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Title: Jane's All the World's Aircraft - 1913
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Transcriber's Notes:

  An underscore (_) is used to denote _italic_ text.
  A tilde (~) is used to denote ~bold~ text.
  A equals (=) is used to denote =underlined= text.

Several illustrations are either blank or have only text in them. Those
were rendered as fully as possible in plain text. Other illustrations
are noted with an [Illustration] tag and the caption, if there is one.

The advertisements which were originally at the front of the book have
been moved to the back.
]

  JANE'S ALL THE WORLD'S AIRCRAFT 1913

  A Reprint of the 1913 Edition of All The World's Air-craft
  Edited by
  FRED T. JANE

  ARCO PUBLISHING COMPANY, INC.
  New York

  First published by Sampson Low Marston in 1913
  This edition published 1969 by ARCO PUBLISHING COMPANY, INC.
  219 Park Avenue South, New York, N. Y. 10003

  Library of Congress Catalog Number 69-14964
  ARCO Book Number 668-01880-1

  Printed in Great Britain



  _Published Annually._
  All the World's AIR=CRAFT.
  (ORIGINALLY KNOWN AS "ALL THE WORLD'S AIRSHIPS.") (WAR FLYING ANNUAL.)

FOUNDED AND EDITED BY FRED T. JANE, Founder and Editor of "FIGHTING
SHIPS" (Naval Annual), Etc.

PART A.--AEROPLANES AND DIRIGIBLES OF THE WORLD. PART B.--HISTORICAL
AEROPLANES OF THE LAST SIX YEARS. PART C.--THE WORLD'S AERIAL ENGINES.
PART D.--AERIAL "WHO'S WHO" AND DIRECTORY.

FIFTH YEAR OF ISSUE. (Founded 1909.)

LONDON: SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & CO., Ltd. 1913.

Printed by Netherwood, Dalton & Co., Phoenix Works, Rashcliffe,
Huddersfield.



  CONTENTS


                                                       PAGE
  Preface                                                 7
  Glossary of Technical Terms                             9


  ~PART A.~

  Argentine (~J. Schiere~)                               15
  Austrian (~Special Austrian Editor~)                   16
    Aeroplanes                                           17
    Dirigibles                                           22
  Belgian (~J. Bracke~)                                  26
    Aeroplanes                                           27
    Dirigibles                                           29
  Brazilian                                              31
  British                                                32
    Aeroplanes                                           37
    Dirigibles                                           60
  British Colonies, Etc.                                 63
  Bulgarian                                              66
  Central American Republics                             67
  Chilian                                                68
  Chinese                                                69
  Danish                                                 70
  Dutch (~J. Schiere~)                                   71
  French (~Special French Editor~)
    Aeroplanes                                           73
    Dirigibles                                          109
  German (~Special German Editor~)                      126
    Aeroplanes                                          131
    Dirigibles                                          151
  Greek                                                 168
  Italian (~Special Italian Editor~)                    169
    Aeroplanes                                          172
    Dirigibles                                          176
  Japanese (~Partly Official~)                          180
    Aeroplanes                                          181
    Dirigibles                                          182
  Mexican                                               183
  Norwegian                                             184
  Peruvian                                              185
  Portuguese (~J. Schiere~)                             186
  Roumanian                                             187
  Russian                                               188
    Aeroplanes                                          190
    Dirigibles                                          191
  Servian                                               193
  Spanish                                               195
  Swedish (~Lieut. Dahlbeck~)                           196
  Swiss (~Special Swiss Editor~)                        198
  Turkish                                               200
  Uruguay                                               200
  United States (~W.L. Jones~)                          201
    Aeroplanes                                          202
    Dirigibles                                          220


  ~PART B.~

  Historical Aeroplanes of the Last Six Years            1B et seq.


  ~PART C.~

  Principal Aeroplane Engines                            1C
    Austrian (~W. Isendahl~)                             2C
    Belgian                                              2C
    British                                              3C
    French                                               4C
    German (~W. Isendahl~)                               8C
    Italian                                             11C
    Swiss                                               12C
    U.S.A.                                              13C


  ~PART D.~

  Aerial "Who's Who"                                     1D
  Classified Aerial Directory                           12D
  Alphabetical Index--Aeroplanes                     end of
       "         "    Dirigibles                     book



PREFACE.


As conjectured last year, considerable further changes have been
produced in this edition.

When, some five years ago, work on this annual was first commenced, the
military aviator was an idle dream. Fighting men in dirigibles were a
bare possibility; but nothing more than that. Every amateur building an
aeroplane (or even merely intending to build one) in his back garden was
a possible "conqueror of the air." The aeroplane was going to oust the
motor car as a sporting vehicle--everyone was quite certain about that!
Beyond that, nothing!

To-day everything is completely changed and except as a war machine the
aeroplane is of little interest or use to anyone. A few civilian
aviators are still flying, but in practically every case they are doing
so in connection with the business aspect of the question. There is no
"sport of aviation" such as the prophets foretold a few years ago.

An increasing number of people obtain their pilot certificates and lists
of these are still given, although the title of "aviator" is in the bulk
of cases somewhat of a courtesy one, since so few keep on flying once
they have secured their brevets.

It is as a _war machine_ that the aeroplane has come into its own. The
Italian aeroplanes over and over again proved their utility in Tripoli.
Although in the Balkan War aircraft were less in evidence than many
expected, this may be attributed to the peculiar circumstances of the
campaign and also to the scarcity of available machines.

Every country is now engaged in forming its aerial fleets. How far the
naval and military branches will coalesce, or how far they will
differentiate remains to be seen. The probabilities, at present, all
point in the latter direction, and that just as an army is made up of
cavalry, infantry, artillery, etc., and a navy of battleships, cruisers,
torpedo craft and submarines, so the sky fleets seem destined to consist
of groups of different types of machines, each type designed for some
special purpose.

The increased war utility of aircraft has necessitated an extension of
the pages devoted to organisation of military aviation, etc. The details
given are by no means as full as I could wish; but all organisations are
being so continually changed owing to increased experience that
satisfactory data are not very easy to come by.

During the past twelve months or so we have learned at least one or two
important things. The mere fact of the possession of aeroplanes by a
nation is a military factor of comparatively little importance. A nation
possessing next to no aeroplanes can easily acquire a few hundreds in
case of emergency _if she has the people to build them_. The real
problem is two-fold. First, of course, is the possession of trained and
efficient aviators to fly the machines. Naval and military officers who
have merely secured their brevets at a flying school are of no immediate
value; civilians of the same kind are of still less utility.

Second to this is the productive capacity of any country; which may
roughly be gauged from the number and importance of its firms engaged in
construction.

These points cannot too strongly be enforced. The air strength of any
nation in case of war resides in its efficient flying men and in its own
productive capacity. The next war will see aircraft quite as much
"contraband" as warships, and the nation which relies upon aerial
imports will be foredoomed at once. One month is probably the utmost
effective life of an aeroplane on hard active service and it may well be
a good deal less. And firms capable of building efficient machines
cannot be improvised.

A remarkable feature of the last twelve months has been the
recrudescence of the dirigible, which is now in far greater esteem than
it was a year ago, or for that matter, ever before. In the past there is
no doubt that progress was hampered by arguments between the advocates
of "heavier than air" and "lighter than air," and a curious notion that
the one could only exist at the expense of the other.

Such ideas are now dead, and it is recognised that for war purposes both
have their uses and that both are interdependent. It is not quite yet
realised how intense this interdependence is likely to be.

Briefly the present situation may be summed up as follows: the dirigible
has enormous potentialities for attack on fortified bases and the like,
but its powers of defence, guns or no guns, are very slight. A single
aeroplane should be able to disable or destroy without very great
difficulty the finest dirigible yet built (supposing it able to find the
airship in the vastness of the air). The damage that a single aeroplane
can do to land defences or ships is, however, entirely trivial--at any
rate at present.

Hence the aerial war unit already formed in Germany, and likely to be in
existence everywhere else ere another year or so has passed. This unit
is a dirigible of great offensive powers, associated with a number of
aeroplanes presumably intended to defend it and ward off and defeat
attack by hostile aeroplanes.

This is merely the crude beginning, it seems reasonably safe to prophecy
that in the early future the aerial war-unit will be made up somewhat as
follows:--

  (_a_) An offensive dirigible, carrying the maximum of bombs, etc.

  (_b_) One or two dirigibles carrying oil and petrol for the
      aeroplanes--possibly capable of dealing with all minor repairs and
      of carrying a certain number of aeroplanes on board.

  (_c_) A number of war aeroplanes specially designed for fighting other
      aeroplanes and attacking hostile dirigibles as chances may occur.

  (_d_) A few very swift one man aeroplanes which will be the eyes of
      the unit.

This seems an early certainty. After all it merely reproduces for the
air what centuries of experience have shewn to be essential for fleets
and armies.

The matter is a fascinating subject for speculation; but in connection
with a work that exists merely to deal with things as they are at
present, is perhaps, better not now pursued further. One point, however,
may perhaps be mentioned, and that is that victory or defeat in aerial
warfare seems likely to depend upon which side can first destroy the
other's bases. A base-less dirigible will not live long. This is likely
to lead to very great attention being paid at an early date to
anti-aircraft guns and other devices for the defence of aerial bases.

Reverting to the arrangement of the present edition, a few words may be
said about some of the changes. As stated last year the clumsy old
system of grouping monoplanes, biplanes, etc., separately has been
abolished. So many firms specialise in both that any such grouping could
only lead to confusion.

A tabular system has been generally adopted for most new matter. This
will be found far more convenient for reference, and of course, saves a
great deal of space.

The effective age of aeroplanes is somewhat of a vexed question, for
while one year probably represents the really effective war utility
endurance, even in peace time, school life is more or less indefinite
and so is ordinary private life. Consequently--although "dead machines"
are excluded it has not been possible to draw an exactly uniform age
limit line beyond that. Speaking generally modern machines represent as
a rule detail improvements rather than the complete changes of the past.
For example, the gap between 1911 and 1913, is far less than the gap
between 1909 and 1911. This fact is beginning to make itself felt in war
machines.

In Part B an attempt has been made to collect illustrations of
aeroplanes of the past which for one reason or another possess an
historical interest. This section is remarkable for two totally
different things (1) the early anticipations of some modern practice,
and (2) the past prevalence of certain other ideas which are now totally
extinct.

Part C deals with aero-engines. It is mainly remarkable--in comparison
with past issues--for the large number of engines which have ceased to
exist. It is probably still too ample; as a year hence quite half the
makers still recorded are likely to disappear. The mere ability to
construct motor car engines is no longer of value. The aeroplane engine
designer needs to be a specialist. The absolutely ideal aero-engine no
doubt yet remains to be produced; but meanwhile the tendency of users to
concentrate upon fewer makes is increasingly evident, despite the fact
that the best engine for one particular type of machine is not
necessarily the best for some other type.

In conclusion I tender my most grateful thanks to all those who have so
kindly collaborated with or for me in the various sections. The book is
still some way from being near my ideal, but I have every hope that this
edition will be generally considered a very considerable improvement
upon previous issues.

                  FRED T. JANE.

  _Bedhampton,_
    _Hants.,_
      _England._



GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS, Etc.


  ENGLISH.      | DUTCH.           | FRENCH.        | GERMAN.             | ITALIAN.
  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  Abaft         | Achterste deel   | Arrière        | Hinter              | A poppa
  Accessories   | Onderdeelen      | Accessoires    | Zubehör             | Accessori
  Accumulator   | Accumulator      | Accumulateur   | Akkumulator         | Accumulatore
  ~AEROPLANE~   | Dekvlieger       | Aéroplane      | Drachenflieger      | Aereoplano
  Aeronaut      | Luchtvaarder     | Aéronaute      | Luftschiffer        | Aereonauta
                |                  | Aviateur       |                     |
  Aerostat      | Luchtbal         | Aérostat       | Freiballon          | Aereostato
  Aft           | Achterdeel       | Arrière        | Hinten              | Addietro
  After (rear)  | Achter           | Arrière        | Hinterer            | Poppa
  Air-cooled    | Luchtgekoeld     | Refroidit par  | Luftgekuhlt         | Raffredda ad
                |                  |  Pair          |                     |  aria
  Angleiron     | Hoekÿzer         | Cornière       | Eck Schiene         | Ferro ad angolo
  Anti-friction | Wit metaal       | Métal          | Lagermetall         | Metallo beanco
   metal        |                  |  anti friction |                     | (anti frizione)
                |                  |  on regule     |                     |
  Aviation      | Vliegtechniek    | Aviation       | Flugtechnik         | Aviazione
  Babbit Metal  | Babbits metaal   | Métal Babbitt  | Lagermetall         | Metallo Babbitt
                |                  |  on regule     |                     |
  Balance       | Evenwicht        | Equilibre      | Gleichgewicht       | Equilibrio
  Ball bearings | Kogellagers      | Coussinets à   | Kugel Lager         | Cuscinetti a
                |                  |  billes        |                     |  sfere
  Ballonet      | Luchtzak         | Ballonet       | Ballonet            | Palloncino
                |                  |                |                     |  compensatore
  Battery       | Batterÿ          | Batterie       | Batterie            | Pila a secco
  Bearing metal | Kussenmetaal     | Métal pour les | Lager metall        | Metallo par
                |                  |  coussinets on |                     |  cuscinette
                |                  |  regule        |                     |
  Behind        | Achter           | Derrière       | Hinter              | Di dietro
  Bevel geared  | Kegelraderwerk   | Engrenage      | Konischer           | Ingranaggio
                |                  |  Conique       |  Antrieb            |  conico
  Biplane       | Tweedekker       | Biplan         | Zwei decker         | Biplano
  Blades        | Bladen           | Pales          | Flügel              | Pale
  (of propeller)|  (der schroef)   |                |                     |  delt'elica
  Body          | Romp             | Fuselage       | Körper              | Telaio o
                |                  |                |                     |  chassis
  Bolt          | Bout             | Bonlon         | Bolzen              | Bollone
  Box-kite      | Kabel-vlieger    | Cerf-volant    | Drachen             | Aquilone a celle
  Bracket       | Klamp            | Tasseau        | Stütze              | Sostegno
  Brake         | Rem              | Frein          | Bremse              | Freno
  Breadth       | Breedte          | Largeur        | Breite              | Larghezza
  Canvas        | Doek             | Toile          | Leinwand            | Tela
  Car           | Gondel           | Nacelle        | Gondel              | Navicella
  Carburetter   | Vergasser        | Carburateur    | Vergaser            | Carburatore
  Casting       | Gietstuk         | Moulage        | Guss Stück          | Getto
  Centre of     | Zwaartepunt      | Centre de      | Schwerpunkt         | Centro di
   Gravity      |                  |  Gravité       |                     |  gravità
  Chain driven  | Door ketting     | Transmission   | Ketten antrieb      | Trasmissione a
                |  gedreven        |  par chaine    |                     |  catena
  Chassis       | Gestel           | Chassis        | Motor Rahmen        | Chassis
  Circumference | Omtrek           | Circonférance  | Umfang              | Cuconferenza
  Clutch        | Haak             | Embrayage      | Kupplung            | Innesto
  Connection    | Schakeling       | Couplage       | Kupplung            | Connessione
  Control       | Stuurinrichting  | Direction      | Lenk                | Meccanismo di
                |                  |                |  Ubersetsung        |  direzione
  Coupled       | Gekoppeld        | Jumelé         | Paarweise           | Accoppiato
  Crank shaft   | Krukas           | Arbre à        | Kurbelwelle         | Albero delle
                |                  |  manivelle     |                     |  manovelle
  Cylinder      | Cÿlinder         | Cylindre       | Zylinder            | Cilindro
  Die cast      | Ondermetaallager | Coussinets     | Schalenguss         | Cuscinette fusi
   Bearings     |                  |  moutés        |  Lager              |  in conchiglia
                |                  |  encogiulles   |                     |
  ~DIRIGIBLE~   | Motorballon      | Dirigeable:    | Motorluftschiff     | Dirigibile
                |                  |  Aéronat       |                     |
  Diameter      | Middellÿn        | Diamètre       | Durchmesser         | Diametro
  Direct driven | Direct           | Prise directe  | Direkter            | Presa diretta
                |  gekoppeld       |                |  Antrieb            |
  Electric      | Electrische      | Soudure        | Elektrisches        | Soldatura
   welding      |  Lassching       |  électrique    |  Schweissen         |  elettrica
  Elevator      | Hoogtestuur      | Gouvernail de  | Hohensteuer         | Timone
   (horizontal  |                  |  profondeur    |                     |  orizzontale
    rudder)     |                  |                |                     |
  Engine        | Motor            | Moteur         | Motor               | Motore
  Fan           | Ventilator       | Ventilateur    | Ventilator          | Ventilatore
  Fittings      | Fittings         | Garniture      | Garnitur            | Armamento
  Flight        | Vlucht           | Vol            | Flug                | Volo
  Flown         | Gevlogen         | Volé           | Geflogen            | Volato
  Fore          | Voor             | Avant          | Vorderer            | Ouvanti
  Forward       | Van Voren        | En avant       | Vor                 | Davanti
   (in front)   |                  |                |                     |
  Frame         | Romp             | Fuselage       | Rahm                | Telais
  Framework     | Geraamte         | Fuselage       | Gerüste             | Intelaiatura
  Gas bag       | Gaszak           | Enveloppe      | Luftballon (Hülle)  | Involucro
  Geared to     | Vertand          | Multiplié à    | Uebersetst auf      | Moltiplicato a
  Gear driven   | Met tandrad-     |                | durch Zahnrädern    | Trasmissione
                |  overbrenging    |                |  getrieben          |  a ingranaggi
  Girder        | Balk             | Poutre         | Balken              | Longarin
  Glider        | Glÿdvlieger      | Planeur        | Gleitflieger        | Apparecehio a
                |                  |                |                     |  planare
  Gondola       | Gondel           | Nacelle        | Gondel              | Navicella
  Helices       | Schroeven        | Helices        | Schranben           | Eliché
  Helicopter    | Schroefvlieger   | Helicoptère    | Schraubenflieger    | Elicoplano
                |                  |                |                     |   Elicottero
  Horizontal    | Horizontaalvlak  | Plan horizontal| Horizontal fläche   | Piano
   plane (in a) | (in een)         |                |                     |  orizzontale
  Horse power   | Paardekracht     | Puissance en   | Pferdekraft         | Forza cavalli
                |                  |  chevaux       |                     |
  Hydrogen      | Waterstof        | Hydrogène      | Wasserstoff         | Idrogens
  Ignition      | Ontsteking       | Allumage       | Zündung             | Accensione
  Inch          | Duim             | 25.39 m/m.     | 25.39 m/m.          | Pollice =
                |                  |                |                     |   25.39 m/m.
  Inclination   | Helling          | Inclination    | Schrägstellung      | Inclinazione
  Keel          | Kiel             | Carène         | Kiel                | Chiglia
  K.P.M.        | K.P.U. (kilom.   | Kilometres par | Kilometre pro       | Chilometre
   (kilometres  |  per uur)        |  heure         |  Stunde             |  all'ora
    per hour)   |                  |                |                     |
  Kite          | Vlieger          | Cerf volant    | Drachen             | Aquilone
  Length        | Lengte           | Longueur       | Länge               | Lunghezza
  Lining metal  | Lagermetaal      | Métal pour     | Lagermetall         | Metallo per
                |                  |  garnir less   |                     |  bronzine dei
                |                  |  coussinets ou |                     |  cuscinetti
                |                  |  régule        |                     |
  Lower (planes)| Onder (vlakken)  | Inferieur      | Untere Flächen      | Piani inferiori
                |                  |  (plans)       |                     |
  Magneto       | Magneet          | Magneto        | Magnet              | Magneto
  ~Maximum~     | Maximum          | Maximum        | Maximum             | Massimo
  Middle (plane)| Midden (vlak)    | (Plan)au       | Mittel Deck         | Piano medio
                |                  |  milieu        |                     |
  Mile          | Mÿl              | Mile           | Meile               | Miglio
  Military      | Militair         | Militaire      | Militärische        | Militare
  Miscellaneous | Verschillend     | General        | Verschiedenes       | Diversi
                |  (allerlei)      |                |                     |
  ~Monoplane~   | Eendekker        | Monoplan       | Ein decker          | Monoplano
  ~Motor~       | Motor            | Moteur         | Motor               | Motore
  M.P.H.        | M.P.U.           | Vitesse        | M.P.S.              | Miglia all'ora
   (miles per   |  (mÿl per uur)   |                |                     |
    hour)       |                  |                |                     |
  Multiplane    | Veeldekker       | Multiplan      | Vieldecker          | Multiplano
  Nacelle       | Schuitje         | Nacelle        | Gondel              | Navicella
  ~Non-rigid~   | Slap             | Souple         | Unstarr             | Non-rigido--
                |                  |                |                     |  flessibile
  Petrol        | Benzine          | Essence        | Benzin              | Benzina
    gasoline)   |                  |                |                     |
  Pilot (driver)| Bestuurder       | Flyer: Aviateur| Führer              | Aviatore
  Pivot         | Tap              | Pivot          | Gewinde Zapfen      | Perno
  Planes        | Vlakken          | Plans          | Flächen             | Piani
  Plug          | Kaars, stop      | Bougie         | Zünd Kerze          | Candela
  Pound (lb.)   | Eng pond =       | 0.453 kg.      | 0.453 kg.           | Libbra =
                |  0,453 K.G.      |                |                     |  0.453 kg.
  Pressure      | Druk             | Pression       | Druck               | Pressione
  Propeller     | Schroef          | Helice         | Schraube            | Eliche
  Quadruplane   | Vierdekker       | Quadruplan     | Vier decker         | Qudruplani
  Quintuplane   | Vÿfdekker        | Quintuplan     | Fünf decker         | Quintuplani
  Radiator      | Koeler           | Radiateur      | Kühler              | Radiatore
  Rear (in)     | Achterkant       | En arrière     | Hinten              | Indictro
                |  (aan de)        |                |                     |
  Reduction     | Reductie-        |Engrenage de    | Ubersetzung         | Ingranaggi di
   gearing      |  overbrenging    |demultiplication|                     |  ridugione
  R.P.M.        | Omw. per minuut  | Tours          | Umlauf              | Giri al minuto
   (revolutions |                  |                |                     |
    per minute) |                  |                |                     |
  ~Rigid~       | Stÿf             | Rigide         | Starr               | Rigido
  Rises         | Stÿgt            | S'eléve        | Hebt sich           | Si eleva
  Rubber        | Gummi            | Caoutchouc     | Gummi               | Gomma
  Rudder        | Roer, Stuur      | Gouvernail     | Steuer              | Timone
  Section       | Doorsnede        | Section        | Durchschnitt        | Regione
  ~Semi-rigid~  | Halfstÿf         | Demi-rigide    | Halb Starr          | Semi-rigido
  Span          | Spanwÿdte        | Envergure      | Spanweite           | Apertura
  ~Speed~       | Snelheid         | Vitesse        | Geschwindigkeit     | Velocita
  Stability     | Evenwicht        | Stabilité      | Gleichgewicht       | Stabilità
  Stabilising   | Evenwichtsvlakken| Ailerons       | Gleichgwichtsflächen| Piani
   fins         |                  |                |                     |  stabilizzaton
  Steel         | Staal            | Acier          | Stahl               | Acciaio
  ~Steering     | Stuurtoestel     | Direction      | Steuerung           | Meccanismo
   Gear~        |                  |                |                     |
                |                  |                |                     |  di direzione
  Steering Wheel| Stuurwiel        | Volant         | Steuerrad           | Volante di
                |                  |                |                     |  direzione
  ~Supporting~  | Draagvlak        | Surface        | Tragfläche          | Superficio
   ~surface~    |                  |                |                     |  di sostegno
  Surfaces      | Oppervlakken     | Surfaces       | Flächen             | Superfici
  Suspension    | Ophanging        | Suspension     | Aufhängung          | Sospensioni
  Switch        | Omschakelaar     | Interrupteur   | Schalter            | Interruttore
                |                  |                |                     |
  Tail          | Staart           | Queu           | Schwanz             | Coda
  ~Total weight~| Totaal gewicht   | Poids totale   | Gesamtlast          | Peso totale
  Transmission  | Overbrengingsas  | Arbre de       | Transmissions Welle | Albero di
   Shaft        |                  |  transmission  |                     |  trasmissione
  Trial         | Proef            | Essai          | Probe               | Prova
  ~Triplane~    | Driedekker       | Triplan        | Drei decker         | Triplano
                |                  |                |                     |
  Universal     | Kogelgewricht    | Joint          | Kardan              | Guinta
   Joint        |                  |                |                     |
                |                  |  universel     |                     |  universale
  Unladen       | Onbelast, leeg   | à vide         | Leerlaufend         |
  Upper (planes)| Boven (vlakken)  | Superior       | Ob ere              | Piani Superior
  ~Useful lift~ | Nuttier last     | Poids utile    | Outlast             | Forza utile di
                |                  |                |                     |  elevation
  Valve         | Kelp             | Soup ape       | Lentil              | Valvular
  Vertical plane| Vertical vlak    | Plan vertical  | (in der)            | Neal piano
   (in the)     |  (in heat)       |                |  Vertikalfläche     |  verticale
  Vertical      | Zÿstuur          | Gouvernail     | Seitensteuer        | Timone
   rudder       |                  |                |                     |
                |                  |  verticale     |                     |  verticale
  ~Volume~      | Inhoud           | Volume         | Inhalt              | Volume
                |                  |                |                     |
  Water-cooled  | Watergekoeld     | Refroidissement| Wasserkühlung       | Raffreddata
                |                  |  par eau       |                     |  ad acqua
  ~Weight~      | Gewicht          | Poids          | Gewicht             | Peso
  Wheels        | Wielen           | Roues          | Raeder              | Ruote
  ~Wings~       | Vleugels         | Ailes          | Flügel              | Ali
  Wood          | Hout             | Bois           | Holz                | Legno
                |                  |                |                     |
  Yard (measure)| Yard (maat)=     | 0.914 mètres   | 0.914 meter         | Jarda=0.914 m.
                |  0,914 M         |                |                     |



Part A.


AEROPLANES & DIRIGIBLES.

ARRANGED BY NATIONALITIES IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER.

Note.--Every nation is given in the following fixed order:--

     List of Aerial Societies and Clubs, with addresses and Secretaries
     where possible. List of Aerial Journals, with addresses, price, and
     dates of publication.

     List of Flying Grounds for aeroplanes, and hangars for dirigibles
     (if any).

     List of Military and Naval Machines and aviators.

     List of Private Aviators, total of machines, etc.

     AEROPLANES in alphabetical order, _uniform scale_ plans, and
     particulars.

     DIRIGIBLES: Military and private _uniform scale_ plans, and
     particulars.

        Note.--The uniform scale of dirigible plans is a smaller scale
        than that used for aeroplanes.



ARGENTINE.

(Revised by J. SCHIERE, Aeronautical Engineer and Librarian, Dutch R.
Ae. C.)


~Aerial Societies~:--

     Ae.C., Argentino, 561, S. Martin, Buenos Ayres.


~Aerial Journals~:--

     Boletin del Ae.C., Argentino (Monthly).


~Flying Grounds~:--

     ~Aerodromo Villa Lugano~. (P. Castabert, Director.)

     ~Aerodromo del Palomar~. (Military).


~Military Aviation.~

At the end of 1912 there were 6 military aeroplanes (3 _Bleriot_, 1
_Castaibert_, 1 _Nieuport_, and 1 _H Farman_)--all 1912 models.

Marcel Paillette is director of the military flying ground at the
Palomar Aerodrome.

More machines will be added and by the end of the present year it is
probable that a very considerable air force will exist.


~Private Aviators.~


  Bregi, Henri (A.C.F. 26)
  de Bruyn, A. (3)
  Castaibert, B. (1)
  Fels, T. (9)
  England, Gordon F.C. (British p.)
  Goffre, C.A. (4)
  Hentsch, H. (5)
  Mascias, A.R. (8)
  Melchior, E. (11)
  Newbury, G. (6)
  Origone, M.F. (10)
  Paillette, Marcel (French p.)
  Parravicini, F. (7)
  Roth, J.A. (2)
  Valleton A. (French p.)


PABLO CASTAIBERT. Monoplane.

                  |        ~1911.~           |         ~1912.~         |
         Type     |  _Bleriot-Hanriot_ type. |     _Bleriot_ type.     |
  ________________|__________________________|_________________________|
                  |                          |                         |
  Length          | 26-1/2 feet    (8.15 m.) | 28 feet       (8.47 m.) |
  Span            | 29 feet        (8.80 m.) | 30 feet       (9.35 m.) |
  Area            | 206 sq. ft.  (19-20 m².) | 194 sq. ft.    (18 m².) |
  Weight  (total) | 705 lbs.      (320 kgs.) | 617 lbs.     (280 kgs.) |
  Motor    (h.p.) | 25 Anzani                | 50 Gnome                |
  Speed    (p.h.) | 46-1/2 m.       (75 km.) | 50 m.          (80 km.) |

Note. Both fly well. Description in _Boletin de Ae.C. Argentino_.



AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN.

(By our Austrian Editor.)


~Aerial Societies:--~

     Cesky Club Automobilistn. Aviatische Sektion. (Prague.)

     Deutscher Luftfahrt-Verein in Boehmen (Teplitz-Schoenau).

     Flugtechnischer Verein für Mähren (Brunn.).

     Flugtechnischer Verein in Schlesien (Troppau).

     Flugtechnischer Verein in Steiermark (Graz, Schmiedgasse 31).

     K.k. Oesterreichischer Flugtechnischer Verein (Wienstrasse 31,
     Vienna).

     Kärtner Automobil Club (Klagenfürt.)

     Klub Awiata (Obertynska Str. 8, Lemburg, Galicia).

     Magyar Automobil Club (Budapest).

     Magyar Athletikai Club (Abt. fur Aviatik) Budapest.

     Oberösterreichischer Verein f.L. in Linz (Landstr. 119, Linz).

     Oesterreichischer Aero Club (St. Annahoff, Vienna) (_formerly
     Wiener Aero Club_).

     Oesterreichischer Flugsport Club (Breitegasse 7, Vienna VII).

     K.k. Oesterreichischer Flugtechnischer Verein (Weinstrasse 31,
     Vienna).

     Oesterreichischer Luftflotten-Verein (Vienna).

     Oesterreichischer Wintersportklub (Vienna). _Glider club._

     Verein für L. in Tirol (Innsbruck).


~Aerial Journals:--~

     _Allgemeine Automobil Zeitung._ (Fleischmarkt 5, Vienna) weekly.

     _Allgemeine Sport Zeitung._ (St. Annhoff, Vienna) weekly.

     _H.P. Fachzeitung für Automobilismus und Flugtechnik._ (Vienna)
     weekly.

     _Oesterreichische Flugzeitschrift._ (Aspernplatz, Wien I)
     fortnightly.

     _Wiener Luftschiffer-Zeitung._ (St. Annahof, Vienna) fortnightly.


~Flying Grounds:--~

_Military._

     ~Fischamend~ (Principal Army).

     ~Goerz.~

     ~Zaule b. Triest.~

_Naval._

     ~Pola.~

_Private._

     ~Aspern bei Wien~, Vienna.

     ~Rakos bei Budapest.~

     ~Wiener Neustadt.~



AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN AEROPLANES.


~Military Aviation: General.~

In June, 1912, a central aeronautical committee was created, under the
presidency of Prince Fürstenberg, to deal with the creation of a
national aerial fleet. One of the objects is the perfection of the
Austrian machines and factories.

About the same date, Pola was selected as a naval aviation school, and
two _Paulhan-Curtiss_ hydro-avions purchased.

In August the record making _Lohner_ was purchased for the Army.

During September Captain Odolek tested before the military authorities a
parachute of his invention; and a number were ordered.

In October very strict regulations were issued as to aircraft flying
over prohibited areas, a rule that any offenders would be shot at was
subsequently modified.

In November a _Donnet-Lerêque_ was purchased for the Navy and another
ordered at the Whitehead Works, Fiume.


~Army Section.~

At the end of 1911 the Army possessed 4 monoplanes and one biplane (a
_Lohner_), now available for school work.

During 1912 there were acquired:--

~20 monoplanes.~--1 _Bleriot_, 2 _Nieuport_, 15 _Etrich-Taube_, 1
_Etrich_ limousine, 1 _Deperdussin_.

~6 biplanes.~--4 _Lohner-Daimler_, 1 _Mars_, 1 _Klobucar_, (of the above
the 2 _Nieuports_, 1 _Etrich_ limousine and the 4 _Lohners_ were the
only ones built in Austria).


~Naval Section.~

~4 hydro-avions~ were acquired during 1912; 2 _Donnet-Levêque_ and 2
_Paulhan-Curtiss_.


~Military Pilots.~

  Banfield, Ob. Leut.
  Blaschke, v. Ob. Leut.
  Eyb, Ob. Leut.
  Flassig, Leut.
  Holeka, Ob. Leut.
  Kenese, Ob. Leut.
  Klobucar, Ob. Leut.
  Miller, Ob. Leut. (5)
  Oelwein, Ob. Leut.
  Perini, Leut.
  Petroczy, Haupt. von.
  Riedlinger, Ob. Leut. von.
  Schindler, Leut.
  Schünzel, Leut.
  Stohanzl, Ob. Leut. K (14)
  Umlauff, Major von. (10)
  Uzelac, Ob. Leut.
  Venczel, Leut.
  Welhelm, Ob. Leut. von

The military centre is at Goerz, the naval one at Pola.

Flying officers receive each a grant of 1,600 crowns; also 15 crowns a
month for upkeep. Special certificate brings 2,000 crowns extra grant.


~Private Aviators.~

 * = Superior brevet.
 + = Killed.

  Auer, J. (6)
  Baar, R.
  Baboncse, K.
  Banfield, K.
  Bauer, Dr. V.R. von.
  Bernat, M.
 *Brier, H. (18)
  Blaschke von. Z.R.
  Booms, W. (9)
  Bratmann, J.
  Buchstätter, A.
  Cejnek, J.
  Cihak, E.
  Ciszek, J.
  Czermak, J.
  Dworak, W.
 *Economo, C.F. von. (7)
  Fiedler, P. (19)
 *Flesch, J. (11)
  Friedmann, W.
  Haner, E.
  Hesse, M.
  Heyrowski, A.
  Hieronimus, O.
  Hinter, K.
  Hold, Hermann
  Huss, H.
 *Illner, K.
  Javor, J.
  Kaiserfeld, R. von.
  Kasulakow, W.
  Keck, Z.
  Kenese, W.
  Király, K.
  Klobucar, V.
  Knirsch, A.
  Kolowrat, A. Graf. (15)
  Kreiner, E.
  Lagler, B.V.
  Latzel, J.
  Lettis, A.
  Libowitzky, A.
  Mandl.
  Mazuranic, B.
 +Mosen.
  Nemec, H.E. von.
  Nittner, E.
  Ockermüller, H.
 +Petrovics, A. von. (13)
  Pischof. A.R. von. (2)
  Rabis, M.
  Reisner, H.
  Riedlinger, E. v. Kastrenberg.
  Rosenthal, F.
 +Russjan.
  Sablatnig, J. (12)
  Schartner, H.
  Schindler, A.
  Schonowsky, B.
  Schönpflug, F.
  Seidl, Franz.
  Simon, R. (4)
  Stanger, R.
  Steiner-Göltl, E. v. A.
  Stiploschek, M.
 *Székely, M.
  Tauszig, A.
  Teufl von. Ferland, R.
  Umlauff von F.
  Vlaicu, A.
 *Warchalowski, A. (1)
  Warchalowski, K. (8)
  Weiner, T.
  Widmer, J.
 +Wiesenbach, V.
  Woseçek, W.


~Private Aeroplanes.~

At the end of March, 1913, the total number of private aeroplanes in the
country was about twenty.


ETRICH Monoplanes. Etrich Flieger Werke, Wiener Neustadt. Igo Etrich was
a very early experimenter in conjunction with Wels. In 1909 he produced
on his own account the first _Etrich_ monoplane, a characteristic
machine, which except for detail improvement, varying dimensions, etc.,
has not been appreciably altered since. (See Historical Section.)

[Illustration: _Photo, C. Maleuit._]

  -----------------------------+---------------+-----------------+---------------------+
                               |               | ~VIII 1911-12.~ |    ~1912-13.~       |
       Model and date.         |  ~VII 1911.~  |    2-seater     | Limousine 2-seater. |
  -----------------------------+---------------+-----------------+---------------------+
  ~Length~           feet (m.) | 37    (11.30) | 30-3/4   (9.30) | 26-1/4          (8) |
  ~Span~             feet (m.) | 48    (14.60) | 42      (12.80) | 31-1/4       (9.50) |
  ~Area~        sq. feet (m².) | 380      (35) | 323        (30) | 280            (26) |
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)|    ...        |      ...        |         ...         |
  ~Weight~ {                   |               |                 |                     |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|    ...        |      ...        |         ...         |
  ~Motor~                 h.p. | 120 Daimler   |      100        |      60 Daimler     |
  ~Speed~         m.p.h. (km.) |    ...        |      ...        |         ...         |
  Number built during 1912     |     5         |       2         |          2          |
  -----------------------------+---------------+-----------------+---------------------+


Remarks.--A number of _VII_ & _VIII_ have been sold for military
purposes to the Austrian, Russian, German, and other governments.

[Illustration: Etrich VIII. UAS.]

[Illustration: Etrich. Limousine. _Photo, Guld._]


LOHNER-DAIMLER. This firm is now amalgamated with Etrich.

[Illustration]

  ----------------------------------+------------------+--------------------
                                    |                  |     ~1912-13.~
                                    |     ~1911.~      |  Lohner Daimler
                                    |                  |  Pfeilflieger.
  ----------------------------------+------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~                feet (m.) |       ...        |  32       (9.70)
  ~Span~                  feet (m.) |       ...        |  44-1/4   (13.50)
  ~Area~             sq. feet (m².) |       ...        |  450      (42)
               {total   lbs. (kgs.) |       ...        |  926      (420)
  ~Weight~     {                    |                  |
               {useful   lbs.(kgs.) |       ...        |        ...
  ~Motor~                      h.p. | 60 Aust. Daimler |  125 Aust. Daimler
  ~Speed~              m.p.h. (km.) | 50         (80)  |  62        (100)
  Number built during 1912          |        ?         |         4
  ----------------------------------+------------------+--------------------

Remarks.--Staggered and ~V~ shape. Late in 1911 one was purchased for
the Austrian Army. In 1912 made a world's altitude. Passenger record,
4,530 metres (14,862 feet.)


MERCEP Monoplanes. Mihalis Mercep, Aeroplanwerkstatte, Agram, Hungary.
Russjan was connected with this firm, which built 2 biplanes to his
designs in 1909. Russjan was killed in the second of these. In 1911, a
_Mercep_ was built.

  ----------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------
                                          |     ~1911.~     |    ~1912-13.~
  ----------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------
  ~Length~                      feet (m.) | 29-1/2  (9)     |   23      (7)
  ~Span~                        feet (m.) | 34-1/3  (10.50) |   32-1/2  (10)
  ~Area~                    sq. feet (m²) |       ...       |   204     (19)
               {machine, etc. lbs. (kgs.) |       ...       |   617     (280)
  ~Weight~     {                          |                 |
               {useful        lbs. (kgs.) |       ...       |   661     (300)
  ~Motor~                           h.p.  |       ...       |     50 Gnome
  Number built                            |        1        |         1
  ----------------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------

[Illustration: Mercep. 1912-13.]


WARCHALOWSKI, Biplane. Karl Warchalowski, Autoplan Werke, Odoakergasse
35, Vienna XVI.

[Illustration]

A machine generally on _M. Farman_ lines, but with different shaped
ailerons and corners of the leading edge rounded.


WHITEHEAD. Whitehead & Co., Fiume, Austria. The Whitehead Torpedo Co.
has laid down plant for the production of hydro-aeroplanes.


ZIEGLER Monoplane. Flugzengwerke Johann Ziegler, Vienna.

  --------------------------------+-----------------
                                  |    ~1912-13.~
  --------------------------------+-----------------
  ~Length~              feet (m.) |   59      (18)
  ~Span~                feet (m.) |   42-3/4  (13)
  ~Area~           sq. feet (m².) |   586     (55)
                       {    total |   1656    (750)
  ~Weight~             {          |
                       {   useful |       ...
  ~Motor~                    h.p. |   100 Mercedes
  ~Speed~           m.p.h. (k.m.) |   50      (80)
  Number built during 1912        |        2
  --------------------------------+-----------------



AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN DIRIGIBLES.


~Military.~

  -------+------------+-------------------+-------+----------+-------+-----------------+-------------
  Date   |            |                   |       | Capacity |       |     Speed.      |
   of    |   Name.    |   Make.           | Type. |  in m³.  | H.P.  | m.p.h. (k.p.h.) |    Remarks.
  order. |            |                   |       |          |       |                 |
  -------+------------+-------------------+-------+----------+-------+-----------------+-------------
         |            |                   |       |          |       |                 |
  1909   |   ~M 1~    | Parseval P.L. 4   | n.r.  |   2300   |  70   | 27      (45)    |
  1909   |   ~M 2~    | Lebaudy-Juillot 6 | s.r.  |   4800   | 100   | 23      (37)    | Wrecked 1911
         |            |                   |       |          |       |                 | but repaired
  1910   |   ~M 3~    | Körting (K.W. 1)  | n.r.  |   3600   | 150   | 30-1/2  (49)    |
  1912   |   ~M 4~    | Zeppelin          |       | 22,000   | 450   | 47      (75)    | _Building._
  -------+------------+-------------------+-------+----------+-------+-----------------+-------------


Military Dirigible Pilots.

  Cajanek, V.
  Grebenz, K.
  Hauswirth, J.
  Heller, S.
  Hofstätter, E.
  Macher, M.
  Tauber, F.
  Tepser, G.E. von.
  Weiss, H.


~Private.~

  ------------------+-------------------------+-------------+-------+----------+------+------------------+----------
      Date of       |                         |             |       | Capacity |      |      Speed.      |
   commencement.    |          Name.          |   Make.     | Type. |  in m³.  | H.P. |  m.p.h. (k.p.h.) | Remarks.
  ------------------+-------------------------+-------------+-------+----------+------+------------------+----------
      1910          |   ~MANNSBARTH-STAGL~    | Mann-Sl.    |  n.r. |   8200   | 300  |   40      (65)   |
      1912          |   ~BOEMCHER II~         | Boemcher II |       |   2750   |      |   25      (40)   |
  ------------------+-------------------------+-------------+-------+----------+------+------------------+----------

Two _Renners_ and a _Boemcher I_ have ceased to exist.


Private Dirigible Pilots.

  Adrario, K.
  Baumann, F.
  Becker, T.
  Berlepsch, F.F. von.
  Cassinone, A.
  Fürst, A.
  Hoffory, W.
  Hinterstoisser, F.
  Kaiser, K.
  Mannsbarth, F.
  Nowy, V.
  Richter, von. B.
  Stagel, H.
  Stratmann, W.
  Wagner, E. von. F.
  Zborowski, J.


BOEMCHER II. (1912-13.) Non-rigid.

  +------------------+
  |                  |
  |   _Building._    |
  |                  |
  +------------------+

~Length~, ? feet ( ? m.) ~diameter~, ? feet ( ? m.) ~volume~, 77,000 c.
feet (2,750 m³.)

~Gas bags.~--

~Motor.~--

~Speed.~--25 m.p.h. (40 k.p.h.)

~Propeller.~--


LEBAUDY-JUILLOT 6=Military M II. (1910.) Semi-rigid.

[Illustration]

~Length,~ 229-3/4 feet (70 m.) ~diameter,~ 36 feet (11 m.) ~volume,~
170,000 c. feet (4,800 m³.)

~Gas bags.~--Austro-American Rubber Co.

~Motor.~--100 h.p. Mercedes.

~Speed.~--27 m.p.h. (45 km.)

~Propellers.~--Two 2-bladed.

Remarks.--Built by the Austrian Daimler works to _Lebaudy-J._ designs.
Sister to the Russian _Lebed_.


KÖRTING-WIMPASSING (K-WI). Non-rigid=Military. M III. (1911.)

[Illustration]

~Maximum length~, 213-1/4 feet (65 m.) ~maximum diameter,~ 34-1/2 feet
(10.50 m.) ~volume,~ 127,150 c. feet (3,600 m³.)

~Total lift.~-- lbs. ( kgs.) ~Useful lift,~ lbs. ( kgs.)

~Gas bags.~--2 ballonets of 15,900 c. feet (450 m³.)

~Motors.~--2 Körting, of 75 h.p. each (= 150 h.p.)

~Speed.~--30-1/2 m.p.h. (49 km.) Made on trials March, 1911.

~Propellers.~--Two 4-bladed. Diameter, 9-3/4 feet (3 m.)

~Steering.~--_Parseval_ style. This ship is generally an adaptation of
the _Parseval_ type. Accommodates 8 people. Completed 1911. Military
airship.

Remarks.--

[Illustration: UDS.]


MANNSBARTH. Non-rigid (1911). _(Alias ~STAGL MANNSBARTH.~)_

[Illustration]

~Maximum length,~ ? feet ( ? m.) ~maximum diameter,~ ? feet ( ? m.)
~volume,~ 289,600 c. feet (8,200 m³.)

~Total lift.~-- ? lbs. ( ? kgs.) ~Useful lift,~ ? lbs. ( ? kgs.)

~Gas bags.~--Divided into 4 compartments. Ballonet in each.

~Motors.~--2 of 150 h.p. each (= 300 h.p.)

~Speed.~--40 m.p.h. (65 k.p.h.)

~Propellers.~--3. Diameter, 13 feet (4 m.) Also 1 helice.

~Steering.~--Helice used as elevator. Rudder aft. Forward and after
ballonets also used as elevators, _Parseval_ style. Completed 1911.

Remarks.--Built for Government, but not taken over.


PARSEVAL P.L. 4. Non-rigid. = MILITARY M I. (1909.)

[Illustration]

~Maximum length,~ 164 feet (50 m.) ~approx. diameter,~ 28-1/4 feet (8.60
m.) ~volume,~ ? c. feet (2,300 m³.)

~Total lift.~--5,730 lbs. (2,600 kgs.)

~Gas bags.~--Rubbered fabric by Austrian American Rubber Co.

~Motor.~--70-100 h.p. Mercedes Daimler. 1,200 r.p.m. at 70 h.p.

~Speed.~--27 m.p.h. (45 km.) made on trials.

~Propellers.~--_Parseval_ type, semi-rigid, chain driven, 3-bladed.
Diameter, 11-1/2 feet (3.50 m.)

~Steering.~--_Parseval_ system.

Remarks.--Built by the Austrian Motorluftschiff Gesellschaft to the
_Parseval_ type C design (see Germany). Taken over by the
Austro-Hungarian Army, December, 1909. Has flown 6-1/2 hours. Has risen
to 1,150 metres and subsequently flown 1-1/2 hours. Carries 4 persons,
_about_ 400 lbs. (180 kgs.) ballast, and fuel for 12 hours. _Station_:
Fischamend.



BELGIAN.

(Revised by M. BRACKE, Aeronautical Engineer & Editor of "L'Aero
Mécanique.")


~Aerial Societies:~--

     Aero Club Belgique.

     Aero Club of Hainault.

     La Ligue Nationale Belgique.

     Delta Club (Kites).

     Ae. C. de Flanders.

     Ae. C. du Littoral.

     Ae. C. de Liege-Spa.


~Aerial Journals:~--

     _La Conquête de l'Air._ (214 Rue Royale, Brussels) bimonthly, 5
     francs p.a.

     _L'Aero Mécanique_ (Brussels edition). Chemin de St. Denis,
     Casteau, Mons., Belgium, 2.50 f.

     _L'Aviation Industrielle et Commerciale_ (monthly), Chemin de St.
     Denis, Casteau, Mons., 1.50 f.


~Flying Grounds:~--

     Berchem.

     Brasschaet (Military).

     Camp de Casteau. (Aviation Industrielle & Commerciale).

     Etterbeek, near Brussels.

     Kiewit.

     St. Job (private property Baron de Caters.).



BELGIAN AEROPLANES.


~Military Aeroplanes.~

At the end of 1912 the military air force consisted of three 50 h.p.
Gnome _H. Farman_ 1911 military, used for instructional purposes, and
twenty-four 70 h.p. Gnome _H. Farmans_ (model 1912 military), for war
work:

The military school is at Brasschaet, near Antwerp. Major Campion in
command.

The course is as follows:

1. _Theoretical course._--Lectures on meteorology, structure of
aeroplanes, aviation motors, etc.

2. _Practical._--This, in addition to flight, consists of dismounting
and replacing parts of aeroplanes and aerial motors, all general
repairs, erecting hangars and aerial photography.

The school possesses nine hangars, of which three are Bessonneau type,
three wooden, and three metal.

For 1913 the sum of £20,000 is to be expended for purchase of aeroplanes
and the establishment of aerial squadrons at Antwerp, Liege, and
Brasschaet.

These are organised into six squadrons of four units each. The full
complement of each squadron is eight aviators, fifteen to 20 mechanics,
etc., and six citizen soldiers.

The question of hydro-avions for the Congo is under consideration.


~AVIATORS.~

(The number against any name is, unless otherwise stated, the Ae. C.
Belgique pilot certificate number.)


Military.

  Broune, Lieut. (37)
  Cozic, R. (23)
  Dhanis, Lieut. (35)
  Heinter Poorten (47)
  Lebon, Lieut. (36)
  Moulin, E. (45)
  Movtens, Lieut. (19)
  Nelis, Lieut, (in command) (28)
  Robert, V. (47)
  Sarteel, Lieut. (26)
  Sournoy, J. (46)
  Tocy, Lieut.


Private.

  Allard, E. (4)
  Armand, C. (22)
  Baugniet, Edmond (18)
  Boel
  Bracke, A.
  Camille, Amand (22)
  Christiaens, Joseph (7)
  Crombez (25)
  De Caters, Baron (1)
  De Heel, Emile (24)
  D'Hespel, Comte Joseph (15)
  De la Hault, Adhemar
  De Laet, E. (31)
  De Laminne, Chev (9)
  De Jonckeer (44)
  Depireux, Isidore (20)
  De Petrovsky, Alexandre (11)
  De Ridder, Alphonse (13)
  De Roy, W. (41)
  Descommines
  Deudeuner, A. (43)
  Dolphyn (40)
  Doneryos, J. (33)
  Duray, A. (3)
  Dutrieu, Mdlle. H. (27)
  Fischer, Jules (12)
  Frenay, Fernand (21)
  Hanciau, P. (34)
  Hanouilleo, P. (42)
  Hasen
  Lamblotte, F. (29)
  Lanser, Alfred (16)
  Lescart, F. (30)
  Mestagh, G. (39)
  Michez, S.R. (32)
  Olieslagers, Jan (5)
  Olieslagers, Max
  Orta, José
  Peeters
  Pickard
  Stellingwerff, J. (49)
  Tyck, Jules (8)
  Van den Born, Chas. (6)
  Verschaeve, Fernand (17)
  Verstraeten, Léon (14)

The following Belgian aviators have been killed:--

  +---------------------+
  | Kinet, Daniel (2)   |
  | Kinet, Nicolas (10) |
  | Verrept, John (38)  |
  +---------------------+


BEHUEGHE (Bron), in Herseun. Built in 1912. A monoplane that flew very
well at camp of Casteau Aerodrome during May--October. ~Motor.~--25.
h.p. type Morane. New designs in wing construction, landing chassis,
etc.


A. BRACKE (formerly Bracke, Missyon & Co.), Casteau, Mons. In 1910,
constructed the first aeroplane built by a Belgium firm--a monoplane
with planes at 120. This machine has not been duplicated: but the firm
have since built machines to private specifications. The only firm which
has in Belgium the speciality of aeronautical patents.


DE BROUCKERE, 23 rue Joardens, Brussels. Biplane. H. Farman. type. Built
in 1911, modified in 1912.


DE LA HAULT Adhémar de la Hault, 214 rue Royale, Brussels. In 1906,
built a flapper of novel design. This was followed in 1910, by a machine
on monoplane lines with one fixed plane and two flapping wings. This
failed to fly, and in August, 1911, was altered into a biplane. It did
not succeed, however. M. Hault is still pursuing the ornithopter
question.


HAREL I. Biplane. ~Length.~--49-1/4 feet (15 m.) ~Surface.~--344-1/2 sq.
feet (32 m².) ~Weight.~--771 lbs. (350 kgs.), flying order. Warping
wings. Monoplane tail. ~Motor.~--50 h.p. Gnome, mounted just under and
forward of the upper wing. ~Tractor.~--1 Chauviere. Elevator placed 1 in
front and 1 in rear, _H. Farman_ style. Rudders, 2 in rear. Completed
May, 1911. For further details see _Conquete de l'Air_, July 1st, 1911.
Property of M. Van der Stegen.


WILLIAMS. Biplane. ~Motor.~--70 h.p. E.N.V. Generally of headless
_Voisin_ type on a _Farman_ body. Completed 1911. Has flown fairly
well.



BELGIAN DIRIGIBLES.


Military.

~1910.~

1. LA BELGIQUE II~ (late ~I~)_ 4,000 m³.

~1911.~

2. LA BELGIQUE III

Note.--_La Belgique I_ was built in 1909 and re-built 1910.


Private.

VILLE DE BRUXELLES 6,000 m³.


LA BELGIQUE II. (No. 1 rebuilt.) Military.

[Illustration]

~Length,~ 226 feet (64.8 m.) ~maximum diameter,~ 35 feet (10.75 m.)
~capacity,~ 141,300 cubic feet (4,000 m³.) ~total lift,~ 9,921 lbs.
(4,500 kgs.)

~Gas bag.~--Rubber proofed Continental fabric. Ballonet, filled by a
separate motor giving 7.5 inches of water pressure. Warm air can be
pumped in if required. Ballonet, 28,250 c. feet (800 m³.)

~Motors.~--2, each of 60 h.p., Vivinus, 4-cylinder, 112×130.

~Propellers.~--1 in front of the car. 285 revolutions per minute. Wood
construction.

~Speed.~--25 miles per hour. 40 km. per hour.

~Planes.~--Horizontal: a gas tube bent horizontally round the tail.
Vertical: vertical fins on the tail, and a long vertical keel under the
gas bag.

~Car.~--A girder, square in section, tapered at both ends. Built of
tubular steel. Length, 82 feet (25 m.)

~Miscellaneous.~--Built by L. Godard, France, 1909. Crew, 3 men.
Accommodation for 1 passenger. Fuel for 10 hours. Greatest height
attainable, 3,280 feet (1,000 m.)

~Table of weights.~--
  Gas bag, complete with ballonet, valves, planes,   lbs.        kgs.
  suspension, etc                                    1,951       885
  Propellers (2)                                       275-1/2   125
  Blower                                                33        15
  3 h.p. motor for blower                               33        15
  Motors (2) complete with gearing and shafting      1,410       640
  Car                                                  992       450
  Fuel for 10 hours                                    738-1/2   335
  Ballast                                              826-3/4   375
  1 passenger (or ballast)                             154        70
  Crew (3)                                             463       210
  Guide ropes, etc                                     220       100
  Miscellaneous                                         88        40
                                                     -----     -----
                                             _About_ 7,165     3,250

Remarks.--Reconstructed in the winter of 1909. There are two noteworthy
innovations in connection with the ballonet. (1) The ballonet can be
warmed by the motor. (2) In case of real emergency air can be pumped
direct into the gas bag. Experiments of the utmost importance to all
airships are in progress with a view to ridding the gas of this air
cheaply and quickly.


LA BELGIQUE III. Military.

Presented 1910 to the Belgian Government by H.M. the King of the
Belgians. 4,500 m³. Practically same as II, but has 3 propellers.
~Motors.~--Two 100 h.p. Germain.


VILLE DE BRUXELLES.

(Formerly known as LA FLANDRE.)

(Astra type.)

[Illustration]

~Maximum length,~ 256 feet (78 m.) ~maximum diameter,~ 41 feet (12.4 m.)
~volume,~ 212,000 c. feet (6,000 m³.)

~Total lift.~--15,763 lbs. (7,150 kgs.) ~Useful lift,~ lbs. ( kgs.)

~Gas bags.~--Continental rubbered fabric, yellow. Ballonet, 16,146 c.
feet (1,500 m³.)

~Motors.~--2 Pipe motors of 100 h.p. each, placed in line with each
other in the fore and aft line, and with clutches and the necessary
gearing in between them.

~Speed.~--35 m.p.h.

~Propellers.~--3, namely: one at the fore end, driven by the two motors
when coupled together, and two placed above and on either side of the
centre of the car, for use when only one motor is running. Chauvière
propellers.

~Steering.~--Vertical steering by means of a large double aeroplane
fixed above the car, about a third from the front. Horizontal steering
by means of a double vertical rudder above the rear end of the car.
Stability is secured by the usual Astra pear shaped stabilising gas
bags, with fins of rubbered cloth spread between the inner edges of
these shapes.

Remarks.--The distinctive feature of this ship is the arrangement of the
propellers. Both motors can be coupled either on to the front propeller
or on to the two rear propellers, or on to all three together, but they
are actually intended only to drive the front one. On stopping either
motor the other is connected to the two rear propellers, which are
designed for a slower speed of translation than the front one, with the
result that the running motor does not find itself overloaded as it
would if the same propeller had to serve both for one and for two
motors.



BRAZILIAN.


~AVIATORS.~

Garos, Queiroz, Robert, Henri, Santos-Dumont, Versepuiz.


There are possibly one to two aeroplanes in Brazil, but the well-known
aviators live in France. Little or nothing seems doing in Brazil as
yet.



BRITISH.


~Aerial Societies:~--

     Royal Aero Club.

     Aerial League.

     Aeronautical Society. (Premier Society, founded 1866.)

     Brooklands Aero Club.

There were once a great many local aero clubs, but the majority of these
have ceased to exist and with one or two possible exceptions all the
rest are moribund.


~Aerial Journals, etc.:~--

     _Aeronautical Journal._ Quarterly. 53, Victoria St., London, S.W.

     _Aeronautics._ 3d. monthly. 27, Chancery Lane, London, W.C.

     _The Aero._ 6d. monthly. 20, Tudor St., London, E.C.

     _Flight._ 3d. every Saturday. 44, St. Martins Lane, London, W.C.
     (Official organ of the R. Ae. C.)

     _The Aeroplane._ 1d. weekly, 166, Piccadilly, London.

     _All the World's Aircraft._ 21/-. Annual. 100, Southwark Street,
     London, S.E. and 5, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C.

In addition, the _Car Illustrated_ and the _Motor_ devote considerable
space to aerial matters.


~Principal Flying Grounds:~--

     ~Aldershot.~--Army school.

     ~Brighton,~ Shoreham Aerodrome. Aero school.

     ~Brooklands.~--Bristol school.

     ~Camber Sands,~ Rye, Sussex.--At low tide moderately hard sand and
     soft places. Area two miles by one mile.

     ~Dagenham~ (Aeronautical Society).

     ~Dartford Marsh.~--Vickers school.

     ~Dunstall Park,~ Wolverhampton.

     ~Eastbourne.~ Aerodrome School.

     ~Eastchurch,~ Sheppey.--(R. Ae. C.) 350 acres. Sheds. Members only.
     R. Naval school.

     ~Filey.~--Blackburn school.

     ~Hendon.~--Grahame-White, Blackburn, Bleriot, Deperdussin, Temple
     and Ewen schools.

     ~Lanark.~--Deperdussin school.

     ~Liverpool~ (Melly school).

     ~Llandudno & North Wales.~--Aerodrome.

     ~Mapplin Sands,~ Essex.--(Foulness). Very hard sand at low tide.
     Area ten miles by four miles. Property of War Office. Flying
     forbidden in winter.

     ~Salisbury Plain.~--Bristol school. Vast space available. Plenty of
     fairly smooth ground. Army school.

     ~Shoreham.~--(See Brighton).

     ~Upavon.~ Central flying school (R. Flying Corps.)


~BRITISH MILITARY AVIATION.~

~Royal Flying Corps.~

In 1912 the Royal Flying Corps was instituted. It consists of two wings,
navy and army, with a central flying school at Upavon, Salisbury Plain.

The staff is as follows:--

  _Commandant_: Paine, Capt. G.M., M.V.O., R.N.

  _Secretary_: Lidderdale, Asst. Paymaster J.H., R.N.

  _Medical Officer_: Lithgow, Capt. E.G.R., R.A.M.C.

  _Quarter-Master_: Kirby, Hon. Lieut. (Qr.-Mr.), V.C.

  _Instructor in Theory and Construction_: Cook, Lieut.-Col. H. R., R.A.

  _Instructor in Meteorology_: Dobson, G., Esq.

  _Instructors in Flying_:

     Fulton, Capt. J. D. B., R.A.

     Gerrard, Capt. E. L., R.M.

     Shepherd, Lieut. P. A., R.N.

     Trenchard, Mt. Maj. H. M., D.S.O., R. Sc. Fus.

     Salmond, Capt. J. M., R. Lanc. R.

  _Inspector of Engines:_ Randall, Eng.-Lieut. C. R. J., R.N.


~Royal Aircraft Factory.~

This is situated at Farnborough. Mervyn O'Gorman is superintendent.
There are large sheds. Some _B E_ biplanes have been built here, but the
principal object of the factory is understood to be repairs and
maintenance.


~Naval Wing Royal Flying Corps, Aeroplane Section.~

There is a special Air Department at the Admiralty with Captain M. F.
Sueter, as Director, Commander O. Schwann and Lieut. C.
L'Estrange-Malone, as Assistants, Eng. Lieut. G. W. S. Aldwell, as Eng.
Inspector.

Officers are graded Flying Officers, then Flight Commanders, thence to
Squadron Commanders.

The flying school is at Eastchurch, Sheppey. Commander Sampson, S.C., in
command. There are at present four air stations: (1) Isle of Grain, (2)
Calshot, (3) Harwich, (4) Yarmouth.

At the end of March, 1913, the total number of aeroplanes including
those on order, school machines, etc., was about 32; of which about 16
were effective for war purposes or available at short notice.

These machines were as follows:--

  7 monoplanes (= 1 Bleriot, 2 Deperdussin, 1 Etrich, 1 Nieuport, 2 Short).

  15 biplanes (= 1 Avro, 2 Bristol, 1 Breguet, 1 Caudron, 2 H. Farman,
               1 M. Farman, 5 Short, 2 Sopwith).

  10 hydro-avions (= 1 Astra, 1 Avro, 2 Borel, 1 Donnet-Leveque,
                   1 H. Farman, 1 M. Farman, 3 Short).

The _personnel_ is as follows (number after names is the R. Ae. C.
brevet number):--


~Squadron Commanders.~

  Gerrard, Capt. F. L., R. M. (76)
  Gordon, Capt., R. M. (161)
  Gregory, Lieut. (75)
  L'Estrange-Malone, Lieut. C. (195)
  Longmore, Lieut.
  Sampson, Com. C. R. (71)
  Shepherd, Lieut. P. A. (215)


~Flight Commanders.~

  Courtney, Lieut. I. T. (R. M.)
  Grey, Lieut. Spencer (117)
  Risk, Capt. C. E., R. M. (303)
  Seddon, Lieut. J. W. (296)


~Flying Officers.~

Those marked * are under instruction, not yet graded.

 *Agar, Lieut. A.W.S.
  Babington, Lieut. J.T. (408)
  Bigsworth, Lieut. A.W. (390)
 *Bobbett, Boatswain H.C. (334)
  Bowhill, Lieut. F.W. (397)
 *Brodribb, Lieut. F.G. (481)
  Courtney, Lieut. I.T., R.M.
  Courtney, Lieut. C.L. (328)
 *Davies, Lieut. R.B. (90)
 *Edmonds, Lieut. G.H.K.
 *Fawcett, Capt. H., R.M.
 *Gaskell, Lieut. A.B.
 *Hathorn, Lieut. G.H.V., R.M.
  Hewlett, Sub. Lieut., F.E.J.
  Kennedy, Lieut. J.B.
 *Maude, Lieut. C.E.
 *Noyes, Asst. Paymaster, C.R.F.
  Oliver, Lieut. E.A. (425)
 *Parker, Asst. Paymaster E.B. (415)
  Rathbone, Lieut., C.E., R.M.
  Ross, Lieut. R.P. (422)
 *Sitwell, Lieut. W.G.
  Travers, Lieut. J.L.
  Vernon, Lieut. H.D. (404)
  Wildman-Lushington, Lt. G.V., R.M.A.

The following R.N. officers and men are aviators employed in various
duties at the Admiralty, at the Central Flying School or at
Eastchurch:--

  Aldwell, Eng. Lieut. G.W.S.
  Andrews, J.C. (372)
  Ashton, Ldg. Seaman
  Batemad, Able Seaman P.E. (446)
  Briggs, Eng. Lieut. E.F.
  Brownridge, Carp.
  Collins, Art. Eng. J.V.
  Cresswell, Lieut. T.S., R.M. (420)
  Deakin, A. (333)
  Gerrard, Capt., R.M. (76)
  L'Estrange-Malone, Lieut. C. (195)
  Lidderdale, Asst. Paymaster H.J. (402)
  O'Connor, Art. Eng. T. (280)
  Paine, Capt. G.M. (217)
  Randall, Eng. Lieut. (81)
  Schwann, Com. O. (203)
  Scarff, Art. Eng. F.W.
  Shaw, Shipwright D. (465)
  Shepherd, Lieut. P. (288)
  Susans, F. (380)
  Wells, Staff. Surg. H.V.


The following have privately secured pilot certificates in the years
mentioned but are not employed in the R.F.C. for aeroplane work. Some of
them, however (D), are employed in the airship section:--

~1911.~

   Bower, Lieut. J.A. (161)
   Clark-Hall, Lieut. (127)
   Leveson-Gower, Com.
   Williamson, Lieut. (150)
   Williamson, Lieut. H.A. (160)

~Naval. 1912.~

   Blatherwick, Lieut. G. (450)
   Brown, Com. A M.T. (345)
   Edwards, Lieut. C.H.H.
 D Freeman Williams, Lt. F.A.P.(202)
   Head, Lieut, G.G.W. (191)
   Hooper, Sub. Lt. C.W.W. (382)
   Johnson, Capt. C.D.
 D Masterman, Com. E.A.D. (Ae.C.F.)
   Prickett, Lieut. C.B. (381)
   Trewin, Asst. Paymaster (294)
 D Usborne, Lieut. N.F. (449)
   Wheeler, Mid. N.F. (370)

~Naval. 1913.~

 D Boothby, Lieut. F.L.M. (Ae.C.F.)
   Brady, B.J.W. (394)
   Brown, Lieut. A.C.G. (398)
   Dobie, Lieut. W.F.R. (448)
   Fitzmaurice, Lieut. R. (447)
   Freeman, S.T. (393)
   Littleton, Sub. Lieut. H.A. (405)
   Picton-Warlow, Lieut. W. (451)
   Ross, Lieut. R.P. (422)


~Army Wing Royal Flying Corps, Aeroplane Section.~

The Army wing has its headquarters at S. Farnborough, its constitution
being as follows:--

  1st squadron (airships or kites) see Dirigible Section.
  2nd "        (aeroplanes) base at Montrose.
  3rd "         "            "   " Salisbury Plain.
  4th "         "            "   " S. Farnborough.
      (Four more aeroplane squadrons _pro._)

An aeroplane squadron nominally consists of 18 aeroplanes (9 in service,
9 remounts). At the end of March, 1913, the total number of aeroplanes,
including those on order, school machines, etc., was about 110, of which
about 50 (including some monoplanes not in use) were effective for war
purposes or available at short notice.

The total of 110 was thus made up:--

  22 monoplanes (= 2 Bleriot, 4 Bristol, 5 Deperdussin, 4 Howard-Flanders,
                 1 Martinsyde, 6 Nieuport).

  86 biplanes (= 4 Avro, 22 B.E. type,[A] various makers), 2 Breguet,
               2 Caudrons, 30 Farman (various types), 6 Short--and about
               20 Avro or Farman or Short not delivered.


~Squadron Commanders.~

  Brooke-Popham, Capt. H.R.M. (108)
  Burke, Capt, C.J. (46) (Ae.C.F. 260)
  Carden, Lt. A. D. (239)
  Cook, Lt.-Col. H. R. (42)
  Fulton, Major J. D. B. (27)
  Raleigh, Capt. G. H. (196)
  Trenchard, Major H. M. (270)


~Flight Commanders.~

  Allen, Capt. C. R. W. (159)
  Beor, Lt. B. R. W. (R.A.) (185)
  Becke, Capt. J. H. W. (236)
  Connor, Lt. D. G. (54)
  Fox, Lt. A. G. (176)
  Higgins, Major J. F. A. (R.A.) (264)
  Longcroft, Lt. C. A. H. (192)
  Reynolds, Lt. H. R. P. (R.E.)
  Salmond, Capt. J. M.
  Webb-Bowen, Capt. T. I. (242)


~Flying Officers.~

  Abercromby, 2nd Lt. R. O. (134)
  Allen, Lt. D. L. (318)
  Anderson, Lt. E. V. (247)
  Atkinson, Lt. K. P. (267)
  Barrington-Kennett, Lt. B. H. (Adjutant) (43)
  Beatty, Capt. W. D. (89)
 *Birch, Lt. W. C. K. (375)
  Board, Capt. A. G. S. (36)
  Boyle, Lt. the Hon. D. G.
  Burchardt-Ashton, Lt. A. E.
  Burroughs, Lt. J. E. G.
  Carmichael, Lt. G. I. (316)
 *Chinnery, Lt. E. F. (211)
  Cholmondeley, Lt. R. (271)
 *Christie, Lt. A. (R.A.) (245)
  Conran, Lt. E. L. (342)
 *Corbalis, Lt. E. R. L.
  Darbyshire, Capt. C. (257)
  Dawes, Lt. L. (228)
  Dawes, Capt. G. W. P. (17)
 *Gill, Lt. N. J. (174)
  Glanville, Lt. H. F. (307)
  Gould, 2nd Lt. C. G. S. (282)
  Harvey, Lt. E. G.
 *Harvey-Kelley, Lt. H. D.
  Herbert, Capt. P. L. W. (244)
  Holt, Lt. A. V. (312)
  Hubbard, 2nd Lt. T. O. B. (202)
  Hynes, Lt. G. B. (R.A.) (40)
  James, Lt. B. T.
  Joubert, de la F. Lt. P. B. (280)
  Lawrence, Lt. W.
  MacDonnell, Capt. H. C. (273)
  MacClean, Lt. A. C. H.
 *Mapplebeck, Lt. G. W. C. (386)
  Martyn, Lt. R. B.
  Mead, Sergt. J. (475)
  Mellor, Capt. C. (155)
 *Mills, Lt. R. P. (377)
  Moss, Bt.-Major L. B. (241)
 *Musgrave, Capt. H. (R.E.)
 *Mulcahy-Morgan, Lt. T. W.
 *Noel, Lt. M. W. (416)
  Pepper, Lt. J. W. (98)
 *Picton-Warlow, Lt. W. (451)
  Playfair, 2nd Lt. P. H. L. (283)
 *Pretyman, Lt. G. F. (341)
  Porter, Lt. G. T. (R.A.) (169)
  Pryce, Hon. Lt. W. J. D. (Qr.-mr.)
 *Read, Lt. A. M. (336)
 *Rodwell, Lt. R. M.
  Roupell, 2nd Lt N. S. (237)
  Shepherd, Capt. G. S. (215)
  Soames, Lt. A. H. L.
  Small, Lt. F. G. D. (429)
 *Small, Lt. R. G. (343)
  Smith-Barry, 2nd Lt. R. R. (161)
  Stopford. Lt. G. B.
 *Todd, Lt. E. (185)
  Thompson, Lt. A. B.
  Tucker, Capt. F. St. G.
 *Vaughan, 2nd Lt. R. M.
  Wadham, 2nd Lt. V. H. N. (243)
  Waldron, Lt. F. F. (260)
  Wanklyn, Lt. F. A. (284)


~Reserve.~

  Ashmore, Major E. B. (281)
  Bell, 2nd Lt. C. G. (100)
  De Havilland, 2nd Lt. G. (53)
  Hartree. 2nd Lt. A. (214)
  Henderson, Col. D. (118)
  Marks, Lt. C. H. (83)
  Pizey, 2nd Lt. C. P. (61)
  Salmond, Capt. W. G. H.
  Smith, Lt. S. C. W.
  Unwin, Lt. E. F.
  Warter, 2nd Lt. H. de V. (107)


~Special Reserve.~ (_2nd Lieuts. on probation._)

  Biard, H. C., de la F. (218)
  Busteed, H. R. (194)
  Charteris, R. L. (197)
  Cutler, H. D. (189)
  Davies, E. K. (22)
 *Fuller, E. N. (325)
  Fuller, H. C. (Ae. C. F.)
  Gibson. W. E. (129)
  Hammond, J. J. (32)
  Humphreys, G. N. (390)
  Lerwill, F. W. H.
  Metford, L. S. (146)
  Perry, E. W. C. (130)
  Rickards, G. B. (400)
  Sippe, S. V. (172)
  Spratt, N. C. (339)
  Ware, D. C.
  Wilson, C. D. (Ae. C. F. 136)
 *Wilson, C. W. (329)
  Young, D. G. (207)


The following have qualified privately, R. Ae. C. brevets, but are not
at present employed in the Aeroplane Section:--

~1910.~

  Gibb, Lt. (10)
  Snowden Smith, Lt. (29)
  Watkins, Lt. H. E. (25)
  Wood, Capt. H. F. (37)

~1911.~

  Blacker, Lt. (12)
  Cross, Lt. (151)
  Dickson, Capt. (Ae. C. F. 260)
  Harford, Lt. (152)
  Harrison, Capt. (158)
  Hoare, Capt. (126)
  Hooper, Lt. (149)
  Hutchinson, Capt. Steele (143)
  Manisty, Lt. G. (135)
  Pitcher, Capt. (125)
  Sebag-Montefiore, Lt. (93)
  Smeaton, Lt.-Col. (115)
  Strover, Lt. E. J. (145)

~1912.~

  Agnew, Capt. C. H. (240)
  Alston, Capt. R. C. W. (255)
  Ashton, Lt. A. E. B. (201)
  Bannerman, Major Sir A. (213)
  Boger, Capt. R. (335)
  Borton, Lt. A. E. (170)
  Boyle, Capt. M. (241)
  Brodigan, Lt. F. J. (200)
  Broke-Smith, Capt. D. W. (204)
  Bulkeley, Lt. H. T. (246)
  Carfrae, Lt. G. T. (188)
  Chamier, Capt. J. A. (340)
  Cordner, Capt. R. H. L. (277)
  Ellington, Capt. E. L. (305)
  Empsom, Lt. J. (387)
  Fielding, L. H. C. (212)
  Fletcher, Lt. (229)
  Hanlon, Lt. D. R. (311)
  Jones, Lt. B. T. (230)
  Lewis, Lt. D. (216)
  Mackay, Lt. M. E. (177)
  Mackworth, Lt. J. D. (209)
  Martin-Barry, Lt. (Ae. C. F.)
  McCudden, Capt. J. H. (269)
  Miller, Capt. G. R. (313)
  Murray, Lt. R. G. H. (320)
  Nicholas, Capt. C. P. (266)
  Penn-Gaskell, Lt. L. de C. (308)
  Percival, Lt. D. (226)
  Pollok, Lt. R. V. (379)
  Powell, Capt. D. W. (389)
  Price, Capt. C. L. (299)
  Rawson, Lt. K. (249)
  Reilly, Lt. H. L. (252)
  Ridd, Corporal F. (227)
  Roger, Capt. R. (335)
  Stott, Capt. J. N. J. (373)
  Styles, Lt. F. E. (338)
  Thomas, Staff-Sergt. (276)
  Trevenon, Lt. B. J. (230)
  Weeding, Capt. (182)
  Winfield-Smith, Lt. S. G. (187)
  Worthington-Wilmer, Lt. F. M. (254)

~1913.~

  Archer, Lt. R. H. (434)
  Bayly, Lt. C. G. G. (441)
  Bruce, Sergt. W. R. (467)
  Bourke, Lt. U. J. D. (479)
  Cameron, Major N. J. (478)
  Chidson, Lt. M. R. (471)
  Crogan, Lt. F. J. L. (460)
  Harrison, Lt.
  Hawker, Lt. L. G. (435)
  Hordern, Lt. L. C. (440)
  Hosking, Lt. C. G. (472)
  Hunter, Sergt.
  Kemper, Sergt. K. (444)
  Lee, Lt. C. F. (431)
  Maclean, Lt. L. L. (427)
  Marshall, Lt. R. (470)
  McMullern, Lt. J. D. (436)
  Merrick, Major G. C. (484)
  Mitchell, Lt. W. G. S. (483)
  Read, Lt. W. R. (463)
  Rees, Lt. Col. W. B. (392)
  Stafford, Sergt. W. G. (438)
  Street, Sergt. E. J. (439)
  Thomas, Sergt. Major
  Vagg, Sergt. H. R. (443)

The above figures are mainly taken from _The Aeroplane,_ 1st May, 1913.

* = under instruction; not yet graded.


PRIVATE AVIATORS.

(The number against any name is, unless otherwise stated, the R. Ae. C.
pilot certificate number).

_To end of_ ~1911.~

  Abbott, C. R. (101)
  Aitken, A. H. (56)
  Anderson, J. A. (164)
  Archer, Ernest (Ae. C. F. 214)
  Ballard, F. M. (151)
  Barber, H. (30)
  Barnes, G. A. (16)
  Blackburn, H. (79)
  Bowens, R. G. (39)
  Boyle, Hon. Alan (13)
  Bretherton, John (136)
  Breton, J. (136)
  Brown, H. B. (109)
  Chataway, J. D. (167)
  Challenger, G. H. (58)
  Chambers, C. F. M. (168)
  Cockburn, G. B. (5)
  Cockerell, P. (132)
  Cody, S. F. (9)
  Conway-Jenkins, F. (74)
  Crawshay, R. (133)
  Colmore, G. C. (15)
  Dacre, G. B. (162)
  Darroch, G. R. S. (59)
  Dolphin, W. H. (82)
  Dunkinfield-Jones (138)
  Ducroq, M. (23)
  Dyott, G. M. (114)
  Driver, E. F. (110)
  Egerton, M. Hon. (11)
  England, Gordon (68)
  Esterre, C. R. (Ae. C. F. 259)
  Ewen, W. H. (63)
  Fleming, H. R. (69)
  George, A. E. (19)
  Graham-White, Claud (6) (Ae. C. F. 30)
  Gresswell, C. H. (26)
  Grey, W. H. de (107)
  Halse, E. (131)
  Hamel, Gustav (64) (Ae. C. F. 358)
  Harding, Howard (Ae. C. F. 213)
  Harrison, Eric (131)
  Hewlett, Mrs. (122)
  Higginbotham, Gerald (96)
  Hilliard, W. M. (102)
  Hubert, Charles (57)
  Hotchkiss, E. (87)
  Houdini, Harry
  Hucks, B. G. (91)
  Hunter, A. (137)
  Johnston, St. Croix, P. G. (41)
  Johnstone, W. Barnley (103)
  Kemp, R. C. (80)
  Keith-Davies, E.
  King
  Knight, Archibald (60)
  Lawrence, W. (113)
  Longstaffe, J. L. (140)
  Loraine, Robert (Ae. C. F. 126)
  Low, A. R. (34)
  Macdonald, L. F. (28)
  Maron, Louis (62)
  Martin, J. V. Mrs. (55)
  Macfie, R. (49)
  McArdle, W. E. (Ae. C. F.)
  M'Clean, F. K. (21)
  Mellersh, O. S. (155)
  Melly, H. G. (Ae. C. F.)
  Moorhouse, W. B. R. (147)
  Morrison, O. C. (46)
  Moore-Brabazon, J. (1)
  Noel, Louis (116)
  Ogilvie, A. (7)
  Pashley, Cecil L. (106)
  Pashley, E. C. (139)
  Paterson, C. E. (38)
  Paul, E. A. (Ae. C. F.)
  Percival, N. S. (111)
  Petre, H. A. (128)
  Philpott, R. W. (81)
  Pixton, H. (50)
  Prentice, W. R. (67)
  Radley, J. (12)
  Rawlinson, A. (3)
  Raynham, F. P. (85)
  Roe, A. V. (18)
  Salmet, H. (99)
  Sassoon, E. V. (52)
  Santoni, L.
  Singer, A. M. (8) (Ae. C. F. 24)
  Slack, R. B. (157)
  Smith, S. E. (33)
  Smith, W. W. (Ae. C. F.)
  Spencer, H. (124)
  Somers-Somerset (Ae. C. F. 151)
  Sopwith, T. (31)
  Stanley-Adams, H. (97)
  Stark (Ae. C. F. 110)
  Stocks, Mrs. C. de B. (153)
  Thomas, J. H. (51)
  Travers, J. L. (86)
  Turner, C. C. (70)
  Turner, L. W. F. (66)
  Valentine, J. (47)
  Watt, W. O. (112)
  Weir, J. D. (24)
  Weston, John (Ae. C. F.)
  Wickham, R. F. (20)
  Woodward, G. A. T. (A

_To end of_ ~1912.~

  Barnwell, R. H. (278)
  Beech, A. C. (Ae. C. F.)
  Bendall, W. (180)
  Bettington, A. V. (326)
  Birch, E. (322)
  Brock, W. L. (285)
  Cheeseman, W. E. (293)
  Featherstone, W. (384)
  Fowler, F. H. (221)
  Gates, R. T. (225)
  Garne, T. (173)
  Geere, A. E. (310)
  Gill, R. W. R. (258)
  Hall, H. W. (332)
  Hall, J. L. (291)
  Hardman, W. L. (323)
  Harrison, W. J. (275)
  Hawker, H. G. (297)
  Hedley, W. S. (274)
  Hewitt, V. (302)
  Higginbotham, V. C. (317)
  Holyoake, R. G. (268)
  James, J. H. (315)
  James, H. H. (344)
  Kershaw, R. H. (248)
  Lister, R. A. (250)
  Nesham, H. P. (219)
  Nevill, M. R. (223)
  Manton, M. D. (231)
  Meredith, C. W. (193)
  Merriam, F. W. (179)
  Parr, S. (184)
  Payze, Arthur (337)
  Potet, A. (224)
  Prensiel, G. (198)
  Simms, R. H. (261)
  Stodart, Dr. D. E. (321)
  Summerfield, S. (292)
  Sutton, E. F. (295)
  Sweetman-Powell, H. (251)
  Taylor, V. P. (376)
  Tremlett, L. A. (208)
  Wood, V. G. (171)
  Wynne, A. M. (314)
  Wright, H. S. (331)
  Yates, V. (306)

~1913~ (Brevets from 400 onward).

  Andreas, F. G. (477)
  Barron, J. C. (480)
  Hodgson, W. P. (433)
  Kehrmann, J. C. (420)
  King, R. A. (482)
  Lane, H. T. G. (418)
  Lawford, E. H. (442)
  Macandrew, H. E. W. (401)
  Macneill, W. (Ae. C. F.)
  McNamara, J. C. (445)
  Minchin, F. R. (419)
  Muller, P. M. (432)
  Temple, G. L. (424)
  Thompson, A. B. A. (452)
  Tower, H. C. (466)
  Rainey, T. H. (474)
  Russell, A. L. (406)
  Stewart, H. (473)
  Strain, L. H. (476)

The following British aviators have been killed:

  +-------------------------------------+
  |                1910.                |
  | Rolls, Hon. C. (2)                  |
  |                                     |
  |                1911.                |
  | Benson, R.                          |
  | Cammell, Lieut. (45)                |
  | Grace, Cecil (4)                    |
  | Napier (104)                        |
  | Oxley, H. (78)                      |
  | Ridge, T. (119)                     |
  | Smith, V.[B]                        |
  |                                     |
  |                1912.                |
  | Allen, D. L. (183)                  |
  | Astley, J. H. D. (48)               |
  | Bettington, Lt. C. A. (256)         |
  | Campbell, Lindsay (220)             |
  | Clark, Miss J.                      |
  | Fenwick, R. C. (35)                 |
  | Fisher, E. V. B. (77)               |
  | Gilmour, Graham (Ae. C. F.)         |
  | Hardwick, A.                        |
  | Hamilton, Capt. P. (194)            |
  | Hotchkiss, Lieut.                   |
  | Loraine, Capt. (154)                |
  | Petre, Edward (259)                 |
  | Parke, Lieut. W. (73)               |
  | Wilson, St. Serg. (232)             |
  | Wyness-Stuart, Lt. A.               |
  |                                     |
  |                1913.                |
  | Arthur, Lt. Desmond (233)           |
  | Berne, Paym'st'r (R.N.)             |
  | England, G. (301)                   |
  | Macdonald, L. F.                    |
  | Rogers-Harrison, Lieut. L. C. (205) |
  +-------------------------------------+



BRITISH AEROPLANES



~A~


AIRCRAFT FACTORY. Royal Aircraft Factory, Farnborough, near Aldershot.
For a long time this establishment had been engaged in dirigible
construction and repairs. In 1911 it was decided to expand it in
connection with the Royal Flying Corps. Its precise functions are
somewhat uncertain. Its nominal main purpose is the repair, etc., of
Service Aircraft. During 1912, however, it turned out several machines
to a design of its own, known as the _"B.E."_ This design was at one
time regarded as confidential; but subsequently duplicates were built by
private contractors, and the design illustrated below, published by the
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

[Illustration: B.E. type. R.A.F. UAS.]

~Length,~ 29-1/2 feet (9 m.)

~Span.~--36-3/4 feet (11.20 m.)

~Area.~--374 sq. feet (34-3/4 m².)

~Weight.~--

~Motor.~--75 h.p. Renault and others.

~Speed.~--


AERO'S Ltd. St. James' Street, Norwich Union Buildings, Piccadilly,
London, S.W. Established 1912 for the sale of all parts and accessories;
also for the sale of second hand aeroplanes and motors of all makes.
Does not construct at present.


AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING Co., Ltd. 47, Victoria Street, London, S.W.
Works: Hendon, London, N.W. This company established in 1912, holds all
the British rights for the _H. & M. Farman_ types. It constructs in
England all _Farman_ types at its own works. (See _Farman_, French).


AVRO. Aeroplanes. A. V. Roe & Co., Clifton Street, Miles Platting,
Manchester; also Shoreham, Sussex. A. V. Roe designed his first machine,
a biplane, in 1906. It was the first British machine to leave the
ground. He then experimented with triplanes in Lea Marshes, where he
managed to fly with only 9 h.p. in 1908-9. In August, 1910, built _Roe
III_, and in September, _Roe IV_, also triplanes (see 1911 edition for
full details). In 1911 he abandoned triplanes for the _Avro_ biplane.
School: Shoreham.

[Illustration: Type D (1911). _Photo, Alan H. Burgoyne, Esq., M.P._]

  ----------------------------------------+-------------------+----------------+----------------+-------------------+--------------------
                                          |    ~D 1911-12.~   |    ~E 1912.~   |    ~F 1912.~   |     ~G 1912-13.~  |  ~E 1912-13.~
                  Model.                  |     2-seater      |     2-seater   |     Totally    |      Totally      |   Hydro-biplane.
                                          |     biplane.      |     biplane.   |     enclosed   |      enclosed     |
                                          |                   |                |       mono.    |      biplane.     |
  ----------------------------------------+-------------------+----------------+----------------+-------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~                      feet (m.) |  31       (9.45)  |  29    (8.84)  |  23   (7)      |  29       (8.84)  |  33        (10)
  ~Span~                        feet (m.) |  31       (9.45)  |  36    (11)    |  28   (8.50)   |  36       (11)    |  47-1/2    (14.50)
  ~Area~                    sq. ft. (m².) |  279      (26)    |  335   (32)    |  158  (14-1/2) |  335      (32)    |  478       (34-1/2)
               {empty         lbs. (kgs.) |  800      (363)   |  900   (482)   |  550  (249)    |  1191     (540)   |  1740      (789)
  ~Weight~     {                          |                   |                |                |                   |
               {fully loaded, lbs. (kgs.) |        ...        |  1300  (589)   |  800  (363)    |  1700     (771)   |  2700      (1224)
  ~Motor~                           h.p.  |  35, any make     |   50 Gnome     |    40 Viale    |     60 Green      |  100 Gnome
  ~Speed~                    m.p.h. (km.) |  48       (78)    |  61    (97)    |  65   (105)    |  61.8     (100)   |  55        (90)
  Number built during 1912                |    several        |       6        |        1       |         1         |         1
  ----------------------------------------+-------------------+----------------+----------------+-------------------+--------------------

Remarks.--Of the above, 4 of the 50 Gnome E type were purchased by the
British Royal Flying Corps, and one by the Portuguese Government; the
other went to Windermere on January, 1913, for hydro experiments.
Climbing speed of this type is 440 feet per min. (134 m.) Dual control
fitted. D type are no longer being built. Climbing speed of F type, 300
feet per min. (91.5 m.) Gliding angle, 1 in 6. G has a gliding angle 1
in 6.5. On October 24th, 1912, made British record to date, 7'31-1/2"
(=450 miles). The hydro. was delivered to the British R.F.C. naval wing
early in 1913.

[Illustration: Avro. Type D (1911-12). U.A.S.]

[Illustration: E type Standard 50 h.p. Avro Biplane.]

  +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                                      |
  |                   _No suitable photo available._                     |
  | The machine is on usual lines. The first had a single float, but now |
  |                       two floats are used.                           |
  |                                                                      |
  +----------------------------------------------------------------------+
E type 100 h.p. Avro Hydro-biplane.

[Illustration: F type Enclosed Avro Mono.]

[Illustration: G type Enclosed Avro Biplane.]



~B~


BLACKBURN Aeroplanes. Blackburn Aeroplane Co., Balm Road, Leeds.
Blackburn produced his first machine early in 1910 (see 1911 edition for
details). In the latter part of that year he designed the machine which
ultimately developed into the _Blackburn_ military. In 1911 other types
were produced, all being fitted with the patent Blackburn triple
control. School at Filey Hucks has been the principal _Blackburn_ flyer.
The type has also been very successfully flown by naval officers.
Capacity of works: about 24 a year.

  ------------------+------------------------+------------------------+-------------------------------
                    |       ~1912-13.~       |        ~1912-13.~      |             ~1913.~
                    |   Military. 2-seater.  |    Military. 1-seater  |         Hydro-biplane.
                    |                        |                        |            2-seater
  ------------------+------------------------+------------------------+-------------------------------
  ~Length~          | 32 feet     (9.75 m.)  |  25 feet    (7.60 m.)  |  33 feet      (10 km.)
  ~Span~            | 40 feet     (12.20 m.) |  32 feet    (9.75 m.)  |  44 & 36 ft.  (13.40 & 11 km.)
  ~Area~            | 276 sq. ft. (26 m².)   |  195 sq. ft. (18 m².)  |  410 sq. ft.  (38 m².)
  ~Weight~ (total)  |          ...           |  750 lbs.  (340 kgs.)  |  1250 lbs.    (507 kgs.)
  ~Motor~       h.p.|          ...           |        50 Gnome.       |  80 Gnome or 100 Anzani
  ~Speed~           | 55-65 m.  (90-105 km.) |  60 m.       (97 km.)  |  65 m.        (105 km.)
  ------------------+------------------------+------------------------+-------------------------------

Notes.--Petrol for 5 hours (higher endurances can be fitted). Specially
designed for military work--all steel construction. All parts unwelded
to admit of rapid displacement. Clear observation provided for.

~Fuselage.~--The fuselage is ~V~ shaped and constructed of weldless
steel tubing in the form of a lattice girder. The main longitudinals are
of round section; cross members, oval section. Connections are not
welded but made with strong steel clips so that should any member become
damaged a new one can be readily arranged. The front portion is covered
with sheet metal giving additional strength and reducing the head
resistance. Stream line form tapering towards the rear which is covered
with fabric.

~Chassis.~--Two long skids connected up to fuselage by metal struts.
Each skid borne by a pair of wheels, axle held down by elastic shock
absorbers. On the axle of the wheels are fitted steel springs which take
side thrust. Each pair of wheels held by radius rods forming a bogie.

~Control.~--Patent Blackburn triple, independent or simultaneous on hand
wheel, but special foot control for rudder is fitted if desired.

In 1912, five machines were built, of which two were of the mil. model.
Others, non-military models (see last edition.)

[Illustration: Military monoplane.]

[Illustration: BLACKBURN. Military Type. Two-seater. UAS]

[Illustration: BLACKBURN. Naval Type.]


BRISTOL. The British & Colonial Aeroplane Co., Ltd., Filton House,
Bristol. Founded 1910. Capital (1913), ?. Have very extensive works
(area. ? sq. feet) on the outskirts of Bristol, employing over 300 men,
where they manufacture to their own designs practically every type of
flying machine. Flying grounds: Salisbury Plain, Brooklands. 105 Royal
Aero Club certificates won on _Bristol_ machines during 1912 (of which
86 were officers of His Majesty's Forces).

  ----------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------
                                    |   ~Military~    |   ~Military~    |                 |
                                    |    ~mono.~      |    ~mono.~      |   ~Tractor~     |    ~School~
                                    |    2-seater.    |    2-seater.    |   ~biplane~     |     ~mono.~
                                    |     80 h.p.     |     50 h.p.     |    ~1913.~      |  Side by side.
                                    |   ~1912-13.~    |   ~1912-13.~    |                 |
  ----------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------
  ~Length~                feet (m.) | 28-1/4   (8.60) | 23-2/3   (7.20) | 27-3/4   (8.47) |
  ~Span~                  feet (m.) | 42-1/3  (12.90) | 39-1/3     (12) | 34-1/3  (10.44) |
  ~Area~             sq. feet (m².) | 221      (20.6) | 226        (22) | 370      (34.4) |
  ~Total~     {machine, lbs. (kgs.) | 1719      (771) | 1323      (600) | 1764      (800) |
     ~weight~ {useful   lbs. (kgs.) | 710       (322) | 551       (250) | 1200      (544) |
  ~Motor~                      h.p. |    80 Gnome     |     50 Gnome    |    70 Renault   |     50 Gnome
  ~Speed~        {max. m.p.h. (km.) | 73        (118) | 62        (100) | 70        (112) |
                 {min. m.p.h. (km.) |       ...       |       ...       |       ...       |
  ~Endurance~                  hrs. |        4        |       3-4       |       ...       |
  Number built during 1912          |       ...       |       ...       |       ...       |
  ----------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------

Notes.--~Monoplane:~ Box section fuselage convex on bottom side to
minimise resistance. Mounted on 2 wheels and 2 skids with smaller wheels
attached at the forward end. Bristol tractor. ~Biplane:~ Box section
fuselage, convex on top and bottom sides. Mounted as monoplane. Bristol
tractor. This machine is the latest production of the Bristol Co., and
has proved an exceptionally successful flyer. Designed by M. Coanda.

[Illustration: 80 h.p. monoplane.]

[Illustration: 70 h.p. biplane. UAS.]


BLERIOT Aeronautics. Belfast Chambers, 156, Regent Street, London, W.
School: Hendon. British office of the _Bleriot_ firm (see France).


BRITISH BREGUET CO., 1, Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, London, W. Works
and offices: 5, Hythe Road, Cumberland Park, Willesden, London, N.W.
Established 1912. Constructs in England _Breguet_ models, some of which
are beginning to vary in detail from the originals (see France).


BRITISH CAUDRON. (See _Ewen_.)


BRITISH DEPERDUSSINS. British Deperdussin Aeroplane Co., Ltd., 39,
Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. School: Hendon.

Chairman: Admiral The Hon. Sir E. R. Freemantle, G.C.B., C.M.G.

Managing Directors: Lieut. J. C. Porte, R.N., D. Laurence Santoni.

Secretary: N. D. Thompson.

This firm handles the French models of _Deperdussins_, but has in
addition a special hydro-aeroplane of its own, of which one was built in
1912. Details of this special machine are:--~Length,~ 27 feet 10 inches
(8.50 m.) ~Span,~ 42 feet (12.80 m.) ~Area,~ 290 sq. feet (27 m².)
~Weight,~ total, 1,800 lbs. (816 kg.); useful, 1,250 lbs. (566 kg.)
~Motor,~ 100 h.p. Anzani. ~Speed,~ 67 m.p.h. (110 k.m.) Other models
sold by the firm are of French type exactly (see France).


BRITISH DONNET-LEVEQUE. Handled by Aeros, Ltd., 39, St. James' Street,
Piccadilly, London, S.W. Company forming March, 1913 (see France). Works
and school at Shoreham.


BRITISH FARMANS. (See _Aircraft Co._)


BRITISH HANRIOTS. Hewlett & Blondeau, Omnia Works, Vardens Road, Clapham
Junction, London, S.W. Construct all types of _Hanriot_ machines (see
France), also build to private specifications, and deal in accessories
generally.


BRITISH NIEUPORTS. Company forming 1913. Representative: M. Bonnier, 2,
Goulders Green Crescent, London, N.W.



~C~


CODY. Cody flying school, Farnborough. Cody commenced experiments with
kites in very early days on behalf of the British Admiralty.
Subsequently built the first British Army dirigible, and an experimental
Army aeroplane. In 1909, his direct connection with the Army ceased. A
_Cody I_ was built in 1908. A _Cody II_ was completed June 1910. The
_special features_ of both were: very strong construction, great size
(_II_ had area of 857 sq. feet), ailerons. Later types, except that
warping is substituted for ailerons, do not differ very materially
except in minor details. All wood construction.

  ---------------------------------+-----------------+-------------------+-------------------
                                   |     ~1911.~     |       ~1913.~     |       Model.
                                   |    4-seater     |      4-seater     |    May, ~1912.~
                                   |    biplane.     |      biplane.     |     Monoplane.
  ---------------------------------+-----------------+-------------------+-------------------
  ~Length~                feet (m.)| 38      (11.60) | 38        (11.60) | 38        (11.60)
  ~Span~                  feet (m.)| 43         (13) | 43           (13) | 43-1/2    (13.25)
  ~Area~             sq. feet (m².)| 484    (44-3/4) | 483      (44-3/4) | 260          (19)
               {total   lbs. (kgs.)| 1900      (862) | 1900        (862) | 2400       (1088)
  ~Weight~     {                   |                 |                   |
               {useful  lbs. (kgs.)| 1000      (453) | 1000        (453) | 700
  ~Motor~                          | 60 Green, later | 120 Aust. Daimler | 120 Aust. Daimler
                                   |   a 100 Green   |                   |
              {max     m.p.h. (km.)| 70        (115) | 75          (120) | 83          (135)
  ~Speed~     {                    |                 |                   |
              {min     m.p.h. (km.)| 47         (75) | 47           (75) | 58           (95)
  Number built to end of last year |        1        |        1          |         1
  ---------------------------------+-----------------+-------------------+--------------------

Remarks.--The 1911 is the famous _Cody_, which, as a 60 h.p., won both
Michelin 1911 prizes, and completed the _Daily Mail_ circuit. As a 100
h.p. it won the 1912 Michelin cross-country. By the end of 1912 it is
said to have flown a total of 7000 miles. The 1913 is practically a
duplicate with a more powerful engine. _Special features_ of the
biplanes, maximum camber to lower plane. Both planes equal span. Very
strong landing gear. Propeller chain driven: 1-3/4 to 1 gearing. In
February, 1913, four biplanes were ordered for the British Army.

Cody lists a mono. for 1913 a trifle longer than the above; also five
variations on the biplane of from 35 to 160 h.p., which can be built if
required.

[Illustration: Biplane.]


COVENTRY ORDNANCE. The Coventry Ordnance Works, Ltd., Coventry. London
office: 28, Broadway, Westminster, S.W. Established 1912. Capacity: 50
machines a year without difficulty.

  ----------------------------+--------------+
                              | ~1912.~      |
                              |   Model 10.  |
  ----------------------------+--------------+
  ~Length~           feet (m.)| 29    (8.80) |
  ~Span~             feet (m.)| 56      (17) |
  ~Area~        sq. feet (m².)| 630     (58) |
           {total  lbs. (kgs.)| 1900   (861) |
  ~Weight~ {                  |              |
           {useful lbs. (kgs.)| 800    (362) |
  ~Motor~                 h.p.|  100 Gnome   |
            {max. m.p.h. (km.)| 60      (97) |
  ~Speed~   {                 |              |
            {min. m.p.h. (km.)|     ...      |
  ~Endurance~             hrs.|     ...      |
  Number Built during 1912    |      2       |
  ----------------------------+--------------+

Remarks.--Experimental machines.

[Illustration]



~D~


DUNNE. The Blair Atholl Aeroplane Syndicate, Ltd., 1, Queen Victoria
Street, London, E.C. School: Eastchurch. In 1906 Lieut. Dunne was
employed by the British Army authorities for secret aeroplane
experiments. He had at that time patented a monoplane of < type. In 1907
_Dunne I_ was tried on the Duke of Atholl's estate in Scotland, but
failed to fly, being smashed on the starting apparatus. _Dunne III_, a
glider, 1908, was experimented with successfully by Lieut. Gibbs. In the
same year _Dunne IV_, a larger power driven edition made hops of 50
yards or so. Early in 1910 the War Office abandoned the experiments.
_Dunne II_, a triplane of 1906 design, was, by consent of the War
Office, assigned to Prof. Huntingdon, who made one or two short flights
with it at Eastchurch in 1910. At the same time the above syndicate was
formed, and _Dunne V_, built by Short Bros., was completed in June,
1910. In 1912-13 the Huntingdon, modified, was flying well.

[Illustration]

  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
                               |    50 Gnome.     |                  |                  |
                               |     ~1912-13~    |     ~1912-13~    |    ~1912-13~     |    ~1912-13~
           Model and Date.     |    single-seat   |     2-seater     |     biplane.     |     biplane.
                               |       mono.      |       mono.      |      ~D 8.~      |      ~D 9.~
                               |       ~D 7.~     |    ~D 7~ _bis._  |                  |
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|    _not given_   |      ...         |       ...        |       ...
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|  35      (10.66) |   35     (10.66) |   46        (14) |   45      (13.70)
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)| 200       (18.5) |  200      (18.5) |  552        (51) |  448         (42)
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)|1050        (476) | 1200       (544) | 1700       (771) | 1693        (768)
  ~Weight~ {                   |                  |                  |                  |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)| 359        (161) |  528       (239) |  414       (187) |  509        (231)
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|     50 Gnome     |     70 Gnome     |     60 Green     |     80 Gnome
  ~Speed~          m.p.h. (km.)|  60         (95) |   60        (95) |   45        (70) |   50         (80)
  Number built during 1912     |        1         |         1        |         1        |   5 b'lding ('13)
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------

Notes.--Biplane _D 3_ is identical with the original pattern _Dunne V_,
except that it has only one propeller instead of two. It has been flown
completely uncontrolled in a 20 m.p.h. wind, carrying a R. Ae. C.
observer as passenger.

[Illustration: DUNNE. Original Dunne biplane D5.]



~E~


EWEN. The W. H. Ewen Aviation Co., London Aerodrome: Hendon. Also works
at Lanark, Scotland (opened February, 1913). Hold the British rights for
and construct at their works _Caudron_ aeroplanes (see France).



~F~


FERGUSON. J. B. Ferguson, Ltd., Belfast.

[Illustration]

This machine first appeared in 1910. Owing to an accident to Mr.
Ferguson it was laid up for a long time. About the end of 1912 it
re-appeared. Principal details:--

~Span.~--40 feet (12.20 m.) ~Area.~--230 sq. feet (21 m².) H.P. 40.



~G~


GRAHAME-WHITE. The Grahame-White Aviation Co., Ltd., 166 Piccadilly,
London, W. Works and Flying Ground: Hendon. Founded by C. Grahame-White,
the well-known aviator, who in 1909 commenced operations with a school
at Pau. Later this was removed to England, and a general agency for the
sale of aeroplanes, etc., established. This developed, and early in 1911
the firm was handling a special British agency for the U.S. _Burgess_
type known as "The Baby." The Hendon Aerodrome was acquired, and a
factory established, which has grown continually ever since. In April,
1912, a monoplane to special design was completed. By the close of the
same year biplanes of advanced design were constructed. Capacity of the
works, March, 1913, was equal to 150 machines a year if necessary.

  ----------------------------------+--------------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+-----------------
                                    |       ~1913.~      |    ~1913.~    |    ~1913.~    |    ~1913.~    |    ~1913.~
                                    |      Military      |   "Popular"   |   "Popular"   |    Tractor    |  Monoplane.
                                    |      biplane.      |   biplane.    |   biplane.    | hydro-biplane |   Type IX.
                                    |      Type VI.      |   Type VII.   |   Type VII.   |   Type VIII   | single-seat.
                                    |     2-seater.      |   1-seater.   |   2-seater.   |   2-seater.   |
                                    |                    |               |               |               |
  ----------------------------------+--------------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+-----------------
  ~Length~                 feet (m.)|  33-1/4   (10.10)  | 20-5/6 (6.40) | 26-5/6 (8.22) | 25     (7.60) | 21     (6.40)
  ~Span~                   feet (m.)|     42    (12.80)  | 29-1/6 (8.85) | 38    (11.60) | 42-1/2   (13) | 32     (9.75)
  ~Area~              sq. feet (m².)|    435   (40-1/2)  | 230      (21) | 475      (44) | 380      (35) | 208      (19)
                {total   lbs. (kgs.)|   2200      (997)  |               |               | 850     (385) |      ...
  ~Weight~ {                        |                    |      ...      |      ...      |               |
                {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|    750      (340)  |               |               | 450     (204) |      ...
  ~Motor~                           | 120 Aust. Daimler  |   50 Gnome    |   50 Gnome    |   80 Gnome    |   50 Gnome
               {max.  m.p.h (k.p.h.)|     70      (110)  |  60      (95) |  50      (80) |  65     (105) |  65     (105)
  ~Speed~ {                         |                    |               |               |               |
               {min.  m.p.h (k.p.h.)|     55       (90)  |  50      (80) |  40      (65) |  50      (80) |      ...
  ~Endurance~                   hrs.|          6         |       4       |       4       |       4       |       4
  Number built during 1912          |          1         |      ...      |      ...      |       1       |      ...
  ----------------------------------+--------------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+-----------------
                                    | Also built with a  |   Also built  |               |   Also built  | Also built with
                                    | 90 Aust. Daimler.  |   with a 35   |               |   with a 60   | a 35 Anzani.
                                    |                    |               |               |               |
                                    | Designed to carry  |               |               |               | Two main floats
                                    | a gun on the bow.  |               |               |               | with 12-1/2 ft. track.
                                    |                    |               |               |               | Floats are 15 ft.
                                    | Very good view.    |               |               |               | long, 2 ft. wide,
                                    |                    |               |               |               | 1 ft. 3 in. deep.
                                    | Very strong landing|               |               |               |
                                    | carriage.          |               |               |               |
  ----------------------------------+--------------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+-----------------

[Illustration: Military Type VI. UAS.]

[Illustration: "Popular" biplane. Type VII. UAS]

[Illustration: Hydro-biplane. Type VIII. UAS.]



~H~

HOWARD-FLANDERS. L. Howard-Flanders, Ltd., 31, Townsend Terrace,
Richmond, Surrey. School: Brooklands. Established February, 1912, by
Howard-Flanders, whose connection with aviation dates from the pioneer
days. Richmond Works opened April, 1912. Capacity of the works at end of
1912 was sufficient to turn out from 25 to 35 machines a year.

  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
                               |    ~F 4 1912.~   |    ~B 2 1912.~   |   ~S 2 1913.~    |    ~F 5 1913.~   |    ~B 3 1913.~
                               |     2-seater     |     2-seater     |   single-seat    |     2-seater     |     2-seater
                               |     military     |     biplane.     |    monoplane.    |    monoplane.    |     biplane.
                               |    monoplane.    |                  |                  |                  |
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   31-1/2  (9.50) |   31-1/2  (9.50) |   28      (8.50) |   31      (9.45) |   31      (9.45)
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   40        (12) |   40        (12) |   35     (10.70) |   39     (11.90) |   40        (12)
  ~Area~          sq. feet (m²)|  240        (22) |  390        (36) |  190    (17-3/4) |  250        (23) |  390        (36)
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)| 1850       (839) | 1500       (680) | 1180       (535) | 1600       (726) | 1650       (748)
  ~Weight~ {                   |                  |                  |                  |                  |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|  500       (227) |  450       (204) |  350       (159) |  600       (272) |  600       (272)
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|    70 Renault    |     40 A.B.C.    |     80 Gnome     |     80 Gnome     |     80 Gnome
          {max     m.p.h. (km.)|   67       (108) |   56        (90) |   82       (132) |   70       (115) |   68       (110)
  ~Speed~ {                    |                  |                  |                  |                  |
          {min     m.p.h. (km.)|   41        (66) |   38        (61) |   45        (73) |   42        (68) |   40        (65)
  Number built during 1912     |         4        |         1        |                  |                  |
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------

Remarks.--_F 4_ climbing speed 1000 feet (305 m.) in 3-1/2 minutes, 1500
in 5-1/2 mins., 2000 in 8 mins. _B 2_ climbing speed 200 feet (61 m.)
per minute. The four _F 4_ type were bought by the British Army during
1912.

[Illustration: Monoplane.]

[Illustration: Biplane.]

[Illustration: FLANDERS. UAS.]

[Illustration: FLANDERS. UAS.]


HANDLEY-PAGE Monoplanes. Handley Page, 72, Victoria Street, S.W. Works:
110, Cricklewood Lane, N.W. Flying ground: Hendon. Established at the
end of 1908. In June, 1909, it was turned into a Limited Liability Co.
Since then it has been busily employed in producing its own machines,
also others to inventor's specifications. About the end of 1911 the firm
bought up and sold all the machines of the Aeronautical
Syndicate--_Valkyrie_ and _Viking_ types. It is doubtful whether any of
these V type still exist--in any case it does not matter. Four were
presented to the R. Flying Corps. Of these one was smashed up, the
others, one army and two navy, were used to teach mechanics to take down
and re-assemble engines, etc. Handley-Page also bought up the
_Radley-Moorhouse_ machines (Bleriot copies), and disposed of them.

The 1912-13 _Handley-Page_ type is as follows--a development along
regular lines of the original H.P. machine:--

[Illustration: Handley-Page V.]

~Length,~ 27-1/2 feet (8.40 m.) ~span,~ 42-1/2 feet (12.95 m.) ~area,~
240 sq. feet. (22-1/4 m².)

~Weight.~--Total, 1300 lbs. (590 kgs.) Empty, 800 lbs. (363 kgs.)

~Motor.~--50 h.p. Gnome. ~Speed.~ 55 m.p.h. (90 km.)

Remarks.--The fixed tail area is 32 sq. feet. Body is entirely enclosed,
stream line form. The passenger sits behind the pilot. Mounted on wheels
and one long skid forward. Full description and details, _Flight_, 26th
October, 1912.

Principal pilots have been the late E. Petre (who made in it the only
flight through London), the late Lieut. Parke, R.N., S. Pickles, and L.
R. Whitehouse. The machine has been flown with two passengers, in
addition to the pilot.

~Military work.~--During 1912 five biplanes of the _B.E._ type were
ordered by the British War Office. Several monoplanes were ordered by
foreign governments.

[Illustration: HANDLEY PAGE. UAS.]



~L~


LAKE FLYING Co. Windermere. Established 1911, by E. W. Wakefield, with a
view to hydro-aeroplane experiments. The first machine was a _Curtiss_
type built by A. V. Roe, which flew in November, 1911. In 1912, a
special biplane generally of _Farman_ type but with more camber to the
planes, was built.

[Illustration: WATER HEN.]

~Length.~--36-1/2 feet (11 m.) ~Span.~--42 feet (12.80 m.) ~Area.~--270
sq. feet (25 m.²) ~Motor.~--Gnome. ~Speed.~--45.33 m.p.h. (72.54 k.p.h.)

The single float is 6 feet wide, flexibly connected. Balancers mounted
on a spring board. Water rudders for steering at slow speed. Fuller
details see _Flight_, December 7th, 1912. Early in 1913, an _Avro_ was
purchased for further experiments.



~M~


MARTINSYDE. Messrs. Martin & Handasyde, Brooklands, Weybridge, Surrey.
Output capacity: about 20 per annum.

  ----------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+
                                    |     ~1912.~     |     ~1913.~     |
          Model and date.           | Mono. 2-seater. | Mono. 2-seater. |
  ----------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+
  ~Length~                feet. (m.)| 35-1/2  (10.75) | 35      (10.65) |
  ~Span~                  feet. (m.)| 42-1/2  (12.95) | 42-3/4     (13) |
  ~Area~              sq. feet (m².)| 290        (27) | 285    (26-1/2) |
                {total   lbs. (kgs.)|       ...       | 1212      (550) |
  ~Weight~      {                   |                 |                 |
                {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|       ...       | 551       (250) |
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|  65 Antoinette  |   80 Laviator   |
                {max    m.p.h. (km.)| 63        (102) | 78        (125) |
  ~Speed~       {                   |                 |                 |
                {min    m.p.h. (km.)|       ...       |       ...       |
  Number built during 1912          |       ...       |       ...       |
  ----------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+

Notes.--Wood construction. Landing: wheels and one skid. _Controls_:
warping wings and rear elevator. Triangular body. The two models are
very nearly identical.

[Illustration: MARTIN-HANDASYDE. UAS.]



~P~


PIGGOTT. Piggott Bros. & Co., Ltd., 220, 222 & 224, Bishopsgate, London,
E.C. This well-known firm of shed makers built a novel biplane in May,
1910 (details _Flight_, May 21st, 1910), and in 1911 a monoplane with
enclosed body (_Flight_, April 1st, 1911). In 1912, both were disposed
of, and the firm is not proceeding with its experiments. It has,
however, a staff of skilled mechanics and a great deal of floor space
for the construction of aeroplanes to specifications.


PLANES. Planes, Ltd., 6, Lord Street, Liverpool. Works: Duke Street &
Cleveland Street, Birkenhead. Not building at present. In October, 1910,
the firm produced a biplane, designed by W. P. Thompson, fitted with a
special pendulum stabilising device. This was followed a year or so
later by a monoplane.



~R~


RADLEY-ENGLAND. This is not an aeroplane firm, but a special hydro built
by two well-known aviators for the _Daily Mail_ competition. ~Length,~
22 feet. ~Span,~ 50 feet. 2 floats, 15 feet long by 1 foot 5 inches
wide. Pilot in starboard float. ~Weight,~ with petrol for 12 hours,
1,380 lbs. ~Motor,~ 150 h.p., made up of 3--50 h.p. Gnomes, but two
Greens to be fitted for competition. One 4-bladed propeller in rear.
~Speed,~ 60 m.p.h., with 100 h.p.



~S~


SANDERS. This firm appears to have ceased to exist.


SHORT BROS. Works and flying grounds: Eastchurch, Isle of Sheppey, Kent.
London office: Queen's Circus, Battersea Park. Took up construction at a
very early date. _Wright_ agents in 1909. Have built numerous biplanes
and monoplanes to specifications. Produced their own first machine (see
1911 edition) in 1910.

  ----------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------------------------------+-----------------+------------------
                                    |          ~S 41. 1913. Hydro Biplane.~            |         ~S 45. 1913. Military Tractor~           |          ~S 38. 1913.~          |      ~S 34. Standard School.~       |    ~1911-12.~   |    ~1911-12.~
                                    |                                                  |                   ~Biplane.~                     |   ~Military Nacelle Biplane.~   |                                     |    1-seater,    |     Tandem
                                    +----------------+----------------+----------------|----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+------------------+------------------+      mono.      |     tractor
                                    |     80 h.p.    |    100 h.p.    |    160 h.p.    |    70 h.p.     |     80 h.p.    |    160 h.p.    |    50 h.p.     |    80 h.p.     |      50 h.p.     |     70 h.p.      |                 |     biplane.
                                    |    2-seater.   |   2-seater.    |   4-seater.    |   2-seater.    |    2-seater.   |   4-seater.    |   2-seater.    |   3-seater.    |     2-seater.    |    2-seater.     |                 |
  ----------------------------------+----------------+----------------+----------------|----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+------------------+------------------+-----------------+------------------
  ~Length~                 feet (m.)|   35   (10.67) |   39   (11.90) |   45   (13.70) | 35-1/2 (10.80) | 35-1/2 (10.80) | 40     (13.70) | 35-1/2 (10.80) | 35-1/2 (10.80) |  42      (12.85) |  42      (12.85) | 25       (7.60) | 35-1/2   (10.80)
  ~Span~                   feet (m.)|   40   (13.70) |   50   (15.25) |   50   (15.25) | 42     (12.90) | 45     (13.70) | 50     (15.25) | 52     (15.85) | 52     (15.85) |  46-1/2  (14.20) |  46-1/2  (14.20) | 29-1/2      (9) | 42       (12.90)
  ~Area~              sq. feet (m².)|  390      (36) |       ...      |       ...      |      ...       |      ...       |       ...      |       ...      |       ...      |         ...      |         ...      | 186        (17) |        ...
                {Machine  lbs. (kg.)| 1200     (545) | 1700     (764) | 2000     (909) |1080      (490) | 1100     (500) | 1890     (860) | 950      (432) | 1050     (480) | 1100       (500) | 1150       (523) |       ...       | 850        (385)
  ~Weight~      {                   |                |                |                |                |                |                |                |                |                  |                  |                 |
                {Useful   lbs. (kg.)|  771     (350) |       ...      |       ...      |      ...       |      ...       |       ...      |      ...       |       ...      |        ...       |        ...       |       ...       |        ...
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|    80 Gnome    |    100 Gnome   |    160 Gnome   |   70 Gnome     |    80 Gnome    |    160 Gnome   |   50 Gnome     |    80 Gnome    |     50 Gnome     |     70 Gnome     |    50 Gnome.    |     70 Gnome.
                {max        (m.p.h.)|   65     (105) |   60      (97) |   74     (120) | 60        (97) | 70       (113) | 74       (120) | 42        (68) | 58        (94) | 39          (63) | 48          (78) |       ...       | 58          (94)
  ~Speed~       {                   |                |                |                |                |                |                |                |                |                  |                  |                 |
                {min        (m.p.h.)|   50      (80) |   50      (80) |   56      (90) | 50        (80) | 50        (80) | 56        (90) | 35        (57) | 39        (63) | 34          (55) | 38          (61) |       ...       |        ...
  ~Endurance~                   hrs.|       4        |        5       |        6       |       5        |        5       |        6       |       4        |        5       |        4         |        5         |        5        |         5
  Number built during 1912          |      ...       |       ...      |       ...      |      ...       |       ...      |       ...      |      ...       |       ...      |       ...        |       ...        |       ...       |        ...
                                    |                |                |                |                |                |                |                |                |                  |                  |                 |
  ----------------------------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+----------------+---------------------------------+------------------+------------------+-----------------+------------------
  Remarks.--Floats are two long pontoons. Subsidiary floats at tips of                 |Tandem seats, pilot in front.                     |Specially designed for           |Solely designed for                  |No longer built, but still
  lower plane. Small tail float with water rudder. W.-t. compartments                  |Fittings for maps, etc.                           |reconnaissance. Tandem           |school work.                         |in existence.
  to floats. Tandem seated, pilot in front. The observer's seat can                    |                                                  |seats, pilot in front. An        |Seats side by side.                  |
  accommodate two if necessary.                                                        |                                                  |extra passenger can be           |                                     |
                                                                                       |                                                  |accommodated.                    |                                     |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------+-------------------------------------+------------------------------------

[Illustration: Old 1911-12 Tractor biplane.]

[Illustration: Old 1911-12 mono.]

[Illustration: Short. Hydro. "Short" Hydro-Aeroplane type s 41. 100 FP
TRACTOR BI-PLANE UAS.]

[Illustration: Short. S. 45 type. UAS.]

[Illustration: Short. S. 38 military. UAS.]


SOPWITH. Sopwith Aviation Co. Works: Canbury Park Road,
Kingston-on-Thames. School: at Brooklands. Established by T. O. M.
Sopwith, the well known aviator at Brooklands, Autumn of 1911, where
during 1912, a 70 h.p. tractor biplane and a 40 h.p. biplane was turned
out.

Floor area of the Kingston works in March, 1913, was 30,000 sq. feet
with electric power plant. Works manager: F. Sigrist. General manager:
R. O. Cary. Output capacity: at full pressure about 50 machines a year.

  ----------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------
                                    |       ~1913.~     |       ~1913.~     |       ~1913.~     |       ~1913.~
           Model and Date.          |      Bat boat     |       Tractor     |       School      |      Armoured
                                    |        hydro      |       biplane     |      biplane.     |      warplane.
                                    |      biplane.     |      3-seater.    |                   |
  ----------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------
  ~Length~                 feet (m.)|   30-1/3   (9.20) |   29       (8.85) |   29       (8.85) |   29' 7-1/2"  (9)
  ~Span~                   feet (m.)|   41      (12.50) |   40      (12.20) |   40      (12.20) |   50      (15.25)
  ~Area~              sq. feet (m².)|  422         (39) |  365         (34) |  400         (37) |  552         (51)
                {total   lbs. (kgs.)| 1700        (771) | 1750        (794) | 1200        (544) | 2000        (907)
  ~Weight~      {                   |                   |                   |                   |
                {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|  500        (227) |  750        (340) |  400        (181) |  800        (362)
  ~Motor~                       h.p.| 90 Austro-Daimler |      80 Gnome     |      50 Gnome     | 90 Austro-Daimler
                {max.   m.p.h. (km.)|    65       (105) |   74        (125) |   48         (78) |   65        (105)
  ~Speed~       {                   |                   |                   |                   |
                {min.   m.p.h. (km.)|    42        (68) |   40         (65) |   35         (60) |   38         (61)
  ~Endurance~                   hrs.|        ...        |        ...        |        ...        |        ...
  ----------------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------

Notes.--Wood construction. Carriage wheels and skids. _Control:_
balanced ailerons.

[Illustration: Sopwith. Flying boat.]

[Illustration: 1913. Tractor biplane.]



~V~


VICKERS. Vickers, Ltd., Vickers House, Broadway, Westminster. School:
Brooklands. Seven pupils qualified during 1912.

  -----------------------------------+-----------------+------------------+
                                     |    Monoplane.   |     Military     |
            Model and date.          |    ~1912-13.~   |     biplane.     |
                                     |     2-seater.   |      ~1913.~     |
  -----------------------------------+-----------------+------------------+
  ~Length~                  feet (m.)|  25      (7.60) |        ...       |
  ~Span~                    feet (m.)|  34-1/2 (10.50) |  40      (12.20) |
  ~Area~               sq. feet (m².)|  220       (20) | 385        (35)  |
                {total,   lbs. (kgs.)| 730       (331) |        ...       |
  ~Weight~      {                    |                 |                  |
                {useful,  lbs. (kgs.)|       ...       |        ...       |
  ~Motor~                        h.p.|    80 Gnome     |   80 Wolseley    |
  ~Speed~                m.p.h. (km.)|  70       (115) |        ...       |
  ~Endurance~                    hrs.|        3        |        ...       |
  Number built during 1912           |       ...       |        ...       |
  -----------------------------------+-----------------+------------------+

Notes.--Steel construction. Landing shock absorbing: 2 wheels and 1
skid. Rectangular enclosed body. _Controls_: warping and rear elevator.

~Monoplane~ climbs 300 feet a minute fully loaded.

~Biplane~ is armed with a Vickers R.C. automatic gun in the bow.

[Illustration: VICKERS. UAS.]

[Illustration: Vickers. Monoplane.]

  +------------------------------+
  |                              |
  |                              |
  |                              |
  +------------------------------+
  Vickers. Armed biplane.


~W~


WHITE. J. Samuel White & Co., Ltd., shipbuilders and engineers, East
Cowes, Isle of Wight. London office: 28, Victoria Street, S.W. This
well-known firm of torpedo craft builders, etc., formally opened an
aviation department on 1st January, 1913, with Howard T. Wright as
general manager and designer.

  ----------------------------------+----------------+
                                    |     ~1913.~    |
                                    |  Navy 'plane.  |
  ----------------------------------+----------------+
  ~Length~                 feet (m.)|   30    (9.15) |
  ~Span~                   feet (m.)|   44   (13.40) |
  ~Area~              sq. feet (m².)|  500  (46-1/2) |
                {total   lbs. (kgs.)| 2000     (907) |
  ~Weight~      {                   |                |
                {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|  650     (295) |
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|    160 Gnome   |
                {max.   m.p.h. (km.)|   70     (115) |
  ~Speed~       {                   |                |
                {min.   m.p.h. (km.)|   35      (57) |
  Number built                      |      ...       |
  ----------------------------------+----------------+

Remarks.--Hydro-biplane, with Howard T. Wright patent aeroplanes to give
wide range of speed. Two patent hydro floats, 21 feet (m.) long, three
steps on each.

[Illustration: UAS.]



BRITISH DIRIGIBLES.


                                                          ~Navy.~                                                 ~Army.~
                                   /-------------------------^----------------------------------\ /------------------^--------------------\
  --------------------------------+----------------+---------------------+-----------------------+-------------------+---------------------
                                  |                |                     |                       |                   |   ~III, & IV & V~
          Name and date.          | ~II Willows 3.~|~III Astra Torres 2.~|   ~IV Parseval 18.~   |    ~II BETA.~     |   ~GAMMA, DELTA,~
                                  |    ~1911.~     |       ~1913.~       |        ~1913.~        |  ~1909 (1910.)~   |     ~EPSILON.~
                                  |                |                     |                       |                   | ~1910, 1912, 1913.~
  --------------------------------+----------------+---------------------+-----------------------+-------------------+---------------------
  ~Volume~           c. feet (m³.)| 31,800   (900) |  222,500   (6,500)  |  311,000     (8,800)  | 21,000     (594)  |  70,600      (2,000)
  ~Length~               feet (m.)|    120 (36.50) |         ...         |      276        (84)  |    104   (31.70)  |     152         (46)
  ~Diameter~             feet (m.)|     40 (12.20) |         ...         |   49-1/4        (15)  |     25    (7.60)  |      30       (9.10)
            {fabric               |     Spencer    |     Continental     |         Metzler       |  Gold beater skin |      Continental
  ~Gasbags~ {compartments         |      _nil_     |          3          |          _nil_        |       _nil_       |         _nil_
            {ballonets            |        1       |          1          |            2          |         1         |           2
                     {total   tons|    about 1/2   |       about 7       |        about 10       |   _about_ 3/4     |         2-1/5
  ~Lift~             {            |                |                     |                       |                   |
                     {useful, tons|       ...      |         ...         |          ...          |        ...        |          ...
  ~Motors~                    h.p.|    30 (=30)    | 2--120 Chenu (=240) | 2--180 Maybach (=360) | 1--30 Green (=30) |   2--50 Green (=100)
               {number            |   2 (swivel)   |          2          |    2 (s.r.) steel     |         1         |      2 (swivel)
  ~Propellers~ {blades            |        2       |          2          |           4           |         2         |           2
               {diameter feet (m.)|       ...      |         ...         |          ...          |       6   (1.82)  |         8-5/6
  ~Speed~        max. m.p.h. (km.)|       ...      |     38        (63)  |       42        (68)  |      18     (29)  |      28         (45)
  ~Endurance~           full speed|       ...      |         ...         |          ...          |        ...        |        4 hours
  ~Max. complement~               |        2       |        15-18        |         10-12         |         3         |           5
  ~Station~                       |   Farnborough  |         ...         |          ...          |    Farnborough    |      Farnborough
  --------------------------------+----------------+---------------------+-----------------------+-------------------+---------------------

Notes.--All the above are non-rigid. The military ones were all built at
the Royal Aircraft Factory.


~Navy Dirigible Pilots.~

  Boothby, Lieut. F. L. M. (_F.C._)
  Everett, Gunner F.
  Masterman, Comdr. E. A. D. (in command)
  Usborne, Lieut. N. F. (squad comdr.)
  Woodcock, Lieut. H. (_F.C._)

Undergoing Naval Aircraft Course:

  Crocker, Lieut. W. R.
  Hicks, Lieut. W. C.
  Wilson, Lieut. R. A.


~Military Dirigible Pilots.~

~Squadron Commanders.~

  Maitland, Capt. E. M.


~Flight Commanders.~

  Waterlow, Lieut. C. M.


~Flying Officers.~

  Brabazon, Capt. Honble. C. M. P.
  Fletcher, Lieut. J. N. (R.E.)
  Hetherington, Lieut. T. G.
  Mackworth, Lieut. J. D.
  Pigot, Capt. R.

The following hold dirigible pilot certificates, but are not at present
employed:--

  Broke Smith, Capt. P.
  Capper, Col. J. E.
  Fox, Lieut. A. G.


~Private Dirigibles.~

There are one _Willows_ (1912) (sister to the naval one) and a couple of
_Spencers_ about the size of _Beta_.


~Private Dirigible Pilots.~

Willows, E. T. (24-32, Villa Rd. Handsworth, Birmingham).


~BRITISH NAVAL DIRIGIBLES.~

[Illustration: Willows. The naval one is fitted with a boat-shaped car.]

[Illustration: Parseval. (photo of a sister ship.)]

  +-------------------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                                   |
  |                      ~New Construction.~                          |
  |                                                                   |
  | Messrs. Vickers have acquired the Parseval rights for the British |
  | Empire, and several airships of this type are likely to be put in |
  |                   hand by them shortly.                           |
  |                                                                   |
  |        Also reported that a big rigid is projected.               |
  |                                                                   |
  +-------------------------------------------------------------------+


~BRITISH MILITARY DIRIGIBLES.~

[Illustration: Beta.]

[Illustration: BETA.]

[Illustration: Gamma (Delta the same, but a smaller and enclosed car).]

[Illustration: GAMMA.]



BRITISH COLONIAL AIRCRAFT.


~AUSTRALIAN.~


~Military Aviation.~

In January, 1913, the Australian Flying Corps was instituted, as a part
of the citizen forces. During 1913, about £5,600 is to be spent.

The force is to consist ultimately of 4 officers, 7 warrant officers and
sergeants, 32 mechanics.

The school is at Duntroon. Course includes--mechanics of the aeroplane,
aerial motors, meteorology, aerial navigation by compass, aerial
photography, signalling, etc. Mr. Harrison is in command with Lieut. H.
Petre as assistant.



~Australian Aviators.~

  Banks, R. C.
  Busteed, H.
  Duigan, J. R.
  Hammond, J. J.
  Harrison
 +Hart
 +Lindsay, C.
  Petre, H.
  Pickles
  Watts

 +=killed.


~Private Aeroplanes.~

J. R. Duigan has built an aeroplane of his own design.



~NEW ZEALAND.~

Nothing doing worth mention. One _Bleriot,_ 80 h.p., presented 1913 by
the _Standard,_ London.



~CANADIAN.~


~Aerial Societies.~

     Aeronautical Society of Canada, c/o. M. P. Logan, 99 Gloucester
     Street, Toronto

     McGill Aviation Club, McGill University, Montreal

     Oshawa, Ontario Ae. C.

Note.--Owing to the fact that the late Aerial Experiment Association was
half Canadian and half U.S.A., it is difficult to draw a very clear
dividing line between Canadian and U.S. aviators or machines. Thus, one
given here is partly U.S.A., while at least one U.S. machine may be
claimed as "partially Canadian."


~AVIATORS.--Private.~

  Bell, Dr. Graham
  McCurdy, J. A. D.
    (U.S.A. Ae. C. 18)
  McHardy
  Symonds, E. F.
  St. Henry R.


~Canadian Aeroplanes.~


GRAHAM-BELL II. Flights were made by Dr. Graham-Bell in a tetrahedal
type, similar to one described in the 1911 edition.


McCURDY-WILLARD. Biplane.

~Maximum length,~ 26-1/4 feet (8 m.) ~maximum breadth,~ 31-1/3 feet
(9.50 m.) ~supporting surface,~ ? sq. feet (? m².)

~Total weight.~--

~Body.~--Central skid in combination with 4 wheels. Triangular body,
base of triangle on top. Fuselage entirely enclosed.

~Planes.~--Maximum span, 31-1/3 feet (9.50 m.) Chord, 3-1/2 feet (1 m.)
Gap, 5 feet (1.50 m.) Ailerons at trailing edge of wing tips, 6 feet x 2
feet (1.80×0.60 m.)

~Motor.~--

~Speed.~--

~Tractor.~--Diameter, 7-3/4 feet (2.40 m.) Pitch, 6 feet (1.82 m.)

~Steering.~--Double elevator placed in rear of tail. _Control_, push and
pull wheel. Rudder in rear. _Control_, wheel. Ailerons. _Control_,
turning steering-wheel left or right.

Remarks.--See _Aeronautics_, U.S.A., August, 1911.

There has been also the _Baddeck_ and other early machines (see 1911
edition), but none of them seem to be in existence at the present time.


~INDIAN.~

~Military Aviation.~--A certain number of officers belonging to the
Indian Army have qualified as pilots when home on leave, but there is no
organised force. One is, however, proposed.


~Private Aviation.~--In the past two or three home-made machines
appeared, and one or two were imported, but most or all are now extinct.


~SOUTH AFRICA.~

~Military Aviation.~--Non-existent.


~Private Aviation.~--J. Weston is a qualified pilot, but at the outside
there are not more than two effective machines in the country.



BULGARIAN.


In the Balkan War, 1912-13, Bulgaria hastily organised an aviation
corps. This, though necessarily lacking in military organisation, proved
very useful on several occasions.

At the end of March, 1913, the aeroplanes effective included 6 _Bristol_
monos.; one 70 h.p. _Bleriot XXI_; 2 _Bleriot XI bis_ (captured from the
Turks); also some half-dozen or more miscellaneous machines temporarily
hired.

~Military Aviators.~--The principal are Lieuts. Milkoff, Taraxchieff and
Petroff.

A number of other officers in various stages of training.



CENTRAL AMERICAN.


~General Note.~--Nicaragua and S. Domingo have both purchased one or two
aeroplanes for their military forces: but nothing appears to have been
done with them.



CHILIAN.


~Aviator.~--Edwards, Emilio. Sanchez Besa is a Chilian, but resides in
Paris (see France).


~Military Aviation.~--In 1912, a commencement was made and one 80 h.p.
_Deperdussin_ purchased. Other machines are now on order.



CHINESE.


~AVIATORS.~

  Lee, Y. L. (British Ae.C. 148)
  Tsai Tao Prince


~Military Aviation.~

In March, 1913, orders were placed for six 80 h.p. _Caudrons_, also for
six 50 h.p., and a decision arrived at gradually to acquire a force of
700 aeroplanes, but very little has actually been done to date.



DANISH.


~Aerial Societies~:--

  Danske Aeronautiske Selskab, 34 Amaliegade, Copenhagen.


~Aerial Journals~:--

  None; but Motor (3 Bredgade, Mezz, Copenhagen) deals with aerial matters.


~Flying Grounds~:--

  Klampenburg, Copenhagen.

  Skandinarisk Aërodrom.


~Army Aeroplanes.~

In 1911 there was an Antoinette. Nothing done since.


~AVIATORS.~


Military.

  Ullitkz, Kapt.


Private.

  Arntzen, Dr.
  Christiansen, S.
  Ellerhammer
  Folmes, Hansen
  Maltke, Count
  Nervoe, A.
  Svendsen, R.
  Thorup, K.



DUTCH.

(Revised by I. SCHIERE, Aeronautical Engineer and Librarian of the Dutch
Ae. C.)


~Aerial Societies:--~

     Haagsche Proefvliegtuig Club (3e V.d. Boschstreet 20, The Hague).

     Nederlandsche Vereeniging voor Luchtvaart (Nassau Zuilensteintraat,
     10, The Hague). (Ae. C.)

     Rotterdamsche Model Aero Club (Rochussenstreet 229b, Rotterdam).

_Colonial:_

     Nederlandsche Indische Vereeniging voor Luchtvaart.


~Aerial Journals:--~

     _De Luchtvaart_ (Ged Onde-Gracht, 141, Haarlem). Fortnightly.

     _Avia_, Wynbrugstraat 13, Rotterdam. Fortnightly.


~Flying Grounds:--~

     ~Breda-Gilske-Rijen.~--6 hangars.

     ~Soesterberg.~--20 hangars.


~Army Aeroplanes.~

Up to the end of 1911 there were none, though some officers had their
own private ones (_H. Farman's_ mostly).

At end of 1912.

  2 monos. _Deperdussin_ (for Java).
  1 biplane. _De Brouchére_ (for Java).


~AVIATORS.~

(The number against any name is, unless otherwise stated the Ae. C.
Nederlandsche pilot certificate number.)

To end of ~1911~.


Military.

  Bakker, H. Yandrig
  Labouchere, Lieut. J.
  Meel, Lieut. Van
  Poorton, Lieut. H. ter
  Versreegh, Lt, W. C. J.


Private.

  Bahle, F. K.
  Boerlage, M.
  Burgh, Van der
  Fokker, A. H. G.
  Hilgers, J. W. E. L.
  Konings, L.
  Koolhoven (1)
  Küller, G. P. (2)
  Lutge, F. (4) (323, F.)
  Mulder, A.
  Riemsdyk, Van F. (5)
  Ryk, Madame Bde.
  Wynmalen, H. (6) (208, F.)

The following Dutch aviator has been killed:

  +------------------+
  |       1911.      |
  | Van Maasdyck, C. |
  | (130, Ae. C. F.) |
  +------------------+



DUTCH AEROPLANES.


DE BROUCKERE. Biplane. _H. Farman_ type. Details, _De Luchtvaart_, No.
8, 1911.


FOKKER. Monoplane. Anthony Fokker, of Haarlem. In early 1912 flew at
Breda.


MONNIER-HARPER. Monoplane. (O.P.I.I.) Generally _Bleriot_ type. Built
1911.


VAN DEN BURG. Monoplane. Early in 1912 was flying at Johannisthal,
Germany.


VREEDENBURGH. Monoplane. (O.P.I.I.) Blend of _Bleriot_ and _Antoinette_.
Motor, 75 h.p. Miesse. Completed December, 1909.


[Illustration]

FOKKER. Monoplane. (See Germany for details.) Firm now established in
Germany.



DUTCH DIRIGIBLES.


~Military.~

DUINDIGT. Non-rigid.

(Zodiac make.)

~Length~, 111-1/2 feet (34 m.) ~diameter~, 22-1/2 feet (60.80 m.)
~capacity~, 31,785 c. feet (900 m³.)

~Motor~.--18 h.p.

Remarks.--Small edition of _Zodiac III_. (See France.)



FRENCH.

(Special French Editor.)


~Aerial Societies:--~

     Aero Club de France.

     Academie Aeronautique de France.

     Aeronautique Club de France.

     Société des Aëronautes du Siège.

     Aero Club du Sud Ouest.

     Aero Club du Rhone.

     Aero Club du Nord.

     La Ligue Aerienne du Sud.

     Société Francaise de Navigation Aérienne.

     Société d'encouragement à l'Aviation.

     (_Full list of clubs next page._)


~Aerial Journals:--~

     _L'Aerophile._

     _L'Aero._

     _L'Aeronaute._

     _Aerostat (Bulletin Aeronautique)._

     _Aerostat (Academie d'Aerostation)._

     _Revue de l'Aerostation._

     _Le Ballon._

     _L'Aerostation._

     _L'Aeronautique._

     _Bulletin Aeronautique._

     _Encyclopediede l'Aviation._

     _La Ligue Nationale Aerienne._

     _Revue de l'Aviation._

     _L'Aeromécanique._


~Principal Flying Grounds:~

     ~Antibes.~--Hanriot school.

     ~Beauce.~

     ~Betheny.~--Sommer school. ~Deperdussin School.~

     ~Buc.~--M. Farman school.

     ~Buoy.~

     ~Chalons.~--Sommer school.

     ~Chalais-Mendon.~ (Military)

     ~Chatres.~--Savary school.

     ~Cran~, Marseilles.

     ~Crotoy.~--Caudron school.

     ~Croix d'Hins~, Bordeaux (Aer. Lig. du Sud.) Area 6 km. Track. Free
     sheds.

     ~Corbeaulieu~ pres. Compregne.--Doutre school.

     ~Etampes.~--Bleriot school. Farman school.

     ~Grand Camp, Lyons.~

     ~Issy les Moulineaux.~--Astra school

     ~Juan-le-Pias.~--Paulhan aquaplane school.

     ~Juvissy~, near Paris.--Aerodrome. Caudron school. Goupy school.

     ~La Brayelle~, Douai.--Breguet school.

     ~Da motte Brueil dans L'Oise.~

     ~Le Bourget~, Paris.--100 sheds.

     ~Le Mans.~

     ~Moisson.~

     ~Mourmelon.~--Voisin school.

     ~Napante.~

     ~Nice.~--Small and rough surface.

     ~Pau.~--Bleriot school.

     ~Reims.~--Aerodrome.

     ~St. Cyr.~

     ~Villacoublay~, Paris.--Breguet, Nieuport and Astra schools.



FRENCH AEROPLANES.


~Military Aviation.~

In February, 1912, the then total of 208 effective aeroplanes were
divided into "squadrillas" consisting of eight aeroplanes; attached to
these eleven or twelve motor cars, one traction car and one fast car,
also a repairing car and repairing van.

It was then estimated that at the end of 1912, ~344~ aeroplanes would be
available for service.

The estimated _personnel_ was provisionally fixed at 234 officer pilots,
210 scouts, 42 mechanics, 110 officers, 1,600 corporals or sappers and
550 privates.

Approximately £880,000 was spent in aviation during 1912, and £1,000,000
was estimated for future years.

The French military aviation centres are all upon somewhat the same
footing as fortresses, and the greater part of the work comes under the
head of "confidential." The principal school is at St. Cyr, which was
specially selected because the ground is rough and mostly covered with
small shrubs: it being held important to train officers from the first
to rise and land on ground similar to that most likely to be found in
war time. Each station is supplied with large portable wooden-framed
hangars covered with canvas. These can be rapidly taken to pieces and
re-erected. Each station is supplied with its own special motor
transport.

All military machines are provided with a compass and map case in front
of the pilot and sketching apparatus in front of the observer.

Although a few non-commissioned officers have been taught flying, the
organization only contemplates the employment of commissioned officers
as pilots. The age limit is 38.

On April 16th, 1913, the flying corps was modified. The principal
features of the corps as now existing are as follows:--


~Establishments.~

1. Schools.

2. Special establishments, dealing with purchase, construction, and big
repairs.

3. _Directions._ Administration of _material_.

4. Depots. A species of dockyards dealing with minor repairs, etc.


~Administration.~

There are three main groups, each commanded by a colonel. Each group
consists of dirigibles and aeroplane "escadrilles," and is fully
equipped with establishments, etc. The three centres are:--

1. Versailles.

2. Reims.

3. Lyon.


~General.~

All squadron units are made up of machines of the same make and power.
Pilots are detailed as required to any particular unit, and liable to
transfer from one to another, though in practice such transfers are
rare.


~Army Aeroplanes.~

During 1912 nearly 500 machines were delivered to the Army, but a great
many old machines have been scrapped. At the end of March, 1913, the
force stood at 421 effective for war machines, plus an uncertain number
of school machines and obsoletes.

About one-third or more of the effective aeroplanes were _Farmans_. The
rest consisted of all leading French types, proportionated more or less
to the productive capacity of these firms. Also certain other makes
experimental.


~Navy Aviation.~

The Navy section of French military aviation is still in the "being
formed" process. No data are yet available as to the ultimate force to
be provided. At present the number of effective war machines is small.
It is made up of hydro-avions of the following types:--_Astra_, _Borel_,
_Breguet_, _Caudron_, _Deperdussin_, _Donnet-Leveque_, _Farman_,
_Paulhan-Curtiss_, _Sanchez-Besa_, the total at end of March, 1913,
being well under 20. There are also two special _Bleriot_ type fitted
with floats, which carry 330 lbs of explosive, are fitted with wireless,
have a speed of 140 km.p.h. (85 m.p.h.), and a radius of about 600 miles
(1,000 km.)


~PRINCIPAL FRENCH ARMY AND NAVY AVIATORS.~

(In each case the number against each name is, unless otherwise stated,
the Ae. C. French certificate pilot number.)


Army.

  Abadie, Sous Officier
  Acevedo, Lieut. (740)
  Acquaviva, Lieut. Paul V. (68)
  Aiguillon, Lt. R.d' (308)
  Aubry, Lieut.
  Balensi, Capt. Albert (173)
  Bares, Capt. (543)
  Basset, Lieut. Paul (145)
  Battini, Lieut. G. (508)
  Baugnies, Lt. J. B. E. (193)
  Beatrix, Sous Officier
  Bellemois, Lieut. G. (546)
  Bellenger, Capt. M. (45)
  Berni, Lieut. (760)
  Biard, Capt. G. M. (261)
  Bihan, Lieut.
  Binda, Lieut. Louis (232)
  Blard, Lieut. (460)
  Bobillier, Lieut.
  Boerner, Lieut.
  Boissonas, Lieut. (443)
  Bon, Lieut.
  Boncour, Lieut. (478)
  Bonnier, Lieut. (478)
  Bonnier, General (137)
  Boucher, Lieut.
  Bousnuet, Lieut. P. (295)
  Breley, Lieut.
  Brenot, Capt.
  Brouchard, Lieut.
  Brugiere, Lt.
  Brule, Lieut. (436)
  Bruncher, Lieut.
  Burgeat, Capt. M. (44)
  Camerman, Lieut. F. (33)
  Camine, Capt.
  Campagne, Lieut. (782)
  Casse, Capt. (415)
  Chabert, Lieut.
  Charoux, Sous Officier
  Chavenac, Lieut. E. (551)
  Cheutin, Lt. E. J. (233)
  Chevreau, Lieut. R. (132)
  Clavenad, Lieut. P. (294)
  Clerc, Lieut. (465)
  Clolus, Commdt. G. (97)
  Couret, Lieut.
  Coville, Capt.
  D'Abrantes, Lieut.
  D'Aquillon, Lieut.
  De Beruis, Lieut.
  De Caumont, Capt.
  De Chanac Lanzac, Capt.
  De Geyer, Lieut.
  De Gorge, Lieut. (805)
  De Goys, Capt.
  De Lafargue (417)
  De L'Estrade, Lieut.
  De Rose, Lieut. P. (477)
  Destace, Capt.
  Destouches, Capt.
  Devarenne, Lieut.
  Devaulx, Lieut. R. (158)
  De Ville d'Avray, Lieut.
  Didier, Sous Officier (765)
  Do-Ird, Lieut.
  Drevet, Sous Officier (753)
  Duparquet, Capt.
  Duperron, Capt. (196)
  Dupin, Lieut.
  Eteve, Capt. A. (89)
  Erstorac, Capt.
  Felix, Capt. J. (270)
  Fequant, Lieut. A. (63)
  Fequant, Lieut. P. (340)
  Fierstein, Sous Officier
  Francezon, E. (410)
  Foirelline, Lieut.
  Garnier, Lieut. (305)
  Garnier, Lt. (826)
  Gastringer, Lieut.
  Gaubert, Lieut. E. (313)
  Germain, Lieut.
  Girard, Lieut. J. (197)
  Gironde, Lt. A. de
  Godefroy, Sous Officier (583)
  Gouin, Lt. M. E. R. (348)
  Gourlez, Lieut. (521)
  Grezaud, S.-Lt. P. (265)
  Grailly, Lieut. (399)
  Gronier, Lieut. J. (138)
  Grandjean, Sapper
  Guibart, Lieut.
  Guiton, Sous Officier
  Hable, Sous-Lt. A. L. (257)
  Hugoni, Capt. E. (165)
  Hanouille, Lieut.
  Henequin, Lieut.
  Henri, Lieut. (497)
  Herli, S.-Lt. (257)
  Hurard, Sous Officier
  Issartier (531)
  Jacquet, Lieut.
  Joly, Lieut. F. (341)
  Jost, Lieut. R. G. (264)
  Kass, Capt.
  Langardt, Lieut.
  Laurent, Sous Officier (246)
  Le Beau, Capt.
  Le Bleu, Lieut.
  Lelievre, Lieut. E. (522)
  Lemasson, Lieut. (506)
  Le Mauget, Capt.
  Letheux, Lieut. G. (142)
  Letort, Sapper (170)
  Letourneur, Lieut.
  Lucca, Lieut. D. (154)
  Ludmann, Lieut. G. (255)
  Lussigny, Lieut.
  Machin, Lieut.
  Mailfert, Lieut. F. (146)
  Maillois, Lieut. J. (131)
  Malherbe, Lt. de (334)
  Maneyrol, Lieut.
  Manoha, Lt.
  Marc, Lt.
  Marconnet, Capt. (90)
  Marie, Capt. Felix (80)
  Marlin, Lieut.
  Marmies, Lieut.
  Marty, Sous Officier (816)
  Massol, Lieut.
  Mauger, Lieut.
  Maurice, Lieut.
  Mazac, Lieut. (592)
  Migaud, Lieut. G. (501)
  Morel, Sous-Lt. P. (262)
  Morlaye, Lieut. la
  Mouchard, Lieut.
  Negre, Capt.
  Nicaud, Lieut.
  Nogues, Capt. (114)
  Normand, Lieut. F. (314)
  Pelloux, Sous-Lt. M. (346)
  Peraldi, Lieut.
  Peretti, Sous Officier
  Pierre, Lieut.
  Ponchet, Lieut.
  Prat, Lieut.
  Precardin, Lieut.
  Princetau, Lieut.
  Postulat, Sergt.
  Quennehen, Sous Officier
  Ragot, Lieut.
  Remy, Lieut. H. C. (143)
  Reynard, Lieut. (668)
  Rimbert, Lieut.
  Rocca-Serra, Lieut.
  Rochette, Lieut. J. (564)
  Rolland, Lieut. M. E. (545)
  Ronin, Lieut.
  Rougerie, Lieut.
  Sauleillon, Lt. A. (674)
  Saunier, Lieut. G. (153)
  Seguin, Sapper (528)
  Sevelle, Lieut. (747)
  Silvestre, Lieut. (599)
  Sido, Capt. Marie (65)
  Sourdeau, Lieut. A. (474)
  Soulielani, Lieut.
  Thomas, Lieut. (846)
  Thomas, R. (116)
  Touzet, E. (485)
  Tretane, Lieut.
  Tricornot de Rose, Lt. de (330)
  Vandamone, Lieut. (535)
  Van de Vaero, Lt. (491)
  Vandine, Lieut.
  Varcin, Lieut.
  Vaudein, Lieut.
  Verdier, Sous Officier (538)
  Vibra, Lieut.
  Vigne, Lt. Henri (315)
  Vinda, Lieut.
  Vitra-Rougerie, Lieut.
  Vocayeau, Lieut.
  Vogoya, Capt.
  Vuilliereme, Lt. L. (174)
  Watteau, Lieut.
  Willemenz, Lieut. (759)
  Yence, Lieut. R, (220)


Naval.

  Byasson, Lt. de V. (175)
  Cayla, Lieut. (458)
  Conneau, Lieut. (322) "Beaumont"
  Davelny, Comdt.
  Delage, Lieut. G. (219)
  Fournier, Lieut.
  Hautefille, Lieut. (247)
  Lafon, Lt. (194)
  Leve, Lieut. (243)
  Parasa, Lieut. (179)
  Reymond, Lieut. (206)


~FRENCH AEROPLANES--PRIVATE.~

~Private Aeroplanes.~

The total number of machines built in France during 1912 has been
estimated at about 1,500. This includes military as well as private
machines, also machines exported, and appears to be unduly generous even
so. The actual total of machines commenced and completed in 1912 is
nearer 1,000.

The number of private aeroplanes--excluding demonstration and school
machines is small.


~PRIVATE AVIATORS~ (brevets to end of 1911).

(In each case the number against each name is, unless otherwise stated,
the Ae. C. French certificate pilot number.)

  Algrin, Rene (252)
  Allard, M. (480)
  Alincourt (488)
  Andre, C. (192)
  Aubrun (21)
  Bachot, A. (271)
  Baeder, F. de (107)
  Bague, E. (337)
  Balliod, Louis (236)
  Balaye, A. (275)
  Balsan, Jacques (22)
  Baratoux, Marcel (49)
  Barbotte, Ernest (268)
  Barra, Franck (171)
  Barrier, A. (64)
  Banier, Rene (64)
  Bathiat, Georges (237)
  Bathiat, Leon (110)
  Beard, Pierre (276)
  Beaud, Edouard (150)
  Becue, Jean F. (263)
  Bellier, Albert (297)
  Bellot, Andre (317)
  Benoist, Jean (369)
  Bergognie, Charles (373)
  Bernard, A. (505)
  Berlot, Henri J. (450)
  Biard, Desire J. (460)
  Bielovucic, Jean (87)
  Bill, Henri (205)
  Blanchet, Georges (244)
  Bleriot, Louis (1)
  Blondeau, Gustave (101)
  Bobba, Andre (309)
  Boillot, Geo. (395)
  Boissounas, L. (443)
  Boise de Courcenay, Comte (283)
  Boivin, Albert (248)
  Bonzon, Maurice (355)
  Bouvier, Andre (120)
  Boyer, Louis (303)
  Bregi, Henry (26)
  Breguet, Louis (52)
  Bresson, Georges (280)
  Briancon, Lucien (277)
  Briey, F. de (492)
  Brindejonc des Moulinais (449)
  Bruneau de Laborie, E. (67)
  Bunau-Varilla, E. (16)
  Busson, Guillaume (121)
  Caille, Albert (200)
  Caramanlaki, A. (761)
  Carles, Fernand (362)
  Carlin, L. V. (554)
  Caudron, Rene (180)
  Cayla, P. (458)
  Chailliey, Henri (63)
  Challe, M. J. (523)
  Champel, Florentin (94)
  Chanteloup, P. (549)
  Chapelle, J. (547)
  Charpentier, Louis (286)
  Chassagne, Jean (160)
  Chausse, P. (519)
  Chaussier, Piere (384)
  Chatain, Marius L. (267)
  Chatain, L. M. L. (296)
  Chateau, Edouard (135)
  Chaunac-Lenzac de (394)
  Chemet, Geo. (159)
  Cheuret, Leon (62)
  Cherent, L. (62)
  Chevalier, J. (515)
  Chevalier, Louis (333)
  Chevillard, Maurice (385)
  Chioni, Basile (250)
  Clerc, Paul A. L. (465)
  Clement, M. (108)
  Collardeau, Geo. (393)
  Collieux, M. (85)
  Collin, Georges (279)
  Conard (647)
  Contard, Paul (351)
  Contenet, Henri (447)
  Contour, Ernest (371)
  Contre (657)
  Cordonnier, Robert (221)
  Corso, E. (529)
  Crochon, Andre (43)
  Cronier, Andre M. H. (352)
  Cugnet, Gaston (140)
  Cure, Gaston M. (242)
  Daillens, Jean (119)
  Dancourt, P. H. (520)
  Debener, M. (562)
  Deletang, Fernand (42)
  Delacroix, Maurice (452)
  Delagrange, Robert (366)
  De La Roche, Mde. (36)
  Deloche, R. D. (526)
  Denis, Auguste (380)
  Deroy, Francis (374)
  Derry, Leon (254)
  Deruissy, Andre (376)
  Despres, E. M. L. (527)
  Deschamps de Bois, Hébert (461)
  Didier, A. (77)
  Divetain, Pierre (466)
  Driancourt, M. L. (525)
  Dubonnet, Emile (47)
  Ducoweneau (456)
  Dufour, Jean M. R. (457)
  Dufour, Jean (96)
  Dufour, Louis (185)
  Duval, E. (118)
  Duval, Emile (118)
  Echeman, P. M. (466)
  Esnault-Pelterie, R. (4)
  Espanet, Dr. G. (532)
  Farman, Henry (5)
  Farman, Maurice (6)
  Fiorellimo, Louis (369)
  Florencie, Jean (201)
  Fournie, J. P. S. (502)
  Frantz, Joseph (363)
  Francq, Baron de (481)
  Frey, Alfred (48)
  Frey, Andre (93)
  Froussart, Ernest (350)
  Frugier, Leon (378)
  Gaget, Joseph (335)
  Gaillard, J. O. C. (504)
  Gallie, Fernand (343)
  Gardey, M. (482)
  Garros, Roland (147)
  Garsonnin, L. (555)
  Gastinger, Edouard M. (455)
  Gassnier, René (39)
  Gassier, Marcel (392)
  Gasnier, Pierre (391)
  Gaudart, Louis (228)
  Gaulard, Charles (302)
  Gautheron, Louis (449)
  Gaye, Georges (251)
  Gibert, Louis (92)
  Gilbert, Eugene (240)
  Giraud, Etienne (493)
  Glorieux, Leon (188)
  Gobe, Armand (102)
  Gobron, Jean (7)
  Goffin, Marcel (284)
  Gouguenheim, P. (388)
  Goux, Jules (398)
  Gournay, Henri (186)
  Goys de Mereyrac, Louis (354)
  Grandjean, E. C. H. (469)
  Grandseigne, R. (360)
  Granel, Marcel (117)
  Grellet, Alexis (370)
  Gressard, M. (725)
  Gue, Albert (216)
  Guerre, Henri (444)
  Guidard, V. P. (487)
  Guilband, C. J. (518)
  Guillemard, T. (445)
  Guillaume, C. (651)
  Hainaux, Marcel R. (239)
  Hanriot, Marcel R. (239)
  Hanriot, Rene (368)
  Herbster, Maurice (41)
  Herveu, Mlle. Jane (318)
  Hesne, Paul (113)
  Houlette, Andre (367)
  Jacquemart, G. C. (464)
  Jamblez, Paul A. (266)
  Janoir, L. (553)
  Joliot, André (202)
  Joly, C. E. M. (530)
  Julleriot, Henry (61)
  Junod, Auguste (253)
  Kauffman, Paul (198)
  Kergariou, Engard de (503)
  Kieffer, C. E. (372)
  Kummerling, A. (291)
  Koechlin, Jean P. (203)
  Kuhling, Paul L. (136)
  Labouchere, Rene (86)
  Labouret, Rene (222)
  Lacombe, P. (534)
  Ladougne, Emile (81)
  Lafarge, Henri (278)
  Lajous, Francois, A. (463)
  Lambert, Comte de (8)
  Langhe, Armand de (204)
  Lastours, H. R. de (552)
  Larfinty-Tholosan, Marquis Jules (468)
  Laroche, Mme. Raymonde (36)
  Latzel, J. (700)
  Leblanc, Alfred (17)
  Lecomte, Henri (320)
  Legagneux, Georges (55)
  Le Lasseur de Ranzay, G. (479)
  Lemartin, Theodore (249)
  Lenfant, Louis (386)
  Leouet, B. L. (485)
  Leprince, P. (494)
  Lesire, Eugene (176)
  Lesseps, Jacques de (27)
  Leyat, Marcel (364)
  Lieutard, H. (497)
  Liger, A. (573)
  Lombardi, Henri (241)
  Loridan, Marcel (224)
  Magnan, Leon (379)
  Magneval, Gabriel (359)
  Mahieu, Georges E. (123)
  Mallet, J. A. P. (490)
  Mamet, Julien (18)
  Marchal, Anselem (328)
  Maron, P. H. (495)
  Marquezy, Rene (238)
  Martin, Edouard (365)
  Martin, Xavier (162)
  Martinet, Robert (78)
  Marvingt, Marie (281)
  Mauvais, Jean (144)
  Metrot, Rene (19)
  Meyer, Jules M. (229)
  Mignot, Robert (76)
  Miltgen, Paul (339)
  Moineau, R. L. (554)
  Molla, Henri (172)
  Montalent, O. de (509)
  Montjou, Guy de (446)
  Mollien, Elie A. (57)
  Molon, Leon (25)
  Molon, Louis (234)
  Molon, Lucien (235)
  Montigny, Alfred de (69)
  Morane, Leon F. (54)
  Morelle, Edmond (35)
  Morel, P. F. (524)
  Morin, Roger (306)
  Mouthier, Louis (157)
  Mousnier, Yvon (454)
  Niel, Albert (104)
  Niel, Mme. Marthe (226)
  Nissole, Edouard (383)
  Noe, A. G. M. (498)
  Noel, Andre (122)
  Obre, Emile (148)
  Ors, Jean (382)
  Orus, Maurice (256)
  Osmon, Geo. (361)
  Paillette, Marcel (99)
  Paillole, E. C. L. (556)
  Palade, Antoine (387)
  Pallier, Mdlle.
  Parent, Francois (189)
  Paris-Leclerc, Max (190)
  Partiot, G. (516)
  Pascal, Ferdinand (301)
  Paul, Ernest (91)
  Paulhan, Louis (10)
  Pequet, Henri (88)
  Perin, Albert (161)
  Perreyon, Edmond (311)
  Perrigot, J. (499)
  Picard, Pierre (174)
  Planchet, Edmond (319)
  Poillot (182)
  Pommier, Martin (400)
  Porcheron, L. A. (471)
  Pouleriguen, F. (349)
  Poumet (576)
  Pourpe, Marc
  Pourpe, M. M. E. A. (560)
  Prevost, M. (475)
  Prevoteau, G. (507)
  Prier, Pierre (169)
  Raoblt, Jean (386)
  Reimbert, Ernest (375)
  Reichert, Henri (377)
  Renaux, Eugene (139)
  Renaud de la Fregeoliere (396)
  Rey, P. A. P. (517)
  Reymond, Senator
  Richet, A. (537)
  Rigal, Victor (60)
  Rivolier, Jean (381)
  Robillard, G. de (184)
  Robinet, J. (476)
  Romance, F. de (288)
  Rougier, Henry (11)
  Ruby, F. L. (514)
  Ruchonnet (127)
  Sallard, H. (794)
  Sallenave, Henru (66)
  Savary, Robert (112)
  Schlumberger, M. (316)
  Sée, Raymond (187)
  Servies, Jules (218)
  Simon, Rene (177)
  Sommer, Roger (29)
  Tabateau, Maurice (128)
  Taurin, Andre (84)
  Tetard, Maurice (79)
  Thieulin, Joseph (459)
  Tissandier, Paul (13)
  Tixier, Henri (397)
  Toussin, Rene (56)
  Train, Emile Louis (167)
  Vallier, Edmond P. (269)
  Vallon, Rene (109)
  Van Gaver, Paul (338)
  Vasseur, Narcisse (282)
  Vedrines, Jules (312)
  Vendrines, E. (536)
  Verliac, Adrien (129)
  Vergmault, O. (561)
  Verrier, Pierre (390)
  Versepuy, Leon (149)
  Vialard, Charles (342)
  Vidart, Rene (133)
  Villeneuve Trans, Louis de (285)
  Vimard, E. (484)
  Visseaux, Henri (217)
  Vittoz-Gallet, G. (500)
  Wagner, Louis (83)
  Walleton, Louis (304)
  Weiss, H. (73)
  Wintrebert, Henri (300)
  Zens, Ernest (28)

The following French aviators have been killed:--

  +-------------------------+
  |          1909.          |
  | Ferber, Capt.           |
  | Lefebvre, E.            |
  |                         |
  |          1910.          |
  | Blanchard (215)         |
  | Delagrange, Leon (3)    |
  | Le Blon (38)            |
  | Poillot (182)           |
  |                         |
  |          1911.          |
  | Byasson, Lt.            |
  | Camine, Capt.           |
  | Caumont, Lieut. (156)   |
  | Carron, Capt.           |
  | Chotard, Lieut.         |
  | De Grailly, Lieut.      |
  | Desparmet, J. (451)     |
  | Dupuis, Lieut.          |
  | Gaubert (59)            |
  | Laffont, A. (111)       |
  | Lautheaume, Lt.         |
  | Level                   |
  | Liere, Louis            |
  | Loder, Lt.              |
  | Madiot, Capt. (106)     |
  | Mommlin                 |
  | Nieuport, E. (105)      |
  | Noel                    |
  | Princeteau, Lt. (331)   |
  | Ruchonnet               |
  | Tarron, Capt.           |
  | Vallon, Rene            |
  | Wachter, C. L. (53)     |
  +-------------------------|



~FRENCH PRIVATE AVIATORS, 1912.~

  Adam-Gironne (818)
  Arondel, P. (827)
  Andenis, C. (788)
  Badet (622)
  Balighant, G. (588)
  Barbarou, M. (702)
  Basano, F. (828)
  Baudrin, E. (609)
  Bedel, R. (668)
  Beatrix, C. (781)
  Benoit, O. (771)
  Benoist, G. (667)
  Bertin, L. (801)
  Blaignan (633)
  Bleu, Le (643)
  Boiteau, G. (833)
  Boerlage (666)
  Bordage, A. (650)
  Boncour (678)
  Boucher, F. (600)
  Borie, A. (803)
  Brocard, A. (770)
  Brodin, E. (838)
  Brouard, E. (807)
  Bruginere, A. (813)
  Cailleaux, A. (617)
  Carreard, G. (779)
  Castellan, E. (639)
  Cavalier, M. (764)
  Caye, M. (672)
  Cerantes, F. (611)
  Chabert, V. (631)
  Chandenier, L. (804)
  Coblyn, L. (735)
  Contre (657)
  Corsini, A. (654)
  Cornier, R. (605)
  Coville, F. (594)
  Couffin, L. (619)
  Dambricourt, J. (773)
  De Beausire de Seyssel (756)
  Debroutelle, P. (806)
  De Chabot, P. (783)
  De Gensac, A. (836)
  De Lareinty Tholozan, H. (822)
  Delacour, J. (602)
  Delaunay, P. M. (635)
  Deleraye, M. (790)
  De l'Escaille (791)
  Delmas, M. (837)
  De Marmies, R. (663)
  De Mazurkiewicz, W. C. (707)
  Denhaut, F. (690)
  Des Pres de la Morlais (636)
  De Pontac (596)
  De Reals, R. (686)
  De Ryk (Mme. B.) (652)
  De Segonac, R. (669)
  Desille, L. (581)
  De Vergnette, C. (792)
  De Villepin, O. (832)
  Do Huu, T. (649)
  Drouhet, F. (727)
  Dussot, A. (733)
  Dutertre, C. (748)
  Ecomand, G. (714)
  Ehrmann, L. (646)
  Escot, P. (624)
  Eymien, S. (726)
  Fassin, F. (844)
  Faucompre, L. (814)
  Fleiche, L. (729)
  Foudre, R. (808)
  Foulquier, M. (772)
  Francois, A. (665)
  Galon, S. (613)
  Garros, R. (811)
  Glaize, F. (845)
  Godot, J. (815)
  Grazzioli, A. (687)
  Grasset, A. (800)
  Greppo, J. (676)
  Guerre, P. (730)
  Guillaux, E. (749)
  Hanne, A. (681)
  Helen, E. (586)
  Hembert (662)
  Hurard, J. (757)
  Hustinx, C. (716)
  Irate, G. (655)
  Jacquin, A. (582)
  Jailler, L. (682)
  Jeannerod, H. (696)
  Jeansoulin, L. (703)
  Joachim, H. (610)
  Jourjon, R. (841)
  Junquet, P. (621)
  Kormann (789)
  Lambert, A. (618)
  Lanier, P. (684)
  Lantheaume, C. (616)
  Latzel, J. (700)
  Le Bleu, P. (643)
  Leclerc, P. (593)
  Lefebvre, L. (691)
  Lecontellec, H. (810)
  Lenfant, P. (731)
  Lemoine, A. (632)
  Leroy, J. (638)
  Lesne, M. (796)
  Levasseur, J. (743)
  Le Vassor, J. (704)
  Lewis, J. (642)
  Loubignac, L. (793)
  Lumiere, G. (840)
  Madon, G. (595)
  Magnin, L. (648)
  Maicon, A. (695)
  Mandelli, P. (762)
  Mauger, D. (750)
  Malecaze, J. (776)
  Mancarot (710)
  Mazier, L. (634)
  Melin, E. (699)
  Metairie, A. (689)
  Mouroux, J. (724)
  Navarre, A. (584)
  Noel, L. (656)
  Nove-Josseraud (825)
  Olivier, L. (556)
  Pasquier, Baron R. (728)
  Penet, H. (809)
  Pia, G. (829)
  Picard, F. (601)
  Poulet, E. (709)
  Radisson, V. (834)
  Raulet, F. (658)
  Richer, H. (607)
  Ridont, R. (817)
  Roussel, L. (659)
  Roux, H. (715)
  Saint-Michel Rivet (604)
  Sallard, H. (794)
  Sauson de Sausal (812)
  Schneegaus, C. (712)
  Senart, J. (661)
  Sensever, H. (580)
  Senougue, A. (823)
  Serant, L. (679)
  Seyrat, J. (830)
  Shigeno, K. (744)
  Soularis, M. (698)
  Soyer, H. (671)
  Testulat, P. (821)
  Thierry de Ville d'Avray (579)
  Thoret, J. (708)
  Tierch, M. (645)
  Tournier, A. (677)
  Trescartes, L. (842)
  Vallet, C. (734)
  Vaudelle, R. (785)
  Vandinck, A. (787)
  Vandal, P. (598)
  Ventre, L. (585)
  Vidal Soler, E. (686)
  Vogoyeau, A. (755)
  Whitehouse, W. (589)
  Zens, P. (675)
  Zorra, L. (653)

~Killed.~

  +---------------------------------+
  |       1912.                     |
  | Barillon (307)                  |
  | Bedell, R.                      |
  | Bernard, Suzanne                |
  | Boerner, Lieut.                 |
  | Boncour, Lieut.                 |
  | Bressand, Lieut.                |
  | Chanteriers, Lieut.             |
  | Dubois, Capt.                   |
  | Ducourneau, Lieut.              |
  | Etienne, Lieut.                 |
  | Faure, Capt.                    |
  | Lacour                          |
  | Madiot, Capt. (106)             |
  | Maguet, Capt. le                |
  | Nieuport, C.                    |
  | Olivers, G.                     |
  | Peignan, Lieut. A.              |
  | Poutrin, Lieut.                 |
  | Sevelle, Lieut. H. P.           |
  | Thiery de Ville d'Avray, Lieut. |
  | Thomas, Lieut.                  |
  | Wagner, A.                      |
  |                                 |
  |       1913.                     |
  | Bresson, Lieut.                 |
  +---------------------------------+



FRENCH AEROPLANES.



~A~


AERIENNE. L'Aerienne, 25 Quai des Grands Agustins, Paris. Builds to
specifications and supplies all parts.


ANTOINETTE. Company has ceased to exist.


ASTRA. "Astra" Soc. de Constructions Aéronautiques, (Anciens Etabs.
Surcouf) Soc. An'yme 13 Rue Couchat, Billancourt (Seine). Works: 121-123
Rue de Bellevue, Billancourt. Flying grounds: Issy-les-Molineux
Villacoublay (S-&-O). This old established balloon and dirigible firm
first took up aviation as French agents for the _Wrights_ in 1909. For a
time they built _Wrights_ with certain modifications, but by 1912,
little save the Wright system of warping remained. Capacity: about 100
machines a year.

  +------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------
                                 |     Biplane,    |     Military    |     Biplane,    |  Mil. biplane,  |  Hydro-biplane,
                                 |     type C.     |     biplane     |     Type C.     |    type C.M.    |   type C.M.
                                 |    ~1912-13.~   |    type C.M.    |     ~1913.~     |     ~1913.~     |    ~1913.~
                                 |      Wood.      |    ~1912-13.~   |  Wood & steel.  |  Wood & steel.  |  Wood & steel
                                 |                 |       Wood      |                 |                 |
  -------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------
  ~Length~              feet (m.)|   34    (10.40) |   36    (10.97) |   34    (10.40) |   36    (10.97) |   32-3/4   (10)
  ~Span~                feet (m.)|   41    (12.50) |  40-1/2 (12.32) |   41    (12.50) |  40-1/2 (12.32) |   39-1/2   (12)
  ~Area.~           sq. feet (m²)|  519     (48.2) |  519     (48.2) |  519     (48.2) |  519     (48.2) |  519     (48.2)
            {machine  lbs. (kgs.)| 1764      (800) | 2365     (1073) |        ...      | 1411      (640) | 1763      (800)
  ~Weight~  {                    |                 |                 |                 |                 |    (unladen)
            {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|  661      (300) |  882      (400) |        ...      |       ...       |        ...
  ~Motor~                    h.p.|    50 Renault   |    75 Renault   |    50 Renault   |   75 Renault    |   100 Renault
                                 |                 |   or 75 Chenu   |                 |                 |
              {max.  m.p.h. (km.)|   56       (90) |   56       (90) |   56       (90) |   56       (90) |    56      (90)
  ~Speed~     {                  |                 |                 |                 |                 |
              {min.  m.p.h. (km.)|       ...       |       ...       |        ...      |       ...       |        ...
  ~Endurance~                hrs.|       ...       |       ...       |        ...      |       ...       |        ...
  Number built during 1912       |       ...       |       ...       |        ...      |       ...       |        ...
  -------------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------

Remarks.--The 1912-13 and 1913 types differ only in the adoption of
metal in the 1913 models, which are consequently considerably lighter.

General features.--Warping wings. Fixed tail planes with two elevators
in rear. Single rudder. Single tractor geared down 1 to 2. Type C
carries 85 litres petrol; type C.M., 137 litres.

[Illustration: Astra. Military "C.M." 1913.]

[Illustration: Astra. Hydro-avion, 1913.]



~B~


BERTIN. L. Bertin, 23 rue de Rocroy, Paris. About 1908 Bertin began
building helicopters. The machine below was exhibited in the 1913 Paris
Salon.

[Illustration: Bertin. UAS.]

  ------------------------------+-------------+
                                |   ~1913.~   |
                                | Monoplane.  |
                                |  2-seater.  |
  ------------------------------+-------------+
  ~Length~             feet (m.)|  29  (8.80) |
  ~Span~               feet (m.)|  34 (10.40) |
  ~Area~          sq. feet (m².)| 226    (21) |
           {machine, lbs. (kgs.)| 770   (350) |
  ~Weight~ {                    |             |
           {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|    ...      |
  ~Motor~                   h.p.| 100 Bertin  |
  ~Speed~     {max  m.p.h. (km.)| 71    (115) |
  Number built during 1912      |     1       |
  ------------------------------+-------------+

Remarks.--Wood and steel construction. On wheels only. _Controls:_
warping and rear elevator.


BESSON. Marcel Besson, 24 rue Marbeuf, Paris. Capacity: small. Besson
first appeared in 1911 with a tail-first mono. In the Paris Salon, 1913,
he exhibited an improved machine along similar lines.

  ------------------------------+-------------+
                                |   ~1913~    |
                                |  _Canard_   |
                                |  2-seater.  |
  ------------------------------+-------------+
  ~Length~             feet (m.)|  22  (6.70) |
  ~Span~               feet (m.)|  44 (13.40) |
  ~Area~          sq. feet (m².)| 323    (30) |
           {machine, lbs. (kgs.)| 730 (331.2) |
  ~Weight~ {                    |             |
           {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|     ...     |
  ~Motor~                   h.p.|  70 Gnome   |
  ~Speed~            m.p.h.(km.)| 59     (95) |
  Number built during 1912      |      1      |
  ------------------------------+-------------+

Remarks.--All steel construction. On wheels and 2 skids. _Control:_
ailerons and front elevator.


BLERIOT Monoplanes. L. Bleriot, "Bleriot-Aeronautique," 39, Route de la
Révolte, Paris-Levallois. Flying grounds: Buc Etampes and Pau.

        L. Bleriot began to experiment in 1906, along Langley lines. By
     1909 he was one of the leading French firms; and the first cross
     Channel flight was made by him.

Details of standard types:--

  -----------------------------+----------------+----------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+------------
                               |                |     ~XXI.~     |    ~XXVII.~   |               |               |
                               |  ~XI~ _bis._   |    Military    |  Single seat  |   ~XXVIII.~   |   ~XXVIII.~   | Monocoque
                               | 2-seater mono. |  side by side  |     mono.     | Single seater |   2-seater    |  2-seater
                               |(~1911~ onward) | 2-seater mono. |    ~1912.~    |    ~1913.~    |    ~1913.~    |  ~1913.~
                               |                |     ~1912.~    |               |               |               |
  -----------------------------+----------------+----------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+------------
  ~Length~             feet (m)| 27-1/3  (8.40) |  27-1/4 (8.24) |  28    (8.50) |  25    (7.60) |  27    (8.20) |    ...
  ~Span~               feet (m)| 36        (11) |  36       (11) |  29-1/2   (9) |  29    (8.80) |  32    (9.75) |  40 (12.25)
  ~Area~          sq. ft. (m².)| 349       (33) | 268       (25) | 129      (12) | 162      (15) | 215      (20) | 270    (25)
           {unladen, lbs. (kgs)|       ...      | 727      (330) | 529     (240) | 530     (240) | 660     (300) | 830   (375)
  ~Weight~ {                   |                |                |               |               |               |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|       ...      |       ...      |      ...      | 286     (129) | 550     (250) |    ...
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|    50 Gnome    |    70 Gnome    |   70 Gnome    |    50 Gnome   |   70 Gnome    |  80 Gnome
            {max.  m.p.h. (km.)| 56        (90) |  56       (90) | 78      (125) |  62     (100) |  71     (115) |  75   (120)
  ~Speed~   {                  |                |                |               |               |               |
            {min.  m.p.h. (km.)|       ...      |       ...      |      ...      |      ...      |      ...      |    ...
  ~Endurance~              hrs.|       ...      |       ...      |      ...      |      ...      |      ...      |    ...
  Number built during 1912     |       ...      |       ...      |      ...      |      ...      |      ...      |    ...
  -----------------------------+----------------+----------------+---------------+---------------+---------------+------------

Note.--The monos., as usual, are of wood construction; wheels only for
landing. Rectangular section bodies. Warping wings, elevator in rear.
Chauviere propeller. The monocoque has wood, steel and cork
construction. Coque body. Skids to landing chassis. Levasseur propeller.
Otherwise as the other monos.

Principal _Bleriot_ flyers are or have been:--Aubrun, Balsan, Bleriot,
Busson, Chavez, Cordonnier, Delagrange, Drexel, Efimoff, Gibbs, Hubert,
Hamel, Moissant, Paulhan, Prevetau, Prevot, Prier, Radley, Thorup, Tyck,
Wienzciers, and many others.

[Illustration: Bleriot XI _bis._]

[Illustration: 1913 type of XI _bis._ UAS.]

[Illustration: Bleriot XXVII.]

[Illustration: BLÉRIOT XXI. UAS.

General standard type of _Bleriot_ 1912 & 1913.]

~Special types of Bleriots.~--In addition to the standard machines,
Bleriot from time to time produces special machines, of which the best
known is the _Limousine_, built for M. Deutsch de la Meurthe, built 1911
and still existing. One or two Canards have also been built, including
an armoured military.

[Illustration: BLERIOT-LIMOUSINE. UAS.]

Early in 1913 a special experimental military machine was produced with
considerable secrecy.

[Illustration: BLERIOT MILITARY. Special 1913 military. UAS.]


BOREL. G. Borel & Cie, 25 rue Brunel, Paris. Established 1910. Capacity:
about 25 machines a year.

  -----------------+----------------------+----------------------+---------------------
        Model.     |        ~1913.~       |        ~1913.~       |       ~1913.~
                   |      Monoplane.      |   Monocoque Racer.   |     Hydro-mono.
                   |                      |                      |      2-seater.
  -----------------+----------------------+----------------------+---------------------
  ~Length~         |  22 feet   (6.70 m.) |  19 feet   (5.80 m.) |  27 feet   (8.30 m.)
  ~Span~           |  30 feet   (9.15 m.) |  26 feet   (8.00 m.) |  37 feet  (11.25 m.)
  ~Area~           | 152 sq. ft. (14 m².) | 116 sq. ft. (11 m².) | 237 sq. ft. (22 m².)
           {total  | 530 lbs.  (240 kgs.) | 608 lbs.  (276 kgs.) | 880 lbs.  (399 kgs.)
  ~Weight~ {       |                      |                      |
           {useful | 287 lbs.  (130 kgs.) |         ...          |         ...
  ~Motor~          |      50 Gnome        |      80 Gnome        |      80 Gnome
  ~Speed~    (p.h.)|  71 m.     (115 km.) |  94 m.     (150 km.) |  62 m.     (100 km.)
  -----------------+----------------------+----------------------+---------------------

Note.--The monocoque is of wood and steel construction, the others wood
only. The monocoque has coque body, the others ordinary rectangular
section. Floats of the hydro as illustrated. For the rest the ordinary
mono. is practically on the same lines as the 1912. The racer is
somewhat on _Deperdussin_ lines, but the body is built up inside. No
fixed tail. The hydro. is an enlarged edition of the mono. Floats
display nothing very original, except that a float under tail is
interconnected with the rudder, and that the two front floats are fitted
for being rowed. Fitted with a self-starter.

[Illustration: 1913 Borel. Hydro-avion. _By favour of "Flight."_ UAS.]

[Illustration: Hydro-avion.]

There is also a Denhaut design, 1913, about the same as a
_Donnet-Leveque_.

[Illustration: Borel. Monocoque. UAS.]


BREGUET. Soc. Anonyme des ateliers d'aviation, Louis Breguet, 16
Boulevard Vauban, Donai (Nord). Capacity: about 200 machines a year.
Paris office: 25, Boulevard Jules Sandeau. Schools at La Brayelle, pris
Douai, Vélisy-Villacoublay, pris Paris.

  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+-------------------+------------------+------------------
                                    |                  |                  |                   |                  |  Aérhydroplane
                                    |     ~G2~ bis.    |      ~G3.~       |      ~C-U1.~      |     ~C-U2.~      |      tandem
            ~1913 models.~          |   2 or 3-seater  |     3-seater     |      2-seater     |     2-seater     |      mono.
                                    |     biplane.     |     biplane.     |      biplane.     |     biplane.     |    2-seater,
                                    |                  |                  |                   |                  |  side by side.
  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+-------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~                  feet (m)|   33        (10) |   29      (8.75) |   29       (8.75) |   29      (8.75) |   29      (8.75)
  ~Span~                    feet (m)|   49        (15) |   45     (13.65) |   45      (13.65) |   45     (13.65) |   42     (12.80)
  ~Area~               sq. feet (m²)|  376        (35) |  377        (36) |  387         (36) |  387        (36) |  387        (36)
                {empty,  lbs. (kgs.)| 1323       (600) | 1212       (550) | 1430        (649) | 1160       (522) | 1760       (798)
  ~Weight~      {                   |                  |                  |                   |                  |
                {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|  662       (300) |  882       (400) |  662        (300) |  882       (400) |  662       (300)
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|     80 Gnome     |    100 Gnome     |  80 Canton Unmé.  | 110 Canton Unmé. | 110 Canton Unmé.
                  {max. m.p.h. (km.)|   62       (100) |   69       (110) |   62        (100) |   71       (115) |   87       (140)
  ~Speed~         {                 |                  |                  |                   |                  |
                  {min. m.p.h. (km.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...        |        ...       |   62       (100)
  ~Endurance~                   hrs.|       3-1/2      |         4        |         7         |         7        |         7
  Number built during 1912          |A total of 41 sold| during  1912  for| military purposes.|                  |        ...
  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+-------------------+------------------+------------------

_In each case._--

~Construction.~--All steel.

~Landing chassis.~--C consists of three wheels each protected by skids.
The two main wheels, placed on either side of the centre of gravity, are
fitted with patent "Oleopneumatic" shock absorbers. The steering wheel
and the front skid have a spring suspension.

~Military machines.~--The 1912 sales of these were:--32 to France; 5
British; 3 Italian; 1 Swedish.

~Steering.~--The patented control system consists of a wheel mounted on
a pivoted lever. The backward and forward movement of the entire system
operates the elevator: the sideway movement warps the rear edge of the
upper wings, and the rotation of the wheel steers the machine. The
latter operation also governs the front wheel of the landing chassis, so
that when on the ground the machine can be steered like a motor car.

~Portability.~--The main planes can be folded alongside of the fuselage.
The machine can then be towed on any ordinary road, or be housed in
places such as farm buildings, stables, &c.

[Illustration: Aerhydroplane, 1913-14.]

[Illustration: BREGUET. Hydro. UAS]

[Illustration: BREGUET. Biplane. UAS]

[Illustration: BRÉGUET. 1912-13, G3 type 3-seater military. UAS]



C


CAUDRON. Caudron Fréres, Rue (Somme). Schools: Crotoy and Juvissy.
Capacity: about 100-250 a year.

  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------++--------------------+--------------------++--------------------+------------------------
                                     |        ~M2~        |       ~N.~         |       ~G.D.~       |                    ||        ~B.~        |        ~E.~        ||    Monaco type,    |
             Model and Date.         |       1912-13      |      1912-13       |       1912-13      |      ~1913~        ||       1912-13      |       1912-13      ||        1912        |       ~1913~
                                     |        mono.       |       mono.        |        mono.       |       mono.        ||       biplane.     |       biplane.     ||   hydro-biplane.   |    hydro-biplane.
  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------++--------------------+--------------------++--------------------+------------------------
  ~Length~                  feet (m.)|   20        (6.10) |   19-3/4       (6) |   22        (6.75) |   19-1/4    (5.80) ||   26-1/4       (8) |   23-1/2    (7.15) ||   22        (6.75) |   32-3/4      (10)
  ~Span~                    feet (m.)|   31        (9.40) |   26-1/3       (8) |   34       (10.30) |   27-1/3    (8.50) ||   32-3/4      (10) |   35-1/2   (10.80) ||   33       (10.10) |   46          (14)
  ~Area~               sq. feet (m².)|  151          (14) |  108          (10) |  268          (25) |  118          (11) ||  431          (40) |  301          (28) ||  268          (25) |  376          (35)
  ~Weight~       machine, lbs. (kgs.)|  518         (235) |  496         (225) |  386         (175) |  490         (225) ||  683         (310) |  640         (295) ||  772         (350) |  882         (400)
  ~Motor~                        h.p.| 50 Anzani or Gnome |      50 Anzani     |   Anzani or Gnome  |     50 Gnome.      ||   Anzani or Gnome  |        Gnome       ||        Gnome       |      70 Gnome
  ~Speed~                m.p.h. (km.)|   71         (115) |   84         (135) |   75         (120) |   84               ||   56          (90) |   56          (90) ||   50          (80) |   50          (80)
  Number built during 1912           |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        ||         ...        |         ...        ||        ...         |         ...
  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------++--------------------+--------------------++--------------------+------------------------
                                                                                                                                                                    || Lateral control, warping. Wood construction.
  Notes.--Lateral control, warping. Wood construction. On wheels. Enclosed body.                                                                                    || On wheels as well as
                                                                                                                                                                    || floats. (Special Caudron patent.)
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------++---------------------------------------------

[Illustration: 1912 hydro. _By favour of "Aeronautics," U.S.A._ UAS]

[Illustration: CAUDRON. UAS]

[Illustration: 1913 hydro. UAS]

[Illustration: CAUDRON. Mono. _By favour of "Flight."_ UAS]


CLEMENT-BAYARD. Usines Clement-Bayard, 33 quai Michelet,
Levallois-Perret (Seine).

[Illustration]

  ----------------------------------+------------------------+------------------------+
                                    |         ~1913.~        |        ~1913.~         |
                                    |    Military 3-seater   | Military single seater |
                                    |         biplane.       |       monoplane.       |
  ----------------------------------+------------------------+------------------------+
  ~Length~                  feet (m)|   37           (11.20) |   24-2/3        (7.50) |
                {upper      feet (m)|   52              (16) |   30            (9.20) |
  ~Span~        {                   |                        |                        |
                {lower      feet (m)|   36              (11) |           ...          |
  ~Area~              sq. feet (m².)|  533              (50) |  172              (16) |
                {total   lbs. (kgs.)| 2425            (1100) | 1146             (520) |
  ~Weight~      {                   |                        |                        |
                {useful  lbs. (kgs.)| 1014             (460) |  441             (200) |
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|        100 Gnome       |        70 Gnome        |
                 {max.  m.p.h. (km.)|   53              (85) |   75             (120) |
  ~Speed~        {                  |                        |                        |
                 {min.  m.p.h. (km.)|           ...          |           ...          |
  ~Endurance~                   hrs.|           ...          |           ...          |
  ----------------------------------+------------------------+------------------------+

Notes.--_Control_: lateral, warping.



D


D'ARTOIS. Soc. Anonyme des Anciens Chantiers Tellier, Longuenesse, pres
St. Omer. Re-established 1912. Capacity: small.

  ---------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
                                   |   ~1913~ model.    |      ~1913~        |
           Model and date.         |  "Aero torpille"   |  "Aero torpille"   |
                                   |  hydro-biplane.    |      biplane.      |
  ---------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
  ~Length~                feet (m.)|   23           (7) |   24-3/4    (7.50) |
                                  {|   36          (11) |   36          (11) |
  ~Span~                 feet (m.){|                    |                    |
                                  {|   20           (6) |   20           (6) |
  ~Area~             sq. feet (m².)|  280          (26) |  280          (26) |
  ~Weight~       empty, lbs. (kgs.)|  772         (350) |  551         (250) |
  ~Motor~                      h.p.|      50 Gnome      |      50 Gnome      |
  ~Speed~              m.p.h. (km.)|   56          (90) |   84         (135) |
  ~Endurance~                  hrs.|         ...        |         ...        |
  Number built during 1912         |         ...        |         ...        |
  ---------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+

Notes.--Single long boat body, canoe-shape.

[Illustration: _By favour of "Aeronautics," U.S.A._ UAS]


DEPERDUSSIN. Armand Deperdussin, 19 rue des Entrepreneurs, Paris.
School: Courey-Betheny (Marne). Established 1910. Capacity: about
150-200 machines a year.

  ----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
                                    |    ~E 1912-13.~    |    ~P 1912-13.~    |    ~T 1912-13.~    |    ~H 1912-13.~    |      Monocoque     |        Mono.
                                    |    school mono.    |    single seater   |      2-seater      |      3-seater      |       ~1913.~      |       ~1913.~
                                    |                    |        mono.       |        mono.       |        mono.       |      2-seater.     |      2-seater.
  ----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~                  feet (m)|    24       (7.30) |   24        (7.30) |   24        (7.30) |   29        (8.80) |   19        (5.75) |         ...
  ~Span~                    feet (m)|    29       (8.85) |   28        (8.50) |   35       (10.65) |   41       (12.50) |   29-1/2    (8.95) |   36         (11)
  ~Area~              sq. feet (m².)|        ...         |  162          (15) |        ...         |  310          (28) |   97           (9) |         ...
                {total   lbs. (kgs.)|   661        (300) |  782         (355) | 1212         (550) | 2050         (930) |  882         (400) |         ...
  ~Weight~      {                   |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |
                {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|        ...         |         ...        |        ...         |         ...        |         ...        |         ...
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|     30 Anzani      |      50 Gnome      |     70 Gnome       |      100 Gnome     |      50 Gnome      |      80 Gnome
               {max.    m.p.h. (km.)|    50         (80) |   69         (110) |   65         (105) |   69         (110) |  113         (180) |  105         (170)
  ~Speed~      {                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |
               {min.    m.p.h. (km.)|        ...         |         ...        |        ...         |         ...        |   81         (130) |         ...
  ~Endurance~                   hrs.|        ...         |         ...        |        ...         |         ...        |         ...        |         ...
  Number built during 1912          |         2          |          5         |         27         |          3         |          2         |          1
  ----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------

Notes.--Wood construction. Lateral control by warping. Mounted on wheels
without skids. Fabric: "Aviator" Ramie.

Principal _Deperdussin_ records: 1912 Gordon Bennett (Vedrines) and a
number of world records for speed and distance.

Principal pilots include: Busson, Prévost, Vedrines, Vidart.

[Illustration: 50 h.p. monocoque.]

[Illustration: DEPERDUSSIN. 80 h.p. UAS]

[Illustration: The 80 h.p. mounted on floats as a hydro.]


DONNET-LEVEQUE.

  ---------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
                             |      ~A 1912.~     |      ~B 1912.~     |      ~C 1912.~     |       ~1913.~
                             |      2-seater      |      2-seater      |      3-seater      |      2-seater
                             |    hydro-biplane   |    hydro-biplane   |    hydro-biplane   |    hydro-biplane
  ---------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~           feet (m)|   26        (7.80) |   27        (8.30) |   27        (8.30) |   34-1/2   (10.50)
  ~Span~             feet (m)|   29-1/2       (9) |   32-3/4      (10) |   34-1/2   (10.50) |   29-1/2       (9)
  ~Area~       sq. feet (m².)|  194          (18) |  215          (20) |  237          (22) |  194          (18)
  ~Weight~        lbs. (kgs.)|  683         (310) |  772         (350) |  888         (380) |  888         (380)
  ~Motor~                h.p.|      50 Gnome      |      70 Gnome      |      80 Gnome      |      50 Gnome
  ~Speed~        m.p.h. (km.)|   69         (110) |   75         (120) |        ...         |   50          (80)
  ~Endurance~            hrs.|         ...        |         ...        |        ...         |        ...
  Number built during 1912   |         ...        |         ...        |        ...         |        ...
  ---------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------

Notes.--Lateral control by warping ailerons. Motor in gap just below
upper plane: propeller in rear, direct driven. Fabric: "Aviator" Ramie.

Floats.--One large central boat 27 feet (8.20 m.) long--two small ones
at each extremity of lower plane.

[Illustration: _By favour of "Aeronautics," U.S.A._]

[Illustration: UAS]


DOUTRE. Soc. Anonyme Doutre, 58, rue Talbot, Paris.

  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
  Type.                              |  Biplane 3-seater, |  Biplane 2-seater, |
                                     |     ~1912-13.~     |     ~1912-13.~     |
  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
  ~Length~                  feet (m.)|   40       (12.25) |        ...         |
                                    {|   53       (16.10) |        ...         |
  ~Span~                   feet (m.){|                    |                    |
                                    {|   43          (13) |        ...         |
  ~Area~               sq. feet (m².)|  533          (50) |        ...         |
                {machine  lbs. (kgs.)| 1323         (600) | 1323         (600) |
  ~Weight~      {                    |                    |                    |
                {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|  992         (450) |  992         (450) |
  ~Motor~                        h.p.|     70 Renault     |     50 Renault     |
  ~Speed~            max. m.p.h (km.)|   56          (90) |   56          (90) |
  Number built during 1912           |          1         |          ?         |
  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+

Notes.--Fabric: "Aviator" Ramie. Both types fitted with the Doutre
patent stabiliser, which automatically and instantaneously counteracts
troubles due to sudden gusts or partial motor failures. Weight of the
1913 model stabiliser is only 44 lbs. (20 kgs.)

[Illustration: Model 1913 stabiliser.]

[Illustration: DOUTRE. UAS]



F


FARMAN. Henry and Maurice Farman, 167, Rue de Silly, Billancourt (Seine)
Aerodromes: Buc, pres Versailles and Etampes. Depots: Camp de
Chalons--Reims. Established by H. Farman in 1908. M. Farman established
works a little later. In 1912 the two brothers combined. The present
works were opened in January, 1912, and had an output capacity of at
least 300 machines a year in March, 1913.

  ---------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
                                   |     _H. Farman._   |     _H. Farman._   |     _H. Farman._   |     _H. Farman._   |     _M. Farman._   |     _M. Farman._   |     _M. Farman._
                                   |      Military.     |   Single-seater.   |      2-seater      |  2-seater special  |  Military biplane. |    Big military    |     Staggered
                                   |   2 or 3-seater.   |      Military.     |     monoplane.     |   hydro-biplane.   |                    |      biplane.      |      biplane.
                                   |     ~1912-13.~     |       ~1913.~      |                    |       ~1913.~      |                    |                    |
                                   |      Biplane.      |      Biplane.      |                    |                    |                    |                    |
  ---------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~                feet (m.)|   26-1/4       (8) |   24        (7.35) |   24-1/2    (7.50) |   26        (7.90) |   39-1/3      (12) |   46          (14) |   39       (11.90)
  ~Span~                  feet (m.)|   42-3/4   (13.25) |   31-1/8    (9.50) |   32-3/4      (10) |   45       (13.70) |   50-3/4   (15.50) |   65-3/4      (20) |   36          (11)
  ~Area~             sq. feet (m².)|  376          (35) |  161          (15) |  204          (19) |  344          (32) |  646          (60) |  861          (80) |  323          (30)
                {total  lbs. (kgs.)|  793         (360) |  640         (295) |  628         (285) |  950         (431) | 1102         (500) | 1433         (650) |  882         (400)
  ~Weight~      {                  |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |
                {useful lbs. (kgs.)|  661         (300) |  386         (175) |        ...         |         ...        |  617         (280) |  882         (400) |  551         (250)
                                  {|                    |                    |    Designed for    |                    |                    |                    |
  ~Motor~                     h.p.{|    70-80 Gnome     |     70-80 Gnome    |    Gnomes from     |      50 Gnome      |      70 Renault    |     70 Renault     |     70 Renault
                                  {|                    |                    |  40 up to 160 h.p. |                    |                    |                    |
                  {max. m.p.h. (km)|   65         (105) |   71          (15) |        ...         |   52         (100) |   56          (90) |   44          (70) |   69         (110)
  ~Speed~         {                |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |
                  {min. m.p.h. (km)|         ...        |         ...        |        ...         |        ...         |         ...        |         ...        |         ...
  ~Endurance~                  hrs.|          3         |         ...        |        ...         |        ...         |         ...        |         ...        |         ...
  Number built during 1912         |         ...        |         ...        |        ...         |        ...         |         ...        |         ...        |         ...
  ---------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------

Remarks.--The whole of the above can easily be converted into
hydro-avions--two long narrow floats without steps. _H. Farmans_ are of
wood and steel construction; _M. Farman_, wood. In all 1913 biplanes the
ailerons are inter-connected. All 1913 machines designed to carry one or
in some cases two mitrailleuse, and special attention is paid to
facility for taking down for transport and re-assembling. The 1911-12
_H. Farmans_ had elevators forward, were a good deal longer, and had
more surface than 1913 models. Ailerons not inter-connected. The _M.
Farmans_ generally as now, except that all planes, etc., had rounded
edges. On September 11th, 1912, Foury, in an _M. Farman_ military, made
world's endurance record to date, 13 hrs. 22 min., covering 631 miles
(1,017 km.) All models of this type, also the "big military," are fitted
with the Doutre stabiliser. Fabric: "Aviator" Ramie.

~Latest Hydro.~--In March, 1913, a new hydro was produced
experimentally. There is a boat body, without steps, carrying the motor
which is chain connected with the propeller. Machine is fitted with
wheels and skids as well.

[Illustration: H. Farman. 1912-13 military biplane.]

[Illustration: H. Farman. 1913 latest type military biplane.]

[Illustration: M. Farman. 1912-13 military biplane.]

[Illustration: M. Farman. 1912-13 staggered biplane. This is the type
which has done best as a hydro-aeroplane.]



G


GOUPY. A. Goupy, 50, Avenue Marceau, Paris. School: Juvissy (Port
Aviation). Capacity: about 30 machines a year.

  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
                                     |                    |                    |       ~1913.~
            Model and date.          |      ~1913 A.~     |      ~1913 B.~     |   Hydro-staggered
                                     | Staggered biplane. | Staggered biplane. |      biplane.
  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~                  feet (m.)|   25        (7.50) |   26-1/4       (8) |   33         (10)
  ~Span~                    feet (m.)|   26-1/4       (8) |   42-3/4      (13) |   42      (12.70)
  ~Area~                sq. feet (m²)|         ...        |         ...        |  480         (45)
                {machine  lbs. (kgs.)|         ...        |         ...        |  992        (450)
  ~Weight~      {                    |                    |                    |
                {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|         ...        |         ...        |  661        (300)
  ~Motor~                        h.p.|      50 Gnome      |   80 or 100 Gnome  |      80 Gnome
                   {max. m.p.h. (km.)|   62         (100) |   75         (120) |   75        (120)
  ~Speed~          {                 |                    |                    |
                   {min. m.p.h. (km.)|         ...        |         ...        |         ...
  ~Endurance~                    hrs.|         ...        |         ...        |         ...
  Number built during 1912           |         ...        |          12        |          1
  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------

Fabric: "Aviator" Ramie.

[Illustration: Goupy. Hydro. _From "Flight."_ UAS]

[Illustration: Goupy. Hydro. _By favour of "Aeronautics," U.S.A._ UAS]



H


HANRIOT. Aeroplanes Hanriot & Cie., 145 rue de Neufchatel, Reims. Paris
office: 69 boulevard Berthier, Paris. School: Antibes, Reims.

  ------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
          ~1913~ models.        |        ~D I.~      |       ~D II.~      |       ~D III.~     |       ~D IV.~      |    ~D VII.~
           ~Monoplanes.~        |    Single seater.  |   2 or 3-seater.   |       Racer.       |       Steel.       |
  ------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~             feet (m.)|   23           (7) |   26-1/3       (8) |   21-3/4    (6.65) |   23           (7) |   23          (7)
  ~Span~               feet (m.)|   28-1/3    (8.70) |   42-3/4      (13) |   24        (7.30) |   28-1/3    (8.65) |   36      (10.95)
  ~Area~           sq. feet (m²)|  161          (15) |  226          (21) |   91        (8.50) |  161          (15) |  194         (18)
           {machine  lbs. (kgs.)|  661         (300) |  937         (425) |  661         (300) |  661         (300) |  771        (350)
  ~Weight~ {                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |
           {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|         ...        |  616         (280) |         ...        |  396         (180) |  364        (165)
  ~Motor~                   h.p.|      50 Anzani     |      100 Gnome     |      100 Gnome     |    50 R. Peugeot   |      80 Gnome
            {max.   m.p.h. (km.)|   69         (110) |   78         (125) |  106         (170) |   71         (115) |   71        (115)
  ~Speed~   {                   |                    |                    |                    |                    |
            {min.   m.p.h. (km.)|         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...
  ~Endurance~               hrs.|         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...
  Number built during 1912      |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...
  ------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------

Notes.--There are also two school types 35 and 45 h.p. Records include
1912 world record for speed with passengers.

None of the above machines represent any very particular divergence from
recognised _Hanriot_ practice. _D IV_ is all steel construction, the
others wood and steel.

[Illustration]



M


MORANE-SAULNIER. Soc. de constructions aéronautiques, Morane-Saulnier.
206 Boulevard Pereire. Capital: 1,500,000 francs. School: Villacoublay.
Output capacity: about 50 machines a year.

  ----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------
                                    |  ~Military, 1913.~ |     ~2 places.~
                                    |                    |      ~Tandem.~
  ----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~                 feet (m.)|   21        (6.38) |   21        (6.38)
  ~Span~                   feet (m.)|   30-1/5    (9.20) |   33-1/2   (10.20)
  ~Surface~           sq. feet (m².)|  151          (14) |  172          (16)
                {total   lbs. (kgs.)|  595         (270) |  617         (280)
  ~Weight~      {                   |                    |
                {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|         ...        |         ...
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|       50 h.p.      |       80 h.p.
  ~Speed~               m.p.h. (km.)|   75         (120) |   75         (120)
  Number built during 1912          |         ...        |         ...
  ----------------------------------+--------------------+----------------------

In each case ~body~ is of rectangular section, wood, mounted on wheels
only, except for the ~military~ type which has skids also. Fabric:
"Aviator" Ramie.

In all there is a rear elevator and a Chauvière tractor.

Note.--Flown in the European Circuit, 1911, by Vedrines, Gajet, Lesire,
Morisson, Verept, Frey, Garnier and Dalgier.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: 1913. 100 h.p. Gnome engined.]


MOREAU. Moreau fréres, Combs-la-Ville.

  -----------------------------------+--------------------+
                                     |       ~1913.~      |
           Model and date.           |      2-seater.     |
  -----------------------------------+--------------------+
  ~Length~                  feet (m.)|   31        (9.50) |
  ~Span~                    feet (m.)|   39-1/3      (12) |
  ~Area~               sq. feet (m².)|  258          (24) |
                {machine  lbs. (kgs.)|  992         (450) |
  ~Weight~      {                    |                    |
                {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|        ...         |
  ~Motor~                        h.p.|      70 Gnome      |
  ~Speed~           max. m.p.h. (km.)|   62         (100) |
  Number built during 1912           |         2          |
  -----------------------------------+--------------------+

Notes.--Fitted with a special stabilising device.

[Illustration: MOREAU. UAS]



N


NIEUPORT. Etablissements Nieuport, 9 rue de Seine, Suresnes (Seine).
Established 1910 by the late Edouard Nieuport. Approximate capacity of
works: about 100 machines a year. Chief designer during 1911 was Pagny,
who has now joined the Hanriot firm.

  ----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
             Model and date.        |       ~II N,~      |       ~II G,~      |  ~IV G, 1912-13.~  |  ~IV M, 1912-13.~  |       ~1913.~      |       ~1913.~      |       ~1913.~      |       ~1913.~
              ~Monoplanes.~         |       ~1912.~      |       ~1912.~      |      2-seater.     |      3-seater.     |      2-seater.     |     1-seater.      |      1-seater.     |   Hydro 3-seater.
  ----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~                 feet (m.)|   23-2/3    (7.20) |   23-2/3    (7.20) |   25-2/3    (7.80) |   25-2/3    (7.80) |   26-1/4       (8) |   21-3/4    (6.60) |   23           (7) |   29        (8.80)
  ~Span~                   feet (m.)|   28-1/3    (8.65) |   28-1/3    (8.65) |   36       (10.90) |   39-1/3   (12.10) |   36          (11) |   28-1/3    (8.70) |   27-2/3    (8.40) |   40       (12.20)
  ~Area~              sq. feet (m².)|         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |  231      (21-1/2) |  140          (13) |  156      (14-1/2) |  242      (22-1/2)
                {machine lbs. (kgs.)|  529         (240) |  683         (310) |  771         (350) | 1058         (480) |  771         (350) |  573         (260) |  573         (260) | 1230         (558)
  ~Weight~      {                   |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |
                {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|     30 Nieuport    |        Gnome       |        Gnome       |        Gnome       |        Gnome       |      50 Gnome      |     30 Nieuport    |      100 Gnome
                  {max. m.p.h. (km.)|   75         (120) |   87         (140) |   72         (117) |   72         (117) |   69         (110) |   78         (125) |   69         (110) |   72         (117)
  ~Speed~         {                 |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |
                  {min. m.p.h. (km.)|         ...        |   75         (120) |   69         (110) |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...
  Number built during 1912          |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...
  ----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------

Notes.--Early types had a _Hanriot_ style landing carriage; the 1913
models revert to a _Bleriot_ type. Warping wings. Fuselage entirely
enclosed, rectilineal with rounded nose.

[Illustration: Nieuport. Hydro. _By favour of "Flight."_ UAS]



P


PAULHAN-CURTISS. Soc. anonyme d'aviation Paulhan, (S.A.P.) 71 boulevard
Berthier, Paris. Flying ground: Bois d'Arcy par St. Ayr (S. et O.) Hydro
school: Juan-les-Pins, par Antibes (Alpes Maritimes).

Founded by the well-known aviator, L. Paulhan. He first produced
biplanes, then triplanes and finally a monoplane type, the
_Tatin-Paulhan_ (1911). These are now all abandoned, and the firm
devotes itself to building hydro-aeroplanes under Curtiss (U.S.A.)
license. Principal type built are:--

  ------------------------------------+------------------+------------------+
             Model and date.          |   Flying boat.   |   Flying boat.   |
               ~Biplanes.~            |  Single-seater.  |    2-seater.     |
  ------------------------------------+------------------+------------------+
  ~Length~                   feet (m.)|       ...        |   27      (8.30) |
  ~Span~                     feet (m.)|   35-1/2 (10.80) |   37     (11.30) |
  ~Area~                sq. feet (m².)|       ...        |  290    (26-3/4) |
                {machine   lbs. (kgs.)|       ...        |  948       (430) |
  ~Weight~      {                     |                  |                  |
                {useful    lbs. (kgs.)|       ...        |       ...        |
  ~Motor~                         h.p.|    75 Curtiss    |    85 Curtiss    |
  ~Speed~                 m.p.h. (km.)|       ...        |       ...        |
  Number built during 1912            |        2         |        8         |
  ------------------------------------+------------------+------------------+


PISCHOFF. Établissements Autoplan, 4 rue Beranger, Boulogne sur Seine
(Seine).

This firm has produced various types in the past, but at present,
appears confined to constructing to specifications (See
_Pischoff-Werner_ last edition).

[Illustration: Paulhan-Curtiss. Flying boat.]



R


R.E.P. Robert Esnault-Pelterie, Billancourt. School: Bue. One of the
earliest established French firms. The first to go in for steel
construction. Reported to have amalgamated with _Breguet_ in 1912, but
this fell through.

  -----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+
                 Model.              |      ~1912.~     |      ~1912.~     |      ~1912.~     |      ~1913.~     |      ~1913.~     |
          ~Steel monoplanes.~        |     1-seater.    |     2-seater.    |     Military.    |     2-seater.    |    Hydro-mono.   |
                                     |                  |                  |     3-seater.    |                  |     2-seater.    |
  -----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+
  ~Length~                  feet (m.)|   25-1/3  (7.70) |   25-1/3  (7.70) |   25-1/3  (7.70) |   23         (7) |   25      (7.50) |
  ~Span~                    feet (m.)|   35     (10.70) |   38-1/3 (11.70) |   38-1/3 (11.70) |   36        (11) |   38-1/4 (11.60) |
  ~Area~               sq. feet (m².)|  215        (20) |  237        (22) |  323        (30) |  237        (22) |  323        (20) |
                {machine  lbs. (kgs.)|  882       (400) |  661       (300) |  882       (400) |  595       (270) |        ...       |
  ~Weight~      {                    |                  |                  |                  |                  |                  |
                {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |
  ~Motor~               make and h.p.|      60 Rep.     |      66 Rep.     |      90 Rep.     |      95 Rep.     |      80 Rep.     |
                     {max. mph. (km.)|   69       (110) |   69       (110) |   69       (110) |   78       (125) |   78       (125) |
  ~Speed~            {               |                  |                  |                  |                  |                  |
                     {min. mph. (km.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |   62       (100) |   62       (100) |
  Number built  during 1912          |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |
  -----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+

Remarks.--Steel construction. Pentagonal and triangular body. Mounted on
wheels and skids. The hydro is on one very large central float.

[Illustration: _Flight._ UAS]



S


SANCHEZ BESA. 2 avenue de Villiers, Paris.

  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+
            Model and date.         |      ~1912.~     |      ~1912.~     |      ~1913.~     |
                                    |  Hydro-biplane.  |  Hydro-biplane.  |  Hydro-biplane.  |
                                    |                  |                  |   (amphibious)   |
  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+
  ~Length~                 feet (m.)|   34     (10.40) |        ...       |   32-3/4    (10) |
  ~Span~                   feet (m.)|   54     (16.40) |   55-3/4    (17) |   54-3/4 (16.60) |
  ~Area~              sq. feet (m².)|  646        (60) |        ...       |  646        (60) |
                {àvide   lbs. (kgs.)| 1984       (900) |        ...       | 1102       (500) |
  ~Weight~      {                   |                  |                  |                  |
                {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|    100 Renault   |     70 Renault   |     70 Renault   |
  ~Speed~          max. m.p.h. (km.)|   56        (90) |        ...       |   50        (80) |
  ~Endurance~                   hrs.|         5        |         5        |         6        |
  Number built during 1912          |         3        |         1        |         1        |
  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+

Notes.--Wood and steel construction.

Controls.--Ailerons and rear elevators. Floats: The first has two and
the second three floats. The 1913 model has a single boat body mounted
on wheels.

[Illustration: 1913 hydro.]


SAVARY. Soc. anonyme des aeroplanes. Robert Savary, 31 rue Dunois,
Paris. School: Chartres. Output capacity: 100 to 150 machines a year.

  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
            Model and date.          |       ~1912.~      |       ~1912.~      |       ~1913.~
                                     |      Biplane.      |Military (3-seater.)|      Biplane.
  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~                  feet (m.)|   36          (11) |   33-1/2   (10.15) |   38-1/2   (11.70)
  ~Span~                   {feet (m.)|   46          (14) |   49       (14.90) |   49-1/4      (15)
                           {feet (m.)|   33          (10) |   37       (11.20) |   33          (10)
  ~Area~               sq. feet (m².)|  510          (48) |  533          (50) |  550          (52)
                {machine  lbs. (kgs.)| 1132         (600) |         ...        | 1132         (600)
  ~Weight~      {                    |                    |                    |
                {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|         ...        |         ...        |          ...
  ~Motor~                        h.p.|       various      |       70 Labor     |      75 Renault
                                     |                    |                    |   (Gnome or Labor)
                   {max  m.p.h. (km.)|   56          (90) |         ...        |   59          (96)
  ~Speed~          {                 |                    |                    |
                   {min  m.p.h. (km.)|   50          (80) |         ...        |         ...
  Number built during 1912           |         ...        |          47        |         ...
  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------

Notes.--Wood and steel construction. _Control_: ailerons and rear
elevator. Landing gear: wheels and skids. _Special features_: There are
4 rudders in the gap, and 2 tractors, chain driven. Aeroplatte fabric.

[Illustration: SAVARY. 1913. UAS]


SLOAN. "Bicurve." Sloan & Cie, 17 rue de Louvre, Paris. Works: 9 rue
Victor Hugo, Charenton. Flying ground: Port Aviation. Output capacity:
small.

  ------------------------------+------------------+------------------+
        Model and date.         |      ~1912.~     |      ~1913.~     |
  ------------------------------+------------------+------------------+
  ~Length~             feet (m.)|   31-1/3  (9.50) |   29      (8.70) |
  ~Span~               feet (m.)|   42-3/4    (13) |   42-1/2 (12.90) |
  ~Area~           sq. feet (m²)|  527        (49) |  473        (44) |
           {machine  lbs. (kgs.)| 1100       (500) |  662       (300) |
  ~Weight~ {                    |                  |                  |
           {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |        ...       |
  ~Motor~                   h.p.|     100 Gnome    |   120 Laviator   |
  ~Speed~     {max. m.p.h. (km.)|   59        (95) |    65      (105) |
  Number built during 1912      |        ...       |        ...       |
  ------------------------------+------------------+------------------+

Notes.--Wood construction. Wheels and skids landing gear. _Control_:
ailerons and rear elevator.

[Illustration: Sloan.]


SOMMER. Ateliers Roger Sommer, Mouzon, Ardennes. Flying grounds: Douzy,
Mourmelon, Vidammé.

                                                  ~Monoplanes.~                                                    ~Biplanes.~
                                      /-----------------^-----------------\ /-------------------------------------------^------------------------------------------------\
  -----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
            Model and date.          |     ~E 1912.~    |     ~1913.~      |     ~K 1912.~    |     ~R 1912.~    |     ~S 1912.~    |     ~L 1912.~    |     ~R3 1913.~
                                     |                  |                  |  Single seater.  |   2 or 3-seater  |                  |                  |   2 or 3-seater
  -----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~                  feet (m.)|   22      (6.70) |   23         (7) |   39-1/4    (12) |   36        (11) |   31      (9.50) |   29-1/2     (9) |   38-2/3 (11.70)
  ~Span~                    feet (m.)|   28-1/2  (8.70) |   26-1/4     (8) |   39-1/4    (12) |   51     (15.50) |   42     (12.80) |   39-1/4    (12) |   46        (14)
  ~Area~               sq. feet (m².)|  172        (16) |  172        (16) |  215        (20) |  533        (50) |  350        (32) |        ...       |  575        (54)
                {machine  lbs. (kgs.)|  595       (270) |  617       (280) |  617       (280) |  992       (450) |  597       (275) |  639       (290) |  882       (400)
  ~Weight~      {                    |                  |                  |                  |                  |                  |                  |
                {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |         ...
  ~Motor~                        h.p.|     50 Anzani    |     50 Gnome     |      Various     |      Various     |      Various     |      Various     |      70 Renault
                                     |      or Gnome    |                  |                  |                  |                  |                  |
                  {max.  m.p.h. (km.)|   84       (135) |   84       (135) |   61        (98) |   50        (80) |   57        (92) |   56        (90) |   56        (90)
  ~Speed~         {                  |                  |                  |                  |                  |                  |                  |
                  {min.  m.p.h. (km.)|   67       (108) |   65       (105) |   53        (85) |        ...       |   53        (84) |        ...       |         ...
  ~Endurance~                    hrs.|         4        |         4        |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |         ...
  Number built during 1912           |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |         ...
  -----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
  Wood and steel construction. Landing: carriage                           |Wood and steel construction. Landing: wheels and skids.
  wheels. _Control_: warping and rear elevator.                            |_Control_: ailerons and front rear elevator.
  Rectangular body.                                                        |
  -------------------------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration: SOMMER. UAS]



T


TRAIN. E. Train, Buoy, Camp de Chalons (Marne).

  -----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+
            Model and date.          |     1-seater.    |     2-seater.    |    Hydro-mono.   |
             ~Monoplanes.~           |                  |                  |                  |
  -----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+
  ~Length~                  feet (m.)|   26-1/4     (8) |   26-1/4     (8) |   26-1/4     (8) |
  ~Span~                    feet (m.)|   30-3/4  (9.30) |   35     (10.66) |   42-1/2 (12.94) |
  ~Area~               sq. feet (m².)|  172        (16) |  215        (20) |        ...       |
                {machine  lbs. (kgs.)|  573       (260) |  617       (280) |        ...       |
  ~Weight~      {                    |                  |                  |                  |
                {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|       ...        |        ...       |        ...       |
  ~Motor~                        h.p.|   30/60 Anzani   |     70 Gnome     |     80 Gnome     |
                  {max.  m.p.h. (km.)|   59        (95) |   65       (105) |        ...       |
  ~Speed~         {                  |                  |                  |                  |
                  {min.  m.p.h. (km.)|   47        (75) |        ...       |        ...       |
  Number built during 1912           |       ...        |        ...       |        ...       |
  -----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+

Notes.--Steel construction. Landing: carriage wheels and skids.
_Control_: warping and rear elevator. The hydro has one very large float
which extends a considerable distance ahead of the tractor.

[Illustration: TRAIN. UAS]


TUBAVION. Ponche & Primaud, Long.

  -----------------------------------+------------------+
             Model and date.         |    Monoplane.    |
                                     |      ~1913.~     |
  -----------------------------------+------------------+
  ~Length~                  feet (m.)|   29      (8.85) |
  ~Span~                    feet (m.)|   29-1/2     (9) |
  ~Area~               sq. feet (m².)|  194        (18) |
                {machine  lbs. (kgs.)|  772       (350) |
  ~Weight~      {                    |                  |
                {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |
  ~Motor~                        h.p.|      70 Gnome    |
  ~Speed~           max. m.p.h. (km.)|   65       (105) |
  Number built during 1912           |         1        |
  -----------------------------------+------------------+

Notes.--Tubular steel construction. Landing: wheels and 2 very long
skids. Propeller: amidships.

[Illustration: TUBAVION. UAS]



V


VINET. Gaston Vinet, 41-47 quai de Seine, Courbevoie: also 2-8 rue
Larnac. Established for automobile work, 1893. Aeroplane output
capacity: small.

  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
            Model and date.          |      Type ~D~      |       ~1913.~      |
                                     |    ~1912~ mono.    |       Mono.        |
  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
  ~Length~                  feet (m.)|   21-1/2    (6.60) |   21        (6.40) |
  ~Span~                    feet (m.)|   28-1/2    (8.60) |   28        (8.50) |
  ~Area~               sq. feet (m².)|  162          (15) |  162          (15) |
                {machine  lbs. (kgs.)|  550         (250) |  440         (200) |
  ~Weight~      {                    |                    |                    |
                {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|        ...         |         ...        |
  ~Motor~                        h.p.|     50 Gnome       |      50 Gnome      |
  ~Speed~            max m.p.h. (km.)|   56          (90) |   60          (95) |
  Number built during 1912           |         6          |         ...        |
  -----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+

Notes.--Wood construction. Landing wheels and skids. _Control_: warping
and rear elevator. Rectangular body. The two types are practically
identical.

[Illustration: VINET. Type D. UAS]


VOISIN. Voisin Aéroplanes, Boulevard Gambetta, Issy le Molineux,
(Seine). School: Mourmelon. Capital 1,000,000 francs. The oldest
aeroplane firm in the world, founded by the Brothers Voisin in 1905.
(See past editions).

Latest models are:

  ----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
                                    |      Military      |                    |      Military      |
            Model and date.         |      biplane.      |   Hydro-biplane.   |      biplane.      |
                                    |    Model ~1912.~   |    Model ~1912.~   |    Model ~1913.~   |
  ----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+
  ~Length~                 feet (m.)|   37-3/4   (11.50) |   36          (11) |   32-3/4      (10) |
  ~Span~                   feet (m.)|   55-3/4      (17) |   43-1/4   (13.50) |   45-1/3   (13.80) |
  ~Area~              sq. feet (m².)|  387          (36) |  376          (35) |  398          (37) |
                {total   lbs. (kgs.)| 1367         (620) | 1212         (550) | 1102         (500) |
  ~Weight~      {                   |                    |                    |                    |
                {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|  772         (350) |  661         (300) |  794         (360) |
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|     70 Renault     |      100 Gnome     |      80 Gnome      |
                  {max. m.p.h. (km.)|   62         (100) |   62         (100) |   65         (105) |
  ~Speed~         {                 |                    |                    |                    |
                  {min. m.p.h. (km.)|         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |
  Number built during 1912          |          47        |          8         |         ...        |
  ----------------------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+

[Illustration: Canard with floats. _By favour of "Aeronautics,"
U.S.A._]



Z


ZODIAC. Société Zodiac, 10 route du Havre, Puteaux _pres_ Paris (Seine).
Aero park: St. Cyr l'Ecole _pres_ Versailles. Established 1896. Capital
850,000 francs.

  -----------------------------------+------------------+
            Model and date.          |       ~S2.~      |
                                     |      ~1913.~     |
  -----------------------------------+------------------+
  ~Length~                  feet (m.)|   38-3/4 (11.75) |
                           {feet (m.)|   49        (15) |
  ~Span~                   {         |                  |
                           {feet (m.)|   36        (11) |
  ~Area~               sq. feet (m².)|  350        (32) |
                {machine  lbs. (kgs.)| 1010       (460) |
  ~Weight~      {                    |                  |
                {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|  551       (250) |
  ~Motor~                        h.p.|     50 Gnome     |
  ~Speed~          max.  m.p.h. (km.)|   59        (95) |
  Number built during 1912           |       ...        |
  -----------------------------------+------------------+

Notes.--Wood construction. _Control_: Ailerons and 1 rear elevator.
Upper planes staggered 30 in advance of lower. Quadrilateral fuselage.
Piloted passenger side by side. Landing carriage: 2 wheels and 1 skid.
Aeroplatte fabric.

The 1912 model was practically the same.

[Illustration: ZODIAC. UAS]

[Illustration]



FRENCH DIRIGIBLES.


                                          ~Military.~
  ---------------+----------------------+-------------+-------+----------+------+-------------+------------------
                 |                      |             |       | Capacity |      |    Speed.   |
        Date.    |       Name.          |    Make.    | Type. |  in m³.  | H.P. | m.p.h.  (K) |   Notes.
  ---------------+----------------------+-------------+-------+----------+------+-------------+------------------
        1909     | ~LIBERTÉ~            |   Lebaudy   |  s.r. |   4800   |  120 | 28     (45) |
                 |                      |             |       |          |      |             |
        1910     | ~COL. RENARD~        |    Astra    |  n.r. |   4100   |  100 | 30     (50) |
                 |                      |             |       |          |      |             |
        1911     | ~ADJUTANT REAU~      |   Astra 10  |  n.r. |   8950   |  220 | 32     (53) |
         "       | ~LIEUT. CHAURE~      |   Astra 11  |  n.r. |   8950   |  220 | 32     (53) |
         "       | ~ADJ. VINCENNOT~     | C. Bayard 4 |  n.r. |   7500   |   75 | 29     (48) |
         "       | ~SELLE DE BEAUCHAMP~ |   Lebaudy   |  s.r. |   8000   |   75 | 30     (50) |
         "       | ~CAPT. MARÉCHAL~     |   Lebaudy   |  s.r. |   7500   |  160 |             |
         "       | ~LE TEMPS~           |  Zodiac  9  |  n.r. |   2500   |   75 | 29     (48) |
         "       | ~CAPT. FERBER~       |  Zodiac 10  |  n.r. |   6000   |  180 | 33     (54) |
         "       | ~COMDT. COUTELLE~    |  Zodiac 11  |  n.r. |   9000   |  380 | 37     (60) |
                 |                      |             |       |          |      |             |
        1912     | ~SPIESS~             |  Zodiac 12  |   r.  |  11000   |  400 | 40     (65) |
         "       | ~FLEURUS~            | C. Bayard 5 |  n.r. |   6500   |  150 | 36     (58) |
         "       | ~ECLAIREUR CONTÉ~    |   Astra 12  |  n.r. |   6640   |   75 | 28     (46) |
         "       | ~DUPUY DE LÔME~      | C. Bayard 6 |  n.r. |   9700   |  244 | 35-1/2 (58) |
                 |                      |             |       |          |      |             |
  _Building_     | _A_                  |    Astra    |}      |          |      |             |
                 | _B_                  | C. Bayard 7 |}      |          |      |             |
                 | _C_                  |   Lebaudy   |}      |   17000  | 1000 | 43-1/2 (70) |
                 | _D_                  |  Zodiac 13  |}  ?   |          |      |             |
                 |                      |             |}      |          |      |             |
    _Pro._       | _7 new_ 20,000 c.m.  |             |}      |          |      |             |
  ---------------+----------------------+-------------+-------+----------+------+-------------+------------------


~Military sheds~ at Belfert, Epinal, Maubenge, Reims, Toul, Verdun (2).
--Total 7.


During the year 1912 the principal work done was as follows:--

  -----------------+------------+---------------------+------------
                   | Hours out. | Distance travelled. | Gas used.
       Name.       |            |  m.           (km.) |    m³
  -----------------+------------+---------------------+------------
  _C. Ferber_      |   152      | 3540         (5900) |   45,500
  _Adj. Reau_      |   105-1/2  | 2310         (3845) |   81,000
  _Dupuy de Lôme_  |   100      | 2655         (4424) |   66,500
  _Adj. Vincennot_ |    55      | 1340         (2235) |   50,000
  _Le Temps_       |    23      |  440          (700) |    9,000
  _Fleurus_        |     3-3/4  |  100          (159) |   19,000
  -----------------+------------+---------------------+------------


~Army Dirigible Pilots.~

  Airault, F.
  Balny D'Avricourt
  Baudry, A.
  Bayard de Mendoca
  Clerget, P.
  Cohen, A.
  Herbster, M.
  Hirschaner, Col.
  Juchmès, G.
  Mugnier, Capt.
  Noe, Martial
  Périssé, Y.
  Renard, Col. P.
  Roussel, A.
  Schelcher, A.

Note.--There are no dirigibles attached to the Navy.


                                     ~Private.~
  ------+--------------------+----------+-------+----------+------+-----------------+----------------
        |                    |          |       | Capacity |      |      Speed.     |
  Date. |     Name.          |   Make.  | Type. |  in m³.  | H.P. | m.p.h. (k.p.h.) | Remarks.
  ------+--------------------+----------+-------+----------+------+-----------------+----------------
  1909  | ~ASTRA~            |  Astra 7 |  n.r. |   4475   |  100 | 27         (43) |
        |                    |          |       |          |      |                 |
  1909  | ~ZODIAC III~       | Zodiac 3 |  n.r. |   1400   |   40 | 28         (45) |
        |                    |          |       |          |      |                 |
  1911  | ~ASTRA TORRES~     |   Astra  |  n.r. |   1930   |   55 | 34         (56) |
        |                    |          |       |          |      |                 |
  1912  | ~TRANSAERIENNE II~ | Astra 13 |  n.r. |   9000   |  350 | 34         (56) |
  ------+--------------------+----------+-------+----------+------+-----------------+----------------


~Private sheds~ at Chalons-s-Marre, Issy (2), Lamotte-Breuil, Meaux,
Melun, Mousson, Reims, Pau, St. Cyr (2).--Total 11.

32 sheds are building or projected by the National Aviation Committee.


~Private Dirigible Pilots.~

  Capazza, Louis
  Godart, Louis
  Julliott, Henri
  Kapferer, Henri
  La Vaulx (de) Compte
  Santo-Dumont, Albert
  Surcouf, Edward


=ASTRA CLASS.=

Astra Societe de Constructions Aeronautique, 13, Rue Couchot, and 121,
Rue de Bellevue, Billancourt.

This Society was founded by Surcouf for the production of ordinary
balloons. The first dirigible work was building part of the old
_Lebaudy_ in 1903, followed in 1906 by the _Ville de Paris_. The total
number of dirigibles of this type completed by the end of 1912 stood at
14, one very large dirigible in hand for the French Army, and one small
one for the British Navy, and another for the Russian Army.

Owing to changes in names, or owing to two names getting supplied to one
ship, confusion frequently exists as to the names of the Astra
dirigibles. The correct list is as follows:--

  1. Part of the LEBAUDY                          1903
  2. VILLE DE PARIS                               1906
  3. VILLE DE BORDEAUX                            1908
  4. VILLE DE NANCY                               1909
  5. Russian Military dirigible, KOMMISSIONNY,}
          originally known as CLEMENT-BAYARD I}   1909
  6. COLONEL RENARD                               1909
  7. ASTRA-TRANSAERIENNE-VILLE DE PAU-VILLE}
          DE LUCERNE[C]                    }      1909
  8. ESPANA (Spanish Military)                    1909
  9. VILLE DE BRUXELLES                           1910
 10. LIEUT. CHAURE (French Military)              1911
 11. ADJUTANT RÉAU (French Military)              1911
 12. ECLAIREUR CONTÉ (French Military)            1912
 13. TRANSAERIENNE II                             1912
 14. ASTRA-TORRES I                               1911


The general features of the _Astra_ class are: Non-rigid, weights
distributed by means of a long girder hung under the gas bags, a long
nacelle, and inflated stabilising shapes at the rear end of the balloon.

The _Astra-Torres_ type are also non-rigid, but of trefoil section with
a short nacelle.

The Compagnie Generale Transaerienne was first established in 1909 with
_Transaerienne I_, and during the summers 1909, 1910 and 1911, this ship
made a total of 273 ascents, carried 2590 passengers, and voyaged 7990
kilometres.

The Astra firm has dirigible hangers at Issy, Pau, Meaux, and Reims. Its
constructional capacity is sufficient to build six dirigibles at any one
time.


"ASTRA I-TRANSAERIEN-VILLE DE PAU-VILLE DE LUCERNE" (1909).

[Illustration]

~Maximum length,~ 197 feet (60 m.) ~maximum diameter,~ 40 feet (12.20
m.) ~volume,~ 158,000 c. feet (4,475 m³.)

~Total lift.~--Just over 7 tons=15,763 lbs. (7,150 kgs.) ~Useful lift,~
lbs. ( kgs.)

~Gas bags.~--Continental rubbered fabric, yellow.

~Motor.~--One 90-100 C. Bayard.

~Speed.~--27 m.p.h. (43 k.p.h.)

~Propellers.~--One.

[Illustration: SIDE ELEVATION]


COLONEL RENARD. Military (1909).

[Illustration]

~Maximum length,~ 213 feet (65 m.) ~maximum diameter,~ 35 feet (10.50
m.) ~volume,~ 145,000 c. feet (4,200 m³.)

~Total lift.~--9,921 lbs. (4,500 kgs.)=about 4-1/2 tons.

~Gas bags.~--Yellow coloured rubber proofed Continental fabric.

~Motor.~--One 110 h.p. 4-cylinder Panhard.

~Speed.~--29 m.p.h.

~Propellers.~--1, at the front end of the car. "Integrale."

~Steering.~--Elevators.

Remarks.--The two side stabilising shapes are duplicated, as they were
in the _Ville de Paris_. A webbing stretched on steel tubes is
introduced between the inner edges of the 4 main stabilising shapes to
provide extra stabilising surface.

[Illustration: COLONEL RENARD. UDS

Note.--An elevator aft has since been added.]

Improved _Col. Renard's_ are:--

LIEUT. CHAURE. Military (1911).

ADJUTANT RÉAU. Military (1911)

TRANSAERIEN II (1911).

Particulars of these are as follows:--

  --------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------------+-----------------------------
                      |       _Lieut. Chaure._      |      _Adjutant Reau._      |      _Transaerien II._
  --------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------------+-----------------------------
  ~Length~            |    275-1/2 feet (83.8 m.)   |     285 feet (86.78 m.)    |      250 feet (76.25 m.)
  ~Diameter~          |        46 feet (14 m.)      |       46 feet (14 m.)      |        46 feet (14 m.)
  ~Volume~            | 312,550 c. ft. (8,850 m³.)  | 314,000 c. ft. (8950 m³.)  | 318,000 c. ft. (9,000 m³.)
  ~Motors~            |   2 Panhard, each 110 h.p.  |   2 Brasier, each 110 h.p. |      2 of 175 h.p. each
  ~Speed~ (p.h.)      |        32 m. (53 km.)       |       32 m. (53 km.)       |        34 m. (56 km.)
  --------------------+-----------------------------+----------------------------+-----------------------------

Notes.--All have 1 propeller forward of 6 m. diameter, and 2 aft of 3.70
m. The _Lieut. Chaure's_ empeunage is by ballonets; in the other two a
cellular system and automatic stabilisation are the special feature.

  +----------------------------------------------------------+
  |                                                          |
  | Appearance practically the same as for _Colonel Renard_. |
  |                                                          |
  +----------------------------------------------------------+


ÉCLAIREUR CONTÉ. Military. (1912)

Nominal volume, 6,500 m³.

[Illustration]

~Length,~ 213 feet (65 m.) ~diameter,~ 46 feet (14 m.) ~volume,~ 234,500
c. feet (6,640 m³.)

~Ballonets.~--Volume, 71,770 c. feet (2,032 m³) empeunage: cellular.

~Nacelle.~--Length, 115 feet (35 m.) Breadth, 5-1/2 feet (1.60 m.)
Height _about_ 6 feet (2-1.50 m.)

~Motor.~--2 Chenu, 80 h.p. Hele-Shaw clutch.

~Speed.~--_About_ 28 m.p.h. (43-45 km.p.h.)

~Propellers.~--2 central aft, each of 4 m. (13 feet) diameter. 650
r.p.m.

~Empeunage.~--Cellular, Stabilisation automatic.

Notes.--In this type the usual Astra style, rear of gas bag, is entirely
done away with. Surface of each elevator is 18m², of the rudder 33m².
There are 2 petrol reservoirs, each of 180 litre capacity.

~Weights.~

                      lbs.   (kgs.)
  Crew                838     (380)
  Details            1367     (620)
  Tools, etc.         220     (100)
  "Lest d'altitude"  2205    (1000)
     "    securité    661     (300)
                     ----    ------
  Total              5291    (2400)


ASTRA-TORRES I.

[Illustration]

~Length,~ 157 feet (47.72 m.) ~diameter,~ 33 feet (10 m.) ~volume,~
68,150 c. feet (1,930 m³.)

~Ballonets.~--Volume, 11,300 c. feet (320 m³.)

~Nacelle.~--Length, 18 feet (5.50 m.) Breadth, 5 feet (1.50 m.) Height,
6-1/2 feet (2 m.)

~Useful lift.~--1,219 lbs. (553 kgs.)

~Motor.~--1 Chenu, 55 h.p., at 1,380 r.p.m. Clutch, Ruban.

~Speed.~--31 m.p.h. (50 km.) ~Endurance~ _about_ 5 hours.

~Propeller.~--1 in rear of nacelle. Diameter, 14-3/4 feet (4.50 m.)

Notes.--The special feature of this type is that it is constructed in
three lobes, two below and one above. This particular ship is merely
experimental, and is known as a "Vedette." Three models of it are to be
obtained, (1) this 55 h.p. of 1,930 m³. volume. (2) a 75 h.p. of 2,000
m³. nominal volume. (3) a 110 h.p. of from 3,000-3,500 m³. volume. This
latter is designed to have two propellers instead of one.

Larger editions of the type are also projected as follows:--

  ~"Scouts:"~ 4500-6300 m³. of 200 h.p. (2 motors.)
  ~"Transaeriens:"~ 7,000-8,000 m³. of 400 h.p. (2 motors.)
  ~"Dreadnoughts:"~ 12,000 m³. or so, of 750 h.p. (4 motors.)

[Illustration: UDS]


=CLEMENT-BAYARD CLASS.=

Usines Clement-Bayard, 33, quai Michelet, Levallois-Perret (Seine).

These dirigibles closely resemble the _Astra_ class in some main
particulars; but (excepting _I_) differ from them in the sharp sterns
and absence of stabilisers on stern.

The ships of this class are:--

  1 CLEMENT-BAYARD I (Kommissionny)          Russian Military
  2      "         II                        British Military (wrecked)
  3      "
  4      "         IV (_Adjutant Vincennot_) French Military
  5      "         V (_Fleurus_)                     "
  6      "         VI                        Private
  7      "         VII                       French Military (_building_),
                                                To be of 17,000 m³.


ADJUTANT VINCENNOT. Military. (1911.) (Clement-Bayard IV.)

[Illustration]

~Maximum length,~ 251 feet (76.50 m.) ~maximum diameter,~ 43 feet
(13.22 m.) ~volume,~ 7,500 m³.

~Total lift.~--Nearly 8 tons (8,000 kgs.) ~Useful lift,~ 2-3/4 tons
(2717 kgs.)

~Gasbags.~--Continental rubbered fabric. Weight, 380 grammes per m².
Strength 1,000 kg. per metre. Leakage under 10 litres per m² per 24
hours.

~Motors.~--2 Clement motors, 4-cylinder, of 130 h.p., each placed on
either side of the motor space.

~Speed.~--35 m.p.h. (56 km.)

~Propellers.~--2 Chauvière. Diameter, 19-3/4 feet (6 m.) Placed one on
either side of the motors, well above the level.

~Steering.~--Vertical steering by means of a treble horizontal rudder
over the rear end of the car. Horizontal steering by means of 2 vertical
rudders placed one on each side of the rear horizontal rudder.

Remarks.--The feature of this _C.B._ type, which distinguishes it from
the Astra ships of about the same size, is the arrangement of the
propellers and the use of a 2 speed gear in connection with these.
Normally each motor drives its own propeller through two sets of gearing
connected by a Cardan shaft. On stopping one motor, the stopped motor is
unclutched from its propeller shaft, which is then connected up by chain
drive to the opposite shaft. The running motor is then put on to a "low
gear," so that it can make the revolutions necessary for obtaining full
power, while the propellers run slower than before. The ratio of "low
gear" to "high" is 2 to 1, so that a single motor will be running under
its best conditions when well throttled down.

A sister, _C. Bayard II_ was sold to the British Army, and wrecked or
dismantled, 1911.

LIST OF WEIGHTS.

                                         kgs.
  Gas bag                               1,350
  Valves (4)                               45
  Suspension                              195
  Girder (complete with fittings)
    Bow portion (6 m. long.)              128
    Engine room (2.5 m.)                1,390
    Bridge and passenger space (12 m.)    957
    After part (18 m.)                    182
    Raised tail (4.5 m.)                   63
  2 Propeller brackets                    378
  2 Propellers                            230
  Rudders                                 150
  Water                                   140
  Trail ropes                              75
                                        -----
     Total                              5,283
     Lift                               8,000
                                        -----
  Balance, for ballast fuel, oil, crew  2,717


FLEURUS. Military. (C.B. V.) (1912.)

C. BAYARD VI. (Private.) (1913.)

These two are slightly smaller sisters of the _Adjutant Vincennot_.


=LEBAUDY CLASS.=

Ateliers Lebaudy Frères, Moisson, par La Roche-Guyon (Seine-et-Oise).

~DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS:~

The cars are short and suspended from a long keel which is suspended
close up to the gas bag, and is mostly covered in with fireproof canvas.

The rear end of the keel is expanded into fixed vertical and horizontal
fins, and carries a vertical and a horizontal rudder.

The rear end of the gas bag is fitted with thin fixed planes (compare
with the pear shaped or tubular fins of the "Astra" class).

The cars are provided underneath with an extraordinarily strong conical
structure, which takes the shock of striking the ground and distributes
it over the whole car.

Aeroplanes are now fitted, one each side of the keel, well forward.

Ships of this class which have been built:--

     ~LEBAUDY I~                      ~French Military Airship.~    Rebuilt 1909 into _Lebaudy II_.                      }    now
  1. ~LEBAUDY II~                            "         "            Original _Lebaudy I_ rebuilt.  ~Known as~ _Le Jaune_.} discarded
  2. ~PATRIE~                                                       Lost in a storm.
  3. ~REPUBLIQUE~                     ~French Military Airship.~    Wrecked Autumn, 1909.
  4. ~LA RUSSIE~                      ~Sold to Russian Government.~ Now _Lebed_.
  5. ~LIBERTÉ~                        ~French Military Airship.~
  6. ~CAPITAINE MARECHAL~                   "         "
  7. ~"MORNING POST"~                 ~British Military.~           (_Lebaudy III._) Wrecked 1911
  8. ~LIEUT. SELLE DE BEAUCHAMP.~     ~French Military Airship.~
  9. New ship of 17,000 m³ building.       "         "

To Lebaudy designs:--

     ~ONE~                            ~Austrian Military Airship.~


  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
                                    |                  | ~CAPITAINE~      | ~SELLE DE~       |   New ship.
                Name                |  ~LIBERTÉ~       | ~MARÉCHAL.~      |~BEAUCHAMP.~      |  _Building._
                Date                |   ~1909.~        |   ~1911.~        |   ~1911.~        |  ~1913-14.~
                Service             |     Military.    |     Military.    |     Military.    |     Military.
  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Volume~              c. feet (m³)|       4800       |       7500       |       8000       |      17,000
  ~Length~                 feet (m.)|  220        (67) |  279        (85) |  292        (89) |
  ~Diameter~               feet (m.)|   35-1/2 (10.80) |   42     (12.80) |   48     (14.00) |
                        {fabric     |      Lebaudy     |      Lebaudy     |      Lebaudy     |
  ~Gasbags~             {           |                  |                  |                  |
                        {ballonets  |         1        |        ...       |        ...       |
                  {total        tons|       4-1/2      |        ...       |         9        |
  ~Lift~          {                 |                  |                  |                  |
                  {useful       tons|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |
  ~Motors~                      h.p.|  1--135 Panhard  |   2--80 Panhard  |   2--80 Panhard  |
                    {number         |      2 wood      |      2 wood      |      2 wood      |
  ~Propellers~      {blades         |         2        |         2        |         2        |
                    {diam. feet (m.)|        ...       |     16-1/2 (5)   |    16-1/2 (5)    |
  ~Speed~          max. m.p.h. (km.)|   31        (50) |   28        (45) |   28        (45) |
  ~Endurance~                   hrs.|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |
  ~Complement~                      |        ...       |        ...       |         5        |
  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------

[Illustration]

[Illustration: LIBERTE.]

[Illustration]


=ZODIAC CLASS.=

Société française de ballons dirigeables et d'aviation, Zodiac, 10 route
du Havre, Puteaux (Seine).

These dirigibles were intended primarily for private pleasure purposes.
Consequently they are designed to fly when filled with coal gas if
necessary.

Every effort is made to render them easily transportable; the long
girder frame by which the weight is distributed is made to take to
pieces.

It is held in France that numbers of this class of vessel would form an
invaluable asset in time of war, as each could be transported in a
single cart, filled with a very few bottles of hydrogen, and when so
filled could man[oe]uvre for some 6 hours at a speed which compares
favourably with that of the standard types.

When the service of reconnaissance was performed, the vessel could be
packed up and sent out of harm's way in an hour, whereas this could
scarcely be done with a larger vessel on account of the quantity of
hydrogen that would be required if it had to be filled afresh for each
service. The mooring of an airship in the open during war requires such
an amount of preparation and attention as to be a serious drawback to
the alternative plan of keeping such vessels unfilled, while the sending
of an airship back to its distant shed on each occasion means doubling
the work that the ship is called upon to perform.

Ships of class are:--

  1.  ZODIAC I  (_Petit Journal_)
  2.    "    II  (_De la Vaulx_)
  3     "    III
  4     "    IV          Dutch Military
  5.    "    V           South American (private)
  6.    "    VI          Sold to United States
  7     "    VII         Sold to Russian Army
  8.    "    VIII            "         "
  9.    "    IX (_Le Temps_)    French Army
  10.   "    X (_Capitaine Ferber_)     "
  11.   "    XI (_Commandant Coutelle_) "
  12.   "    XII (_Spiess_)             "  (rigid)


ZODIAC III.

[Illustration]

~Maximum length,~ 134 feet (40.8 m.) ~maximum diameter,~ 28 feet (8.5 m.)
~volume,~ 1,400 m³.

~Total lift.~--1-1/2 tons (1,540 kgs.) ~Useful lift,~ lbs. ( kgs.)

~Gas bags.~--Light continental rubbered fabric.

~Motor.~--Ballot, 4-cylinder, 40-45 h.p., 1,200 r.p.m.

~Speed.~-- m.p.h. (45 km.p.h.)

~Propellers.~--Driven at 600 r.p.m. Integral type, 12-1/4 feet (3.75 m.)
in diameter. Pitch, 6-1/2 feet (2 m.) in rear of the car.

~Steering.~--Vertical balanced rudder in rear of the vertical fin, under
the rear of the gas bag. Double elevator above the fore end of the car.
Horizontal fins of material spread on iron frames on either side of the
rear end of the car.

Remarks.--The car consists of a 130 feet (40 m.) long wooden girder,
which can be divided into 4 separate parts of 13 feet (4 m.) each. The
suspension is by steel wires fitted with adjusting screws at the lower
ends and toggles at the upper ends, by which they connect to the crows'
feet which are sewn to the suspension strips.

[Illustration: ZODIAC III.]

DETAILED WEIGHTS OF _ZODIAC III._

                                          kgs.               lbs.
  Gas bag (_including_ ballonet)          330                727-1/2
  Valves                                   12                 26-1/2
  Suspension wires and gear                15                 33
  Tail fins                                24                 53
  Horizontal rudder                        10                 22
  Vertical rudder                          10                 22
  Girder car                              168                370-1/4
  Motor (_including_ pump, magneto,
      lubricating gear, etc.)             275                606-1/4
  Motor bearer and gear                    22                 48-1/2
  Petrol tank                              10                 22
  Radiator                                 25                 55
  Reduction gearing                        12                 26-1/2
  Shafting                                 15                 33
  Fan                                       9                 20
  Steering gear                             5                 11
  Water                                     8                 17-3/4
  Petrol                                   20                 44
  Miscellaneous: 4 men                    300                661
                                          ---                ---
  Total                                 1,270              2,800 _about_
  Ballast                                 270                595
                                        -----              -----
  Total weight                          1,540   Total lift 3,395


LE TEMPS. Military. (_Alias ~ZODIAC IX.)

[Illustration]

~Maximum length~, 164 feet (50.25 m.) ~maximum diameter~, 29-1/2 feet (9
m.) ~volume~, 81,250 cubic feet (2,300 m³.)

~Total lift.~--

~Gas bag, etc.~--2 ballonets, each of 257 m³.

~Motor~.--Dansette-Gillet. 60 h.p.

~Propellers~.--2, chain driven, one on either side of car.

~Speed.~--

~Steering.~--Elevator in _nacelle_ amidships. Rudder aft.

Remarks.--

[Illustration: LE TEMPS. UDS.]


CAPITAINE FERBER. Military. (_Alias ~ZODIAC X.)

~Maximum length,~ 249-1/3 feet (76 m.) ~maximum diameter,~ 40-1/2 feet
(12.36 m.) ~volume,~ 6,000 m³.

This ship has 2 ballonets of 650 m³. each, and a car 35×13×2 m., made up
of 5 sections. 2 ~motors~. Dansette-Gillette, 90 h.p., each actuating 2
propellers (4-bladed), geared to 500 r.p.m. Carries petrol for 15 hours
work. Completed 1911.

[Illustration: _Photo, Branger._]

[Illustration: CAPITAINE FERBER. UDS.]


COMMANDANT COUTELLE. Military. (ZODIAC XI.)

  +-------------------------------+
  |                               |
  | (Enlarged _Captaine Ferber_.) |
  |          _Building._          |
  |                               |
  +-------------------------------+

~Maximum length,~ 292 feet (89 m.) ~maximum diameter,~ 46 feet (14 m.)
~volume,~ 9,000 m³.

~Gas bags, etc.~--2 ballonnets, each 45,900 c. feet (1,300 m³.)

~Nacelle.~--Nickel steel in 5 sections. Length, 131-1/4 (40 m.) Width,
4-1/2 feet (1.30 m.) Hung 16-1/2 feet (5 m.) below the balloon. Pilot in
centre. Carries a total crew of six, petrol and oil for 15 hours'
continuous work at full power.

~Motors.~--2, each of 190 h.p.=total of 380 h.p. Placed one at either
end of the nacelle.

~Propellers.~--4, of 15 feet (4.50 m.) diameter. Two geared to each
motor to half engine speed.

~Speed~ (expected).--37 m.p.h. (60 k.p.h.)


ZODIAC XII. Rigid. Military. (SPIESS.)

[Illustration: Spiess. _Building._ _Photo, Branger._]

~Maximum length,~ 341 feet (104 m.) ~maximum diameter,~ 42-3/4 feet (13
m.) ~volume,~ 11,000 m³.

~Gas bags.~--Sections 11. Number of cylindrical sections 8. Number of
sides to polygon 14.

~Motors.~--Two 6-cylinder 200 h.p. in each nacelle, each driving 2
propellers of 15 feet (4.50 m.) diameter.

~Speed.~ (expected)--40 m.p.h. (65 k.p.h.)

[Illustration]



GERMAN.

(By our special German editor.)


~Aerial Journals:--~

     _Deutsche Luftfahrer Zeitschrift fur Luftschffahr_ Berlin, W.
     (Fortnightly).

     _Allgemeine Automobil Zeitung_, Berlin (Weekly).

     _Automobil Welt_, Berlin (Thrice Weekly).

     _Das Deutsche Auto_, Munich (Weekly).

     _Die Luftflotte_, Berlin (Monthly).

     _Internationale Revue für Autowesen & Aviatik_, Leipzig
     (Fortnightly).

     _Flugsport_, Frankfurt (Fortnightly).

     _Motor_, Berlin (Monthly).

     _Der Motorwagen_, Berlin (Thrice Monthly).

     _Monatshefte der Reichsfliegerstiftung_, Charlottenburg (Monthly).

     _Zeitschrift für Flugtechnik & Motorluftschiffahrt,_ Berlin
     (Fortnightly).


~Private Flying Grounds~ (Military see further on):--

     ~Adlershof,~ Teil des Flugfeldes Johannisthal (_Wright_ School).

     ~Bork,~ Post Brück in der Mark (_Mars_ School).

     ~Burg bei Magdeburg~ (_Schulze_ School).

     ~Darmstadt~ (Truppenübungsplatz).

     ~Dotzheim bei Wiesbaden.~

     ~Frankfurt a.M.~ (_August Euler_).

     ~Fühlungen bei Köln~ (Kölner Club für Flugsport).

     ~Garching b. München~ (_Hoffman-Harlan_).

     ~Griesheim b. Frankfurt a.M.~ (Frankfurter Flugsport-Club &
     Flugtechn. Verein).

     ~Habsheim b. Mülhausen i.E.~ (_Aviatik_).

     ~Hainberg b. Nürnberg~ (Flugtechn. Ges. Nürnberg-Fürth).

     ~Hamburg~ (_Grade_).

     ~Holten. Niederrh. Verein f.L.~ (_Hilsmann_).

     ~Johannisthal b. Berlin~ Flugschule _Albatros, Dorner, Harlan,
     Fokker, Luftverkehrs-ges. m.b.H., _Rumpler & Wright_.

     ~Kitzingen in Bayern,~ 1911 (Hildebrand & Schroth).

     ~Lindenthal b. Leipzig.~ (School for Deutschen Flugzengwerke).

     ~Loddenheide b. Münster.~

     ~Meerheimb b. Köln.~

     ~Milbertshofen b. München~ (Dr. Wittenstein).

     ~Neuenlande b. Bremen~ (_Müller-Aviatik_, Bremer v.t.L.)

     ~Niederwalluf,~ 1911 (_Goedecker_).

     ~Oberwiesenfeld bei München~ (_Gustav Otto_).

     ~Puchheim b. München.~

     ~Reichenberg-Boxdorf b. Dresden.~

     ~Schneverdingen~ (_Oertz_).

     ~Schulzendorf b. Berlin~ (_A.E.G._)

     ~Strassburg i.E.,~ "Polygon" (E.E.C. _Mathis_).

     ~Suechteln.~

     ~Teltow bei Berlin.~

     ~Velten bei Berlin~ (_A.E.G._)

     ~Wandsbek,~ Exerzierplatz, 1911 (_Rumpler_ und Jordan).

     ~Weimar~ (_Wright_).

     ~Wustenbrand b. Chemnitz~ (Flugtechn. Ges. in Chemnitz).

     ~Zahlbach b. Mainz~ (School for Aut. & Flugtechnik).


~Aerial Societies:--~

     Aachener V. f. L. Aix la Chapelle.

     Aero Club (Imperial), 3, Nollenderfplatz, Berlin. Sec.: H. Von
     Frankenberg und Ludwigsdorf.

     Akademie für Aviatik, Munich.

     Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil Club, Munich.

     Anhaltischer V. f. L. (E. U.) M. Antoineatten str. 22a, Dessau.

     Augsburger Verein für Luftschiffahrt, Augsburg.

     Automobil-und Flugtechnische-Gesellschaft (E. V.) Nurnberger Platz
     5, Haupyverein Berlin, Hochster Str. 1, Bezirksverein Frankfurt a.
     M, Neuer Wall 44, II, Hamburg.

     Bayerischer A. K. Munich.

     Berliner V. f. L., Berlin.

     Bilterfeldt V. f. L., Bilterfeld.

     Braunschweigische V. f. L.

     Breisgau V. f. L., Freiburg.

     Bremer V. f. L. (E. V.) N. W., Obernstr, 52/54 I, Bremen.

     Bromberger V. f. L. (E. V.) O, Gasanstalt, Bromberg, Stadt.

     Chemnitzner V. f. L.

     Deutsche Touring Club, Munich.

     Deutscher Luftflotten Verein, Mannheim.

     Dusseldorfer Luftdahrer-Klub (E. V.) W. Dusseldorf, Breite Str. 25,
     I.

     Erfurter V. f. L. (E. V.) M. Dalversweg 24, Erfurt.

     Flugverein Neustadt a. d. Haardt, S. W., Neustadt, I.

     Flugzeugkonvention des V. D. M. L., Potsdamer Str. 121 H, III,
     Berlin W.

     Frankfürter Flugsport-Club (E. V.) Neue Mainzer Str. 76, Frankfurt
     a. M.

     Frankfurter Flugtechn, Verein (E. V.) Bahnhofplatz 8, Frankfurt a.
     M.

     Frankfurter V. f. L. (E. V.) S. W. Kettenhofweg 136, Frankfurt, a.
     M.

     Frankischer V. f. L. (E. V.) S. Kurschnerhof 6, Wursburg.

     Hamburger V. f. L. (E. V.) N. W., 36, Colonnaden 17-19, Hamburg.

     Hannoverscher V. f. L. (E. V.) N. W., Lortzingstr. 6, Hannover.

     Hereforder Verein fur Lufthahrt, Bahnhofplatz, Alfermann, Herford.

     Hildesheimer V. f. L., Hilkesheim, Lucienvorder str. 22.

     Kaiserlicher Aero-Club, K. Nollendorfplatz 3, Berlin W.

     Kaiserlicher Automobil-Club, K, 9 Leipzigerplatz 16, Berlin W.

     Karlsruher Luftfahrt-Verein (E. V.) S. W., Bachstr, 28, Karlsruhe.

     Kolner Club, f. L. (E. V.) W. Bischofsgartenstr. 22, Koln.

     Koniglich Bayerischer Automobil-Club, B. Brienner str. 5 I,
     Munchen.

     Koniglicher Sachsischer V. f. L. (E. V.) Sa, Ferdinandstr. I,
     Dresden.

     Kurhessischer V. f. L. (E. V.) S. W., Physikalisches Institut,
     Marburg ad Lahn; Cassel Sektion, Kolnische str. 84, Cassel.

     Leipziger V. f. L. (E. V.) Sa, Markt 1, Leipzig.

     Lubecker V. f. L. (E. V.) N. W., Israeldorfer Allee 13a, Lubeck.

     Luftshrverein Gotha (fruther Reichsflugverein Gotha), Gotha, I.

     Luftfahrtverein Touring-Club, Pranner str. 24, I. Munchen.

     Luftschiffahrt-Verein Munster fur Munster und das Munsterland (E.
     V.) N. W., Munster i. W, Klosterstr. 31-32.

     Magdeburger V. f. L. (E. V.) M, Wetterwarte, Bahnhofstr. 17,
     Magdeburg.

     Mannheimer V. f. L. "Zahringen" (E. V.) S. W., 7-8 Hansa-Haus,
     Mannheim.

     Mecklenburgerischer Aero-Club, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Str. 85, II, I,
     Schwerin i. M.

     Mindener Verein fur Luftfahrt, N. W., Grosser Domhof 1, L, Minden
     i. W.

     Mitterheinischer V. f. L., S. W., Weisenauer, Str. 15, Mainz.

     Munchener V. f. L. (E. V.) Residentzstr. 27 III, Munchen.

     Niederrheinischer V. f. L. (E. V.) Wilhemstr. 11, Bonn, Wupperthal
     Sektion, Hauptfeuerwache, Barmen; Essen Sektion, Bachstr. 21,
     Essen-Ruhr; Bonn Sektion, Wilhelmstr. 11, Bonn.

     Niedersachachsischer V. f. L. (E. V.) Hildesheimer Bank, Filiale
     Gottingen, Gottingen.

     Niederschlesisch-Markischer Verein fur Luftfahrt, Grunberg i. Schl,
     I.

     Nordmark-Verein fur Motorluftfahrt (E. V.) Dusternbrooker Weg 38,
     Kiel.

     Obererzgebirgischer V. f. L. (E. V.) Sa, Geschaftsstelle,
     Schwarzenberg i. S., Erla im Erzgebirge.

     Oberrheimischer V. f. L. (E. V.) S. W., Blauwolkengasse 21,
     Strassburg i. Els.

     Oberschwabischer V. f. L. (E. V.) S, Promenade 17, Ulm a. D.

     Osnabrucker V. f. L. (E. V.) N. W., Wittekindstr. 4, Osnabruck.

     Ostdeutscher V. f. L. (E. V.) O, Courbierestr. 34, II. Graudenz.

     Ostpreusischer V. f. L. (E. V.) O, Kneiphofische Langgasse 8 I,
     Konigsberg i. Pr.

     Pfalzischer Luftfahrtverein Speyer, S. W., Speyer a. Rh. I.

     Pommerscher V. f. L. (E. V.) Pasewalk (Stettin) F. 65.

     Posener Luftfahrer-V. (E. V.) O, Posen, Kronprinzenstr, 101a.

     Reichsflugverein (E. V.) Motztrs, 76, Berlin.

     Rheinisch-Westfalische Motorluftschaff-Gesellsch. (E. V.) Bachstr.
     21, Essen-Ruhr.

     Saarbrucker Verein fur Luftfahrt, S. W. Saarbrucken, I.

     Sachsisch-Thuringischer V. f. L. Belvedere-Allee 5, Weimar; Halle
     a. S. Sektion (E. V.) Halle a. Muhlweg 10 und Poststr. 6;
     Thuringische Sektion, Staaten; Belvederealle, 5, Weimar.

     Schlesischer Aero-Club (E. V.) O, Schweidnitzerstr. 16-18 Breslau.

     Schlesischer V. f. L. (E. V.) O, Schweidnitzerstr. 16-18 Breslau.

     Schleswig-Holstein. Flieger-Club, N. W., Niemannsweg 81b, Kiel.

     Seeoffizier-Luftclub (S.L.C.W.) N. W., Peterstr. 80 II,
     Wilhelmshaven.

     Trierer Club. f. L. (E. V.) W., Nagelstr. 10, Trier.

     V. D. Luftchiff-Industrieller, Kleiststr. 8, III, Berlin, W.

     V. D. Motorfahrzeug-Industrieller, Potsdamerstr. 121b, Berlin, W.

     V. f. Flugwesen in Mannheim, S. W., Lange Rotterstr. 106, I.
     Mannheim.

     V. f. L. am Bodensee (E. V.) S. W., Zummsteinstr. 11,
     Schwedenchanze 3a, Konstanz.

     V. f. L. Darmstadt, S. W., Darmstadt, I.

     V. f. L. Gieben, S. W., Seltersweg 56, I., Gieben.

     V. f. L. Kolmar (Posen), (E. V.) O. Privinzialbank,
     Kommanditgesellschaft a. A., Kolmar i. Pos.

     V. f. L. Limbach (Sa, u. Umgegend) (E. V.) Postr. 5, Limbach
     (Sachsen).

     V. f. L. in Mainz (E. V.) S. W., Grosse Bleiche 48, Mainz.

     V. f. L. in Worms, S. W., Worms, I.

     V. f. L. und Flugtechnik Nurnberg-Furth, Klaragasse 2 I, Nurnberg.

     V. f. L. in Weimar (E. V.) Erfurter Str. 9, Weimar.

     Vogtlandischer V. f. L. (E. V.) Sa, Plauen i. V, Furstenstr. 89.

     Westfalisch-Lippischer Luftfahrverein (E. V.) N. W., Kavalleriestr,
     Petri, Bielefeld.

     Westfalish-Markischer Luftfahrer-Verein, Herne, I.

     Westpreussicher V. f. L. (E. V.) O., Dr. Waldmann, Abte-inng
     Schiffbau, Technische Hochschule, Danzig-Langfuhr.

     Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fur Flugtechnik, Nollendorfplatz 3,
     Berlin W. 30.

     Wurttenbergischer Flugsport-Club, S. Hegelstr. 4b, Stuttgart.

     Wurtembergischer V. f. L. (E. V.) S. am Salzmannsweg 21, Stuttgart.

     Zwickauer V. f. L. (E. V.) Sa, Hauptmarkt 20, Zwickau i. S.


~GERMAN MILITARY AVIATION.~

~Army General.~

The new Army law provides £400,000 (80 million marks) for Army aviation
(including dirigibles), in addition to a considerable share of the
£4,000,000 which is being spread over a period of five years.

The Army aerial force will be commanded by 2 inspector generals. The
aviation force is put at 4 batallions.

_Headquarters_: Berlin. _Stations_: Aachen, Allenstein, Cologne,
Darmstadt, Doebritz, Freiburg, Graudenz, Hannover, Insterburg, Jüterbog,
Koenigsberg, Metz, Posen, Strassburg, Zeithain.

The scheme will be complete by the end of the year.


~Army Flying Schools.~

~Diedenhofen.~
~Doeberitz.~
~Metz.~
~Oberwiesenfeld~ bei München (Bavarian).
~Saarburg.~
~Sperenberg~ bei Jüterbog.


~Army Aeroplanes.~

At the end of 1912 the aeroplane force was as follows:--

  Bought in 1911     10 monoplanes (2 Grade, 1 Schultze, 5 Rumpler).
                     25 biplanes (3 Albatross, 22 Farman type.)
  Bought in 1912     91 monoplanes (20 Bristol, 1 Dorner, 2 Etrich Taube,
                                    2 Grade, 6 Harlan, 20 Mars, 40 Rumpler
                                    Taube).
                    144 biplanes (50 Albatros, 12 Aviatik, 30 Euler,
                                  10 Otto, 2 L.V.G., 10 Mars, 6 Wrights).
                    ----
  Making a total of ~270~ of which number about 200 were war-effectives.

For ~1913~ there are ~200~ new aeroplanes building or provided for.

Under the new regulations, military machines must comply with the
following conditions:--

1. Must be of entirely German manufacture, with ample and comfortable
seating accommodation for pilot and passenger.

2. Design must permit of fitting bomb droppers and photographic
apparatus.

3. Speed capabilities must not be less than 90 kilometres (56 m.p.h.)

4. Dimensions must not exceed 49 feet span (14.50 m.), 39 feet long (12
m.), 13 feet high (3.50 m.), and the motor not more than 100 h.p.

5. Minimum endurance, 4 hours.


~Army Aviators.~

  Ackermann, Lt. K.
  Albrecht, Ob-Lt. K.
  Altrichter, Lt. K.
  v. Apell, Lt. K.
  Barends, Lt.
  von Beaulieu, Ob-Lt. W.
  Berlin, Ob-Lt. E.
  Blume, Lt. W.
  Boeder, Lt. O.
  Braun, Lt.
  Busch, Lt. H.
  v. Buttlar, Lt. W.
  Canter, Lt.
  Cipa, T.
  Coerper, W. Lt.
  von Detten, Lt. G.
  Demmel, Lt. M.
  Dransfield, Lt. E.
  Eich, H.
  von Eickstedt, Ob-Lt. V.
  Erhardt, Ob-Lt, R. (119)
  von Falkenhayn, Lt. F. E.
  Graf Finck von Finckenstein, Lt. L.
  Fisch, Lt. W. (107)
  von Freyberg-Eisenberg-Allmendingen, Lt. F. E.
  Funck, Lt. W.
  Geerdtz, F. H. (133)
  von Gersdorff, Ob-Lt. E.
  Geyer, Lt. H.
  Goebel, Ob-Lt. W.
  Grade, W. H. St. (20)
  von Hadeln, Lt. F.
  v. Hammacher, Lt. (49)
  von Hammerstein Gesmold, Ob-Lt. F.A.
  Hantelmann, Ob-Lt. M.
  von Helldorf, Ob-Lt.
  v. Hiddessen, F. Lt. (47)
  Hildebrand, Ob-Lt. F.
  Hofer, Ob-Lt. W.
  Höpker, Lt. A.
  von Jagwitz, Lt. F.
  Joly, Lt. A.
  Justi, Lt. K.
  Kahl, H.
  Kastner, Lt. H.
  Keim, Lt. J. (127)
  Keller, Lt. G.
  Koch, Lt. W
  Kohr, Lt. R.
  Lauer, Lt. R.
  Lauterbach, Ob-Lt. F.
  von Lichtenfels, Lt. S. (51)
  von Liusingen, Lt. L.
  Ludewig, F. Ob-Lt.
  Meyer, Lt. W. (136)
  von Minkwitz, Lt. H.
  von Mirbach, Lt. K.
  Mudra, Lt. H. (95)
  Neumann, Ob-Lt. H.
  von Obernitz, Ob-Lt. W.
  Oelsner, Lt. W.
  von Oertzen, Ob-Lt. J.
  von Osterroht, Lt. P-H.
  Petri, Ob-Lt. F. (120)
  Pfeifer, Lt. L.
  Pirner, Lt. H. K.
  von Poser und Gross-Nädlitz, Ob-Lt. F.
  Püschel, Ob-Lt. K.
  Rapmund, Lt. M.
  Reiche, Lt. A.
  v. Reichenberg-Wolfskeel, Graf. (93)
  Reinhardt, Lt. S.
  Reuss, Lt. W.
  Ritter, Lt. K. (121)
  Roser, H. H. (83)
  Schäfer, Ob-Lt. L.
  v. Scheele, Lt. A.
  Schlegel, Lt. O.
  Schneider, Lt. H.
  Schreyer, F.
  Schulz, Lt. J.
  Schwartzkopff, Lt. H.
  Serno, Lt. E.
  Sieber, Lt. H.
  Solmitz, F. Lt.
  Sommer, Lt. P.
  Steindorf, H.
  Steger, O. Lt.
  von Stoephasius, Lt. M.
  Striper, Lt. F.
  Suren, Lt. E.
  Suren, Lt. G.
  Suren, Lt. H.
  Taeufert, Lt. W.
  v. Tiedemann, Ob-Lt. R. (17)
  von Trotha, Ob-Lt.
  Vogt, Lt.
  v. Wedemeyer, Ob-Lt. E.
  Wendler, Lt. W.
  Weyer, Lt. G.
  Wiegandt, Lt. W.
  Wilberg, Ob-Lt. H. (26)
  Wildt, Lt. K. (43)
  Wirth, Ob-Lt. W. (92)
  Wulff, Lt. A.
  Zwickau, Lt. K.


~Navy General.~

The 1913 expenditure on naval aviation (including dirigibles) is
£250,000 (50 million marks), plus a portion of the special expenditure.


~Naval Flying Schools.~

     ~Holminsel~ b. Danzig. ~Putzig~ b. Danzig.


~Naval Stations.~

~North Sea.~--Cuxhaven (staff to be 5 officers and 192 under officers
and men), Emden and Hamburg.

~Baltic.~--Kiel, Putzig and Konigsberg.

~General Headquarters.~--Berlin.

Each station will ultimately consist of one dirigible and a number of
hydro-aeroplanes.


~Navy Aeroplanes.~

At the end of 1912 the total effective force was:--

         ~4 monoplanes~ (_Rumpler_ hydro.)
        ~10 biplanes~ (4 _Albatros_ hydro., 2 _Curtiss_ hydro., 4 _Euler_).
         --
  Total ~14~

The _Curtiss_ were purchased towards the end of 1911, all the others in
1912.

All are or can be fitted with wireless, range 50 miles.

1913. Others on order, including _Ottos_ on floats (_A.G.O._), of which
one was delivered in April.


~Navy Aviators.~

  Bertram, Ob-Lt. (123)
  Coulmann, W.
  Francke, Ob-Lt. C. (142)
  Goltz, Kap-Lt. K.
  von Gorrissen, Lt. (4)
  Hartmann, R. Ob-Lt. (96)
  Hering, Kap-Lt. M.
  Janetzky, Kap-Lt. W.
  Langfield, Ob-Lt. W.
  Prinz Heinrich von Preussen (38)
  Schroeter, Ob-Lt. W.
  Stemmler, B.


~GERMAN PRIVATE AVIATION.~

To end of March, 1913.

~Private Aeroplanes.~

At end of March, 1913, the number of private aeroplanes in Germany was
about 80, of which most were school, etc., machines.

  Abelmann, Carl
  Abramowitch, Wasewolod
  Albers, Wilhelm
  Alig, Ernst.
  Arntzen, Orla, Dr. jur.
  Schirrmeister, Hans
  Badowski, Ludwig
  Baierlein, Anton
  Basser, Gustav
  Beck, Otto
  Becker, Reinhold
  Beese, Frl.
  Behrend, Adolf
  Berliner, Rudolf
  v. Bieber, Harald, Dr. jur.
  Birkmaier, August
  Blattmann, Ernst
  Bohlig, Edmund
  Bosenius, Rudolf
  Bossin, Fritz
  Boutard, Charles
  Braselmann, Karl
  Breton, Raymond Arthur
  Brociner, Marco
  Brunnhuber, Simon
  Büchner, Bruno
  Charlett, Willi
  Clauberg, Fritz
  Cremer, Fritz
  Curdts, Carl
  De Waal, Bernard
  Dick, Fritz
  Donnevert, Willy
  Dorner, Hermann
  Dücker, Werner
  Eberhardt, Alfred
  Eckardt, Willy
  Eckelmann, Frank
  Engelhard, Paul
  Erblich, Heinz
  Euler, August
  Evers, Heinrich
  Eyring, Raymund (Dr. Huth)
  Falderbaum, Heinz
  Faller, Artur
  Faller, Otto
  Flégier, Th. v.
  Fokker, Anthony
  Fremery, Hemmann
  Friedrich, Alfred
  Gasser, Hermann
  Geiss, Franz
  Georgi, Johannes
  v. Gorrissen, Ellery
  Grade, Hans
  Griebel, Otto, Leutnant a D.
  Grulich, Karl
  Grünberg, Arthur
  Haas, Heinrich
  Hansen, Hans
  Hanuschke, Bruno
  Hartmann, Alfred
  Hasenkamp, Emil
  Häusler, Hugo
  Heim, Oskar
  Heirler, Paul
  Hennig, Alfred
  Hess, Robert
  Heydenreich, Fritz
  Hild, Luc.
  Hintner, Cornelius
  Hirrlinger, Albert
  Hirth, Helmuth
  Hoff, Wilhelm
  Hoffmann, Siegfr.
  Hoos, Josef, Dr. jur.
  Hormel, Walter
  Horn, Albin
  Hoesli, Gordian
  Ingold, Karl
  Jablonski, Bruno
  Jahnow, Reinhold, Leutn. d. Landw.
  Jänisch, M.
  Jeannin, Emil
  Kahnt, Oswald
  Kammerer, K. F. Ludwig
  Kaniss, Gustav
  Kanitz, Willy
  Karsten, Otto
  Kaspar, Referendar
  Katzian, Artemy
  Keidel, Fridolin
  Kern, Willy
  Kiepert, Rudolf
  Kleinle, Josef
  Kober, Theodor
  Köhler, Erich
  Kohnert, Herbert
  König, Benno
  König, Martin
  Krastel, Heinz, Reimar
  Krieg, Friedrich
  Krieger, Karl
  Krüger, Leutnant a. D.
  Krüger, Arthur
  Krumsiek, Wilhelm
  Kühne, Ernst Herbert
  Kunze, Ernst
  Kurtscheid, Nicolaus
  Ladewig, Heinz.
  Ladewig, Herbert, Leutnant, Inf.-Regt.
  Lagler, Fräulein Bozena
  Laitsch, Felix
  Laemmlin, Charles
  Lange, Paul
  Langer, Bruno
  Lecomte, Ingenieur
  Lenk, Willy
  Lichte, Carl
  Lie, Christian
  Lindpaintner, Otto E.
  Linnekogel, Otto
  Lissauer, Walter
  Lochner, Erich
  Loew, Karl
  Lübbe, Fluglehrer
  Manhardt, Alfred Willy
  Mente, Willy, Oberleutnant a. D.
  Meybaum, Theodor
  Michaelis, G. A.
  Mischewsky, Bernard
  Mohns, Karl
  Möhring, Charlotte
  v. Mossner, Robert, Oberleutnant a. D.
  Mügge, Wilhelm, Kapitan d. Handelsmarine
  Müller, B. C. Oscar
  Müller, Friedrich
  Müller, Karl
  Müller, Kurt
  Munkelt, Kurt
  Mürau, Georg
  Netzow, Georg
  Niemela, Edmund, Leutnant a. D.
  Noelle, Max
  Oelerich, Heinrick
  Oster, Franz
  Ottenbacher, Ernst
  Otto, Gustav
  Paul, Alfred
  Pentz, Hermann
  Pietschker, Alfred
  Placzikowski, Udo
  von Platen, Horst
  Plochmann, Ernst
  Pokristev, Penn, Oberleutnant
  Poulain, Gabriel
  Reeb, Alfred
  Reichhardt, Otto
  Rentzel, Adolf
  Rode, Franz
  de le Roi, Wolfram
  Roempler, Oskar
  Rosenstein, Willy
  Roessler, Fritz
  Rost, Gottlieb
  v. Rottenburg, Otto
  Roever, Hans
  Rupp, Albert
  Rütgers, August
  Schadt, Karl
  Schäfer, Otto
  Schakowskoy, Fürstin Eugenie
  Schall, Karl
  Schauenburg, Theodor
  Schendel, Georg
  Scherff, Mauricio
  Schiedeck, Hermann
  v. Schimpf, Ernst, Dr. jur
  Schirrmeister, Hans
  Schlatter, Joseph
  Schlegel, Ernst
  Schlüter, Fritz
  Schmidt, Erich
  Schmidt, Richard
  Schmigulski, Hans
  Schöner, Georg
  Schultze, Gustav
  Schüpphaus, Heinrich Ernst
  Schwandt, Paul
  Schwarz, Erwin
  Sedlmayer, Gerhard
  Senge, Paul
  Seydler, Frank
  Siewert, Lotherm
  Steffen, Bruno
  Steinbeck, Hans
  Stiefvater, Otto
  Stöffler, Victor
  Stoldt
  Stoephasius, Curt von
  Strack, Karl
  Strack, Peter
  Stüber, Joachim, Leutnant d. R.
  Suvelack, Josef
  Thelen, Robert
  Thiele, Erich
  Toepfer, Otto
  Trautwein, Max
  Treitschke, Friedrich
  Tybelski, Franz
  Tweer, Gustav
  Vollmöller, Hans
  Wecsler, Rubin
  Weickert, Julius Artur
  Weinaug, Ernst
  Werntgen, Bruno
  Wertheim, Paul
  Weyl, Richard
  Wiencziers, Eugen
  Wieting, Werner
  Wirtz, Reinerm
  Witte, Gustav
  Wittenstein, Oskar, Dr.
  Witterstätter, E. W.
  Wolter, Richard
  von Zastrow, Alexanderm

Note.--Abramowitch was a Russian by birth (killed April, 1913).

The following German aviators have been killed:--

  +-------------------------------+
  |        1896.                  |
  |  Lilienthal                   |
  |                               |
  |        1910.                  |
  |  Haas, Lieut.                 |
  |  Mente, Lieut.                |
  |  Plochmann                    |
  |  Robl, Thaddeus               |
  |                               |
  |        1911.                  |
  |  Bockmüller                   |
  |  Bournique ("Pierre Marie")   |
  |  Choendel                     |
  |  Dax                          |
  |  Englehardt, Kapt.            |
  |  Eyring, R.                   |
  |  Frh. v. Freytag-Loringhoven  |
  |  Laemmlin                     |
  |  Lecomte                      |
  |  Neumann, Lieut.              |
  |  Reeb                         |
  |  Pietschker                   |
  |  Schendel, G.                 |
  |  Stein, Lieut.                |
  |  Tachs                        |
  |  Voss                         |
  |                               |
  |        1912.                  |
  |  Alig                         |
  |  Altrichter                   |
  |  Beissbarth                   |
  |  Berger                       |
  |  Birkymayer                   |
  |  Buchstätter                  |
  |  v. Falkenhayn                |
  |  Frh. v. Schlichting          |
  |  Fischer                      |
  |  Hamburger                    |
  |  Hofer                        |
  |  Hösli                        |
  |  Junghans                     |
  |  König                        |
  |  Kugler                       |
  |  Lachmann                     |
  |  Lang                         |
  |  Libau                        |
  |  Meyer                        |
  |  Preusser                     |
  |  Pochmeyer                    |
  |  Rheinle                      |
  |  Rost                         |
  |  Schmidt                      |
  |  Schmigulski                  |
  |  Stille                       |
  |  Werntgen                     |
  |  Witte                        |
  |                               |
  |        1913                   |
  |  Held                         |
  |  Schlegel                     |
  +-------------------------------+



GERMAN AEROPLANES.



~A~


ALBATROS. Albatroswerke G.m.b. H, Flugzeugfabr. u. Fliegerschule,
Johannisthal bei Berlin. Established 1910. One of the largest
constructors in Germany. Capacity: 150 machines a year.

[Illustration]

  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
                                    |    ~1911-12.~    |      ~1912.~     |   ~1912-13.~     |                  |
                                    |  2-seat tractor  | Military tractor | Military tractor |       Hydro.     |       Mono.
                                    |     biplane.     |     biplane.     |                  |                  |
  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~                feet  (m.)|   35-1/2 (10.70) |   34-1/2  (10.5) |   42-1/2  (12.8) |        ...       |        ...
  ~Span~                  feet  (m.)|   43-2/3 (13.30) |   52-1/2    (16) |   65-3/4    (20) |        ...       |        ...
  ~Area~             sq. feet  (m².)|  430        (40) |  576        (54) |  624      (58.5) |        ...       |        ...
                {total  lbs.  (kgs.)| 1058       (480) | 1543       (700) | 1874       (850) |        ...       |        ...
  ~Weight~      {                   |                  |                  |                  |                  |
                {useful lbs.  (kgs.)|  661       (300) |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|     100 Argus    |  90 Mercedes or  |   120 N.A.G. or  |        ...       |        ...
                                    |                  |     100 Argus    |   Aust. Daimler  |                  |
               {max.   m.p.h.  (km.)|   56        (90) |  59         (95) |   46        (75) |        ...       |        ...
  ~Speed~      {                    |                  |                  |                  |                  |
               {min.   m.p.h.  (km.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...
  ~Endurance~                   hrs.|         6        |         6        |        7-5       |        ...       |        ...
  Number built during 1912          |     about 40     |        70        |        30        |         4        |         2
  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------

Remarks.--In all the upper plane is slightly staggered. In all the
control is duplicated.

[Illustration: ALBATROS. UAS.]

[Illustration: Albatros. Military hydro-biplane.]

[Illustration: Albatros. Monoplane.]


AVIATIK. Autemobil & Aviatik A.G., Mülhausen i.E. Established 1910.
Capacity: 100 a year.

[Illustration: 1912 biplane.]

  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
                                    |      ~1912.~     |      ~1912.~     |      ~1913.~     |     ~1912-13.~
                                    |    Monoplane.    |     Biplane.     |  Racing biplane. |   Hydro-biplane.
  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~                feet  (m.)|   26-1/2     (8) |   36        (11) |   29-1/2     (9) |   36        (11)
  ~Span~                  feet  (m.)|   39     (11.80) |   52-1/2    (16) |   52-1/2    (16) |   62-1/3    (19)
  ~Area~             sq. feet  (m².)|  258       (.24) |  517        (48) |  517        (48) | 597         (56)
                {total  lbs.  (kgs.)| 1146       (520) | 1323       (600) | 1234       (560) |1653        (750)
  ~Weight~      {                   |                  |                  |                  |
                {useful lbs.  (kgs.)|  661       (300) |  882       (400) |  882       (400) | 661        (300)
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|    100 Argus     |     100 Argus    |     100 Argus    |     100 Argus
                {max.  m.p.h.  (km.)|   68-1/2   (110) |   56        (90) |   62       (100) |  52         (80)
  ~Speed~       {                   |                  |                  |                  |
                {min.  m.p.h.  (km.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...
  ~Endurance~                   hrs.|         5        |        6-8       |        7-8       |        4-5
  Number built during 1912          |         6        |        20        |         4        |         3
  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------

Remarks.--The monoplanes are constructed under _Hanriot_ license.

[Illustration: 1913 tractor-biplane (racer).]

[Illustration: Monoplane.]



~D~


DELFOSSE. Ceased to construct.


[Illustration: Dorner]

DORNER III. Monoplane. ~Length.~--34-1/2 feet (10.50 m.) ~Span.~--39-1/3
feet (12 m.) ~Surface.~--280 sq. feet (126 m².) ~Weight.~--882 lbs. (400
kgs.)

Type II: ~Length.~--32-3/4 feet (10 m.) ~Span.~--38 feet (11.60 m.)
~Surface.~--268-1/2 sq. feet (25 m².) ~Weight.~--661 lbs. (300 kgs.) See
_Flugsport_, No. 5, 1911.



~E~


ETRICH. Etrich Fliegerwerke, G.m.b. H, Dittersbach b. Liebau
(Schlesien). Capacity: 50 a year.

[Illustration]

  ------------------------------+-------------------------------
                                |         ~1913.~
                                | ~Etrich~ (original) _Taube._
                                |          monoplane.
  ------------------------------+-------------------------------
  ~Length~             feet (m.)|        31          (9.5)
  ~Span~               feet (m.)|        47-1/2     (14.4)
  ~Area~          sq. feet (m².)|       301           (28)
           {Total   lbs.  (kgs.)|      1323          (600)
  ~Weight~ {                    |
           {Useful  lbs.  (kgs.)|               ...
  ~Motor~                   h.p.|     100 Mercedes or Argus
            {  max. m.p.h. (km.)|     71 to 75  (115 to 120)
  ~Speed~   {                   |
            {  min. m.p.h. (km.)|               ...
  ~Endurance~               hrs.|                6
  ------------------------------+-------------------------------

Remarks.--


EULER. August Euler, Frankfurt a.M. In 1908 Euler secured _Voisin_
rights for Germany. In 1910 he took out a patent for a design of his
own. In the summer of 1911 he built a successful monoplane, in the
autumn of the same year a triplane. Existing models are as follows:--

  ----------------------------+------------------+------------------+----------------------
                              |      ~1912.~     |        ~1912.~   |
                              |     Triplane.    |      Monoplane.  |   Military biplane.
  ----------------------------+------------------+------------------+----------------------
  ~Length~           feet (m.)|   23         (7) |                  |
  ~Span~             feet (m.)|   23         (7) |                  |
  ~Area~        sq. feet (m².)|        ...       |                  |
           {total  lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |      no data     |        no data
  ~Weight~ {                  |                  |                  |
           {useful lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |                  |
  ~Motor~                 h.p.|       Gnome      |                  |
           {max.  m.p.h. (km.)|   56        (90) |                  |
  ~Speed~  {                  |                  |                  |
           {min.  m.p.h. (km.)|        ...       |                  |
  ~Endurance~             hrs.|        3-4       |                  |
  Number built during 1912    |     _about_ 70   | of various types |
  ----------------------------+------------------+------------------+----------------------

[Illustration: Euler. Triplane.]

[Illustration: Euler. Monoplane, 1912.]

[Illustration: Euler. Military biplane.]



~F~


FOKKER. Monoplanes. Fokker-Aeroplanbau, G. m. b. H., 18 Parkstrasse,
Johannisthal bei Berlin. Capacity: 40.

  ---------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+--------------------+------------------
                                   |     ~1912.~      |      ~1912.~     |     ~1912-13.~   |     ~1912-13.~   |     ~1912-13.~     |      ~1913.~
                                   |       ~A.~       |        ~B.~      |        ~A.~      |        ~B.~      |        ~C.~        | Hydro-aeroplane.
  ---------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+--------------------+------------------
  ~Length~                feet (m.)|   26-1/4     (8) |   26-3/4  (8.25) |   29-1/2     (9) |   29-1/2     (9) |   29-1/2       (9) |   31      (9.50)
  ~Span~                  feet (m.)|   37-3/4 (11.50) |   39-1/3    (12) |   42-3/4 (13.20) |   42-3/4 (13.20) |   42-3/4   (13.20) |   52-1/2 (16.20)
  ~Area~             sq. feet (m².)|  226        (21) |  242     (22.50) |  280        (26) |  280        (26) |  280          (26) |        ...
                {total  lbs. (kgs.)|  838       (380) | 1036       (470) |  970       (440) | 1146       (520) | 1190         (540) |        ...
  ~Weight~      {                  |                  |                  |                  |                  |                    |
                {useful lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |         ...        |        ...
  ~Motor~                     h.p.{|      70 Argus    |     100 Argus    |      70 Argus    |     100 Argus    |      70 Renault    |    100 Renault
                                  {|                  |                  |      or  Dixi    |                  |                    |    or Mercedes
                 {max. m.p.h. (km.)|   56        (90) |   68       (108) |   52        (83) |   60        (96) |   53          (85) |   59        (95)
  ~Speed~        {                 |                  |                  |                  |                  |                    |
                 {min. m.p.h. (km.)|        ...       |        ...       |   43        (70) |        ...       |         ...        |        ...
  ~Endurance~                  hrs.|        4-6       |        4-6       |        5-8       |        5-8       |         4-6        |         4
  Number built during 1912         |         3        |         2        |         6        |         5        |          2         |        ...
  ---------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+--------------------+------------------

Remarks.--The _Fokker_ is a machine of Dutch origin. (See Dutch).

[Illustration: 1912-13 model.]

[Illustration: Hydro.]


FOHN. This firm ceased to exist January, 1913.



~G~


GRADE. Hans Grade Fliegerwerke, Bork, Post Bruck (Mark). Founded 1910 by
H. Grade, who was the first man in Germany to fly with a German machine.
During 1911 _Grades_ had a considerable vogue, but since then have not
been prominent.

[Illustration: 1912 racer.]

  -----------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
            Model and date.          |     Racer, ~1911.~   |     Racer, ~1912.~   |     Racer, ~1912.~
                                     |          ~C.~        |          ~D.~        |          ~E.~
  -----------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------
  ~Length~                  feet (m.)|   33            (10) |   21          (6.50) |   26-1/4          (8)
  ~Span~                    feet (m.)|   39-1/4        (12) |   34-1/2     (10.50) |   41          (12.50)
  ~Area~               sq. feet (m².)|  480            (45) |  240            (22) |  360             (33)
                {machine, lbs. (kgs.)|  375           (170) |  408           (185) |  595            (270)
  ~Weight~      {                    |                      |                      |
                {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|  ...            ...  |  ...            ...  |  ...             ...
  ~Motor~                        h.p.|        various       |  ...            ...  |  ...             ...
  ~Speed~                m.p.h. (km.)|   56            (90) |   71           (115) |   71            (115)
  Number built during 1912           |           ?          |        1 or 2        |           ?
  -----------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------

[Illustration: GRADE. UAS.]


GOEDECKER. J. Goedecker, Flugmaschinen-Werke, Niederwalluf a. Rh. Flying
School: Flugplatz Grosser Sand bei Mainz.

[Illustration: GOEDECKER.]

  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------
                                    |     ~1912.~      |       ~1911.~
                                    |     Monoplane    |     Monoplane
                                    |   "Sturmvogel."  |   "Sturmvogel."
  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~                 feet (m.)|   32-3/4    (10) |   29-1/2     (9)
  ~Span~                   feet (m.)|   47-3/4  (14.5) |   47-3/4  (14.5)
  ~Area~              sq. feet (m².)|  387        (36) |        ...
                {total   lbs. (kgs.)|  992       (459) |  827       (375)
  ~Weight~      {                   |                  |
                {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |        ...
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|     100 Dixi     |      70 Argus
  ~Speed~               m.p.h. (km.)|   56        (90) |        ...
  Number built during 1912          |         8        |         2
  ----------------------------------+------------------+------------------



~H~


HANSA-TAUBE. Heinrich Heitmann, Aviatik und Konstructions Werkstätten,
Altona.

[Illustration]

  ----------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------
                                    |        ~1912.~       |        ~1913.~
                                    |      Monoplane.      |      Monoplane.
  ----------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------
  ~Length~                 feet (m.)|   24-3/4       (7.5) |   24-3/4       (7.5)
  ~Span~                   feet (m.)|   36-3/4      (11.2) |   36-3/4      (11.2)
  ~Area~              sq. feet (m².)|  237            (22) |  237            (22)
                {total   lbs. (kgs.)|  617           (280) |  573           (260)
  ~Weight~      {                   |                      |
                {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|         ...          |          ...
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|    75 or 100 Argus   |       100 Argus
  ~Speed~               m.p.h. (km.)| 56 to 62  (95 to 100)|   62           (100)
  Number built during 1912          |          2           |           2
  ----------------------------------+----------------------+----------------------

Remarks.--


HARLAN. Harlan Werke, G. m. b. H., 21 Moltkestrasse, Johannisthal bei
Berlin. Established 1909, turned into present Company, 1911. Output
capacity about 50 machines a year.

[Illustration]

  ----------------------------+-----------------------+----------------------
                              |       ~1912.~         |        ~1912-13.~
                              |  Military monoplane.  |  Military monoplane.
  ----------------------------+-----------------------+----------------------
  ~Length~           feet (m.)|   26-1/4          (8) |   30          (9.10)
  ~Span~             feet (m.)|   39-1/3         (12) |   45-1/2     (13.80)
  ~Area~        sq. feet (m².)|  312             (29) |  312            (29)
          {total   lbs. (kgs.)|          ...          | 1984           (900)
  ~Weight~{                   |                       |
          {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|          ...          | 1323           (600)
  ~Motor~                 h.p.| 100 Argus or Mercedes |    100 Argus
  ~Speed~         m.p.h. (km.)|   69            (110) |   69           (110)
  ~Endurance~             hrs.|          7-8          |         7-8
  Number built during 1912    |           20          |          15
  ----------------------------+-----------------------+----------------------


HANUSCHKE. Bruno Hanuschke, Flugzeugbau, Johannisthal b. Berlin.
Capacity: small.

[Illustration]

  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------
                               |      ~1912.~     |      ~1913.~
                               |  "Typ populaire" |      Typ II.
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   24-3/4  (7.50) |   21      (6.50)
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   27      (8.25) |   26-1/4     (8)
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  183        (17) |  172        (16)
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)|  716       (325) | 1102       (500)
  ~Weight~ {                   |                  |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|  385       (175) |  600       (275)
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|     35 Anzani    |      50 Gnome
  ~Speed~          m.p.h. (km.)|   56        (90) |   62       (100)
  ~Endurance~              hrs.|         2        |        2
  Number built during 1912     |         2        |        2
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------

Remarks.--



~J~


JATHO. Jatho Flugzeugwerke, G. m. b. H., Stader Chaussee 32, Hannover.
Karl Jatho built his first aeroplane in 1899, and has produced machines
at intervals ever since. Capacity: small.

[Illustration]

  -----------------------------+------------------
                               |       ~1913.~
  -----------------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   29-1/2     (9)
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   49-1/4    (15)
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  345        (32)
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)| 2116       (960)
  ~Weight~ {                   |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|  992       (450)
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|   100 N.A.G.
  ~Speed~          m.p.h. (km.)|   75       (120)
  ~Endurance~              hrs.|         3
  Number built during 1912     |         2
  -----------------------------+------------------

Remarks.--


JEANNIN. Emile Jeannin, Flugzeugbau, G. m. b. H., Stahltauben &
Renneindecker Fabrik, Johannisthal b. Berlin. Capacity: small.

[Illustration: 1912 "Taube."]

  -----------------------------+--------------------+--------------------
                               |      ~1912.~       |      ~1913.~
                               | "Taube" monoplane. | Racing monoplane.
  -----------------------------+--------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|  29-1/2       (9)  |        ...
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|  42-3/4      (13)  |        ...
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|         ...        |        ...
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)|         ...        |        ...
  ~Weight~ {                   |                    |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|         ...        |        ...
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|   100-150 Argus    |     150 Argus
  ~Speed~          m.p.h. (km.)|  68         (110)  |   87        (140)
  ~Endurance~              hrs.|         5-8        |        4-7
  Number built during 1912     |          2         |         3
  -----------------------------+--------------------+------------------

Remarks.--The 1913 was building only in March.



~K~


KAHNT. Oswald Kahnt, Flugzeugbau, Leipzig. Capacity: small.

[Illustration]

  -----------------------------+------------------
                               |   ~K. F. 1913.~
                               |     "Falke."
  -----------------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   27-3/4  (8.50)
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   42-3/4    (13)
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  291        (27)
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)|        ...
  ~Weight~ {                   |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|        ...
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|       50-70
  ~Speed~          m.p.h. (km.)|   62       (100)
  Number built during 1912     |     new firm
  -----------------------------+------------------


KONDOR. Kondor Flugzeugwerke G. m. b. H., Essen, Ruhr. Fabrik auf dem
Flugplatz. Rotthausen. Capacity: 30 or so a year.

[Illustration: 1913 model. (1912 same appearance.)]

  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------
                               |     ~1912.~      |     ~1913.~
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   33-3/4 (10.30) |   27     (8.20)
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   48-3/4 (14.80) |   46       (14)
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  258        (24) |  280       (26)
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)| 1543       (700) | 1328      (600)
  ~Weight~ {                   |                  |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |         ...
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|     100 Argus    |      100 Argus
  ~Speed~          m.p.h. (km.)|   65       (105) |   70      (112)
  Number built during 1912     |         2        |         ...
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------

Remarks.--Both models torpedo body, on 4 skids. Planes dart ~V~ form.
Constructor: J. Suwelack.


KÜHLSTEIN. Kühlstein Wagenbau, Karosseriefabrik, Salzufer 4,
Charlottenburg. This old-established motor car firm commenced to build
aeroplanes in 1911. Capacity: 20 a year.

[Illustration: 96 h.p.]

  -----------------------------+--------------------+--------------------
                               |      ~1912.~       |       ~1912.~
                               | Torpedo monoplane. | Torpedo monoplane.
                               |          I.        |         II.
  -----------------------------+--------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   29-3/4    (9.10) |   27         (8.2)
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   40-3/4    (12.4) |   35-1/2    (10.8)
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  291          (27) |  215          (20)
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)| 1984         (900) | 2204        (1000)
  ~Weight~ {                   |                    |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)| 1322         (600) | 1543         (700)
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|     100 Argus      |     96 Mercedes
           {max.   m.p.h. (km.)|        ...         |         ...
  ~Speed~  {                   |                    |
           {min.   m.p.h. (km.)|   84         (135) |   87         (140)
  ~Endurance~              hrs.|         3          |          3
  Number built during 1912     |         2          |          2
  -----------------------------+--------------------+--------------------

Remarks.--



~M~


MARS. Deutsche Flugzeugwerke G. m. b. H., Lindenthal bei Leipzig.
Established 1911. This is one of the most important and successful
aviation works in Germany. Capacity: from 80 to 100 machines a year.

[Illustration: Mars. Monoplane.]

  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
                               |    ~1912-13.~    |     ~1912-13.~   |      ~1913.~
                               |    Monoplane.    |      Biplane.    | Hydro-aeroplane.
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   31       (9.7) |   31       (9.7) |
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   55-1/4  (16.8) |   57      (17.8) |
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  376        (35) |  495        (46) |
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)| 1234       (560) | 1434       (650) |
  ~Weight~ {                   |                  |                  |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)| 1808       (820) | 2006       (910) |  _Building._
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|     95 N.A.G.    |    95 Mercedes   |
           {max.   m.p.h. (km.)|  120        (75) |  115        (71) |
  ~Speed~  {                   |                  |                  |
           {min.   m.p.h. (km.)|       ...        |       ...        |
  ~Endurance~              hrs.|       5-6        |       4-6        |
  Number built during 1912     |        6         |        16        |
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------

Remarks.--

[Illustration: Mars. Biplane.]


MROZINSKI. Bernard Mrozinski, Berlin-Wilmersdorf. Established 1912.

[Illustration]

~Length~, 23 feet (7 m.) ~span~, 32-3/4 feet (10 m.)
~area~, 215 sq. feet (20 m².)

~Weight.~--661 lbs. (300 kgs.)

~Motor.~--20 h.p. Anzani.

~Speed.~--50 m.p.h. (80 km.)

Remarks.--One machine only built in 1912.



~O~


OERTZ. Max Oertz, Yachtwerft, Reiherstieg b. Hamburg. Famous yacht
builder. Commenced aeroplane construction in 1911. Existing models as
below. Capacity about 25 machines a year.

[Illustration: 1912-13 model.]

  -----------------------------+--------------------+--------------------
                               |    ~M 1911-12.~    |    ~M 1912-13.~
                               |     Monoplane.     |     Monoplane.
  -----------------------------+--------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   29-1/2       (9) |   30-1/4     (9.2)
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   41-3/4   (12.75) |   41-3/4   (12.75)
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  247          (23) |  263        (24.5)
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)|  948         (430) | 1212         (550)
  ~Weight~ {                   |                    |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|         ...        |        ...
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|      70 Gnome      |     70 Gnome
           {max.   m.p.h. (km.)|   69         (110) |   75         (120)
  ~Speed~  {                   |                    |
           {min.   m.p.h. (km.)|         ...        |        ...
  ~Endurance~              hrs.|          3         |         4
  Number built during 1912     |          3         |         1
  -----------------------------+--------------------+--------------------


OTTO. Gustav Otto, Flugmaschinenwerke, Schleissheimer Str. 135, Munich.
Started building in 1911. Present max. capacity about 30 machines a
year.

[Illustration]

  ------------------------------+-----------------
                                |   ~M 1912.~
                                |    Biplane.
  ------------------------------+-----------------
  ~Length~             feet (m.)|       ...
  ~Span~               feet (m.)|       ...
  ~Area~          sq. feet (m².)|       ...
           {total    lbs. (kgs.)|       ...
  ~Weight~ {                    |
           {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|       ...
  ~Motor~                   h.p.| 100 A. G. Otto.
           {max.    m.p.h. (km.)|   69      (110)
  ~Speed~  {                    |
           {min.    m.p.h. (km.)|       ...
  ~Endurance~               hrs.|       6-8
  Number built during 1912      |        6
  ------------------------------+------------------

Remarks.--All 1912 machines purchased for German Army.



~P~


PEGA-EMICH. Flugtechnische und mechanische Werke vorm. Pega & Emich,
Falterstrasse 13-15, Griesheim, Frankurt-a-M. Commenced building with a
6-decker in 1910. Capacity: small.

[Illustration]

  ----------------------------+--------------------
                              |      ~1913.~
                              | Buteno monoplane.
  ----------------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~           feet (m.)|   39-1/4      (12)
  ~Span~             feet (m.)|   46          (14)
  ~Area~        sq. feet (m².)|  355          (33)
           {total   lbs. (kg.)|  838         (380)
  ~Weight~ {                  |
           {useful  lbs. (kg.)| 1102         (500)
  ~Motor~                 h.p.|      70 Argus
           {max.  m.p.h. (km.)|   62         (100)
  ~Speed~  {                  |
           {min.  m.p.h. (km.)|        ...
  ~Endurance~             hrs.|         2
  Number built during 1912.   |        ...
  ----------------------------+--------------------


PIPPART-NOLL. Pippart-Noll-Flugzeugbau, Mannheim.

[Illustration]

  ------------------------------+------------------+------------------+--------------------
                                |      P. N. 1     |     P. N. 2.     |     P. N. 3.
           Type.                |     Sporting.    |    "Uberland"    |     Military.
                                |      ~1912.~     |     ~1912.~      |      ~1913.~
  ------------------------------+------------------+------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~             feet (m.)|   31      (9.50) |   28      (8.50) |   28 (8.50 also 7)
  ~Span~               feet (m.)|   34-1/2 (10.50) |   39-1/3    (12) |   45     (13.70)
  ~Area~          sq. feet (m².)|  215        (20) |  280        (26) |  300        (28)
           {machine  lbs. (kgs.)|  617       (280) |  838       (380) | 1234       (560)
  ~Weight~ {                    |                  |                  |
           {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|  330       (150) |  463       (210) |  441       (200)
  ~Motor~                   h.p.|     70 Argus     |     70 Argus     |     70 Argus
           {max.    m.p.h. (km.)|   59        (95) |   62       (100) |   68       (110)
  ~Speed~  {                    |                  |                  |
           {min.    m.p.h. (km.)|        ...       |        ...       |   50        (80)
  ~Endurance~               hrs.|        ...       |        ...       |        ...
  Number built during 1912      |         1        |         1        |         1
  ------------------------------+------------------+------------------+--------------------



~R~


RUMPLER. E. Rumpler, Luftfahrzeugbau G. m. b. H., Siegfriedstrasse 202,
Berlin-Lichtenberg, also Johannisthal b. Berlin. Established 1909 by E.
Rumpler and R. Haessner for the construction in Germany of _Etrich_ (see
Austria) monoplanes. These now vary considerably from the original
_Etrich_. Capacity at present about 200 to 300 machines a year. Standard
models are as follows:--

  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
                               |     ~1912.~      |     ~1912.~      |      ~1913.~
                               |    Monoplane.    |     "Taube."     |      Hydro.
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   29-3/4  (9.50) |   34     (10.30) |   33        (10)
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   41-1/2 (12.65) |   46        (14) |   49-1/4    (15)
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  247        (23) |  336        (32) |  387        (36)
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)| 1398       (630) | 1190       (540) | 1328       (600)
  ~Weight~ {                   |                  |                  |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|  771       (350) |  551       (230) |  485       (220)
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|    95 Mercedes   |     100 Argus    |     100 Argus
           {max.   m.p.h. (km.)|   81       (130) |   59        (95) |   56        (90)
  ~Speed~  {                   |                  |                  |
           {min.   m.p.h. (km.)|        ...       |       ...        |        ...
  ~Endurance~              hrs.|        6-7       |       4-6        |        ...
  Number built during 1912     |         1        |        60        |         3
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------

[Illustration: Rumpler. Hydro-aeroplane.]

[Illustration: Rumpler. Monoplane.]

[Illustration: Rumpler. "Taube." With limousine body.]


RUTH-ROHDE. Ruth-Rohde, Motorgleitflieger, G. m. b. H., Wandsbeck.
Established 1912. Capacity: small.

[Illustration]

  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------
                               |     ~1912.~      |      ~1912.~
                               |    Biplane I.    |    Biplane II.
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   26-1/4     (8) |   26-1/4     (8)
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   36        (11) |   45        (14)
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  590        (55) |  700        (65)
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)| 1653       (750) | 1764       (800)
  ~Weight~ {                   |                  |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|       ...        |        ...
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|    75 Argus      |     75 Argus
           {max.   m.p.h. (km.)|   55        (90) |   55        (90)
  ~Speed~  {                   |                  |
           {min.    m.p.h.(km.)|       ...        |        ...
  ~Endurance~              hrs.|        3         |        3-4
  Number built during 1912.    |        1         |         1
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------



~S~


SCHELIES. Richard Schelies, Conventstrasse 5 und 5b, Hamburg 23. Flying
Station, etc.: Dockenhuden a/Elbe.

[Illustration]

  -----------------------------+--------------------
                               |      ~1913.~
                               | Hydro-monoplane.
  -----------------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   23           (7)
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   29-1/2       (9)
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  323          (30)
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)|  705         (320)
  ~Weight~ {                   |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|  220         (100)
  ~Motor~                  h.p.| Rheinische Aero 35
  ~Speed~          m.p.h. (km.)|         ...
  -----------------------------+--------------------


SCHULZE. Gustav Schulze, Flugzeug Werke, Burg b. Magdeburg. Schulze
began to build in 1910 light monoplanes, generally along _Santos-Dumont_
lines. Maximum present capacity about 12 machines a year.

[Illustration]

  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
                               |     ~1912.~      |      ~1912.~     |      ~1912.~     |      ~1913.~
                               |        I.        |        II.       |  III (2-seater). |   I (2-seater).
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   19-3/4     (6) |  26-1/4      (8) |   21-1/3  (6.50) |   23         (7)
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   26-1/4     (8) |  34-1/2  (10.50) |   28      (8.50) |   29-1/2     (9)
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  172        (16) | 215         (20) |  172        (16) |  194        (18)
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)|  330       (150) | 441        (200) |  441       (200) |  551       (250)
  ~Weight~ {                   |                  |                  |                  |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|                  |        ...       |        ...       |        ...
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|    24-30 Hilz    |    24-30 Hilz    |     35 Haacke    |     35 Haacke
           {max.   m.p.h. (km.)|   48        (77) |  53         (85) |   56        (90) |   53        (85)
  ~Speed~  {                   |                  |                  |                  |
           {min.   m.p.h. (km.)|        ...       |  43         (70) |   50        (80) |   46        (75)
  Number built during 1912.    |         1        |         3        |         1        |      _Building._
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------


SIGISMUND. Prinz Sigismund von Preussen, Berlin.

[Illustration]

  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------
         Model and date.       |    Monoplane.    |
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   29-1/2     (9) |
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   42-3/4    (13) |
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  323        (30) |
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)|  950       (430) |
  ~Weight~ {                   |                  |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|  395       (180) |
  ~Motor~                      |    Argus, 100    |
  ~Speed~     max. m.p.h. (km.)|   56        (90) |
  Number built during 1912     |         2        |
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------



~U~


UNION FLUGZEUGWERKE. Union Flugzeugwerke G. m. b. H. Elsenstrasse 106 &
107, Berlin s. o. 36. Established 1913. Capital 500,000 marks. Capacity
of works: 20 machines a year.

[Illustration]

  -----------------------------+------------------+
                               |    ~Bomhard.~    |
         Model and date.       |   Pfeilflieger,  |
                               |     ~1913.~      |
  -----------------------------+------------------+
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   32-3/4    (10) |
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   59        (18) |
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  450        (42) |
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)| 1235       (560) |
  ~Weight~ {                   |                  |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|  617       (280) |
  ~Motor~                      |     100 Argus    |
           {max.   m.p.h. (km.)|   69       (110) |
  ~Speed~  {                   |                  |
           {min.   m.p.h. (km.)|   62       (100) |
  Number built during 1912     |     New firm     |
  -----------------------------+------------------+



~W~


WRIGHT. Flugmaschine Wright, G. m. b. H., Adlershof, bei Berlin. Company
formed to trade in German rights for the Wright Bros.' patents.
Considerable departures have been made from the U.S. pattern, and some
have been built with a single propeller only. Capacity of works 100-150
a year.

[Illustration: Armoured war aeroplane.]

  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
                               |      ~1912.~     |      ~1913.~     |      ~1913.~     |      ~1913.~
                               |     Military.    |     Sporting.    |     Military.    |     Military.
                               |                  |                  |                  |     4-seater.
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   28      (8.50) |   26-1/2  (8.20) |   31-1/2  (9.65) |        ...
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   39-1/2 (12.20) |   31      (9.60) |   40-1/2 (12.50) |   44-1/4 (13.50)
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  452        (42) |  323        (30) |  463        (43) |  463        (43)
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)|  992       (450) |  837       (380) | 1433       (650) | 1653       (750)
  ~Weight~ {                   |                  |                  |                  |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |  882       (400)
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|     55 N.A.G.    |     55 N.A.G.    |    100 Argus or  |        100
                               |                  |                  |      Mercedes    |
           {max.   m.p.h. (km.)|   50        (80) |   60        (95) |   60        (95) |   60        (95)
  ~Speed~  {                   |                  |                  |                  |
           {min.   m.p.h. (km.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...
  Number built during 1912     |         10       |         ?        |        ...       |        ...
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------



~Z~


ZIEGLER. Ziegler, Potsdam. Established late in 1912.

[Illustration]

  -----------------------------+------------------
                               |     ~1912-13.~
                               |     Monoplane.
  -----------------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   31      (9.50)
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   39-1/3    (12)
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|  344        (32)
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)|  881       (400)
  ~Weight~ {                   |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|  992       (450)
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|    100 N.A.G.
           {max.   m.p.h. (km.)|   60        (90)
  ~Speed~  {                   |
           {min.   m.p.h. (km.)|        ...
  ~Endurance~              hrs.|         2
  Number built in 1912         |         1
  -----------------------------+------------------



GERMAN DIRIGIBLES.

(Approximately 1000 m³=35,000 c. feet.)


~Military.~

  ----------+--------------------------+--------------+-------+--------+------+-------------+----------------------
     Date.  |         Name.            |     Make.    | Type. |Capacity| Total|    Speed.   |       Remarks.
            |                          |              |       | in m³. | H.P. | m.p.h. (km.)|
  ----------+--------------------------+--------------+-------+--------+------+-------------+----------------------
     1908   |   ~Z I~                  |  Zeppelin 3b |   r.  | 12100  |  190 | 29     (46) |      as _rebuilt_
            |                          |              |       |        |      |             |
     1910   |   ~Z II~                 |  Zeppelin 9b |   r.  | 18000  |  345 | 35     (56) |      as _rebuilt_
       "    |   ~L. S I~               |Schütte Lanz 1|   r.  | 20000  |  540 | 40     (62) |
            |                          |              |       |        |      |             |
     1912   |   ~Z III~                |  Zeppelin 12 |   r.  | 17800  |  450 | 49     (79) |was _Schwaben L. Z 10_
       "    |   ~L I~                  |  Zeppelin 14 |   r.  | 22000  |  450 | 48 (77-1/2) |    Naval: 1 gun
            |                          |              |       |        |      |             |
     1913   |   ~Z IV~ (Z I _Ersatz_)  |  Zeppelin 15 |   r.  | 21000  |  450 | 48 (77-1/2) |       4 guns
  Building. |   ~L II~                 |  Zeppelin 16 |   r.  | 21000  |  450 | 48 (77-1/2) | Naval: _bldg._ 4 guns
            |   ~S. L II~              |Schütte Lanz 2|   r.  | 26000  |  450 | 48 (77-1/2) |       _Building_
            |                          |              |       |        |      |             |
  ----------+--------------------------+--------------+-------+--------+------+-------------+----------------------
            |                          |              |       |        |      |             |
     1908   |   ~P I~                  |  Parseval 2  |  n.r. |  3800  |   85 | 33-1/2 (54) |
            |                          |              |       |        |      |             |
     1911   |   ~P III~                |  Parseval 11 |  n.r. | 11000  |  400 | 42-1/2 (67) |
            |                          |              |       |        |      |             |
     1912   |   ~M I~                  |  Gross-Bas 2 |  s.r. |  6000  |  150 | 28     (45) | old 1908 _rebuilt_
       "    |   ~M II~                 |  Gross-Bas 3 |  s.r. |  6000  |  150 | 28     (45) | old 1909 _rebuilt_
       "    |   ~M III~                |  Gross-Bas 4 |  s.r. |  9000  |  300 | 42-1/2 (67) | old 1910 _rebuilt_
            |                          |              |       |        |      |             |
     1913   |   ~M IV~                 |  Gross-Bas 5 |  s.r. | 12000  |  400 | 44-1/2 (70) | old 1911 _rebuilt_
       "    |   ~P II~ ersatz          |  Parseval 8  |  n.r. |  8250  |  300 | 41     (66) |     _Building_
       "    |   ~P IV~                 |  Parseval 16 |  n.r. | 10000  |  360 | 45     (72) |     _Building_
  ----------+--------------------------+--------------+-------+--------+------+-------------+----------------------


~Private.~[D]

  ------------+------------------------+--------------+-------+--------+------+-------------+----------------------
     Date.    |         Name.          |     Make.    | Type. |Capacity| Total|    Speed    |        Remarks.
              |                        |              |       | in m³. | H.P. | m.p.h (km.) |
  ------------+------------------------+--------------+-------+--------+------+-------------+----------------------
     1910     |   ~DEUTCHLAND 2~       |  Zeppelin 6a |   r.  |  15000 |  345 | 36     (58) | Deutschland _Ersatz_
              |                        |              |       |        |      |             |        Delag
              |                        |              |       |        |      |             |
     1912     |   ~V. LUISE~           |  Zeppelin 11 |   r.  |  17000 |  450 | 40     (62) |        Delag
       "      |   ~HANSA~              |  Zeppelin 13 |   r.  |  17000 |  450 | 40     (62) |        Delag
              |                        |              |       |        |      |             |
     1913     |   ~SACHSEN~            |  Zeppelin 17 |   r.  |  21000 |      | 48 (77-1/2) | _Building._ Delag
    _Bldg._   |                        |              |       |        |      |             |
              |                        |              |       |        |      |             |
  ------------+------------------------+--------------+-------+--------+------+-------------+----------------------
              |                        |              |       |        |      |             |
     1908     |   ~P. L 1~             |  Parseval 1  |  n.r. |   3200 |  185 | 20     (32) |
              |                        |              |       |        |      |             |
     1910     |   ~STOLLWERCK~         |  Parseval 6  |  n.r. |   9000 |  220 | 31     (50) |
              |                        |              |       |        |      |             |
     1911     |   ~P. L 9~             |  Parseval 9  |  n.r. |   2200 |   50 | 25     (40) |    Sporting[E]
       "      |   ~R 2~                |  Ruthenberg 2|  n.r. |   1700 |      |             |   Experimental
              |                        |              |       |        |      |             |
     1912     |   ~SUCHARD~            |Suchard reb'lt|  n.r. |   6730 |  200 | 17     (28) | to be _rebuilt_ 1913
       "      |   ~P. L XII~           |  Parseval 12 |  n.r. |   8800 |  220 | 33-1/2 (54) |
              |                        |              |       |        |      |             |
     1913     |   ~P. L 10~            |  Parseval 10 |  n.r. |   2200 |   50 | 25     (40) | _Building_: delayed
       "      |   ~R 3~                | Ruthenberg 3 |  n.r. |   2700 |      |             |      _Building_
  ------------+------------------------+--------------+-------+--------+------+-------------+----------------------



~Dirigible Sheds.~
(_See Note._)

  Bickendorf bei Köln.
  Biesdorf bei Berlin.
 *Bitterfeld (_Parseval Co._)
  Breslau.
  Cuxhaven.
  Düsseldorf (_Delag_)
  Frankfurt a/m.
  Friedrichshafen (_Zeppelin Co._)
  Gotha.
  Hamburg (_Delag_).
 *Johannisthal (_L.V.G._)
  Kiel (_private_).
  Köln.
  Königsberg i/Pr.
  Leichlingen.
  Manzell (_Zeppelin Co._)
  Metz.
 *München (_private_).
  Oos bei Baden-Baden (_Delag_).
  Potsdam (_Delag_)
  Reinickendorf bei Berlin.
  Rheinau.
  Strassburg.
  Stuttgart.
  Thorn.

Note.--Unless otherwise stated the above are military sheds. All private
ones capable of holding _Zeppelins_ are subsidised. *=not large enough
for _Zeppelins_.


~Dirigible Pilots.~
For M. dirigibles.

  Geerdtz, Oblt.
  George, Hptm.
  v. Jena, Hptm.
  Kirchner, Oberltn.
  Lohmuller, Hptm.
  Masius, Oberltn.
  v. Muller, Hptm.
  Nichisch v. Rosenegk, Oberltn.
  Schlutter, Obltn.
  Sperling, Major.
  von Zech, Obltn.


~Dirigible Pilots.~

Z=Zeppelin. S=Schutte-Lanz. P=Parseval _pilot_.

(The number after each name is the Imperial Ae. C. certificate number.)

  Z Abercron, H. v. Major (1)
  Z Bassus, K. v. (28)
  Z Bentheim, Kapt. Lt. a. D. v. (34)
  Z Blew (25)
    Clouth, R. (8)
  P Dinglinger, F. (2)
  Z Dorr, W. E. (21)
  Z Durr (9)
  Z Eckener, Dr. (10)
  P Forsbeck, Ob. Lt. A. D. (11)
  Z Glund, F. (23)
  Z Hacker, (12)
  P Hackstetter, Reg. B. a. D. (13)
  Z Hanne, G. (32)
  Z Heinen, A. (22)
  Z Holzmann, Ob. Lt. A. (26)
  S Honold, R. (29)
  P Hormel, Kap. Lt. (14)
  P Jordens, W. (19)
  P Kehler, R. v. (6)
  P Kiefer, T. (5)
    Kleist, Hptm. a. D. v. (15)
 PZ Krogh, Hptm. a. D. v. (16)
  Z Lange, K. (30)
  Z Lau (17)
  Z Lempertz, E. (33)
  Z Mechlenburg, W. C. (35)
  Z Meyer, Ob. Lt. E. (27)
  P Parseval, A. v. (4)
  Z Stahl, K. (31)
  P Stelling, A. (3)
  Z Sticker, J. (24)
  P Thewaldt, C. H. (20)
  Z Zeppelin, Graf. v. (7)
  Z Zeppelin, Graf. F. v. junr. (18)


=GERMAN MILITARY CLASS--GROSS-BASENACH. (Semi-rigid)=

Up to date, these vessels have been designed by Major Gross and
Oberingenieur Basenach.

The utmost secrecy is observed as to their details.

The system of employing 2 ballonets has been borrowed from the
_Parseval_ type, and presumably the _Parseval_ system of working the
automatic valves has also been adopted.

In all other features, these ships appear to resemble the French
_Lebaudy_ type, the shape of the hulls being rather better.


List of ships built, re-built and re-building of this type:--

  1                 = Aeronautical Society.   (1,800 m³) _non-effective._
  2 (reconstructed) = M 1, Military.          (6,000 m³)
  3       "         = M 2     "               (6,000 m³)
  4       "         = M 3     "               (9,000 m³)
  5       "         = M 4     "              (12,000 m³)


M I (re-built 1912), & M II (re-built 1912). Military.

[Illustration]

~Length,~ 242-3/4 feet} ~maximum diameter,~ 36 feet (11 m.) ~capacity~,
212,000 c. feet (6,050 kg.) ~total lift~, 13,338 lbs. (6,000 m³) _about_
6 tons

~Useful lift.~--2,756 lbs. (1,250 kgs.)=about 1-1/4 tons.

~Gas bag.~--Continental rubber cloth, diagonal thread. Tapering shape.

~Ballonet.~--One-fifth of total volume.

~Motors.~--2-75 h.p. Daimler. 2 propellers, with 3 aluminium blades.

~Speed.~--About 28 m.p.h. (45 km.).

_Remarks.--M I_ was originally built in 1908, re-built and enlarged 1910
and again in 1912. _M II_ built 1909, re-constructed 1912.

[Illustration]


M III (re-built 1912). Military.

[Illustration]

~Length~, 295-1/4 feet (90 m.) ~diameter~, 39-1/3 feet (12 m.) ~volume~,
317,800 c. feet (9,000 m³.)

~Motors.~--4 Körting of 75 h.p. each = 300 h.p. total.

~Speed.~--19 metres per second = 42 m.p.h. (68-1/2 k.p.h.)

~Propellers.~--2, on outriggers from car, chain-driven.

Remarks.--Built 1910. Burned 13th September, 1911. Rebuilt 1912.


M IV (re-built 1913). Military.

  +---------------------+
  |                     |
  +---------------------+

~Maximum length~, 334-3/4 feet (102 m.) ~maximum diameter~, 44-1/2 feet
(13.5 m.) ~volume~, 423,800 c. feet (12,000 m³.)

~Total lift.~-- lbs. ( kgs.) ~Useful lift~, lbs. ( kgs.)

~Gas bags.~--Continental.

~Motors.~--2 Körting, 100 h.p. each = total 200 h.p.

~Speed.~--44-1/2 m.p.h. (70-1/2 k.p.h.)

~Propellers.~--4 (two for each motor.) Carried on outriggers projecting
from the car.

Remarks.--Departs from previous practice in having two separate cars,
each of which contains one motor. Originally built in 1911 of 7,500 m³.
Re-built 1912-1913 to details as above.


=PARSEVAL CLASS (Non-rigid).=

Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft m.b.H, Berlin, W. 62.

When the "Motorluftschiff Studien Gesellschaft" was formed at the
instigation of the German Emperor, a committee was formed to acquire an
experimental airship of the most promising type. Major Von Parseval's
first airship was selected, and since that time the above company has
confined itself to improving this type, and to making exhaustive and
costly researches, all of which have been embodied in successive ships.

The characteristic feature of every one of these craft is its unequalled
portability. Almost all other so-called Non-rigid vessels distribute the
load by means of a long girder which also serves as a car. This girder
is awkward to pack up and transport. Parseval uses a comparatively small
car, and distributes the weight by hanging it further below the balloon
than usual, and also by using 2 ballonets which are placed one near each
end of the gas bag.

These 2 ballonets enable the ship to be trimmed by merely pumping air
into either at the expense of the other.

Another essential feature of the type is the system by which the valves
are worked automatically. At the present time there is no other system
of valve working so reliable as this.

A third essential feature of the class is the use of a swinging car, in
such a manner that pitching, due to alterations of propeller thrust, is
automatically checked by an alteration of the position of the centre of
gravity.

A fourth feature is the use of limp propeller blades. A propeller of
this type is very easily packed up.

The shape of these vessels is in accordance with the experiments of
Professor Prandtl.

Ships of this class built or building (figures supplied by the Parseval Co.):--

    EXPERIMENTAL PARSEVAL                             2,300 m³.
    P. L. 1     Kals. Ae. C                           3,200 m³.
    MILITARY P I                                      4,000 m³.
    MILITARY P II                                     6,600 m³.
    P. L. 4     Austrian Military                     2,300 m³.
    P. L. 5     Luftverkehrs Gesellschaft             1,450 m³.
    P. L. 6       "             "                     9,000 m³.
    P. L. 7     Russian Army                          7,600 m³.
    P. L. 8     MILITARY P II Ersatz                  8,250 m³.
    P. L. 9     Luftverkehrs Gesellschaft             2,200 m³.
    P. L. 10     Motorluftschiff Studien Gesellschaft 2,200 m³.
    MILITARY P III                                   11,000 m³.
    P. L. 12     Luftverkehrs Gesellschaft            8,800 m³.
    P. L. 13     Japanese Army                        8,500 m³.
    P. L. 14     Russian Army                         9,500 m³.
    P. L. 15     Italian Army                        10,000 m³.
    P. L. 16     MILITARY P IV, Prussian Army        10,000 m³.
    P. L. 17     Italian Army                        10,000 m³.
    P. L. 18     British Navy                         8,800 m³.

(Of the above, the Experimental is no longer in existence, _P. 2_ is out
of service, and _P. L. 3_ has been burned and destroyed).


PARSEVAL (P.L. 1). (1908.) (Belongs to the Kaiserl. Aero Club.)
(Parseval class.)

[Illustration]

~Length,~ 197 feet (60 m.) ~max. diam.~ 31 feet (9.4 m) ~capacity,~
113,000 c. feet (3,200m³) ~lifting power,~ 7,800 lbs. (3,583 kgs.)

~Gas bag.~--Cylindrical, with semi-conical front. Of rubber-proofed
material in longitudinal strips. Pressure in ballonets and gas bag, 30
mm. of water.

~Motor.~--One 85 h.p. Daimler.

~Fuel.~--700 lbs. (325 kg.) 88 gallons (400 litres)

~Speed.~--20 m.p.h. (32 k.p.h.)

~Propeller.~--One 4-bladed. Semi-rigid Parseval.

This vessel was somewhat altered on being bought by the Society. Her
essential principle is that she can be taken to pieces in a few minutes,
and carried in a truck. Her main feature is that she has a ballonet at
each end. This is described in the case of type A (_P.L. 2_). This class
rise with the forward ballonet empty, and inclined up by the bow. The
propeller is similar to that of _P.L. 2_. The car also is mounted on
wire runners. She was originally 4,000 m³. capacity. Built 1908.
Station: Bitterfeld. The car is at present in Deutsches Museum, Munich.


PARSEVAL P.L. 2 = P. I. Military. (1908.)

[Illustration]

Built by the "Society for the Study of Motor Air Ships," and taken over
by the German War Office.

~Length,~ 197 feet (60 m.) ~maximum diameter,~ 34 feet (10.40 m.)
~capacity,~ 111,270 cubic feet (4,000 cubic m.) ~lifting power,~ 9,200
lbs. (4,180 kgs.)

~Gas bag.~--Front end semi-ellipsoidal with semi-axes 15.4 feet (4.7 m.)
and 11.8 feet (3.6 m.), from which it increases to its maximum diameter.
This is maintained for about two-thirds of its length, when it begins to
taper to a point at the stern. Made of 2 layers of transverse strips of
rubber proofed material, crossing each other diagonally. Fitted with a
tearing strip.

~Ballonets.~--One at each end, together amounting to about one-quarter
of the total capacity. Owing to this disposition, the trim can be
altered, and steering effected in the vertical plane by filling either
more than the other. Pressure in the ballonets and gas bag, 20 mm. of
water pressure.

~Motor.~--4-cylinder 85 h.p. Daimler placed at one side of the car to
give more room. 1,000 to 1,200 r.p.m.

~Propellers.~--12-1/3 feet (3.75 m.) diameter, 250 to 300 r.p.m.
4-bladed, the blades being of peculiar construction. When stopped, the
fabric of which they are made hangs down limply; when running, these
flaps fly out under centrifugal force.

~Speed.~--27 miles per hour. 43 kilometers per hour.

~Car.--Length~, 22-1/3 feet (6.8 m.) Width 4.1 feet (1.22 m.) Made of
nickel steel, U bars, screwed together so as to take the pieces rapidly.
The sides are lattice girders. The whole is boat shaped and covered with
canvas. Contains motor, chart table; trail rope 480 feet (146 m.) long,
weighing 220 lbs. (100 kg.)

Wheel for horizontal steering at the bow.

110 gal. (500 litre) cask of petrol on the girders at the after point.

41 feet (12-1/2 m.) below the gas bag. It is capable of swinging
horizontally on wires running over rollers.

Whereas without this device a forward swing of the car would lift the
nose to a possibly dangerous extent, the free motion of the car shifts
the centre of the gravity forward and so preserves stability.

~Steering.~--In vertical plane, by altering the trim. In horizontal
plane, by a rudder of 80.7 sq. feet (7-1/2 m²) immediately behind the
vertical plane. Two fixed horizontal planes are placed at the rear end
of the gas bag above the central line.

[Illustration: PARSEVAL II.]

~Table of weights~:--

  Gas bag                           1,653  lbs.
  Cordage                             220.5 "
  Trail rope                          220   "
  Car and motor                       529   "
  Fuel                                770   "
  Oil                                 160   "
  Oil and fuel tanks, instruments,
  miscellaneous                     1,637   "
  Crew, passengers, ballast         1,654   "
                                    ---------
               Total                6,834  lbs.

Note.--This remarkably successful ship has performed a continuous flight
of 11-1/2 hours. She also remained at a height of 4,800 feet (1,500 m.)
for 1 hour. She can be transported in 1 railway truck or 2 pair horse
wagons, and be assembled and filled ready for ascent within 3 hours of
arrival by train.

Built 1908. Station: Metz.


PARSEVAL P.L. 6. "Stollwerck." (1910.)

[Illustration]

~Length~, 229-3/4 feet (70 m.) ~Diameter~, 49-1/4 feet (15 m.) ~Volume~,
318,000 c. feet (9,000 m³)

~Gas bags.~--Riedinger.

~Motors.~--2 N.A.G. of 110 h.p. each = 220 h.p.

~Speed.~--31 m.p.h. (50 k.p.h.)

~Propellers.~--Two 4-bladed. Semi-rigid material.

Remarks.--Station, Johannisthal.


PARSEVAL P.L. 8. = P II. Ersatz. Military. (1913.)

[Illustration]

~Maximum length~, 252-3/4 feet (77 m.) ~maximum diameter~, 50-3/4 feet
(15.50 m.) ~volume~, 290,000 c. feet (8,250 m³.)

~Total lift.~--5-1/2 tons=12,125 lbs. (5,500 kgs.)

~Gas bags.~--2 ballonets, usual arrangement.

~Motors.~--300 h.p. made up of two 150 h.p. Daimler motors, placed one
behind the other.

~Speed.~--41 m.p.h. (66 km.)

~Propellers.~--2 Parseval, 4-bladed, semi-rigid steel.

~Steering.~--As in others.

Remarks.--Station, Cologne, (Cöln).


PARSEVAL P.L. 9 (1910), & 10. (Building 1913.)

[Illustration]

~Maximum length~, 164 feet (50m.) ~maximum diameter~, 26-1/4 feet (8m.)
~volume~, 77,700 c. feet (2,200m³.)

~Total lift.~--2,910 lbs. (1,320 kgs.)

~Gas bag.~--Continental fabric. One central ballonet instead of the
usual two.

~Motors.~--1 N.A.G. of 50 h.p.

~Speed.~--25 m.p.h. (40 k.p.h.)

~Propellers.~--One 2-bladed, wooden. Diameter, 9-3/4 feet (3 m.)

~Steering.~--Differs from other standard types, in that only one
ballonet being fitted, an elevator is introduced under the bow.

Remarks.--Small ships for sporting purposes. A remarkably successful
type of small dirigible. A small _P.L. 5_, burned 1912. _P.L. 10_
delayed owing to press of other work.

[Illustration: PARSEVAL TYPE D.]


PARSEVAL P.L. 11. = P. III. Military. (1911.)

[Illustration]

~Maximum length~, 272-1/3 feet (83 m.) ~maximum diameter~, 53 feet
(16.20 m.) ~volume~, 388,450 c. feet (11,000 m³.)

~Total lift.~--

~Gas bags.~--

~Motors.~--2 Körting, each of 200 h.p.=400 total.

~Speed.~--42 m.p.h. (67 k.p.h.) (18.3 metres p. sec.)

~Propellers.~--Two 4-bladed Parseval.

Remarks.--Built 1911. Station, Koenigsberg.


PARSEVAL P.L. 12. "Charlotte." (1912.)

[Illustration]

~Maximum length~, 259 feet (79 m.) ~maximum diameter~, 49-3/4 feet
(15.20 m.) ~volume~, 300,750 c. feet (8,800 m³.)

~Total lift.~--

~Gas bags.~--

~Motors.~--2 N.A.G. of 110 h.p. each=220 total.

~Speed.~--33-1/2 m.p.h.=54 k.p.h. (15 m. per sec.)

~Propellers.~--2 Parseval.

~Steering.~--Usual.

Remarks.--Built 1911. Station: Wanne.


PARSEVAL P.L. 16 = P. IV. Military. (1913.)

  +---------------+
  |               |
  | _Completing._ |
  |               |
  +---------------+

~Maximum length~, 308-1/2 feet (94 m.) ~maximum diameter~, 51-1/2 feet
(15.50 m.) ~volume~, 353,000 c. feet (10,000 m³.)

~Gas bags.~--Metzler.

~Motors.~--2 Maybach, of 180 each=360 h.p.

~Speed.~--45 m.p.h.=72 k.p.h. (20 m. per sec.)

~Propellers.~--Two 4-bladed, wooden (on trial).

Remarks.--For the Prussian Army. Station: Berlin.


RUTHENBERG II. (1911). H. Ruthenberg, Lehderstrasse 16/19, Weissensee
bei Berlin: also Luftfahrzeug-Ges, Ruthenberg, Krefeld.

  +-----------------------------------+
  |                                   |
  |  _Small ships on Parseval lines.  |
  | Still existing, but stored away._ |
  |                                   |
  +-----------------------------------+

~Maximum length,~ 151 feet (46 m.) ~diameter~, 24-1/4 feet 7.40 (m.)
~volume~, 60,000 c. feet (1,700 m³.)

~Gas bags.~--

~Motor.~--

~Speed.~--

~Propellers.~--2 Ruthenberg.

Remarks.--


RUTHENBERG III. (1913).

  +---------------+
  |               |
  |  _Building._  |
  |               |
  +---------------+

~Length~, feet (m.) ~diameter~, feet (m.) ~volume~, 95,000 c. feet
(2,700 m³)

~Gas bags.~--

~Motor.~--

~Speed.~--

~Propeller.~--Ruthenberg.

Remarks.--


SUCHARD. Non-rigid (Trans-Atlantic). (Re-constructed 1912).

[Illustration]

~Maximum length~, 198-1/2 feet (60/5 m.) ~maximum diameter~, 56-1/4 feet
(17.11 m.) ~volume~, 237,681 cubic feet (6,730 m³.)

~Total weight.~--About 2 tons (2,130 kgs.)

~Gas bags.~--Metzeler fabric. One ballonet.

~Motors.~--2 of 100 h.p. (one a N.A.G., the other an Escher). Placed one
behind the other. A 4 h.p. motor carried for auxiliary purposes. Petrol
carried, (1700 kil.) Oil, (300 kil.)

~Speed.~--17 m.p.h. (28 k.p.h).

~Propellers.~--Two 2-bladed Zeise. Diameter, 9-3/4 feet (3 m.) Chain
driven.

~Steering.~--Elevation by moving weight slung on cable under body.
Rudder aft.

Remarks.--Built March, 1911, with a view to crossing the Atlantic from
the Canaries to the Antilles. Re-constructed 1912. Proposed further
re-construction in 1913.


SCHÜTTE-LANZ 1. Military. S.L. I. (1911.) H. Heinrich Lanz, Rheinau bei
Mannheim.

[Illustration]

~Maximum length,~ 426 feet (130 m.) ~maximum diameter~, 60-1/2 feet
(18.40 m.) ~volume~, 706,000 c. feet (20,000 m³.)

~Total lift.~--About 20 tons (20,000 kgs.) ~Useful lift.~--About 5 tons
(5,000 kgs.)

~Gas bags.~--These are of great strength and of unusual shapes, made to
fit the interior, which is encumbered with cross stays. All but two of
the bags are always full, and when the gas expands it flows into the
remaining two, which are nearly empty at sea level, and full at 6500
feet (2,000 m.) A centrifugal pump is used for distributing the gas.
There are 14 gas bags.

~Motors.~--2 Maybach of 270 h.p. each. The propellers are at the ends of
the car, driven through 1 set of reduction gear. ~Speed.~--38-43 m.p.h.
About 59-64 k.p.h.

~Propellers.~--2 aft. Also 1 with its axis vertical.

~Steering.~--Vertical and horizontal rudders at both ends of the ship.
Also see Propellers.

Remarks.--Two of these ships were under construction, and one was to be
presented and one sold to the German government. The hull is built of
special 3-ply wood made of Russian white fir; this wood is pressed into
channel bars, angle bars, and all other requisite shapes. The strength
of the hull is such that it can be supported at the ends without damage;
its lightness is such that although the ship is nearly half as large
again as _Zeppelin II_, yet the hull weighs about 3 tons less. Designed
by Prof. Schütte.

In 1910, structural defects were found in _Schütte I_ when the loads
were applied. This has necessitated extensive alterations and much
delay. In 1911 it was completed, and sold for £25,000 to the German
Army.


SCHÜTTE-LANZ 2. Military. S.L. II. (1913.)

  +------------------------------+
  |                              |
  |          _Building._         |
  |  Enlarged edition  of above. |
  | 918,000 c. feet (26,000 m³.) |
  |                              |
  +------------------------------+


ZEPPELIN type. Rigid. Graf von Zeppelin, Friedrichshafen.

The features of this type are--A rigid framework of aluminium, a number
of drum-shaped gas bags, and a thin outer cover.

[Illustration]

At the end of March, 1913, the total of _Zeppelins_, limit and building
was 16, including one (number 18) for Austria. Of these several had come
to grief in various ways, and the actual total at the date mentioned,
was:--

~8 effective~ = 4 Army (of which one _Z4_ was still on trials), 1 naval
and 3 private.

3 completing or building = 1 naval, 1 private and 1 for Austria.

Others projected but not actually in hand.

All are on the lines of the above plan, differing only in minor details,
such as the provision of a cabin amidships, etc., and in dimensions.

Details see the following pages.

  ----------------------------+------------------+-------------------+------------------+-------------------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+--------------------+------------------+------------------
                              |                  |      _Ersatz._    |                  |                   |      ~Z III.~      |                  |                  |   _(Ersatz Z I.)_  |                  |
          Name                |      ~Z I.~      |   ~DEUTSCHLAND.~  |      ~Z II.~     |   ~VICT. LUISE.~  |   _(ex Schwaben)_  |      ~HANSA.~    |       ~L I.~     |       ~Z IV.~      |      ~L II.~     |     ~SACHSEN.~
         ~Zeppelin~ No.       |       ~3b.~      |        ~6a.~      |       ~9b.~      |       ~11.~       |        ~12.~       |       ~13.~      |        ~14.~     |        ~15.~       |       ~16.~      |       ~17.~
          Date                |      ~1908.~     |       ~1910.~     |      ~1911.~     |      ~1912.~      |       ~1912.~      |      ~1912.~     |       ~1912.~    |       ~1913.~      |      ~1913.~     |      ~1913.~
          Service             |      ~Army.~     |      "Delag."     |      ~Army.~     |     "Delag."      |       ~Army.~      |     "Delag."     |       ~Navy.~    |       ~Army.~      |      ~Navy.~     |     "Delag."
  ----------------------------+------------------+-------------------+------------------+-------------------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+--------------------+------------------+------------------
                      {c. feet|     424,000      |     682,000       |     635,000      |      667,000      |      629,000       |     660,000      |     776,000      |      742,000       |     742,000      |     742,000
  ~Volume~            {       |                  |                   |                  |                   |                    |                  |                  |                    |                  |
                      {  (m³.)|     ~12,000~     |     ~19,000~      |     ~18,000~     |      ~18,700~     |      ~17,800~      |     ~18,700~     |     ~22,000~     |      ~21,000~      |     ~21,000~     |     ~21,000~
  ~Length~           feet (m.)|  446       (136) |  479        (136) |  459       (140) |  485-1/2    (148) |  459         (140) |  485-1/2   (148) |  518       (158) |  492         (150) |  492       (150) |  492       (150)
  ~Diameter~         feet (m.)|   38-1/2 (11.66) |   46         (14) |   46        (14) |   46         (14) |   46          (14) |   46        (14) |   47-1/2  (14.5) |   47-1/2    (14.5) |   47-1/2  (14.5) |   47-1/2  (14.5)
  ~Envelope~                  |     Pegamoid     |        ...        |        ...       |        ...        |        ...         |        ...       |        ...       |        ...         |        ...       |        ...
                       {fabric|    Continental   |    Continental    |        ...       |        ...        |    Continental     |        ...       |        ...       |        ...         |        ...       |        ...
  ~Gas Bags~           {      |                  |                   |                  |                   |                    |                  |                  |                    |                  |
                       {number|         17       |         16        |         16       |         18        |         16         |         18       |        ...       |         18         |        ...       |        ...
                  {total  tons|         12-1/2   |         16-1/2    |         17       |         19        |         17         |         19       |         22       |         21         |         21       |         21
  ~Lift~          {           |                  |                   |                  |                   |                    |                  |                  |                    |                  |
                  {useful tons|          3-1/2   |          5        |          4-1/2   |        ...        |          4-1/2     |        ...       |          6       |        ...         |        ...       |        ...
  ~Motors~                h.p.|   2--85 Daimler  |   3--115 Daimler  |   3--120 Maybach |   3--150 Maybach  |   3--150 Maybach   |  3--150 Maybach  |  3--150 Maybach  |   3--150 Maybach   |                  |
                              |      (= 170)     |      (= 345)      |      (= 360)     |      (= 450)      |      (= 450)       |     (= 450)      |     (= 450)      |      (= 450)       |      (= 450)     |      (= 450)
               {number        |         4        |         4         |         4        |         4         |         4          |        4         |        4         |         4          |        ...       |        ...
  ~Propellers~ {blades        |         2        |         2         |         2        |         2         |         2          |       ...        |   2 forward}     |    2 forward}      |        ...       |        ...
               {              |                  |                   |                  |                   |                    |                  |   4 aft    }     |    4 aft    }      |                  |
               {diam feet (m.)|        ...       |   12       (3.60) |        ...       |        ...        |        ...         |       ...        |       ...        |        ...         |        ...       |        ...
  ~Max. Speed~    m.p.h. (km.)|   29        (46) |   36       (57.5) |   35        (56) |   40         (62) |   49          (79) |   40        (62) |   48        (77) |   48          (77) |   48        (77) |   48        (77)
  ~Full speed endurance~  hrs.|         15       |         20        |         20       |         40        |         25         |        40        |        35        |        ...         |        ...       |        ...
  ~Complement~                |        ...       |        ...        |        ...       |{8 crew            |        ...         |       ...        |        21        |        ...         |        ...       |        ...
                              |                  |                   |                  |{25 passengers     |                    |                  |                  |                    |                  |
  ~Station~                   |       Metz       |        Oos        |      Cologne     |      Wechselnd    |      Cologne       |    Weschselnd    |      Hamburg     |        ...         |   Johannisthal   |      Leipsig
  ----------------------------+------------------+-------------------+------------------+-------------------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+--------------------+------------------+------------------

[Illustration: Z1 Military. (1908.) _Obsolete._ Shortly to be struck off
list.]

[Illustration: ERSATZ DEUTSCHLAND. (Private.) (1910.)]

[Illustration: Z II. Military. (1911.)]

[Illustration: VIKTORIA LUISE. (Private.) (1912).]

[Illustration: Z III. Military. (1912.)]

[Illustration: Zeppelin dirigible. Sachsen.]

[Illustration: HANSA. (Private). (1912.)]


L I. Naval. (1912.) Armament: 1 gun on top.

  +-----------------------------+
  |                             |
  |    No photo procurable.     |
  | Generally resembles _Z IV._ |
  |                             |
  +-----------------------------+


[Illustration: _Photo. Deliius._

Z IV. Military. (1913). Armament: 1 gun on top, 1 in each gondola, 1 can
be lowered from central cabin]



GREEK.


~Aerial Societies:~--

     _None._


~Aerial Journals:~--

     _None._



~Military Aeroplanes:~--

At end of March, 1913, these included:--1 _Astra_ hydro. (fitted with
Scott's bomb dropper), 2 or 3 _Nieuports_, 1--100 h.p. _M. Farman_, and
probably some others. Owing to the war, details are unobtainable. 3
_Bleriots_ reported captured from the Turks, and 15 _Farmans_ on order.


~Military Aviators:~--

  Adamis (824 Ae. C. F.)
  Kamberos (744 Ae. C. F.)
  Montoussis (839 Ae. C. F.)
  Mutassas, Sub-lt., naval.
  Savoff, Lt.


~Flying Grounds~:--

     ~Phaleron.~


  +------------------+
  |   Killed 1913.   |
  | Argyropulus, Lt. |
  |                  |
  |                  |
  +------------------+



ITALIAN.


~Aerial Societies:~--

     Ae. C. d'Italia (Ae.C.I.), 62 via Colonna, Rome.

     Ae. Club di Roma (Ae.C.I.), 183, via del Triton, Rome.

     Circolo, Aeronautico Napoletano, 295 v. Roma, Naples.

     Lega Aerea Nazionale (L.A.N.), 6 via della Signora, Milan.

     Societa Aeronautica Italiana (S.A.I.), 4 via Boccaccio, Milan.

     Societa Aeronautica Italiana (S.A.I.), 6, via Cernaia, Turin.

     Societa Aviazone, di Torino (S.A.T.), 28 via Roma, Turin.

     Societa Ital. di Aviazone, (S.I.A.), 14 v. Monte Napoleone, Milan.


~Aerial Journals:~--


     (3 times a week.)

     _Gazzetta dello Sport_, 15 v. della Signora, Milan. L--.05 (=1/2d.)

     (Weekly):

     _Italia Sportiva_, Rome. L--.05 per no. (=1/2d.)

     _Lettura Sportiva_, 17 corso Porta Romana, Milan. L--.10 (=1d.)

     _Sports (Gli)._ 46 and dei Prefretti, Rome. L--.05 (=1/2d.)

     _Stampa Sportiva_, 3 v. Davide Bertolotti, Turin. L--.10 (=1d.)

     _Tribuna Sport_, 22 via S. Giacomo, Naples. L--.10 (=1d.)

     (Monthly):

     _Rivista della L.A.N._ (Lega Aerea Nazionale), Milan.

     _Rivista del T.C.I._ (Touring Club Italiano), 14 v. Monte
     Napoleone, Milan. L--.40 (=4d.)

     _La Navigazione Aerea_ (Bolletino dell' Ae. C. d'Italia). L--1.80
     (=1/6.)

     (Annual):

     _Annuario dell' Aeronautica_ (Touring Club Italiano), 14 v. Monte
     Napoleone, Milan. L--6.00 (=5/-)


~Flying Grounds~ (Military see next page):--

     ~Cameri~, Novara.--15 hangars (Thouvenot school).

     ~Mirafiore~, Turin.--17 hangars (Asteria and Chiribiri schools).

     ~S. Giusto~, Pisa.--4 hangars (Antoni school).

     ~Taliedo~, Milan.--26 hangars.

     ~Vizzola Ticino.~--7 hangars (Caproni school).


~Dirigible Headquarters~ (with hangars, etc., etc.):--

  Bracciano.
  Milan.
  Rome.
  Venice.
  Verona.


~ITALIAN MILITARY AVIATION.~

~ORGANISATION, etc.~

The _Battaglione Aviatori_ has its headquarters at Turin. In July, 1912,
it was re-organised along the following lines:--

  1 command at Turin.
  1 flying work.
  1 technical work.
  2 troop duty.
  6 at the aviation schools, with a certain number of mobile squadrillos.

The recognised grades are:--

  _a.a.p._ aspirante allievo (learners).
    _a.p._ allievo pilota (certificated pilots).
      _p._ pilota militare (superior military brevet).

In flying work the superior pilots are mostly using _Bleriots_; the
ordinary pilots _Bleriot-Caproni_, _Bristol_, _Antonis_, _Deperdussins_
and _Voisins_.

The technical section chiefly supervises the theoretical instruction of
the _a.a.p._

The 2 companies on troop duty practical work, preparation for the
schools.


~FLYING SCHOOLS.~

The military schools are:--

     ~Aviano.~--Central school. Size about 5×2 kilometres. Sheltered
     from all winds except westerly, by banks of trees. Numerous
     hangers.

     ~Mirafiori (Turin).~--Mixed military and civil school. Hangers.
     School machines confined to _Asteria_, _Bleriot_, _Nieuport_ and
     _Savary_ types.

     ~Pordenone.~--School for superior brevets. Treeless plain.
     Principal school machines _Breguets_ and _Farmans_; but some
     _Bleriots_ and _Caproni_.

     ~S. Francesco al Campo.~--_M. Farman_ machines. At present for
     officers trained in France.

     ~Somma Lombarda.~--Camp school for _Nieuports_.

     ~Venaria Reale.~--Formed late in 1912. _Bristol_ monos for
     certificated pilots.


~GENERAL TRAINING.~

50 officers in training during the first quarter of 1913.

Aspirants commence with instruction in the theory of heavier than air
machines, resistance of material and particular instruction in the
various type of aero motors in use. They are taken for flights as
passengers.

All then go to the training camp about 80% for monoplane work, the
remainder for biplanes.

Monoplanes. Special attention paid to teaching _Gauchis Dessent_.

Biplanes. Much shorter course. Principal feature: _Vol Plané_.

For the _military brevet_ the examination is most comprehensive, special
attention is paid to flying in wind, manoeuvring, climbing, good
landings without inconvenience to passengers, cross country flights,
etc. The course is generally modelled on war experiences.


~TOTAL FLYING STRENGTH.~

No particular distinction between naval and military aviators.

Total by end of June, 1913, to be about 225 certificated aviators of
whom a fair percentage hold the superior brevet. In addition all the
best civilian aviators are held at disposal.


~Military Aeroplanes.~

At the end of 1911 there were about 20 machines, mostly _Bleriots_ and
_Farmans_. The majority of these are still in use for school purposes.

At the end of March, 1913, the machines effective for war purposes were
roughly as follows:--

  _Bleriot._        }
  _Bristol_ (mono.) }
  _Caproni._        }
  _Deperdussin._    }   Total _about_ 50, plus a number
  _Farman._         }        of school machines.
  _Hanriot._        }
  _Nieuport._       }
  _Savary._         }

About 40 machines were on order, including 12 _Bristol-Capronies_.


~Naval Aeroplanes.~

Effective at end of March, 1913.

  1 _Calderara_.
  1 _Guidoni-Farman_.
  4 or 5 others.


~ITALIAN AVIATORS.~

Military.

  Agostoni, Capt. V. (45)
  Bailo, Lieut. (71)
 *Bolla, Capt. (89)
  Cannonieri, Lieut. (22)
 +Cammarotta, Lieut. (15F)
  De Filippi, Com. (5)
 *De Rada, Lieut. (38)
 *Falchi, Capt. (55)
  Garassini. (29)
 *Gavotti, Lieut. (25)
  Gazzera, Lieut. (20)
  Guidoni, Capt. (58)
 *Lampugnani, Lieut. (33)
 +Manazini, Lieut. (98)
  Moizo, Capt. (40)
  Neri, Lieut. (345-Ae. C. F.) (106)
 *Palmadi, Cesnola Lieut. (75)
 *Piazza, Major (44)
  Pizzagalli, Capt. (49)
  Poggi, Lieut. (82)
  Prandoni, Capt. (69)
 *Pulvirenti, Lieut. (50)
  Raffaelli, Lieut. A. (108)
  Ravelli (453, Ae. C. F.)
  Roberti, Lieut. (47)
  Rossi, Capt. (27)
 +Saghetti, Lieut. (16)
  Savoia, Lieut. T. U. (4)
  Surdi, Lieut. (32)
 *Vece, Lieut. F. (74)
 +Vivaldi, Lieut. (31)

_Brevets in 1912._

  Andriani, Capt. O. (137)
  Antonini, Capt. L. (91)
  Almerigi, F. (159)
  Alvisi, Lieut. A. (172)
  Baglione, Lieut. A. (129)
  Baracca, F. (167)
  Bonamici, L. (101)
  Bongiovanni, Lieut. E. (115)
  Bongiovanni, c. L. (124)
  Bonuti, R. (135)
  Brach, Lieut. F. (146)
  Buzzi, Lieut. M. (156)
  Calderara, Lieut. A. (134)
  Calori, S. (136)
  Capuzzo (143)
  Casabella, Lieut, G. (121)
  Clerici, Lieut. U. (110)
  Cuzzo, Capt. A. (166)
  De Giovanni, Lieut. G. (101)
  De Riso, Lieut. G. (153)
  Della Chiesaconte, Lieut. A. (109)
  Ercole, Lieut. E. (117)
  Franceschini, Lieut. E. (112)
  Gallotti, Lieut. A. (150)
  Garino ing. G. (134)
  Girotti, Lieut. M. (100)
  Gordesco, Lieut. M. (151)
 *Graziani, Lieut, C. (92)
  Jacoponi, Lieut. A. (171)
  Kerbaker, Lieut. E. (99)
  Laureati, Lieut. G.
  Leffi dott. sott. med. A. (169)
 *Mareno, M. A. (90)
  Moreno, Capt. G. (78)
  Nosari, G. (142)
 *Novellis di Coarazze, Capt. A. (94)
  Oddo, A. (147)
  Pagano, P. (158)
  Palpacelli, A. (164)
  Perrucca, D. (162)
  Poggioli, Q. (107)
  Pongelli, R. (60)
  Porta, Capt. E. (145)
  Prandoni, Capt. E. (69)
  Resio, Lieut. (120)
  Rosetti, A. (157)
  Russi, Lieut. S. (152)
  Suglia, Lieut. C. (118)
  Torelli, F. (165)
  Valdimiro, Lieut. F. (170)
  Venanzi, U. (155)
  Zanuso, Lieut. G. (149)


Naval.

(_To end of 1911_).

  Calderara, Lieut. (1)
  Ginnochio, Lieut. (18)
 *Rossi, Sub. Lieut. (31)
  Strobin, Lieut. (39)

(_During 1912_).

 De Muro, Lieut. (119)
 Frigerio, Lieut. (154)
 Scelsi, Capt. difreg. G.


Private.

(_To end of 1911_).

  Akachew, C. (61)
  Amerigo (3)
  Barigiola, G. (51)
  Battagli, B. (34)
  Bianchi, P. (6)
  Biego, C. (56)
  Bigliani, A. (63)
  Borgotti, G. (43)
  Brilli, D. G. (48)
  Brociner, M. (87)
  Cagno, U. (10)
  Cagliani, A. (23)
  Cannoniere, Umberto (22)
  Cattaneo, Bartelomo (2)
  Cavaglia, Pietro (30)
  Cavalieri, Alfredo (17)
  Cei, J. (53, Ae. C. F.)
  Casaroni, A. (77)
 +Cirri, Ciro (11)
  Cobianchi, Mariot (24)
  Darioli, Ernesto (9)
  Da Zara, Leonino (7)
  De Agostina, A. (53)
  De Antonis, A. (67)
  Faccioli, Mario (21)
  Franzoni, R. (62)
  Garassini, G. G. (29)
  Gianfelice (59)
  Ginnochio, T. (18)
  Graziani, nob. Ettere (28)
  Lusetti, A. (19)
  Maffeis, C. (36)
  Maggiora, C. (72)
  Manissero, R. (37)
 +Marra, R. (35)
  Marro, E. (52)
  Mogafico, Mario (26)
  Mosca, Francesco (47)
  Pasquali, R. (66)
  Picollo, G. (32)
  Poggioli, Quinto (117)
  Porro, A. (113)
  Ramasotto, M. M. (148)
  Ravetto, Clemento (12)
  Ré, Umberto (86)
  Ruggerone, G. (14)
  Sabelli, G. (93)
  Santoni, L. (114)
  Stucchi, Federico (8)
  Verona, A. (54)

(_Brevets in 1912_).

  Amour, ing. E.
  Arista, A. (131)
  Ballerini, M. (132)
  Bergonzi, P. C. (78)
  Berni, L. (95)
 +Bertoletti, R. (79)
  Borsalino, G. M. (102)
  Brunetta D'Usseaux, G. (125)
  Carabelli, C. (104)
 +Caramanlaki, A. (97)
  Caramanlaki, G. (168)
  Carminati di, B. N. (163)
  Colucci, G. (80)
  Corsini, J. C. (133)
  Corsini, A. E. (85)
  Dalla, N. C. (126)
  Dal Mistro, C. A. (127)
  De Campo conte, S. (103)
  Fabri, A. (165)
  Facchini, E. (141)
  Garino, G. (134)
  Gelmetti, A. (83)
  Grassi, conte A. (88)
  Leonardi, G. (122)
  Mandelli, P. (96)
  Marazzi, E. (140)
  Nardini, G. (128)
  Paolucci, G. (144)
  Piceller, G. (105)
  Sacerdoti, C. (116)
  Salengo, R. (138)
  Vallet, C. (86)
  Zorra, L. (84)


~Private Aeroplanes.~

At the end of March, 1913, there were about 45 machines in use at the
various private schools, and about 6 privately owned aeroplanes.



ITALIAN AEROPLANES



~A~


ANTONI. Soc. di aviazione Antoni, via Vitt. Emanuele, 46, Pisa. School:
S. Guisto, Pisa. Output capacity: about 20 machines a year.

  ----------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
                              |    ~1912-13.~     |     ~1912-13.~    |
                              | Single seat mono. | 2-seater military |
                              |                   |       mono.       |
  ----------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
  ~Length~           feet (m.)|  33          (10) |  36          (11) |
  ~Span~             feet (m.)|  28        (8.50) |  28        (8.50) |
  ~Area~        sq. feet (m².)| 172          (16) | 237          (22) |
           {machine lbs. (kg.)| 660         (300) | 770         (350) |
  ~Weight~ {                  |                   |                   |
           {useful  lbs. (kg.)|        ...        |        ...        |
  ~Motor~                 h.p.|  Gnome or Anzani  | Gnome and Anzani  |
           {max.  m.p.h. (km.)|        ...        |        ...        |
  ~Speed~  {                  |                   |                   |
           {min.  m.p.h. (km.)|        ...        |        ...        |
  ~Endurance~             hrs.|        ...        |        ...        |
  Number built during 1912    |        ...        |        ...        |
  ----------------------------+-------------------+-------------------+


ASTERIA. Fabbr. Ital. Aeroplani ing. Darbesio e. C., via Salbertrand,
12, Torino (Turin). School: Mirafiori. Capacity: small.

  -----------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+
                               |   ~1912-13.~    |   ~1912-13.~    |
                               |   Monoplane.    |    Biplane.     |
  -----------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|  21-3/4  (6.50) |  29-1/2     (9) |
                              {|  26-1/2  (8.10) |  44     (13.50) |
  ~Span~             feet (m.){|                 |                 |
                              {|       ...       |  24-1/2  (7.50) |
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)| 162        (15) | 431        (40) |
           {machine lbs. (kgs.)| 530       (240) | 110       (500) |
  ~Weight~ {                   |                 |                 |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|       ...       |       ...       |
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|    50 Gnome     |   70 Renault    |
           {max.  m.p.h.  (km.)|       ...       |       ...       |
  ~Speed~  {                   |                 |                 |
           {min.  m.p.h.  (km.)|       ...       |       ...       |
  ~Endurance~              hrs.|       ...       |       ...       |
  Number built during 1912     |       ...       |       ...       |
  -----------------------------+-----------------+-----------------+



~C~


CALDERARA. Navy hydro-monoplane.

  ----------------------------+--------------------
        Model ~1912-13.~      |     "Hydro vol."
  ----------------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~           feet (m.)|   54       (16.50)
  ~Span~             feet (m.)|   61       (18.50)
  ~Area~        sq. feet (m².)|  753          (70)
           {total  lbs. (kgs.)| 2644        (1200)
  ~Weight~ {                  |
           {useful lbs. (kgs.)|        ...
  ~Motor~                h.p.{| 150 (formerly 100
                             {|      Gnome)
            {max. m.p.h. (km.)|   62         (100)
  ~Speed~   {                 |
            {min. m.p.h. (km.)|   50          (80)
  ~Endurance~             hrs.|       6-1/2
  Number Built during 1912    |         1
  ----------------------------+--------------------

Lieut. Calderara's floats consist of a plurality of w.t. compartments
with internal lattice frame, well braced. Hull is formed of three skins
of wood, sail-cloth between each. Distance between outer floats, 21 feet
(6.30 m.) Centre of gravity is only 4-1/2 feet (1.40 m.) above water. If
necessary wings can be cut away and the central hull used as a boat with
emergency sail.

[Illustration: CALDERARA. UAS.]


CAPRONI. Soc. di Aviazione Ingg, Caproni e Faccanoni, Vizzola Ticino.
School: Vizzola Ticino.

  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
        Models ~1912-13.~      |    Single Seat   |    Single Seat   |  2-seater mono.  |  3-seater mono.
                               |     mono. A.     |     mono. B.     |                  |
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   26-1/4     (8) |   26-1/4     (8) |        ...       |        ...
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   29      (8.80) |   29      (8.80) |        ...       |        ...
  ~Area~          sq. ft. (m².)|  162        (15) |  162        (15) |  172        (16) |  226        (21)
           {machine lbs. (kgs.)|  485       (220) |  660       (300) |  750       (340) |  760       (345)
  ~Weight~ {                   |                  |                  |                  |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|     35 Anzani    |     50 Gnome     |     60 Anzani    |     80 Gnome
           {max.  m.p.h.  (km.)|   56        (90) |   75       (120) |   75       (120) |   87       (140)
  ~Speed~  {                   |                  |                  |                  |
           {min.  m.p.h.  (km.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...
  ~Endurance~              hrs.|       3-1/2      |        ...       |        ...       |         4
  Number built during 1912     |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------

Remarks.--At the end of 1912, held Italian record for speed, 200-300
k.m. Flown by Cobioni.


CAPRONI-BRISTOL. Caproni also builds under Bristol license.


CHIRIBIRI. A Chiribiri e. C, via Lamarmora 28, and via Don Bosco 68-73.
Torino (Turin).

[Illustration: CHIRIBIRI.]

  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
        Models ~1912-13.~      |   45 h.p. mono.  |   50 h.p. mono.  |   Racing mono.   |   80 h.p. mono.
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   23         (7) |   23         (7) |   24-3/4  (7.50) |   25-3/4  (7.80)
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   29-1/2     (9) |   29-1/2     (9) |   31      (9.30) |   39-2/3 (12.10)
  ~Area~          sq. ft. (m².)|  204        (19) |  204        (19) |  226        (21) |  258        (24)
          {machine  lbs. (kgs.)|  595       (270) |  683       (310) |  772       (350) |  595        (270)
  ~Weight~{                    |                  |                  |                  |
          {useful   lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|   45 Chiribiri   |   50 Chiribiri   |   60 Chiribiri   |   80 Chiribiri
          {max.   m.p.h.  (km.)|   44        (70) |   56        (90) |  103       (165) |   65       (105)
  ~Speed~ {                    |                  |                  |                  |
          {min.   m.p.h.  (km.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...
  ~Endurance~              hrs.|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...
  Number built during 1912     |        ...       |        ...       |         2        |        ...
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------



~F~


FRIULI. E. Pensuti e E. Calligaro, Pordenone. School: Pordenone. A 30-35
h.p. Anzani motor monoplane. Area, 150 sq. feet. (14 m²). Generally of
_Bleriot_ type, but _Hanriot_ type landing carriage.



~G~


GUIDONI. Naval Hydroavions. Either a _Farman_ biplane or a _Nieuport_
mono. is used, mounted on special floats designed by Capitano del Genio
navale Guidoni. There are two long floats, each of which is fitted with
parallel fins.


~FOREIGN AGENCIES.~

Foreign types of machines are constructed in Italy under licenses as
follows:--

BLERIOT. Soc. Ital. Transaerea, corso Peschiera 25, Torino (Turin).

BRISTOL. (British), by Caproni.

DEPERDUSSIN. Soc. Ital. degli Aeroplani, via Giulini 7b, Milan.

NIEUPORT. Carrozzeria Macchi. Varese.



ITALIAN DIRIGIBLES.


~ITALIAN MILITARY DIRIGIBLES.~

                                                                              ~Army.~                                                                ~Navy.~
                                  /----------------------------------------------^--------------------------------------------------\ /-----------------^-----------------\
  --------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+----------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
      Name and Date.              |      ~P1.~       |    ~P2 & P3.~    |    ~P4 & P5.~    |  ~Citta di Milano~   |   ~Parseval.~    |      ~M1.~       |   ~M2 & M3.~
                                  |      1909.       |   1910 & 1911.   |     both 1912.   |        1912.         |    (P.L. 17).    |      1912.       |   1912 & 1913.
                                  |                  |                  |                  |                      |     1912-13.     |                  |
  --------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+----------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
                         { c. feet|      148,000     |      155,000     |      166,000     |        424,000       |      353,000     |      424,000     |      424,000
  ~Volume~               {        |                  |                  |                  |                      |                  |                  |
                         {   (m³.)|     (~4200~)     |     (~4400~)     |     (~4700~)     |      (~12000~)       |    (~10000~)     |     (~12000~)    |     (~12000~)
  ~Length~               feet (m.)|  197        (60) |  207        (63) |  207        (63) |  233            (72) |  279        (85) |  272-1/3    (83) |   272-1/3   (83)
  ~Diameter~             feet (m.)|   38     (11.60) |   38     (11.60) |   39-1/3    (12) |   59            (18) |   52-1/2    (16) |   56        (17) |   56        (17)
              {fabric             |       Silk       |    Continental   |    Continental   |          ...         |     Riedinger    |      Metzeler    |      Metzeler
  ~Gas bags~  {compartments       |        7         |         8        |         8        |          ...         |         0        |        ...       |        ...
              {ballonets          |        1         |         1        |         1        |          ...         |         2        |        ...       |        ...
                 {total tons      |       3.50       |        3.50      |        3.75      |          ...         |        ...       |        9.50      |       9.50
  ~Lift~         {useful tons     |       1.10       |        1.35      |        1.50      |          ...         |       3.00       |        3.80      |       3.80
  ~Motor~                   h.p. {| 1-100 C. Bayard  | 1-120 C. Bayard  |     2-80 Fiat    |    2-85/100 Isotta   |   2-170 Maybach  |     2-250 Fiat   |  4-125 Wolseley
                                 {|      (=100)      |      (=120)      |       (=160)     |      (=170/200)      |      (=340)      |       (=500)     |      (=500)
              {number             |        2         |         2        |         2        |           2          |    2 Parseval    |         2        |         2
  ~Propellers~{blades             |        2         |         2        |         2        |           3          |         4        |         4        |         4
              {diameter feet  (m.)|   10         (3) |   10         (3) |   10         (3) |   14          (4.20) |        ...       |   12-1/2  (3.80) |   12-1/2  (3.80)
  ~Max. speed~        m.p.h. (km.)|   32        (52) |   35        (56) |   37        (60) |   45            (72) |   40        (65) |   44        (70) |   44        (70)
  ~Full speed endurance~      hrs.|       ...        |        ...       |        ...       |          ...         |        20        |        12        |        12
  ~Max. complement~               |        5         |         5        |         5        |          ...         |        ...       |        14        |        14
  ~Station~                       |    Bracciano     |      Tripoli     |  Vigna di Valle  |        Baggio        |      Venice      |     Bracciano    |
  --------------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+----------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------

Notes: All the above are semi-rigid. The _P_ and _M_ are all of the same
general type. Principal features of these ships, which were designed by
Captains Crocci and Ricaldoni, are the shape of the envelope, (maximum
diameter very far forward), keel and the box kite tail. The _Citta di
Milano_ (semi-rigid) is an enlarged _Leonardo da Vinci_ (which see).
_Special feature_ is the keel built into the envelope. This serves as a
nacelle.

Building.--One _Parseval_ (P.L. 15) about the same size as the other
(P.L. 17), which was completed first.


~Army Dirigible Pilots.~

  Agostoni, Capt.
  Biffi, Ten.
  Bosio, Ten.
  Crocco, Capt. G.
  Dal Fabbro, Capt. C.
  Denti di Piraino, March, Capt.
  Gallotti, Ten.
  Longo, Ten.
  Manni, Ten.
  Menenti, S. Ten.
  Merzari, Capt.
  Messina, Ten.
  Munari, Capt. E.
  Pastina, Capt.
  Ricaldoni, Capt. A.
  Scelso, Ten L.
  Seymandi, Capt. G.
  Stabarin, Ten.
  Tagliasacchi, Ten.


~Navy Dirigible Pilots.~

  Carniglia, Ten. d. vas.
  Gravina, Ten. d. v. Conte M.
  Penco, Ten. d. v., A.
  Ponzio, Ten. d. v., E.
  Scelsi, Capt. di f., G.
  Valerio, Sot. V.
  Valli, Ten. d. v., G.

[Illustration: P.I.]

Elevation of P. I. The later ships only differ in dimensions, and the
fact that the middle rudder is done away with.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Dirigibles M1 & M2.]

[Illustration: Citta di Milano.]

[Illustration: Parseval (P.L. 17). First Italian _Parseval_.]


~ITALIAN PRIVATE DIRIGIBLES.~


  ----------------------------------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+----------------------+------------------+
         Name and date.             |    ~Ausonia bis.~  |    ~Italia I.~   |    ~Italia II.~  | ~Leonardo da Vinci.~ |    ~Usuelli.~    |
                                    | Reconstructed 1910.|       1905.      |       1913.      |         1909.        |       1909.      |
  ----------------------------------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+----------------------+------------------+
  ~Volume~                     (m³.)|      (~1500~)      |      (~1500~)    |     (~2600~)     |        (~3265~)      |     (~3870~)     |
  ~Length~                 feet (m.)|  121          (37) |  128        (39) |  164        (50) |  131-1/4        (40) |  167-1/3    (51) |
  ~Diameter~               feet (m.)|   27        (8.25) |   19-3/4     (6) |   32-3/4    (10) |   46            (14) |   32      (9.80) |
               {fabric              |         ...        |        ...       |        ...       |          ...         |        ...       |
  ~Gas bags~   {compartments        |         nil.       |        nil.      |        nil.      |           7          |         6        |
               {ballonets           |          1         |        nil.      |        nil.      |           1          |         1        |
                  {total        tons|         ...        |        1.35      |        2.20      |         3.00         |        ...       |
  ~Lift~          {                 |                    |                  |                  |                      |                  |
                  {useful       tons|        0.80        |        ...       |        ...       |          ...         |        ...       |
  ~Motor~                       h.p.|  1-55 h.p. S.P.A.  |1-40/50 Antoinette|     1-50 h.p.    |    1-40 Antoinette   | 1-80 h.p. S.P.A. |
                {number             |         1          |         1        |         2        |           2          |         2        |
  ~Propellers~  {blades             |         2          |         2        |         2        |           5          |         2        |
                {diameter, feet (m.)|    10-3/4  (3.20)  |   15      (4.50) |   10         (3) |   9           (2.70) |        ...       |
  ~Max. speed~          m.p.h (k.m.)|   25          (40) |   25        (40) |        ...       |          ...         |   30        (50) |
  ~Full speed endurance~        hrs.|        ...         |        ...       |        ...       |          ...         |         6        |
  ~Max. complement~                 |        ...         |        ...       |        ...       |          ...         |        ...       |
  ~Station~                         |    Bosco Mantico   |       Schio      |      building    |   Laid up at Baggio  |       Turin      |
                                    |                    |                  |                  |       near Milan     |                  |
  ----------------------------------+--------------------+------------------+------------------+----------------------+------------------+

Notes:

     ~Ausonia.~ Nico Piccoli, via Accademia 12, Padova (Padua). Works:
     Magré, Vicenza (Schio). Semi-rigid.

     ~Italia.~ Cont Almerico da Schio, Schio. Non-rigid. _Special
     features_ is a "belly" of Para rubber in lieu of a ballonet.

     ~Leonardo da Vinci.~ Ing. Enrico Forlanini, via Boccaccio 21,
     Milan. Works: Baggio. Semi-rigid, keel and nacelle, incorporated in
     envelope.

     ~Usuelli.~ Usuelli and Borsalini, Torino (Turin). Non-rigid.


~Private Dirigible Pilots.~

  Forlanini, ing. E.
  Piccoli, D.
  Usuelli, C.

[Illustration: Italia.]

[Illustration: Usuelli.]

[Illustration: ~FORLANINI.~ UDS.]

[Illustration: Leonardo da Vinci.]



JAPANESE.

(Naval Aviation data. Official).


~Aerial Societies~:--

     Tokio, Ae. Co.

     Aeroplane Assoc., 1, Yayesu Cho, I-Chome, Kojimachi, Tokio. (Sec.:
     Dr. Fujioka).

     Kikyu Kinkyu Kai (connected with War Office).


~Flying Grounds~:--

     Near ~Yokohama~.

     ~Saitama~, Tokorozawa (Government).--Dirigible shed and hangars.

     ~Port Arthur~, (Government).


~General Military Aviation.~

This was originally formed as one body without distinction between army
and navy. It was subsequently re-modelled on lines somewhat similar to
the British Royal Flying Corps with naval and military wings.


~Navy.~

The naval section is superintended by Capt. K. Yamaji, I.J.N.

The naval headquarters are at Oihama (near Yokosuka).

The naval force at the end of 1912 consisted of 4 hydro-aeroplanes (2
_Curtiss_ and 2 _Farman_). The available total of qualified naval
aviators was 5.


~Finance.~

The total amount granted for aviation of the navy in 1912 (fiscal year)
was 100,000 yen (£10,000).

For the year 1913 the estimates amount was 100,000 yen (but not approved
yet).


~Pay of Flying Officers.~

The special pay for officers employed in aerial work is undecided.


~Army.~

The army wing is responsible for the dirigible. Aeroplanes are one or
two _Bleriots_, a _Grade_, 2 _Tokogawa_, and a _Farman_.


~AVIATORS.~


Military.

  Hino, Major
  Saigom, Capt.
  Tokogawa, Capt.
  Tokogama, Lieut.


Naval.

  Narahara, Naval Constr.
  Kaneko, Lieut.
  Kono, Lieut.
  Obama, Eng. Lieut.
  Umikita, Lieut.
  Usuioku, Naval Constr.


Private.

  Doig, S.
  Iga, Baron
  Shigeno, Baron
  Tsuzuki,
  Yamada, Isaburo

The following have been killed:--

  +----------------+
  |      1912.     |
  | Aibata, Lieut. |
  |                |
  |      1913.     |
  | Kimura, Lieut. |
  | Tokuda, Lieut. |
  | Takeishi.      |
  +----------------+


~Private Aviation.~

There are some private aeroplanes being regularly flown in Japan. A
number of aeroplanes have from time to time been invented by naval and
military officers and private individuals, and some of them are in use.
Inventors include Major Hino, naval constructor Narahara and Ushioki,
Baron Iga, Baron Shigeno and Mr. Tsuzuki.



JAPANESE AEROPLANES.


[Illustration: Bleriot (since wrecked). Tokogawa. Wright. Grade. Army
Flying School ground.]

[Illustration: Narahara.]

[Illustration: Tokogawa II. Type I the same except for minor details.]



JAPANESE DIRIGIBLES.


PARSEVAL type. Military. (P.L. 13.)

[Illustration]

~Length~ 259 feet (19 m.) ~maximum diameter~ 47-3/4 feet (14.50 m.)
~capacity,~ 8,500 m³.

~Gas bag.~--2 ballonets. Usual Parseval.

~Motors.~--Total, 300 h.p., made up of two 150 h.p. Maybach.

~Speed.~--42 m.p.h. (65 km.)

~Propellers.~--Two 4-bladed. Parseval.

~Steering.~--Usual Parseval (see German).

Remarks.--Of _Parseval P.L. 12_ type (see German). Built 1911.


YAMADA. Non-rigid. (Private.)

[Illustration: _Photo by favour of M. Samuro Kuki._]

~Maximum length~, feet ( m.) ~maximum diameter~, feet ( m.) ~volume,~
700 m³. (_about_)

~Gas bag.~--

~Motor.~--American make.

~Speed.~--

~Propeller.~--One.

~Steering.~--Biplane elevator forward. Triangular rudder in rear under
gas bag.

Remarks.--Generally of American type.



MEXICAN.


~Army Aeroplanes.~

There are 2 old pattern _H. Farman_; also one or more _Curtiss_ and
_Wright_ machines. Nothing seems doing with them.


~AVIATORS.~

Military.

  Martinez, N. (Ae. C. F. 462)
  Mendia, (Ae. C. F. 680)


Private.

  Duval, Raoul
  Lebrija, Miguel
  Morales
  Noriega
  Ramsey, E. L.
  Saavedra, Alfonso

Probably 2 others

(The above are mostly amateur builders.)



NORWEGIAN.


~Aerial Societies:~--

     Aero Club, Norsk Flyveselskad (Christiana). Secretary, D. Barth.

     Norsk Luftseilads Forening (Christiana). President, H. Mohn.


~Aerial Journals:~--

     _None._


~Flying Grounds:~--


~Military Aviation.~

At the end of 1912 the Army possessed two 70 h.p. _M. Farmans_ (Renault
motors), and the Navy a 100 h.p. N.A.G. _Rumpler_.

For 1913 the purchase of further machines is contemplated for both arms.


~Private Aeroplanes.~

Total at end of ~1911~ 1

At end of 1912 there were in existence 2--a _Grade_ and a _Deperdussin_.


~AVIATORS.~

~Military.~

  Dichi, Lieut.
  Jacobsen, Lieut.


~Private.~

  Hansen.
  St. Dons.



PERUVIAN.


~Military Aeroplanes.~

The Peruvian Government has made a special grant for aviation students,
and war machines are projected. Actual order to end of 1912 was one
_Avro_ mono.


~Private Aeroplanes.~

  Total at end of ~1910~         3
         "        ~1911~         2
         "        ~1912~         _none_ probably.


~AVIATORS.~

  Bielovucic, J.
  Chavez, J.
  Monterc (766 A. C. F.)


Peruvian aviators killed:

  +------------+
  |    1910.   |
  | Chavez, G. |
  |            |
  |    1911.   |
  | Tenaud, C. |
  |            |
  +------------+



PORTUGUESE.

(Revised by J. SCHIERE, Aeronautical Engineer.)


~Aerial Societies:~--

     Ae. C. de Portugal (R. Nova docklaemada d. ISL.)


~Aerial Journals:~--

     Rivista Aeronautica (Ae. C. Journal.)


~Flying Grounds:~--

     Campo do Seigcal.

     Mounchãvo da Povoa.


~Private Aeroplanes.~

  Total at end of ~1910~  1
         "        ~1911~  2
         "        ~1912~  2


~Private Aviators.~

  De Castro, Sanchez
  De Silva, Gomez


~Military Aviation.~

In 1912 a military corps was formed. At the end of 1912 it possessed
_Avro_ (1--50 h.p.), _Voisin_ (1--80 h.p.), and _M. Farman_ (1--80 h.p.)
(since wrecked). 1 _Deperdussin_.


~Private Aviation.~

In 1911 the _Gouveia_ mono. was built, span 9 metres, but it failed to
fly. Also the _Avante_ biplane, which also failed. First flight in
Portugal by a Portuguese was De Castro in September, 1912, with an old
_Bleriot_.



ROUMANIAN.


~Army Aeroplanes.~

At end of March, 1913, there were several 80 h.p. _Bristol_ monos., 2
_Bleriots_, 1 _Nieuport_, 1 _Morane_, 2 _Vlaiclu_, and several _H.
Farman_ biplanes.

Government school is at Bucharest.


~AVIATORS.~

Military.

  Capsa, Lieut.
  Negrescu, Lieut.
  Protpopscu, Lieut.
  Vacas, Lieut. Poly
  Zorileann, Lieut. (Ae. F. 587)


Private.

  Bibesco, Prince (Ae. C. F. 20)
  Oznoth


VLAICLU Monoplane. Designed by Ouvret Vlaiclu. First shewn at the Vienna
Exhibition, 1911. Modified; it flew very well indeed at Aspern, June,
1912. The 1912 model is of entirely novel type, a tail first monoplane
with a propeller either end of the main planes, and a triangular tail
aft. Principal details are:--~Length~, 34-2/3 feet (10.50 m.) ~Span~, 30
feet (9.15 m.) ~Height~, 12 feet (3.65 m.) Wing frame in three sections
with gap between. ~Motor~, 50 h.p., Gnome chain driven. ~Fuselage~, old
style; landing chassis on three wheels only, with a single ash skid in
front. Covered in engine driving the 31 foot propeller shaft for the 2
propellers. Rear tail consists of 2 fixed planes, a triangular damping
plane and a triangular keel plane. Forward, an elevator and two
semi-circular rudders (double faced). From this combination remarkable
results are achieved, and all gyrostatic effect from the propellers
eliminated. _Control_, horizontal wheel on column. Elevator depressed or
otherwise by action on column. Note.--At Vienna, 1912, this machine took
first prize for the smallest circle and also for accurate bomb-dropping.
The original machine was purchased by the Roumanian Army.



RUSSIAN.


~General Note.~--In the number of military machines and general
attention to aviation Russia is only second to France. There are no
effective machines of Russian design, but the Aviataka, Dux & Lomatuk
firms build at home under foreign license, and there is also the Kennedy
school (Anglo-Russian).


~Aerial Societies:~--


     (Imperial) Aero Club.
         1. Odessa branch.
         2. Rostow and Don branch.
         3. St. Petersburg   "

     Finland Ae. C., Helsingfors.

     Kieff University Ae. C., Kieff.

     Moscow Ae. C., Moscow.

     Moscow Imp. Tech. College (Aviation Section).

     Riga Ae. C., Riga.

     Russian Aeronautical Society, St. Petersburg.

     Sevastopol Ae. C.

     Students' Aviation Club.

     Tomsk Ae. C., Tomsk.

     Volunteer Aerial Fleet.


~Aerial Journals:~--

     _Aeronautical Journal of St. Petersburg._

     _Aero_ (6, Liteiny, St. Petersburg). Weekly.

     _Dans l'Empire des Airs_ (7, Rota 26, Petersburg). Fortnightly.

     _Revue de Navigation Aérienne_ (7 rue Stremmiannaya, Petersburg).
     Weekly.

     _Sport_ (25, Ekaterineska, Odessa).

     _Wozdookhoplavatel_ (St. Petersburg). Monthly.

     _Wosduchoplawanie y Sport_ (Moscow). Monthly.


~Flying Grounds:~--

     ~Gatchina Park.~-- Flying here under restrictions. V.F. school.

     ~Kieff.~--School for pilots.

     ~Kolomiaggi.~--Racecourse.

     ~Novo Therkask.~

     ~Odessa.~

     ~St. Petersburg.~--Kennedy school.

     ~Sevastopol.~--Volunteer Fleet school.

     ~Warsaw.~


~RUSSIAN MILITARY AVIATION.~


~Army Aviation.~

Early in 1912, under the presidency of the Grand Duke Alexander, the
special school of the Volunteer Aerial Association was finally formed at
Sevastopol for the winter and Gatchina for the summer.

  June 1912. Vote for 150 aeroplanes (140 to be built at home). Vote
      1,050,000 roubles for new school at Tauride.

  November, 1912. Military trials results. (1) Sikorsky in a _Sikorsky_.
      (2) Haber in a _M. Farman_. (3) Boutmy in a _Nieuport_.

  December, 1912. Aeronautical school re-organised. Put under control of
      one commandant, one assistant, and four juniors. Course made seven
      months--15 pupils per school at a time. A one month course in
      aeroplanes, aerial motors, etc. Of the pupils, 10 will be selected
      for aeroplanes. New flying school established at Taskend in
      Turkestan.

  March, 1913. New schools established at Moscow, Odessa and Omsk.

At the end of 1911 the total number of military aeroplanes was about
100. At the end of March, 1913, the total number was about 250, of which
about 150 were modern. Principal types: _Albatross_, _Aviatik_,
_Bristol_, _Deperdussin_, _Farman_, _Nieuport_, _Rumpler_, there being
an average of 20 of each. The majority built under Russian license in
Russia. The number of actual military pilots was 72. There is, however,
a special volunteer corps of about 36 private aviators, bringing the
available total to 108 or thereabouts.


~Navy Aviation.~

  July, 1912. Lieut. Andreadi, 50 h.p. _Nieuport_, did a flight with
      stops from Sevastopol to St. Petersburg.

  September, 1912. Special naval aerodrome for hydro-avions ordered for
      Golodai Island, near Petersburg, bringing total of military and
      naval aerodromes to 6. _Sikorsky_ hydro-avion acquired. Also an
      _M. Farman_ ditto. New naval station projected at Libau.

  October, 1912. Naval purchase of several _Curtiss_ hydro-avions after
      trials at Sevastopol.

At the end of March, 1913, the approximate effective force was as
follows (all hydros, or capable of being so fitted): 1 _Astra_, 1
_Breguet_, 2 _Donnet-Leveque_, 1 _Farman_, 4 _Paulhan Curtiss_, 2
_Nieuport_ (50 h.p.), 1 _Sikorsky_. (A number of others on order.)

Early in 1913 experiments were carried out with a combination of floats
and skids, invented by M. Lobanoff, of Moscow. This proved equally
effective on land or water.


~AVIATORS.~

The following are army, navy or volunteer aviators. The number is the
Russian Ae. C., unless otherwise stated. F = French. Prefix + = killed.
n = navy.

   Abramowitch Wissewold (14)
   Agababa, N. (668 F.)
   Agofonoff (20)
   Aleknovitch, G. (29)
   Alexandroff, D. (472 F.)
 n Andreadi, Lt.
   Artsgouloff (44)
   Avinass, J. (60)
   Badowski, L.
   Bakhmoutoff, N. (6)
   Berdchenko, V. (7)
   Bistritsky, V. (8)
   Boukshevden, Bar. G. (10)
   Boutmy (de), E.
   Campo, Scipio (211 F.)
   Childovski (67)
   Chioni, B. (250)
   Chimansky (27)
   Choudinoff (46)
   Dmitrieff, J. (9)
   Dorogouski (125 F.)
   Dougowezky, A. (1)
 n Dybovski, V. (12)
   Efimoff, M. (31 F.)
   Efimoff, T.
   Erdeli, G. (45)
   Eristov, Prince (524 F.)
   Evsukoff, P. (21)
   Firstemberg
   Flegfier, von.
   Gelgar (33)
   Glouchenko, S. (48)
   Godoulsky, A. (59)
   Gorghkoff, G. (626 F.)
   Goumberto-Dros, B. (58)
   Grekoff G. (5.)
   Grigoraschirilly (577 F.)
   Houeninsey, A. (227 F.)
   Husarenko (22)
   Illin, A. (16)
   Iougmeister (52)
   Jankovsky, G. (24)
   Joukoff (37)
   Kaidenoff (42)
   Kamensky, V. (66)
   Katzian, A.
 + Kauzminski (228 F.)
   Kebouroff, V. (210 F.)
   Kirchstern
   Kolchin, F. (28)
   Komaroff, M. (245 F.)
   Kostine, N. (223 F.)
   Kauznezoff, P.
   Kreiner, E.
   Kroumm, A.
   Lachtionoff, G. (57)
   Lambert (de) C. (8 F.)
   Lebedeff, V. (98 F.)
   Lerche, M. (25)
   Lewkowicz, H. (327 F.)
   Linno, G. (15)
   Lipowski, H. (330 F.)
   Kokteff (61)
   Makaroff, D. (13)
   Makeef, P. (5)
   Matyevitch, Matzevitch (152 F.)
 n+Matyevitch, Capt. (178 F.)
   Meybaum, T.
   Miller (35)
   Monakoff, (565 F.)
   Naidenoff, G.
   Naslennikoff, B.
   Nikiforoff (18)
   Nikolaieff (49)
   Nikolsky, P. (17)
   Oulianine, S. (181 F.)
   Pehanovsky, B. (401 F.)
 + Pietrowsky, G. (195 F.)
   Porcheron, J. (640 F.)
   Popoff, N. (50 F.)
   Poliakoff, A. (50)
   Poplavko (34)
   Pongolowski, W. (4)
   Pristchepoff (38)
   Raevsky, A. (F.)
   Raygorodsky, A. (207 F.)
   Rossinsky (68)
 n Rouaroff, M. (245 F.)
   Rynin, N. (23)
   Sakoff, N. de (627 F.)
   Salesky (41)
   Samoilo (11)
   Samouiloff, P. (51)
   Séméniovitch (226 F.)
   Semenko-Slavorossoff, H. (40)
   Semitan (36)
   Seversky-Prokofieff, N. (47)
   Sewkowicz, L.
   Shidloovsky, M.
   Shimansky, K.
   Shimkevitch, V.
   Sikorsky, I. (63)
   Skarginsky, A. (43)
   Slusarenko, W.
 + Smith, V. (231 F.)
   Sobansky Graf. (3)
   Soechnikoff, A.
   Soupnevsky, C. (26)
   Springuefeld
   Sredinsky, A.
   Strelmkoff (71)
   Tchemiakoff (72)
   Tkatcheff, V. (64)
   Tounochensky (32)
   Tselary, I. (54)
   Wassilieff, A. (225 F.)
   Zaikine (191 F.)
   Zelinsky, Col. (273 F.)
 + Zolotouchin, M. (31)


~CIVILIAN AVIATORS.~

There are very few purely civilian aviators in Russia. Russians who have
obtained brevets include Mdlles Anarta (52), Golantchikova (55), Zvereva
(30), Count de Lambert, (8 F.) and Count Malynski (209 F.) and one or
two others. Few or none do any flying now.



RUSSIAN AEROPLANES.


~A-Z~


AVIATIK. St. Petersburger Aviatik Gesellschaft, Petersburg. Construct
Aviatiks. (See Germany.)


BRONISLAWSKI. Experimental biplane with special stabilising features.


DUX. Fabrica Moscovita Tneerskaja "Dux," Lastawa, Moscow. Construct
under license.


GELTOUCHOW. W. G. Geltouchow and A. W. Preiss, 4 Piasnitzkajai, Moscow.
Constructs.


GILBERT. C. Gilbert, 195 Twerskaja, Moscow. Constructs.


KENNEDY. Soc. d. Dirigibles and Aeroplanes Kennedy, St. Petersburg.


MOTOR. Riga-Sassenhof.


RODJESTVEISKY. Built a triplane in 1911.



RUSSIAN MILITARY DIRIGIBLES (13).


  -----------------------+------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
                         |       (1)        |         (2)        |       (3 & 4)      |      (5, 6, 7)     |         (8)        |         (9)        |        (10)        |        (11)        |        (12)        |       (13)
         Name            |     ~LEBEDJ.~    |   ~KOMMISSIONY.~   |   ~JASTREB~    and |   ~ZODIAC VII,~    |    ~PARSEVAL.~     |   ~FORSZMANN I.~   |   ~FORSZMANN II.~  |    ~ASTRA 13.~     |   ~PARSEVAL 14.~   |   ~C. BAYARD 6,~
                         |                  |                    |     ~GOLOUBJ.~     |    ~VIII & IX.~    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |      _bis._
         Make            |     Lebaudy.     |    C. Bayard I.    |  Outchebny I & II. |                    |     Parseval 7.    |     Forszmann.     |     Forszmann.     |                    |                    |
         Date            |      ~1910.~     |       ~1910.~      |     ~1910-11.~     |     ~1910-11.~     |      ~1911.~       |      ~1911.~       |       ~1912.~      |      ~1913.~       |      ~1913.~       |      ~1913.~
         System          |    Semi-rigid.   |      Non-rigid.    |     Semi-rigid.    |     Non-rigid.     |     Non-rigid.     |     Non-rigid.     |     Non-rigid.     |     Non-rigid.     |     Non-rigid.     |     Non-rigid.
  -----------------------+------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
  ~Volume~  c. feet (m³.)|      ~3700~      |       ~3000~       |      ~1500~        |       ~2140~       |       ~7600~       |         ~800~      |        ~600~       |        ~9800~      |      ~10,000~      |       ~6200~
  ~Length~      feet (m.)|  200        (61) |  184       (56.25) |        ...         |  164          (50) |  236          (72) |  121-1/2      (37) |         ...        |  259       (77.80) |  279          (85) |  250       (77.60)
  ~Diameter~    feet (m.)|   35-1/2 (10.80) |   34-3/4   (10.58) |        ...         |   29-1/2       (9) |   46          (14) |   19-3/4       (6) |         ...        |   49       (14.90) |   52-1/2      (16) |   42-3/4      (13)
            {fabric      |    Continental   |     Continental    |        ...         |     Continental    |     Continental    |         ...        |         ...        |     Continental    |      Reidinger     |     Continental
  ~Gas Bags~{ballonets   |        1         |          1         |        ...         |          1         |         2          |         ...        |         ...        |    2 (3100 m³.)    |          2         |          2
            {compartments|        3         |          2         |         2          |         ...        |        ...         |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...        |         ...
  ~Lift~  {total  tons   |        4         |        3-3/4       |        ...         |          2         |         7          |         1/2        |         1/3        |         ...        |         ...        |        7-1/2
          {useful tons   |      1-1/4       |          1         |        ...         |         ...        |        ...         |         ...        |         ...        |       nearly 4     |     about 3-1/2    |        2-3/4
  ~Motor~            h.p.|   1-70 Panhard   |  1-105 Clement B.  |    1-75 E.N.V.     |      1-60 Labor    |    2-110 N.A.G.    |      1-24 (=24)    |         ...        |     2-150 Chenu    |    2-180 Maybach   |  2-130 Clement B.
                         |      (=70)       |        (=105)      |       (=75)        |        (=60)       |       (=220)       |                    |                    |       (=300)       |       (=360)       |        (=260)
  ~Propellers~     number|        2         |          1         |         1          |          1         |    two 4-bladed    |          1         |          1         |          3         |    two 4-bladed    |          2
  ~Speed~    m.p.h. (km.)|   30        (49) |   33-1/2      (54) |   13          (21) |   33-1/2      (54) |   37          (59) |   23          (37) |         ...        |   36          (60) |   43          (68) |         ...
  -----------------------+------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------
  _Notes_                | _ex La Russie._  | _Jastreb_ reported |                    |                    |     Carries 500    |                    |       One-man      | Carries 740 litres |                    | Special 2 speed
                         |                  |   wrecked, March,  |                    |                    | litres of petrol.  |                    |      dirigible.    | petrol. Crew 6.    |                    | gear to propellers.
                         |                  |        1913.       |                    |                    | Has done 6-1/3     |                    |                    |      Weights:      |                    |
                         |                  |                    |                    |                    | hours at 1500      |                    |                    |Crew:     1044 lbs. |                    |
                         |                  |                    |                    |                    | metres, with 9     |                    |                    |Tools, &c. 220  "   |                    |
                         |                  |                    |                    |                    | on board.          |                    |                    |Petrol, oil, &c.    |                    |
                         |                  |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |          7307  "   |                    |
                         |                  |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |          ----      |                    |
                         |                  |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |          8541  "   |                    |
                         |                  |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |          ----      |                    |
                         |                  |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |Forward propeller   |                    |
                         |                  |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |6m. diameter; the   |                    |
                         |                  |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |two after ones 3 m. |                    |
                         |                  |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |                    |       each.        |                    |
  -----------------------+------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------+--------------------

Note.--Illustrations see next page.

[Illustration: Lebedj. UDS.]

[Illustration: Jastreb (Outchebny).]

[Illustration: Kommissiony. UDS.]

[Illustration: FURSZMANN.]

Note.--The other dirigibles are of usual type. See France and Germany.



SERVIA.


~Military Aviation.~

At end of March, 1913, there were 7 aeroplanes, and 3 more (_Bleriots_)
on order.



SPANISH.


~Aerial Societies:~--

     El Real Aëro Club de España (70 rue Alcala, Madrid).

     La Asociacion de Locomocion Aérea (20 Plaza de Cataluna,
     Barcelona).

     Real Aero Club d'Espana.

     Cataluna Ae. C.


~Aerial Journals:~--

     _Boletin Oficial de la Asociacion de Locomocion Aérea_, 20, Plaza
     de Cataluna, Barcelona (monthly).

     _España Automovil_, 5, plaza de Isabel II, Madrid. Official organ,
     Spanish R. Ae. C.

     _Revista de Locomotion Aerea_, 20, Plaza de Cataluna, Barcelona
     (monthly).


~Flying Grounds:~--

     ~Carbouchelle~ Military School.


~Army Aeroplanes.~

There are 9 old _Farmans_ (1910-11 model), and one or two more modern
monoplanes: but little is doing.

Some hydro-aeroplanes are on order for the Navy.


~AVIATORS.~

Military.

  Adaro, Lt. J.
  Alfaro, Lt. H.
  Arridaga, Capt.
  Berron, Lt. E.
  Echevarria, J.
  Gonzales, Capt. C. J.
  Granche
  Kindelan, Capt. A.
  Menendez, M.
  Ortiz, So. Lt. J.
  Penas, M. de las
  Pujo, Capt. (467 F)


Private.

  Campano
  Dras, J. F.
  Jezzi, R. G. L. (British Ae. C. 44)[F]
  Lailhacar, de
  Pascal, Ferdinand
  Pimentel, B. L.
  Prince Alphonse d'Orleans (1)

The following Spanish aviators have been killed:--

  +---------------+
  |     1909.     |
  | Fernandez, A. |
  |               |
  |     1911.     |
  | Pola, M.      |
  | Mauvais       |
  |               |
  |     1912.     |
  | Bayo, Capt.   |
  +---------------+


~Military Dirigible Pilots.~

  Herrera, Lt. E.
  Kindelan y Duany, Capt. A.
  Vives y Vich, Col.



SPANISH DIRIGIBLES (Non-rigid).


ESPANA. Military. (ASTRA class.)

[Illustration]

~Maximum length~, 197 feet (60 m.) ~maximum diameter~, 35-1/3 feet
(10.75 m.) ~volume,~ 43,057 c. feet4,000 m³.

~Total lift.~--9,700 lbs. (4,400 kgs.) ~Useful lift~, ? lbs. ( ? kgs.)

~Gas bags.~--Yellow coloured rubber proofed Continental fabric.

~Motor.~--One 100 h.p. 4-cylinder Panhard.

~Speed.~--29 m.p.h.

~Propellers.~--1, at the front end of the car, of wood, "Integrale"
type.

~Steering.~--As in _Clement Bayard I_ and _Ville de Nancy_.

Remarks.--The two side stabilising shapes are duplicated, as they are in
the _Ville de Paris_. A webbing stretched on steel tubes is introduced
between the inner edges of the 4 main stabilising shapes to provide
extra stabilising surface.


TORRES-QUEVEDO II. Military.

  +------------------+
  |                  |
  |                  |
  +------------------+

~Maximum length~, 147-3/4 feet (45 m.) ~maximum diameter~, 32-3/4 feet
(10 m.) ~volume,~ 56,700 c. feet (1,600 m³.)

~Total lift.~-- ? lbs. ( ? kgs.) ~Useful lift~, ? lbs. ( ? kgs.)

~Gas bags.~--

~Motor.~--60 h.p. Chenu.

~Speed.~--

~Propellers.~--

~Steering.~--

Remarks.--Designed by Captain Kindelan and Engineer Torres Quevedo.



SWEDISH.

~(Revised by Lieut. DAHLBECK, R. Swedish Navy.)~


~Aerial Societies:~--

     Svenska Aëronautiska Sällskapet (Stockholm).

     Kungl. Automobil klubben: (Fenixpalatset, Stockholm).

     Svenska Motor-klubben: Aero sektion (Stockholm).


~Aerial Journals:~--

     _Svensk Motor-Tidning_ (Fenixpalatset, Stockholm) Fortnightly.


~Flying Grounds:~--

     ~Ljungbyhed~ (Skåne), sheds.

     ~Malmsl[~a]tt~, sheds.


~Military Aeroplanes.~

At the end of March, 1913, the Army possessed 1 monoplane, 1 biplane,
and 2 biplanes building.

The Navy had 1 _Bleriot_ type monoplane and 3 building.

At the end of 1912 there were 9 privately owned aeroplanes.


~AVIATORS.~

(The number against any name is, unless otherwise stated, the Ae. C.
Swedish pilot certificate.)


Military.

  von Porat, Lieut. (6)
  Ljungner, Lieut. (7)
  Hamilton, Capt. (2)


Naval.

  Dahlbeck, Lieut. (3) (British Ae. C. 120)
  Werner, Lieut. (9)


Private.

  Cedarstr[~o]m, Baron C. (1)
  Fj[~a]llb[~a]ck (4)
  Ångstr[~o]m (5)
  Sundstedt (8)
  Thulin, M.A. (10)



SWEDISH AEROPLANES.


ASK. Monoplane.

[Illustration: _Harlan_ type. Built by Ask, 1911.]


NYROP. Naval Monoplane.

[Illustration: _Bleriot_ 2-seater. Built in Sweden by Nyrop, 1911.
~Motor~, 50 h.p. Gnome.]


DAHLBECK.

[Illustration: _Farman_ type. Built by Lieut. Dahlbeck. 1913.]



SWISS.

(By our special Swiss editor.)


~Aerial Societies:~--

     Aero Club Suisse (3, Hirschengraben, Berne). Sec.: F. Filliot.

   a Ostschweizerischer V. für L. (Zürich).

   b Sektion Mittelschwerz (Bern).

   c Sektion Westschweiz (Romande) (Lausanne).

   d Club Suisse d'Aviation (Geneva).

     Club Genêvois d'Aviation (Geneva). Sec.: P. Brasier.

     Flügsport Klub (Rorschach). Sec.: A. Zürn.


~Aerial Journals:~--

     _Bulletin de l'Aero Club Suisse_ (Berne). Monthly.

     _La Suisse Sportive_ (16, Rue de Hesse, Geneva). Weekly.

     _Sport_ (35, Boulevard Exterieur, Berne).

     _Automobil Revue_ (Berne). Weekly.

     _Le Sport Suisse_ (Geneva). Weekly.

     _L'Auto Sport_ (Geneva). Weekly.

     _A.C.S._ (Swiss Aut. Clubs) (Geneva). Fortnightly.

     _Das Illustrierte Programm_ (Zurich). Fortnightly.

     _Revue Weinfelden._ Monthly.


~Flying Grounds:~--

     ~Avenches.~

     ~Collex-Versoix.~ (Club Suisse d'Aviation).

     ~Lucerne.~--60 acre park. Sheds.

     ~Petit Lancy.~ Geneva (Geneva Club).

     ~Dübendorf bei Zurich.~


~Dirigible Station~ (with hangars):--

     ~Lucerne.~


~Army Aeroplanes.~

At the end of March, 1913, there were no army aeroplanes, a _Farman_
bought in 1911 having ceased to exist.


~Private Aeroplanes.~

  Total at end of ~1910~  _about_ 10
          "       ~1911~       "  15

At the end of March, 1913, there were about ~15~ privately owned
aeroplanes.


~AVIATORS.~

(The number against any name is, unless otherwise stated, the Ae. C.
Suisse pilot certificate number.) + = killed.

Military.

   Real, Lieut. T. (4)
 + Schmidt, Capt. J.


Private.

   Audemars, E. (7)
   Bianchi, P. (6)
   Bider, O. (32)
 + Blane, M. (17)
   Bucher, M. (11)
   Burkard, H. (20)
   Burri, E. (24)
   Casser, E. (28)
 + Cobioni, E. (15)
   Domenjoz, J. (10)
   Durafour, F. (3)
   Failloubaz, E. (1)
   Grandjean, R. (2l)
   Gsell, R. (12)
 + Hösli, G. (25)
   Hug, M. (18)
   Ingold, K. E. (35)
   Jucker, A. (13)
   Kramer, H. (31)
   Mallei, A. (23)
   Parmelin, A. (22)
 + Primavesi, E. (34)
   Rech, E. (29)
   Rettig, J. J. (27)
   Reynold, M. (19)
   Ruchonnet, E. (5)
   Rupp, A. (9)
   Salvioni, C. (16)
 + Schmid, H. (14)
   Schumacher, J. (26)
   Taddoli, E. (2)
   Trepp, M. (30)
   Wyss P. A. (8)
   Züst, B. (33)



SWISS AEROPLANES.


[Illustration: Grandjean.]

[Illustration: Taddeoli.]

[Illustration: Wetterwald.]

  -----------------------------+-------------------+-----------------+------------------+
                               |    ~GRANDJEAN.~   |   ~TADDEOLI.~   |   ~WETTERWALD.~  |
          Model and date.      |  Hydro-monoplane. |   Monoplane.    |    Monoplane.    |
                               |     ~1911-12.~    |   ~1911-12.~    |      ~1912.~     |
  -----------------------------+------------------ +-----------------+------------------+
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   33       (10)   |   19-3/4   (6)  |  24-1/2  (7.50)  |
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   33       (10)   |   29-1/2   (9)  |  33        (10)  |
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|   191      (18)   |   151     (14)  |  215       (20)  |
           {  total lbs. (kgs.)|   750     (340)   |   880    (400)  |  705      (320)  |
  ~Weight~ {                   |                   |                 |                  |
           {useful, lbs. (kgs.)|   310     (140)   |   330    (150)  |        ...       |
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|     50 Oerlikon   |     50 Gnome    |     40 E.N.V.    |
             {max. m.p.h. (km.)|   62      (100)   |   69     (110)  |        ...       |
  ~Speed~    {                 |                   |                 |                  |
             {min. m.p.h. (km.)|   56      (90)    |       ...       |        ...       |
  Number built during 1912     |       2           |        1        |         1        |
  -----------------------------+-------------------+-----------------+------------------+



TURKISH.


~Army Aeroplanes.~

There is a military aerodrome at S. Stefano, with Amerigo, Renzel and
Thanlau as instructors.

In March, 1913, there were about 12 monoplanes (_Harlans & Reps_), and
one or two biplanes. Only one seems actually to have been used. Several
other aeroplanes were captured during the war--generally in their
packing cases unopened. In April, 50 machines were reported ordered in
Germany.


~AVIATORS.~

Military.

  Fessa, Bey (780, F.)
  Kienan, Lt. (797, F.)
  Nouri, Lt.
  Ratzian
  Refik, Capt.
  Sismanoglou, J.



URUGUAY.


~Aeroplanes in the country.~

     _None._


~AVIATOR:~ Cameo, M. Garcia



U.S.A.

(Edited by E. L. JONES, Editor of "Aeronautics," U.S.A.)


~General Note.~--In the early nineties, Professor Langley and the Bros.
Wright were experimenting with heavier-than-air machines, but general
interest in the subject is quite recent. Though some small dirigibles
exist, American attention is mainly devoted to aeroplanes. Ballooning
was quite the thing in 1907-11, but has languished.

It is stated that there are certainly no less than _two thousand_ people
in the U. S. A. who have built flying machines. The greater percentage
of these have been home-made copies of standard machines. Individual
builders of copies and freaks have diminished greatly in numbers, and
there remains a few well-established manufacturers.

Although inventors are still prolific in the Patent Office and clubs
numerous, the general public takes very slight intelligent interest in
aviation. The majority of clubs are inactive.

In the year 1912 commercial development seemed to have great
possibilities. The copyists were being weeded out and competent
aeronautical constructors financed by adequate means began operations on
systematic business lines. The latter half of the year saw a great
slump. In the spring of 1913 prospects looked greatly improved, and
there was generally increased activity.


~Aerial Journals:~--

     ~Aeronautics.~--122, East 25th Street, New York. Monthly.

     ~Aircraft.~--37, East 28th Street, New York. Monthly.

     ~Fly.~--1701, Chestnut, Philadelphia, Pa. Monthly.

     ~Aero.~--Chicago, Ills. Weekly.


~Flying Grounds:~--

     ~Belmont Park, N.Y.~--Old race track. Not very good. Scene of 1910
     meet. 30 sheds occupied by few experimenters.

     ~Dayton.~--_Wright_ school private field.

     ~Chicago, Ills.~--Two fine fields.

     ~Fort Myer, Va.~--Government and private sheds.

     ~Hammondsport, N.Y.~--_Curtiss_ factory. Field (small) and lake for
     water planes.

     ~Los Angeles, Calif.~--Several fields in vicinity. Used for _Eaton_
     school and private flyers.

     ~Marblehead, Mass.~--Poor field. Home of Burgess C. Fine for
     hydro-aeroplanes.

     ~Mineola, N.Y.~--_Moisant, Sloane_ and another school, and
     individuals. About 1 by 10 miles level field, without obstructions.

     ~Oakwood Heights, Staten I., N.Y.~--The Aeronautical Soc. grounds,
     on bay for use of hydro-aeroplanes.

     ~San Diego, Calif.~--Winter quarters _Curtiss_ camp; also used by
     army flyers.

     ~San Francisco~ (near).--Good.

     ~St. Louis, Mo.~--Kinloch Park. _Benoist_ school and private
     owners.


~U. S. A. AERO CLUBS.~

An attempt has been made here to give the name of every aero club that
has been formed recently in the United States, or has been in existence
for a long time. It is believed this list covers every club in the
United States.

Many of these clubs are nothing but a name. They were formed to conduct
meets or exhibitions, given by the various aeroplane concerns engaged in
this business. Many clubs are not incorporated. Others have no
organisation, being run by principals of boys' schools or classes.

Clubs even affiliated with the Aero Club of America have no members'
meetings, nor have they in many cases even meeting rooms. There are but
a half-dozen live aero clubs worthy the name in America. Three clubs own
balloons, which are rented to members for ascensions. Little attempt is
made by more than one or two associations to popularise aeronautics, to
encourage experimenters, or to indulge in scientific work.

The Aero Club of America, the Aeronautical Society and Aero Club of
Illinois, are the principal organisations. The Ae. C. represents the
F.A.I., and has a beautiful club house. The Aeronautical Society has
rooms in the United Engineering Building, conducts well-attended
lectures twice a month, and has grounds on Straten Island (for
hydro-aeroplanes and aeroplanes).

Clubs affiliated with the Ae. C. of America are marked *


~CALIFORNIA.~

     New Orleans Aero Club, Wm. Allen, Sec., New Orleans

    *Aero Club of California, Prof. H. La V. Twining, Pres., 1308
     Calumet St. Los Angeles.

    *Pacific Aero Club, Pacific Buildings, 331 Octavia Street, San
     Francisco

     Postal Aero Club, 305 W. Santa Clara Street, San Jose

     University of California Aero Club, T. W. Veitch, Sec., Berkeley

     Oakland Aero Club, Oakland

    *Aero Club of Colorado, 36 West Colfax Avenue, Denver, Col.

     Aero Club of Blackstonehill, Oakland, Calif, c/o W. R. Davis, Jr.,
     474 Prospect Street

     Curtiss Amateur Aviation Club, Harold Scott, Secretary, Los Angeles

     Santa Clara Valley Aero Club, Chamber of Commerce, San Jose

     Aero Club of San Diego, San Diego, Colonel C. C. Collier, Pres.

     Aero Club of Pasedena, W. J. Hogan, Pres., 635 Chamber of Commerce,
     Box 1054


~CONNECTICUT.~

    *Aero Club of Connecticut, Pres., A. Holland Forbes, at Fairfield

     Yale University Aero Club, New Haven

     Aero Club of Hartford, Hiram Percy Maxim, Pres., Hartford


~CUBA.~

    *Aero Club de Cuba, Ignario 5, Havana


~DELAWARE.~

     Aero Club of Delaware, Wilmington


~DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.~

     Washington Aero Scientific Club, F. L. Rice, Sec., c/o Y.M.C.A.,
     Washington

    *Aero Club of Washington, Dr. Albert F. Zahm, Sec., Cosmos Club,
     Washington


~FLORIDA.~

     Aeronautic Society of Florida, Davenport and Kerrison, Secs., 2014
     Main Street, Jacksonville


~ILLINOIS.~

    *Aero Club of Illinois, F. McCormick, Pres., 240 Michigan Avenue,
     Chicago

     Aeroplane and Kite Club, E. E. Harbert, Pres., 2852 N. Clark
     Street, Chicago

     University of Chicago Aero Club, Chicago

    *Aircraft Club of Peoria, c/o Leslie Lord, 505 E. Armstrong Street,
     Peoria

     Aeronautical Society of the University of Illinois, Urbana, R.
     Watts, Sec., 507 E. John Street, Champaigne


~INDIANA.~

     Purdue Aero Club, Purdue University, Lafayette

     South Bend Aero Club, South Bend.

    *Aero Club of Indiana, Indianapolis


~KANSAS.~

     Aero Club of Topeka, Topeka

    *Western Aero Association, E. S. Cole, Sec., Topeka

     Kansas State Aero Club, C. H. Lyons, Sec., Overland Park


~KENTUCKY.~

     Continental Aero Club, Richmond


~LOUISIANA.~

     Southern Aero Club, 809 Canal Street, New Orleans

     New Orleans Aero Club, Wm. Allen, Sec., New Orleans


~MARYLAND.~

    *Aero Club of Baltimore, Col. Jerome H. Joyce, Pres., Baltimore


~MASSACHUSETTS.~

     Aero Club of North Adams, North Adams

    *Aero Club of New England, A. R. Shrigley, Sec., 26 Trement St.,
     Boston

     Amherst Aero Club, Amherst

    *Pittsfield Aero Club, L. J. Minahan, Pres., Pittsfield

     Springfield Aero Club, c/o Charles T. Shean, Pres., 3 John Street,
     Springfield

     Tufts College Aero Club, Tufts College

    *Harvard Aeronautical Society, Prof. A. Lawrence Rotch, Pres., Blue
     Hill Observatory

     Mass. Inst. of Technology Aero Club, John S. Selfridgem, Sec.,
     Inst. of Technology, Boston

     Dartmouth Aero Club, Richard F. Paul, Sec., Dartmouth

     First Assn. of Licensed Pilots, Chas. J. Glidden, Pres., Hotel
     Somerset, Boston

     Williams Aeronautical Society, Williams College, Robert O. Starret,
     Sec., Williamstown


~MICHIGAN.~

    *Aero Club of Michigan, C. B. du Charme, Sec., Detroit

     University of Michigan Aero Club, Ann Arbor


~MINNESOTA.~

     Minneapolis Junior Aero Club, Stillman Chase, Sec., 3047 5th
     Avenue, S., Minneapolis

     St. Louis Experimental Ass'n., 5346 Zealand Street, St. Louis

    *Kansas City Aero Club, George M. Myers, Pres., Convention Hall,
     Kansas City


~MISSOURI.~

    *Aero Club of St. Louis, 1429 Pine Street, St. Louis


~MONTANA.~

     Aero Club of St. Charles College, Helena


~NEBRASKA.~

     Aero Club of Nebraska, Col. Wm. H. Glassford, Pres., Fort Omaha

     Junior Aero Club or the Y.M.C.A., c/o Y.M.C.A., Omaha

     Lincoln Aero Club, Lincoln, c/o G. R. Brownfield, 1234 "O" Street

     Aviation Club of Nebraska, Arthur Frenzer, Sec., 2778 California
     Street, Omaha


~NEW JERSEY.~

     Princeton University Aero Club, Princeton

     Aeronautic Society of New Jersey, c/o N.J. Automobile & Motor Club,
     Broad Street, Newark

     Aero Club of New Jersey, c/o James K. Duffy, Sec., 315 Madison
     Avenue, New York

     New Jersey Aeronautical League, W. A. Kraus, Sec., Guttenberg

     Aero and Motor Club, Asbury Park

     Atlantic City Aero Club, Col. Walter E. Edge, Sec., Atlantic City

     Model School Aero Club, Trenton, R. G. Teavitt, Sec.

     Trenton Aero Club, James Fenton, Sec., Trenton


~NEW YORK.~

    *Aero Club of America, 297 Madison Avenue, Chas. Walsh, Sec.

     The Aeronautical Society, 250 W. 54th Street, Arnold Kruckman, Gen.
     Sec.

     Aeronautic Alumni Ass'n., c/o West Side Y.M.C.A., West 57th Street

     New York Model Aero Club, Adrien Lacroix, Sec., 141 Lexington
     Avenue

     National Model Aero Club, c/o A. Leo Stevens, 282 9th Avenue

     Stuyvesant Aeronautic Society, 345 East 15th Street, Percey W.
     Pierce, Sec.

     Columbia Aero Club, Columbia University, 116th Street

     Dewitt Clinton High School Aero Club, 58th Street and 10th Avenue

    *Aero Club of Buffalo, Lafayette Hotel, Buffalo, N.Y.

     Thousand Islands Aero Club, c/o Dr. J. M. Gibbons, 168 Montague
     Street, Ithaca

     Aeronautic Section, Technology Club, Syracuse

     Boys' High School Aero Club, Henry St. Pieless, Sec., 815 Avenue,
     J., Brooklyn

    *Rochester Aero Club, c/o L. J. Seely, 10 Culver Road, Rochester

     Aero Club of the Y.M.C.A., Harold C. Carpenter, Pres., White Plains

     Aero Club, Haliano, U.S.A., 135, West 12th Street, N.Y. Seventy-two
     members. C. Chiantelli, Sec.

     Junior Aero Club, c/o A. E. Horn, Public School, 77 Park Avenue and
     84th Street

     Aero Club of Long Island, c/o Hohn H. Lisle, Alen Cove

     Commerce Aero Club, 65 West 117th Street

    *Aero Club of New York, Garden City.

     Mechanics Aeronautical Ass'n., c/o H. H. Simms, 304 Cutler
     Building, Rochester

     Aeronautical Research Club of the Y.M.C.A., H. C. Myers, Sec.,
     Buffalo

     Aero Club Italiano, Saverio A. Mascia, 403 Park Avenue

     Aeronautical Society of Women, Miss Dorothy E. Ball, Sec., 250 West
     54th Street


~OHIO.~

    *Aero Club of Ohio, Canton

    *Aero Club of Dayton, Dayton

     International Aeroplane Club, Dayton

     Cleveland Aero Club, C. J. Forbes, Sec., Hollanden Hotel, Cleveland

    *Aero Club of Cincinnati, c/o P. L. Mitchell, Traction Buildings,
     Cincinnati


~OREGON.~

     Portland Aero Club, E. Henry Wemme, Pres., Portland


~PENNSYLVANIA.~

     Aviation Section, Professional Chauffeurs Ass'n. of America, 1933
     Spring Gardens, Phil.

    *Aero Club of Pennsylvania, Rev. Geo. S. Gassner, Sec., Betz
     Buildings, Phil.

     Ben Franklin Aeronautical Ass'n., c/o Dr. T. Chalmers Fulton, 6th
     and Diamond Street, Phil.

     Philadelphia Aeronautical Recreation Society, Dr. Thos. E.
     Eldridge, Pres., 1639 N. Broad Street, Phil.

     Haverford College Aero Club, Haverford, Pa.

     Swartmore College Aero Club, Swartmore, Pa.

     Univ. of Penn. Aero Club, Univ. of Penn., Phil., Pa.

     Aero Club of Carnegie, Tech. Schools, Pittsburg, Pa.

     Intercollegiate Aeronautical Ass'n., Geo. A. Richardson, Pres.,
     Univ. of Penn., Phil.

     Pittsburg Aero Club, H. P. Haas, Sec., Magel Buildings, Pittsburg,
     Pa.


~RHODE ISLAND.~

     Pawtucket Aero Club, Pawtucket

     Rhode Island Aeronautical Society, Providence, John J. Long, Sec.,
     c/o Brown University


~TENNESSE.~

     Nashville Aero Club, Nashville, E. Fisher Coles, Sec.


~TEXAS.~

     Dallas Aero Club, c/o Chamber of Commerce

     San Antonio Aero Club, c/o Dr. Fred J. Fielding, 423 Hick's
     Buildings, San Antonio

     South Western Aero Club, P.O. Box 821, Fort Worth

     Texas Junior Aeronautical Ass'n., Hugh Dumas, Pres., Fort Worth


~UTAH.~

     Aero Club of Utah, c/o L. R. Culver, 11 Eagle Block, Salt Lake City

     Salt Lake City Aero Club, c/o Mr. Campbell, Walker Bank Buildings,
     Salt Lake City


~VERMONT.~

     Aero Club of Vermont, Chas. T. Fairfield, Pres., c/o Rutland News,
     Rutland


~VIRGINIA.~

     University of Virginia Aero Club, Stanford Swin, Sec., University
     of Virginia

     Virginia-Tennesse Aero Club, Bristol, Va-Tenn, C. W. Morey, Sec.


~WASHINGTON.~

     Aero Club of Washington, 415 Union Trust Buildings, Washington,
     D.C.

     Aero Club of Seattle, c/o M. Robert Guggenheim, 511 Lonan
     Buildings, Seattle

     Walla Walla Aero Club, Walla Walla


~WISCONSIN.~

    *Milwaukee Aero Club, Milwaukee, c/o Major Henry B. Hersey, Chief
     of the Weather Bureau, Milwaukee

     Milwaukee Aeronautic Society, Pres., Sherman Brown, Manager of
     Davidson Theatre, Milwaukee


~U.S.A. MILITARY AVIATION.~

~U. S. ARMY AEROPLANE SPECIFICATIONS. (1912).~

~SPEED SCOUT MILITARY AEROPLANE.~

     (1) Carry one person with the seat located to permit of the largest
     possible field of observation. (2) Ascend at the rate of 1500 feet
     in three minutes, while carrying fuel for one hour's flight. (3)
     Carry fuel for a three hours' flight. (4) Must be easily
     transportable by road, rail, etc., and easily and rapidly assembled
     and adjusted. (5) The starting and landing devices must be part of
     the machine itself, and it must be able to start without outside
     assistance. (6) The engine must be capable of throttling. (7) The
     engine will be subject to endurance test in the air of two hours'
     continuous flight. (8) Speed in the air of at least 65 miles an
     hour. (9) Capable of landing on and arising from ploughed fields.
     (10) The supporting surfaces must be of sufficient size to insure
     safe gliding in case the engine stops. (11) The efficiency and
     reliability of the system of control must have been demonstrated
     before the purchase order is placed. The aeroplane must be capable
     of executing a figure eight within a rectangle 500 yards by 250
     yards, and without decreasing its altitude more than 100 feet at
     the completion of the figure eight. This test to be made by aviator
     alone without carrying extra weight. (12) The extreme width of the
     aeroplane supporting surfaces must not exceed 40 feet.


~SCOUT MILITARY AEROPLANE.~

     (1) The aeroplane must carry two persons with seats located to
     permit of the largest possible field of observation for both. (2)
     The control must be capable of use by either operator from either
     seat. (3) The machine must be able to ascend at least 2000 feet in
     ten minutes while carrying a weight of 600 lbs. including the
     aviator and passenger, 150 lbs. of gasoline, and extra weight to
     make 600 lbs. All of the extra weight must be carried on the engine
     section and not distributed over the wings. (4) The fuel and oil
     capacity must be sufficient for at least four hours continuous
     flight. This will be determined by a trial flight of at least one
     half-hour, measuring the consumption of gasoline while carrying the
     passenger and weight stated in paragraph 3. (5) Same as No. 4
     above. (6) Same as No. 5 above. (7) The engine must be of American
     manufacture and capable of throttling to run at reduced speed. (8)
     Same as No. 7 above. This test will be made with aviator and
     passenger, extra weight and fuel enumerated in paragraphs 3 and 4.
     (9) The aeroplane must develop a speed in the air of at least forty
     miles an hour. This test will be made with aviator and passenger,
     extra weight and fuel enumerated in paragraphs 3 and 4. The maximum
     speed must not exceed sixty-five miles per hour. (10) Same as No. 9
     above. This test will be made with aviator, passenger, extra weight
     and fuel enumerated in paragraphs 3 and 4. (11) Same as No. 10
     above. (12) Same as No. 11 above. (13) Same as No. 12 above.

In ~1913~ additional requirements specified enclosed body, bullet-proof
armour, .75 chrome steel, for engine and aviator, provision of necessary
instruments and wireless, with, as desirable features, silencer and
cut-out, self-starter and an efficient stabilising device.

At end of March, 1913, the effective Army aeroplanes consisted of three
50 h.p. _Wrights_, one _Wright-Burgess_, several old machines.

The Navy had two _Wright-Burgess_ hydros and a few nondescripts. A
_Burgess_ flying boat since added.


The estimate for Army effectives at end of the present year (1913) is 21
(5 _Burgess_, 6 _Curtiss_, 10 _Wright_).


~AVIATORS.~

(The numbers after any name is the number of the U. S. Aero Club
certificate.)


Army.

  Arnold, Lieut. H. H. (29)
  Beck, P. Capt. (39)
  Brereton, Lt. L. H. (211)
  Burge, Corp. V. S. (154)
  Chandler, C. de F. Capt. (59)
  Foulois, Lieut. (140)
  Geiger, Lieut. H. (166)
  Goodier, Lt. L. E. (200)
  Graham, Lieut. H. (152)
  Hennessy, Capt. F. B. (153)
  Humphreys, Lieut.
  Kirtland, Lieut. R.C. (45)
  Lahm, Lieut. F. P. (2)
  Love, Lieut. M. L. (155)
  McClaskey, Lieut. J. W. (90)
  McKay, Capt. G. W. (67)
  McLeary, Lieut. S. H. (210)
  McManus, Lieut.
  Milling, Lieut. (30)
  Rodgers, J. Lieut. (48)
  Sherman, Lieut. W. C. (151)
  Winder, Lieut.-Col. C.B. (130)


Navy.

  Herbster, Ens. (103)
  Ellyson, Lieut. T. G. (28)
  Rodgers, John, Lieut.
  Towers, Lieut. J. H. (62)


~U.S.A. PRIVATE AVIATORS (to end of 1911).~

(The number against any name is, unless otherwise stated, the Ae. C.
America pilot certificate number. Only a few American aviators have
bothered to obtain the Ae. Certificate. America produces a large number
of aviators who fly for pleasure or exhibitions only and have not gone
into competitions under International Rules. These consequently do not
bother about certificates; but most of those recorded could easily
obtain them, if they cared to try.)

  Adams, Clarence
  Adams, A. S. (215)
  Alvarez, F.
  Ambrose, Charles
  Andrews, Thornwell
  Apto, H. J.
  Arndt, Edw. F.
  Atwater, Mrs. L. J.
  Atwater, W. B. (98)
  Atwood, H. N. (33)
  Baker, G. H.
  Baldwin, Ivy
  Baldwin, Capt. T. S. (7)
  Barnett, A. E.
  Barton, Sam
  Bates, M. F. (66)
  Beachey, Hillery (89)
  Beachey, Lincoln (27)
  Beatty, G. W. (41)
  Beckly, Wm. A.
  Beers, W. C. (40)
  Benoist, T. W.
  Bergdoll, Louis, J.
  Betton, Kaid
  Bishop, Cortland
  Bleakley, W. H.
  Boandette, A. B.
  Bonner, G. T.
  Bonette, C. C.
  Bonney, L. W. (47)
  Brackett, A. J.
  Brewer, Roy
  Brindley, O. A. (46)
  Brinker, H. S.
  Brodie, O. W. (135)
  Brookins, W. R. (19)
  Brown, H. H. (58)
  Bumbaugh, Capt. G. L.
  Burgess, W. Starling (136)
  Burligh, Chas.
  Bush, J. F.
  Butler, P. J.
  Callon, J. L. (102)
  Champion, Frank (86)
  Christmas, Wm.
  Cannon, Jack
  Cline, W. F.
  Coffyn, F. C. (26)
  Cole, R.
  Coleman, R. F.
  Cook, W. B. (95)
  Cooke, Henry C.
  Cooke, F. G. (26)
  Cooper, John D. (60)
  Costello, A. B.
  Coutourier, C. (79)
  Crewelson, W. H.
  Cross, Redmond W. (35)
  Crosby, R. W.
  Cummings, J. A.
  Curtiss, Glenn H. (1) & (Ae. C. F. 1)
  Curzon, J. W.
  DeGiers, C.
  De Hart, D. C.
  De Kor, F. (72)
  Dennis, D. L.
  Dixon, S. D.
  Dougherty, E. S. (87)
  Doyle, H.
  Drew, A. (50)
  Drexel, J. A. (8)
  Durgan, W. E.
  Dyott, G. M.
  Eaton, Warren
  Ecot, Robert G.
  Eells, Fred.
  Elton, Albert (75)
  Engel, A. J.
  Erickson, Louis, G.
  Eshoo, D.
  Evans, W.
  Ey, G.
  Fish, Farnam (85)
  Fortney, Lewis
  Fowler, R. G.
  Freeman, A. (84)
  Fuchs, Joseph
  Funk, T. B.
  Gallaudet, E. F. (32)
  Games, A. B.
  Gantz, Saxe P.
  Gardener, Hubbard G.
  Garner, R. W.
  Gaskell, Bud
  Gratz, H. F.
  Gray, George
  Green, William, Dr.
  Gregory, Donald
  Greider, C.
  Greider, J.
  Gressier, Romaine
  Guey, Fung Joe
  Hadley, C. O.
  Hall,
  Hamilton, C. K. (12)
  Hamilton, J. W.
  Hamilton, Thos. W.
  Hammond, Lee (34)
  Harper
  Harkness, H. S. (16)
  Harmon, C. B. (6)
  Hartman, A.
  Haupt, Willie
  Havens, Beckwith (127)
  Hendrian, A.
  Henning, J. C.
  Henningsen, Fred
  Heth, Eugene
  Henry, R. St.
  Hilliard, W. M. (Brit. Ae. C. 102)
  Hills, H. V.
  Hofer, W.
  Hoff, Wm. H. (91)
  Hoflake, Charles
  Holden, J. J.
  Holt, L. E. (63)
  Hoover, Fred. (100)
  Hoover, H. H.
  Huddleston, E. D.
  James, Stanley
  Janicke, W.
  Jannus, Anthony (80)
  Jennings, J. C.
  Jerwan, S. S. (54)
  Johnson, Frank H.
  Johnson, Walter E. (164)
  Jumel, August
  Kantner, H. (65)
  Kellrey, H.
  Kemmerle, Horace
  Kennedy, F. M. (97)
  Kiley, J. E.
  Kimball, Wilbur R.
  Klein, H. H.
  Klockles, J. G.
  Korn, Edward
  Krasting, Theodore
  La Chapelle, Duval
  Lambert, A. B. (61)
  Lambreath, C. E.
  Lapadat, N.
  Laser, G. F.
  Le Van, Howard
  Lewis, S. C. (92)
  Lewkowicz, Ladis
  Lidstone, Ed. S.
  Lillie, M. T. (73)
  Lockwood, Chas.
  Longfellow, H. W.
  Loose, Geo. H.
  Lougheed, A.
  Longo, T.
  Ludwig, Vandy
  Maier
  Manners, George
  Mars, J. C. (11)
  Martin, J. B.
  Martin, G. L. (56)
  Martin, J. V.
  Massar, A. M.
  Masson
  Matalach, S. H.
  Mattingley, O. A.
  Maynard, Arthur
  Mayo, Albert (99)
  McCally, J. B. (94)
  McCarty, James
  McClellam
  McCollum, W. C.
  McCurdy, J. A. D. (18)
  McGoey, Thomas
  McNamara, Geo. E.
  McManus, L.
  McMahon, A. J.
  Medrick, F. H.
  Meyerhoffer, Orvar
  Miller, Clinton R.
  Moisant, Miss M. E. (44)
  Morok, Chas. B.
  Mourfield, Carl
  Murias, De E. F. (38)
  Murphy, T.
  Murphy, Wm.
  Neidmiller, Ed.
  Nelson, N. B.
  Nelson, Nels. T.
  Ovington, E. L.
  Page, P. W. (68)
  Paine, N. B.
  Paridon, Michael
  Park, Henry
  Paulding, Dwight
  Paulhan, L. (3)
  Pfiel, P.
  Post, Augustus
  Powers, H. W.
  Prince, Norman (55)
  Prentice,
  Prospect, Louis
  Prowse, C. O.
  Raiche, Mrs. F.
  Ragot, Louis
  Reichert, H. D. W. (82)
  Remington, Earle
  Reynolds, Dr. Percy, L.
  Richter, J. (81)
  Riggs, E.
  Roat, Arthur R.
  Robinson, H. (42)
  Roehrig, B. F.
  Rowe, F. E.
  Russell, Geo.
  Sackett, Harry
  Sands, H. Hayden (Ae. C. F. 70)
  Schafer, G. E.
  Schmidt, G. S.
  Schneider, Fred, P.
  Schulz, G. C.
  Schwartz, A.
  Schwister, John
  Scott, Miss B.
  Seeman, J. R.
  Seignor, H. A.
  Seligman, J. (64)
  Seymour, Joseph
  Sellers, M. B.
  Shelton, T.
  Sherwood, Oliver, B.
  Shneider, Fred.
  Shoemaker, Chas. W. (93)
  Sill, F.
  Simmonds, O. G. (145)
  Skinner, S. R.
  Slaik, E.
  Slavin, J. J.
  Smith, A.
  Smith, Kyle
  Smith, R. M.
  Sommerville, W. E.
  Soreusen, Prof.
  Sparling, J. N.
  Steitz, F. M. (88)
  Stewart, J. G.
  Stone, A. (Ae. C. F. 15)
  Summer, Gill.
  Suppe,
  Talmage, M. P.
  Takisow,
  Tarbox, J.
  Thomas, W. T.
  Thomas, O. W.
  Thompson, George
  Tickell, Sam
  Timothy, S. R.
  Troxey
  Turpin, J. C. (22)
  Tuttle, T. T.
  Vanderbilt, W. K.
  Vaughan, Stanley
  Vogt, Jesse S.
  Walden, Dr. H. W. (74)
  Walker, Clarence
  Ward, J. J. (52)
  Warner, A. P.
  Webster, C. L. (69)
  Weeks, F. W.
  Wells, G.
  Wetzig, H. H.
  Weymann, Charles (14)
  Wilcox
  Wildman, Dock
  Willard, C. F. (10)
  Williams, Beryl (71)
  Williams, B. J.
  Willoughby, Capt. Hugh L.
  Wilson, Edward
  Wiseman, Fred. E.
  Witmer, C. C. (53)
  Worden, John H. (76)
  Wright, Orville (4) (Ae. C. F. 14)
  Wright, Wilbur (5) (Ae. C. F. 15)
  Young, C. M.
  Yan, J.

The following American aviators have been killed:--

  +-----------------------+
  |         1908.         |
  | Selfridge, Lt. (Army) |
  |                       |
  |         1910.         |
  | Johnstone, R. (20)    |
  | Moisant, J. B. (13)   |
  |                       |
  |         1911.         |
  | Badger, Wm. R. (36)   |
  | Castellane, Tony      |
  | Clark, C. B., Dr.     |
  | Dixon, Cromwell (43)  |
  | Ely, Eugene           |
  | Frisbie, J. J. (24)   |
  | Hoxsey, Arch. (21)    |
  | Johnston, St. Croix   |
  | Kelly, Lieut. (Army)  |
  | Kreamer, Dan. A.      |
  | Miller, F. H.         |
  | Oxley                 |
  | Penot, Marcel         |
  | Purvis, Wm. G.        |
  | Rosenbaum, Louis      |
  | Schriver, Tod (9)     |
  +-----------------------+


~U.S.A. PRIVATE AVIATORS. (Brevets, 1912.)~

  Aldasoro, J. P. (217)
  Aldasaro, E. A. (218)
  Andrews, W. D. (124)
  Arnold, G. (198)
  Barlow, F. E. (139)
  Beckwith, S. F. (137)
  Beech, A. C. (168)
  Belcher, O. T. (158)
  Bell, Dr. F. J. (196)
  Bell, G. E. (201)
  Bergdoll, G. C. (169)
  Berlin, C. A. (109)
  Bleakley, W. H. (206)
  Bouldin, W. (157)
  Boysdorfer, C. (193)
  Brown, R. M. (185)
  Bryant, G. M. (208)
  Burnside, F. H. (212)
  Carlstrom, O. G. (145)
  Colovon, P. (160)
  Crossley, S. J. (187)
  Dalwigk, G. B. (190)
  De Hart, D. C. (129)
  Eaton, W. S. (128)
  Edelman, D. (191)
  Elliott, R. (178)
  Figyelmessy, H. (203)
  Fritts, E. V. (213)
  Gilpatric, J. G. (171)
  Gray, G. A. (142)
  Gray, J. F. (150)
  Gunn, T. (131)
  Hattemer, H. L. (147)
  Hemstraught, W. H. (146)
  Hetlick, W. A., jr. (197)
  Hild, F. C. (216)
  Hunt, E. N. (163)
  Holmes, H. (204)
  Johnson, R. R. (205)
  Kabitzke, W. (126)
  Kammski, J. G. (121)
  Kemper, F. W. (119)
  Klockler, J. G. (125)
  Korn, E. (171)
  Lamkey, W. A. (183)
  Law, R. B. (188)
  Maroney, T. T. (106)
  Masson, D. (202)
  McMillen, R. E. (111)
  Meyer, C. (176)
  Miller, B. A. (173)
  Niles, C. F. (181)
  Park, H. (113)
  Peoli, C. (141)
  Piceller, W. (116)
  Prodgers, C. B. (159)
  Reid, M. E. (114)
  Reid, P. H. (179)
  Remer, L. H., de (115)
  Richardson, R. H. C. (174)
  Robinson, R. W. C. (162)
  Ruiz, H. (182)
  Russell, R. B. (132)
  Salinas, A. (170)
  Salinas, G. (172)
  Schaeffer, J. S. (177)
  Scholovinck, E. (195)
  Schuman, F. J. (143)
  Singh, M. M. (123)
  Sjolander, C. T. (138)
  Smith, J. F. (207)
  Spaulding, J. D. (107)
  Stark, W. M. (110)
  Stinson, K. (148)
  Sverkerson, J. S. (180)
  Tait, G. M. (184)
  Takeiski, K. (122)
  Terrill, F. J. (108)
  Thomson, C. (112)
  Thompson, De L. (134)
  Twombly, W. I. (149)
  Vought, C. M. (156)
  Waite, H. R. (186)
  Weeks, E. O. (214)
  Weiner, T. (167)
  Wiggins, C. L. (175)
  Wood, C. M. (209)


U.S. Aviators killed:
_Continued._

  +---------------------------+
  |      In ~1912.~           |
  |                           |
  | Blair, R.                 |
  | Chambers, W. B.           |
  | Clarke, J. (133)          |
  | Gill, H. W. (31)          |
  | Hazelhurst, Lieut.        |
  | Kearney, H. F. (83)       |
  | Kondo, M. (120)           |
  | Lawrence, C.              |
  | Longstaffe, J. L.         |
  | Mitchell, L. (51)         |
  | Page, R. (96)             |
  | Parmelee (25)             |
  | Peck, P. (57)             |
  | Quimby, Miss H. (37)      |
  | Rodgers, C. P. (49)       |
  | Rockwell, Lt. L. C. (165) |
  | Scott, Corp. F.           |
  | Southard, F. J.           |
  | Stevenson, J.             |
  | Turner, H.                |
  | Underwood, G.             |
  | Walsh, C. F.              |
  | Welsh, A. L. (23)         |
  |                           |
  |      In ~1913.~           |
  |                           |
  | Boland, F. E.             |
  | Chandler, Lieut. R.       |
  | Park, Lieut. T. D. (223)  |
  +---------------------------+



U.S.A. AEROPLANES.



~A~


AERIAL EXHIBITION Co. (Biplane), 1777, Broadway, New York. Built a
_Curtiss_ type with Kirkham motor, 1911. 2 skids, with wheel between,
and usual _Farman_ rubber shock absorbers.


AERIAL YACHT CO., San Francisco. Inc. 1913. Capital, $25,000.


AERONAUTICAL SUPPLY CO. See _Cordeaux-Etter_.


AMERICAN AEROPLANE SUPPLY HOUSE (Monoplane), 266, Main Street,
Hempstead, N.Y. Builders of monoplanes after the _Bleriot_ type.
Half-a-dozen machines were built and sold during 1911. Fitted with
Gnomes or American engines.



~B~


BALDWIN Biplanes. Captain Thos. S. Baldwin, PO Box, 78, Madison Square,
N.Y. About half-a-dozen steel biplanes have been produced in 1911 by
Captain Baldwin, and he and other aviators, Badger, Hammond, Miss Scott
Mass, etc., have flown these at various exhibitions and meets, and are
classed with well-known successful American biplanes.

[Illustration: _Photo, Edwin Levick, N.Y._]

Details of _Baldwin_ ("Red Devil").

~Length.~--28-1/4 feet (8.60 m.) ~Span.~--28-3/4 feet (8.75 m.)

~Motor.~--50-60 h.p. Hall-Scott ~Propeller.~--One Requa-Gibson in rear
of main planes. Diameter, 7 feet (2.13 m.) Pitch, 6 feet (1.82 m.)

~Speed.~--60 m.p.h. (97 k.p.h.)

[Illustration: BALDWIN. RED DEVIL. UAS.]


BENOIST. Benoist Aircraft Co., 6628, Delmar Boulevard, St. Louis, Mo.
(formerly Aeronautic Supply Co.)

  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+
                               |    ~1912-13.~    |     ~1913.~      |
        Model and date.        |    "Headless."   |   Flying boat.   |
                               |                  |  Tandem biplane. |
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+
  ~Length~            feet (m.)|   22-1/2  (6.85) |   27             |
  ~Span~              feet (m.)|   30      (9.15) |   42-1/6 (12.80) |
  ~Area~         sq. feet (m².)|        ...       |        ...       |
           {total   lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       | 1004       (455) |
  ~Weight~ {                   |                  |                  |
           {useful  lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |        ...       |
  ~Motor~                  h.p.|        ...       |    75 Roberts    |
             {max. m.p.h. (km.)|   68       (110) |        ...       |
  ~Speed~    {                 |                  |                  |
             {min. m.p.h. (km.)|   31        (50) |        ...       |
  ~Endurance~              hrs.|         3        |                  |
  -----------------------------+------------------+------------------+

Notes.--The boat of the flying boat is 23-5/6 feet long, by 2 feet 2-1/2
inches wide. Shipable wheels. See _Aeronautics_, January, 1913.

[Illustration: BENOIST. Flying boat. UAS.]


BOLAND. Boland Aeroplane & Motor Co., 1821, Broadway, New York. Works:
Ft. Center St. Newark, N.J.

[Illustration]

  ----------------------------+------------------+
        Model and date.       |     ~1913.~      |
                              |    "Tailless."   |
  ----------------------------+------------------+
  ~Length~           feet (m.)|   21-1/6  (6.45) |
  ~Span~             feet (m.)|   35-1/2 (10.80) |
  ~Area~        sq. feet (m².)|        ...       |
           {total  lbs. (kgs.)|  900       (408) |
  ~Weight~ {                  |                  |
           {useful lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |
  ~Motor~                 h.p.|     60 Boland    |
  ~Speed~         m.p.h. (km.)|   60        (95) |
  Number built during 1912    |         1        |
  ----------------------------+------------------+

A refinement of the original machine of the late F. E. Boland, which
first flew in 1911. _Control_ by two special jibs which work inward.
Designed to be used also as a hydro, with three step floats. No rudder
or ailerons. Full details, etc., see _Aeronautics_, U.S.A., May, 1913,
and _Aircraft_, U.S.A., May, 1913.


BURGESS. Burgess Co. & Curtis, Marblehead, Mass. Built _Wright_ types
under license, also machines of their own.

  ----------------------------+----------------------------+----------------------------+----------------------------
       Model and date.        |      Military tractor.     |    Coast defence hydro.    |     Naval flying boat.
                              |         ~1912-13.~         |          ~1913.~           |            ~1913.~
  ----------------------------+----------------------------+----------------------------+----------------------------
  ~Length~           feet (m.)|   37-3/4            (8.50) |   33-1/3            (9.55) |   31                (9.45)
  ~Span~             feet (m.)|   34-1/2           (10.50) |   37-3/4              (12) |   43               (13.10)
                              |                            |                            |   --                -----
                              |                            |                            |   36               (10.97)
  ~Area~        sq. feet (m².)|             ...            |             ...            |  397                  (37)
           {total  lbs. (kgs.)|             ...            |             ...            |             ...
  ~Weight~ {                  |                            |                            |
           {useful lbs. (kgs.)|             ...            |  775                 (352) |             ...
  ~Motor~                 h.p.|         70 Renault         |        60 Sturtevant       |          70 Renault
                              |                            |         _muffled_          |
  ~Speed~         m.p.h. (km.)|   45                  (70) |   59                  (95) |             ...
  ~Endurance~             hrs.|            4-1/2           |            4-1/2           |             ...
  Number built during 1912    |             ...            |             ...            |             ...
  ----------------------------+----------------------------+----------------------------+----------------------------
  Remarks.--                  |       Lumina fabric.       |     Special clear view     |   Boat 29-1/2 feet long.
                              |        Single screw.       |      for observation.      |    2--2 step floats.
                              |  Details, _Aeronautics_,   |     2--1 step mahogany     |  Petrol, 48 gallons.
                              |    (U.S.A.), May-June,     |     and copper floats.     |    Details, _Aeronautics_,
                              |          1912.             |        Useful weight       |  (U.S.A.), May, 1913.
                              |                            |      includes floats.      |
                              |                            |  Details, _Aeronautics_,   |
                              |                            |    (U.S.A.), Feb., 1913.   |
  ----------------------------+----------------------------+----------------------------+----------------------------

[Illustration: Burgess-Wright.]

[Illustration: Burgess-Wright as a hydro (the U.S. Navy has two of these).]

[Illustration: Military tractor. _By favour of "Aeronautics," U.S.A._ UAS.]

[Illustration: "Coast defense" hydro. _From "Aeronautics."_]

[Illustration: Burgess-Curtis. 1913 Naval flying boat.]



~C~


CHRISTMAS. Durham Christmas Aeroplane Sales & Exhibition Corporation,
Inc. 1913. Capital: $10,000 to $50,000. Claims for it are that it is
"automatically balanced." This is attained by the shape of the machine,
not through the agency of any auxiliary apparatus.

[Illustration]


CORDEAUX-ETTER. Cordeaux-Etter Mfg. Corporation, Brooklyn, N.Y. Capital:
$10,000. Took over, 1913, the Aeronautical Supply Co., of N.Y.


COOKE. Weldon B. Cooke Aeroplane Co., Sandusky, Ohio. Founded 1913 by
the well-known aviator, W. B. Cooke.

[Illustration]

  ---------------------------+------------------+
        Model and date.      |      ~1913.~     |
  ---------------------------+------------------+
  ~Length~          feet (m.)|   25      (7.60) |
  ~Span~            feet (m.)|   24      (7.30) |
  ~Area~       sq. feet (m².)|  240        (22) |
           {total lbs. (kgs.)|  750       (340) |
  ~Weight~ {                 |                  |
           {usefullbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |
  ~Motor~               h.p.{|75 Roberts 2 cycle|
                            {|  _upside down_   |
  ~Speed~        m.p.h. (km.)|        ...       |
  Number built during 1912   |     new firm     |
  ---------------------------+------------------+

Details, _Aeronautics_, U.S.A., February, 1913.

[Illustration: COOKE. UAS]


CURTISS. Curtiss Aeroplane Co., Hammondsport, N.Y. Glenn H. Curtiss in
1907 and 1908 was a member of the Aerial Experiment Association, formed
by Dr. and Mrs. Alexander Graham Bell. This Association built four
machines, each along the lines of one of the four engineers belong to
the Association, F. W. Baldwin, Lieut. T. E. Selfridge, G. H. Curtiss
and J. A. D. McCurdy. The last built was the _June Bug_, designed by
Curtiss and was the most successful. In the spring of 1908, the
Association was disbanded and The Aeronautical Society gave Curtiss an
order for an aeroplane with _carte blanche_ as to design. He produced a
4 cyl. machine, Curtiss engine, and flew it. A duplicate was hurriedly
built, 8 cyl. engine installed, and taken to Europe for the first Gordon
Bennett, which he won. Returning, the same type was continued with minor
improvements. Later the front elevator was brought closer in, finally
discarded, and the fan tail adopted and this remains the standard land
machine to-day. In April, a military tractor was built and flown.

On January 26th, 1911, first successful flights were made with a
hydroaeroplane, at the Winter camp at San Diego, Calif. This had two
floats tandem. One was finally adopted and great success was achieved,
and remains standard at the present time. With this machine various
experiments were made. It was altered in a tractor for one occasion, it
was lifted on board warships; made into triplane, etc.

In 1912 he brought out his present type of flying boat. This is being
rapidly developed and minor changes in details are made in practically
every machine put out.

In May, 1913, he produced a special 4-passenger flying boat for a
customer on special order.

Note.--In addition to those tabulated, special small racing machines
have been built, as well as similar machines with extra sections simply
added either side for Army use.

  ---------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+--------------------
        Model and date.      |      ~Type D.~     |      ~Type E.~       |       ~Type F.~
                             |       ~1913.~      |       ~1913.~        |       ~1913.~
  ---------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+--------------------
  ~Length~          feet (m.)|   26-2/3    (8.10) |   27-1/3      (8.33) |   27-1/3    (8.33)
  ~Span~            feet (m.)|   26-1/4       (8) |   31-1/4      (9.50) |   38-1/3   (11.70)
  ~Overall~         feet (m.)|   33-1/12     (10) |   36-1/4        (11) |   41-2/3   (12.70)
  ~Area~       sq. feet (m².)|  214      (19-1/2) |  288        (26-1/4) |  421-1/2      (39)
           {total  lbs. (kgs)|        ...         | 1700           (771) |         ...
  ~Weight~ {                 |                    |                      |
           {useful lbs. (kgs)|        ...         |  500           (227) |         ...
  ~Motor~                h.p.|      Curtiss       |      80 Curtiss      |       Curtiss
  ~Speed~        m.p.h. (km.)|        ...         |   59            (95) |         ...
  ---------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+--------------------
  Remarks.--                 | Land service, but  |  Fitted either with  |Used to date only
                             |is also made fitted |  wheels, pontons, or |as military tractor
                             |    with floats.    |          boat.       |or heavy flying boat.
                             |       Panels.      |    _Vilas boat._     |    _McCormick boat._
                             |                    |   Boat 24 ft. long.  |Boat 25 ft. long 4 ft.
                             |                    |Beam 54-1/2 ft. long. |wide. Freeboard 46
                             |                    |Height 41 ins. long.  |ins. Cockpit 84 ins.
                             |                    |Cockpit 3 ft. long by |long by 46 ins. wide.
                             |                    |  4 ft. 2 ins. wide.  |Length of tail, incl.
                             |                    |                      |  elevator 12 feet.
  ---------------------------+--------------------+----------------------+------------------

For full details of the tractor (F) see _Aeronautics_, U.S.A., February,
1913.

[Illustration: 1913 Tractor. Type F.]

[Illustration: 1912 flying boat. _By favor of "Aeronautics," U.S.A._]

[Illustration: Curtiss. 1913 flying boat. UAS.]



~G~


GALLAUDET. Gallaudet Eng. Co., Norwich Ct.

[Illustration]

In 1912 produced a special racer as above. ~Span~, 32 feet (9.75 m.)
~Area~, 200 sq. feet (18-1/2 m².) ~Speed~, 100 m.p.h. (160 k.p.h.)
~Motor~, 100 Gnome.



~K~


KIRKHAM Biplanes. Chas. B. Kirkham, Motor Manufacturers, Savona, N.Y.
Began to manufacture aeroplanes in 1912, after previous experiments and
flights near his factory.

~Length~, ? feet ( ? m.) ~span~, 34 feet (10.40 m.) ~surface~, ? sq.
feet ( ? m².)

~Weight.~--Complete, _without pilot_, 980 lbs. (445 kgs.)

~Motor.~--50 h.p. Kirkham, located in front under bonnet. 70 h.p. also
fitted.

~Speed.~--56-62 m.p.h. (90-100 k.p.h.)

Remarks.--Rises easily at under 35 m.p.h., and has a full speed radius
of 5-1/2 hours. Full details in _Aeronautics_, U.S.A., January, 1912.
1913, no changes.

[Illustration]



~L-S~


LOENING. Monoplane aero boat, with one very deep step. See
_Aeronautics_, U.S.A., May-June, 1912.


SELLERS. Quadruplane. Matthew B. Sellers, R.F., D2, Norwood, Ga. Has
been successfully experimenting for a number of years with a staggered
quadruplane, and has given the aviation world a number of valuable
papers. His aim is to fly successfully with the least possible horse
power. For several years he has been making flights with various engines
delivering from 5 to 6 h.p. on careful test. The actual thrust has been
measured and recorded in late 1911 experiments. Details in
_Aeronautics_, June, 1909; October, 1909; November, 1910; January, 1911;
January, 1912. No actual details of the machine are available, but it
follows closely the patent drawings (see references). He is one of the
few real scientific flying men in the U.S.A. The original machine with
slight changes was still flying at end of 1912 with only 5 h.p. B.H.P.
The flying speed is 20 m.p.h.

[Illustration]


SLOANE. Sloane Aeroplane Co., 1733, Broadway, New York. Established
1911. Agents for _Caudrons_ and _Deperdussins_. Run a school for these.



~T-V~


THOMAS Biplanes. Thomas Bros., Bath, N.Y., O.W., and W.T. Thomas began
experimenting and flying in 1908 with a machine on the order of a
_Curtiss_. In the winter of 1909-10, a type of their own was produced
and was flown during 1911 by Walter Johnson in exhibitions. In 1912 they
continued the same type, with refinements. In 1913 they adopted the
overhanging top plane type, but of the same general high order of
construction.

  ----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
                              |      ~1912.~     |                  |      ~1913.~     |      ~1913.~     |       ~1913.~
       Model and date.        |      Tractor     |      ~1913.~     |     Standard     |      Special     |     Flying boat.
                              |     biplane.     |    Monoplane.    |     biplane.     |     biplane.     |
  ----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+-------------------
  ~Length~             ft.(m.)|        ...       |   30      (9.15) |        ...       |   25      (7.62) |        ...
  ~Span~               ft.(m.)|   37     (11.27) |   32      (9.75) |   37     (11.27) |   33        (10) |   33         (10)
                              |   27      (8.23) |        ...       |   27      (8.23) |   23         (7) |   23          (7)
  ~Area~          sq. ft.(m².)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...
           {total  lbs. (kgs.)|  900       (408) |  750       (340) |  900       (408) |  850       (385) |        ...
  ~Weight~ {                  |                  |                  |                  |                  |
           {useful lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |  400       (181) |        ...
  ~Motor~                 h.p.|    65 Kirkham    |    70 Kirkham    |    65 Kirkham    |    65 Kirkham    |        100
                              |                  |     _muffled_    |                  |                  |     Maximotor
  ~Speed~           m.p.h.(km)|   58        (94) |        ...       |   58        (94) |   60        (97) |        ...
  ~Endurance~             hrs.|         2        |        ...       |         2        |       2-1/4      |        ...
  Number built during 1912    |         1        |    _building_    |        ...       |        ...       |      _building_
  ----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+-------------------

Remarks. Control in all: Ailerons, 4 rudders. Elevator operated by
rocking post on which wheel is mounted. The 1912 tractor was given up as
less efficient than the Standard 1913. Special: full description
_Aeronautics_, U.S.A., May, 1913.

The move was evolved 1912, but not built till well into 1913.

[Illustration: 1913 Standard biplane. UAS.]



~W~


WASHINGTON. Washington Aeroplane Co., Washington, D.C. In 1913 built a
flying boat to private order. ~Length~, 29 feet (8.83 m.) ~Maximum
span~, 38 feet (11.85 m.) ~Motor~, 80 h.p. Gyro. Boat with eight
compartments and one 3 inch step.

[Illustration: Miss Columbia. UAS.]

[Illustration: Latest Thomas.]


WITTEMAN. Witteman Bros., 17, Ocean Terrace and Little Clare Road,
Staton Island, N.Y. These people do a considerable business building
Curtiss type machines or machines to special designs for others. They
built the _Baldwin_ biplanes for Captain Baldwin, to his design, using
steel tubing throughout. See _Aeronautics_, December, 1911, for a
_Witteman_ of special design shown by them at the Aero Show.

[Illustration: Witteman. 1912-13.]


WRIGHT BROS. Biplanes. The Wright Co., Dayton, Ohio. The original type
of _Wright_ machine was mounted on skids only, and started along a rail.
Its special features were a biplane elevator forward, main planes with
warpable tips to trailing edge, small keel in gap, 2 propellers, chain
driven in rear of planes, double rudder in rear and no tail. Wilbur
Wright flew a machine of this type for 2 h. 20 m. 23-1/2 s. in 1908.
(Details of early _Wrights_ see previous editions of this book.)

  ----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
       Model and date.        |       ~B.~       |       ~C.~       |      ~EX.~       |       ~E.~
  ----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
  ~Length~           feet (m.)|   31      (9.45) |   29-3/4     (9) |        ...       |        ...
  ~Span~             feet (m.)|   39     (11.90) |   38     (11.58) |   32      (9.75) |   32      (9.75)
  ~Area~        sq. feet (m².)|  500        (47) |  500        (47) |        ...       |        ...
           {total  lbs. (kgs.)| 1250       (567) |        ...       |        ...       |        ...
  ~Weight~ {                  |                  |                  |                  |
           {useful lbs. (kgs.)|        ...       |        ...       |        ...       |        ...
  ~Motor~                 h.p.|   30-35 Wright   |   30-35 Wright   |  30 or 50 Wright |  30 or 50 Wright
  ~Speed~         m.p.h. (km.)|   45        (75) |   45        (75) |        ...       |        ...
  ----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------
                              |                  |  1913 standard.  |  For exhibition  |       1913
                              |                  |  This machine as |    work only.    |  for exhibition
                              |                  | a hydro is fitted|   Single seater  |    work only.
                              |                  |  with two 3 step |  small duplicate |  Single seater
                              |                  |      floats.     |       of B.      | duplicate of EX
                              |                  |   Mea magneto.   |                  |except fitted with
                              |                  |                  |                  |a single propeller
                              |                  |                  |                  |      only.
  ----------------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------+------------------

[Illustration: Wright. Model B. UAS]

[Illustration: Wright. Model C. _From "Aeronautics," U.S.A._ UAS.]



U.S.A. DIRIGIBLES.


There are a few small dirigibles in the U.S.A., but they are in no way
to be compared to French and German productions. Up-to-date, they have
only been used as attractions at fairs about the country. In the past
several larger ones of poor design have been built and found failures.


~Military.~


BALDWIN (1908) 20,000 c. feet (560 m³)



Part B.

HISTORICAL AIRCRAFT.


In the following pages an attempt has been made to include photographs
of all aeroplanes of the past six years, which, for one reason or
another, "made history" in their own day.

While many are merely freak machines, which in the light of present
knowledge seem ridiculous, the germ of modern practice is to be found in
many other aircraft illustrated in this cemetery of dead ideals; and it
is worth noting that at least one constructor, who is one of the first
in the field to-day, commenced operations with machines which were
entirely "freaks."


~AUSTRIAN.~

[Illustration: WELS & ETRICH (1908). Original form of the modern
_Etrich_ (q.v.).]

[Illustration: HIPSSICH (1908). Tandem mono. with one propeller before
and another in rear of rear plane.]

[Illustration: NEMETHY (1908). The first "Aviette."]

[Illustration: SOLTAU (1910). An ornithopter based on the earlier ideas
of _Adehmar de la Hault_ (see Belgium).]


~BELGIAN.~

[Illustration: DE LA HAULT (1907). One of the earliest attempts at an
ornithopter. No flights.]

[Illustration: DE LA HAULT II. (1910-11). The ornithopter principle
applied to a monoplane. No success met with.]

[Illustration: D'HESPEL (1909-10). Single plane and suspended body.
Early example of enclosed body. No flights.]


~BRAZIL.~

[Illustration: SANTOS-DUMONT XIX. This little machine, surface only 9
m². made an extraordinary sensation in France in 1909. It flew at the
then incredible speed of 65 m.p.h. (100 k.p.h.) Santos-Dumont presented
all rights to the world soon afterwards, and a large number were built
before it was realised that only an extremely light weight pilot could
fly in one. Few of the copies ever left the ground.]


~BRITISH.~

[Illustration: AVRO (1906). This 24 h.p. biplane, designed by A. V. Roe,
was the first British machine to leave the ground.]

[Illustration: AVRO (1907). Tractor triplane of only 9 h.p. This flew in
Lea Marshes--the lowest horse power yet flown in Europe to the present
day.]

[Illustration: CODY (1909). Development of a much earlier machine. This
one was a general laughing stock for a long time; but it was the direct
predecessor of the machine (not very materially different) which was an
easy first in the British Army aeroplane trials, 1912.]

[Illustration: DE HAVILLAND (1909). The performances of this machine
secured a Government appointment for its aviator-designer.]

[Illustration: HOWARD WRIGHT (1908-09). The first machine in the world
in which special attention was paid to securing a stream line body and
minimised wind resistance.]

[Illustration: HUMPHREY (1908-09). Earliest British attempt at a
hydro-aeroplane; possibly the earliest design ever produced anywhere.]

[Illustration: HUNTINGDON (DUNNE II) (1910). One of the earliest
aeroplanes in existence--designed by Captain Dunne about 1905-06,
previous to the secret experiments of the British War Office in
Scotland, on the Duke of Atholl's estate. Assigned to Prof. Huntingdon
in 1910. Made a few short flights.]

[Illustration: PORTE (1908). Designed by Lieut. Porte, R.N., in
conjunction with Lieut. Pirrie, R.N. This machine, on which the former
well known aviator commenced his flying career, was smashed up in
preliminary trials as a glider on Portsdown Hill, Portsmouth. Its design
apparently preceded the _Goupy_ in the use of staggered planes.]

[Illustration: "SAFETY" (1909-10).]

[Illustration: SEDDON. (1910). Designed by Lieut. Seddon, R.N.]

[Illustration: SHORT (1910). The first machine to Short's own design.
(The tail here shown is a specially large one fitted by
Moore-Brabazon).]

[Illustration: VALKYRIE (1910). This was one of the first "tail first"
machines to be designed. The experimental machine (also known as the
_A.S.L._), was completed in Feb., 1910.]


~DANISH.~

[Illustration: ELLEHAMMER (1905). On 12th September, 1906, this machine
made the first free flight in Europe. On 28th June, 1908, it won the
prize at Kiel for the first flight in Germany (distance, 47 m.) It was a
tractor biplane with a revolving Ellehammer motor. It also had a
pendulum seat as a stabilising device.]


~FRENCH.~

[Illustration: ANTOINETTE IV (1909). In this machine Latham made the
first attempt to fly the Channel, 19th July, 1909.]

[Illustration: BLERIOT IV (1907-8).]

In 1909 the famous _Bleriot XI_ was built. This did very well at Reims,
1909. On 25th July, 1909, Bleriot made the first Cross-Channel flight in
the machine illustrated below.

[Illustration: Bleriot XI.]

This machine had ~length~, 23 feet (7 m.) ~Span~, 25-3/4 feet (7.80 m.)
~Area~, 167 sq. feet (15-1/2 m².) Aspect ratio 4-1/2 to 1. ~Motor~,
22-25, 3 cylinder Anzani. ~Speed~, _about_ 45 m.p.h. (73 k.m.) _Special
features_: Fixed wings with rounded edges. Twin elevator and fixed
surface tail.

[Illustration: BOUSSON-BORGNIS (1907-08).]

[Illustration: BREGUET (1906). The first Breguet, known as _Breguet
Gyroplane I_. Made a flight in October, 1906, being the first helicopter
to leave the ground.]

[Illustration: BREGUET-RICHET II bis. (1909). A large and unsuccessful
development of the gyroplane.]

[Illustration: BREGUET IV (1910). On its appearance, this machine was
generally laughed at and nicknamed the "Coffee Pot," till in Aug., 1910,
it made a world's record by carrying six, and later proved itself
superior in stability to anything then existing.]

[Illustration: CHAUVIÉRE (1909-10). Attempt to develop a monoplane with
propellers in rear. The idea has been resuscitated for some 1913
military monoplanes.]

[Illustration: COLLOMB (1907-09). Ornithopter, from which great things
were once expected.]

[Illustration: CORNU (1908). An early helicopter for which flights were
claimed, but have also been denied.]

[Illustration: D'EQUIVELLY (1907-08). Interesting example of the strange
machines devised by pioneers.]

[Illustration: H. FARMAN (1907). This famous machine is the first
_Voisin_, and the one on which H. Farman taught himself to fly. It was
the first machine to make a turn in the air. Won the Deutsh-Archdeacon
Grand Prix, 13th January, 1908, with a flight of 1 minute, 28 seconds.
The extra third plane was added later. An Austrian Syndicate
subsequently bought the machine.]

[Illustration: H. FARMAN (1908). Farman's first idea of a monoplane. It
proved too heavy to fly with the power provided. Was eventually sold to
a German officer. Three sets of wings and entirely enclosed body.]

[Illustration: GABARDINI (1909-10). Very early hydro-aeroplane,
antedating the _Fabre_.]

[Illustration: GIVAUDIN (1908-09). Built by the Vermorel Co. The first
conception of an idea which has since attracted a certain class of
inventor in Germany, Italy and the U.S.A.]

[Illustration: MILITARY (1909). The first special military aeroplane
ever built. It was specially designed by Capt. Dorand, for what were
then held to be the aerial necessities of the French Army. The planes
were placed well above the body, giving the pilot a very clear
uninterrupted view.]

[Illustration: PISCHOFF-KOECHLIN (1906 or earlier). Dates from the days
when a box-kite was the elementary idea in design, and the accepted
position of the aviator lying prone.]

[Illustration: PISCHOFF-KOECHLIN (1908). Very early example of a tractor
biplane. The extra span of the upper plane is also of interest. The
machine had twin mono-elevators aft and also twin rudders.]

[Illustration: R.E.P. (1908). Early example of enclosed stream line
body. Apparently the first machine in which steel construction
appeared.]

[Illustration: VOISIN (1908). The first European aeroplanes to fly with
any real success.]

[Illustration: VUITTON-HUBER (1908). Early helicopter.]

[Illustration: VUIA (1908). Earliest known machine with folding wings.]

[Illustration: WITZIG-LIORE-DUTILLUEL (1908-09). First or one of the
first appearances of the idea of a series of staggered planes, with
which Sellers has ever since experimented in the U.S.A.]


~GERMAN.~

[Illustration: BEILHARZ. (1909). First design in which a completely
closed in body figured.]

[Illustration: GEISLER (1908).]

[Illustration: GRADE (1908). The first German built machine to fly.]

[Illustration: LORENZEN (1908-09).]

[Illustration: PARSEVAL (1909). Early hydro-aeroplane. Specially
designed for military purposes by Major Parseval.]

[Illustration: SCHOLTZ (1908). Never left the ground.]


~ITALIAN.~

[Illustration: MILLER (1908-09). First aeroplane to be designed and
constructed by Italians.]


~SWISS.~

[Illustration: DUFAUX (1908-09). First Swiss machine.]


~U.S.A.~

[Illustration: BOKOR (1909). The third American machine to leave the
ground; the second purely U.S. one.]

[Illustration: CALL II (1909).]

[Illustration: CYGNET II (1908). Designed by Dr. Graham Bell, of the
Aeronautical Society of America. Bell (Canadian), Glen Curtis (U.S.),
Herring (U.S.), and Burgess (Canadian). It made short flights.]

[Illustration: ENGLISH (1909). In 1909 extraordinary claims were made
for this machine and great things expected. On a full power trial in its
shed it broke loose, and smashed itself against the roof. No recorded
outdoor results.]

[Illustration: HERRING-BURGESS (1910).]

[Illustration: HULBERT (1910). This strange machine built in Switzerland
by Dr. Dane Hulbert, achieved several flights. The planes were placed
longitudinally instead of in the usual way.]

[Illustration: JUNE BUG (1908-09). Famous machine of its era. Built by
the Aeronautical Society of America (see _Cygnet II_). Second machine to
fly in the U.S.A. Did 2000 miles before being broken up.]

[Illustration: KIMBALL (1909). First machine in which a large number of
propellers was attempted. Failed.]

[Illustration: LOOSE (1910).]

[Illustration: LUYTIES OTTO (1908).]

[Illustration: MOISSANT (1910). Built entirely of aluminium. Designed by
the late John Moissant. Failed.]

[Illustration: RICKMAN (1908).]

[Illustration: ROSHON (1908).]

[Illustration: WILLIAMS (1908).]

[Illustration: ZERBE (1909).]

[Illustration]

[Illustration: WRIGHT (1908). Two views of the machine with which Wilbur
Wright startled all Europe from August, 1908 to April, 1909. First U.S.
machine to fly.]



Part C.


AERO ENGINES,

ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED IN ORDER OF COUNTRY OF ORIGIN.

~AUSTRIAN, BELGIAN, BRITISH, FRENCH, GERMAN, ITALIAN, U.S.A.~

      ~Note.~--So far as possible this is a complete list of all the
          aero engines of any importance.

      Data are confined to what is now being made or actually in use;
          untested "show novelties" are ignored.

      In the case of some engines it has for various reasons proved
          impossible to obtain full data in time for inclusion in this
          edition.

      In a general way these lists are confined to aeroplane engines.



~AUSTRIAN.~

~Revised by Herr Ing. W. Isendahl.~


  ----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+
                   ~AUSTRO-DAIMLER.~                  |                       ~KÖRTING.~                   |
  ----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+
   35-40 h.p., 4 cyl., 100×120 (1450 r.p.m.) 165 lbs. | [Illustration]                                     |
   65-70 h.p., 4 cyl., 120×140 (1350 r.p.m.) 232 lbs. |                                                    |
     120 h.p., 6 cyl., 130×175 (1200 r.p.m.) 419 lbs. | Note.--This engine is no longer made, but it is to |
                                                      | be found still in some dirigibles.                 |
   Vertical water-cooled.                             |                                                    |
                                                      |                                                    |
   H.T. Magneto.                                      |                                                    |
   All Valves overhead. Rocking levers and piston     |                                                    |
   rods.                                              |                                                    |
   Forced lubrication.                                |                                                    |
                                                      |                                                    |
   Pressed steel pistons.                             |                                                    |
   Nickel-chrome crank shaft, hollow and closed.      |                                                    +
   White-metal bearings.                              |                                                    |
   Cast-iron single cylinders (copper jackets).       |                                                    |
   Single camshaft.                                   |                                                    |
                                                      |                                                    |
   [Illustration: 120 h.p.]                           |                                                    |
                                                      |                                                    |
   The 120 has 2 carburetters and 2 H.T. magnetos.    |                                                    |
  ----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+



~BELGIAN.~


  +-------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
  |                ~METALLURGIQUE.~                 |                      ~PIPE.~
  +-------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
  | 40 h.p., 4 cyl.,  85×130 (1850 r.p.m.)          | 50-70 h.p., 8 cyl., 100×100 (1950 r.p.m.) 239 lbs.
  | 60 h.p., 4 cyl., 100×150 (1850 r.p.m.) 300 lbs. | 110 h.p., 8 cyl.
  | 90 h.p., 4 cyl., 125×150 (1600 r.p.m.) 550 lbs. |
  |                                                 | Vertical, air-cooled (fan).
  | Vertical, water-cooled.                         |
  |                                                 | H.T. magneto.
  | H.T. magneto.                                   | Mechanical inlets.
  | Mechanical inlets.                              | Pump lubrication.
  | Pump lubrication.                               |
  |                                                 |
  |                                                 |
  |                                                 |
  +-------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
  |                      MIESSE.                    |                       VIVINUS.
  |                                                 |
  |50-60 h.p., 4 cyl.                          lbs. | 50 h.p., 4 cyl., 106×120 (1600 r.p.m.) 205 lbs.
  |100   h.p., 8 cyl., 130×140             245 lbs. | 60 h.p., 4 cyl., 112×130 (1600 r.p.m.) 236 lbs
  |                                                 | 70 h.p., 4 cyl., 115×130 (1800 r.p.m.) 280 lbs.
  |Horizontal opposed, air-cooled (fan).            |
  |                                                 | Vertical, water-cooled.
  |H.T. magneto                                     |
  |Mechanical inlets.                               | H.T. magneto.
  |Pump lubrication.                                | Mechanical inlets.
  |                                                 | Pump lubrication.
  |Features.--                                      |
  |                                                 |
  |Air cooling is carried out by fans which drive   |
  |air through air jackets on cylinders.            |
  |All valves in cylinder heads, rocker operated.   |
  |Vertical crank shaft.                            |
  +-------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------



~BRITISH.~


  --------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
                        ~A.B.C.~                    |                      ~GREEN.~                      |                          ~N.E.C.~                         |                   ~WOLSELEY.~
   All British Engine Co., Ltd., Brooklands, Surrey.|    Green Engine Co., Ltd., 455, Berners Street,    |      New Engine (Motor) Co. Ltd., 9, Grafton Street,      |        Wolseley Tool & Motor Car Co., Ltd.,
                                                    |                      London, W.                    |                    Bond Street, London, W.                |            Adderley Park, Birmingham.
  --------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
   30 h.p.,  4 cyl.,  95×80  (1450 r.p.m.) 155 lbs. |  30-35 h.p., 4 cyl., 105×120              158 lbs. |  50 h.p., 4 cyl., 95×115 (1250 r.p.m.)          205 lbs.  | 60-80 h.p., 8 cyl., 95×140, type A        325 lbs.
   45 h.p.,  6 cyl.,  95×80  (1450 r.p.m.) 225 lbs. |  50-60 h.p., 4 cyl., 140×146              263 lbs. |  90 h.p., 6 cyl., 96×115 (1250 r.p.m.)          405 lbs.  |    "          "       "       "  B        345 lbs.
   60 h.p.,  8 cyl.,  95×80  (1450 r.p.m.) 231 lbs. | 90-100 h.p., 6 cyl., 140×152              298 lbs. |                                                           |    "          "       "       "  C        315 lbs.
   85 h.p.,  6 cyl., 125×105 (1700 r.p.m.) 290 lbs. |  Vertical, water-cooled (pump). H.T. magneto.      |  Two stroke vertical for the 90 h.p. ~V~ for the 50.      |    "          "       "       "  D        335 lbs.
  115 h.p.,  8 cyl., 125×105 (1400 r.p.m.) 380 lbs. |  Mechanical inlets.             Forced lubrication.|                                                           | 120 h.p.,  8 cyl., 125×175 (1150 r.p.m.)  630 lbs.
  170 h.p., 12 cyl., 125×105 (1400 r.p.m.) 520 lbs. |                                                    |  H.T. magneto.                                            | ~V~ type. Types A and B of the 60-80 air-cooled
  225 h.p., 16 cyl., 125×105 (1400 r.p.m.) 640 lbs. |  _Features._--                                     |  Valveless.                                               | (water-cooled exhausts). The others water-cooled.
                                                    |    Cast-iron cylinders.  Overhead cam shaft.       |  Forced lubrication.                                      | Types A and C of the 60-80 are for direct coupling
   ~V~ type, water-cooled (pump).                   |    Copper jackets.       Nickel chrome crank shaft.|                                                           | of propeller, with double thrust ball bearings.
                                                    |    Overhead valves.      White metal bearings.     |  _Features._--                                            | Types B and D geared to half crank shaft speed.
   H.T. magneto.                                    |                                                    |                                                           | Bosch dual ignition.
   Mechanical inlets.                               |  [Illustration]                                    |  Pistons after uncovering exhaust ports open              | Mechanical inlets.
   Forced lubrication.                              |                                                    |      the inlet ports. Air from blowers                    | Forced lubrication.
                                                    |                                                    |      scavenges. Strong mixture enters                     | _Features._--
   _Features._--                                    |                                                    |      immediately on compression stroke.                   | Steel cylinders (single).
                                                    |                                                    |      This is effected by a central mechanism.             | Overhead valves (removable seats).
   Steel cylinders (steel and copper jackets).      |                                                    |                                                           | Carburettor between cylinders.
   Overhead vertical valves.                        |                                                    |  (N.B. Older types see previous editions.)                | Nickel chrome crank shaft, on 3 bearings.
   Cast-steel crank case.                           |                                                    |                                                           |
   Nickel chrome crank shaft, white metal           |                                                    |  [Illustration]                                           | [Illustration]
   bearings.                                        |                                                    |                                                           |
  --------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------



~FRENCH.~


  ---------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------
                           ~ANZANI.~                             |                      ~BERTIN.~                   |            ~CANTON-UNNÈ (SALMSON).~                |                ~CLEMENT BAYARD.~
              71, _bis_ Quai d'Asinières (Seine).                |               8, rue Garancier, Paris.           |   E. Salmson, 55, rue Grange aux Belles, Paris.    |     Usineo Clement Bayard, 33 quai Michelet,
                                                                 |                                                  |                                                    |           Levallois-Perret, (Seine).
  ---------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------
       30 h.p.,  3 cyl., 105×130 (1575 r.p.m.)          154 lbs. |  50 h.p., 4 cyl., 116×150 (1100 r.p.m,) 132 lbs. |  60 h.p., 7 cyl.,  75×260 (1300 r.p.m.)   220 lbs. |  40 h.p., 4 cyl., 100×120                242 lbs.
       30 h.p.,  3 cyl., 105×120 (1300 r.p.m.)          121 lbs. | 100 h.p., 8 cyl., 116×150 (1100 r.p.m.) 209 lbs. |  80 h.p., 7 cyl., 120×140 (1250 r.p.m.)   298 lbs. | 100 h.p., 4 cyl., 135×160 (1500 rp.m.)   463 lbs.
    40-45 h.p.,  6 cyl.,  90×120 (1300 r.p.m.)          154 lbs. |                                                  | 110 h.p., 9 cyl., 120×140 (1300 r.p.m.)   353 lbs. | 130 h.p., 4 cyl., 155×185
    50-60 h.p.,  6 cyl., 105×120 (1300 r.p.m.)          200 lbs. | ~X~ type air cooled.                             |                                                    | 180 h.p., 6 cyl., 155×185 (1200 r.p.m.)
       80 h.p., 10 cyl.,  90×130 (1250 r.p.m.)          238 lbs. |                                                  | The 60 h.p. has parallel a.c. cylinders, the other | 200 h.p., 4 cyl., 190×230 (1200 r.p.m.) 1100 lbs.
      100 h.p., 10 cyl., 105×140 (1100 r.p.m.)          308 lbs. |                                                  | two are radial w.c.                                |
                                                                 |                                                  |                                                    | H.T. magneto.
      Radial type, air-cooled (but water-cooling is occasionally |                                                  | There is also a horizontal radial engine (w.c.)    | G.A. carburetter. Forced lubrication.
      fitted).                                                   |                                                  | 300 h.p., 9 cyl., 150×210 (1200 r.p.m.) 990 lbs.   |
                                                                 |                                                  |                                                    | Overhead valves worked by two cams only.
      H.T. magneto.                                              |                                                  | H.T. magneto.                                      | Exhausts opened and closed by spring on tappet.
      Mechanical inlets.                                         |                                                  | Mechanical inlets.                                 |
      Forced lubrication.                                        |                                                  | Forced lubrication.                                | _40 h.p._, vertical, _en bloc_, water-cooled, copper,
                                                                 |                                                  | Steel cylinders, copper jackets.                   | jacket, all valves same side, single cam shaft,
      _Features._--                                              |                                                  | Overhead Valves.                                   | splash lubrication. Special carburetter, jet in
                                                                 |                                                  | Single special steel crank shaft on ball bearings. | centre of float chamber.
      Extremely simple construction.                             |                                                  | Aluminium alloy or steel crank case.               |
      Mainshaft single crank.                                    |                                                  |                                                    | _130 and 180 h.p._ (for dirigibles), cylinders in pairs,
      Flywheel specially balanced to compensate.                 |                                                  | [Illustration]                                     | water-cooled. Overhead valves, single over-head
      Zenith carburetter.                                        +--------------------------------------------------+                                                    | cam shaft. Two ignitions. Expanding
                                                                 |                    ~BURLAT.~                     |                                                    | clutch.
                                                                 |        289 Avenue de Saxe, Lyon (Rhone).         |                                                    |
                                                                 |                                                  |                                                    | [Illustration: Dirigible engine.]
                                                                 |  35 h.p.,  8 cyl.,  95×120 (956 r.p.m.) 187 lbs. |                                                    |
                                                                 |  60 h.p.,  8 cyl., 120×120 (940 r.p.m.) 264 lbs. |                                                    |
                                                                 |  75 h.p.,  8 cyl., 120×170 (940 r.p.m.) 308 lbs. |                                                    |
                                                                 | 120 h.p., 16 cyl., 120×120 (900 r.p.m.) 495 lbs. |                                                    |
                                                                 |                                                  |                                                    |
                                                                 | Rotary, air-cooled.                              |                                                    |
  ------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------
                          ~CHENU.~                      |                      ~CLERGET.~                      |           ~DANSETTE GILLET (LAVIATOR).~              |                         ~DE DION.~
        Chenu, 10 Rue Fontaine-Saint-Georges, Paris.    |         Clerget & Cie, 11 rue Leon-Cogniet, Paris.   |         Dansette Gillet & Cie., 36 quai de.          |     Établissements de Dion-Bouton, 52 avenue des
                                                        |                                                      |             Suresnes, Suresnes (Seine).              |                Champs-Élysées, Paris.
  ------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------
    50 h.p., 4 cyl., 110×130 (1300 r.p.m.) 253-1/2 lbs. |    43 h.p., 4 cyl., 100×120 (1600 r.p.m.)            |  80 h.p., 8 cyl., 100×130 (1200 r.p.m,)     418 lbs. |  80 h.p., 8 cyl., 100×120 (1700 r.p.m.)     484 lbs.
    75 h.p., 6 cyl., 110×130 (1300 r.p.m.) 375     lbs. |    50 h.p., 4 cyl., 110×120 (1500 r.p.m.)   172 lbs. | 110 h.p., 6 cyl., 130×160 (1100 r.p.m.)     616 lbs. | 150 h.p., 8 cyl., 125×150 (1600 r.p.m.)     968 lbs.
   200 h.p., 6 cyl., 150×200               860     lbs. |   100 h.p., 4 cyl., 140×160 (1250 r.p.m.)   342 lbs. | 120 h.p., 4 cyl., 145×175 (1200 r.p.m.)     484 lbs. | ~V~ type, air-cooled for the 80; water-cooled for the
                                                        | 50-60 h.p., 7 cyl., 120×120 (1200 r.p.m.)   198 lbs. | 120 h.p., 8 cyl., 114×160 (1200 r.p.m.)     418 lbs. | 150.
   Vertical, water-cooled (thermo syphon).              |   200 h.p., 8 cyl., 140×160 (1275 r.p.m.)   495 lbs. | 200 h.p., 8 cyl., 147×175 (1100 r.p.m.)     715 lbs. |
                                                        |                                                      | 250 h.p., 6 cyl., 180×200 (1050 r.p.m.)    1210 lbs. | H.T. magneto.
   H.T. magneto.                                        | The 43 h.p. 50 and 100 vertical engines, w.c.        |                                                      | Pump lubrication.
   Automatic lubrication.                               |                                                      | The 110, 120 (4 cyl.) and 250 are vertical, the      | Forced lubrication.
                                                        | The 50-60 h.p. is a radial, rotary.                  | others are ~V~ type.                                 |
   Cylinders in pairs.                                  |                                                      |                                                      | [Illustration: De Dion.]
                                                        | The 200 h.p. has 2 carburetters and 2 magnetos,      |                                                      |
                                                        | and is ~V~ type.                                     |                                                      |
                                                        |                                                      |                                                      |
                                                        | [Illustration: 200 h.p. Clerget.]                    |                                                      |
                                                        |                                                      |                                                      |
  ------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------
                 ~DUTHEIL CHALMERS (EOLE).~             |                      ~GNOME~                         |                   ~LABOR AVIATION.~                  |                      ~PANHARD.~
  Dutheil Chalmers & Cie., 81-83 avenue d'italie, Paris.|  Société des moleurs Gnome, 3 rue La Boëtie, Paris.  |  Soc. anonyme des moteurs Labor Aviation, 29 rue de  |  Société Panhard & Levassor, avenue d'Ivry, Paris.
                                                        |                                                      |          la Révolte, Levallois Perret (Seine).       |
  ------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------
    40 h.p., 4 cyl., 125×120                   250 lbs. |  50 h.p.,  7 cyl., 11$1×$220 (1200 r.p.m.)  165 lbs. |  42 h p., 4 cyl.,  90×150 (1200 r.p.m.)     221 lbs. |  35-40 h.p., 4 cyl., 110×140                210 lbs.
    60 h.p., 6 cyl., 125×120                   350 lbs. |  70 h.p.,  7 cyl., 13$1×$220 (1300 r.p.m.)  183 lbs. |  72 h.p., 4 cyl., 100×210 (1200 r.p.m.)     353 lbs. |     55 h.p., 6 cyl., 110×140                341 lbs.
                                                        |  80 h.p.,  7 cyl., 124×140 (1200 r.p.m.)    191 lbs. | 120 h.p., 4 cyl., 120×250                   419 lbs. |    100 h.p., 8 cyl., 110×140 (1500 r.p.m.)  440 lbs.
    Opposed horizontal, water-cooled.                   | 100 h.p., 14 cyl., 110×120 (1200 r.p.m.)    220 lbs. |                                                      |
                                                        | 140 h.p., 14 cyl., 130×120 (1200 r.p.m.)    286 lbs. | Vertical water-cooled (pump).                        |  Vertical, water-cooled.
    H.T. magneto.                                       | 160 h.p., 14 cyl., 124×140 (1200 r.p.m.)    308 lbs. |                                                      |
    Automatic inlets.                                   |                                                      | H.T. magneto.                                        |  H.T. magneto.
    Pump lubrication.                                   | Radial rotary, air-cooled.                           | Mechanical inlets.                                   |  Mechanical inlets.
                                                        |                                                      | Forced lubrication.                                  |  Pump lubrication.
                           also                         | H.T. magneto.                                        |                                                      |
                                                        | Automatic inlets.                                    | _Features:_--                                        |  _Features._--
                ~EOLE.~ (Dutheil Chalmers.)             | Forced lubrication.                                  |                                                      |
                                                        |                                                      | Automatic carburetter.                               |  Cast-iron cylinders, jackets in casting.
    40 h.p., 4 cyl., 130×130                   198 lbs. | _Features._--                                        |                                                      |  Valves at side.
                                                        |                                                      | [Illustration]                                       |  Cam shaft in crank case.
    Horizontal w.c., with central crank shaft over      | Single crank pin                                     +------------------------------------------------------+  Nickel chrome crank shaft; white metal
    head valves.                                        | Steel cylinders turned from solid.                   |                       ~LA RHONE~                     |  bearings.
                                                        | Single ignition point.                               |                                                      |
    100 h.p., 8 cyl.                                    | Gas admitted through hollow crank shaft to           |  50 h.p.,  7 cyl., 105×140                  176 lbs. |  [Illustration]
                                                        | crank case, thence to pistons; oil enters            |  80 h.p.,  9 cyl., 105×140                  242 lbs. |
    Crank shaft at either end, all valves in centre.    | in a similar way.                                    | 100 h.p., 14 cyl., 105×140                  308 lbs. |  There is also a 120 h.p. 4 cylinder for dirigibles.
                                                        | Nickel chrome crank shaft, ball bearings.            | 160 h.p., 18 cyl., 105×140                  374 lbs. |
    [Illustration]                                      | Steel crank case.                                    |                  (1200 r.p.m. in all.)               |
                                                        | The 100 h.p. has seven cylinders behind seven        |                                                      |
                                                        | others. Larger sizes ditto.                          |  Rotary, air-cooled.                                 |
                                                        | Older engines of 50-100 h.p. do not differ in        |                                                      |
                                                        | general details.                                     |                                                      |
                                                        |                                                      |                                                      |
                                                        | [Illustration: 50 h.p. Gnome.]                       |                                                      |
                                                        |                                                      |                                                      |
  ------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------
                        ~RENAULT~                       |                        ~R.E.P.~                      |                  ~ROSSEL-PEUGEOT.~                   |                       ~VIALE.~
      Automobiles Louis Renault, 15 rue Gustav-Sandoz,  |   Établissement Robert Ésnault Pelterie, 149 rue de  |Soc. anonyme de constructions aerienne Rossel-Peugeot,| Viale & Cie. 19 rue de la Mairie, Boulogne-sur-Seine
                   Billancourt (Seine).                 |               Silly, Billancourt (Seine).            |        rue de Longchamp, à Suresnes (Seine).         |                        (Seine).
  ------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------
     25 h.p.,  4 cyl.,  90×120                 243 lbs. |   45 h.p., 5 cyl., 100×140                  243 lbs. |  30-40 h.p., 7 cyl., 105×110 (1100 r.p.m.)  165 lbs. |  30 h.p.,  3 cyl., 105×130 (1250 r.p.m.)    165 lbs.
     35 h.p.,  8 cyl.,  75×120                 243 lbs. |   60 h.p., 5 cyl., 110×160 (1100 r.p.m.)    330 lbs. |  40-50 h.p., 7 cyl., 110×110 (1100 r.p.m.)  172 lbs. |  50 h.p.,  5 cyl., 105×130 (1250 r.p.m.)    199 lbs.
     50 h.p.,  8 cyl.,  90×120                 375 lbs. |   90 h.p., 7 cyl., 110×160 (1100 r.p.m.)    463 lbs. |  50-55 h.p., 7 cyl., 110×110 (1150 r.p.m.)  165 lbs. |  70 h.p.,  7 cyl., 105×130 (1250 r.p.m.)    254 lbs.
     70 h.p.,  8 cyl.,  96×140                 397 lbs. |                                                      |                                                      | 100 h.p., 10 cyl., 105×130 (1250 r.p.m.)    320 lbs.
     90 h.p., 12 cyl.,  96×140                 640 lbs. |   Radial, air-cooled.                                |  Rotary, air-cooled.                                 |
                    (All at 1800 r.p.m.)                |                                                      |                                                      |  Radial, air-cooled.
                                                        |   H.T. magneto and accumulators.                     |  H.T. magneto.                                       |
     Cylinders at 90°.                                  |   Mechanical inlets.                                 |  Mechanical inlets.                                  |  [Illustration: VIALE.]
     ~V~ type, air-cooled.                              |   Forced lubrication.                                |  Forced lubrication.                                 |
                                                        |                                                      |                                                      +------------------------------------------------------
     H.T. magneto.                                      |   _Features._--                                      |  [Illustration: ROSSEL-PEUGEOT.]                     |
     Mechanical inlets.                                 |                                                      |                                                      |                     ~VERDET.~
     Pump lubrication.                                  |   In the 7 cyl. the cylinders are in two planes,     |  There is also a vertical water-cooled motor (1913). |
                                                        |   four being in front of the others.                 |  100 h.p., 140×140 (1300 r.p.m.)            352 lbs. |  55 h.p., 7 cyl., 112×140 (1100 r.p.m.)    176 lbs.
     _Features._--                                      |                                                      |                                                      |
                                                        |   The 5 cyl. engines are fan shape in one plane.     |                                                      |  Rotary, air-cooled.
     Two to one shaft, made specially strong to         |                                                      |                                                      |
     admit of the direct coupling of a propeller.       |   [Illustration: 7 cylinder.]                        |                                                      |
                                                        |                                                      |                                                      |
     Inlet valves operated from below, exhausts         |                                                      |                                                      |
     placed above them at the side.                     |                                                      |                                                      |
                                                        |                                                      |                                                      |
     Plain bearings.                                    |                                                      |                                                      |
                                                        |                                                      |                                                      |
     Special cooling.                                   |                                                      |                                                      |
                                                        |                                                      |                                                      |
     [Illustration]                                     |                                                      |                                                      |
                                                        |                                                      |                                                      |
  ------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------



~GERMAN.~

~Revised by Herr Ing. W. Isendahl.~


  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
                   ~ARGUS.~                             |                       ~BENZ.~                      |                                                    |
    Argus-Motoren G.m.b.H., Flottenstrasse 39 and 40,   |                 Benz & Cie, Mannheim.              |                 ~DELFOSSE (radial.)~               |               ~DELFOSSE (rotary.)~
       Reinickendorf bei Berlin. Established 1900.      |                                                    |                                                    |
  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
    70 h.p., 4 cyl., 124×130 (1400 r.p.m.)   254 lbs.   | 100 h.p., 4 cyl., 130×180 (1250 r.p.m.)   337 lbs. | 24-30 h.p., 3 cyl., 110×130 (1500 r.p.m.) 100 lbs. |  30 h.p., 3 cyl. (1500 r.p.m.)            121 lbs.
   100 h.p., 4 cyl., 140×140 (1250 r.p.m.)   290 lbs.   | Vertical, water-cooled (pump).                     | 30-40 h.p., 3 cyl., 120×140 (1400 r.p.m.) 120 lbs. |  50 h.p., 5 cyl., 110×130 (1400 r.p.m.)   176 lbs.
   150 h.p., 6 cyl., 140×140 (1250 r.p.m.)   353 lbs.   | 2 H.T. magneto (Bosch).                            | 35-45 h.p., 4 cyl., 110×130 (1500 r.p.m.)          |  70 h.p., 7 cyl., 110×138 (1200 r.p.m.)
                                                        | Mechanical inlets.                                 | 50-70 h.p., 4 cyl., 120×140 (1500 r.p.m.)          |
   Vertical, water-cooled (pump).                       | Forced lubrication.                                | 50-60 h.p., 6 cyl., 110×130 (1500 r.p.m.)          |  Rotary air-cooled.
                                                        | _Features._--                                      |80-100 h.p., 6 cyl., 120×140 (1500 r.p.m.)          |  H.T. magneto (Bosch).
   H.T. magneto (Bosch).                                |                                                    |                                                    |  Overhead valves.
   Mechanical inlets.                                   | Cast-iron cylinder, steel jackets.                 | Radial air-cooled.                                 |  Automatic inlets.
   _Features._--                                        | Single cylinders.                                  | H.T. magneto (or 6 volt accumulator).              |  Steel cylinders.
                                                        | All valves overhead (single cam shaft).            | Automatic inlets.                                  |  Crank shaft on ball bearings.
   Cast-iron cylinders.                                 | Crank shaft hollow oil 5 metal bearings.           | Forced lubrication.                                |
   Cylinders in pairs.                                  |                                                    |                                                    |  [Illustration: DELFOSSE]
   Valves one side (single cam shaft).                  | [Illustration]                                     | _Features._--                                      |
   Crank shaft on ball bearings, closed and hollow.     |                                                    |                                                    |
                                                        | This engine won the Kaiser's prize of 50,000 marks.| Special metal cylinders.                           |
   [Illustration: 100 h.p.]                             |                                                    | Very large valve chambers.                         |
                                                        |                                                    | Chrome nickel crankshaft and big ends.             |
                                                        |                                                    | Water-cooling fitted if required at a 10% increase |
                                                        |                                                    | of weight.                                         |
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |
                                                        |                                                    | [Illustration: DELFOSSE RADIAL.]                   |
  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
                       ~DIXI.~                          |                      ~HILZ.~                       |                 ~MERCEDES-DAIMLER.~                |
    Dixi Luftfahrt-u-Bootsmotoren-Verkaufsgesellschaft  |  Hilz Motorenfabrik G.m.b.H., Fürstenwallstr. 189, | Daimler Motoren G.m.b.H., Stuttgart-Unterturkheim. |
   m.b.H., Bulowstr. 11, Berlin W. 25. Established 1911.|                     Düsseldorf.                    |                                                    |
  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
    50 h.p., 4 cyl., 100×140 (1400 r.p.m.)     198 lbs. | 25-30 h.p., 3 cyl., 105×130 (1400 r.p.m.)        ? |  70 h.p., 4 cyl., 120×140 (1400 r.p.m.)   276 lbs. |
    75 h.p., 4 cyl., 120×170 (1300 r.p.m.)     308 lbs. |    50 h.p., 5 cyl., 105×130 (1400 r.p.m.)        ? |  70 h.p. (as above, but _inverted_)       298 lbs. | [Illustration: 70 h.p. Mercedes-Daimler.]
   100 h.p., 4 cyl., 140×200 (1200 r.p.m.)     452 lbs. |                                                    |  90 h.p., 6 cyl., 105×140 (1350 r.p.m.)   309 lbs. |
                                                        | Radial, air-cooled.                                |                                                    |
   Vertical, water-cooled (pump).                       | H.T. magneto (Bosch).                              |  Vertical, water-cooled (pump).                    |
                                                        | Automatic inlets.                                  |  H.T. magneto (Eismann in the 70, two Bosch in     |
   H.T. magneto (Bosch).                                | Splash and forced lubrication.                     |  the 90).                                          |
   Mechanical inlets.                                   | Steel cylinders.                                   |  Mechanical inlets.                                |
   Forced lubrication.                                  | Crank shaft, hollow, on white metal bearings.      |  Forced lubrication.                               |
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |
   _Features._--                                        | [Illustration]                                     |  _Features_ of the 70's--                          |
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |
   Cast-iron cylinders, copper jackets.                 |                                                    |  Cast-iron cylinders (in pairs).                   |
   Single cylinders.                                    |                                                    |  Overhead valves.                                  |
   Overhead inlets (single cam shaft).                  |                                                    |  Single cam shaft.                                 |
   Crank shaft, hollow, on 3 metal bearings.            |                                                    |  Crank shaft, hollow, on metal bearings.           |
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |
   [Illustration: 100 h.p.]                             |                                                    |  _Features_ of the 90.--                           |
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |
                                                        |                                                    |  Steel cylinders, with steel jackets.              |
                                                        |                                                    |  2 carburetters (Mercedes-Daimler), _otherwise     |
                                                        |                                                    |  as the 70's_.                                     |
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |
                                                        |                                                    |  [Illustration: 90 h.p.]                           |
  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
                        ~N.A.G.~                        |                 ~OTTO ("A.G.O.")~                  |                    ~ROTOR.~                        |                        ~SYLPHE.~
   Neue Automobile Ges. m.b.H., Berlin-Oberschoneweide. |   Gustav Otto, G.m.b.H., Karlstrasse 72, Munich.   |                                                    |
  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
    60 h.p., 4 cyl., 118×100 (1400 r.p.m.)     254 lbs. |  50 h.p., 4 cyl., 110×150 (1400 r.p.m.)   199 lbs. |  70 h.p., 7 cyl., 110×150 (1100 r.p.m.)   199 lbs. | 40 h.p., 5 cyl., 110×130 (1200 r.p.m.)   ? lbs.
    95 h.p., 4 cyl., 135×165 (1350 r.p.m.)     353 lbs. |  70 h.p., 6 cyl., 110×150 (1400 r.p.m.)   287 lbs. |  90 h.p., 9 cyl., 110×150 (1100 r.p.m.)   243 lbs. |
                                                        | 100 h.p., 4 cyl., 140×150 (1300 r.p.m.)   353 lbs. |                                                    | Rotary, air-cooled.
    Vertical, water-cooled (pump).                      |                                                    |  Rotary, air-cooled.                               |
                                                        |  Vertical, water-cooled (pump).                    |                                                    | H.T. magneto (Eismann).
    H.T. magneto (Bosch), 2 in the 95 h.p.              |                                                    |  H.T. magneto.                                     | Automatic inlets.
    Mechanical inlets.                                  |  H.T. magneto (Bosch).                             |  Automatic inlets.                                 | Forced lubrication (fresh oil).
    Forced lubrication.                                 |  Mechanical inlets.                                |  Forced lubrication (fresh oil).                   |
                                                        |  Forced lubrication.                               |                                                    | _Features._--
    _Features._--                                       |                                                    |  _Features._--                                     |
                                                        |  _Features._--                                     |                                                    | Chrome nickel steel cylinders.
    Cast-iron cylinders, copper jackets.                |                                                    |  Steel cylinders.                                  | Single cylinders.
    Cylinders in pairs.                                 |  Cast-iron cylinders.                              |  Single cylinders.                                 | Overhead valves.
    Single cam shaft.                                   |  Single cylinders, all connected by long bolts     |  Overhead valves.                                  | Crank shaft, hollow, on metal bearings.
    Overhead valves.                                    |  and nuts.                                         |  Crank shaft, hollow, on ball bearings.            |
    Crank shaft, hollow, on 5 metal bearings.           |  Overhead valves in the 100 h.p. Side valves       |                                                    | [Illustration: 30-40 h.p.]
                                                        |  in the 50 and 70.                                 |                                                    |
    [Illustration: 95 h.p.]                             |  Single cam shaft.                                 |                                                    |
                                                        |  Crank shaft hollow, on metal bearings.            |                                                    |
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |
                                                        |  [Illustration]                                    |                                                    |
  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------



~ITALIAN.~


  ----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------
              ~CAPRONI & FACCANONI.~                  |            (_Dirigibles only._) ~FIAT.~            |      (_Dirigibles only._) ~ISOTTA-FRASCHINI.~      |                        ~ITALA.~
    Soc. di Aviazione Ing^{ri} Caproni & Faccanoni,   |     Fabbrica Italiano Automobile Torino, 30-35     |    Fabbrica Automobili Isotta-Fraschini, 79 Via    |   Itala Fabbrica Automobili, Barriera Orbassano,
                  Vizzola Ticino.                     |            Corso Dante, Turin (Torino).            |                 Monte Rosa, Milan.                 |                    Turin (Torino).
  ----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------------------
     60 h.p.,  6 cyl., 105×130               176 lbs  |  60 h.p., 4 cyl., 150×200 (1200 r.p.m.)   220 lbs. | 100 h.p., 4 cyl., 130×180  (    r.p.m.)   662 lbs. | 50-55 h.p., 4 cyl., 115×140 (1500 r.p.m.) 397 lbs.
    120 h.p., 12 cyl., 105×130                   lbs. | 200 h.p., 4 cyl., 170×250 (1200 r.p.m.)  1443 lbs. | 500 h.p., 8 cyl., 150×200  (    r.p.m.)  1543 lbs. |
                                                      |                                                    |                                                    | Vertical, water-cooled (pump).
    Radial, air-cooled.                               |  Vertical.                                         | Vertical.                                          |
                                                      |                                                    |                                                    | H.T. magneto.
    H.T. magneto.                                     |  H.T. magneto and accumulators.                    | H.T. magneto.                                      | Mechanical inlets.
    Mechanical inlets.                                |  Mechanical inlets.                                | Mechanical inlets.                                 | Forced lubrication.
    Forced lubrication.                               |  Forced lubrication.                               | Forced lubrication (pump).                         |
                                                      |                                                    |                                                    | _Features._--
                                                      |  _Features._--                                     | _Features._--                                      |
                                                      |                                                    |                                                    | Cylinders in pairs.
                                                      |  Enclosed valves.                                  | Overhead inlets.                                   | Overhead inlets.
                                                      |  Single cast-iron cylinders.                       | Horizontal exhausts.                               | Automatic carburetter.
                                                      |                                                    | Special radiation.                                 |
                                                      +----------------------------------------------------+ Zenith carburetter.                                | [Illustration]
                                                      |                    ~GNOME.~                        |                                                    |
                                                      |    Fab. Italiana Mot. Gnome, 73 Strada Venaria,    |                                                    |
                                                      |                  Turin (Torino).                   |                                                    |
                                                      +----------------------------------------------------+                                                    |
                                                      |  Works of the Italian built Gnome engines.         |                                                    |
                                                      |                                                    |                                                    |
  ----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+
                    ~L. U. C. T.~                     |                      ~S. P. A.~                    |
   Ladetto-Ubertalli & Cavalchini, Via Cavalli.-Angolo|   Società Ligure Piemontese Automobili, Barriera   |
          Via Circonvallazione Turin (Torino).        |                   Crocetta, Turin.                 |
  ----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+
     50 h.p., 7 cyl., 110×120                    lbs. | 40-50 h.p., 4 cyl., 95×150 (1200 r.p.m.)  199 lbs. |
     80 h.p., 9 cyl., 110×120                    lbs. |                                                    |
    100 h.p., 9 cyl., 122×150                    lbs. | Horizontal, water-cooled (pump).                   |
                                                      |                                                    |
    Rotary, air-cooled.                               | H.T. magneto and accumulators.                     |
                                                      | Mechanical inlets.                                 |
    H.T. magneto.                                     | Forced lubrication.                                |
    Mechanical inlets.                                |                                                    |
    Forced lubrication.                               | _Features._--                                      |
                                                      |                                                    |
                                                      | Two pistons per cylinder.                          |
                                                      | Ball bearings throughout.                          |
                                                      |                                                    |
                                                      | [Illustration: _Dirigible engine._]                |
                                                      | There is also a vertical 160 h.p. dirigible engine.|
                                                      |                                                    |
                                                      |                                                    |
                                                      |                                                    |
                                                      |                                                    |
                                                      |                                                    |
  ----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+



~SWISS.~


  +----------------------------------------------------
  |                        OERLIKON.
  |Société Oerlikon Suisse de Machines Outils, Oerlikon.
  |
  +----------------------------------------------------
  | 55 h.p., 4 cyl., 100×200 (1200 r.p.m.)      176 lbs.
  |
  | Horizontal opposed, water-cooled (pump).
  |
  | H.T. magneto (2 circuits for 2 sets of plugs).
  | Mechanical inlets.
  | Forced lubrication.
  |
  | Features.--
  |
  | Steel cylinders (copper jackets).
  | Single cylinders.
  | Overhead valves.
  | Single cam shaft.
  | 2 carburetters (one for each pair of cylinders).
  | Crank shaft, solid, on ball bearings.
  | Open crank case.
  |
  | [Illustration]
  |
  +----------------------------------------------------



~U.S.A.~


  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
                  ~ADAMS-FARWELL.~                      |                      ~ALBATROSS.~                  |                        ~CALL.~                     |                       ~CURTISS.~
           21, Athol Street, Dubuque, Iowa.             |              Albatross Co., Detroit, Mich.         |  Aerial Navigation Co. of America, Girard, Kansas. |      Curtis Aeroplane Co., Hammondsport, N.Y.
  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
   36 h.p., 5 cyl., 102× 88 (1200 r.p.m.)       97 lbs. |  50 h.p., 6 cyl., 113×125 (1230 r.p.m.)   250 lbs. |   50 h.p., 2 cyl., 150×131                185 lbs. | 40 h.p., 4 cyl., (1100 r.p.m.)                lbs.
   63 h.p., 5 cyl., 142×127 (1200 r.p.m.)      250 lbs. | 100 h.p., 6 cyl., 137×125                 275 lbs. |  100 h.p., 4 cyl.                         325 lbs. | 75 h.p., 8 cyl., 100×100 (1100 r.p.m.)    250 lbs.
   72 h.p., 5 cyl., 152×152                    285 lbs. |                                                    |                                                    | also
                                                        | Radial. The 50 is air-cooled, the 100 water-cooled.|                                                    | 60 h.p., 6 cyl., (1350 r.p.m.)                lbs.
   Rotary horizontal.                                   |                                                    |  Horizontal opposed, water-cooled.                 |
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    | 40 and 75, ~V~ shape, water-cooled (pump).
   H.T. magneto.                                        |                                                    |                                                    | 60, vertical water-cooled (pump).
   Special valves.                                      |                                                    |  Mechanical inlets.                                |
                                                        |                                                    |  Magneto ignition (Bosch).                         | H.T. magneto (Bosch dual).
   _Features._--                                        |                                                    |  Special silencer.                                 | Mechanical inlets.
                                                        |                                                    |  Vanadium iron cylinders.                          | Splash and forced lubrication.
   No flywheel.                                         |                                                    |  Forced lubrication.                               |
   All valves in cylinder head, actuated by a           |                                                    |                                                    | _Features._--
   single push and pull lever worked by a               |                                                    |                                                    |
   single cam. Valves close outwardly and               |                                                    |  _Features._--                                     | Single cylinders, copper jackets.
   are held shut by centrifugal force.                  |                                                    |                                                    | All valves in cylinder heads, actuated by rocking
   Variable lift.                                       |                                                    |  [Illustration]                                    | levers from single cam shaft.
   Exhaust ports.                                       |                                                    |                                                    |
   Mechanical oil feed.                                 |                                                    |                                                    | [Illustration]
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |
   Engine weights are "fully complete."                 |                                                    |                                                    |
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |
   [Illustration]                                       |                                                    |                                                    |
  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
                   ~DETROIT AEROPLANE CO.~              |                      ~ELBRIDGE.~                   |                     ~HALL-SCOTT.~                  |                 ~KEMP (GREY EAGLE).~
           Detroit Aeroplane Co., Detroit, Mich.        |  Elbridge Engine Co., 10, Culver Road, Rochester,  |    Hall-Scott Motor Car Co., San Francisco, Cal.   |            Kemp Machine Works, Muncie, Ind.
                                                        |                          N.Y.                      |                                                    |
  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
   30-40 h.p., 2 cyl., 127×127 (1200 r.p.m.) 110 lbs.   |  40 h.p., 4 cyl., 123×114                 198 lbs. |  30 h.p., 4 cyl., 100×100                 142 lbs. |                      1912 _models_:
                                                        |  60 h.p., 6 cyl., 123×114                 257 lbs. |  40 h.p., 4 cyl., 100×125                 150 lbs. |
   2 cycle horizontal, air-cooled.                      |                                                    |  60 h.p., 8 cyl., 100×100                 235 lbs. |  35 h.p., D 4 cyl., 100×113                   lbs.
                                                        |  Vertical, water-cooled. Valveless. Oil in gas.    |  80 h.p., 8 cyl., 100×125                 270 lbs. |  50 h.p., E 6 cyl., 100×113               260 lbs.
   H.T. magneto.                                        |                                                    | 100 h.p.                                      lbs. |
   Automatic inlets.                                    |  _Features._--Extra large bearings.                |                                                    |                  1913 _models_:
   Splash lubrication.                                  |                                                    | First two are vertical, the others                 |
                                                        |  [Illustration]                                    | V type, water-cooled (pump).                       |  16 h.p., G 2 cyl.                            lbs.
   _Features._--                                        |                                                    | H.T. magneto (Bosch).                              |  35 h.p., I 4 cyl.                            lbs.
                                                        |                                                    | Mechanical inlets.                                 |  55 h.p., H 6 cyl.                            lbs.
   All valves in cylinder heads operated by a           |                                                    | Pump lubrication.                                  |  75 h.p., J 8 cyl.                            lbs.
   single cam.                                          |                                                    |                                                    |
   Valves easily detached.                              |                                                    | Cast-iron cylinders.                               |  Vertical, air-cooled.
   Very large valves.                                   |                                                    | All valves overhead.                               |
   Schebler carburetter                                 |                                                    | Copper jacketted.                                  |  H.T. magneto.
                                                        |                                                    | Special Stromberg carburetter.                     |  Mechanical inlets.
                                                        |                                                    | Special radiators.                                 |  Pump lubrication.
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |
  [Illustration: Over-all length of the 30/40 is 19 in.]|                                                    | [Illustration]                                     |  _Features._--
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |  Overhead valves.
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |  Extra large exhausts in centre of cylinders.
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |  Special semi-steel (grey iron) cylinders.
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |  Designed to work at 350°-400° Faht.
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |
                                                        |                                                    |                                                    |  [Illustration]
  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
                           ~KIRKHAM.~                   |                     ~MAXIMOTOR.~                   |                      ~ROBERTS.~                    |                     ~STURTEVANT.~
                   C. Kirkham, Savona, N.Y.             |           Maximotor Makers, Detroit, Mich.         |          Roberts Motor Co., Sandusky, Ohio.        |   B. F. Sturtevant Co., Hyde Park, Boston, Mass.
  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------
    45 h.p., 4 cyl., 105×120 (1400 r.p.m.)     180 lbs. |     50 h.p., 4 cyl., 113×127 (    r.p.m.) 200 lbs. | 50 h.p., 4 cyl., 113×125                  165 lbs. | 40 h.p., 4 cyl., 113×113 (1300 r.p.m.)  200 lbs.
    65 h.p., 6 cyl., 105×120 (1300 r.p.m.)     235 lbs. |  60-70 h.p., 4 cyl., 127×127 (    r.p.m.)     lbs. | 75 h.p., 6 cyl., 113×125 (1100 r.p.m.)    240 lbs. | 60 h.p., 6 cyl., 113×113 (     r.p.m.)  285 lbs.
    75 h.p., 6 cyl.,    ×    (1300 r.p.m.)     255 lbs. |  70-80 h.p., 6 cyl., 157×127 (    r.p.m.)     lbs. |                                                    |
   110 h.p., 8 cyl., 105×120 (1200 r.p.m.)     310 lbs. | 80-100 h.p., 6 cyl.,         (    r.p.m.)     lbs. | Vertical, 2 cycle, water-cooled (pump).            | H.T. magneto (Mea).
                                                        |    100 h.p., 4 cyl., 150×150 (    r.p.m.)     lbs. |                                                    | Mechanical inlets.
   Vertical, water-cooled (pump).                       |    150 h.p., 6 cyl., 150×150 (    r.p.m.)     lbs. | H.T. magneto.                                      | Pressure feed lubrication.
                                                        |                                                    | Rotary inlets.                                     |
   H.T. magneto (Bosch, 2 spark).                       |  Vertical, water-cooled (pump).                    | Forced lubrication.                                | _Features._--
   Forced lubrication.                                  |                                                    |                                                    |
                                                        |  H.T. magneto (Bosch or Mea).                      | _Features._--                                      | Semi-steel cylinders (jackets cast with them).
   _Features._--                                        |  Mechanical inlets (automatic in the 50 and 70.)   |                                                    | Single cylinders.
                                                        |  Forced lubrication.                               | 2 carburetters.                                    | Single cam shaft.
   Cast iron cylinders and pistons.                     |                                                    | Special magneto advance.                           | No overhead valves.
   Patent poppet-sleeve valves.                         |  _Features._--                                       | Babbit bearings.                                 | Exhaust valve lifters.
                                                        |                                                    | Very large hollow crank shaft.                     | Nickel steel hollow crank shaft (5 bearings in
   [Illustration]                                       |  Started from aviator's seat.                      | Special metal cylinders (aerolite).                | the 4 cyl., 7 in the 6 cyl.)
                                                        |  Double plugs.                                     | Special by-pass.                                   |
                                                        |  Half compression fitted.                          | Rotary inlets.                                     |
                                                        |  Crank shaft, hollow, on 3 ball bearings.          |                                                    |
                                                        |                                                    | [Illustration]                                     |
  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                        ~WELLES & ADAMS.~               |                       ~WRIGHT.~                    |
                   Wells & Adams, Bath, N.Y.            |              The Wright Co., Dayton, Ohio.         |
  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+
    50 h.p., 4 cyl.                            200 lbs. | 30 h.p., 4 cyl., 112×100 (1650 r.p.m.)    190 lbs. |
                                                        | 50 h.p., 6 cyl., 112×100 (1150 r.p.m.)    230 lbs. |
    Vertical, water-cooled (pump).                      |                                                    |
                                                        | Vertical, water-cooled (pump).                     |
    H.T. magneto.                                       |                                                    |
    Mechanical inlets (overhead).                       | H.T. magneto.                                      |
    Forced lubrication.                                 | Rotary valves.                                     |
                                                        | Pump lubrication.                                  |                    ~Note.~
    _Features._--                                       | Silencer fitted.                                   |
                                                        |                                                    | There are a good many other U.S. engines of
    Single cylinders (large brass jackets).             |                                                    | little or no account. The majority of these are
    Double plugs.                                       |                                                    | merely more or less accurate copies of well-known
    No valve cages.                                     |                                                    | European engines, and none of them have any
    Chrome nickel crank shaft, on 5 bearings.           |                                                    | vogue.
                                                        |                                                    |
  ------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------------



~Part D.~

AERIAL "WHO'S WHO," DIRECTORY & INDICES.


      ~Note.~--So far as possible the directory lists are exhaustive for
          the entire world. Anyone accidentally omitted is requested to
          communicate with the Manager, _All the World's Air-craft_, 5,
          Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C.


SUB-HEADS OF THIS SECTION.

"WHO'S WHO" IN AVIATION.

~DIRECTORY:~

  CARBURETTERS.
  FABRICS.
  GARMENTS FOR AVIATION.
  HANGAR AND SHED BUILDERS.
  INSURANCE.
  LUBRICANTS.
  MAGNETOS.
  MISCELLANEOUS ACCESSORIES.
  PACKERS AND SHIPPERS.
  PATENT AGENTS.
  PETROL.
  PROPELLERS.
  RADIATORS.

~INDICES:~

  ALPHABETICAL AEROPLANES.
        " DIRIGIBLE TYPES.


"WHO'S WHO" IN AVIATION.

ADER (Clement), Chateau de Ribonnet, Beaumont-sur-Leze (Haute-Garonne,
    France). Born 1841. Officer Leg. d'Hon. Experimented from 1892. His
    _Avion_ flew 300 metres at Satory, 12th October, 1897. This was the
    first flight ever made by a power machine in Europe. One of his
    early machines is in the _Arts et Metiers_ Museum, Paris.

ALEXANDER (H. I. H. Grand Duke), Michailovitch of Russia, Xenia Palace,
    St. Petersburg. Born 1866. Admiral of the Russian Navy. Prime mover
    in anything having to do with aviation in Russia.

ALEXANDER (Patrick Y.), 2 Whitehall Court, London, S.W. Donor of the
    £1000 Patrick Alexander prize for British Aerial engines. Founder
    and supporter of various aerial clubs and societies.

ANDRE (Ing. A.), 82 Rue d'Amsterdam, Paris. Editor _Revue Francaise de
    Construction Automobile et Aeronautique_. Writer on aviation.
    Experimenter.

ARBUTHNOT (C. B.) (Major General H. T.) Chairman of the Aerial League of
    the British Empire.

ARCHDEACON (Ernest), 77 Rue de Prony, Paris. Born 1863. Chev. Legion
    d'honneur. Vice-President _Ligue Nat. Aerienne_. Barrister. From
    1884 made balloon ascents. In 1904 made glider experiments with
    Gabriel Voisin. Giver of the Archdeacon Cup, won by Santos Dumont,
    29th October, 1906. Also part giver with Deutsch of the
    Deutsch-Archdeacon prize, for a Kilometre flight, closed circuit,
    won by Henry Farman, 13th January, 1908.

ARNOUX (Réne), 45 Rue du Ranelagh, Paris. Born 1858. Vice-President
    Tech. Com. A.C.F. Designer of the electric motor of the _Tissandier_
    dirigible, 1882. Member Soc. Civil Eng. and Soc. Internat. Elec.
    Contributor to _Omnia_, etc. Inventor of the _Arnoux_ biplane.

ATTWOOD (Harry). Well-known American aviator. In August, 1911, covered
    1,435 miles in eight days.

AUFFM-ORDT. (Swiss). 2 Avenue Hoche, Paris. Pioneer Aviator.

AVERY, American pioneer aviator, associated with Herring, Chanute, and
    others.


BACON (_late_ Rev.), British prominent aeronaut and lecturer.

BACON (Miss), daughter of the above. Aeronaut and lecturer.

BADEN-POWELL (Major, B.), F.R.A.S., F.R. Met. Soc., late Scots Guards.
    32 Prince's Gate, London, S.W. Inventor of the Baden-Powell Box
    Kite. President of the Aeronautical Society from 1902 to 1909. Early
    experimenter and investigator with aeroplanes. Lecturer. Editor of
    _Aeronautics_.

BALDWIN (Capt. Thomas S.), 78 Maddison Square, New York. Well known U.S.
    Aeronaut of many years standing. Invented the _Baldwin_ dirigible.

BALSAN (Jacques), 52 Quai Debilly, Paris. Born 1868. Aeronaut from 1905.
    Made an altitude record of 8,558 metres. In 1906 went by balloon,
    Paris to England. Vice-President _Aero Club de France_.

BANNERMAN (Major Sir Alexander, Bart.) In command of the British Army
    Air Battalion, 1911.

BARBER. British. Aeronautical Syndicate, 1909-12. _Valkyrie_ type, etc.,
    etc.

BARNWELL. British. Instructor 1912, Vicker's School.

BARRA. Well known French aviator.

BASENACH. German. Associated with Major Gross in producing the _M_ type
    German dirigibles.

BARTON (Dr.) Built the first British dirigible in 1904. Capacity,
    235,000 c.f.

BATHIAT (Georges). Frenchman. After only one hour's tuition at the
    Hanriot School, secured his certificate at Rheims, October, 1910.
    Brother of the Bathiat who flew a _Breguet_.

BAUMANN (Otto), Berlin. Second German to fly.

BAUMANN. French. Instructor at the Ewen School in 1912.

BEACHEY (Lincoln). American subject. In August, 1911, reached 11,578
    feet (3,527 m.)--world's record to that date. Flew Niagara, 27th
    June, 1911, in a _Curtiss_.

BEATTY (George W.) American aviator. At the Chicago meet, August, 1911,
    he made the world's passenger flight duration trip in 3 hours, 42
    minutes, 22 seconds. Also made American records for 2 man altitude
    3080 feet and 3 man duration on a _Wright_.

BECKE (Captain). British Army. In December, 1912, made a (to that date)
    record flight--Flamborough to Plymouth, and later back again--4-1/2
    hours out; 2 hours back, excluding landings en route.

BEESE (Nellie). First German lady to get her pilot certificate, which
    she did on a _Rumpler_.

BELL (Dr. Alexander Graham Bell). Canadian. One of the founders of the
    Aerial Exp. Assoc. in U.S.A. Began experiments 1894. Inventor of the
    Tetratedal, etc.

BENDALL. British. Instructor Bristol School at Brooklands, 1912.

BERGET (Alphonse). French subject. Professor Inst. Oceanographique. Past
    President Soc. Francoise de Nav. Ae. Author of _La Conquete de
    L'Air_.

BERNARD. French. Tester for _Farmans_ 1912-13.

BERRIMAN (A. E.) British. 44, St. Martin's Lane, London, W.C. Technical
    editor of _Flight_. Author of _Principles of Flight_, etc., etc.

BERSON (Prof. Arthur), Haupstrasse 9, Lehlendorp, Germany. Born 1859.
    Austrian. Well-known author on meteorological and similar subjects
    affecting aviation.

BESANCON (Georges), 35 Rue Francois I., Paris. Born 1866. Chev. Leg.
    d'Hon. Editor of _L'Aerophile_. Secretary Ae. C.F. Experimented with
    balloons from 1886 onward.

BESSONNEAU (J. B. Lieut. de reserve), 29 rue de Louvre, Paris. French.
    Born 1880. Pioneer aviation helper. Produced special steel cables of
    high resistance; also the well known Bessonneau _hangars
    demontables_. Organised the first town-to-town flights, 1910; also
    first Grand Prix, 1912.

BEZOLD (Professor Wilhelm Von), Director of the Meteorological
    Institute, Berlin, etc. Author of several works on aeronautics, etc.

BISS (Gerald), British, 1, Melina Place, Grove End Road, London, N.W.
    Automobile correspondent of the _Standard_. Aviation expert.

BLANCHARD. Frenchman. 1753-1809. First man to cross the English Channel
    in a balloon (1781).

BLAND (Lillian E., Miss), Carnmoney, Belfast, Ireland. First woman
    aviator to design and build her own machine, _The Mayfly_. Has since
    ceased.

BLERIOT (Louis), 56 Boulevard Maillot, Paris. Chev. Legion d'Honneur.
    Inventor of the _Bleriot_ monoplane. Pioneer. Experimented from
    1906. Has had more falls than any other aviators. First man to fly
    the Channel, which he did in _Bleriot XI._, 25th July, 1909. Member,
    Com. d'Aviation of the Ae. C.F.

BIELOVUCIC. Peruvian. Flew the Alps, 1912. Well known aviator.

BISS (Gerald). 1, Melina Place, Grove End Road, London, N.W. Well-known
    writer on automobile and aviation.

BOCKLIN. Swiss. 1827-1901. In 1850 became interested in aviation. In
    1881 built gliders and a model aeroplane. Triplane, 1881. Biplanes,
    1882-1887. In 1888 a monoplane with electric motor.

BOLOTOFF (Prince), Reigate Priory, Reigate, England. Russian subject.
    Pioneer aviator.

BOOM (J. A.) Editor of the _De Luchtvaart_, Ged. Aude gracht 144,
    Haarlem.

BORGNIS (Achille), 48 Rue d'Université, Paris. Early experimenter and
    inventor. Vice-President of the Com. d'Aviation Aeronautiques Club
    de France. Member Ae. C.F. (See aviators.)

BOOTHBY (Lieut. F. L. M.) British Navy. Served on board the _Hermione_
    when she was mother ship for aviation and aeronautics. Holds
    certificates for both aeroplanes and dirigibles.

BOSQUET (Chev. du), 8 Place de la Concorde, Paris. Chev. de l'Ordre de
    Leopold. Sec. Commission auto-aérienne.

BOUTTIEAUX (Col.) In command French military aviation, 1911-13.

BRACKE (Albert), 11 Chemin de Saint-Denis, Casteau-Mons, Belgium.
    Engineer. Editor _L'Aero Mecanique_. Inventor of the _Bracke_ and
    _Misson_ monoplane. Author on aerial matters.

BREGUET (Louis Charles), 31 Rue Morel, Donai (Nord), France. Born 1880.
    Began experimenting June, 1906, and in July, 1908, his gyroplane
    flew 20 yards at a height of 14 feet. President de la Section du
    Nord de la Ligue Nat. Aérienne.

BRERETON (J.). British. Instructor at British Deperdussin School, 1912.

BREWER (W.). Author of a standard technical work, _The Art of Aviation_.
    Formerly manager of Grahame-White & Co. Writer on aerial matters.

BRINDLEY (Oscar). American citizen. In August, 1911, he made 11,726
    feet, at Chicago. These figures were afterwards stated to be
    incorrect, so the record was not allowed.

BROOKINS, U.S.A. Up to August, 1910, held world's height record, 6,338
    feet (1,922 m.), made in a _Wright_ at Atlantic City, U.S.A. Badly
    injured in an accident, August, 1910.

BUIST (A. Massac). Well-known British writer on aviation subjects.
    Technical contributor to _Morning Post_, _Country Life_, etc., etc.

BURGEAT (Captain). The first French Officer after Captain Ferber to take
    up flying. He purchased _Antoinette VI_.--the first _Antoinette_
    sold to the public.

BUSTEED (Harry). Australian. _Bristol_ pilot in the British Military
    Competition, 1912.

BUTLER (Frank Hedges). F.R.G.S., 155 Regent Street, London, W. Founder
    of the R. Ae. C. Crossed the Channel in a Balloon 1905. Member Ae.
    C. F.

BUTTENSTEDT (Carl). 95a, Friedrichshaven Str, Berlin. Born 1845. Author
    of aviation works and early experimenter over many years. Designer
    of aeroplanes, etc.


CAILLETET (Louis Paul), 75 Boulevard S. Michel, Paris. Officer Leg.
    d'Hon. Doctor. President Ae. C. F.

CALDERARA (Lieut.). Italian Navy. Sent to France to study aviation in
    1908. Has made many good flights ever since. In 1912-13 produced a
    naval hydro-aeroplane of his own design.

CAPAZZA (Louis). Frenchman. Born 1862. Head of the Clement-Bayard Works.

CAPPER (Col.). Formerly in command of British Army aviation
    headquarters, Farnborough, 1909-10.

CASSINONE (Alexander), Nordpolstr. 2, Vienna. Leading Figure in Austrian
    aeronautical circles.

CASTAGNIERIS (Capt. Guido), 70 via della Muratte, Rome. Founder and
    secretary leading Italian aero clubs, etc.

CASTILLON DE SAINT-VICTOR (Comte G. de), 74 Avenue Marceau, Paris. Born
    1870. Aeronaut since 1898. Did a trip, Paris to Sweden. Treasurer
    Ae. C. F., 1911.

CATERS (Baron de), Berchem-les-Anvers, Belgium. Born 1875. Motorist of
    renown in the early days. Early aviator pioneer.

CATTANEO. Italian. Well-known aviator since 1910.

CARDEN (Capt.). Experimental officer, appointed 1911, to British Army
    Air Battalion.

CAUMONT (_late_ Lieut.). French aviator. Killed in a _Nieuport_
    monoplane, December 30th, 1910.

CAYLEY (George, Sir). Experimented about a hundred years ago with models
    and man-carrying gliders. Also wrote on Aviation, and is known as
    "the Father of Aviation."

CHANDLER (Capt. C. de F.) Commanding Signal Aviation School, U.S.A.

CHANUTE (Octave), U.S.A. Frequently alluded to as "the father of
    aviation." In company with Herring he joined Langley in 1905. He did
    much work with gliders. He propounded the theory that little was to
    be learned from studying birds. Discovered that the greatest lift
    was obtained from a plane flat in front and arched from the side.
    Died November, 1910. Aged 78.

CHATLEY (Professor H.), B.Sc, Imperial Eng. Col. Tientsin, China.
    Britisher. Author of _The Force of the Wind_ (Griffin & Co.), and an
    authority on aviation matters in general.

CHAVEZ (Georges). Peruvian aviator, resident in France. Maker of many
    records. First aviator to fly the Alps, 22nd September, 1910.
    Fatally injured on that occasion.

CHEREAU. Frenchman. London manager of the Bleriot Co. and Bleriot School
    at Hendon.

CHOENDEL (_late_). German aviator, who made an altitude record of 1680
    metres with a passenger. Killed on alighting.

CLEMENT (Gustave Adolphus), 33 Quai Michelet, Levallois-Perret (Seine),
    France. Born 1855. Officer Leg. d'Hon. Creator of the
    _Clement-Bayard_ dirigibles, etc.

COCKBURN (Geo. B.), Gloucester, England. One of the first Englishmen to
    take up aviation.

CODY. American; naturalised British, 1909. Inventor of the Cody kite.
    Employed by the British War Office for aviation work, 1905-1909.
    Inventor of Cody biplanes. Won Michelin prize 1910 and 1911. One of
    the best-known British aviators. In August 1912, made a biplane
    speed record of 72.4 m.p.h. Constructor.

COLLOMB. Frenchman. Early experimenter with flappers, etc.

COLMORE (Cyril). British. Ae.C. Pilot 15. Flying partner with the late
    Cecil Grace. Now given up flying.

COLSMAN (Alfred), Friedrichshaven, Germany. Director of the Zeppelin
    Co., etc.

CONNEAU (Lieut.) French Navy. Winner of the _Daily Mail_ £10,000 prize,
    1911, with a _Bleriot_. Winner of the Paris to Rome and the Circuit
    of Europe races, 1911. Flies under the name of "Beaumont."

CORNU (Paul), 24 Rue de la Gare, Lisieux, France. Pioneer experimenter
    with helicopters. In 1908 one of his inventions rose 16 inches.

CROCCO (Lieut.) Italian. Had a good deal to do with the designing of the
    _Ricaldoni_ dirigible.

CROOKSHANK (Major C. de W.), R.E. Prominent supporter of aviation.
    Member of the R. Ae. C. Committee, 1910-11.

CURTISS (Glen. H.), Hammondsport, N.Y., U.S.A. Won the Gordon Bennett in
    1909 on the _Curtiss_. Formerly a member of the Aerial Experiment
    Association, out of which the _Curtiss_ was evolved. Is Ae. C.F.
    Pilot 2. Head of the Curtiss Aeroplane Co.


DAHLBECK (Lieut.). First Swedish naval aviator. Trained in England.

DAVELNY. Commandant French Navy. Appointed 1911, to take command of
    French naval aviation.

DAUCOURT. Frenchman. First pilot to fly from Paris to Berlin, 16th
    April, 1913. Average speed 100 k.p.h. Time 12 hours, 32 minutes,
    including two stops.

DE BAEDAR (F.), 7 Rue Rameau, Paris. Editor _Revue Sportive de
    l'Aviation et de l'Automobile_.

DE DION (Marqus), 104 Avenue des Champs Elysées, Paris. Born 1856.
    Principal founder and Hon. President Ae. C. F.

DE HAVILAND (G.) British aviator. Designer of a biplane and a motor
    purchased by the War Office, in December, 1910. He was subsequently
    engaged by the Government for work on Salisbury Plain. In August,
    1912, made the British altitude record to date of 9,500 feet with a
    passenger.

DELAGRANGE (the _late_ Leon). Born 1872. French sculptor. Took up
    aviation early in 1907. He purchased _Voisin No. I._, which made its
    first trials 28th February, 1907. Subsequently engaged in
    experiments with Archdeacon. In 1908 bought a _Voisin No. III._
    Later on got a _Bleriot_. Killed 4th January, 1910, at Croix d'Hins,
    Bordeaux, in a _Bleriot_. Was Ae. C. F. pilot 3.

DEMANEST (Rene). French. 25, rue d'Orleans, Neuilly sur Seine. Began
    flying an _Antoinette_ in 1909. Won the Ae. C. F. prize.

DEPERDUSSIN. (See machines).

DEPREZ (Marcel). Frenchman. Writer on Aerial subjects.

DESBLEDS (L. Bein). Lecturer on Aeronautical Engineering, Polytechnic,
    London.

DEUTSCH (Henri de la Meurth), 4 Place des Etats-Unis, Paris. Officer
    Leg. d'Hon. Founder member of the Ae. C.F. Donor of the prize of
    100,000 francs won by Santos Dumont, 19th October, 1901. Owner of
    the dirigible _Ville de Paris_. Vice-Pres. Legue Nat. Aérienne.
    Donor in part of the Deutsch Archdeacon prize. Offered 1909 to found
    a Technical Institute of Aviation, Paris University.

DICKSON (Captain). Ex-British Army officer. The first British aviator to
    distinguish himself at an International flying meet.

DOUTRE. French lawyer, interested in aviation. Invented a stabilising
    device in which Maurice Farman was interested.

DREXEL (A.) Scotland. American citizen. Made world's record at Lanark,
    12th August, 1910, in a _Bleriot_, 6,750 feet (2,057 m.), beating
    previous record of Brookins.

DRIVER. British aviator. Flew in first aerial post, 1911.

DRZEWIECKI (Stefan), 62 Rue Boileau, Paris. Russian. Born 1844. Chev.
    Leg. d'Hon. In 1885 investigated aviation in connection with bird
    flight. Well known otherwise as an inventor of submarines, torpedo
    tubes, etc.

DU CROS (Harvey), M.P., 14 Regent Street, London, S.W. Born 1876. Takes
    considerable interest in aviation. Member of the Parliamentary
    Committee thereon.

DUFAUX (Armand). Swiss. He and his brother Henry were interested in
    aviation in 1903, and in 1904 built an helicopter. In 1909 the first
    Swiss aeroplane built by them appeared.

DUNNE (Lieut.), Eastchurch, Sheppey, Kent, England. Ex-British Army
    officer. Engaged by British War Office to carry out heavier than air
    experiments immediately after the aeroplane had been demonstrated a
    possibility. (See _Dunne_ in part I.)

DUPUY DE LOME. Frenchman. Made a hand-propelled dirigible in 1870-72.

DÜRR (Ludwig). German. Born 1878. Chief engineer Zeppelin works.

DUTRIEU (Mdlle. Hélène). Belgian. Second woman to take up aviation.


EFIMOFF (Michael). Russian. Made his first appearance in France early in
    1910. (Ae. C. F. pilot 31). Distinguished himself on _H. Farmans_
    and _Sommers_. On his return to Russia he was made chief instructor
    of the special school of the Volunteer Aerial Association.

ELLEHAMMER (J. C. H.), Istedgade 119, Copenhagen. Commenced aviation
    studies in 1905. On 12th Sept., 1906, he made a flight--the first in
    Europe since Ader.

ELLYSON (Lieut. T. G.) U.S. Navy. In company with Lieut. Towers made the
    first flights ever made in a hydro-aeroplane.

ELY (Eugene B.) American. Was the first to fly successfully off a
    warship, which he did in a _Curtiss_ biplane on January 19th, 1911,
    from the U.S. cruiser _Pennsylvania_. Killed 1911.

ENGLEHARDT (Kapitan). Prominent figure in German aeronautical and
    aviation circles. Writer on aerial subjects. Began flying in 1910,
    in which year he won several prizes. Killed 1911.

EQUIVELLY (Marquis d'), 2 Place Wagram, Paris. Pioneer aviator, with a
    queer multiplane, 1907.

ERBSLOCH (the _late_ Oscar). Well known aeronaut. Inventor of a German
    dirigible, the _R. M. W. G._, afterwards named after him. He was
    killed in it with four others, July, 1910.

ESDAILE. British. Pioneered aviation displays in India, 1912.

ESNAULT-PELTERIE (Robert), 149 Rue de Silly, Billancourt (Seine),
    France. Early experimenter with aeroplanes. Flew the first _R.E.P._,
    October, 1907. Designer of the _R.E.P._ engine.

ESPITALLIER (Georges), 25 Rue St. Petersburg, Paris. Associated with the
    late Col. Renard in early dirigible experiments. Author of many
    aeronautical works.

ETRICH (Igo), Rotunde, Vienna II. Pioneer aviator with Wels. Designer of
    the _Etrich_ monoplane--the first Austrian machine to fly.

EVANS (William Evans), 1428, Charlotte Street, Kansas City, Mo.
    Purchased a biplane built by Dr. William Greene, who has since given
    up aeroplane building. Evans made a number of exhibitions in the
    middle West, but had given up flying by summer of 1911.

EWEN (W. H.) British. Head of the School for British _Caudron_.


"F. A. I." Federation of the leading Aero Clubs of all countries, for
    control of International Aviation Meets, Pilot certificates, etc.,
    etc. The bulk of certificates were first obtained in France, but in
    1910 they were made obtainable in any country from its own Ae. C.,
    under identical rules. No aviator may compete in any International
    event without a certificate. Aviation has now more or less outgrown
    the F.A.I, on account of the virtual disappearance of private
    aviation events before military interests; but it did excellent
    service in its time and is still of considerable indirect value.

FARMAN (Henri), 22 Avenue de la Grande Armée, Paris. Born in Paris,
    1874, but is of English descent. Chev. Leg. d'Hon. First a racing
    cyclist, then racing motorist. Took up aviation. Bought _Voison No.
    II_ (known as "_Farman I._"). On January 13th, 1908, he won the
    Deutsch-Archdeacon prize for covering a triangular course of one
    kilometre. In 1909 designed and built his own machine. Won the
    Michelin cup in 1909, making the record of 4 h. 17 min. 35 2.5s. in
    the air. Ae. C. F. pilot 5. In 1910, did 8 h. 12 mins. in the air,
    covering 288-3/4 m. (463 km.)

FARMAN (Maurice), 3 Rue Villaret de Joyeuse, Paris. Brother of above.
    Went in for aeronautics and motor racing. Bought _Voisin No. IV_ at
    an early stage of aviation. He fitted this with alterations of his
    own, and subsequently evolved the _M. Farman_ biplane. Ae. C. F.
    pilot 6.

FAURE (Jacques), 32 Rue Washington, Paris. Born 1873. Has long been
    prominent in aeronautical circles. Has crossed the Channel five
    times in gas bag balloons. Owns the _Faure_ dirigible. Member of
    Committee Ae. C. F.

FELIX (Capt.) In 1911 in charge of the Bleriot Military School at
    Etampes.

FERBER (the _late_ Capitane), flew as "De Rue." Born 1862 at Lyon.
    Commenced experiments with gliders in 1899 on Lilieuthal lines. In
    1903 he built a power-driven machine. He taught Gabriel Voisin how
    to fly gliders. In 1908 was very active and flew several machines.
    Killed in a _Voisin_, 22nd September, 1909.

FERNANDEZ (the _late_). A Spanish tailor, resident in Paris, killed in
    1909 in a machine of his own design.

FISHER (E. U. B.) First flew on a _Hanriot_, early in 1911. August,
    1911, engaged as pilot by Messrs. Vickers.

FOKKER (Antony), Haarlem, Holland. Born in Java, 1890. Designed a
    monoplane in 1911 with special stabilising device. He flew this at
    Johannisthal. Subsequently started a company.

FOURNY. French. On September 11th, 1912, broke all previous distance and
    duration records by flying, non-stop, 13 hours, 22 minutes in _M.
    Farman_. Renault motor. Distance 1,017 km. (631 miles) at Etampes,
    France.

FRISBIE (J. J.) American aviator. Killed in a _Curtiss_ at Norton, Kan.,
    having been driven to fly in unsuitable weather by the jeers of a
    hostile crowd.

FÜRSTENBERG (Prince). Austrian. President of the Centre Aeronautical
    Committee, formed in June, 1912.


GALANSCHIKOFF (Mdlle.) Russian. On November 22nd at Johannisthal, made
    world's altitude record for lady fliers with 2,400 meteres.

GARROS. French aviator. Came in second in Paris to Rome and the Circuit
    of Europe races, 1911. Up to November, 1911, held world's height
    record (13,000 feet). Made in a _Bleriot_.

GASNIER (René), 1 Rue Scribe, Paris. Winner of many prizes in balloon
    events. French champion for the 1907 Gordon-Bennett. On Committee of
    Ae. C. F. Hon. President Ae. C. d'l'Ouest. Inventor of an aeroplane,
    1908.

GAST (Madame C. Crespin du), 12 Rue Levoux, Paris. Well-known in
    aeronautical circles.

GASTAMBIDE (Robert), 27 Boulevard de Courcelles, Paris. Born 1882. Civil
    engineer. Took great interest in aviation at the start. Designed the
    _Gastambide-Mengin_ from which _Antoinettes_ were evolved. This was
    the first monoplane to carry a passenger (September, 1908.)

GELEYNS (C.) Editor of the _Avia_, Wynbrugstreet 13, Rotterdam.

GERRARD (Lieut.), R.M.L.I. British. August 17th, 1911, made world's
    passenger record to date, 4 hours, 13 minutes, on _Short_ No. 34.

GIFFARD (H.) Britisher, resident in France. In 1850 built the first
    practical dirigible. It had a steam motor. In 1852 it made a
    controlled speed of about 5 m.p.h.

GILBERT. French. On March 28th, 1913, flew from Lyons to Villacoublay in
    3 hours, 10 minutes, a world's record to date from town to town
    non-stop.

GILL (Howard). U.S.A. aviator. In October, 1911, flew for 4 hours 16
    minutes 35 seconds in a _Wright_. American record to that date.

GILMOUR (Graham). British. Pilot Ae. C.F., April, 1910. In 1911, flying
    a _Bristol_: with which many of his flights have been directly or
    indirectly of a highly sensational nature. These have included a
    flight alleged to be over London (reported to R. Ae. C.--case
    dismissed), flying low over Henley Regatta (certificate suspended,
    with subsequent litigation). Won second prize in the
    Brooklands-Brighton Race, May, 1911. Killed February, 1912.

GIBERT. French aviator who made records, 1911.

GLAZEBROOK (Dr. R. T.), C.B., F.R.S. Director of the British National
    Physical Laboratory.

GLIDDEN (Charles J.) The well-known American motorist. Founder of many
    of the U.S.A. Ae. clubs.

GODARD (Louis), 170 Rue Legendre, Paris. Builder of the _America_
    Wellman Arctic Airship; inventor of the Godard Kite-Balloon;
    designer and builder of the _La Belgique_, etc., etc.

GORDON-BENNETT (James), 104 Avenue des Champs Elysees, Paris. American
    citizen. Owner of the _New York Herald_. Giver of the Gordon-Bennet
    aviation Prize. Previous to this he had instituted a similar event
    for motor cars, and few, if any, have done so much to advance the
    International sporting side of automobilism.

GOUPY (Ambrose), 59 Avenue Marceau, Paris. An early pioneer in aviation
    experiments--had the first triplane built for him by _Voisins_. Now
    a well known constructor.

GRACE (_late_ Cecil). Naturalised British subject, ex-Chilian. Lost at
    sea while competing for the Baron de Forest prize, December, 1910.

GRADE (H.), Magdeburg, Germany. First man to fly in Germany. He did this
    on a Grade triplane early in 1909. Now a well known German
    constructor.

GRAHAME-WHITE (Claude), 1 Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, London. Pilot 30
    Ae. C. F. on a _H. Farman_. Attempted to win the _Daily Mail_
    £10,000 London-Manchester prize, 1910. Gordon Bennett, 1911. Now
    constructor.

GREENE (Dr. W.), Treasurer, Aeronautic Society, U.S.A. Has done a great
    deal to advance aviation in the U.S.A. Designer of the _Greene_
    biplane--a machine which in no way infringed the Wright patents.

GRESWELL. British aviator. Flew in first aerial post, 1911.

GREY (Chas. G.), 166 Piccadilly, London, W. Editor of the _Aeroplane_.
    Well-known writer on aerial matters, formerly as "Aero-Amateur,"
    later under his own name. By 1912, had come to occupy a unique
    position of his own by an uncompromising statement of facts without
    regard to other circumstances.

GROSS (Major). In command of the German war dirigibles. Designer of the
    _M_ type. (_Gross_).

GRUBB (Capt. A. H. W.) D.S.O., R.E. Prominent supporter of aviation.
    Member of R. Ae. C. Committee, 1910-11.

GUILLEMEAU (R.), 82 Rue d'Amsterdam, Paris. Editor _Revue Francaise, de
    Const. Autble et Aeronautique._


HAENLEIN (Paul). German, 1835-1905. Early experimenter with dirigibles.
    Inventor of the "semi-rigid" system.

HAMEL (Gustav). British. Well-known aviator. Winner of
    Brooklands-Brighton Race, May, 1911. Flew the first British aerial
    mail, 1911. In April, 1913, on behalf of the London _Standard_, made
    a non-stop flight with a passenger London to Cologne in a _Bleriot_.
    Many other famous flights.

HAMMOND (J. J.) Australian. Pilot 258, Ae. C. F., on a _Sanchis Besa_,
    4th October, 1910. In 1911, visited Australia with a _Bristol_, when
    he made many sensational flights.

HARGRAVE (Lawrence), Sydney, N.S.W., Australia. A pioneer in aviation,
    1890-95. Experimenter with and inventor of box kites.

HARKNESS (Harry). American aviator. Has made various records.

HARMON, (Clifford B.) One of the best-known U.S.A. amateur aviators.
    Made U.S.A. time record (2h. 3m.), 2nd July, 1910.

HARRISON (Eric). Australian subject. Instructor of the Bristol school at
    Lark Hill, Salisbury Plain, 1912.

HARRISON (Lieut. L. C. R.) British R. F. C. Killed 28th April, 1913, in
    the famous _Cody_ which won the British Military Aeroplane
    competition.

HAULT (Adhemar de la), 214 Rue Royale, Brussels. Editor of _La Conqûete
    de l'air_. Well-known aviation pioneer. Interested in Ornithopters.

HAWKER (H. G.) Australian subject. On October 24th made British duration
    record to date--8 hours 23 mins. in _Sopwith_ biplane. Awarded the
    Michelin Cup, 1912.

HEKKING (R.) Frenchman. In September, 1909, carried out experiments with
    a biplane glider of 7 m. span and 25 m². surface. He rose to a
    height of 25 m., and is stated to have remained stationary for 5
    minutes. Not confirmed, however.

HELEN. French aviator. Has appeared in various competitions since early
    in 1911.

HENDERSON (Brig. Gen.) British Army. First general to obtain British R.
    Ae. C. aviator certificate. Flying under the name of "Davidson" he
    obtained his certificate on a _Bristol_, at Brooklands, after seven
    days' training.

HENRY, Prince of Prussia. Well known for practical interest in motoring
    and aviation. Has driven his own car in races, and is a certificated
    aerial pilot for Germany.

HENSON. Died 1842. Projected a steam-driven monoplane early in the XIX
    century.

HERRING (A. M.), Freeport, Long Island, U.S.A. Started the study of
    aviation 1894. With Langley, 1895. With Chanute, 1896. Joined Ae.
    Exp. Assoc. and associated with Curtiss in the _Herring-Curtiss_.
    Subsequently (1910) with Burgess in the _Herring-Burgess_.

HERVE (Henri), 1 Rue Hautefeuille, Paris. Well-known authority on
    matters aeronautical. Author, etc.

HEWLETT (Mrs. Maurice) ("Madame Franck"). First lady aviator to obtain a
    British R. Ae. C. certificate.

HILDEBRAND (Kapitan Alfred), 10 Martin-Lutherstrasse, Berlin W. 30.
    Retired from German Army. A very well-known aeronaut. Owner of a
    Baldwin dirigible. Author of many works on aeronautics and
    aviation--the best known German writer on these subjects.

HINTERSTOISSER (Hauptmann Franz), Luisenstrasse 35, Vienna V. Commanding
    Austro-Hungarian Aeronautical service. 1911-12.

HIRTH (Helmuth). German. Made German passenger altitude record to date,
    at Johannistal, September-October, 1911. Height 2475 metres. Many
    other records. The best known of all German aviators.

HOFFMAN (Joseph). German. Built a steam-driven aeroplane in 1906.

HOLDEN (Col. H. C. L.) R.A.F.R.S. Prominent supporter of aviation.
    Member of the R. Ae. C. Committee, 1910-11.

HOWARD-FLANDERS. See British Aeroplanes, Part A.

HOWARD-WRIGHT. British. Early designer (_see_ Part B). In January, 1913,
    became manager of S. White & Co., of Cowes.

HOUDINI (Harry). British. The famous "Handcuff King" flew a _Voisin_ so
    long ago as November 2nd, 1909. He took it to Australia and won the
    first aeroplane flight prize there. He is the first to have taken
    out a "third party" insurance, which he did with the
    Albingia-Versicherungs-Aktien-gesellschaft, Hamburg, Germany, on
    November 29th, 1909. The policy was for 150,000 marks.

HUBERT. French aviator. Flew in the first British aerial post and was
    badly injured.

HUCKS (B. B.) British aviator. Has made several fine exhibition flights
    on a _Blackburn_. First man to make the double journey across the
    Bristol Channel, also to carry out wireless telephone experiments
    with aeroplane.

HUNTINGDON (Prof. A. K.), 14 Buckingham St., Charing Cross, London, W.C.
    Born 1856. Balloon expert, 1906-1908. Connected with the _Dunne_
    machines. Member of the R. Ae. C. Committee, 1910-11.

HURLBERT (Dr. Dane), Vermont, Lucerne, Switzerland. U.S.A. citizen.
    Experimenter in original types of aeroplanes, 1909-11


ILLNER. First man to fly in Austria, which he did on an _Etrich_.

ISSATIER. French private soldier who obtained three weeks' leave and
    secured his flying certificate at Betheny after fourteen days, in a
    _Deperdussin_.

ISENDAHL (Walther). German. Holsteinstrasse 21, Berlin-Wilmersdorf.
    Leading authority on aerial and boat motors.


JANE (Fred T.), The Hill, Bedhampton, Hants, England. Naval author,
    founder and editor of _All the World's Air-craft_.

JANNUS (Antony). American. Well-known aviator.

JATHO (Karl), Stader Chausse 22, Hanover, Germany. Born 1873. Pioneer
    aviator from 1893. Has built various machines--none very
    satisfactory.

JEANNIN (Emil), Berlin. Prominent German aviator.

JEFFERIES (Dr. John). 1760-1820 _about_. American. Accompanied Blanchard
    in the first balloon voyage across the English Channel, 1784.

JENKINS (F. Conway). In May, 1911, obtained his certificate (74) after
    only four flights on a _Roe_ biplane.

JOHNSTONE (St. Croix). American aviator. 27th July, 1911, beat American
    duration records in a flight of 4 hours, 1 minute, 54 seconds.
    Distance 176 miles. Killed 1911.

JONES (Ernest L.), 250 West 54 Street, New York. Editor of _Aeronautics_
    (U.S.A.)

JOSEF FERDINAND (Grand Duke of Austria). Enthusiastic aeronaut and
    moving spirit in aviatory matters in Austria.

JOYNSON-HICKS. British M.P. who has specialised in endeavouring to
    advance aviation.

JULLIOT (Henri), 3 Rue de Flandre, Paris. Born 1855. Chev. Leg. d'Hon.
    Technical director of the _Lebaudy_ works. Originator of the
    _Lebaudy_ type of dirigibles. Designer of _Lebaudy_ aeroplane.
    Member of Committee Ae. C. F.


KAPFERER (Henry), 26 Rue de Clichy, Paris. Chev. Leg. d'Hon. Director of
    the _Astra_ Cie, and the Cie Gen. Transaerienne. Part designer of
    the Clement-Bayard dirigibles. Took an early interest in the
    aeroplane movement, and had a biplane built to his own design by
    Voisins in 1907. Also had an early monoplane about the same date or
    a little later. On Committee Ae. C. F.

KASSNER (Carl), Wilhelmstr. 10, Berlin. Professor, German writer on
    technical aviation matters.

KENNEDY (Rankin), British authority on aviation subjects.

KENNEDY. St. Petersburg. British subject. Engineer who has studied
    aviation for many years. In 1911, was an honorary aerial adviser to
    the Russian Government on matters aerial.

KINDELAN (Captain), Guadalajara, Spain. Born 1879. Interested in
    balloons since 1906. Designer of the Spanish military airship
    _Torres Quevedos_.

KNIGHT. British. Instructor 1912, Vickers School.

KOENIG. German aviator. Won the 1st prize given by the Berliner _Zeitung
    am Mittag_. 1,182-1/2 kilos.

KRAUSS. Well-known German aviation engineer. Author of many articles.

KRESS (Wilhelm), Waaggasse 13, Vienna. Born 1836. Flew a model
    ornithopter in 1888. Author.

KRIEGER (Hans). German. Formerly chauffeur to the Kaiser. Built a
    monoplane of his own design, and on September 5th, 1911, obtained
    his certificate on it.


LAFFONT (_late_ A.) Killed in an _Antoinette_, December 28th, 1910.

LAHM (Frank), Washington D.C., U.S.A. Well-known aeronaut.

LAMBERT (Albert B.) President of Ae. C. of St. Louis, U.S.A. Flies a
    _Wright_.

LAMBERT (Count Charles), 74 Rue Charles-Lafitte, Neuilly-sur-seine,
    Paris. Russian subject. Born 1865. Interested in aviation 1893
    onward. First pupil of Wilbur Wright.

LAMMLIN. German. Killed at Strasburg, May 23rd, 1911.

LANA (Francisco), (1631-1687), (Italian). Jesuit who projected flying
    machines.

LANCHESTER. Author of well-known aerial classic.

LANE (Howard), 50, Parliament Street, Westminster, London, S.W. British
    citizen. Mechanical and Chemical Engineer. Born 1852 at Warwick.
    Government Contractor; Birmingham City Councillor, 1895-1900.
    Honours, South Kensington, 1873. Inventions, the Seamless Steel Gas
    Cylinder, 1882; Multiple Stage Gas Compressor, 1884; Roller method
    of Skin Balloon Construction, 1887; Regenerative Hydrogen Producing
    Plant, 1903; Turbine Aero-Motor, 1909, etc., etc.

LANGLEY (Samuel Pierpont). Born 1834. Died 1906. American pioneer from
    1887. Commenced work in 1893 with Dr. Graham Bell, and later,
    Herring and Chanute. In May, 1896, he flew a large steam-driven
    model tandem monoplane--the _Langley_ type. Author of _Experiments
    in Aero Dynamics_ and other aerial classics.

LANZ (Karl), Lachnerstrasse 18, Mannheim, Germany. Wealthy patron of
    aviation in Germany. Giver of the £2000 Lanz prize won by Grade.
    Financed the _Schütte_ dirigible.

LAROCHE (Madame la Baronne Raymonde de). The first lady aviator. Pilot
    Ae. C. F. 36. Purchased a _Voisin_ in the summer of 1909 and entered
    for International events. Badly injured in an accident at Reims,
    July, 1910. In 1913, took up flying again.

LATHAM (Hubert), 7 Rue Rembrandt, Paris. Of English descent one side.
    Pilot 9 Ae. C. F. Director of the _Antoinette Cie_. Attempted to fly
    the Channel, 1909. (1) in _Antoinette IV_. (2) in _Antoinette VII_.
    (3) in August, 1910. Maker of many records. Killed by a buffalo,
    1912.

LA VAULX (Comte Henri de), 2 Rue Gaston de St. Paul, Paris. Born 1870.
    Chev. Leg. d'Hon. Vice-President Ae. C. F., and one of its
    promoters. Founder and Vice-Pres. of the F.A.I. Took up aeronautics
    in 1900, since when he had made over 250 ascents. Record holder for
    "gas bags." Owner of a _Zodiac_ dirigible in 1909-10.

LEBAUDY (Robert), 12 Rue de Lubeck, Paris. Sugar refiner. Member Ae. C.
    F. Founder of the _Lebaudy Dirigible Cie_.

LE BLANC (Alfred), 17 Rue Lakanal, Paris. Born 1869. Aeronaut in 1904.
    Winner of the _Circuit d' l'Est._, Aug., 1910.

LE BLON (_late_). Frenchman. Born 1875. Killed in a _Bleriot_ at S.
    Sebastien, 2nd April, 1910.

LEFÈBVRE (Eugene). French aviator. Killed on a _Wright_, 7th September,
    1909, at Juvissy.

LEGAGNEUX. In December, 1910, made a flight of nearly 6 hours, at Pau,
    (322 mile--53 m.p.h.) average, in a _Bleriot_.

LESSEPS (Comte Jacques de), 11 Avenue Montaigne, Paris. Well-known
    aviator in the early days.

LEVAVASSEUR. Known in France as "Pére Levavasseur." Chief engineer of
    the Antoinette Works and _deus ex machina_ of the type. He severed
    his connection early in 1910, but rejoined in June, 1910, and
    remained as long as the company existed.

LEVE (Pierre), 17 Rue Cassette, Paris. Editor of _La Revue Aérienne_,
    official organ of _La Ligue Nat. Aérienne_.

LILIEUTHAL (Gustav), 5 Marthastrasse, Gross-Lichterfelde, Germany.
    Brother of the late Otto Lilieuthal, whose work he has carried on.
    Author.

LILIEUTHAL (Otto, the _late_). German subject. Began his interest in
    aviation when 15 years old. In 1889 published his _Bird Flight as a
    Basis of the Flying Art_, the result of 25 years observation of
    sea-gulls and storks. In 1891 he made glider flights. In 1895 he
    produced a biplane glider. On 12th Aug., 1896, he was killed while
    experimenting. Lilieuthal was the fountain head of modern aviation.

LINKE (Dr. Franz), Kettenhofweg 181, Frankfurt, Germany, Scientist. Born
    1878. Author of _Moderne Luftschiffahrt_ and other works.

LIORE (F.), 4 bis Rue de Corneille, Levallois-Perret, France. Early
    pioneer with the _Witzig-Liore-Duthileuil_. Since then evolved a
    monoplane.

LÔME (Dupuy de). See DUPUY DE LÔME.

LORIDAN. In July, 1910, in a _H. Farman_ racer broke the existing
    altitude record by making 3,280 m. (10,758ft). Did 702 km., July,
    1911.


MALONE (Lieut. Cecil J. L'Estrange). R.N. Navy Wing of British R. F. C.
    Assistant to director of Flying at Admiralty, end of 1912.

MAHIEU. In September, 1911, made the world's passenger record of 2460
    metres (7981 feet) in a _Voisin_, at Issy. Duration of flight 3-1/2
    hours.

MANNING (H.) British. Aeroplane designer.

MAREY (Professor). Inventor of the Whirling table, 1870.

MARIE (Capitaine). French Army. On staff of Inspector General of
    Aeronautics.

MARIE (Pierre). Alsatian. Real name was Bournique. He made his name on a
    _R.E.P.'s_. In May, 1911, he was trying a 100 h.p. _Deperdussin_
    when the machine capsized and fell. He was taken to hospital and
    died a few hours later. His passenger, Lieut. Depuis, was burned to
    death.

MARS ("Bud"). Well-known American aviator. Has more than once been
    reported killed; but always appears again.

MARTIN (Glen L.) Santa Ana, California, U.S.A. Flying _Curtiss_ types.
    Obtained a considerable reputation, and local amateur record at Los
    Angeles meet, end of 1910.

MASSAC BUIST. (See BUIST).

MATSIEVITCH (Kapitan). Russian Army. Was Instructor of the Military
    Aviation School at Sevastopol. Killed at Sevastopol, 1911.

MAXIM (Sir Hiram), Baldwyn's Park, Kent. Inventor of the Maxim gun, etc.
    American by birth, naturalised British subject. Began experiments
    with propellers, etc., in 1889. In 1890 to 1893 he experimented with
    a full-sized aeroplane, steam propelled. Abandoned the experiments
    after spending £20,000 on them. Resumed work 1909, without success.
    Author of _Artificial and Natural Flight_.

McCLEAN. British aviator. Towards the end of 1910, he loaned two _Short_
    biplanes to Eastchurch flying ground for the training of naval
    officer in aviation, and himself acted as instructor. These were the
    first machines used by the British naval officers, consequently Mr.
    McClean may be regarded as the founder of the British Naval
    Aeroplane Division. Member of the R. Ae. C. Committee.

MENGIN (L.), 2 Rue Debrousse, Paris. Born 1881. Early experimenter. Flew
    in 1908 in the _Gastambide-Mengin_, from which the _Antoinette_ was
    evolved. Director of the late _Antoinette Cie_.

MERRIMAN. British. Expert Bristol flyer at Brooklands, etc., 1912.
    Instructor.

MESSNER (Haupt. E.), Claridenstr. 36, Zurich. In command Swiss military
    aviation section, 1911-12.

MICHELIN (A. J.), 105 Boulevard Periére, Paris. Born 1853. Chev. Leg.
    d'Hon. Director of the well-known tyre manufacturers. Donor of the
    Michelin prize for aviation. Founder member Ae. C. F.

MOEDEBECK (Hermann W. L.) Born 1857. Died 1910. German author on aerial
    matters.

MOEDEBECK (Lieut. Col.). German subject. Author of _Fliegen de Menschen_
    (Salle), a very useful work on aviation. Also of a _Pocket Book of
    Aeronautics_, etc.

MOINEAU. Frenchman. In August, 1911, with two passengers made a record
    on a _Breguet_, of reaching 900 metres in twenty minutes at Douai.

MOISANT (Miss Matilda). Sister of the late J. M. Moisant. Second
    American lady to obtain certificate. Used a _Moisant_.

MOISANT (John). Architect. American citizen, resident in Paris. Invented
    two monoplanes. In Aug., 1910, flew the Channel with a passenger in
    a _Bleriot_. This was the first cross-Channel passenger trip. Killed
    1911.

MONTAGU (Lord), of Beaulieu. Editor of _The Car Illustrated_. Prominent
    in arousing British interest in aviation.

MONTGOLFIER (Joseph Michael and Jacques Etienne). Frenchmen, who about
    the year 1780 invented hot air balloons. In 1783, one such, of 35
    feet diameter, rose to a height of about 1,500 feet.

MONTGOMERY (John Professor), U.S.A. citizen. Began experiments with
    gliders in 1884, which he continued till his death by accident with
    one, on 31st October, 1911, at Evergreen, Santa Clare, California.

MOORE BRABAZON (J. T. C.), 29 Chesham St., London, S.W. Born 1884.
    Originally sporting motorist; winner Circuit des Ardennes, 1907.
    Took up aviation at an early stage. Bought an early _Voisin_ which
    he named _Bird of Passage_. This machine was later sold to A.
    George, who had a smash in it, and sold it later to Grace. Moore
    Brabazon was the first Britisher to fly. Pilot I, R. Ae C.

MOORHOUSE (W. B. R.), Portholme Aerodrome, Huntingdon. British. Has done
    a good deal of cross country flying, 1911. Part inventor of the
    _Radley-Moorhouse_ (R. M.) monoplane, 1911.

MORANE (Leon). Frenchman. Well-known _Bleriot_ pilot. Subsequently built
    the _Morane_ monoplane. Very badly injured in an accident, Autumn,
    1910.

MOREAU. French amateur. Inventor of a special stabilised aeroplane.

MORIS (Colonel). Commanding Italian air battalion, 1911-13.


NEMETHY (Emil), Arad, Hungary. Born 1867. Built his first effort, a
    helicopter, in 1899. Has experimented ever since, but without much
    success. Inventor of the _Aviette_.

NEUMANN. Germany. Author of various very reliable works on dirigibles.

NICKEL (Hugo Ludwig), Kahlenbergerstrasse 97, Vienna. Born 1867. Aerial
    author and journalist.

NIMFÜHR (Dr. Raimund), Lerchengasse 15, Vienna. Born 1874.
    Experimentalist 1900 onward. Author.

NORTHCLIFFE (Alfred Charles Harmsworth) Lord. British subject. Founder
    and proprietor of the "Daily Mail." Donor of many important aviation
    prizes, including the £10,000 London-to-Manchester prize.


OERTZ (Max), Holzdamm 40, Hamburg, Germany. Interested in gliders.
    Connected with German North Pole Dirigible Expedition. Designer of
    various aeroplanes.

OGILVIE (A.) Represented Great Britain in both the 1910 and 1911 Gordon
    Bennetts. Took fourth place in 1911. Average speed, 51 miles per
    hour. Flew a _Wright_. In December, 1910, flew for nearly 4 hours on
    a _Wright_ over the Camber sands; distance being 139-3/4 miles.
    Associated with the Wright Brothers experiments at Kitty Hawk,
    October, 1911.

O'GORMAN (Mervyn). Well-known authority on aviation matters, and
    Superintendent of the Royal Aircraft Factory.

OSMONT. Frenchman. Formerly racing cyclist. Did some fine flights at
    Chalons in 1910. In February, 1911, appointed chief aviation
    instructor to the Spanish Army.

OTTO (Fried), Hohenstaufeurstrasse 35, Berlin. W. 30. Aerial journalist,
    etc.

OVINGTON (Earle). U.S.A. aviator. Carried first U.S.A. aerial post, Sept
    1911. Winner of many prizes in America.

OXLEY. Instructor to the Blackburn School, at Filey, 1911.


PAINE (Capt. G. M.) M.V.O., R.N. Commandant of the British Central
    Flying School at Upavon, Salisbury Plain. Appointed early in 1912.

PARKE (Lieut. Wilfred, R. N.) Started flying in 1910, and made a large
    number of meritorious performances. Killed in a monoplane at
    Wembley, December 15th, 1912.

PARSEVAL (Major Von), _late_ German Army. Inventor of the _Parseval_
    type dirigibles and the _Parseval_ monoplane. Leading figure in all
    aerial matters in Germany. (See Part A.)

PATERSON (Compton). British aviator. Liverpool Motor House, Ltd.,
    Liverpool. Designed a successful machine in 1909. Also flies
    _Farmans_. Designed new machine 1911.

PATIALA (Maharajah of). In December, 1910, purchased a _Bleriot_ and a
    _Voisin_. Member of the R. Ae. C.

PAGNY. French. Designer of _Hanriots_, 1913.

PAULHAN (Louis). Frenchman. Born 1883. Served afloat as a boy. Later
    served with the _late_ Col. Renard; also with the _late_ Captain
    Ferber. In 1907 was with Surcouf. In his spare time he made models.
    In 1909 he won a _Voisin_ biplane, given as prize for the best model
    in France, and rapidly came to the front. In 1910 he won the _Daily
    Mail_ £10,000 prize for the London to Manchester flight. Numerous
    other prizes have been won by him. Took up construction in 1911
    without much success till in 1912 he took over French, etc., agency
    for _Curtiss_ hydros.

PEQUET (H.) Frenchman. Certificated June, 1910. Flew a _Humber-Sommer_
    in India, where he conveyed the first officially recognised aerial
    post at Allahabad.

PERRIN (H.) British. Secretary of the R. Aero Club.

PERRY (Ida), Metropol Theater, Berlin. German actress, who has gone in
    for aviation.

PFITZNER (_late_ Lieut. Alexander L.) Hungarian. Born 1875. Served in
    the Austro-Hungarian Artillery. Leaving the Army he went to the
    U.S.A. and became connected with the Herring-Curtiss work, designing
    the novel Pfitzner monoplane. He met many mishaps with this, which
    depressed him. He returned to Hungary early in 1910, but meeting no
    success there came back to America. Drowned in Marblehead Harbour,
    12th July, 1910.

PHILLIPS (Horatio F.), Wealdstone, Harrow. Pioneer experimenter.
    Discoverer of the "dipping front edge," patented by him 1884 and
    1891. ("Philips' entry.") Leading authority on aviation subjects.

PICKLES (Sydney). Australian. Chief pilot at the Ewen school at Hendon,
    1912.

PICHAN (Court). Early French experimenter. Flew a flapper model 1889.

PICOLLO (_late_ Jules). Brazilian aviator. Killed December 28th, 1910.

PIERRE (Petit). Frenchman. The _late_ secretary of Bleriot School at
    Hendon. Assassinated at Hendon, August, 1911, by a Swiss pupil named
    Hanot, who went insane at not learning to fly so quickly as he had
    expected.

PILCHER (_late_ Percy S.) Born 1866. British naval engineer. Commenced
    glider experiments, 1895, on Lilieuthal lines. Designed a power
    machine in 1899, but was killed in glider experiments before it was
    completed.

PIXTON (H.) British R. Ae. C. pilot 50. Qualified at Brooklands,
    January, 1911, on a triplane. Has since done some very fine flights
    on an _Avro_, taking various prizes.

PISCHOFF (Alfred de), 12 Rue Amiral de Joinville, Paris. In conjunction
    with Koechlin was a pioneer of French aviation. In December, 1907,
    he flew a kilometre on a biplane. His earliest machine was
    practically a large box kite with a motor fitted. In 1910 produced a
    monoplane of his own design. He is an Austrian resident in France.

POPPER (Josef). Austrian. Concerned with aviation, etc., ever since
    1872.

POLLOCK (C. F.) Prominent supporter of aviation. Member of the R. Ae. C.
    Committee, 1910-11.

PONNIER. Frenchman. Director of the Hanriot Company.

PRANDTL (Dr. Ludwig). Prinz Albertstrasse 20, Göttinger, Germany. Born
    1875. Leading Figure in German aerial circles. Connected with the
    _Parseval_ design.

PREVOST (M.) French. Created world's record on December 2nd, 1911, by
    reaching a height of 9,800 feet at Rheims.

PRIER (Pierre). Made London-Paris in 3 hours, 56 minutes, 12th April,
    1911. Designer to the _Bristol_ Co., 1911.


QUEROZ (the _late_). Brazilian. Killed at S. Paulo, June, 1911, in a
    monoplane of his own design.

QUIMBY (Miss Harriet). Mineola, U.S.A. First American lady to qualify
    for aviator certificate, 1st August, 1911. Used a _Moisant_. Killed
    1912.

QUOIKA (Haupt. Emanuel), Margarethenstrasse 16, Vienna. Aeronaut from
    1904. Now aviator and writer on subject.


RADLEY (James). Well-known British aviator, flying a _Bleriot_. Patented
    a special wing. Represented Great Britain in the 1910 Gordon
    Bennett. At Lanark, 1910, broke the world's then speed record, and
    did 75 miles per hour. Pilot R. Ae. C. 12, June 14th, 1910. August,
    1911, flew the Channel in 22 minutes; Calais to Folkestone.
    Subsequently embarked on construction.

RAYNHAM (F. R.) British subject. Flew 7 hours, 30 mins. competing for
    the Michelin Cup. Used an _Avro_ fitted with a 60 horse Green.

REISSNER (Dr. Ing. Hans), Lutticherstrasse 166, Aachen. Born 1874.
    Professor on matters aerial.

RELTICH. French. Cyclist who succeeded in getting an avietter to fly one
    metre, October, 1912. Won the Dubos prize.

RENARD (_late_ Colonel). In association with Krebs built a dirigible in
    1884, with electric motor. Killed.

RENARD (Commandant Paul), 41 Rue Madame, Paris. Born 1854. Officer Leg.
    d'Hon. Brother of late Col. Renard, with whom he worked.
    Vice-President, _Ligue Nat. Aerienne_. Professor _Ecole Sup.
    d'Aeronautique_. Has written a good deal on aerial subjects.

RENAUX. Did 12 hours 12 minutes on a _M. Farman_, 7th August, 1911. (690
    k.m.) Won the Quentin Bauchart Prize, 1911.

RENAUX. French aviator. Winner of the Grand Prix Michelin, March, 1911,
    Paris, to top of the Puy de Dome. Machine, _Maurice Farman_.

RICHET. French patron of early aviation experiments, 1896. Tatin built a
    large model machine for him in those days, which after a 150 yard
    flight fell into the sea and was lost.

RIDGE (Theodore). Assistant Superintendent of the Army Aircraft Factory.
    Killed on August 21st, 1911.

ROBINSON (Hugh). Well-known U.S.A. aviator.

ROBL (_late_ Thaddeus). German aviator. Killed on a _Farman_, 1910,
    through attempting to fly in unpropitious weather in order to allay
    the complaints of sightseers. Has been designated the "first martyr
    of aviation"--not without some cause.

RODGERS (C. P.) U.S.A. aviator. _Wright._ In September-October, 1911, he
    flew across America, distance 4,321 miles. He started to win the
    Hirst prize of £10,000, but having taken longer than 30 days was
    disqualified.

ROE (A. V.) Clifton St., Miles Platting, Manchester. Was the first man
    to fly in England, and also the first to fly an all-British machine.
    Is a persistent experimenter on original lines. Has flown with as
    little as 9 h.p. in one of his triplanes. Now builds mono. and
    biplanes (_Avro_).

ROEHRIG (B. F.) U.S.A. aviator. Obtained wide reputation with _Curtiss_
    types on Pacific Coast.

ROGER, 8 Rue Grange-Batelière, Paris. Founder and editor of _Revue de
    l'Aviation_.

ROGUES (General). French Army. Inspector General Military Aeronautics,
    1911.

ROLLS (_late_ Hon. C.) Well-known British sportsman, motorist, and
    aviator. First Englishman to order an aeroplane--a _Wright_. Flew
    the Channel both ways early in 1910 (first record). Killed at
    Bournemouth, July, 1910, in a _Wright_.

RUCK (Major-General), C.B., R.E. Chairman of the Aeronautical Society of
    Great Britain.

RUSSIJAN. Austrian aviator. Killed January 9th, 1911.


SALMET (Henri). French. Born 1878. Made British height record, 8,070
    feet, November, 1911. Made record London-Paris flight, March, 1912.
    Time: 3 hours, 14 minutes.

SAMPSON (Lieut.) British Navy. On August 17th, 1911, made British flight
    duration record to date, 4 hours 58-1/2 minutes, at Eastchurch on a
    _Short_ 38. Now Acting-Commander. Employed by Naval Wing, R.F.C.

SAMUELSON (Arnold), Hamburg Waterworks, Germany. Born 1837. Writer on
    aerial matters.

SANTOS-DUMONT (Alberto), 150 Avenue des Champs-Elysees, Paris.
    Brazilian, of French descent. Born 1873. Officer Leg. d'Hon. Took up
    ballooning at an early age. He was the first to use a petrol motor
    in a balloon. In 1900 the fifth dirigible constructed by him crossed
    the Seine. On Oct. 19th, 1901, in No. 6, he circled the Eiffel Tower
    and won the 100,000 franc Deutsch prize. In 1906 he became
    interested in heavier than air machines, and began on a helicopter.
    Abandoning this he built a box kite type of aeroplane, and on
    October 23rd, 1906, won the Archdeacon prize for a heavier than air
    flight of not less than 25 metres. Thereafter, comparatively little
    was heard of him, except that he was experimenting with the
    _Demoiselle_, till in 1909 he made a record on this type--the
    designs of which he presented to the world. Has not been prominent
    since.

SCHABSKY (Athanasius Ivanovitch). Russian. Builder of the _Outchebny_
    type dirigible.

SCHIERE, J. Aeronautical engineer. Stephonsonstraat 41, The Hague,
    Holland. Librarian Dutch Ae. C.

SCHÜTTE (Prof. Johann), Jäschkenthal 47b, Danzig-Langfukr, Danzig,
    Germany. Born 1873. Designer of the _Schütte_ dirigible.

SCHWANN (Commander Oliver). British Navy. Navy Air Dept., 1912-13. In
    1911, conducted a number of hydro-aeroplane experiments.

SCRAGG (Geo. H.), American citizen, 19-21, Great Queen Street, Kingsway,
    London, W.C. European correspondent of American _Aeronautics_.

SELLERS (M.B.) (See U.S. aeroplanes)

SELLS (Chas. de Grave), La Colombara, Cornigliano-Ligure, Italy.
    British. A leading authority on all matters having to do with
    engineering. Also a writer on these subjects. Authority on matters
    having to do with aviation in Italy.

SHAFFER (Cleve T.) American citizen. West Coast correspondent to
    _Aeronautics_ (U.S.A.) Writer on aerial subjects generally.

SIMON (Rene). August 18th, 1911, tied with Sopwith for the world's
    Climbing speed at Chicago; 500 metres in 3' 35".

SMITH (H. White). British. Secretary to the Bristol Co.

SOMMER (Roger) Mouzon, Ardennes, France. Born 1877. Early interested in
    aviation. In 1908 built a machine of his own design. This was a
    failure. He then bought one of the first _Farman's_, on which he
    rapidly achieved success. Towards the end of 1909 he produced the
    _Sommer_ biplane.

SOPWITH (T.) British. Won the Baron de Forest prize on a _Howard
    Wright_, 1910. Also won many other prizes in England and America.
    19th August, 1911, tied with Simon, world's climbing speed--500
    metres in 3' 35"--at Chicago. Now a constructor.

SPENCER (Stanley). Early British dirigible builder (1902). Died 1913.

SPOONER (Stanley), 41 St. Martin's Lane, W.C. Editor of _Flight_.
    Prominent supporter of aviation. Member of R. Ae. C. Committee.

STEIN (Lieut.) German aviator. Killed at Doerlitz, February 6th, 1911.

STRINGFELLOW. British. A very early experimenter. In 1868 he evolved a
    triplane model.

SUETER (Capt. R. N.) British. In command of British Navy dirigible
    section, 1911. Admiralty Air Dept., 1912-13.

SURCOUF (Edward Louis), 33 Boulevard Lannes, Paris. Born 1862. Chev.
    Leg. d'Hon. Secretary Com. Sport Ae. C. F. Sec. Com. Aerienne Mixte.
    Director of the _Astra_ Societé. Constructor of the majority of
    French dirigibles.

SWANN (Rev. Sydney), The Vicarage, Crosby Ravensworth, Westmoreland,
    England. First clerical aviator. Ceased.

SYKES (Major F. H.) Officer Commandant in Charge of Records, Royal
    Flying Corps, Military Wing.


TABUTEAU. French aviator. Winner of the Michelin Trophy.

TADDEOLI. Swiss. First Swiss to obtain an aviator's certificate, which
    he did on a _Dufaux_, October, 1910. Badly injured at Lausanne,
    June, 1911, during exhibition flights. 1912, built a
    hydro-aeroplane.

TATIN (Victor), 14 Rue de la Folie-Reynault, Paris. Chev Leg. d'Hon.
    Born 1843. Commenced heavier than air experiments so long ago as
    1879, when he made an aeroplane driven by compressed air. Designed
    the _Ville de Paris_. Had a good deal to do with the _Bleriot_ in
    its early days. In 1909 designed the _Clement-Bayard_ monoplane.
    Associated with Paulhan in 1911. Writes on all aerial subjects.

TAYLOR (Vincent P.) Australian subject. Well-known aeronaut, using the
    _nom de plume_ of Capt. Penfold. In 1912 went in for aeroplaning,
    using a _Bristol_.

TISSANDIER (Gaston). French Pioneer aeronaut. Made an
    electrically-propelled dirigible in 1881. Born 1843. Died 1899.

TISSANDIER (Paul), 17 Avenue Victor Hugo, Paris. Son of Gaston
    Tissandier. Born 1881. Instructor of aviation. Taught many of the
    best known aviators.

TURNBULL (W. R.) American Engineer. In the year 1906 commenced to
    experiment with hydro-aeroplanes; and may be regarded as the
    originator of all experiments in this direction. The French
    _Gabardine_ of much later date did not differ materially from his
    early models, while the more recent _Fabre_ and the successful
    _Curtiss Triad_ embodied similar ideas.

TURNER (Charles E.) Authority on aviation matters, special aerial
    correspondent of the _Observer_, etc.

TURNER (Lewis W. F.) British. Chief pilot of the Ewen School, 1912.

TWINING (S. Frisco). Cal. U.S.A. Experimenter with flappers, man
    propelled, from 1910 onward.


USBORNE (Lieut. Neville F.), R.N. First British naval officer detailed
    for aerial work. Was appointed to _Clement-Bayard II_ in 1909, and
    subsequently to the first Naval Dirigible. 1912, Naval Wing, R.F.C.


VANNIMAN (Melvin). Built the gondola of the first _Wellman_ airship, and
    intimately concerned with _Wellman II_. Also designed a triplane
    1908. Designed _Akron_, 1911. Killed 1911.

VEDRINES. French. Second in the _Daily Mail_ £10,000 prize, 1911, in a
    _Morane_. Won Paris-Madrid, 1911. One of the best known aviators.
    Began life as a mechanic.

VIVALDI (_late_ Lieut.) Italian naval officer. Killed in a _M. Farman_,
    August, 1910.

VOISIN (Charles), 34 Quai du Point du Tour, Billancourt (Seine), France.
    Born 1882. Director of _Voisin Freres_. Flew the _Delagrange I._ in
    1906. Induced H. Farman to be interested in aviation.

VOISIN (Gabriel). Brother of above. Born 1880. Chev. Leg. d'Hon.
    Director of _Voisin Freres_. Commenced to study aviation in 1902
    with Archdeacon. Experimented with gliders. Founded _Voisin Freres_
    in 1903. Designer of the _Voisin_ biplane. Killed 1912 in a motor
    accident.

VUIA. French pioneer, who with a machine somewhat like a _Demoiselle_,
    flew 6 yards in 1906 and 60 yards in 1907.


WALDEN (Dr.). U.S. citizen. Badly hurt, 1910, in a machine of his own
    design, but not killed as reported. (See U.S. aeroplanes.)

WALSH (C.F.) American aviator. Winner of various trophies on a
    _Curtiss_.

WARCHOLOWSKY. Austrian aviator. On October 30th, 1911, made world's
    record to date by flying 45 minutes with three passengers.

WEILLER (Lazare), 36 Rue de la Bienfaisance, Paris. Officer Leg. d'Hon.
    Head of the syndicate which in 1908 was responsible for Wilbur
    Wright coming to France.

WEISS (José). British subject. Pioneer experimenter in aviation. The
    starting stage used by him for early glider experiments is still to
    be seen near Arundel Castle, Sussex. Much of our knowledge as to the
    distribution of weights is due to him.

WELLMAN. An American who hoped to reach the North Pole by dirigible. His
    first ship came to grief at Spitzbergen. In Oct., he attempted a
    cross-Atlantic voyage, but failed. (See Vanniman).

WEYMANN (C). American. Won the 1911 Gordon Bennett on a _Nieuport_.
    Average speed, 78 miles per hour.

WHEELER (R.F.) British Navy. As naval cadet at the age of 15 he obtained
    his pilot certificate at the Bristol School.

WHITE (Sir George, Bart. LL.D. J.P.) Founder and Chairman of the British
    and Colonial Aeroplane Co., Ltd. President of the Bristol and West
    of England Ae. C.

WIDMER. Austrian aviator. In October, 1911, made a flight over the
    Adriatic, Venice to Triest.

WILLOWS (E.T.) Cardiff, Wales. British Airship pilot 4. Inventor of the
    _Willows_ airship. Patentee swivelling propellers. Started a
    dirigible school, 1913.

WISEMAN (Fred T.) American aviator. Flies his own type machine. Has made
    sensational flights delivering newspapers at farmhouses, April,
    1911, also letters.

WRIGHT (Howard). See HOWARD WRIGHT.

WRIGHTS (the) (Orville and Wilbur), 7 Hawthorn Street, Dayton, Ohio,
    U.S.A. Chevs. Leg. d'Hon. In 1896 the Brothers Wright began to study
    aerial flight. In 1900 they were making glides. In 1903 they first
    fitted a motor, and on December 17th of that year made a power
    flight of about 250 yards. Reports of this were received with
    incredulity, and right up to July, 1908, when Wilbur Wright appeared
    in France, many people still regarded the Wrights as a myth. Wilbur
    Wright easily beat the French machines in circling, etc. He won the
    Michelin Cup, being up 2 h. 20 m. 23-1/3 sec. Distance 76-1/2 miles
    official record. Actual, estimated at 93 miles. The exploits of
    Wilbur Wright put aviation on quite a new footing. Since 1908 the
    _Wright_ type has been surpassed by others; but to the Wrights will
    always belong the credit of having made a decided step in the
    science. Wilbur died of typhoid, 1911.

WYNMALEN (Henri). Dutch. Reached 9,121 feet in a _Farman_ in 1910, and
    was then compelled to descend because after 8,000 feet blood oozed
    from his finger nails and lips. Ae.C.F. pilot 208, 27th August,
    1910. Has made many famous flights.


ZENS (Ernest), 3 Rue la Boétie, Paris. Born 1878. Pioneer aviator. On
    committee of Ae. C. F. First passenger in an aeroplane (carried by
    Wilbur Wright, 6th September, 1908). Built a monoplane, 1912.

ZEPPELIN (Count). The first Zeppelin dirigible was tried in 1900 on Lake
    Constance. It made a small speed against a 12-16 m.p.h. wind. It
    also circled. The experiments exhausted the Count's resources until
    1905. Details of this and later _Zeppelins_ will be found on the
    German dirigible pages in Part A.



~CARBURETTERS.~


~AUSTRIAN-HUNGARIAN.~

DENES FRIEDMANN, 11 Mitterbergasse, Vienna, XVIII.


~BELGIAN.~

DASSE (G.), 49 Rue David, Verviers

FAGARD (J.) & Cie, 7 Rue Bouille, Liege, (_Sthénos_).


~BRITISH.~

BROWN & BARLOW, Ltd., 16 Loveday Street, Birmingham

BURGESS (W. H. M.), 40 Glasshouse Street, London, W. (_White & Poppe_).

CARBURATION, Ltd., 85 Fleet Street, London, E.C.

CLAUDEL-HOBSON, 29 Vauxhall Bridge Rd., London, S.W.

DAVIS PARAFFIN CARBURETTER Co., London

FENESTRE, CADISCHE & Co., 17 Harp Lane, London, E.C.

MOSELEY MOTOR WORKS, Birmingham

SCOTT, ROBINSON, 3 Great Winchester St., London, E.C.

TRIER & MARTIN, Ltd., Trinity Works, New Church Road, Camberwell,
London, S.E. (_T.M._)

WAILES (George) & Co., 386-8, Euston Road, London, N.W. (_S.U._)

~WHITE & POPPE, Ltd.~, Lockhurst Lane, Coventry

WOODNUTT & Co., St. Helens, I.W.


~FRENCH.~

AMOUDRUZ, 24 Rue d' Armaillé, Paris. (Carburateurs "R.V." et "l'
Econome").

ASTER (Société de Construction Mécaniques (L')), 74, Rue de la Victoire,
Paris

AUFIERE (Ch.), 95 Rue de Flandre, Paris

BARIQUAND & MARRE (Société), 127 de Oberkampf, Paris

BELLAN ET FRANTZ, 137 Avenue de Villiers, Paris. ("Le Va-Partout.")

BOURRIENNE, 18 Impasse Amelot, Paris

BREUZIN (Ed.) FILS, 26-28 Rue Morand, Paris

BRIEST, 119 Rue de Rennes, Nantes

BROUSSET (F.), 5 Rue Leprince, Nogent-sur-Marne. ("Normal" & "Lion").

CAILLETTE ET NARÇON, 29 Rue de la Plaine, Paris

CHARRON, Ltd., 7 Rue Ampère, Puteaux

CLAUDEL (Henri), 41 Rue des Arts, Levallois-Perret

CLERC & QUANTIN, 21 Rue Tandou, Paris

COTTIN & DESGOUTTES, Place de Bachut, Lyon

EMMEL (A.), 278 Boulevard Raspail, Paris

EVENS, NOLO & Cie, 150, Avenue St-Ouen, Paris

FILTZ (J.), 13 Avenue du Roule, Neuilly-sur-Seine

GAUTREAU Fréres, Dourdan

GOUBERT, 15 Rue du Pont, Arles

GRIANOLI (Étabs. L.), 26 Boulevard Magenta, Paris

GROUVELLE (J.) H. ARGUEMBOURG & Cie, 71 Rue du Moulin-Vert, Paris. ("_G.
A._")

HARDING (H. J.), 7 _bis_, Rue du Débarcadere, Paris. (_J.A.P._)

JANVIER (V.), 44 Rue d'Alésia, Paris. ("_Véji._")

JANGEY (P.) et Cie, 26 _bis_, Rue Saint-Didier, Paris

JOLY FRÉRES, 244 Rue Marcadet, Paris

JULLIAN FRÉRES & HERAULT, Beziers

LAURENT FRÉRES, Plandher-Les-Mines

LONGUEMARE (F. & G.) FRERES, 12 Rue du Buisson-St-Louis, Paris

MARTHA (L.), 24 Rue du Champ-Les-Mines, Paris

MENEVEAU & Cie, 15 Rue des Trois-Bornes, Paris

MERIOT (L.), 22 _bis_, Rue de' Taillandiers, Paris

PANHARD-LEVASSOR (Etablissements), 19 Avenue d'Ivry, Paris

PASCAUD, 144 Boulevard Magento, Paris

PILAIN (Soc.), 17 Chemin de Monplasir à Grange-Rouge, Lyon

POUDEROUX (L.), 9 Rue Waldeck-Rousseau, Paris

PROGRESSA (Soc.), 3 Passage Moitrier, Levallois-Perret

SCHMITZ (J.) & Cie, 17 Rue Saussier-Leroy, Paris

STORR & Cie, 17 Rue Saussier-Leroy, Paris

STROMBERG MOTOR DEVICES MANUFACTURING Co., 1253 Michigan Avenue,
Chicago, U.S.A.

TOLLET & Cie, 7 Rue de la Charité, Lyon

VAURS, 38 Rue Brunel, Paris

VAUTRIAN (L.), 35 Rue Brunel, Paris. ("_Claudet._")

VITU (P.), Villa Aline, Rue des Soupirs, Epinal

WAGNER, 7 Galeme de la Madeleine, Paris

ZENITH (Soc. du Carburateur)--
    55 Chemin Feuillat, Lyon-Monplasir
    2 Rue Denis-Poission, Plancher-les-Mines


~GERMAN.~

DULONG, 11 Lingstrasse, Berlin

ESCHER (B.), Sachsische Werkzeug Maschinenfabrik, Chemnitz

"IDEAL" METALLWARENFABRIK, Opladen (_Ideal A.G._)

NEUE VERGASER GESELLSCHAFT, 63 Urbanstrasse, Berlin


~SWISS.~

WAGNER (Soc. d' Ind., Suisse d'Outillage), Bate


~U.S.A.~

BECKLY RALSDON. 178 Lake Street, Chicago

BREEZE CARBURETTER Co., 276 Halsey Street, Newark, N.Y.

BUFFALO CARBURATOR Co., 887 Main Street, Buffalo, New York

BYRNE, KINGSTONE & Co., Kokomo, Ind.

GOLDBERG MOTOR CAR DEVICES MFG. Co., 1253 Michigan Avenue, Chicago

HEITGER CARBURETTER Co., 205 West South Street, Indianopolis

HOLLEY Bros. Co., 661 Beaubien Street, Detroit, Mich.

KALAMAZOO CARBURETTER Co., Kalamazoo, Mich.

MARVEL MANUFACTURING Co., 410 S. Meridion Street, Indianopolis

MYERS (A. J.), 244 West 49th Street, New York. (_G. & A._)

SPEED CHANGING PULLEY Co., 758 Washington St., Indianopolis. (_Speed_).

STROMBERG MOTOR DEVICES MANUFACTURING Co., 1253 Michigan Avenue,
Chicago, London, D.E. (_T.M._)

WESTERN MOTOR Co., Logansport, Ind.

WHEELER & SCHEBLER, Indianopolis



~FABRICS FOR AEROPLANES AND DIRIGIBLES.~


~AUSTRIAN-HUNGARIAN.~

METZELER & Cie, 6 Konigstrasse (Gummihof), Vienna VI.


~BELGIAN.~

DUPT (A. D.), 11 Avenue de Keyser, Antwerp

ENGLEBERT FILS & Cie, 29 Rue des Vennes, Liege


~BRITISH.~

ACCORDION BOAT Co., 32 Tufton St., Westminster, London, S.W.

"AEROPLATTE." (See Rogers Bros.)

AUTOMOBILE & AERIAL SUPPLY Co., Norwich Union Buildings, Piccadilly,
London, W.

AVON INDIA RUBBER Co., Ltd., Melksham, Wilts

BENETFINK & Co., Ltd., Cheapside, London, E.C.

BENEY (R.) & Co., 7 Carlisle St., Oxford St., London, W.

CLARKE (T. W. K.) & Co., Kingston-on-Thames

~CONTINENTAL TYRE & RUBBER Co., (GREAT BRITAIN) Ltd.~, 102 Clerkenwell
Road, London, E.C.

DUNLOP RUBBER Co., Ltd., Manor Mills, Aston, Birmingham

FRANKENBURG & Sons, Ltd., Salford, Lancashire

"HARTS," 21 Liverpool Street, E.C.

HUTCHINSON AERO CLOTHS, 70 Basinghall Street, London, E.C.

IOCO PROOFING Co., Ltd., 50, Fraser Street, Bridgeton, Glasgow

IMPERIAL TYRE & RUBBER Co., Brook St., Holborn, London, W.C.

~JONES (Bros., Ltd.)~, 12 York Street, Manchester.

MCLEAN, MCLEAN & Co., 79-1/2 Gracechurch St., London, E.C.

NEW MOTOR & GENERAL RUBBER Co., Ltd., 374 Euston Road, London, W.C.

NORTH BRITISH RUBBER Co., Ltd.:--
    1 Long Acre, London, W.C.
    Castle Mills, Edinburgh

PEGAMOID (NEW) Ltd., 144 Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C.

ROE (A. V.) & Co., Brownsfield Mills, Manchester

~ROGERS (Bros.),~ 1 Mitre Court, Milk Street, London, E.C. ("_Aviator_"
_Ramie_), (_Aeroplatte_).

SPENCER (C. G.) & Sons, 56a, Highbury Grove, London, N.


~DANISH.~

CONTINENTAL CAOUTOUCHOUC & GUTTA PERCHA Co., 28 Amaliegade, Copenhagen


~DUTCH.~

CONTINENTAL CAOUTOUCHOUC & GUTTA PERCHA Co., 1077 Prinsengracht,
Amsterdam


~FRENCH.~

ALBERTI (L.) (_Harburg-Wien_), 12 Rue d'Enghien, Paris

~BARBET-MASSIN~, Popelin & Cie., 5-7 Rue St. Fiacre, Paris

~BESSONNEAU~, 21 Rue Louis Gain, Angers

CAOUTCHOUC Manufacture (Soc. du.), 86 Rue Notre Dame-de-Nazareth, Paris

CONTINENTAL CAOUTOUCHOUC & GUTTER PERCHA Co., 144 Avenue Malakoff, Paris

DEVILLE (J.), 42 Rue des Jeuneurs, Paris

FALCONNET-PERODEAND (Étabs.), 4 Place Carnot, Choisy-le-Roi (Seine).

GODARD (Louis) (Etabls. Aeronautiques de Paris), 170 Rue Legendre, Paris

HUTCHINGSON (Etablts.) 60, Rue Saint-Lazare, Paris

METZELER & Cie, 1 Rue Villaret-de-Joyeuse, Paris

MICHELIN & Cie, Clermont-Ferrand, Puy de Dôme

OPPENHEIMER NEVEU, 28 Rue Bergere, Paris

PETER (Louis), 107 Rue de Courcelles, Paris

RUSSIAN-AMERICAN INDIA RUBBER Co., 47 Rue St. Ferdinand, Paris

SULFIMATE (Service du), 200 Boulevard Victor Hugo, Clichy (Seine).

TELEPHONES (Soc. Indle. Des), 25 Rue de Quatre Septembre, Paris

TORRILHON (Soc. An. des Anciens Etab. J. B.), Chamaliéres Puy de Dôme

~VALDENAIRE~ (~H.~) Adenet & Cie., 21 Rue des Jeuneurs, Paris


~GERMAN.~

CLOUTH (Franz) (Rheinische Gummiwaarenfabrik, Cologne-Nippes)

CONTINENTAL CAOUTOUCHOUC & GUTTA PERCHA Co., 100 Fahrenwalderstrasse,
Hamburg

MICHELIN & Cie, Frankenalle 4, Frankfort

RIEDINGER (August), Augsburg, Bavaria

SCHUCKERT & Co. (Elektrizitats A.G.), Nuremburg


~ITALIAN.~

CONTINENTAL CAOUTOUCHOUC & GUTTA PERCHA Co., 36 Via Bersaglio, Milan

MICHELIN & Cie:--
    117 Via Livorno, gia via Schina, Turin
    14 via Toro, Milan


~RUSSIAN.~

CONTINENTAL CAOUTOUCHOUC & GUTTA PERCHA Co., 11 Boiscbaja Dmitrovka

RUSSIAN-AMERICAN INDIA RUBBER Co., Tregolnik, 138, Canal Abovdny, St.
Petersburg


~SPANISH.~

CONTINENTAL CAOUTOUCHOUC & GUTTA PERCHA Co., 5 Calle Fernando el Santo,
Madrid

MICHELIN & Cie, 21-23 Calle Sagasta, Madrid


~SWEDISH.~

CONTINENTAL CAOUTOUCHOUC & GUTTA PERCHA Co., Riddoregatan 15, Stockholm


~SWISS.~

CONTINENTAL CAOUTOUCHOUC & GUTTA PERCHA Co., 9 Lowenstrasse, Zurich


~U.S.A.~

BALDWIN (Captain Thos. S.), Box 78 Madison Square, New York

CONOVER (C. E.) & Co. (_Naiad_), 101 Franklin Street, New York

CONTINENTAL CAOUTOUCHOUC & GUTTER PERCHA Co, Muskegon, Mich.

FRENCH AMERICAN BALLOON Co., 4460 Chouteau Avenue, St. Louis

GOODYEAR TIRE & RUBBER Co., Akron, Ohio

MICHELIN & Cie, Milltown (N. T.).

"NAIAD," 101 Franklin Street, New York

STEVENS (Aeronaut Leo), Box 181, Madison Square, New York



~GARMENTS FOR AVIATION.~


~AUSTRIAN.~

BAUR (R.), 4 Rudolfstrasse, Innsbruck

GOLDMAN & SALATSCH, 20 Graben, Vienna I.

MAKOVSKY & Co., 9 Baumannstrasse, Vienna


~BELGIAN.~

DEPART (Au), 8 Boulevard Anspach, Brussels

GAUSSET (F.), 5 Rue du Jardin Botanique, Liege

HOEBER & Cie, 48 Chemin de Hall, Forest-les-Brus

REEKIE (A.), 17 Rue Royale, Brussels


~BRITISH.~

AEROPLANE SUPPLY Co., Ltd., 111 Piccadilly, London, W.

BAKER & Co., Ltd., 137 Tottenham Court Road, London, W.C.

~BURBERYS~ 30-33 Haymarket, London, S.W. Basingstoke

DUNHILL (A.), Ltd., 359 Euston Road, London, N.W.

GAMAGE (A. W.), Ltd., 126 Holborn, London, E.C.

HARROD'S STORES, Ltd., Brompton Road, London, S.W.

JOHNSTON (G.) & Co., 110 Cannon Street, London, E.C.

NICOLL (H. J.) & Co., Ltd., 114 Regent Street, London, W.

NORTH BRITISH RUBBER Co., Ltd., Castle Mills, Edinburgh

PENTON (E.) & Son, 11 Mortimer Street, London, W.

PIGGOTT (J.), Ltd., 117 Cheapside, London, E.C.

~ROGERS~ (~Bros.~), 1 Mitre Court, Milk Street, London, E.C. (_Mascot_
vests), (_Aeromac_)

SAMUEL (Bros.), Ltd., 65 Ludgate Hill, London, E.C.

SMEE (E.), 403 Oxford Street, London, E.C.


~FRENCH.~

ABERDEEN, 1 Rue Auber, Paris

ARNOUX, 63 Boulevard Malesherbes, Paris

AUDOUARD, 3 Rue du Commandant, Rivière, Paris

AUX MARINS, 7 Avenue de la Grande-Armée, Paris

BARBAN, 67 Rue Rambuteau, Paris

BAZAR de L'Hotel de Ville, 54 Rue de Rivoli, Paris

BELLE FERNIERE (La), Rue Saint-Pierre, Caon

BELLE JARDINIERE (La), 2 Rue du Pont-Neuf, Paris

BERNARD, 153 Rue du Faubourg, Saint-Honoré, Paris

BINET (E.), 6 Boulevard Diderot, Paris

BLUET, 154 Boulevard Haussmann, Paris

BOILLAU (M.), 5 Rue d'Tory, Lyon

BOINET (G.) & Cie, Saint-Quentin

BON MARCHE (Le), Rue de Sèvres, Paris

BONNET (G.), 4 Rue de la Bastille, Paris

BONNIOL, 10 Rue Turbigo, Paris

BOROWSKY, 32 Rue d'Argout, Paris

BOURSIN, 61 Rue la Boéthe, Paris

BRUNSCHWIG (Ch.), 39 Rue des Bourdounais, Paris

BURBERYS, 10 Boulevard Malesherbes, Paris

BUSSEY (Geo. C.) & Cie, 25 Rue Tronchet, Paris

BUSVINE & Cie, 4 Rue Marbeuf, Paris

CAOUTOUCHOUC MANUFACTURE (Société du), 86 Rue Notre Dame de-Nazareth,
Paris

CARNAVAL de VENISE (Au), 5 Boulevard de la Madeleine, Paris

CHAMANSKI & BLOCH, 6 Place des Victoires, Paris

CHOCQUENET (V.), 31 Rue des Jeûneurs, Paris

CHOTIN (G.), 34 Rue des Archives, Paris

CIRET (F.) & Cie, 140 Rue Rivoli, Paris

COOK & Cie, 23 Rue Auber, Paris

CRABETTE, 54 Faubourg Saint-Honoré, Paris

DAMERVAL (A.), 9 Rue Réamur, Paris

DAROLES-VINCENT, 22 Rue de Faubourg-du-Temple, Paris

DAY, 162 Rue du Faubourg-Saint-Martin, Paris

DEITZ (E.), 56 Rue d'Aboukir, Paris

DENIAU & Cie, 86 _bis_, Rue de Rome, Paris

DEWACHTER, 53 Boulevard Voltaire, Paris

DUGAS, Freres, 10 Boulevard Sébastopol, Paris

DUROT & LERY, 25 Rue des Trois-Cailloux, Amiens

DUBESSY (J.), Villefranche

DUBREUIL & PARMENTIER, 34 Rue Montorqueil, Paris

EGGER & Cie, 2 Rue de la Vrillière, Paris

ESDERS (Maison Henri), 115 Rue Montmartre, Paris

FASHIONABLE HOUSE, 16 Boulevard Montmartre, Paris

FELDSTEIN, 91 Rue des Marais, Paris

FRAENKEL (H.), 28 Rue du Quartre-Septembre, Paris

GALERIES LAFAYETTE, 40 Boulevard Haussmann, Paris

GRANDE MAISON (A La), 7 Rue Croix-des-Petits-Champs, Paris

HALIMBOURG-AKAR (Etablissements), 1 Places des Victoires, Paris

HENRY-TREILLE, Marcigny

HIGH-LIFE, 112 Rue de Richelieu, Paris

HUTCHINSON (Etablissements), 60 Rue Saint-Lazare, Paris

KRIEGCK & Co., 23 Rue Royale, Paris

LACHASSAGNE (E.), Saint-Etienne

LAMBLIN (A.), 15 Rue Tiquetonne, Paris

LAMARTINE, 24 Rue des Bons-Enfants, Paris

LECONGE & WILLMANN, 2 Rue du Renard, Paris

LEON, 21 Rue Daunou, Paris

LOUVRE (Grande Magazines du), 164 Rue de Rivoli, Paris

LYON (Grand Bazaar de), 31 Rue de la République, Lyon

MAGNANT & Cie, 117 Rue Réaumur

MAGNE (A.), Moulins, France

MANBY, _les_ 19 Rue Auber, Paris

MARCHAL (M.), 30 Rue le Peletier, Paris

MARECHAL (A.), Nevers

MAX-AUSPITZ, 374 Rue Saint-Honoré, Paris

MICHEL JACKSON (A.), 92 Rue Richelieu, Paris

MICHEL JACKSON (E.), Halluin

MENAGERE (À la), 20 Boulevard Bonne-Nouvelle, Paris

METTEZ (Maison), 5 Place de l'Hotel de Ville, Paris

MOLAY (Jacques), 181 Rue du Temple, Paris

MATHAN (G.), 27 Rue Saint-Sabin, Paris

NICOLLE, 29 Rue Tronchet, Paris

OLD ENGLAND--
    12 Boulevard des Capucines, Paris
    114 Via Nazionale, Milan, Italy

OLIVIERI & Co., 101 Rue Claude-Decaen, Paris

PAGUIN (J.) BERTHOLLE & Cie, 43 Boulevard des Capucines, Paris

PARIS-TAILLEUR, 3 Rue du Louvre, Paris

PAYEN (Maison G.), 7 Rue de la République, Lyon

PETIT MATELOT (Au), 41 quai d'Anjou, Paris

PFEIFFR-BRUNET, 17 Rue de l'Ancienne-Comedie, Paris

PRINTEMPS (Magasius du), 70 Boulevard Haussmann, Paris

RAGEUNEAU, 25 Avenue de la Grande-Armée

RÉAUMUR (A.), 82 Rue Réaumur, Paris

REVILLON, Freres, 77 Rue de Rivoli, Paris

RIBBY, 16 Boulevard Poissonière, Paris

RICOUR, 26 Rue du Bouloi, Paris

RODDY, 2 Boulevard des Italiens, Paris

ROFFY, 2 bis, Rue du Bouloi, Paris

ROUSSEAU, 61 Passage du Havre, Paris

ROYAL TAYLOR, 41 Avenue de Wagram, Paris

RUSSIAN AMERICAN INDIA RUBBER Co., 47 Rue Saint Ferdinand, Paris

SAINT, Freres, 34 Rue du Louvre, Paris

SAMARITAINE, Rue du Pont-Neuf, Paris

SEYNOHA (F.), 249 Rue Saint-Honoré, Paris

"SIEG," 19 Avenue de la Grande-Armée, Paris

SORIN & MARZETTIER, 2 Rue Haudaudine, Nantes, Paris

SPORT (The), 17 Boulevard Montmartre, Paris

STEINMETZ, Freres, 16 Rue Cambronne, Paris

STROM (D. SCHNEIDER & Cie)-- 16 Rue de la Chaussee-d'Antin, Paris 33
Avenue de la Gare, Nice

TELEPHONE (Société Industrielle des), 25 Rue du Quartre Septembre, Paris

THIERY & SIGRAND, 18 Boulevard Sébastopol, Paris

TORRILHON (J. B.), Chamalieres

TROIS-QUARTIERS (Aux), 17 Boulevard de la Madeleine, Paris

TUNMER (A.) & Co., 27 Rue du Quartre-Septembre, Paris

VELOCE-CLUB (Au), 21 Avenue de la Grande-Armée, Paris

VINCENE, 148 Rue du Temple, Paris

VOLLANT (A.), 34 Boulevard Sébastopol, Paris

WEST END TAILORS, 10 Rue Auber, Paris

WILLIAMS & Cie, 1 Rue Caumartin, Paris


~GERMAN.~

ANWANDER (A.), 22 Sonnenstrasse, Munich

HERTZOG (R.), 15 Breiterstrasse, Berlin


~ITALIAN.~

MARTINY (Manufacture), 5 Via Pietro Micca, Turin

SANGUINETTI (Frat), 8 Corso Vittorie Emanuele, Milan


~SPANISH~

SANCHA (M.), 12 Calle de la Cruz, Madrid


~SWISS.~

GEISTDORFER & Co., 4 Paradeplatz, Zurich


~U.S.A.~

SCANDINAVIAN FUR & LEATHER Co., 16 West 33rd Street, New York



~HANGAR AND SHED BUILDERS.~


~BRITISH.~

AEROPLANE SUPPLY Co., Ltd., 111 Piccadilly, London, W.

HARBROW (W.), South Bermondsey Station, London, S.E.

HARRISON, SMITH Buildings, Ltd., Vauxhall Works, Dollinan Street,
Birmingham.

HUMPHREYS Ltd., Knightsbridge, London, W.

MORTON, FRANCIS & Co., Ltd., Hamilton Ironworks, Garston, Liverpool.

~PIGGOTT, Bros. & Co., Ltd.~, 220, 222, 224, Bishopsgate, London, E.C.

SMITH (F.) & Co., Carpenters Road, Stratford, London, E.

WIRE-WOVE ROOFING Co. & PORTABLE BUILDINGS Co., 108 Queen Victoria St.,
London, E.C.


~FRENCH.~

~BESSONNEAU~--
    29 Rue du Louvre, Paris
    21 Rue Louis Gain, Angers

COMPAGNIE AERIENNE, 63, Avenue des Champs, Elysees, Paris

CONSTRUCTIONS DEMONTABLES (Compagnie des), 54 Rue Lafayette, Paris

CONSTRUCTIONS ECONOMIQUES (Société de), 11 Avenue de l'Opera, Paris

DUBOIS et Cie, 7 Rue Saint-Amand, Paris

LAPEYRERE (L.), 44 Rue de l'Eglise, Paris

OFFICE d'AVIATION, 3 Avenue de l'Opera, Paris

RUBEROID (Societe du), 82 Boulevard Beaumarchais, Paris

SAINTE-BEUVE (A.), 196 Quai Jemmapes, Paris


~GERMAN.~

MULLER (A.), 27 Fritcherstrasse, Berlin-Charlottenburg



~HYDROGEN SUPPLIES.~


~BRITISH.~

BRITISH HYDROGEN Co. (Lane's System), 49-50 Parliament Street, London,
S.W.

BRITISH OXYGEN Co., Ltd.:--
    Elverton St., Westminster, London, S.W.
    Saltley Works, Birmingham
    Great Marlborough St., Manchester
    Boyd St., Newcastle-on-Tyne
    Rosehill Works, Polmadis, Glasgow

~KNOWLES' OXYGEN Co., Ltd.~, Wolverhampton.

WOLF (J.), 15 Seething Lane, London, E.C.


~FRENCH.~

ELECTROLYSE FRANCAISE (L'), 4 Rue des Ecluses, Saint Martin, Paris

HYDROGÈNE pour l'Aerostation et l'Industrie (Soc. Francaise de l')
(Lane's System), Boulevard Sénart, St. Cloud (Seine et Soise).

HYDROXGENE PUR (L')
    22 Rue de Douai, Paris
    Marais de Lomme, Lille (Nord)

OXYDRIQUE FRANCAISE (L'), 2 Rue Nouvelle, Paris



~INSURANCE (AVIATION).~


~BELGIAN.~

MONET (Alfred), 3 Avenue de Cortambert, Bruxelles, Belgium


~BRITISH.~

AEROPLANE SUPPLY Co., Ltd., 111 Piccadilly, London, W.

~BRAY, GIBB & Co., Ltd.~, 14 Sherborne Lane, King William Street,
London, E.C.

~CAR & GENERAL INSURANCE CORPORATION, Ltd.~, 1 Queen Victoria Street,
London, E.C.

DOLAMORE (W. T.), AVIATION INSURANCE BROKER, 199 Piccadilly, W.

FORBES (M. W.) & Co., 15 Queen Street, London, E.C.

GLASGOW ASSURANCE CORPORATION, Ltd., 10 Queen Street, Cheapside, London,
E.C.

GOLD (Guy), 1 Cornhill, London, E.C.

KINLOCH (D. A.), 13 Leadenhall Street, London, E.C.

PLANCHE, HEARN & Co., 12 Newgate Street, London, E.C.

WHITE CROSS INSURANCE ASSOC., 1 Cornhill, London, E.C.


~FRENCH.~

ASSURANCE SPECIALES d'AUTOMOBILES (Les) 20 Rue Taitbout (Seine), Paris

BANDU DE CHANTPIE (Ch.), 8 Rue Blanche, Paris (Seine)

CAPRON & HAREL, 10 Rue Viollet-le-Duc, Paris

CASANIVA ET GRIBAUMONT, 50 Boulevard Maesherbes, Paris

CAUBERT ET GARNIA (E.), 5 Rue Moreau, Paris

FASTINGER (L.), 8 Rue du Sentier, Paris

HANCIAN (G.), Omnium des Assurance Terrestries, 59 Rue de Chateaudun

HURET (G.), 56 Rue d'Amsterdam, Paris

LAURIERS (Des) et DUMONT, 43 Rue Lafitte, Paris

LAW-CAR, 42 Rue Pergotese, Paris

LE CHARTIR ET DARDONVILLE, 12 Avenue Moatespan, Paris

LEFEVRE (P.), 7 Rue Villaret-de-Joyeuse, Paris

LLOYD (Continental), 17 Rue Druout, Paris

MULLER & DESPIERRES (G.), 26 Rue Etienne-Marcel, France

NICOLLEAU (Auguste), 36 Rue de la Chapelle, Paris

PIEFR (G.), 92 Boulevard Richard-Lenoir, Paris

STEVENS (Pierre), 26 Rue Bergere, Paris

TERRIER (V.), Courtier d'Assurances, 81 Boulevard Sébastopol, Paris

TROLLET (H.), 131 Rue de Rome, Paris



~LUBRICANTS.~


~AUSTRIAN.~

GERSON BOEHN & ROSENTHAL, 20 Donaueschingenstrasse, Vienna XX.


~BELGIAN.~

BENZO-BELGE (la), 11 Boulevard du Régent, Brussels

GUELETTE & Cie, Hug. (_Diamond-Running Oil._)


~BRITISH.~

ADAMS BRITISH OIL Co., Ltd., Plough Bridge, Deptford, London, S.E.

~ANGLO-AMERICAN OIL CO., Ltd.~, 22 Billiter Street, London, E.C.

ANGLO-BOSPHORUS OIL Co., Ltd., Bristol

BOWRING PETROLEUM Co., Ltd., Finsbury Court, London, E.C.

BRITISH MONOGRAM OIL Co., Ltd., 177 The Vale, Acton, London, W.

BUTTERWORTHS, Ltd., 5 Roscoe Chambers, Liverpool

BRITISH PETROLEUM Co., Ltd., 22 Fenchurch Street, London, E.C.

CARLESS, CAPEL & LEONARD, Hope Chemical Works, Hackney Wick, London,
N.E.

COUNTY CHEMICAL Co., Ltd., Chemico Works, Bradford Street, Birmingham

DICK & Co,, Ltd., 33 Eastcheap, London, E.C.

ENGLEBERT & Co., 119 Finsbury Pavement, London, E.C.

GRINDLEY & Co., Ltd., Poplar, London, E.

KAYE (J.) & Sons, Ltd., 93 High Holborn, London, W.C.

MONOVO Co., Mono Works, Stewart's Road, London, S.W.

O'BRIEN (H.F.) & Co., Broadheath Oil Works, Manchester

PETROLEUM Co., Ltd. (The British), 22 Fenchurch Street, London, E.C.

PRICE'S PATENT CANDLE Co., Ltd., Belmont Works, Battersea, London, S.W.

ROSE (Sir W. & Co.), 66 Upper Thames Street, London, E.C.

STERN-SONNEBORN (A. G.), Royal London House, Finsbury Square, London,
E.C.

VACUUM OIL Co., Ltd., Caxton House, Westminster, London, S.W.

WAKEFIELD (C. C.) & Co., 27 Cannon Street, London, E.C.

WHITE, 47 Curtain Road, London, E.C.

WILCOX & Co., Ltd., 23 Southwark Street, London, S.E.


~DANISH.~

BEAUVAL (de) Saxlund, 18 Kobmagergade, Copenhagen

MEYER & HENCKEL, 60 Kobmagergade, Copenhagen


~FRENCH.~

ACKER, 7 Rue de Bac, Ivry Port (_Auto Victoire._)

ANDRÉE (A.) Fils (Societe Anonyme), 8 Rue de la Tour-des-Dames, Paris
(_Volgaline & Spidoléine._)

AMELIN & RENAUD, 37 Rue Jean-Jacques-Rosseau, Paris

AMERICAN OIL Co., 42 Rue Lepeletier, Paris

BADIN, 3 Rue de la Mare, Paris

BAILLY, 8 Rue de la Michodiére, Paris

BANTEGNIE & NEVU, 10 Rue Bateau, Aubervilliers

BARBAT (C.), Charenton

BAUD, 24 Rue Saint-Roch, Paris

BAUDOUIN, 32 Quai Saint-Vincent, Lyon

BEDFORD PETROLEUM Co., 67 Boulevard Hausmann, Paris

BÉSANCON (E.), Saint-Denis

BONIFACE, Frères, Sotteville-L-Rouen

BONNEVILLE, ROUILLY & Cie, 27 Rue du Landy, Saint-Denis

BORREL & Fils, 58 Rue de Vincennes, Bagnolet

BOUCHON & BERTRAND, 17 Rue des Bateliers, Clichy

BOUGAULT & Cie, 32 Boulevard Ornano, Paris

BOURGEOIS-OUDRY, 18 Rue de la Paix, Vincennes

BUISINE & Cie, 35 Rue de Viarmes, Paris

BURCKHARDT, 18 Rue Poliveau, Paris (_Auto-Gazoline._) (_Auto-Moto._)

CABANNE-NIROUET, 124 Route de Joinville, Champigny-s-Marne

CALISCH-ORESTE, 4 Avenue du Cog, Paris

CAMUS, 5 _bis_, Rue des Rosiers, Paris

CAPET, 61 Rue de la Verrerie, Paris

CATHALIFAUD, 120 Boulevard Magenta, Paris

CAUÊT, 18 Boulevard Pagel, Saint-Denis

CAYEUX, Place de Marche-aux-Herbes, Compiegne

CHAILLY, 15 Rue Catulienne, Saint-Denis

CHATELET, 30 Rue de Fontenay, Nogent-sur-Marne

CHAUDIN & Cie, 132 Faubourg, Saint-Denis, Paris

CHEMET, 143 Route de Versailles, Boulogne

CHEMIN (A.), 10 Rue Gresset, Amiens (_Lubrifa._)

CHICHIGNAUD Au CORNILLON, Saint-Denis

CHOUILLOU, 14 Rue Duphot, Paris

CLAUDY, 92 Rue Neuve-des-Charpennes, Lyon

COLMET & Cie, 70 Rue de Rivoli, Paris

COLUMBRIA (Soc. des Prod. & Pub.), 48 Rue de Paris, Saint-Denis

COSTADAU, 13 Rue Vendome, Lyon (_Golden Oil._)

DANIEL, 4. Rue Villedo, Paris.

DÉGREMONT, 21 Rue Gudot-de Mauroi, Paris (_Lion_.)

DEGUEANT, Avenue Lagache, Villemonble

DELAGE, Quai d'Issy, 37 Issy-les-Moulineaux

DELETTREZ. 7 Rue Gide, Levallois-Perret (_G.D._)

DELIGNY, 3 Rue de Buisson-Saint, Louis, Paris

DESCROIX (P.) & LESAGE, 18 Rue de Normande Asnières

DESSALLE, 39 Rue de Paradis, Paris

DEUTSCHE (Les Fils de), 50 Rue de Châteaudun, Paris (_A.D._)
(_Jupiter._) (_Viscositas._)

DION BOUTON (De), 36 Quai National, Puteaux

DOMONT, 36 Boulevard Ornano, Paris

DROUOT, 172 Faubourg Saint-Martin, Paris

FAUCHER, 106 Boulevard Sebastopol, Paris

FEIGEL, 14 Rae Barbette, Paris

FERRANDON, 164 Avenue de Valmy, Paris

FERRON, 59 Boulevard Saint-Denis, Courbevoie

FIRBACH, 16 Rue Violet, Paris

FLOQUET, 36 Rue de la Haie-Cog., Paris

FOURNIER, Frères, 12 Rue Castérès, Clichy

FRANCO-RUSSE, Cie, 10 Rue Thimonier, Paris (_Newoléine._)

GAGNEPIAN, GONNOT & Cie, 109 Rue Victor-Hugo, Levallois-Perret

GALENA OIL Co., Paris

GAMARD & LAFLÈCHE, 8 Rue de Thorigny, Paris

GARDAIR, 71 Rue de Vaugirard, Paris

GAUBERT, 40 Avenue de la Grande-Armée, Paris

GÉNÉRAL INDUSTRIELLE (La), 5 Boulevard Voltaire, Paris

GEORGIER (A.), 8 Route de Flandre, Bourget

GIRARD, 102 Rue du Gazometre, Montreuil (_La Becanine_)

GONNOT, 33 Boulevard de la Chapelle, Paris

GUILLAUD & VALLAT, 36 Chemin, Saint-Matthieu, Lyon

GUILLET-PUSARD, Fils et Cie, 4 Rue Poccard, Levallois-Perret (_Royal
Oil._)

GUYENOT (J.), 1 Rue du Printemps, Paris (_Motoléine._)

HACHARD, 43 Boulevard, Richard-Lenoir, Paris

HAMELIN, 65 Rue Rivay, Levallois-Perret

HAMELLE, 21 Quai de Valmy, Paris (_Valvoline_).

HARMIGNIES, 105 Rue de Paris, Ivry Port

HERZEMBERG, 60 Rue Saint-Mandé, Saint-Ouen

HUILES & GRAISSES INDUSTRIELLES DE, 18 Rue Gambetta, Nice (_Omnia._)

HUILES-VITESSE (Soc. An. des.), Rue des Minimes, Courbevoie

INDUSTRIELLE GENERALE (L'), 27 Rue la Bruyère, Paris

LACARRIÈRE & GRAVELIN, 11 Rue de Neuilly, Clichy (_La Preferee._)

LAGET, 181 Rue Lafayette, Paris

LAMPE, Freres, 32 Rue Saint-Lazarre, Paris

LA SELVE & BOURGEON, 54 Chemin des Cures, Lyon (_Auto Oil_)

LAVOIX, Le Bourget

LEBRASSEUR & Cie, 155 Rue de Paris, Saint-Denis

LEBRASSEUR, 11 Rue de la Vega, Paris

LECLERC (C.), 33 Rue Auger, Pantin

LENOIR, 24 Rue Michelet, Pantin

LENORMAND, 18 Avenue Saint-Germain, Puteaux

LÉONHARD, 14 Rue Coypel, Paris

L'HERITIER & Cie, 86 Rue de Paris, Saint-Denis

LILLE & BONNIÈRES, 10 Rue des Pyramides, Paris

LUBIN, 47 Rue du Liégat, Ivry-Port

LUBRICATING Oil Co., Route de Sartrouville, Pecg.

LYNDALI & Cie, 80 Rue Taitbout, Paris

MACKAY, 2 Cité Trévise, Paris

MAILLET, 9 Rue Alfred Condre, Abbeville

MALICET & BLIN, 103 Avenue de la Republique, Aubervilliers (_Mab._)

MANÇEAU, 60 Rue de Flanders, Pantin

MARÉCHAL, 75 Avenue du Chemin-de-Fer, Le Vestinet

MARTIN (V.), 50 Boulevard de Strasbourg, Paris

MARVILLE & Cie, Rueil

MAUPRÉ, 112 Rue de la Chapelle, Paris

MICHEL, 15 Rue Ferragus, Aubervilliers

MORIN, 48 Rue de l'Aqueduc, Paris

NANTERRE, 18 Rue Gambetta, Nice (_Omnia._)

NASSOY & RIBAUD, 78 Rue Charles-Nodier, Pantin (_Colzarine_)

NICKMILDER, 82 Rue Daquerre, Paris

NOBLET, 1 Rue Pastuer, Ivry-Port

NORTZ, 29 Boulevard Sébastopol, Paris

OLEO, 30 Rue Perrier, Levallois-Perret (_Oleomoto_)

OLEONNAPHTES (Societé Anoyme), 164 Avenue de Paris, Saint-Denis

OLÉONNAPHTES ÉMULSIONNES (Societé Anonyme), 3 Avenue Victor-Hugo

ORANGE & Cie, 432 Avenue de Paris, Saint-Denis

PELON, 76 Avenue de la Republique, Paris

PENNSYLVANIA OIL Co., 39 Rue Sainte-Cécile, Marseilles

PETROLES OIL Co., 2 Rue Fongate, Marseilles (_Onctua._)

PEUGEOT, Freres, 71 Avenue de la Grande-Armée, Paris Valentigney

PIETRATERRA (A.), 10 Rue des Augustins, Argenteuil

POURCHEIROUX, 41 Rue Saint-Ferdinand, Paris

POULET & TAYART, 108 Avenue de la Republique, Aubervilliers

PRADERE & Cie, 16 Rue du 14-Juillet, Pre-Saint-Gervais (_Virginia_)

QUERVEL, 35 Rue du Port, Aubervilliers (_Kervoline_)

RASTIT (H.), 38 Rue Bicolas, Marseilles

RECORD, 27 Quai Gailleton, Lyon

REGNIER, Fils & RODDE, 11 Rue Etienne-Dolet, Paris

RENAUD-LEVEQUE & Cie, 37 Rue Jean-Jacques-Rosseau, Paris

RENAULT (V.), 145 Avenue, Parmentier, Paris

REVAUX, 63 Boulevard Thiers, Amiens

RICBOURG, 19 Quai aux, Fleurs, Paris

RINCK, Fils, 66 Rue de Rivoli, Paris

ROBERT, 25 Rue Drouot, Paris

RONDEL, 101 Rue Marceau, Montreuil

RONDEL (Ch.), 57 Rue de Saint-Mandé, Montreuil

SAUTET, Freres, 99 Route d'Orléans, Montrouge

SIMONET (L.), 45 Rue Gambetta, Nancy

SIMON-ROCHE, 17 bis, Avenue du Mans, Tours (_Auto Sims_)

SIVAN, 8 Place de l'Evêsché Marques, Fréjus (_Record, Aeroline, Motord_)

STANDARD OIL Works, 69 Rue d'Hauteville, Paris

STORACE (B.), 15 Rue de Paris, Nice

SYLVESTER (E.), 6 Rue Nationale, Rouen (_W.S._)

TESSE, 15 Rue de Surène, Paris

TORRE & Cie, 112 bis, Rue de Paris, Vincennes

TOURNEL, 18 Avenue d'Italie, Paris

TRABET (L.), 1 Rue Amelot, Paris (_Trabeoline_)

VACUUM OIL Co., Ltd., 34 Rue de Louvre, Paris

VILLENEUVE (A.), 1 Boulevard Saint-Jacques, Paris

WALLACH & Cie, 60 Avenue de la Republique, Aubervilliers

WALLET, 12 Rue Rennequin, Paris

WILSNER (G.), 29 Rue de Neuilly, Clichy

ZEMMER, 91 Rue Petit, Paris


~GERMAN.~

DEPAUW & Cie, 6 Rue de la Linère, Brussels

DEUTSCHE [OE]LVERKE, 1 Prinz-Louis, Ferdinandstrasse, Berlin

PETROLEUM RAFFINERIE, Breme (_Veloscol_)

SPILCKE, 94 Chausseestrasse, Berlin

STERN-SONNEBORN (A. G.), 21 Ritterstrasse, Berlin S. 42

SÜDDEUTSCHE OELWERKE, Fribourg-en-Brisgau

VALVOLINE OIL Co., 7 Hobzbrücke, Hambourg

VOGT & Cie, Görlitz (_Vostol_)


~ITALIAN.~

ARNOLDI & Cie, 37 Via Paolo do Cannobio, Milan

CECCARELLI, TEDESCHI & Cie, Corso XXII., Marso, 34, Milan (_Teuff_)

CORLIÈ RE, 8 Via Santa-Azata, Boulogne

FOLTZER (E.), Rivarolo-Lugure, Genes

KOCH (O.), 50 Via Abbadesse, Milan

MIRAGOLI & PETSATORI, 67 Foro Bonaparte, Milan

OLEUM, Galleria Nazionala, Turin

PETROLIO, 76 Piazza Cinque Lampade, Genes

REINACH & Cie, 90 Via Lario, Milan (_Oleoblitz_)

VOLPATO & Cie, 11 Via Santa-Maria-Fulcornia, Milan


~ROUMANIAN.~

TRAJON, Bucharest, Roumania


~RUSSIAN.~

CHABANIAN (R.), Batoum-Bakou

KAISER (R.), Baku

MALLARD, Caucase, Batoum

NOBEL, Freres, St. Petersburg

PITOEFF & Cie, Tiflis

SCHIBAEFF & Cie, Bakau

TER AKOPOFF, 3 Place Isaac, St. Petersburg


~SPANISH.~

FONTAGUD, 6 Fuentes, Madrid

OLEON Co., 13 Asalto, Saragossa

USERA (De), 47 Legdnitos, Madrid

VACUUM OIL Co., 598 Cortes, Barcelona


~SWISS.~

GRISARD (G.), 302 Route de Greuzach, Bâle

HALLER, 8 Splugenstrasse, Zurich

HEUMANN (A.) & Cie, Winterthur

HUILES MINERALES, Route de Frontenex, Geneva

LAMBERCIER (J.) & Cie, Geneva

LUMINA (S. A.), Geneva-Vollandes

MOEBIUS (H.) & Fils, Bâle

OMNIA (Maison), Chêne-Bourg, Geneva

SCHMID, 133 Murtenstrasse, Berne


~U.S.A.~

DIXON (J.) CRUCIBLE Co., Jersey-City, New York, (_Graphite_)

KEYSTONE LUBRICATING Co., Philadelphia

WHITE & BAGLEY Co., Worcester (_Oilzum_)



~MAGNETOS.~


~AUSTRIAN.~

DENES & DRIEDMAN, 11 Mitterbergasse, Vienna XVIII.

ERBEN (S.) & ARNOLD FRIEDMANN, 14 Stubenring, Vienna I.


~BELGIAN.~

BOSCH MAGNETOS, 121 Rue de l'Instruction, Brussels

PERNSTEIN (Ateliers), 8 Rue Laporte, Liege-Nord


~BRITISH.~

BOSCH MAGNETOS--
    40-42 Newman Street, London, W.C.
    28 Store Street, Tottenham Court Road, London, W.C.

BRITISH TELLIER Co., 10 Coburg Place, Hyde Park, London, W.

~EISEMANN MAGNETO Co.~, 43 Berners Street, London, W.

FULLER (J. C.) & Son, Woodland Works, Wick Lane, Bow, London, E.

~MEA MAGNETO Co.~, Gresse Buildings, Stephen Street, Tottenham Court
Road, London, W.

NILMELIOR (Société d'Electricité), 36-37 Alfred Place, Tottenham Court
Road, London, W.C.

RICHES (G. T.) & Co., 19 Store Street, Tottenham Court Road, London,
W.C.

SIMMS MAGNETO Co., Ltd., Welbeck Works, Kilburn, London, N.W.

VAN RADEN & Co., Ltd., Great Heath, Coventry.


~DUTCH.~

BOSCH MAGNETOS, Willem Van Rijm, Keizergracht 181, Amsterdam


~FRENCH.~

BARDON (L.), 61 Boulevard National, Clichy

BAUDOT ET PAZ, 22 Avenue de la Grande-Armée, Paris (_Simms._)

BOIN, 33 Rue du Four, Paris

BOSCH MAGNETOS--
    Depôt 295 Avenue de Saxe, Lyon
    17 Rue Theophile-Gautier

BREGUET (Maison), 19 Rue Didot, Paris

DEBEAUVE, 68 Rue de Sevres, Paris (_Vestale_)

~EISEMANN & Co.~, Lavalette & Cie., 175 Avenue le Choisy, Paris

EXTRA. (_See_ Giffard.)

GIANOLI, 28 Boulevard Magenta, Paris

GIBAUD, 309 Rue de Faubourg, Saint-Antoine, Paris

GIFFARD, 283 Rue des Pyrénées, Paris (_L'Extra_)

GIRARDEAU (A.), 7 Rue Scribe, Paris

GUENET. 5 Rue Montmorency, Paris

GUILLOU, 41 Rue de Bagneux, Montrouge

HENRIQUE, 54 Quai de Courbevois, Courbevois

HERDTLE & BRUNEAU, 93 Rue Pelleport, Paris

HOMMEN (H.), 38 Rue de Turenne, Saint-Etienne

HYDRA (Société de le Magneto), 11 Rue Charcot, Neuilly-sur-Seine

ILIYNE-Berline, 8 Rue des Dunes, Paris

INVICTA (Société) (Hamille et Cie), 5 Rue Deves, Neuilly-sur-Seine

JUSTON & Cie, 62 Rue du Chemin-Vert, Paris

~MEA MAGNETO~, Feld-Dengen, 157 av. Malakoff, Paris

MONTBARBON (Société), 147 bis, Rue de Villiers, Neuilly-sur-Seine
(_S.A.M._)

NIEUPORT (Société Anonyme des Appareils Electriques), 9 Rue de Seine,
Suresnes

NILMELIOR (Société), 49 Rue Lacordaire, Paris

SIMMS MAGNETO Co., Ltd., 12 Rue de Courcelles, Levallois-Perret

STUART & STICHTER, 18 Avenue des Ternes, Paris (_Splitdorf_)

UNTERBERG & HELME, 166 Rue Lafayette, Paris (_U.H._)


~GERMAN.~

BERGMANN'S INDUSTRIEWERKE, Gaggneau (_G.m.b.H._)

BOSCH MAGNETOS, 11 Hopperlaustrasse, Stuggart

~EISEMANN & CO.~, 61 Rosenbergstrasse, Stuttgart

FIELDER (W.), Eisenach (_Ruthardt_)

HAENDLER (A.), 52 Heidestrasse, Berlin

~MEA~ (_G.m.b.H._), Stuttgart

RAPID ACCUMULATOREN & MOTOREN WERKE, 149 Haupstrasse, Schoneberg-Berlin

RUTHARDT & Co., 77 Olachstrasse, Stuttgart

SCHOELLER (A.), Frankfort

TAUNUS ZUNDERFABRIK (_G.m.b.H._), Frankfort

UNTERBERG & HELME, Durlach, Baden

WECKERLEIN & STOCKER, 7 Wodanstrasse, Nuremberg (_Moris_)


~ITALIAN.~

BOSCH MAGNETOS, 18 Via San Vittore, Milan

~EISEMANN & Co.~, Ditta Secondo Pratti, 32 Carlo-Alberto, Milan

LUCINI (Enrico), 3 Via Petrarca, Milan


~SWEDISH.~

BOSCH MAGNETOS, Fritz Egnall, Norra Bantorget 29, Stockholm


~SWISS.~

KESSERLING (F.) & Cie, Schaffhouse

KOMET, 95 Brunaustrasse, Zurich


~U.S.A.~

BOSCH MAGNETOS:--
    160 West St., 56th Street, New York.
    223 & 225 West 46th Street, New York.
    1253 Michigan Avenue, Chicago
    357 Van Ness Avenue, San Francisco

DAYTON ELECTRIC MANUFACTURING Co., 98 St. Clair Street, Dayton, Ohio

DOW MANUFACTURING Co., Braintree

FAWN RIVER MFTG. Co., Constantine, M.

FISCH (Geo. L.), 1451 Michigan Avenue, Chicago

HEINZE ELECTRIC Co., Lowelle, Mass.

HOLTZER, CABOT ELECTRIC Co., Boston (_H.C._)

K.W. IGNITION Co., 30 Power Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio

~MEA MAGNETOS~, Marburg Bros., Inc., U.S. Rubber Buildings, New York.
Also Detroit and Chicago.

MOTSINGER DEVICE MFTG. Co., Pendleton, Ind.

PITTSFIELD SPARK OIL Co., Dayton

REMY ELECTRIC Co., Anderson, Ind.

SPLITDORF Co.--
    261-265 Walton Avenue, New York.
    138th Street, New York.



~MISCELLANEOUS ACCESSORIES.~


~BELGIUM.~

WANSON (Maurice), 10 Rue Jean Stas, Brussels


~BRITISH.~

AEROS, Ltd., 139 St. James's Street, Piccadilly, London.

AEROPLANE SUPPLY Co., Ltd., 111 Piccadilly, London, W.

BRITISH AMERICAN Co., 300-33 Widdrington Road, Coventry

BRITANNIA ENGINEERING Co. (1910), Ltd., Britannia Works, Colchester

BRITISH EMALLITE Co., Ltd., 30 Regent Street, London, S.W.

BRITISH INSULATED & HELSBY CABLES, Ltd., Warrington

BRITISH LOW ACCESSORIES Co., Ltd., 15 Great St. Helen's, London, E.C.

BONN (J.) & Co., Ltd., 97 New Oxford Street, London, W.C.

BOWDEN PATENTS, Ltd., Baldwin Gardens, London, W.C.

BROOKS (J.B.) & Co., Ltd., Criterion Works, Birmingham

BROWN (Bros.), Ltd., Birmingham

BRAMPTON (Bros.), Ltd., Birmingham

~BURBERRYS~, The Haymarket, London, S.W. (_Aviation Garments_)

CENTRAL NOVELTY Co., 99 Snow Hill, Birmingham

CHATER, LEA, Ltd., 114 Golden Lane, London, E.C.

CLARK (T. W. R.) & Co., Crown Works, High Street, Kingston-on-Thames

~COAN~ (~Robt. W.)~, 219 Goswell Road, London, E.C. (_Aluminium
Castings._)

COWEY ENGINEERING Co., Ltd., 1 Albemarle Street, London, W.

CRAMPTON & Co., 73 Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C.

~CROSLEY, LOCKWOOD & SON~, 7 Stationer's Hall Court, London, E.C.
(_Publishers_)

DING, SAYERS & Co., Elm Gardens, Mitcham, Surrey

DOBBIE McINNES, Ltd., Glasgow, N.B.

DRESSER & GARLE, Regent House, Regent Street, London, W.

~DRUMMOND BROS., Ltd.~, Ryde's Hill, Guildford

~EISEMANN MAGNETO Co.~, 43 Berners Street, London, W.

ESSEX ACCUMULATOR Co., 499 Grove Green Road, Leytonstone, London, N.E.

EVANS (Geo.) & Co., 94 Albany Street, Regent's Park, London, N.W.

FLATHER (W. T.), Ltd., Standard Steel Works, Sheffield

FRASER BEGG & Co., Ilford.

FONTEYN & Sons, 76 Newman Street. London, W.

FOULIS (Wilfred), Ltd., Sunbury News, Belford Road, Edinburgh

GENERAL AVIATION CONTRACTORS, Ltd., 30 Regent Street, London, S.W.

~GEOGRAPHIA DESIGNING & PUBLISHING Co., Ltd.~, 33 Strand, London, E.C.
(_Maps, etc._)

HAIM (N. S.), 69 Mark Lane, London, E.C.

HANDLEY PAGE, Ltd., 72 Victoria Street, London, S.W.

HARRIS & SAMUEL, 10 Dean Street, Oxford Street, London, W.

~HASLER TELEGRAPH WORKS~, 26 Victoria Street, London, S.W.
(_Indicators_)

HELLEKEN, Ltd., 133 Upper Thames Street, London, E.C.

HILL (ROWLAND) & Sons, Ltd., Albion Foundry, Coventry

HOBSON (H. H.), Ltd., 29 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London, S.W.

HORA (E. & H.), Ltd., 36-38, Peckham Road, London, S.E.

~HOYT METAL Co. OF GT. BRITAIN, Ltd.~, 26 Billiter Street, London, E.C.

HUNTSMAN (B.), Attercliffe, Sheffield

HURLIN (J.) & Son, 191 Cambridge Road, London, E.

JENNINGS, GUILDING & Co., 60 Southgate Street, Gloucester

~JONES Bros., Ltd.~, 12 York Street, Manchester (_Fabrics, etc._)

KALKER (E.) & Co., Much Park Street, Coventry

KEMPSHALL TYRE Co., 1 Trafalgar Buildings, London, W.C.

KIRKBY BANKS SCREW Co., Ltd., Meadow Lane, Leeds

LAMPLOUGH & Sons, Ltd., Albion Works, Cumberland Park, London, N.W.

~MALLINSON (Wm.) & Sons~, 130-138 Hackney Road, London, N.E.

MARSH (Bros.) & Co., Ltd., Ponds Steel Works, Sheffield

MARKT & Co., 6 City Road, London, E.C.

~MEA MAGNETO Co.~, Gresse Buildings, Stephen Street, Tottenham Court
Road, London, W.

MELHUISH (R.), Ltd., 50 Fetter Lane, London, E.C.

MELLIN (F.) & Co., Salisbury Road, Kilburn, London

M. P. G. Co., 98 Tollington Park, London, N.

MOGUL TYRE Co., Ltd., 15 Carlton House, Regent Street, London, W.

MOTOR ACCESSORIES Co., 55 Great Marlborough Street, London, W.

MOTOR AVIATION Co., Ltd., 628 Martin's Lane, London, W.C.

NOBLES & HOARE, Ltd., Cornwall Road, Stamford Street, London, S.E.

NORTH BRITISH RUBBER Co., Ltd., Castle Mills, Edinburgh

~OWEN (Joseph) & Sons, Ltd.~, 199a Borough High Street, London, S.E.
(_Aeroplane Woods_)

PALMER (L. N.), 9a Trevelyan Road, Tooting, London, S.W.

PALMER TYRE Co., Ltd., Shaftesbury Avenue, London, W.C.

~PIGGOTT Bros. & Co., Ltd.~, 220, 222, 224, Bishopsgate, London, E.C.

POLDI STEEL Works, Napier Street, Sheffield

RANDALL (J. H.) & Co., Green Street Works, Paddington Green, London, W.

REASON MNFTG. Co., Ltd., Lewes Road, Brighton

RENOLD (Hans), Ltd., Progress Works, Brook Street, Manchester

ROE (A.V.), Gt. Ancoats Street, Manchester

~ROGERS Bros.~, 33 Aldermanbury, London, E.C. (_Fabrics, etc._)

ROLLETT (H.) & Co., "Avia Works," Coldbath Square, Rosebery Avenue,
London, E.C.

ROSS, COURTNEY & Co., Ltd., Ashbrook Road, Upper Holloway, London, N.

RUBERY, OWEN & Co., Darlaston, Staffs.

RUTT (A.) 85 Cannon Road, Bromley

SCHAFFER & BUDENBERG, Whitworth Street, Manchester

SEEBOHM & DUCKSTAHL, Ltd., Dannemora Steel Works, Sheffield

SHORT (Bros.), Eastchurch, Sheppey

SMITH (F.) & Co., Ltd., Wire Manufacturers, Caledonia Works, Halifax

SNOWDEN & Sons, 427 Norwood Road, London, S.E.

SPEAR & JACKSON, Ltd., Aetna Works, Sheffield

SPIRAL TUBE & COMPONENTS Co., Caledonian Street, King's Cross, London,
N.

SPENCER MOULTON (G.) & Co., Ltd., 77-9 Cannon Street, London, E.C.

STEWART & CLARKE MFTG. Co., 11 Denmark Street, Charing Cross, London, W.

~THORN & HODDLE ACETYLENE Co., Ltd.~, 151 Victoria Street, London, S.W.

TIMPERLEY (Chas. B.), 86b Snow Hill, Birmingham

TORMO MFTG. Co., 67 Bunhill Row, London, E.C.

UNITED MOTOR INDUSTRIES, Ltd., 45-6 Poland Street, London, W.

UNIVERSAL AVIATION Co., 166 Piccadilly, London, W.

VAN DE RADEN & Co., Ltd., Great Heath, Coventry

~VANDERVELL (C. A.) & Co.~, Warple Way, Acton Vale, London, W.

VENESTA, Ltd., 20 Eastcheap, London, E.C.

WARWICK WRIGHT, Ltd., 110 High Street, Manchester Square, London, W.

WEBSTER & BENNETT, Ltd., Atlas Works, Coventry

WEST LONDON SCIENTIFIC APPARATUS Co., Ltd., Premier Place, High Street,
Putney, London, W.

WHITELEY EXERCISER Ltd., 35-37 Southwark Bridge Road, London, S.E.

~WHITEMAN & MOSS~, 8 Moor Street, Cambridge Circus, London, W.C.


~FRENCH.~

ACIERIES DE FIRMINY, Firminy, Loire

BARDOU, CLERGET & Cie, 12 Boulevard Sebastopol, Paris

~BESSONEAU~, 29 Rue du Louvre, Paris

BLOT-GARNIER & CHEVALIER, 9 Rue Beudant, Paris

BORDE (I.), 99 Boulevard, Haussmann, Paris

BOREL et Cie, 11 Chemin de Pré-Gaudry, Paris

CARPENTIER (J.), 20 Rue Delamore, Paris

CHAPMAN (H.), Rue Laffitte, Paris

CACATRE, 35 Boulevard Saint-Jacques, Paris

~DOUTRE (La Ste. An des Appareils d'Aviation)~, 58 Rue Tait bout, Paris

DUCOMET, 11 Rue d'Abbeville, Paris

GAUDET (A.), 7 Avenue de Montreuille Fontenay-sous-Bois, Seine

GIRAUD (Ainé), 49 Rue Greffulhe, Levallois-Perret

GODARD (Louis), 170 Rue Legendre, Paris

GOMES (A. C.) & Cie, 63 Boulevard Haussmann, Paris

GROSSIORD (A.), Saint-Maurice, Seine

HANNOYER (F.), 69 Avenue Parmentier, Paris

HUE (E.), 63 Rue des Archives, Paris

LADIS LEWKOWICZ, Ervauville, Loviet

LEFEBVRE & Cie, 76 Avenue de la République, Paris

LEVESQUES, Rue des Haudriettes, Paris

LUNKEN VALVE Co., 24 Boulevard Voltaire, Paris

MAXANT, 38 Rue Belgrand, Paris

MAZELLIER ET CARPENTIER, 20 Rue Delambre, Paris

PAREME (J.), 203 Rue Lafayette, Paris

PELON, 76 Avenue de la République, Paris

PELTRET & LAFAGE, 4 Rue des Rigoles, Paris

PERE (J.), 46 Boulevard Magenta, Paris

POIRELLE (Vve) & DOURDE, 4 Place Thorigny, Paris

PROTAIS, 12 Rue Montbrun, Paris

RICHARD (J.)--
    25 Rue Melingue, Paris
    10 Rue Halevy, Paris

ROEBLING'S (J. A.) & Sons Co., Trenton, New Jersey

SCHAEFFER & BUDENBERG, 105 Boulevard Richard-Lenoir, Paris

SEEBOHM & DIECKSTAHL, 4 Rue Sanite-Ann, Paris

SOCIETE GENERALE D'APPAREILS DE CONTROLE, 105 Rue de la Convention,
Paris

~VALDENAIRE (H.), ADENET & Cie~, 21, rue des Jeûneurs, Paris
(_Fabrics_).


~GERMAN.~

BAMBERG (Carl), Berlin-Friedenau

BASSE & SELVE, Altena

BUNGE (B.), Oranienstrasse, 20 Berlin, So. 26

DEUTCHEN WAFFEN-V-MUNITIONSFABRIKEN, Dorotheenstrasse 43-41, Berlin N.W.
41

~EISEMAN MAGNETO Co.~, 61 Rosenbergstrasse, Nuremberg.

FUESS (R.), Steglitz

HACKENSCHMIDT (Ch.), 7 Kramergasse, Strasbourg

~MEA MAGNETO~, S. Union Werke G.m.b.H. Feurbach-Stuttgart

SPINDLER & HOYER, Goettingue


~U.S.A.~

BRETZ (J. S.), & Co., Times Buildings, Byrant

BROWN & Co., 1070 Clinton St., Syracuse, New York

CALIFORNIA AERO MFTG. & SUPPLY Co., 441-3 Golden Gate Avenue, San
Francisco

CHURCH AEROPLANE Co., Brooklyn, New York

DELTOUR (J.), Inc., 496th Avenue, New York

FRASSE (Peter A.) & Co., 408 Commerce Street, Philadelphia

PEDERSEN MANUFACTURING Co., 636-644, First Avenue, New York

PENNSYLVANIA RUBBER Co., Jeannette, Pa.

RUBEL (R. O.), Louisville, Ky.

RUDOLPH (W. F.), Broad Street, Pa.

SCOTT, Bros., Cadiz, Ohio

STUPAR, 9626 Erie Avenue, Chicago

WEAVER-EBLING AUTOMOBILE Co., 2230 Broadway 79th Street, New York

WITTEMANN (C. & A.), 17-19 Ocean Terrace, Staten, 1st, New York

WILLIS (E. J.) & Co., 85 Chambers Street, New York

WILSON & SILSBY, Yacht Sailmakers, Rowe's Wharf, Boston, Mass.



~PACKERS AND SHIPPERS.~


~BRITISH.~

AEROPLANE SUPPLY Co., Ltd., 111 Piccadilly, London, W.

CARBURINE. (See Gas Lighting Improvement Co.)

DRESSER & GARLE, Regent House, Regent Street, London, W.

MOUNT (J. C.) & Co., 101, Grosvenor Road, London, S.W.


~FRENCH.~

BRAVARD, 40 Rue de l'Arbre-Sec Lyon, Rhone

GERFAUD (C.), 26 Rue du Chateau-d-Eau, Paris

LANGSTAFF, EHRENBERG & POLLACK, 12 Rue d'Enghien, Paris

PAYSSE & Cie, 22 Rue Amperé, Paris


~ITALIAN.~

AMBROSSETTI (G.), 32 Via Nizza, Turin


~U.S.A.~

BRINE (B. S.), Transportation Co.



~PATENT AGENTS (Aerial Specialists).~


~BELGIAN.~

HAMEL (J.), Liege

WUNDERLICH & Cie., Brussels.


~BRITISH.~

BREWER & SONS, 35 Chancery Lane, London, W.C.

CHATWIN, HERSCHELL & Co., 253 Grays Inn Road, London, W.C.

EDWARDS (ARTHUR) & Co., Chancery Lane Station Chambers, Holborn, London,
W.C.

MARKHAM & FRANCE, Dudley House, Southampton

ROGERS (F. M.) & Co., 21 Finsbury Pavement, London, E.C.

ROOTS (J. D.) & Co., Thanet House, Temple Bar, London, E.C.

~STANLEY POPPLEWELL & Co.~, 38 Chancery Lane, London, W.C.

THOMPSON (W. P.) & Co., 285 High Holborn, London, W.C., and 6 Lord
Street, Liverpool

WITHERS (J. S.) & SPOONER, 323 High Holborn, London, W.C.


~FRENCH.~

ARMENGAUD, Paris

BLETRY (C.), 2 Boulevard de Strasbourg, Paris

BRANDON FRÉRES, Paris

DUPONT & ELLUIN, 42 Bd. Bonne-Norwelle, Paris

JOUVE (Ad), Marseilles

MESTRAL & HARLÉ, 21 rue de la Rochefoucault, Paris

PICARD, 97 Rue St. Lazare, Paris.

WEISMANN & MARX, 90 rue d'Amsterdam, Paris


~GERMAN.~

ANSBERT VERREITER, Berlin W. 57

BEZUGSQUELLEN-AUSKUNFTEI, Berlin.


~ITALIAN.~

BARZANO & ZANARDO, via Bagutta 24, Milan


~SPANISH.~

BOLIBAR (G.), Barcelona.


~U.S.A.~

EVANS (Victor J.) & Co., 724-726, Ninth St. N.W. Washington, D.C.

OWEN (Richard B.), Dept. 5, Owen Building, Washington, D.C.

PARKER (C. L.), 30 McGill Building, Washington, D.C.



~PETROL.~


~AUSTRIAN.~

LEDERER (W.) (_Galizche Karpathen Petroleum A.G._), Galicia

NAPHTE UNGARISCHE, 33 Vaczi-Korut, Budapest, Hungary

RUSSIAN-AMERICAN OIL Co., 42 Zozsef, Budapest VIII., Hungary


~BELGIAN.~

BELGIAN BENZINE Co. (_Motogazolin_), Haren-Nord

MOTTAY & PISCART (_Motocarline_), Haren-Nord-lez-Brussels


~BRITISH.~

~ANGLO-AMERICAN OIL Co., Ltd.~, 36-38 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster,
London, S.W. (_Pratt's_)

BOWLEYS & Son, Wellington Works, Battersea, London, S.W.

BOWRING PETROLEUM Co., Ltd., 5, Billiter Avenue, E.C.

BRITISH PETROLEUM Co., 22 Fenchurch Street, London, E.C. (_Shell_)

CARLESS, CAPEL & LEONARD, Hope Chemical Works, Hackney Wick, London,
N.E.

GAS LIGHTING IMPROVEMENT Co., Ltd. (_Carburine._)--
    7 Bishopsgate Street Without, London, E.C.
    Royston Castle, Shore Road, Granton, Edinburgh

PETROLES DE GROSNYI (Russie) (P.G.R.), 101 Leadenhall Street, London,
E.C.


~BRITISH COLONIES, etc.~

WILSON (J.), 119 Rue Common, Montreal, Canada


~DANISH.~

BEAUVAL & SAXLUND, 18 Kobmagergade, Copenhagen

MEYER & HENCKEL, 60 Kobmagergade, Copenhagen


~FRENCH.~

DEUTSCH (Les de) (_Moto-Naptha_), 50 Rue de Chateaudun, Paris

FANTO (Cie Des Petroles), 74 Rue St. Lazare, Paris

FENAILLE & DESPEAUX (_Benzo Moteur_), 11 Rue de Conservatoire, Paris

FIRBACK (E.), 16 Rue Violet, Paris

GERFAUD (C.), 26 Rue du Chateau-d-Eau, Paris

GRAMMONT (Raffineries) (_Lesourd_), Tours

GUILLAND & VALLET, 36 Chemin St. Mathieu, Lyon

LANGSTAFF, EHRENBERG & POLLACK, 12 Rue d'Enghien, Paris

LASSAILLY (L.), 12 Rue d'Oney, Vitry, Seine

LILLE, BONNIERES ET COLOMBES (Soc. Anym.) (_Vaporine & Spiritol_), 10
Rue des Pyramides, Paris

NAPHTE CASPIEBBE ET DE LA MER NOIRE (Société), 26 Rue Lafitte, Paris

PETROLES (Cie Generale des) (_Naphtacycle_), 2 Rue Fongate, Marseilles

PETROLES (Cie Industrielle des), 12 Rue Blanc, Paris

PETROLES DE BINAGADI BAKOU (Soc. des), 11 Place des Vosges, Paris

RAFFINERIE DE PETROLE DU DUNQUERQUE (ENERGIE) (_Touriste_), 24 Rue
Joubert, Paris

RAFFINERIE DE PETROLE DU NORD, 26 Rue d'Enghien, Paris (_Eoline_).


~ITALIAN.~

ARNOLDIE (G.) & Cie, 37 Via Pavlo da Cannobis, Milan

PETROLI D'ITALIA (Soc.) (_Italia_), 12 Via Andegari, Milan

PETROLIO (Soc. Ital. Americana), 76 Piazzi Cinque Lampa, Genoa


~ROUMANIAN.~

AQUILA, Franco-Romana, Bucharest

ETOILE ROUMAINE, Bucharest


~RUSSIAN.~

KAISER (B.), Baku

NANOYAN & Cie, Batum

PITOEFF & Cie, Taflis

SCHIBAEFF & Cie, Baku

TER-AKOPOFF, 3 Place Isaac, St. Petersburg


~SPANISH.~

CATASUS & Co., 1 Colon, Barcelona

DESMARIS FRERES, 8 Rue Claire, Madrid

FOURCADEY PROVOT, 8 Calle de Fernaflor, Madrid

VILELLA, Tarragona


~SWISS.~

HUILES MINERALES (SOCIETE SUISSE POUR LE COMMERCE DE), Route de
Frontenex, Geneva


~U.S.A.~

ELLIS & Co., 11 Broadway, New York

PETROLEUM OIL TRUST, 27 William Street, New York

PURE OIL Co., 11 William Street, New York



~PROPELLERS.~


~BELGIAN.~

WANSON (Maurice), 10 Rue Jean Spas, Brussels


~BRITISH.~

AVRO. (See Roe (A.V.) & Co.)

BENEY (R.) & Co., 7 Carlisle Street, Oxford Street, London, W.

~BLACKBURN~ (~B.~), Balm Road, Leeds

~BRITISH & COLONIAL AEROPLANE Co., Ltd.~, Bristol

BROWN Bros., Ltd., 22-34 Great Eastern Street, London, E.C.

CLARKE (T. W. K.) & Co., 26 Clarges Street, London, W.

DOVER AVIATION Co., Ltd., Dover (_Normale_)

GENERAL AVIATION CONTRACTORS Ltd., 30 Regent Street, London, S.W.
(_Rapid_)

GRAHAME-WHITE (C.) & Co., Ltd., 1 Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, London,
W.

HANDLEY PAGE, Ltd., 72 Victoria Street, London, S.W.

HARRIS & SAMUELS, 10 Dean Street, Oxford Street, London, W.

HOLLAND & HOLLAND, 479-483 Oxford Street, London, W.

LUDWIG LOEWE & Co., Ltd., 30-32 Farringdon Road, London, E.C.

MADISON DYNAMO ELECTRIC Co., Littleover, Derby

MACFIE (R.F.) &. Co., Norwich Union Chambers, St. James' Street, London,
W.

MOTOR ACCESSORIES Co., 55 Great Marlborough Street, London, W.

~PIGGOTT~ (~Bros.~) ~& Co., Ltd.~, 220-222-224 Bishopsgate, London, E.C.

ROE (A. V.) & Co., Brownsfield Mills, Manchester

SMITH & DOREY (G. H. & W. H.), Ltd., 14a Great Marlborough Street,
London, W.

SPENCER & SONS (C. G.), 56a, Highbury Grove, London, N.

TWINING AEROPLANE Co., 29b Grosvenor Road, Hanwell, London, W.

WEBB, PEET & Co., Gloucester

W.B.G. (See Wilson, Bros. & Gibson)

WILSON (Bros.) & GIBSON, Twickenham (_W. B. G._)

WRIGHT (Howard T.) (See Howard Wright)

WOOD (T.B.), Littleover Works, Derby


~FRENCH.~

APPAREILS AÉRIENS (Société de Construction D'), 36 Rue du Bois,
Levallois-Perret

AVIA (Société Générale D'Industrie Aéronautique), 62 Rue de Provence,
Paris

BAUDOT & PAZ, 22 Avenue de la Grande Armée, Paris

BAUJARD (Claude), 309, Faubourg Sainte-Antoine, Paris (_Eola_)

BREQUET (Louis), Boulevard Vauban, Douai

CHAUVIÈRE (L.), 52 Rue Servan, Paris (_Integrale_)

CHERVILLE (M.), 6 Place de l'Odéon, Paris.

DOREY (W.H.), 14 Rue Torricelli, Paris

DURVILLE (P. N. G.), 38 Rue Jouffroy, Paris.

EOLA (_See_ Baugard)

ESNAULT-PELTERIE (ETABLISSEMENTS), 149 Rue de Silly, Billancourt
(_R.E.P._)

GODARD (Louis), 170 Rue Legendre, Paris

HELICE (E.T.M.), PARIS INGENIEUR, 17 Rue Cassette, Paris

KAPFERER (M.), 2 Avenue de Messine, Paris (_Aero-propulser_). (_A.P._)

KOECHLIN (P.), 45 Rue Denfert-Rochereau, Boulogne, S.

LABANHIE ET RUTHER, 2 Rue de Seine, Suresnes

LETORD & NIEPCE, 15 Rue Paira et 23 Terre-Neuve, Mendon _(Dargent)_

LIORE, 4 _bis_, Rue de Cormeille, Levallois-Perret

PANHARD & LEVASSOR (Société Des Anciens Établissements), 19 Avenue
D,'Ivry, Paris

PASSERAT & RADIQUET (Établissements), 127 Rue Michel-Bigot, Paris
_(Progressive)_

PELLIAT (L.), 15 Grand Rue, Asnières (_Rationnelle_)

PEYZARET-PARANT, 4 _bis_, Rue Louis-Philippe, Neuilly-sur-Seine, Paris

RATMANOFF, 9 Rue Eugène-Eichenberger, Piteaux _(Normale)_

RÉGY FRERES (Les Fils de), 120 et 122 Rue de Javel, Paris

R. E. P. (_See_ Esnault-Pelterie)

ROSSEL-PEUGOT, Sochaux, près Montbéliard (Doubs) (Société Anonyme des
Constructions Aériennes)

TELLIER (CHANTIERS), Juvissy

THOMAS, 5 Rue des Tanneries, Paris

VINOGRADOW (MICHEL), 83 Quai d'Issy, Issy-les-Moutisn

VOISIN, 34 Quai du Point-du-Jour, Billancourt

VUITTON (LOUIS), 1 Rue Scribe, Paris


~GERMAN.~

ERSTE-DEUTSCHE AUTOMOBIL-FACHSCHULE, Mainz

FICHTEL & SACHS, Schweinfurt A.M.

PARSEVAL, Bitterfield

SCHLOTTER (G.A.), Dresden-A. 16


~U.S.A.~

AERIAL PROPELLER Co., White Plains, New York

AMERICAN PROPELLER Co., Washington, D.C. (_Paragon_)

BRAUNER (P.) & Co., 335-339 East 102nd Street, New York

CRAFTSMAN PERFECT PROPELLERS, 626 Erie Avenue, Chicago

DETROIT AERONAUTIC CONSTRUCTION Co., 306 Holcomb Avenue, Detroit,
Michigan

DUQUET (L. G), 107 W. 36th Street, New York

GREEN (Rurl. H.), 515 Delta Buildings, Los Angeles, Cal.

HOLBROOK AERO. SUPPLY Co., Joplin, Mo.

REQUA-GIBSON, 225 West 49th Street, New York

STUPAR (M.), 9626 Erie Avenue, Chicago

WILCOX PROPELLER, Box 181 Madison Square, New York



~RADIATORS.~


~BELGIAN.~

TOLÉRIE AUTOMOBILE BELGE, 17 Rue des Boyards, Liège


~BRITISH.~

ALBANY MANUFACTURING Co., Willesden Junction, London, N.W.

COVENTRY MOTOR FITTING Co., Far Gasford Street, Coventry

DOHERTY MOTOR COMPONENTS, Ltd., Coventry

LAMPLOUGH & Son, Ltd., Willesden Junction, London, N.W.
(_Lamplough-Albany_)

MOTOR RADIATOR MANUFACTURING Co.:--
    Parkside, Coventry
    23 Tanner Street, Bermondsey, London, S.E.

SPIRAL TUBE & COMPONENTS Co., Caledonia Street, King's Cross, London, N.


~FRENCH.~

ARQUEMBOURG (Louis), 157 Faubourg, Saint-Denis, Paris

BANNEVILLE, 119 Rue Saint-Maur, Paris

BARDOU (E.), 150 Rue Victor-Hugo, Levallois-Perret

BAUDIER (Ch.), 30-32 Rue Baudin, Levallois-Perret

BISIAUX, 11 Rue Petit, Paris

BONFILS, 37 Avenue de Saint-Mandé, Paris

BRACHTEN ET GALLAY, Bellegarde

CHAMPESME, 5 Rue La Vieuville, Paris

CHAROY (G.) Et Cie, 5 Boulevard Voltaire, Paris

CHAUSSON Frères, 27 Rue Malakoff, Asnieres

CHIROL & Cie, 53 Rue de Lorraine, Levallois-Perret

CHOUBERSKY (Société Anonyme des Etablissements), 20 Rue Félicien-David,
Paris

COCHAUX (Emile), Deville

DARBILLY (J.), 198 Boulevard Pereire, Paris

DESNOYERS Freres, 116 Boulevard Richard-Lenoir, Paris

DURAND, GIROUX & Cie, 5 Rue Saint-Marri, Paris

ELECTRIC ACETYLENE (L.), 52 Rue Balay, Saint-Etienne

ELOY (Lucien), Rue Louis Soyer, Villemonble

ENTREPOT METALLURGIGUE (L.), 5 Passage de l'Industrie, Paris

ESTABLIE Freres et Louis Establie, 11 Quai de Valmy, Paris

FREES (De), 19 Rue de Recroy, Paris

FUREST (G.) et Cie, 32 Boulevard Henri-IV., Paris

GAY ET BOURGOENS, 53 Rue Louis-Blanc, Lyon

GOUDARD MENNESSON, 119 Rue de Montreuil, Paris

GRIMMEISEN (Ch. & G.), 5 et 7 Passage Piver, 92 Faubourg du Temple,
Paris

GRENIER & MERCIER (SOCIETÉ ANONYME DES ETABLISSEMENTS), 8 Avenue de
Bouvines, Paris

GROUVELLE, ARQUEMBOURG ET Cie, Rue du Moulin-Vert, Paris (_Arécal_)

LAEIS & Cie, 86 Rue de Villiers, Levallois-Perret

LAMBERT (P.) et Cie--
    109 Rue de Paris, Puteaux
    36 Rue Vitruve, Paris

LE BRUN ET LECOMTE, 14 Rue Victor-Hugo, Puteaux

LIOTARD Freres, 22 Rue de Lorraine, Paris

LORTHIOY (E.), 9 Avenue du Clos, St. Maur-les-Fosses

MARCHAL (A.), 9 Rue de l'Hotel-de-Ville, Neuilly-sur-Seine

MONTBARBON (Société Anonyme), 47 _bis_, Rue de Villiers,
Neuilly-sur-Seine (_Loziano_)

MONNET & MOYNE, 11 Rue Torricelli, Paris

MOREUX (G.) & Cie, 24 Rue Fromont, Lyon (_G.M._)

OSSANT Freres, 29 Rue Arago, Puteaux

PRINI ET BERTHAUD, 23 Rue Servan, Paris

PROUX, Boulevard Pont-Ochard, Poitiers

RADIATORS ET RÉFRIGÉRATUERS (Société des), 54 Rue de la Chapelle,
Saint-Ouen (_Sans Soudure_)

SCHLEY (A.) Et Cie, 204 Rue Saint-Maur (_Loyal_)

SERROVAL (De) Et MASSE, 17 Rue David, Lyon

TOPOLSKI, 53 Boulevard de Belleville, Paris

VIGNEAUX, 5 Rue Bacon, Paris


~ITALIAN.~

ALGOSTINO, BALAGNA, MAGNINO & Cia, 107 Madama Cristina, Turin

BONO & Co. (Societa Italiana), 54 Corso Porta, Vittoria, Milan

GALIMBERTI, 20 Via Senato, Milan


~SPANISH.~

COROMINAS (Ricardo), 45 Torrente de la Olla, Barcelona


~SWISS.~

HENNEBERG & DEY, à la Jonction, Geneve-Frontenex


~U.S.A.~

AERIAL NAVIGATION Co., of AMERICA, Girard, Kansas (_Call._)

EL. ARCO Co., 6 East 31st Street, New York

KINSEY MFTG. Co., Dayton, Ohio

LIVINGSTONE RADIATOR Co., 6 East 31st Street, New York

LONG MFTG. Co., 1430 Michigan Avenue, Chicago

MAYO RADIATOR Co., New Haven, Con.

McCORD & Co., 1400 and 1440 Old Colony Buildings, Chicago

MOTOR COMPONENTS MFTG. Co., 119 E. Walnut Street, Desmoines, Iowa

ROME-TURNEY RADIATOR Co., East 31st Street, New York

WOLVERINE RADIATOR Co., 124 Sidney Avenue, Detroit, Mich.



~ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF AEROPLANES.~

Abbreviations:--Aust=Austro-Hungarian; Bel=Belgian; Brit.=British;
Ger.=German; Ital.=Italian; Jap.=Japanese; Rou.=Roumanian; Rus.=Russian.


  ~A~
  Aeros., Brit., 37
  Aerial Exhibition Co., U.S.A., 207
  Aerial Yacht Co., U.S.A., 207
  Aircraft Factory "B. E." Brit., 37
  Aircraft Manufacturing Co., Brit., 37
  Albatross, Ger., 131
  American Aeroplane Supply House, U.S.A., 207
  Antoni, Ital., 172
  Ask, Swede, 197
  Asteria, Ital., 172
  Aviatik, Ger., 133
  Avro, Brit., 38

  ~B~
  Baldwin, U.S.A., 208
  Bayard-Clement, 87
  Behueghe, Bel., 28
  Benoist, U.S.A., 209
  Blackburn, Brit., 40
  Blair Atholl, Brit., 42
  Bleriot, French,  81
  Boland, U.S.A., 209
  Borel, French, 83
  Bracke, A. Bel., 28
  Breguet, French, 84
  Bristol, Brit., 42
  Bronislawski, Rus., 190
  Burgess, U.S.A., 210
  Burgess-Curtis, U.S.A., 211
  Burgess-Wright, U.S.A., 210

  ~C~
  Calderara, Ital., 173
  Caproni, Ital., 174
  Caudron, French, 66
  Chiribiri, Ital., 174
  Christmas, U.S.A., 212
  Clement Bayard, French, 87
  Cody, Brit., 45
  Cooke, U.S.A., 212
  Coventry Ordnance Co., Brit., 46
  Curtiss, U.S.A., 213

  ~D~
  Dahlbeck, Swede., 197
  D'Artois, French, 88
  De Brouckere, Dutch, 28
  De la Hault, Bel., 28
  Deperdussin, French, 89
  Donnet-Leveque, French, 90
  Doutre, French, 91
  Dorner, Ger., 134
  Dunne, Brit., 47
  Dux, Rus., 190

  ~E~
  Etrich, Ger., 134
  Etrich, Aust., 18
  Euler, Ger., 135
  Ewen, Brit., 48

  ~F~
  Farman, H., French, 92
  Farman, M., French, 92
  Ferguson, Brit., 48
  Fokker, Dutch, 72
  Fokker, Ger., 136
  Friuli, Ital., 175

  ~G~
  Gallaudet, U.S.A., 214
  Geltouchow, Rus., 190
  Goedecker, Ger., 138
  Goupy, French, 94
  Grade, Ger., 138
  Grahame-White, Brit., 49
  Grandjean, Swiss., 199
  Guidoni, Ital., 175

  ~H~
  Handley Page, Brit., 50
  Hanriot, French, 95
  Hansa Taube, Ger., 138
  Hanuschke, Ger., 140
  Harlan, Ger., 139
  Harel, Bel., 28
  Howard-Flanders, Brit., 51

  ~I~
  Internat. Ae. Con. Co., U.S.A., 217

  ~J~
  Jatho, Ger., 140
  Jeannin, Ger., 141

  ~K~
  Kahnt, Ger., 141
  Kennedy, Rus., 190
  Kirkham, U.S.A., 215
  Kondor, Ger., 142
  Kuhlstein, Ger., 142

  ~L~
  Lake Flying Co., Brit., 53
  Loening, U.S.A., 215
  Lohner-Daimler, Aust., 19

  ~M~
  Mars, Ger., 143
  Martinsyde, Brit., 53
  McCurdy, Canada, 64
  Mercep, Aust., 20
  Monnier-Harper, Dutch, 72
  Morane-Saulnier, French, 96
  Moreau, French, 97
  Mrozinski, Ger., 143

  ~N~
  Narahara, Jap., 181
  Nieuport, French, 98
  Nyrop, Swede, 197

  ~O~
  Oertz, Ger., 144
  Otto, Ger., 144

  ~P~
  Paulhan-Curtiss, French, 99
  Pega-Emich, Ger., 145
  Piggott, Brit., 54
  Pippart-Noll, Ger., 145
  Pischoff, French, 99

  ~R~
  Radley-England, Brit., 54
  Rep, French, 100
  Rodjestveisky, Rus., 190
  Rumpler, Ger., 146
  Ruth-Rohde, Ger., 147

  ~S~
  Sanchez Besa, French, 101
  Savary, French, 102
  Schelies, Ger., 147
  Schultze, Ger., 148
  Sellers, U.S.A., 215
  Short, Brit., 54
  Sigismund, Ger., 148
  Sloan, French, 103
  Sloane, U.S.A., 215
  Sommer, French, 104
  Sopwith, Brit., 57

  ~T~
  Taddeoli, Swiss, 199
  Thomas, U.S.A., 216
  Tokogawa, Jap., 181
  Train, French, 105
  Tubavion, French, 105

  ~U~
  Union Flugzeugwerke, Ger., 149

  ~V~
  Van den Burg, Dutch, 72
  Vickers, Brit., 58
  Vinet, French, 106
  Vlaiclu, Rou., 187
  Voisin, French, 107
  Vreedenburgh, Dutch, 72

  ~W~
  Warchalowski, Aust., 21
  Washington Co., U.S.A., 217
  Wetterwald, Swiss, 199
  White, Brit., 59
  Whitehead, Aust., 21
  Williams, Bel., 28
  Wittemann, U.S.A., 217
  Wright, Ger., 150
  Wright, U.S.A., 218-219

  ~Z~
  Ziegler, Ger., 150
  Ziegler, Aust., 21
  Zodiac, French, 108



~ALPHABETICAL INDEX OF DIRIGIBLES.~


  Adjutant Reau, French, 109, 113
  Adjutant Re Vincennot, French, 109, 113
  Astra, French, 111
  Astra Torres, British, 60
  Astra Torres, French, 115
  Astra III, Russian, 193
  Astra Transaerien-Ville de Pau-Ville de Lucerne, French, 111
  Astra Ville de Pau, French, 111
  Ausonia, Italian, 179

  Beta, British, 60
  Boemcher II, Austrian, 23

  Capitaine Ferber, French, 109
  Capitan Maréchal, French, 109
  Citta di Milano, Italian, 177
  Clement Bayard VI. French, 109
  Clement Bayard, Russian, 191
  Colonel Renard, French, 109, 112
  Commandant Coutelle, French, 109

  Delta, British, 60
  Deutschland, German, 151
  Dupuy-de-Lôme, French, 117

  Eclaireur Conté, French, 109, 114
  Epsilon, British, 60
  Ersatz Deutschland, German, 166
  Espana, Spanish, 195

  Fleurus, French, 109
  Forszmann, Russian, 271

  Gamma, British, 60

  Hausa, German, 167

  Italia, Italian, 179

  Jastreb, Russian, 191

  Kommissiony, Russian, 191
  Korting-Wimpassing, Austrian, 24

  La Belgique II & III, Belgian, 29, 30
  Lebaudy-Juillot 6, Austrian, 23
  Lebedj, Russian, 191
  Leonardo da Vinci, Italian, 179
  Le Temps, French, 109
  Liberté, French, 109
  Lieut. Chaure, French, 109, 113
  L I, German, 151
  L II, German, 151
  Le Temps, French, 122
  Liberte, French, 109

  M I, German, 154
  M II, German, 154
  M III, German, 154
  M IV, German, 155
  Mannsbarth, Austrian, 24

  P I, German, 151
  P II _Ersatz_, German, 151
  P III, German, 151
  P IV, German, 151
  P. L I, German, 151
  P. L 9, German, 151
  P. L XII, German, 151
  P. L 10, German, 151
  Parseval, Austrian, 25
  Parseval, British, 160
  Parseval, German, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161
  Parseval, Italian, 177
  Parseval, Japanese, 182

  Ruthenberg II, III, German, 162

  Sachsen, German, 151
  Schütte-Lanz I & II, German, 163
  S. L I, German, 151
  S. L II, German, 151
  Selle de Beauchamp, French, 109
  Spiess, French, 109
  Stollwerck, German, 151
  Suchard, German, 163
  S. I. II, German, 151
  Suchard, German, 151

  Torres-Quevedo II, Spanish, 195
  Transaerienne II, French, 113

  Usuelli, Italian, 179

  Vanniman, 329
  Viktoria Luise, German, 166
  Ville de Bruxelles, Belgian, 330
  Ville de Lucerne, French, 111
  Ville de Paris, French, 110

  Willows, British, 60

  Yamada, Japanese, 182

  Z I, German, 151
  Z II, German, 151
  Z III, German, 151
  Z IV, German, 151
  Zeppelin, German, 164, 165, 166
  Zodiac III, French, 120
  Zodiac XII, French, 125



The Celebrated "Bristol" Aeroplanes.

Contractors to the majority of leading governments of the world.

Contractors to h. m. war office and admiralty.


=LEARN TO FLY=
AT THE
_"BRISTOL SCHOOLS"_
AT SALISBURY PLAIN and BROOKLANDS.

=TUITION=
 _is given on all the latest type
 "BRISTOL" MACHINES, including:_
 _80 H.P. MILITARY MONOPLANES._
 _50 H.P. MILITARY MONOPLANES._
 _50 H.P. SIDE-BY-SIDE SCHOOL MONOPLANES._
 _TRACTOR BIPLANES & SCHOOL BIPLANES._

SPECIAL FACILITIES AND REDUCED FEES TO SERVICE OFFICERS.

WRITE FOR INFORMATION:
 THE BRITISH & COLONIAL AEROPLANE Co., Ltd.,
 FILTON, BRISTOL, ENG.


"EMPYREAN" POLICY

_INSURING PILOTS OF AEROPLANES AGAINST_

 FIRE & EXPLOSION.      ACCIDENTAL DAMAGE.    DAMAGE DURING TRANSIT.
 THIRD PARTY CLAIMS.    INJURY TO PILOTS.     INJURY TO EMPLOYEES.

[Illustration]
CAR & GENERAL
INSURANCE CORPORATION, LIMITED.

HEAD OFFICE:
 1, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET (BANK), LONDON, E.C.

 NET INCOME, £290,000.
 LIQUID ASSETS nearly £200,000.


                                       _BRANCH OFFICES._

 ~ABERDEEN~--245, Union Street
 ~BEDFORD~--17, St. Paul's Square
 ~BIRMINGHAM~--Prince's Chambers, 6 Corporation Street
 ~BRADFORD~--Prudential Buildings, Ivegate
 ~BRIGHTON~--18, Queen's Road
 ~BRISTOL~--West India House, Bristol Bridge
 ~CARDIFF~--1, Bank Buildings (Ground Floor), St. Mary St.
 ~CROYDON~--52, North End
 ~DUBLIN~--33, Dawson Street
 ~DUNDEE~--14, Barrack Street
 ~EALING~--19, The Broadway
 ~EDINBURGH~--87, Shandwick Place
 ~EXETER~--28, Gandy Street
 ~GLASGOW~--163, West George Street
 ~HANLEY~--P.O. Chambers, Crown Bank
 ~HULL~--Walton Chambers, 48 Jameson Street
 ~IPSWICH~--St Mildred's Chambers, Cornhill
 ~KENT~--137-138, High Street, Bromley
 ~LEEDS~--Yorkshire Post Chambers, Albion Street
 ~LEICESTER~--1, Horsefair Street
 ~LIVERPOOL~--2, South John Street (Lord Street Corner)
 ~LONDON, N.E.~--124, High Street, Shoreditch
 ~"       MID.~--379, Strand, W.C.
 ~"       S.~--222, Great Dover Street, S.E.
 ~"       S.W.~--222, Great Dover Street, S.E.
 ~"       W.~--1, Albemarle Street, Piccadilly
 ~MANCHESTER~--1, Princess Street, Albert Square
 ~NEWCASTLE~--Pearl Buildings, Northumberland Street
 ~NORTHAMPTON~--Market Square
 ~NOTTINGHAM~--Westminster Buildings, Theatre Square
 ~PLYMOUTH~--90, Old Town Street
 ~READING~--Broadway Buildings, Station Road
 ~RICHMOND~--26, Hill Street
 ~SHEFFIELD~--King's Chambers, Angel St.
 ~SOUTHAMPTON~--Blenheim Chambers, Above Bar (the Junction)

_WE ARE THE PIONEERS AND LEADERS IN ALL INSURANCE FACILITIES FOR MOTORISTS._

MORE THAN MONEY INDEMNITY.

Our ~35~ Branch Offices in charge of skilled Salaried Official, our
Engineering Staff wholly in the service of the Corporation, our expert
Claims Staff everywhere, and the fact that we are the Pioneers and
Originators of all the Insurance Facilities now enjoyed by Motorists,
enable us to offer something more than money indemnity; we can, and do,
protect a motorist in a thousand ways, unobtainable elsewhere, by means
of our experience and splendid organisation, and yet we only charge
~competitive rates of Premiums~.



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF ADVERTISERS.


                                                       PAGE
  Anglo-American Oil Co., Ltd.                          xii
  Barbet-Massin, Popelin & Cie (_France_)                xi
  Blackburn Aeroplane Co.                               vii
  Branger (_France_)                                   xiii
  Bray, Gibb & Co., Ltd.                                 ix
  British & Colonial Aeroplane Co., Lt   inside front cover
  Burberrys'                                            vii
  Car & General Insurance Corporation, Ltd.              ii
  Coan, Robert W.                                        vi
  Continental Tyre & Rubber Co., (Gt. Britain) Ltd.     vii
  Cox, G.H. & Co., Ltd.                                  vi
  Crosby Lockwood & Son                                  vi
  Doutre, Appareils d'Aviation (_France_)                 v
  Drummond Bros., Ltd.                                 viii
  Eisemann Magneto Co.                                  xii
  _Fighting Ships_                                      xiv
  "Geographia," Ltd.                                     vi
  Hasler Co., The                                      viii
  Howard-Flanders, L., Ltd.                              xi
  Hoyt Metal Company of Great Britain, Ltd.              vi
  Jones Brothers, Ltd.                                   xi
  Kemp Machine Works (_U.S.A._)                        xiii
  Knowles Oxygen Co., Ltd.                              vii
  Mallinson, Wm. & Sons, Ltd.                            ix
  Martin & Handasyde                                      x
  Mea Magneto Co., Ltd.                                xiii
  Owen, Joseph & Sons, Ltd.                              xi
  Piggott Bros. & Co., Ltd.                              xi
  Pratt's Motor Spirit                                  xii
  Rogers Brothers                                  xi & xiv
  Sampson Low, Marston & Co., Ltd.                      xiv
  Sopwith Aviation Co.                                   ix
  Stanley, Popplewell & Co.                             vii
  Thorn & Hoddle Acetylene Co., Ltd.                   viii
  Valdenaire, H., Adenet & Cie (_France_).             xiii
  Vandervell, C.A. & Co.                               viii
  Vickers, Ltd.                                          xv
  White & Poppe, Ltd.                                   vii
  Whiteman & Moss, Ltd.                                viii
  Wolseley Tool & Motor Car Co., Ltd.                    vi



CLASSIFIED INDEX OF ADVERTISERS.


  ~Accessories.~                                       PAGE

  Anglo-American Oil Co., Ltd.                          xii
  Barbet-Massin, Popelin & Cie (_France_)                xi
  Coan, Robert W.                                        vi
  Eisemann Magneto Co.                                  xii
  "Geographia," Ltd.                                     vi
  Hasler Co., The                                      viii
  Jones Brothers, Ltd.                                   xi
  Mallinson, Wm. & Sons, Ltd.                            ix
  Mea Magneto Co., Ltd.                                xiii
  Owen, Joseph & Sons, Ltd.                              xi
  Piggott Brothers & Co., Ltd.                           xi
  Pratt's Motor Spirit                                  xii
  Rogers Brothers                                  xi & xiv
  Valdenaire, H., Adenet & Cie (_France_)              xiii
  Vandervell, C.A., & Co.                              viii
  White & Poppe, Ltd.                                   vii
  Whiteman & Moss, Ltd.                                viii

  ~Aeroplane Builders.~

  Blackburn Aeroplane Co.                               vii
  British & Colonial Aeroplane Co. Ltd., inside front cover
  Doutre, Appareils d'Aviation (_France_)                 v
  Howard-Flanders, L., Ltd.                              xi
  Martin & Handasyde                                      x
  Sopwith Aviation Co.                                   ix
  Vickers, Ltd.                                          xv

  ~Aluminium.~

  Coan, Robert W.                                        vi

  ~Aviation Garments.~

  Burberrys'                                            vii

  ~Bearings.~

  Hoyt Metal Co., Ltd.                                   vi

  ~Castings.~

  Coan, Robert W.                                        vi

  ~Carburettors.~

  White & Poppe, Ltd.                                   vii

  ~Dynamos.~

  Eisemann Magneto Co.                                  xii

  ~Electric Lighting.~

  Vandervell, C.A., & Co.                              viii

  ~Engines.~

  Kemp Machine Works (_U.S.A._)                        xiii
  Wolseley Tool & Motor Car Co., Ltd.                    vi

  ~Fabrics.~

  Barbet-Massin, Poplin & Cie (_France_)                 xi
  Continental Tyre & Rubber Co. (Gt. Britain) Ltd.      vii
  Jones Brothers, Ltd.                                   xi
  Rogers Brothers                                  xi & xiv
  Valdenaire, H., Adenet & Cie (_France_)              xiii

  ~Flying Schools.~

  Blackburn Aeroplane Co.                               vii
  British & Colonial Aeroplane Co. Ltd., inside front cover
  Doutre, Appareils d'Aviation (_France_)                 v
  Howard-Flanders, L., Ltd.                              xi
  Martin & Handasyde                                      x
  Sopwith Aviation Co.                                   ix
  Vickers, Ltd.                                          xv

  ~Garage.~

  Cox, G.H. & Co., Ltd.                                  vi

  ~Hangar and Shed Builders.~

  Piggott Bros. & Co., Ltd.                              xi

  ~Hardwoods.~

  Mallinson, William & Sons                              ix
  Owen, Joseph & Sons, Ltd.                              xi

  ~Hydrogen.~

  Knowles Oxygen Co.                                    vii

  ~Indicators.~

  Hasler Co., The                                      viii

  ~Insurance.~

  Bray, Gibb & Co., Ltd.                                 ix
  Car & General Insurance Corporation, Ltd.              ii

  ~Life Saving Vests.~

  Rogers Brothers                                  xi & xiv

  ~Machine Tools.~

  Drummond Bros. Ltd.                                  viii

  ~Magnetos.~

  Eisemann Magneto Co.                                  xii
  Mea Magneto Co., Ltd.                                xiii

  ~Maps (specially designed).~

  "Geographia," Ltd.                                     vi

  ~Motor Spirit.~

  Anglo-American Oil Co., Ltd.                          xii
  Pratt's Motor Spirit                                  xii

  ~Patent Agents.~

  Stanley, Popplewell & Co.                             vii

  ~Photographer.~

  Branger (_France_)                                   xiii

  ~Publishers.~

  Crosby Lockwood & Son                                  vi
  "Geographia," Ltd.                                     vi
  Sampson Low, Marston & Co., Ltd.                      xiv

  ~Stabilisateurs.~

  Doutre, Appareils d'Aviation                            v

  ~Tuition.~

  Blackburn Aeroplane Co.                               vii
  British & Colonial Aeroplane Co. Ltd., inside front cover
  Doutre, Appareils d'Aviation (_France_)                 v
  Howard-Flanders, L., Ltd.                              xi
  Martin & Handasyde                                      x
  Sopwith Aviation Co.                                   ix
  Vickers, Ltd.                                          xv

  ~Welding.~

  Thorn & Hoddle Acetylene Co., Ltd.                   viii


[Illustration: _ECOLE MILITAIRE DE CORBEAULIEU._]

[Illustration: _STABILISATEUR DOUTRE._]

[Illustration: _AÉROPLANE DOUTRE._]


_BIPLANS TRIPLACES_

_les mieux construits, les plus surs et automatiquement stabilisés_

_ECOLE CIVILE ET MILITAIRE_

_Aerodrome de Corbeaulieu près Compiègne France._

_S^{té} des APPAREILS d'AVIATION DOUTRE_

_Fournisseurs des armées Françaises et Etrangires._

  _LE SUEL_
  _STABILISATEUR_
  _AUTOMATIQUE PESANT_
  _TOUT ÉQUIPÉ DOUZE À QUINZE_
  _KILOGS ET AYANT FAIT SES PREUVES_
  _PAR PLUS DE DEUX MILLE VOLS SANS ACCIDENT._
  _APPLICABLE À TOUS LES AÉROPLANES ET HYDROAÉROPLANES._

_SÉCURITÉ ABSOLUE, VOL PAR TOUS LES TEMPS._

  CATALOGUE FRANCO SUR DEMANDE - FETTERER DIRECTEUR GÉNÉRAL.
  58 RUE TAITBOUT. PARIS.
  TÉLÉPH CENTRAL 37-53.


Aluminium Castings

FOR MOTORS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION,
2 H.P. to 200 H.P.

CAST ALUMINIUM MOTOR
NUMBER PLATES
(Regulation Size).

  LA.1742
  R·5077

BRIGHT POLISHED FIGURES AND BEADED EDGES, WITH DEAD BLACK BACK GROUND.

Send for particulars of my new COMBINED TOURING PLATE (Reg.)

  Telegrams: "KRANKASES," ISLING, LONDON.
  Telephones: 3846 City.    4879 Central.

  Coan
  Casts
  Clean
  Crank
  Cases

ON ADMIRALTY AND WAR OFFICE LISTS.

  ROBERT W. COAN,
  _THE ALUMINIUM FOUNDRY,_
  219, GOSWELL ROAD, E.C.

[Illustration: THE SOCIETY OF MOTOR MANUFACTURERS & TRADERS]


WOLSELEY LIGHT Aero Motors

  60 H.P. and 120 H.P. (water cooled).
  60-80 H.P. (combined air and water cooled.)

Catalogue free on application to

  THE WOLSELEY TOOL AND
  MOTOR CAR Co., Ltd.

  Proprietors: VICKERS, Limited,
  ADDERLEY PARK, BIRMINGHAM.


  "Geographia," Ltd.
  33, STRAND, W.C.

SPECIALISTS IN AVIATION ACCESSORIES.

  Alexander Cross - ANTI-DRIFT COMPASS
     "        "   - BEARING FINDER
     "        "   - MAP CASE

"GEOGRAPHIA" BAROGRAPHS and HEIGHT RECORDERS.

MAPS FOR AVIATORS DRAWN TO ORDER.

AVIATION MAPS FROM AERODROME TO AERODROME ALWAYS IN STOCK.

ASK FOR ILLUSTRATED PRICE LIST.

  Telegraphic Address:--"Geografo, London."
  Telephone 4965 City.


=G. H. Cox & Co., Ltd.=

  CASTLE ROAD,
  SOUTHSEA,
  :: HANTS. ::

  LARGEST GARAGE IN ::
  THE SOUTH OF ENGLAND.


[Illustration: HOYT METAL CO. LONDON
THE FORMER UNREGISTERABLE BRAND
ICE - INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE REG.
LINING METAL

HOYT METAL CO.
COPPER HARDENED.

HAS BEEN ABANDONED TO IMITATORS.]

TRIAL INGOTS CHEERFULLY SUPPLIED.

RECENT||RECORDS:

A.B.C. (AERO) 45 H.P. ENGINE--8 HRS. 23 MIN. TALBOT 25 H.P. CAR--103-3/4
MILES IN 1 HOUR. PEUGEOT 30 H.P. CAR--106-1/5 MILES IN 1 HOUR.

DIE-CAST BEARINGS FOR REPETITION WORK.

  THE HOYT METAL CO.
  OF GREAT BRITAIN, LIMITED.
  26, BILLITER STREET, LONDON, E.C.


TWO IMPORTANT BOOKS ON AVIATION.

180 Pages, with Diagrams. Crown 8vo. ~3s. 6d.~ net.

THE AVIATION POCKET BOOK for 1913.

Containing amongst other valuable information, the Theory and Design of
the Aeroplane, Structural Material, Examples of Actual Machines, &c.,
&c.

By R. BORLASE MATTHEWS, A.M.I.C.E., M.I.E.E., _Member of the Royal Aero
Club_.

CONTENTS: Air Pressure and Resistance--Aeroplane Theory and
Design--Structural Materials--Engines--Examples of Actual
Machines--Piloting and Aerial Navigation--Meteorological Data--Military
Information and Signalling--Aero Clubs and Societies--Glossary of Terms
used in Flying.

Extract from Reviews: "_... a large amount of information is included in
these various chapters and the diagrams and curves used to illustrate
the texture some of the plainest and most easily understood that we have
ever seen in a book of this class ... generally speaking the data given
would appear just such as are not contained in other books of
reference._"--Engineer.

"_The Book is one which we are sure many will find useful and
convenient._"--Engineering.


Popular Edition. 294 pages. 95 Illustrations and Dimensioned Drawings.
Demy 8vo. cloth 5s. net.

THE ART OF AVIATION.

A Handbook upon Aeroplanes and their Engines, with Notes upon Propellers.

By R. W. A. BREWER, A.M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E., &c.

"_... Those who for the present have no intention of trusting themselves
on the wings of an aeroplane will still find the book of value; those
who already are engrossed in the study of aeronautics cannot afford to
ignore it._"--Engineering.

_Complete List, Post Free, from_

  London: CROSBY LOCKWOOD & SON,
  7, Stationer's Hall Court, E.C., & 5, Broadway, Westminster, S.W.


_Dependability_

In carburettors there is no greater
essential than dependability, and--

The dependability of the White & Poppe is such as
ensures a never-failing and invariable efficiency.

That's why it is the favourite with many of the leading Airmen of the day.

Our Booklet describes it fully, and we shall be delighted to send you copy.

  WHITE & POPPE, LTD.,
  COVENTRY,
  ENG.

_White & Poppe
Carburettor_


BURBERRY AEROPLANE
EQUIPMENT.

~DESIGNED BY EXPERTS~ is workmanlike both in
design and detail, and permits absolute
freedom for arms and limbs. Made in wind
and weatherproof Gabardine, lined throughout with
Camel Fleece or Quilted Eiderdown, it maintains
phenomenal warmth under the severest conditions.

~BURBERRY GABARDINE~ is remarkably airylight,
yet affords perfect protection against wind,
cold or rain, and is so strong that broken stays
cannot penetrate its dense texture.

~Mr. C. Grahame-White~:--"_I take this opportunity
of thanking you for the suit I wore on my memorable
flight and feel I cannot recommend the material too
highly where warmth and comfort are required._"

  BURBERRYS Haymarket, S.W., LONDON;
  Boulevard Malesherbes, PARIS;
  Basingstoke and appointed Agents in Provincial Towns.

[Illustration: Burberry Aeroplane Outfit.]


SPECIFY
"Continental"
RUBBER-PROOFED
MATERIAL.

IT COMBINES
MAXIMUM RESISTANCE
WITH
ENORMOUS STRENGTH,
AND IS UNAFFECTED BY
ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS.

WRITE FOR LIST, FREE ON REQUEST.

Continental Tyre & Rubber Co. (Gt. Britain) Ld.
3/4, THURLOE PLACE, LONDON, S.W.


BLACKBURN

AEROPLANES,
HYDROPLANES
AND
PROPELLERS.

Write for Prices and Particulars to

  THE BLACKBURN AEROPLANE Co.,
  BALM RD., LEEDS.

  'Phone,
  2822 Central.

  Telegrams: "PROPELLERS," Leeds.


HYDROGEN

GUARANTEED 99% PURE.
LIFTS 70-1/2 LBS. PER 1000 CUBIC FT.

THE
KNOWLES OXYGEN Co.
LIMITED,

WOLVERHAMPTON
AND
BROMBOROUGH (CHESHIRE).


PATENTS.

Stanley, Popplewell & Co.,

=INTERNATIONAL AND  -  -
CHARTERED PATENT AGENTS.=

  _38, CHANCERY LANE,
  LONDON, W.C._

_Aero and Motor Patents a Specialty._

Instructive leaflet free to any address.

  Telephone, 1763 Central
  Telegrams: "NOTIONS, London."      Estab. 1879.


[Illustration]

We specialise in Light Machine Tools for use in portable workshops, such
as are used in connection with aircraft. The above is a photograph of a
Travelling Workshop equipped with our 5 in. lathe and Radial Drill, both
of which tools are fitted with treadle and electric motor drive. Full
particulars of machines and installations furnished on application.

[Illustration: 5 in. Centre Screw Cutting, Surfacing and Boring Lathe
here shewn, with counter shaft for power. With counter shaft or treadle
drive. Price £44.]

[Illustration: Light treadle driven Radial Drill, taking up to 1 in.
drills (1/2 in. shank.) This machine is of special design, a patented
form of high speed drive giving ample power for drilling by foot. With
treadle and fast and loose pulley. Price £24 15s.]

Also 4 in., 3-1/2 in., 6 in., 7-1/2 in., 9 in. lathes, etc.

  _DRUMMOND BROS. LTD., REDE WORKS,_
  GUILDFORD, SURREY.

'Phone 153, Guildford. Telegrams: "Lathes, Stoughton."


"TEL" REVOLUTION SPEED INDICATORS.
Approved and used by the British Admiralty.

Owing to its conjugate movement it is accurate, possesses a uniform
    graduated dial and is not affected by vibration or variation of
    temperature.

Indicates with the same accuracy high and low speeds.

Independent of variable strains, friction.

Not damaged should maximum speed of dial be exceeded.

Rain and dust-proof.

Requires no upkeep or adjustment of mechanism.

[Illustration]

Tel.
431
Victoria.

  THE HASLER COMPANY,
  26, Victoria St., Westminster, LONDON, S.W.


C·A·V·

is the ~proved~ system of electric Lighting for Cars. The consistent
reliability and efficiency of the C.A.V. Lighting Sets is vouched for by
the owners of the 15,000 cars on which the system has been adopted. It
is essentially the "no trouble" system; simple, safe and certain. Send
for our illustrated Blue Book, fully explanatory and free.

_C. A. VANDERVELL & Co._,

  WARPLE WAY,  ACTON VALE,
  LONDON, W.

  Telephones:
  1234 {Chiswick
       {(5 LINES)

  Telegrams:
    "Vanteria,"
    London.


Whiteman & Moss, Ltd.

  15, BATEMAN STREET,
  DEAN STREET, W.,

LONDON, England.

  Telephone Gerrard 6824.
  Telegrams: Whitomoss

         {Premier.
  Codes  {Lieber.
         {A.B.C. 5th Edition.

=Speciality=:
WIRE STRAINERS, EYEBOLTS, FERRULES, ETC.
SCREWED WORK FOR ALL PURPOSES.

Accuracy & Promptitude


SPÉCIALITÉ
de Passoires en toile métallique. de tire-fonds,
de Viroles, etc.

Objets filetés en tous genres.

PRÉCISION    et    RAPIDITÉ.


THE LEADING
AIRCRAFT BUILDERS
ALL use the
"INCANTO"
(LOW PRESSURE)
OXY-ACETYLENE
WELDING
APPLIANCES.

SOLE  MANUFACTURERS

  THORN & HODDLE ACETYLENE CO. L^{TD}.
  151 VICTORIA   S^T.
  LONDON, S.W.


INSURANCE.

The Primus Aviation Policy at Lloyd's

OFFICIALLY APPROVED BY
THE ROYAL AERO CLUB.

For Advice on:--

AVIATION, LIFE, PERSONAL ACCIDENT,
3rd PARTY, EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY,
MOTOR, and all Classes of Insurance
communicate  with

  _BRAY, GIBB & Co., Ltd.,_
    166, PICCADILLY,
              LONDON, W.


  Telegrams--"SOPWITH KINGSTON."
  Telephone--1177, KINGSTON.

_SOPWITH AVIATION Co._

THE SOPWITH MACHINES hold the British RECORDS for:
  _DURATION_         _8 hours 23 minutes._
  _ALTITUDE_         _11,450 feet._

Undergoing War Office Tests, the SOPWITH 80 h.p.
TRACTOR BIPLANE gave better results than any
aeroplane of whatever nationality previously tested.

_OFFICES AND WORKS:_

CANBURY PARK ROAD, KINGSTON ON THAMES.

CONTRACTORS TO THE ADMIRALTY.

MANUFACTURERS OF AEROPLANES AND HYDRO-AEROPLANES


HARDWOODS FOR AEROPLANES.

UNEQUALLED FACILITIES FOR SUPPLYING PERFECT TIMBER.
SPECIAL SKILL AND GREAT EXPERIENCE DEVOTED TO ORDERS FOR AEROPLANE WOODS.
ALL KINDS OF HARDWOODS IN PLANKS, OR CUT AND PLANED TO SIZE.

Testimonials from successful Aviators.

WILLIAM MALLINSON & SONS, Limited,

TIMBER & VENEER MERCHANTS (Direct Importers & Exporters),

130-138, Hackney Road, LONDON, N.E.

  Telegrams: "ALMONER," LONDON.    Telephone: 4770 LONDON WALL (2 Lines)
                                   P.O. 3845 CENTRAL.
                 CORRESPONDENCE IN ANY LANGUAGE.
  PARIS: 7, Rue Titon.            ROTTERDAM: 22 Westzeeddijh.


[Illustration]

=_THE "MARTINSYDE"_=

_120 H.P. TWO-SEATER, MILITARY TYPE MONOPLANE.
Fuel Capacity for 6 HOURS' FLIGHT, at 85 miles per hour._

  _Messrs. Martin & Handasyde,
  BROOKLAND AVIATION GROUND,
  WEYBRIDGE, SURREY, ENGLAND._

  _Telegraphic & Cable Address:
  "MARTINSYDE, WEYBRIDGE."_

CONTRACTORS TO THE WAR OFFICE.

  _Telephone No.
  171 BYFLEET._


"AVIATOR" RAMIE FABRICS

FOR AEROPLANES AND DIRIGIBLE BALLOONS.

Indisputably the ~strongest~, ~most durable~ and ~efficient~ of all
known fabrics, and consequently adopted by H.M. War Office,
and the leading ~Aircraft Constructors~ of the ~Universe~.

Manufactured from China Grass by

  La Maison Esnault-Pelterie (Paris)
  Barbet-Massin, Popelin & Cie, Succrs.

Contractors to the French Government.

Sole agents for the United kingdom, British Colonies, and United States
of America--

  =_ROGERS BROTHERS,_=
  _33, ALDERMANBURY,_
  _LONDON, E.C._

  Telephone: CENTRAL, 12164.
  Telegrams and Cables: "EGYPTILLO, LONDON."
  A.B.C. Code Used, 5th Edition.

Write for Patterns and
Particulars.


  Cables and Telegrams: "PIGGOTT, LONDON."
  A.B.C. Code. 5th Edition.
  Telephone No. London Wall 4850 (Private Exchange).

PIGGOTT BROTHERS & CO., LIMITED.

Portable Canvas
Aeroplane
Sheds on Hire,
for Prize Contests,
Flying
Meetings, etc.

As used for
the Gordon Bennett
and "Daily
Mail" Contests,
Military Man[oe]vres,
1911,
and the Flying
Meetings at

Doncaster,
Burton-on-Trent,
Folkestone,
etc., etc.

[Illustration: Photo showing row of Canvas Sheds as erected at
Brooklands for the Royal Aero Club, July, 1911.]

Large Stock of Goods for Hire at Prize Contests, Flying Meetings, etc.,
Judges' Boxes, Pylons, Ropes and Stakes for course, Canvas Fencing,
Signal Masts, etc., etc.

220, 222, 224, BISHOPSGATE, LONDON, E.C.



  _Telephone 3811 HOP.
  Telegrams: "BUCHERON."_

Joseph Owen & Sons, L^{imited,}

SUPPLY EVERY DESCRIPTION OF
TIMBER
FOR
Aeroplanes, Hydroplanes, Airships.

SEND YOUR ENQUIRIES TO
199a, BOROUGH HIGH STREET, LONDON, SE.


FLANDERS

MONOPLANES & BIPLANES
For Land or Water.

  L. HOWARD-FLANDERS, LIMITED,
    31, Townshend Terrace,
           RICHMOND, Surrey.


[Illustration]

EISEMANN
DYNAMO

Although designed for use with accumulators--=gives results without=
damaging filaments =without the use of accumulators=. Perfectly
automatic in action. Used on the =Zeppelin=.

  =Types= 8 volts 9 amps.
         12 volts 15-20 amps.

Eisemann Automatic
Advance Magneto

     Used on the Mercedes--Gnome--Schutte Lanz--Dixi, etc., etc.
     Entirely weatherproof--advances and retards the spark periodicity
     according to engine revolutions. Latest models as used on above
     engines both single and dual.

Fullest Particulars on hearing
from you.

THE EISEMANN MAGNETO Co.

43, Berners Street, W.

  Telegrams:--
    Roussillon-ox, London.
  Telephone 4601 City.
  A.B.C. Code 5th Edition.

  C. D. C.

[Illustration]


_The_ Aircraft of the World perform best on the best Spirit. The rapidly
growing

[Illustration:

_Preference for_

PRATT'S

Perfection Motor Spirit

among airmen is a repetition of history. In Motoring, on the Road, the
consistent Purity and Reliability--the sheer, hard, practical Service of
"Miles to the Gallon" has long established PRATT'S as the premier Motor
Spirit.

"_In Earth and Skie and Sea"--PRATT'S first shall be!_

[Illustration: _By Appointment_]

_In the Air, as on the Road, PRATT'S is "THE MOVING SPIRIT OF THE
AGE!"_


Telegraphic Address: "JONBRO," MANCHESTER.

JONES BROTHERS

LIMITED,

  =Spinners & Manufacturers,=
    12, YORK STREET,
        Manchester.

[Illustration: BEDFORD NEW MILLS, LEIGH, LANCASHIRE.]

_THE "AERO" Cotton Fabrics for Aeroplanes._


H. VALDENAIRE,
ADENET & Cie.

PARIS--21, Rue des Jeuneurs--PARIS.

TISSUS DE GRANDE RÉSISTANCE

FOURNISSEURS HABITUELS des PRINCIPALES MARQUES d'AVIATION et
d'AEROSTATION


KEMP MOTORS

[Illustration]

     Are air cooled and are the most efficient, economical and reliable
     power plants on the market sold at reasonable prices. Built in four
     sizes to meet all requirements from experimental purposes to
     commercial use. ~FULL PARTICULARS ON REQUEST.~

  KEMP MACHINE WORKS,
  MUNCIE, INDIANA, U.S.A.


"AFTER 13 HOURS UNDER WATER"

the
MEA

(_The Magneto with the
Bell-shaped Magnet_)

RAN PERFECTLY.

"One of your Magnetos delivered to us last year has had a severe test,
proving it to be absolutely water-proof. It was fitted to an engine in a
motor boat, which towards 7 p.m. ran full of water: next morning about 9
a.m. we pumped her dry, and, after your magneto had been about 13 hours
under water, it was found to be in perfect working order, and the engine
started up without a hitch."

MEA MAGNETO CO., LTD.,

  Telephone: 2580 Regent.
  Telegrams: "Meabermet, Ox. London"

  GRESSE BUILDINGS, STEPHEN STREET,
  TOTTENHAM COURT RD., LONDON, W.

LONDON AGENTS: B. M. FAIR & CO., 3. GREAT WINCHESTER STREET, E.C. C.D.C.


    BRANGER,
  Aerial Photographer,
    5, Rue Cambon, 5
              PARIS.


"Fighting Ships" NAVAL ANNUAL FOR 1913.

Founded and Edited by FRED T. JANE,

_Founder & Editor "ALL THE WORLD'S AIRCRAFT."_

PLANS, PHOTOGRAPHS, AND ALL DETAILS OF EVERY WARSHIP IN THE WORLD.

The details of ~13~ Navies are officially revised by order of their
respective Ministers of Marine; ~3~ others semi-official.

SPECIAL ARTICLE ON  "MARINE ENGINEERING IN ALL ITS BRANCHES," by

C. de GRAVE SELLS, M. Inst. C.E.

LONDON: SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & Co., Ltd.


THE "MASCOT"

RAMIE-FIBRE,    ROT-PROOF

[Illustration]

LIFE-SAVING VEST

Stocked by the Leading Stores in all Countries, or can be purchased
direct from the Inventors and Sole Manufacturers--

ROGERS BROTHERS,

Manufacturers of "Aeroplatte" All-British Aircraft Fabrics, and the
"Aeromac" Water-proof Garments

33, ALDERMANBURY, LONDON, E.C.

_Send post-card for full particulars._

  Telephone, Central, 12164
  Telegrams & Cables: "EGYPTILLO, London."
  A B C Code used. 5th Edition.


VICKERS LIMITED.

AVIATION
  SCHOOL:

Brooklands.

Thorough Tuition from slow Biplanes to fast Monoplanes.

Special Terms to Naval and Military Officers.


"VICKERS-LEVASSEUR"

Air Screws.

Built up in superposed layers, of the finest quality of thoroughly
seasoned hardwoods, pegged & glued together.

[Illustration]


AEROPLANES.

All steel-framed Monoplanes, Biplanes & Hydro-planes.

  AVIATION DEPARTMENT:
  VICKERS HOUSE, BROADWAY, WESTMINSTER, S.W.

  Aviation School:
    Brooklands.

  Testing Ground:
    Joyce Green,
    Nr. Dartford.



FOOTNOTES:

[Footnote A: Twelve of these _B.E._ were held up pending some special
steel wire strainers which had been specified.]

[Footnote B: Killed in Russia.]

[Footnote C: This ship has frequently figured as four different
dirigibles.]

[Footnote D: P.L 9 reported sold to Turkey, April, 1913.]

[Footnote E: Three other dirigibles, _Unger_, _Veeh_, and
_Siemens-Schuckert_, are generally credited to Germany. Of these _Unger_
is merely a project. _Veeh_ has been talked about for four years, but
has never reached completion. _Siemens-S._ has ceased to exist.]

[Footnote F: Jezzi lives in England where he is a well known amateur
constructor.]





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About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



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