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Title: Notes and Queries, No. 209, October 29 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, No. 209, October 29 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc." ***

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+--------------------------------------------------------------+
| Transcriber's Note: Italicized words, phrases, etc. are      |
| surrounded by _underline characters_. Greek transliterations |
| are surrounded by ~tildes~. Hebrew transliterations appear   |
| like ¤this¤. Irish is indicated thus: +Irish+. Diacritical   |
| marks over characters are bracketed: [=x] indicates a macron |
| over the letter, [(x] indicates a breve. Archaic spellings   |
| have been retained.                                          |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+

       *       *       *       *       *

{405}
NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

       *       *       *       *       *

"WHEN FOUND, MAKE A NOTE OF."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 209.]
Saturday, October 29. 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition, 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

NOTES:--                                                         Page
  The Scottish National Records                                   405
  Patrick Carey                                                   406
  Inedited Lyric by Felicia Hemans, by Weld Taylor                407
  "Green Eyes," by Harry Leroy Temple                             407
  Shakspeare Correspondence, by Samuel Hickson, &c.               408

  MINOR NOTES:--Monumental Inscriptions--Marlborough
    at Blenheim--Etymology of "till," "until"
  --Dog-whipping Day in Hull--State                               408

QUERIES:--
  Polarised Light.                                                409

  MINOR QUERIES:--"Salus Populi," &c.--Dramatic
    Representations by the Hour-glass--John Campbell
    of Jamaica--Hodgkins's Tree, Warwick--The
    Doctor--English Clergyman in Spain--Caldecott's
    Translation of the New Testament--Westhumble
    Chapel--Perfect Tense--La Fleur des Saints--
    Oasis--Book Reviews, their Origin--Martyr of
    Collet Well--Black as a Mourning Colour--The
    Word "Mardel," or "Mardle," whence derived?--
    Analogy between the Genitive and Plural--Ballina
    Castle--Henry I.'s Tomb--"For man proposes, but
    God disposes"--Garrick Street, May Fair--The
    Forlorn Hope--Mitred Abbot in Wroughton Church,
    Wilts--Reynolds' Portrait of Barretti--Crosses on
    Stoles--Temporalities of the Church--Etymology
    of "The Lizard"--Worm in Books                                410

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Siller Gun of Dumfries
    --Margery Trussell--Caves at Settle, Yorkshire--
    The Morrow of a Feast--Hotchpot--High and Low
    Dutch--"A Wilderness of Monkies"--Splitting
    Paper--The Devil on Two Sticks in England                     412

REPLIES:--
  Stone Pillar Worship and Idol Worship, by William
  Blood, &c.                                                      413
  "Blagueur" and "Blackguard" by Philarète Chasles                414
  Harmony of the Four Gospels by C. Hardwick, T. J.
  Buckton, Chris. Roberts, &c.                                    415
  Small Words and Low Words, by Harry Leroy Temple                416
  A Chapter on Rings                                              416
  Anticipatory Use of the Cross.--Ringing Bells for the
  Dead                                                            417

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Stereoscopic Angles               419

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Berefellarii--"To
    know ourselves diseased," &c.--Gloves at Fairs--
    "An" before "u" long--"The Good Old Cause"
    --Jeroboam of Claret, &c.--Humbug--"Could we
    with ink," &c.--"Hurrah!"--"Qui facit per alium
    facit per se"--Tsar--Scrape--Baskerville--
    Sheriffs of Glamorganshire--Synge Family--Lines
    on Woman--Lisle Family--Duval Family                          420

MISCELLANEOUS:--
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                    423
  Notices to Correspondents                                       424
  Advertisements                                                  424

       *       *       *       *       *


NOTES.

THE SCOTTISH NATIONAL RECORDS.

The two principal causes of the loss of these records are, the
abstraction of them by Edward I. in 1292, and the destruction of a great
many others by the reformers in their religious zeal. It so happens that
up to the time of King Robert Bruce, the history is not much to be
depended on. A great many valuable papers connected with the ancient
ecclesiastical state of Scotland were carried off to the Continent by
the members of the ancient hierarchy, who retired there after the
Reformation. Many have, no doubt, been destroyed by time, and in the
destruction of their depositories by revolutions and otherwise. That a
great many are yet in existence abroad, as well as at home, which would
throw great light on Scottish history, and which have not yet been
discovered, there is no doubt, notwithstanding the unceremonious manner
in which many of them were treated. At the time when the _literati_ were
engaged in investigating the authenticity of Ossian's _Poems_ (to go no
farther back), it was stated that there was in the library of the Scotch
College at Douay a Gaelic MS. of several of the poems of great
antiquity, and which, if produced, would have set the question at rest.
On farther inquiry, however, it was stated that it had been torn up,
along with others, and used by the students for the purpose of kindling
the fires. It is gratifying to the antiquary that discoveries are from
time to time being made, of great importance: it was announced lately
that there had been discovered at the Treasury a series of papers
relating to the rebellion of 1715-16, consisting chiefly of informations
of persons said to have taken part in the rising; and an important mass
of papers relative to the rebellion of 1745-46. There has also been
discovered at the Chapter House at Westminster, the correspondence
between Edward I., Edward II., and their lieutenants in Scotland, Aymer
de Valance, Earl of Pembroke, John, Earl of Warren, and Hugh
Cressingham. The letters patent have also been found, by which, in 1304,
William Lamberton, Bishop of St. Andrew's, testified his having come
into the peace of the king of England, and {406}found himself to answer
for the temporalities of his bishopric to the English king. Stray
discoveries are now and then made in the charter-rooms of royal burghs,
as sometime ago there was found in the Town-house of Aberdeen a charter
and several confirmations by King Robert Bruce. The ecclesiastical
records of Scotland also suffered in our own day; the original charters
of the assembly from 1560 to 1616 were presented to the library of Sion
College, London Wall, London, in 1737, by the Honorable Archibald
Campbell (who had been chosen by the Presbyters as Bishop of Aberdeen in
1721), under such conditions as might effectually prevent them again
becoming the property of the Kirk of Scotland. Their production having
been requested by a committee of the House of Commons, the records were
produced and laid on the table of the committee-room on the 5th of May,
1834. They were consumed in the fire which destroyed the houses of
parliament on the 16th of October of the same year. It was only after
1746, and on the breaking up of the feudal system, when men's minds
began to calm down, that any attention was paid to Scottish antiquities.
Indeed, previous to that period, had any one asked permission to examine
the charter chests of our most ancient families, purely for a literary
purpose, he would have been suspected of maturing evidence for the
purpose of depriving them of their estates. No such objection now
exists, and every facility is afforded both the publishing clubs and
private individuals in their researches. Much has been done by the
Abbotsford, Bannatyne, Maitland, Roxburgh, Spalding, and other clubs, in
elucidating Scottish history and antiquities, but much remains to be
done. "If it were done, when 'tis done, then 'twere well it were done
quickly," as every day lost renders the attainment of the object more
difficult; and it is to be hoped that these clubs will be supported as
they deserve.[1]

The student of Scottish history will find much useful and important
information in Robertson's _Index of Charters_; Sir Joseph Ayloffe's
_Calendars of Ancient Charters_; _Documents and Records illustrative of
the History Of Scotland_, edited by Sir Francis Palgrave, 1837;
Jamieson's _History of the Culdees_; Toland's _History of the Druids_;
Balfour's _History of the Picts_; Chalmers' _Caledonia_; Stuart's
_Caledonia Romana_; _History of the House and Clan Mackay_; _The
Genealogical Account of the Barclays of Ury for upwards of 700 Years_;
Gordon's _History of the House of Sutherland_; M'Nicol's _Remarks on
Johnson's Journey to the Western Isles_; Kennedy's _Annals of Aberdeen_;
Dalrymple's _Annals_, &c. &c.

    ABREDONENSIS.

    [Footnote 1: See _Scottish Journal_, Edinburgh, 1847, p. 3., for a
    very interesting article on the Early Records of Scotland.]

       *       *       *       *       *


PATRICK CAREY.

Looking over Evelyn's _Diary_, edited by Mr. Barry, 4to., 2nd edit.,
London, 1819, I came upon the following. Evelyn being at Rome, in 1644,
says:

    "I was especially recommended to Father John, a Benedictine Monk and
    Superior of the Order for the English College of Douay; a person of
    singular learning, religion, and humanity; also to Mr. Patrick Cary,
    an abbot, brother to our learned Lord Falkland, a witty young priest,
    who afterwards came over to our church."

It immediately occurred to me, that this "witty young priest" might be
Sir Walter Scott's _protégé_, and the author of "_Triviall Poems and
Triolets_, written in obedience to Mrs. Tomkins' commands by Patrick
Carey, Aug. 20, 1651," and published for the first time at London in
1820, from a MS. in the possession of the editor.

Sir Walter, in introducing his "forgotten poet," merely informs us that
his author "appears to have been a gentleman, a loyalist, a lawyer, and
a rigid high churchman, if not a Roman Catholic."

In the first part of this book, which the author calls his "Triviall
Poems," the reader will find ample proof that his character would fit
the "witty young priest" of Evelyn; as well as the gentle blood, and
hatred to the Roundheads of Sir Walter. As a farther proof that Patrick
Carey the priest, and Patrick the poet, may be identical, take the
following from one of his poems, comparing the old Church with the
existing one:

  "Our Church still flourishing w' had seene,
  If th' holy-writt had euer beene
  Kept out of laymen's reach;
  But, when 'twas English'd, men halfe-witted,
  Nay, woemen too, would be permitted,
  T' expound all texts and preach."

The second part of Carey's poetical essays is entitled "I will sing unto
the Lord," and contains a few "Triolets;" all of an ascetic savour, and
strongly confirmatory of the belief that the author may have taken the
monastic vow:

  "Worldly designes, feares, hopes, farwell!
  Farwell all earthly joyes and cares!
  On nobler thoughts my soule shall dwell;
  Worldly designes, feares, hopes, farwell!
  Att quiett, in my peaceful cell,
  I'le thincke on God, free from your snares;
  Worldly designes, feares, hopes, farwell!
  Farwell all earthly joys and cares.

       *       *       *       *       *

  Pleasure att courts is but in show,
  With true content in cells wee meete;
  Yes (my deare Lord!) I've found it soe,
  Noe joyes but thine are purely sweete!"

The quotation from the Psalms, which forms the title to this second
part, is placed above "a helmet and a shield," which Sir Walter has
transferred {407}to his title. This "bears what heralds call a cross
anchorée, or a cross moline, with a motto, _Tant que je puis_." With the
exception of the rose beneath this, there is no identification here of
Patrick Carey with the Falkland family. This cross, placed before
religious poems, may however be intended to indicate their subjects, and
the writer's profession, rather than his family escutcheon; although
that may be pointed at in the rose alluded to, the Falklands bearing "on
a bend three roses of the field."

    J. O.

    ["Ah! you do not know Pat Carey, a younger brother of Lord
    Falkland's," says the disguised Prince Charles to Dr. Albany
    Rochecliffe in Sir Walter Scott's _Woodstock_. So completely has
    the fame of the great Lord Falkland eclipsed that of his brothers,
    that many are, doubtless, in the same blissful state with good Dr.
    Rochecliffe, although _two_ editions of the poet's works have been
    given to the world. In 1771, Mr. John Murray published the poems of
    Carey, from a collection alleged to be in the hands of a Rev.
    Pierrepont Cromp, apparently a fictitious name. In 1820, Sir Walter
    Scott, ignorant, as he confesses himself, at the time of an earlier
    edition, edited once more the poems, employing an original MS.
    presented to him by Mr. Murray. In a note in _Woodstock_, Sir Walter
    sums up the information he had procured concerning the author,
    which, scanty as it is, is not without interest. "Of Carey," he
    says, "the second editor, like the first, only knew the name and the
    spirit of the verses. He has since been enabled to ascertain that
    the poetic cavalier was a younger brother of the celebrated Henry
    Lord Carey, who fell at the battle of Newberry, and escaped the
    researches of Horace Walpole, to whose list of noble authors he
    would have been an important addition." The first edition of the
    poems appeared under the following title, _Poems from a Manuscript
    written in the Time of Oliver Cromwell_, 4to. 1771, 1_s._ 6_d._:
    Murray. It contains only nine pieces, whereas the present edition
    contains thirty-seven.--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *


INEDITED LYRIC BY FELICIA HEMANS.

A short time since I discovered the following in the handwriting of Mrs.
Hemans, and it accompanied an invitation of a more prosaic description
to a gentleman of her acquaintance, and a relative of mine, now
deceased. I thought it worth preserving, in case any future edition of
her works appeared; but the 13th, 14th, and 15th lines are defective,
from the seal, or some other accident, having torn them off, and one is
missing. And though perhaps it would not be difficult to restore them,
yet I have not ventured to do so myself. The last two lines appear to
convey a melancholy foreboding of the poet's sad and early fate. Can any
one restore the defective parts?

    WELD TAYLOR.

Bayswater.

_Water Lilies._

  Come away, Puck, while the dew is sweet;
  Come to the dingle where fairies meet.
  Know that the lilies have spread their bells
  O'er all the pools in our mossy dells;
  Stilly and lightly their vases rest
  On the quivering sleep of the waters' breast,
  Catching the sunshine thro' leaves that throw
  To their scented bosoms an emerald glow;
  And a star from the depth of each pearly cup,
  A golden star! unto heaven looks up,
  As if seeking its kindred, where bright they lie,
  Set in the blue of the summer sky.
  .... under arching leaves we'll float,
  .... with reeds o'er the fairy moat,
  .... forth wild music both sweet and low.
  It shall seem from the rich flower's heart,
  As if 'twere a breeze, with a flute's faint sigh.
  Cone, Puck, for the midsummer sun uproars strong,
  And the life of the Lily may not be long.--MAB.

       *       *       *       *       *


"GREEN EYES."

Having long been familiar with only one instance of the possession of
eyes of this hue--the well-known case of the "_green-eyed_ monster
Jealousy,"--and not having been led by that association to think of them
as a beauty, I have been surprised lately at finding them not
unfrequently seriously admired. _Ex. gr.:_

    "_Victorian._ How is that young and _green-eyed_ Gaditana
    That you both wot of?

    _Don Carlos._ Ay, soft _emerald_ eyes!"

       *       *       *       *       *

    _Victorian._ A pretty girl: and in her tender eyes,
    Just that soft shade of _green_ we sometimes see
    In evening skies."

          Longfellow's _Spanish Student_, Act II. Sc. 3.

    Mr. Longfellow adds in a note:

    "The Spaniards, with good reason, consider this colour of the eye as
    beautiful, and celebrate it in a song; as, for example, in the
    well-known Villancico:

  'Ay ojuelos verdes,
  Ay los mis ojuelos,
  Ay hagan los cielos
  Que de mi te acuerdes!

       *       *       *       *       *

  Tengo confianza,
  De mis verdes ojos.'"

    Böhl de Faber, _Floresta_, No. 255.


I have seen somewhere, I think in one of the historical romances of
Alexander Dumas (Père), a popular jingle about

    "La belle Duchesse de Nevers,
    Aux yeux verts," &c.

And lastly, see _Two Gentlemen of Verona_, Act IV. Sc. 4., where the
ordinary text has:

    "Her eyes are grey as glass, and so are mine."

Here "The MS. corrector of the folio 1682 converts 'grey' into
'_green_:' 'Her eyes are _green_ as {408} _grass;_' and such, we have
good reason to suppose, was the true reading." (Collier's _Shakspeare
Notes and Emendations_, p. 25.)

The modern slang, "Do you see anything _green_ in my eye?" can hardly, I
suppose, be called in evidence on the question of beauty or ugliness. Is
there any more to be found in favour of "_green eyes_?"

    HARRY LEROY TEMPLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


SHAKSPEARE CORRESPONDENCE.

_On the Death of Falstaff_ (Vol. viii., p. 314.).--The remarks of your
correspondents J. B. and NEMO on this subject are so obvious, and I
think I may also admit in a measure so just, that it appears to me only
respectful to them, and to all who may feel reluctant to give up
Theobald's reading, that I should give some detailed reason for
dissenting from their conclusion.

In the first place, when Falstaff began to "play with flowers and smile
upon his fingers' ends," it was no far-fetched thought to place him in
fancy among green fields; and if the disputed passage were in immediate
connexion with the above, the argument in its favour would be stronger.
But, unfortunately, Mrs. Quickly brings in here the conclusion at which
she arrives: "I knew there was but one way; _for_," she adds, as a
farther reason, and referring to the physical evidences upon his frame
of the approach of death, "his nose was as sharp as a pen on a table of
green frieze." We can hardly imagine him "babbling" at this moment. "How
now, Sir John, quoth I;" she continues, apparently to rouse him: "What,
man! be of good cheer. _So_ [thus roused] 'a cried out--God, God, God!
three or four times: now, I to _comfort_ him," &c. Does this look as
though he were in the happy state of mind your correspondents imagine? I
take no account of his crying out of sack and of women, &c., as that
might have been at an earlier period. At the same time it does not
follow, had Shakspeare intended to replace him in fancy amid the scenes
of his youth, that he should have talked of them. A man who is (or
imagines he is) in green fields, does not talk about green fields,
however he may enjoy them. Both your correspondents seem to anticipate
this difficulty, and meet it by supposing Falstaff to be "babbling
snatches of hymns;" but this I conceive to be far beyond the limits of
reasonable conjecture. In fact, the whole of their very beautiful theory
rests upon the very disputed passage in question. At an earlier period
apparently, his mind did wander; when, as Mrs. Quickly says, he was
"rheumatick," meaning doubtless _lunatic_, that is, delirious; and then
he talked of other things. When he began to "fumble with the sheets, and
play with flowers, and smile upon his fingers' ends," though for a
moment he might have fancied himself even "in his mother's lap," or
anything else, he was clearly past all "babbling." In saying this, I
treat Falstaff as a human being who lived and died, and whose actions
were recorded by the faithfullest observer of Nature that ever wrote.

    SAMUEL HICKSON.


_Passage in "Tempest."--_

  "Thy banks with pioned and twilled brims,
  Which spongy April at thy best betrims,
  To make cold nymphs chaste crowns."

  _Tempest_, Act IV. Sc. 1.

The above is the reading of the first folio. _Pioned_ is explained by
MR. COLLIER, "to dig," as in Spenser; but MR. HALLIWELL (_Monograph
Shakspeare_, vol. i. p. 425.) finds no authority to support such an
interpretation. MR. COLLIER'S anonymous annotator writes "tilled;" but
surely this is a very artificial process to be performed by "spongy
April." Hanmer proposed "peonied;" Heath, "lilied;" and MR. HALLIWELL
admits this is more poetical (and surely more correct), but appears to
prefer "twilled," embroidered or interwoven with flowers. A friend of
mine suggested that "lilied" was peculiarly appropriate to form "cold
nymphs chaste crowns," from its imputed power as a preserver of
chastity: and in MR. HALLIWELL'S folio, several examples are quoted from
old poets of "peony" spelt "piony;" and of both _peony_ and _lily_ as
"defending from unchaste thoughts." Surely, then, the reading of the
first folio is a mere typographical error, and _peonied_ and _lilied_
the most poetical and correct.

    ESTE.

       *       *       *       *       *


MINOR NOTES.


_Monumental Inscriptions_ (Vol. viii., p. 215. &c.).--I have never seen
the monumental inscription of Theodore Palæologus accurately copied in
any book. When in Cornwall lately, I took the trouble to copy it, and as
some of your readers may like to see the thing as it is, I send it line
for line, word for word, and letter for letter. It is found, as is well
known, in the little out-of-the-way church of St. Landulph, near
Saltash.

    "Here lyeth the body of Theodoro Paleologus Of Pesaro in Italye,
    descended from ye Imperyail Lyne of ye last Christian Emperors of
    Greece Being the sonne of Camilio, ye so[=n]e of Prosper the sonne
    of Theodoro the sonne of Iohn, ye sonne of Thomas, second brother to
    Constantine Paleologus, the 8th of that name and last of yt lyne yt
    raygned in Constantinople, untill subdewed by the Turkes, who
    married with Mary Ye daughter of William Balls of Hadlye in
    Souffolke Gent, & had issue 5 children, Theodoro, Iohn, Ferdinando,
    Maria & Dorothy, and departed this life at Clyfton ye 21th of
    January, 1636."

    ED. ST JACKSON.

{409}
_Marlborough at Blenheim._--Extract from a MS. sermon preached at Bitton
(in Gloucestershire?) on the day of the thanksgiving for the victory
near Hochstett, anno 1704. (By the Reverend Thomas Earle, afterwards
Vicar of Malmesbury?)

    "And so I pass to the great and glorious occasion of this day, wh
    gives us manifold cause of praise and thanksgiving to Almighty God
    for ... mercies and deliverances. For ye happy success of her
    Majesty's arms both by land and sea [under the] Duke of
    Marlborough, whose fame now flies through the world, and whose
    glorious actions will render his name illustrious, and rank him
    among the renowned worthies of all ages. Had that threatning
    Bullet, wh bespattered him all over with dirt, only that he might
    shine the brighter afterwards; had it, I say, took away his Life,
    he had gone down to the grave with the laurels in his hand."

Is this incident of the bullet mentioned in any of the cotemporary
accounts of the battle?

    E.


_Etymology of "till," "until."_--Many monosyllables in language are,
upon examination, found to be in reality compounds, disguised by
contraction. A few instances are, _non_, Lat. ne-un-(us); _dont_, Fr.
de-unde; _such_, Eng. so-like; _which_, who-like. In like manner I
believe _till_, to-while, and _until_, unto-while. Now _while_ is
properly a substantive, and signifies _time_, corresponding to _dum_,
Lat., in many of its uses, which again is connected with _diu_, _dies_,
both which are used in the indefinite sense of _a while_, as well as in
the definite sense of _a day_. _Adesdum_, come here a while; _interdum_,
between whiles. If ~te~ (Gr.) is connected with this root, then
~este~, to-while, till. Lawrence Minot says, "_To time_ (till) he
thinks to fight."

_Dum_ has the double meaning of _while_ and _to-while_.

    E. S. JACKSON.


_Dog-whipping Day in Hull._--There was some time since the singular
custom in Hull, of whipping all the dogs that were found running about
the streets on October 10; and some thirty years since, when I was a
boy, so common was the practice, that every little urchin considered it
his duty to prepare a whip for any unlucky dog that might be seen in the
streets on this day. This custom is now obsolete, those "putters down"
of all boys' play in the streets--the new police--having effectually
stopped this cruel pastime of the Hull boys. Perhaps some of your
readers may be able to give a more correct origin of this singular
custom than the one I now give from tradition:

    "Previous to the suppression of monasteries in Hull, it was the
    custom for the monks to provide liberally for the poor and the
    wayfarer who came to the fair, held annually on the 11th of
    October; and while busy in this necessary preparation the day
    before the fair, a dog strolled into the larder, snatched up a
    joint of meat and decamped with it. The cooks gave the alarm; and
    when the dog got into the street, he was pursued by the expectants
    of the charity of the monks, who were waiting outside the gate, and
    made to give up the stolen joint. Whenever, after this, a dog
    showed his face, while this annual preparation was going on, he was
    instantly beaten off. Eventually this was taken up by the boys;
    and, until the introduction of the new police, was rigidly put in
    practice by them every 10th of October."

I write this on October 10, 1853: and so effectually has this custom
been suppressed, that I have neither seen nor heard of any dog having
been this day whipped according to ancient custom.

    JOHN RICHARDSON.

13. Savile Street, Hull.


_State_: _Hamlet_, Act I. Sc. 1.--Professor Wilson proposed that in the
"high and palmy _state_ of Rome," _state_ should be taken in the sense
of _city_:


    "Write henceforth and for ever _State_ with a towering capital.
    State, properly republic, here specifically and pointedly means
    Reigning City. The ghosts walked in the city, not in the
    republic."--Vide "Dies Boreales," No. III., _Blackwood_, August,
    1849.

Query, Has this reading been adopted by our skilled Shakspearian
critics?

Coleridge uses _state_ for _city_ in his translation of _The Death of
Wallenstein_, Act III. Sc. 7.:

                      "What think you?
    Say, shall we have the _State_ illuminated
    In honour of the Swede?"


    J. M. B.

       *       *       *       *       *


QUERIES.


POLARISED LIGHT.

During the last summer, while amusing myself with verifying a statement
of Sir D. Brewster respecting the light of the rainbow, viz. that it is
polarised in particular planes, I observed a phenomenon which startled
me exceedingly, insamuch as it was quite new to me at the time; and not
withstanding subsequent enquiries, I cannot find that it has been
observed by any other person. I found that _the light of the blue sky is
partially polarised_. When analysed with a Nichols prism, the contrast
with the surrounding clouds is very remarkable; so much so, indeed, that
clouds of extreme tenuity, which make no impression on the unassisted
eye, are rendered plainly visible.

The most complete polarisation seems to take place near the horizon;
and, when the sun is near the meridian, towards the west and east. The
depth of colour appears to be immaterial, as far as I have been able to
ascertain with an instrument but rudely constructed for the purpose. The
light is polarised in planes passing through the {410} eye of the
observer, and arcs of great circles intersecting the sun's disc.

From the absence (so far as I am aware) of all mention of this
remarkable fact in works on the subject, I am led to conclude that it is
something new; should this, however, turn out otherwise, I shall be
obliged by a reference to any author who explains the phenomenon. The
greater intensity towards the horizon would point to successive
refractions as the most probable theory.

    H. C. K.

       *       *       *       *       *


MINOR QUERIES.

_"Salus Populi," &c._--What is the origin of the saying, "Salus populi
suprema lex?"

    E. M.


_Dramatic Representations by the Hour-glass._--I have seen it stated
(but am now unable to trace the reference) that, in the infancy of the
drama, its representations were sometimes regulated by the hour-glass.
Does the history of the art, either among the Greeks or the Romans,
furnish any well authenticated instance of this practice?

    HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.


_John Campbell of Jamaica._--I shall be very much obliged if any of your
readers can give me any information respecting John Campbell, Esq., of
Gibraltar, Trelawny, Jamaica, who died in January, 1817, at Clifton (I
believe), but to whose memory a monument was erected in Bristol
Cathedral by his widow. I should be glad to know her maiden name, and
whether he left any surviving family? Also how he was related to a
family _going by the name_ of Hanam or Hannam, who lived at Arkindale,
Yorkshire, about one hundred years before the date of his decease; he
appears, too, to have had some connexion with a person named Isaac
Madley, or Bradley, and through his mother with the Turners of
Kirkleatham. This inquiry is made in the hope of unravelling a
genealogical difficulty which has hitherto baffled all endeavour to
solve it.

    D. E. B.

Leamington.


_Hodgkins's Tree, Warwick._--In the plan of Warwick, drawn on Speed's
Map of that county, is a tree at the end of West Street, called on the
plan "Hodgkins's Tree:" against this tree is represented a gun, pointed
to the left towards the fields.--Can any of your readers furnish the
tradition to this tree pertaining?

    O. L. R. G.


_The Doctor, &c._, p. 5., one volume edition.--The sentence in the
Garamna tongue, if anagrammatised into "You who have written Madoc and
Thalaba and Kehama," would require a _k_ to be substituted for an _h_ in
_Whehaha_. Query, Is this the proper mode of interpretation, or is there
a misprint?

_Saheco_, p. 248.--What name are these composite initials meant to
represent? The others are easily deciphered. Should we read
_Saneco_=Sarah Nelson Coleridge?

    J. M. B.


_English Clergyman in Spain._--I am anxious to discover the capacity in
which a certain clergyman was present with the English army in Spain
early in the eighteenth century (probably with Lord Peterborough's
expedition). Can any readers of "N. & Q." refer me to any book or record
from which I can obtain this information?

    D. Y.


_Caldecott's Translation of the New Testament._--I have a translation of
the New Testament by a Mr. John Caldecott, printed and sold by J. Parry
and Son, Chester, dated 1834. It is entitled _Holy Writings of the First
Christians, called the New Testament_ (the text written from the common
version, but altered by comparing with the Greek), with notes. I shall
be glad to know who Mr. Caldecott was or is? and whether the edition
appeared under the auspices of any society or sect of Christians?

    S. A. S.

Bridgewater.


_Westhumble Chapel._--There is a ruin of a chapel in the hamlet of
Westhumble, in Mickleham, Surrey. At what time was it built? To what
saint consecrated? and from what cause was it allowed to fall into its
present ruinous and desecrated condition?

    J. P. S.


_Perfect Tense._--In Albités' "Companion" to _How to speak French_, one
of the first exercises is to turn into French the following phrase, "I
have seen him yesterday." I should be much obliged to MR. J. S. WARDEN
(to whom all readers of "N. & Q." stand so greatly indebted for his
excellent article on "Will and Shall"), if he would state the rule for
the use of the perfect tense in English in respect to specified time,
and the _rationale_ involved in such rule.

    C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.


_La Fleur des Saints._--To Molière's _Le Tartufe_ (Act I. Sc. 2.) occur
the following lines:

    "Le traitre, l'autre jour, nous rompit de ses mains Un mouchoir
    qu'il trouva dans une _Fleur des Saints_, Disant que nous mêlions,
    par un crime effroyable, Avec la sainteté les parures du diable."

Can any of your readers inform me what _Fleur des Saints_ was? Was it a
book? If so, what were its contents?

    C. P. G.


_Oasis._--Can any correspondent inform me of the correct quantity of the
second syllable of this word? In Smith's _Geographical Dictionary_ it is
marked long, while Andrews' _Lexicon_ gives it {411} short, neither of
them giving any reason for their respective quantities.

    T.


_Book Reviews, their Origin._--Dodsley published in 1741 _The Public
Register, or the Weekly Magazine_. Under the head of "Records of
Literature," he undertook to give a compendious account of "whatever
works are published either at home or abroad worthy the attention of the
public." Was this _small_ beginning the origin of our innumerable
reviews?

    W. CRAMP


_Martyr of Collet Well._--One James Martyr, in 1790, bought of George
Lake the seat called Collet Well, in the parish of Otford. Can any
reader of "N. & Q." tell from what family this Martyr sprang, and what
their armorial bearings are?

    Q. M. S.


_Black as a Mourning Colour._--Can any of your correspondents kindly
inform me when black was first known in England, as the colour of
mourning robes? We read in _Hamlet_:

    "'Tis not alone my inky cloak, good mother,
    Nor customary suits of solemn black,
    That can denote me truly."

    W. W.

Malta.


_The Word "Mardel," or "Mardle," whence derived?_--It is in common use
in the east of Norfolk in the sense of _to gossip_, thus "He would
_mardel_ there all day long," meaning, waste his time in gossiping.

    J. L. SISSON.


_Analogy between the Genitive and Plural._--In a note by Rev. J.
Bandinel, in Mr. Christmas' edition of Pegge's _Anecdotes of the English
Language_, 1844, the question is asked at p. 167.:

    "Why is there such an analogy, in many languages, between the
    genitive and the plural? In Greek, in Latin, in English, and
    German, it is so. What is the cause of this?"

Can you point me to any work where this hint has been carried out?

    H. T. G.

Hull.


_Ballina Castle._--Where can I see a view of Ballina Castle, in the
county of Mayo? and what is the best historical and descriptive account
of that county, or of the town of Castlebar, or other places in the
county?

    O. L. R. G.


_Henry I.'s Tomb._--Lyttleton, in his _History of England_, quoting from
an author whose name I forget, states that no monument was ever erected
to the memory of this king in Reading Abbey. Man, on the contrary, in
his _History of Reading_, without quoting his authority, states that a
splendid monument was erected with recumbent figures of Henry and
Adelais, his second wife; which was destroyed by the mistaken zeal of
the populace during the Reformation.

Which of these statements is the true one? And if Man's be, on what
authority is it probably founded?

    PEMBROKIENSIS.


_"For man proposes, but God disposes."_--This celebrated saying is in
book i. ch. xix. of the English translation of _De Imitatione Christi_,
of which Hallam says more editions have been published than of any other
book except the Bible.--Can any of your correspondents tell me whether
the saying originated with the author, Thomas A. Kempis?

    A. B. C.


_Garrick Street, May Fair._--In Hertford Street, May Fair, there is
fixed in the wall of a house (No. 15.) a square stone on which is
inscribed:

    "Garrick Street, January 15, 1764."

I shall be glad to know the circumstances connected with this
inscription, which is not in any way alluded to in the works descriptive
of London to which I have referred.

    C. I. R.


_The Forlorn Hope._--The "Forlorn Hope" is the body of men who volunteer
first to enter a besieged town, after a breach has been made in the
fortifications. That I know: but it is evidently some quotation, and if
any of your readers should be able to give any information as to its
origin, and where it is to be found, I should, as I said before, be much
obliged.

    FENTON.


_Mitred Abbot in Wroughton Church, Wilts._--Not very long ago, while
this church was under repair, there was discovered on one of the
pillars, behind the pulpit, a fresco painting of a mitred abbot. I have
corresponded with the rector on the subject, but unfortunately he kept
no drawing of it; and all the information he is able to afford me is,
that "the vestments were those ordinarily pourtrayed, with scrip,
crosier," &c. Such being the case, I have troubled "N. & Q." with this
Query, in the hope that some one may be able to give me farther
information as to date, name, &c.

    RUSSELL GOLE.


_Reynolds' Portrait of Barretti._--Can any of your correspondents inform
me where the portrait of Barretti, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, now is?

    GEO. R. CORNER.


_Crosses on Stoles._--When were the three crosses now usually
embroidered on priests' stoles in the Roman Catholic Church introduced?
Were they used in England before the Reformation? In sepulchral brasses
the stoles, although embroidered and fringed, and sometimes also
enlarged at the ends, are (so far as I have observed) without the
crosses. If used, what was their form?

    H. P.


{412}
_Temporalities of the Church._--Is there any record existing of a want
of money for the maintenance of the clergy, or for other pious uses, in
any part of the world before the establishment of the Christian religion
under Constantine? or of any necessity having arisen for enforcing the
payment of tithes or offerings by ecclesiastical censures during that
period?

    H. P.


_Etymology of "The Lizard."_--What is the etymology of the name "The
Lizard," as applied in our maps to that long low green point, stretching
out into the sea at the extreme south of England? My idea of the
etymology would be (judging from the name and pronunciation of a small
town in the immediate neighbourhood of the point) _lys-ard_, from two
Celtic words: the first, _lys_, as found in the name _Lismore_, and
others of a like class in Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland; the
second _ard_, a long point running into the sea. In Cornwall, to my ear,
the name had quite the Celtic intonation _L[=y]s-[=a]rd_; not at all
like _L[(i]z[=a]rd_, as we would speak it, short.

    C. D. LAMONT.

Greenock.


_Worm in Books._--Can you or any of your numerous correspondents suggest
a remedy for the worm in old books and MSS.? I know of a valuable
collection in the muniment room of a nobleman in the country, which is
suffering severely at the present time from the above destructive agent;
and although smoke has been tried, and shavings of Russia leather
inserted within the pages of the books, the evil still exists. As this
question has most likely been asked before, and answered in your
valuable little work, I shall be obliged by your pointing out in what
volume it occurs, as I have not a set by me to refer to and thus save
you the trouble.

    ALETHES.

       *       *       *       *       *


MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS.


_Siller Gun of Dumfries._--Can any of your readers tell me the history
of the "Siller Gun of Dundee" [Dumfries], and give me an account of the
annual shooting for it?

    O. L. R. G.

    [The Siller gun of Dumfries is a small silver tube, like the barrel
    of a pistol, but derives great importance from its being the gift
    of James VI., that monarch having ordained it as a prize to the
    best marksman among the corporations of Dumfries. The contest was,
    by royal authority, licensed to take place every year; but in
    consequence of the trouble and expense attending it, the custom has
    not been so frequently observed. Whenever the festival was
    appointed, the 4th of June, during the long reign of George III.,
    was invariably chosen for that purpose, being his majesty's
    birthday. The institution itself may be regarded as a memorial of
    the _Waponshaw_, or showing of arms, the shooting at butts and
    bowmarks, and other military and gymnastic sports, introduced by
    our ancestors to keep alive, by competition and prizes, the martial
    ardour and heroic spirit of the people. In archery, the usual prize
    to the best shooter was a silver arrow: at Dumfries the contest was
    transferred to fire-arms. See the preface to the _Siller Gun_, a
    poem in five cantos, by John Mayne, 1836.]


_Margery Trussell._--Margery, daughter and coheiress of Roger Trussell,
of Macclesfield, married Edmund de Downes (of the old Cheshire family of
Downes of Taxall, Shrigley, &c.) in the fourth year of Edward II. Query,
What arms did she bear? and were the Trussells of Macclesfield of the
same family as that which, in consequence of a marriage with an heiress
of Mainwaring, settled at Warmineham, in the reign of Edward III., and
whose heiress, in later times, married a De Vere, Earl of Oxford?

    W. SNEYD.

Denton.

    [In the Harleian MS. 4031. fol. 170. is a long and curious pedigree
    of the Trussells and their intermarriage with the Mainwarings, in
    the person of Sir William Trussell, Lord of Cubbleston, with Maud,
    daughter and heiress of Sir Warren Mainwaring. The arms are: Argent
    a fret gu. bezanté for Trussell. The same arms are found on the
    window of the church of Warmineham in Cheshire. These would
    consequently be the arms of Margery, daughter of Roger Trussell.
    The arms originally were: Argent a cross formée flory gu.; but
    changed on the marriage of Sir William Trussell of Mershton, co.
    Northampton, with Rose, daughter and heiress to William Pantolph,
    Lord of Cubbleston, who bore, Argent a fret gu. bezanté.]


_Caves at Settle, Yorkshire._--Being engaged on antiquarian
investigations, I have found it necessary to refer to some discoveries
made in the caves at Settle in Yorkshire, of which my friends in that
county have spoken. Now, I cannot find any printed account. I have
referred to all the works on the county antiquities, and particularly to
Mr. Phillips's book lately published (which professes to describe local
antiquities), but in vain. I cannot find any notice of them. It is very
likely some one of your better-informed readers may be able to assist
me.

    BRIGANTIA.

Battersea.

    [See two letters by Charles Roach Smith and Joseph Jackson in
    _Archæologia_, vol. xxix. p. 384., on the "Roman Remains discovered
    in the Caves near Settle in Yorkshire." Our correspondent has
    perhaps consulted the following work:--_A Tour to the Caves in the
    Environs of Ingleborough and Settle, in the West Riding of
    Yorkshire_, 8vo. 1781.]

_The Morrow of a Feast._--It appears from the papers, that the
presentation of the civic functionaries to the Cursitor Baron at
Westminster, took place on Sept. 30. Pray is this the _morrow_ of St.
Michael, as commonly supposed? Does not the analogy of "Morrow of All
Souls" (certainly the {413} same day as All Souls Day, _i. e._ Nov. 2)
point out that the Morrow of St. Michael is the 29th, _i. e._ Michaelmas
Day. That _morrow_ was anciently equivalent to morning, we may infer
from the following passages:

    "Upon a morrow tide."--Gower, _Conf. Am._, b. iii.

    "Tho' when appeared the third morrow bright,
    Upon the waves," &c.

          Spenser's _Fairy Queen_, II. xii. 2.

      "Good morrow."--_Passim._

    R. H.

    [Is not our correspondent confounding the morrow of _All Saint_s,
    which the 2nd of November certainly is, with the morrow of _All
    Souls_? Sir H. Nicolas, in his most useful _Chronology of History_,
    says most distinctly:--"The morrow of a feast is the day following.
    Thus, the feast of St. Peter ad Vincula is the 1st of August, and
    the morrow of that feast is consequently the 2nd of August."--P.
    99.]


_Hotchpot._--Will you kindly tell me what is the derivation of the local
term _hotchpot_, and when it was first used?

    M. G. B.

    [The origin of this phrase is involved in some obscurity. Jacob, in
    his _Law Dictionary_, speaks of it as "from the French," and his
    definition is _verbatim_ that given in _The Termes of the Law_ (ed.
    1598), with a very slight addition. Blackstone (book II cap. 12.)
    says, "which term I shall explain in the very words of Littleton:
    'It seemeth that this word _hotchpot_ is in English a pudding; for
    in a pudding is not commonly just one thing alone, but one thing
    with other things together.' By this housewifely metaphor our
    ancestors meant to inform us that the lands, both those given in
    frankmarriage, and those descending in fee-simple, should be mixed
    and blended together, and then divided in equal portions among all
    the daughters."]


_High and Low Dutch._--Is there any essential difference between High
and Low Dutch; and if there be any, to which set do the Dutchmen at the
Cape of Good Hope belong?

    S. C. P.

    [High and Low Dutch are vulgarisms to express the German and the
    Dutch languages, which those nations themselves call, for the German
    _Deutsch_, for the Dutch _Holländisch_. The latter is the language
    which the Dutch colonists of the Cape carried with them, when that
    colony was conquered by them from the Portuguese; and has for its
    base the German as spoken before Martin Luther's translation of the
    Bible made the dialect of Upper Saxony the written language of the
    entire German empire.]


_"A Wilderness of Monkeys."_--Would you kindly inform me where the
expression is to be found: "I would not do such or such a thing for a
wilderness of monkeys?"

    C. A.

Ripley.

    ["_Tubal._ One of them showed me a ring that he had of your daughter
    for a monkey.

    "_Shylock._ Out upon her! Thou torturest me, Tubal: it was my
    turquoise; I had it of Leah, when I was a bachelor: I would not have
    given it for _a wilderness of monkies_."--_Merchant of Venice_, Act
    III. Sc. 1.]


_Splitting Paper._--Could any of your readers give the receipt for
splitting paper, say a bank-note? In no book can I find it, but I
believe that it is known by many.

    H. C.

Liverpool.

    [Paste the paper which is to be split between two pieces of calico;
    and, when thoroughly dry, tear them asunder. The paper will split,
    and, when the calico is wetted, is easily removed from it.]


_The Devil on Two Sticks in England._--Who is the author of a work,
entitled as under?

"The Devil upon Two Sticks in England; being a Continuation of Le Diable
Boiteux of Le Sage. London: printed at the Logographic Press, and sold
by T. Walter, No. 169. Piccadilly; and W. Richardson, under the Royal
Exchange, 1790."

It is a work of very considerable merit, an imitation in style and
manner of Le Sage, but original in its matter. It is published in six
volumes 8vo.

    WILLIAM NEWMAN.

    [William Coombe, Esq., the memorable author of _The Diaboliad_, and
    _The Tour of Dr. Syntax in Search of the Picturesque_.]

       *       *       *       *       *


REPLIES.


STONE PILLAR WORSHIP AND IDOL WORSHIP.

(Vol. v., p. 121.; Vol. vii., p. 383.)

_Stone Pillar Worship._--Sir J. E. TENNENT inquires whether any traces
of this worship are to be found in Ireland, and refers to a letter from
a correspondent of Lord Roden's, which states that the peasantry of the
island of Inniskea, off the coast of Mayo, hold in reverence a stone
idol called _Neevougi_. This word I cannot find in my Irish dictionary,
but it is evidently a diminutive, formed from the word _Eevan_
(Io[.m]ai[.g]), image, or idol: and it is remarkable that the scriptural
Hebrew term for idol is identical with the Irish, or nearly so--¤'WN¤
(_Eevan_), derived from a root signifying _negation_, and applied to the
vanity of idols, and to the idols themselves.

I saw at Kenmare, in the county of Kerry, in the summer of 1847, a
water-worn fragment of clay slate, bearing a rude likeness to the human
form, which the peasantry called _Eevan_. Its original location was in
or near the old graveyard of Kilmakillogue, and it was regarded with
reverence as the image of some saint in "the ould auncient times," as an
"ould auncient" native of Tuosist (the lonely place) informed me. In the
same immediate neighbourhood is a gullaune (+gallán+), or stone
pillar, at which the peasantry used "to give {414} rounds;" also the
curious small lakes or tarns, on which the islands were said to move on
July 8, St. Quinlan's [Kilian?] Day. (See Smith's _History of Kerry_.)

However, such superstitious usages are fast falling into desuetude; and,
whatever may have been the early history of Eevan, it is a sufficient
proof of no vestige of stone pillar worship remaining in Tuosist, that,
to gratify the whim of a young gentleman, some peasants from the
neighbourhood removed this stone fragment by boat to Kenmare the spring
of 1846, where it now lies, perched on the summit of a limestone rock in
the grounds of the nursery-house.

    J. L.

Dublin.


_Idol Worship._--The islands of Inniskea, on the north-west coast of
Ireland, are said to be inhabited by a population of about four hundred
human beings, who speak the Irish language, and retain among them a
trace of that government by chiefs which in former times existed in
Ireland. The present chief or king of Inniskea is an intelligent
peasant, whose authority is universally acknowledged, and the settlement
of all disputes is referred to his decision. Occasionally they have been
visited by wandering schoolmasters, but so short and casual have such
visits been, that there are not ten individuals who even know the
letters of any language. Though nominally Roman Catholics, these
islanders have no priest resident among them, and their worship consists
in occasional meetings at their chief's house, with visits to a holy
well. Here the absence of religion is filled with the open practice of
pagan idolatry; for in the south island a stone idol, called in the
Irish _Neevougi_, has been from time immemorial religiously preserved
and worshipped. This god, in appearance, resembles a thick roll of
homespun flannel, which arises from a custom of dedicating a material of
their dress to it whenever its aid is sought: this is sewed on by an old
woman, its priestess, whose peculiar care it is. They pray to it in time
of sickness. It is invoked when a storm is desired to dash some helpless
ship upon the coast; and, again, the exercise of its power is solicited
in calming the angry waves to admit of fishing.

Such is a brief outline of these islanders and their god; but of the
early history of this idol no authentic information has yet been
obtained. Can any of your numerous readers furnish an account of it?

    WILLIAM BLOOD.

Wicklow.

       *       *       *       *       *


"BLAGUEUR" AND "BLACKGUARD."

(Vol. vii., p. 77.)

I cannot concur in opinion with SIR EMERSON TENNANT, who thinks he has a
right to identify the sense of our low word _blagueur_ with that of your
lower one, _blackguard_. I allow that there some slight similitude of
pronunciation between the words, but I contend that their sense is
perfectly distinct, or, rather, wholly different; as distant, in fact,
as is the date of their naturalisation in our respective idioms. Your
_blackguard_ had already won a "local habitation and a name" under the
reigns of Pope and his immediate predecessor Dryden. Of all living
unrespectable characters our own _blagueur_ is the youngest, the most
innocent, and the shyest. He is entirely of modern growth. He has but
lately emerged from the soldier's barracks, the suttler's shop, and the
mess-room. As a prolific tale-teller he amused the leisure hours of
superannuated sergeants and half-pay subalterns. Ten or twelve years ago
he had not yet made his appearance in plain clothes; he is now creeping
and winding his way with slow and sure steps from his old haunts into
some first-rate coffee-houses and shabby-genteel drawing-rooms, which
Carlyle calls _sham gentility_. He bears on his very brow the newest
_flunky-stamp_. The poor young fellow, after all, is no villain; he has
no kind of connexion with the horrid rascal SIR EMERSOM TENNENT alludes
to--with the _blackguard_. That he is a boaster, a talker, an idiot, a
nincompoop; that he scatters "words, words, words," as Polonius did of
old; that he is bombastic, wordy, prosy, nonsensical, and a fool, no one
will deny. But he is no rogue, though he utters rogueries and
drolleries. No one is justified in slandering him.

The _blackguard_ is a dirty fellow in every sense of the word--a
_gredin_ (a cur), the true translation, by-the-bye, of the word
_blackguard_. Voltaire, who dealt largely in Billingsgate, was very fond
of the word _gredin_:

    "Je semble à trois gredins, dans leur petit cerveau,
    Que pour être imprimés et reliés en veau," &c.

The word _blagueur_ implies nothing so contemptuous or offensive as the
word _blackguard_ does. The emptiness of the person to whom it applies
is very harmless. Its etymon _blague_ (bladder, _tobacco-bag_), the
pouch, which smoking voluptuaries use to deposit their tobacco, is
perfectly symbolic of the inane, bombastic, windy, and long-winded
speeches and sayings of the _blagueur_. Every French commercial
traveller, buss-tooter, and Parisian jarvy is one. When he deports
himself with modesty, and shows a gentlemanly tact in his peculiar
avocation, we call him a _craqueur_ (a cracker). "Ancient Pistol" was
the king of _blagueurs_; Falstaff, of _craqueurs_. I like our _Baron de
Crac_, a native of the land of white-liars and honey-tongued gentlemen
(Gascony). The genus _craqueur_ is common here: as it shoots out into a
thousand branches, shades, varieties, and modifications, judicial,
political, poetical, and so on, it would be {415} quite out of my
province to pursue farther the description of _blagueur_-land or
_blarney_-land.

P.S.--Excuse my French-English.

    PHILARÈTE CHASLES, Mazarinæus.

Paris, Palais de l'Institut.

       *       *       *       *       *


HARMONY OF THE FOUR GOSPELS.

(Vol. viii., p. 316.)

In answer to Z. I may state that the first attempt of this kind is
attributed to Tatian. Eusebius, in his _Ecc. Hist._ (quoted in Lardner's
_Works_, vol. ii. p. 137. ed. 1788), says, he "composed I know not
what--harmony and collection of the gospels, which he called ~dia
tessarôn~." Eusebius himself composed a celebrated harmony, of which, as
of some others in the sixteenth and two following centuries, there is a
short account in Michaelis's _Introduction to the New Test._, translated
by Bishop Marsh, vol. iii. part I. p. 32. The few works of the same kind
written in the early and middle ages are noticed in Horne's
_Introduct._, vol. ii. p. 274. About the year 330, Juvencus, a Spaniard,
wrote the evangelical history in heroic verse. Of far greater merit were
the four books of Augustine, _De Consensu Quatuor Evangeliorum_. After a
long interval, Ludolphus the Saxon, a Carthusian monk, published a work
which passed through thirty editions in Germany, besides being
translated into French and Italian. Some years ago I made out the
following list of Harmonies, Diatessarons, and Synoptical tables,
published since the Reformation, which may in some measure meet the wish
of your correspondent. It is probably incomplete. The dates are those of
the first editions.

    |Osiander, 1537.  |  Büsching, 1756.
    |Jansenius, 1549. |  Macknight, 1756.
    |Chemnitz, 1593.  |  Bertlings, 1767.
    |Lightfoot, 1654. |  Griesbach, 1776.
    |Cradock, 1668.   |  Priestley (Greek), 1777.
    |Richardson, 1654.|  Priestley (Eng.), 1780.
    |Sandhagen, 1684. |  Newcome (Greek), 1778.
    |Le Clerc, 1699.  |  Newcome (Eng.), 1802.
    |Whiston, 1702.   |  White, 1799.
    |Toinard, 1707.   |  De Wette, 1818.
    |Rein Rus, 1727.  |  Thompson, R., 1808.
    |Bengelius, 1736. |  Chambers, 1813.
    |Hauber, 1737.    |  Thompson, C., 1815.
    |Doddridge, 1739. |  Warner, 1819.
    |Pilkington, 1747.|  Carpenter, 1835.
    |Michaelis, 1750. |

    J. M.

Cranwell, near Bath.


Tatian wrote his ~Euangelion dia tôn tessarôn~ as early as the year 170.
It is no longer extant, but we have some reason for believing that this
Harmony had been compiled in an unfriendly spirit (Theodoret, _Hæret.
Fabul._, lib. i. c. 20.). Tatian was followed by Ammonius, whose
~Harmonia~ appeared about 230; and in the next century by Eusebius and
St. Ambrose, the former entitling his production ô~Peri tês tôn
Euangeliôn diaphônias~, the latter _Concordia Evangelii Mattæi et Lucæ_.
But by far the ablest of the ancient writings on this subject is the _De
Consensu Evangelistarum_ of St. Augustine. Many authors, such as
Porphyry, in his ~Kata Christianôn logoi~, had pointed with an
air of triumph to the seeming discrepancies in the Evangelic records as
an argument subversive of their claim to paramount authority ("Hoc enim
solent quasi palmare suæ vanitatis objicere, quod ipsi Evangelistæ inter
seipsos dissentiant."--Lib. i. c. 7.). In writing these objections St.
Augustine had to handle nearly all the difficulties which offend the
microscopic critics of the present day. His work was urged afresh upon
the notice of the biblical scholar by Gerson, chancellor of the
University of Paris, who died in 1429. The _Monotessaron, seu unum ex
quatuor Evangeliis_ of that gifted writer will be found in Du Pin's
edition of his _Works_, iv. 83. sq. Some additional information
respecting Harmonies is supplied in Ebrard's _Wissenschaftliche Kritik
der evangelischen Geschichte_, pp. 36. sq. Francfurt a. M., 1842.

    C. HARDWICK.

St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.


Seiler says (_Bibl. Herm._, part II. c. 4. s. 4.) that "The greater part
of the works on the harmony of the gospels are quite useless for our
times, as their authors mostly proceed on incorrect principles." He
refers only to the chief of them, namely:

    Osiander, 1537.       |  Macknight, 1756.
    Jansen, 1549-72.      |  Bengel, 1766.
    Chemnitz, 1593.       |  Büsching, 1766.
    Lightfoot, 1644.      |  Bertlings, 1767.
    Van Til, 1687.        |  Priestley, 1777.
    Lamy, 1689.           |  Schutte, 1779.
    Le Roux, 1699.        |  Stephan, 1779.
    Le Clerc, 1700.       |  Michaelis in his New Test.
    May, 1707.            |  Rullmann, 1790.
    Von Canstein, 1718-27.|  Griesbach, 1776-97.
    Rus, 1727-30.         |  White, 1799.
    Hauber.               |  De Wette, 1818.

For other Harmonies, see Mr. Horne's _Bibliog. Index_, p. 128. Heringa
considers that the following writers "have brought the four Evangelists
into an harmonious arrangement, namely:

    Hesz, 1784. |  Stronck, 1800.
    Bergen 1804.|  Townsend, 1834.

And especially as to the sufferings and resurrection of Christ:

    Voss, 1701. |  Michaelis (translated by Duckett, 1827).
    Iken, 1743. |  Cremer, 1795.

    T. J. BUCKTON.

Birmingham.


{416}
Ammonius, an Egyptian Christian nearly cotemporary with Origen (third
century), wrote a Harmony of the four gospels, which is supposed to be
one of those still extant in the _Biblioth. Max. Patrum_. But whether
the larger Harmony in tom. ii. part 2., or the smaller in tom. iii., is
the genuine work is doubted. See a note to p. 97. of Reid's _Mosheim's
Ecclesiastical History_, 1 vol. edition: London, Simms and McIntyre,
1848.

    CHRIS. ROBERTS.

Bradford, Yorkshire.

       *       *       *       *       *


SMALL WORDS AND LOW WORDS.

(Vol. ii., pp. 305. 349. 377.; Vol. iii., p. 309.)

A passage in Churchill, and one in Lord John Russell's _Life of Moore_,
have lately reminded me of a former Note of mine on this subject. The
structure of Churchill's second couplet must surely have been suggested
by that of Pope, which formed my original text:

  "Conjunction, adverb, preposition, join
  To add new vigour to the nervous line:--
  In monosyllables his thunders roll,--
  He, she, it, and, we, ye, they, fright the soul."
          _Censure on Mossop._

Moore, in his Journals, notes, on the other side of the question,
conversation between Rogers, Crowe, and himself, "on the beauty of
monosyllabic verses. 'He jests at scars,' &c.; the couplet, 'Sigh on my
lip,' &c.; 'Give all thou canst,' &c. &c., and many others, the most
vigorous and musical, perhaps, of any." (Lord John Russell's _Moore_,
vol. ii. p. 200.)

The frequency of monosyllabic lines in English poetry will hardly be
wondered at, however it may be open to such criticisms as Pope's and
Churchill's, when it is noted that our language contains, of
monosyllables formed by the vowel _a_ alone, considerably more than 500;
by the vowel _e_, about 450; by the vowel _i_, nearly 400; by the vowel
_o_, rather more than 400; and by the vowel _u_, upwards of 260; a
calculation entirely exclusive of the large number of monosyllables
formed by diphthongs.

I hardly know whether the following "literary folly" (as "D'Israeli the
Elder" would call it, see _Curiosities of Lit._ sub tit.), suggested by
dipping into the above monosyllabical statistics, will be thought worthy
to occupy a column of "N. & Q." However, it may take its chance as a
supplementary Note, without farther preface, under the none, for want of
a better, of _Univocalic verses_:

_The Russo-Turkish War._

_A._

  Wars harm all ranks, all arts, all crafts appal:
  At Mars' harsh blast arch, rampart, altar fall!
  Ah! hard as adamant, a braggart Czar
  Arms vassal-swarms, and fans a fatal war!
  Rampant at that bad call, a Vandal-band
  Harass, and harm, and ransack Wallach-land!
  A Tartar phalanx Balkan's scarp hath past,
  And Allah's standard falls, alas! at last.

_The Fall of Eve._

_E._

  Eve, Eden's Empress, needs defended be;
  The Serpent greets her when she seeks the tree.
  Serene she sees the speckled tempter creep;
  Gentle he seems--perversest schemer deep--
  Yet endless pretexts, ever fresh, prefers,
  Perverts her senses, revels when she errs,
  Sneers when she weeps, regrets, repents she fell;
  Then, deep-reveng'd, reseeks the nether hell!

_The Approach of Evening._

_I._

  Idling I sit in this mild twilight dim,
  Whilst birds, in wild swift vigils, circling skim.
  Light winds in sighing sink, till, rising bright,
  Night's Virgin Pilgrim swims in vivid light!

_Incontrovertible Facts._

_O._

  No monk too good to rob, or cog, or plot.
  No fool so gross to bolt Scotch collops hot.
  From Donjon tops no Oroonoko rolls.
  Logwood, not Lotos, floods Oporto's bowls.
  Troops of old tosspots oft, to sot, consort.
  Box tops, not bottoms, schoolboys flog for sport.
  No cool monsoons blow soft on Oxford dons,
  Orthodox, jog-trot, book-worm Solomons!
  Bold Ostrogoths of ghosts no horror show.
  On London shop fronts no hop-blossoms grow.
  To crocks of gold no dodo looks for food.
  On soft cloth footstools no old fox doth brood.
  Long-storm-tost sloops forlorn work on to port.
  Rooks do not roost on spoons, nor woodcocks snort,
  Nor dog on snowdrop or on coltsfoot rolls,
  Nor common frog concocts long protocols.

_The same subject continued._

_U._

  Dull, humdrum murmurs lull, but hubbub stuns.
  Lucullus snuffs up musk, mundungus shuns.
  Puss purrs, buds burst, bucks butt, luck turns up trumps;
  But full cups, hurtful, spur up unjust thumps.


Although I am the veritable K. I. P. B. T. of the former Notes, I sign
myself now, in accordance with more recent custom,

    HARRY LEROY TEMPLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


A CHAPTER ON RINGS.

(Vol. vii. _passim._)

The Scriptures prove the use of rings in remote antiquity. In Gen. xli.,
Joseph has conferred on him the king's ring, an instance more ancient
than Prometheus, whom fables call the inventor of the ring. Therefore
let those who will hold, with Pliny and his followers, that its use is
more recent than Homer. The Greeks seem to have derived the custom of
wearing it from the East, and Italy from the Greeks. Juvenal and Persius
refer to {417} rings which were worn only on birthdays. Clemens
Alexandrinus recommends a limit within which the liberty of engraving
upon them should be restrained. He thinks we should not allow an idol, a
sword, a bow, or a cup, much less naked human figures; but a dove, a
fish, or a ship in full sail, or a lyre, an anchor, or fishermen. By the
dove he would denote the Holy Spirit; by the fish, the dinner which
Christ prepared for his disciples (John xxi.), or the feeding of
thousands (Luke ix.); by a ship, either the Church or human life; by a
lyre, harmony; by an anchor, constancy; by fishermen, the apostles or
the baptism of children. It is a wonder he did not mention the symbol of
the name of Christ (~chi-rho~), the cross which is found on
ancient gems, and Noah's ark.

Rings were worn upon the joints and fingers, and hence Clement says a
man should not wear a ring upon the joint (_in articulo_), for this is
what women do, but upon the little finger, and at its lowest part. He
failed to observe the Roman custom of wearing the ring upon the finger
of the left hand, which is nearest the heart, and which we therefore
term the ring-finger. And Macrobius says, that when a ring fell from the
little finger of Avienus' right hand, those who were present asked why
he placed it upon the wrong hand and finger, not on those which had been
set apart for this use. The reasons which are given for this custom in
Macrobius were often laughed at by H. Fabricius ab Aquapendente, viz.
that it is stated in anatomical works, that "a certain nerve which rises
at the heart proceeds directly to that finger of the left hand which is
next the little finger," for nothing of the sort, he said, existed in
the human body.

The ring distinguished the free-born from the servile, who, however,
sometimes obtained the _jus annuli_, or privilege of the ring. It was
used as a seal, a pledge, and a bond. Women, when betrothed, received
rings; and the virgin and martyr Agnes, in Ambrose, says, "My Lord Jesus
Christ hath espoused me with his ring." Theosebius also, in Photius,
says to his wife, "I formerly gave to thee the ring of union, now of
temperance, to aid thee in the seemly custody of my house." He advisedly
speaks of that _custody_, for the lady of the house in Plautus says,

    "Obsignate cellas, referte annulum ad me:
    Ego huc transeo."

Wives generally used the same seals as their husbands: thus Cicero (_Ad
Attic._ xi. 9) says, "Pomponia, I believe, has the seals of what is
sealed." Sometimes, however, they used their own.

Touching the marriage ring, of what style and material it was, and
whether formerly, as now, consecrated by prayers to God. Its pattern
appears to have been one which has gone out of use, viz. right hands
joined, such as is often observed on ancient coins. Tacitus (_Hist._ i.
ll.) calls it absolutely _dextras_, right hands. Among us it was called
a faith (_una fede._ Comp. Eng. "Plight my _troth_"), and not without
precedent, for on the coins of Vitellius, &c. right hands thus joined
bear the motto _Fides_. An esteemed writer (Nider), in his
_Formicarium_, mentions a rustic virgin who desired to find a material
ring as a token of her espousal "_in signum Christiferæ
desponsationis_," and found a ring of a white colour, like pure silver,
upon which two hands were engraved where it was united. It was formerly
customary to bless a crown or a ring by prayers. The form of
consecration used by the priest is thus given in ancient liturgies:

    "Bene [symbol, cross] die Domine, Annulum istum et coronam istam, ut
    sicut Annulus circundat digitum hominis, et corona caput, ita gratia
    Spiritus Sancti circundet sponsum et sponsam, ut videant filios et
    filias usque tertiam et quartam generationem: qui collaudent nomen
    viventis atque regnantis in secula seculorum. Amen."

For the crown, see Is. lxii. 1. (E. V. lxi. 10.). The words of Agnes
above cited have reference to giving the right hand and a pledge.

These particulars are from the _Symbol. Epist. Liber_ of Laurentius
Pignorius, Patar. 1628; where, in Ep. I. and XIX., many other references
are to be found.

    B. H. C.

       *       *       *       *       *


ANTICIPATORY USE OF THE CROSS.--RINGING BELLS FOR THE DEAD.

(Vol. viii., pp. 130. 132.)

I trust that the following information may be acceptable to you and the
authors of two interesting papers in "N. & Q." (Vol. viii., pp. 130-2.),
viz. "Anticipatory Use of the Cross," and "Curious Custom of ringing
Bells for the Dead."

When encamped, in 1823 or 1824, near the town (not the cantonment) of
Muttra, on the river Jumna, a place of celebrated sanctity as the scene
of the last incarnation of Vishnoo, the protective deity or myth of the
Hindoos, an Italian gentleman of most polished manners, speaking English
correctly and with fluency, was introduced to me. He travelled under the
name of Count Venua, and was understood to be the eldest son of the then
Prime Minister of Sardinia. The Count explained to me that his favourite
pursuit was architecture, and that he preferred buildings of antiquity.
I replied, that while breakfast was preparing I could meet his wishes,
and led him to a large Hindoo edifice close by (or rather the remains),
which a Mogul emperor had partially destroyed and thereby desecrated,
the place having since been occasionally used by the townspeople as a
cattle-shed, or for rubbish.

The Count, not deterred by heaps of cattle-dung, paced the dimensions,
gazed on the solidity of the {418} stone masonry, approved of the
construction and shape of the arched roof, pointed out the absence of
all ornament excepting a simple moulding or two as architectural lines,
and then broke out into enthusiastic admiration. "The most beautiful
building! the greatest wonder of the world! Shame on the English
government and English gentlemen for secreting such a curiosity! Here is
the cross! the basilica carried out with more correctness of order and
symmetry than in Italy! The early Christians must have built it! I will
take measurements and drawings to lay before the cardinals!"

I was never more surprised, and assured the Count that I was
unacquainted with the cathedral buildings of Europe, and I believed
English gentlemen generally to be as ignorant as myself. I could not but
acknowledge that the local governments had, as it seemed to him, evinced
but little sympathy with Hindooism; and that whatever might be European
policy in respect to religion, the East India Company might have
participated in the desire which prevails in Europe to develop ancient
customs, and the reasons of those customs. It might be presumed that we
should then have contemplated this specimen of architecture with a
knowledge of its original purposes, and the history of its events, had
the Governor-General communicated his wish, and with due courtesy and
disinterestedness invited the learned persons and scholars at the
colleges of Muttra and Benares to assist such inquiries. It is but
little the English now know of the Hindoo organisation, and the little
they do know is derived from books not tested nor acknowledged by such
learned persons.

I assisted Count Venua as far as I was able, for I rejoiced at his
intention to draw the minds of the _literati_ of Italy to the subject.
Sad to say, the Count was some time after killed by falling into a
volcanic crater in the Eastern Isles!

I may here mention that I first saw the old building in 1809, when a
youthful assistant to the secretary of a revenue commission. The party,
during the inclement month of September, resided in one of the spacious
houses at Muttra, which pious Hindoos had in past times erected for the
use of pilgrims and the public. The old temple (or whatever it might
have been) was cleaned out for our accommodation during the heat of the
day, as it then was cooler than the house. The elder civilians were men
of ability, classical scholars, and first-rate Asiatic linguists. They
descanted on the mythological events which renders "Brij," or the
country around Muttra, so holy with the Hindoos, but not one of them
knew nor remarked the "cross and basilica."

In youth, the language assigned to flowers appeared to me captivating
and elegant, as imparting the finer feelings and sympathies of our
nature. In maturer age, and after the study of the history of the
customs of mankind, symbols and emblems seemed to me an universal
language, which delicately delineated the violent passions of our kind,
and transmitted from generation to generation national predilections and
pious emotions towards the God of Creation. That mythology should so
generally be interpreted Theism, and that forms or ceremonials of
worship should be held to limit and define belief in creed, may, in my
apprehension, be partly traceable to the school-book Lamprière's
_Classical Dictionary_. You or your correspondents may attribute it to
other and truer causes.

The rose, the thistle, the shamrock, the leek, the lion, the unicorn,
the harp, &c. are familiar examples of national emblems. The ivy, the
holly, and the mistletoe are joined up with the Christmas worship,
though probably of Druidical origin. The Assyrian sculptures present,
under the "Joronher," or effulgence, a sacred tree, which may assimilate
with the toolsu and the peepul tree, held in almost equal veneration by
the Hindoos. The winged lions and bulls with the heads of men, the
angels and cherubim, recall to mind passages of scriptural and pagan
history. The sciences of astronomy and mathematics have afforded myths
or symbols in the circle, the crescent, the bident, the trident, the
cross, &c.

The translators of the cuneiform inscriptions represent crucifixion as
the common punishment for rebellion and treason. The Jews may have
imitated the Assyrians, as crucifixion may have been adopted long before
that of Christ and the two thieves (Qy. robbers). The Mahomedans, who
have copied the Jews in many practices and customs, executed gang
robbers or daccorts by suspending the criminals from a tree, their heads
and arms being tied to the branches, and then ripping up the abdomen. I
myself saw in Oude an instance of several bodies. It may be inferred,
then, that the position of the culprits under execution was designated
by crucifixion. The Hindoos mildly say that when their system of
government existed in efficiency there was neither crime nor punishment.

To the examples mentioned by your correspondent, I admit that the form
of the cross, as now received, may be derived from that of Christ,
discovered on Mount Calvary in 236 A.D. Constantine, in 306 A.D.,
adopted it as a standard in Labarum. Other nations have attached staves
to eagles, dragons, fish, &c. as standards and therefore, construing
"Crux ansata" literally, the ensign of Constantine might be formed by
attaching a staff to the Divine Glory represented in the Egyptian
paintings and Assyrian sculptures.

I should be glad to learn the precise shape of the cross on the Temple
of Serapis. If it be the emblem of life or the Creative Power, then the
mythology of the Nile agrees with that of the {419} Ganges. If it be
the symbol of life, or rather of a future state after judgment, then the
religious tenets and creed of Muttra should be elucidated, examined, and
refuted by the advocates of conversion and their itinerant agents.
Moore's _Hindoo Pantheon_ (though the author had at Bombay, as a
military officer, little opportunity of ascertaining particulars of the
doctrine) sufficiently treats, under the head of the "Krishna," the
subject so as to explain to the conversionists, that unless this
doctrine be openly refuted, the missionaries may in truth be fighting
their own shadow.

The basilica seems to have originally been the architectural plan of the
Roman Forum, or court of justice. The Christians may have converted some
of these edifices into churches; otherwise the first churches seem to
have been in the form of a long parallelogram, a central nave, and an
aisle on each side, the eastern end being rounded, as the station of the
bishop or presbyter. The basilica, or cathedral, was probably not
introduced until the eighth century, or later.

I have not just now access to the works of Tod and Maurice. The former,
I doubt not, is correct in respect to the Temple of Mundore, but I
believe the latter is not so in regard to Benares. The trident, like
that of Neptune, prevails in the province of Benares; and when it, in
appropriate size, rises in the centre of large tanks, has a very solemn
effect. I, a great many years ago, visited the chief temple of Benares,
and do not recollect that the cross was either noticed to me or by me.
This, I think, was the only occasion of observing the forms of worship.
There is no fixed service, no presiding priest, no congregation. The
people come and go in succession. I then first saw the bell, which, in
size some twenty-five pounds weight, is suspended within the interior.
Each person, at some period of his devotion, touched the tongue of the
bell as invocation or grace. The same purpose is obtained by Hindoos,
and particularly the men of the fighting classes, previously to
commencing a cooked dinner, by winding a large shell, which gives a
louder sound than a horn. The native boys however, on hearing it,
exclaim in doggerel rhyme, which I translate,

  "The shell is blown,
  And the devil is flown."

Fear seems so much the parent of superstition, that I attribute this
saying to the women, who, as mothers, have usually a superstitious dread
not only of evil spirits, but also of the evil eye of mortals towards
their young ones. When, some twenty years ago, I was told by a Kentish
countryman that the church bell was tolled to drive away evil spirits
from a departing soul, I supposed the man to be profanely jocose; but
since then I have travelled much in this country and on the Continent,
and have seen enough to satisfy me that superstition prevails
comparatively less in Asia than in Europe and the pages of "N. & Q."
abundantly corroborate the opinion.

    H. N.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.


_Stereoscopic Angles._--I am concerned that my definition and
solution of stereoscopic angles (a misnomer, for it should be
_space_) in "N. & Q.," with subsequent illustrations, have not
satisfied MR. SHADBOLT, as I am thus obliged to once more request
room in your pages, and this time for a rather long letter. When I
asserted that my method is the only correct one, it behoved me to be
prepared to prove it, which I am, and will now do.

It seems that MR. SHADBOLT has not a knowledge of perspective, or,
with a little reflection and trifling pains in linear demonstration
on paper, he might have convinced himself of the accuracy of my
method. It were well, then, to inform MR. SHADBOLT, that in
perspective, planes parallel to the plane of delineation (in this
case, the glass at back of camera) have no vanishing points; that
planes at right angles to plane of delineation have but one; and that
planes oblique have but one vanishing point, to the right or left, as
it may be, of the observer's eye. This premised, let the subject be a
wall 300 feet in length, with two abutments of one foot in front and
five feet in projection, and each placed five feet from the central
point of the wall, which is to have a plinth at its base, and a stone
coping at top. On a pedestal four feet high, two feet wide, and six
feet long, exactly midway betwixt the abutments, let an ass be
placed, a boy astride him, a bag drawn before the boy, who holds up a
long stick in line with the ass, &c., that is, facing the observer.
The right distance for the observer's place is 450 feet. If the
cameras be placed two inches and a half apart, on one line parallel
to the wall, the stereographs will be in true perspective for the
_two_ eyes, that is, all the planes at right angles to the plane of
delineation will have _two_ vanishing points, which, being merely two
inches and a half apart, will, in the stereoscope, flow easily into
one opposite the eye; whilst the plinth, coping, and all lines
parallel to them, will be perfectly horizontal; and the two pictures
would create in the mind just such a conception as the same objects
would if seen by the eyes naturally. This would be stereoscopic, true
to nature, true to art, and, I affirm, correct.

Now, let the same subject be treated by Professor Wheatstone's
method, when the cameras would be eighteen feet apart. Situated thus,
if placed on one line, and that parallel to the wall, the extreme end
at the right could not be seen by the camera at the left, and _vice
versâ_; so that they {420} must radiate from the centre when the
glass at back of camera would be oblique to the wall, and the plinth,
coping, top and bottom of pedestal, would have _two_ vanishing
points, at opposite sides of the centre, or observer's eye; both
sides of the ass, both the legs of boy, and two heads to the drum
would be visible; whilst the two sides of pedestals would have each a
vanishing point, serving for all lines parallel to them. But these
vanishing points would be so far apart that they could not, in the
stereoscope, flow into one: the result would be, that the buttresses
would be wider at back than in front, as would also the pedestal,
while the stick held by the boy would appear like _two_ sticks united
in front. This would be untrue to nature, false to art,
preposterously absurd, and I pronounce it to be altogether erroneous.

This being the case with a long distance, so must it be with shorter
distances, modified in exact proportion to the diminution of space
between the cameras, &c. For, let the object be a piece of wood three
feet long, four inches wide, and six inches deep, with a small square
piece one inch and six inches high, placed upright exactly on a line
from end to end of the three feet (that is, one at each end) and
midway between the sides. Let this arrangement be placed across
another piece of wood three or four feet long, which will thus be at
right angles to the piece at top. By my method all will be
correct--true to nature and to art, and perfectly stereoscopic:
whilst by the radial method (recommended by MR. SHADBOLT), with two
feet space for cameras, there would be the top piece divided at the
farther end, where there would be two small upright pieces instead of
one; and this because the two vanishing points could not, in
stereoscope, flow into one: whilst the lower piece of wood would have
two vanishing points at opposite sides. This, then, being untrue to
nature, untrue in art, in short, a most absurd misrepresentation, I
pronounce to be utterly wrong. I have made the space two feet between
cameras in order to show how ridiculous those pictures might become
where there is an absence of taste, as, by such a person, two or ten
feet are as likely to be taken as any less offensively incorrect.

As regards range of vision, I apologise to MR. SHADBOLT for having
misconceived his exact meaning, and say that I perfectly agree with
him.

With respect to the "trifling exaggeration" I spoke of, allow me to
explain. For the sake of clearness, I denominate the angle formed
from the focal point of lens, and the glass at back of camera, the
angle of delineation; the said glass the plane of delineation and the
angle formed by the stereograph to the eye, the stereoscopic angle.
It must be borne in mind that the stereoscopic angle is that
subtended by one stereograph and the eye. I find by experiments that
the angle of delineation is very often larger than the stereoscopic
angle, so that the apparent enlargement spoken of by MR. SHADBOLT
does not often exist; but if it did, as my vision (though excellent)
is not acute enough to discover the discrepancy, I was content. I
doubt not, however, under such circumstances, MR. SHADBOLT would
prefer the deformities and errors proved to be present, since he has
admitted that he has such preference. I leave little doubt that, if
desirable, the stereoscopic angle, and that of delineation, could be
generally made to agree.

As to the means by which persons with two eyes, or with only one eye,
judge of distance, I say not one word, that being irrelevant to this
subject. But that the axes of the eyes approximate when we view
objects nearer and nearer cannot be doubted, and I expressed no
doubt; and it appears to me very probable that on this fact MR.
SHADBOLT founds his conclusion that the cameras should radiate. This,
however, ought not to be done for the reasons I have assigned. It
will not do to treat the cameras as two eyes, and make them radiate
because our eyes do; for it must be remembered that light entering
the eyes is received on curved--whilst when it enters the cameras it
falls on flat surfaces, occasioning very different results. And if
this be maturely considered by MR. SHADBOLT, I believe his opinion
will be greatly altered.

As to the model-like appearance, I cannot yet understand exactly why
it should exist; but of this I am certain, the eyes naturally do not
perceive at one view three sides of a cake (that is, two sides and
the front), nor two heads to a drum, nor any other like absurdity; so
that I perceive no analogy between this model-like appearance and
natural vision, as stated to be the case by MR. SHADBOLT.

To confirm, practically, the truth of my illustrative proofs, I will
send you next week some glass stereographs, to be placed at MR.
SHADBOLT'S disposal, if he likes, and you will be so kind as to take
charge of them.

    T. L. MERRITT.

Maidstone.

       *       *       *       *       *


REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES.


_Berefellarii_ (Vol. vii., p. 207.).--JOHN WEBB mentions the
_berefellarii_ as a distinct kind of mongrel dependents or
half-ecclesiastics of the Middle Ages, dirty, shabby, ill-washed
attendants, whose ragged clothes were a shame to the better sort of
functionaries. He gave excellent and just reasons for his opinion, and a
very probable construction of the sense of the word. But the etymon he
proposes is rather unsatisfactory. Anglo-Saxonism is a very good thing;
simplicity and common sense are very good things too. May not {421}
_berefellarius_, the dirty raggamuffin with tattered clothes, be good
monkish Latin for _bare-fell_ (i.e. _bare-skin_), or rather
_bare-fellow_? the most natural metamorphosis imaginable. _Bere_ is the
old orthoepy of _bare_; and every one knows that in London (east) a
fell_ow_ naturally becomes a fell_ar_.

P.S.--Excuse my French-English.

    PHILARÈTE CHASLES, Mazarinæus.

Paris, Palais de l'Institut.


    _"To know ourselves diseased," &c._ (Vol. viii., p. 219.).--

    "To know ourselves diseased is half our cure."

This line is from Young's _Night Thoughts_, Night 9th, line 38.

    J. W. THOMAS.

Dewsbury.


_Gloves at Fairs_ (Vol. viii., p. 136.).--As an emblem of power and an
acknowledgment of goodness, "Saul set up a hand" after his victory over
the Amalekites, 1 Sam. xv. 12., (Taylor's _Hebrew Concordance_, in voce
 ¤YDH¤), 2 Sam xviii. 18., Isaiah lvi. 5. The Ph[oe]nician
monuments are said to have had sculptured on them an arm and _hand held
up_, with an inscription graven thereon. (See Gesenius and Lee.) If, as
stated by your correspondents in the article referred to, the glove at
fairs "denotes protection," and indicates "that parties frequenting the
fair are exempt from arrest," it is at least a remarkable coincidence.
The Phoenicians were the earliest merchants to the west of England
that we have any account of; can any connexion be traced historically
between the Phoenician traffic and the modern practice of setting up a
hand, or glove, at fairs? I well remember the feelings of awe and wonder
with which I gazed when taken in childhood to see "the glove brought in"
and placed over the guildhall of my native city (Exeter) at the
commencement of "Lammas Fair." Has the glove been associated with this
fair from its commencement? and if not, how far back can its use be
traced? The history of the fair is briefly this: it existed before the
Norman Conquest, and was a great mart of business; the tolls had
belonged to the corporation, but King John took one-half, and gave them
to the priory of St. Nicholas. Henry VIII. sold the fair with the
priory; and anno second and third of Philip and Mary it was made over to
the corporation, who have ever since been lords of the fair. (Izacke's
_Memorials_, p. 19.; Oliver's _History of Exeter_, pp. 83. 158., &c.)

    J. W. THOMAS.

Dewsbury.


I may add that at Barnstaple, North Devon, the evening previous to the
proclamation of the fair, a large glove, decked with dahlias, is
protruded on a pole from a window of the Quay Hall, the most ancient
building in the town, which remains during the fair, and is removed at
its termination. May not the outstretched glove signify the consent of
the authorities to the commencement and continuance of the festivities,
&c., and its withdrawal a hint for their cessation?

I may add also that on the morning of proclaiming the fair, the mayor
and corporation meet their friends in the council chamber, and partake
of spiced toast and ale.

    DROFSNIAG.


_"An" before "u" long_ (Vol. viii., p. 244.).--The custom of writing
_an_ before _u_ long must have arisen and become established when _u_
had its primitive and vowel sound, nearly resembling that of our _oo_, a
sound which it still has in several languages, but seems to have lost in
ours. The use of _an_ before _u_ long, was _then_ proper; habit and
precedent will account for its retention by many, after the reason for
it has ceased, and when its use has become improper. But although the
custom is thus accounted for, there exists no satisfactory reason for
its continuance, and I am sorry to learn from your correspondent that it
is "increasingly prevailing."

    J. W. THOMAS.

Dewsbury.


_"The Good Old Cause"_ (Vol. viii, p. 44.).--D'Israeli, in _Quarrels of
Authors_, under the head of "Martin Mar-Prelate," has the following
remarks on the origin and use of the expression, "The Good Old Cause:"

"It is remarkable that Udall repeatedly employed that expression, which
Algernon Sidney left as his last legacy to the people, when he told them
he was about to die for 'that _Old Cause_, in which I was from my youth
engaged.' Udall perpetually insisted on '_The Cause_.' This was a term
which served at least for a watch-word: it rallied the scattered members
of the republican party. The precision of the expression might have been
difficult to ascertain; and, perhaps, like every popular expedient,
varied with 'existing circumstances.' I did not, however, know it had so
remote an origin as in the reign of Elizabeth; and suspect it may still
be freshened up and varnished over for any present occasion."

    HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.


The following curious paragraph in the _Post Boy_, June 3-5, 1714, seems
to have been connected with the Jacobites:

"There are lately arrived here the Dublin Plenipo's. All persons that
have any business concerning the GOOD OLD CAUSE, let 'em repair to Jenny
Man's Coffee House at Charing Cross, where they may meet with the said
Plenipo's every day of the week except Sundays, and every evening of
those days they are to be spoke with at the Kit-Cat Club."

    E. G. BALLARD.


_Jeroboam of Claret, &c._ (Vol vii., p.528.).--Is a _magnum_ anything
more than a bottle larger {422} than those of the ordinary size, and
containing about two quarts; or a _Jeroboam_ other than a witty conceit
applied to the old measure _Joram_ or _Jorum_, by some profane
_wine-bibber_?

    H. C. K.


_Humbug_ (Vol. vii., p. 631.).--The real signification of the word
_humbug_ appears to me to lie in the following derivation of it. Among
the many issues of base coin which from time to time were made in
Ireland, there was none to be compared in worthlessness to that made by
James II. from the Dublin Mint; it was composed of anything on which he
could lay his hands, such as lead, pewter, copper, and brass, and so low
was its intrinsic value, that twenty shillings of it was only worth
twopence sterling. William III., a few days after the Battle of the
Boyne, ordered that the crown piece and half-crown should be taken as
one penny and one halfpenny respectively. The soft mixed metal of which
that worthless coining was composed, was known among the Irish as _Uim
bog_, pronounced _Oom-bug_, _i.e._ soft copper, _i.e._ worthless money;
and in the course of their dealings the modern use of the word _humbug_
took its rise, as in the phrases "that's a _piece of uimbog_ (humbug),"
"don't think to _pass off_ your _uimbug_ on me." Hence the word _humbug_
came to be applied to anything that had a specious appearance, but which
was in reality spurious. It is curious to note that the very opposite of
_humbug_, _i.e._ false metal, is the word _sterling_, which is also
taken from a term applied to the _true_ coinage of the realm, as
_sterling_ coin, _sterling_ truth, _sterling_ worth, &c.

    FRAS. CROSSLEY.


_"Could we with ink," &c._ (Vol. viii., pp. 127, 180.).-If Rabbi Mayir
Ben Isaac is the _bonâ fide_ author of the lines in question, or the
substance of them, then the author of the _Koran_ has been indebted to
him for the following passage:

    "If the sea were ink, to write the words of my Lord, verily the sea
    would fail before the words of my Lord would fail; although we added
    another sea unto it as a farther supply."--_Al Koran_, chap. xviii.,
    entitled "The Cave," translated by Sale.

The question is, Did Rabbi Mayir Ben Isaac, author of the Chaldee ode
sung in every synagogue on the day of Pentecost, flourish before or
since the Mohamedan era?

    J. W. THOMAS.

Dewsbury.


_"Hurrah!"_ (Vol. viii., pp. 20, 277, 323.).--It would almost deem that
we are never to hear the last of "Hurrah! and other war-cries." Your
correspondents T. F. and SIR J. EMERSON TENNENT appear to me to have
made the nearest approach to a satisfactory solution of the difficulty;
a step farther and the goal is won--the object of inquiry is found. I
suppose it will be admitted that the language which supplies the
_meaning_ of a word has the fairest claim to be considered its _parent_
language. What, then, is the meaning of "Hurrah," and in whet language?
As a reply to this Query, allow me to quote a writer in _Blackwood's
Magazine_, April 1843, p. 477.

    "'Hurrah!' means _strike_ in the Tartar language."--Note to art.
    "Amulet Bek."

So then, according to this respectable authority, the end of our shouts
and war-cries is, that we have "caught a Tartar!"

Again, in _Blackwood_, 1849, vol. i. p.673., we read:

    "He opened a window and cried 'Hourra!' At the signal, a hundred
    soldiers crowded into the house. Mastering his fury, the Czar
    ordered the young officer to be taken to prison."--Art. "Romance of
    Russian History."

Thus, in describing the "awful pause" on the night preceding the Russian
attack on Ismail, then in possession of the Turks, Lord Byron says:

  "A moment--and all will be life again!
   The march! the charge! the shouts of either faith!
  Hurra! and Allah! and--one instant more--
   The death-cry drowning in the battle's roar."
          _Works_, p. 684. col. 2.

    J. W. THOMAS.

Dewsbury.


_"Qui facit per alium facit per se"_ (Vol. viii., p. 231.).--"Qui facit
per alium, est perinde ac si faciat per seipsum," is one of the maxims
of Boniface VIII. (_Sexti Decret._, lib. v. tit. 12., de Reg. Jur. c.
72.; _Böhm. Corp. Jur. can._, tom. ii. col. 1040.), derived, according
to the glossary (vid. in _Decret._, ed. fol., Par. 1612), from the maxim
of Paulus (_Digest_, lib. 1. tit. 17., de Div. Reg. Jur. 1. 180.), "Quod
jussu alterius solvitur, pro eo est quasi ipsi solutum esset."

    E. M.


_Tsar_ (Vol. viii., pp. 150, 226.).--Is not _tsar_ rather cognate with
the Heb. (¤Sar¤), a leader, commander, or prince? This root is
to be found in many other languages, as Arabic, Persian; Latin _serro_.
Gesenius gives the meaning of the word (¤Sarah¤), to place in a
row, to set in order; to be leader, commander, prince. If _tsar_ have
this origin, it will be synonymous with _imperator_, emperor.

    B. H. C.


_Scrape_ (Vol. viii., p. 292.).--I do not know when this word began to
be used in this sense. Shakspeare says "Ay, there's the _rub:_" an
analogous phrase, which may throw light upon the one "to get into a
scrape." Both are metaphors, derived from the unpleasant sensations
produced by rubbing or grazing the skin. The word _pinch_ is, on the
same principle, used for difficulty; and the Lat. _tribulatio_=trouble,
and its synonym in Gr., ~thlipsis~, have a similar origin and
application. {423} "To get into a scrape" is, therefore, to get into
trouble.

    B. H. C.


_Baskerville_ (Vol. viii., p. 202.).--Among the _articles_ consumed at
Mr. Ryland's at Birmingham, was the body of the late Mr. Baskerville,
who by his will ordered that he should be buried in his own house, and
he was accordingly interred there. A stone closet was erected in it,
where he was deposited in a standing posture. The house was afterwards
sold with this express condition, that it should remain there."--Account
of the Birmingham riots in 1791, from the _Historical Magazine_, vol.
iii., where it is said the house was burned on Friday afternoon, July
15."

    B. H. C.


A great-uncle of mine owned the Baskerville property (he, Baskerville,
was buried in his own grounds) at the time of the Church and King Riot
in 1791; but it was the recent growth of the town that occasioned the
disinterment.

    R.


_Sheriffs of Glamorganshire_ (Vol. iii., p. 186.; Vol. viii., p.
353.).--Your correspondent TEWARS is certainly wrong in ascribing to the
Rev. H. H. Knight the list of Glamorganshire sheriffs inquired for by
EDMUND W. It is true this gentleman printed a list of them many years
after the former, which was privately printed by the Rev. J. M.
Traherne, and subsequently published a _Cardiff Guide_, by Mr. Bird of
Cardiff. I have seen both copies, and the latter may doubtless yet be
seen upon application to Mr. Bird. I have also seen the more recent list
by my learned friend the rector of Neath.

    BIBLIOTHECAR.

CHETHAM.


_Synge Family--sub voce Carr Pedigree_ (Vol. vii., p. 558.; Vol. viii.,
p. 327.).--Has the statement made by GULIELMUS, as to the origin of the
name of Synge, ever appeared in print before? And if so, where? I have
long been curious to identify the individual whose name underwent such a
singular change, and to ascertain if he really was a chantry priest as
reported. Was he George Synge, the grandfather of George Synge, Bishop
of Cloyne, born 1594? Of what family was Mary Paget, wife of the Rev.
Richard Synge, preacher at the Savoy in 1715? The name appears to have
been indifferently spelt, Sing, Singe, and Synge. And I believe an older
branch than the baronet's still exists at Bridgenorth, writing
themselves Sing. The punning motto of this family is worth noticing:
"Celestia canimus."

    ARTHUR PAGET.


_Lines on Woman_ (Vol. viii., p. 350).--Your correspondent F. W. J. has
occasioned me some perplexity in tracing the quotation which he refers
to Vol. viii., p. 204., but which is really to be found at p. 292. He
appears to have fallen into this error by mistaking the number on the
right hand for the paging on the left. As accuracy in these matters is
essential in a publication like "N. & Q.," he will excuse me for setting
him right. The name of the author of the poem of "Woman" was not Eton
Barrett, but Eaton Stannard Barrett. He was connected with the press in
London. Your correspondent is correct in stating that the Barretts were
from Cork. Eaton Stannard Barrett was a man of considerable ability. He
published several works anonymously, all of which acquired celebrity;
but I believe the poem of "Woman," published by Mr. Colburn, was the
only work to which he attached his name. He was the author of the
well-known political satire called _All the Talents_; of the mock
romance of _The Heroine_, in which the absurdities of a school of
fiction, at that time in high favour, are happily ridiculed; and of a
novel which had great success in its day, and is still to be found in
some of the circulating libraries, called _Six Weeks at Long's_. Eaton
Stannard Barrett died many years ago in the prime of his life and
powers. His brother, Richard Barrett, is still living, and resides in
the neighbourhood of Dublin. He is the author of some controversial and
political pamphlets, of which the principal were _Irish Priests_, and
_The Bible not a Dangerous Book_. He afterwards conducted _The Pilot_
newspaper, established for the support of Mr. O'Connell's policy in
Ireland, and was one of the persons who suffered imprisonment with Mr.
O'Connell, and who were designated in the Irish papers as the "martyrs."

    ROBERT BELL.


_Lisle Family_ (Vol. vii., p. 365. _et ante_).--R. H. C. will find in
Berry's _Hampshire Genealogies_ (1 vol. folio, London, 1833) a pedigree
of the Lisles he alludes to as being buried at Thruxton, Hampshire. The
shield, Lisle impaling Courtenay, on the altar tomb there would appear
to belong to Sir John Lisle, Kt., who married Joan, daughter of John
Courtenay, Earl of Exeter.

    ARTHUR PAGET.


_Duval Family_ (Vol. viii., p. 318.).--If H. will have the kindness to
address himself to me either personally or by letter, I shall be happy
to give him any information I can, derived from old family documents in
my possession, respecting the Duval family and the Walls of the south of
Ireland.

    C. A. DUVAL.

74. George St., Manchester.

       *       *       *       *       *


MISCELLANEOUS.

BOOKS AND OLD VOLUMES


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not unnecessarily appear in such list even a second time._

P. G. _We are not in a position to answer_ P. G.'s_inquiries. Why not
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A GERMAN INVESTIGATOR, _who states that some important moves towards the
"flying by man" have lately been made upon the Continent, and who
inquires "what noblemen or gentlemen would be likely to foster similar
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the journals devoted to mechanical science._

SCIOLUS. _The author of_ Doctor Syntax _was the well-known_ William
Coombe, _a curious list of whose works will be found in the_ Gentleman's
Magazine _for May, 1852, p. 467._

CHARLES DEMAYNE. _We have a letter for this Correspondent; where shall
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ERICA _will find his illustration of Campbell's_ Like Angel Visits
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J. N. C. (King's Lynn). _We have one or two Replies on the same subject
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A. J. V. (University Club) _will find his Query respecting_ Solamen
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_Our Correspondent_ C. E. F. (p. 373.) _is informed_--1. _That both the
solutions of the muriate salts and the nitrate of silver may be used in
the manner he proposes; but a portion of sugar of milk, mannite, or
grape sugar, as has been previously recommended, much accelerates the
process._ 2. _The positives should be printed about one-third deeper
than is required, and they should remain in the hypo. bath until the
mottled appearance is removed, which is visible when held up against the
light and they are looked through: at first the positive often assumes a
very unpleasant red colour; this gradually disappears by longer
immersion, when the proofs may be removed at the point of tint required,
remembering that they become rather darker when dry, especially if
ironed, and which is generally desirable, especially if the print is
rather pale._ 3. _The sel d'or does not seem to have the destructive
effect which the chloride of gold has, and if the chemicals are entirely
removed, in all probability they are quite permanent. Those which we
have seen printed several months since appear to have suffered no
change. Pictures produced by the ammonio-nitrate are most uncertain.
There are few who have not had the mortification to see some of their
best productions fade and disappear. A learned professor, about eighteen
months since, sent us a picture so printed "as something to work up to;"
a few yellowish stains are now all that remains on the paper._

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London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON,
West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1_s._

THE STEREOSCOPE.

Considered in relation to the Philosophy of Binocular Vision. An Essay,
by C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge.

London WALTON & MABERLEY, Upper Gower Street, and Ivy Lane, Paternoster
Row. Cambridge: J. DEIGHTON.

Also, by the same Author, price 1_s._,

REMARKS on some of Sir William Hamilton's Notes on the Works of Dr.
Thomas Reid.


"Nothing in my opinion can be more cogent than your refutation of M.
Jobert,"--_Sir W. Hamilton._

London: JOHN W. PARKER, West Strand.
Cambridge: E. JOHNSON.
Birmingham: H. C. LANGBRIDGE.

       *       *       *       *       *

(425)
W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the Possession
of Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake
searches among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient
Wills, or other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of
Literature, History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he
has had considerable experience.

1. ALBERT TERRACE, NEW CROSS,
HATCHAM, SURREY.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description
of upwards of 100 articles, consisting of

PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS,
Ladies' Portmanteaus,

DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling
requisites. Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on receipt of
Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best
articles of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

DAGUERREOTYPE MATERIALS.--Plates, Cases, Passepartoutes. Best and
Cheapest. To be had in great variety at

M'MILLAN'S Wholesale Depot, 132. Fleet Street.

Price List Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *

BANK OF DEPOSIT.

7. St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar Square, London.

PARTIES desirous of INVESTING MONEY are requested to examine the Plan of
this Institution, by which a high rate of Interest may be obtained with
perfect Security.

Interest payable in January and July.

PETER MORRISON,
Managing Director.

Prospectuses free on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class
X., in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all
Climates, may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior
Gold London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver
Cases, 8, 6, and 4 guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12,
10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior
Lever, with Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's
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skilfully examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers,
2_l._, 3_l._, and 4_l._ Thermometers from 1_s._ each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory,
the Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen.

65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAL & SON'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BEDSTEADS, sent free by post. It
contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different
Bedsteads: also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and Quilts.
And their new warerooms contain an extensive assortment of Bed-room
Furniture, Furniture Chintzes, Damasks, and Dimities, so as to render
their Establishment complete for the general furnishing of Bed-rooms.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers,
196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *

OLD CHURCH PSALMODY; a Manual of good and useful Tunes, either Old or in
Old Style. Edited by REV. W. H. HAVORGAL, M.A. Organ Score, 5_s._;
Single Parts, 1_s._ 4_d._ each Voice (Post Free).

The Editor has no pecuniary interest in this work, his sole object being
to assist the Publisher in bringing forward good Music, and to inculcate
sound taste respecting it.

London: JOSEPH HART, 109. Hatton Garden.

A CLASSIFIED LIST (the most Extensive of any House in the Trade) of
CHRISTMAS ANTHEMS, CAROLS, &c., for Choirs or Private Practice,
forwarded, Post Free, by JOSEPH HART, 109. Hatton Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *

IN THE PRESS.

In 1 vol. folio, price 10_s._ 6_d._

SUPPLEMENT TO THE MONASTICON DIOECESIS EXONIENSIS. Being a Collection
of Records and Instruments further illustrating the Ancient Conventual,
Collegiate, and Eleemosynary Foundations in the Counties of Devon and
Cornwall. By GEORGE OLIVER, D.D. To correspond exactly in size, paper,
and type with the original work, and to contain a large folding Map of
the Diocese of Exeter at the time of the Dissolution of Monasteries.
When published the price will be raised.

Subscribers' Names received by A. HOLDEN, Bookseller, Exeter.

       *       *       *       *       *

COMPLETION OF THE WORK. cloth 1_s._ by post, 1_s._ 6_d._, pp.
192.--WELSH SKETCHES, THIRD (and Last) SERIES. By the Author of
"Proposals for Christian Union."--Contents 1. Edward the Black Prince.
2. Owen Glendower, Prince of Wales. 3. Mediæval Bardism. 4. The Welsh
Church.

"Will be read with great satisfaction, not only by all sons of the
principality, but by all who look with interest on that portion of our
island in which the last traces of our ancient British race and language
still linger."--_Notes and Queries._

London: JAMES DARLING, 81. Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields.

       *       *       *       *       *

Solicitors' & General Life Assurance Society,

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_Subscribed Capital, ONE MILLION._

THIS SOCIETY PRESENTS THE FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES:

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Premiums affording particular advantages to Young Lives.

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POLICIES FREE OF STAMP DUTY and INDISPUTABLE, except in case of fraud.

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POLICIES share in the Profits, even if ONE PREMIUM ONLY has been paid.

Next DIVISION OF PROFITS in 1856.

The Directors meet on Thursdays at 2 o'clock. Assurances may be effected
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Office of the Society, where prospectuses and all other requisite
information can be obtained.

CHARLES JOHN GILL, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *

SAUNDERS & OTLEY'S PUBLICATIONS.

THE FLORAL LANGUAGE INTERPRETED.
Eleventh Edition, Coloured Plate, Silk Binding, a beautiful Gift Book,

THE LANGUAGE OF FLOWERS.
By the Editor of the "Forget Me Not."
Dedicated to the Duchess of Kent (by permission).

BY MRS. JAMESON.
Fourth Edition, 2 vols., with Designs by the Author,
CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN.
By the Author of "Legends of the Madonna,"
&c.

"Truly delightful volumes--the most charming of all the works of a
charming writer."--_Blackwood._

LIVES OF CELEBRATED FEMALE SOVEREIGNS. 2 vols. By the same Author.

TURNING IN ALL ITS BRANCHES. A Complete and Practical Guide to this
beautiful Science, entitled THE HANDBOOK OF TURNING. With numerous
Plates, price 7_s._ 6_d._ bound, and Post Free.

FOR WRITERS OF FICTION, POEMS, DRAMAS, PAMPHLETS, SERMONS, ESSAYS, ETC.,
HOW TO PRINT AND WHEN TO PUBLISH.

Advice to Authors, Inexperienced Writers, and Possessors of Manuscripts,
on the Efficient Publication of Books intended for General Circulation
or Private Distribution, sent Post Free to Orders enclosing Twelve
Stamps, addressed to

SAUNDERS & OTLEY, Publishers, Conduit Street, Hanover Square.

       *       *       *       *       *

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC PROCEEDINGS.

The Proprietors of the LIVERPOOL GENERAL REVIEW AND LOCAL ADVERTISER
HAVE made Arrangements to REPORT the PROCEEDINGS of the various LITERARY
and SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES in Liverpool, including the following:

  Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire.
  Liverpool Architectural and Archæological Society.
  Liverpool Photographic Society.
  Liverpool Polytechnic Society.
  Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society.
  Liverpool Chemists' Association.

Occasional Reports will also be given of Lectures delivered before the
Collegiate, Mechanics', and other Institutions.

The REVIEW, thus devoting itself to subjects of Scientific and Literary
interest, will, no doubt, prove acceptable to Members of Kindred
Societies throughout the Kingdom; and will be supplied on the
undermentioned terms:--

Unstamped, 3_s._ 6_d._ per annum. Stamped, 8_s._ per annum.

PUBLISHED EVERY WEDNESDAY.

May be had through all Booksellers and Newsmen, or forwarded from the
Office, 63. CHURCH STREET, LIVERPOOL.

       *       *       *       *       *

(426)
INDIGESTION, CONSTIPATION, NERVOUSNESS, &c.--BARRY, DU BARRY & CO.'S
HEALTH-RESTORING FOOD for INVALIDS and INFANTS.

THE REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, the only natural, pleasant, and effectual
remedy (without medicine, purging, inconvenience, or expense, as it
saves fifty times its cost in other remedies) for nervous, stomachic,
intestinal, liver and bilious complaints, however deeply rooted,
dyspepsia (indigestion), habitual constipation, diarrhoea, acidity,
heartburn, flatulency, oppression, distension, palpitation, eruption of
the skin, rheumatism, gout, dropsy, sickness at the stomach during
pregnancy, at sea, and under all other circumstances, debility in the
aged as well as infants, fits, spasms, cramps, paralysis, &c.

_A few out of 50,000 Cures_:--

Cure, No. 71, of dyspepsia; from the Right Hon. the Lord Stuart de
Decies:--"I have derived considerable benefits from your Revalenta
Arabica Food, and consider it due to yourselves and the public to
authorise the publication of these lines.--STUART DE DECIES."

Cure, No. 49,832:--"Fifty years' indescribable agony from dyspepsia,
nervousness, asthma, cough, constipation, flatulency, spasms, sickness
at the stomach and vomitings have been removed by Du Barry's excellent
food.--MARIA JOLLY, Wortham Ling, near Diss, Norfolk."

Cure, No. 180:--"Twenty-five years' nervousness, constipation,
indigestion, and debility, from which I had suffered great misery and
which no medicine could remove or relieve, have been effectually cured
by Du Barry's food in a very short time.--W. R. REEVES, Pool Anthony,
Tiverton."

Cure, No. 4,208:--"Eight years' dyspepsia, nervousness, debility, with
cramps, spasms, and nausea, for which my servant had consulted the
advice of many, have been effectually removed by Du Barry's delicious
food in a very short time. I shall be happy to answer any
inquiries.--REV. JOHN W. FLAVELL, Ridlington Rectory, Norfolk."

_Dr. Wurzer's Testimonial._

"Bonn, July 19, 1852.

"This light and pleasant Farina is one of the most excellent,
nourishing, and restorative remedies, and supersedes, in many cases, all
kinds of medicines. It is particularly useful in confined habit of body,
as also diarrhoea, bowel complaints, affections of the kidneys and
bladder, such as stone or gravel; inflammatory irritation and cramp of
the urethra, cramp of the kidneys and bladder, strictures, and
hemorrhoids. This really invaluable remedy is employed with the most
satisfactory result, not only in bronchial and pulmonary complaints,
where irritation and pain are to be removed, but also in pulmonary and
bronchial consumption, in which it counteracts effectually the
troublesome cough; and I am enabled with perfect truth to express the
conviction that Du Barry's Revalenta Arabica is adapted to the cure of
incipient hectic complaints and consumption.

"DR. RUD WURZER. "Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. in Bonn."

London Agents:--Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her
Majesty the Queen; Hedges & Butler, 155. Regent Street; and through all
respectable grocers, chemists, and medicine venders. In canisters,
suitably packed for all climates, and with full instructions, 1lb. 2_s._
9_d._; 2lb. 4_s._ 6_d._; 5lb. 11_s._; 12lb. 22_s._; super-refined, 5lb.
22_s._; 10lb. 33_s._ The 10lb. and 12lb. carriage free, on receipt of
Post-office order.--Barry, Du Barry Co., 77. Regent Street, London.

IMPORTANT CAUTION.--Many invalids having been seriously injured by
spurious imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta,
Arabaca, and others, the public will do well to see that each canister
bears the name BARRY, DU BARRY & CO., 77. Regent Street, London, in
full, _without which none is genuine_.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus
of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography
in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

Catalogues may be had on application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodised Collodion, for obtaining
Instantaneous Views and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds,
according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the
choicest Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their
Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand,
have, by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a
Collodion equal, they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of
Negative, to any other hitherto published; without diminishing the
keeping properties and appreciation of half tint for which their
manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.--OTTEWILL'S REGISTERED DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING
CAMERA, is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic
Tourist, from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal
Adjustment, its Portability, and its adaptation for taking either Views
or Portraits.--The Trade supplied.

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames,
&c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury
Road, Islington.

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS, MATERIALS, and PURE CHEMICAL PREPARATIONS.

KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price
of the best forms of Cameras and other Apparatus. Voightlander and Son's
Lenses for Portraits and Views, together with the various Materials, and
pure Chemical Preparations required in practising the Photographic Art.
Forwarded free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic
Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

CYANOGEN SOAP for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. Beware of
purchasing spurious and worthless imitations of this valuable detergent.
The genuine is made only by the inventor, and is secured with a red
label pasted round each pot, bearing this signature and address:--

RICHARD W. THOMAS, Chemist, Manufacturer of pure Photographic Chemicals,
10. Pall Mall, and may be procured of all respectable Chemists in pots
at 1_s._, 2_s._, and 3_s._ 6_d._ each, through MESSRS. EDWARDS, 67. St.
Paul's Churchyard, and MESSRS. BARCLAY & CO., Farringdon Street,
Wholesale Agents.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION.--An EXHIBITION of PICTURES, by the most
celebrated French, Italian, and English Photographers, embracing Views
of the principal Countries and Cities of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission
6_d._ A Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent Process, One Guinea; Three
extra Copies for 10_s._

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION, 168. NEW BOND STREET.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's,
Turner's, Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's
Process. Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY, 3. PARLIAMENT STREET.
LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

_Directors._

    H. E. Bicknell. Esq.
    T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
    G. H. Drew, Esq.
    W. Evans, Esq.
    W. Freeman, Esq.
    F. Fuller, Esq.
    J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
    T. Grissell, Esq.
    J. Hunt Esq.
    J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
    E. Lucas, Esq.
    J. Lys Seager, Esq.
    J. B. White, Esq.
    J. Carter Wood, Esq.

_Trustees._

W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.; T. Grissell, Esq.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application
to suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed
in the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100_l_., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

    Age    £  s.  d.
    17     1  14  4
    22     1  18  8
    27     2   4  5
    32     2  10  8
    37     2  18  6
    42     3   8  2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10_s._ 6_d._, Second Edition with material additions,
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE on BENEFIT
BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment,
exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies,
&c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life
Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life
Assurance Society, 3. Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

ACHILLES LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY,--25. CANNON STREET, CITY.--The
Advantages offered by this Society are Security, Economy, and lower
Rates of Premium than most other Offices.

No charge is made for Policy Stamps or Medical Fees. Policies
indisputable.

Loans granted to Policy-holders.

For the convenience of the Working Classes, Policies are issued as low
as 20_l._ at the same Rates of Premium as larger Policies.

Prospectuses and full particulars may be obtained on application to

HUGH B. TAPLIN, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *

{427}
NEW PUBLICATIONS.

ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING'S POETICAL WORKS. Third Edition. With
numerous Additions and Corrections. 2 vols. 16_s._

SKETCHES OF THE HUNGARIAN EMIGRATION INTO TURKEY. By a HONVED.
Fcap. 1_s._

THE TURKS IN EUROPE: a SKETCH of MANNERS and POLITICS in the OTTOMAN
EMPIRE. By BAYLE ST. JOHN. Post 8vo. 7_s._ 6_d._

CRANFORD. By the Author of "Mary Barton." Second Edition.
Fcap. 7_s._6_d._

THE DIARY OF MARTHA BETHUNE BALIOL, from 1753 to 1754. Post 8vo. 9_s._

CHAMOIS HUNTING IN THE MOUNTAINS OF BAVARIA. By CHARLES BONER. With
Illustrations. 8vo. 18_s._

NARRATIVE OF A MISSION TO CENTRAL AFRICA, performed in the years
1850-51, under the orders and at the expense of her Majesty's
Government. By the late JAMES RICHARDSON. 2 vols. 21_s._

LANGUAGE AS A MEANS OF MENTAL CULTURE AND INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION;
or, Manual of the Teacher and the Learner of Languages. By C. MARCEL,
KNT., L.H., French Consul at----. 2 vols. 16_s._

NIEBUHR'S LIFE AND LETTERS. With Selections from his Minor Writings.
Edited and Translated by SUSANNA WINKWORTH. With Essays on his Character
and Influence, by the CHEVALIER BUNSEN, and PROFESSORS BRANDIS and
LOEBELL. Second Edition. 3 vols. 8vo. 42_s._

ALTON LOCKE: TAILOR AND POET. By the REV. CHARLES KINGSLEY. Third
Edition. 7_s._

THE LIFE OF BERNARD PALISSY, OF SAINTES. By HENRY MORLEY. 2 vols. 18_s._


THOMAS CARLYLE'S WORKS.

THE LIFE OF JOHN STERLING. Second Edition. Post 8vo. 10_s._ 6_d._

SARTOR RESARTUS; or, THE LIFE AND OPINIONS OF HERR TEUFELSDROKH. Third
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LATTER-DAY PAMPHLETS. Post 8vo. 9_s._

OLIVER CROMWELL'S LETTERS AND SPEECHES. With Elucidations and Connecting
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THE LIFE OF SCHILLER. New Edition, with Portrait. Small 8vo. 8_s._ 6_d._

PAST AND PRESENT. Second edition. Post 8vo. 10_s._ 6_d._

LECTURES ON HEROES AND HERO-WORSHIP. Fourth Edition. Small 8vo. 9_s._

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. A HISTORY. Third Edition. 3vols. Post 8vo. 1_l._
11_s._ 6_d._

CRITICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS. Third Edition. 4 vols. Post 8vo.
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TRANSLATION OF GOETHE'S WILHELM-MEISTER. Second Edition. 3 vols. Small
8vo. 18_s._

London: CHAPMAN & HALL, 193. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *

On the First of November, 1853, will be Published,

NO. I.,

Containing Sixteen Pages, Crown Quarto, Price Three Halfpence, of

THE CHURCH OF THE PEOPLE,

A Monthly Journal of Literature, Science, the Fine Arts, &c., devoted to
the Religious, Moral, Physical, and Social Elevation of the great body
of the People.

This periodical, projected and conducted by a committee of Clergy and
Laity, in the heart of the manufacturing districts, is intended to
express the sympathies of earnest Churchmen towards both their brethren
in the faith, and their fellow-men in general.

Designed to avoid unreality, lukewarmness, and dry dogmatism, as well as
compromise and controversy--and not unmindful of things temporal, whilst
chiefly directed to things eternal--it is hoped that it may assist to
refresh the faithful, correct the erring, and win the unbeliever.

A trial is respectfully requested for it, and that at once.

It is a work of love, not of lucre; and, as such, is commended to the
brotherhood.

It will be eminently fitted for parochial distribution and, by God's
blessing, may do its part towards removing English heathenism.

*** Suggestions and communications, written in a plain, earnest, and
attractive style, are respectfully requested, and may be addressed to
the editors of "The Church of the People," care of MR. SOWLER, St. Ann's
Square, Manchester, to whom books for review, and advertisements, may be
sent.

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

Manchester: T. SOWLER, St. Ann's Square; A. HEYWOOD, Oldham Street; J.
HEYWOOD, Deansgate.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOHN'S STANDARD LIBRARY FOR NOVEMBER.

COWPER'S COMPLETE WORKS, edited by SOUTHEY; comprising his Poems,
Correspondence, and Translations with a Memoir of the Author.
Illustrated with Fifty Fine Engravings on Steel, after Designs by
Harvey. To be completed in 8 vols. Vol. I. containing Memoir. Post 8vo.,
cloth. 3_s._ 6_d._

HENRY G. BOHN, 4. 5. & 6. York Street,

Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOHN'S CLASSICAL LIBRARY FOR NOVEMBER.

APULEIUS, THE WORKS OF, comprising the Metamorphoses, or Golden Ass; the
Death of Socrates; Florida; and his Defences, or Essay on Magic. A New
and Literal Translation. To which added, a Metrical Version of Cupid and
Psyche; and Mrs. Tighe's Psyche, a Poem in Six Cantos. Fine
Frontispiece. Post 8vo., cloth. 5_s._

HENRY G. BOHN, 4. 5. & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOHN'S ECCLESIASTICAL LIBRARY FOR NOVEMBER.

SOCRATES, his ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY, in Continuation of EUSEBIUS, with
the Notes of VALESIUS. Post 8vo., cloth. 5_s._

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *

Will be published, November 23rd, THE BRITISH ALMANAC FOR 1854. Sewed in
Wrapper, price 1_s._

THE COMPANION TO THE ALMANAC. Sewed in Wrapper, price 2_s._ 6_d._

THE BRITISH ALMANAC AND THE COMPANION together, in cloth boards,
lettered, price 4_s._


_Extracts from Reviews, 1853._


"First in years, repute, and high utility must be placed 'The British
Almanac and Companion.'"--_Spectator._

"'The British' still maintains its place as foremost among
almanacs."--_Athenæum._

"For twenty-six years Mr. Knight has given the Almanac a
'Companion'--one always brimful of information and useful
knowledge."--_The Builder._

"The 'British Almanac and Companion' maintains its reputation as being
the very best work of the kind published."--_The Atlas._


London: CHARLES KNIGHT, 90. Fleet Street. And sold by all Booksellers in
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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the
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BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the
West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street
aforesaid.--Saturday, October 29, 1853.





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