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Title: Harper's Young People, April 6, 1880 - An Illustrated Weekly
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Harper's Young People, April 6, 1880 - An Illustrated Weekly" ***

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[Illustration: HARPER'S

YOUNG PEOPLE

AN ILLUSTRATED WEEKLY.]


       *       *       *       *       *

VOL. I.--NO. 23. PUBLISHED BY HARPER & BROTHERS, NEW YORK. PRICE FOUR
CENTS.

Tuesday, April 6, 1880. Copyright, 1880, by HARPER & BROTHERS. $1.50 per
Year, in Advance.

       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: JIM AND CHARLEY IN THE WOODS.]

A RABBIT DAY.

BY W. O. STODDARD.


"Jim," said Charley, "has that dog of yours gone crazy?"

"Old Nap? No. Why? What's the matter with him?"

"Just look at the way he's diving in and out among the trees. He'll run
full split right against one first thing he knows."

"No, he won't. He's after rabbits. We're 'most to the swamp now, and Nap
knows what we've come for as well as we do."

There was no mistake but what he was a wonderfully busy dog just then.
It looked as if he was trying to be all around, everywhere, at the same
time; and every few moments he would give expression to his excitement
in a short sharp yelp.

"He means to tell us he'll stir one out in a minute," said Jim. "It's a
prime rabbit day."

"Are there more rabbits some days than there are others?"

"Easier to get 'em. You see, there came a thaw, and the old snow got
settled down, and a good hard crust froze on top of it; then there was a
little snow last night, and the rabbits'll leave their tracks in that
when they come out for a run on the crust. Old Nap knows. See him; he'll
have one out in a minute."

"Is this the swamp?" asked Charley.

"All that level ahead of us. In spring, and in summer too, unless it's a
dry season, there's water everywhere among the trees and bushes; but
it's frozen hard now."

"What is there beyond?"

"Nothing but mountains, 'way back into the Adirondacks. We'd better load
up, Charley."

"Why, are not the guns loaded?"

"No. Father never lets a loaded gun come into the house. Aunt Sally
won't either. Shall I load your gun for you?"

"Load my gun! Well, I guess not. As if I couldn't load my own gun!"

Charley set himself to work at once, for the movements of old Nap were
getting more and more eager and rapid, and there was no telling what
might happen.

But Charley had never loaded a gun before in all his life. Still, it was
a very simple piece of business, and he knew all about it. He had read
of it and heard it talked of ever so many times, and there was Jim
loading his own gun within ten feet, just as if he meant to show how it
should be done. He could imitate Jim, at all events; and so he thought
he did, to the smallest item; and he hurried to get through as quickly,
for it would not do to be beaten by a country boy. And then, too, there
was old Napoleon Bonaparte--that is to say Nap--beginning to yelp like
mad.

They were just on the edge of the swamp, and it was, as Jim said, "a
great place for rabbits."

"He's after one! There he comes!"

"Where? Where? I see him! Oh, what a big one!"

Bang!

Charley had been gazing, open-mouthed, at the rapid leaps of that
frightened white rabbit, and wondering if he would ever sit down long
enough to be shot at, with that dog less than half a dozen rods behind
him.

He was in a tremendous hurry, that rabbit, and he would hardly have
"taken a seat" if one had been offered him; but he was down now, for Jim
had not only fired at him--he had hit him.

"One for me. I meant to let you have the first shot. Never mind; you
take the next one. Keep your eyes out. He may be along before I'm
loaded."

Old Nap's interest in a rabbit seemed to cease the moment it was killed,
for he was now ranging the bushes at quite a distance.

"Here comes one. Quick, Charley! He's stopped to listen for the dog."

So he had, like a very unwise rabbit, and was perking up his long ears
within quite easy range of Charley's gun as he levelled it.

"Cock it! cock it!" shouted Jim. "Cock your gun!"

"Oh, I forgot that."

But he knew how; and when he once more lifted his gun, and pulled the
triggers, one after the other, they came down handsomely.

"Only snapped your caps?" said Jim. "I never knew that gun to miss fire
before. He's gone."

The rabbit had taken a hint from the bursting of the caps, and was now
running a race with Napoleon Bonaparte across the swamp.

Charley looked at his weapon very gravely, and put on another pair of
caps, remarking, "I never had a gun miss fire like that with me before."

Jim's own gun was ready again in short order, but there was a queer
questioning look stealing into his face, and he said,

"Take mine, Charley; I'll look into that business."

Charley traded guns, and stood anxiously watching for another rabbit,
while Jim "looked into" both barrels of the offending piece, and tried
them with the ramrod.

"Got enough in 'em; no mistake about that. Guess I'd better draw the
charges."

There was a corkscrew on the end of the ramrod for that sort of thing,
and in a moment more Jim had a wad out of each barrel.

"Hullo! Powder? I declare! Why, Charley, you've put your ammunition in
wrong end first. You might have cracked caps on that thing all day. Your
shot's all at the bottom."

"Is that so? Well, you see, I never used that kind of a gun before,
and--"

"Here comes Nap! Big rabbit. There's a chance for you. Take him on the
run."

He tried. That is, he raised Jim's gun, and blazed away with one barrel,
but all the harm he did that rabbit was to knock down a whole bunch of
bright red mountain-ash berries from a branch twenty feet above him.

"Quick, Charley! Your other barrel. He's turning on Nap, around those
sumac bushes."

Charley had held his gun a little loosely, and it had given him a smart
kick in consequence; but he saw what Jim meant, and his reputation as a
sportsman was at stake. He knew, too, that Jim was trying his best not
to laugh, and he was determined to get that rabbit.

"Bow-ow-ow-wow!"

Rabbit and dog seemed somehow to come within range of that gun at the
same instant, just as it went off. It was a grand good thing for old Nap
that his master's city cousin aimed so high, and that the gun kicked
again. As it was, the astonished dog was now making the snow fly in a
whirl, as he dashed around in it after the tip of his tail, where one of
the little leaden pellets had struck him.

That was only for a moment, however, and then he came gravely marching
across the crust, and looked up in the faces of the boys, one after the
other, as much as if he was asking, "Which of you was green enough to
take me for a rabbit?"

He had not been very badly hurt, except, perhaps, in his sense of
justice; but now Charley suddenly gave a shout, and sprang forward.

"I hit him! I hit him!"

"Fact," said Jim; "so you did. Come here, Nap. Poor fellow! How's your
old tail now?"

Charley was back in a twinkling with his own rabbit and the one Jim had
killed, but there was a wide difference between them. There was shot
enough in the latter to have killed half a dozen, while all the mark
they could find on Charley's game was one little spot at the roots of
his ears.

"So much for making the shot scatter. If I hadn't put in a double load
of shot, you'd have lost 'em both."

"There wasn't but one," said Charley.

"I mean that rabbit and old Napoleon Bonaparte. Come on now. Your gun's
all right. Let's try the other side of the swamp."

He pointed out a rabbit, sitting among some bushes, on the way, and
Charley's gun went off finely, now that the powder had been put in
first.

"Don't you ever shoot them when they're sitting still, Jim?"

"No; and you won't when you're used to it. There's one coming for me.
I'll take him as he goes by."

Nap was entirely safe this time. Indeed, he seemed inclined all the rest
of that morning to do his rabbit-hunting at a somewhat unsociable
distance from his friends.

There were plenty of rabbits in the swamp, and the boys were more than a
little proud of their success, especially Charley; but when the time
came for going home, it was curious how ready they both were to go. So
was Napoleon Bonaparte. Truth to tell, it had been hard work, and the
boys declared the rabbit a remarkably heavy beast, for his size, by the
time they reached home with their game.



THE AWAKENING.

BY M. M.


  Down all the rugged mountain-slopes,
    Through all the mossy dells,
  There comes a gentle purling sound,
    Like peals of fairy bells.

  A tinkling, rippling, gurgling song
    Is borne on every breeze;
  Mysterious whispers seem to stir
    The grim old forest trees.

  The tiny grasses wave their hands
    And gayly nod their heads
  To lazy buds, still half asleep
    In cozy winter beds.

  And now the riotous sunbeams come;
    They draw the curtains wide;
  Nor leave untouched the smallest nook
    Where sleepy buds may hide.

  "Awake! awake!" the whole Earth cries:
    "King Winter's reign is past;
  His crown he yields to his fairest child,
    And Spring is Queen at last."



SALT AND ITS VALUE.


All our young readers know the value of that familiar and useful
substance, salt, which enters so largely into our daily wants, and is so
essential to our existence. Formerly prisoners in Holland were kept from
the use of salt; but this deprivation produced such terrible diseases
that this practice was abolished. The Mexicans, in old times, in cases
of rebellion, deprived entire provinces of this indispensable commodity,
and thus left innocent and guilty alike to rot to death.

This mineral is frequently mentioned in the Bible. The sacrifices of the
Jews were all seasoned with salt, and we read of a _covenant_ of salt.
Salt was procured by the Hebrews from the hills of salt which lie about
the southern extremity of the Dead Sea, and from the waters of that sea,
which overflow the banks yearly, and leave a deposit of salt both
abundant and good.

Among ancient nations salt was a symbol of friendship and fidelity, as
it is at present among the Arabs and other Oriental people. In some
Eastern countries, if a guest has tasted salt with his host, he is safe
from all enemies, even although the person receiving the salt may have
committed an injury against his entertainer himself.

Among the common people all over Scotland, a new house, or one which a
new tenant was about to enter, was always sprinkled with salt by way of
inducing "good luck." Another custom of a curious nature once prevailed
in England and other countries in reference to salt. Men of rank
formerly dined at the same table with their dependents and servants. The
master of the house and his relations sat at the upper end, where the
floor was a little raised. The persons of greatest consequence sat next,
and all along down the sides, toward the bottom of the table, the
servants were placed according to their situations. At a certain part of
the table was placed a large salt vat, which divided the superior from
the inferior classes. Sitting _above_ the salt was the mark of a
gentleman or man of good connections, while to sit _beneath_ it showed a
humble station in society.

Salt is found in greater or less quantities in almost every substance on
earth, but the waters of the sea appear to have been its first great
magazine. It is found there dissolved in certain proportions, and two
purposes are thus served, namely, the preservation of that vast body of
waters, which otherwise, from the innumerable objects of animal and
vegetable life within it, would become an insupportable mass of
corruption, and the supplying of a large proportion of the salt we
require in our food, and for other purposes. The quantity of salt
contained in the sea (according to the best authorities) amounts to
_four hundred thousand billion_ cubic feet, which, if piled up, would
form a mass one hundred and forty miles long, as many broad, and as many
high, or, otherwise disposed, would cover the whole of Europe, islands,
seas, and all, to the height of the summit of Mont Blanc, which is about
sixteen thousand feet in height.

If salt, however, were only to be obtained from the sea, the people who
live on immense continents would have great difficulty in supplying
themselves with it; and here you see how kindly Providence watches over
the comfort of human creatures, for nature has provided that the sea, on
leaving those continents, all of which were once overspread with it,
should deposit vast quantities of salt, sufficient to provide for the
necessities of the inhabitants of those parts. In some places the salt
is exposed on the surface of the ground in a glittering crust several
inches thick; in others, thicker layers have been covered over with
other substances, so that salt now requires to be dug for like coal or
any other mineral. Salt is found in this last shape in almost every part
of the world; though in the vast empire of China it is so scarce that it
is smuggled into that country in large quantities.



[Illustration]

A SUN-DIAL.


Our young friends would, we doubt not, like to know how to make a
sun-dial that will give the time very accurately. Common sun-dials
depend on the shadow of a post, which is thick and heavy, and affords
only a very rough idea of the time. But the one we are going to tell
them about will show the time as precisely as a clock. And it is quite
easy to make. It has, in the first place, a face set up slanting on a
pedestal. The proper slant answers to the latitude of the place. At and
near New York it should be about forty-one degrees from the
perpendicular, or a little more than half upright. The face is divided
into hour spaces, just like the face of a clock, but the whole circle is
not used. A semicircle is all that the sun can traverse, except in the
long days of summer. The fourth part of a circle is about all that can
be used in ordinary windows. It will answer for the hours between nine
o'clock and three. It is divided into six equal parts for the hour
spaces, and each of these is subdivided for the minutes. If the radius
of the circle be one foot, the minute spaces will be about one-sixteenth
of an inch, or about the same as on the face of a watch. The dividing is
easily done with a pair of compasses, a ruler, and a sharp lead-pencil.

Now we will explain the indicator. It is made of three pieces--a base
and two uprights. The base is fifteen inches long, three wide, and
three-quarters of an inch thick. The uprights are of the same thickness,
and about seven inches high. They are morticed into the base, and have
the shape shown in the picture. A hole half an inch in diameter is bored
through the upright at A, and another at B. Over each of these holes
pieces of tin are tacked, with a little hole in the centre about as
large as a pin's head. When the sun-dial is placed in position, the sun
shines through these holes, and makes a little bright circle on the
other upright. The upper hole, A, is for summer, when the sun is high,
and the lower one, B, for winter. The indicator is pivoted by a large
screw to the centre, C, of the face, so that it can be turned round like
the hand of a clock. At the upper end of the indicator a little pointer
is fastened directly over the scale of hours and minutes. A needle, or a
pin with the head cut off, makes a good pointer.

After the sun-dial is made, the next thing is to set it in its proper
position, which is so that when the pointer is at XII. it will also be
directed exactly south, while the lower end of the indicator is to the
north. Then, at noon by sun time, the sun will make its little bright
circle exactly in the middle of the lower upright. A line should be
drawn up and down to show the middle; then this line will cut the sun
circle equally in two. To find out the time before and after noon, the
indicator is moved so that the sun circle will fall on the same middle
line, and the pointer will show the time. This sun time differs somewhat
from clock time. The difference for every day in the year is given by
the almanacs, and very exactly by the Nautical Almanac. This difference
being added or subtracted, makes known the true clock time. Thus, for
the 1st of March, clock time is twelve minutes faster than sun time.
Hence noon by the sun-dial is just that much later than noon by the
clock. Any of our readers who have a little mechanical skill can make a
sun-dial, on the plan described, that, when put in proper position, will
be more reliable than the best of clocks, and that will be found a
convenient means of setting them right. But don't despise the clocks;
for very likely you will have to resort to one in order to get the
sun-dial in position; and then, too, remember that the sun does not
shine all the while, but is very fond of hiding behind clouds.



[Begun in No. 19 of HARPER'S YOUNG PEOPLE, March 9.]

ACROSS THE OCEAN; OR, A BOY'S FIRST VOYAGE.

A True Story.

BY J. O. DAVIDSON.


CHAPTER V.

FRANK AND THE CAPTAIN.


Austin was still the centre of an admiring group, when a deep voice made
itself heard from behind.

"Say, mates, ye'd better let the lad git on some dry duds, 'stead o'
fussin' over him that way; why, he's as wet as the lee scuppers."

Frank recognized old Herrick, the quartermaster, who had roused him from
his nap on the coil of rope the first night of the voyage.

"Come, youngster," pursued the old man, "hurry up and git a dry shirt
on. What d'ye look so queer for?--hain't ye got nary one?"

Frank explained that his bag and bundle had "disappeared somehow,"
before they had been two days at sea.

"Stolen, I reckon," growled a sailor; "but 'twarn't nobody on the
fo'c'stle as done it, anyhow. It's been some o' them blessed
firemen--thievin' wharf-rats every one!"

"Ay, _they're_ the boys for hookin' things," added another. "Last v'y'ge
I made, there was a fireman we called Sandy, as I'd seen hangin' around
my sea-chest jist afore I missed suthin'. So I fixed a fish-hook to the
lock, and nex' day Mr. Sandy had a precious sore finger somehow; and
from that day for'ard we never called him nothing but 'Sandy Hook'. [A
loud laugh from the rest applauded the joke.] But _I_'ll lend the
younker a shirt, willin'."

"And I."

"And I."

"Well, look'ee here, boys," said old Herrick, "let's give him poor
Allen's chest and kit. _He_'ll never need it more, poor fellow, and I've
heerd him say he'd nary relation ashore. Seems to me Frank's the one as
ought to have it: what say ye all?"

All agreed, and the drowned man's chest was pulled out and rummaged. Out
came caps, jackets, trousers, shirts, sea-boots. Out came three or four
letters and a photograph, which were laid aside to be handed over to the
purser; and lastly, out came a small, well-thumbed Bible of
old-fashioned look, which Herrick (after eying it thoughtfully for a
moment) put into his own pocket.

"Whew! who'd ha' thought Allen kep' a Bible?"

"I _have_ seen him spellin' in it, though, once and again; but he always
shet it up when anybody cum nigh him."

"Well, well, 'twarn't _it_ as brought him his ill luck, anyhow. Now,
young un, let's see how the duds fit you."

But, as might have been expected, everything was "miles too big," and
bagged about him in such a way as to make one of the men remark, with a
grin, that "if he carried so much loose canvas, he'd founder in the
first squall."

"We must take in a reef or two, then, that's all," said Herrick. "Bear a
hand, my boy, and we'll soon turn you out ship-shape."

[Illustration: FRANK AND OLD HERRICK.]

To work went the two amateur tailors, while Frank seized the chance of
taking a good look at his new friend. The old tar was certainly well
worth looking at. Tall, broad-shouldered, active, with his brown hard
face framed in iron-gray hair and beard--a pleasant twinkle in the keen
blue eyes that looked out from beneath his bushy brows, and a kindly
smile flickering over his rugged features ever and anon, like sunshine
upon a bare moor--he looked the very model of one of those sturdy old
sea-dogs who held their own against England's stoutest "hearts of oak"
in the old days of '76.

As he worked on, making stitches which, though they would have horrified
a fashionable tailor, were at least strong and durable, he began to pour
forth a series of yarns, a tithe of which would "set up" any novelist
for life. Fights with West-Indian pirates; hair-breadth escapes from
polar icebergs; picturesque cruises among the Spice Islands; weary days
and nights in a calm off the African coast, on short allowance of water,
with the burning sun melting the very pitch out of the seams--were
"reeled off" in unbroken succession, while Frank listened open-mouthed,
and more than once forgot his tailoring altogether.

But the stroke of a bell overhead broke in upon the talk.

"My watch on deck," said the old man, springing up as nimbly as a boy.
"Now, lad, slip on them togs agin. Ay, _now_ you look all a-taunto."

Frank was indeed improved. His shore clothes, which, with grease,
coal-dust, tar, salt-water, and the rents made by the fight with Monkey,
were (as the boatswain said) "not fit for a 'spectable scarecrow to wear
of a Sunday," were exchanged for a blue flannel shirt and a pair of trim
white canvas trousers. A neat black silk handkerchief was knotted around
his neck, and his battered "stiff-rim" replaced by a jaunty sailor cap.

"Hello, youngster! the cap'n wants yer," shouted a sailor, as Frank
appeared on deck.

"You're in luck, my boy," said Herrick. "Keep a stiff upper lip, but
don't speak unless you're spoken to, and then say as little as you can."

On entering the captain's room Frank found the latter busied in
"pricking out" the ship's course on the chart, and was thus able to
survey him at leisure. Captain Gray's plain black suit and standing
collar, his grayish-brown hair, close-cut whiskers, and mild expression,
made him look more like a preacher than like one who had led a forlorn
hope over the ruins of Fort Sumter, and had captured, single-handed, the
ringleader of a dangerous mutiny in the West Indies. This mutiny,
however, had occurred aboard another vessel, for nothing of the sort had
ever been heard of on his own. The crew "froze to him" in all he did or
said; and any "sea-lawyer" who tried to breed a disturbance soon found
the _Arizona_ too hot for him.

"Talk 'bout the officers as ye like," was the constant saying on the
forecastle, "but nary word agin the old 'deacon.'"

For, strange to say, Captain Gray _was_ a deacon when ashore, and not a
few of his best hands were members of the old white church at home in
Nantucket.

[Illustration: THE CAPTAIN'S ROOM.]

His room was like himself--simple, but perfectly orderly. A neat bed,
with snow-white coverlet and pillow; a little cupboard beside it,
containing a pitcher and wash-basin; a Bible in a neat wooden rack on a
small table; a rifle, cutlass, and two revolvers, all bright and clean,
hanging on the wall above it; a cabinet of books, mostly works of travel
and navigation; several chairs, on one of which lay the captain's coat
and cap; and a curtain along the wall, above which appeared various
articles of clothing hung on pegs.

Presently the captain looked up, and after "figuring" a moment on a slip
of paper, touched a bell. Instantly a panel flew open, and a hoarse
voice shouted, "Ay, ay, sir!"

"How's her head now, quartermaster?"

"S.E. by S., sir."

"All right; keep her so."

"Ay, ay, sir;" and the panel closed again.

Then, for the first time, the captain appeared to become aware of
Frank's presence, and bending forward, fixed upon him a look that seemed
to read his very soul. It was a proverb with the crew of the _Arizona_
that "no rogue could ever face the old man's eye;" and although he was
never known to utter an oath or unseemly word, his very glance had more
effect than any amount of bluster and bullying.

"So you're the boy who oiled the outboard bearing to-day? I hear you've
been fighting with Monkey. We won't say any more about that now, but
don't let it happen again. Can you read and write?"

"Yes, sir."

"Is this your handwriting on the ship's articles, and in the store-room
account-book?"

"Yes, sir."

"Have you studied arithmetic? Well, then, work me out this example."

Austin obeyed.

"Right," said the captain, glancing at the result. "After this, Mr.
Hurst [the chief engineer] will put you in the place of the oiler who
was lost this morning. The fifty dollars reward is in the purser's
hands, where I advise you to leave it till you really need it. You may
go now. Good-night."

       *       *       *       *       *

"What! couldn't they make ye nothin' better'n a kettle-iler?" growled
old Herrick, on hearing the result of the interview; for, like a true
sailor of the old school, he abominated everything connected with "that
'ere new-fangled steam." "A _sailor's_ what you're cut out for, and a
sailor's what every man ought to be as can. Howsomdever, there's no fear
but you'll git on well enough with the old man; for he's a good feller,
if ever there was one. We shipped together for our first v'y'ge, him and
me, when we were no bigger'n you are; and if we ever part comp'ny agin,
'twon't be _my_ fault, anyhow."

[TO BE CONTINUED.]



HOUSEHOLD PETS.


An amusing story is told of a modern puss which sailed across the seas.
A Polynesian missionary took a cat with him to the island of Raratonga,
but Puss, not liking her new abode, fled to the mountains. One of the
new converts, a priest who had destroyed his idol, was one night,
sleeping on his mat, when his wife, who sat watching beside him, was
terribly alarmed by the sight of two small fires gleaming in the
doorway, and by the sound of a plaintive and mysterious voice. Her blood
curdling with fear, she awoke her husband, with wifely reproaches on his
folly in having burned his god, who was now come to be avenged on them.

The husband, opening his eyes, saw the same glaring lamps, heard the
same dismal sound, and, in an agony of fright, began to recite the
alphabet, by way of an incantation against the powers of darkness. The
cat on hearing the loud voices felt as much alarm as she had caused, and
fled in the darkness, leaving the worthy pair much relieved.

A short while afterward Puss took up her quarters in a retired temple,
where her "mews" struck terror into the breasts of the priest and
worshippers who came with offerings to the gods. They fled in all
directions, shouting, "A monster from the deep! a monster from the
deep!" to return with a large body of their companions in full war
array, with spears, clubs, and shields, and faces blackened with
charcoal. The cat, however, was too nimble for them, and escaped through
the midst of their ranks, sending these brave warriors flying in every
direction.

That night, however, Puss, tired of her lonely life, foolishly entered a
native hut, and creeping beneath the coverlet under which the whole
family were lying, fell asleep. Her purring awoke the owner of the hut,
who procured the help of some other models of valor, and with their
assistance murdered poor Pussy in her tranquil and confiding slumbers.

But cats, though thus at first misunderstood, were afterward welcomed in
Raratonga, which was devastated with a plague of rats. The missionaries
imported a cargo consisting of pigs, cocoa-nuts, and cats.

A youthful clerk who was once appointed to make out an invoice of
shipments on a Mississippi steamer, was perplexed by the item of "Four
boxes of tom-cats." On inquiry, the mystery was solved. "Why," said the
indignant sutler, "that means four boxes of _tomato catsup_. Don't you
understand abbreviations?"

An amusing reason is given for cats washing their faces after a meal. A
cat caught a sparrow, and was about to devour it, but the sparrow said,

"No gentleman eats till he has first washed his face."

The cat, struck with this remark, set the sparrow down, and began to
wash his face, on which the sparrow flew away. This vexed Pussy
extremely, and he said,

"As long as I live I will eat first, and wash my face afterward."

Which all cats do even to this day.

Here is another cat and sparrow fable:

"I wonder," said a sparrow, "what the eagles are about, that they don't
fly away with the cats? And now I think of it, a civil question can not
give offense." So the sparrow finished her breakfast, went to the eagle,
and said: "May it please your Majesty, I see you and your race fly away
with the birds and the lambs, that do no harm. But there is not a
creature so malignant as a cat; she prowls about our nests, eats up our
young, and bites off our own heads. She feeds so daintily that she must
be herself good eating. Why do you not feed upon a cat?"

"Ah!" said the eagle, "there is sense in your question. I had a worm
here this morning, asking me why I did not breakfast upon sparrows. Do I
see a morsel of worm's skin on your beak, my child?"

The sparrow cleaned his bill upon his bosom, and said, "I should like to
see the worm that made that complaint."

"Come forward, worm," the eagle said. But when the worm appeared, the
sparrow snapped him up and ate him, after which he went on with his
argument against the cats.



HOW HE BROUGHT HIS ENGINE DOWN.

BY CHARLES BARNARD.


It was one of the most difficult parts of the whole line. A range of
high hills lay directly north and; south, and the railroad ran nearly
east and west; that is, the stations on each side of the range of hills
lay east and west, but to cross the range the road wound about in the
most complicated and curious fashion. At the summit of the range, where
the line crossed, there was a water tank, and a cross-over switch, and a
house for the line-man. This place was eight miles from the station, on
the east side, as the crow flies; by rail it was seventeen miles, a
steady up grade all the way. All the west-bound trains had to have help
in getting over this seventeen-mile grade, and for this service there
were several pushing-engines kept there to go behind the trains, and
help them up the grade. When the top of the grade was reached, the
trains went on, for there were no passengers to be taken or left there.
The line-man's house was the only house within five miles, and all the
rugged hills round about were covered with deep woods. The
pushing-engines that came up the grade usually stopped for a moment or
two for water, took the cross-over switch, and ran back on the down
track without using steam, as it was down grade all the way. Of course
all east-bound trains, both freight and passenger, came down without
help, and, in fact, without using steam, except to get a good start at
the top.

One day a long freight train moving west came to the foot of the grade,
and took on an extra engine to help it up the hill. This extra engine
stood on a siding, and when the freight had passed, it drew out on the
main line, and took its place behind the train. It was not coupled to
the train, as its duty was merely to push behind. There were about
thirty-five cars in the train, chiefly empty grain cars going west, and
with a "caboose" behind. There were half a dozen brakemen and the
conductor scattered along the train on top of the cars. All these points
you must remember, to understand what happened soon after.

The line for the seventeen miles up the grade is very crooked, with
several high embankments and very sharp turns. Not a nice bit of road
for a fast run with a heavy train. Nearly all the distance is through
thick woods, so that the brave engineer's deeds were not seen by any one
save the few men who were on the train, and in the greatest peril.

The two engines and long line of cars crept slowly up the grade, and
without accident, till almost at the top. The forward engine reached the
top, and kept straight on; there was no need to stop; and when the train
fairly passed the summit, and began to descend the grade on the western
side of the hills, the pushing-engine merely stopped, and was left
behind. Just then something very singular happened. The engineer
reversed his engine, and started to run back to the cross-over switch
that was just below. He intended to take the down track, and return to
the station, seventeen miles below. The station-master was at the
switch, and had already opened it. Suddenly the fireman gave a cry, and
the engineer looked out his forward window to see what had happened. The
train was still in sight up the line, but it was moving down instead of
up. It had broken apart. A coupling had given way, and some of the cars
were rolling down the grade right on to his engine. He could see the men
on top waving their hands for him to get out of the way. The
freight-cars had broken loose, and were running away. The men on top
could not stop them.

Where would it end? Where would the cars go? Would they ever reach the
bottom of the long grade without jumping the rails at some sharp curve,
only to plunge into the woods down some lofty embankment? No time to
think about that. The thing to do was to get out of the way, and prevent
the runaway train from dashing into the engine. He whistled to the
station-master to close the switch, and give him the clear line. He must
run away from the runaway train. He put on steam, and started down the
grade. The station-master seemed to understand what had happened, and
promptly closed the switch. Faster and faster rolled the cars, and the
engine shot ahead to keep out of the way.

Now for a race for life and death. If he kept ahead, he was safe--safe
from collision, but not from running off the line at the terrible curves
below. On and on the engine flew, down and down through the woods, till
the trees seemed to whirl past in a dizzy dance. Faster and faster came
the train gaining speed at every rail. How the woods roared with the
rush of the runaway cars, and the engine flying on before! The cars
swayed from side to side, and the men on top sat down, as if calmly
waiting their dreadful fate. They swept round a curve, and the engineer
had a chance to look back up the line, and saw to his dismay that there
were more cars behind. A second and shorter train was fast following the
first. The train had evidently broken into three parts, and two of the
parts, one of eighteen cars, and one of nine cars, were tearing down the
grade at forty miles an hour. It was a killing pace, and growing worse
every second. It was sure death to all to keep it up much longer.
Something must be done to save engine, men, and cars.

The engine was using steam, and kept ahead of the cars; but it could not
do so much longer. What if he let them gain on him, and then time the
speed till they collided? It was a desperate experiment, but he would
try it. Slowly and very carefully he took off the steam, and ran slower.
In a moment he had the speeds just alike. Then he made the pace of the
engine a little less, and a little less, while the roaring and swaying
train came nearer and nearer. Both were still flying down the grade at a
fearful pace. The men on the cars watched the engine sharply. They saw
what the engineer meant to do. If he succeeded, he would save their
lives--provided he could let the cars strike the engine, could hitch on,
and then pull ahead before the train behind smashed into them from the
rear. On and on flew train and engine. Slowly they drew nearer, and at
last they bumped with a gentle jar. The fireman was on the pilot all
ready to couple on. He dropped the pin in the coupling, and the men on
the car gave a ringing cheer that was heard above the roar of the train;
and the engineer opened the throttle wide, and away they dashed down the
grade, just in time to escape the train behind.

The men wanted to climb down on the engine to shake hands with the
engineer, but he motioned them back. The danger was not over. One of the
men stood on top of the caboose, with his back to the engine and his
arms extended. One of the others held him up, for the cars swayed
frightfully in the terrible pace they were going. He watched the train
following behind, and with his hands made motions to the engineer to run
slower and slower, till, with a crash, the two parts of the train came
together. This feat was not so successful as the first, as the engineer
could not see the rear cars. The engine was reversed, and the brakes put
on, and they came to a stop--not a wheel off the metals, and not a man
hurt. Two of the cars badly smashed, but that was all. What had
threatened to be a fearful disaster, with a loss of men, engine, and
cars, was only a slight splintering of two cars that the carpenters
could repair in a day. They had a general shaking of hands alone there
in the woods over the engineer's splendid feat; and for months it was
told to listening men in every flag station and freight-house along the
line how the brave and cool engineer brought his engine down the
seventeen-mile grade.



AN OFFICER'S DOG.

BY BOB THORNBURGH.


  FORT OMAHA, NEBRASKA, _March 2, 1880_.

I am eight years old, and I have a Gordon setter--liver and white--just
as old as I am. His name is Paul. He was born in Tennessee, and given to
my papa as a puppy, and soon learned to be a good retriever, to carry
newspapers and bundles, and to bring papa's slippers to him.

When I was old enough to crawl, he would watch to see that I did not get
hurt, and if I got too near a flight of steps, he would stand between me
and them, and pull my dress to get me away. If I went to crawl under
him, he would lie down, and over him, he would stand up, and so guarded
me safe till my nurse came, and she often found me asleep with my head
on Paul's back, who kept still till I waked up.

At Fort Foote, Maryland, Paul became an excellent hunter, and was out
with my papa nearly every day, bringing home plenty of quail and other
game. He was a happy dog, taking great interest in garrison life, always
attending retreat and tattoo with the officer of the day, and even going
the rounds with him on his tour of inspection after midnight. No weather
was too bad for Paul, who knew every note of the bugle, and was always
on hand at the proper "call."

When we went to Fort Brown, Texas, Paul staid behind for cooler weather;
then he was sent around by sea from New York. He landed at Point Isabel,
and came over by rail to Brownsville, where my papa met him early one
morning. Paul barked a welcome at once, and was wild with joy when papa
released him from the box in which he had travelled, and let him run
after him out to our quarters. I was still asleep, but Paul knew I must
be near, so he ran all over the house till he found my bed, when he
jumped in, and lay down beside me; it woke me up, and we had a fine
meeting, after six months' separation.

When I went out to ride on my Mexican pony--General Robertson--with our
boy Florentio, then Paul, and then Billy (my goat), we made quite a
procession. Paul always looked so dignified, and never noticed one of
Billy's tricks, who pranced along, butting him in the funniest way, and
trying to attract his attention.

Poor Paul's misfortunes began in Texas, where a large black dog bit him
through the shoulder, causing a lameness that has never left him, and
making him hate all black dogs.

After I went North, Paul went with my papa all over Texas, from one fort
to another, and always rode in his ambulance, which he would leave for
no one but him. At one of the upper posts he once followed a
deserter--who had fed him--and to avoid suspicion, the man put Paul down
a deep hole, and left him. After searching some time, my papa at last
found him; but he was almost starved, as he had had nothing to eat for
several days.

Paul next went with us to Omaha, where he suffered from the great change
of climate, and was too lame for much hunting. He was very jealous of
our two other dogs, Tom and Bill, and would not let them come near my
sister, brother, or me.

Then we went to Fort Steele, Wyoming, where he hunted a little, and
played with me a great deal. The high and dry air did him good. He was
very fond of my little brother George--our "Centennial baby," whose
birthday was the 22d of February. When George and I got the scarlet
fever, Paul would visit both our rooms, and look so sorry for us. After
Georgie "fell asleep," Paul would trot off every day, alone, to the
cemetery, and lie down by his "resting-place" awhile, then get up and
walk home again, his mind satisfied.

Paul has always been an "officer's dog," and never visited the barracks
at any post, and will not follow soldiers, except the one who feeds him.
He dislikes citizens, and any stranger _not_ in uniform arouses his
suspicions at once, and he watches him closely till satisfied he is a
friend of ours; but did he wear _uniform_, it would be all right at
first.

Paul is now at Fort Omaha on the "retired list," and valued for "the
good he has done." He is getting as fat as a seal, and has the gout--my
sister says the go-out. But he's a good old fellow. My grandpa takes
HARPER'S YOUNG PEOPLE for me, and I like it so much I thought I would
like to tell you about my dog.



[Illustration: THE HOBBY-HORSE REGIMENT ON THE MARCH.]

THE HOBBY-HORSE REGIMENT.


When the Thirty Years' War was finally brought to a termination by the
treaty of peace of Westphalia, which was concluded at Nuremberg in 1560,
the authorities of that place ordered in commemoration public rejoicings
of various kinds--banquets, balls, fire-works, etc. But among all these
public diversions, none was more distinguished for singularity and
originality, and perhaps childish simplicity, than the procession of
lads and boys on sticks or hobby-horses. Thus mounted, they rode,
regularly divided into companies, through the streets, and halted before
the hotel of the Red Horse, where was staying the Imperial Commissioner,
Duc D'Amali.

The Duke was so pleased with the novel cavalcade that he requested a
repetition of the same procession at an early day of the following week,
which they performed in much larger numbers. On arriving before his
hotel, the Duke distributed amongst them small square silver medals
which he had in the interval caused to be struck. The coin represented
on the obverse a boy on a hobby-horse with whip in hand, and the year
1560 was inscribed in the centre, while the reverse represented the
double eagle and armorial bearings of Austria, with the inscription,
"Vivat Ferdinandus III., Rom. Imp. vivat!"



THE LITTLE SWISS MAN.


There was once a little Swiss man who had a mind and will of his own. He
was one inch high, and carved out of wood by the busy people of Brienz,
in the long cold winter season. Perhaps the bit of wood out of which he
was cut was unusually hard, and even knotted; but certainly he had more
character than his companions, the pretty birds perched on boxes, the
deer and chamois supporting vases, and all the trinkets made in that
town, where the wooden houses with projecting roofs, and balconies
filled with flowers, on the border of Lake Brienz, are precisely like
the tiny toy mansions in shop windows.

When he was finished, the little Swiss man was very proud of himself. He
wore gaiters, a jacket, a broad straw hat--all in wood--and carried a
creel on his back, as if just about to climb a mountain, laden with
butter, cheese, or wine.

The contents of the workshop were scattered like a handful of leaves in
the wind. The chamois were sent to Paris and London, the little birds on
the boxes journeyed as far as Russia and America, with the luggage of
travellers.

"I am sure to be much admired wherever I go," said the little Swiss man,
with a smile, which was none the less conceited because it was a wooden
one.

Soon he found himself in the window of a shop at Geneva, and he was not
immediately bought, to his own surprise. However, he was in very good
company, although he took upon himself to look down on his companions,
and he only an inch high!

The shop was located on the Rue du Rhone, but the small window where the
toys were exposed opened on the rear. The river Rhone, of a beautiful
color, as pure as ice, quitting the Lake Leman above, swept down under
the bridges past this window, dividing the city of Geneva. Had the
little Swiss man possessed any eyes except for his own importance, he
would have found the view from his shelf interesting. On the right the
Isle Rousseau was visible, where the ducks and swans live; opposite, a
foot-bridge crossed the rushing Rhone; and below were the tall old
houses of the island, with plants in the windows, terminating in a clock
tower. Along the river margin the Geneva washer-women toiled all day,
not like those of America, scrubbing at a steaming wash-tub, but under
long sheds which appeared to float on the surface of the stream, and
dipping their linen in the flowing water.

The little Swiss man could not understand why he was not bought
immediately. To be sure, the next shop displayed sparkling heaps of
crystal, veined agate, and onyx, yet he found himself better than all.
Children paused before the pane, and laughed with delight, pointing out
different objects. Our hero took all this admiration to himself as his
due. On the same shelf was a goose, wearing top-boots, the Ulster of a
tourist, a bag fastened over his shoulder with a strap, and an eyeglass.
Here were to be found also a fat little boy in India rubber, from
Nuremberg; a beautiful pasteboard theatre, with a lady of blue paper
advancing from a side scene; tiny Swiss houses in boxes; two
rope-dancers hanging over their cord; balls and tops. The shelf below
held the most tempting dishes, representing cakes and dessert, in china,
ever placed on the table of a doll-house; wax babies rocking in cradles;
tiny lamps; sewing-machines; miniature goats and cows.

The little Swiss man observed especially a large bear of Berne, wearing
a cotton night-cap with a red tassel, and a white shirt collar, who
carried a hand-organ, and a good St. Bernard dog, with the flask
suspended about his throat, ready to help the poor wanderers lost in the
snow. Beyond was an interesting company of monkeys on a music-box, some
playing harps, others scraping violins in obedience to the head monkey,
who stood in the attitude of a leader of the orchestra, wearing a black
coat with long tails. The vain little Swiss man fancied the passers-by
paused only to admire him.

Night came, and the master of the shop closed the door, placed shutters
before the show-cases, and seated himself at his desk. The little window
in the rear was still uncovered, and revealed the light on the desk
where the master wrote. He heard the scratching of his pen on the paper,
and the patter of rain-drops outside, for the night was stormy. There
was another sound in the shop, softer than fall of the rain, and finer
than chirp of a cricket, or humming sound of a mosquito: the toys in the
window were talking together.

"I have been here for a month, and everybody says I am too dear at five
francs," said the goose in top-boots.

"How could you expect to sell, when I am in the same window?" growled
the bear.

"What do you say?" cackled the goose, indignantly.

"He is only a bear," said one of the rope-dancers, cutting a caper.

"Do you know who I am?" retorted the bear, with dignity. "I am the Bear
of Berne. You will find me on the shield of the city, and kept in a pit
by the citizens to this day."

"What is the use of boasting?" interposed the St. Bernard dog,
pettishly. "The bears of Berne live in idleness; they walk about in a
pit all day, or stand on their hind-legs begging for nuts. A St. Bernard
dog is better employed, I should hope. We save the travellers in the
snow who lose their way on the great St. Bernard mountain. If you wish
to see the dog Barry, who saved fifteen lives, look for him in the Berne
Museum, stuffed, and kept in a glass case."

The bear was very cross at this reply. He pulled his cotton night-cap
over his right eye, which gave him a very savage appearance, and turned
the handle of his organ as if his life depended on it.

"I am not Swiss; I am a German," said the Nuremberg fat boy, puffing out
his India rubber cheeks.

"Hear him!" cried the lady made of blue paper, on the stage of the
little theatre--"hear the rubber boy boast of being a German, when there
are French toys about!"

At this all the little babies made of pink wax, in the cradles, laughed;
and even the goats shook their heads, because they came from the Savoy
side of Lake Geneva, which made them very French in their feelings.

"If somebody would wind us up, we would play," said the monkeys.

The little Swiss man listened.

"I shall not stay in the shop window a month," he said.

His neighbors looked at each other in surprise. On the wall was placed a
card, and on it was grouped a bunch of flowers like white velvet.

"See, we are above the rest of you; we are the Edelweiss," said these
flowers. "We grow high up on the mountains, and as we can only bloom in
such a pure air, a poet has compared us with Gratitude."

At this moment something happened. A boy pressed his face against the
pane, and stared at the toys. Crack!--a stone hit the glass, and the boy
ran away. The wind and the rain swooped in together, upsetting the
theatre, and knocking the dolls about. The master hastened to close the
shutter.

The little Swiss man had fallen outside.

In the morning a porter passing by kicked the tiny bit of wood toward
the parapet, and the next comer sent it spinning into the river.

"Pride goes before a fall," said the St. Bernard dog.

"Why did he feel so superior to the rest of us?" inquired the goose.

"It was all in the grain of the wood," said the leading monkey.

Below Geneva the Rhone joins the Arve, and the two rivers remain
distinct for a long while--the Rhone like a green ribbon, and the Arve
whitened by glacier torrents. Here a poor boy was fishing. What he
caught was the little Swiss man, bobbing along on the stream, and he
took this prize to the stone cottage, his home.

"I am glad to be out of the water," thought our wooden hero. "All the
same, I wish I was back in the shop window. Ah! I did not know
gratitude, as the Edelweiss said."



THE CANARY'S MUSIC LESSON.


  "Now teach me your song, Canary," said Maud with the roguish eyes,
  "And when father comes home with mother, I'll give them such a
      surprise;
  They'll think I am you, Canary, and wonder what set you free,
  And nearly die a-laughing, when they find it is only me.
  Teach me your song, Canary; I'll whistle it if I can;
  Now open your throat, dear Tiptoe, and sing like a little man."

  Tiptoe, the pretty fellow, cocked up his bright black eye,
  As if to say, "Little mistress, it will do you no harm to try."
  Then taking some slight refreshments, and polishing off his bill,
  Broke into a rapture of singing that ended off with a trill;
  And Maud, with her head bent forward, sat listening to his lay,
  And fast as he sang, she whistled, till gathered the twilight gray.

  Then she crept down to the parlor as quietly as a mouse:
  The maids were in the kitchen, and no one else in the house.
  And when the key in the doorway the dear little mischief heard,
  She whistled away so sweetly, they thought it was surely the bird.
  Hither and thither she flitted, behind the sofa and chairs;
  Her mother cried, "Mercy, Edward! the bird! Is the cat down stairs?"

  Wildly they stared around them, till, "It's me, it is me, papa!"
  Said Maud, from her corner springing. Ah, then what a loud "Ha! ha!"
  Rang through the room. Her father, convulsed, on the sofa sat.
  Gravely appeared among them their sober old pussy cat.
  Maud merrily laughed and shouted, "A cunning old cat like you--
  To think _you_ should mistake me for a little canary too!"



MODEL YACHT-BUILDING.

A SLOOP-YACHT.


The boat here described is a model of a sloop-yacht of about fifteen
tons measurement, forty-four feet long, and fifteen feet beam; the
model, on a scale of half an inch to the foot, being consequently
twenty-two inches long, on the water-line, and seven and a half inches
wide. The wood should be a block of clear dry pine, twenty-five inches
long, seven and a half inches wide, and five inches thick, the sides
being first planed square; then on one of the five-inch sides lines are
drawn two inches apart across the block; the water-line (W L, Fig. 2) is
drawn two inches and thirteen-sixteenths from the top at the end
selected for the bow, and two inches and five-sixteenths at the stern;
the stern-post (_s t_) is laid off, and the outer line of the stern
(_t f_); and finally the curved lines _a f_ and _a v_ are drawn,
completing what is called the sheer plan.

In copying from the drawings it must be kept in mind that they are
exactly one-fourth the full size, so that any distance taken from them
with the dividers must be laid off four times on the block.

To copy the curved lines, their distance from some line, as A B or W L,
is measured on each of the two-inch lines, by which a number of points
on the curve are found, and a line drawn as nearly as possible through
all of them by means of a flexible ruler, held in place by pins.

The block must now be cut away to the outline _a f t s v_, after which
lines two inches apart are drawn on the top, the line A B drawn entirely
around the block in the centre of the top, bottom, and ends, and Fig. 1
drawn on top, both halves being of course the same.

The block is next cut to the line _a b c d_, Fig. 1, the widest part
being, not on deck, but along the line _c d_, as there is some "tumble
home" from _b_ to the stern.

The outline of the deck is _a b e f_, the stern being a segment of a
circle of five inches radius.

A piece of thin board must be cut of the shape of Fig. 5 (which is half
size), which is the widest part of the boat, and is fourteen inches from
the bow, and by using it for a guide, both sides may be cut out exactly
alike.

The stem piece, half an inch thick, and the stern-post, five-sixteenths
of an inch, are sawed out, and tacked in place temporarily, and a wooden
keel of the shape shown in Fig. 4 (marked "Lead Keel"), half an inch
thick, tapering to five-sixteenths where it joins the stern-post, is
fitted in between them.

The shaping of the hull may now be completed, using a gouge, spokeshave,
and rasp, keeping the midship section for a guide, and running the
curved surfaces smoothly and evenly into the sides of the keel, stern,
and stem, the latter tapering to five-sixteenths of an inch forward.

The hole for the rudder-stock is next bored, one-fourth of an inch in
diameter, and burned out with a moderately hot iron to five-sixteenths
of an inch; then, should the stock swell when wet, it will not stick in
the charred wood, but will still turn freely.

The keel, stem, and stern are removed, to avoid injury to them, and the
line _l m n o p_, Fig. 1, is drawn, after which the wood inside is cut
away with a large gouge or carving tool, until it is one-fourth of an
inch thick, care being taken to have it all an even thickness, and not
to cut through at any point, and also to leave the wood solid around the
rudder-hole.

After the hollowing out is completed, a rabbet one-eighth of an inch
wide and deep is cut to receive the deck, its outer line being
_g h i k_, Fig. 1. Then a light deck beam is set in amidships, the mast
step put in, and the inside of the hull and the bottom of the deck
painted. The deck is of pine, one-eighth of an inch thick, and after
being cut out should have lines scratched in with the compasses
three-eighths of an inch from each edge to represent the water-ways, and
parallel lines one-fourth of an inch apart scratched in to represent the
joints of the deck plank.

Now the deck is laid and tacked down, and the joints painted, and calked
if needed, the stem and stern-post replaced permanently, and the
bowsprit screwed to the deck and stem.

The length of the bowsprit is eight and a half inches from the point
_a_, Fig. 4, to the outer end, three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter,
and three inches from _a_ to the inner end, where it is framed into the
bitts, the inner end being half an inch square.

A piece (_x_, Fig. 4) is next fitted on deck at the stern, forming the
after portion of the bulwarks, which on the sides are one-eighth of an
inch thick, flaring out at the bow, where they are nailed to the
bowsprit, and tumbling in aft, where they are nailed to the piece _x_, a
strip one-eighth of an inch thick (shown in Fig. 5) being first tacked
to the deck, and the bulwarks nailed against it. Small brads should be
used in nailing.

The rail is of walnut or mahogany, one-fourth by three-thirty-secondths
of an inch, nailed on top of the bulwarks, and running out on the
bowsprit to a point (Fig. 3).

For a sailing model a leaden keel of about two pounds is needed, a mould
being made in plaster of Paris from the wooden pattern, and the melted
lead poured in, after which it is smoothed with a plane. It is put on
temporarily, and the boat, when rigged, put in the water; then enough
may be planed off to make her trim properly, and the keel put on
permanently.

The mast is twenty-one inches from deck, where it is half an inch in
diameter, to cap, where it is a quarter of an inch square, and the
topmast is eleven inches long, projecting eight inches above the lower
mast.

The boom is twenty-two inches long, fitted to the mast by wire staples;
and the gaff, fourteen inches long, has two jaws embracing the mast.

All spars are of yellow pine; the rigging is of fishing-line; and the
blocks, five-sixteenths of an inch long, and the dead-eyes, one-fourth
of an inch in diameter, are cut out of any hard wood. The lower one of
each pair of dead-eyes has a wire looped around it, the other end being
turned up, and driven into the boat's side, as in Fig. 5.

The upper end of each shroud has a loop spliced in, which goes over the
mast-head, and a dead-eye is spliced into the lower end.

The forestay has a loop at the top, and runs through the bowsprit,
forming a bobstay.

Davits are placed on each bow for the anchor, and two on each side for
the boats, and a capstan stands just forward of the mast.

[Illustration]

The sky-lights and companion way are of mahogany, and with the decks,
spars, and rail, are varnished, the rest of the hull being painted
black, white, or green, and that portion below the water-line being
varnished, and dusted over with bronze powder, and when perfectly dry,
varnished again, giving the appearance of metal sheathing.

The sails are of muslin or lawn, and are laced to the boom and gaff and
to curtain-rings on the mast, or for the jibs the common "eye" used for
dresses makes a capital jib hank, and will slip readily up and down the
forestay.

The drawings show all the remaining details, and by following them
carefully a handsome and able boat may be built.

[Illustration]



THE WHITE RABBITS AND THE TAR BABY.

BY AGNES CARR.

[Illustration]


Ten little white rabbits once lived on the edge of a wood, in a snug
little hole at the foot of a tall tree; and they were as happy as ten
rabbits could be, for every day a good little girl, who lived just back
of the wood, brought them their breakfast of white rolls and brown
gingerbread; and near by there was a beautiful stream of clear, sweet
water, where they went to drink, and which sang a merry tune to them as
it went rippling along.

But one morning when the little rabbits went for their water, they found
the brook full of sticks and stones, and the water so muddy they could
not drink it at all.

"Who has done this?" asked Frisky, the oldest and wisest of the rabbits.

"It was old Reynard the fox," said the brook; "and I am so choked up I
can not sing."

So the little rabbits set to work to clear away the dirt and rubbish,
and did it so well that before long the brook began its gay song again,
and the water was clear enough for them to drink.

Next day, however, the stream was filled up again, and they had all the
work to do over, until their little paws ached. So when, on the third
morning, they found the water as muddy as ever, they all sat down on the
bank and cried.

At last Frisky jumped up and said, "It is no use to cry over muddy
water; but we must do something to punish this old rascal of a fox, and
make him leave our brook alone."

"But what can we do?" asked his brothers and sisters.

"Come with me, and I will show you."

So the little rabbits followed Frisky to a pile of tar and pitch that
some men had left; and out of it they made a black tar baby, which they
set up on a rock close by the edge of the brook, with a piece of
gingerbread in its mouth; and when night came, and the moon shone
bright, they all hid behind a tree to see what would happen.

Pretty soon the old fox smelled the gingerbread, and spied the baby on
the rock.

Then he came up close and said, "Little girl, little girl, give me a
piece of your gingerbread, or I'll box your ears."

The baby did not answer, so the old fox climbed up on the rock, and
boxed her on the ear; and his paw stuck so fast he could not pull it
away again.

Then he said, "Little girl, little girl, give me a piece of your
gingerbread, or I'll box you on the other ear."

The baby did not say a word, so he boxed her on the other ear, and his
other paw stuck fast.

Then he said, "Little girl, little girl, give me a piece of your
gingerbread, or I'll bite off your nose." Still the baby would not
answer, so the fox bit at her nose; and his teeth stuck tight in the
pitch, and he was almost choked with the tar.

The little rabbits then all came out and danced around the wicked old
fox, saying, "Now you can't choke the pretty brook, for your own mouth
is choked with tar!"

At last Frisky asked, "Now what shall we do with him?"

"Leave him to starve," said one. "Set fire to his tail," said another.
And they all proposed something, except Snowflake, the youngest and
prettiest of the family, who said nothing until Frisky turned to her and
asked, "And what would you do?"

"I should let him go," replied Snowflake, "if he would promise not to
trouble the water again."

"Snowflake is right," said Frisky; "he has been punished enough. We will
let him go."

So they first loosened his mouth, and rubbed his teeth with butter to
take off the tar, and when he had said three times, "Hope my tail may
drop off if I ever hurt you or the brook again," they set his paws free,
and he scampered off, and hid himself in his den in the wood.

And the little rabbits lived happy forever after.



[Illustration: OUR POST-OFFICE BOX.]


  BUFFALO, NEW YORK.

     I am a teacher in one of the public schools of this city. I take
     HARPER'S YOUNG PEOPLE to school with me, and my pupils enjoy it
     very much.

     I have the oldest children in the building, and they can
     understand all of the pieces. I read them the articles as a reward
     for good behavior and well-learned lessons, and let them copy and
     work out the puzzles.

     It would please you to see how anxiously they wait for each new
     issue, and how happy they are when it comes. We are reading the
     touching story of "Biddy O'Dolan" now, and I hope it will lead
     them to think more about these unfortunate children, and try to do
     what they can to make the life of some one a little happier.
     Permit me to congratulate you on the success your paper has
     achieved both here and abroad.

  A TEACHER.

       *       *       *       *       *

  PINAL CITY, ARIZONA TERRITORY.

     I am a little girl ten years old. I live in Arizona, where the
     great silver mines are, and where the cactus grows forty feet
     high. There were only three white families in this place when we
     came, three years ago. The place was called Picket Post then,
     because soldiers were stationed here. I have several pets.
     Nuisance is my pet deer. She is almost two years old, and is as
     tame as my cat. She wears a red collar, so hunters will not kill
     her. Bub is my pet donkey. I love my Arizona pets very much, but
     not so much as my dear pet grandma, whom we left in Chicago. When
     papa strikes it rich, we are going home to her.

  PEARL R. BROWN.

       *       *       *       *       *

  PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.

     I have had a great many different kinds of pets, but two that
     amused me the most were Charley, a snow-white rabbit, and Jet, a
     black kitten. The two were good friends, and played together, and
     ate out of the same dish. One day bunny stole a large red rose,
     and came running into the house with it in his mouth, and Jet at
     his heels. The deep red of the rose, the snowy rabbit, and black
     Jet made a picture pretty enough to paint. After a while bunny
     became very troublesome, and ate the paper off the dining-room
     wall as high as he could reach. Then he was sent away, and Jet
     seemed lonely for days. Soon after he disappeared, and my pets
     since have been birds and dogs, but none were brighter and
     prettier than Jet and Charley.

  AGGIE R. H.

       *       *       *       *       *

  PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.

     The alligator I told you about [Post-office No. 19] was finally
     found in a dark corner of the cellar. It only lived two days after
     we found it.

  PUSS.

       *       *       *       *       *

  ISHPEMING, MICHIGAN.

     In a late number of YOUNG PEOPLE, Edwin A. H. wrote about his
     cabinet of curiosities, and inquired if any other readers had one.
     I would like to tell him that my brother and I each has a small
     one.

  F. B. MYERS.

       *       *       *       *       *

  NEW YORK CITY.

     In answer to L. H. N.'s question in YOUNG PEOPLE No. 20, I would
     say that the whale is dead.

  JOHN R. BLAKE.

       *       *       *       *       *

  CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS.

     In YOUNG PEOPLE No. 18 there was a letter from Nellie R. asking
     what to do for her parrot. In Holden's book on birds I found if
     you feed your bird with too rich food, it causes a skin disease
     and an itching sensation which the bird tries to relieve by
     pulling out its feathers. The only remedy is to feed it on raw or
     boiled carrots, or well-roasted pea-nuts.

  LYDIA R. F.

       *       *       *       *       *

  NEW YORK CITY.

     I would like to have you tell E. L. M., of Washington, that the
     reason the mouse she used to feed is wild now is because mice are
     very shy, and when they can get their supper without going in
     danger, they will not take any foolish risk. Before E. L. M. fed
     the little fellow, I suppose he was almost starved, and did not
     think anything about getting hurt.

  MABEL H. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

  ENTERPRISE, MISSISSIPPI.

     I read YOUNG PEOPLE every week, and I like it very much. I am now
     reading "Biddy O'Dolan." We have not had any snow and ice here
     this winter, so we can not make snow images and skate, like our
     little friends in the North. But we find other ways to amuse
     ourselves. Our flowers are blooming very pretty. I wish I could
     give you one of our fresh bouquets.

  ADDIE CHAMBERS.

       *       *       *       *       *

  OLD WESTBURY, LONG ISLAND.

     This morning I made cake from Puss Hunter's recipe in YOUNG PEOPLE
     No. 19. Mamma measured the things; but I made it all myself, and
     it was lovely. I hope some other little girl will try it. I baked
     it in two saucers. One cake we ate, and the other I cut in two,
     and sent a piece to each of my grandmothers. I have a little
     brother Sam. He is six years old, and the dearest little fellow in
     the world. He and I have a nice dog. He is a pointer, and his name
     is Perie. He is very handsome, but he is very naughty to cats. He
     chases and kills them, so we can not have a kitty. I have six
     dolls--three are French, and three are wax.

  NELLIE T. WILLETS (8 years).

       *       *       *       *       *

  FORT PREBLE, PORTLAND, MAINE.

     I thought you might be interested to hear about some Indians who
     were confined in the old Spanish fort at St. Augustine, Florida,
     when I was there. They were sent from the West, as disturbers of
     the friendly relations between us and their tribes. When they
     first came they looked very wild and savage, with their red
     blankets, and long black hair, of which the men were very proud:
     but when they went away their hair was short; they wore shoes and
     collars and neck-ties, and the United States uniform. They behaved
     so well that they were allowed to post their own sentinels, were
     drilled by the officer in charge of them, and made a very
     respectable company. Many of them learned to read and write, and a
     large number are now at school in Pennsylvania.

  CAMPBELL HAMILTON.

       *       *       *       *       *

  GROESBECK, OHIO.

     My cousin Harry and I found some pepper-and-salt (or erigenia, as
     my big sister calls it) on the east side of a hill in our woods on
     the 28th of February. We also found spring-beauties and
     pepper-root in bud. I never found wild flowers so early before.
     Last year we found the first on the 11th of March.

  HAZIE POOLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

  GALLIPOLIS, OHIO.

     I am seven and a half years old, and I go to school. I had a
     canary named Sweet. It died, and I buried it under the kitchen
     window. I take YOUNG PEOPLE, and like the Post-office best of all.
     My cousin Lizzie made me a fire-fly out of pasteboard, and it
     flies nicely.

  HERBERT H. HENKING.

       *       *       *       *       *

  TOPEKA, KANSAS.

     I am a subscriber to YOUNG PEOPLE. I think it is a very nice
     paper. I have a little pet antelope, and we feed it out of a
     bottle.

  HENRY BLAKESLEY.

       *       *       *       *       *

  PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA.

     When I was four years old we had a young mule. The day it was born
     my brother and I were going to see a little friend who lived near
     us. I asked mamma if the mule could not go too, because it looked
     very anxious to go. After that we always called it the anxious
     mule.

  WALTER H. C. (9 years).

       *       *       *       *       *

  ELDRED, NEW YORK, _March 10_.

     The picture of a little girl pulling the Chinaman's pigtail, and
     asking if it would ring, amused us very much, for it reminded us
     of something that happened to my little brother. He went with papa
     and mamma to the Centennial Exhibition. At first he was very shy
     of the life-size groups dressed in the costumes of different
     countries; but when he found they were not alive, he would go and
     examine them very closely. When he visited the Chinese Department,
     a gentleman stood there in full Chinese costume. The little fellow
     ran up and touched his dress, thinking he was a figure like the
     others, and was frightened almost to death when the supposed
     figure stooped down and patted his cheek. Willow "pussies" were
     here two weeks ago.

  ELIZABETH E. BECK (10 years).

       *       *       *       *       *

  ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI.

     I like YOUNG PEOPLE very much. My father is a clergyman, and he
     says it is a good paper for boys and girls. I like to make
     "Wiggles." I made a big pig from No. 9, but it was very crooked,
     and looked like a calf. When I get to be a man, I will learn to
     print newspapers, and I will put in lots of "Wiggles." I like the
     new story, "Across the Ocean," very much.

  THEO. F. JOHN.

       *       *       *       *       *

  HASTINGS, MINNESOTA.

     In our school we use HARPER'S YOUNG PEOPLE for a reader, and we
     all like it so much. We had a lesson to-day about "Tracking a
     buried River." On Saturday before Washington's Birthday our
     teacher let us have a school party. He bought candy and oranges
     for us, and the boys and girls brought pies and cake. Some of the
     teachers from the other schools came, and we set a table, and made
     tea.

  LUCY A. T.

       *       *       *       *       *

  XENIA, OHIO, _March. 8, 1880_.

     I have been to a sugar camp, and I saw how maple sugar is made.
     When I did not want to stay in the camp, I ran over the hills, and
     I went with the boys on the sled to gather sap, and I found some
     pretty moss and flowers. When they made sugar, one of the boys
     made me a little wooden ladle to eat it with.

  JESSA HOOVEN.

       *       *       *       *       *

  FORT CONCHO, TEXAS.

     I wish that every boy and girl would read HARPER'S YOUNG PEOPLE,
     for I like it very much. I like the puzzle part best of all. I
     have read Bertie Brown's letter. I live at an army post too, but
     there are no Indians here. We have prairie-dogs, all kinds of
     cactus, and mesquite-trees. I have seen some big tarantulas, too.
     I go to the post school every day. We have good times out here. I
     am a little over ten years old.

  ARTHUR W. DUNBAR.

       *       *       *       *       *

  NEW YORK CITY.

     I would like to inquire if the pupils of a big school, of which I
     am one, each send a short story, essay, poem, or a drawing to
     YOUNG PEOPLE, if the one the editors think the best would be
     published, with the name of the author.

  B.

We will publish such contributions, giving full name and address of
author. But before being sent, the stories, poems, essays, and drawings
must be submitted to your teacher, and only those forwarded to us which
the teacher considers the best. We will ourselves make the final
decision. The copy must be neatly written, and on one side of the paper
only.

       *       *       *       *       *

ARTHUR M. M.--There will be a table of contents published at the end of
every volume of YOUNG PEOPLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

HARRY S.--An answer to your question would occupy too much space in this
department. It will, however, be made the subject of a separate article
in some future number of YOUNG PEOPLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

J. U. B.--Any taxidermist will give you the desired information.

       *       *       *       *       *

JESSIE S.--The great Greenland whale which is found in the Northern
Ocean has a throat so small that it can not swallow anything larger than
a herring. Its principal food consists of a small marine mollusk, about
an inch and a half long. It catches its dinner by rushing through the
water with its immense jaws wide open. When its mouth is full, it ejects
the water, while the whalebone fringe with which it is provided catches
all the little sea-creatures, which serve as food for the monster. The
sperm-whale has a much larger throat, and is said to be able to swallow
a man.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHARLES H. B.--There are so many kinds of worms, snakes, and other
little creatures which may be the architects of the holes you have
noticed, that you had better dig open some of the little dwellings, and
see what you can find. Dig very carefully, and send word to YOUNG
PEOPLE'S Post-office if you discover anything curious.

       *       *       *       *       *

BIRDIE S.--Thanks for your very kind notice, but your pretty puzzle is
so complimentary to ourselves that we can not print it.

       *       *       *       *       *

EMMET M. L.--_The American_, your amateur paper, is very neatly printed,
and well made up.

       *       *       *       *       *

MARIE L.--The extra number of brakes on Mount Washington steam-engines
is to increase the safety of the descent.

       *       *       *       *       *

Sallie Floyd reports Japan quinces in bloom at Carthage, Missouri, on
March 7; Nellie Sands, of Lawrence, Kansas, writes that robins and
redbirds have lived all winter in the evergreens in her garden; "Henry,"
of Philadelphia, says the dandelions have been in bloom almost all the
time; and Lillie Cassiday writes that it snowed hard on March 14 and 18
in Winterset, Iowa--the only snow of the winter in that locality.

       *       *       *       *       *

LIZZIE S. S.--You can make an Æolian harp of a box of thin pine. The box
should be the length of your window, about five inches broad, and three
deep. Put a row of hitch pins at one end, and tuning pins at the other,
and two narrow bridges of hard wood about two inches within the pins,
over which to stretch the strings. Eight strings will make a good harp.
They should be of catgut, and if you tune them in unison, the sound will
be sweeter than if they are tuned in thirds or fifths. The tension
should be rather slack. The ends of the box should be raised about an
inch above the strings to support a thin pine board upon which the
window rests. The draught of air passes over the strings stretched
midway between the upper board and the sound-board, which should have
two round holes cut in it. The harp will sound sweeter if placed in a
window which is struck obliquely by the wind.

       *       *       *       *       *

Charlie Cubbery, Lizzie Brown, Blanche T. S., Grace Roberts, Lizzie
Falconer, and M. M. Coleman write pretty stories of gold-fish, canaries,
turtles, goats, and other pets, which we sincerely regret we have no
room to print.

       *       *       *       *       *

PUZZLES FROM YOUNG CONTRIBUTORS.

No. 1.

ENIGMA.

  My first is in swine, but not in cow.
  My second is in quarrel, but not in row.
  My third is in rip, but not in tear.
  My fourth is in pretty, but not in fair.
  My fifth is in herb, but not in root.
  My sixth is in inch, but not in foot.
  My seventh is in rake, but not in hoe.
  My eighth is in yes, but not in no.
  My whole is a precious stone.

  KATIE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 2.

WORD SQUARE.

First, not any. Second, a part of a stove. Third, necessity. Fourth,
extremities.

  LOUISA.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 3.

DIAMOND PUZZLE.

A consonant. A pronoun. A dwelling. Utility. A vowel.

  REGINALD F.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 4.

DOUBLE ACROSTIC.

Cunning. Something always found on board of ships. An article used in
soap-making. A girl's name. Something good to eat. A number. The name of
a large river. Answer--Capitals of two of the United States.

  JOHNNY R. G.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 5.

NUMERICAL CHARADE.

  I am composed of 19 letters.
  My 9, 7, 3, 5, 10 is an animal.
  My 19, 15, 16 is a problem.
  My 2, 4, 6 is to strike.
  My 16, 4, 1, 10 are small animals.
  My 8, 7, 6 is an article of kitchen furniture.
  My 14, 18, 16, 17, 10, 11 is used in building.
  My 12, 13, 6 is a small bed.
  My whole is the name of an eminent navigator.

  GEORGE B.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 6.

WORD SQUARE.

First, parts of the fingers. Second, a girl's name. Third, the name of a
line of ocean steamers. Fourth, deceivers. Fifth, understanding.

  HARRY VAN A.

       *       *       *       *       *

ANSWERS TO PUZZLES IN NO. 20.

No. 1.

Rio do la Plata.

No. 2.

  C  or   D
  O  do   R
  W   h   Y
  P  lai  D
  E mbrac E
  R  ai   N

Cowper, Dryden.

No. 3.

Orion.

No. 4.

  F A L L
    S E A T
      T R I M
        K E E P

No. 5.

  S T E P
  T I D E
  E D I T
  P E T S

No. 6.

      A
    A P E
  A P P L E
    E L I
      E

       *       *       *       *       *

A Personation, on page 264--Charles the First of England.

       *       *       *       *       *

Favors are acknowledged from A. A. Gilmore, Jun., Bessie Comstock, J. A.
Bokee, Roscoe C., Thad and Jennie V., Pearl L. M., Willie MacMahan,
Richard Graham, H. B. N., M. H. Tod., Grace Putnam, Bessie T., L. A.
Barry, William B. B., Louis Pomeroy, H. S. T., Mary L. B., Barton
Scales, C. D. H., Willie Everett, Bertie Wheeler, S. M. Nelson, Nick
O. D., Clara Commons, Maggie Zane, Mary Maxey, Edith Cragg, Abbie
Parkhurst, Arthur Ellis, James Penner, Fannie Hartwell, Ada Hathaway,
Arthur Jones, Beatrice Gower, Jessie Evans, Vince Applegate, Sallie
Walton, H. A. Forster, G. C. Leiber, Beecher Stephens, L. C. M., Fred
Anderson, Jessie Kelsey.

       *       *       *       *       *

Correct answers to puzzles are received from Herbert Parmenter, C. H.
Gilson, H. and B., Lulu Pearce, Mary Nesmith, A. L. Bliss, A. H.
Bechtold, C. F. Langton, "Blind Floretta," Aggie R. H., Charlie A. P.,
Louise Gates, "Jupiter," Isabel and Marion Copeland, Johnny Glen, May
S., John Blake, Fannie and Belle M., Gertrude H., Stella and Harry M.,
James Smith, E. S. Robinson, F. B., Jennie S., Effie Talboys, C. Frank
H., "Sleepy Dick," Willie Kurtz, Helen Mackay, Florence MacCulley,
George Duncan, Fannie MacCulley, Edward Keeler, John G. M., John
MacClintock, Stella, William Lewis, Mary Liddy, Mary Randal, Mabel
Hatfield, Marguerite Bucknall, G. C., Charlie Rosenberg.



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OUR CHILDREN'S SONGS

       *       *       *       *       *

Our Children's Songs. Illustrated. 8vo, Ornamental Cover, $1.00.

       *       *       *       *       *

The best compilation of songs for the children that we have ever
seen.--_New Bedford Mercury._

This is a large collection of songs for the nursery, for childhood, for
boys and for girls, and sacred songs for all. The range of subjects is a
wide one, and the book is handsomely illustrated.--_Philadelphia
Ledger._

It contains some of the most beautiful thoughts for children that ever
found vent in poesy, and beautiful "pictures to match."--_Chicago
Evening Journal._

An excellent anthology of juvenile poetry, covering the whole range of
English and American literature.--_Independent_, N. Y.

Songs for the nursery, songs for childhood, for girlhood, boyhood,
and sacred songs--the whole melody of childhood and youth bound in
one cover. Full of lovely pictures; sweet mother and baby faces;
charming bits of scenery, and the dear old Bible story-telling
pictures.--_Churchman_, N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *

Published by HARPER & BROTHERS, New York.

HARPER & BROTHERS _will send the above work by mail, postage prepaid, to
any part of the United States, on receipt of the price_.



CHILDREN'S

PICTURE-BOOKS.

    Square 4to, about 300 pages each, beautifully printed on Tinted
    Paper, embellished with many Illustrations, bound in Cloth, $1.50
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The Children's Picture-Book of Sagacity of Animals.

    With Sixty Illustrations by HARRISON WEIR.

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    With Eighty Illustrations, from Designs by STEINLE, OVERBECK, VEIT,
    SCHNORR, &c.

The Children's Picture Fable-Book.

    Containing One Hundred and Sixty Fables. With Sixty Illustrations
    by HARRISON WEIR.

The Children's Picture-Book of Birds.

    With Sixty-one Illustrations by W. HARVEY.

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    With Sixty-one Illustrations by W. HARVEY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Published by HARPER & BROTHERS, New York.

_Sent by mail, postage prepaid, to any part of the United States, on
receipt of the price._



Old Books for Young Readers.

       *       *       *       *       *

Arabian Nights' Entertainments.

     The Thousand and One Nights; or, The Arabian Nights'
     Entertainments. Translated and Arranged for Family Reading, with
     Explanatory Notes, by E. W. LANE. 600 Illustrations by Harvey. 2
     vols., 12mo, Cloth, $3.50.

Robinson Crusoe.

     The Life and Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York,
     Mariner. By DANIEL DEFOE. With a Biographical Account of Defoe.
     Illustrated by Adams. Complete Edition. 12mo, Cloth, $1.50.

The Swiss Family Robinson.

     The Swiss Family Robinson; or, Adventures of a Father and Mother
     and Four Sons on a Desert Island. Illustrated. 2 vols., 18mo,
     Cloth, $1.50.

     The Swiss Family Robinson--Continued: being a Sequel to the
     Foregoing. 2 vols., 18mo; Cloth, $1.50.

Sandford and Merton.

     The History of Sandford and Merton. By THOMAS DAY. 18mo, Half
     Bound, 75 cents.

       *       *       *       *       *

Published by HARPER & BROTHERS, New York.

_Sent by mail, postage prepaid, to any part of the United States, on
receipt of the price._



[Illustration]

THE BOSSY PUZZLE.


Re-arrange this picture so as to get a rustic group out of it. It is
left to your own ingenuity to find out of what the group consists.



HOW TO MAKE INDIANS AND MICE.

BY BESSIE GUYTON.


Figs and raisins seem very queer things to make an Indian of; but with a
bit of wire, two figs, a handful of raisins, a few feathers, a dash of
red and blue paint, a piece of red flannel, and two beads, a very savage
old fellow can be produced.

Take a piece of fine wire fourteen or fifteen inches long, and draw it
through a round, plump fig, pushing the fig to the middle; bend the wire
together, and slip one large raisin on the double wire, close to the
fig: now we have the head and neck. Spread the wires, and put through a
fig larger than the head, for the body; fill both wires with raisins,
for the legs, turning up the length of one for the feet; pass a piece of
wire three or four inches long through the upper part of the body fig,
and string both ends with raisins, which makes the arms, with a turn on
the ends for the hands. Stick a few feathers around the head (a duster
can be robbed for the purpose), set black or white beads for eyes (peas
or beans have a very startling effect when large eyes are required).
Make use of your paint-box for mouth, nose, brows, war-paint, etc.,
according to taste, pin a square of bright flannel about the shoulders,
and you have an alarmingly startling likeness of a Pi-ute chief. A boy
handy with his penknife can add a wooden tomahawk.

Apple seeds can be converted into the cutest little mice imaginable by
following these directions:

With a fine needle draw black sewing silk through the pointed end of a
good fat apple seed, and clip it short enough to appear a proper length
for ears; then with a sharp penknife shave a narrow strip from the under
or flat side of the seed, and turn it out at the other end for the tail.
Now pass the needle through a white card, and through the seed near the
tail, and again through the card, and draw down snugly to the card;
repeat the same at the ear end, and the little chap stands on all fours,
a very realistic mouse. Two or three tiny muslin bags, filled with
cotton, marked, "The malt that lay in the house that Jack built," and
sewed on one corner of the card, with half a dozen or so of these
miniature pests headed toward it, furnish a very unique trifle, the
making of which will give an hour's pleasure.

       *       *       *       *       *

ANSWER TO THE PUZZLE OF THE TRAMP TRANSFORMED.

The Tramp Puzzle given in YOUNG PEOPLE No. 20 is solved as follows: The
dotted line _A B_ indicates the cut you are to make with the scissors.
The brim of the man's hat, his pipe, and his nose will fit into the
spaces _C_, _D_, and _E_. The other piece off the hat represents the
sea-cow. The few lines marked _F_ represent the reflection of the
sea-cow in the water.

[Illustration]

       *       *       *       *       *

Tricking Bruin.--The Laps and Finns have an idea that when they kill an
animal it has the power of haunting them if it condescends to take that
advantage. When therefore they have slain a bear, they surround the body
and utter loud lamentations; expressive of the deepest regret. Presently
one of them asks, in pitying tones, "Who killed thee, poor creature? Who
destroyed thy beautiful life?" Another of the party replies on behalf of
the bear, "It was the wicked Swede who lives across the mountain!" And
there is a chorus of "What a cruel deed! What a dreadful crime!"



[Illustration: TOP-SY-TURVY--HOW WOULD YOU LIKE IT YOURSELVES, BOYS?]





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