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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 183, April 30, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 183, April 30, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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generously made available by The Internet Library of Early




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 183.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                               Page

  Proclamation of Henry VIII. against the Possession of
  Religious Books, by Joseph Burtt                        421

  Latin: Latiner                                          423

  Inedited Poems, by W. Honeycombe                        424

  Round Towers of the Cyclades                            425

  Shakspeare Correspondence, by C. Mansfield Ingleby, &c. 426

  General Monk and the University of Cambridge            427

  MINOR NOTES:--Curiosities of Railway Literature--
  Cromwell's Seal--Rhymes upon Places--Tom Track's Ghost  427


  Jacob Bobart and his Dragon, &c., By H. T. Bobart       428

  Bishop Berkeley's Portrait, by Dr. J. H. Todd           428

  MINOR QUERIES:--Life--"The Boy of Heaven"--
  Bells--Captain Ayloff--Robert Johnson--Selling a Wife--
  Jock of Arden--Inigo Jones--Dean Boyle--Euphormio--
  Optical Query--Archbishop King--Neal's Manuscripts--
  Whence the Word "Cossack?"--Picts' Houses and Argils--
  The Drummer's Letter--The Cardinal Spider--New England
  Genealogical Society, &c.                               429

  Dr. Wm. Cokayne, Dr. Samuel Kettilby--"Haulf Naked"     431


  The Legend of Lamech: Hebrew Etymology, by H. Walter,
  T. J. Buckton, and Joseph Rix                           432

  Lord Coke's Charge to the Jury                          433

  White Roses, by James Crossley                          434

  Burial of Unclaimed Corpse                              435

  Psalmanazar, by James Crossley                          435

  Grafts and the Parent Tree                              436

  Calotype Negatives                                      437

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Wood of the Cross--Bishops'
  Lawn Sleeves--Inscriptions in Books--Lines
  quoted by Charles Lamb--Parochial Libraries--Huet's
  Navigations of Solomon--Derby Municipal
  Seal--Annueller--Rev. Richard Midgley, Vicar of
  Rochdale--Nose of Wax--Canongate Marriages--Sculptured
  Emaciated Figures--Do the Sun's Rays
  put out the Fire?--Spontaneous Combustion--Ecclesia
  Anglicana--Wyle Cop--Chaucer--Campvere, Privileges
  of--Sir Gilbert Gerard--Mistletoe--Wild
  Plants and their Names--Coninger or Coningry            437


  Notes on Books, &c.                                     441

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                            442

  Notices to Correspondents                               442

  Advertisements                                          442

       *       *       *       *       *



The progress of the Reformation in England must have been greatly affected
by the extent to which the art of printing was brought to bear upon the
popular mind. Before the charms of Anne Boleyn could have had much effect,
or "doubts" had troubled the royal conscience, Wolsey had been compelled to
forbid the introduction or printing of books and tracts calculated to
increase the unsettled condition of the faith.

The following proclamation, now for the first time printed, may have
originated in the ineffectual result of the cardinal's directions. The
readers of Strype and Fox will see that the threats which both contain were
no idle ones, and that men were indeed "corrected and punisshed for theyr
contempte and disobedience, to the terrible example of other lyke

The list of books prohibited by the order of 1526 contains all those
mentioned by name in the present proclamation, except the _Summary of
Scripture_; and it will be seen that such full, general terms are used that
no obnoxious production could escape, if brought to light. The _Revelation
of Antichrist_ was written by Luther.

Strype does not seem to have been aware of the existence of this particular
proclamation, which was issued in the year 1530. Under the year 1534
(_Ecclesiastical Memorials, &c._, Oxford, 1822, vol. i. part i. p. 253.),
he thus refers to what he thought to be the first royal proclamation upon
the subject:

    "Much light was let in among the common people by the New Testament and
    other good books in English, which, for the most part being printed
    beyond sea, were by stealth brought into England, and dispersed here by
    well-disposed men. For the preventing the importation and using of
    these books, the king this year issued out a strict proclamation, by
    the petition of the clergy now met in Convocation, in the month of

    "Nor was this the first time such books were prohibited to be brought
    in: for us small quantities of them were secretly conveyed into these
    parts from time to time, for the discovering, in that dark age, the
    {422} gross papal innovations, as well in the doctrine of the Sacrament
    as in image-worship, addressing to saints, purgatory, pilgrimages, and
    the like.

    "A previous order (in the year 1526) was issued by the Bishop of
    London, by the instigation of Cardinal Wolsey, calling in all English
    translations of the Scripture. And other books of this nature were then

This proclamation, therefore, well merits preservation in your pages, as
one of the hitherto unknown "evidences" of the terrible and trying times to
which it refers.

It shows, too, the value of the class of papers upon which the Society of
Antiquaries are bestowing so much attention. The original was found among a
miscellaneous collection in the Chapter House, Westminster.



    ... nse Junii Anno regni metuendissimi Domini nostri Regis Henrici
    Octavi xxij.

        A PROCLAMATION, made and divysed by the Kyngis Highnes, with the
        advise of His Honorable Counsaile, for dampning of erronious bokes
        and heresies, and prohibitinge the havinge of Holy Scripture
        translated into the vulgar tonges of englische, frenche, or duche,
        in suche maner as within this proclamation is expressed.

    The Kinge, oure most dradde soveraigne lorde, studienge and providynge
    dayly for the weale, benefite, and honour of this his most [n]oble
    realme, well and evidently perceiveth, that partly through the
    malicious suggestion of our gostly enemy, partly by the yvell and
    perverse inclination and sedicious disposition of sundry persons,
    divers heresies and erronio[us] [o]pinions have ben late sowen and
    spredde amonge his subjectes of this his said realme, by blasphemous
    and pestiferous englishe bokes, printed in other regions and sent into
    this realme, to the entent as well to perverte and withdrawe the people
    from the catholike and true fayth of Christe, as also to stirre and
    incense them to sedition and disobedience agaynst their princes,
    soveraignes, and heedes, as also to cause them to contempne and neglect
    all good lawes, customes, and vertuous maners, to the final subversion
    and desolacion of this noble realme, if they myght have prevayled
    (which God forbyd) in theyr most cursed [p]ersuasions and malicious
    purposes. Where upon the kynges hignes (_sic_), by his incomparable
    wysedome, forseinge and most prudently considerynge, hath invited and
    called to hym the primates of this his gracis realme, and also a
    sufficient nombre of discrete, vertuous, and well-lerned personages in
    divinite, as well of either of the universites, Oxforde and Cambrige,
    as also hath chosen and taken out of other parties of his realme;
    gyvinge unto them libertie to speke and declare playnly their advises,
    judgmentes, and determinations, concernynge as well the approbation or
    rejectynge of suche bokes as be in any parte suspected, as also the
    admission and divulgation of the Olde and Newe Testament translated
    into englishe. Wher upon his highnes, in his owne royall person,
    callynge to hym the said primates and divines, hath seriously and
    depely, with great leisure and longe deliberation, consulted, debated,
    inserched, and discussed the premisses: and finally, by all their free
    assentes, consentes, and agrementes, concluded, resolved, and
    determyned, that these bokes ensuynge, that is to say, the boke
    entitled the wicked Mammona, the boke named the Obedience of a Christen
    Man, the Supplication of Beggars, and the boke called the Revelation of
    Antichrist, the Summary of Scripture, and divers other bokes made in
    the englisshe tonge, and imprinted beyonde y^e see, do conteyne in them
    pestiferous errours and blasphemies; and for that cause, shall from
    hensforth be reputed and taken of all men, for bokes of heresie, and
    worthy to be dampned, and put in perpetuall oblivion. The kingis said
    highnes therfore straitly chargeth and commandeth, all and every his
    subjectes, of what astate or condition so ever he or they be, as they
    wyll avoyde his high indignacion and most grevous displeasure, that
    they from hensforth do not bye, receyve, or have, any of the bokes
    before named, or any other boke, beinge in the englisshe tonge, and
    printed beyonde the see, of what matter so ever it be, or any copie
    written, drawen out of the same, or the same bokes in the frenche or
    duche tonge. And to the entent that his highnes wylbe asserteyned, what
    nombre of the said erronious bokes shal be founde from tyme to tyme
    within this his realme, his highnes therfore chargeth and commaundeth,
    that all and every person or persones, whiche hath or herafter shall
    have, any boke or bokes in the englisshe tonge, printed beyonde the
    see, as is afore written, or any of the sayde erronious bokes in the
    frenche or duche tonge: that he or they, within fyftene dayes nexte
    after the publisshynge of this present proclamation, do actually
    delyver or sende the same bokes and every of them to the bisshop of the
    diocese, wherin he or they dwelleth, or to his commissary, or els
    before good testimonie, to theyr curate or parisshe preest, to be
    presented by the same curate or parisshe preest to the sayd bisshop or
    his commissary. And so doynge, his highnes frely pardoneth and
    acquiteth them, and every of them, of all penalties, forfaitures, and
    paynes, wherin they have incurred or fallen, by reason of any statute,
    acte, ordinaunce, or proclamation before this tyme made, concernynge
    any offence or transgression by than commytted or done, by or for the
    kepynge or holdynge of the sayde bokes.

    Forseen and provided alwayes, that they from hensforth truely do
    observe, kepe, and obey this {423} his present gracis proclamation and
    commaundement. Also his highnes commaundeth all mayres, sheriffes,
    bailliffes, constables, bursholders, and other officers and ministers
    within this his realme, that if they shall happen by any meanes or
    wayes to knowe that any person or persons do herafter bye, receyve,
    have, or deteyne any of the sayde erronious bokes, printed or written
    anywhere, or any other bokes in englisshe tonge printed beyonde the
    see, or the saide erronious bokes printed or written in the frenche or
    duche tonge, contrarie to this present proclamation, that they beinge
    therof well assured, do immediatly attache the said person or persons,
    and brynge hym or them to the kynges highnes and his most honorable
    counsayle; where they shalbe corrected and punisshed for theyr
    contempte and disobedience, to the terrible example of other lyke

    Moreover his highnes commaundeth, that no maner of person or persons
    take upon hym or them to printe any boke or bokes in englisshe tonge,
    concernynge holy scripture, not before this tyme printed within this
    his realme, untyll suche tyme as the same boke or bokes be examyned and
    approved by the ordinary of the diocese where the said bokes shalbe
    printed: And that the printer therof, upon every of the sayde bokes
    beinge so examyned, do sette the name of the examynour or examynours,
    with also his owne name, upon the saide bokes, as he will answere to
    the kynges highnes at his uttermost peryll.

    And farthermore, for as moche as it is come to the herynge of our sayde
    soveraigne lorde the kynge, that reporte is made by dyvers and many of
    his subjectes, that it were to all men not onely expedyent, but also
    necessarye, to have in the englisshe tonge bothe the newe testament and
    the olde, and that his highnes, his noble men, and prelates, were
    bounden to suffre them so to have it: His highnes hath therfore
    semblably there upon consulted with the sayde primates ... discrete,
    and well lerned personages, in divinite forsayde, and by them all it is
    thought, that it is not necessary th ... to be in the englisshe tonge,
    and in the handes of the commen people; but that the distrib ... the
    said scripture ... denyenge therof dependeth onely upon the discretion
    of the superiours, as ... to the malignite of this present tyme, with
    the inclination of the people to erroni ... the olde in to the vulgare
    tonge of englysshe, shulde rather be the occasyon of ... people, than
    any benfyte or commodite to warde the weale of their soules. And ... e
    have the holy scripture expouned to them by preachers in theyr sermons,
    ac ... this tyme, All be it if it shall here after appere to the kynges
    highnes, that his sa ... rse, erronious, and sedicious opinyons, with
    the newe testment and the olde, corrup ... ge in printe: And that the
    same bokes and all other bokes of heresye, as well ... termynate and
    exiled out of this realme of Englande for ever: his highnes e ... great
    lerned and catholyke persones, translated in to the englisshe tonge, if
    it sha[ll] than seme t ... conv ... his highnes at this tyme, by the
    hoole advise and full determination of all the said primates, and ...
    discrete and subs ... lerned personages of both universites, and other
    before expressed, and by the assent of his nobles and others of his
    moste hon[orab]le Counsayle, wylleth and straytly commaundeth, that all
    and every person and persones, of what astate, degre, or condition so
    ever he or they be, whiche hath the newe testament or the olde
    translated in to englysshe, or any other boke of holy scripture so
    translated, beynge in printe, or copied out of the bokes nowe beinge in
    printe, that he or they do immediatly brynge the same boke or bokes, or
    cause the same to be broughte to the bysshop of the dyocese where he
    dwelleth, or to the handes of other the sayde persones, at the daye
    afore limytted, in fourme afore expressed and mencioned, as he wyll
    avoyde the kynges high indignation and displeasure. And that no person
    or persons from hensforth do bye, receyve, kepe, or have the newe
    testament or the olde in the englisshe tonge, or in the frenche or
    duche tonge, excepte suche persones as be appoynted by the kinges
    highnes and the bisshops of this his realme, for the correction or
    amending of the said translation, as they will answere to the kynges
    highnes at theyr uttermost perils, and wyll avoyde suche punisshement
    as they, doynge contrary to the purport of this proclamation shall
    suffre, to the dredefull example of all other lyke offenders.

    And his highnes further commaundeth, that all suche statutes, actes and
    ordinances, as before this tyme have been made and enacted, as well in
    y^e tyme of his moste gracious reigne, as also in the tyme of his noble
    progenitours, concernying heresies, and havynge and deteynynge
    erronyous bokes, contrary and agynst the faythe catholyke, shall
    immediatly be put in effectuall and due execution over and besyde this
    present proclamation.

    And god save the kynge.

       *       *       *       *       *

    THO. BERTHELETUS, Regius impressor excusit.
    Cum privilegio.

       *       *       *       *       *


It is interesting to note the great variety of significations in which the
word Latin has been used. Sometimes it means Italian, sometimes Spanish,
sometimes the Romance language. Again, it has been used as synonymous with
language, learning, discourse; or to express that a matter is plain and
intelligible. {424}

Muratori, in describing the "Cangiamento dell' Lingua Latina nella volgare
Italiana," observes,--

    "Così a poco a poco il volgo di questa bella Provincia [Italia], oltre
    adottare moltissimi vocaboli forestieri, andò ancora alterando i
    proprj, cioè i Latini, cambiando le terminazioni delle parole,
    accorciandole, allungandole, e corrompendole. In somma se ne formò un
    nuovo Linguaggio, che _Volgare_ si appellava, perchè usato dal _Volgo
    d'Italia._"--Muratori, _Della Perfetta Poesia Italiana_, tomo i. p. 6.,
    ed. Venez., 1730.

So Boccaccio, giving an account of the intention of his poem, the
"Teseide," writes,--

 "Ma tu, o libro, primo al lor cantare
  Di Marte fai gli affanni sostenuti,
  Nel _vulgar latino_ mai non veduti,"

where, as in the letter to La Fiammetta, prefixed to this poem, _vulgar
latino_ is evidently Italian ("Trovata una antichissima storia ... in
_latino volgare_ ... ho ridotta"), and not the Provençal tongue, as Mr.
Craik suggests in his _Literature and Learning in England_, vol. ii. p.
48., where he supposes Boccaccio to have translated _from_, and not, as is
clear, _into_, _latino volgare_.

Dante repeatedly uses Latino for Italiano, as in _Purgatorio_, xi. 58.:

 "Io fui Latino, e nato d'un gran Tosco."

And in _Inf._ xxii. 65.:

 "Conosci tu alcun, che sia Latino."

In _Paradiso_, iii. 63.,

 "Sì che il raffigurar m' è più _latino_,"

_latino_ evidently means easy, clear, plain. "Forse contrario di barbaro,
strano," says Volpi, "noi Lombardi in questo significato diciamo _ladin_."
The "discreto latino" of Thomas Aquinas, elsewhere in _Paradiso_ (xii.
144.), must mean "sage discourse." Chaucer, when he invokes the muse, in
the proeme to the second book of "Troilus and Creseide," only asks her for
rhyme, because, saith he,--

 "Of no sentement I this endite,
  But out of _Latine_ in my tongue it write."

Where "Latine," of course, means Boccaccio's _Filostrato_, from which
Chaucer's poem is taken.

In the "Poema del Cid," _latinado_ seems to mean person conversant with the
Spanish or Romance language of the period:

 "Quando esta falsedad dicien los de Carrion,
  Un Moro _Latinado_ bien gelo entendio."--v. 2675.

Mr. Ticknor remarks, that when the Christian conquests were pushed on
towards the south of Spain, the Moors, who remained inclosed in the
Christian population, and spoke or assumed its language, were originally
called _Moros Latinados_; and refers to the _Cronica General_, where,
respecting Alfaraxi, a Moor, afterwards converted, and a counsellor of the
Cid, it is said he was "de tan buen entendimento, e era tan _ladino_ que
semejava Christiano."--Ticknor, _Hist. Span. Lit._, iii. 347.

Cervantes (_Don Q._ Parte I. cap. xli.) uses _ladino_ to mean Spanish:

    "Servianos de interprete a las mas destas palabras y razones el padre
    de Zoraida como mas _ladino_."

Latin, in fact, was so much _the_ language as to become almost synonymous
with _a_ language. So a _Latiner_ was an interpreter, as it is very well
expressed in Selden's _Table Talk_, art. "Language":

    "Latimer is the corruption of _Latiner_: it signifies he that
    interprets Latin; and though he interpreted French, Spanish, or
    Italian, he was the king's Latiner, that is, the king's interpreter."

This use of the word is well illustrated in the following extracts:

 "A Knight ther language lerid in youth;
  Breg hight that Knight, born Bretoun,
  That lerid the language of Sessoun.
  This Breg was the _Latimer_,
  What scho said told Vortager."--Robert de Brunne's _Metrical Chronicle._

 "Par soen demein _latinier_
      .    .    .    .
  Icil Morice iert _latinier_
  Al rei Dermot, ke mult l'out cher."--_Norman-French Chronicle of Conquest
      of Ireland_, edited by F. Michel (as quoted in Wright's _Essays_,
      vol. ii. p. 215.).

I here conclude, as I must not seek to monopolise space required for more
valuable contributions.

J. M. B.

Tunbridge Wells.

       *       *       *       *       *


I send you two poems which I have found in a little rough scrap-book of a
literary character of last century, and which, not having myself met with
in print, I trust you will consider worth preserving in your pages. The one
styled "A Scotch Poem on the King and the Queen of the Fairies," has a vein
of playful satire running through it, but I do not detect any word which
justifies the ascription of its paternity to Scotland. Perhaps some of your
readers would oblige me by indicating the source from which this poem has
been taken, if it is already in print.


  Upon a time the Fairy Elves,
  Being first array'd themselves,
  Thought it meet to clothe their King
  In robes most fit for revelling.

  He had a cobweb shirt more thin
  Than ever spider since could spin,
  Bleach'd in the whiteness of the snow,
  When that the northern winds do blow.

  A rich waistcoat they did him bring,
  Made of the troutfly's golden wing,
  Dy'd crimson in a maiden's blush,
  And lin'd in humming-bees' soft plush.

  His hat was all of lady's love,
  So passing light, that it would move
  If any gnat or humming fly
  But beat the air in passing by.

  About it went a wreath of pearl,
  Dropt from the eyes of some poor girl,
  Pinch'd because she had forgot
  To leave clean water in the pot.

  His breeches and his cassock were
  Made of the tinsel gossamer;
  Down by its seam there went a lace
  Drawn by an urchin snail's slow pace.

  No sooner was their King attir'd
    As never prince had been,
  But, as in duty was requir'd,
    They next array their Queen.

  Of shining thread shot from the sun
    And twisted into line,
  In the light wheel of fortune spun,
    Was made her smock so fine.

  Her gown was ev'ry colour fair,
    The rainbow gave the dip;
  Perfumed from an amber air,
    Breath'd from a virgin's lip.

  Her necklace was of subtle tye
    Of glorious atoms, set
  In the pure black of beauty's eye
    As they had been in jet.

  The revels ended, she put off,
    Because her Grace was warm;
  She fann'd her with a lady's scoff,
    And so she took no harm.

Mrs. Barbauld wrote the following lines on a scroll within a kind of
wreath, which hung over the chimney, the whole parlour being decorated with
branches of ivy, which were made to run down the walls and hang down every
pannel in festoons, at a country place called Palgrave:

  Surly Winter, come not here,
  Bluster in thy proper sphere;
  Howl along the naked plain;
  There exert they joyless reign.
  Triumph o'er the wither'd flow'r,
  The leafless shrub, the ruin'd bower;
  But our cottage come not near,
  Other Springs inhabit here,
  Other sunshine decks our board
  Than they niggard skies afford.
  Gloomy Winter, hence away,
  Love and fancy scorn they sway;
  Love, and joy, and friendly mirth
  Shall bless this roof, these walls, this hearth,
  The rigor of the year control,
  And thaw the winter in the soul.



       *       *       *       *       *


On Friday evening, Nov. 19, 1852, a lecture was delivered before the
members of the Literary and Scientific Institute of this island, by Capt.
Graves, R.N., from which I have been permitted to take the following
extract. The information contained in it, will doubtless be the more
interesting to many of the reader of "N. & Q.," when informed that the
round towers of Greece are fast disappearing; either from being pulled down
for the erection of dwellings, or to be burnt into lime, by the Greeks who
dwell in their neighbourhood. What the original dimensions of these towers
may have been in ancient times, or for what purposes they were erected, are
alike unknown; but their present proportions are as follow, and drawn by
the learned lecturer from personal observation:

                                                      Feet.  In.
  "A. Andros, near the port                Height      60     0

   B. Zea overlooking Perses Bay         { Height       5     5
                                         { Diameter    26     6
                                         { Wall         2     0

   C. Thermia                            { Height      11     0
                                         { Diameter    28     5

   D. Serpho                             { Height      15     0
                                         { Diameter    27     0

   E. Beach of Port Pharos               { Height       7     0
                                         { Diameter    31     8
                                         { Wall         2     6

   F. Hillock, west side of Pharos       { Height      16     6
                                         { Diameter    42    10
                                         { Wall         3     0

   G. Village of Herampili               { Height      15     8
                                         { Diameter    38     3
                                         { Wall    4 to 2     6

   H. Valley beyond villages             { Height      11    10
                                         { Diameter    33     5
                                         { Wall         4     0

   J. Short distance west of Mount Elias { Height       6     0
                                         { Diameter    24     7
                                         { Wall         5     0

   K. Between Elias and west coast       { Height       6     6
                                         { Diameter    28     0
                                         { Wall         4     0

   L. Naxos, south-east end of the island  Height      50     0

   M. Paros, north, port Naussa.
        Of this tower only a few
        courses of the stones are
        left. It is however supposed
        to have been of
        the same dimensions as
        that of Naxos."

W. W.


       *       *       *       *       *



_Songs and Rimes of Shakspeare._--I find in Mr. J. P. Collier's _History of
Dramatic Poetry_ (a work replete with dramatic lore and anecdote) the
following note in p. 275., vol. iii.:

    "The Mitre and the Mermaid were celebrated taverns, which the poets,
    wits, and gallants were accustomed to visit. Mr. Thorpe, the
    enterprising bookseller of Bedford Street, is in possession of a
    manuscript full of songs and poems, in the handwriting of a person of
    the name of Richard Jackson, all copied prior to the year 1631, and
    including many unpublished pieces, by a variety of celebrated poets.
    One of the most curious is a song in five seven-line stanzas, thus
    headed: 'Shakespeare's Rime, which he made at the Mytre in Fleete
    Streete.' It begins: 'From the rich Lavinian shore;' and some few of
    the lines were published by Playford, and set as a catch. Another
    shorter piece is called in the margin,--

             'SHAKESPEARE'S RIME.

      Give me a cup of rich Canary wine,
      Which was the Mitres (drink) and now is mine;
      Of which had Horace and Anacreon tasted,
      Their lives as well as lines till now had lasted.'

    "I have little doubt," adds Mr. Collier, "that the lines are genuine,
    as well as many other songs and poems attributed to Ben Jonson, Sir W.
    Raleigh, H. Constable, Dr. Donne, J. Sylvester, and others."

Who was the purchaser of this precious MS.? In this age of Shakspearian
research, when every newly discovered relic is hailed with intense delight,
may I inquire of some of your numerous readers, who seem to take as much
delight as myself in whatever concerns our great dramatist and his
writings, whether they can throw any light upon the subject?

    Again: "A peculiar interest," Mr. Collier says, "attaches to one of the
    pieces in John Dowland's _First Book of Songs_ (p. 57.), on account of
    the initials of 'W. S.' being appended to it, in a manuscript of the
    time preserved in the Hamburgh City Library. It is inserted in
    _England's Helicon_, 4to., 1600, as from Dowland's _Book of Tablature_,
    without any name or initials; and looking at the character and language
    of the piece, it is at least not impossible that it was the work of our
    great dramatist, to whom it has been assigned by some continental
    critics. A copy of it was, many years ago, sent to the author by a
    German scholar of high reputation, under the conviction that the poem
    ought to be included in any future edition of the works of Shakspeare.
    It will be admitted that the lines are not unworthy of his pen; and,
    from the quality of other productions in the same musical work, we may
    perhaps speculate whether Shakspeare were not the writer of some other
    poems there inserted. If we were to take it for granted, that a sonnet
    in _The Passionate Pilgrim_, 1599, was by Shakspeare, because it is
    there attributed to him, we might be sure that he was a warm admirer of

                 'whose heavenly touch
      Upon the lute doth ravish human sense.'

    However, it is more than likely, that the sonnet in which this passage
    is found was by Barnfield, and not by Shakspeare: it was printed by
    Barnfield in 1598, and reprinted by him in 1605, notwithstanding the
    intermediate appearance of it in _The Passionate Pilgrim_."

May I inquire if any new light has been thrown upon this disputed song
since the publication of Mr. Collier's _Lyric Poems_ in 1844?

The song is addressed to Cynthia, and, as Mr. Collier says, is not unworthy
of Shakspeare's muse. As it is not of any great length, perhaps it may be
thought worthy of insertion in "N. & Q."

             "TO CYNTHIA.

 "My thoughts are wing'd with hopes, my hopes with love;
    Mount, love, unto the moone in cleerest night,
  And say, as she doth in the heavens move,
    In earth so wanes and waxes my delight:
  And whisper this, but softly, in her eares,
  Hope oft doth hang the head, and trust shed teares.

 "And you, my thoughts, that some mistrust do cary,
    If for mistrust my mistresse do you blame,
  Say, though you alter, yet you do not vary,
    As she doth change, and yet remaine the same.
  Distrust doth enter hearts, but not infect,
  And love is sweetest season'd with suspect.

 "If she for this with cloudes do maske her eyes,
    And make the heavens darke with her disdaine,
  With windie sighes disperse them in the skies,
    Or with the teares dissolve them into rain.
  Thoughts, hopes, and love return to me no more,
  Till Cynthia shine as she hath done before."

J. M. G.


_Mr. Collier's "Notes and Emendations:" Passage in "All's Well that Ends

             "O you leaden messengers,
  That ride upon the violent speed of fire,
  Fly with false aim; move the still-peering air,
  That sings with piercing, do not touch my lord!"

Such is the text of the first folio. MR. PAYNE COLLIER, at p. 162. of his
_Notes and Emendations_, informs us that the old corrector of his folio of
1632 reads _volant_ for "violent," _wound_ for "move," and _still-piecing_
for "still-peering."

Two of these substitutions are easily shown to be correct. In the
_Tempest_, Act III. Sc. 3., we read:

                     "The elements,
  Of whom your swords are tempered, may as well
  _Wound the loud winds, or with bemockt-at stabs_
  _Kill the still-closing waters_."

What is _still-closing_ but _still-piecing_, the silent reunion after
severance? What is to _wound the loud winds_ but to _wound the air that
sings with piercing_?

But as to the third substitution, I beg permission through your pages to
enter a _caveat_. If {427} we had no proof from the text of Shakspeare that
_violent_ is the correct reading, I fancy that any reader's common sense
would tell him that it is more an appropriate and trenchant term than
_volant_. "What judgment would _stoop_ from this to this?" _Volant_,
moreover, is not English, but French, and as such is used in _Henry V._;
but happily, in this case, we have most abundant evidence from the text of
Shakspeare that he wrote _violent_ in the above passage. In _Henry VIII._,
Act I. Sc. 1., we have the passage,

                 "We may outrun,
  By _violent swiftness_, that which we run at,
  And lose by over-running."

In _Othello_, Act III. Sc. 3., we have the passage,

 "Even so my bloody thoughts, with _violent pace_,
  Shall ne'er look back."

These passages prove that _violent_ is a true Shakspearian epithet for
_velocity_. But how exquisitely appropriate is the epithet when applied to
the velocity of a ball issuing from the mouth of a cannon: and here we have
full confirmation from _Romeo and Juliet_, Act V. Sc. 1., where we read:

 "As _violently_ as hasty powder fir'd
  Doth hurry from the fatal cannon's womb."

I trust that MR. COLLIER will not, in the teeth of such evidence,
substitute _volant_ for _violent_ in correcting the text of his forthcoming



       *       *       *       *       *


A document has recently come into my possession which may perhaps be deemed
worth preserving in the pages of "N. & Q." It is a letter from the
University of Cambridge to General Monk, and, from the various corrections
which occur in it, it has every appearance of being the original draft.
Unfortunately it is not dated; but there can, I presume, be little doubt of
its having been written shortly before the assembling of the parliament in
April, 1660, which led to the Restoration, and in which Monk sat as member
for the county of Devon. The words erased in the original are here placed
between parentheses, and those substituted are given in Italics:

        My Lord,

    As it hath pleased God to make your Excell^{cie} eminently instrumental
    for the raising up of three gasping and dying nations, into the faire
    hopes and prospect of peace and settlement, so hath He engraven you (r
    name) in characters of gratitude upon the hearts of all (true) _to_
    who_m_ (cordially wish) the welfare of _this_ church and state (are)
    _is_ deare and pretious. (Out) From this principle it is that our
    University of Cambridge hath, with great alacrity and unanimity, made
    choyse of your Excellency with whom to deposite the(ire) managing of
    theire concernments in the succeeding Parl^t, w^{ch}, if your
    Excell^{cy} shall please to admitt into a favourable (interpretation)
    _acceptance_, (you will thereby) you will thereby (add) _put_ a further
    obligation of gratitude upon us all; w^{ch} none shalbe more ready to
    expresse than he who is

      Your Excell^{cies} most humble serv^t,
                  W. D.

    To the L^d General Monk.

Who was "W. D."? Was he the then Vice-Chancellor?


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Curiosities of Railway Literature._--Has "Bradshaw" had any reviewers? If
not, an example or two from this neighbourhood, of the absurdities which
reappear month after month in the time-tables, may show the necessity of
them. A Midland train proposes to leave Gloucester at 12.40 p.m., and reach
Cheltenham at 1 p.m. The Great Western Company advertise an express train,
on the _very same line_, to leave two minutes _later_ and arrive five
minutes _earlier_. It is therefore obvious, that if these trains were to
keep their proper time, the express must run into the slow coach in front.
The Great Western Railway Company have also, in a very unassuming manner,
been advertising a feat hitherto unparalleled in the annals of railway
speed,--the mail from Cheltenham at 8.20 a.m. to leave Gloucester at 8.27;
that is to say, seven miles, including starting, slackening speed at two or
three "crossings," stopping, starting again, all in seven minutes! Let the
narrow gauge beat this if it can.

H. H.


_Cromwell's Seal._--I am in possession of a fine seal; it is a beautiful
engraving of the head of Oliver Cromwell, and was once his property: he
presented it to a favourite officer, whose nephew, to whom it was
bequeathed, gave it to the father of the lady from whom I received it a few
years ago. Thus I am in the singular position of being the _fifth_ holder
of it from the Protector.

Y. S. M.


_Rhymes upon Places._--Buckinghamshire:

 "Brill upon the Hill,
    Oakley in the Hole,
  Shabby little Ickford,
    Dirty Worminghall."

H. T.


_Tom Track's Ghost._--The following piece of metrical romance has dwelt in
my memory as long {428} as I have been able to remember. I have never seen
it in print, nor heard it, at least for some years, from any one else; and
have not been able to discover who wrote it:

 "Tom Track he came from Buenos Ayres;
  And now, thought I, for him who cares:
  But soon his coming wrought me woe;
  He misled Poll,--as you shall know.
  All in the togs that I had bought,
  With that ere Tom she did consort,
  Which gave my feelings great concern,
  And caused a row,--as you shall learn.
  So then challenge Tom I did;
  We met, shook hands, and took a quid;
  I shot poor Tom.--The worse for me;
  It brought his ghost,--as you shall see.
  Says he, 'I'm Tom Track's ghost, that's flat.'
  Says I, 'Now only think on that.'
  Says he, 'I'm come to torment you now;'
  Which was hard lines,--as you'll allow.
 'So, Master Ghost, belay your jaw;
  For if on me you claps a claw,
  My locker yonder will reveal,
  A tight rope's end, which you shall feel.'
  Then off his winding-sheet he throwed,
  And by his trousers Tom I knowed;
  He wasn't dead; but come to mess,
  So here's an end,--as you may guess."

The _implicatio_, the _agnitio_, and the _peripetia_ are so well worked
out, that Aristotle would, I think, be compelled to admit it as an almost
perfect specimen of that most ancient kind of drama which was recited by
one actor. I refer especially to C. XXII. of the _Poetics_, which says,
that that _agnitio_ is most beautiful which is joined with the _peripetia_,
of which here we have so striking an example. These reasons embolden me to
ask if it be worth preserving in "N. & Q," and who was the author?



       *       *       *       *       *



Dr. Zachary Grey, in his edition of _Hudibras_, vol. i. p. 125., relates
the following anecdote:

    "Mr. Jacob Bobart, Botany Professor of Oxford, did, about forty years
    ago (in 1704), find a dead rat in the Physic Garden, which he made to
    resemble the common picture of dragons, by altering its head and tail,
    and thrusting in taper sharp sticks, which distended the skin on each
    side till it mimicked wings. He let it dry as hard as possible. The
    learned immediately pronounced it a dragon, and one of them sent an
    accurate description of it to Dr. Maliabechi, Librarian to the Grand
    Duke of Tuscany: _several fine copies of verses_ were wrote upon so
    rare a subject, but at last Mr. Bobart owned the cheat: however, it was
    looked upon as a masterpiece of art, and as such deposited in the
    anatomy schools (at Oxford), where I saw it some years after."

Can any of the readers of "N. & Q." inform me where I can procure the
_several_ fine copies of verses, or where they are to be seen, and any
other particulars relating to Jacob Bobart?

Where can I procure copies of the following, mentioned in Wood's _Athenæ
Oxon._, vol. iii. p. 757.:

    "Poem upon Mr. Jacob Bobards Yew-man of the Guards to the Physic
    Garden, to the tune of the 'Counter-Scuffle.' Oxon. 1662."

On one side of a sheet of paper.


    "A Ballad on the Gyants in the Physic Garden in Oxon, who have been
    breeding Feet as long as Garagantua was Teeth."

On one side of a sheet of paper.


       *       *       *       *       *


The following letter may perhaps have some interest in itself; but I send
it for insertion in the pages of "N. & Q." in the hope of obtaining some
information about the pictures which it mentions. It is addressed on the
back, "The Reverend the Provost and Fellows, Dublin College;" and in the
corner, "Pr. Favour of The Right Hon. Lord Viscount Molesworth;" and does
not appear to have ever passed through the post.

        Reverend Sir, and Gentlemen,

    My late dear Husband, the Rev. Dr. Berkeley, Prebendary of Canterbury,
    son of the late Lord Bishop of Cloyne, having most generously appointed
    me sole executrix of his will, and having bequeathed to me all his fine
    collection of pictures, &c., I trouble you with this to beg to know
    whether a very remarkably fine, universally admired portrait of Bishop
    Berkeley, in his lawn sleeves, &c., painted by that famous artist
    Vanderbank, which, together with its frame (now much broken by frequent
    removals), cost five hundred pounds: the back-ground, the frontispiece
    to his Lordship's _Minute Philosopher_, and the broken cisterns from
    the Prophet Jeremiah: "They have hewn them out broken cisterns." The
    late Archbishop of Canterbury was perpetually entreating Dr. Berkeley
    to present it to the Gallery of Lambeth Palace, where there is already
    a very good portrait of Bishop B.--But _justice_ to my dear excellent
    son, then living, as Dr. B. told his Grace, precluded a _possibility_
    of his complying with his request.

    If this picture will be an acceptable present to the Rev. the Provost,
    and the Gentlemen Fellows of the University of Dublin, it is now
    offered for their acceptance, as a most grateful acknowledgment for the
    _very high_ honour[1], they were pleased {429} so graciously to confer
    on his Lordship's only descendant, the late learned accomplished George
    Monk Berkeley, Esq. (Gentleman Commoner of Magdalene Hall, in the
    University of Oxon., and student of the Inner Temple, London), from his
    very sincerely grateful mother.

    Some time after the death of his son, Dr. Berkeley told me that at my
    death he wished the wonderfully fine portrait of his father to be
    presented to some place of _consequence_. I immediately replied, "_To
    Dublin College_." He said, "They have one already; perhaps it would be
    well to leave it as an heir-loom to the Episcopal Palace at Cloyne." I
    said perhaps the gentlemen of Dublin College would prefer this,
    esteemed one of the very finest pieces of painting in Europe. The face
    certainly looks more like a fine cast in wax, than a painting on
    canvas, as numbers of the best judges have always exclaimed on seeing

    I request Dr. Berkeley's noble relation, the excellent Lord Molesworth,
    now on a visit in Ireland, to deliver this, and to learn from the
    Provost and Gentlemen of the University of Dublin, whether it would be
    agreeable to them to receive this, and transfer the one they at present
    have to Dr. Berkeley's highly respected friend, the _present_ Bishop of
    Cloyne, for the Palace. Lord Molesworth will have the goodness to
    receive and transmit the answer of the Provost and Gentlemen to her who
    has the honour to subscribe herself, with the most perfect respect,

      Very sincerely grateful and
          (Thro' her unspeakably dear excellent Son)
              _Most highly_ obliged,
                  ELIZA BERKELEY.

      Chertsey, Surrey, England.
      The 18th of Feb., 1797.

I cannot find any evidence to prove that this letter was ever so much as
received by the University. It came into my possession amongst the papers
of a private friend, a late distinguished ornament of the University, whose
death has been an irreparable loss to the public, to the Church of England,
and to a large circle of friends. No notice of such a letter, or of so
liberal a donation, is to be found in the Register of the University, nor
is there such a picture in our possession. I have made inquiry also, and
find that it is not at Cloyne. The conclusion therefore is, either that
Mrs. Berkeley changed her mind, or that from some accident the letter never
was presented: at all events, it is certain that the picture of Bishop
Berkeley, to which it relates, was never in the possession of the
University for whose halls it was intended.

Can any one tell me where it now is; and what was the fate of "the fine
collection of pictures" which was the property of Dr. Berkeley of
Canterbury, and bequeathed by him to his widow, the writer of the above


[Footnote 1: This alludes to the honourable degree of LL.B. conferred upon
George M. Berkeley by the University of Dublin, Nov. 8, 1788.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Life._--Is it not the general feeling that man, in advancing years, would
not like to begin his life again? I have noted that Edgeworth, Franklin,
and Sismondi express the contrary.

A. C.

"_The Boy of Heaven._"--I have a poem entitled _The Boy of Heaven_, copied
some years ago from a manuscript. Can any of your readers inform me who is
the author, whether it has ever appeared in print, or give me any other
information respecting it?

W. P.

_Bells._--Can any of your readers inform me why the bells of the Convent of
Santa Theresa, at Madrid, alone have the privilege of tolling on Good
Friday, in that city? In all Roman Catholic countries the bells on that day
are forbidden to be rung; and there is no exception made, even in Rome.

As much has been said about the _baptizing_ of bells, as if it were a
custom nearly or entirely obsolete, I beg to say that I was present at the
baptizing of a bell in the south-west of France not very long ago; and have
no doubt that the great bell at Bordeaux, which is to have the emperor and
empress as its sponsors, will undergo the full ceremony.


_Captain Ayloff._--Where can I find any notices of Captain Ayloff, one of
the coadjutors of Tom Brown in the eccentric _Letters from the Dead to the


_Robert Johnson._--Perhaps some of your correspondents could give me some
information relative to the pedigree of Robert Johnson, Esq., who was a
baron of the Exchequer in Ireland in 1704; his parentage and descent; his
wife's name and family; his armorial bearings; and date of his birth and

Was he the Robert Johnson who entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 1671, as
a Fellow Commoner at the age of fourteen? If so, his birthplace was London,
and his father's name was also Robert.

E. P. L.

Co. Westmeath.

_Selling a Wife._--What is the origin of the popular idea, that a man may
legally dispose of his spouse by _haltering_ her, and exposing her for sale
in a public market? Some time ago the custom appears to have been very
prevalent; and only a few months back there was a paragraph in _The Times_,
describing an occurrence of the kind at Nottingham.

French romancers and dramatists have seized upon it as a leading trait of
English society; and in their remarkably-faithful delineations of English
life it is not unusual to find the blue-beard milord Anglais carting milady
to Smithfield, and {430} enlarging upon her points in the cheap-jack style
to the admiring drovers.


_Jock of Arden._--This worthy of the Robin Hood class of heroes, is
understood to figure very prominently in the legendary history of
Warwickshire. Where can any references to his real or supposed history be
found, and what are the legends of which he is the hero?

W. Q.

_Inigo Jones._--Where can a full list of mansions and other important
buildings, erected from designs after that great master architect Inigo
Jones, be found?


_Dean Boyle._--Wanted, the pedigree of Richard Boyle, Dean of Limerick, and
Bishop of Leighlin in 1661. He had a brother Roger, also in the church. Was
he a grandson of John Boyle of Hereford, eldest brother of Roger, father of
Richard, first Earl of Cork? This John married Alice, daughter of Alex.
Hayworth, of Burdun Hall, Herefordshire.

Y. S. M.


_Euphormio_ (Vol. i., p. 27.).--Mention is made of _Censura Euphormionis_
and other tracts, called forth by Barclay's works: where can some account
of these be found?


_Optical Query._--Last summer the following illusion was pointed out to me
at Sandwich, Kent. The ingenious horizontal machine to enable the treadmill
to grind the wind, in default of more substantial matter, although
certainly revolving only in one direction, say from right to left, at
intervals appeared to change its direction and turn from left to right.
This change appeared to several persons to take place at the same time, and
did not seem to be owing to any shifting of the perpendicular shutters for
regulating the resistance of the air. The point from which I viewed it was
near the south door of St. Clement's Church. Have any of the readers of "N.
& Q." noticed a similar illusion, and can they explain it?

H. H.


_Archbishop King._--The well-known William King, Archbishop of Dublin, was
interred in the graveyard of the parish of St. Mary, Donnybrook, near
Dublin, as appears from the following entry in the Register of Burials:
"Buried, Archbishop King, May 10th, 1729." There is no stone to mark his
grave. I would be glad to know whether there is any monument elsewhere,

I would likewise be glad to know whether there is any good engraving of the
archbishop in existence. I have lately procured a copy of a small and
rather curious one, engraved by "Kane o' Hara," and "published, Sept. 20th,
1803, by William Richardson, York House, 31. Strand;" and I am informed by
a friend that a portrait (of what size I am not aware) was sold by auction
in London, 15th February, 1800, for the sum of 3l. 6s. It was described at
that time as "very rare."

Donnybrook graveyard, I may add, is rich in buried ecclesiastics,
containing the remains of Dr. Robert Clayton, Bishop of Clogher (a man of
note in his day), and other dignitaries of our church.


_Neal's Manuscripts._--In Neal's _History of the Puritans_, he frequently
refers at bottom of the page to a manuscript in his possession thus (MS.
penes me, p. 88.): will any of your readers inform me where this MS. is
preserved, and whether I can have access to it? It was evidently a
voluminous compilation, as it extended to many hundred pages.

T. F.

_Whence the Word "Cossack?"_--Alison says, on the authority of _Koramsin_
(vi. 476.), "The word Cossack means a volunteer or free partisan," &c.
(Vide _History of Europe_, vol. ix. p. 31.) I have found the word "Kasak"
in the Gulistan of Saadi, which there means a robber of the kind called
_rahzán_. From the word being spelt in the Gulistan with a [Arabic: q], it
appears to me to be an Arabic word. Can any reader enlighten


A. N. Club

_Picts' Houses and Argils._--The Cimmerians, a people mentioned by
Herodotus, who occupied principally the peninsula of the Crimea, are
distinguished by Prichard from the Cimbri or Kimbri, but supposed by M.
Amédée Thierry to be a branch of the same race, and Celtic. Many of their
customs are said to present a striking conformity with those of the Cimbri
of the Baltic and of the Gauls. Those who inhabited the hills in the Crimea
bore the name of Taures or Tauri, a word, Thierry says, signifying
mountaineers in both the Kimbric and Gaulish idioms. The tribe of the
plains, according to Ephorus, a Greek writer cotemporary with Aristotle,
mentioned in Strabo, lib. v., dug subterraneous habitations, which they
called _argil_ or _argel_, a pure Kimbric word, which signifies a covered
or deep place:

    [Greek: Ephoros phêsin autous en katageiois oikiais oikein has kalousin

Having seen several of the rude and miserable buildings underground in the
Orkneys, called Picts' houses, I should like to know something of these
_argils_ or _argillæ_, but suppose them to be calculated for the
requirements of a more advanced state of society than that of the dwellers
in Picts' houses. Perhaps some of your correspondents could give
information on this matter. {431} For the above, vide Introduction to
Amédée Thierry's _Histoire des Gaulois, &c._, 1828, p. 57.

W. H. F.

_The Drummer's Letter._--The letter from the drummer to the corporal's wife
in _The Sentimental Journey_ (it is hardly possible to give a precise
reference to any part of this little work) ends thus:

    "Je suis, Madame,

    "Avec toutes les sentimens les plus respectueux et les plus tendres,
    tout à vous,


Why is the first of the adjectives agreeing with _les sentimens_ in the
wrong gender? The blot may be a trifling one, but I think I may say that it
defaces every copy of this well-known billet-doux. I have seen many
editions of _The Sentimental Journey_, some by the best publishers of the
time in which they lived, and I find the same mistake in all: I do not know
of a single exception. If Sterne wrote _toutes_, it must have been by
accident; there is nothing to prove that he wished to make the poor drummer
commit the solecism, for the rest of his letter is not only correctly, but
even elegantly written.



_The Cardinal Spider._--I have read somewhere an account of a singular
species of spider, which is of unusually large size, and is said to be
found only in Hampton Court Palace.

It is supposed by superstitious persons that the spirits of Cardinal Wolsey
and his retinue still haunt the palace in the shape of spiders; hence the
name "Cardinal."

Can any of your correspondents inform me where such an account is to be met
with, as I have forgotten the name of the book in which I have seen it?

W. T.


_New England Genealogical Society, &c._--Can any of your correspondents
inform me where I can address a letter to, for Dr. Jenks, Secretary to the
New England Genealogical Society? And where can I see a copy of Farmer's
_New England Genealogical Register_, 1829, and _The New England
Genealogical Register and Magazine for 1847_, mentioned by your
correspondent T. WESTCOTT, "N. & Q.," Vol. vi., p. 495.?

J. K.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Dr. John Hartcliffe, Dr. Wm. Cokayne, Dr. Samuel Kettilby._--Can any of
your correspondents tell me whether John Hartcliffe, D.D., Fellow of
King's, Cambridge, and Head-master of Merchant Taylors' from 1681 to 1686,
is _the Dr. Hartcliffe_ whom James II. wishes to instal illegally in the
Provostship of King's, as he attempted to impose a President on Magdalen,

I should be glad also to know whether there is any continuation of Ward's
_Lives of the Gresham Professors_, reaching to the present time; and, in
particular, the dates of the appointments or deaths of William Cokayne,
D.D., Professor of Astronomy, and William Roman, B.C.L., Professor of

Likewise, of what faculty was Samuel Kettilby, D.D., Professor; and when
did he die?


Merchant Taylors'.

    [It was Dr. John Hartcliffe, of Merchant Taylors', that wished to
    become Provost of King's College: but the mandate was obtained from
    King William, not from James II. Hartcliffe's _Discourse against
    Purgatory_, 1685, which Anthony à Wood thinks was publicly burnt in
    France, was not likely to recommend him to the favour of the latter
    king. The affair of the Provostship is thus stated by Cole (_Hist. of
    King's College_, vol. iv. Addit. MSS. 5817.)--"On the death of Dr.
    Copleston, Hartcliffe made a great stir, in order to become Provost,
    and actually obtained a mandate of King William to the society to
    choose him; but he was far from being agreeable to the Fellows of the
    college, who, when they heard he was in town, and upon what errand he
    came, directly shut up the college gates, and proceeded to an election,
    when Dr. Roderick was chosen, with the odds of ten votes to one. This
    being transacted in the infancy of King William's reign, he chose not
    to stir much in it; but after having shown the Fellows, by the very
    petition they made to him, which was presented by Mr. Newborough and
    Mr. Fleetwood, that he had a right to present, he dismissed them." A
    biographical notice of Dr. Hartcliffe is given in Nichols's _Literary
    Anecdotes_, vol. i. pp. 63, 64., and in Wood's _Athenæ_ (Bliss), vol.
    iv. p. 790.

    No one appears to have continued Ward's _Lives of the Gresham
    Professors_. Maitland, in his _History of London_, has brought the
    history of the institution down to 1755. Dr. Ward himself had prepared
    a new edition, containing considerable additions, which was presented
    to the British Museum by his residuary legatee. Among the Additional
    MSS. also will be found a large mass of papers and correspondence
    relating to the _Lives_. From one document, entitled "Minutes relating
    to the Lives of the Professors of Gresham College, being Additions to
    the printed Work," we extract the following notice of "William Cokayne,
    who was the son of George Cokayne, of Dovebridge in Devonshire, clerk.
    He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, in London, and from thence
    elected probationer Fellow of St. John's College, where he was
    matriculated 9th July, 1736. He commenced A.M. 9th July, 1744; made
    Junior Proctor 1750; and B.D. 4th July, 1751." The date of his
    appointment as Astronomy Professor is not given; but his resignation,
    in 1795, will be found in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. lxv. p. 711.
    He appears to have died in 1798 (see _Ib._, vol. lxviii. p. 641.), when
    the Rev. Joseph Monkhouse succeeded him as Rector of Kilkhampton, co.


    The MS. "Minutes" also contain a notice of William Roman, the
    thirteenth Geometry Professor, "who was educated at Merchant Taylors'
    School, London, and from thence elected to St. John's College, Oxford,
    in 1740, being matriculated as the son of Richard Roman, of London,
    Gent., ætat. 17. He commenced B.C.L., May 5th, 1747; Deacon at Christ
    Church, 21st Sept., 1746; Priest at Christ Church, 20th Sept., 1747."
    No date of his appointment, but he was Professor in 1755, when Maitland
    wrote his account of the college. Dr. Samuel Kettilby succeeded the
    Rev. Samuel Birch as Geometry Lecturer, and died June 25, 1808.--See
    _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. lxxviii. p. 657.]

"_Haulf Naked._"--In poring over an old deed the other night, I stumbled
upon the above name, which I take to be that of a manor in the county of
Sussex. Is it so? and, if so, by what name is the property now known?


    [In Dallaway's _Western Sussex_, art. WASHINGTON, vol. ii. pt. ii. p.
    133., is the following entry:--"In 1310, Henry Balduyne sold to Walter
    de Halfenaked one messuage, two acres of arable, and two acres of
    meadow, in Washington and Sullington. Ped. fin. 3 Edw. II."]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vii., p. 363.)

Etymologists are a race who frequently need to be drawn up with a somewhat
tight rein. Our Celtic fellow-subjects will not, perhaps, be much gratified
by MR. CROSSLEY's tracing the first indications of their paternal tongue to
the family of Cain; and as every branch of that family was destroyed by the
deluge, they may marvel what account he can give of its reconstruction
amongst their forefathers. But as his manner of expressing himself may lead
some of your readers to imagine that he is explaining Cain, Lamech, Adah,
Zillah, from acknowledged Hebrew meanings of any parts of those words, it
may be as well to warn them that the Hebrew gives no support to any one of
his interpretations. If fancy be ductile enough to agree with him in seeing
a representation of a human arm holding a sling with a stone in it in the
Hebrew letter called _lamed_, there would still be a broad hiatus between
such a concession, and the conclusion he seems to wish the reader to draw
from it, viz. that the word _lamed_ must have something to do with
slinging, and that consequently _lamed_ must be a slinger. The Hebrew
scholar knows that _lamed_ indisputably signifies to _teach_; and though
perhaps he may not feel sure that the Hebrew consonant _l_ obtained its
name from any connexion with that primary meaning of the root _lamed_, he
will not think it improbable that as the letter _l_, when prefixed to a
noun or verb, _teaches_ the reader the construction of the sentence, that
may have been the reason for its being so named.

As to a legend not traceable to within some thousand years of the facts
with which it claims to be connected, those may take an interest in it who
like so to do. But as far as we may regard Lamech's address to his wives in
the light of a philological curiosity, it is interesting to observe how
naturally the language of passion runs into poetry; and that this, the most
ancient poetry in existence, is in strict unison with the peculiar
character of subsequent Hebrew poetry; that peculiarity consisting of the
repetition of clauses, containing either the same proposition in a slightly
different form, or its antithesis; a rhyme of thoughts, if we may so say,
instead of a rhyme of sounds, and consequently capable of being preserved
by a literal translation.

And Lamech said unto his wives,--

 "Adah and Zillah, hear my voice;
  Ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech,
  For I have slain a man to my wounding,
  And a young man, to my hurt.
  If Cain shall be avenged seventy-fold,
  Truly Lamech, seventy and seven-fold."

The construction is more favourable to the belief that the _man_ of line
third is the same as the _young man_ of the parallel clause, than that he
had slain two; the word rendered _hurt_ is properly a _wheal_, the effect
of a severe strife or wound.

As to the etymologies of the names mentioned by MR. CROSSLEY, we gather
from God's words that she called her first son Cain, an acquisition (the
Latin _peculium_ expresses it more exactly than any English word), because
she had gotten (literally _acquired_, or obtained possession of) a man. As
for Lamech, or more properly L[)e]m[)e]ch, its etymology must be confessed
to be uncertain; but there is a curious and interesting explanation of the
whole series of names of the patriarchs, Noah's forefathers, in which the
name of the other Lemech, son of Methusaleh, is regarded as made up of
_L[)e]_, the prefixed preposition, and of _mech_, taken for the participle
Hophal of the verb to smite or bruise. Adah, [Hebrew: 'DH], is _ornament_;
Zillah, [Hebrew: TSLH] may mean the _shade_ under which a person reposes;
or if the doubling of the _l_ is an indication that its root is [Hebrew:
TSLL], it may mean a dancer.


Allow me, in reference to MR. CROSSLEY's remarks, to say, that from the
accidental resemblance of the Hebrew and Celtic words _Lamech_ and
_Lamaich_, no philological argument can be drawn of identical meaning, any
more than from the fact that the words Nebuchadnezzar, Belshazar, or
Belteshassar[2], are significant in Russian {433} and Sclavonian, as well
as in Chaldee. _Lamache_ in Arabic means (see Freytag) "_levi intuitu et
furtim adspicere_ aliquem;" also to _shine_, as lightning, or a star.
_Lamech_, therefore, is an appropriate designation for a man known to prowl
about for plunder and murder, and whose eye, whether taking aim or not,
would give a sudden and furtive glance.

The word _lamed_ signifies, in Hebrew, _teaching_; the word _Talmud_ is
from the same root. It is the same in Syriac and Chaldee. The _original_
significant of these three languages is to be found in the Arabic _Lamada_:
"_Se submisit_ alicui; _humiliter se gessit_ erga aliquem." (Freytag.) No
argument can be drawn from the shape of the letter [Hebrew: L] (_lamed_),
because, although popularly so called, it is _not_ a Hebrew letter, but a
Chaldee one. The recent discoveries, published in Layard's last work,
demonstrate this fact; Mr. Layard falls into the mistake of calling the
basin inscriptions Hebrew, although Mr. Ellis, who had translated them,
says expressly that the language is Chaldee (_Nineveh and Babylon_, p.
510.), one of them only being Syriac (p. 521.). Chaldee and Syriac, indeed,
differ from each other as little as Chaucer's and Shakspeare's English,
although the written characters are wholly distinct.

Davis, in his _Celtic Researches_, has done all that was possible, taking a
very limited view, however, in fixing upon certain linguistic resemblances
in some ancient tongues to the Celtic; but a clear apprehension of the
proper place which the Celtic language and its congeners hold in
comparative philology, can only be learnt from such works as Adelung's
_Mithridates_, and Adrien Balbi's _Atlas Ethnographique du Globe_.


[Footnote 2: The accidental resemblances are curious. Thus, _Nebucadnetzar_
is in Russian _nebê kazenniy Tzar_, "A Lord or Prince appointed by heaven;"
or, _nebu godnoi_ _Tzar_, "A Prince fit for heaven." _Belshatzar_ is also
in Russian _bolszoi Tzar_, "A great Prince;" and _Belteshtzar_, Daniel's
Chaldean pagan name, is _byl têsh Tzar_, "he was also a Prince," _i. e._
"of the royal family."]

The interpretation of Hessius (_Geschichte der Patriarchen_, i. 83.) is
preferred by Rosenmüller:

    "Ex hujus Doctissimi Viri sententia Lamechus _sese jactat_ propter
    filios suos, qui artium adeo utilium essent inventores: Cainum
    progenitorem suum propter cædem non esse punitum, multo minus se posse
    puniri, si vel simile scelus commisisset. Verba enim non significant,
    cædam ab eo revera esse paratam, sed sunt verba hominis admodum
    insolentis et profani. Ceterum facile apparet, hæc verba a Mose ex
    quodam carmine antiquo inserta esse: tota enim oratio poeticam quandam
    sublimitatem spirat."

The sense of these two verses (Gen. iv. 23, 24.) is, according to Dathe:

    "_Si propter viri aut juvenis cædem vulnera et plagæ mihi intendantur,
    cum de Caino poena septuplex statuta fuerit, in Lamecho id fiet
    septuagies septies._"

Herder, in his _Geist der ebräischen Poesie_ (i. 344.) says:

    "Carmen hoc Lamechi laudes canere gladii a filio inventi, cujus usum et
    præstantiam contra hostiles aliorum insultus his verbis prædicet:
    _Lamechi mulieres audite sermonem meum, percipite dicta mea: Occido jam
    virum, qui me vulneravit, juvenem, qui plagam mihi infligit. Si Cainus
    septies ulciscendus, in Lamecho id fiet septuagies septies._"



The legend of the shooting of Cain by Lamech is detailed in _The Creation
of the World, with Noah's Flood_, a Cornish mystery, translated into
English by John Keigwin, and edited by Davies Gilbert, Esq. The legend and
translation, in parallel columns, are given also at pp. 15, 16. of Mr.
Gilbert's "Collections and Translations respecting St. Neot," prefixed to
descriptive account (in 4to., with sixteen coloured plates) of the windows
of St. Neot's Church in Cornwall, by Mr. Hedgeland, who restored them,
1805-1829, at the expense of the Rev. Richard Gerveys Grylls, patron, and
formerly incumbent of the living.


St. Neot's, Huntingdonshire.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 376.)

_Saltpetre-man._--An explanation of this title may be found in a
proclamation of King Charles I. (1625):

    "For the Maintaining and Increasing of the Saltpetre Mines of England,
    for the Necessary and Important Manufacture of Gunpowder."

This proclamation states:

    "That our realm naturally yields sufficient mines of saltpetre without
    depending on foreign parts; wherefore, for the future, no dovehouse
    shall be paved with stones, bricks, nor boards, lime, sand, nor gravel,
    nor any other thing whereby the growth and increase of the mine and
    saltpetre may be hindered or impaired; but the proprietors shall suffer
    the ground or floors thereof, as also all stables where horses stand,
    to lie open with good and mellow earth, apt to breed increase of the
    said mine. And that none deny or hinder any _saltpetre-man_, lawfully
    deputed thereto, from digging, taking, or working any ground which by
    commission may be taken and wrought for saltpetre. Neither shall any
    constable, or other officer, neglect to furnish any such
    _saltpetre-man_ with convenient carriages, that the King's service
    suffer not. _None shall bribe any saltpetre-man_ for the sparing or
    forbearing of any ground fit to be wrought for saltpetre," &c.

It would appear that the _saltpetre-man_ abused his authority, and that the
people suffered a good deal of annoyance from the manner in which this
{434} absurd system was carried out; for two years afterwards we find that
another proclamation was published by the King, notifying, "that the
practice of making saltpetre in England by digging up the floors of
dwelling-houses, &c. &c., tended too much to the grievance of his loving
subjects ... that notwithstanding all the trouble, not one third part of
the saltpetre required could be furnished." It proceeds to state that Sir
John Brooke and Thomas Russell, Esq., had proposed a new method of
manufacturing the article, and that an exclusive patent had been granted to
them. The King then _commands_ his subjects in London and Westminster, that
after notice given, they "carefully keep in proper vessels all human urine
throughout the year, and as much of that of beasts as can be saved." This
appeared to fail; for at the end of the same year, the "stable" monarch
proclaimed a return to the old method, giving a commission to the Duke of
Buckingham, and some others, to "... break open ... and work for
saltpetre," as might be found requisite; and in 1634, a further
proclamation was issued renewing the old ones, but excepting the houses,
stables, &c. of _persons of quality_.

During the Commonwealth the nuisance was finally got rid of; for an act was
passed in 1656, directing that "none shall dig within the houses, &c. of
any person _without their leave first obtained_."


Bury, Lancashire.

J. O. treats _The Lord Coke, his Speech and Charge, with a Discoverie of
the Abuses and Corruptions of Officers_, 8vo. London: N. Butter, 1607, as a
genuine document; but it is not so; and, lest the error should gain ground,
the following account of the book, from the Preface, by Lord Coke, to the
seventh part of his _Reports_, is subjoined:

    "And little do I esteem an uncharitable and malicious practice in
    publishing of an erroneous and ill-spelled pamphlet under the name
    Pricket, and dedicating it to my singular good lord and father-in-law,
    the Earl of Exeter, as a charge given at the assizes holden at the city
    of Norwich, 4th August, 1606, which I protest was not only published
    without my privity, but (beside the omission of divers principal
    matters) that there is no one period therein expressed in that sort and
    sense that I delivered: wherein it is worthy of observation, how their
    expectation (of scandalizing me) was wholly deceived; for behold the
    catastrophe! Such of the readers as were learned in the laws, finding
    not only gross errors and absurdities on law, but palpable mistakings
    in the very words of art, and the whole context of that rude and ragged
    style wholly dissonant (the subject being legal) from a lawyer's
    dialect, concluded that _inimicus et iniquus homo superseminavit
    zizania in medio tritici_, the other discreet and indifferent readers,
    out of sense and reason, found out the same conclusion, both in respect
    of the vanity of the phrase, and for that I, publishing about the same
    time one of my commentaries, would, if I had intended the publication
    of any such matter, have done it myself, and not to have suffered any
    of my works pass under the name of Pricket; and so _unâ voce
    conclamaverunt omnes_, that it was a shameful and shameless practice,
    and the author thereof to be a wicked and malicious falsary."

J. G.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 329.)

The allusion is to the well-known Jacobite badge of the white rose, which
was regularly worn on June 10, the anniversary of the Old Pretender's
birthday, by his adherents. Fielding refers to the custom in his _Amelia_:

    "On the lovely 10th of June, under a serene sky, the amorous Jacobite,
    kissing the odoriferous Zephyr's breath, gathers a nosegay of white
    roses to deck the whiter breast of Celia."--_Amelia_, edit. 1752, vol.
    i. p. 48.

The following lines are extracted from a collection of considerable merit,
now become uncommon, the authors of the different papers in which were Dr.
Deacon and Dr. Byrom, and which is entitled _Manchester Vindicated_
(Chester, 1749, 12mo.). The occasion was on a soldier snatching a white
rose from the bosom of a young lady on June 10, 1747:


 "Phillis to deck her snowy breast
    The rival-flowers around display'd,
  Thraso, to grace his war-like crest
    Of orange-knots a huge cockade,
  That reds and whites, and nothing else,
  Should set the beaux against the belles!


 "Yet so it was; for yesterday
    Thraso met Phillis with her posies,
  And thus began th' ungentle fray,
   'Miss, I must _execute_ those roses.'
  Then made, but fruitless made, a snatch,
  Repuls'd with pertinacious scratch.


 "Surpriz'd at such a sharp rebuke,
    He cast about his cautious eyes,
  Invoking _Vict'ry_ and _the Duke_,
    And once again attack'd the prize;
  Again is taught to apprehend,
  How guardian thorns the rose defend.


 "Force being twice in vain apply'd,
    He condescended then to reason;
 'Ye _Jacobitish_ ----,' he cry'd
   'In open street, the love of treason
  With your white roses to proclaim!
  Go home, ye rebel slut, for shame!'


 "'Go you abroad to Flanders yonder,
    And show your valour there, Sir Knight;
  What bus'ness have you here, I wonder,
    With people's roses, red or white?
  Go you abroad, for shame,' says Phillis,
 'And from the Frenchmen pluck their lilies.'


 "'Lilies!' says Thraso, 'lilies too!
    The wench, I find, would be a wit,
  Had she command of words eno',
    And on the right one chanced to hit:
  For pity, once, I'll set her clear:
  The laurels, you would say, my dear.'


 "'No, but I would not, Sir; you know
    What laurels are no more than I,
  Upon your head they'll never grow,
    My word for that, friend, and good-bye:
  _He that of roses robs a wench,_
  _Will ne'er pluck laurels from the French._'"


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 262. 340.)

A tradition of similar character with that mentioned by E. G. R., and
noticed by J. H. L., is reported to have occurred between the parishes of
Shipdham and Saham Tony in Norfolk, of a corpse being found on the common
pasture of Shipdham, which parish refused to bury it, and the parish of
Saham Tony, therefore, was at the expense thereof, and claimed a
considerable piece of the common pasture from Shipdham, in consequence of
the neglect of the latter parish.

A fine continues to be paid by Shipdham to Saham to this time; and although
many entries are made of such payments in the early parish accounts,
beginning A.D. 1511, yet in no instance is it said the reason or cause of
these payments being annually made. The said payments are not always of the
same amount; they are sometimes paid in money and sometimes in kind, as the
following instances show.

The first entry I meet with is in 1511:

         Payd the halffe mark at Saham.
  1512.  Delyvyrd to same ij buschells of otts, viij^d; in sylv^r, ij^d.
  1513.  The same payment as in 1512.
  1514.  No entry of any payment.
  1515.  Payd for _woots_ to Saham, vj^d, and ij^d of mony.
  1516.  Payd to y^e hallemarke, j^d (not said if to Saham or not).
         This entry "to y^e hallemark" may be an error of the scribe for
             "y^e halffe mark," as in the first entry under 1511.
  1517.  Payd to y^e halffe mark, j^d (no doubt to Saham).
  1518.  No entry of payment to Saham.
  1519.  Payd to same for ij barssels of owte, vj^d;
           to same, ij^d                                   viij^d
  1520.  Payd for ij busschellys of otte to same,
           viij^d; and a henne, ij^d                       x^d
  1521.  Payd to same for ij buschells of ots, xj^d,
           and ij^d in sylver                              xiij^d
  1522.  Payd for y^e half marke, j^d; payd for
           oots to same, vij^d                             viij^d
  1523.  Payd for y^e halff mark (no doubt to Saham)          j^d
  1524.  Payd for otts to sam and wodlod                   viij^d
  1525.  Similar entry to the last.
  1526.  Payd for otts to same, viij^d; payd for
           wod led to same, j^d                              ix^d
  1527.  Payd the halffe mark, j^d; paid to the
           _Comon_, to (two) bussells otts, ix^d, and
           a j^d in lieu of a henne                          xj^d
  1539.  Payd to same for the task                            x^d[3]
  1541.  Payd to Thomas Lubard, for ij bs. of
           otts to Saham                                   viij^d
         Payd to y^e seyd Thomas for j heyn
           (hen) to Saham                                    ij^d

On looking through the town accounts of Shipdham, I find entries of--

  Payd to the half mark to Saham                j^d
  Ij bushells oates, and in lieu of a hen      ij^d

The only entry in which I find anything at all apparently relative to the
common is that under 1527. Whether the court books of Saham would throw any
light on the subject, I know not. Should an opportunity offer for my
searching them, I will do so.

G. H. I.

P.S.--Although I have given several entries of the customary payments to
Saham, they are merely given to show the different modes of making those
entries, and not in expectation of your giving all of them, unless you
think any further light can be given on the subject. As before, perhaps the
court books of the manor of Saham would assist.

It was an annual custom for Shipdham people to "Drive the common" (as it
was called) once a year, in a night of an uncertain time, when all the
cattle, &c. found within the limits or boundary of Shipdham were impounded
in a farm-yard adjoining. Upon the common, all those belonging to owners
residing in Shipdham and claimed were set at liberty, while those belonging
to Saham had to be replevied by a small payment, which custom continued up
to the period of the commons being inclosed. Perhaps this custom was by way
of retaliation, by which means the charge of payment of oats and a hen was
recovered by the money paid for replevying their cattle, &c. so impounded.

[Footnote 3: No payment entered in the accounts between 1527 and 1539. The
average tenpence annually.]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 206.)

Your correspondent inquires as to the real name of this most penitent of
impostors. I fear that {436} there is now no likelihood of its being
discovered. His most intimate friends appear to have been kept in the dark
on this subject. With respect to his country, the most probable conclusion
seems to be, that he was born in the south of Europe, in a city of
Languedoc. A very near approximation seems to be made to the exact locality
by a careful collation of the circumstances mentioned in his autobiography,
in the excellent summary of his life in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, vols.
xxxiv. and xxxv., which is much better worth consulting than the articles
in Aikin or Chalmers; which are poor and superficial, and neither of which
gives any list of his works, or notices the _Essay on Miracles, by a
Layman_ (London, 1753, 8vo.), which is one of them, though published
anonymously. There is a very amusing account of conversations with him at
Oxford, in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. xxxv. p. 78., in which, before
a large company of ladies and gentlemen who were curious as to the customs
of Formosa, he gravely defended the practice which he said existed in that
country, of cutting off the heads of their wives and eating them, in case
of misconduct. "I think it is no sin," continued he, "to eat human flesh,
but I must own it is a little unmannerly." He admitted that he once ate
part of a black; but they being always kept to hard work, their flesh was
tough and unsavoury. His grandfather, he said, lived to 117, and was as
vigorous as a young man, in consequence of sucking the blood of a viper
warm every morning; but they had been forced to kill him, he being attacked
with a violent fit of the colic, and desiring them to stab him, which, in
obedience to another "custom of the country," they had done. _Splendidè
mendax!_ was certainly, in his younger days, this much venerated friend of
our great moralist. I should, however, feel inclined to forgive much of his
extraordinary romancing for the admirable manner in which he settled that
chattering twaddler, Bishop Burnet:

    "He was one day with Dr. Burnet, Bishop of Sarum, who, after his warm
    manner, cried, 'Ay, you say so; but what proof can you give that you
    are not of China, Japan, or any other country?' 'The manner of my
    flight,' replied he, 'did not allow me to bring credentials: but
    suppose your lordship were in Formosa, and should say you are an
    Englishman, might not the Formosan as justly reply, You say you are an
    Englishman; but what proof can you give that you are not of any other
    country? for you look as like a Dutchman as any that ever traded to
    Formosa.' This silenced his lordship."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 365.)

I was surprised to find it stated as "a fact" by MR. INGLEBY, "that grafts,
after some fifteen years, wear themselves out." A visit to one of the great
orchard counties would assure him of the existence of tens of thousands of
grafted apple and pear trees, still in a healthy state, and from forty to
fifty years old, and more. There are grafted trees of various kinds in this
country, which to my own knowledge are upwards of sixty years old; and I
have little doubt but that there are some a good deal older.

The ancient Ribstone pippin, which stood in Ribstone Park, till it died in
1835, was believed to have been grafted. Such was the opinion of one of the
gardeners there; and a writer in the _Gardeners' Chronicle_, 1845, p. 21.,
states that in 1830 he fell in with the Ribstone pippin in great abundance
in Switzerland, in the valley of Sarnen; and he remarks that it is more
probable this apple was introduced into England from that country, than the
reverse. The question has not been conclusively settled.

Notwithstanding "the belief that the graft perishes when the parent tree
decays" is pronounced by MR. INGLEBY to be a fond superstition, yet there
are certain facts, well known to orchard growers, which give some warrant
for it. Without committing myself altogether to this doctrine, I will state
a few of them.

It is well known that no cider or perry fruit is so good, on first being
introduced, as it is after fifteen or twenty years of cultivation. A
certain period seems to be required to mature the new sort, and bring it to
its full vigour (long after it is in full bearing) before it is at its
best. The tree, with all its grafted progeny, will last, perhaps fifty,
perhaps more than one hundred years, in a flourishing state, and then they
will begin everywhere to decay; nor has any device yet been successful in
arresting that general decay.

Witness the rise, progress, and fall of the _Forest Stire_ of
Gloucestershire, the _Foxwhelp_ and _Redstreak_ of Herefordshire, the
_Golden Pippin_, and, more lately, the _Ribstone Pippin_, of which there is
an increasing complaint, not to mention many others in the same condition.
The first-named apple is very nearly extinct, and the small quantity of the
fruit that is still to be had fetches enormous prices.

Whether this decay be owing to _grafting_, is a question which can be
decided only by the future behaviour of the suckers from the original tree,
several of which from the tree at Ribstone Park are now growing at Chiswick
and elsewhere.

I am aware that Dr. Lindley combats very eagerly the doctrine that
varieties of the apple and pear, or indeed of any tree, die naturally of
old age; but the only incontrovertible fact which he adduces in support of
his argument, is the existence of the French _White Beurré_ pear, which has
flourished from time immemorial. His denial of the decay of the _Golden
Pippin_, the _Golden {437} Harvey_, and the _Nonpareil_, will not, I think,
be allowed to be just by the experience of your readers; the existence of
the last-named apple for three centuries, supposing it to be true, has not
secured it exemption from the general fate.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Glass Baths._--Several of your correspondents finding a difficulty in
making glass baths, I beg to communicate the way in which they may be very
easily manufactured. Having obtained two pieces of patent plate glass,
grind the edges, which may readily be done by a scythe sand-stone, where
other contrivances are not handy. Cut for the bottom of the bath a slip of
the same glass three-quarters of an inch in breadth; and for the sides,
from ordinary window-glass, four wedges, being about three-fifths of an
inch at one end, tapering down to the thickness of the piece of plate glass
at the bottom. If several pieces are cut off promiscuously, four may be
selected which have exactly the same angle, so as to form an even support
to the sides. The glass being perfectly clean, dry, and as warm as can be
conveniently held by the hand, fix the bottom and then the sides by means
of the _very best_ sealing-wax, which will perfectly adhere to the glass.
If the commoner sorts of wax are used, some marine glue must be added to it
to temper it. The side slips should be fixed a quarter of an inch apart, so
as to form a cavity, which must be entirely filled up with wax. The wax may
be used as in sealing a letter in the first instance; but, in order to give
the whole bath solidity, and expel every particle of air from between the
glass, I use a heated pointed iron, as a plumber does in the act of
soldering. This, passed over the external parts of the wax, also gives it a
hardness and smooth finish.

These details may appeal trifling, and others may have more ingenious modes
of accomplishing the object; but having used baths so constructed upwards
of twelve months without leakage, I believe they will be found to be most
economical, and far more to be relied on than gutta percha. A good bath so
made should require about six ounces of solution of nitrate of silver to
take a picture eight inches square. Your observations in a former Number,
respecting the uncertainty of gutta percha, I have found to be perfectly
true. Samples of gutta percha constantly vary; and one may contain
impurities acted upon by the chemicals, which another does not. A small rim
formed by sealing-wax dissolved in spirits of wine, and applied twice or
thrice along the upper edge of the bath, is sufficient to protect the
prepared glass from adhering to the front of the bath when in use.

H. W. D.

_Securing Calotype Negatives._--Will any of your correspondents be good
enough to say what they consider the best method of securing a calotype
paper negative for a few days or a week, in cases where it may be
difficult, from lack of conveniences during that time, to use hyposulph.,
with its consequent washings, &c.? Some, I believe, recommend bromide of
potassium; some, the iodide; others, common salt: but I should like to know
which is considered the _best_; what strength, and how applied. Also,
whether any subsequent treatment is necessary previous to the final
application of the hypo.

W. T.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Wood of the Cross_ (Vol. vii., pp. 177. 334.).--I find, in your 179th
Number, p. 334., a communication on "The Wood of the Cross." Mention is
made of the several kinds of wood of which the cross is said to have been
made--elder, olive, &c. It is a somewhat curious coincidence, that
yesterday I was with a farmer in his garden, and observing on several
apple-trees some luxuriant mistletoe, I remarked that it was principally
found on that tree, sometimes on the oak, but rarely on other trees. The
farmer, after inquiring whether it could be propagated by cuttings, &c.,
asked if I had ever understood that our Saviour's cross was made of
mistletoe? On replying in the negative, and remarking that it was
altogether unsuitable for such a purpose, he rejoined, that, previously to
that event, it was a large strong tree, but subsequently had been doomed to
have only a parasitical (not that he used the term) existence.

As CEYREP said "I never heard of our Lord's cross having been made of elder
wood," so I would also add, I never heard before of its being made of
mistletoe. Did any one else ever hear of this tradition?

S. S. S.

_Bishops' Lawn Sleeves_ (Vol. vi., p. 271.).--J. G. T. has inquired
concerning the date and origin of the present robes of Anglican bishops.
Mr. Trevor thus describes the bishop's dress in Convocation, which is the
proper dress of the episcopate:

    "The chimere is the Convocation habit of a doctor of divinity in
    Oxford, made of silk instead of cloth, as the rochet is an alb of lawn
    in place of linen, _honoris causâ_: the detaching the sleeves from the
    rochet, and sewing them to the upper garment instead, is obviously a
    contrivance of the robe-makers. Dr. Hody says that the scarlet robe
    worn by the bishops in the House of Lords is the doctor's gown at
    Cambridge; the first archbishops after the Reformation being of that
    university. (_Hody_, 140.) At Parker's consecration he appeared first
    in a scarlet gown and hood; then at the Holy Communion he and two of
    the consecrating bishops {438} wore white surplices, while the senior
    had a cope: and after his consecration he and the two diocesan bishops
    endued themselves in the now customary dress of a bishop, the
    archbishop having about his neck a collar of sables (_Cardw. Doc.
    Ann._, i. 243.). Before the Reformation, it was remarked as peculiar to
    the English bishops, that they always wore their white rochets, 'except
    when hunting.' (_Hody_, 141.)"--_The Two Convocations, Note on_, p.



_Inscriptions in Books_ (Vol. vii., pp. 127. 337.).--The two accompanying
inscriptions in books were given to me the other day. The second is, I
believe, much in vogue at Rugby.

 "Si quis errantem
  Videat libellum
  Reddat, aut collo
  Dabitur capistrum
  Carnufex ejus
  Tunicas habebit
  Terra cadaver."

 "Small is the wren,
  Black is the rook,
  Great is the sinner
  That steals this book."

W. W.

As your correspondent BALLIOLENSIS inquires regarding inscriptions in
books, perhaps the following may add to his proposed collection, being an
old ditty much in use among schoolboys, &c.:

 "Hic liber est meus,
  And that I will show;
  Si aliquis capit,
  I'll give him a blow."

N. N.

_Lines quoted by Charles Lamb_ (Vol. vii., p. 286.).--The author of the
lines quoted--

 "Bind me, ye woodbines, in your twines;
  Curl me about, ye gadding vines," &c.--

is Andrew Marvell. They are taken from his fine poem on Nun-Appleton, Lord
Fairfax's seat in Yorkshire; and will be found in vol. iii. p. 198. of
Marvell's _Works_, edit. 1776, 4to.


_Parochial Libraries_ (Vol. vi., p. 432.; Vol. vii., pp. 193. 369.).--Upon
visiting Cartmel in Lancashire ten years ago, I found a library in the
vestry, and in my diary made the following entry:

    "There is a small library in the vestry, of a very miscellaneous
    description, left by a former incumbent, two hundred years ago, to the
    vicar for the time being, to be kept in the vestry. There is a fine
    copy, in small quarto, of Spenser's _Faery Queene_ in the collection,
    of the date 1560."

How I ascertained the date of the gift, or whether there were any other
particulars worth recording, I do not remember. Since taking "N. & Q." I
have learnt the benefit, I might say the necessity, of being more


To your list of parochial libraries may be added one in Swaffham Church,
Norfolk, bequeathed to the parish by one of the Spelman family. It contains
several hundred volumes, and among them some of the Elzevir classics. About
seven years ago I visited Swaffham, and found this collection of books in a
most disgraceful state, covered with dust and the dung of mice and bats,
and many of the books torn from their bindings. It would afford me great
pleasure to hear that more care is taken of such a valuable collection of
books. There is also a smaller library, in somewhat better preservation, in
the vestry of St. Peter's, Mancroft Church, in the city of Norwich.

E. G. R.

There are parochial libraries at Milden, Brent Eleigh, and at All Saints,
Sudbury, Suffolk. See Rev. C. Badham's _Hist. and Antiq. of All Saints,
Sudbury_, 8vo. London, 1852, pp. 105-109.


_Huet's Navigations of Solomon_ (Vol. vii., p. 381.).--In reply to EDINA'S
Query, Huet's treatise _De Navigationibus Salomonis_ was published in 1698,
12mo., at Amsterdam, and before his work on the Commerce of the Ancients
was printed. EDINA will find a short extract of its contents in vol. ii. p.
479. of Dr. Aikin's _Translation of Huet's Autobiography_, published in
1810 in two volumes 8vo. The subject is a curious and interesting one; but,
from my perusal of the tract, I should scarcely say that Huet has treated
it very successfully, or that the book is at all worthy of his learning or


_Derby Municipal Seal_ (Vol. vii., p. 357.).--The "buck in the park," on
the town seal of Derby, is probably a punning allusion to the name of that
place, anciently _Deora-by_ or _Deor-by_, i. e. the abode of the deer.

C. W. G.

_Annueller_ (Vol. vii., pp. 358. 391.).--Bishop Ergham founded St. Anne's
College in Wells, for the maintenance of Societas (xiv.) Presbyterorum
annuellarum Novæ Aulæ Wellensis. The _annuellar_ was a secular conduct,
receiving a yearly stipend. These priests, probably, served his chantry at


_Reverend Richard Midgley, Vicar of Rochdale_ (Vol. vii., p. 380).--The
collection of the lives of pious persons to which Dr. Whitaker refers, as
containing a very interesting account of Midgley, will undoubtedly be
Samuel Clarke's _Lives of Thirty-two English Divines_. The passage, which
will scarcely be new to your correspondent, is at p. 68. of the life of
"Master Richard Rothwell" (Clarkes's _Lives_, edit. 1677, fol.), and a very
pleasing passage it is, and one that I might almost {439} be justified in
extracting. Dr. Whitaker and Brook (_Lives of the Puritans_, vol. ii. p.
163.) seem to be at variance with regard to the Midgleys, the former
mentioning only one, and the latter two, vicars of the family.


_Nose of Wax_ (Vol. vii., p. 158.).--Allow me to refer to a passage in "Ram
Alley, or Merry Tricks," by Lodowick Barry (which is reprinted in the fifth
volume of Dodsley's _Old Plays_), illustrative of this term. In Act I. Sc.
1., _Dash_ describes the law as

 "The kingdom's eye, by which she sees
  The acts and thoughts of men."

Whereupon _Throate_ observes:

 "The kingdom's eye!
  I tell thee, fool, it is the kingdom's nose,
  By which she smells out all these rich transgressors;
  Nor is't of flesh, but merely made of _wax_,
  And 'tis within the power of us lawyers,
  To wrest this _nose of wax_ which way we please."

This illustration was overlooked by Nares, to whose _Glossary_ you refer.



_Canongate Marriages_ (Vol. v., p. 320.; Vol. vii., p. 67.).--The
correspondent who expressed his surprise some time ago at his Query on this
subject not having called forth any remark from your Scotch friends, will
perhaps find the explanation of this result in the fact, that in Scotland
we are guided by the civil or Roman law on the subject of marriage; and
consequently, with us marriage is altogether a civil contract; and we need
the intervention neither of clergyman, Gretna blacksmith, or the equally
disreputable Canongate coupler. The services of the last two individuals
are only sought for by you deluded southerns. All we require here is the
agreement or consent of the parties ("_consensus non_ concubitus facit
matrimonium"); and the legal questions which arise have reference chiefly
to the evidence of this consent. The agreement may be made verbally, or in
writing, before witnesses or not, as the parties choose. Or a marriage may
be constituted and proved merely by habit and repute, _i. e._ by the
parties living together as man and wife, and the man allowing the woman to
be addressed as his wife. A promise of marriage, followed by _copula_, also
constitutes a marriage. But it would be out of place here to enter into all
the arcana of the Scotch law of marriage: suffice it to say, that it
prevails equally at John o' Groat's House and Aberdeen, as in the Canongate
or at Gretna Green. A _regular_ marriage requires certain formalities, such
as the publication of banns, &c. An _irregular_ one is equally good in law,
and may be contracted in various ways, as above explained.

This law, though _at first sight_ likely to lead to great abuses, really
works well in practice; and prevents the occurrence of those distressing
cases, which not unfrequently happen in England, of seduction under promise
of marriage, and subsequent desertion.


_Smock Marriages_ (Vol. vii., p. 191.).--According to Scotch law, the
marriage of the father and mother legitimises all children _previously_
born, however old they may be. This is called legitimisation _per
subsequens matrimonium_, and is not unfrequently taken advantage of by
elderly gentlemen, who, after having passed the heyday of youth, wish to
give their children a position, and a legal right to inherit their
property. Like the rule as to marriage above explained, it is derived from
the Roman or civil law. There are very few, I should rather say _no_, legal
fictions in the Scotch law of the nature alluded to by your correspondent.


_Sculptured Emaciated Figures_ (Vol. v., p 497.; Vol. vi. _passim_).--In
Dickinson's _Antiquities of Nottinghamshire_, vol. i. p. 171., is a notice
with an engraving of a tomb in Holme Church, near Southwell, bearing a
sculptured emaciated figure of a youth evidently in the last stage of
consumption, round which is this inscription: "Miseremini mei, miseremini
mei, saltem vos amici mei, quia manus Domini tetigit me."

J. P., JUN.

_Do the Sun's Rays put out the Fire_ (Vol. vii., p. 285.).--It is known
that solar light contains three distinct kinds of rays, which, when
decomposed by a prism, form as many spectra, varying in properties as well
as in position, viz. luminous, heating or calorific, and chemical or
actinic rays.

The greater part of the rays of heat are even less refrangible than the
least refrangible rays of light, while the chemical rays are more
refrangible than either. The latter are so called from their power of
inducing many chemical changes, such as the decomposition of water by
chlorine, and the reactions upon which photographic processes depend.

The relative quantities of these several kinds of rays in sun-light varies
with the time of day, the season, and the latitude of any spot. In general,
where the luminous and heating rays are most abundant, the proportion of
chemical rays is least; and, in fact, the two seem antagonistic to each
other. Thus, near the equator, the luminous and calorific rays being most
powerful, the chemical are feeble, as is shown by the length of time
required for the production of photographic pictures. Hence, also, June and
July are the worst months for the practice of photography, and better
results are obtained before noon than after.

It is precisely for a similar reason that the combustion of an ordinary
fire, being strictly a chemical change, is retarded whenever the sun's
heating and luminous rays are most powerful, as during bright {440}
sunshine, and that observe our fires to burn more briskly in summer than
winter; in fact, that apparently "the sun's rays put out the fire."

A. W. W.

Univ. Coll., London.

_Spontaneous Combustion_ (Vol. vii., p. 286.).--A most interesting
discussion of this question is to be found in Liebig's _Familiar Letters
upon Chemistry_.

That chemist proves conclusively:--1. That of the cases adduced none is
well authenticated, while in most it is admitted that the victims were
drunkards, and that generally a candle or lamp was in the room, and after
the alleged combustion was found turned over. 2. That spontaneous
combustion is absolutely impossible, the human frame containing 75 or 80
per cent. of water; and since flesh, when saturated with alcohol, is not
consumed upon the application of a light, the alcohol burning off first,
the causes assigned to account for the spontaneous ignition are _à priori_
extremely improbable.


Univ. Coll., London.

_Ecclesia Anglicana_ (Vol. vii., p. 12.).--This has always been the
appellation of the Church of England, just as much before the Reformation
as after. I copy for G. R. M. one rather forcible sentence from the
articles of a provincial synod, holden A.D. 1257:

    "Et super istis articulis prænotatis fecit Bonifacius, Cant. Arch.
    suorum suffraganeorum sibi subditorum universorum, prælatorum pariter
    et cleri procuratorum, convocationem isto anno apud Londonias semel et
    secundo, propter gravamina et oppressiones, de die in diem per summum
    pontificem et D. Henricum Regem _Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ_
    irrogatas."--Wilkin's _Concilia Mag. Brit. et Hib._, vol. i. p. 726.

For other examples of the ante-reformational use of _Ecclesia Anglicana_, I
can give him so large a reference as to Wilkins' book, _passim_; to the
Writs for Parliament and Mandates for Convocation contained in the Appendix
to Wake's _State of the Church and Clergy_; and to the extracts from _The
Annals of Waverley_, and other old chronicles, quoted in Hody's _History of
English Councils and Convocations_.



_Wyle Cop_ (Vol. iv., pp. 116. 243. 509.; Vol. v., p. 44.; Vol. vi., p.
65.).--The summit of a steep hill in the town of Shrewsbury bears the name
of _The Wyle Cop_. I think that these are two Welsh words, _Gwyl Cop_,
meaning watch mound, slightly altered. _Gop_, near Newmarket in Flintshire,
has a longer Welsh name, which is written by English people _Coperleni_.
This, when correctly written, means, the mound of the light or fire-beacon.
_Mole Cop_, the name of a lofty hill near Congleton, appears to be a slight
corruption of the Welsh words _Moel y Cop_, the mountain of the mound.
There is another lofty hill in Staffordshire called _Stiles Cop_. It seems
probable that on both of these hills mounds may have been made in ancient
times for the erection of fire-beacons. It would appear that Dr. Plot did
not understand the Welsh language, as he has stated that he thought, in
these instances, the word _Cop_ meant a mountain.

N. W. S. (2.)

_Chaucer_ (Vol. vii., p. 356).--No foreign original has ever been found for
Chaucer's "House of Fame." Warton fancied that it had been translated or
paraphrased from the Provençal, but could adduce no proof that it had. Old
Geoffrey may have found the groundwork somewhere, in the course of his
multifarious reading; but the main portion of the structure is evidently
the work of his own hands, as the number of personal details and
circumstances would tend to indicate. The forty lines comprising the "Lai
of Marie," which Chaucer has worked up into the "Nonnes Preestes Tale" of
some seven hundred lines, are printed in Tyrwhitt's Introductory Discourse
to the _Canterbury Tales_, and will be sufficient to show what use he made
of the raw material at his disposal. We may fairly presume that Emerson
never took the trouble to investigate the matter, but contented himself
with snatching up his materials from the nearest quarry, and then tumbling
them out to the public.

J. M. B.

Tunbridge Wells.

_Campvere, Privileges of_ (Vol. vii., p. 262.).--J. D. S. asks, "What were
these privileges, and whence was the term Campvere derived?"

In Scotland there exists an ancient institution called "The Convention of
Royal Burghs," which still meets annually in Edinburgh, under the fixed
presidency of the Lord Provost of that city. It is a representative body,
consisting of delegates elected by the town councils of the royal burghs
(not _boroughs_) of Scotland; and their business is to attend to such
public measures as may affect the general interests of their constituents.
In former times, however their powers and duties were of far more
importance than they are now. The Convention seems to have exercised a
general superintendence of the foreign trade of the kingdom. With a view to
the promotion of that trade, they used to enter into commercial treaties,
or _staple contracts_ as they were called, with the commercial cities of
the Continent; and I have now before me one of these staple contracts, made
with the city of Antwerp in 1540; and another with the city of Middleburg,
in Zeeland, in 1541; but latterly they seem to have confined themselves to
the town of _Campvere_, in Zeeland (island of Walcheren). In all these
contracts it was stipulated {441} that the Scottish traders should enjoy
certain privileges, which were considered of such importance that the crown
appointed a _conservator_ of them. The last of these staple contracts was
made with Campvere in the year 1747; but soon afterwards the increasing
prosperity of Scotland, and the participation of its burgesses in the
foreign trade of England, rendered such partial arrangements useless, and
the contracts and the privileges have long since been reckoned among the
things that were. The office of conservator degenerated into a sinecure. It
was held for some time by the _Rev._ John Home, author of the tragedy of
_Douglas_, who died in 1808; and afterwards by a Sir Alex. Lenier, whose
name is found in the _Edinburgh Almanack_ as "Conservator at Campvere" till
1847, when the office and the officer seem to have expired together.

J. L.

_Sir Gilbert Gerard_ (Vol. v., pp. 511. 571.).--In addition to the
information I formerly sent you in answer to MR. SPEDDING'S inquiry, I am
now enabled to state two facts, which greatly reduce the period within
which the date of Sir Gilbert Gerard's death may be fixed. Among the
records in Carlton Ride, is an enrolment of his account as _Custos Domûs
Conversorum_ from January 29, 34 Eliz. (1592) to January 29, 35 Eliz.
(1593). And a search in Doctors' Commons has resulted in the discovery,
that Sir Gilbert's will was proved, not, as Dugdale states, in April, 1592,
but on April 6, 1593. He died therefore between January 29 and April 6,

Dugdale mentions that there is no epitaph on his monument.


_Mistletoe_ (Vol. vii., p. 270.).--I wish to mention that the mistletoe has
been tried at the Botanic Gardens belonging to Trinity College, Dublin;
and, after flourishing for some years, it died away. Indeed, I think it has
been repeatedly tried there, but without eventual success.

Y. S. M.


_Wild Plants and their Names_ (Vol. vii., p. 233.).--_Cowslip_, "Palsy
Wort." Culpepper says:

    "Because they strengthen the brain and nerves, and remedy palsies, the
    Greeks gave them the name _paralysis_." "The flowers preserved, or
    conserved, and the quantity of a nutmeg taken every morning, is a
    sufficient dose for inward disorders."

For the ointment he gives the following receipt:

    "Bruise the _flowers_; and to two handfuls of these, add a pound of
    hog's grease dried. Put it in a stone pot, covered with paper, and set
    it in the sun or a warm place three or four days to melt. Take it out
    and boil it a little; strain it out when hot; pressing it out very hard
    in a press. To this grease add as many herbs as before, and repeat the
    whole process, if you wish the ointment strong.--Yet this I tell you,
    the fuller of juice the herbs are, the sooner will your ointment be
    strong; the last time you boil it, boil it so long till your herbs be
    crisp, and the juice consumed; then strain it, pressing it hard in a
    press; and to every pound of ointment, add two ounces of turpentine,
    and as much wax."


_Coninger or Coningry, Coneygar or Conygre_ (Vol. vii., pp. 182. 241.
368.).--There are many fields in the midland counties which bear the name
of _conigree_. In some instances they are in the vicinity of manor-houses.
The British name of a rabbit is _cwningen_, plural _cwning_. That of a
rabbit warren is _cwning-gaer_, that is, literally, rabbits' camp. The term
_coneygar_ is so like this, that it may be supposed to have been derived
from it.

N. W. S. (2)

       *       *       *       *       *



It would be difficult to find a book better calculated to prove the good
service which the Camden Society is rendering to historical literature,
than the one which has just been circulated among its members. The work,
which is entitled _Letters and Papers of the Verney Family down to the end
of the year 1639. Printed from the original MSS. in the possession of Sir
Harry Verney, Bart., edited by_ John Bruce, Esq., Treas. S. A., is of
direct historical value, although at the first glance it would seem rather
to illustrate the fortunes of the Verneys than the history of the country.
For, as the editor well observes--

    "The most valuable materials, even for general history, are to be found
    among the records of private and personal experience. More true
    knowledge of the spirit of an age, more real acquaintance with the
    feelings and actual circumstances of a people, may be gleaned from a
    delineation of the affairs of a single family, than from studied
    historical composition. The one is the expression of cotemporary and
    spontaneous feeling, and, although limited, is unquestionably genuine;
    the other is a deduction from knowledge, imperfect even when most
    extensive, and too frequently coloured by the feelings and prejudices
    of a subsequent and altered period."

But, valuable as are the materials which the liberality of Sir Harry Verney
has placed at the disposal of the Society, it is obvious that they are of a
nature which a publisher might hesitate to produce, even if their owner,
which is very doubtful, had thought fit to place them in the hands of one
for that purpose. Hence the utility of a society which has influence to
draw from the muniment rooms of our old families, such materials as those
found in the present volume, and which, strung together with the agreeable
and instructive narrative with which Mr. Bruce has accompanied them, will
secure for the _Verney Papers_ the character of being one of the very best,
as well as of the most amusing books, which the Camden Society has given to
the world. {442}

Having had an opportunity of being present at the private view of Messrs.
De la Motte and Cundall's _Photographic Institution_, in New Bond Street,
we were highly pleased with the interesting specimens of the art there
collected, which in our opinion far exceed any similar productions which
have come before the public. We strongly advise our readers to visit this
exhibition, that they may see the rapid progress which the art is making,
and how applicable it is to their archæological pursuits.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_The Vale Royal of England, or the County Palatine of
Chester Illustrated. Abridged and revised, &c._, by Thomas Hughes. The
title-page of this little volume puts forth its claim to the attention of
Cheshire antiquaries.--_The Family Shakspeare_, by Thomas Bowdler, Vol. VI.
This volume completes this handsome reprint of an edition of Shakspeare,
which fathers and brothers, who may scruple at bringing before their
daughters and sisters the blemishes which the character of the age has left
in Shakspeare's writings, may safely present to them; as in it nothing is
added to the original text, from which only those words and expressions are
omitted which cannot with propriety be read in a family.

       *       *       *       *       *


  TILLOTSON. Vols. I., II., IV., V., XI. 12mo. Tonson, London, 1748.

  LIVY. Vol I. 12mo. Maittaire, London, 1722.

      XIX., XX. 5s. each. The above in Parts or Monthly Numbers will do.


  A COLLECTION OF DIVERTING SONGS, AIRS, &c.: Both published about the
      middle of last century.



  VIEWS OF ARUNDEL HOUSE IN THE STRAND, 1646. London, published by T.
      Thane, Rupert Street, Haymarket. 1792.


  PICKERING'S STATUTES AT LARGE. 8vo. Edit. Camb. From 46 Geo. III. cap.
      144. (Vol. XLVI. Part I.) to 1 Wm. IV.

  EUROPEAN MAGAZINE. Nos. for May, 1817; January, February, May, June,
      1818; April, June, July, October, and December, 1819.

      and IV.

  THE LAWYER AND MAGISTRATE'S MAGAZINE, complete, or single Volumes,
      _circa_ 1805-1810.


      to end.

  BAYLE'S DICTIONARY. English Version, by DE MAIZEAUX. London, 1738. Vols.
      I. and II.

  SWIFT'S (DEAN) WORKS. Dublin: G. Faulkner. 19 volumes 1768. Vol. I.


  ARCHÆOLOGIA. Vols. III., IV., V., VII. Boards.


*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_Owing to a necessity for going to press this week at an unusually early
period, that the present Number might be included in the Monthly Part, we
are compelled to omit replies to many Correspondents._

L. A. M. (Great Yarmouth) _will find several Notes respecting the means of
discovering the bodies of the drowned in our_ 4th Vol., pp. 148. 251. 297.

H. O. N. (Brighton). _In our own practice we have never obtained pictures
with the agreeable colour which is produced by the iodide of silver, when
iodide of ammonium has been used. The flaking of the collodion would
indicate an excess of iodide, and is often cured by the addition of about
twenty drops of alcohol to an ounce of collodion. The feathery appearance
is difficult to comprehend, without seeing a specimen. If you are using
glass which has been previously used, the most minute remains of iron would
cause a discoloration. Muriatic acid is the most effectual remedy for
cleaning glass so used. It may be procured at_ 2½d. _per lb., and should be
diluted with three parts of water._

AN AMATEUR (Oxford). _We are not of opinion that Mr. Talbot could restrain
any one from taking collodion portraits, as patentee of the Talbotype
process. It is done in many parts of London daily without any
permission.--See _Times'_ Advertisements, &c._

C. E. F. _We think you use too strong a solution of the ammonio-nitrate of
silver: thirty grains to the ounce of water, and then redissolved with the
strong liq. ammon., give to us most satisfactory result,--the paper being
prepared before with chloride of barium, chloride of sodium, and chloride
of ammonia, of each half a drachm to the quart of water, in which half an
ounce of mannite, or sugar of milk, has been previously dissolved. When
sufficiently printed, put it into the hypo. sulph. solution, without
previous immersion._

H. L. L. _We shall be happy to render you the best assistance we can, if
you will communicate with us again. For iodized paper we may safely refer
you to our advertising columns._

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vi., _price
Three Guineas, may now be had; for which early application is desirable._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *

Polarizing Apparatus, Object glasses, and Eye-pieces. S. STRAKER supplies
any of the above of the first quality, and will forward by post free a new
priced List of Microscopes and Apparatus.


       *       *       *       *       *

suffer from depression of spirits, confusion, headache, blushing,
groundless fears, unfitness for business or society, blood to the head,
failure of memory, delusions, suicidal thoughts, fear of insanity, &c.,
will call on, or correspond with, REV. DR. WILLIS MOSELEY, who, out of
above 22,000 applicants, knows not fifty uncured who have followed his
advice, he will instruct them how to get well, without a fee, and will
render the same service to the friends of the insane.--At home from 11 to


       *       *       *       *       *

SPECTACLES.--WM. ACKLAND applies his medical knowledge as a Licentiate of
the Apothecaries' Company, London, his theory as a Mathematician, and his
practice as a Working Optician, aided by Smee's Optometer, in the selection
of Spectacles suitable to every derangement of vision, so as to preserve
the sight to extreme old age.

ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, with the New Vetzlar Eye-pieces, as exhibited at the
Academy of Sciences in Paris. The Lenses of these Eye-pieces are so
constructed that the rays of light fall nearly perpendicular to the surface
of the various lenses, by which the aberration is completely removed; and a
telescope so fitted give one-third more magnifying power and light than
could be obtained by the old Eye-pieces. Prices of the various sizes on
application to

WM. ACKLAND, Optician, 93. Hatton Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

STEEL PENS.--PARTRIDGE & COZEN'S STEEL PENS are the best; made of the
purest steel, all selected and warranted. Fine or medium points, 1s. 3d.
per box of twelve dozen; broad ditto, 1s. 6d.; extra broad, 1s. 6d., a very
easy pen--will write with comfort on brown paper; correspondence pen, 1s.
3d. per box--this pen adapts itself to any hand. P. & C. are the original
makers, and although there are many imitations, it is still unequalled.
Best magnum bonums, 3s. 6d. per gross; silver pens, 1s., and gold ditto,
2s. each, warranted; patent holders, fit any pen, 6d. dozen, or 5s. gross.
A liberal allowance to shippers and the trade. Samples per post, on receipt
of six stamps.

PARTRIDGE & COZEN'S Cheap Stationery Warehouses, 127. and 128. Chancery

       *       *       *       *       *

Turnstile, near Lincoln's Inn Fields, Holborn. Catalogues sent on receipt
of One Postage Stamp. {443}

       *       *       *       *       *



Comprising Plain Directions for the Practice of Photography, including the
Collodion Process on Glass; the Paper and Wax-Paper Processes; Printing
from Glass and Paper Negatives, &c.


With Notes on the Application of Photography to Archæology, &c.,


London: GEORGE BELL, 186, Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


The spacious Plate Glass House, 30 feet by 15, with the Class Rooms and
Ladies' Apartment, being nearly completed. Classes or Private Lessons,
embracing all branches of Photography, will commence May 2nd, 1853, for
Gentlemen, and May 3rd, for Ladies.

A perfect Apparatus with Ross's finest Lenses has been procured, and every
new improvement will be added.

The School will be under the joint direction of T. A. MALONE, Esq., who has
been long connected with Photography, and J. H. PEPPER, Esq., the Chemist
to the Institution.

A Prospectus, with terms, may be had at the Institution.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères', La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver)--J. B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their
Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness,
tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months: it may be exported to any
climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J. B. HOCKIN & CO.
manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements
adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Cameras for
Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses
from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Established 1824.

       *       *       *       *       *

FIVE BONUSES have been declared; at the last in January, 1852, the sum of
131,125l. was added to the Policies, producing a Bonus varying with the
different ages from 24½ to 55 per cent. on the Premiums paid during the
five years, or from 5l. to 12l. 10s. per cent. on the Sum Assured.

The small share of Profit divisible in future among the Shareholders being
now provided for, the ASSURED will hereafter derive all the benefits
obtainable from a Mutual Office, WITHOUT ANY LIABILITY OR RISK OF

POLICIES effected before the 30th June next, will be entitled, at the next
Division, to one year's additional share of Profits over later Assurers.

On Assurances for the whole of Life only one half of the Premiums need to
be paid for the first five years.

INVALID LIVES may be Assured at rates proportioned to the risk.

Claims paid _thirty_ days after proof of death, and all Policies are
_Indisputable_ except in cases of fraud.

Tables of Rates and forms of Proposal can be obtained of any of the
Society's Agents, or of

GEORGE H. PINCKARD, Resident Secretary.

_99. Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London._

       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq. M.P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.


W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; L. C. Humfrey, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq.

_Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.

_Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed on
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age      _£  s.  d._
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen.


       *       *       *       *       *

UNITED KINGDOM LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY: established by Act of Parliament in
1834.--8. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, London.


  Earl of Courtown
  Earl Leven and Melville
  Earl of Norbury
  Earl of Stair
  Viscount Falkland
  Lord Elphinstone
  Lord Belhaven and Stenton
  Wm. Campbell, Esq., of Tillichewan


  _Chairman._--Charles Graham, Esq.
  _Deputy-Chairman._--Charles Downes, Esq.

  H. Blair Avarne, Esq.
  E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., F.S.A., _Resident_.
  C. Berwick Curtis, Esq.
  William Fairlie, Esq.
  D. Q. Henriques, Esq.
  J. G. Henriques, Esq.
  F. C. Maitland, Esq.
  William Railton, Esq.
  F. H. Thomson, Esq.
  Thomas Thorby, Esq.


  _Physician._--Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D.,
  8. Bennett Street, St. James's.

  _Surgeon._--F. H. Tomson, Esq., 48. Berners Street.

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 1834, to December 31, 1847, is as

    Sum    |   Time   |   Sum added to     |   Sum
  Assured. | Assured. |      Policy        | Payable
           |          +--------------------+ at Death.
           |          | In 1841. In 1848.  |
      £    |          |   £ s.d.|   £  s.d.|    £  s.d.
     5000  | 14 years | 683 6 8 | 787 10 0 | 6470 16 8
   * 1000  |  7 years |  -  -   | 157 10 0 | 1157 10 0
      500  |  1 year  |  -  -   |  11  5 0 |  511  5 0

* EXAMPLE.--At the commencement of the year 1841, a person aged thirty took
out a Policy for 1000l., the annual payment for which is 24l. 1s. 8d.; in
1847 he had paid in premiums 168l. 11s. 8d.; but the profits being 2¼ per
cent. per annum on the sum insured (which is 22l. 10s. per annum for each
1000l.) he had 157l. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much as the
premiums paid.

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most moderate scale, and only
one-half need be paid for the first five years, when the Insurance is for
Life. Every information will be afforded on application to the Resident

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions may
be seen at BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured
Apparatus of every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of
Photography in all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street. {444}

       *       *       *       *       *


GOVERNMENT; edited, with Life and Notes, by JOHN MACGREGOR, M.P. Post 8vo.,
cloth 3s. 6d.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


translated, with Notes, by C. D. YONGE, B.A. Post 8vo., cloth, 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


NORWAY and its SCENERY, Comprising PRICE'S JOURNAL, with large Additions,
and a ROAD-BOOK. Edited by THOS. FORESTER, Esq., with 22 Illustrations,
beautifully engraved on steel by Lucas. Post 8vo., cloth, 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


HUMPHREY'S COIN COLLECTOR'S MANUAL: a Popular Introduction to the Study of
Coins, Ancient and Modern; with elaborate Indexes, and numerous
highly-finished Engravings on wood and steel. 2 vols. post 8vo., cloth, 5s.
per volume.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


PAULI'S LIFE OF ALFRED THE GREAT, translated from the German. To which is
appended, ALFRED'S ANGLO-SAXON VERSION of OROSIUS, with a Literal English
Translation interpaged, Notes, and an Anglo-Saxon Alphabet and Glossary, by
B. THORPE, Esq. Post 8vo. cloth, 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *

Price One Shilling, post 8vo. in wrapper.

GERVINUS' INTRODUCTION to his HISTORY of the 19th CENTURY, translated from
the German, with a Memoir of the Author.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *

KENNEDY'S SELECTIONS of CLASSICAL POETRY, being principally Translations
from English Poets. Post 8vo., cloth, 3s. 6d.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, in one volume super-royal 8vo., 21s., cloth gilt, 42s., in
morocco, by Hayday; handsomely printed in a clear readable type, with
portrait, vignette, and fac-simile,

THE PLAYS OF SHAKSPEARE. The Text regulated by the old copies, and by the
recently discovered folio of 1632; containing early manuscript emendations.
Edited by J. PAYNE COLLIER, ESQ., F.S.A.

WHITTAKER & CO., Ave Maria Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *


In 12mo., price 3s., a new edition of


*** The object of this Work (which is founded on the principles of
imitation and frequent repetition) is to enable the pupil to do exercises
from the first day of his beginning his Accidence. It is recommended by the
Oxford Diocesan Board of Education as an useful Work for Middle or
Commercial Schools; and adopted at the National Society's Training College
at Chelsea.

By THOMAS KERCHEVER ARNOLD, M.A., Rector of Lyndon, and Late Fellow of
Trinity College, Cambridge.

RIVINGTON'S, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place; and SIMPKIN,

Also, by the same Author,

1. A SECOND LATIN BOOK and PRACTICAL GRAMMAR. Intended as a Sequel to
Henry's First Latin Book. Fifth Edition. 4s.

2. A FIRST VERSE BOOK; being an easy Introduction to the Mechanism of the
Latin Hexameter and Pentameter. Fifth Edition. 2s.

3. COMPANION TO THE FIRST VERSE BOOK, containing additional Exercises. 1s.

4. ECLOGÆ OVIDIANÆ; with ENGLISH NOTES, &c. Eighth Edition. 2s. 6d. This
Work is from the Fifth Part of the "Lateinisches Elementarbuch" of
Professors Jacobs and Döring, which has an immense circulation on the
Continent and in America.

5. ECLOGÆ OVIDIANÆ, Part II., containing Selections from the
"Metamorphoses." With ENGLISH NOTES. 5s.

6. HISTORIÆ ANTIQUÆ EPITOME, from "Cornelius Nepos," "Justin," &c. With
English Notes, Rules for Construing, Questions, Geographical Lists, &c.
Fifth Edition. 4s.

7. CORNELIUS NEPOS, Part I. With Critical Questions and Answers, and an
Imitative Exercise on each Chapter. Third Edition. 4s.

       *       *       *       *       *

This day, Foolscap Octavo, price 7s. 6d.

THE POEMS OF GOETHE, Translated in the Original Metres. By EDGAR ALFRED
BOWRING. Preceded by a Sketch of Goethe's Life.

Also, translated by Mr. Bowring, 6s.


London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-eighth Edition.

NEUROTONICS, or the Art of Strengthening the Nerves, containing Remarks on
the influence of the Nerves upon the Health of Body and Mind, and the means
of Cure for Nervousness, Debility, Melancholy, and all Chronic Diseases, by
DR. NAPIER, M.D. London: HOULSTON & STONEMAN. Price 4d., or Post Free from
the Author for Five Penny Stamps.

    "We can conscientiously recommend 'Neurotonics,' by Dr. Napier, to the
    careful perusal of our invalid readers."--_John Bull Newspaper, June 5,

       *       *       *       *       *

THE CAMDEN SOCIETY for the Publication of Early Historical and Literary

The Annual General Meeting will be held at the Freemasons' Tavern, Great
Queen Street, on Monday, May 2nd, at 4 o'clock. The LORD BRAYBROOKE, the
President, in the Chair.

       *       *       *       *       *

The following are the Publications of the Society for the year 1852-53:

I. The Camden Miscellany, Volume the Second, containing:--1. Account of the
Expenses of John of Brabant, and Henry and Thomas of Lancaster, 1292-3. 2.
Household Account of the Princess Elizabeth 1551-2. 3. The Request and
Suite of a True-hearted Englishman, written by William Cholmeley, 1553. 4.
Discovery of the Jesuits' College at Clerkenwell in March, 1627-8. 5.
Trelawny Papers; and 6. Autobiography of William Taswell. D.D.

II. Letters and Papers of the Verney Family down to the end of the year
1639. Printed from the original MSS. in the possession of Sir Harry Verney,
Bart. Edited by JOHN BRUCE, ESQ., Treas. S.A.

III. Regulæ Inclusarum: The Ancren Rewele: A treatise on the Rules and
Duties of Monastic Life, in the Anglo-Saxon Dialect of the 13th Century.
Edited by the REV. JAMES MORTON, B.D., Prebendary of Lincoln. (Nearly

The Subscription to the Society is 1l. per annum, which becomes due on the
1st of May.

Communications from Gentlemen desirous of becoming Members may be addressed
to the Secretary, or the MESSRS. NICHOLS, No. 25. Parliament Street,
Westminster, by whom the Subscriptions are received.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, in Six Volumes, fcp. 8vo., price 5s. each.

BOWDLER'S FAMILY SHAKSPEARE. In which nothing is added to the Original
Text; but those Words and Expressions are _omitted_ which cannot with
propriety be read aloud in a Family. A New Edition.

*** Also a LIBRARY EDITION, with 36 Wood Engravings, from Designs by
Smirke, Howard, and other Artists; complete in One Volume, 8vo., price One


       *       *       *       *       *

This Day, Seventh Edition, revised, 5s.


By the same Author,



London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now publishing, in post 8vo., price 5s. cloth.

Account of their respective Origin, History, Objects, and Constitution. By
the REV. A. HUME, LL.D. With a SUPPLEMENT, containing all the recently
established Societies and Printing Clubs, and COMPLETE LISTS OF THEIR
PUBLICATIONS to the present Time, by A. I. EVANS. This Work will be found
of great utility to all Literary Men, Public Libraries, &c.

G. WILLIS, Piazza, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10 Stonefield Street, in the Parish of
St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, April 30.

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