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Title: Notes and Queries - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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  +------------------------------------------------------------+
  | Transcriber's Note: Italicized words, phrases, etc. are    |
  | surrounded by _underline characters_. Emphasized words     |
  | within italics indicated by +plus signs+.                  |
  | Greek transliterations are surrounded by ~tildes~.         |
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{93}
NOTES and QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

  No. 223.]
  SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 4. 1854.
  [Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

NOTES:--                                                       Page
  Dryden on Shakspeare, by Bolton Corney                         95
  Party Similes of the Seventeenth Century:--
    No. 1. "Foxes and Firebrands."
    No. 2. "The Trojan Horse"                                    96
  Dutch East India Company.--Slavery in England, by James Graves 98
  Original Royal Letters to the Grand Masters of Malta,
    by Wm. Winthrop                                              99
  Enareans                                                      101

  MINOR NOTES:--Russia and Turkey--Social Effects of the severe
    Weather, Jan. 3 and 4, 1854--Star of Bethlehem--Origin of
    the Word "Cant"--Epigram on Four Lawyers                    103

QUERIES:--
  Contributors to "Knight's Quarterly Magazine"                 103
  The Stationers' Company and Almanack                          104

  MINOR QUERIES:--John Bunyan--Tragedy by Mary Leapor--
    Repairing old Prints--Arch-priest in the Diocese of
    Exeter--Medal in honour of the Chevalier de St. George--
    Robert Bloet--Sir J. Wallace and Mr. Browne--
    Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester--Abbott Families--
    Authorship of a Ballad--Elias Petley--Canaletto's
    Views round London--A Monster found at Maidstone--Page      104

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--The Fish "Ruffins"--Origin of
    the Word Etiquette--Henri Quatre--"He that complies
    against his will," &c., and "To kick the bucket"--
    St. Nicholas Cole Abbey                                     106

REPLIES:--
  Trench on Proverbs, by the Rev. M. Margoliouth                107
  Inscriptions on Bells                                         109
  Arms of Geneva                                                110

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Multiplying
    Negatives--Towgood's Paper--Adulteration
    of Nitrate of Silver                                        110

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Passage of Cicero--Major André--
    Catholic Bible Society--Cassiterides--Wooden Tombs
    and Effigies--Tailless Cats--Warville--Green Eyes--Came--
    "Epitaphium Lucretiæ"--Oxford Commemoration Squib--
    "Imp"--False Spellings from Sound--"Good wine needs
    no bush"--Three Fleurs-de-Lys--Portrait of Plowden--
    St. Stephen's Day and Mr. Riley's "Hoveden"--Death
    Warnings in Ancient Families--"The Secunde Personne
    in the Trinitie"                                            111

MISCELLANEOUS:--
  Notes on Books, &c.                                           114
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                  115
  Notices to Correspondents                                     115

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       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.


DRYDEN ON SHAKSPERE.

"_Dryden may be properly considered as the father of English criticism,
as the writer who first taught us to determine upon principles the merit
of composition._"--Samuel JOHNSON.

No one of the early prose testimonies to the genius of Shakspere has
been more admired than that which bears the signature of John Dryden. I
must transcribe it, accessible as it is elsewhere, for the sake of its
juxtaposition with a less-known metrical specimen of the same nature.

    "He [Shakspere] was the man who of all modern, and perhaps
    ancient poets, had the largest and most comprehensive soul. All
    the images of nature were still present to him, and he drew them
    not laboriously, but luckily: when he describes any thing, you
    more than see it, you feel it too. Those who accuse him to have
    wanted learning, give him the greater commendation: he was
    naturally learned; he needed not the spectacles of books to read
    nature; he looked inwards, and found her there. I cannot say he
    is every where alike; were he so, I should do him injury to
    compare him with the greatest of mankind. He is many times flat,
    insipid; his comic wit degenerating into clenches, his serious
    swelling into bombast. But he is always great when some great
    occasion is presented to him: no man can say he ever had a fit
    subject for his wit, and did not then raise himself as high
    above the rest of poets,

    _'Quantùm lenta solent inter viburna cupressi.'_"

  John DRYDEN, _Of dramatick poesie, an essay_.
  London, 1668. 4to. p. 47.

The metrical specimen shall now take its place. Though printed somewhat
later than the other, it has a much better chance of being accepted as a
rarity in literature.

_Prologue to_ IULIUS CÆSAR.

  "In country beauties as we often see
  Something that takes in their simplicity,
  Yet while they charm they know not they are fair,
  And take without their spreading of the snare--
  Such artless beauty lies in _Shakespear's_ wit;
  'Twas well in spite of him whate'r he writ.
  His excellencies came, and were not sought,
  His words like casual atoms made a thought;
  Drew up themselves in rank and file, and writ,
  He wondering how the devil it were, such wit.
  Thus, like the drunken tinker in his play,
  He grew a prince, and never knew which way.
  He did not know what trope or figure meant,
  But to persuade is to be eloquent;
  So in this _Cæsar_ which this day you see,
  _Tully_ ne'er spoke as he makes _Anthony_.
  Those then that tax his learning are to blame,
  He knew the thing, but did not know the name;
  Great _Iohnson_ did that ignorance adore,
  And though he envied much, admir'd him more.
  The faultless _Iohnson_ equally writ well;
  _Shakespear_ made faults--but then did more excel.
  One close at guard like some old fencer lay,
  T'other more open, but he shew'd more play.
  In imitation _Iohnson's_ wit was shown,
  Heaven made _his_ men, but _Shakespear_ made his own.
  Wise _Iohnson's_ talent in observing lay,
  But others' follies still made up his play.
  He drew the like in each elaborate line,
  But _Shakespear_ like a master did design.
  _Iohnson_ with skill dissected human kind,
  And show'd their faults, that they their faults might find;
  But then, as all anatomists must do,
  He to the meanest of mankind did go,
  And took from gibbets such as he would show.
  Both are so great, that he must boldly dare
  Who both of them does judge, and both compare;
  If amongst poets one more bold there be,
  The man that dare attempt in either way, is he."

_Covent Garden drolery_, London, 1672. 8^o p. 9.

A short historical comment on the above extracts is all that must be
expected. The rest shall be left to the critical discernment of those
persons who may be attracted by the heading of this Note--_Dryden on
Shakspere_.

When Johnson wrote his preface to Shakspere, he quoted the _first_ of
the above extracts to prove that the plays were once admired without the
aid of comment. This was written in 1765. In 1769 Garrick placed the
same extract at the head of his collection of _undeniable_
prose-testimonies to the genius of Shakspere. Johnson afterwards
pronounced it to be "a perpetual model of encomiastic criticism;" and
Malone quoted it as an _admirable character_ of Shakspere. Now,
_admirable_ as it is, I doubt if it can be considered as expressive of
the deliberate opinion of Dryden. The essayist himself, in his
epistolary address to lord Buckhurst, gives a caution on that point. He
observes, "All I have said is problematical." In short, the essay _Of
dramatick poesie_ is in the form of a dialogue--and a dialogue is "a
chace of wit kept up on both sides."

I proceed to the second extract.--Who wrote the _Prologue to Julius
Cæsar_? To what master-hand are we to ascribe this twofold specimen of
psychologic portraiture? Take up the dramatic histories of Langbaine and
Baker; take up the _Theatrical register_ of the reverend Charles Burney;
take up the voluminous _Some account_ of the reverend John Genest;
examine the mass of commendatory verses in the twenty-one-volume
editions of Shakspere; examine also the commendatory verses in the
nine-volume edition of Ben. Jonson. Here is the result: Langbaine calls
attention to the prologue in question as an _excellent prologue_, and
Genest repeats what had been said one hundred and forty years before by
Langbaine. There is not the slightest hint on its authorship.

{96}
I must therefore leave the stronghold of facts, and advance into the of
conjecture. _I ascribe the prologue to John Dryden._

It appears by the list of plays altered from Shakspere, as drawn up by
Steevens and Reed, that _Julius Cæsar_ had been altered by sir William
D'Avenant and Dryden jointly, and acted at the Theatre-royal in
Drury-lane. It would therefore seem probable that one of those poets
wrote the _prologue_ on that occasion. Nevertheless, it does not appear
in the works of either poet.

The _Works_ of sir William D'Avenant were edited by Mr. Herringman, with
the sanction of lady D'Avenant, in 1673; and its exclusion so far
decides the question.

The non-appearance of it in the _Poems_ of Dryden, as published by Mr.
Tonson in 1701, is no disproof of the claim which I advocate. The volume
contains only twenty prologues and epilogues--but Dryden wrote _twice_
that number!

I shall now produce some circumstantial evidence in favour of Dryden. It
is derived from an examination of the volume entitled _Covent Garden
drolery_. This small volume contains twenty-two prologues or epilogues,
and more than fifty songs--all anonymous, but said to be written by the
_refinedest wits of the age_. We have, 1. A prologue and epilogue to the
_Maiden queen_ of Dryden--not those printed in 1668; 2. A prologue and
epilogue to the _Parson's wedding_ of Thomas Killigrew; 3. A prologue
and epilogue to the _Marriage à la mode_ of Dryden--printed with the
play in 1673; 4. The prologue to JULIUS CÆSAR; 5. A prologue to the _Wit
without money_ of Beaumont and Fletcher--printed in the _Poems_ of
Dryden, 1701; 6. A prologue to the _Pilgrim_ of Fletcher--not that
printed in 1700. These pieces occupy the first twelve pages of the
volume. It cannot be requisite to give any further account of its
contents.

I waive the question of internal evidence; but have no misgiving, on
that score, as to the opinion which may henceforth prevail on the
validity of the claim now advanced in favour of Dryden.

Sir Walter Scott observes, with reference to the essay _Of dramatick
poesie_, "The contrast of Ben. Jonson and Shakspere is peculiarly and
strikingly felicitous." He could have said no less--whatever he might
have said as to its authorship--had he seen the _Prologue to Julius
Cæsar_.

BOLTON CORNEY.

       *       *       *       *       *


PARTY SIMILES OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY:--NO. I. "FOXES AND
FIREBRANDS." NO. II. "THE TROJAN HORSE."

(_Continued from_ Vol. viii., p. 488.)

The following works I omitted to mention in my last Note from want of
room. The first is by that _amiable_ Nimrod, John Bale, Bishop of
Ossory:

    "Yet a Course at the Romyshe Foxe, &c. Compyled by Johan
    Harrison. Zurich. 1543. 4to."

The four following are by William Turner, M.D., who also wrote under an
assumed name:

    "The Huntyng of the Romishe Foxe, &c. By William Wraughton.
    Basil. 1543."

    "The Rescuynge of the Romishe Foxe, &c. Winchester. 1545. 8vo."

    "The Huntyng of the Romyshe Wolfe. 8vo. 1554(?)."

    "The Huntyng of the Foxe and Wolfe, &c. 8vo."

The next is the most important work, and I give the title in full:

    "The Hunting of the Romish Fox, and the Quenching of Sectarian
    _Firebrands_. Being a Specimen of Popery and Separation.
    Collected by the Honourable Sir James Ware, Knight, out of the
    Memorials of Eminent Men, both in Church and State: A. B.
    Cranmer, A. B. Usher, A. B. Parker, Sir Henry Sidney, A. B.
    Abbot, Lord Cecil, A. B. Laud, and others. And now published for
    the Public Good. By Robert Ware, Gent. Dublin. 1683. 12mo. pp.
    248."

The work concludes with this paragraph:

    "Now he that hath given us all our hearts, give unto His
    Majesties subjects of these nations _an heart of unity_, to
    quash division and separation; _of obedience_, to quench the
    fury of rebellious firebrands: and _a heart of constancy_ to the
    Reformed Church of England, the better to expel Popery, and to
    confound dissention. _Amen._"

The last work, with reference to the first simile of my note, which I
shall mention, is that by Zephaniah Smith, one of the leaders of the
English Antinomians:

    "The Doome of Heretiques; or a Discovery of Subtle Foxes who wer
    tyed Tayle to Tayle, and crept into the Church to doe Mischiefe,
    &c. Lond. 1648."[1]

{97}
With regard to the second simile, see--

    "The Trojan Horse, or the Presbyterian Government Unbowelled.
    London. 1646. 4to. By Henry Parker of Lincoln's Inn."

    "Comprehension and Toleration Considered, in a Sermon on Gal.
    ii. 5. By Dr. South."

    "Remarks on a Bill of Comprehension. London. 1684. By Dr.
    Hickes."

    "The New Distemper, or The Dissenters' Usual Pleas for
    Comprehension, Toleration, and the Renouncing the Covenant,
    Considered and Discussed. Non Quis sed Quid. London. 1680. 12mo.
    Second Edition. Pp. 184. (With a figurative frontispiece,
    representing the 'Ecclesia Anglicana.')"

The first edition was published in 1675. Thomas Tomkins, Fellow of All
Souls' College, was the author; but the two editions are anonymous.

As to the Service Book, see the curious work of George Lightbodie:

    "Against the Apple of the Left Eye of Antichrist; or The
    Masse-Booke of Lurking Darknesse (_The Liturgy_), making Way for
    the Apple of the Right Eye of Antichrist, the Compleate
    Masse-Booke of Palpable Darknesse. London. 1638. 8vo."

Baylie's _Parallel_ (before referred to) was a popular work; it was
first printed London, 1641, in 4to.; and reprinted 1641, 1642, 1646,
1661.

As to "High Church" and "Low Church," see an article in the _Edinburgh
Review_ for last October, on "Church Parties," and the following works:

    "The True Character of a Churchman, showing the False Pretences
    to that Name. By Dr. West." (No date. 1702?) Answered by
    Sacheverell in "The Character of a Low Churchman. 4to. 1702."
    "Low Churchmen vindicated from the Charge of being no Churchmen.
    London. 1706. 8vo. By John Handcock, D.D., Rector of St.
    Margaret's, Lothbury."

    "Inquiry into the Duty of a Low Churchman. London. 1711. 8vo."
    (By James Peirce, a Nonconformist divine, largely quoted in _The
    Scourge_: where he is spoken of as "A gentleman of figure, of
    the most apostolical moderation, of the most Christian temper,
    and is esteemed as the Evangelical Doctor of the Presbyterians
    in this kingdom," &c.--P. 342.)

He also wrote:

    "The Loyalty, Integrity, and Ingenuity of High Churchmen and
    Dissenters, and their respective Writers, Compared. London.
    1719. 8vo."

See also the following periodical, which Lowndes thus describes:

    "_The Independent Whig._ From Jan. 20, 1719-20, to Jan. 4, 1721.
    53 Numbers. London. Written by Gordon and Trenchard in order to
    oppose the High Church Party; 1732-5, 12mo., 2 vols.; 1753,
    12mo., 4 vols."

Will some correspondent kindly furnish me with the date, author's name,
&c., of the pamphlet entitled _Merciful Judgments of High Church
Triumphant on Offending Clergymen and others in the Reign of Charles
I._?[2]

I omitted Wordsworth's lines in my first note:

                              "_High_ and _Low_,
  Watchwords of party, on all tongues are rife;
    As if a Church, though sprung from heaven, must owe
  To opposites and fierce extremes her life;--
    Not to the golden mean and quiet flow
  Of truths, that soften hatred, temper strife."

Wordsworth, and most Anglican writers down to Dr. Hook, are ever
extolling the Golden Mean and the moderation of the Church of England. A
fine old writer of the same Church (Dr. Joseph Beaumont) seems to think
that this love of the Mean can be carried too far:

  "And witty too in self-delusion, we
  Against highstreined piety can plead,
  Gravely pretending that extremity
  Is Vice's clime; that by the Catholick creed
    Of all the world it is acknowledged that
    The temperate _mean_ is always Virtue's seat.
  Hence comes the race of mongrel goodness: hence
  Faint tepidness usurpeth fervour's name;
  Hence will the earth-born meteor needs commence,
  In his gay glaring robes, sydereal flame;
    Hence foolish man, if moderately evil,
    Dreams he's a saint because he's not a devil."

_Psyche_, cant. xxi. 4, 5.

{98}
Cf. Bishop Taylor's _Life of Christ_, part I. sect. v. 9.

JARLTZBERG.

Nov. 28, 1853.

P.S.--Not having the fear of Sir Roger Twisden or MR. THOMAS COLLIS
before my eyes, I advisedly made what the latter gentleman is pleased to
term a "loose statement" (Vol. viii., p. 631.), when I spoke of the
Church of England separating from Rome. As to the Romanists "conforming"
for the first twelve (or as some have it nineteen) years of Elizabeth's
reign, the less said about that the better for both parties, and
especially for the dominant party.[3]

MR. COLLIS'S dogmatic assertions, that the Roman Catholics "conformed"
for the twelve years, and that Popes Paul IV. and Pius IV. offered to
confirm the Book of Common Prayer if Elizabeth would acknowledge the
papal supremacy, are evidently borrowed, word for word, from Dr.
Wordsworth's[4] _Theophilus Anglicanus_, cap. vii. p. 219. A careful
examination of the evidence adduced in support of the latter assertion,
shows it to be of the most flimsy description, and refers it to its true
basis, viz. _hearsay_: the reasoning and inferences which prop the
evidence are equally flimsy.

Fuller, speaking of this report, says that it originated with "some who
love to feign what they cannot find, that they may never appear to be at
a loss." (_Ch. Hist._, b. IX. 69.)

As the question at issue is one of great historical importance, I am
prepared, if called on, to give a summary of the case in all its
bearings; for the present I content myself with giving the following
references:

    "Sir Roger Twisden's Historical Vindication of the Church of
    England in point of Schism, as it stands separated from the
    Roman. Lond. 1675."--P. 175.

    "Bp. Andrewes' Tortura Torti. Lond. 1609."--P. 142.

    "Parallel Torti et Tortoris."--P. 241.

    "Abp. Bramhall ag. Bp. Chal."--Ch. ii. (vol. ii. p. 85., Oxf.
    ed.)

    "Sir E. Cook's Speech and Charge at Norwich Assizes. 1607."

    "Babington upon Numbers. Lond. 1615."--Ch. vii. § 2. p. 35.

    "Servi Fidelis subdito infideli Responsis, apud Johannem Dayum.
    Lond. 1573." (In reply to Saunders' _De Visibili Monarchia_.)

    "Camd. Annal. an. 1560. Lond. 1639."--Pt. I. pp. 47. 49.

(See also Heylin, 303.; Burnet, ii. 387.; Strype, _Annal._ ch. xix.;
Tierney's _Dodd_, ii. 147.)

The letter which the pontiff _did_ address to Elizabeth is given in
Fuller, ix. 68., and Dodd, ii. app. xlvii. p. cccxxi.

N.B.--In the P.S. to my last note, "N. & Q.," Vol. _viii._, p. 156., was
a misprint for Vol. V.

[Footnote 1: The titles of these books remind one of "a merry disport,"
which formerly took place in the hall of the Inner Temple. "At the
conclusion of the ceremony, a huntsman came into the hall bearing a fox,
a pursenet, and a cat, both bound at the end of a staff, attended by
nine or ten couples of hounds with the blowing of hunting-horns. Then
were the fox and cat set upon and killed by the dogs beneath the fire,
to the no small pleasure of the spectators." One of the masque-names in
this ceremony was "Sir Morgan Mumchance, of Much Monkery, in the county
of Mad Popery."

In _Ane Compendious Boke of Godly and Spiritual Songs_, Edinburgh, 1621,
printed from an old copy, are the following lines, seemingly referring
to some such pageant:

  "The Hunter is Christ that hunts in haist,
  The Hunds are Peter and Pawle,
  The Paip is the Fox, Rome is the Rox
  That rubbis us on the gall."

See Hone's _Year-Book_, p. 1513.

The symbolism of the brute creation is copiously employed in Holy
Scripture and in ancient writings, and furnishes a magazine of arms in
all disputes and party controversies. Thus, the strange sculptures on
_misereres_, &c. are ascribed to contests between the secular and
regular clergy: and thus Dryden, in his polemical poem of _The Hind and
the Panther_, made these two animals symbolise respectively the Church
of Rome and the Church of England, while the Independents, Calvinists,
Quakers, Anabaptists, and other sects are characterised as wolves,
bears, boars, foxes--all that is odious and horrible in the brute
creation.

"A Jesuit has collected _An Alphabetical Catalogue of the Names of
Beasts by which the Fathers characterised the Heretics_. It may be found
in _Erotemata de malis ac bonis Libris_, p. 93., 4to., 1653, of Father
Raynaud. This list of brutes and insects, among which are a variety of
serpents, is accompanied by the names of the heretics designated." (See
the chapter in D'Israeli's _Curios. Lit._ on "Literary Controversy,"
where many other instances of this kind of complimentary epithets are
given, especially from the writings of Luther, Calvin, and Beza.)]

[Footnote 2: [We are enabled to give the remainder of the title and the
date:--"Together with the Lord Falkland's Speech in Parliament, 1640,
relating to that subject: London, printed for Ben. Bragg, at the Black
Raven in Paternoster Row. 1710."--ED.]]

[Footnote 3: See the authorities given by Mr. Palmer, _Church of
Christ_, 3rd ed., Lond. 1842, pp. 347-349.; and Mr. Percival _On the
Roman Schism_: see also Tierney's _Dodd_, vols. ii. and iii.

A full and impartial history of the "conformity" of Roman Catholics and
Puritans duping the penal laws is much wanting, especially of the former
during the first twelve years of Elizabeth. With the Editor's permission
I shall probably send in a few notes on the latter subject, with a list
of the works for and against outward conformity, which was published
during that period. (See Bp. Earle's character of "A Church Papist,"
_Microcosmography_, Bliss's edition, p. 29.)]

[Footnote 4: It is painful to see party spirit lead aside so learned and
estimable a man as Dr. Wordsworth, and induce him to convert a
ridiculous report into a grave and indisputable matter of fact. The more
we know, the greater is our reverence for accuracy, truthfulness, and
candour; and the older we grow in years and wisdom, the more we estimate
that glorious motto--_Audi alteram partem_.

What are our ordinary histories of the Reformation from Burnet to
Cobbett but so many caricatures? Would that there were more Maitlands in
the English Church, and more Pascals and Pugins in the Roman!

Let me take this occasion to recommend to the particular attention of
all candid inquirers a little brochure, by the noble-minded writer last
named, entitled _An Earnest Address on the Establishment of the
Hierarchy_, by A. Welby Pugin: Lond. Dolman, 1851. And let me here
inquire whether this lamented writer completed his _New View of an Old
Subject; or, the English Schism impartially Considered_, which he
advertised as in preparation?

I should mention, perhaps, that Sir Roger Twisden's book was reprinted
in 1847: I have, however, met with the original edition only.]

       *       *       *       *       *


DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY.--SLAVERY IN ENGLAND.


Having come across an old _Daily Post_ of Thursday, August 4, 1720, I
send you the following cuttings from it, which perhaps you may think
worth insertion:

    "Hague, August 9.

    "It was on the 5th that the first of our East-India ships
    appear'd off of the Texel, four of the ships came to an anchor
    that evening, nine others kept out at sea till day-light, and
    came up with the flood the next morning, and four more came in
    this afternoon; but as they belong to the Chambers of Zealand,
    and other towns, its thought they will stand away for the Maese.
    This fleet is very rich, and including the single ship which
    arriv'd about a fortnight since, and one still expected, are
    valued at near seven millions of guilders prime cost in the
    Indies, not reckoning the freight or value at the sale, which
    may be suppos'd to make treble that sum."

    "We have an account from Flanders, that two ships more are come in
    to Ostend for the new East India {99} Company there; it is said,
    these ships touch no where after they quit the coast of Malabar
    till they come upon the coast of Guinea, where they put in for
    fresh water; and as for those which come from China, they water
    on the bank of the Island of Ceylon, and again on the east shore
    of Madagascar; but that none of them touch either at the Cape de
    bon Esperance, or at St. Helena, not caring to venture falling
    into the hands of any of the Dutch or other nations trading to
    the east. These ships they say are exceedingly rich, and the
    captains confirm the account of the treaty which one of their
    former captains made with the Great Mogul, for the settling a
    factory on his dominions, and that with very advantageous
    conditions; what the particulars may be we yet know not."

    "Went away the 22d of July last, from the house of William Webb
    in Limehouse Hole, a negro man, about twenty years old, call'd
    Dick, yellow complection, wool hair, about five foot six inches
    high, having on his right breast the word HARE burnt. Whoever
    brings him to the said Mr. Webb's shall have half a guinea
    reward, and reasonable charges."

JAMES GRAVES.

Kilkenny.

       *       *       *       *       *


ORIGINAL ROYAL LETTERS TO THE GRAND MASTERS OF MALTA.

(_Continued from_ Vol. viii., p. 558.)

I am now enabled to forward, according to my promise, literal
translations, so far as they could be made, of three more letters, which
were written in the Latin language, and addressed by Henry VIII. to the
Grand Masters of Malta. The first two were directed to Philip de
Villiers L'Isle Adam, and the last to his successor Pierino Dupont, an
Italian knight, who, from his very advanced age, and consequent
infirmity, was little disposed to accept of the high dignity which his
brethren of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem had unanimously conferred
upon him. The life of Dupont was spared "long enough," not only for him
to take an active part in the expedition which Charles V. sent against
Tunis at his suggestion, to reinstate Muley Hassan on the throne of that
kingdom, but also to see his knights return to the convent covered with
glory, and galleys laden with plunder.


No. IV. Fol. 6th.

    Henry by the Grace of God, King of England and France, Defender
    of the Faith, and Lord of Ireland, to our Reverend Father in
    Christ, Dominus F. de Villiers L'Isle Adam, our most dear
    friend--Greeting:

    For a long period of time, Master Peter Vanes, of _Luca_, has
    been serving as private secretary; and as we have always found
    his service loving and faithful, we not only love him from our
    heart, and hold him dear, but we are also extremely desirous of
    his interest and advancement. As he has declared to us that his
    most ardent wish is by our influence and favour to be in some
    way invested with honour in his own country, we have most
    willingly promised to do for him in this matter whatever lay in
    our power; and we trust that from the good offices which your
    most worthy Reverence has always received from us, this our
    desire with regard to promoting the aforesaid Master Peter will
    be furthered, and the more readily on this account, because what
    we beg for may be granted without injury to any one. Since,
    then, a certain Dominus Livius, concerning whom your Reverend
    Lordship will be more fully informed by our same Secretary, is
    in possession of a Priory in the Collegiate Church of SS. John
    and Riparata in the city of _Luca_, we most earnestly desire
    that the said Livius, through your Reverend Lordship's
    intercession, may resign the said Priory and Collegiate Church
    to our said Latin Secretary, on this condition, however, that
    your Reverend Lordship, as a special favour to us, will provide
    the said Dominus Livius with a Commandery of equal or of greater
    value. We therefore most earnestly entreat that you will have a
    care of this matter, so that we may obtain the object of our
    wishes; and we shall be greatly indebted to your Reverend
    Lordship, to whom, when occasion offers, we will make a return
    for the twofold favour, in a matter of like or of greater
    moment.

May all happiness attend you.
  From our palace of Greenwich,
    13th day of January, 1526,
                Your good friend,
                          HENRY REX.


No. V. Fol. 9th.

    Henry by the Grace of God, King of England and France, Defender
    of the Faith, and Lord of Ireland, to our Reverend Father in
    Christ, Dominus F. de Villiers L'Isle Adam, our most dear
    friend--Greeting:

    Although, by many proofs, we have often before been convinced
    that our Reverend Lordship, and your venerable Brethren, after
    the loss of Rhodes, have had nothing more to heart than that by
    your actions you might deserve most highly of the Christian
    republic, and that you might sometimes give proof of this by
    your deeds, that you have zealously sought for some convenient
    spot where you might at length fix your abode; nevertheless,
    what we have lately learnt from the letters of your Reverend
    Lordship, and from the conversation and prudent discourse of
    your venerable Brother De Dentirville has caused us the greatest
    joy; and although, with regard to the recovery of Rhodes,
    complete success has not answered your intentions, nevertheless
    we think that this your Order of Jerusalem has always wished to
    seek after whatever it has judged might in any {100} manner tend
    to the propagation of the Catholic Faith and the tranquillity of
    the Christian Republic. But that his Imperial Majesty has
    granted to your Order the _island_ of _Malta_, Gozo, and
    Tripoli, we cannot but rejoice; places which, as we hear, are
    most strongly fortified by nature, and most excellently adapted
    for repelling the attacks of the Infidels, should have now come
    into your hands, where your Order can assemble in all safety,
    recover its strength, and settle and confirm its position.[5]
    And we wish to convince you that fresh increase is daily made to
    the affection with which we have always cherished this Order of
    Jerusalem, inasmuch as we perceive that your actions have been
    directed to a good and upright end, both because these
    undertakings of your Reverend Lordship, and of your venerable
    Brethren, are approved by us as highly beneficial and
    profitable; and because we trust that your favour and protection
    will ever be ready to assist our nation, if there be any need;
    nor shall we on our part be ever wanting in any friendly office
    which we can perform towards preserving and protecting your
    Order, as your Reverend Lordship will gather more at length of
    our well affected mind towards you from Dominus Dentirville, the
    bearer of these presents.

May all happiness attend you.
  From our Palace at Hampton Court,
    The 22nd day of November, 1530.
                Your good friend,
                          HENRY REX.


No. VI.

    Henry by the Grace of God, King of England and France, Defender
    of the Faith, and Lord of Ireland, to our Reverend Father in
    Christ, Don Pierino de Ponte, Grand Master of Jerusalem.

    Our most dear friend--Greeting:

    We had conceived so great a hope and opinion of the probity,
    integrity, and prudence of your predecessor, that, from his care
    and vigilance, we securely trusted that the business and affairs
    of this your Order, which hitherto has always wont to be of no
    slight assistance to our most Holy Faith, and to the Christian
    name, would as far as was needful have been amended and settled
    most quietly and effectually with God and his Holy Religion.
    From the love then and affection which we have hitherto shown in
    no ordinary manner to your Order, for the sake of the
    propagation of the Christian Faith, we were not a little grieved
    at the death of your predecessor, because we very much feared
    that serious loss would in consequence be entailed on that
    Religion. But since, both from your letters and from the
    discourse of others, we now hear that your venerable Brethren
    agreed by their unanimous voice and consent to choose your
    Reverence as the {101} person to whom the care and government of
    so weighty an office should be intrusted, considering this dignity
    to be especially worthy of you and your spirit of Religion, we
    cannot but sincerely be glad; and rejoice especially if, by your
    eminent virtues, it shall be effected that only such matters
    shall be undertaken, and presided over by the strength and
    counsels of the Order of Jerusalem, as are most in accordance
    with the True Religion of Christ our Redeemer, and best adapted
    to the propagation of his doctrine and Faith. And if you shall
    seriously apply your mind to this, as you are especially bound
    to, we shall by no means repent of the favours which we have
    bestowed neither seldom nor secretly upon this your Order, nay
    rather this object shall be attained that you shall have no
    reason to think that you have been foiled in that your
    confidence, and in our protection and the guardianship which we
    extend over your concerns through reverence for the Almighty
    God. And we shall not find that this guardianship and protection
    of your Order, assumed by us, has been borne for so long a
    period by us without any fruit.

    Those things which the Reverend Prior of our Kingdom, and the
    person who brought your Reverend Lordship's letter to us, have
    listened to with attention and kindness, and returned an answer
    to, as we doubt not will be intimated by them to your Reverend
    Lordship.

May all happiness attend you.
  From our Palace at Westminster,
    The 17th day of November, 1534.
                          HENRY REX.


From the date and superscription of the above truly Catholic letter, it
will be seen that it was written about the period of the Reformation in
England, and addressed to the Grand Master of an Order, which for four
centuries had been at all times engaged in Paynim war; and won for
itself among the Catholic powers of Europe, by its many noble and daring
achievements, the style and title of being the "bulwark of the Christian
faith." Bound as the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem were in all ages
to pay a perfect obedience to the Roman Pontiffs, it is not surprising
that this should be the last letter which we have found filed away in
the archives of their Order, bearing the autograph of Henry VIII.

WILLIAM WINTHROP.

La Valetta, Malta.

[Footnote 5: H. M. Henry VIII. was certainly labouring under an error,
when supposing that the islands of Malta and Gozo "were strongly
fortified by nature, and excellently adapted for repelling the attacks
of the infidels;" as in truth nature had done nothing for their defence,
unless it be in furnishing an abundance of soft stone with its yellow
tinge, of which all their fortifications are built.

When L'Isle Adam landed at Malta in October, 1530, it was with the rank
of a monarch; and when, in company with the authorities of the island,
"he appeared before its capital, and swore to protect its inhabitants,
the gates of the old city were opened, and he was admitted with the
knights; the Maltese declaring to them their fealty, without prejudice
to the interests of Charles V., to whom they had heretofore been
subject." Never, since the establishment of the Order, had the affairs
of the Hospitallers appeared more desperate than at this period. For the
loss of Rhodes, so famed in its history, so prized for its singular
fertility, and rich and varied fruits; an island which, as De Lamartine
so beautifully expressed it, appeared to rise "like a bouquet of verdure
out of the bosom of the sea," with its groves of orange trees, its
sycamores and palms; what had L'Isle Adam received in return, but an
arid African rock, without palaces or dwellings, without fortifications
or inland streams, and which, were it not for its harbours, would have
been as difficult to hold as it would have been unworthy of his
acceptance. (Vertot.)

A person who has never been at Malta can, by reading its history, hardly
picture to himself the change which the island underwent for the better,
under the long and happy rule of the Order of St. John. Look whither one
will, at this day, he sees some of the most perfect fortresses in the
world,--fortifications which it took millions of money to erect; and two
hundred and fifty years of continual toil and labour, before the work on
them was finished. As a ship of war now enters the great harbour, she
passes immediately under the splendid castles of St. Elmo, Ricasoli, and
St. Angelo. Going to her anchorage, she "comes to" under some one of the
extensive fortifications of the Borgo, La Sangle, Burmola, Cotonera, and
La Valetta. In all directions, and at all times, she is entirely
commanded by a line of walls, which are bristling with cannon above her.
Should the more humble merchantman be entering the small port of
Marsamuscetto, to perform her quarantine, she also is sailing under St.
Elmo and Florianna on the one side, and forts Tigné and Manoel on the
other; from the cannon of which there is no escape. But besides these
numerous fortifications, the whole coast of the island is protected by
forts and batteries, towers and redoubts. We name those of the Red
Tower, the Melleha, St. Paul, St. Julien, Marsa Sirocco, and St. Thomas;
only to show how thoroughly the knights had guarded their convent, and
how totally different the protection of the Maltese was under their
rule, from what it was when they first landed; and found them with their
inconsiderable fort, with one cannon and two falconets, which, as
Boisgelin has mentioned, was their only defence.]

       *       *       *       *       *


ENAREANS.

When Psammeticus turned back the conquering Scythians from their
contemplated invasion of Egypt, some stragglers of the rear-guard
plundered the temple of Venus Urania at Ascalon. The goddess punished
this sacrilege by inflicting on the Scythian nation the "female
disease." Herodotus, from whom we learn this, says:

    "The Scythians themselves confess that their countrymen suffer
    this malady in consequence of the above crime; their condition
    also may be seen by those who visit Scythia, where they are
    called Enareæ."--Beloe's Translation, vol. i. p. 112., ed. 8vo.

And again, vol. ii. p. 261., Hippocrates says:

    "There are likewise among the Scythians, persons who come into
    the world as eunuchs, and do all the work of women; they are
    called Enaræans, or womanish," &c.

It would occupy too much space to detail here all the speculations to
which this passage has given rise; sufficient for us be the fact, that
in Scythia there were men who dressed as, and associated with, the
women; that they were considered as victims of an offended female deity;
and yet, strange contradiction! they were revered as prophets or
diviners, and even acquired wealth by their predictions, &c. (See
_Universal History_, xx. p. 15., ed. 8vo.)

The curse still hangs over the descendants of the Scythians. Reineggo
found the "female disease" among the Nogay Tatars, who call persons so
afflicted "Choss." In 1797-8, Count Potocki saw one of them. The Turks
apply the same term to men wanting a beard. (See Klaproth's _Georgia and
Caucasus_, p. 160., ed. 4to.) From the Turkish use of the word "choss,"
we may infer that Enareans existed in the cradle of their race, and that
the meaning only had suffered a slight modification on their descent
from the Altai. De Pauw, in his _Recherches sur les Américains_, without
quoting any authority, says there are men in Mogulistan, who dress as
women, but are obliged to wear a man's turban.

It must be interesting to the ethnologist to find this curse extending
into the New World, and actually now existing amongst Dr. Latham's
American _Mongolidæ_. It would be doubly interesting could we trace its
course from ancient Scythia to the Atlantic coast. In this attempt,
however, we have not been successful, a few isolated facts only
presenting themselves as probably descending from the same source. The
relations of travellers in Eastern Asia offer nothing of the sort among
the Tungusi, Yakuti, &c. The two Mahometans (A.D. 833, thereabout),
speaking of Chinese depravity, assert that it is somehow connected with
the worship of their idols, &c. (Harris' _Collection_, p. 443. ed. fol.)
Sauer mentions boys dressed as females, and performing all the domestic
duties in common with the women, among the Kodiaks; and crossing to the
American coast, found the same practised by the inhabitants of
Oonalashka (ed. 4to., pp. 160. 176.). More accurate observation might
probably detect its existence amongst intermediate tribes, but want
{102} of information obliges us here to jump at once over the whole
range of the Rocky Mountains, and then we find Enareanism (if I may so
term it) extending from Canada to Florida inclusive, and thence at
intervals to the Straits of Magellan.

Most of the earlier visitors to America have noticed the numerous
hermaphrodites everywhere met with. De Pauw (who, I believe, never was
in America) devotes a whole chapter to the subject in his _Recherches
sur les Américains_, in which he talks a great deal of nonsense. It
assisted his hypothesis, that everything American, in the animal and
vegetable kingdoms, was inferior to their synonymes in the Old World.

The calm and more philosophical observation of subsequent travellers,
however, soon discovered that the so-called hermaphrodites were men in
female attire, associating with the women, and partaking of all their
labours and occupations. Père Hennepin had already mentioned the
circumstance (Amstel. ed. in 12mo., p. 219.), but he seems to have had
no idea of the practice being in any way connected with religion.
Charlevoix went a step farther, for speaking of those he met with among
the Illinois, he says:

    "On a prétendu que cet usage venait de je ne sais quel principe
    de la religion, mais cette religion avait, comme bien d'autres,
    prit sa naissance dans la corruption du coeur," &c.

Here he stopped, not caring to inform himself as to the real origin of
the usage. Lafitau says these so-called hermaphrodites were numerous in
Louisiana, Florida, Yucatan, and amongst the Sioux, Illinois, &c.; and
goes on,--

    "Il y a de jeunes gens qui prennent l'habit de femme qu'ils
    gardent toute leur vie, et qui se croyent honorez de s'abaisser
    à toutes leurs occupations; ils ne se marient jamais, ils
    assistent à tous les exercises où la religion semble avoir part,
    et cette profession de vie extraordinaire les fait passer pour
    des gens d'un ordre supérieur et au-dessus du commun des
    hommes," &c.

Are not these, he asks, the same people as those Asiatic worshippers of
Cybele? or those who, according to Julius Firmicus, consecrated
themselves, the one to the Phrygian goddess, the others to Venus
Urania?--priests who dressed as women, &c. (See _Moeurs des Sauvages
américains_, vol. i. p. 52., ed. 4to., Paris, 1724.) He farther tells us
that Vasco Nuñez de Balbao met many of them, and in the fury of his
religious zeal had them torn to pieces by dogs. Was this in Darien? I
believe neither Heckewelder, Adair, Colden, nor J. Dunn Hunter, mention
this subject, though they must all have been aware of the existence of
Enareans in some one or more of the tribes with which they were
acquainted; and I do not remember having ever met with mention of them
among the Indian nations of New England, and Tanner testifies to their
existence amongst the Chepewa and Ottawa nations, by whom they are
called A-go-kwa. Catlin met with them among the Sioux, and gives a
sketch of a dance in honour of the I-coo-coo, as they call them. Southey
speaks of them among the Guayacuru under the name of "Cudinas," and so
does Von Martius. Captain Fitzroy, quoting the Jesuit Falkner, says the
Patagonian wizards (query priests) are dressed in female attire: they
are chosen for the office when young, preference being given to boys
evincing a feminine disposition.

Lafitau's conjecture as to the connexion between these American Enareans
and the worshippers of Venus Urania, seems to receive some confirmation
from our next evidence, viz. in Major Long's _Expedition to St. Peter's
River_, some of these people were met with, and inquiry being made
concerning them, it was ascertained that--

    "The Indians believe the moon is the residence of a hostile
    female deity, and should she appear to them in their dreams, it
    is an injunction to become Cinædi, and they immediately assume
    feminine attire."--Vol. i. p. 216.

Farther it is stated, that two of these people whom they found among the
Sauks, though generally held in contempt, were pitied by many--

    "As labouring under an unfortunate destiny that they cannot
    avoid, being supposed to be impelled to this course by a vision
    from the female spirit that resides in the moon," &c.--Vol. i.
    p. 227.

Venus Urania is placed among the Scythian deities by Herodotus, under
the name "Artimpasa." We are, for obvious reasons, at liberty to
conjecture that the adoption of her worship, and the development of "the
female disease," may have been contemporaneous, or nearly so. It were
needless entering on a long story to show the connexion between Venus
and the moon, which was styled Urania, Juno, Jana, Diana, Venus, &c.
Should it be conceded that the American _Mongolidæ_ brought with them
this curse of Scythia, the date of their emigration will be
approximated, since it must have taken place subsequently to the affair
of Ascalon, or between 400 or 500 years B.C.

The adoption of female attire by the priesthood, however, was not
confined to the worshippers of Venus Urania; it was widely spread
throughout Heathendom; so widely that, as we learn from Tacitus, the
priests of the Naharvali (in modern Denmark) officiated in the dress of
women. Like many other heathenish customs and costumes, traces of this
have descended to our own times; such, for example, may have been the
exchange of dresses on New Year's Eve, &c.: see Drake's _Shakspeare and
his Times_, vol. i. p. 124., ed. 4to. And what else is the effeminate
costume of the clergy in many parts of Europe, the girded waist, and the
petticoat-like cassock, but a relique {103} of the ancient priestly
predilection for female attire?

A. C. M.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.


_Russia and Turkey._--The following paragraph from an old newspaper
reads with a strange significance at the present time:

    "The last advices from Leghorn describe the genius of discord
    still prevailing in the unfortunate city of Constantinople, the
    people clamouring against their rulers, and the janissaries ripe
    for insurrection, in consequence of the backwardness of the
    Porte to commence hostilities with Russia."--_English Chronicle,
    or Universal Evening Post_, February 6th to 8th, 1783.

J. LOCKE.


_Social Effects of the severe Weather, Jan. 3 and 4, 1854._--The daily
and local newspapers have detailed many public incidents of the severe
weather of the commencement of 1854: such as snow ten yards deep; roads
blocked up; mails delayed; the streets of the metropolis, for a time,
impassible; omnibuses with four horses; Hansom cabs driven tandem, &c.
The effects of the storms of snow, socially, were not the least curious.
In the neighbourhood of Manchester seventy persons were expected at an
evening party, one only arrived. At another house one hundred guests
were expected, nine only arrived. Many other readers of your valuable
paper have, no doubt, made similar notes, and will probably forward
them.

ROBERT RAWLINSON.


_Star of Bethlehem._--Lord Nugent, in his _Lands, Classical and Sacred_,
vol. ii. p. 18., says:

    "The spot shown as the place of the Nativity, and that of the
    manger, both of which are in a crypt or subterraneous chapel
    under the church of St. Katherine, are in the hands of the Roman
    Catholicks. The former is marked by this simple inscription on a
    silver star set in the pavement:

    'Hic de Virgine Maria Jesus Christus natus est.'"

The Emperor of the French, as representative of the Latin Church, first
raised the question of the sacred places, now likely to involve the
Pentarchy of Europe in a _quasi_ civil war, by attempting, through the
authority of the Sultan of Turkey, to restore the above inscription,
which had been defaced, as is supposed, by the Greek Christians; and
thereby encountering the opposition of the Emperor of the Russias, who
claims to represent the Eastern Church.

T. J. BUCKTON.

Birmingham.


_Origin of the Word "Cant."_--From the _Mercurius Publicus_ of Feb. 28,
1661, Edinburgh:

    "Mr. Alexander Cant, son to Mr. Andrew Cant (who in his
    discourse _De Excommunicato trucidando_ maintained that all
    refusers of the Covenant ought to be excommunicated, and that
    all so excommunicated might lawfully be killed), was lately
    deposed by the Synod for divers seditious and impudent passages
    in his sermons at several places, as at the pulpit of Banchry;
    'That whoever would own or make use of a service-book, king,
    nobleman, or minister, the curse of God should be upon him.'

    "In his Grace after Meat, he praid for those phanaticques and
    seditious ministers (who are now secured) in these words, 'The
    Lord pity and deliver the precious prisoners who are now
    suffering for the truth, and close up the mouths of the
    _Edomites_, who are now rejoicing;' with several other articles
    too long to recite."

From these two Cants (Andrew and Alexander) all seditious praying and
preaching in Scotland is called "Canting."

J. B.


_Epigram on Four Lawyers._--It used to be said that four lawyers were
wont to go down from Lincoln's Inn and the Temple in one hackney coach
for one shilling. The following epigram records the economical practice:

  "Causidici curru felices quatuor uno
  Quoque die repetunt limina nota 'fori.'
  Quanta sodalitium præstabit commoda! cui non
  Contigerint socii cogitur ire pedes."

See _Poemata Anglorum Latina_, p. 446. Lemma, "Defendit
numerus."--_Juv._

J. W. FARRER.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.


CONTRIBUTORS TO "KNIGHT'S QUARTERLY MAGAZINE."

I shall feel exceedingly obliged if you or any of your correspondents
will inform me who were the writers in _Knight's Quarterly Magazine_,
bearing the following fictitious signatures:--1. Marmaduke Villars; 2.
Davenant Cecil; 3. Tristram Merton; 4. Irvine Montagu; 5. Gerard
Montgomery; 6. Henry Baldwin; 7. Joseph Haller; 8. Peter Ellis; 9.
Paterson Aymer; 10. Eustace Heron; 11. Edward Haselfoot; 12. William
Payne; 13. Archibald Frazer; 14. Hamilton Murray; 15. Charles Pendragon;
16. Lewis Willoughby; 17. John Tell; 18. Edmund Bruce; 19. Reginald
Holyoake; 20. Richard Mills; 21. Oliver Medley; 22. Peregrine Courtenay;
23. Vyvyan Joyeuse; 24. Martin Lovell; 25. Martin Danvers Heaviside.

I fear I have given you so long a list as to deter you from replying to
my inquiry but if you cannot spare time or space to answer me fully, I
have numbered the writers in such a way as that you may be induced to
give the numbers without the names, except you think that many of your
readers would be glad to have the information given to them which I ask
of you.

_Tristram Merton_ is T. B. Macaulay, who wrote several sketches and five
ballads in the _Magazine_; {104} indeed, it was in it that his fine
English ballads first appeared.

_Peregrine Courtenay_ was the late Winthrop Mackworth Praed, who was, I
believe, its editor.

Henry Nelson Coleridge and John Moultire were also contributors, but
under what signatures they wrote I cannot tell.

_Knight's Quarterly Magazine_ never extended beyond three volumes, and
it is now a rather scarce book. Any light you can throw upon this
subject will have an interest for most people, and will be duly
appreciated by

E. H.

Leeds.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE STATIONERS' COMPANY AND ALMANACK.

Having recently had occasion to consult the Lansdown MSS., No. 905., a
volume containing documents formerly belonging to Mr. Umfreville, I
observed the following:

    "Ordinances, constitutions, rules, and articles made by the
    Court of Star Chamber relating to Printers and Printing, Jan.
    23, anno 28 Eliz."

Appended to these ordinances, &c. is a statement from which I have made
the following extracts:

    "Viii^o Januarii, 1583.

    "Bookes yeilded into the hands and disposition of the Master,
    Wardens, and Assistants of the Mysterie of the Stationers of
    London for the releife of y^e poore of y^e saide companie
    according to the discretion of the Master, Wardens, and
    Assistants, or the more parte of them.

    "Mr. Barker, her Ma^{ties} printer, hath yeilded unto the saide
    disposition and purpose these bookes following: viz.

    "The first and second volume of Homelies.

    "The whole statutes at large, w^{th} y^e pamble as they are
    now extant.

    "The Paraphrasis of Erasmus upon y^e Epistles and Gospells
    appoynted to be readd in Churches.

    "Articles of Religion agreed upon 1562 for y^e Ministers.

    "The Several Injunctions and Articles to be enquired of through
    y^e whole Realme.

    "The Profitt and Benefite of the two most vendible volumes of
    the New Testament in English, commonlie called Mr. Cheekes'
    translation: that is, in the volume called _Octavo_, w^{th}
    Annotacions as they be now: and in the volume called _Decimo
    Sexto_ of the same translation w^{th}out notes, in the Brevier
    English letter only.

    "Provided that Mr. Barker himselfe print the sayde Testaments at
    the lowest value by the direction of the Master and Wardens of
    the Company of Stationers for the tyme being. Provided alwaye
    that Mr. Barker do reteyn some small number of these for diverse
    services in her Ma^{ties} Courtes or ... [MS. illegible] and
    lastlye that nothing that he yeildeth unto by meanes aforesaide
    be preiudiciall to her Ma^{ties} highe prerogative, or to any
    that shall succeed in the office of her Ma^{ties} printer."

The other printers named are, Mr. Totell, Mr. Watkins, Mr. John Daye,
Mr. Newberye, and Henrie Denham.

I wish to raise a Query upon the following:

    "Mr. Watkins, now Wardein, hath yeilded to the disposcion and
    purpose aforesaide this that followeth: viz.

    "The Broad Almanack; that is to say, the same to be printed on
    one syde of a sheete, to be sett on walls as usuallie it hath
    bene."

Query 1. Is this _Broad Almanack_ the original of the present
_Stationers' Almanack_?

2. When was this _Broad Almanack_ first issued?

3. When were sheet almanacks, printed on one side of a sheet, first
published?

B. H. C.

P.S.--The books enumerated in this MS., under the other printers' names,
are some of them very curious, and others almost unknown at the present
time.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.


_John Bunyan._--The following advertisement is copied from the
_Mercurius Reformatus_ of June 11, 1690, vol. ii. No. 27.:

    "Mr. John Bunyan, Author of the _Pilgrim's Progress_, and many
    other excellent Books, that have found great Acceptance, hath
    left behind him Ten Manuscripts prepared by himself for the
    Press before his Death: His Widow is desired to print them (with
    some other of his Works, which have been already printed, but
    are at present not to be had), which will make together a Book
    of 10s. in sheets, in Fol. All persons who desire so great and
    good a Work should be performed with speed, are desired to send
    in 5s. for their first Payment to Dorman Newman, at the King's
    Arms in the Poultrey, London: Who is empower'd to give Receipts
    for the same."

Can any of your readers say whether such a publication as that which is
here proposed ever took place: that is, a publication of "ten
manuscripts," of which none had been previously printed?

S. R. MAITLAND.

Gloucester.


_Tragedy by Mary Leapor._--In the second volume of _Poems_ by Mary
Leapor, 8vo., 1751, there is an unfinished tragedy, begun by the
authoress a short time before her death. Can you give me the name of
this drama (if it has any), and names of the _dramatis personæ_?

A. Z.


_Repairing old Prints._--N. J. A. will feel thankful to any one who will
give him directions for the cleaning and repairing of old prints, or
refer him to any book where he can obtain such information. He wishes
especially to learn how to detach them from old and worn-out mountings.

N. J. A.


{105}
_Arch-priest in the Diocese of Exeter._--I am informed that there is, in
the diocese of Exeter, a dignitary who is called the Arch-priest, and
that he has the privilege of wearing lawn sleeves (that is of course,
properly, of wearing a lawn alb), and also precedence in all cases next
after the Bishop.

Can any of your Devonian readers give additional particulars of his
office or his duties? They would be useful and interesting.

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.


_Medal in honour of the Chevalier de St. George._--It appears that
Prince James (styled the Chevalier de St. George) served in several
campaigns in the Low Countries under the Marquis de Torcy. On one
occasion, when the hostile armies were encamped on the banks of the
Scarpe, medals were struck, and distributed among the English, bearing,
besides a bust of the prince, an inscription relating to his bravery on
a former occasion. Are any of these now in existence? They would
probably be met with in those families whose ancestors served under
Marlborough.

A. S.


_Robert Bloet._--Can you certify me whether it is received as an
undoubted historical fact that "Robertus, comes Moritoniensis," William
the Conqueror's uterine brother, was identical with _Robert Bloet_,
afterwards Chancellor and Bishop of Lincoln?

J. SANSOM.


_Sir J. Wallace and Mr. Browne._--I inclose an extract from _The English
Chronicle or Universal Evening Post_, February 6th to February 8th,
1783. Can any of your learned correspondents state the result of the
_fracas_ between Mr. Browne and Sir J. Wallace?

    "Yesterday about one o'clock, Sir J----s W----e and Lieutenant
    B----e, accidentally meeting in Parliament Street, near the
    Admiralty Gate, Mr. B----e, the moment he saw Sir J----s, took a
    stick which a gentleman he was in company with held in his hand,
    and, after a few words passing, struck Sir J----s, and gave him
    a dreadful wound in the forehead; they closed, and Sir J----s,
    who had no weapon, made the best defence possible, but being a
    weaker man than his antagonist, was overpowered. Mr. B----e, at
    parting, told Sir J----s, if he had anything to say to him, he
    would be found at the Salopian Coffee House. An account of this
    transaction being communicated to Sir Sampson Wright, he sent
    Mr. Bond after Mr. B----e, who found him at the Admiralty, and
    delivered the magistrate's compliments, at the same time
    requesting to see him in Bow Street. Mr. B----e promised to wait
    upon Sir Sampson, but afterwards finding that no warrant had
    issued, did not think it incumbent on him to comply, and so went
    about his avocations.

    "Sir J----s's situation after the fracas very much excited the
    compassion of the populace; they beheld that veteran bleeding on
    the streets, who had so often gloriously fought the battles of
    his country! The above account is as accurate as we could learn;
    but should there be any trivial misstatement, we shall be happy
    in correcting it, through the means of any of our readers who
    were present on the spot.

    "Sir James Wallace has not only given signal proofs of his
    bravery as a naval officer, but particularly in a duel with
    another marine officer, Mr. Perkins, whom he fought at Cape
    François; each taking hold of the end of a handkerchief, fired,
    and although the balls went through both their bodies, neither
    of the wounds proved mortal! The friars at Cape François, with
    great humanity, took charge of them till they were cured of
    their wounds."

J. LOCKE.

Dublin.


_Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester._--I should be glad if any of your
correspondents would refer me to any authentic account of the death of
Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Queen Elizabeth's favourite. He is
said by some to have been _accidentally_ poisoned by his wife; by others
_purposely_, by some of his adherents. This affair, though clouded in
mystery, appears not to have been particularly inquired into. Likewise
let me ask, on what authority is Stanfield Hall, Norfolk (the scene of a
recent tragedy), described as the birthplace of Amy Robsart, the
unfortunate first wife of this same nobleman?

A. S.


_Abbott Families._--Samuel Abbott, of Sudbury, in the county of Suffolk,
gentleman, lived about 1670. Can any of your genealogical contributors
inform me if he was in any way connected with the family of Archbishop
Abbott, or otherwise elucidate his parentage? It may probably be
interesting to persons of the same name to be acquainted that the
_pears_ worn by many of the Abbot family are merely a corruption of the
ancient inkhorns of the Abbots of Northamptonshire, and impaled in
Netherheyford churchyard, same county, on the tomb of Sir Walt.
Mauntele, knight, and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of John Abbot, Esq.,
1487, viz. a chev. between three inkhorns. The resemblance between pears
and inkhorns doubtless occasioned the error. I believe the ancient
bottles of Harebottle were similarly corrupted into icicles.

J. T. ABBOTT.

Darlington.


_Authorship of a Ballad._--In the _Manchester Guardian_ of Jan. 7, the
author of a stanza, written on the execution of Thos. Syddale, is
desired; as also the remainder of the ballad. From what quarter is
either of these more likely to be obtained than from "N. & Q.?"

P. J. F. GANTILLON.


_Elias Petley._--What is known of the life or works of Elias Petley,
priest, who dedicated to Archbishop Laud his translation of the English
Liturgy into Greek. The book was published at the press of Thomas Cotes,
for Richard Whitaker, {106} at the King's Arms, St. Paul's churchyard,
in 1638. Is it remarkable for rarity or merit?

J. O. B.

Wicken.


_Canaletto's Views round London._--Antonio Canaletto, the painter of
Venice, the destruction of one of whose most powerful works has been of
late the subject of so much agitation, was here amongst us in this city
one hundred years since; as seen by his proposal in one of the journals
of 1752:

    "Signior Canaletto gives notice that he has painted Chelsea
    College, Ranelagh House, and the River Thames; which, if any
    gentleman, or others, are pleased to favour him with seeing the
    same, he will attend at his lodgings at Mr. Viggans, in Silver
    Street, Golden Square, from fifteen days from this day, July 31,
    from 8 to 1, and from 3 to 6 at night, each day."

Here is that able artist's offer in his own terms, if, not his own
words.

I have to inquire, are these pictures left here to the knowledge of your
readers? did he, in short, find buyers as well as admirers? or, if not,
did he return to Venice with those (no doubt) vividly pictured
recollections of our localities under his arm?

GONDOLA.


_A Monster found at Maidstone._--In Kilburne's _Survey of Kent_, 4to.
1659, under "Maidstone," is the following passage:

    "Wat Tiler, that idol of clownes, and famous rebell in the time
    of King Richard the Second, was of this town; and in the year
    1206 about this town was a monster found stricken with
    lightning, with a head like an asse, a belly like a man, and all
    other parts far different from any known creature, but not
    approachable nigh unto, by reason of the stench thereof."

No mention of this is made by Lambarde in his _Perambulation of Kent_.
Has this been traditional, or whence is Kilburne's authority? And what
explanation can be offered of the account?

H. W. D.


_Page._--What is the derivation of this word? In the _Dictionary of
Greek and Roman Antiquities_, edited by Dr. W. Smith, 1st edit., p.
679., it is said to be from the Greek ~paidagôgos~, _pædagogus_. But in
an edition of Tacitus, with notes by Boxhorn (Amsterdam, 1662), it is
curiously identified with the word _boy_, and traced to an eastern
source thus:--Persian, _bagoa_; Polish, _pokoigo_; Old German, _Pagie_,
_Bagh_, _Bai_; then the Welsh, _bachgen_; French, _page_; English,
_boy_; and Greek, ~pais~.

Some of your correspondents may be able to inform me which is correct.

B. H. C.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.


_The Fish "Ruffins."_--In Spenser's _Faerie Queene_ we read (book iv.
canto 11.), among the river guests that attended the nuptials of Thames
and Medway came "Yar, soft washing Norwitch walls;" and farther on, that
he brought with him a present of fish for the banquet called _ruffins_,
"whose like none else could show." Was this description of fish peculiar
to the Yare? and is there any record of its having been esteemed a
delicacy in Elizabeth's reign?

A. S.

    [This seems to be the fish noticed by Izaak Walton, called the
    _Ruffe_, or _Pope_, "a fish," says he, "that is not known in
    some rivers. He is much like the perch for his shape, and taken
    to be better than the perch, but will grow to be bigger than a
    gudgeon. He is an excellent fish, no fish that swims is of _a
    pleasanter taste_, and he is also excellent to enter a young
    angler, for he is a greedy biter." In the _Faerie Queene_, book
    I. canto iv., Spenser speaks of

    "His _ruffin_ raiment all was stain'd with blood
    Which he had spilt, and all to rags yrent."

    To these lines Mr. Todd has added a note, which gives a clue to
    the meaning of the word. He says, "Mr. Church here observes,
    that _ruffin_ is reddish, from the Latin _rufus_." I suspect,
    however, that the poet did not intend to specify the _colour_ of
    the dress, but rather to give a very characteristical expression
    even to the raiment of Wrath. Ruffin, so spelt, denoted a
    swashbuckler, or, as we should say, a _bully_: see Minsheu's
    _Guide into Tongues_. Besides, I find in _My Ladies'
    Looking-Glasse_, by Barnabe Rich, 4to. 1616, p. 21., a passage
    which may serve to strengthen my application of _ruffin_, in
    this sense, to garment: "The yong woman, that as well in her
    behaviour, as in the manner of her apparell, is most _ruffian_
    like, is accounted the most gallant wench." Now, it appears,
    that the _ruff_, or _pope_, is not only, as Walton says, "a
    greedy biter," but is extremely voracious in its disposition,
    and will devour a minnow nearly as big as itself. Its average
    length is from six to seven inches.]


_Origin of the Word Etiquette._--What is the original meaning of the
word _etiquette_? and how did it acquire that secondary meaning which it
bears in English?

S. C. G.

    [Etiquette, from the Fr. _étiquette_, Sp. _etiqueta_, a ticket;
    delivered not only, as Cotgrave says, for the benefit and
    advantage of him that receives it, but also entitling to place,
    to rank; and thus applied to the ceremonious observance of rank
    or place; to ceremony. Webster adds, "From the original sense of
    the word, it may be inferred that it was formerly the custom to
    deliver cards containing orders for regulating ceremonies on
    public occasions."]


_Henri Quatre._--What was the title of Henry IV. (of Navarre) to the
crown of France? or in what way was he related to his predecessor? If
any {107} one would be kind enough to answer these he would greatly
oblige.

W. W. H.

    [Our correspondent will find his Query briefly and satisfactorily
    answered by Hénault, in his _Abrégé de l'Histoire de France_, p.
    476. His words are: "Henri IV. roi de Navarre, né à Pau, le 13
    Décembre, 1553, et ayant droit à la couronne, comme descendant de
    Robert, Comte de Clermont, qui étoit fils de St. Louis, et qui
    avoit épousé l'héritière de Bourbon, y parvient en 1589." The
    lineal descent of Henri from this Count Robert may be seen in
    _L'Art de vérifier les Dates_, vol. vi. p. 209., in a table
    entitled "Généalogie des Valois et des Bourbon; St. Louis IX.,
    Roi de France."]

_"He that complies against his will," &c.; and "To kick the
bucket."_--Oblige T. C. by giving the correct reading of the familiar
couplet, which he apprehends is loosely quoted when expressed--

  "Convince a man against his will," &c.

or,

  "Persuade a man against his will," &c.

Also by stating the name of the author.

Likewise by giving the origin of the phrase "To kick the bucket," as
applied to the death of a person.

    [The desired quotation is from Butler's _Hudibras_, part III.
    canto iii. l. 547-8.:

    "He that complies against his will,
    Is of his own opinion still."

    As to the origin of the phrase "To kick the bucket," the
    tradition among the slang fraternity is, that "One Bolsover
    having hung himself to a beam while standing on the bottom of a
    pail, or bucket, kicked the vessel away in order to pry into
    futurity, and it was all UP with him from that moment--_Finis_!"
    Our Querist will find a very humorous illustration of its use
    (too long to quote) in an article on "Anglo-German Dictionaries,"
    contributed by De Quincy to the _London Magazine_ for April,
    1823, p. 442.]


_St. Nicholas Cole Abbey._--There is a church in the city of London
called St. Nicholas Cole Abbey: what is the origin of the name or
derivation?

ELLFIN AP GWYDDNO.

    [This Query seems to have baffled old Stowe. He says, "Towards
    the west end of Knight Rider Street is the parish church of St.
    Nicolas Cold Abby, a comely church, somewhat ancient, as
    appeareth by the ways raised thereabout; so that men are forced
    to descend into the body of the church. It hath been called of
    many _Golden Abby_, of some _Gold_ (or _Cold_) _Bey_, and so
    hath the most ancient writing. But I could never learn the cause
    why it should be so called, and therefore I will let it pass.
    Perhaps as standing in a _cold_ place, as _Cold Harbour_, and
    such like." For communications on the much-disputed etymology of
    COLD HARBOUR, see "N. & Q.," Vol. i., p. 60.; Vol. ii., pp. 159.
    340.; and Vol. vi., p. 455.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.


TRENCH ON PROVERBS.

(Vol. viii., pp. 387. 519. 641.)

The courteous spirit which generally distinguishes the communications of
your correspondents, renders the "N. & Q." the most agreeable magazine,
or, as you have it, "medium of inter-communication for literary men,"
&c. I was so much pleased with the general _animus_ which characterised
the strictures on my proposed translation of Ps. cxxvii. 2., that I was
almost disposed to cede to my critics, from sheer good-will towards
them. But the elder D'Israeli speaks of such a thing "as an affair of
literary conscience," which consideration prescribes my yielding in the
present instance; but I trust that our motto will always be, "May our
difference of opinion never alter our inter-communications!"

I must however, at the outset, qualify an expression I made use of,
which seems to have incurred the censure of all your four correspondents
on the subject; I mean the sentence, "The translation of the authorised
version of that sacred affirmation is unintelligible." It seems to be
perfectly intelligible to MESSRS. BUCKTON, JEBB, WALTER, and S. D. I
qualify, therefore, the assertion. I mean to say, that the translation
of the authorised version of that sacred affirmation was, and is,
considered unintelligible to many intelligent biblical critics and
expositors; amongst whom I may name Luther, Mendelsohn, Hengstenberg,
Zunz, and many others whose names will transpire in the sequel.

Having made that concession, I may now proceed with the replying to my
Querists, or rather Critics. MR. BUCKTON is entitled to my first
consideration, not only because you placed him at the head of the
department of that question, but also because of the peculiar mode in
which he treated the subject. My replies shall be _seriatim_.

1. Luther was not the first who translated ¤ken iten liydido sheinah¤
"Denn seinen Freunden gibt er _es_ schlafend." A far greater Hebraist
than Luther, who flourished about two hundred years before the great
German Reformer came into note, put the same construction on that sacred
affirmation. Rabbi Abraham Hacohen of Zante, who paraphrased the whole
Hebrew Psalter into modern metrical Hebrew verse (which, according to a
P.S., was completed in 1326), interprets the sentence in question thus:

  ¤ki ken yiten el teref
  l'yidido ushnato meenehu lo taref¤

  "For surely God shall give food
  To His beloved, and his sleep shall not be withheld from him."

2. It is more than problematical whether the eminent translator,
Mendelsohn, was influenced by {108} Luther's _error_ (?), or by his
own superior knowledge of the sacred tongue.

3. I do not think that the phrase, "the proper Jewish notion of gain,"
was either called for or relevant to the subject.

4. The reign of James I. was by no means as distinguished for Hebrew
scholarship as were the immediate previous reigns. Indeed it would
appear that the knowledge of the sacred languages was at a very low ebb
in this country during the agitating period of the Reformation, so much
so that even the unaccountable Henry VIII. was forced to exclaim,
"Vehementer dolere nostratium Theologorum sortem sanctissime linguæ
scientia carentium, et linguarum doctrinam fuisse intermissam." (_Hody_,
p. 466.)

When Coverdale made his version of the Bible he was not only aided by
Tindale, but also by the celebrated Hebrew, of the Hebrews, Emanuel
Tremellius, who was then professor of the sacred tongue in the
University of Cambridge, where that English Reformer was educated; and
Coverdale translated the latter part of Ps. cxxvii. 2. as follows: "For
look, to whom it pleaseth Him, He giveth it in sleep."

When the translation was revised, during the reign of James I., the most
accomplished Anglo-Hebraist was, by some caprice of jealousy, forced to
leave this country; I mean Hugh Broughton. He communicated many
renderings to the revisers, some of which they thoughtlessly rejected,
and others, to use Broughton's own phrase, "they thrust into the
margin." A perusal of Broughton's works[6] gives one an accurate notion
of the proceedings of the revisers of the previous versions.

5. Coverdale's translation is not "ungrammatical" as far as the Hebrew
language is concerned, notwithstanding that it was rejected in the reign
of James I. ¤lechem¤, "bread," is evidently the accusative noun to the
transitive verb ¤yiten¤, "He shall give." Nor is it "false," for the
same noun, ¤lechem¤, "bread," is no doubt the antecedent to which the
word _it_ refers.

6. Mendelsohn does _not_ omit the _it_ in his Hebrew comment; and I am
therefore unwarrantably charged with supplying it "unauthorisedly." I
should like to see MR. BUCKTON's translation of that comment. If any
doubt remained upon MR. B.'s mind as to the intended meaning of the word
¤yitenhu¤ used by Mendelsohn, his German version might have removed such
a doubt, as the little word _es_, "it," indicates pretty clearly what
Mendelsohn meant by ¤yitenhu¤. So that, instead of proving Mendelsohn
"at variance with himself," he is proved most satisfactorily to have
been in perfect harmony with himself.

7. Mendelsohn does not omit the important word ¤ken¤; and if MR. B. will
refer once more to his copy of Mendelsohn (we are both using the same
edition), he will find two different interpretations proposed for the
word ¤ken¤, viz. _thus_ and _rightly_. I myself prefer the latter
rendering. The word occurs about twenty times in the Hebrew Bible, and
in the great majority of instances _rightly_ or _certainly_ is the only
correct rendering. Both Mendelsohn and Zunz omit to translate it in
their German versions, simply because the sentence is more idiomatic, in
the German language, without it than with it.

8. I perfectly agree with MR. B. "that no version has yet had so large
an amount of learning bestowed on it as the English one." But MR. B.
will candidly acknowledge that the largest amount was bestowed on it
since the revision of the authorised version closed. Lowth, Newcombe,
Horne, Horsley, Lee, &c. wrote since, and they boldly called in question
many of the renderings in the authorised version.

Let me not be mistaken; I do most sincerely consider our version
superior to _all_ others, but it is not for this reason faultless.

In reply to MR. JEBB's temperate strictures, I would most respectively
submit--

1. That considerable examination leads me to take just the reverse view
to that of Burkius, that ¤sheinah¤ cannot be looked upon as antithetical
to _surgere_, _sedere_, _dolorum_. With all my searchings I failed to
discover an analogous antithesis. I shall be truly thankful to MR. JEBB
for a case in point. Moreover, Psalms iii. and iv., to which Dr. French
and Mr. Skinner refer, prove to my mind that not sleep is the gift, but
sustenance and other blessings bestowed upon the Psalmist whilst asleep.
I cannot help observing that due reflection makes me look upon the
expression, "So He {109} giveth His beloved sleep," as an extraordinary
anticlimax.

2. MR. JEBB challenges the showing strictly analogous instances of
ellipses. He acknowledges that there are very numerous ellipses even in
the Songs of Degrees themselves, but they are of a very different
nature. I might fill the whole of this _Number_ with examples, which the
most scrupulous critic would be obliged to acknowledge as being strictly
analogous to the passage under review; but such a thing you would not
allow. Two instances, however, you will not object to; they will prove a
host for MR. JEBB's purpose, inasmuch as one has the very word ¤shena¤
elliptically, and the other the transitive verb ¤yitein¤, _minus_ an
accusative noun. Would MESSRS. BUCKTON, JEBB, WALTER, and S. D. kindly
translate, for the benefit of those who are interested in the question,
the following two passages?

  ¤z'ram'tam, sheinah yih'yu; baboker, kechatzir yachalof¤

  _Psalm xc. 5._

  ¤yiten lifanav goyim um'lachim yard
  yiten ke-afar charbo, kikash needaf kashto¤

  _Isaiah xli. 2._

The REV. HENRY WALTER will see that some of his observations have been
anticipated and already replied to. It remains, however, for me to
assure him that I never dreamt that any one would suppose that I
considered ¤sheinah¤ anything else but a noun, minus the ¤bet¤
preposition. The reason why I translated the word "whilst he [the
beloved] is asleep," was because I thought the expression more
idiomatic.

S. D. attempts to prove nothing; I am exempt therefore from disproving
anything as far as he is concerned.

Before I take leave of this lengthy and somewhat elaborate disquisition,
let me give my explanation of the scope of the Psalm in dispute, which,
I venture to imagine, will commend itself, even to those who differ from
me, as the most natural.

This Psalm, as well as the other thirteen entitled "A Song of Degrees,"
was composed for the singing on the road by those Israelites who went up
to Jerusalem to keep the three grand festivals, to beguile their tedious
journey, and also to soothe the dejected spirits of those who felt
disheartened at having left their homes, their farms, and families
without guardians. Ps. cxxvii. is of a soothing character, composed
probably by Solomon.

In the first two verses God's watchfulness and care over His beloved are
held up to the view of the pilgrims, who are impressed with the truth
that no one, "by taking thought, can add one cubit to his stature." The
best exposition which I can give of those two verses I have learned from
our Saviour's "Sermon on the Mount" (Matt. vi. 25-33.). The third and
following verses, as well as the next Psalm, are exegetical or
illustrative. To whom do you attribute the gift of children? Is it not
admitted on all hands to be "an heritage of the Lord?" No one can
procure that blessing by personal anxiety and care: God alone can confer
the gift. Well, then, the same God who gives you the heritage of
children will also grant you all other blessings which are good for you,
provided you act the part of "His beloved," and depend upon Him without
wavering.

The above is a hasty, but I trust an intelligible, view of the scope of
the Psalm.

MOSES MARGOLIOUTH

Wybunbury, Nantwich.

[Footnote 6: Lightfoot, who edited Broughton's works in 1662, entitled
them as follows:--"The Works of the great Albionen Divine, renowned in
many Nations for rare Skill in Salem's and Athens' Tongues, and familiar
acquaintance with all Rabbinical Learning," &c.

Ben Jonson has managed to introduce Broughton into some of his plays. In
his _Volpone_, when the "Fox" delivers a medical lecture, to the great
amusement of Politic and Peregrine, the former remarks,

  "Is not his language rare?"

To which the latter replies,

                  "But Alchemy,
  I never heard the like, or Broughton's books."

In the _Alchemist_, "Face" is made thus to speak of a female companion:

  "Y' are very right, Sir, she is a most rare scholar,
  And is gone mad with studying Broughton's works;
  If you but name a word touching the Hebrew,
  She falls into her fit, and will discourse
  So learnedly of genealogies,
  As you would run mad too to hear her, Sir."

(See also _The History of the Jews in Great Britain_, vol. i. pp. 305,
&c.)]

       *       *       *       *       *


INSCRIPTIONS ON BELLS.

(Vol. viii., p. 448.)

The inscription on one of the bells of Great Milton Church, Oxon. (as
given by MR. SIMPSON in "N. & Q."), has a better and rhyming form
occasionally.

In Meivod Church, Montgomeryshire, a bell (the "great" bell, I think)
has the inscription--

  "I to the church the living call,
  And to the grave do summon all."

The same also is found on the great bell of the interesting church
(formerly cathedral) of Llanbadarn Fawr, Cardiganshire.

E. DYER GREEN.

Nantcribba Hall.


I beg to forward the following inscription on one of the bells in the
tower of St. Nicholas Church, Sidmouth. I have not met with it
elsewhere; and you may, perhaps, consider it worthy of being added to
those given by CUTHBERT BEDE and J. L. SISSON:

  "Est michi collatum
  Ihc istud nomen amatum."

There is no date, but the characters may indicate the commencement of
the fifteenth century as the period when the bell was cast.

G. J. R. GORDON.


At Lapley in Staffordshire:

  "I will sound and resound to thee, O Lord,
   To call thy people to thy word."

G. E. T. S. R. N.


Pray add the following savoury inscriptions to your next list of
bell-mottoes. The first disgraces the belfry of St. Paul's, Bedford; the
second, that, of St. Mary's, Islington:

  "At proper times my voice I'll raise,
  And sound to my _subscribers'_ praise!"

  "At proper times our voices we will raise,
  In sounding to our _benefactors'_ praise!"

The similarity between these two inscriptions favours the supposition
that the ancient {110} bell-founders, like some modern enterprising
firms, kept a poet on the establishment, _e.g._

  "Thine incomparable oil, Macassar!"

J. YEOWELL.


A friend informs me, that on a bell in Durham Cathedral these lines
occur:

  "To call the folk to Church in time,
                            I chime.
  When mirth and pleasure's on the wing,
                            I ring.
  And when the body leaves the soul,
                            I toll."

J. L. S.

       *       *       *       *       *


ARMS OF GENEVA.

(Vol. viii., p. 563.)

Your correspondent who desires the blazon of the arms of the "town of
Geneva," had better have specified to which of the two bearings assigned
to that name he refers.

One of these, which I saw on the official seal affixed to the passport
of a friend of mine lately returned from that place, is an instance of
the obsolete practice of _dimidiation_; and is the more singular,
because only the dexter one of the shields thus impaled undergoes
curtailment.

The correct blazon, I believe, would be: Or, an eagle double-headed,
displayed sable, dimidiated, and impaling gu. a key in pale argent, the
wards in chief, and turned to the sinister; the shield surmounted with a
marquis' coronet.

The blazon of the sinister half I owe to Edmondson, who seems, however,
not at all to have understood the dexter, and gives a clumsy description
of it little worth transcribing. He, and the _Dictionnaire de Blazon_,
assign these arms to the Republic of Geneva.

The other bearing would, in English, be blazoned, Checquy of nine
pieces, or and azure: and in French, _Cinq points d'or, équipollés à
quatre d'azur_. This is assigned by Nisbett to the _Seigneurie_ of
Geneva, and is quartered by the King of Sardinia in token of the claims
over the Genevese town and territory, which, as Duke of Savoy, he has
never resigned.

With regard to the former shield, I may just remark, that the dimidiated
coat is merely that of the German empire. How or why Geneva obtained it,
I should be very glad to be informed; since it appears to appertain to
the present independent Republic, and not to the former seignorial
territory.

Let me also add, that the plate in the _Dictionnaire_ gives the field of
this half as argent. Mr. Willement, in his _Regal Heraldry_, under the
arms of Richard II.'s consort, also thus describes and represents the
imperial field; and Nisbett alludes to it as such in one place, though
in his formal blazon he gives it as _or_.

Nothing, in an heraldic point of view, would be more interesting than a
"Regal Heraldry of Europe," with a commentary explaining the historical
origin and combinations of the various bearings. Should this small
contribution towards such a compilation tend to call the attention of
any able antiquary to the general subject, or to elicit information upon
this particular question, the writer who now offers so insignificant an
item would feel peculiarly gratified.

L. C. D.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Multiplying Negatives._--In reply to M. N. S. (Vol. ix., p. 83.) I
would suggest the following mode of multiplying negatives on
glass, which I have every reason to believe would be perfectly
successful:--First, _varnish_ the negative to be copied by means of DR.
DIAMOND'S solution of amber in chloroform; then attach to each angle,
with any convenient varnish, a small piece of writing-paper. Prepare a
similar plate of glass with collodion, and drain off all superfluous
nitrate of silver, by standing it for a minute or so on edge upon a
piece of blotting-paper. Lay it flat upon a board, collodion side
upwards, and the negative prepared above upon it, collodion side
downwards. Expose the whole to daylight for a single second, or to
gas-light for about a minute, and develope as usual. The result will be
a _transmitted positive_, but with reversed sides; and from this, when
varnished and treated as the original negative, any number of negatives
similar to the first may be produced.

The paper at the angles is to prevent the _absolute_ contact and
consequent injury by the solution of nitrate of silver; and, for the
same reason, it is advisable not to attempt to print until the primary
negative is varnished, as, with all one's care, sometimes the nitrate
will come in contact and produce spots, if the varnishing has been
omitted. Should the negative become moistened, it should be _at once_
washed with a gentle stream of water and dried.

I have repeatedly performed the operation above described so far as the
production of the positive, and so perfect is the impression that I see
no reason why the second negative should be at all distinguishable from
the original.

I am, indeed, at present engaged upon a _similar_ attempt; but there are
several other difficulties in my way: I, however, entertain no doubts of
perfect success.

GEO. SHADBOLT.


_Towgood's Paper._--A. B. (Vol. ix., p. 83.) can purchase Towgood's
paper of Mr. Sandford, who frequently advertises in "N. & Q." With
regard to his other Query, I think there can be no doubt of his being at
liberty to publish a photographic _copy_ of a portrait, Mr. Fox Talbot
having reserved only the right to paper copies of a _photographic_
portrait. Collodion portraits are _not_ patent, but the _paper_ proofs
from collodion negatives are.

GEO. SHADBOLT.


{111}
_Adulteration of Nitrate of Silver._--Will any of your chemical readers
tell me how I am to know if nitrate of silver is pure, and how to detect
the adulteration? _If so_ with nitrate of potash, how? One writer on
photography recommends the fused, as then the excess of nitric acid is
got rid of. Another says the fused nitrate is nearly always adulterated.
I fear you have more querists than respondents. I have looked carefully
for a reply to some former Queries respecting MR. CROOKES's restoration
of old collodion, but at present they have failed in appearance.

THE READER OF PHOTOGRAPHIC WORKS.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.


_Passage of Cicero_ (Vol. viii., p. 640.).--Is the following what
SEMI-TONE wants?

    "Mira est enim quædam natura vocis; cujus quidem, _e tribus
    omnino sonis_, inflexo, acuto, gravi, tanta sit, et tam suavis
    varietas perfecta in cantibus."--_Orator_, cap. 17.

B. H. C.


_Major André_ (Vol. viii., pp. 174. 604.).--The late Mrs. Mills of
Norwich (_née_ André) was not the sister of Major André; she was the
only daughter of Mr. John André of Offenbach, near Frankfort on the
Maine, in Germany; where he established more than eighty years ago a
prosperous concern as a printer of music, and was moreover an eminent
composer: this establishment is now in the hands of his grandson. Mr.
John André was not the brother of the Major, but a second or third
cousin. Mrs. Mills used to say, that she remembered seeing the Major at
her father's house as a visitor, when she was a very small child. He
began his career in London in the commercial line; and, after he entered
the army, was sent by the English ministry to Hesse-Cassel to conduct to
America a corps of Hessian hirelings to dragoon the revolted Americans
into obedience: it was on this occasion that he paid the above-mentioned
visit to Offenbach.

Having frequently read the portion of English history containing the
narrative of the transactions in which Major André was so actively
engaged, and for which he suffered, I have often asked myself whether he
was altogether blameless in that questionable affair.

TRIVET ALLCOCK.

Norwich.

P.S.--This account was furnished to me by Mr. E. Mills, husband of the
late Mrs. Mills.


_Catholic Bible Society_ (Vol. ix., p. 41.).--Besides the account of
this society in Bishop Milner's _Supplementary Memoirs of the English
Catholics_, many papers on the same will be found in the volumes of the
_Orthodox Journal_ from 1813, when the Society was formed, to 1819. In
this last volume, p. 9., Bishop Milner wrote a long letter, containing a
comparison of the brief notes in the stereotyped edition of the above
Society with the notes of Bishop Challoner, from whose hands he mentions
having received a copy of his latest edition of both Testaments in 1777.
It should be mentioned that most of the papers in the _Orthodox Journal_
alluded to were written by Bishop Milner under various signatures, which
the present writer, with all who knew him well, could always recognise.
That eminent prelate thus sums up the fate of the sole publication of
the so-called Catholic Bible Society:

    "Its stereotype Testament ... was proved to abound in gross
    errors; hardly a copy of it could be sold; and, in the end, the
    plates for continuing it have been of late presented by an
    illustrious personage, into whose hands they fell, to one of our
    prelates [this was Bishop Collingridge], who will immediately
    employ the cart-load of them for a good purpose, as they were
    intended to be, by disposing of them to some pewterer, who will
    convert them into numerous useful culinary implements,
    gas-pipes, and other pipes."

F. C. H.


_Cassiterides_ (Vol. ix., p. 64.).--Kassiteros; the ancient Indian
Sanscrit word _Kastira_. Of the disputed passage in Herodotus respecting
the Cassiterides, the interpretation[7] of Rennell, in his _Geographical
System of Herodotus_; of Maurice, in his _Indian Antiquities_, vol. vi.;
and of Heeren, in his _Historical Researches_; is much more satisfactory
than that offered by your correspondent S. G. C., although supported by
the French academicians (_Inscript._ xxxvi. 66.)

The advocates for a Celtic origin of the name of these islands are
perhaps not aware that--

    "Through the intercourse which the Phoenicians, by means of
    their factories in the Persian Gulph, maintained with the east
    coast of India, the Sanscrit word _Kastira_, expressing a most
    useful product of farther India, and still existing among the
    old Aramaic idioms in the Arabian word _Kasdir_, became known to
    the Greeks even before Albion and the British Cassiterides had
    been visited."--See Humboldt's _Cosmos_, "Principal Epochs in
    the History of the Physical Contemplation of the Universe,"
    notes.

BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM.

[Footnote 7: His want of information in this matter can only be referred
to the jealousy of the Phoenicians depriving the Greeks, as afterwards
the Romans, of ocular observation.]


_Wooden Tombs and Effigies_ (Vol. ix., p. 62.).--There are two fine
recumbent figures of a Lord Neville and his wife in Brancepeth Church,
four miles south-west of Durham. They are carved in wood. A view of them
is given in Billing's _Antiquities of Durham_.

J. H. B.


_Tailless Cats_ (Vol. ix., p. 10.).--In my visits to the Isle of Man, I
have frequently met with {112} specimens of the tailless cats referred
to by your correspondent SHIRLEY HIBBERD. In the pure breed there is not
the slightest vestige of a tail, and in the case of any intermixture
with the species possessing the usual caudal appendage, the tail of
their offspring, like the witch's "sark," as recorded by honest Tam o'
Shanter,

  "In longitude is sorely scanty."

In fact, it terminates abruptly at the length of a few inches, as if
amputated, having altogether a very ludicrous appearance.

G. TAYLOR.

Reading.


The breed of cats without tails is well known in the Isle of Man, and
accounted by the people of the island one of its chief curiosities.
These cats are sought after by strangers: the natives call them
"Rumpies," or "Rumpy Cats." Their hind legs are rather longer than those
of cats with tails, and give them a somewhat rabbit-like aspect, which
has given rise to the odd fancy that they are the descendants of a cross
between a rabbit and cat. They are good mousers. When a perfectly
tailless cat is crossed with an ordinary-tailed individual, the progeny
exhibit all intermediate states between tail and no tail.

EDWARD FORBES.


_Warville_ (Vol. viii., p. 516.).--

    "Jacque Pierre Brissot was born on the 14th Jan., 1754, in the
    village of Ouarville, near Chartres."--_Penny Cyclo._

If your correspondent is a French scholar, he will perceive that
Warville is, as nearly as possible, the proper pronunciation of the name
of this village, but that Brissot being merely the son of a prior
pastrycook, had no right whatever to the name, which doubtless he bore
merely as a distinction from some other Brissot. It may interest your
American friend to know, that he married Félicité Dupont, a young lady
of good family at Boulogne. A relation of my own, who was very intimate
with her before her marriage, has often described her to me as being of
a very modest, retiring, religious disposition, very clever with her
pencil, and as having received a first-rate education from masters in
Paris. These gifts, natural and acquired, made her a remarkable young
person, amidst the crowd of frivolous idlers who at that time formed
"good society," not only in Paris, but even in provincial towns, of
which Boulogne was not the least gay. Perhaps he knows already that she
quickly followed her husband to the scaffold. Her sister (I believe the
only one) married a Parisian gentleman named Aublay, and died at a great
age about ten years ago.

N. J. A.


_W_ is not a distinct letter in the French alphabet; it is simply
_double v_, and is pronounced like _v_, as in Wissant, Wimireux,
Wimille, villages between Calais and Boulogne, and Wassy in Champagne.

W. R. D. S.


_Green Eyes_ (Vol. viii., p. 407.).--The following are quotations in
favour of green eyes, in addition to MR. H. TEMPLE's:

                      "An eagle, madam,
  Hath not so _green_, so quick, so fair an eye."

_Romeo and Juliet_, Act III. Sc. 5.

And Dante, in _Purgatory_, canto xxxi., likens Beatrice's eyes to
emeralds:

  "Disser: fa che le viste non risparmi:
  Posto t' avem dinanzi agli smeraldi,
  Ond' Amor già ti trasse le sue armi."

  "Spare not thy vision. We have station'd thee
  Before the _emeralds_[8], whence Love, erewhile,
  Hath drawn his weapons on thee."

Cary's _Translation_.

I think short-sightedness is an infirmity more common among men of
letters, authors, &c., than any other class; indeed, one is inclined to
think it is no rare accompaniment of talent. A few celebrated names
occur to me who suffered weakness of distinct vision to see but the
better near. I am sure your correspondents could add many to the list. I
mark them down at random:--Niebuhr, Thomas Moore, Marie Antoinette,
Gustavus Adolphus, Herrick the poet, Dr. Johnson, Margaret Fuller,
Ossoli, Thiers, Quevedo. These are but a few, but I will not lengthen
the list at present.

M----A S.

[Footnote 8: Beatrice's eyes.]


_Came_ (Vol. viii., p. 468.).--H. T. G. will find this word to be as old
as our language. Piers Ploughman writes:

              "A cat
  _Cam_ when hym liked."

  _Vision_, l. 298.

         "A lovely lady
  _Cam_ doun from a castel."

  _Ib._ l. 466.

Chaucer:

  "Till that he _came_ to Thebes."

_Cant. T._ l. 985.

Gower:

  "Thus (er he wiste) into a dale
  He _came_."

_Conf. Am._ b. i. fol. 9. p. 2. col. l.

Q.


"_Epitaphium Lucretiæ_" (Vol. viii., p. 563.).--Allow me to send an
answer to the Query of BALLIOLENSIS, and to state that in that rather
scarce little book, _Epigrammata et Poematia Vetera_, he will find at
page 68. that "Epitaphium Lucretiæ" is ascribed to Modestus, perhaps the
same person who wrote a work _de re militari_. The version {113} there
given differs slightly from that of BALLIOLENSIS, and has two more
lines; it is as follows:

  "Cum foderet ferro castum Lucretia pectus,
    Sanguinis et torrens egereretur, ait:
  Procedant testes me non favisse tyranno,
    Ante virum sanguis, spiritus ante deos.
  Quam recte hi testes pro me post fata loquentur,
    Alter apud manes, alter apud superos."

Perhaps the following translation may not be unacceptable:

  "When thro' her breast the steel Lucretia thrust,
  She said, while forth th' ensanguin'd torrent gush'd;
  'From me that no consent the tyrant knew,
  To my spouse my blood, to heaven my soul shall show;
  And thus in death these witnesses shall prove,
  My innocence, to shades below, and Powers above.'"

C--S. T. P.


_Oxford Commmemoration Squib_, 1849 (Vol. viii., p. 584.).--Quoted
incorrectly. The heading stands thus:

  "LIBERTY! EQUALITY! FRATERNITY!"

After the name of "Wrightson" add "(Queen's);" and at the foot of the
bill "Floreat Lyceum." I quote from a copy before me.

W. P. STORER.

Olney, Bucks.


"_Imp_" (Vol. viii., p. 623.).--Perhaps as amusing use of the word _imp_
as can be found anywhere occurs in an old Bacon, in his "Pathway unto
Prayer" (see _Early Writings_, Parker Society, p. 187.):

    "Let us pray for the preservation of the King's most excellent
    Majesty, and for the prosperous success of his entirely beloved
    son Edward our Prince, that most _angelic imp_."

P. P.


_False Spellings from Sound_ (Vol. vi., p. 29.).--The observations of
MR. WAYLEN deserve to be enlarged by numerous examples, and to be, to a
certain extent, corrected. He has not brought clearly into view two
_distinct classes_ of "false spelling" under which the greater part of
such mistakes may be arranged. One class arose _solely_ from erroneous
pronunciation; the second from _intentional_ alteration. I will explain
my meaning by two examples, both which are, I believe, in MR. WAYLEN's
list.

The French expression _dent de lion_ stands for a certain plant, and
some of the properties of that plant originated the name. When an
Englishman calls the same plant _Dandylion_, the sound has not given
birth "to a new idea" in his mind. Surely, he pronounces badly three
French words of which he may know the meaning, or he may not. But when
the same Englishman, or any other, orders _sparrow-grass_ for dinner,
these two words contain "a new idea," introduced purposely: either he,
or some predecessor, reasoned thus--there is no meaning in _asparagus_;
_sparrow-grass_ must be the right word because it makes sense. The name
of a well-known place in London illustrates both these changes:
_Convent_ Garden becomes _Covent_ Garden by mispronunciation; it becomes
_Common_ Garden by intentional change.

Mistakes of the first class are not worth recording; those of the second
fall under this general principle: words are purposely exchanged for
others of a similar sound, because the latter are supposed to recover a
lost meaning.

I have by me several examples which I will send you if you think the
subject worth pursuing.

J. O. B.

Wicken.


"_Good wine needs no bush_" (Vol. viii., p. 607.).--The custom of
hanging out bushes of ivy, boughs of trees, or bunches of flowers, at
_private_ houses, as a sign that good cheer may be had within, still
prevails in the city of Gloucester at the fair held at Michaelmas,
called Barton Fair, from the locality; and at the three "mops," or
hiring fairs, on the three Mondays following, to indicate that ale,
beer, cider, &c. are there sold, on the strength (I believe) of an
ancient privilege enjoyed by the inhabitants of that street to sell
liquors, without the usual license, during the fair.

BROOKTHORPE.


_Three Fleurs-de-Lys_ (Vol. ix., p. 35.).--In reply to the Query of
DEVONIENSIS, I would say that many families of his own county bore
fleurs-de-lys in their coat armour, in the forms of _two and one_, and
_on a bend_; also that the heraldic writers, Robson and Burke, assign a
coat to the family of Baker charged with three fleurs-de-lys on a fesse.
The Devon family of Velland bore, Sable, a fesse argent, in chief three
fleurs-de-lys of the last, but whether these bearings were ever placed
fesse-wise, or, as your querist terms it, in a horizontal line, I am not
sure.

J. D. S.


If DEVONIENSIS will look at the arms of Magdalen College, Oxford, he
will there find the three fleurs-de-lys in a line in the upper part of
the shield.

A. B.

Athenæum.


_Portrait of Plowden_ (Vol. ix., p. 56.).--A portrait of Plowden (said
to have been taken from his monument in the Temple Church) is prefixed
to the English edition of his _Reports_, published in 1761.

J. G.

Exon.


_St. Stephen's Day and Mr. Riley's "Hoveden"_ (Vol. viii., p.
637.).--The statement of this feast being observed prior to Christmas
must have {114} arisen from the translator not being conversant with
the technical terms of the _Ecclesiastical Calendar_, in which, as the
greater festivals are celebrated with Octaves, other feasts falling
during the Octave are said to be under (_infrà_) the greater solemnity.
Thus, if MR. WARDEN will consult the _Ordo Recitandi Officii Divini_ for
1834, he will see that next Sunday, the 8th inst., stands "Dom inf.
Oct.," _i.e._ of the Epiphany, and that the same occurs on other days
during the year.

May I point out an erratum in a Query inserted some time since (not yet
replied to), regarding a small castle near Kingsgate, Thanet, the name
of which is printed Aix Ruochim; it should be Arx Ruochim.

A. O. H.

Blackheath.


_Death Warnings in Ancient Families_ (Vol. ix., p. 55.).--A brief notice
of these occurrences, with references to works where farther details may
be met with, would form a very remarkable record of events which tend to
support one's belief in the truth of the remark of Hamlet:

    "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio,
    Than are dreamt of in our philosophy."

A drummer is stated to be heard in C---- Castle, the residence of the
Earl and Countess of A., "going about the house playing his drum,
whenever there is a death impending in the family." This warning is
asserted to have been given shortly before the decease of the Earl's
first wife, and preceded the death of the next Countess about five or
six months. Mrs. Crowe, in her _Night Side of Nature_, observes
hereupon:

    "I have heard that a paper was found in her (the Countess's)
    desk after her death, declaring her conviction that the drum was
    for her."

Whenever a little old woman visits a lady of the family of G. of R., at
the time of her confinement, when the nurse is absent, and strokes down
the clothes, the patient (says Mrs. Crowe), "never does any good, and
dies." Another legend is, that a single swan is always seen on a
particular lake close to the mansion of another family before a death.
Then, Lord Littleton's dove is a well-known incident. And the lady above
quoted speaks of many curious warnings of death by the appearance of
birds, as well as of a spectral black dog, which visited a particular
family in Cornwall immediately before the death of any of its members.
Having made this Note of a few more cases of death warnings, I will end
with a Query in the words of Mrs. Crowe, who, after detailing the black
dog apparition, asks: "if this phenomenon is the origin of the French
phrase _bête noire_, to express an annoyance, or an augury of evil?"

JAS. J. SCOTT.

Hampstead.


"_The Secunde Personne of the Trinitie_" (Vol. ix., p. 56.).--I think it
is Hobart Seymour who speaks of some Italians of the present day as
considering the Three Persons of the Trinity to be the Father, the
Virgin, and the Son.

J. P. O.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.


NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

Mr. Wright's varied antiquarian acquirements, and his untiring zeal, are
too well known to require recognition from us. We may therefore content
ourselves with directing attention to his _Wanderings of an Antiquary,
chiefly upon the Traces of the Romans in Britain_, which has just been
published, and of which the greater part has appeared in a series of
papers under the same title in the _Gentleman's Magazine_. It is
intended to furnish, in a popular form, a few archæological truths which
may foster a love of our national antiquities among those who are less
likely to be attracted by dry dissertations: and its gossiping character
and pretty woodcuts are well calculated to promote this object.

This endeavour to make the study of antiquities popular, naturally calls
our attention to a small and very agreeable volume on the subject of
what Brand designated _Popular Antiquities_. We refer to the last volume
of Bohn's _Illustrated Library_. It is from the pen of Mary Howitt, and
is entitled the _Pictorial Calendar of the Seasons, exhibiting the
Pleasures, Pursuits, and Characteristics of Country Life for every Month
of the Year, and embodying the whole of Aikin's Calendar of Nature_. It
is embellished with upwards of one hundred engravings on wood; and what
the authoress says of its compilation, viz. that it was "like a walk
through a rich summer garden," describes pretty accurately the feelings
of the reader. But, as we must find some fault, where is the Index?

We have received from Birmingham a work most creditable to all concerned
in its production, and which will be found of interest to such of our
readers as devote their attention to county or family history. It is
entitled _A History of the Holtes of Aston, Baronets, with a Description
of the Family Mansion, Aston Hall, Warwickshire_, by Alfred Davidson,
with _Illustrations from Drawings_ by Allan E. Everitt; and whether we
regard the care with which Mr. Davidson has executed the literary
portion of the work, the artistic skill of the draughtsman, or the
manner in which the publisher has brought it out, we may safely
pronounce it a volume well deserving the attention of topographers
generally, and of Warwickshire topographers in especial.


BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Folious Appearances; A Consideration on our Ways of
lettering Books_. Few lovers of old books and good binding will begrudge
half a florin for this quaint opuscule.--_Indications of Instinct_, by
T. Lindley Kemp, the new number of the _Traveller's Library_, is an
interesting supplement to Dr. Kemp's former contribution to the same
series, _The Natural History of Creation_.--We record, for the
information of our meteorological friends, the receipt of a _Daily
Weather Journal for the Year 1853_, kept at Islington by Mr. Simpson.

       *       *       *       *       *{115}


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Notices to Correspondents.


COL. CHARTERIS _or_ CHARTRES.--_Our Correspondent who inquires for
particulars respecting this monster of depravity is referred to Pope's
+Works+, edit. 1736, vol. ii. p. 24. of the Ethic Epistles. Also to the
following works: +The History of Col. Francis Charteris from his birth
to his present Catastrophe in Newgate+, 4to. 1730; +Memoirs of the Life
and Actions of Col. Ch----s+, 8vo. 1730; +Life of Col. Don Francisco+,
with a wood-cut portrait of Col. Charteris or Chartres, 8vo._

N. _On the "Sun's rays putting out the fire," see_ Vol. vii., pp. 285.
345. 439.

R. V. T. _An excellent tract may be had for a few pence on +The History
of Pews+, a paper read before the Cambridge Camden Society, 1841: see
also +"N. & Q.," Vol. iii., p. 56., and Vol. viii., p. 127+._

C. K. P. (Bishop's Stortford). _We candidly admit that your results upon
waxed paper are much like our own, for no +certainty+ has at present
attended our endeavours. If the paper is made sensitive, then it behaves
exactly as yours has done; and if, following other formulæ, we use a
less sensitive paper, then the exposure is so long and tedious that we
are not anxious to pursue Photography in so "slow a phase". Why not
adopt and abide by the simplicity of the calotype process as given in a
late Number? In the writer's possession we have seen nearly a hundred
consecutive negatives without a failure._

W. S. P. (Newcastle-upon-Tyne). _Filtered rain-water is far the best to
use in making your iodized paper. The appearances which you describe in
all probability depend upon the different sheets resting too firmly upon
one another, so that the water has not +free+ and +even+ access to the
whole sheet._

H. J. (Norwich). _Turner's paper is now quite a precarious article; a
specimen which has come to us of his recent make is full of spots, and
the negative useless. Towgood's is admirable for positives, but it does
not appear to do well for iodizing. We hope to be soon able to say
something cheering to Photographers upon a good paper!_

_Errata._--MR. P. H. FISHER wishes to correct an error in his article on
"The Court-house of Painswick." Vol. viii., p. 596., col. 2., for "The
lodge, an old wooden house," read "stone house." Also in his article in
Vol. ix., p. 8., col. 2., for "Rev. ---- Hook," read "Rev. ---- Stock."

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
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MAKERS, invite attention to their Stock of STEREOSCOPES of all Kinds,
and in various Materials; also, to their New and Extensive Assortment of
STEREOSCOPIC PICTURES for the same, in DAGUERREOTYPE, on PAPER, and
TRANSPARENT ALBUMEN PICTURES on GLASS, including Views of London, Paris,
the Rhine, Windsor, &c. These Pictures, for minuteness of Detail and
Truth in the Representation of Natural Objects, are unrivalled.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

*** "Familiar Explanation of the Phenomena" sent on Application.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand,
have, by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a
Collodion equal, they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of
Negative, to any other hitherto published; without diminishing the
keeping properties and appreciation of half tint for which their
manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

THE COLLODION AND POSITIVE PAPER PROCESS. By J. B. HOCKIN. Price 1s.,
per Post, 1s. 2d.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining
Instantaneous Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds,
according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the
choicest Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their
Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.--OTTEWILL'S REGISTERED DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING
CAMERA, is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic
Tourist, from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal
Adjustment, its Portability, and its adaptation for taking either Views
or Portraits.--The Trade supplied.

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames,
&c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury
Road, Islington.

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS, MATERIALS, and PURE CHEMICAL PREPARATIONS.

KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price
of the best forms of Cameras and other Apparatus. Voightlander and Son's
Lenses for Portraits and Views, together with the various Materials, and
pure Chemical Preparations required in practising the Photographic Art.
Forwarded free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic
Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Valuable Illustrated Books at Reduced Prices.

ROBERTS' HOLY LAND. 250 Plates. 16l. 16s. Published at 41 guineas.

DIGBY WYATT'S INDUSTRIAL ARTS OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 160 Plates. 2
vols. folio. half-bound morocco. 10l. 10s. Published at 17l. 17s.

DIGBY WYATT'S METAL WORK, and its ARTISTIC DESIGN. 56 Plates. Folio,
half-bound morocco, 3l. 3s. Published at 6l. 6s.

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, price 25s., Second Edition, revised and corrected. Dedicated
by Special Permission to

THE (LATE) ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.

PSALMS AND HYMNS FOR THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH. The words selected by
the Very Rev. H. H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The Music arranged
for Four Voices, but applicable also to Two or One, including Chants for
the Services, Responses to the Commandments, and a Concise SYSTEM OF
CHANTING, by J. B. SALE, Musical Instructor and Organist to Her Majesty.
4to., neat, in morocco cloth, price 25s. To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE,
21. Holywell Street, Millbank, Westminster, on the receipt of a
Post-office Order for that amount: and, by order, of the principal
Booksellers and Music Warehouses.

    "A great advance on the works we have hitherto had, connected
    with our Church and Cathedral Service."--_Times._

    "A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly unequalled in this
    country."--_Literary Gazette._

    "One of the best collections of tunes which we have yet seen.
    Well merits the distinguished patronage under which it
    appears."--_Musical World._

    "A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together with a system of
    Chanting of a very superior character to any which has hitherto
    appeared."--_John Bull._

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

Also, lately published,

J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as performed at the Chapel
Royal St. James, price 2s.

C. LONSDALE, 26. Old Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas each.--D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square
(established A.D. 1785), sole manufacturers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at
25 Guineas each. Every instrument warranted. The peculiar advantages of
these pianofortes are best described in the following professional
testimonial, signed by the majority of the leading musicians of the
age:--"We, the undersigned members of the musical profession, having
carefully examined the Royal Pianofortes manufactured by MESSRS.
D'ALMAINE & CO., have great pleasure in bearing testimony to their
merits and capabilities. It appears to us impossible to produce
instruments of the same size possessing a richer and finer tone, more
elastic touch, or more equal temperament, while the elegance of their
construction renders them a handsome ornament for the library, boudoir,
or drawing-room. (Signed) J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R. Bishop, J.
Blewitt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp, P. Delavanti, C. H. Dolby, E. F.
Fitzwilliam, W. Forde, Stephen Glover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison, H. F.
Hassé, J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes, W. H. Holmes, W. Kuhe, G. F.
Kiallmark, E. Land, G. Lauza, Alexander Lee, A. Leffler, E. J. Loder, W.
H. Montgomery, S. Nelson, G. A. Osborne, John Parry, H. Panofka, Henry
Phillips, F. Praegar, E. F. Rimbault, Frank Romer, G. H. Rodwell, E.
Rockel, Sims Reeves, J. Templeton, F. Weber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright,"
&c.

D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Lists and Designs Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the
Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the
Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE
BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the
West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street
aforesaid.--Saturday, February 4, 1854.





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