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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 194, July 16, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 194, July 16, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

generously made available by The Internet Library of Early

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 194.]
SATURDAY, JULY 16. 1853..
[With Index, price 10d.. Stamped Edition 11d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                              Page
  Derivation of the Word "Island"                         49
  Weather Rules, by Edward Peacock                        50
  On the modern Practice of assuming Arms                 50
  Morlee and Lovel, by L. B. Larking                      51
  Shakspeare Correspondence, by Robert Rawlinson and
  John Macray                                             51
  Unpublished Letter                                      53

  MINOR NOTES:--Lines on the Institution of the Order
  of the Garter--Old Ship--The Letter "h" in "humble"--
  "The Angels' Whisper"--Pronunciation of Coke--The
  Advice supposed to have been given to Julius III.       53

  Bishop Gardiner "De Vera Obedientiâ"                    54

  MINOR QUERIES:--Lord Byron--Curious Custom of
  ringing Bells for the Dead--Unpublished Essay by
  Lamb--Peculiar Ornament in Crosthwaite Church--
  Cromwell's Portrait--Governor Brooks--Old Books--The
  Privileges of the See of Canterbury--Heraldic
  Colour pertaining to Ireland--Descendants of Judas
  Iscariot--Parish Clerks and Politics--"Virgin Wife
  and widowed Maid"--"Cutting off the little Heads of
  Light"--Medal of Sir Robert Walpole--La Fête des
  Chaudrons--Who first thought of Table-turning?--
  College Guide                                           55

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Done Pedigree--Scotch
  Newspapers, &c.--Dictum de Kenilworth--Dr. Harwood      57

  Names of Places, by J. J. A. Worsaae                    58
  Cleaning old Oak, by Henry Herbert Hele, &c.            58
  Burial in an Erect Posture, by Cuthbert Bede, B.A.      59
  Lawyers' Bags                                           59

  Process                                                 60

  Order of St. John of Jerusalem--Calvin's Correspondence--
  Old Booty's Case--Chatterton--House-marks, &c.--
  Bibliography--Parochial Libraries--Faithful Teate--
  Lack-a-daisy--Bacon--Angel-beast: Cleek: Longtriloo--
  Hans Krauwinckel--Revolving Toy--Rub-a-dub--Muffs worn
  by Gentlemen--Detached Church Towers--Christian
  Names--Hogarth's Pictures--Old Fogie--Clem--Kissing
  Hands--Uniform of the Foot Guards--Book Inscriptions--
  Humbug--Sir Isaac Newton and Voltaire on Railway
  Travelling--Engine-à-verge--"Populus vult decipi," &c.--
  Sir John Vanbrugh--Erroneous Forms of Speech--
  Devonianisms                                            61

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                            65
  Notices to Correspondents                               66
  Advertisements                                          66

       *       *       *       *       *



Lexicographers from time to time have handed down to us, and proposed for
our choice, two derivations of our English word _Island_; and, that one of
these two is correct, has, I believe, never yet been called in question.
The first which they offer, and that most usually accepted as the true one,
is the A.-S. _Ealand_, _Ealond_, _Igland_; Belg. _Eylandt_: the first
syllable of which, they inform us, is _ea_, Low Germ. _aue_, water, _i.e._
water-land, or land surrounded by water. If this etymon be deemed
unsatisfactory, they offer the following: from the Fr. _isle_, It. _isola_,
Lat. _insula_, the word _island_, they say, is easily deflected.

At the risk of being thought presumptuous, I do not hesitate to say, that
both these alternatives are manifestly erroneous; and, for the following
reason, I propose a third source, which seems to carry conviction with it:
first, from analogy; and secondly, from the usage of the language from
which our English word is undoubtedly derived, the Anglo-Saxon.

First, from analogy. Let us only consider how frequently names are given to
parts of our hills, shores, rivers, &c., from their supposed resemblance to
parts of the human body. Thus, for instance, we have a _head_ land, a
_neck_ of land, a _tongue_ of land, a _nose_ of land (as in Ness, in
Orfordness, Dungeness, and, on the opposite coast, Grinez); also a _mouth_
of a river or harbour, a _brow_ of a hill, _back_ or _chine_ of a hill,
_foot_ of a hill; an _arm_ of the sea, _sinus_ or bosom of the sea. With
these examples, and many more like them, before us, why should we ignore an
_eye_ of land as unlikely to be the original of our word _island_? The
correspondence between the two is exact. How frequently is the term _eye_
applied to any small spot standing by itself, and peering out as it were,
in fact an _insulated_ spot: thus we have the _eye_ of an apple, the _eye_
or centre of a target, the _eye_ of a stream (_i.e._ where the stream
collects into a point--a point well known to salmon fishers), and very many
other instances. What more natural term, then, to apply to a spot of land
standing alone in the midst of an expanse of water than an _eye_ of land?

In confirmation of this view, let us look to the original language; there
we find the compounds of _eag_, _ea_, _ægh_, the eye, of very frequent
occurrence: all of them showing that this compound _ea-land_ is not only
legitimate, but extremely probable. Thus we find, _eag-æple_, the pupil of
the eye; _eag-dura_, a window-light, eye-door; _eag ece_, pain in the eye;
_eah-hringas_, the orbits of the eyes. In the last instance, the _g_ is
dropped; and it is certain that _eag_ was pronounced nearly as eye now is.
From all this, is it too much to conclude that _ea-land_ is the same as
_eye-land_? But farther, _Ig_ (A.-S.) sometimes stands by itself for an
island, as also do _Igland_ and _Igoth_, and _Ii_ was the old name of Iona.
Now I cannot find that there ever was the slightest connexion between the
A.-S. _Ig_ and _water_; nor do I believe that such an idea would ever have
been started, but to support the old derivation of the word; I have never
seen a genuine instance of such connexion brought forward. Then the word
_Ig_, if it be supposed to mean an _eye_, as I contend, may very well stand
by itself for _island_; but, if _water_ be expressed by it, I cannot
understand how it can serve to import _land_.

If any farther confirmation be wanted, we have it in the diminutive _eyot_,
of which _ait_, _aight_, _eight_ are corruptions.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

       *       *       *       *       *


Thomas Passenger, who dwelt at the Three Bibles and Star, on London Bridge,
was very celebrated during the latter part of the seventeenth century for
publishing popular histories and chap-books. His shop seems to have been
the principal place of resort for the hawkers who then supplied the
provinces with literature. Many of the works which issued from his press
are now very rare: one of the most curious, and, at the same time, the
rarest, is _The Shepherd's Kalendar: or, the Citizen's and Country Man's
Daily Companion_, &c. The contents of this book are of a very singular
nature, it being a kind of epitome of the facts it was then thought
necessary for a countryman to be acquainted with. A considerable portion of
the work is occupied by remarks on the weather, and on lucky and unlucky
days: if I were to extract all on those subjects, this communication would
extend to an unreasonable length.

We are informed, under the head "Observations on Remarkable Days, to know
how the whole Year will succeed in Weather, Plenty," &c., that--

    "If the sun shine clear and bright on Christmas-day, it promiseth a
    peaceable year from clamours and strife, and foretells much plenty to
    ensue; but if the wind blow stormy towards sunset, it betokeneth
    sickness in the spring and autumn quarters."

    "If January 25 (being St. Paul's day) be fair, it promises a happy
    year; but if cloudy, windy, or rainy, otherwise: hear in this case what
    an ancient judicious astrologer writes:

     'If St. Paul be fair and clear,
      It promises then a happy year;
      But if it chance to snow or rain,
      Then will be dear all sorts of grain:
      Or if the wind do blow aloft,
      Great stirs will vex the world full oft;
      And if dark clouds do muff the sky,
      Then foul and cattle oft will die.'"

    "Mists or hoar frosts on the tenth of March betokens (_sic_) a
    plentiful year, but not without some diseases."

    "If, in the fall of the leaf in October, many of them wither on the
    bows, and hang there, it betokens a frosty winter and much snow."

Under "The Signs of Rain in Creatures" we have the following:

    "When the hern or bitron flies low, the air is gross, and thickening
    into showers."

    "The froggs much croaking in ditches and pools, &c., in the evening,
    foretells rain in little time to follow: also, the sweating of stone
    pillars or tombs denotes rain."

    "The often doping or diving of water fowl foreshows rain is at hand."

    "The peacock's much crying denotes rain."

There is a list given of Lucky Days, which contains all the red letter
saints' days of the Reformed English kalendar. We are also informed that
there are other days in each month which "are successful enough." Thus--

 "In January there are three, viz. 16. 18. 26.
  In February there are four, viz. 10. 19. 27. 28.
  In March there are two, viz. 14. 18.
  In April there are three, viz. 13. 22. 27.
  In May there are five, viz. 3. 5. 7. 11. 19.
  In June there are four, viz. 10. 17. 20. 27.
  In July there are six, viz. 1. 13. 19. 21. 27. 30.
  In August there are three, viz. 3. 7. 9.
  In September there are five, viz. 4. 8. 11. 15. 19.
  In October there are three, viz. 1. 8. 13.
  In November there are four, viz. 3. 9. 11. 15.
  In December there are three, viz. 9. 13. 17."


Bottesford, Messingham, Kirton-in-Lindsey.

       *       *       *       *       *


    "If any person be advanced into an office or dignity of publique
    administration, be it eyther ecclesiasticall, martiall, or ciuill: so
    that the same office comprehendeth in it _dignitatem vel dignitatis
    titulum_, either dignitie or (at the least) a title of dignitye: the
    Heralde must not refuse to devise to such a publique person, upon his
    instant request and willingnes to beare the same without reproche, a
    coate of armes: and thenceforth to matriculate him, with his {51}
    intermarriages, and issues descending, in the register of the Gentle
    and Noble."

Thus wrote Sir John Ferne in _The Blazon of Gentrie_, printed in the year
1586. So also Coates, in his additions to Gwillim, writing in 1724, says:

    "For though arms, in their first acceptation, were (as is shewed) taken
    up at any gentleman's pleasure, yet hath that liberty for many ages
    been deny'd, and they, by regal authority, made the rewards and ensigns
    of merit, &c., the gracious favours of princes; no one being, by the
    law of gentility in England, allowed the bearing thereof, but those
    that either have them by descent, or grant, or purchase from the body
    or badge of any prisoner they in open and lawful war had taken."

He proceeds to adduce various authorities on this subject, for which I
would refer to the Introduction to the last edition of Gwillim's
_Heraldry_, p. 16. &c.

Porny defines _assumptive arms_ to be--

    "Such as are taken up by the caprice or fancy of _upstarts_, who, being
    advanced to a degree of fortune, assume them without having deserved
    them by any glorious action. This, indeed (he adds), is _great abuse of
    heraldry_; but yet so common, and so much tolerated, almost everywhere,
    that little or no notice is taken of it."

This was written in 1765. Archdeacon Nares, in his very amusing _Heraldic
Anomalies_, printed in 1823, says:

    "At present, _similarity of name_ is quite enough to lead any man to
    conclude himself to be a branch of some very ancient or noble stock,
    and, if occasion arise, to assume the arms appropriate to such
    families, without any appeal to the Heralds' office; nor would any
    _Alderman Gathergrease_, living in affluence, be without such marks and
    symbols on his plate, seals, carriages, &c., with no higher authority,
    perhaps, than his own fancy and conceit."

It must be confessed that the middle of the nineteenth century offers the
most ample facilities for the would-be aristocrats of the age, and _that_
without troubling Sir Charles Young or the College of Arms; witness the
following advertisement cut from a newspaper of the day:--

    "THE FAMILY LIVERY.--Arms and Crests correctly ascertained, and in any
    case a steel die expressly cut for the buttons, free of cost," &c.

There can, indeed, be no doubt that this foolish practice of assuming arms
without right has of late years grown to an absurd height; and I fear the
assumption is by no means confined to persons who have risen by trade, or
by some lucky speculation in railways &c.; even those who have been
"_advanced into an office or dignity of publique administration_" have but
seldom made their "_instant request_" to the heralds "_to devise a coate of
armes to be borne by them without reproch_."

The episcopal bench, in particular, are very generally faulty in this
respect, and, for the greater part, content themselves (if not by birth
entitled to bear arms) by assuming the coat of some old-established family
of the same, or _nearly the same_, name. In the case of temporal peerages,
which are not seldom, thanks to the ancient constitution of England,
renovated from the middle and lower classes, the practice is more in
accordance with the precepts of _The Blazon of Gentrie_; but I believe
there is at least _one instance_, that of a lawyer of the greatest
eminence, who was last year advanced to a peerage, and to the highest rank
in his profession, who has assumed both arms and supporters without the
fiat of the College of Arms. The "novi homines" of a former age set a
better example to those of the present day, and were not ashamed to go
honestly to the proper office and take out their patent of arms, thus
"founding a family" who have a _right_ to the ensigns of honour which they


       *       *       *       *       *


The following document, in connexion with the trial between Morlee and
Lovell, in the Court of Chivalry, will probably interest your heraldic


    Ceste indentur tesmoyne q' mos^r Joh[=n] de Cobeh[=m] s^r de Cobeh[=m]
    ad baille [p=] assent de les sires de Morlee et Louel dys lib' de bone
    moneye amest' Joh[=n] Barnet, cest assau' cent south p^r le un [p=]tye
    et cent south p^r lautre [p=]tye acause q' mesme le dit mestre Joh[=n]
    et mest' Will[=m] Dawode et mest' Will[=m] Sondeye serrount assessours
    sur la matire pendaunt [p=]entre les deux syngn' susdite p^r leur armes
    en le Court de Chiualerie. En tesmoynaunce de quel payment a ycestes
    endentur lez [p=]tyes susditez entrechaungeablement ount mys lours

    Don a Loundres le xx iu^r de Feu'er lan du rengne le Roy Richard
    secounde quinzisme.

    [In dorso.]

    Lendentur de x li paye a mest' Joh[=n] Barnet p^r Morlee et Louel.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Shakspeare Emendations._--As this is the age of Shakspeare emendations, I
beg to propose the following for the consideration of the numerous readers
of "N. & Q." I am the more emboldened to do so, as I find several marginal
corrections made from time to time are verified by the manuscript
corrections in MR. COLLIER'S folio of 1632. These proposed are not,
however, there, or I would not have troubled you, though it is many months
since I first altered the reading of my copy. {52}

_Taming of the Shrew,_ Act V. Sc. 2.--On the exit of Katharina to "fetch"
in the disobedient wives, Lucentio remarks:

 "_Luc._ Here is a wonder, if you talk of a wonder.

  _Hort._ And so it is. I wonder what it bodes.

  _Pet._ Marry, peace it bodes, and love, and quiet life,
  _An awful_ rule, and right supremacy;
  And, to be short, what not that's sweet and happy."

For "an awful rule" I propose to substitute _and lawful rule_, as agreeing
better with the text and context; indeed, the whole passage indicates it.
Petruchio means that the change in Katharina's temper and conduct bodes
love, peace, law, and order, in contradistinction to awe or fear. The
repetition of the conjunction _and_ also makes the harmony of the language
more equal; "and love, and quiet life, and lawful rule, and right
supremacy," rings evenly to the ear. Considering the number and character
of the emendations in MR. COLLIER'S volume, I have the less hesitation in
proposing this one. The language of Shakspeare is, as we know it, for the
most part so clear, harmonious, distinct, and forcible, that I think we are
justified in considering any obscure, inconsistent, or harsh passage, as
having met with some mishap either in hearing, transcribing, or in
printing. Some months ago, and certainly before MR. COLLIER'S volume of
corrections appeared, I forwarded to "N. & Q." (it never appeared) a
correction from _Antony and Cleopatra_, Act V. Sc. 2., where Cleopatra,
contemplating suicide, says it is--

 "To do that thing that ends all other deeds,
  Which shackles accidents, and bolts up change;
  Which sleeps, and never palates more the dung.
  The beggar's nurse and Cæsar's."

The word "dung" ending the third line, was so evidently _dug_, or nipple,
that I thought no man to whom it was pointed out could have a doubt about
it. MR. COLLIER remarks in his recent volume, "This emendation may, or may
not, have been conjectural, but we may be pretty sure it is right." I doubt
if MR. COLLIER would have accepted any authority other than that of his own
folio, although Shakspeare has frequently used the word _dug_ as a synonym
for nipple, as see _Romeo and Juliet_, Act I. Sc. 3.:

 "_Nurse._ And she was wean'd,--I never shall forget it,--
  Of all the days of the year, upon that day:
  For I had then laid wormwood to my dug.
    .    .    .    .    .    .
                      --but, as I said,
  When it did taste the wormwood on the nipple
  Of my dug, and felt it bitter, pretty fool,
  To see it tetchy, and fall out with the dug!"

This quotation proves clearly, I consider, that dug was meant by Cleopatra,
and not _dung_; and so I considered before the old manuscript correction of
MR. COLLIER'S appeared. The words "an awful" are as clearly to my mind _and
lawful_. I doubt, however, if they will be so acknowledged, as the use of
the words "an awful," it may be contended, are countenanced by other
passages in Shakspeare; I quote the following.

_Two Gentlemen of Verona_, Act IV. Sc. I.--

 "_3rd Outlaw._ Know then, that some of us are gentlemen,
  Such as the fury of ungovern'd youth
  Thrust from the company of _awful_ men."

The word "awful" is surely, in this place, _lawful_; an outlaw would be
little inclined to consider men as "awful," but the contrary. Read the last
line as under--

 "Thrust from the company of _lawful_ men,"

and the meaning is simple and clear. The outlaws were thrust from the
company of _lawful men_, that is, men who obeyed the laws they had broken
in "the fury of ungovern'd youth."

In _King Richard II._, Act III. Sc. 3., the following use of the words
_lawful_ and _awful_ occurs:

 "_K. Rich._ We are amazed; and thus long have we stood
  To watch the fearful bending of thy knee,
                      [_To Northumberland._
  Because we thought ourself thy lawful king;
  And if we be, how dare thy joints forget
  To pay their awful duty to our presence?"

The meaning in this case is no doubt clear enough, and the words "awful
duty" may be the right ones; but had they stood _lawful duty_ in any old
copy, he should have been a bold man who would have proposed to substitute
_awful_ for _lawful_.

_Second Part of King Henry IV._, Act IV. Sc. 1.--

 "_Arch._ To us, and to our purposes, confin'd:
  We come within our _awful_ banks again,
  And knit our powers to the arm of peace."

The use of the word "awful" in this passage may be right, but, as in the
preceding case, I think, had _lawful banks_ stood in any old printed copy,
or had it even been found in MR. COLLIER'S volume, the fitness would have
been acknowledged.

Shakspeare used the word "lawful" in many instances where, no doubt, it may
with reason, strong as any given here, be changed to _awful_. In the
historical plays, _lawful_ king, _lawful_ progeny, _lawful_ heir, _lawful_
magistrate, _lawful_ earth, _lawful_ sword, &c., may be found. These
suggestions, like the pinch of sand thrown on the old woman's cow, if they
do no good, will, I trust, do no harm.


_Shakspeare._--A German writer, Professor Hilgers, of Aix-la-Chapelle,
published in 1852 a pamphlet, in which he endeavoured to prove that many
passages in Shakspeare, which were originally written in verse, have been
"degraded" into prose, and quotes several passages from the plays {53} in
support of his thesis. Professor Hilgers says that emendation of the text,
by means of such a mode of correction as would restore the corrupted verses
to their original form, has hitherto been almost entirely neglected by
commentators, or else employed by them with very little ability and
success. I have not seen the Professor's Treatise, and only write from a
short notice which I have just perused of it in a German review; but, if
what Professor H. states be correct, the subject appears to deserve more
particular attention from the writers in the "N. & Q.," who have devoted
their ingenuity and research to the illustration of Shakspeare. In the hope
of attracting them to "fresh fields and pastures new," in which to recreate
themselves, and to instruct and delight the world-wide readers of the great
dramatist, I venture to solicit attention to Professor Hilger's pamphlet
and its subject. In this I only echo the German reviewer's language, who
most highly praises the Professor's acuteness, and the value of his
strictures, and promises to return to them at greater length in a future
number of the periodical in which he writes.



       *       *       *       *       *


I have thought that the following old letter, from a retired lawyer of the
seventeenth century to his future son-in-law, might not be altogether
uninteresting to your readers, as referring to the value of land and money
at the period when it was written.

C. W. B.

    July y^e 16^{th}, (16)95.


    Since you are pleased to demand my opinion concerning your intended
    purchase, I shall give you it as well as I can upon so short a warning.
    You say, if lett, you suppose it was worth a 130l. per ann[=u]. I
    cannot tell by your letter whether the mills, lett at 20l. per ann[=u],
    are a part of y^e 130l.: if it be, I think 2600l. a great price, being
    much above twenty years' purchase, considering the lord's rent. But if
    they are not included in that sum, 'tis a good twenty years' purchase.
    Now you must consider what returne this will make for your money. I am
    sure, as times goe, not three per cent; and money makes full five, and
    very seldom, if ever, pays taxes. I believe it may be very convenient
    for you, and it is very advantageous to be entire; but if you should
    contract a debt to buy this estate you will be very uneasy, and, if you
    marry, the first setting out will be expensive, and it will be ill
    taking up money to defray necessary charges. I conceive the land is in
    hand, and not lett; so that, if you have not a tenant, you must be at
    the expence of stocking, w^{ch} will sett very hard upon you. And you
    know, w^n your sister marrys, there is a 1000 pounds more to be
    provided. Pray putt all these things together, and propose some way of
    solving all these difficultys; and, if you can, I should be glad to
    have it annexed to your estate, and settled upon the heirs male of your
    body. Upon w^{ch} consideration I shall be more inclined to farther
    your desires in a reasonable manner.

    Pray, w^n you hear any more of that co[=u]selor's amours send me word,
    but lett me advise you never to say anything of him or his estate that
    may come to the lady's ears. I hope my Lady Morton will not tell M^{rs}
    Tregonell any more than what all the world should know. I heard the K^t
    had bid adieu to the Woodland Lady. I am very glad of it, for I wish
    him better ffortune. I writt lately to S^r John, who honoured me with a
    letter. As for public news, you have heard, I suppose, of our burning
    St. Malos and Grandvile; and that wee have left a great many of our men
    before Namur, but they continue the siege vigorously. They say the
    ffrench are about to sett downe before Dixmude, to bring us of by
    revultion. Pray p^rsent mine and my daughter's service to your sister,
    and believe me to be, S^r, your affectionate kinsman and servant


    Remember, at this time there is a great deal of land to be sold, but
    few purchasers. I have spooke to S^r Miles Cooke, who promises to lett
    me have your settlement to peruse, and to end matters fairly. Since I
    writt my letter 'tis reported ... is surrendered or taken.

      These ffor Richard Bingh[=a], Esq., at
      Bingham's Malcombe, to be left at
      the post-house in St. Andrew's,
      Milborne, Dorsett.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Lines on the Institution of the Order of the Garter._--I send you the
following, which may be worth a corner in "N. & Q." The only account I can
give of them is that I found them in MS. among other poetical extracts,
without date or author's name:--

 "When Salisbury's famed Countess was dancing with glee,
  Her stocking's security fell from her knee.
  Allusions and hints, sneers and whispers went round;
  The trifle was scouted, and left on the ground.
  When Edward the Brave, with true soldier-like spirit,
  Cried, 'The garter is mine; 'tis the order of merit;
  The first knight in my court shall be happy to wear,
  Proud distinction! the garter that fell from the fair:
  While in letters of gold--'tis your monarch's high will--
  Shall there be inscribed, "Ill to him that thinks ill."'"



_Old Ship._--It may be of interest to some of your readers to learn that
the ship which conveyed General Wolfe on his expedition to Quebec is still
afloat under the name of the "William and Ann."

She was built in 1759 for a bomb-ketch, and was in dock in the Thames a few
days since, sound and likely to endure for many years yet: she is mostly
now engaged in the Honduras and African timber trades, which is in itself a
proof of her great strength.

A. O. H.


_The Letter "h" in "humble."_--I was always taught in my childhood to sink
the _h_ in this word, and was confirmed in this habit by the usage of all
the well-educated people that I met in those days, as also by the authority
of every pronouncing dictionary in the English language: and to this day
hear many people quite as well educated, and of as high station in all but
literary society, as Mr. Dickens, use the same pronunciation; but this
eminent writer has thought fit of late to proscribe this practice as far as
in him lies, by making it the Shibboleth of two of the meanest and vilest
characters in his works. I should like to know whether the aspiration of
this letter is due to Mr. D.'s London birth and residence, or whether it
has become of late the general usage of good society. If the latter, it is
clear that a new edition of _Walker_ is required for the benefit of such as
have no wish to be confounded with the "Heeps."

Your late Numbers have given some curious instances of Cockney and other
rhymes. I am sorry to see that the offensive _r_ not only appears to be
gaining ground in poetry, but also in the mouths of many whose station and
education might have been supposed to preserve them from this vulgarism. If
the masters of our great schools took as much pains with their pupils'
pronunciation of English, as with that of Latin and Greek, we should hear
less of this.


_"The Angels' Whisper."_--The admirers of that popular song will be
surprised to find that there prevails in India a tradition very similar to
the one on which that song is founded.

The other day our Hindoo nurse was watching our baby asleep, and noticing
that it frequently smiled, said, "God is talking to it!" The tradition, as
elicited from this woman, seems to be here, that when a child smiles in its
sleep, God is saying something pleasing to it; but when it cries, He is
talking to it of sorrow.

J. C. B.


_Pronunciation of Coke_ (Vol. vii., p. 586.).--Probably the under-mentioned
particulars may tend to elucidate the Query discussed in your paper
touching the pronunciation of Chief Justice Coke's surname in his
Lordship's time.

In numerous original family "Coke documents" in my possession, amongst
which are a most spirited and highly interesting letter written by the
celebrated Lady Elizabeth Hatton[1], Sir Edward Coke's widow, quite in
character with her ladyship, shortly after her husband's death; and
likewise several letters written by his children and grandchildren; Sir
Edward's surname is invariably spelt Coke, whilst in other his family
documents[2] and public precepts I possess, the latter of which came under
the eye of Lords Keepers Coventry and Littleton, Sir Edward's name is, in
nine cases out of ten in five hundred instances, spelt _Cooke_ and _Cook_;
thus, I submit, raising an almost irresistible presumption that, however
the Chief Justice's surname was written, it was pronounced _Cook_ and not



[Footnote 1: Her surname is so written.]

[Footnote 2: Some of them of so early a date as the year 1600, when Sir
Edward was Attorney-General to Queen Elizabeth.]

_The Advice supposed to have been given to Julius III._--The _Consilium_,
sometimes and inadvertently called a _Council_, addressed to Julius III.,
Pope of Rome, by certain prelates, has just been once more quoted, for the
fiftieth time, perhaps, within the present generation, as a genuine
document, and as proceeding from adherents of the Church of Rome. This
re-quotation appears in an otherwise useful little volume of the Religious
Tract Society, entitled _The Bible in many Tongues_, p. 96.; and it may
tend to check the use made of the supposed Advice or Council to state, what
a perusal either of the original in Brown's _Fasciculus Rerum Expetend. et
Fugiend._, or of a translation in Gibson's _Preservative_ (vol. i. pp. 183.
191., ed. 1848), will soon make evident, that the document in question is a
piece of banter, and must be attributed to the pen of P. P. Vergerio, in
whose _Works_ it is in fact included, in the single volume published
Tubing. 1563, fol. 94--104.

So frequently has this supposed Advice been cited as a _serious_ affair,
that the pages of "N. & Q." may be well employed in endeavouring to stop
the somewhat perverse use of a friendly weapon.


       *       *       *       *       *



It is probable that others of your readers besides myself have had good
reason to complain that Dr. Maitland has cruelly raised the price of this
little book to a bibliomaniacal height, by his inimitable description of
its curious contents and history. (_Essays on Subjects connected with the
Reformation_, xvii. xviii. xix.)


Some of the things which seem to be indubitable respecting the original
work are these:--1. That it was first printed in 1535. 2. That,
consequently, Bishop Burnet (_Hist. of Ref._, Part I. b. iii. p. 166.:
Dublin, 1730) was mistaken in representing it as having been written in
reply to Cardinal Pole. 3. That there _was_ an octavo edition published at
Strasburg in 1536, and that Goldastus followed it. 4. That there was an
additional reprint of the tract at London in 1603. (Schelhornii, _Amoen.
Hist. Eccles._, tom. i. pp. 15. 849.) But I am anxious to make three
inquiries relative to this really important document and its fictitious

1. The Roane volume, certainly the earliest in English, professes to have
been printed by "Michal Wood" in 1553. Can we not determine the place of
its origin by the recollection of the fact, that Bishop Bale's _Mysterye of
Iniquyte, or Confutation of Ponce Pantolabus_, was printed at _Geneva_ by
"Mychael Woode" in 1545?

2. With regard to the typographical achievements of the Brocards, is it not
rather an _apropos_ circumstance, that "Biliosus Balæus," as Fuller calls
him, was the author of a _Historia Divi Brocardi_? (Ware's _Works_, ii.

3. May not Bale (or _Baal_, according to Pits) be suspected to have been
the composer of the Bonnerian Preface? He might have reckoned it among the
many _Facetias et Jocos_ which he declares that he had put forth. It is
observable that, while the writer of this Preface designates Bishop
Gardiner as the "common cutthrot of Englande," the same title is bestowed
upon Bonner in the Foxian Letter addressed to him by "an unknown person"
(Strype's _Memor._ iii., Catal. p. 161.: London, 1721), and which, from
internal evidence taken from the part relating to Philpot, must be referred
to the year 1555. The style of these performances is similar; and let "gaie
Gardiner, blow-bole Boner, trusti Tonstal, and slow-bellie Samson" of the
Preface be compared with "glorious Gardiner, blow-bolle Bonner, tottering
Tunstal, wagtaile Weston, and carted Chicken." (Bale's _Declaration of
Bonner's Articles_, fol. 90. b., London, 1561.)

R. G.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Lord Byron._--What relation to the poet was the Lord Byron mentioned in
the _Apology for the Life of George Ann Bellamy_?



_Curious Custom of ringing Bells for the Dead._--In Marshfield,
Massachusets, it has been customary for a very long period to ring the bell
of the parish church most violently for eight or ten minutes, whenever a
death occurs in the village; then to strike it slowly three times three,
which makes known to the inhabitants that a man or boy has expired, and
finally to toll it the number of times that the deceased had numbered years
of existence.

The first settlers of Marshfield having been Englishmen, may I ask if this
custom ever did, or does now, exist in the mother country?

W. W.


_Unpublished Essay by Lamb._--Coleridge is represented in his _Table Talk_
(p. 253. ed. 1836), to have said that "Charles Lamb wrote an essay on a
man, who had lived in past time." The editor in a note tells us he knows
"not when or where." I do not find it in the edition of his works published
in 1846, nor have I been able to discover it in any of the journals, to
which he contributed, that have fallen in my way. Have any of your
correspondents met with it?


_Peculiar Ornament in Crosthwaite Church._--On lately visiting Crosthwaite
Church, Cumberland, I was exceedingly struck with the great peculiarity of
a carving, pointed out to me by the sexton, on the left jambs of all the
windows in the north and south aisles, both inside and out. It is in the
form of a circle with eight radiations, and always occurs about half-way
between the shoulder of the arch and the sill. During the late restoration
of the church, it has been covered with plaster in every case in the
interior, save one in the north aisle, which is left very distinct. It does
not appear on any of the windows at the east end or in the tower. I noticed
a similar figure over the stone door-way of the old inn at Threlkeld, with
the letters C G inscribed on one side, and the date 1688 on the other. The
sexton said, he had never been able to obtain any intelligence as to its
symbolical meaning or history, although he had inquired of nearly every one
who had been to see the church. Can any of your correspondents throw a
light upon the subject?


_Cromwell's Portrait._--In the _Annual Register_, 1773, "Characters," p.
77.; in Hughes's _Letters_, ii. 308.; in _Gent. Mag._, xxxv. 357.; and in
Noble's _House of Cromwell_, i. 307., is a statement, originally made by
Mr. Say, of Lowestoft, in his account of Mrs. Bridget Bendish, importing
that the best picture of Oliver which the writer had ever seen, was at
Rosehall (Beccles), in the possession of Sir Robert Rich. Where is this
portrait? Has it ever been engraved?

S. W. RIX.


_Governor Brooks_, about a century since, was governor of one of the West
India Islands. I have heard Cuba named as his government; and it might have
been that, the short time Cuba was in {56} the possession of the English,
he was governor of it; but I am uncertain. If any correspondent, versed in
West Indian affairs, can give me any particulars of the family and
antecedents of the above, or any reference to his services (for I suppose
him to have been a military man), it will great oblige


_Old Books._--I notice some of your correspondents, having fancied that
they have picked up at some old book-stall an invaluable treasure, are
coolly told by others more learned, "It would be a bad exchange for a
shilling;" and, again, "If it cost three shillings and sixpence, the
purchaser was most unfortunate."

May I ask the value of the following? They came into possession of my
family about thirty years ago:

    "Epitome Thesauri antiquitatum hoc est Impp. Rom. orientalium et
    occidentalium Iconum ex antiquis numismatibus quam fidelissime

    "Ex Musæo Jacobi de Strada Mantuani Antiquatum.

    "Lugduni, apud Jacobum de Strada et Thomam Guercinum, MDLIII. (1553).
    Cum Privilegio Regio."

Handsomely got up; gilt edges, pp. 339. Also,

    "Sommario delle vite de gl'Imperiatore Romani da C. Giolio Cesare sino
    a Ferdinando II., con le loro effigie Causte dalle Medaglie: In Roma
    apresso, Lodovico Grignani, MDCXXXVII, pp. 80."


_The Privileges of the See of Canterbury._--I find preserved by William of
Malmsbury, in his _Chronicle_, book iii., the following letter from Pope
Boniface to Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury, respecting the privileges of
his see:

    "Far be it from every Christian, that anything concerning the city of
    Canterbury be diminished or changed, in present or _future times_,
    which was appointed by our predecessor Pope Gregory, _however human
    circumstances may be changed_: but more especially by the authority of
    St. Peter, the chief of the Apostles, we command and ordain, that the
    city of Canterbury _shall ever hereafter be esteemed the Metropolitan
    See_ of all Britain; and we decree and appoint _immutably_, that all
    the provinces of the kingdom of England shall be subject to the
    Metropolitan Church of the aforesaid See. And if any one attempt to
    injure this church, which is more especially under the power and
    protection of the Holy Roman Church, or to lessen the jurisdiction
    conceded to it, may GOD expunge him from the book of life; and let him
    know that he is bound by the sentence of a curse."

How can the expressions I have Italicised be reconciled with the creation
of the Archiepiscopal See of Westminster?



_Heraldic Colour pertaining to Ireland._--There occurs in the _Dublin
University Magazine_ for October, 1852, an article entitled "A Night in the
Fine Arts' Court of our National Exhibition," and at the conclusion a
"Note," in which I find the following remarks:--

    "This last (the figure of Erin), as described, is purely ideal, but
    legitimately brought in, as Hogan's figure of 'Hibernia' occupied a
    position in the Fine Arts' Court, and suggested it. It may be as well
    to add that Erin is described as wearing a _blue_ mantle, as blue, not
    green, is the heraldic colour pertaining to Ireland now."

May I inquire at what time, and under what circumstances, blue was
substituted for the old favourite green?


St. Lucia.

_Descendants of Judas Iscariot._--In Southey's _Omniana_ is the following:

    "It was believed in Pier della Valle's time that the descendants of
    Judas still existed at Corfu, though the persons who suffered this
    imputation stoutly denied the truth of the genealogy."

Is anything farther to be met with on this curious subject?


_Parish Clerks and Politics._--In _Twenty-six Psalms of Thanksgiving and
Praise, Love and Glory, for the use of a Parish Church_ (Exon., And. Brice,
1725), the rector (who compiled it), among other reasons for omitting all
the _imprecatory_ Psalms, says,--

    "Lest a parish clerk, or any other, should be whetting his _spleen_, or
    obliging his _spite_, when he should be entertaining his devotion."

That such practices were indulged in, we have the farther evidence of
Bramston the satirist:

 "Not long since _parish clerks_, with saucy airs,
  Apply'd _King David's Psalms_ to _state-affairs_."[3]

Can any readers of "N. & Q." point out examples of such misapplication?

J. O.

[Footnote 3: _The Art of Politicks, in imitation of Horace_, 1729, with a
hybrid portrait of Heidegger, the _arbit. elegant._ of his day.]

"_Virgin Wife and widowed Maid._"--Whence come the words "Virgin wife and
widow'd maid," quoted, apparently, by Liddell and Scott in their Greek
Lexicon, s.v. [Greek: aparthenos], as a rendering or illustration of Hec.

 "[Greek: Numphên t' anumphon, parthenon t' aparthenon]."


"_Cutting off the little heads of light._"--Perhaps you or one of your
correspondents would help me to the whereabouts of some thoughtful lines
which I recently came across, in a volume which I accidentally took up, but
the name of which has completely skipped my memory.


The lines referred to typified Tyranny under the form of the man who puts
out the gas-lights at dawn: "Cutting off the little heads of light which
lit the world." I am not sure of the rhythm, and so have put the lines like
prose; but they wind up with a fine analogy of the sun in all its glory
bursting on the earth, and putting the proceedings of the light
extinguisher utterly to nought.

A. B. R.

_Medal of Sir Robert Walpole._--On a brass medal, without date, rather
larger than half a crown, are these effigies.

On one side the devil, horned and tailed proper, with a fork in his right
hand, and marching with a very triumphant step, is conducting a courtier in
full dress (no doubt meant for Walpole), by a rope round his neck, into the
open jaws of a monster, which represent the entrance to the place of
punishment. Out of the devil's mouth issues a label with the words, "Make
room for Sir Robert." Underneath, "No Excise."

On the reverse are the figures of two naval officers, with the legend, "The
British Glory revived by Admiral Vernon and Commodore Brown." This refers
of course to the taking of Porto Bello in November, 1739.

Is this piece one of rarity and value?


_La Fête des Chaudrons._--In the exhibition of pictures in the British
Institution is one (No. 17.) by Teniers, entitled "La Fête des Chaudrons."
In what publication can the description of this fête, or fair, be found?

C. I. R.

_Who first thought of Table-turning?_--Whilst the people are amusing
themselves, and the learned are puzzling themselves, on the subject of
table-turning, would you have any objection to answer the following Query?

Who first thought of table-turning? and whence has it suddenly risen to

J. G. T.


_College Guide._--Will some of your correspondents kindly inform a father,
who is looking forward to his boys going to college, in what work he will
find the fullest particulars respecting scholarships and exhibitions at the
different colleges in both universities? Querist is in possession of
Gilbert's _Liber Scholasticus_ (1843), the _Family Almanack_ for 1852, and,
of course, the _University Calendars_.

S. S. S.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Done Pedigree._--A very old MS. pedigree of the family of Done of
Utkington, in the county before me, connects with that family no less than
twenty-three Cheshire families of distinction, viz. Cholmondeley, Egerton,
Wilbraham, Booth, Arden, Leicester, and seventeen others. Now, as it
appears by your note on the communication of a correspondent (Vol. vi., p.
273.), that there exists a pedigree of the family of Done, of Utkington, in
the British Museum, Additional MS. No. 5836. pp. 180. and 186., perhaps you
will be good enough to say whether that pedigree discloses the extensive
Cheshire family connexion with the Done family above noticed.



    [The following families connected with Done of Utkington occur in the
    pedigree (Add. MS. 5836. p. 186.) "Richard de Kingsley, A.D. 1233;
    Venables, Swinerton, Peter de Thornton, Lord Audley, Dutton, Aston,
    Gerrard, Wilbraham, Manwaring, Eliz. Trafford, widow of Geo. Booth of
    Dunham, Ralph Legh of High Legh, Davenport Thomas Stanley de Alderley,
    Thomas Wagstaff of Tachbroke, and Devereux Knightley of Fawsley." This
    pedigree was copied by Cole from an old MS. book of pedigrees formerly
    belonging to Sir John Crew. See also Ormerod's _Cheshire_, vol. ii. p.
    133., for a pedigree of Done of Utkington, Flax-Yards, and Duddon,
    compiled from inquisitions _post mortem_, the parochial registers, and
    the Visitations of 1580 and 1664.]

_Scotch Newspapers, &c._--What are the earliest publications of Scotland
giving an account of the current events of that kingdom?

T. F.

    [_The Edinburgh Gazette, or Scotch Postman_, printed by Robert Brown on
    Tuesdays and Thursdays, appears to have been the earliest gazette. The
    first Number was published in March, 1715. This was followed by _The
    Edinburgh Evening Courant_, published on Mondays, Tuesdays, and
    Thursdays. No. 1. appeared on the 15th December, 1718, and has existed
    to the present time. There was another paper issued on May 8, 1692,
    called _The Scotch Mercury_, giving a true account of the daily
    proceedings and most remarkable public occurrences in Scotland; but
    this seems to have been printed in London for R. Baldwin. The earliest
    _Almanack_ published in Scotland was in 1677, by Mr. Forbes of
    Aberdeen, under the title of _A New Prognostication, calculated for
    North Britain_, and which was continued until the year 1700.]

_Dictum de Kenilworth._--Said to have passed anno 1266. What was the nature
of it?


    [It is a declaration of the parliament of Henry III., containing the
    terms on which the king was to grant a general pardon to the
    malcontents of Ely, namely, that all who took arms against the king
    should pay him the value of their lands, some for five years, others
    for three and for one. A copy of it is in the Cottonian Library,
    Claudius, D. ii., 119. b., and in Tyrrel's _Hist. of England_, p.

_Dr. Harwood._--Can you tell me in what year the Rev. Dr. Harwood of
Lichfield, author of a History of that city, and other works, died? I {58}
believe it was about 1849; but I have not been able to ascertain the exact

A. Z.

    [Dr. Harwood died 23rd December, 1842, aged 75. For a biographical
    notice of him, see _Gent. Mag._ for February, 1843, p. 202.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vii., p. 536.)

I have been travelling so much about in the country since I left England,
that I have not always the opportunity of seeing your "N. & Q." until long
after the publication of the different Numbers. I have in this way seen
some Queries put to me about matters connected with the history of the
Danish settlements in England. But as I have had no particular information
to give, I have not thought it worth while to write to say that I know
nothing of any great consequence.

Just when I left Copenhagen, some days ago, a friend of mine showed me that
MR. TAYLOR, of Ormesby in Norfolk, asked some questions regarding the
Danish names of places in Norfolk.

In answer to them I beg to state, that all the names terminating in _-by_
unquestionably are of Danish origin. MR. TAYLOR is perfectly right in
supposing that several of these names of places contain the names of the
old Danish conquerors. But I do not think that Ormesby originally has been
Gormsby. Gorm certainly is the same as Guthrum; but both of these names are
distinctly different from the name "Orme" or "Orm," which, in our old
language, signifies a serpent, and also a worm. (The famous ship, on board
of which King Olaf Tryggveson was killed in the year 1000, was called
"Ormen hin lange," _i.e._ the long serpent.) I have observed that several
English families (undoubtedly of old Scandinavian descent) at this day have
the family-name "Orm" or "Orme."

Among the other names of places quoted by MR. TAYLOR, Rollesby most
probably must be derived from the name "Rollo" or "Rolf;" but I regard the
origin of the other names as being much more doubtful. If we had the
original forms of these names, it might have been easier to decide upon it.
As the names are now, I do not see anything purely Scandinavian in them,
except the termination _-by_. It is not at all unlikely that the name Ashby
or Askeby might have been called so from "Ash-trees" (Danish "Ask eller
Esk"), but I dare not venture into conjectures of this kind.

I should be very happy if I in any other way could be of any service to MR.
TAYLOR in his researches about the Danish settlements in East Anglia. His
remarks upon the situation of the villages with Danish names are most
interesting and instructive. I always sincerely wish that inhabitants of
the different old Danish districts in the North and East of England would,
in the same way, take up the question about the Danish influence, as I feel
fully convinced that very remarkable and important elucidations might be
gained to the history of England during a long and hitherto very little
known period.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 620.; Vol. viii., p. 45.)

Having been so frequently benefited by the instruction, especially
photographic, issuing from your most useful periodical, I feel myself
almost bound to contribute my mite of information whenever I may chance to
have the power of doing so; consequently, should you not get a better
method of assisting MR. F. M. MIDDLETON out of his difficulty of softening
old paint, as describe in the "N. & Q.," No. 191., I beg to offer him the
following, and from experience I can vouch for its certainty of leading him
to the desired result.

Some years since, having had occasion to enter a lumber-room of an old
building, I was struck with the antiquated appearance of an arm-chair,
which had, in days long gone by, been daubed over with a dirty bluish
paint. Finding, on inquiry, that its owner set no particular value on it, I
met with but little difficulty in inducing him to make an exchange with me
for a good mahogany one. Soon after its being brought into my house, one of
my domestics discovered that it positively swarmed with a species of lice,
issuing from innumerable minute worm-holes and crevices, which of course
rendered it in its present state worse than useless. Determined not to be
deprived of my prize, I resolved on attempting to rid it of this
troublesome pest by washing it over with a strong solution of caustic soda,
made by mixing some quick-lime with a very strong solution of the common
washing soda (impure carbonate of soda), and pouring off the clear
supernatant liquid for use. This proceeding, much to my satisfaction, not
only succeeded in entirely getting rid of the vermin, but on my servant's
scrubbing the chair with a hard brush and hot soap and water, I found that
the caustic soda had formed a kind of soap, by chemically uniting with the
oil contained in the old paint, thereby reducing it to such a state of
softness, that by a few vigorous applications and soakings of the
above-named solution, and subsequent scrubbings, my new favourite was also
freed from its ugly time-worn jacket of dirty paint, discovering underneath
a beautifully carved and darkly coloured oaken surface.

After being perfectly dried and saturated with linseed oil, it was
frequently well rubbed, and the {59} chair stands to this day, like some of
the valuable discoveries made by the alchemists when in search of the
Elixir Vitæ, or the Philosopher's Stone, an example of a fortunate and
unexpected disclosure made when not directly in search of it. I have since
learnt that a fluid possessing the above-named detergent qualities, is to
be purchased at some of the oil and colour shops, the formula for its
preparation being kept a secret.


Ashburton, Devonshire.

P. S.--In making the solution on a caustic alkali, perhaps I should have
said that the common carbonate of potass of commerce will do as well as the
common carbonate of soda, if not better, from the probability of its making
a stronger solution.

The following recipe for taking paint off old oak is from No. 151. of _The

    "Make a strong solution of American potash (which can be bought at any
    colour-shop, and resembles burnt brick in appearance); mix this with
    sawdust into a kind of paste, and spread it all over the paint, which
    will become softened in a few hours, and is then easily removed by
    washing with cold water. If, after the wood has dried, it becomes
    cracked, apply a solution of hot size with a brush, which will bind it
    well together and make it better for varnishing, as well as destroy the
    beetle which is often met with in old oak, and is erroneously called
    the worm."

The following is also from the same Number:

    "To make dark oak pale in colour, which is sometimes a desideratum,
    apply with a brush a little dilute nitric acid judiciously; and to
    stain light oak dark, use the dregs of black ink and burnt amber mixed.
    It is better to try these plans on oak of little value at first, as, to
    make a good job, requires care, practice, and attention."

H. C. K.

F. M. MIDDLETON will find that American potash, soft soap, and warm water,
will remove paint from oak. The mixture should be applied with a
paint-brush, and allowed to remain on until the paint and it can be removed
by washing with warm water and a hard brush.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 5.)

Your correspondent CHEVERELLS refers to the "tradition" of one of the
Harcourt family being buried in an erect posture, and asks, "Is the
probability of this being the case supported by any, and what instances?"
As this Query has been raised, it may be worth while to mention the
following circumstance, as a singular illustration of a remarkable subject;
though (as will be seen) the actual burial in an erect posture is here also
probably "traditional."

Towards the close of the last century, there lived in Kidderminster an
eccentric person of the name of Orton (_not_ that Orton, the friend of
Doddridge, who passed some time in the town), but "Job Orton," the landlord
of the Bell Inn. During his lifetime he erected his tomb in the parish
churchyard, with this _memento-mori_ inscription graven in large characters
on the upper slab:

 "Job Orton, a man from Leicestershire;
  And when he's dead, he must lie under here."

This inscription remains unaltered to this day, and may be seen on the
right-hand of the broad walk on the north side of the spacious churchyard.
His coffin was constructed at the same time; and, until it should be
required for other and personal purposes, was used as a _wine-bin_. But, to
carry his eccentricity even to the grave, he left strict orders that he
should be buried in an _erect posture_: and "tradition" (of course) says
that his request was complied with. Your correspondent says that tradition
"assigns no reason for the peculiarity" of the Harcourt knight's burial;
but tradition has been more explicit in Job Orton's case, whose _reason_
(?) for his erect posture in the tomb was, that at the last day he might be
able to rise from his grave before his wife, who was buried in the usual
horizontal manner! Job Orton appears to have had a peculiar talent for the
composition of epitaphs; as, in his more playful moments, he was accustomed
to tell his better-half that if he outlived her he should put the following
lines on her tombstone:

 "Esther Orton--a bitter, sour weed;
  God never lov'd her, nor increas'd her seed."

He seems, however, to have spared her this gratuitous insult. As a farther
illustration of the characters of this singular couple, the following
anecdote is told. Esther Orton having frequently declared, that she should
"never die happy until she had rolled in riches," Job, like a good husband,
determined to secure his wife's happiness. Having sold some land for a
thousand pounds, he insisted that the money should be paid wholly in
guineas. Taking these home in a bag, he locked his wife up in a room;
knocked her down, opened his bag of guineas, and raining the golden wealth
upon her, rolled his Danae over and over in the coin. "And now, Esther,"
said Job Orton, "thee mayst die as soon as thee pleases: for thee'st had
thy wish, and _roll'd in riches_."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 557.)

Additional evidence of the fact that lawyers used to carry _green_ bags
towards the end of the {60} seventeenth century, is to be found in the
_Plain Dealer_, a comedy by Wycherley.

One of the principal characters in the play is the Widow Blackacre, a
petulant, litigious woman, always in law, and mother of Jerry Blackacre, "a
true raw squire under age and his mother's government, _bred to the law_."

In Act I. Sc. 1., I find the following stage directions:

    "Enter Widow Blackacre with a mantle and a _green_ bag, and several
    papers in the other hand. Jerry Blackacre, her son, in a gown, laden
    with _green_ bags, following her."

In Act III. Sc. 1. the widow is called impertinent and ignorant by a lawyer
of whom she demands back her fee, on his returning her brief and declining
to plead for her. This draws from her the following reply:

    "Impertinent again and ignorant to me! Gadsbodikins, you puny upstart
    in the law to use me so, you _green bag_ carrier, you murderer of
    unfortunate causes," &c.

Farther on, in the same scene, Freeman, a gentleman well educated, but of a
broken fortune, a complier with the age, thus admonishes Jerry:

    "Come, Squire, let your mother and your trees fall as she pleases,
    rather than wear this gown and carry _green_ bags all thy life, and be
    pointed at for a tony. But you shall be able to deal with her yet the
    common way. Thou shalt make false love to some lawyer's daughter, whose
    father, upon the hopes of thy marrying her, shall lend thee money and
    law to preserve thy estate and trees."

A. W. S.


       *       *       *       *       *


    [By the courtesy of our valued cotemporary _The Athenæum_, we are
    permitted to reprint the following interesting communication, which
    appeared in that journal on Saturday last.]


"Henley Street, July 6.

"Your insertion of the annexed letter from my brother-in-law, Mr. John
Stewart, of Pau, will much oblige me. The utility of this mode of
reproduction seems indisputable. In reference to its concluding paragraph,
I will only add, that the _publication_ of concentrated microscopic
editions of works of reference--maps, atlases, logarithmic tables, or the
concentration for pocket use of private notes and MSS., &c., &c., and
innumerable other similar applications--is brought within the reach of any
one who possesses a small achromatic object-glass of an inch or an inch and
a half in diameter, and a brass tube, with slides before and behind the
lens of a fitting diameter to receive the plate or plates to be operated
upon,--central or nearly central rays only being required. The details are
too obvious to need mention.--I am, &c.


       *       *       *       *       *

"Pau, June 11.

"Dear Herschel.--I sent you some time ago a few small-sized studies of
animals from the life, singly and in flocks, upon collodionised glass. The
great rapidity of exposition required for such subjects, being but the
fraction of a second, together with the very considerable depth and harmony
obtained, gave me reason to hope that ere this I should have been able to
produce microscopic pictures of animated objects. For the present, I have
been interrupted. Meantime, one of my friends here, Mr. Heilmann, following
the same pursuit, has lighted on an ingenious method of taking from glass
negatives positive impressions of different dimensions, and with all the
delicate minuteness which the negative may possess. This discovery is
likely, I think, to extend the resources and the application of
photography,--and with some modifications, which I will explain, to
increase the power of reproduction to an almost unlimited amount. The plan
is as follows:--The negative to be reproduced is placed in a slider at one
end (_a_) of a camera or other box, constructed to exclude the light
throughout. The surface prepared for the reception of the positive--whether
albumen, collodion, or paper--is placed in another slider, as usual, at the
opposite extremity (_c_) of the box, and intermediately between the two
extremities (at _b_) is placed a lens. The negative at _a_ is presented to
the light of the sky, care being taken that no rays enter the box but those
traversing the partly transparent negative. These rays are received and
directed by the lens at _b_ upon the sensitive surface at _c_, and the
impression of the negative is there produced with a rapidity proportioned
to the light admitted, and the sensibility of the surface presented. By
varying the distances between _a_ and _c_, and _c_ and _b_, any dimension
required may be given to the positive impression. Thus, from a medium-sized
negative, I have obtained negatives four times larger than the original,
and other impressions reduced thirty times, capable of figuring on a
watch-glass, brooch, or ring.

"Undoubtedly one of the most interesting and important advantages gained by
this simple arrangement is, the power of varying the dimensions of a
picture or portrait. Collodion giving results of almost microscopic
minuteness, such negatives bear enlarging considerably without any very
perceptible deterioration in that respect. Indeed, as regards portraits,
there is a gain instead of a loss; the power of obtaining good and pleasing
likenesses appears to me decidedly increased, the facility of subsequent
enlargement permitting them to be taken sufficiently small, at a sufficient
distance (and therefore with greater rapidity and certainty) {61} to avoid
all the focal distortion so much complained of,--while the due enlargement
of a portrait taken on glass has the effect, moreover, of depriving it of
that hardness of outline so objectionable in a collodion portrait, giving
it more artistic effect, and this without quitting the perfect focal point
as has been suggested.

"But there are many other advantages obtained by this process. For copying
by engraving, &c. the exact dimension required of any picture may at once
be given to be copied from.

"A very small photographic apparatus can thus be employed when a large one
might be inconvenient or impracticable, the power of reproducing on a
larger scale being always in reserve. Independent of this power of varying
the size, positives so taken of the _same_ dimension as the negative
reproduce, as will be readily understood, much more completely the finer
and more delicate details of the negatives than positives taken by any
other process that I am acquainted with.

"The negative also may be reversed in its position at _a_ so as to produce
upon glass a positive to be seen either upon or under the glass. And while
the rapidity and facility of printing are the same as in the case of
positives taken on paper prepared with the iodide of silver, the negatives,
those on glass particularly, being so easily injured, are much better
preserved, all actual contact with the positive being avoided. For the same
reason, by this process positive impressions can be obtained not only upon
wet paper, &c., but also upon hard inflexible substances, such as
porcelain, ivory, glass, &c.,--and upon this last, the positives being
transparent are applicable to the stereoscope, magic lantern, &c.

"By adopting the following arrangement, this process may be used largely to
increase the power and speed of reproduction with little loss of effect.
From a positive thus obtained, say on collodion, _several hundred_
negatives may be produced either on paper or on albumenised glass. If on
the latter, and the dimension of the original negative is preserved, the
loss in minuteness of detail and harmony is almost imperceptible, and even
when considerably enlarged, is so trifling as in the majority of cases to
prove no objection in comparison with the advantage gained in size, while
in not a few cases, as already stated, the picture actually gains by an
augmentation of size. Thus, by the simultaneous action, if necessary, of
some hundreds of negatives, many thousand impressions of the same picture
may be produced in the course of a day.

"I cannot but think, therefore, that this simple but ingenious discovery
will prove a valuable addition to our stock of photographic manipulatory
processes. It happily turns to account and utilises one of the chief
excellencies of collodion--that extreme minuteness of detail which from its
excess becomes almost a defect at times,--toning it down by increase of
size till the harshness is much diminished, and landscapes, always more or
less unpleasing on collodion from that cause, are rendered somewhat less
dry and crude.

"A very little practice will suffice to show the operator the quality of
glass negatives--I mean as to vigour and development--best adapted for
reproducing positives by this method. He will also find that a great power
of correction is obtained, by which overdone parts in the negative can be
reduced and others brought up. Indeed, in consequence of this and other
advantages, I have little doubt that this process will be very generally
adopted in portrait taking.

"Should your old idea of preserving public records in a concentrated form
on microscopic negatives ever be adopted, the immediate positive
reproduction on an enlarged readable scale, without the possibility of
injury to the plate, will be of service.

"I am, &c. "JOHN STEWART."

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_The Ring Finger_ (Vol. vii., p. 601.).--The Greek Church directs that the
ring be put on the right hand (Schmid, _Liturgik_, iii. 352.: Nassau,
1842); and although the direction of the Sarum _Manual_ is by no means
clear (see Palmer's _Origines Liturgicæ_, ii. 213., ed. 2.), such may have
formerly been the practice in England, since Rastell, in his
counter-challenge to Bishop Jewel, notes it as novelty of the

    "That the man should put the wedding-ring on the fourth finger in the
    left hand of the woman, and not on the right hand, as hath been many
    hundreds of years continued."--Heylyn, _Hist. Ref._, ii. 430. 8vo. ed.

But the practice of the Roman communion in general agrees with that of the
Anglican. (Schmid, iii. 350-2.) Martene quotes from an ancient pontifical
an order that the bridegroom should place the ring successively on three
fingers of the right hand, and then shall leave it on the fourth finger of
the left, in order to mark the difference between the marriage ring, the
symbol of a love which is mixed with carnal affection, and the episcopal
ring, the symbol of entire chastity. (_Mart. de Antiquis Eccl. Ritibus_,
ii. 128., ed. Venet. 1783; Schmid, p. 352.)

J. C. R.

_The Order of St. John of Jerusalem_ (Vol. vii., pp. 407. 628.).--As my old
neighbour R. L. P. dates from the banks of the Lake of Constance, and may
possibly not see W. W.'s communication for some time, I in the meanwhile
take the liberty of informing W. W. that the order of St. John was restored
in England by Queen Mary, and, with other orders revived by her, was again
suppressed by the act 1 Eliz. c. 24.

J. C. R.


_Calvin's Correspondence_ (Vol. vii., pp. 501. 621.).--It may be well to
mention that all the letters of Calvin which MR. WALTER quotes, are to be
found in the old collection of his correspondence; perhaps, however, the
latter copies may be fuller or more correct in some parts.

The original French of the lone letter to Protector Somerset is printed by
Henry in his _Life of Calvin;_ but, like the other documents of that
laborious work, it is omitted without notice in the English travestie which
bears the name of Dr. Stebbing.

Heylyn's mis-statement as to Calvin and Cranmer is exposed, and the ground
of it is pointed out, in the late edition of the _Ecclesia Restaurata_,
vol. i. p. 134.

J. C. R.

_Old Booty's Case_ (Vol. vii., p. 634.).--A friend, on whose accuracy I can
rely, has examined the _London Gazettes_ for 1687 and 1688, in the British
Museum: they do not contain any report of Booty's case. I thought I had
laid Booty's ghost in Vol. iii., p. 170., by showing that the facts of the
case were unlikely and the law impossible.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

_Chatterton_ (Vol. vii., p. 267.).--We are all very curious in Bristol to
know what evidence or light J. M. G. of Worcester can bring to bear upon
the Rowley Poems from the researches (as he states) of an individual here
to prove not only that Chatteron was not their author, but that probably
the "Venerable Rowley" himself was.

I had thought in 1853 no one doubted their authorship. There is abundance
of proof to show Rowley could not have written them, and that only
Chatterton could have done so.


_House-marks, &c._ (Vol. vii., p. 594.).--It is very well known that the
sign of the "Swan with two Necks," in London, is a corruption of the
private mark of the owner of the swans, viz., two nicks made by cutting the
neck feathers close in two spaces. It is also a common custom in Devon to
mark all cattle, horses, &c., with the owner's mark when sent out on
Exmoor, Dartmoor, and other large uninclosed tracts for summering: thus,
Sir Thos. Dyke Acland's mark is an anchor on the near side of each of his
large herd of ponies, on Exmoor.



_Bibliography_ (Vol. vii., p. 597.).--The following may assist MARICONDA:

    Fischer: Beschreibung einiger Typographischer Seltenheiten nebst
    Beyträgen zur Erfindungsgeschichte der Buchdruckerkunst, 8vo. Mainz,

    Origin of Printing, in Two Essays; with Remarks and Appendix, 8vo.

    The Typographical Antiquities of Great Britain, by J. Johnson, Dr.
    Dibdin, Dr. Wilkins, and others, Longmans, 1824.

He will also find a list of works under the head PRINTING in the _Penny


_Parochial Libraries_ (Vol. vi., p. 432. Vol. vii. _passim._).--A parochial
library was for many years deposited in the room over the south entrance of
Beccles Church. The books consist chiefly of old divinity, &c., and appear
to have been gifts from various persons; among whom were Bishop Trimnel (of
Norwich), Sir Samuel Barnardiston, Sir Edmund Bacon of Gillingham, Sir John
Playters, Mrs. Anna North, and Mr. Ridgly of London. There is a copy of
Walton's _Polyglot Bible_, 1655-7, besides an odd volume of the same work
(Job to Malachi), 1656, uncut. It is probable that many of the books have
been lost, as the room in which they were kept was used as a repository for
discarded ecclesiastical appliances, and, latterly, for charity blankets
during summer. In 1840, with the consent of the late bishop of Norwich, and
of the rector and churchwardens of the parish, the remaining volumes (about
170) were removed to the public library room, and placed under the care of
the committee of that institution. A catalogue of them was then printed.
The greater part have been repaired, with the aid of a donation of 10l.
from a former inhabitant, who had reason to believe that some of the works
had been lost in consequence of their having been in his hands many years
ago. Are there not numerous instances elsewhere in which this example might
be copied with propriety?

S. W. RIX.


_Faithfull Teate_ (Vol. vii., p. 529.).--"Though this author's name be
spelt Teate, there is great reason to believe that he was the father of
Nahum Tate, translator of the Psalms."--_Bibl. Anglopoetica_, p. 361. In
the punning copy of verses preceding the "Ter Tria" is this distich:

 "We wish that Teats and Herberts may inspire
  Randals and Davenants with poetick fire.--JO. CHISHUTT."

My copy is on miserable paper, yet priced 31s. 6d., with this remark in MS.
by some former possessor: "Very rare: which will not be wondered at by any
one who will read five pages carefully."

E. D.

_Lack-a-daisy_ (Vol. vi., p. 353.).--Todd had better have allowed Johnson
to speak for himself: _lack-a-daisy, lack-a-day, alack the day_, as
Juliet's nurse exclaims, and _alas-the-day_, are only various readings of
the same expression. And of such inquiries and such solutions as Todd's, I
cannot refrain from expressing my sentiments in the {63} words of poor
Ophelia, "Alack! and fye for shame!"



_Bacon_ (Vol. ii., p. 247.; Vol. iii., p. 41.).--I think that you have not
noticed one very common use of this word, as evidently meaning _beechen._
Schoolboys call tops made of boxwood, _boxers;_ while the inferior ones,
which are generally made of beechwood, they call _bacons._


_Angel-beast--Cleek--Longtriloo_ (Vol. v., p. 559.).--An account of these
games, the nature of which is required by your correspondent, is given in
the _Compleat Gamester_, frequently reprinted in the latter part of the
seventeenth century. The first, which is there called _beast_, is said to
derive its name from the French _la bett_, meaning, no doubt, _bête_. It
seems to have resembled the game of loo. _Gleek_ is the proper name of the
second game, and not _check_, as your correspondent suggests. It was played
by three persons, and the cards bore the names of Tib, Tom, Tiddy, Towser,
and Tumbler. Hence we may conclude that it was an old English game. The
third game, or _lanterloo_, is evidently the original form of the game now
known as _loo_. Its name would seem to indicate a Dutch origin.


_Hans Krauwinckel_ (Vol. v., p. 450.).--When the ground in Charterhouse
Square was opened in 1834, for the purposes of sewerage (I believe), vast
numbers of bones and skeletons were found, being the remains, as was
supposed, of those who died of the Plague in 1348, and had been interred in
that spot, as forming a part of Pardon Churchyard, which had lately been
purchased by Sir Walter Manny, for the purposes of burial, and attached to
the Carthusian convent there. Among the bones a few galley halfpence, and
other coins, were found, as also a considerable number of abbey counters or
jettons. I do not recollect if there was any date on the counters but the
name "Hans Krauwinckel" occurred on some of them which fell into my
possession, and which I gave some years ago to the Museum of the City
Library, Guildhall. If these were coeval, as was generally supposed, with
the Plague of 1348, it is singular that the same name should be found on
abbey counters with the date 1601. I should be obliged if any of your
correspondents could inform me when the use of jettons ceased in England;
and whether Pardon Churchyard was used as a place of sepulture after 1348,
and, if so, how long?


_Revolving Toy_ (Vol. vi., p. 517.).--The Chinese have lanterns with paper
figures in them which revolve by the heat, and are very common about New
Year time.

H. B.


_Rub-a-dub_ (Vol. iii., p. 388.).--Your correspondent seems at a loss for
an early instance of this expression. In Percy's _Reliques_ there is a
song, the refrain or burden of which is:

 "Rub-a-dub, rub-a-dub, so beat your drums,
  Tantara, tantara, the Englishman comes."


_Muffs worn by Gentlemen._--In one of Goldsmith's _Essays_ I remember well
an allusion to the practice. The writer of the letter, or essay, states
that he met his female cousin in the Mall, and after some sparring
conversation, she ridicules him for carrying "a nasty _old_-fashioned [A.D.
1760] muff;" and his retort is, that he "heartily wishes it were a tippet,
for her sake,"--glancing at her dress, which was, I suppose, somewhat what
we moderns call "décolletée".

E. C. G.

_Detached Church Towers._--The Norman tower at Bury St. Edmund's should not
be included in the lists. Although now used as the bell tower of the
neighbouring church of St. James, it was erected several centuries before
the church, and was known as the "Great Gate of the Churchyard," or the
"Great Gate of the Church of St. Edmund." It would be very desirable to add
to the list the date of the tower, and its distance from the church.


Add to the list the modern Roman Catholic chapel at Baltinglass, Ireland.
It has a detached tower built in a field above it, and, although devoid of
architectural beauty, is so placed that it appears an integral part of the
chapel from almost any point of view.



Is not the bell-tower at Hackney detached from the church? I do not
remember that it has been yet named by your correspondents.

B. H. C.

_Christian Names_ (Vol. vii., pp. 406. 626.).--On the name of Besilius
Fetiplace, Sheriff of Berkshire, in 26 Elizabeth, Fuller remarks,--

    "Some may colourably mistake it for _Basilius_ or _Basil_, whereas
    indeed it is _Besil_, a surname.... Reader, I am confident an instance
    can hardly be produced of a surname made Christian, in England, save
    since the Reformation; before which time the priests were scrupulous to
    admit any at font, except they were baptised with the name of a
    Scripture or legendary saint. Since, it hath been common; and although
    the Lord Coke was pleased to say he had noted many of them prove
    unfortunate, yet the good success in others confutes the general truth
    of the observation."--_Worthies_, vol. i. pp. 159, 160., edit. Nuttall.

J. C. R.

Lord C. of Ireland, which MR. WILLIAM BATES guesses to be Lord
_Castlereagh_, was Lord _Clare_, Chancellor of Ireland, who used also to
call men {64} with three names by a term opprobrious among the Romans:
"Homines trium literarum."


_Hogarth's Pictures_ (Vol. vii. _passim_).--One of the correspondents of
"N. & Q." inquires where he could see some pictures from this great artist.
May I ask if he is aware of the three very fine large paintings in the
Church of St. Mary, Redcliffe, Bristol? which I am told will shortly be


P.S.--They were painted for the church, and the vestry holds his autograph
receipt for the payment of them.

_Old Fogie_ (Vol. vii., pp. 354. 559. 632.).--Whether the origin of this
term be Irish, Scotch, or Swedish I know not; but I cannot help stating the
significant meaning which, as an Edinburgh boy at the beginning of the
century, I was taught to attach to it. Every High-School boy agreed in
applying it to the veterans of the Castle garrison, to the soldiers of the
Town Guard (veterans also, and especial foes of my school-mates), and more
generally to any old and objectionable gentleman, civil or military. It
implied that, like stones which have ceased to roll, they had obtained the
proverbial covering of _moss_, or, as it is called in Scotland (probably in
Ireland also), _fog_. I have heard in Scotland the "_Moss_ Rose" called the
"_Fogie_ Rose;" and there is a well-known species of the humble bee which
has its nest in a mossy bank, and is itself clothed with a moss-like
covering: its name among the Scottish peasantry is the _fogie_ bee.

G. J. F.


_Clem_ (Vol. vii., p. 615.).--MR. KEIGHTLEY considers this word to mean
_press_ or _restrain_, and quotes three passages from Massinger and Jonson
in support of his opinion; admitting, however, that it is usually rendered
_starve_. Now, whatever may have been the root of this word, or
whencesoever it may have been derived, I think it must be admitted that
_starve_ is the correct meaning of the word in these passages. Let the
reader test it by substituting _starve_ for _clem_ in each case. In
Cheshire and Lancashire the word is in common use to this day, and
invariably means _starved_ for want of food. Of a thin, emaciated child it
is said, "His mother _clems_ him." A person exceedingly hungry says, "I'm
welly _clem'd_; I'm almost or well-nigh _starved_." It is the ordinary
appeal of a beggar in the streets, when asking for food.


_Kissing Hands_ (Vol. vii., p. 595.).--CAPE will find in Suetonius that
Caligula's hands were kissed.


_Uniform of the Foot Guards_ (Vol. vii., p. 595.).--In answer to D. N., as
to where he can see uniforms of the Foot Guards, 1660 to 1670, I have to
refer him to the Orderly-room, Horse Guards, where he will see the costume
of the three regiments since they were raised. In Mackinnon's _History of
the Coldstream Guards_, he will find that regiment's dress from the year
1650 to 1840.

C. D.

_Book Inscriptions_ (Vol. vii., p. 455.).--At the end of No. 1801. _Harl.
MSS._ is the following:

 "Hic liber est scriptus,
  Qui scripsit sit benedictus.
  Qui scriptoris manum
  Culpat, basiat anum."

In the printed catalogue there is this note:

    "Neotricus quidam hos scripsit versiculos, ex alio forsan Codice

[omega]. [phi].

I have not seen the following amongst your deprecatory rhymes. It may come
in with another batch. The nature of the punishment is somewhat different
from that usually selected, and savours of Spain:

 "Si quisquis furetur
    This little libellum,
  Per Phoebum, per Jovem,
    I'll kill him, I'll fell him!
  In ventum illius
    I'll stick my scalpellum,
  And teach him to steal
    My little libellum."


In a Gesner's _Thesaurus_ I have the following label of the date 1762:

    "Ex Caroli Ferd. Hommelii Bibliotheca.

    "Intra quatuordecim dies comodatum ni reddideris, neq' belle
    custodieris, alio tempore, Non habeo, dicam."


_Humbug_ (Vol. vii., pp. 550. 631.).--I do not remember any earlier use of
this word than in Fielding's _Amelia_, 1751. Its origin is involved in
obscurity: but may it not be a corruption of the Latin _ambages_, or the
singular ablative _ambage_? which signifies _quibbling, subterfuge_, and
that kind of conduct which is generally supposed to constitute _humbug_. It
is very possible that it may have been pedantically introduced in the
seventeenth century. May, in his translation of Lucan, uses the word
_ambages_ as an English word.


A severe instance of the use of the term "humbug" occurred in a court of
justice. A female in giving her evidence repeatedly used this term. In her
severe cross-examination, the counsel (a very plain, if not an ugly person)
observed she had frequently used the term humbug, and desired to know what
she meant by it, and to {65} have an explanation; to which she replied,
"Why, Sir, if I was to say you were a very handsome man, would you not
think I was humbugging you?" The counsel sat down perfectly satisfied.

G. H. J.

_Sir Isaac Newton and Voltaire on Railway Travelling_ (Vol. viii., p.
34.).--The passage in Daniel alluded to is probably the following:--"Many
shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased," chap. xii. v. 4.
MR. CRAIG should send to your pages the exact words of Newton and Voltaire,
with references to the books in which the passages may be found.


_Engine-à-verge_ (Vol. vii., p. 619.).--Is not this what we term a garden
engine? The French _vergier_ (_viridarium_) is doubtless so named, quia
_virgâ_ definita; and we have the old English word _verge_, a garden, from
the same source.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

_"Populus vult decipi," &c._ (Vol. vii., p. 572.).--The origin of this
phrase is found in Thuanus, lib. xvii. A.D. 1556. See Jackson's _Works_,
book iii. ch. 32. § 9. _note_.

C. P. E.

_Sir John Vanbrugh_ (Vol. vii., p. 619.).--Sir John Vanbrugh was the
grandson of a Protestant refugee, from a family originally of Ghent in
Flanders. The Duke of Alva's persecution drove him to England, where he
became a merchant in London. Giles, the son of this refugee, resided in
Chester, became rich by trade, and married the youngest daughter of Sir
Dudley Carleton, by whom he had eight sons, of whom Sir John Vanbrugh was
the second. The presumption is he was born in Chester, but the precise date
is unknown.


_Erroneous Forms of Speech_ (Vol. vii., pp. 329. 632.).--With regard to
your two correspondents E. G. R. and M., I hold that, with Cowper's
disputants, "both are right and both are wrong."

The name of the _field_ beet is, in the language of the unlearned,
_mangel-wurzel_, "the root of poverty." It acquired that name from having
been used as food by the poor in Germany during a time of great famine.
Turning to Buchanan's _Technological Dictionary_, I find,--

    "_Mangel-wurzel._ Field beet; a variety between the red and white. It
    has as yet been only partially cultivated in Britain."

In reference to the assertion of your later correspondent, that "such a
thing as mangel-wurzel is not known on the Continent," I would ask if
either he or his friends are familiar with half the beautiful and
significant terms applied to English flowers and herbs? If he prefer using
mangold for beet, he is quite at liberty to do so, and I believe on
sufficiently good authority. What says Noehden, always a leading authority
in German:

    "_Mangold._ Red beet; name of some other plants, such as lungwort and

Mangold is here, then, a generic term, standing for other plants equally
with the beet. One suggestion, however; I would recommend the generic term,
when used at all, to be used alone, leaving the more familiar appellation
as it stands, for the adoption of those who prefer the homely but
suggestive phraseology to which it belongs.

E. L. H.

_Devonianisms_ (Vol. vii., p. 630.).--_Plum_, adj. I am at a loss for the
origin of this word as employed in Devonshire in the sense of "soft,"
_e.g._ "a _plum_ bed:" meaning a soft, downy bed.

Query: Can it be from the Latin _pluma_? And if so, what is its history?

There is also a verb _to plum_, which is obscure. Dough, when rising under
the influence of heat and fermentation, is said to be _plumming_ well; and
the word _plum_, as an adjective, is used as the opposite of _heavy_ with
regard to currant and other cakes when baked. If the cake rises well in the
oven, it is commonly said that it is "nice and plum;" and _vice versâ_,
that it is heavy.

_Clunk_, verb. This word is used by the common people, more especially the
peasantry, to denote the swallowing of masses of unmasticated food; and of
morsels that may not be particularly relished, such as fat. What is the
origin of the word?

_Dollop_, subs. This word, as well as the one last-named, is very
expressive in the vocabulary of the vulgar. It is applied to lumps of any
substances, whether food or otherwise. Such a phrase as this might be
heard: "What a _dollop_ of fat you have given me!" "Well," would be the
reply, "if you don't like it, _clunk_ it at once." I should be glad to be
enlightened as to the etymology of this term.


Plymouth, Devon.

       *       *       *       *       *




MOORE'S MELODIES. 15th Edition.

WOOD'S ATHENÆ OXONIENSES (ed. Bliss). 4 vols. 4to. 1813-20.

THE COMPLAYNTS OF SCOTLAND. 8vo. Edited by Leyden. 1804.

SHAKSPEARE'S PLAYS. Vol. V. of Johnson and Steevens's edition, in 15 vols.
8vo. 1739.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       * {66}

Notices to Correspondents.

_Owing to the necessity of infringing on the present Number for the
Title-page of our_ Seventh Volume, _we are compelled to omit many
interesting communications, and our usual_ NOTES ON BOOKS, &c.

ABREDONENSIS _must be referred to the_ Philosophical Transactions, vol.
xliii. p. 249., _for a reply to his Query. It will be sufficient here to
state, that the Willingham Boy was at his birth of gigantic form, and an
object of great curiosity to the philosophical world. It is not stated how
long he lived, or what education he received, so that we cannot ascertain
whether he distinguished himself in any "department of literature or art."_

H. N. _will find in our_ Seventh Volume, p. 192., _that the quotation--_

 "Perhaps it was right to dissemble your love," &c.,

_is from J. P. Kemble's Comedy of_ The Panel, _altered from Bickerstaff's_
'Tis well 'tis no worse.

MR. POLLOCK'S PROCESS.--"_In answer to_ N. T. B., _a saturated solution of
hypo. saturated with iodide of silver._

"21. Maddox Street. HENRY POLLOCK."

T. B. (Coventry). _Paper positives are seldom varnished. The glossy
appearance which they possess may depend either upon their being printed on
albumenised paper, or upon their being hot-pressed. The latter process
always much improves the picture. Where the size has been much removed, it
is well to re-size the paper, which may be done by boiling a few parchment
cuttings in water, and soaking the prints in the liquor._

H. H. H. (Ashburton). _All the best authorities concur in the uncertain
properties of the salts of gold. We have seen some Daguerreotypes which
have been executed about three years, and were treated with the salts of
gold, and which are now mere shades._

C. M. M. (Abbey Road). _Your question as to the spots has been carefully
answered in a late Number. The film which you notice on the surface of your
nit. silver bath depends upon the remaining portion of ether in the
collodion being liberated, which, not being very soluble in water, causes
the greasy appearance. It soon evaporates, and is of no consequence._

T. COOK _is thanked for his offer of a cheap and easy method of obtaining
pictures for the stereoscope. We shall be glad to receive it._

DR. DIAMOND'S PHOTOGRAPHIC NOTES.--_We share in the desire expressed by_
W. C., J. M. S., _and many other Correspondents, for the speedy publication
of this volume. But we believe the delay is not to be regretted. It is a
very easy matter to write a book upon Photography; but it requires no small
labour, and great consideration, to produce such a volume as_ DR. DIAMOND
_proposes, in which it is his desire to explain everything so clearly, that
a person living in a remote part of the country, or in the colonies, may,
from his directions, make a good photograph._

_Errata._--P. 25., last line, read "camp_u_s" for "camp_re_s;" p. 26.,
fourth line, read "iar_o_" for "iar_s_;" p. 36., 2nd col. line 18., read
"regularity" for "irregularity."

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vii., _price
Three Guineas and a Half, may now be had; for which early application is

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *



RESPECTFULLY informs the Clergy, Architects, and Churchwardens, that he
replies immediately to all applications by letter, for information
respecting his Manufactures in CHURCH FURNITURE, ROBES, COMMUNION LINEN,
&c., &c., supplying full information as to Prices, together with Sketches,
Estimates, Patterns of Material, &c., &c.

Having declined appointing Agents, MR. FRENCH invites direct communications
by Post, as the most economical and satisfactory arrangement. PARCELS
delivered Free by Railway.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,


       *       *       *       *       *

contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different Bedsteads;
also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and Quilts. And their new
warerooms contain an extensive assortment of Bed-room Furniture, Furniture
Chintzes, Damasks, and Dimities, so as to render their Establishment
complete for the general furnishing of Bed-rooms.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

BROMIZED COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, are ready
to supply the above Photographic Agent: Vide _Photographic Journal_, June
21st. Their Iodized Collodion is highly sensitive, and retains all its
qualities unimpaired for three months. The Sensitive Solution may be had
separate. Pure Chemicals, Apparatus, and all the requisites for the
practice of Photography, and Instruction in all its Branches.

A very superior Positive Paper.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's Canson Frères', La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


T. OTTEWILL (from Horne & Co.'s) begs most respectfully to call the
attention of Gentlemen, Tourists, and Photographers, to the superiority of
his newly registered DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERAS, possessing the
efficiency and ready adjustment of the Sliding Camera, with the portability
and convenience of the Folding Ditto.

Every description of Apparatus to order.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECTACLES.--WM. ACKLAND applies his medical knowledge as a Licentiate of
the Apothecaries' Company, London, his theory as a Mathematician, and his
practice as a Working Optician, aided by Smee's Optometer, in the selection
of Spectacles suitable to every derangement of vision, so as to preserve
the sight to extreme old age.

ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, with the New Vetzlar Eye-pieces, as exhibited at the
Academy of Sciences in Paris. The Lenses of these Eye-pieces are so
constructed that the rays of Light fall nearly perpendicular to the surface
of the various lenses, by which the aberration is completely removed, and a
telescope so fitted gives one-third more magnifying power and light than
could be obtained by the old Eye-pieces. Prices of the various sizes on
application to

WM. ACKLAND, Optician, 93. Hatton Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Price 4s.

    "So simple and clear are the directions laid down that any one with a
    moderate degree of application would have no difficulty in overcoming
    the intricacies of the instrument. The lessons are progressive, and the
    treatise is popular," &c.--Tallis's _London Weekly Paper_.

4to., white cloth boards, price 8s. or in 52 Numbers, each 2d.

    "Valuable contribution to choral melody; contains no fewer than
    fifty-two anthems, arranged for two, three, or four voices (with piano
    or organ accompaniment), in a very effective style. The work is
    marvellously cheap, and should find a place in every parochial
    choir."--Tallis's _London Weekly Paper_, March 12.


    "One of the most useful of the many works which the Messrs. Cocks have
    published. We cordially recommend this volume; like the Author's
    'Modern Instructions for the Pianoforte,' it will become one of the
    most popular works of the day."--_Scottish Press_, March 16.

SACRED MUSIC.--A Select CATALOGUE of SACRED MUSIC, Vocal and for the Organ,
including the favourite Oratorios of Handel and others (with Tables of
Contents), Cathedral Music, Choral Music, Psalmody, &c. New Edition,
enlarged, 4to., 40 pp.--Gratis, and Postage free, on application to the
Publishers, ROBERT COCKS & CO., New Burlington Street, London: and of all
Music-sellers and Booksellers.

London: ROBERT COCKS & CO., New Burlington Street.

       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, the only natural, pleasant, and effectual
remedy (without medicine, purging, inconvenience, or expense, as it saves
fifty times its cost in other remedies) for nervous, stomachic, intestinal,
liver and bilious complaints, however deeply rooted, dyspepsia
(indigestion), habitual constipation, diarrhoea, acidity, heartburn,
flatulency, oppression, distension, palpitation, eruption of the skin,
rheumatism, gout, dropsy, sickness at the stomach during pregnancy, at sea,
and under all other circumstances, debility in the aged as well as infants,
fits, spasms, cramps, paralysis, &c.

_A few out of 50,000 Cures:--_

    Cure, No. 71, of dyspepsia; from the Right Hon. the Lord Stuart de
    Decies:--"I have derived considerable benefits from your Revalenta
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    Cure, No. 49,832:--"Fifty years' indescribable agony from dyspepsia,
    nervousness, asthma, cough, constipation, flatulency, spasms, sickness
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    food.--MARIA JOLLY, Wortham Ling, near Diss, Norfolk."

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_Dr. Wurzer's Testimonial._

    "Bonn, July 19. 1852.

    "This light and pleasant Farina is one of the most excellent,
    nourishing, and restorative remedies, and supersedes, in many cases,
    all kinds of medicines. It is particularly useful in confined habit of
    body, as also diarrhoea, bowel complaints, affections of the kidneys
    and bladder, such as stone or gravel; inflammatory irritation and cramp
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    conviction that Du Barry's Revalenta Arabica is adapted to the cure of
    incipient hectic complaints and consumption.

    "Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. in Bonn."

London Agents:--Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her
Majesty the Queen; Hedges & Butler, 155. Regent Street; and through all
respectable grocers, chemists, and medicine venders. In canisters, suitably
packed for all climates, and with full instructions, 1lb. 2s. 9d.; 2lb. 4s.
6d.; 5lb. 11s.; 12lb. 22s.; super-refined, 5lb. 22s.; 10lb. 33s. The 10lb.
and 12lb. carriage free, on receipt of Post-office order.--Barry, Du Barry
Co., 77. Regent Street, London.

IMPORTANT CAUTION.--Many invalids having been seriously injured by spurious
imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta, Arabaca, and
others, the public will do well to see that each canister bears the name
BARRY, DU BARRY & CO., 77. Regent Street, London, in full, _without which
none is genuine_.

       *       *       *       *       *

In 2 vols. Imperial 8vo., cloth, 4l. 10s.

the Present State of Literature, Science, and Art, on the Basis of
Webster's "English Dictionary;" with the Addition of many Thousand Words
and Phrases from the other Standard Dictionaries and Encyclopedias, and
from numerous other sources; comprising all Words purely English, and the
principal and most generally used Technical and Scientific Terms, together
with their Etymologies, and their Pronunciation, according to the best


    "I can safely pronounce it to be the most perfect work of its kind that
    has ever appeared. No man, literary or mercantile, should be without
    it.--CHARLES EDWARD TINDAL, Rector of St. Andrew's Church, Dublin.

    "I have examined 'Blackie's Imperial Dictionary,' and it appears to me
    to be decidedly the best work of the kind in the English
    language."--WALTER SCOTT, President and Theological Tutor of Airedale

    "I have great pleasure in bearing testimony to the beauty of the type,
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    recent introduction into our language. I have compared it with several
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    under my notice."--E. COBHAM BREWER, LL.D., Author of "Guide to
    Science," &c.

BLACKIE & SON, Warwick Square, London, and Edinburgh and Glasgow.

       *       *       *       *       *


This day is published, foolscap, price 1s.,

SAMUEL JOHNSON. By THOMAS CARLYLE. Reprinted from "Critical and
Miscellaneous Essays."

Recently published,




FRANKLIN'S FOOTSTEPS; a Sketch of Greenland, &c. 1s. 6d.



193. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *

This day, post 8vo. cloth, 7s. 6d.

THE TURKS IN EUROPE: A Sketch of Manners and Politics in the Ottoman
Empire. By BAYLE ST. JOHN, Author of "Village Life in Egypt," "Two Years'
Residence in a Levantine Family," &c.

193. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *

ARUNDEL SOCIETY.--Casts of one of the most Perfect Slabs (No. 47.) of the
PARTHENON FRIEZE in the Elgin Collection, lately reduced by MR. CHEVERTON
to one-third scale, will now be sold by Written Order of MR. MACKAY:

    1. Fictile Ivory 15s. (to Members, 10s.)--2. Superfine Plaster, 12s.
    6d. (Members, 7s. 6d.)--3. Rough Plaster, 7s. 6d. (Members, 5s.)

Electro-bronze Copies may be had at MESSRS. ELKINGTON'S 22. Regent Street,
price 2l. 2s. (to Members, 35s.)

Casts of THESEUS and ILISSUS are still kept.

These Casts are independent of the Annual Publications supplied to Members.

Apply at MESSRS. P. & D. COLNAGHI'S, 14. Pall Mall, East.

       *       *       *       *       *



This Day, new and revised Edition, post 8vo., 2s. 6d.

ANCIENT SPANISH BALLADS: Historical and Romantic. Translated, with Notes,

Also, fcap, 8vo., 2s.

A MONTH IN NORWAY, during the Summer of 1852. By JOHN G. HOLLWAY, ESQ.

The former Volumes of Murray's Railway Reading are--


















Just ready,

price 6d.

JOHN MURRAY, Albermarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, with Woodcuts, Post 8vo., 10s. 6d.

THE STORY OF CORFE CASTLE, and of many who have lived there. Collected from
Ancient Chronicles and Records; also, from the Private Memoirs of a Family
resident there in the Time of the Civil Wars, which include various
particulars of the Court of Charles I., when at York, and afterwards at

JOHN MURRAY, Albermarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *



(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY,)

Of Saturday, July 9 contains Articles on

  Abies bracteata
  Acorns, Mexican
  Agriculture, progressive, by Mr. Morton
  Anbury, by Mr. Goodiff
  Ants, how to get rid of black
  Balsam, the
  Bees, right of claiming
  Bidwill (Mr.), death of
  Bohn's (Mr.) Rose fete
  Books noticed
  Botany of the camp, by Mr. Ilott
  Bottles, to cut
  Calendar, horticultural
  ---- agricultural
  Carts and waggons
  Cattle, red water in
  Celery, to blanch
  Chiswick shows
  Chopwell wood
  Cottages, labourers', by Mr. Elton
  Draining match
  Forests, royal
  Grasses for lawns
  Hampstead Heath (with engraving)
  Horticultural Society's shows
  Irrigation, Italian, by Captain Smith
  Labourers' cottages, by Mr. Elton
  Lawn grasses
  Lime water, a steep for timber
  Oaks, Mexican acorns
  Peach trees, young, by Mr. Burnet
  Peas, early
  Pelargonium leaves, a cure for wounds
  Pelargonium, scarlet
  Potatoes, autumn planted
  ---- to cure diseased, by Mr. Baudoin
  Poultry literature
  Rhubarb wine
  Right of claiming bees
  Rose fete, Mr Bohn's
  Societies, proceedings of the Entomological, Caledonian Horticultural,
      Botanical of Edinburgh, Agricultural of England
  Timber, to season
  Waggons and carts
  Walpers, Dr.
  Wine, rhubarb
  Wounds, cure for

the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices,
with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed
Markets, and a _complete Newspaper, with a condensed account of all the
transactions of the week._

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Willington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

This day, Seventh Edition, revised, 5s.


By the same Author,



West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s. (by Post for 18 stamps),

SIMPSON, Librarian of the Islington Literary and Scientific Society.

Also, price 6d. (by Post for 8 stamps), to be continued Yearly,

A WEATHER JOURNAL for 1852: containing Readings of Thermometer, Wind, and
Weather daily, in the North of London.

Published and Sold by JOSEPH SIMPSON, 1. College Place, Highbury Vale; and
Literary Institution, Wellington Street, Islington.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready,


with Explanatory Notes, Syntax, and a Glossarial Index. By the late REV.
THOMAS KERCHEVER ARNOLD, M.A., Rector of Lyndon, and formerly Fellow of
Trinity College, Cambridge. Price 3s. 6d.


containing the HISTORY of the RETREAT of the TEN THOUSAND GREEKS: with
Explanatory Notes, and Grammatical References. By the SAME EDITOR. Price

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place;

Of whom may be had, by the Same Author,

1. THE FIRST GREEK BOOK, on the Plan of Henry's "First Latin Book." Second
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2. THE SECOND GREEK BOOK, on the Same Plan. 5s. 6d.

       *       *       *       *       *

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CHAPELRIES of HEENE and DURRINGTON, in the County of SUSSEX; including a
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JOHN WOOD WARTER, B.D., Vicar of West Tarring.

RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place.

       *       *       *       *       *

(containing the whole of the Contents of the former Edition published in 20
Volumes, 8vo., at the price of 9l. 5s.) is now completed, handsomely
printed in 8 vols, 8vo., with Portrait and Fac-simile, price 4l. 4s.

London: RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place.

*** The Reflections on the French Revolution may be had separately, price
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       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-eighth Edition.

NEUROTONICS, or the Art of Strengthening the Nerves, containing Remarks on
the influence of the Nerves upon the Health of Body and Mind, and the means
of Cure for Nervousness, Debility, Melancholy, and all Chronic Diseases, by
DR. NAPIER, M.D. London: HOULSTON & STONEMAN. Price 4d. or Post Free from
the Author for Five Penny Stamps.

"We can conscientiously recommend 'Neurotonics,' by Dr. Napier, to the
careful perusal of our invalid readers."--_John Bull Newspaper, June 5,

       *       *       *       *       *

This day is published, price 6d.


JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, July 16,

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

page 57, "The British Glory revived": 're-revived' on line break in

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