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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 192, July 2, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 192, July 2, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 192.]
SATURDAY, JULY 2. 1853..
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                              Page
  Oblation of a white Bull                                 1
  Newstead Abbey, by W. S. Hasleden                        2
  On a celebrated Passage in "Romeo and Juliet,"
  Act III. Sc. 2., by S. W. Singer                         3
  On the Passage from "King Lear"                          4
  Manners of the Irish, by H. T. Ellacombe, &c.            4

  MINOR NOTES:--Burial in an Erect Posture--The
  Archbishop of Armagh's Cure for the Gout, 1571--The
  last known Survivor of General Wolfe's Army in
  Canada--National Methods of applauding--Curious
  Posthumous Occurrence                                    5

  Did Captain Cook first discover the Sandwich Islands?
  by J. S. Warden                                          6
  Superstition of the Cornish Miners                       7

  MINOR QUERIES:--Clerical Duel--Pistol--Council
  of Laodicea, Canon 35.--Pennycomequick, adjoining
  Plymouth--Park the Antiquary--Honorary D.C.L.'s--
  Battle of Villers en Couché--Dr. Misaubin--Kemble,
  Willet, and Forbes--Piccalyly--Post-Office about
  1770--"Carefully examined and well-authenticated"--
  Sir Heister Ryley--Effigies with folded Hands            7

  Bishop Horsley--"Marry come up!"--Dover Court--
  Porter--Dr. Whitaker's ingenious Earl--Dissimulate       9

  Bishop Ken, by the Rev. J. H. Markland                  10
  Bohn's Edition of Hoveden, by James Graves              11
  Coleridge's Christabel, by J. S. Warden                 11
  Its                                                     12
  Family of Milton's Widow, by T. Hughes                  12
  Books of Emblems--Jacob Behmen, by C. Mansfield
  Ingleby                                                 13
  Raffaelle's Sposalizio                                  14
  Windfall                                                14
  Mr. Justice Newton, by the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe and
  F. Kyffin Lenthall                                      15

  Treatment of Positives--Stereoscopic Angles--Query
  respecting Mr. Pollock's Process--Gallo-nitrate of
  Silver                                                  15

  decyphered--Emblems by John Bunyan--Mr. Cobb's
  Diary--"Sat cito si sat bene"--Mythe versus Myth--The
  Gilbert Family--Alexander Clark--Christ's Cross--The
  Rebellious Prayer--"To the Lords of Convention"--
  Wooden Tombs and Effigies--Lord Clarendon and the
  Tubwoman--House-marks--"Amentium haud amantium"--
  The Megatherium in the British Museum--Pictorial
  Proverbs--"Hurrah," and other War-cries                 17

  Notes on Books, &c.                                     20
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                            21
  Notices to Correspondents                               21
  Advertisements                                          21

       *       *       *       *       *



By lease dated 28th April, 1533, the Abbat of St. Edmund's Bury demised to
John Wright, glazier, and John Anable, pewterer, of Bury, the manor of
Haberdon appurtenant to the office of Sacrist in that monastery, with four
acres in the Vynefeld, for twenty years, at the rent of 5l. 4s. to the
Sacrist; the tenants also to find a white bull every year of their term, as
often as it should happen that any gentlewoman, or any other woman, should,
out of devotion, visit the shrine of the glorious king and martyr of St.
Edmund, and wish to make the oblation of a white bull. (Dodsw. Coll. in
_Bibl. Bodl._, vol. lxxi. f. 72.)

If we are to understand a white bull of the ancient race of wild white
cattle, it may be inferred, I suppose, that in some forest in the vicinity
of Bury St. Edmund's they had not disappeared in the first half of the
sixteenth century. The wild cattle, probably indigenous to the great
Caledonian forest, seem to have become extinct in a wild state before the
time of Leland, excepting where preserved in certain ancient parks, as
Chillingham Park, Northumberland, Gisburne Park in Craven, &c., where they
were, and in the former at all events still are, maintained in their
original purity of breed. They were preserved on the lands of some abbeys;
for instance, by the Abbats of Whalley, Lancashire.

Whitaker (_History of Craven_, p. 34.) mentions Gisburne Park as chiefly
remarkable for a herd of wild cattle, descendants of that indigenous race
which once roamed in the great forests of Lancashire, and they are said by
some other writer to have been originally brought to Gisburne from Whalley
after the dissolution. One of the descendants of Robert de Brus, the
founder of Gainsborough Priory, is stated by Matthew Paris to have
conciliated King John with a present of white cattle. The woods of
Chillingham Castle are celebrated at this day for the breed of this
remarkable race, by which they are inhabited; and I believe there are three
or four other places in which they are preserved.

In the form and direction of the horns, these famous wild white oxen seem
to be living {2} representatives of the race whose bones are found in a
fossil state in England and some parts of the Continent in the "diluvium"
bone-caves, mixed with the bones of bears, hyenas, and other wild animals,
now the cotemporaries of the Bos Gour, or Asiatic Ox, upon mountainous
slopes of Western India. I have read that white cattle resembling the wild
cattle of Chillingham exist in Italy, and that it has been doubted whether
our British wild cattle are descendants of an aboriginal race, or were
imported by ecclesiastics from Italy. But this seems unlikely, because they
were not so easily brought over as the Pope's _bulls_ (the pun is quite
unavoidable), and were undoubtedly inhabitants of our ancient forests at a
very early period.

However, my present object is only to inquire for any other instances of
the custom of offering a white bull in honour of a Christian saint. Perhaps
some of your correspondents would elucidate this singular oblation.

I am not able to refer to Col. Hamilton Smith's work on the mythology and
ancient history of the ox, which may possibly notice this kind of offering.

W. S. G.


       *       *       *       *       *


The descent of property, like the family pedigree, occasionally exhibits
the most extraordinary disruptions; and to those who may be ignorant of the
cause, the effect may appear as romance. I have been particularly struck
with the two interesting papers contained in the April number of the
_Archæological Journal_, having reference to the Newstead Abbey estate,
formerly the property of Lord Byron's family, which, amongst other matters,
contain some severe remarks on the conduct of one of its proprietors, the
great uncle and predecessor of our great poet, and having reference to
dilapidation. Mr. Pettigrew, in his paper, states that--

    "Family differences, particularly during the time of the fifth Lord
    Byron, _of eccentric and unsocial manners_, suffered and even aided the
    dilapidations of time. The castellated stables and offices are,
    however, yet to be seen."

And Mr. Ashpitel adds that--

    "The state of Newstead at the time the poet succeeded to the estate is
    not generally known: '_the wicked lord_' had felled all the noble oaks,
    destroyed the finest herds of deer, and, in short, had denuded the
    estate of everything he could. The hirelings of the attorney did the
    rest: they stripped away all the furniture, and everything the law
    would permit them to remove. The buildings on the east side were
    unroofed; the old Xenodochium, and the grand refectory, were full of
    hay; and the entrance-hall and monks' parlour were stable for cattle.
    In the only habitable part of the building, a place then used as a sort
    of scullery, under the only roof that kept out wet of all this vast
    pile, the fifth Lord Byron breathed his last; and to this inheritance
    the poet succeeded."

It is not necessary for me to refer to the lofty expression of the poet's
feelings on such his inheritance, nor to the necessity of his parting from
the estate, which appears now to be happily restored to its former
splendour; but possessing some knowledge of a lamentable fact, that neither
Mr. Pettigrew nor Mr. Ashpitel appears to be aware of, I feel inclined to
soften the asperity of the reflections quoted; and palliate, although I may
not justify, the apparently reckless proceedings of the eccentric fifth
Lord, as he is called. In the years 1796 and 1797, after finishing my
clerkship, I had a seat in the chambers of the late Jas. Hanson, Esq., an
eminent conveyancer of Lincoln's Inn; and while with him, amongst other
peers of the realm who came to consult Mr. Hanson regarding their property,
we had this _eccentric_ fifth Lord Byron, who apparently came up to town
for the purpose, and under the most painful and pitiable load of
distress,--and I must confess that I felt for him exceedingly; but his case
was past remedy, and, after some daily attendance, pouring forth his
lamentations, he appears to have returned home to subside into the reckless
operations reported of him. His case was this:--Upon the marriage of his
son, he, as any other father would do, granted a settlement of his
property, including the Newstead Abbey estate; but by some unaccountable
inadvertence or negligence of the lawyers employed, the ultimate reversion
of the fee-simple of the property, instead of being left, as it ought to
have been, in the father as the owner of the estates, was limited to the
heirs of the son. And upon his death, and failure of the issue of the
marriage, the unfortunate father, _this eccentric lord_, found himself
robbed of the fee-simple of his own inheritance, and left merely the naked
tenant for life, without any legal power of raising money upon it, or even
of cutting down a tree. It is so many years ago, that I now do not remember
the detail of what passed on these consultations, but it would appear, that
if the lawyers were aware of the effect of the final limitation, neither
father nor son appear to have been informed of it, or the result might have
been corrected, and his lordship would probably have kept up the estate in
its proper order. Whether this case was at all a promoting cause of the
alteration of the law, I do not know; but, as the law now stands, the
estate would revert back to the father as heir of this son. This case made
a lasting impression on me, and I once had to correct a similar erroneous
proposition in a large intended settlement; and I quoted this unfortunate
accident as an authority. Now, although this relation may not fully justify
the reckless waste that appears to have been committed, it certainly is a
palliative. I do not recollect whether {3} our fifth lord had any surviving
daughter to provide for; but if he had, his situation would be a still more
aggravated position.


       *       *       *       *       *


Few passages in Shakspeare have so often and so ineffectually been
"winnowed" as the opening of the beautiful and passionate soliloquy of
Juliet, when ardently and impatiently invoking night's return, which was to
bring her newly betrothed lover to her arms. It stands thus in the first
folio, from which the best quarto differs only in a few unimportant points
of orthography:

 "Gallop apace, you fiery footed steedes,
  Towards Phoebus' lodging, such a wagoner
  As Phaeton should whip you to the wish,
  And bring in cloudie night immediately.
  Spred thy close curtaine, Loue-performing night,
  That run-awayes eyes may wincke, and Romeo
  Leape to these armes, untalkt of and unseene", &c.

The older commentators do not attempt to change the word _run-awayes_, but
seek to explain it. Warburton says Phoebus is the runaway. Steevens has a
long argument to prove that Night is the runaway. Douce thought Juliet
herself was the runaway; and at a later period the Rev. Mr. Halpin, in a
very elegant and ingenious essay, attempts to prove that by the runaway we
must understand Cupid.

MR. KNIGHT and MR. COLLIER have both of them adopted Jackson's conjecture
of _unawares_, and have admitted it to the honour of a place in the text,
but MR. DYCE has pronounced it to be "villainous;" and it must be confessed
that it has nothing but a slight similarity to the old word to recommend
it. MR. DYCE himself has favoured us with three suggestions; the first two
in his _Remarks on Collier and Knight's Shakspeare_, in 1844, where he

    "That _ways_ (the last syllable of _run-aways_) ought to be _days_, I
    feel next to certain; but what word originally preceded it I do not
    pretend to determine:

     'Spread thy close curtain, love-performing Night!
      That rude/soon (?) Day's eyes may wink, and Romeo
      Leap to these arms, untalk'd of and unseen,' &c."

The correctors of MR. COLLIER's folio having substituted--

 "That _enemies_ eyes may wink,"

MR. DYCE, in his recent _Few Notes_, properly rejects that reading, and
submits another conjecture of his own, founded on the supposition that the
word _roving_ having been written illegibly, _roavinge_ was mistaken for
_run-awayes_, and proposes to read--

 "That _roving_ eyes may wink."

Every suggestion of MR. DYCE, certainly the most competent of living
commentators on Shakspeare, merits attention; but I cannot say that I think
he has succeeded in either of his proposed readings.

Monck Mason seems to have had the clearest notion of the requirements of
the passage. He saw that "the word, whatever the meaning of it might be,
was intended as a proper name;" but he was not happy in suggesting
_renomy_, a French word with an English termination.

In the course of his note he mentions that Heath, "the author of the
_Revisal_, reads '_Rumour's_ eyes may wink;' which agrees in sense with the
rest of the passage, but differs widely from _run-aways_ in the trace of
the letters."

I was not conscious of having seen this suggestion of Heath's, when, in
consequence of a question put to me by a gentleman of distinguished taste
and learning, I turned my thoughts to the passage, and at length came to
the conclusion that the word must have been _rumourers_, and that from its
unfrequent occurrence (the only other example of it at present known to me
being one afforded by the poet) the printer mistook it for _runawayes_;
which, when written indistinctly, it may have strongly resembled. I
therefore think that we may read with some confidence:

 "Spread thy close curtains, love-performing Night,
  That _rumourers'_ eyes may wink, and Romeo
  Leap to these arms, _untalk'd of_ and _unseen_."

It fulfils the requirements of both metre and sense, and the words
_untalk'd of_ and _unseen_ make it nearly indisputable. I had at first
thought it might be "_rumorous_ eyes;" but the personification would then
be wanting. Shakspeare has personified _Rumour_ in the Introduction to the
Second Part of _King Henry IV._; and in _Coriolanus_, Act IV. Sc. 6., we

 "Go see this _rumourer_ whipp'd."

I am gratified by seeing that I have anticipated your able correspondent,
the REV. MR. ARROWSMITH, in his elucidation of "_clamour_ your tongues," by
citing the same passage from Udall's _Apophthegmes_, in my _Vindication of
the Text of Shakspeare_, p. 79. It is a pleasure which must console me for
having subjected myself to his just animadversion on another occasion. If
those who so egregiously blunder are to be spared the castigation justly
merited, we see by late occurrences to what it may lead; and your
correspondent, in my judgment, is conferring a favour on all true lovers of
our great poet by exposing pretension and error, from whatever quarter it
may come,--a duty which has been sadly neglected in some late partial
reviews of MR. COLLIER's "clever" corrector. MR. ARROWSMITH's
communications have been so truly _ad rem_, that I think I shall be
expressing the sentiments of all your readers interested in such {4}
matters, in expressing an earnest desire for their continuance.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 592.)

Will you allow me to suggest to your ingenious Leeds correspondent (whose
communications would be read with only the more pleasure if they evinced a
little more respect for the opinions of others) that before he asserts the
existence of a certain error which he points out in a passage in _King
Lear_ to be "undeniable," it would be desirable that he should support this
improved reading by other passages from Shakspeare, or from cotemporary
writers, in which the word he proposes occurs? For my own part, I think
A. E. B.'s suggestion well worthy of consideration, but I cannot admit that
it "demonstrates itself," or "that any attempt to support it by argument
would be absurd," for it would unquestionably strengthen his case to show
that the verb "recuse" was not entirely obsolete in Shakspeare's time.
Neither can I admit that there is an "obvious opposition between _means_
and _defects_," the two words having no relation to each other. The
question is, which of two words must be altered; and at present I must own
I am inclined to put more faith in the authority of "the old corrector"
than in A. E. B.

Having taken up my pen on this subject, allow me to remark upon the manner
in which MR. COLLIER's folio is referred to by your correspondent. I have
carefully considered many of the emendations proposed, and feel in my own
mind satisfied that _so great a number_ that, in the words of your
correspondent, _demonstrate themselves_, could not have been otherwise than
adopted from some authority. Even in the instance of the passage from Henry
V., "on a table of green friese," which A. E. B. selects, I presume, as
being especially absurd, I think "the old corrector" right; although I had
frequently cited Theobald's correction as particularly happy, and therefore
the new version was at first to me very distasteful. But, whatever opinion
may be held as to the value of the book, it is surely unbecoming to the
discussion of a literary question to indulge in the unsparing insinuations
that have been thrown out on all sides respecting it. I leave out of
question the circumstance, that the long and great services of MR. COLLIER
ought to protect him at least from such unworthy treatment.


P.S.--Since writing the above, I have seen MR. KEIGHTLEY's letter. I hope
he will not deprive the readers of "N. & Q." of the benefit of his valuable
communications for the offences of one or two. He might consider, first,
that his own dignity would suffer least by letting them pass by him "as the
idle wind;" and, secondly, that some allowance should be made for gentlemen
who engage in controversy on a subject which, strangely enough, next to
religion, seems to be most productive of discord.

S. H.

 "I have no way, and therefore want no eyes;
  I stumbled when I saw. Full oft 'tis seen
  Our means _secure_ us; and our mere defects
  Prove our commodities."

Does not Shakspeare here use _secure_ as a verb, in the sense "to make
careless?" If so, the passage would mean, "Our means," that is, our power,
our strength, make us wanting in care and vigilance, and too
self-confident. Gloucester says, "I stumbled when I saw;" meaning, When I
had eyes I walked carelessly; when I had the "means" of seeing and avoiding
stumbling-blocks, I stumbled and fell, because I walked without care and
watchfulness. Then he adds, "And our mere defects prove our commodities."
Our deficiencies, our weaknesses (the sense of them), make us use such care
and exertions as to prove advantages to us. Thus the antithesis is

How scriptural is the first part of the passage!

    "Let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall."--1 Cor. x.

    "He hath said in his heart, Tush, I shall never be cast down; there
    shall no harm happen unto me."--Ps. x. 6.

The second part is also scriptural:

    "My strength is made perfect in weakness."--2 Cor. xii. 9.

    "When I am weak then am I strong."--2 Cor. xii. 10.

In _Timon of Athens_ we find _secure_ used as verb "_Secure_ thy
heart."--Act II. Sc. 2.

Again, in _Othello_:

    "I do not so _secure_ me in the error."--Act I. Sc. 3.

In Du Cange's _Gloss._ is the verb "_Securare_ nudè pro securum reddere."
In the "Alter Index sive Glossarium" of Ainsworth's _Dictionary_ is the
verb "_Securo_, as ... to live carelessly." In the "Verba partim Græca
Latinè scripta, partim barbara," &c., is "_Securo_, as securum reddo."

The _means_ of the hare in the fable for the race (that is, her swiftness)
_secured_ her; the defects of the tortoise (her slowness) proved her

F. W. J.

       *       *       *       *       *


The following are extracts from a MS. volume of the sixteenth century,
containing, _inter alia_, notes of the Manners and Superstitions of the {5}
Celtic Irish. Some of our readers may be able to elucidate the obscure

 "The Irish men they have a farme,
  They kepp the bread,
    And make _boyranne_.
  They make butter and eatt _molchan_.
  And when they haue donne
    They have noe shamm.
  They burne the strawe and make _loisbran_.
  They eatt the flesh and drinke the broth,
  And when they have done they say
  _Deo gracias is smar in Doieagh_."

The next appears to be a scrap of a woman's song:

 "Birch and keyre 'tis wal veyre a spyunyng deye a towme.
  I am the geyest mayed of all that brought the somer houme.
  Justice Deyruse in my lopp, and senscal in my roame," &c.

John Devereux was Justiciary of the Palatinate Liberty of Wexford in the
early part of Henry VIII.'s reign. That Palatinate was then governed by a
seneschal or "senscal." The justice would seem to have been a gallant and
_sensual_ man, and the song may have been a little satirical. Among the
notes of the "Manners" of the Irish, it is declared that--

    "Sett them a farme--the grandfather, father, son, and they clayme it as
    their own: if not, they goe to rebellion."

Will any antiquary versed in Celtic customs explain whether this claim of
possession grew out of any Celtic usage of tenancy? And also point out
authorities bearing upon the customs of Celtic agricultural tenancy?

The next extract bears upon the communication at Vol. vii., p. 332.:

    "An _Ultagh_ hath three purses. He runneth behind dore to draw his
    money: one cutteth the throte of another."

Now, was an _Ultagh_ an Irish usurer or money-lender? Your correspondent at
page 332. requests information respecting Roger Outlaw. Sir William Betham,
in a note to the "Proceedings against Dame Alice Ugteler," the famous
pseudo-Kilkenny witch, remarks that "the family of Utlagh were seated in
Dublin, and filled several situations in the corporation." Utlagh and
Outlaw are the same surnames. The named Utlagh also occurs in the Calendar
of Printed Irish Patent Rolls. William Utlagh, or Outlaw, was a _banker_
and _money-lender_ in Kilkenny, in the days of Edward I. He was the first
husband of the witch, and brother of Friar Roger Outlaw. In favour of the
latter, who was Prior of Kilmainham, near Dublin, a mandamus, dated 10 Edw.
II., was issued for arrears due to him since he was "justice and
chancellor, and even lieutenant of the justiciary, as well in the late
king's time as of the present king's." He was appointed Lord Justice, or
deputy to the Lord Lieutenant, by patent dated Mar. 15, 9 Edw. III.

Many of the Irish records having been lost, your correspondent will do an
obliging service in pointing out the repository of the discovered roll.
Perhaps steps might be taken for its restoration.


    [The following communication from our valued correspondent, the REV.
    H. T. ELLACOMBE, affords at once a satisfactory reply to H's Query, and
    a proof of the utility of "N. & Q."]

_Roger Outlawe_ (Vol. vii., p. 559.).--Thanks to ANON. and others for their

As for "in viiij mense," I cannot understand it: I copied it as it was sent
to me. B. Etii was an error of the press for R. Etii, but I purposely
avoided noticing it, because my very first communication on the subject to
"N. & Q.," under my own name and address, opened a very pleasing
correspondence, which has since led to the restoration of these Irish
documents to their congeners among the public records in Dublin; a
gentleman having set out most chivalrously from that city at his own cost
to recover them, and I am happy to say he has succeeded; and in the
_English Quarterly Magazine_ there will soon appear, I believe, an account
of the documents in question. It would not, therefore, become me to give in
this place the explanation which has been kindly communicated to me as to
the meaning of the last conquest of Ireland; but I have no doubt it will be
explained in the _English Quarterly_.


Rectory, Clyst St. George.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Burial in an erect Posture._--In the north transept of Stanton Harcourt
Church, Oxon, the burial-place of the Harcourt family, is a circular slab
of blue marble in the pavement, in which is inlaid a shield of brass
bearing the arms of Harcourt,--two bars, dimidiated with those of Beke; the
latter, when entire, forming a cros ancrée. The brass is not engraved, but
forms the outline of the shield and arms. It is supposed to be the monument
of Sir John, son of Sir Richard Harcourt and Margaret Beke, who died 1330.
(See extracts from Lord Harcourt's "Account," in the _Oxford Architectural
Guide_, p. 178.) Tradition relates, if my memory does not mislead me, that
the knight was buried beneath this stone in an erect posture, but assigns
no reason for this peculiarity. Is the probability of this being the case
supported by any, and what instances? Or does the legend merely owe its
existence to the circular form of the stone? {6} I think that its diameter
is about two feet. If MR. FRASER has not met with the information already,
he may be interested, with reference to his Query on "Dimidiation" (Vol.
vii., p. 548.), in learning that the above mentioned Margaret was daughter
and coheiress of John Lord Beke of Eresby, who by his will, made the 29th
of Edw. I., devised the remainder of his arms to be divided between Sir
Robert de Willoughby and Sir John de Harcourt. And this may lead to the
farther Query, whether dimidiation was originally or universally resorted
to in the case of coheiresses?


_The Archbishop of Armagh's Cure for the Gout_, 1571.--Extracted from a
letter from Thomas Lancaster, Archbishop of Armagh, to Lord Burghley, dated
from Dublin, March 25, 1571:--

    "I am sorofull for that yo^r honor is greved w^{th} the goute, from the
    w^{ch} I beseche Almighty God deliver you, and send you health; and yf
    (it) shall please y^r honor to prove a medicen for the same w^{ch} I
    brought owt of Duchland, and have eased many w^{th} it, I trust in God
    it shall also do you good, and this it is. Take ij spaniel whelpes of
    ij dayes olde, scald them, and cause the entrells betaken out, but wash
    them not. Take 4 ounces brymstone, 4 ounces torpentyn, 1 ounce
    parmacete, a handfull nettells, and a quantyte of oyle of balme, and
    putt all the aforesayd in them stamped, and sowe them up and rost them,
    and take the dropes and anoynt you wheare your grefe is, and by God's
    grace yo^r honor shall fynd helpe."--_From the Original in the State
    Paper Office._


_The last known Survivor of General Wolfe's Army in Canada._--In a recent
number of the _Montreal Herald_, mention is made of more than twenty
persons whose ages exceed one hundred years. The editor remarks that--

    "The most venerable patriarch now in Canada is Abraham Miller, who
    resides in the township of Grey, and is 115 years old. In 1758 he
    scaled the cliffs of Quebec with General Wolfe, so that his residence
    in Canada is coincident with British rule in the province. He is
    attached to the Indians, and lives in all respects like them."

W. W.


_National Methods of Applauding._--Clapping with the hands is going out of
use in the United States, and stamping with the feet is taking its place.
When Mr. Combe was lecturing on phrenology at the Museum building in
Philadelphia twelve or thirteen years ago, he and his auditors were much
annoyed by the _pedal_ applause of a company in the room above, who were
listening to the concerts of a negro band. Complaint was made to the
authorities of the Museum Society; but the answer was, that nothing could
be done, as stamping of the feet was "the national method of applauding."

The crying of "hear him! hear him!" during the delivery of a speech, is not
in use in the United States, as an English gentleman discovered who settled
here a few years ago. He attended a meeting of the members of the church to
which he had attached himself, and hearing something said that pleased him,
he cried out "hear him! hear him!" Upon which the sexton came over to him,
and told him that, unless he kept himself quiet, he would be under the
necessity of turning him out of church.

M. E.


_Curious Posthumous Occurrence._--If the following be true, though in ever
so limited a manner, it deserves investigation. Notwithstanding his
twenty-three years' experience, the worthy grave-digger must have been
mistaken, unless there is something peculiar in the bodies of Bath people!
But if the face turns down in any instance, as asserted, it would be right
to ascertain the cause, and why this change is not general. It is now above
twenty years since the paragraph appeared in the London papers:--

    "A correspondent in the _Bath Herald_ states the following singular
    circumstance:--'Having occasion last week to inspect a grave in one of
    the parishes of this city, in which two or three members of a family
    had been buried some years since, and which lay in very wet ground, I
    observed that the upper part of the coffin was rotted away, and had
    left the head and bones of the skull exposed to view. On inquiring of
    the grave-digger how it came to pass that I did not observe the usual
    sockets of the eyes in the skull, he replied that what I saw was the
    hind part of the head (termed the _occiput_, I believe, by anatomists),
    and that the face was turned, as usual, to the earth!!--Not exactly
    understanding his phrase 'as usual,' I inquired if the body had been
    buried with the face upwards, as in the ordinary way; to which he
    replied to my astonishment, in the affirmative, adding, that in the
    course of decomposition the face of every individual turns to the
    earth!! and that, in the experience of three-and-twenty years in his
    situation, he had never known more than one instance to the contrary.'"

A. B. C.

       *       *       *       *       *



In a French atlas, dated 1762, in my possession, amongst the numerous
non-existing islands laid down in the map of the Pacific, and the still
more numerous cases of omission inevitable at so early a period of
Polynesian discovery, there is inserted an island styled "I. St. François,"
or "I. S. Francisco," which lies in {7} about 20° N. and 224° E. from the
meridian of Ferro, and, of course, almost exactly in the situation of
Owhyhee. That this large and lofty group may have been seen by some other
voyager long before, is far from improbable; but, beyond a question, Cooke
was the first to visit, describe, and lay them down correctly in our maps.
Professor Meyen, however, as quoted in Johnston's _Physical Atlas_,
mentions these islands in terms which would almost lead one to suppose that
he, the Professor, considered them to have been known to the Spaniards in
Anson's time or earlier, and that they had been regular calling places for
the galleons in those days! It is difficult to conceive such a man capable
of such a mistake; but if he did not suppose them to have been discovered
before Cook's voyage in 1778, his words are singularly calculated to
deceive the reader on that point.


       *       *       *       *       *


MR. KINGSLEY records a superstition of the Cornish miners, which I have not
seen noted elsewhere. In reply to the question, "What are the _Knockers_?"
Tregarva answers:

    "They are _the ghosts_, the miners hold, _of the Old Jews that
    crucified our Lord, and were sent for slaves by the Roman emperors to
    work the mines_: and we find their old smelting-houses, which we call
    _Jews' houses_, and their blocks of the bottom of the great bogs, which
    we call _Jews' tin_: and then, a town among us, too, which we call
    _Market Jew_, but the old name was _Marazion_, that means the
    Bitterness of Zion, they tell me; and bitter work it was for them no
    doubt, poor souls! We used to break into the old shafts and adits which
    they had made, and find old stags-horn pickaxes, that crumbled to
    pieces when we brought them to grass. And they say that if a man will
    listen of a still night about those old shafts, he may hear the ghosts
    of them at working, knocking, and picking, as clear as if there was a
    man at work in the next level."--_Yeast; a Problem_: Lond. 1851, p.

Miners, as a class, are peculiarly susceptible of impressions of the unseen
world, and the superstitions entertained by them in different parts of the
world would form a curious volume. Is there any work on Cornish folk lore
which alludes to this superstition respecting the Jews? It would be
useless, I dare say, to consult Carew, or Borlase; besides, I have not them
by me.

Apropos to Cornish matters, a dictionary with a very tempting title was
advertised for publication two or three years ago:

    "Geslevar Cernewac, a Dictionary of the Cornish Dialect of the Cymraeg
    or ancient British Language, in which the words are elucidated by
    numerous examples from the Cornish works now remaining, with
    translations in English: and the synonyms in Welsh, Armoric, Irish,
    Gaelic, and Manx, so as to form a Celtic Lexicon. By the Rev. Robert
    Williams, M.A., Oxon., to be published in one vol. 4to. price 31s. 6d."

When shall we see this desirable lexicon? I was reminded of it the other
day by hearing of the subscriptions on foot for the publication of the
great Irish dictionary, which the eminent Irish scholars Messrs. O'Donovan
and Curry have had in hand for many years.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Clerical Duel._--I shall be obliged to any correspondent who will supply
the name of the courtier referred to in the following anecdote, which is to
be found in Burckhardt's _Kirchen-Geschichte der Deutschen Gemeinden in
London_, Tub. 1798, p. 77.

Anton Wilhelm Böhme, who came over as chaplain with Prince George of
Denmark, officiated at the German Chapel, St. James's, from the year 1705
to 1722. He was a favourite of Queen Anne, and a friend of Isaac Watts. On
one occasion he preached against adultery in a way which gave great offence
to one of the courtiers present, who conceived that a personal attack on
himself was intended. He accordingly sent a challenge to the preacher,
which was without hesitation accepted; and at the time and place appointed
the chaplain made his appearance in full canonicals, with his Bible in his
hand, and gave the challenger a lecture which led to their reconciliation
and friendship.

I should like also to know whether there is any other authority for the
story than that which I leave quoted.



_Pistol._--What is the date of the original introduction of this word into
our vocabulary in either of the senses in which it is equivocally used by
Falstaff in 1 _Henry IV._, Act. V. Sc. 3.? In the sense of fire-arms,
pistols seem to have been unknown by that name as late as the year 1541;
for the stat. 33 Hen. VIII. c. 6., after reciting the murders, &c.
committed "with cross-bows, little short hand-guns, and little hagbuts,"
prohibits the possession of "any hand-gun other than such as shall be in
the stock and gun of the length of one whole yard, or any hagbut or
demihake other than such as shall be in the stock and gun of the length of
three quarters of one yard." But throughout the act there is no mention of
the word "pistol."

J. F. M.

_Council of Laodicca, Canon 35._--Can any of your readers inform me
whether, in any early work on the Councils, the word _angelos_ is in the
text, without having _angulos_ in the margin? If so, oblige me by stating
the editions.



_Pennycomequick, adjoining Plymouth._--The Bath and West of England
Agricultural Society held their recent annual meeting here. Will any of
your correspondents oblige me with the derivation of this remarkable word?

R. H. B.

_Park the Antiquary._--In a note to the third volume (p. lxxiii.) of the
_Grenville Correspondence_ the following passage: "Barker has printed a
second note, which Junius is supposed to have written to Garrick, upon the
authority of Park the antiquary, _who states_ that he found it in a
_cotemporary newspaper_," &c. This is not strictly correct. Barker says (p.
190.), "The letter was found in a copy of Junius belonging to [Query, which
_had_ belonged to?] T. Park, &c. He had [Query, it is presumed?] cut it out
of a newspaper; but unfortunately has omitted to furnish the date of the
newspaper." [Query, How then known to be cotemporary?] The difference is
important; but where is the copy containing this letter? By whom has it
been seen? By whom and when first discovered? Where did Barker find the
story recorded? When and where first printed?

P. T. A.

_Honorary D.C.L.'s._--It was mentioned in a report of proceedings at the
late Installation, that the two _royal personages_ honoured with degrees,
having been doctored by diploma, would be entitled to vote in
Convocation,--a privilege not possessed by the common tribe of honorary

Can you inform me whether Dr. Johnson had, or ever exercised, the right
referred to in virtue of his M.A. degree (conferred on the publication of
the _Dictionary_), or of the higher academical dignity to which his name
has given such a world-wide celebrity?


_Battle of Villers en Couché._--Some of your correspondents, better versed
than myself in military matters, will doubtless render me assistance by
replying to this Query. Where can I find a copious and accurate account of
the battle, or perhaps I should rather say skirmish, of Villers en Couché?
If I am rightly informed, it must be one of the most remarkable actions on
record, when the comparative numbers of the troops engaged are taken into
consideration. We have, as an heirloom in our family, a medal won by an
officer on that occasion: it is suspended from a red and white ribbon, and
is inscribed thus:

      24th APRIL,

I do not remember to have read any account of the battle; but, as I have
heard from the lips of one who gained his information from the officer
before alluded to, the particulars were these:--General Mansell, with a
force consisting of two squadrons of the 15th Hussars, and one squadron of
the German Legion, _two hundred and seventy-two_ in all, charged a body of
the French army, _ten thousand_ strong. The French were formed in a hollow
square: but five times, as I am informed, did our gallant troops charge
into and out of the square, till the French, struck with a sudden panic,
retreated with a loss of twelve hundred men. I am desirous of
authenticating this almost incredible account, and shall be thankful for
such information as may guide me to an authoritative record of the action
in question.


_Dr. Misaubin._--Will any of your numerous correspondents give me any
information, or refer me to any work where I can find it, respecting Dr.
Misaubin, who appears to have practised in London during the first half of
the last century? What was the peculiarity of his practice?


_Kemble, Willet, and Forbes._--What are the two concluding lines of an
epigram published ten or twelve years ago, beginning,--

 "The case of Kemble, Willet, and Forbes,
  Much of the Chancellor's time absorbs;
  If I were the Chancellor I should tremble
  At the mention of Willet, Forbes, and Kemble"?



_Piccalyly._--The ornament, somewhat between a hood, a scarf, and an
armlet, worn hanging over the right shoulder of judges and serjeants at
law, is called a _piccalyly_. What is the origin of this peculiarity of
judicial costume, what are the earliest examples of it, and what its


_Post-Office about 1770._--Mr. Smith, in the notes prefixed to the
_Grenville Correspondence_, says several of Junius's letters appear to have
been sent from the same post-office "as the post-mark is '_peny_ post
payd,'"--a peculiarity of spelling not likely to occur often. Have any of
your correspondents letters of that date with a like post-mark? and, if so,
can they tell us _where_ posted?

P. A. O.

"_Carefully examined and well-authenticated._"--I agree with MR. CRAMP
(Vol. vii., p. 569.) that "the undecided question of the authorship of
Junius requires that every statement should be carefully examined, and (as
far as possible) only well-authenticated facts be admitted as evidence." I
take leave, therefore, to remind him that my question (Vol. iii., p. 262.)
remains unanswered; that I am anxious that he should authenticate his
statement (p. 63.), and name some of the "many" {9} persons in whose
libraries vellum-bound copies of Junius have been found.

V. B.

_Sir Heister Ryley._--Who was the author of the _Visions of Sir Heister
Ryley_, and whence did it derive its name? It was published in 1710, and
consists of papers periodically published on serious subjects. It was one
of the many short-lived periodicals that sprung up in imitation of the
_Tatler_, and appears to have died a natural death at the end of the
so-called first volume.


_Effigies with folded Hands._--On the south side of Llangathen Church,
Carmarthenshire, is a huge monument (of the style well designated as
bedstead) for Dr. Anthony Rudd, Bishop of St. David's, and Anne Dalton, his
wife, 1616, with their recumbent effigies, and those of four sons kneeling
at their head and feet. From all these figures the iconoclasts had smitten
the hands upraised in prayer, and they have been replaced by plaister hands
folded on the bosom. The effect is singular. Is there any other instance of
such restoration?

E. D.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Passage in Bishop Horsley._--In the Introduction to _Utrum Horum_, a
rather curious work by Henry Care, being a comparison of the Thirty-nine
Articles with the doctrines of Presbyterians on the one hand, and the
tenets of the Church of Rome on the other, is an extract from Dr.
Hakewill's _Answer_ (1616) _to Dr. Carier_, "an apostate to Popery." In it
occurs the following passage: "And so, through Calvin's sides, you strike
at the throat and heart of our religion." Will you allow me to ask if a
similar expression is not used by Bishop Horsley in some one of his

S. S. S.

    [The following passage occurs in the bishop's Charge to the clergy of
    St. Asaph in 1806, p. 26. "Take especial care, before you aim your
    shafts at Calvinism, that you know what is Calvinism, and what is not:
    that in that mass of doctrine, which it is of late become the fashion
    to abuse under the name of Calvinism, you can distinguish with
    certainty that part of it which is nothing better than Calvinism, and
    that which belongs to our common Christianity, and the general faith of
    the Reformed Churches; _lest, when you mean only to fall foul of
    Calvinism, you should unwarily attack something more sacred and of
    higher origin_."]

"_Marry come up!_"--What is the origin of this expression, found in the old
novelists? It perhaps originates in an adjuration of the Virgin Mary. If
so, how did it gain its present form?


    [Halliwell explains it as an interjection equivalent to indeed! _Marry
    on us, marry come up, Marry come out_, interjections given by Brockett.
    _Marry and shall_, that I will! _Marry come up, my dirty cousin_, a
    saying addressed to any one who affects excessive delicacy.]

_Dover Court._--What is the origin of the expression of a "_Dover Court_,
where all are talkers and none are hearers?" There is a place called by
this name in the vicinity of Harwich?


    [There is a legend, that Dover-Court Church in Essex once possessed a
    miraculous cross which spoke, thus noticed in the _Collier of Croydon_:

     "And how the rood of _Dovercot_ did speak,
      Confirming his opinions to be true."

    So that it is possible, as Nares suggests, that this church was the
    scene of confusion alluded to in the proverb: "Dover Court, all
    speakers and no hearers." Fox, in his _Martyrology_, vol. ii. p. 302.,
    states, that "a rumour was spread that no man could shut the door,
    which therefore stood open night and day; and that the resort of people
    to it was much and very great."]

_Porter._--In what book is the word _porter_, meaning the malt liquor so
called, first found? I have an impression that the earliest use of it that
I have seen is in Nicholas Amherst's _Terræ Filius_, about 1726.


    [We doubt whether an earlier use of this word, as descriptive of a malt
    liquor, will be found than the one noticed by our correspondent; for it
    was only about 1722 that Harwood, a London brewer, commenced brewing
    this liquor, which he called "entire," or "entire butt," implying that
    it was drawn from one cask or butt. It subsequently obtained the name
    of _porter_, from its consumption by porters and labourers.]

_Dr. Whitaker's Ingenious Earl._--

    "To our equal surprise and vexation at times, we find the ancients
    possessed of degrees of physical knowledge with which we were mostly or
    entirely unacquainted ourselves. I need not appeal in proof of this to
    that extraordinary operation of chemistry, by which Moses reduced the
    golden calf to powder, and then give it mingled with water as a drink
    to the Israelites; an operation the most difficult in all the processes
    of chemistry, and concerning which it is a sufficient honour for the
    moderns to say, that they have once or twice practised it. I need not
    appeal to the mummies of Egypt, in which the art of embalming bodies is
    so eminently displayed, that all attempts at imitation have only showed
    the infinite superiority of the original to the copy. I need not appeal
    to the gilding upon those mummies so fresh in its lustre; to the
    stained silk of them, so vivid in its colours after a lapse of 3000
    years; to the ductility and malleability of glass, discovered by an
    artist of Rome in the days of Tiberius, but instantly lost by the
    immediate murder of the man under the orders of the emperor, and just
    now boasted vainly to be re-discovered by the wildly eccentric, yet
    vividly vigorous, genius of that earl who professes to teach law to my
    lord chancellor, and divinity to my lords the {10} bishops, who
    proposes to send ship, by the force of steam, with all the velocity of
    a ball from the mouth of a cannon, and who pretends by the power of his
    steam-impelled oars to beat the waters of the ocean into the hardness
    of adamant; or to the burning-glasses of Archimedes, recorded in their
    effects by credible writers, actually imitated by Proclus at the siege
    of Constantinople with Archimedes' own success, yet boldly pronounced
    by some of our best judges, demonstrably impracticable in themselves,
    and lately demonstrated by some faint experiments to be very
    practicable, the skill of the moderns only going so far as to render
    credible the practices of the ancients."--_The Course of Hannibal___,
    by John Whitaker, B.D., 1794, vol. ii. p. 142.

Who was the earl whose universality of genius is described above by this
"laudator temporis acti?"

H. J.

    [Charles Earl Stanhope, whose versatility of talent succeeded in
    abolishing the old wooden printing-press, with its double pulls, and
    substituting in its place the beautiful iron one, called after him the
    "Stanhope Press." His lordship's inventive genius, however, failed in
    the composing-room; for his transmogrified letter-cases, with his eight
    logotypes, once attempted at _The Times'_ office, were soon abandoned,
    and the old process of single letters preferred.]

_Dissimulate._--Where is the earliest use of this word to be found? It is
to be met with in Bernard Mandeville's _Fable of the Bees_, 1723; but is
not to be found, I think, in any dictionary. I was once heavily censured at
school for using it in my theme; but I have more than once of late seen it
used in a leading article of _The Times_.


    [_Dissimulate_ occurs in Richardson's Dictionary, with the two
    following examples:

     "Under smiling she was _dissimulate_,
      Prouocatiue with blinkes amorous."
                  Chaucer, _The Testament of Creseide_.

    "We commaunde as kynges, and pray as men, that al thyng be forgiuen to
    theim that be olde and broken, and to theim that be yonge and lusty, to
    _dissimulate_ for a time, and nothyng to be forgiuen to very yong
    children."--_Golden Boke_, c. ix.

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vii., p. 526.)

By converting a noun into a surname, Dodsley has led J. J. J. into a
natural, but somewhat amusing mistake. The lines quoted are in Horace
Walpole's well-known epistle, from Florence, addressed to his college
friend T[homas] A[shton,] tutor of the Earl of P[lymouth].

In Walpole's _Fugitive Pieces_, printed at Strawberry Hill, 1758 (the copy
of which, now before me, was given by Walpole to Cole in 1762, and contains
several notes by the latter), the passage stands correctly thus:

 "Or, with wise ken, judiciously define,
  When Pius marks the honorary coin,
  Of Carnealla, or of Antonine."

Your correspondent refers to an edition of the _Collection of Poems_ of
1758. In a much later edition of that work, viz. 1782, the line is again

 "Or with wise KEN," &c.

It is strange that the mistake was not corrected, at the instance of
Walpole himself, during this long interval.

Turning to Bishop Ken, I would observe that in his excellent Life of this
prelate, Mr. Anderdon has given the three well-known hymns "word for word,"
as first penned. These, Mr. A. tells us, are found, for the first time, in
a copy of the _Manual of Prayers For the Use of the Winchester Scholars_,
printed in 1700. The bishop's versions vary so very materially from those
to which we have been accustomed from childhood, that these original copies
are very interesting. Indeed, within five years after their first
appearance, and during the author's life, material changes were made,
several of which are retained to the present hour. It must be admitted that
some of the stanzas, as they first came from the bishop's pen, are
singularly rugged and inharmonious, almost justifying the request made by
the lady to Byrom (as I have stated elsewhere[1]), "to revise and polish
the bishop's poems." How came these hymns, so far the most popular of his
poetical works, to be omitted by Hawkins in the collected edition of the
poems, printed in 4 vols., 1721?

My present object is, to call your attention to a "Midnight Hymn," by Sir
Thomas Browne, which will be found in his works (vol. ii. p. 113., edit.
Wilkin). Can there be question that to it Ken is indebted for some of the
thoughts and expressions in two of his own hymns?

The good bishop's fame will not be lessened by his adopting what was good
in the works of the learned physician. He doubtless thought far more of the
benefit which he could render to the youthful Wykehamists, than of either
the originality or smoothness of his own verses.

      _Sir Thomas Browne._
 "While I do rest, my soul advance;
  Make my sleep a holy trance:
  That I may, my rest being wrought,
  Awake into some holy thought,
  And with as active vigour run
  My course as doth the nimble sun.

 "Sleep is a death: O make me try,
  By sleeping, what it is to die!
  And as gently lay my head
  On my grave, as now my bed.

 "These are my drowsy days; in vain
  I do now wake to sleep again.
  O come that hour when I shall never
  Sleep again, but wake for ever!

 "Guard me 'gainst those watchful foes,
  Whose eyes are open while mine close;
  Let no dreams my head infest,
  But such as Jacob's temples blest."

      _Bishop Ken._
 "Awake, my soul, and with the sun
  Thy daily stage of duty run.

 "Teach me to live that I may dread
  The grave as little as my bed.

 "O when shall I in endless day
  For ever chase dark sleep away,
  And endless praise with th' Heavenly choir,
  Incessant sing and never tire.

 "You, my blest Guardian, whilst I sleep,
  Close to my bed your vigils keep;
  Divine love into me instil,
  Stop all the avenues of ill.

 "Thought to thought, with my soul converse
  Celestial joys to me rehearse;
  And in my stead, all the night long,
  Sing to my God a grateful song."

In the work referred to--one of the most valuable and best edited of modern
days--Mr. Wilkin, when speaking of a fine passage on music in the _Religio
Medici_ (vol. ii. p. 106.), asks whether it may not have suggested to
Addison the beautiful conclusion of his Hymn on the Glories of Creation:

 "What tho' in solemn silence, all," &c.

This passage in Sir Thomas Browne appears forcibly to have struck the
gifted author of _Confessions of an English Opium-eater_ (see p. 106. of
that work).


[Footnote 1: _Sketch of Bishop Ken's Life_, p. 107.]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 579.)

MR. RILEY mistakes my purpose if he thinks that my object was to make a
personal attack on him; and for anything in my last communication which may
have appeared to possess that tendency, I hereby freely express my regret.
Still I cannot allow that he has explained away the mistakes of which I
complained, and of which I still have to complain. The kingdom of Cork
_never_ "extended to within a short distance of Waterford;" and the
territory of Desmond was _never_ co-extensive with Cork, having been always
confined to the county of Kerry. MR. RILEY, therefore, is in error when he
uses "Cork" and "Desmond" as synonymous. Again, he falls into the same
mistake by assuming "Crook, Hook Point, or The Crook," to be synonyms. I
never heard that Henry II. landed at Hook Point, which is in the county of
Wexford, and from which a land journey to Waterford would be very
circuitous. At Crook, however, on the opposite side of Waterford Harbour,
and within the shelter of Creden Head, he is said to have done so; and as
that point answers pretty exactly to the _Crock_ of Hoveden, why assume
some indefinite point of the "Kingdom of Cork" as the locality, even
supposing that its boundary _did_ approach Waterford city? Really MR.
RILEY's explanations but make matters worse.

With regard to "Erupolensis" being an _alias_ of Ossoriensis, I may quote
the authority of the learned De Burgo, who, speaking of the diocese of
Ossory, observes:

    "Quandoque tamen nuncupata erat _Eyrupolensis_ ab _Eyro_ Flumine, vulgò
    _Neoro_, quod _Kilkenniam_ alluit."--_Hibernia Dominicana_, p. 205.
    note _i_.

I maintain that the reading public has just cause to complain, not (as I
said on a former occasion) because the editor of such a book as Hoveden's
_Annals_ does not know everything necessary to elucidate his author, but
because baseless conjectures are put forward as elucidations of the text.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 206. 292.)

It is difficult to believe that the third part of _Christabel_, published
in Blackwood for June, 1819, vol. v. p. 286., could have either "perplexed
the public," or "pleased Coleridge." In the first place, it was avowedly
written by "Morgan Odoherty;" and in the next, it is too palpable a parody
to have pleased the original author, who could hardly have been satisfied
with the raving rhapsodies put into his mouth, or with the treatment of his
innocent and virtuous heroine. This will readily be supposed when it is
known that the Lady Geraldine is made out to have been a man in woman's
attire, and that "the mark of Christabel's shame, the seal of her sorrow,"
is neither more nor less than the natural consequence of her having shared
her chamber with such a visitor.

Is your correspondent A. B. R. correct in stating this parody to have been
the composition of Dr. Maginn? In the biography of this brilliant writer in
the twenty-third volume of the _Dublin University Magazine_, Dr. Moir, who
had undoubtedly good opportunities of knowing, mentions that his first
contribution to _Blackwood_ was the Latin translation of "Chevy Chase," in
the number for November 1819; if this be correct, many of the cleverest
papers that appeared under the name of Odoherty, and which are all
popularly attributed {12} to Maginn, must have been the work of other
authors, a circumstance which I had been already led to suspect from the
frequent local allusions to Scotland in general, and to Edinburgh in
particular, which could have scarcely proceeded from the pen of a native of
Cork, who had then never visited Scotland. Since Dr. Moir's own death, it
appears that the _Eve of St. Jerry_, and the _Rhyme of the Auncient
Waggonere_, have been claimed for him, as well as some other similar
pieces; and I believe that the series of _Boxiana_, which also appeared
under the name of the renowned ensign and adjutant, was written by
Professor Wilson. Maginn's contributions were at first under various
signatures, and some time elapsed before he made use of the _nom de guerre_
of Morgan Odoherty, which eventually became so identified with him.


Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 578.)

I am sorry to intrude upon your valuable space again in reference to this
little word, but the inquiry of MR. RYE (p. 578.), and other reasons,
render it desirable. The truth is that MR. KEIGHTLEY, MR. RYE and myself,
are more or less mistaken. 1. MR. KEIGHTLEY, in his quotation from
Fairfax's _Tasso_ (MR. SINGER's accurate reprint, 1817), has _his_ in both
lines. 2. MR. RYE, in understanding me to refer to any translation proper;
unless Sternhold and Hopkins are to be considered as having produced one.
3. Myself, in supposing the old metrical version in the Book of Common
Prayer originally had the word _its_. I copied from the Oxford edition in
fol. of 1770; but a 4to. edition, "printed by Iohn Daye, dwelling over
Aldersgate, anno 1574," does not exhibit the word in the places specified;
we have instead _her_ in both places.

Hitherto, then, the oldest examples of the use of this word have been
adduced from Shakspeare. These are to be found in the first folio, but are
in each case printed with the apostrophe after the _t_,--_it's_. This
method of writing the word, however, soon disappeared, for in a treatise of
Pemble's, printed 1635 (the author died in 1623), it appears as we write it

    "If faith alone by _its_ own virtue and force."--_Works_, fol. p. 171.

I have not observed the fact remarked, that besides the use of _his, her,
hereof, thereof, of it_, and _the_, it was customary to employ the
unchanged word _it_ for the possessive case. I will give an example or two.
In the Genevan version, at Rom. viii. 20., we read "Not of _it_ owne
wille." This passage is thus quoted in 1611 and in 1622, but in a later
edition of the same work, 1656, _its_ is substituted for _it_. I have a
note of one other instance from Perkins on Rev. ii. 28. (ed. 1606): "For as
the sunne in the spring time quickeneth by _it_ warme beames."

In conclusion, may I request that if any genuine instance of the use of
this word _its_, is observed by any of your many contributors, they will
communicate the fact to you? At present we can only go back to Shakspeare,
in his _Winter's Tale_ and _Henry VIII_.

B. H. C.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 596.)

As your correspondent CRANMORE has long been a deserter from the ranks of
"N. & Q.," I may perhaps, without presumption, for once "stand in his
shoes," and reply to the challenge addressed to him by V. M.

Much obscurity has all along prevailed among the many biographers of
Milton, in reference to the family of Elizabeth Minshull, his third wife,
and eventually, for more than fifty years, his widow. Philips, Warton,
Todd, and numerous others, state her to have been "the daughter of Mr.
Minshull, of Cheshire,"--a very vague assertion when we consider that there
were at least three or four different families of that name then existing
in the county. Pennant, who delighted in particularities, sometimes even at
the expense of historical fact, tells us, for the first time, in 1782, that
she was the daughter of Mr. (or Sir) Edward Minshull, of Stoke, near
Nantwich, and that she died at the latter town in March, 1726, at an
advanced age. Mr. Ormerod, again, whose splendid _History of Cheshire_ will
be the standard authority of the county for ages after he himself is
carried to his fathers, has unfortunately adopted the same conclusion, and
so given a colour, as it were, to this erroneous statement of our Cambrian
antiquary. The Rev. Benjamin Mardon's paper, printed in the _Journal of the
British Archæological Association for 1849_, is another and more recent
instance of the way in which such errors as this may become perpetuated.
Another writer (Palmer) conjectures her to have been the daughter of
Minshull of Manchester; but this also has been proved to be entirely
destitute of foundation.

The truth of the matter is (and I am indebted to Mr. Fitchett Marsh's clear
and succinct dissertation in the _Miscellany_ of the Chetham Society for
the information), the poet's widow was daughter of Mr. Randle Minshull, of
Wistaston in the county of Chester, whose great-great-grandfather, a
younger son of Minshull of Minshull, settled on a small estate there in the
reign of Queen Elizabeth, and so founded the house of Minshull of
Wistaston. Milton was introduced to his Cheshire wife by his friend Dr.
Paget; and {13} it was by his advice that the author of _Paradise Lost_
once more entered into the bonds of wedlock. Mr. Marsh, to clear up all
doubt upon the subject, and having previously established the identity of
the family, examined the parish register at Wistaston, and there found that
"Elizabeth, the daughter of Randolph Mynshull, was baptized the 30th day of
December, 1638;" so that, if baptized shortly after birth, she must have
been about twenty-six years old when united to Milton in 1664, and about
eighty-nine at her death, which occurred in 1727.

V. M., and all others who desire farther enlightenment on the subject, will
do well to refer to the volume before mentioned, which forms the
twenty-fourth of the series published by the Chetham Society.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 469. 579.)

Perhaps you will allow poor old Jacob Behmen, the inspired cobbler of
Gorlitz, a niche in your temple of writers of emblems. I think he is
legitimately entitled to that distinction. His works are nearly all couched
in emblems; and, besides his own figures, his principles were pictorially
illustrated by his disciple William Law (the author of _The Way to Divine
Knowledge_, _The Serious Call_, &c.), in some seventeen simple, and four
compound emblematic drawings. Of these the most remarkable, and in fact the
most intelligible, are three compound emblems representing the Creation,
Apostasy, and Redemption of Man. Every phase of each stage in the soul's
history is disclosed to view by means of double and single doors. We are
now concerned only with such of Behmen's emblematic works as have been
translated into English. The following list contains only those in my own
library. I am acquainted with no others:

(1.) "The Works of Jacob Behmen, the Teutonic Theosopher, to which is
prefixed the Life of the Author, with Figures illustrating his Principles,
left by the Rev. William Law, M.A. In four thick Volumes, royal 4to.
London: printed for M. Richardson in Paternoster Row, MDCCLXIV." With a
fine portrait of Behmen facing the title-page of the first volume. This
edition contains the following works:

    1. Aurora: the Day-spring, or Dawning of the Day in the East; or
    Morning-redness in the Rising of the Sun: that is, the Root or Mother
    of Philosophy, Astrology, and Theology, from the True Ground; or, A
    Description of Nature.

    2. The Three Principles of the Divine Essence of the Eternal: Dark,
    Light, and Temporary World.

    3. Mysterium Magnum: or an Explanation of the First Book of Moses
    called Genesis.

    4. Four Tables of Divine Revelation.

    5. The High and Deep-Searching of the Threefold Life of Man, through or
    according to the Three Principles.

    6. Forty Questions concerning the Soul, proposed by Dr. Balthasar
    Walter, and answered by Jacob Behmen.

    7. The Treatise of the Incarnation.

    8. The Clavis, or an Explanation of some Principal Points and

    9. Signatura Rerum.

    10. Of the Election of Grace; or of God's Will towards Man, commonly
    called Predestination.

    11. The Way to Christ discovered in the following Treatises:--I. Of
    True Repentance. II. Of True Resignation. III. Of Regeneration. IV. Of
    Supernatural Life.

    12. A Discourse between a Soul hungry and thirsty after the Fountain of
    Life, the sweet Love of Jesus Christ, and a Soul enlightened.

    13. A Treatise of the Four Complexions, or a Consolatory Instruction
    for a Sad and Assaulted Heart in the Time of Temptation.

    14. A Treatise of Christ's Testament, Baptism, and the Supper.

(2.) "Theosophic Letters, or Epistles of the Man from God enlightened in
Grace, Jacob Behmen, of Old Seidenburgh, wherein everywhere [are?] Divine
Blessed Exhortations to true Repentance and Amendment, as also Plaine
Instructions concerning the highly worthy and precious Knowledge of the
Divine and Natural Wisdome; together with a Right Touchstone or Triall of
these Times, for an Introduction to the Author's other Writings: published
in English for the good of the sincere Lovers of true Christianitie, by
I. S.[2]" (I have only a MS. copy of this publication.)

(3.) A beautiful MS. translation of "The Way to Christ." This is hardly so
accurate as the one already referred to, though some of the expressions are
better chosen. The date of this MS. is about 1730, or earlier.

(4.) A fair MS. translation of Jacob Behmen's treatise called "A
Fundamental Instruction concerning the Earthly and concerning the Heavenly
Mystery; how they two stand in one another, and how in the Earthly the
Heavenly becometh manifested or revealed, wherein then you shall see Babell
the great citty upon Earth stand with its Forms and Wonders; and wherefore,
or out of what, Babell is generated, and where Antichrist will stand quite
naked. Comprised in Nine Texts. Written May 8, 1620, in High Dutch." (I
have seen no printed translation of this treatise.)

(5.) MS. translation of the fourth treatise of "The Way to Christ," viz.
"of the Supersensual Life." This is a less accurate rendering than either
of the others above mentioned.

Perhaps your mystic correspondents will kindly furnish lists of other
publications and MSS. of {14} "the Teutonick Theosopher." There are sixteen
more of his works, of which fifteen are now extant in High Dutch. As old
Behmen is but little known in this country, save by ill-repute, as having
led astray William Law in his old age, and, through him, having tinctured
the religious philosophy of Coleridge, it way be worth noting, that no less
a philosopher than Schelling (to whom, as we know, Coleridge stood so
greatly indebted) stole from the Lusatian shoemaker the corner-stones of
his _Philosophy of Nature_.



[Footnote 2: J. Sparrow.--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 595.)

With regard to your correspondent MR. G. BRINDLEY ACKWORTH's Query
respecting _Raffaelle's Sposalizio_, I am induced to think that the
_custode_ at the church of the Santa Croce at Florence was right as to his
information. In the copy which I have of the "Ordo ad faciendum Sponsalia,"
_according to the ancient use of Salisbury_, the ring is undoubtedly to be
placed on the bride's _right_ hand. Wheatly indeed says, that "when the man
espouses his wife with it (_i.e._ the ring), he is to put it _upon the
fourth finger of her_ left _hand_;" and then refers, for _the reason_ of
this, to the rubric of _Salisbury Manual_, which speaks of the vein going
from this finger directly to the heart.

Now, what are the precise words of this rubric? After giving directions for
the benediction of the ring, provided it has not previously been blessed,
the rubric goes on thus:

    "Si autem antea fuerit annulus ille benedictus tunc statim postquam vir
    posuerit annulum super librum, accipiens sacerdos annulum tradat ipsum
    viro: quem vir accipiat manu sua dextera cum tribus principalioribus
    digitis, et manu sua sinistra tenens dexteram sponsæ docente sacerdote

The man is to receive the ring from the priest with the three principal
fingers of the right hand; and then, holding the _right hand_ of the bride
with his own left hand, he shall say, "With this ring," &c. He is then to
place the ring on her thumb, saying, "In nomine Patris;" then on her second
finger, saying "et Filii;" then on the third finger, saying "et Spiritus
Sancti;" then on the fourth finger, saying "Amen;" and there he is to leave
it. There is not a word said about the bride's _left_ hand, the _right_ is
alone mentioned; and why should the man hold her _right_ hand with his
_left_, but that with his _right_ hand he may the more easily place the
ring, _first_ on the _thumb_, then on the other fingers of her _right_
hand, until it arrives at its ideal destination?

While I am upon this subject, allow me to point out another singular
direction given in a rubric in this same "Ordo ad faciendum Sponsalia."
When the woman is, as we term it, given away, if she be a spinster, she is
to have her hand _uncovered_; if a widow, _covered_: the words are--

    "Deinde detur femina a patre suo, vel ab amicis ejus: quod si _puella_
    sit, _discoopertam_ habeat _manum_, si _vidua_, _tectam_."

There is no reason given for this distinction, nor do I ever remember to
have seen it noticed.

F. B. W.

The _Sposalizio_, or "espousals," or betrothing, is certainly a different
ceremony from the marriage. Is not the fact of young ladies popularly
considering and calling the third finger of the _right_ hand the engaged
finger, and wearing a ring on that finger when engaged, a confirmation of
your correspondent's idea, that at this "betrothal" or "espousals" (compare
the phrase "his espoused wife" of Mary before her _marriage_ with Joseph)
the ring was placed in the _right_ hand; at the marriage ceremony on the


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 285.)

W. W. is desirous of interpreting _windfall_, as necessarily from its
origin denoting a gain. He is, perhaps, expecting a handsome bequest; I
wish he may get it; but he may rely on it that the _windfall_ of the
bequest will be accompanied by the _windfall_ of the "Succession Act." Let
us hear what our great Doctor says; his first explanation is, "Fruit blown
down from the tree."

W. W.'s little boys and girls would deem a _windfall_ of unripe apples, at
this time of the year, a good; they will make a pie for dinner. W. W.
himself would call it an evil; the ripe crop is ruined.

But let us see how Johnson illustrates his explanation:

    "Their _boughs_ were too great for their stem, they became a _windfall_
    upon the sudden."--_Bacon_, Essay 29.

Webster copies this for his first explanation, as he does also our Dr's.
second for his second; but as it is not his plan to illustrate by examples,
he is saved from the _eccentricity_ of his original.

If we refer to Bacon we shall be reminded of Johnson's warning, that by
"hasty detruncation the general tendency of a sentence may be changed." The
sentence here so hastily detruncated, stands thus in the Essay:

    "The Spartans were a nice people in point of naturalisation, whereby
    while they kept their compasse, they stood firme. But when _they_ did
    spread, and _their boughes_ were becommen too great for their stemme,
    they became a _windfall_ upon the suddaine. 'Potentia eorum subito

_They_, in Johnson's mutilated sentence, refers to the _boughs_; in Bacon,
to the Spartans; so that, in {15} the first place, the Spartans are
transformed into boughs, and, in the next place, the boughs into fruit.
Detruncation, however, had nothing to do with this latter metamorphosis;
and I am afraid this is not a solitary instance of lexicographical

W. W. may assure himself that a windfall is "whatever _falls_ by the wind,
or with similar suddenness or unexpectedness, whether bringing good or

And if he will take the trouble to refer to "The Case of Impeachment of
Waste," quoted by MR. ARROWSMITH, Vol. vii., p. 375., he will find, only a
few lines before that gentleman's quotation begins, a legal question at
issue as to the right of property in _windfalls_.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., pp. 528. 600.)

It would greatly enhance the value of contributions to "N. & Q.," save much
trouble, and often lead to a more direct intercourse between persons of
similar pursuits, if contributors would drop initials, and sign their own
proper name and _habitat_; and in saying this, I believe the Editor will
second me. If C. S. G. had done this, I should have been happy to send him
an envelope full of proofs that Mr. Justice Newton did not die in 1444, for
that a fine was levied before him in 1448; that he is not buried in Bristol
Cathedral, but in the Wyke Aisle in Yatton Church, Somerset, where may be
seen his effigies beautifully carved in alabaster, in his judge's robes,
and his head resting on a wheat-sheaf or garb; that there was _no_
relationship between the second baronet of Hather, his arms being _cross
bones_, &c., and those of the judge, who was truly a _Cradock_, were three
garbs, &c. I would now beg leave to refer C. S. G. to my former
communications in "N. & Q." about Cradock Newton, particularly Vol. ii.,
pp. 248. 427.; _Chronica Judicialia_, 1635; Foss's _Lives of the Judges_;
and a paper of mine in the forthcoming volume of the _Proceedings of the
Archæological Institute at Bristol_.


Rectory, Clyst St. George.

From C. S. G.'s reply to my inquiry respecting Mr. Justice Newton I
conclude that at least _two_ individuals of this name have, at different
periods, and at a considerable interval apart, occupied the judicial bench.

The portrait I wish to trace is of a well-known character of the
Commonwealth era, and could not, of course, have belonged to a judge then
some two centuries deceased. My omission to state this circumstance, in the
first instance, has very naturally occasioned complete misapprehension

Since my Query was written, a duplicate of the drawing in the Bodleian
(_minus_ the inscription), out of the Strawberry Hill collection, has,
curiously enough, appeared in an extensive public sale. It was likewise
said to be by Bulfinch; and farther examination leads me to infer that both
this and the Oxford copy were, in respect of artist, in all probability
_not_ incorrectly described. As Bulfinch lived _temp._ Charles II., and the
Bodleian inscription points to his original painting, as "in the hands of
Mr. Justice Newton," it may fairly be presumed that a second judge of the
name flourished in this reign.

Substantially, then, my original Query yet remains unanswered,
notwithstanding C. S. G.'s obliging reply.


36. Mount Street, Grosvenor Square.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Mr. Lyte's Treatment of Positives._--It would be quite superfluous, after
the very excellent communication of MR. POLLOCK, were I to give a detailed
account of my method of printing albumen positives, as, in the main, we
both follow the process of Mr. Le Gray. But as we both have our own
improvements on the original process, I will ask for space in which to
record our differences in manipulation.

First, in regard to the chloride of gold, I always find, and I believe such
is the experience of many photographers, that all salts of gold, though
they heighten the effect at first, have a slow, but sure, destructive
action on the picture.

Next, I find that acetic acid, by generating sulphurous acid, has a similar
effect, and my care was to try and make a solution which should be free
from these defects. I first take my positive, which, as a general rule, I
print at least half as dark again as the shade required. This done, I wash
it well with water, and next with salt and water in the proportion of about
half a grain per gallon, or quite a tasteless solution; this removes all
the nitrate of silver from the paper, or if there is any left, the bath of
salt decomposes it, leaving none in the texture of the paper to unite with
the hypo., which otherwise forms a sticky substance, difficult to remove,
which may be readily seen on looking through a positive which has been too
hastily finished in the usual way, giving a dark shade, and a want of
transparency to the lights. I then place the picture in a bath composed as

  Sodæ hyposul.              3 oz.
  Argent. chlorid.          70 grs.
  Potassii iodidi            5 grs.
  Pyrogallic acid            1½ to 2 grs.

The iodide of potassium I add on the same principle as MR. POLLOCK's iodide
of silver, but as being {16} more convenient, as immediately on being added
it decomposes some of the chloride of silver, and forms iodide of silver. I
am happy to find that MR. POLLOCK confirms me in the use of this salt;
which I had long thought to improve the tone of my pictures. The liquid,
which will become rapidly very dark coloured, must be set aside in an open
vessel in a warm place for some weeks, _e.g._ till, when a positive is
placed in it, left for a short time, and then washed with water, it shows
clean and not mottled in the light. The solution may be kept always
exposed, and much improves by this: if _much_ used, it should be
replenished with a simple solution of hypo. three ounces or two ounces to
the pint; if little used, it may be filled up as much as evaporates with
pure water.

The positive is left in this solution till the required tint is obtained,
when it is to be placed in plain hypo. two ounces to the pint, and in about
a quarter of an hour transferred to a basin of pure water, and well washed
in several waters. The other detail of MR. POLLOCK's process is so
admirably and clearly given, and so like that I pursue, that I will not
trouble your columns with it again.

The after-bath of pure hypo. is not absolutely necessary; and where it is
desired to obtain fine olive, and dark sepia, and black tints, a better
tone results from washing well, long, and frequently, with water alone.

This bath also gives very rich tints with paper, prepared without albumen:

  Chloride of ammonium      5 grs.
  Water                     1 oz.

Lay the paper on this, and then hang it up to dry, and excite with
ammonio-nitrate containing seventy grains of nitrate of silver to one ounce
of water. Should the above solution not give the requisite tints soon after
being made, add more chloride of silver; but bear in mind that the solution
will then soon become saturated when setting positives, and when this
occurs it must be rectified by the addition of a small portion of fresh
hypo. alone.


P.S.--I may add that I have only lately tried the addition of the iodide of
potassium to my setting liquid, and so must qualify my recommendation of it
by saying so.

Florian, Torquay.

_Stereoscopic Angles._--I am obliged to MESSRS. SHADBOLT and WILKINSON for
the information given in reply to my Queries (Vol. vii., p. 505.) My mode
of operation is precisely that of MR. WILKINSON: "I obtain all the
information I can from every source; then try, and judge for myself." Hence
the present letter.

I regret to be obliged to differ from MR. SHADBOLT, but there is a point in
his communication which appears to me to arise from a misconception of the
stereoscopic problem. He says (p. 557.), "for _distant_ views there is in
nature scarcely any _stereoscopic_ effect." Now, surely visual distance is
merely visual stereosity; for, to see an object solid is merely to see its
parts in relief, some of them appearing to project or recede from the
others. It is the difficulty of producing this effect in landscapes, by the
ordinary camera process, that renders views taken by such means so
deficient in air, or, as the artists term it, aerial perspective, most
distant objects seeming almost as near as those in the foreground. This
indeed is the main defect of all photographs: they are true representations
of nature to one eye--cyclopean pictures, as it were--appearing perfectly
stereoscopic with one eye closed, but seeming absolutely flattened when
viewed by the two eyes. I remember being shown a huge photograph of the
city of Berlin, taken from an eminence; and a more violent caricature of
nature I never set eyes upon. It was almost Chinese in its perspective: the
house-tops appeared to have been mangled. It was a wonderful work of art,
photographically considered; but artistically it was positively hideous.
But the same defect exists in _all_ monophotographic representations,
though in a less degree, and consequently less apparent than in views to
which a sense of distance is essential. In portraits, the features appear
slightly flattened; and until photographers are able to overcome this, the
chief of all obstacles to perfection, it is idle to talk of the art giving
a correct rendering of nature. This is what is wanted, more than colour,
diactinic lenses, multiplication of impressions, or anything else. And when
it is remembered that the law of an ordinary convex lens is, the farther
the object from the lens the nearer the focus, and, _vice versâ_, the
nearer the object the farther the focus, it becomes evident that by such an
instrument distant objects must be made to appear near, and near objects
distant, and nature consequently mangled.

The stereoscope gives us the only demonstrably correct representation of
nature; and when that instrument is rendered more simple, and the peep-show
character of the apparatus disconnected from it, the art of photography
will transcend the productions of the painter--but not till then.

I am anxious to obtain all the information I can from such of your
photographic readers as are practically acquainted with the stereoscopic
portion of the art relative to the angles under which they find it best to
take their pictures for given distances.

Mr. Fenton, the secretary of the Photographic Society, takes his
stereoscopic pictures, when the objects are 50 feet and upwards from the
camera, at 1 in 25. This is, as MR. SHADBOLT states, Professor Wheatstone's
rule for distances. {17}

MR. WILKINSON, on the other hand, asserts that 3 feet in 300 yards is
sufficient separation for the cameras: this is only 1 in 300,--a vast
difference truly.

"For views across the Thames," says the editor of the _Photographic
Journal_, "the cameras should be placed 12 feet apart, and with this
separation the effect is declared to be astonishing."

MR. WILKINSON, however, asserts that from 4 to 6 feet in a mile will do
_well enough_!

Farther, Mr. Latimer Clark (the inventor of an ingenious stereoscopic
camera) states that with regard to the distance between the two positions
of the cameras, he knows no good reason why the natural distance of the
eyes, viz. 2½ inches, should be much exceeded. "A little extra relief is
obtained," he adds, "without visible distortion, by increasing the
separation to about 4 or 5 inches; but if this distance be greatly
exceeded, especially for near objects (I give the gentleman's own words),
they become apparently diminished in size, and have the appearance of
models and dolls rather than natural objects."

The reason for making the separation between the cameras greater than that
between the two eyes, is exceedingly simple. The stereograph is to be
looked at much _nearer_ than the object itself, and consequently is to be
seen under a much larger angle than it is viewed by the two eyes in nature.
Hence the two pictures should be taken at the angle under which they are to
be observed in the stereoscope. Suppose the object to be 50 feet distant,
then of course it is seen by the two eyes under an angle of 2½ inches in 50
feet, or 1 in 240. But it is intended that the stereograph should be seen
by the two eyes when but a few inches removed from them, or generally under
an angle of 2½ in 12 inches, or nearly 1 in 5. Hence it is self-evident
that the stereoscopic angle should be considerably larger than that formed
by the optic axes of the two eyes when directed to the object itself.

But there is great diversity of opinion as to the extent of the angles
requisite for producing the precise stereoscopic or distantial effect of
nature. For myself I prefer Professor Wheatstone's rule, 1 in 25 for
objects beyond 50 feet distant. For portraits I find the best angle 1 in 10
when the sitter is 10 feet off, and for busts about 1 in 5 when placed
about 5 or 6 feet from the cameras. But I should be happy to receive
information from any of your readers concerning this important branch of
the photographic art. For months past I have been engaged in a series of
experiments in connexion with the subject, and wish for larger experience
than it is possible for any single operator to acquire for himself.

Mr. Fenton, I may observe, does not keep the cameras parallel in taking
landscapes, but inclines them so that the same object may occupy as nearly
as possible the centre of the ground glass plate.

Nor is it essential that perfect horizontality or parallelism of the
cameras should be maintained in copying trees. For buildings, however, it
is absolutely necessary that the cameras be kept straight.

I am sorry thus to trespass on your space, but being anxious, as MR.
WILKINSON says, to collect information from every source, and your
periodical being a happy medium for conveying and receiving instruction, I
am glad to avail myself of such a channel.

[Phi]. (2)

P.S.--Mr. Claudet has, I perceive, been awarded the prize given by the
Society of Arts for the best essay on the stereoscope. Can you, or any of
your readers, inform me whether this is likely to be published, and when
and at what price?

_Query respecting Mr. Pollock's Process._--In MR. POLLOCK's directions for
obtaining positives which appeared in "N. & Q." (Vol. vii, p. 581.), iodide
of silver is to be dissolved in a saturated solution of hypo. Can you give
me the quantity of iodide of silver to be dissolved, and the quantity of
the saturated solution of hypo. in which it is to be dissolved?

N. T. B.

_Gallo-nitrate of Silver._--Can you inform me what the true nature of the
decomposition is which takes place after a short time in the gallo-nitrate
solution of silver? and if there be any ready means of rendering the silver
it contains again available for photographic use?

SIR W. NEWTON, in the description of his calotype process, says: "Bring out
with the saturated solution of gallic acid, and when the subject begins to
appear, add the aceto-nitrate of silver solution." Which way of doing this
is the best,--mixing the two solutions together and applying them to the
paper; or applying the paper, when wetted with the gallic acid, to the
silver solution?

T. L.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Verney Note decyphered_ (Vol. vii., p. 568.).--I am extremely obliged to
MR. THOMPSON COOPER for his decyphered rendering of Sir Ralph Verney's note
of a speech or proceeding in parliament. The note itself is not now in my
possession, but I have requested the owner to be good enough to re-collate
it with the original, and if any mistakes should appear in the copy, or the
printing (which is very likely), I will give you notice of the fact, that
the doubtful words in MR. COOPER's version may, if possible, be set right.

Students in the art of decyphering may be pleased to have the key to the
cypher recorded in {18} your pages. I therefore give it you as discovered
by MR. COOPER, and beg, in the strongest way, to reiterate my thanks to
that gentleman.

  2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,
  f, r, k, t, b, h, s, w, c,  g,  p,  d,  a,  e,  i,  o,  u,

  20, 22, 27, 28.
  l,  x,  m,  n.

The cyphers (if any) for _j, q, y, z_ have not been discovered, and the
numbers 1, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26 remain unappropriated.


_Emblems by John Bunyan_ (Vol. vii., p. 470.).--This work which MR. CORSER
has not met with, is in the folio edition of his works, forming pp. 849. to
868. of vol. ii. (1768). The plates are small woodcuts of very indifferent

E. D.

_Mr. Cobb's Diary_ (Vol. vii., p. 477.).--This volume was printed solely
for private distribution by the family, who also presented their relatives
and friends (amongst whom the writer was reckoned) with another volume
compiled on the decease of Francis Cobb, Esq., the husband of Mrs. Cobb,
and entitled, _Memoir of the late Francis Cobb, Esq., of Margate, compiled
from his Journals and Letters_: Maidstone, printed by J. V. Hall and Son,
Journal Office, 1835. Both of these are at the service for perusal of your
inquiring correspondent, JOHN MARTIN.

E. D.

"_Sat cito si sat bene_" (Vol. vii., p. 594.).--I have not Twiss at hand;
but I think F. W. J. is mistaken in calling it a "favourite maxim" of Lord
Eldon. I remember to have heard Lord Eldon tell the story, which was, that
the Newcastle Fly, in which he came up to town, in I forget how many days,
had on its panel the motto, "Sat cito si sat bene:" he applied it jocularly
in defence of his own habits in Chancery.


_Mythe versus Myth_ (Vol. vii., pp. 326. 575.).--It gives me much pleasure
to have afforded MR. THIRIOLD an opportunity for displaying so much
learning and sagacity; but I hope he does not imagine that he has confuted
me. As I only spoke of words which, like [Greek: muthos], had a single
consonant between two vowels, such words as _plinth_, _labyrinth_, &c. have
nothing to do with the question. If _mythe_, differing from the other
examples which are to be found, happens to have _the_ for its termination,
and thus resembles words of Anglo-Saxon origin, I cannot help it, but it
was formed _secundum artem_. As to MR. THERIOLD's _m[=y]th_, unless so
written and printed, it will always be pronounced _m[)y]th_, like the
French _mythe_.

As to the _hybrid_ adjectives, I only wished to avoid increasing the number
of them. The French, I believe, have only one, _musical_; for though, like
ourselves, they have made substantives of the Greek [Greek: mousikê] (sc.
[Greek: technê]), [Greek: phusikê], &c., in all other cases they retain the
Greek form of the adjective, as in _physique_, substantive and adjective,
while we generally have pairs of adjectives, as _philosophic,
philosophical_; _extatic, extatical_; &c. Some may think this an advantage;
I do not.


_The Gilbert Family_ (Vol. vii., p. 259).--If your correspondent seeking
genealogical information in reference to my ancestors, calls on me, I will
show him a presentation copy of _A Genealogical Memoir of the Gilbert
Family in Old and New England_, by J. W. Thornton, LL.B., Boston, U. S.,
1850, 8vo. pp. 24, only fifty printed.


_Alexander Clark_ (Vol. vii., p. 580.).--I should feel obliged if J. O.
could find leisure to communicate to "N. & Q." some particulars relative to
Clark. He is supposed to have been the author of a curious poem: _The
Institution and Progress of the Buttery College of Slains, in the Parish of
Cruden, Aberdeenshire; with a Catalogue of the Books and MSS. in the
Library of that University_: Aberdeen, 1700. Mr. Peter Buchan thus mentions
him in his _Gleanings of Scarce Old Ballads_:

    "Clark, a drunken dominie at Slains, author of a poetical dialogue
    between the gardeners and tailors on the origin of their crafts, and a
    most curious Latin and English poem called the 'Buttery College of
    Slains,' which resembled much in language and style Drummond of
    Hawthornden's 'Polemo Middino.'"

This poem is printed in Watson's _Collection of Scottish Poems_, Edin.
1711; and also noticed in the _Edinburgh Topographical and Antiquarian
Magazine_, 1848, last page. I am anxious to ascertain if the emblem writer,
and the burlesque poet, be one and the same person. The dates, I confess,
are somewhat against this conclusion; but there may have been a previous
edition of the _Emblematical Representation_ (1779). The _University_ Clark
is supposed to have been an Aberdeenshire man. Possibly J. O. may be able
to throw some light on the subject.


_Christ's Cross_ (Vol. iii., pp. 330. 465.).--In Morley's _Introduction to
Practical Music_, originally printed in 1597, and which I quote from a
reprint by William Randall, in 4to., in 1771, eighteen mortal pages
(42-59), which, in my musical ignorance, I humbly confess to be wholly out
of my line, are occupied with the "Cantus," "Tenor," and "Bassus," to the
following words:

    "Christes Crosse be my speed in all vertue to proceede, A, b, c, d, e,
    f, g, h, i, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, & t, double w, v, x, with y,
    ezod, & per se, con per se, tittle tittle est Amen, When you haue done
    begin again, begin again."

J. F. M.


_The Rebellious Prayer_ (Vol. vii., p. 286.).--J. A. may find the poem, of
which he quotes the opening lines, in the _Churchman's Monthly Penny
Magazine_, October, 1851, with the signature L. E. P. The magazine is
published by Wertheim & Macintosh, 24. Paternoster Row.

M. E.

"_To the Lords of Convention_" (Vol. vii., p. 596.).--L. EVANS will find
the whole of the ballad of "Bonnie Dundee," the first line of which he
quotes, in Sir Walter Scott's _Doom of Devorgoil_, where it is introduced
as a song. Singularly enough, his best ballad is thus found in his worst


_Wooden Tombs and Effigies_ (Vol. vii., pp. 528. 607.).--In a chapel
adjoining the church of Heveningham in Suffolk, are (or rather were in
1832) the remains of a good altar tomb, with recumbent effigies carved in
chesnut, of a knight and his lady: it appeared to be, from the armour and
architecture, of the early part of the fifteenth century; and from the
arms, _Quarterly or and gules within a border engrailed sable, charged with
escallops argent_, no doubt belonged to the ancient family of Heveningham
of that place; probably Sir John Heveningham, knight of the shire for the
county of Suffolk in the 1st of Henry IV.

When I visited this tomb in 1832, it was in a most dilapidated condition:
the slab on which the effigy of the knight once rested was broken in;
within the head of the lady, which was separated from the body, a thrush
had built its nest: notwithstanding, however, the neglect and damp to which
the chapel was exposed, these chesnut effigies remained wonderfully sound
and perfect.


The monument to Sir Walter Traylli and his lady, in Woodford Church in
Northamptonshire, is of wood.

There is a wooden effigy in Gayton Church, Northamptonshire, of a knight
templar, recumbent, in a cross-legged position, his feet resting on an
animal: over the armour is a surcoat; the helmet is close fitted to the
head, his right hand is on the hilt of his sword, a shield is on the left

There is also a fine wooden effigy of Sir Hugh Bardolph in Burnham Church
in Norfolk.

J. B.

In Fersfield Church, in Norfolk, there is a wooden figure to the memory of
Sir Robert Du Bois, Kt., ob. 1311. See Bloomfield's _Norfolk_, vol. i. p.

J. B.

_Lord Clarendon and the Tubwoman_ (Vol. vii., pp. 133. 211. 634.).--Upon
reference to the story of the "tubwoman" in p. 133., it will be seen that
Mr. Hyde is distinctly stated to have himself married the brewer's widow,
and to have married her for her money. It is farther said that Ann Hyde,
the mother of Queen Mary and Queen Ann, was the only issue of this
marriage; whereas Ann Hyde had four brothers and a sister. No allusion is
made in this account to Sir Thomas Ailesbury. Your correspondent MR. WARDEN
says, that "the story has _usually_ been told of the wife of Sir Thomas
Ailesbury," and that it may be true of her. Will he have the kindness to
furnish a reference to the version of the story in which Sir Thomas
Ailesbury is said to have married the tubwoman?


_House-marks_ (Vol. vii., p. 594.).--I do not know whether [alpha].
recollects the frequent occurrence of _marks_ upon sheep in this country.
Although I have often seen them, I cannot just now describe one accurately.
Some sheep passed my house yesterday which were marked with a _cross_
within a circle.

Riding with a friend, a miller, in Essex, about thirteen years ago, he
jumped out of the gig and over a gate, to seize a sack which was lying in a
field. Seeing no initials upon it, I asked how he knew that it was his;
when he pointed out to me a fish marked upon it, which he told me had been
his own and his father's mark for many years. He also said that most of the
millers in the neighbourhood had a peculiar _mark_ (not their names or
initials), each a different one for his own sacks.

A. J. N.


"_Amentium haud amantium_" (Vol. vii., p. 595.).--Your correspondent's
Query sent me at once to a queer old _Terence in English_, together with
the text, "_operâ ac industriâ R. B., in Axholmensi insulâ, Lincolnsherii
Epwortheatis_. [London, Printed by John Legatt, and are to be sold by
Andrew Crooke, at the sign of the Green-Dragon, in Paul's Church Yard.
1641.] 6th Edition."

Here, as I expected, I found an alliterative translation of the phase in
question "For they are fare as they were _lunaticke, and not love-sicke_."

The translation, I may add, is in prose.



_The Megatherium in the British Museum_ (Vol. vii., p. 590.).--It is much
to be regretted that A FOREIGN SURGEON should not have examined the
contents of the room which contains the cast of the skeleton of this animal
with a little more attention, before he penned the above article. Had he
done so, he would have found many of the original bones, from casts of
which the restored skeleton has been constructed, in Wall Cases 9 and 10,
and would not have fallen into the error of supposing that it is a
_fac-simile_ of the original skeleton at Madrid. _That_ specimen was
exhumed near Buenos Ayres in 1789; whilst our restoration {20} has been
made from bones of another individual, many of which are, as I have stated,
to be found in the British Museum itself, and others in that of the Royal
College of Surgeons. I are not about to defend the propriety of putting the
trunk of a palm-tree into the claws of the Megatherium, though I do not
suppose that the restorer ever expected, when he did so, that any one would
entertain the idea that this gigantic beast was in the habit of climbing
trees; but I would fain ask your correspondent on what grounds he makes the
dogmatic assertion that "Palms there were none, at that period of telluric
formation." I will simply remind him of the vast numbers of fossil fruits,
and other remains of palms, in the London clay of the Isle of Sheppey.



_Pictorial Proverbs_ (Vol. v., p. 559.).--Perhaps the book here mentioned
is one of the old German _Narrenbuchs_, or _Book of Fools_, which were
generally illustrated with pictures, of which I have a curious set in my

Can any of your correspondents give some account of the nature and merits
of these books? Are any of them worth translating at the present day? The
one from which my pictures were taken has the title _Mala Gallina, malum
Ovum_, and was published at Vienna and Nuremburg. It seems to have been a
satire on the female sex; but the text, I am sorry to say, is not in my


_"Hurrah," and other War-cries_ (Vol. vii., p. 596.).--The following
passage (which I find in my notes with the reference _Ménagiana_, vol. ii.
p. 328.) may partially assist your correspondent CAPE:

    "Le cri des anciens Comtes d'Anjou étoit _Rallie_. En voici l'origine.
    Eude II., Comte de Blois, marchant avec une armée considérable contre
    Foulke Nerra, Comte d'Anjou, ces deux princes se rencontrèrent à
    Pontlevoi sur le Cher, où ils se livrèrent bataille le 6 Juillet, 1016.
    Foulke eut d'abord quelque désavantage; mais Herbert, Comte du Maine
    (dit _Eveillechien_), étant venu à son secours, il rallia ses troupes,
    and défit absolument, &c. Depuis ce temps-là le cri des anciens Comtes
    d'Anjou étoit _Rallie_. Et à ce propos je vous rapporterai ce qu'en dit
    Maître Vace, surnommé _le Clerc de Caen_, dans son Roman de Normandie:

     'François crie _Montjoye_, et Normans _Dex-aye_:
      Flamands crie _Aras_, et Angevin _Rallie_:
      Et li cuens Thiebaut _Chartre_ et _Passavant_ crie.'"

This last cry is not unlike the Irish "Faugh-a-Ballagh" in signification.



The following extracts from Sir Francis Palgrave's _History of Normandy and
England_, vol. i. p. 696., explain the origin of the word "Hurrah,"
respecting which one of your correspondents inquires:

    "It was a 'wise custom' in Normandy, established by Rollo's decree,
    that whoever sustained, or feared to sustain, any damage of goods or
    chattels, life or limb, was entitled to raise the country by the cry of
    _haro_, or _haron_, upon which cry all the lieges were bound to join in
    pursuit of the offender,--_Haron! Ha Raoul!_ justice invoked in Duke
    Rollo's name. Whoever failed to aid, made fine to the sovereign; whilst
    a heavier mulct was consistently inflicted upon the mocker who raised
    the _clameur de haro_ without due and sufficient cause, a disturber of
    the commonwealth's tranquillity.

    "The _clameur de haro_ is the English system of 'hue and cry.' The old
    English exclamation _Harrow!_ our national vernacular _Hurrah!_ being
    only a variation thereof, is identical with the supposed invocation of
    the Norman chieftain; and the usage, suggested by common sense,
    prevailed under various modifications throughout the greater part of
    the Pays Coutumier of France."

A. M. S.

       *       *       *       *       *



Among the books which we have for some time intended to bring under the
notice of our readers is a new and cheaper edition of _The Coin Collector's
Manual, or Guide to the Numismatic Student in the Formation of a Cabinet of
Coins: comprising an Historical and Critical Account of the Origin and
Progress of Coinage, from the Earliest Period to the Fall of the Roman
Empire; with some Account of the Coinages of Modern Europe, more especially
of Great Britain, by_ H. Noel Humphreys: and we have been the more anxious
to do this, because, except among professed collectors, greater ignorance
probably exists on the subject of coins, their date, value, &c., than upon
any other subject with which educated people are supposed to possess some
acquaintance. Yet there are few numismatic questions likely to occur which
ordinary readers would not be enabled to solve by a reference to these two
little volumes, enriched as it is with numerous illustrations; especially
if they would place beside them Akerman's most useful _Numismatic Manual_.

We are indebted to Mr. Murray for two volumes which will be among the
pleasant additions to the cheap books of the month, namely, the new volume,
being the fourth of the reprint, of Lord Mahon's _History of England to the
Peace of Versailles_, which comprises the interval between the Peace of
Aix-la-Chapelle and that of Hubertsburg; and in the _Railway Reading_, for
half-a-crown! the fourth edition of Lockhart's spirited translations of
_Ancient Spanish Ballads, Historical and Romantic_. Thanks, Mr. Murray,

That Mr. De la Motte, who is so well known as an accomplished draughtsman,
should turn his attention to photography, is no slight testimony to the
value of the art. That he has become a master in it, may be seen by one
glance at his own works on the walls of his Photographic Gallery. The
beginner may therefore receive with confidence the results of that
gentleman's experience; and _The Practice of Photography, a Manual for
Students and Amateurs_, just published by him, will {21} be found a most
useful and instructive companion to every one who is now contemplating an
excursion, armed with a camera, for the purpose of securing for the
gratification of his friends truthful records of his wanderings. Mr. De la
Motte wisely confines his instruction to the paper and glass processes; his
details on these are clear and minute, and the book is well worth the money
for those pages of it alone which are devoted to the "Chemicals used in

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_On the Archaic Mode of expressing Numbers in English,
Saxon, Friesic, &c._, by E. Thomson, Esq.; a learned and ingenious tract,
written originally for insertion in "N. & Q.," but which fact ought not to
prevent our speaking of it in the terms which it deserves.--_A Few Words in
Reply to the Animadversions of the Rev. Mr. Dyce on Mr. Hunter's
"Disquisition on the Tempest," 1839, and his "New Illustrations of the
Life, Studies, and Writings of Shakspeare," 1845, &c._ A short but
interesting contribution to Shakspearian criticism, by one who has already
done good service in the same cause. If we cannot agree with Mr. Hunter in
all that he seeks to establish, we can admire his knowledge of Elizabethan
literature, and appreciate the spirit in which he writes.--_The Antiquary._
This is the first number of a small work consisting of reprints of
proclamations, curious advertisements from early newspapers, and such odd
matters as paint more forcibly than the gravest historian, the colours of
the times.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE COMPLAYNTS OF SCOTLAND. 8vo. Edited by Leyden. 1804.

SHAKSPEARE'S PLAYS. Vol. V. of Johnson and Steeven's edition, in 15 vols.
8vo. 1739.

CIRCLE OF THE SEASONS. 12mo. London, 1828. (Two Copies.)





LORD LANSDOWNE'S WORKS. Vol. I. Tonson, 1736.

4to. 1794.


WALKER'S PARTICLES. 8vo. old calf, 1683.

WARNER'S SERMONS. 2 Vols. Longman, about 1818.


Two Copies.



*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

OUR EIGHTH VOLUME. _We avail ourselves of the opportunity afforded by the
commencement of a new Volume, to state that our attention has been called
to the sharp and somewhat personal tone of several of the recent
contributions to "N. & Q.," and which, we are reminded, is the more
striking from the marked absence of anything of that character in our
earlier Volumes. We are perhaps ourselves somewhat to blame for this, from
our strong indisposition to exercise our editorial privilege of omission.
Our notice of the subject will, we are sure, be sufficient to satisfy our
contributors of the inconvenience which must result to themselves as well
as to us from the indulgence in too great license of the pen. We know that
when men write_ currente calamo, _words and phrases are apt to escape, the
full application of which is not observed, until, as Charles Lamb said,
"print proves it;" but being conscious that, when treating on the subjects
with which we deal, no one would willingly write anything with design to
give offence, we shall in future "play the tyrant" on all such occasions
with more vigilance than we have done._

L. K. _The lines_--

 "Worth makes the man, the want of it the fellow;
  The rest is all but leather and prunello."

_are from Pope's_ Essay on Man, _Ep. IV._ 203. _See some curious
illustrations of them in our_ First Volume, pp. 246. 362. &c.

BLACKAMOOR _will find the_ Cyanogen Soap, _manufactured by Thomas,
excellent for removing Photographic stains. It is, however, to be used with
care, being_ poisonous.

ALBERT. _The history of the phrase_--

 "Quem Deus vult perdere,"

_will be seen in our_ First Volume, pp. 347. 351. 421. 476.; _and_ Second
Volume, p. 317.

I. G. T. _Gooseberry_ Fool _is the same as pressed or crushed gooseberries,
from the French_ fouler, _to press, tread, &c._

SIR F. MADDEN's paper, Was Thomas Lord Lyttelton the Author of Junius's
Letters? _is unavoidably postponed until next week._

_Replies to our numerous_ PHOTOGRAPHIC QUERISTS _in our next._

_The_ Index _to our_ SEVENTH VOLUME _will be ready on Saturday the 16th._

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vi., _price
Three Guineas, may now be had; for which early application is desirable._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *

This day is published, price 5s.; or, post free, 5s. 6d.

beautiful illustrations by Harvey (including the Cochin-China Fowl). Post

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street,
Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *

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JOHN MILLER, 43. Chandos Street,
Trafalgar Square.

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MILTON'S PROSE WORKS, Vol. V., containing the Conclusion of THE CHRISTIAN
DOCTRINE, translated and edited by the BISHOP OF WINCHESTER. With a General
Index to the five vols. Post 8vo. cloth. 3s. 6d.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street,
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       *       *       *       *       *


PORPHYRY literally translated, with Notes, Analysis, Introduction, and
Index, by the REV. O. F. OWEN, M.A. 2 vols. post 8vo. 3s. 6d. per volume.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street,
Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


the BURMESE, SIAM and ANNAM. Illustrated by nearly one hundred fine
engravings on wood. Post 8vo. cloth. 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street,
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the affairs of Britain, from the beginning of the world to A.D. 1307
Translated by C. D. Yonge, B.A. In 2 vols. post 8vo. cloth. 5s. per volume.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street,
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FREEMASON'S QUARTERLY MAGAZINE. Contents of the Number for JULY:--Engraving
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EDUCATION IN IRELAND, may be obtained from the Office, Merrion Street,
Dublin, for Ready Money only, by the Trade (and by Private Persons ordering
them in quantities of the value of 10l. and upwards), at the under
mentioned Prices.

From the above date the Commissioners will supply no books, except to the
Irish National Schools.

                                               s. d.
  First Book of Lessons                        0  0½
  Second    ditto                              0  3
  Sequel to Second Book, No. 1.                0  3
       Ditto      ditto, No. 2.                0  3
  Fourth Book of Lessons                       0  7
  Supplement to Fourth Book                    0  8
  Fifth Book of Lessons                        0  7
  Girl's Reading Book                          0  7
  Biographical Sketches of British Poets       0  9
  Selections from British Poets. Vol. I.       0  8
        Ditto          ditto,   Vol. II.       0  9
  Introduction to the Art of Reading           0  5
  English Grammar                              0  3
  Key to ditto                                 0  0½
  Third Book of Lessons                        0  6
  First Arithmetic                             0  3
  Key to ditto                                 0  3
  Arithmetic in Theory and Practice            0  7
  Book Keeping                                 0  4
  Key to ditto                                 0  3
  Epitome of Geography                         0 10
  Compendium of ditto                          0  3
  Elements of Geometry                         0  3
  Mensuration                                  0  5
  Appendix to ditto                            0  4
  Scripture Lessons, Old Testament, No. 1.     0  4
        Ditto            ditto,     No. 2.     0  4
        Ditto        New Testament, No. 1.     0  4
        Ditto            ditto,     No. 2.     0  4
  Sacred Poetry                                0  1
  Lessons on Truth of Christianity             0  2
  Agricultural Class Book                      0  6
  Farm Account Book                            1  2
  Treatise on Needlework                       1  7

Stationery Office, 27th May, 1853.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE for JULY, 1853, being the First of a New Volume,
contains:--1. Memoirs of Thomas Moore. 2. Wanderings of an Antiquary, from
York to Godmanham (with Engravings). 3. Female Novelists. 4. Political
Caricature, temp. Charles I. 5. A Midland Town (Leicester) in the Reign of
George III., and Mr. Gardiner's Anecdotes of T. Moore. 6. Historical Notes
on the Retaining of Counsel. 7. Roman Antiquities found at Kingsholm, near
Gloucester. 8. Remains of Norman Cross at Birstall, co. York (with an
Engraving). 9. The Bourne Stream near Croydon. 10. Dr. Guest on the
Etymology of Stonehenge. Correspondence of Sylvanus Urban: The Itinerary of
Richard of Cirencester.--The Roches and Viscounty of Fermoy.--Recent
repairs of Lambeth Church.--Early state of St. James's Park.--Postmen,
temp. Charles I., &c. &c. With Notes of the Month, Reviews of New
Publications, Historical Chronicle, and OBITUARY, including Memoirs of the
Earl of Ducie, Lord Dacre, Sir John Hope, Bart., Sir Charles A. Elton,
Bart., Lt.-Gen. Sir R. Arbuthnot, Vice-Adm. Sir F. Mason, Sir Richard B.
Comyn, Culling C. Smith, Esq., J. L. Dampier, Esq., Ludwig Tieck, &c. Price
2s. 6d.

NICHOLS & SONS, 25. Parliament Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-eighth Edition.

NEUROTONICS, or the Art of Strengthening the Nerves, containing Remarks on
the influence of the Nerves upon the Health of Body and Mind, and the means
of Cure for Nervousness, Debility, Melancholy, and all Chronic Diseases, by
DR. NAPIER, M.D. London: HOULSTON & STONEMAN. Price 4d., or Post Free from
the Author for Five Penny Stamps.

    "We can conscientiously recommend 'Neurotonics,' by Dr. Napier, to the
    careful perusal of our invalid reader."--_John Bull Newspaper, June_ 5,

       *       *       *       *       *



Now ready, an entirely New, Revised, and Cheaper Edition, with 100
Woodcuts. Post 8vo., 5s., bound.

MODERN DOMESTIC COOKERY. Founded upon Principles of Economy and Practical
Knowledge, and adapted for the Use of Private Families.

    "A collection of plain receipts, adapted to the service of families. in
    which the table is supplied, with a regard to economy as well as
    comfort and elegance."--_Morning Post._

    "Unquestionably the most complete guide to the culinary department of
    domestic economy that has yet been given to the world."--_John Bull._

    "A new edition, with a great many new receipts, that have stood the
    test of _family_ experience, and numerous editorial and typographical
    improvements throughout."--_Spectator._

    "Murray's 'Cookery Book' claims to rank as a new work."--_Literary

    "The best work extant on the subject for an ordinary

    "As a complete collection of useful directions clothed in perspicuous
    language, this can scarcely be surpassed."--_Economist._

    "Full of sage instruction and advice, not only on the economical and
    gastronomic materials, but on subjects of domestic management in

    "We may heartily and safely commend to English housewifery this cookery
    book. It tells plainly what plain folks wish to know, and points out
    how an excellent dinner may be best secured."--_Express._

       *       *       *       *       *


The most extraordinary Work of the Season,

portions of territory never before visited by European. With an Account of
the Journey from the Punjab to Bombay Overland, via the famous Caves of
Ajunta and Ellora. Also, an Account of the Mahalleshwur and Neilgherry
Mountains, the Sanataria of the Bombay and Madras Presidencies. With
Engravings, Portraits and Maps. In Three thick Vols., post 8vo., price 37s.


AGNES MAYNARD; or, Dreams and Realities. By the Authoress of "The Garden in
the Wilderness," &c. One Vol. post 8vo., price 10s. 6d. Ready on Monday at
all the Libraries.


ROSA ST. ORME, and OTHER TALES. By MRS. LOCKE. One Vol., post 8vo., price
10s. 6d. Ready on the 1st at all the Libraries.


MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING; or, the Religion of England staked on the Opening
or Shutting of the Crystal Palace on Sundays. A Farce, in many Acts. By A


CONVICTS and COLONIES; Thoughts on Transportation and Colonisation, with
reference to the Islands and Mainland of Northern Australia. By G. S.
MORRIS, B.A., Vicar of Bretforton, Worcestershire, formerly one of Her
Majesty's Chaplains in the island of Van Diemen's Land. Price 2s.


IMPORTANT to AUTHORS.--New Publishing Arrangements.--HOPE & CO.,
Publishers, 16. Great Marlborough Street, London, have resolved to charge
no commission for publishing Works printed by them, until the Author has
been refunded his original outlay. They would also state that they print,
in the first style, greatly under the usual charges; while their publishing
arrangements enable them to promote the interest of all Works intrusted to
their charge. Estimates and every particular furnished gratuitously in
course of post.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères', La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Collodion (Iodized with the Ammonio-Iodide of Silver).--J. B.
HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, were the first in England who
published the application of this agent (see _Athenæum_, Aug. 14th). Their
Collodion (price 9d. per oz.) retains its extraordinary sensitiveness,
tenacity, and colour unimpaired for months: it may be exported to any
climate, and the Iodizing Compound mixed as required. J. B. HOCKIN & CO.
manufacture PURE CHEMICALS and all APPARATUS with the latest Improvements
adapted for all the Photographic and Daguerreotype processes. Cameras for
Developing in the open Country. GLASS BATHS adapted to any Camera. Lenses
from the best Makers. Waxed and Iodized Papers, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


T. OTTEWILL (from Horne & Co.'s) begs most respectfully to call the
attention of Gentlemen, Tourists, and Photographers, to the superiority of
his newly registered DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERAS, possessing the
efficiency and ready adjustment of the Sliding Camera, with the portability
and convenience of the Folding Ditto.

Every description of Apparatus to order.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

Established 1824.

       *       *       *       *       *

FIVE BONUSES have been declared: at the last in January, 1852, the sum of
131,125l. was added to the Policies, producing a Bonus varying with the
different ages from 24½ to 55 per cent. on the Premiums paid during the
five years, or from 5l. to 12l. 10s. per cent. on the Sum Assured.

The small share of Profit divisible in future among the Shareholders being
now provided for, the ASSURED will hereafter derive all the benefits
obtainable from a Mutual Office, WITHOUT ANY LIABILITY OR RISK OF

POLICIES effected before the 30th June next, will be entitled, at the next
Division, to one year's additional share of Profits over later Assurers.

On Assurances for the whole of Life only one half of the Premiums need be
paid for the first five years.

INVALID LIVES may be Assured at rates proportioned to the risk.

Claims paid _thirty_ days after proof of death, and all Policies are
_Indisputable_ except in cases of fraud.

Tables of Rates and forms of Proposal can be obtained of any of the
Society's Agents, or of

GEORGE H. PINCKARD, Resident Secretary.

99. _Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, London._

       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *



RESPECTFULLY informs the Clergy, Architects, and Churchwardens, that he
replies immediately to all applications by letter, for information
respecting his Manufactures in CHURCH FURNITURE, ROBES, COMMUNION LINEN,
&c., &c., supplying full information as to Prices, together with Sketches,
Estimates, Patterns of Materials, &c., &c.

Having declined appointing Agents, MR. FRENCH invites direct communications
by Post, as the most economical and satisfactory arrangement. PARCELS
delivered Free by Railway.

       *       *       *       *       *




During the last Ten Years, this Society has issued more than _Four Thousand
One Hundred and Fifty Policies_--

Covering Assurances to the extent of _One Million Six Hundred and
Eighty-seven Thousand Pounds, and upwards_--

Yielding Annual Premiums amounting to _Seventy-three Thousand Pounds_.

This Society is the only one possessing Tables for the Assurance of
Diseased Lives.

Healthy Lives Assured at Home and Abroad at lower rates than at most other

A Bonus of 50 per cent. on the premiums paid was added to the policies at
last Division of Profits.

Next Division in 1853--in which all Policies effected before 30th June,
1853, will participate.

Agents wanted for vacant places.

Prospectuses, Forms of Proposal, and every other information, may be
obtained of the Secretary at the Chief Office, or on application to any of
the Society's Agents in the country.

  F. G. P. NEISON, Actuary.
  C. DOUGLAS SINGER, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *

contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different Bedsteads;
also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and Quilts. And their new
warerooms contain an extensive assortment of Bed-room Furniture, Furniture
Chintzes, Damasks, and Dimities, so as to render their Establishment
complete for the general furnishing of Bed-rooms.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,


       *       *       *       *       *



FRASER'S MAGAZINE FOR July, price 2s. 6d., or by Post, 3s., containing:

  The Navy of France.
  Cayley's Las Alforjas.
  The Tables Turned.
  Wanted--an Owner.--Some Account of certain Bones found in a Vault beneath
      Rothwell Church.
  History of the Prussian Court and Aristocracy.
  Bertha's Love.
  Lorenzo Benomi.
  Chimney Pots. By a Grumbler.
  Emily Orford. Part I.
  Mahomet's Song.
  Belgium, Leopold, and the Duke of Brabant.


Dedicated by Special Permission to Her Majesty.

MELIORA; or, Better Times to Come. Edited by VISCOUNT INGESTRE. THE SECOND
SERIES, 5s., containing Contributions by

  Rev. T. Beames.         |  John Leigh.
  T. Beggs.               |  Viscount Lewisham, M.P.
  Dr. G. Bell.            |  Rev. H. Mackenzie.
  Earl of Carlisle.       |  Hon. and Rev. S. G. Osborne.
  Rev. J. Field.          |  Rev. T. F. Stooks.
  Montagu Gore.           |  Lord Teignmouth.
  Dr. Guy.                |  Alex. Thomson.

With some Papers by Working Men.

MELIORA. THE FIRST SERIES. Second Edition, 5s.


BACON'S ESSAYS; or, Counsels, Civil and Moral: with a Table of the Colours
of Good and Evil. Revised from the early Copies, with the References now
first supplied, and a few Notes, by T. MARKBY, M.A. 1s. 6d. in cloth.

By the same Editor,




Royal Institution, Liverpool. 2s.

By the same Author,



West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


  1. A Trip to Leipsic Fair.
  2. The Nurse's Tale.
  3. Modern Spanish Poetry.--Zorilla.
  4. Erskine's Cruise in the Pacific.
  5. Castle Building.
  6. Modern French Art.--Ary Scheffer.
  7. The History of the Harp.
  8. Evening Twilight.
              Price One Shilling.


       *       *       *       *       *

  _July_ 1853.




SIR HUDSON LOWE; and other official Documents, not before made public. By
WILLIAM FORSYTH, M.A. Portrait and Map. 3 vols. 8vo. 45s.


of the Treasury; including unpublished LETTERS OF JUNIUS. 2 vols. 8vo. 32s.


GALTON, ESQ. Plates and Maps. Post 8vo. 12s.


TEN MONTHS AMONG THE TENTS OF THE TUSKI; with Incidents of an Arctic Boat
Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin, as far as the Mackenzie River
and Cape Bathurst. By LIEUT. W. H. HOOPER, R.N. Plates and Map. 8vo. 14s.


THE STORY OF CORFE CASTLE, and of many who have lived there, including the
Private Memoirs of a Family in the Time of the Civil Wars, &c. By the RIGHT
HON. GEORGE BANKES, M.P. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 10s. 6d.


PALLISER, Esq., Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 10s. 6d.


Fcap. 8vo. 2s.


THE ISLANDS OF THE WESTERN PACIFIC, including the Feejees, and others
inhabited by the Polynesian Negro Races. By CAPT. JOHN ERSKINE, R.N. Map
and Plates. 8vo. 16s.


WATERLOO, &c. Edited by the MARQUIS OF LONDONDERRY. Third and last Series.
4 vols. 8vo. 56s.


Thousand. Plates and Woodcuts. 8vo. 21s.


HISTORY OF GREECE. Continued from the Accession to the Death of Philip of
Macedon. By GEORGE GROTE, Esq. Vol. XI. 8vo. 16s. (The 12th Volume will
complete the work.)


Edition. Vols. I. to VI. 8vo. 78s.


LORD MAHON'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Cheap and Popular Edition. Vols. I. to IV.
Post 8vo. 6s. each.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, price 4s. 6d. By Post, 5s.

THE PRACTICE OF PHOTOGRAPHY. A Manual for Students and Amateurs. By PHILIP
DELAMOTTE, F.S.A. Illustrated with a Photographic Picture taken by the
Collodion Process. This Manual contains much practical information of a
valuable nature.

JOSEPH CUNDALL, 168. New Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, Second enlarged Edition, 8vo., cloth boards, 8s.

or Maori language. Two Parts. With a Grammar and Colloquial Phrases. By the
REV. W. WILLIAMS, Archdeacon of Waiapu.

WILLIAMS & NORGATE. 14. Henrietta Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE FALL OF THE NIBELUNGERS, otherwise the Book of Kriemhild: a Translation
of the Nibelungen Not, or Nibelungenlied. By W. NANSON LETTSOM, Esq. 8vo.,
cloth boards, 10s. 6d.

14. Henrietta Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *

CLERGYMEN and GENTLEMEN intending to publish, either Volumes or Pamphlets,
during the approaching season, may enter into arrangements with a PUBLISHER
of experience and energy, who will use his most zealous endeavours to
promote the literary and commercial success of works confided to his care.

Address to BETA, care of MR. HARRILD, Printer, Silver Street, Falcon

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECTACLES.--WM. ACKLAND applies his medical knowledge as a Licentiate of
the Apothecaries' Company, London, his theory as a Mathematician, and his
practice as a Working Optician, aided by Smee's Optometer, in the selection
of spectacles suitable to every derangement of vision, so as to preserve
the sight to extreme old age.

ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, with the New Vetzlar Eye-pieces, as exhibited at the
Academy of Sciences in Paris. The Lenses of these Eye-pieces are so
constructed that the rays of light fall nearly perpendicular to the surface
of the various lenses, by which the aberration is completely removed; and a
telescope so fitted gives one-third more magnifying power and light than
could be obtained by the old Eye-pieces. Prices of the various sizes on
application to

WM. ACKLAND, Optician, 93. Hatton Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dustan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, July 2.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

page 8, "a medal won by an officer": 'a medal worn ...' in original
(corrected, Issue 196).

page 14, "cum tribus principalioribus digitis": 'principalionibus' in

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 192, July 2, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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