
one orders. Rarely does either seller or buyer know the grasses called
for, especially the finer and rarer sorts; and more rarely still does
either know their seeds. The only safe way is to have the seeds tested
by an expert. Mr. J. B. Olcott, in a racy article in the "Report of
the Connecticut Board of Agriculture for 1886," says, "Fifteen years
ago nice people were often sowing timothy, red top and clover for
door-yards, and failing wretchedly with lawn-making, while seedsmen
and gardeners even disputed the identity of our June grass and
Kentucky blue-grass."

We have passed beyond that stage of ignorance, however; and to the
question what shall we sow, Mr. Olcott replies: "Rhode Island bent and
Kentucky blue-grass are their foolish trade names, for they belong no
more to Kentucky or Rhode Island than to other Northern States. Two
sorts of fine _Agrostis_ are honestly sold under the trade name of
Rhode Island bent, and, as trade goes, we may consider ourselves
lucky if we get even the coarser one. The finest--a little the
finest--_Agrostis canina_--is a rather rare, valuable, and elegant
grass, which should be much better known by grass farmers, as well
as gardeners, than it is. These are both good lawn as well as pasture
grasses." The grass usually sold as Rhode Island bent is _Agrostis
vulgaris_, the smaller red top of the East and of Europe. This makes
an excellent lawn. _Agrostis canina_ has a short, slender, projecting
awn from one of the glumes; _Agrostis vulgaris_ lacks this projecting
awn. In neither case have we in mind what Michigan and New York people
call red top. This is a tall, coarse native grass often quite abundant
on low lands, botanically _Agrostis alba_.

Sow small red top or Rhode Island bent, and June grass (Kentucky blue
grass, if you prefer that name), _Poa pratensis_. If in the chaff, sow
in any proportion you fancy, and in any quantity up to four bushels
per acre. If evenly sown, less will answer, but the thicker it is sown
the sooner the ground will be covered with fine green grass. We can
add nothing else that will improve this mixture, and either alone is
about as good as both. A little white clover or sweet vernal grass
or sheep's fescue may be added, if you fancy them, but they will not
improve the appearance of the lawn. Roll the ground after seeding. Sow
the seeds in September or in March or April, and under no circumstance
yield to the advice to sow a little oats or rye to "protect the young
grass." Instead of protecting, they will rob the slender grasses of
what they most need.

Now wait a little. Do not be discouraged if some ugly weeds get the
start of the numerous green hairs which slowly follow. As soon as
there is any thing to be cut, of weeds or grass, mow closely, and mow
often, so that nothing need be raked from the ground. As Olcott puts
it, "Leave one crop where it belongs for home consumption. The rains
will wash the soluble substance of the wilted grass into the earth to
feed the growing roots." During succeeding summers as the years roll
on, the lawn should be perpetually enriched by the leaching of the
short leaves as they are often mown. Neither leave a very short growth
nor a very heavy growth for winter. Experience alone must guide the
owner. If cut too closely, some of it may be killed or start too late
in spring; if left too high during winter, the dead long grass will be
hard to cut in spring and leave the stubble unsightly. After passing
through one winter the annual weeds will have perished and leave the
grass to take the lead. Perennial weeds should be faithfully dug out
or destroyed in some way.

Every year, add a top dressing of some commercial fertilizer or a
little finely pulverized compost which may be brushed in. No one
will disfigure his front yard with coarse manure spread on the lawn
for five months of the year.

If well made, a lawn will be a perpetual delight as long as the
proprietor lives, but if the soil is thin and poor, or if the coarser
grasses and clovers are sown instead of those named, he will be much
perplexed, and will very likely try some expensive experiments, and
at last plow up, properly fit the land and begin over again. This will
make the cost and annoyance much greater than at first, because the
trees and shrubs have already filled many portions of the soil. A
small piece, well made and well kept, will give more satisfaction than
a larger plot of inferior turf.

_W. J. Beal._



Horticultural Exhibitions in London.


At a late meeting of the floral committee of the Royal Horticultural
Society at South Kensington among many novelties was a group of
seedling bulbous Calanthes from the garden of Sir Trevor Lawrence,
who has devoted much attention to these plants and has raised some
interesting hybrids. About twenty kinds were shown, ranging in
color from pure white to deep crimson. The only one selected for a
first-class certificate was _C. sanguinaria_, with flowers similar
in size and shape to those of _C. Veitchii_, but of an intensely deep
crimson. It is the finest yet raised, surpassing _C. Sedeni_, hitherto
unequaled for richness of color. The pick of all these seedlings would
be _C. sanguinaria_, _C. Veitchii splendens_, _C. lactea_, _C. nivea_,
and _C. porphyrea_. The adjectives well describe the different tints
of each, and they will be universally popular when once they find
their way into commerce.

CYPRIPEDIUM LEEANUM MACULATUM, also shown by Sir Trevor Lawrence, is a
novelty of sterling merit. The original _C. Leeanum_, which is a cross
between _C. Spicerianum_ and _C. insigne Maulei_, is very handsome,
but this variety eclipses it, the dorsal sepal of the flower being
quite two and one-half inches broad, almost entirely white, heavily
and copiously spotted with purple. It surpasses also _C. Leeanum
superbum_, which commands such high prices. I saw a small plant sold
at auction lately for fifteen guineas and the nursery price is much
higher.

LÆLIA ANCEPS SCHR[OE]DERÆ, is the latest addition to the now very
numerous list of varieties of the popular _L. anceps_. This new form,
to which the committee with one accord gave a first class certificate,
surpasses in my opinion all the colored varieties, with the possible
exception of the true old Barkeri. The flowers are of the average size
and ordinary form. The sepals are rose pink, the broad sepals very
light, almost white in fact, while the labellum is of the deepest
and richest velvety crimson imaginable. The golden tipped crest is a
veritable beauty spot, and the pale petals act like a foil to show off
the splendor of the lip.

TWO NEW FERNS of much promise received first class certificates. One
named _Pteris Claphamensis_ is a chance seedling and was found growing
among a lot of other sporelings in the garden of a London amateur. As
it partakes of the characters of both _P. tremula_ and _P. serrulata_,
old and well known ferns, it is supposed to be a natural cross between
these. The new plant is of tufted growth, with a dense mass of fronds
about six inches long, elegantly cut and gracefully recurved on all
sides of the pot. It is looked upon by specialists as just the sort
of plant that will take in the market. The other certificated fern,
_Adiantum Reginæ_, is a good deal like _A. Victoriæ_ and is supposed
to be a sport from it. But _A. Reginæ_, while it has broad pinnæ of a
rich emerald green like _A. Victoriæ_, has fronds from nine to twelve
inches long, giving it a lighter and more elegant appearance. I don't
know that the Victoria Maidenhair is grown in America yet, but I am
sure those who do floral decorating will welcome it as well as the
newer _A. Reginæ_. A third Maidenhair of a similar character is _A.
rhodophyllum_ and these form a trio that will become the standard
kinds for decorating. The young fronds of all three are of a beautiful
coppery red tint, the contrast of which with the emerald green of the
mature fronds is quite charming. They are warm green-house ferns and
of easy culture, and are supposed to be hybrid forms of the old _A.
scutum_.

_Nerine Mansellii_, a new variety of the Guernsey Lily, was one of
the loveliest flowers at the show. From the common Guernsey Lily it
differs only in color of the flowers. These have crimpled-edged petals
of clear rose tints; and the umbel of flowers is fully six inches
across, borne on a stalk eighteen inches high. These Guernsey Lilies
have of recent years come into prominence in English gardens since
so many beautiful varieties have been raised, and as they flower from
September onward to Christmas they are found to be indispensable
for the green-house, and indoor decoration. The old _N. Fothergillii
major_, with vivid scarlet-crimson flowers and crystalline cells in
the petals which sparkle in the sunlight like myriads of tiny rubies,
remains a favorite among amateurs. Baron Schroeder, who has the finest
collection in Europe, grows this one only in quantity. An entire house
is filled with them, and when hundreds of spikes are in bloom at once,
the display is singularly brilliant.

A NEW VEGETABLE, a Japanese plant called Choro-Gi, belonging to the
Sage family, was exhibited. Its botanical name is _Stachys tuberifera_
and it was introduced first to Europe by the Vilmorins of Paris under
the name of _Crosnes du Japon_. The edible part of the plant is
the tubers, which are produced in abundance on the tips of the wiry
fibrous roots. These are one and a half inches long, pointed at both
ends, and have prominent raised rings. When washed they are as white
as celery and when eaten raw taste somewhat like Jerusalem artichokes,
but when cooked are quite soft and possess the distinct flavor of
boiled chestnuts. A dish of these tubers when cooked look like a mass
of large caterpillars, but the Committee pronounced them excellent,
and no doubt this vegetable will now receive attention from some
of our enterprising seedsmen and may become a fashionable vegetable
because new and unlike any common kind. The tubers were shown now
for the first time in this country by Sir Henry Thompson, the eminent
surgeon. The plant is herbaceous, dying down annually leaving the
tubers, which multiply very rapidly. They can be dug at any time of
the year, which is an advantage. The plant is perfectly hardy here and
would no doubt be so in the United States, as it remains underground
in winter. [A figure of this plant with the tubers appeared in the
_Gardener's Chronicle_, January 7th, 1888.--ED.]

PHALÆNOPSIS F. L. AMES, a hybrid moth orchid, the result of
intercrossing _P. grandiflora_ of Lindley with _P. intermedia Portei_
(itself a natural hybrid between the little _P. rosea_ and _P.
amabilis_), was shown at a later exhibition. The new hybrid is very
beautiful. It has the same purplish green leaves as _P. amabalis_, but
much narrower. The flower spikes are produced in the same way as those
of _P. grandiflora_, and the flowers in form and size resemble those
of that species, but the coloring of the labellum is more like that
of its other parent. The sepals and petals are pure white, the
latter being broadest at the lips. The labellum resembles that of _P.
intermedia_, being three-lobed, the lateral lobes are erect, magenta
purple in color and freckled. The middle or triangular lobe is of the
same color as the lateral lobes, but pencilled with longitudinal lines
of crimson, flushed with orange, and with the terminal cirrhi of a
clear magenta. The column is pink, and the crest is adorned with
rosy speckles. The Floral Committee unanimously awarded a first-class
certificate of merit to the plant.

A NEW LÆLIA named _L. Gouldiana_ has had an eventful history. The
representative of Messrs. Sander, of St. Albans, the great orchid
importers, while traveling in America saw it blooming in New York,
in the collection of Messrs. Siebrecht & Wadley, and noting its
distinctness and beauty bought the stock of it. The same week another
new Lælia flowered in England and was sent up to one of the London
auction rooms for sale. As it so answered the description of the
American novelty which Messrs. Sander had just secured it was bought
for the St. Albans collection, and now it turns out that the English
novelty and the American novelty are one and the same thing, and a
comparison of dates shows that they flowered on the same day, although
in different hemispheres. As, however, it was first discovered in the
United States, it is intended to call it an American orchid, and that
is why Mr. Jay Gould has his name attached to it, In bulb and leaf the
novelty closely resembles _L. albida_, and in flower both _L. anceps_
and _L. autumnalis_. The flowers are as large as those of an average
form of _L. anceps_, the sepals are rather narrow, the petals as broad
as those of _L._ _anceps Dawsoni_, and both petals and sepals are of a
deep rose pink, intensified at the tips as if the color had collected
there and was dripping out. The tip is in form between that of _L.
anceps_ and _L. autumnalis_ and has the prominent ridges of the
latter, while the color is a rich purple crimson. The black viscid
pubescence, always seen on the ovary of _L. autumnalis_, is present on
that of _L. Gouldiana_. The plants I saw in the orchid nursery at St.
Albans lately, bore several spikes, some having three or four flowers.
Those who have seen it are puzzled about its origin, some considering
it a hybrid between _L. anceps_ and _L. autumnalis_, others consider
it a distinct species and to the latter opinion I am inclined.
Whatever its origin may be, it is certain we have a charming addition
to midwinter flowering orchids.

_W. Goldring._

London, February 1st.



[Illustration: Fig. 1.--Chrysanthemum--Mrs. Alpheus Hardy.]


A New Departure in Chrysanthemums.


The Chrysanthemum of which the figure gives a good representation is
one of a collection of some thirty varieties lately sent from Japan to
the lady for whom it has been named, Mrs. Alpheus Hardy of Boston, by
a young Japanese once a protégé of hers, but now returned as a teacher
to his native country. As may be seen, it is quite distinct from any
variety known in this country or Europe, and the Japanese botanist
Miyabe, who saw it at Cambridge, pronounces it a radical departure
from any with which he is acquainted.

The photograph from which the engraving was made was taken just as
the petals had begun to fall back from the centre, showing to good
advantage the peculiarities of the variety.

The flower is of pure white, with the firm, long and broad petals
strongly incurved at the extremities. Upon the back or outer surface
of this incurved portion will be found, in the form of quite prominent
hairs, the peculiarity which makes this variety unique.

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--Hair from Petal of Chrysanthemum, much
enlarged. _a_--resin drop. _b_--epidermis of petal with wavy cells.]

These hairs upon close examination are found to be a glandular
outgrowth of the epidermis of the petals, multi-cellular in structure
and with a minute drop of a yellow resinous substance at the tip.
The cells at first conform to the wavy character of those of the
epidermis, but gradually become prismatic with straight walls, as
shown in the engraving of one of the hairs, which was made from a
drawing furnished by Miss Grace Cooley, of the Department of Botany at
Wellesley College, who made a microscopic investigation of them.

This is one of those surprises that occasionally make their appearance
from Japan. Possibly it is a chance seedling; but since one or two
other specimens in the collection are striking in form, and others are
distinguished for depth and purity of color, it is more probable that
the best of them have been developed by careful selection.

This Chrysanthemum was exhibited at the Boston Chrysanthemum Show last
December by Edwin Fewkes & Son of Newton Highlands, Mass.

_A. H. Fewkes._



New Plants from Afghanistan.


ARNEBIA CORNUTA.--This is a charming novelty, an annual, native of
Afghanistan. The little seedling with lancet-like hairy, dark green
leaves, becomes presently a widely branching plant two feet in
diameter and one and one-half feet high. Each branch and branchlet
is terminated by a lengthening raceme of flowers. These are in form
somewhat like those of an autumnal Phlox, of a beautiful deep
golden yellow color, adorned and brightened up by five velvety black
blotches. These blotches soon become coffee brown and lose more
and more their color, until after three days they have entirely
disappeared. During several months the plant is very showy, the fading
flowers being constantly replaced by fresh expanding ones. Sown in
April in the open border, it needs no care but to be thinned out and
kept free from weeds. It must, however, have some soil which does not
contain fresh manure.

DELPHINIUM ZALIL.--This, also, is a native of Afghanistan, but its
character, whether a biennial or perennial, is not yet ascertained.
The Afghans call it Zalil and the plant or root is used for dyeing
purposes. Some years ago we only knew blue, white and purple
larkspurs, and then California added two species with scarlet flowers.
The above is of a beautiful sulphur yellow, and, all in all, it is a
plant of remarkable beauty. From a rosette of much and deeply divided
leaves, rises a branched flower stem to about two feet; each branch
and branchlet ending in a beautiful spike of flowers each of about an
inch across and the whole spike showing all its flowers open at once.
It is likely to become a first rate standard plant of our gardens. To
have it in flower the very first year it must be sown very early, say
in January, in seed pans, and transplanted later, when it will flower
from the end of May until the end of July. Moreover, it can be sown
during spring and summer in the open air to flower the following year.
It is quite hardy here.

_Max Leichtlin._

Baden-Baden.



Iris tenuis.[1]


This pretty delicate species of Iris, Fig. 3, is a native of the
Cascade Mountains of Northern Oregon. Its long branching rootstocks
are scarcely more than a line in thickness, sending up sterile leafy
shoots and slender stems about a foot high. The leaves are thin and
pale green, rather taller than the stems, sword-shaped and half an
inch broad or more. The leaves of the stem are bract-like and distant,
the upper one or two subtending slender peduncles. The spathes are
short, very thin and scarious, and enclose the bases of their rather
small solitary flowers, which are "white, lightly striped and blotched
with yellow and purple." The sepals and petals are oblong-spatulate,
from a short tube, the sepals spreading, the shorter petals erect and
notched.

The peculiar habitat of this species doubtless accounts in good
measure for its slender habit and mode of growth. Mr. L. F. Henderson,
of Portland, Oregon, who discovered it in 1881, near a branch of the
Clackamas River called Eagle Creek, about thirty miles from Portland,
reports it as growing in the fir forests in broad mats, its very long
rootstocks running along near the surface of the ground, just covered
by moss or partly decayed fir-needles, with a light addition of soil.
This also would indicate the need of special care and treatment in its
cultivation. In May, 1884, Mr. Henderson took great pains to procure
roots for the Botanic Garden at Cambridge, which were received in
good order, but which did not survive the next winter. If taken
up, however, later in the season or very early in the spring, it is
probable that with due attention to soil and shade there would be
little trouble in cultivating it successfully. The accompanying figure
is from a drawing by Mr. C. E. Faxon.

_Sereno Watson._

    [Footnote 1: TENUIS. Watson, _Proc. Amer. Acad._, xvii, 380.
    Rootstock elongated, very slender (a line thick); leaves thin,
    ensiform, about equaling the stems, four to eight lines broad;
    stems scarcely a foot high, 2 or 3-flowered, with two or three
    bract-like leaves two or three inches long; lateral peduncles
    very slender, as long as the bracts; spathes scarious, an
    inch long; pedicels solitary, very short; flowers small, white
    marked with yellow and purple; tube two or three lines long;
    segments oblong-spatulate, the sepals spreading, one and
    one-half inches long, the petals shorter and emarginate;
    anthers as long as the filaments; styles with narrow entire
    crests; capsule oblong-ovate, obtuse, nine lines long.]



Hardy Shrubs for Forcing.


Shrubs for forcing should consist of early blooming kinds only.
The plants should be stocky, young and healthy, well-budded and
well-ripened, and in order to have first-class stock they should be
grown expressly for forcing. For cut flower purposes only, we can lift
large plants of Lilacs, Snowballs, Deutzias, Mock oranges and the like
with all the ball of roots we can get to them and plant at once in
forcing-houses. But this should not be done before New Year's. We
should prepare for smaller plants some months ahead of forcing time.
say in the preceding April or August, by lifting them and planting in
small pots, tubs or boxes as can conveniently contain their roots, and
we should encourage them to root well before winter sets in. Keep them
out of doors and plunged till after the leaves drop off; then either
mulch them where they are or bring them into a pit, shed or cool
cellar, where there shall be no fear of their getting dry, or of
having the roots fastened in by frost. Introduce them into the
green-house in succession; into a cool green-house at first for a few
weeks, then as they begin to start, into a warmer one. From the time
they are brought into the green-house till the flowers begin to open
give a sprinkling overhead twice a day with tepid water. When they
have done blooming, if worth keeping over for another time, remove
them to a cool house and thus gradually harden them off, then plant
them out in the garden in May, and give them two years' rest.

Shrubs to be forced for their cut flowers only should consist of such
kinds as have flowers that look well and keep well after being cut.
Among these are _Deutzia gracilis_, common Lilacs of various colors,
_Staphyllea Colchica_, _Spiræa Cantonensis_ (_Reevesii_) single and
double, the Guelder Rose, the Japanese Snowball and _Azalea mollis_.
To these may be added some of the lovely double-flowering and Chinese
apples, whose snowy or crimson-tinted buds and leafy twigs are very
pretty. The several double-flowered forms of _Prunus triloba_ are also
desirable, but a healthy stock is hard to get. _Andromeda floribunda_
and _A. Japonica_ set their flower buds the previous summer for the
next year's flowers, and are, therefore, like the Laurestinus, easily
forced into bloom after New Year's. Hardy and half-hardy Rhododendrons
with very little forcing may be had in bloom from March.

In addition to the above, for conservatory decoration we may introduce
all manner of hardy shrubs. Double flowering peach and cherry
trees are easily forced and showy while they last. Clumps of _Pyrus
arbutifolia_ can easily be had in bloom in March, when their abundance
of deep green leaves is an additional charm to their profusion of
hawthorn-like flowers. The Chinese _Xanthoceras_ is extremely copious
and showy, but of brief duration and ill-fitted for cutting. Bushes of
yellow Broom and double-flowering golden Furze can easily be had after
January. _Jasminum nudiflorum_ may be had in bloom from November till
April, and Forsythia from January. They look well when trained up
to pillars. The early-flowering Clematises may be used to capital
advantage in the same way, from February onward. Although the Mahonias
flower well, their foliage at blooming time is not always comely.
Out-of-doors the American Red-bud makes a handsomer tree than does the
Japanese one; but the latter is preferable for green-house work, as
the flowers are bright and the smallest plants bloom. The Chinese
Wistaria blooms as well in the green-house as it does outside;
indeed, if we introduce some branches of an out-door plant into the
green-house, we can have it in bloom two months ahead of the balance
of the vine still left out-of-doors. Hereabout we grow Wistarias as
standards, and they bloom magnificently. What a sight a big standard
wistaria in the green-house in February would be! Among other shrubs
may be mentioned Shadbush, African Tamarix, Daphne of sorts and
Exochorda. We have also a good many barely hardy plants that may be
wintered well in a cellar or cold pit, and forced into bloom in early
spring. Among these are Japanese Privet, Pittosporum, Raphiolepis,
Hydrangeas and the like.

And for conservatory decoration we can also use with excellent
advantage some of our fine-leaved shrubs, for instance our lovely
Japanese Maples and variegated Box Elder.

_Wm. Falconer._

Glen Cove, N. Y.


[Illustration: Fig. 3.--Iris tenuis.--_See page 6._]



Plant Notes.


A HALF-HARDY BEGONIA.--When botanizing last September upon the
Cordilleras of North Mexico some two hundred miles south of the United
States Boundary, I found growing in black mould of shaded ledges--even
in the thin humus of mossy rocks--at an elevation of 7,000 to 8,000
feet, a plant of striking beauty, which Mr. Sereno Watson identifies
as _Begonia gracilis_, _HBK._, _var. Martiana_, _A. DC_. From a small
tuberous root it sends up to a height of one to two feet a single
crimson-tinted stem, which terminates in a long raceme of scarlet
flowers, large for the genus and long enduring. The plant is still
further embellished by clusters of Scarlet gemmæ in the axils of its
leaves. Mr. Watson writes: "It was in cultivation fifty years and more
ago, but has probably been long ago lost. It appears to be the
most northern species of the genus, and should be the most hardy."
Certainly the earth freezes and snows fall in the high region, where
it is at home.


NORTHERN LIMIT OF THE DAHLIA.--In the same district, and at the same
elevation, I met with a purple flowered variety of _Dahlia coccinea_,
_Cav._ It was growing in patches under oaks and pines in thin dry
soil of summits of hills. In such exposed situations the roots must be
subjected to some frost, as much certainly as under a light covering
of leaves in a northern garden. The Dahlia has not before been
reported, as I believe, from a latitude nearly so high.

_C. G. Pringle._


CEANOTHUS is a North American genus, represented in the Eastern States
by New Jersey Tea, and Red Root (_C. Americanus_ and _C. ovalus_), and
in the West and South-west by some thirty additional species. Several
of these Pacific Coast species are quite handsome and well worthy of
cultivation where they will thrive. Some of the more interesting of
them are figured in different volumes of the _Botanical Magazine_,
from plants grown at Kew, and I believe that the genus is held in
considerable repute by French gardeners.

In a collection of plants made in Southern Oregon, last spring, by Mr.
Thomas Howell, several specimens of _Ceanothus_ occur which are pretty
clearly hybrids between _C. cuneatus_ and _C. prostratus_, two common
species of the region. Some have the spreading habit of the latter,
their flowers are of the bright blue color characteristic of that
species, and borne on slender blue pedicels, in an umbel-like cluster.
But while many of their leaves have the abrupt three-toothed apex of
_C. prostratus_, all gradations can be found from this form to the
spatulate, toothless leaves of _C. cuneatus_. Other specimens have the
more rigid habit of the latter species, and their flowers are white
or nearly so, on shorter pale pedicels, in usually smaller and
denser clusters. On these plants the leaves are commonly those of _C.
cuneatus_, but they pass into the truncated and toothed form proper to
_C. prostratus_.

According to Focke (_Pflanzenmischlinge_, 1881, p. 99), the French
cross one or more of the blue-flowered Pacific Coast species on the
hardier New Jersey Tea, a practice that may perhaps be worthy of trial
by American gardeners. Have any of the readers of GARDEN AND FOREST
ever met with spontaneous hybrids?

_W. Trelease._



WIRE NETTING FOR TREE GUARDS.--On some of the street trees of
Washington heavy galvanized wire netting is used to protect the
bark from injury by horses. It is the same material that is used for
enclosing poultry yards. It comes in strips five or six feet wide, and
may be cut to any length required by the size of the tree. The edges
are held in place by bending together the cut ends of the wires, and
the whole is sustained by staples over the heavy wires at the top and
bottom. This guard appears to be an effective protection and is less
unsightly than any other of which I know, in fact it can hardly
be distinguished at the distance of a few rods. It is certainly an
improvement on the plan of white-washing the trunks, which has been
extensively practiced here since the old guards were removed.

_A. A. Crozier._



Artificial Water.


One of the most difficult parts of a landscape gardener's work is the
treatment of what our grandfathers called "pieces of water" in scenes
where a purely natural effect is desired. The task is especially hard
when the stream, pond or lake has been artificially formed; for then
Nature's processes must be simulated not only in the planting but
in the shaping of the shores. Our illustration partially reveals a
successful effort of this sort--a pond on a country-seat near Boston.

It was formed by excavating a piece of swamp and damming a small
stream which flowed through it. In the distance towards the right the
land lies low by the water and gradually rises as it recedes. Opposite
us it forms little wooded promontories with grassy stretches between.
Where we stand it is higher, and beyond the limits of the picture
to the left it forms a high, steep bank rising to the lawn, on the
further side of which stands the house. The base of these elevated
banks and the promontories opposite are planted with thick masses
of rhododendrons, which flourish superbly in the moist, peaty soil,
protected, as they are, from drying winds by the trees and high
ground. Near the low meadow a long stretch of shore is occupied by
thickets of hardy azaleas. Beautiful at all seasons, the pond is most
beautiful in June, when the rhododendrons are ablaze with crimson and
purple and white, and when the yellow of the azalea-beds--discreetly
separated from the rhododendrons by a great clump of low-growing
willows--finds delicate continuation in the buttercups which fringe
the daisied meadow. The lifted banks then afford particularly
fortunate points of view; for as we look down upon the rhododendrons,
we see the opposite shore and the water with its rich reflected colors
as over the edge of a splendid frame. No accent of artificiality
disturbs the eye despite the unwonted profusion of bloom and variety
of color. All the plants are suited to their place and in harmony with
each other; and all the contours of the shore are gently modulated and
softly connected with the water by luxuriant growths of water plants.
The witness of the eye alone would persuade us that Nature unassisted
had achieved the whole result. But beauty of so suave and perfect a
sort as this is never a natural product. Nature's beauty is wilder if
only because it includes traces of mutation and decay which here are
carefully effaced. Nature suggests the ideal beauty, and the artist
realizes it by faithfully working out her suggestions.

[Illustration: A Piece of Artificial Water.]



Some New Roses.


The following list comprises most of the newer Roses that have been
on trial to any extent in and about Philadelphia during the present
winter:

PURITAN (H. T.) is one of Mr. Henry Bennett's seedlings, and perhaps
excites more interest than any other. It is a cross between Mabel
Morrison and Devoniensis, creamy white in color and a perpetual
bloomer. Its flowers have not opened satisfactorily this winter. The
general opinion seems to be that it requires more heat than is
needed for other forcing varieties. Further trial will be required to
establish its merit.

METEOR (H. T., BENNETT.)--Some cultivators will not agree with me in
classing this among hybrid Teas. In its manner of growth it resembles
some Tea Roses, but its coloring and scanty production of buds in
winter are indications that there is Hybrid Remontant blood in it.
It retains its crimson color after being cut longer than any Rose we
have, and rarely shows a tendency to become purple with age, as other
varieties of this color are apt to do. For summer blooming under glass
it will prove satisfactory. In winter its coloring is a rich velvety
crimson, but as the sun gets stronger it assumes a more lively shade.

MRS. JOHN LAING (H. R., BENNETT,) is a seedling from Francois
Michelon, which it somewhat resembles in habit of growth and color of
flower. It is a free bloomer out-of-doors in summer and forces readily
in winter. Blooms of it have been offered for sale in the stores here
since the first week in December. It is a soft shade of pink in color,
with a delicate lilac tint. It promises to become a general favorite,
as in addition to the qualities referred to, it is a free autumnal
bloomer outside. For forcing it will be tried extensively next winter.

PRINCESS BEATRICE (T., BENNETT,) was distributed for the first time in
this country last autumn, but has so far been a disappointment in
this city. But some lots arrived from Europe too late and misfortunes
befell others, so that the trial can hardly be counted decisive,
and we should not hastily condemn it. Some have admired it for its
resemblance, in form of flower, to a Madame Cuisin, but its color is
not just what we need. In shade it somewhat resembles Sunset, but is
not so effective. It may, however, improve under cultivation, as
some other Roses have done; so far as I know it has not been tried
out-of-doors.

PAPA GONTIER (H. B., NABONNAUD.)--This, though not properly a new
rose, is on trial for the first time in this city. It has become a
great favorite with growers, retailers and purchasers. In habit it
is robust and free blooming, and in coloring, though similar to Bon
Silene, is much deeper or darker. There seems to be a doubt in some
quarters as to whether it blooms as freely as Bon Silene; personally,
I think there is not much difference between the two. Gontier is a
good Rose for outdoor planting.

_Edwin Lonsdale._



Two Ferns and their Treatment.


ADIANTUM FARLEYENSE.--This beautiful Maidenhair is supposed to be a
subfertile, plumose form of _A. tenerum_, which much resembles it,
especially in a young state. For decorative purposes it is almost
unrivaled, whether used in pots or for trimming baskets of flowers
or bouquets. It prefers a warm, moist house and delights in abundant
water. We find it does best when potted firmly in a compost of two
parts loam to one of peat, and with a good sprinkling of sifted coal
ashes. In this compost it grows very strong, the fronds attaining a
deeper green and lasting longer than when grown in peat. When the pots
are filled with roots give weak liquid manure occasionally. This fern
is propagated by dividing the roots and potting in small pots, which
should be placed in the warmest house, where they soon make fine
plants. Where it is grown expressly for cut fronds the best plan is
to plant it out on a bench in about six inches of soil, taking care to
give it plenty of water and heat, and it will grow like a weed.

ACTINIOPTERIS RADIATA.--A charming little fern standing in a genus by
itself. In form it resembles a miniature fan palm, growing about six
inches in height. It is generally distributed throughout the East
Indies. In cultivation it is generally looked upon as poor grower, but
with us it grows as freely as any fern we have. We grow a lot to mix
in with Orchids, as they do not crowd at all. We pot in a compost of
equal parts loam and peat with a few ashes to keep it open, and grow
in the warmest house, giving at all times abundance of water both at
root and overhead. It grows very freely from spores, and will make
good specimens in less than a year. It is an excellent Fern for small
baskets.

_F. Goldring._



Timely Hints About Bulbs.


Spring flowering bulbs in-doors, such as the Dutch Hyacinths, Tulips
and the many varieties of Narcissus, should now be coming rapidly into
bloom. Some care is required to get well developed specimens. When
first brought in from cold frames or wherever they have been stored to
make roots, do not expose them either to direct sunlight or excessive
heat.

A temperature of not more than fifty-five degrees at night is warm
enough for the first ten days, and afterwards, if they show signs of
vigorous growth and are required for any particular occasion, they
may be kept ten degrees warmer. It is more important that they be not
exposed to too much light than to too much heat.

Half the short stemmed Tulips, dumpy Hyacinths and blind Narcissus
we see in the green-houses and windows of amateurs are the result of
excessive light when first brought into warm quarters. Where it is not
possible to shade bulbs without interfering with other plants a simple
and effective plan is to make funnels of paper large enough to stand
inside each pot and six inches high. These may be left on the pots
night and day from the time the plants are brought in until the flower
spike has grown above the foliage; indeed, some of the very finest
Hyacinths cannot be had in perfection without some such treatment.
Bulbous plants should never suffer for water when growing rapidly, yet
on the other hand, they are easily ruined if allowed to become sodden.

When in flower a rather dry and cool temperature will preserve them
the longest.

Of bulbs which flower in the summer and fall, Gloxinias and tuberous
rooted Begonias are great favorites and easily managed. For early
summer a few of each should be started at once--using sandy, friable
soil. Six-inch pots, well drained, are large enough for the very
largest bulbs, while for smaller even three-inch pots will answer.
In a green-house there is no difficulty in finding just the place to
start them. It must be snug, rather shady and not too warm. They can
be well cared for, however, in a hot-bed or even a window, but some
experience is necessary to make a success.

Lilies, in pots, whether _L. candidum_ or _L. longiflorum_ that
are desired to be in flower by Easter, should now receive every
attention--their condition should be that the flower buds can
be easily felt in the leaf heads. A temperature of fifty-five to
sixty-five at night should be maintained, giving abundance of air on
bright sunny days to keep them stocky. Green fly is very troublesome
at this stage, and nothing is more certain to destroy this pest than
to dip the plants in tobacco water which, to be effective, should be
the color of strong tea. Occasional waterings of weak liquid manure
will be of considerable help if the pots are full of roots.

_J. Thorpe._



Entomology.


Arsenical Poisons in the Orchard.


As is well known, about fifty per cent. of the possible apple crop in
the Western states is sacrificed each year to the codling moth, except
in sections where orchardists combine to apply bands of straw around
the trunks. But as is equally well known this is rather a troublesome
remedy. At all events, in Illinois, Professor Forbes, in a bulletin
lately issued from the office of the State Entomologist of Illinois,
claims that the farmers of that state suffer an annual loss from the
attacks of this single kind of insect of some two and three-quarters
millions of dollars.

As the results of two years' experiments in spraying the trees with
a solution of Paris green, only once or twice in early spring, before
the young apples had drooped upon their stems, there was a saving of
about seventy-five per cent. of the apples.

The Paris green mixture consisted of three-fourths of an ounce of the
powder by weight, of a strength to contain 15.4 per cent. of metallic
arsenic, simply stirred up in two and a half gallons of water. The
tree was thoroughly sprayed with a hand force-pump, and with the
deflector spray and solid jet-hose nozzle, manufactured in Lowell,
Mass. The fluid was thrown in a fine mist-like spray, applied until
the leaves began to drip.

The trees were sprayed in May and early in June while the apples were
still very small. It seems to be of little use to employ this remedy
later in the season, when later broods of the moth appear, since the
poison takes effect only in case it reaches the surface of the apple
between the lobes of the calyx, and it can only reach this place when
the apple is very small and stands upright on its stem, It should be
added that spraying "after the apples have begun to hang downward is
unquestionably dangerous," since even heavy winds and violent rains
are not sufficient to remove the poison from the fruit at this season.

At the New York Experimental station last year a certain number of
trees were sprayed three times with Paris green with the result that
sixty-nine per cent. of the apples were saved.

It also seems that last year about half the damage that might have
been done by the Plum weevil or curculio was prevented by the use of
Paris green, which should be sprayed on the trees both early in the
season, while the fruit is small, as well as later.

The cost of this Paris green application, when made on a large scale,
with suitable apparatus, only once or twice a year, must, says Mr.
Forbes, fall below an average of ten cents a tree.

The use of solutions of Paris green or of London purple in water,
applied by spraying machines such as were invented and described in
the reports of the national Department of Agriculture by the U.
S. Entomologist and his assistants, have effected a revolution in
remedies against orchard and forest insects. We expect to see them,
in careful hands, tried with equal success in shrubberies, lawns and
flower gardens.

_A. S. Packard._



The Forest.


The White Pine in Europe.


The White Pine was among the very first American trees which came to
Europe, being planted in the year 1705 by Lord Weymouth on his grounds
in Chelsea. From that date, the tree has been cultivated in Europe
under the name of Weymouth Pine; in some mountain districts of
northern Bavaria, where it has become a real forest tree, it is
called Strobe, after the Latin name _Pinus strobus_. After general
cultivation as an ornamental tree in parks this Pine began to be used
in the forests on account of its hardiness and rapid growth, and it
is now not only scattered through most of the forests of Europe, but
covers in Germany alone an area of some 300 acres in a dense, pure
forest. Some of these are groves 120 years old, and they yield a large
proportion of the seed demanded by the increasing cultivation of the
tree in Europe.

The White Pine has proved so valuable as a forest tree that it has
partly overcome the prejudices which every foreign tree has to fight
against. The tree is perfectly hardy, is not injured by long and
severe freezing in winter, nor by untimely frosts in spring or autumn,
which sometimes do great harm to native trees in Europe. On account
of the softness of the leaves and the bark, it is much damaged by the
nibbling of deer, but it heals quickly and throws up a new leader.

The young plant can endure being partly shaded by other trees far
better than any other Pine tree, and even seems to enjoy being closely
surrounded, a quality that makes it valuable for filling up in young
forests where the native trees, on account of their slow growth, could
not be brought up at all.

The White Pine is not so easily broken by heavy snowfall as the Scotch
Pine, on account of the greater elasticity of its wood. The great
abundance of soft needles falling from it every year better fits it
for improving a worn-out soil than any European Pine, therefore the
tree has been tried with success as a nurse for the ground in forest
plantations of Oak, when the latter begin to be thinned out by nature,
and grass is growing underneath them.

And finally, all observations agree that the White Pine is a faster
growing tree than any native Conifer in Europe, except, perhaps, the
Larch. The exact facts about that point, taken from investigations on
good soil in various parts of Germany, are as follows:

                  Years.    Height.  Annual Growth During
                                        Last Decade.
  The White Pine at 20 reaches 7.5 meters. 37 centimeters
          "         30    "   12.5   "     50     "
          "         40    "   18.5   "     60     "
          "         50    "   22.5   "     40     "
          "         60    "   26.5   "     40     "
          "         70    "   28.5   "     20     "
          "         80    "   30.0   "     15     "
          "         90    "   32.0   "     20     "

For comparison I add here the average growth on good soil, of the
Scotch Pine, one of the most valuable and widely distributed timber
trees of Europe.

                  Years.    Height.  Annual Growth During
                                        Last Decade.
  The Scotch Pine at 20 reaches 7.3 meters. 36.5 centimeters
            "        30    "   11.6   "     43.0      "
            "        40    "   15.7   "     41.0      "
            "        50    "   19.4   "     37.0      "
            "        60    "   22.1   "     27.0      "
            "        70    "   24.0   "     22.0      "
            "        80    "   26.0   "     17.0      "
            "        90    "   27.5   "     15.0      "
            "       100    "   28.5   "     10.0      "
            "       120    "   30.0   "      7.5      "

That is, the White Pine is ahead of its relative during its entire
life and attains at 80 years a height which the Scotch Pine only
reaches in 120 years. It appears then that the whole volume of wood
formed within a certain period by an acre of White Pine forest is
greater than that yielded by a forest of Scotch Pine within the same
period.

As far as reliable researches show, a forest of White Pine when
seventy years old gives an annual increment of 3 cords of wood per
acre. On the same area a forest of Scotch Pine increases every year by
2.4 cords on the best soil, 2 cords on medium soil, and 1.5 cords on
poor soil.

But notwithstanding the splendid qualities which distinguish the White
Pine as a forest tree its wood has never been looked upon with favor
in Europe. Many of those who are cultivating the White Pine for
business seem to expect that they will raise a heavy and durable wood.
These are the qualities prized in their own timber trees, and they
seem to think that the White Pine must be so highly prized at home for
the same qualities, when in fact it is the lightness and softness of
the wood which are considered in America. It would seem also that some
European planters believe that a Pine tree exists which will yield
more and at the same time heavier wood than any other tree on the same
area. It is a general rule that the amount of woody substance annually
formed on the same soil does not vary in any great degree with the
different kinds of trees. For instance, if we have good soil we may
raise 2,200 lbs. per acre of woody substance every year, from almost
any kind of timber tree. If we plant a tree forming a wood of low
specific gravity, we get a large volume of wood, and this is the case
with the White Pine. If we plant on the same ground an Oak tree, we
will get small volume of wood, but the weight of the woody substance
will be the same, that is, 2,200 pounds of absolutely dried wood per
acre.

It is remarkable that there is hardly any difference in the specific
gravity of the wood of the White Pine grown in Europe and in its
native country. I collected in Central Wisconsin wood-sections of
a tall tree and compared the specific gravity with the wood of a
full-grown tree of White Pine from a Bavarian forest. The average
specific gravity of the Bavarian tree was 38.3. The average specific
gravity of the American tree was 38.9. In both trees the specific
gravity slightly increased from the base to the top. Professor Sargent
gives 38 as the result of his numerous and careful investigations.

I was much surprised that the thickness of the sap-wood varied much in
favor of the Bavarian tree.

The sap-wood measured in thickness:

                 Of the Bavarian tree.  Of the American tree.
  At the base        2.7 centimeters      9 centimeters.
  In the middle       .4      "           6      "
  Within the crown    .3      "           4      "

I am inclined to believe that on account of the generally drier
climate of America a greater amount of water, and, therefore, of
water-conducting sap-wood, is necessary to keep the balance between
the evaporation and transportation of the water. The wood of the White
Pine is certainly better fitted for many purposes than any tree with
which nature has provided Europe, and yet one can hardly expect it to
easily overcome fixed habits and prejudices. It will devolve upon the
more intelligent proprietors of wood-land in Europe to begin with the
plantation of the White Pine on a large scale. No Conifer in Europe
can be cultivated with so little care and risk as the White Pine;
the frost does not injure the young plant, and the numerous insects
invading the European trees during their whole life-time inflict but
little harm. Subterranean parasites are thinning out the plantations
to some extent, but in no dangerous way.

_H. Mayr._

Tokio, Japan.



ABIES AMABILIS.--Professor John Macoun detected this species during
the past summer upon many of the mountains of Vancouver's Island where
with _Tsuga Pattoniana_ it is common above 3,000 feet over the sea
level. The northern distribution of this species as well as some other
British Columbia trees is still a matter of conjecture. It has not
been noticed north of the Fraser River, but it is not improbable that
_Abies amabilis_ will be found to extend far to the north along some
of the mountain ranges of the north-west coast.



European Larch in Massachusetts.


In 1876 the Trustees of the Massachusetts Society for the Promotion
of Agriculture offered a premium for the best plantations of not less
than five acres of European Larch. The conditions of the competition
were that not less than 2,700 trees should be planted to the acre,
and that only poor, worn-out land, or that unfit for agricultural
purposes, be used in these plantations.

The prize was to be awarded at the end of ten years. The committee
appointed to award the prize were C. S. Sargent and John Lowell. The
ten years having expired, this Committee lately made the following
report:

    Mr. James Lawrence, of Groton, and Mr. J. D. W. French, of
    North Andover, made plantations during the spring of 1877 in
    competition for this prize. Mr. Lawrence, however, at the end
    of one year withdrew from the contest, and Mr. French is the
    only competitor. Your Committee have visited his plantation at
    different times during the past ten years, and have now made
    their final inspection. The plantation occupies a steep slope
    facing the South and covered with a thin coating of gravelly
    loam largely mixed towards the bottom of the hill with light
    sand. This field in 1877 was a fair sample of much of the
    hillside pasture land of the eastern part of the State. It had
    been early cleared, no doubt, of trees, and the light surface
    soil practically exhausted by cultivation. It was then used
    as a pasture, producing nothing but the scantiest growth of
    native Grasses and Sedges with a few stunted Pitch Pines.
    Land of this character has no value for tillage, and has
    practically little value for pasturage. Upon five acres of
    this land Mr. French planted fifteen thousand European Larch.
    The trees were one foot high, and were set in the sod four
    feet apart each way, except along the boundary of the field,
    where the plantation was made somewhat thicker. The cost
    of the plantation, as furnished by Mr. French, has been as
    follows:

      15,000 Larch (imported),        $108 50
      Fencing,                          20 81
      Surveying,                         6 00
      Labor,                           104 69
                                      -------
      Total,                          $240 00

    This, with compound interest at five per cent. for ten years,
    makes the entire cost to date of the plantation of five acres,
    $390.90.

    The Trees for several years grew slowly and not very
    satisfactorily. Several lost their leaders, and in various
    parts of the plantation small blocks failed entirely. The
    trees, however, have greatly improved during the last four
    years, and the entire surface of the ground is now, with one
    or two insignificant exceptions, sufficiently covered. There
    appear to be from 10,000 to 12,000 larch trees now growing
    on the five acres. The largest tree measured is 25 feet high,
    with a trunk 26 inches in circumference at the ground,
    There are several specimens of this size at least, and it is
    believed that all the trees, including many which have not yet
    commenced to grow rapidly or which have been overcrowded and
    stunted by their more vigorous neighbors, will average 12 feet
    in height, with trunks 10 to 12 inches in circumference at
    the ground. Many individuals have increased over four feet in
    height during the present year. It is interesting to note as
    an indication of what Massachusetts soil of poor quality is
    capable of producing, that various native trees have appeared
    spontaneously in the plantation since animals were excluded
    from this field. Among these are White Pines 6 to 8 feet high,
    Pitch Pines 14 feet high, a White Oak 15 feet high and a Gray
    Birch 17 feet high. The Trustees offered this prize in the
    belief that it would cause a plantation to be made capable of
    demonstrating that unproductive lands in this State could be
    cheaply covered with trees, and the result of Mr. French's
    experiment seems to be conclusive in this respect. It has
    shown that the European Larch can be grown rapidly and cheaply
    in this climate upon very poor soil, but it seems to us to
    have failed to show that this tree has advantages for general
    economic planting in this State which are not possessed in
    an equal degree by some of our native trees. Land which will
    produce a crop of Larch will produce in the same time at least
    a crop of white pine. There can be no comparison in the value
    of these two trees in Massachusetts. The White Pine is more
    easily transplanted than the Larch, it grows with equal and
    perhaps greater rapidity, and it produces material for which
    there is an assured and increasing demand. The White Pine,
    moreover, has so far escaped serious attacks of insects and
    dangerous fungoid diseases which now threaten to exterminate
    in different parts of Europe extensive plantations of Larch.

    Your Committee find that Mr. French has complied with all
    the requirements of the competition: they recommend that the
    premium of one thousand dollars be paid to him.



Answers to Correspondents.


When the woods are cut clean in Southern New Hampshire White Pine
comes in very, very thickly. Is it best to thin out the growth or
allow the trees to crowd and shade the feebler ones slowly to death?

J. D. L.

It is better to thin such over-crowded seedlings early, if serviceable
timber is wanted in the shortest time. The statement that close growth
is needed to produce long, clean timber, needs some limitation. No
plant can develop satisfactorily without sufficient light, air and
feeding room. When trees are too thickly crowded the vigor of
every one is impaired, and the process of establishing supremacy of
individuals is prolonged, to the detriment even of those which are
ultimately victorious. The length is drawn out disproportionately to
the diameter, and all the trees remain weak.

Experience has proved that plantations where space is given for proper
growth in their earlier years, yield more and better wood than do
Nature's dense sowings. Two records are added in confirmation of this
statement, and many others could be given:

1. A pine plantation of twelve acres was made, one half by sowing, the
other half by planting at proper distances. In twenty-four years
the first section had yielded, including the material obtained in
thinnings, 1,998 cubic feet, and the latter, 3,495 cubic feet of wood.
The thinnings had been made, when appearing necessary, at ten, fifteen
and eighteen years in the planted section, yielding altogether ten and
three-quarter cords of round firewood and seven cords of brush; and at
eight, ten and twenty years in the sowed section, with a yield of only
three and one-fifth cords of round firewood at the last thinning and
seven and four-fifths cords of brush wood.

2. A spruce growth seeded after thirty-three years was still so dense
as to be impenetrable, with scarcely any increase, and the trees were
covered with lichens. It was then thinned out when thirty-five, and
again when forty-two years old. The appearance greatly improved,
and the accretion in seven years after thinning showed 160 per cent.
increase, or more than 26 per cent. every year.

The density of growth which will give the best results in all
directions depends upon the kind of timber and soil conditions.

--_B. E. Fernow._

Washington, D. C.



Book Reviews.


Gray's Elements of Botany.


Fifty-one years ago, Asa Gray, then only twenty-six years of age,
published a treatise on botany adapted to the use of schools and
colleges. It was entitled "The Elements of Botany." Its method of
arrangement was so admirably adapted to its purpose, and the treatment
of all the subjects so mature and thorough, that the work served as a
model for a large work which soon followed,--the well-known Botanical
Text-book, and the same general plan has been followed in all the
editions of the latter treatise. About twenty-five years after the
appearance of the Elements, Dr. Gray prepared a more elementary work
for the use of schools, since the Text-book had become rather too
advanced and exhaustive for convenient use. This work was the "Lessons
in Botany," a book which has been a great aid throughout the country,
in introducing students to a knowledge of the principles of the
science. Without referring to other educational works prepared by Dr.
Gray, such as "How Plants Grow," etc., it suffices now to say that
for two or three years, he had been convinced that there was need of
a hand-book, different in essential particulars from any of its
predecessors. When we remember that all of these had been very
successful from an educational point of view, as well as from the more
exacting one of the publishers, we can understand how strong must have
been the motive which impelled the venerable but still active botanist
to give a portion of his fast-flying time to the preparation of
another elementary work. In answer to remonstrances from those who
believed that the remnant of his days should be wholly given to the
completion of the "Synoptical Flora," he was wont to say pleasantly,
"Oh, I give only my _evenings_ to the 'Elements.'" And, so, after
a day's work, in which he had utilized every available moment of
sunlight, he would turn with the fresh alertness which has ever
characterized every motion and every thought, to the preparation of
what he called fondly, his "legacy" to young botanists. That precious
legacy we have now before us.

In form it is much like the Lessons, but more compact and yet much
more comprehensive. Its conciseness of expression is a study in
itself. To give it the highest praise, it may be said to be French in
its clearness and terseness. Not a word is wasted: hence, the author
has been able to touch lightly and still with firmness every important
line in this sketch of the principles of botany. This work, in the
words of its author, "is intended to ground beginners in Structural
Botany and the principles of vegetable life, mainly as concerns
Flowering or Phanerogamous plants, with which botanical instruction
should always begin; also to be a companion and interpreter to the
Manuals and Floras by which the student threads his flowery way to a
clear knowledge of the surrounding vegetable creation. Such a book,
like a grammar, must needs abound in technical words, which thus
arrayed may seem formidable; nevertheless, if rightly apprehended,
this treatise should teach that the study of botany is not the
learning of names and terms, but the acquisition of knowledge and
ideas. No effort should be made to commit technical terms to memory.
Any term used in describing a plant or explaining its structure can
be looked up when it is wanted, and that should suffice. On the other
hand, plans of structure, types, adaptations, and modifications,
once understood, are not readily forgotten; and they give meaning and
interest to the technical terms used in explaining them."

The specific directions given for collecting plants, for preparing
herbarium specimens, and for investigating the structure of plants
make this treatise of great use to those who are obliged to study
without a teacher. The very extensive glossary makes the work of
value not only to this class of students, but to those, as well, whose
pursuits are directed in our schools. The work fills, in short, the
very place which Dr. Gray designed it should.

_G. L. Goodale._



_The Kansas Forest Trees Identified by Leaves and Fruit_, by W. A.
Kellerman, Ph.D., and Mrs. W. A. Kellerman (Manhattan, Kansas). This
octavo pamphlet of only a dozen pages contains a convenient artificial
key for the rapid determination of seventy-five species of trees.
By the use of obvious characters the authors have made the work of
identification comparatively easy in nearly every instance, and even
in the few doubtful cases, the student will not be allowed to go far
astray. The little hand-book ought to be found of use even beyond the
limits of the State for which it was designed.

_G. L. Goodale._



Public Works.


THE FALLS OF MINNEHAHA.--A tract of fifty acres, beautifully located
on the Mississippi, opposite the mouth of the Minnehaha, has been
acquired by the City of St. Paul, and land will most probably be
secured for a drive of several miles along the river. The bank here is
more than 100 feet high, often precipitous, clothed with a rich growth
of primeval forest, shrubbery and vines. It is hoped that Minneapolis
may secure the land immediately opposite, including the Falls of
Minnehaha and the valley of the stream to the great river. In this
event a great park could be made between the two cities, easily
reached from the best part of both, with the Mississippi flowing
through it and the Falls as one of its features. This, in connection
with the park so beautifully situated on Lake Como, three miles from
St. Paul, and the neat parks of Minneapolis and its superbly kept
system of lake shore drives, would soon be an object worthy of the
civic pride of these enterprising and friendly rivals.

A PARK FOR WILMINGTON, DEL.--After many delays and defeats the people
of this city have secured a tract of more than 100 acres, mostly of
fine rocky woodland, with the classic Brandywine flowing through it,
and all within the city limits, together with two smaller tracts,
one a high wooded slope, the other lying on tide water, and both
convenient to those parts of the city inhabited by workingmen and
their families. A topographical survey of these park lands is now
in progress as preparation for a general plan of improvement. Of
the "Brandywine Glen" Mr. Frederick Law Olmsted once wrote: "It is a
passage of natural scenery which, to a larger city, would be of
rare value--so rare and desirable that in a number of cities several
million dollars have been willingly spent to obtain results of which
the best that can said is, that they somewhat distantly approach, in
character and expression, such scenery as the people of Wilmington
have provided for them without expense."



Flower Market.


Retail Prices in the Flower Market.


NEW YORK, _February 23d._

There is a glut of flowers, particularly of tea roses of an
indifferent quality. Bon Silene buds cost from 75 cts. to $1 a dozen,
Perle des Jardins, Niphetos, Souvenir d'un Ami, and Papa Gontiers
bring $1.50 a dozen. C. Mermets are very fine and from 30 to 35 cts.
each. Not more than one in three La France roses is perfect; they
bring from 25 cts. to 50 cts. each. Mde. Cuisin and Duke of Connaught
are 25 cts. each, Bennets 20 cts. each and Brides 25 cts. each.
American Beauties are $1 to $1.50 each, according to the location
where they are sold. Puritans cost 75 cts. each, and Jacqueminots
50 cts. Magna Chartas are the most popular of the hybrid roses at
present. They, Anna de Diesbach and Mad. Gabriel Luizet bring from $1
to $1.50 each.

Mignonette is very plentiful, well grown and of the spiral variety; it
brings 75 cts. a dozen spikes retail, very large spikes bring as high
as 15 cts. each. Hyacinths, Lilies-of-the-Valley and Tulips bring $1 a
dozen. Lilacs cost 25 cts. for a spray of one or two tassels. Violets
are abundant, mostly of the Marie Louise variety, and bring $2 a
hundred. Fancy long stem red Carnations cost 75 cts. a dozen; short
stem Carnations are 50 cts. a dozen; the dyed Carnations, named
"Emerald," are in brisk demand and sell for 15 cts. each. Daffodils
are $1 a dozen; those dyed bring 20 cts. each. Finely grown
Forget-me-not brought in small quantity to retail dealers sells for
10 cts. a spray. Calla Lilies bring $2 and $3 a dozen, and Longiflorum
Lilies $4 a dozen.


PHILADELPHIA, _February 23d._

Heavy demands for flowers dropped off short on Ash Wednesday, and
decreased each day until Saturday, when the regular orders for loose
flowers caused the trade to pick up again. The demand for Orchids is
steadily growing; a fair quantity is used at balls and parties,
but nothing in comparison to Roses, Violets and Lily-of-the-Valley.
Violets have been in greater demand, so far, than for several
years. Large quantities of Tulips have been used recently for table
decorations, especially the pink varieties, the favorite color for
dinners and lunches. The American Beauty Rose, when cut with long
stems, and really first class in every other respect, has been in
great demand, at the best prices. Md. Gabrielle Luizet is scarce,
the local growers not having commenced to cut in quantity; it is
frequently asked for. Carnation plateaus in solid colors have been
used freely. Lilacs are considered choice and have been in good
demand. Retail prices rule as follows: Orchids, from 25 cts. to
$1 each; La France, Mermet, Bride and Bennet Roses, $3 per dozen;
Jacques, $4 to $5; American Beauty, $4 to $9; Puritan, $4; Anna de
Diesbach, $5 to $7.50; Papa Gontier, Sunset, Perle des Jardins
and Mad. Cuisin, $1.50; Bon Silene, $1.00; Niphetos, $1 to $1.50.
Lily-of-the-Valley, and Roman Hyacinths, bring $1 per dozen;
Mignonette, 50 cts., and Freesia the same per dozen; Heliotrope,
Pansies, Carnations, and Forget-me-nots, 35 cts. per dozen. Violets
bring from $1 to $1.50 per hundred; Lilium Harrisii, $3.00 per dozen;
Callas $2 per dozen, and Lilacs $2 per bunch of about eight sprays.
Daffodils sell briskly at from $1 to $1.50 per dozen.


BOSTON, _February 23d._

The season of Lent is always looked forward to by the florists with
anxiety, for the rest from receptions, assemblies and balls cuts off
one of the chief outlets for the choicest flowers: a few warm days are
sufficient to overstock the market, and prices take a fall. Buyers are
learning, however, that at no period of the year can cut flowers be
had in such perfection and variety as during February and March, and
although not much required for party occasions they are bought for
other purposes in increasing quantities every year, so that the advent
of Lent does not now produce utter stagnation in the flower trade. In
Roses there is at present a large assortment offered. From the
modest Bon Silene, and its new competitor, Papa Gontier, up to the
magnificent American Beauty and Hybrid Perpetuals, may be found every
gradation of color, size and fragrance. Retail prices vary from 75
cts. per dozen for Bon Silenes and $1.50 to $2 for Perles, Niphetos,
etc., up to $3 and $4 for the best Mermets, Niels and La France;
Hybrids and Jacques of best quality bring from $6 to $9 per dozen. In
bulbous flowers a large variety is shown. Lily-of-the-Valley sells
for $1.50 per dozen sprays; Narcissus of various kinds, Hyacinths
and Tulips for $1 per dozen; Violets, 50 cts. per bunch; Pansies,
Mignonette, Heliotrope, Forget-me-not and Calendulas, 50 cts. per doz.
Long stemmed Carnations are to be had in great variety at 75 cts.
per dozen; Callas 25 cts. each, and Smilax 50 cts. a string. At this
season Smilax is at its best, being its time of flowering, and the
flowers are deliciously fragrant.



Publishers' Note.


A photogravure of Mr. A. St. Gaudens's bronze medallion of the late
Professor Asa Gray will be published as a supplement to the second
number of GARDEN AND FOREST.



[Illustration: Advertisement - RARE WATER LILIES]

[Illustration: Advertisement - TREES Fruit and Ornamental. ROSES]

[Illustration: Advertisement - Sibley's Tested Seed]

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[Illustration: Advertisement - BEAUTIFUL TREES

For lawn and cemetery planting. These can now be furnished in great
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We have now on hand a large supply of the following rare BEECHES,
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PURPLE-LEAVED BEECH.

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We have now in stock a large supply of AMERICAN, SIBERIAN and GOLDEN
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In SHRUBBERY

Our assortment is very complete, embracing many rare and elegant
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HOOPES, BRO. & THOMAS, Maple Avenue Nurseries,

WEST CHESTER, PA.]


[Illustration: Advertisement - DREER'S GARDEN CALENDAR]

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[Illustration: J. LAING & SONS,

The Nurseries,

FOREST HILL, LONDON

ENGLAND.

LEADING SPECIALTIES.]


TUBEROUS BEGONIAS.

AWARDED FOUR GOLD MEDALS.

Gold Medal Collection, quite unrivaled. _Tubers in a dry state_ can be
safely transmitted from England until April.

PRICES WHEN SELECTION IS LEFT TO US:
                                                   _Per Doz._
  A Collection, Named, our best collection             42s.
  B      "        "        very choice selection       36s.
  C      "        "        choice selection            30s.
  D      "        "        very good selection         24s.
  E      "        "        good selection              18s.
  F      "        "        ordinary selection          12s.
  G      "     Unnamed     best selections to color    21s.
  H      "        "        very choice selection       18s.
  J      "        "        best whites, distinct       15s.
  K      "        "        choice selection            12s.
  L      "        "        very good, selected to
                               color for bedding        9s.
  M      "        "        good best do. per 100, 40s., 6s.

DOUBLE VARIETIES.

PRICES (OUR SELECTION):

  P Collection, Named, our best collection, each
                                        7s. 6d. and 13s. 6d.
                                                    _Per Doz._
  R      "        "              very choice ditto      63s.
  S      "        "              choice ditto           48s.
  T      "        "              very good ditto        42s.
  W      "     Unnamed        our very choice, selected,
                                        distinct        30s.
  X      "        "        choice, selected in 6 colors 24s.
  Z      "        "           mixed ditto               18s.

BEGONIA SEED.

Gold Medal strain from Prize Plants. New Crop. Sealed packets. Choice
mixed, from single varieties. 1s. and 2s. 6d. per packet; 5s. and
10s. extra large packets; double varieties, 1s., 2s. 6d. and 5s. per
packet; large packets, 10s. Collections--12 named varieties, single,
separate, 5s. 6d.; 6 named varieties, separate, 3s.

CALADIUM ROOTS.

The Finest Collection in the world. Best named varieties, per doz.,
30s., 36s., 42s., 48s. and 60s.

GLOXINIA ROOTS.

In dormant state till March. Our unequalled collection. Self colors,
and spotted. Best sorts to name, 12s., 18s., 24s., 30s., 36s. and 42s.
per doz. Unnamed, very choice, 6s., 9s. and 12s. per doz.

GLOXINIA SEED.

Saved from our Prize Plants; erect flowering, drooping, mixed and
spotted, separate, per packet, 1s., 2s. 6d. and 5s.

OTHER FLOWER SEEDS.

The choicest strains of Primula, Cineraria, Calceolaria, Cyclamen,
Hollyhock, Dahlia, Pansies, Asters, Stocks, and every other sort.

All kinds of Plants, Roses, Fruit Trees, etc., that can be imported
from England, safely transmitted in Wardian cases.

--> Remittances or London References must always accompany orders.
Flower Seeds by post. Orders should reach us soon as possible.

--> CATALOGUES GRATIS AND POST FREE. <--


SCRIBNER'S MAGAZINE
FOR
MARCH CONTAINS

BLÜCHER UNHORSED AT LIGNY. Drawn by R. F. Zogbaum. Engraved by
Peckwell.

THE CAMPAIGN OF WATERLOO. By JOHN C. ROPES. With illustrations by
R. F. Zogbaum, and drawings made by W. T. Smedley, especially
commissioned by this Magazine to visit the field. A strikingly
original history of this greatest of military events. A concluding
article, beautifully illustrated, will appear in April.

BEGGARS. The third of the series of charming essays by ROBERT LOUIS
STEVENSON. The New York _Tribune_ says in referring to this series:

"The matter is of itself enough to interest every person in the least
interested in literature, and the manner of it is such as to make us
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A SHELF OF OLD BOOKS.--LEIGH HUNT. By MRS. JAMES T. FIELDS.
Illustrated with drawings, portraits and fac-similes. A charming
account of some of the literary treasures owned by the late James T.
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THE ELECTRIC MOTOR AND ITS APPLICATIONS. By FRANKLIN LEONARD POPE.
With 14 illustrations. Mr. Pope describes the great advances recently
made by which electricity takes the place of steam, or supplements it
in so many directions.

THE NIXIE. A Fantastic Story. By MRS. ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON.

MENDELSSOHN'S LETTERS TO MOSCHELES. From the MSS. in the possession
of Felix Moscheles. By WILLIAM F. APTHORP. II. (_Conclusion_.) With
portraits, reproductions of drawings, musical scores, etc.

"The letters are full of interest, especially in their frank
observations on musical affairs of Mendelssohn's day."--_Boston
Saturday Evening Gazette._

THE DAY OF THE CYCLONE. A stirring Western story, founded on the
Grinnell (Ia.) tornado. By OCTAVE THANET.

FIRST HARVESTS.--Chapters VII-X. By F. J. STIMSON. (To be continued.)

NATURAL SELECTION--A Novelette in Three Parts. By H. C. BUNNER.
(_Conclusion_.) With Illustrations.

POEMS. By THOMAS NELSON PAGE, C. P. CRANCH, BESSIE CHANDLER, and
CHARLES EDWIN MARKHAM.

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"'The Duchess Emilia' and 'She' are not more strange than this story."


UNDER THE SOUTHERN CROSS.

By M. M. BALLOU, author of "Due North," "Edge-Tools of Speech," etc.
$1.50.

A journey, in 1887, to Australia, Tasmania, Samoa, New Zealand and
other South-Sea Islands.


_For sale by all booksellers, or will be sent, post free, on receipt
of price by_

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The Sun
  FOR
  1888.

The year 1888 promises to be a year of splendid political development,
one and all redounding to the glory and triumph of a

UNITED DEMOCRACY.

In the Front Line will be found

THE SUN,

Fresh from its magnificent victory over the combined foes of Democracy
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THE SUN has six, eight, twelve, and sixteen pages, as occasion
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  Daily,                      $6 00
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  Sunday, 16 and 20 pages,     1 50
  Weekly,                      1 00

Address THE SUN, New York.


THE UNITED STATES MUTUAL ACCIDENT ASSOCIATION

is offering the very best accident insurance at cost. $5,000 for death
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Membership Fee, $5.

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Charles B. Peet, President.

James R. Pitcher, Secretary and Gen'l Manager.


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Azaleas,
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And all other hardy Ornamental Trees, Street Trees, Evergreens,
Shrubs, Roses and Vines of selected quality, in quantity, at lowest
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FRED. W. KELSEY,

208 Broadway, NEW YORK.


[Illustration: Advertisement - YOUNG AND ELLIOTT'S COLLECTION OF CHOICE
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SOME WORKS ON NATURAL SCIENCE

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PACKARD'S (A. S.) WORKS.

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Gray's Botanical
Text Books.

At once the most complete
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COMPRISING:

  Gray's How Plants Grow,
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  Gray's Manual of Botany,
  Gray's Lessons and Manual,
  Gray's Structural Botany,
  Goodale's Physiological Botany,
  Gray's Structural and Systematic Botany,
  Coulter's Manual of the Rocky Mountains,
  The same, Tourist's Edition,
  Gray and Coulter's Manual of Western Botany,
  Gray's Synoptical Flora--The Gamopetalæ,
  Chapman's Flora of Southern U.S.


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Books for Introduction or examination
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A Few Flowers Worthy of General Culture.

In presenting to our large and growing company of patrons this, the
fifth edition of our book, our dominant feeling is one of extreme
pleasure at the generous welcome given our preceding efforts. And we
offer this edition in the belief and hope that it may suggest ideas
that may be of use, and that may be practically carried out in the
making of gardens that must be a source of delight.

The wide-spread desire for better and more artistic gardening is
evidenced by the articles recently published on the subject by the
foremost and ablest magazines. An excellent article on "Old Garden
Plants," in Harper's Monthly for December, 1887, encourages us
greatly in our efforts to popularize the Hardy Flowers so loved by
our grandmothers, together with many fine plants of more recent
introduction.

As we were the first in this country to gather a fine collection of
Hardy Plants from all quarters of the earth, and to offer them when
there was but small demand for such, we are pleased indeed that so
much attention is now being given to them, feeling that our efforts in
behalf of the almost FORGOTTEN HARDY PLANTS, will tend to the creation
of gardens more permanent and beautiful, and at much smaller outlay
than any that can be made with tender plants.

The fifth edition of our book is now ready. It is the largest and
best work on hardy plants published in this country, and contains many
finely illustrated articles, among which are, "A Talk about Roses;"
"Hardy Plants and Modes of Arranging Them;" "The Making of the Hardy
Border;" "Some Beauties in their Native Wilds;" "Rhododendrons,
Kalmias and Hardy Azaleas;" "Hardy Aquatic Plants;" "Tropical Garden
Effects with Hardy Plants;" "A Garden Party;" etc., etc.

The book is finely printed on the best of paper, is of real merit and
rare beauty, and will be sent post-paid, bound in durable flexible
covers for 50 cents, or in leather for 75 cents, but the price paid
will be allowed on the first order for plants, making the book really
free to our customers.

Our descriptive catalogue, containing a complete descriptive list of
the best and largest collection of Hardy Plants in America, sent on
receipt of 10 cents in stamps.

Our special list of valuable, low-priced, well-grown plants mailed
upon application.

B. A. ELLIOTT CO., No. 56 Sixth Street, Pittsburgh, Pa.


New Seeds, Bulbs, Plants, Fruits,--Rare Tropical Fruits.

GRAND PALMS FROM SEED.

We are now able to offer for the first time, both seed and plants of
that King of Ornamental plants, the new FILIFERA PALM. Stately and
beautiful beyond description, it is the finest addition that can be
made to any collection of plants, and can be grown in any window or
garden as easy as a geranium. It is of a compact growth with elegant
large leaves, from which hang long thread-like filaments, giving the
plant a most odd and beautiful appearance. In fact there is nothing
like it in cultivation and good specimens sell for enormous prices.
Plants are easily raised as the seed are large, germinate quick and
grow rapidly. Per packet 25cts. 5 for $1.00. Year old plants 40cts.
each, 3 for $1.00, 7 for $2.00 by mail post paid. Will also mail 3
STORM KING FUCHSIAS for 50cts., 12 EXCELSIOR PEARL TUBEROSES for
85cts., 12 CHOICE MIXED GLADIOLAS for 30cts. Our GIANT EXCELSIOR
PANSIES, best in the world, 20cts. per packet. NEW PRIMROSE VERBENA,
yellow, a sterling novelty. 25cts. per packet. True PYGMAS ASTER,
50cts. per packet.

Our Seed Catalogue for 1888

Is the most elegant ever issued. Illustrated with 10 colored plates,
stipple-litho. covers and hundreds of fine engravings. In it is
offered a great variety of FLOWER AND VEGETABLE SEEDS, BULBS AND
PLANTS OF ALL SORTS, NEW FRUITS AND RARE TROPICAL FRUITS suitable
for pot culture, such as dwarf Oranges, Pine Apples, Bananas, Figs,
Guavas, Sugar Apple, &c. THIS ELEGANT AND EXPENSIVE CATALOGUE will be
sent for only 10cts., which is only a part of its cost to us. Or if
you order a packet of Palm seed or anything here offered and ask for
Catalogue, it will be sent FREE. SPECIAL OFFER. For 50 cts. we will
send Palm, Pansy, and Primrose Verbena Seed and Catalogue. Write at
once as this offer may not appear again. To every order we will add an
elegant Seed or Bulb novelty free. Address,

JOHN LEWIS CHILDS, FLORAL PARK, Queens Co., N. Y.

[Illustration: FILIFERA PALM.]


CHRYSANTHEMUMS A SPECIALTY.

Our catalogue for Spring of 1888, contains a select list of New and
Old Chrysanthemums, including:

"MRS. ALPHEUS HARDY,"

the beautiful variety figured in this paper.

Also a collection of Fine Flowering Cannas.

EDWIN FEWKES & SON,

NEWTON HIGHLANDS, MASS.


A REAL BONANZA IN SEEDS.--Being one of the largest growers of Flower
Seeds in America, I want to induce extensive trial, and for 65cts.
will send, postpaid, 32 papers Choice New Seeds, growth of '81, 75
to 500 seeds & mixed colors in each. _New Large & Fancy Pansies,
the finest ever offered_, (awarded _Special Prize by Mass. Hort'l
Society_) 60 distinct sorts and an endless variety of rich colors,
all mixed; _Double Asters; Japan Pinks_, 50 vars. mixed; _Large A.
D. Phlox; Double Portulaca; New Godelias; New White Mignonette;
New Nivaliana; Everlastings; New Giant Candytuft; V. Stocks; New
Marigolds; Mottled, Striped and Fringed Petunias; Verbenas, 300 vars.
mixed; New Golden Chrysanthemums; Double Larkspurs; Velvet fl.; New
Yellow Mignonette; Double Gaillardia; New Double Dwarf Zinnias;
Double Salens; New Double White Aster_, the finest white ever offered;
_Butterfly fl.; Double Daisies_ & 8 other choice kinds, amounting to
$3.75 at regular rates, but to introduce will send the whole 32 papers
for only 65 cts. This is an honest, square offer, but if you doubt it,
send 15 cts. or 5 letter stamps, and I will send you 7 sample papers,
my choice, but including _Pansies, Asters and Improved Prime Sweet
Williams_, 50 vars. mixed. Am sure a trial will prove all claims. New
Catalogue _free_. L. W. GOODELL, Pansy Park, Dwight P. O. Mass.


The Popular Science Monthly,

Edited by W. J. YOUMANS,

Is filled with scientific articles by well-known writers on subjects
of popular and practical interest. Its range of topics, which is
widening with the advance of science, comprises:

  Domestic and Social Economy.
    Political Science, or the Functions of Government.
      Psychology and Education.
        Relations of Science and Religion.
          Conditions of Health and Prevention of Disease.
            Art and Architecture in Practical Life.
              Race Development.
                Agriculture and Food-Products.
                  Natural History; Exploration; Discovery, etc.

It contains Illustrated Articles, Portraits, Biographical Sketches;
records the advance made in every branch of science; is not technical;
and is intended for non-scientific as well as scientific readers.

No magazine in the world contains papers of a more instructive and at
the same time of a more interesting character.

Single number, 50 cents. Yearly subscription, $5.00.

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, New York.


POINTS TO ADVERTISERS.

Nothing is sold without pushing, unless it has a monopoly.
No two articles can be pushed in exactly the same way.
In advertising you want to reach possible _customers_, not merely
people.
The best mediums for one line of goods may be the worst for another.
Advertising should not be visionary, it should not be attended to as a
mere pastime.
Success means thought, the day of chance successes is nearly over.
It costs no more to publish good matter than it does poor.
The preparation of an advertisement is as important as the publishing.
An advertiser needs an agent, as a client does a lawyer.
The agent, however, asks no retainer and saves his customer money.
A merchant cannot study advertising all the time--a good agent studies
nothing else.
The customer's interests are the agent's. If the agent is to succeed,
the business done must be successful.
The undersigned want business, but not badly enough to handle what is
"questionable."
They are honest and capable, their customers say, and they give close
personal attention to their business.

HERBERT BOOTH KING & BROTHER,
ADVERTISING AGENTS,
202 Broadway, N. Y.
(Copyright, 1887.)
Send for Circulars.


A VALUABLE WORK UPON AMERICAN TREES,
Which should be in every Library in the United States.
Fourth Edition, Just Ready. Price Reduced.

EMERSON'S TREES AND SHRUBS.

THE TREES AND SHRUBS GROWING NATURALLY in the Forests of
Massachusetts. By George B. Emerson. Fourth Edition. Superbly
illustrated with nearly 150 plates (46 beautiful heliotypes and 100
lithographs), 2 vols. 8vo. Cloth. Price, $10.00 net; formerly $12.00
net.

THE SAME, with 36 of the plates beautifully colored. Price, $16.00
net; formerly $20.00 net.

Though this work nominally treats of the trees and shrubs of
Massachusetts, it is equally applicable to the flora of many other
States; indeed all New England and a greater part of the Middle
States. In it is described every important tree or shrub that grows
naturally in Massachusetts, and in other States of the same latitude,
the descriptions being the result of careful personal observation.
It is, indeed, a comprehensive and convenient manual for almost every
section of the Union.

The illustrations of these volumes constitute one of their most
important and attractive features. A large number of the plates are by
the eminent authority on this subject, ISAAC SPRAGUE.

Volume I. treats of the Pines, Oaks, Beeches, Chestnuts, Hazels,
Hornbeams, Walnuts, Hickories, Birches, Alders, Plane Trees, Poplars,
and Willows.

Volume II. treats of the Elms, Ashes, Locusts, Maples, Lindens,
Magnolias, Liriodendrons, and the shrubs.

LITTLE, BROWN, AND COMPANY, Publishers,
234 Washington Street, Boston.


HOUGHTON MIFFLIN & CO'S
Beautiful New Books.

BIOGRAPHY.

Memoir of Ralph Waldo Emerson. By JAMES ELLIOT CABOT. With a fine new
steel Portrait. 2 vols. 12mo, gilt top, $3.50.

Henry Clay. Vols. XV. and XVI. in series of American Statesmen. By
CARL SCHURZ. 2 vols. 16mo, gilt top, $2.50; half morocco, $5.00.

Patrick Henry. Vol. XVII. of American Statesmen. By MOSES COIT TYLER.
16mo, gilt top, $1.25.

Benjamin Franklin. Vol. X. of American Men of Letters. By JOHN BACH
MCMASTER, author of "A History of the People of the United States."
With a steel Portrait. 16mo, gilt top, $1.25.


NOVELS AND SHORT STORIES.

The Second Son. By Mrs. M. O. W. OLIPHANT and THOMAS BAILEY ALDRICH.
12mo, $1.50.

The Gates Between. By ELIZABETH STUART PHELPS, author of "The Gates
Ajar," "Beyond the Gates," etc. $1.25.

Paul Patoff. By F. MARION CRAWFORD, author of "A Roman Singer," etc.
Crown 8vo, $1.50.

Jack the Fisherman. A powerful and pathetic temperance story. By
ELIZABETH STUART PHELPS. 50 cents.

Knitters in the Sun. A book of excellent Short Stories. By OCTAVE
THANET. 16mo, $1.25.

A Princess of Java. A novel of life, character and customs in Java. By
Mrs. S. J. HIGGINSON, 12mo, $1.50.

The Story of Keedon Bluffs. By CHARLES EGBERT CRADDOCK. A story for
Young Folks, and Older Ones. $1.00.

A New Book by Bret Harte. "A Phyllis of the Sierras," and "A Drift
from Redwood Camp," $1.00.

*.* _For sale by all Booksellers. Sent by mail, post-paid, on receipt
of price by the Publishers_,

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN & CO., BOSTON. 11 EAST 17TH STREET, NEW YORK.


Shady Hill Nurseries, Cambridge, Mass.

THE SOURCE OF NOVELTIES IN ORNAMENTALS!

The New TREE LILAC (SYRINGA JAPONICA) was first grown commercially,
and first sold from SHADY HILL NURSERIES.

The Beautiful WEEPING LILAC (SYRINGA LIGUSTRINA PEKINENSIS PENDULA),
called by Mr. Samuel B. Parsons, at the American Pomological
Convention, at Boston (where it was first exhibited and received a
first-class Certificate of Merit from the Mass. Hort. Society), "the
most beautiful of all our small Weeping Trees." This also will be sent
out in the autumn of this year.

Here also is grown, in large numbers, the lovely little flowering
tree, called the "TEA ROSE CRAB," the most exquisite of all our
flowering trees. Ten thousand of this tree have been ordered by
Messrs. V. H. Hallock & Son.

Here originated the HARDY PERENNIAL GAILLARDIA (G. Aristata Templeana
of Peter Henderson's new catalogue), the most showy and only hardy
Gaillardia of this latitude.

A full descriptive catalogue, of all the things grown at Shady Hill,
will be issued in February, fully illustrated with engravings and
containing four full page lithographs, in eight colors, of the four
new trees, viz.: "Tea Rose Crab," Tree Lilac, Weeping Lilac, and the
Fastigiate Maiden Hair Tree. This will be sent free to all who will
send address.

F. L. TEMPLE, Cambridge, Mass.


JOHN SAUL'S WASHINGTON NURSERIES.

Our Catalogue of new, rare and beautiful Plants for 1888 will be
ready in February. It contains list of all the most beautiful and
rare Green-house and Hot-house Plants in cultivation, as well as all
novelties of merit. Well grown and at very low prices. Every Plant
lover should have a copy.

ORCHIDS.--A very large stock of choice East Indian, American, etc.
Also, Catalogues of Roses, Orchids, Seeds, Trees, etc. All free.

JOHN SAUL, Washington, D. C.


WESTERN N. C. ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS AND TREES.

Descriptive Price List sent on application. Detailed description of
the _new_ Rhododendron Vaseyi, with each List. Azalea arborescens is
one of our specialties. Correspondence solicited.

KELSEY BROS., Highlands Nursery, Highlands, N. C.


GARDENERS.--Thorough, practical man, wants situation to take charge
of a good private place or institution; 19 years' experience in
Europe and U. S.; English, age 35, married, one of family; first-class
reference. Address J. S., care H. A. Dreer, 714 Chestnut St.
Philadelphia, Pa.


GOLD STRAWBERRY, a New Berry of very fine quality, now offered for
the first time. Also, JEWELL, JESSIE, BELMONT, and other varieties.
Address. P. M. AUGUR & SONS, Originators, MIDDLEFIELD, CONN.


NEW PLANTS. Our illustrated Floral Catalogue of new, rare and
beautiful Plants, Orchids, Palms, Roses, Bulbs, Vines, Trees, Shrubs
and Seeds, also, all the Novelties of the season, NOW READY. Every
lover of plants should have a copy. _Prices low._ Send for it; FREE
_to all_. PAUL BUTZ & SON. New Castle, Pa.


[Illustration: VAUGHAN'S CHICAGO PARKS FLOWERS]

You are about to write for a catalogue. No doubt you want the best--the
truest descriptions, the clearest notes on plant culture, plainest type
and most beautiful illustrations. We have put forth every effort to make
ours such. Those who have seen it, say it is. It tells many reasons why
you can buy SEEDS and Plants--so many of which are grown on the Western
prairies--BETTER AND CHEAPER AT CHICAGO than you can elsewhere. Then why
not do so? Our Chicago Parks FLOWERS AND PLANTS; our MARKET VEGETABLES
and our GARDENING IMPLEMENTS make up a book that TELLS THE WHOLE STORY,
and is a work of art which will please you. Send 15 cents and receive
the catalogue and a paper of the above seeds free.

J. C. VAUGHAN,
88 STATE STREET, CHICAGO.


[Illustration: Japan Snowball]
MEEHAN'S NURSERIES

  Though with the usual assortment of Fruits and Flowers
      found in all leading Nurseries, we pay especial
       attention to Ornamental Trees. We have nearly
          fifty acres of these alone, and well on
                 to a thousand varieties.
           JAPAN MAPLES . and . JAPAN SNOWBALL
                    --A SPECIALTY--
  SEND SIX CENTS IN STAMPS FOR DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE.

                  THOMAS MEEHAN & SON,
              Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa.

ORCHIDS
Palms and Fine Tropical
Plants.

We have the most complete collection of
fine plants in the country.

Descriptions of specimens and a general
catalogue of stock can be had on application
either at
409 5th Avenue, New York City,
OR AT THE
ROSE HILL NURSERIES, NEW ROCHELLE, N. Y.
SIEBRECHT & WADLEY.


[Illustration: CHRYSANTHEMUMS]

[Illustration: LAWSON 1838 POMONA NURSERIES 1888]

[Illustration: FARQUHARS' BOSTON SEEDS]

[Illustration: THE NEW MODEL--OUR--LATEST AND BEST MOWER.]


TRIED BY TIME

PRACTICAL people are well pleased with the recent development in
horticultural journalism by which the young AMERICAN GARDEN absorbed
the old _Gardener's Monthly_, which included the _Horticulturist_,
started by Andrew Jackson Downing, over forty-two years ago.

I told our local society just what I really think the other day, that
you come the nearest my ideal of a Horticultural Monthly for popular
circulation of any of the makers of such literature.--CHAS. W.
GARFIELD, _Sec'y Michigan Horticultural Society_.

The magazine in now clearly the best horticultural publication in
America, and soon I trust I can say the best extant.--DR. E. LEWIS
STURTEVANT.

As much as I regret the melting away of that old landmark, the
_Gardener's Monthly_, of which I was a reader since 1867, as glad
I feel that the transfer has been made into good hands.--R. MAITRE.
_Florist, New Orleans._

I have been a subscriber to the _Gardener's Monthly_ from its first
number. I feel sorry that the journal is going away from Philadelphia,
but am glad it has gone into such good hands.--CHAS. H. MILLER.
_Landscape Gardener, Fairmount Park._

Indispensable to the fruit growers, horticulturists, gardeners and
florists (both practical and amateur) of this country.--CYRUS T. FOX,
_State Pomologist of Pennsylvania._

It is a lamentable failing of horticultural educators in making the
work intricate and apparently hard of execution. Your new cover is
in perfect accord with the contents, viz.: It expresses and teaches
horticulture pure and simple.--GEO. R. KNAPP, _Rahway, N. J._

Adapted to the wants of Amateurs, Country Dwellers, Practical
Gardeners and Fruit Growers, THE AMERICAN GARDEN has stood the test of
Time, the great leveler, and receives the endorsements and support of
all these classes in every section and many lands.

The equal in cost and value of many $2, and $4 publications, this
handsome and practical illustrated magazine of horticulture costs only
$1.00 a year. In Club with Garden and Forest for $4.50. Address:

E. H. LIBBY, Publisher, 751 Broadway, N. Y.


The American Florist,

A SEMI-MONTHLY JOURNAL

For florists, and all who grow plants or flowers under glass. It
prints nothing but hard common-sense matter, the experience of
practical men who have been there themselves and know what they are
talking about.

_Liberally Illustrated. Price, $1.00 a Year of 24 Numbers._

SAMPLE COPY 6 CENTS IN STAMPS.

American Florist Co., 54 La Salle St., Chicago.


[Illustration: FOREST TREES]

[Illustration: TREES ROCHESTER - COMMERCIAL NURSERIES.]


[Illustration: New and Rare Trees and Shrubs]

  RED FLOWERING DOGWOOD,                  EXOCHORDA GRANDIFLORA,
     WEEPING DOGWOOD,                       EUONYMUS LATIFOLIUS,
      WEEPING BEECH,                         BERBERIS THUNBERGII,
      PURPLE BEECH,         MAGNOLIAS,         GOLDEN SYRINGO,
  CHINESE CYPRESS,         NEW CONIFERS,         JAPAN QUINCE,
    YELLOW WOOD,                                    HYDRANGEAS,
  JAPAN GINGKO           JAPANESE MAPLES,             SPIREAS,
      GOLDEN    --  GOLDEN
     OAK.                                                ALDER.
           --------------------------------------------
              --> New and Rare Trees and Shrubs, <--
           --------------------------------------------
   FRUIT                   RHODODENDRONS               YEWS,
     TREES,                                          JUNIPERS,
  SMALL FRUITS,           CHINESE AZALEAS           HEMLOCKS,
    TREE PÆONIES,                                ARBOR VITÆ,
  ROSES IN VARIETY,        HARDY AZALEAS        RETINOSPORAS,
     AMERICAN HOLLY,         CAMELLIAS       DWARF, BLUE, CONICAL,
    HERBACEOUS PÆONIES,                  WEEPING AND OTHER SPRUCES,
  SHADE TREES & HEDGE PLANTS.          ASSORTMENT OF PINES.
                 -------------------------------

Plans Made, Estimates Furnished, Grounds Laid Out, Catalogues on
Application.

PARSONS & SONS COMPANY, Limited,

Kissena Nurseries,

ESTABLISHED 1839. FLUSHING, N. Y.


Seeds, Seeds, Seeds.

To our friends who have not already received it, we are ready to mail
our

NEW CATALOGUE

OF

HIGH CLASS SEEDS

FOR 1888,

Containing all the Novelties of the Season, both in VEGETABLE, FLOWER
and TREE Seeds.

J. M. Thorburn & Co.,

15 JOHN STREET,

NEW YORK.


OUR MANUAL OF EVERYTHING FOR THE GARDEN is this season the grandest
ever issued, containing three colored plates and superb illustrations
of everything that is new, useful and rare in Seeds and Plants,
together with plain directions of "How to grow them," by PETER
HENDERSON. This Manual, which is a book of 140 pages, we mail to any
address on receipt of 25 cents (in stamps.) To all so remitting 25
cents for the Manual, we will, at the same time, send free by mail, in
addition, their choice of any one of the the following novelties, the
price of either of which is 25 cents: One packet of the new Green and
Gold Watermelon or one packet of new Succession Cabbage, or one
packet of new Zebra Zinnia, or one packet of Butterfly Pansy (see
illustration), or one packet of new Mammoth Verbena, or one plant of
the beautiful Moonflower, on the distinct understanding, however, that
those ordering will state in what paper they saw this advertisement.

PETER HENDERSON & CO
35 & 37 Cortlandt St.,
New York.


[Illustration: W. W. RAWSON & CO.]


BOTANY CLASSES furnished with fresh plants and flowers from the
Southern Mountains, including all the AZALEAS and RHODODENDRONS found
east of the Rockies, I can furnish Rhododendron Vastyi and Shortii
galacifolia, and other rare plants. Order Shortii early, as it blooms
in March and April. T. G. HARBISON, Principal of Highlands Academy,
Highlands, N. C.

       *       *       *       *       *



Transcriber's Note:

Missing and/or damaged punctuation has been repaired.


Errata:

p. 3: (Floriculture) 'county' probably error for 'country'.
    "... scores of young men in all parts of the country have..."

p. 4: (Lawn) 'whch' corrected to 'which'
    "... finely pulverized compost which may be brushed in."

p. vi: (WESTERN N. C. ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS AND TREES).
    'Rhodendron' corrected to 'Rhododendron'
    "Descriptive Price List sent on application. Detailed
    description of the _new_ Rhododendron Vaseyi, with each List."





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