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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 195, July 23, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 195, July 23, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 195.]
SATURDAY, JULY 23. 1853..
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                              Page
  William Blake                                           69
  A Poem by Shelley, not in his Works                     71
  The Impossibilities of History                          72
  "Quem Deus vult perdere prius dementat," by T. J.
  Buckton                                                 73
  Shakspeare Correspondence, by J. Payne Collier,
  George Blink, &c.                                       73
  "The Dance of Death," by Weld Taylor                    76

  MINOR NOTES:--Old Lines newly revived--Inscription
  near Cirencester--Wordsworth--"Magna est Veritas et
  prævalebit"--"Putting your foot into it"                76

  Fragments of MSS., by Philip Hale                       77
  The Electric Telegraph, by W. Matthews                  78

  MINOR QUERIES:--Sir Walter Raleigh--Ancient
  Fortifications: Hertstone, Pale, Brecost--Newton and
  Somers--Daventry, Duel at--Passage in Burial Service--
  "They shot him on the nine-stane rig"--Wardhouse, and
  Fishermen's Custom there--"Adrian turn'd the bull"--
  Cary's "Palæologia Chronica"--The Southwark Pudding
  Wonder--Roman Catholics confined in Fens of Ely--White
  Bell Heather transplanted--Green's "Secret Plot"--
  "The full Moon brings fine Weather"--Nash the Artist--
  Woodwork of St. Andrew's Priory Church, Barnwell--
  "The Mitre and the Crown"--Military Music               78

  Statute of Kilkenny--Kenne of Kenne--Rents of Assize,
  &c.--Edifices of Ancient and Modern Times--Gorram--
  "Rock of Ages"                                          80

  Remuneration of Authors                                 81
  On the Use of the Hour-glass in Pulpits                 82
  Ladies' Arms borne in a Lozenge                         83

  Photographs--Yellow Bottles for Photographic
  Chemicals                                               85

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Donnybrook Fair--Abigail--
  Honorary Degrees--Red Hair--Historical Engraving--
  Proverbs quoted by Suetonius--"Sat cito, si sat bene"--
  Council of Laodicea, Canon 35.--Anna Lightfoot--Jack
  and Gill--Simile of the Soul and the Magnetic Needle--
  Gibbon's Library--St. Paul's Epistles to Seneca--
  "Hip, Hip, Hurrah!"--Emblemata--Campvere, Privileges of--
  Slang Expressions: "Just the cheese"--The Honorable Miss
  E. St. Leger--Queries from the Navorscher--"Pity
  is akin to Love"                                        86

  Notes on Books, &c.                                     89
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                            90
  Notices to Correspondents                               90
  Advertisements                                          90

       *       *       *       *       *



My antiquarian tendencies bring me acquainted with many neglected and
obscure individuals connected with our earlier English literature, who,
after "fretting their hour" upon life's stage, have passed away; leaving
their names entombed upon the title-page of some unappreciated or
crotchetty book, only to be found upon the shelves of the curious.

To look for these in Kippis, Chalmers, Gorton, or Rose would be a waste of
time; and although agreeing to some extent with the _Utilitarians_, that we
have all that was worth preserving of the _Antediluvians_, there is, I
think, here and there a name worth resuscitating, possessing claims to a
_niche_ in our "Antiquary's Newspaper;" and for that distinction, I would
now put in a plea on behalf of my present subject, William Blake.

Although our author belongs to the _eccentric category_, he is a character
not only deserving of notice, but a model for imitation: the "_bee_ in his
bonnet" having set his sympathies in the healthy direction of a large
_philanthropy_ for the spiritual and temporal interests of his fellow men.

The congenial reader has already, I doubt not, anticipated that I am about
to introduce that nondescript book bearing the running title--and it never
had any other--of _Silver Drops, or Serious Things;_ purporting, in a kind
of colophon, to be "written by William Blake, housekeeper to the Ladies'
Charity School."[1] The curious in old books knows too, that, apart from
its subject, the _Silver Drops_ of W. B. has usually an attractive
exterior; most of the _exemplaires_ which have come under my notice being
sumptuously bound in old morocco, profusely tooled; with the name of the
party to whom it had apparently been presented, stamped in a compartment
upon the cover. Its value is farther enhanced by its pictorial and
emblematical accompaniments. These are four in number: the first
representing a heart, whereon {70} a fanciful picture of Charity supported
by angels; second, a view of Highgate Charity Schools (Dorchester House);
third, Time with his scythe and hour-glass[2]; and the fourth, in three
compartments, the centre containing butterflies; the smaller at top and
bottom, sententious allusions to the value of time--"Time drops pearles
from his golden wings," &c. These are respectable engravings, but by whom
executed I know not. After these, and before coming to the _Silver Drops_,
which are perhaps something akin to Master Brooks' _Apples of Gold_, the
book begins abruptly: "The Ladies' Charity School-house Roll of Highgate,
or a subscription of many noble well-disposed ladies for the easie carrying
of it on." "Being well informed," runs the Prospectus, "that there is a
pious, good, commendable work for maintaining near forty poor or fatherless
children, born all at or near Highgate, Hornsey, or Hamsted: we, whose
names are subscribed, do engage or promise, that if the said boys are
decently cloathed in blew, lined with yellow; constantly fed all alike with
good and wholsom diet; taught to read, write, and cast accompts, and so put
out to trades, in order to live another day; then we will give for one
year, two or three (if we well like the design, and prudent management of
it,) once a year, the sum below mentioned," &c. The projector of this good
work was the subject of my present note; and after thus introducing it, the
worthy "woollen-draper, at the sign of the Golden Boy, Maiden Lane, Covent
Garden," for such he was, goes on to recommend and enforce its importance
in a variety of cajolling addresses, or, as he calls them, "charity-school
sticks," to the great and wealthy; ostensibly the production of the boys,
but in reality the concoctions of Mr. Blake, and in which he pleads
earnestly for his _hobby_. In _An Essay, or Humble Guess, how the Noble
Ladies may be inclined to give to and encourage their Charity-school at
Highgate_, Mr. Blake farther humorously shows up the various dispositions
of his fair friends:--"And first," says he, "my lady such-a-one cryed,
Come, we will make one purse out of our family;" and "my lady such-an-one
said she would give for the fancy of the Roll and charity stick. My lady
such-an-one cryed by her troth she would give nothing at all, for she had
waies enough for her money; while another would give five or six stone of
beef every week." Again, in trying to come at the great citizen-ladies, he
magnifies, in the following characteristic style, the city of London; and,
by implication, their noble husbands and themselves:--"There is," says Mr.
Blake, "the Tower and the Monument; the old Change, Guild-Hall, and
Blackwall-Hall, _which some would fain burn again_; there is Bow steeple,
the _Holy Bible_, _the Silver Bells of Aaron_, _the godly-outed ministers_;
the melodious musick of the Gospels; Smithfield martyrs yet alive; and the
best society, the very best in all the world for civility, loyalty, men,
and manners; with the greatest cash, bulk, mass, and stock of all sorts of
silks, cinnamon, spices, wine, gold, pearls, Spanish wooll and cloaths;
with the river _Nilus_, and the stately ships of _Tarshish_ to carry in and
out the great merchandizes of the world." In this the city dames are
attacked collectively. Individually, he would wheedle them thus into his
charitable plans:--"Now pray, dear madam, speak or write to my lady out of
hand, and tell her how it is with us; and if she will subscribe a good
_gob_, and get the young ladies to do so too; and then put in altogether
with your lordship's and Sir James's also: for it is necessary he or you in
his stead should do something, _now the great ship is come safe in, and by
giving some of the first-fruits of your great bay, or new plantation, to
our school, the rest will be blessed the better_." The scheme seems to have
offered attractions to the Highgate gentry:--"The great ladies do allow
their house-keeper," he continues, "one bottle of wine, three of ale, half
a dozen of rolls, and two dishes of meat a-day; who is to see the
wilderness, orchard, great prospects, walks, and gardens, all well kept and
rolled for their honours' families; and to give them small treats according
to discretion when they please to take the air, which is undoubtedly the
best round London." Notwithstanding the eloquent pleadings of Mr. Blake for
their assistance and support, it is to be feared that the _noble ladies_
allowed the predictions of his friends to be verified, and _did_ "suffer
such an inferiour meane and little person (to use his own phraseology) to
sink under the burden of so good and great a work:" for we find that Gough,
in allusion thereto, says (_Topographical Anecdotes_, vol. i. p. 644.):--

    "This Hospital at Highgate, called the Ladies' Charity School, was
    erected by one W. Blake, a woollen-draper in Covent Garden; who having
    purchased Dorchester House, and having fooled away his estate in
    building, was thrown into prison."

Even here, and under such circumstances, our subject was nothing daunted;
for the same authority informs us, that, still full of his philanthropic
projects, he took the opportunity his leisure there admitted to write
another work upon his favourite topic of educating and caring for the {71}
poor; its title is, _The State and Case of a Design for the better
Education of Thousands of Parish Children successively in the vast Northern
Suburbs of London vindicated, &c._ Besides the above, there is another
remarkable little piece which I have seen, beginning abruptly, "Here
followeth a briefe exhortation which I gave in my owne house at my wife's
funerall to our friends then present," by Blake, with the MS. date, 1650;
and exhibits this original character in another not less amiable light:--"I
was brought up," says he, "by my parents to learne _Hail Mary_,
paternoster, the Beliefe, and learne to reade; and where I served my
apprenticeship little more was to be found." He attributes it to God's
grace that he fell a reading the _Practice of Piety_, by which means he got
a little persuading of God's love to his soul:--"Well, my time being out, I
set up for myselfe; and seeking out for a wife, which, with long waiting
and difficulty, much expence and charge, at last I got. Four children God
gave me by her; but he hath taken them and her all again too, who was a
woman of a thousand." Mr. B. then naturally indulges in a panegyric upon
this pattern of wives, and reproaches himself for his former insensibility
to her surpassing merits: relating with great _naïveté_ some domestic
passages, with examples of her piety and trials, in one of which latter the
_enemy_ would tempt her to suicide:--"There lie your garters," said he;
"but she threw them aside, and so escaped this will of the Devil."

In conclusion, let me inquire if your Highgate correspondents are cognisant
of any existing institution raised upon the foundation of William Blake's
Charity School at Dorchester House?

J. O.

    [Our correspondent's interesting communication suggests a Query: Is
    there any biographical notice of William Blake; and was he the author
    of the following piece, preserved among the Kings' pamphlets in the
    British Museum? "The Condemned Man's Reprieve, or God's Love-Tokens,
    flowing in upon the heart of William Blake, a penitent sinner, giving
    him assurance of the pardon of his sins, and the enjoyment of eternal
    happiness through the merits of Christ his Saviour. Recommended by him
    (being a condemned prisoner for manslaughter within the statute) unto
    his sister, and bequeathed unto her as a legacy." It is dated from
    "Exon Jayle," June 25, 1653, and was published July 14, 1653."--ED.]

[Footnote 1: "Mr. Henry Cornish, merchant," was a coadjutor of Blake's in
this charitable undertaking; and as that Alderman was not executed until
1635, this publication may be assigned to about that date.]

[Footnote 2: [It appears, from the following advertisement at the end of
_Silver Drops_, that the plates of Time and Charity were used as
receipts:--"It is humbly desired, that what you or any of you, most noble
Ladies, Gentlewomen, or others, are pleased to bestow or give towards this
good or great design, that you would be pleased to take a receipt on the
backside of Time or Charity, sealed with three seales, namely, the
Treasurer's, Housekeeper's, and Register's; and it shall be fairly
recorded, and hung up in the school-house, to be read of all from Time to
Time, to the world's end, we hope."--ED.]]

       *       *       *       *       *


The following poem was published in a South Carolina newspaper in the year
1839. The person who communicates it states that it was among the papers of
a deceased friend, in a small packet, endorsed "A letter and two poems
written by Shelley the poet, and lent to me by Mr. Trelawney in 1823. I was
prevented from returning them to him, for which I am sorry, since this is
the only copy of them--they have never been published." Upon this poem was
written, "Given to me by Shelley, who composed it as we were sailing one
evening together."



         "_The Calm._

 "Hush! hark! the Triton calls
    From his hollow shell,
    And the sea is as smooth as a well;
    For the winds and the waves
  In wild order form,
    To rush to the halls
    And the crystal-roof'd caves
    Of the deep, deep ocean,
  To hold consultation
    About the next storm.

 "The moon sits on the sky
    Like a swan sleeping
  On the stilly lake:
  No wild breath to break
  Her smooth _massy_ light
    And _ruffle_ it into _beams:_

 "The downy clouds droop
    Like moss upon a tree;
  And in the earth's bosom grope
    Dim vapours and streams.
  The darkness is weeping,
    Oh, most silently!
  Without audible sigh,
    All is noiseless and bright.

 "Still 'tis living silence here,
  Such as fills not with fear.
  Ah, do you not hear
    A humming and purring
    All about and about?
   'Tis from souls let out,
    From their day-prisons freed,
  And joying in release,
    For no slumber they need.

 "Shining through this _veil of peace,_
    Love now pours her omnipresence,
  And various nature
  Feels through every feature
    The joy intense,
    Yet so _passionless,_
  Passionless and pure;
    The human mind restless
  Long could not endure.

 "But hush while I tell,
    As the _shrill whispers flutter_
  Through the pores of the sea,--
    Whatever they utter
    I'll interpret to thee.
  King Neptune now craves
    Of his turbulent vassals
  Their workings to quell;
    And the billows are quiet,
    _Though thinking on riot._
  On the left and the right
  In ranks they are coil'd up,
    Like snakes on the plain;
  And each one has roll'd up
    A bright flashing streak
  Of the white moonlight
    On his glassy green neck:
  On every one's forehead
    There glitters a star,
  With a hairy train
    Of light _floating from afar_,
  And pale or fiery red.
  Now old Eolus goes
    To each muttering blast,
  Scattering blows;
    And some he binds fast
    In hollow rocks vast,
    And others he gags
  With thick heavy foam.
 'Twing them round
    The sharp rugged crags
    That are sticking out near,'
    Growls he, 'for fear
  They all should rebel,
  And so play hell.'
  Those that he bound,
    Their prison-walls grasp,
  And through the dark gloom
    Scream fierce and yell:
    While all the rest gasp,
    In rage fruitless and vain.
  Their shepherd now leaves them
    To howl and to roar--
  Of his presence bereaves them,
    To feed some young breeze
  On the violet odour,
  And to teach it on shore
    To rock the green trees.
    But no more can be said
  Of what was transacted
  And what was enacted
  In the heaving abodes
  Of the great sea-gods."

       *       *       *       *       *


In _The Tablet_ of June 18 is a leading article on the proposed erection of
Baron Marochetti's statue of Richard Coeur de Lion. Theology and history
are mixed: of course I shall carefully exclude the former. I have tried to
trace the statements to their sources; and where I have failed, perhaps
some of your readers may be able to help me.

    "When the physicians told him that they could do nothing more for him,
    and when his confessor had done his duty faithfully and with all
    honesty, the stern old soldier commanded his attendants to take him off
    the bed, and lay him naked on the bare floor. When this was done, he
    then bade them take a discipline and scourge him with all their might.
    This was the last command of their royal master; and in this he was
    obeyed with more zeal than he found displayed when at the head of his
    troops in Palestine."

I find no record that "the stern old soldier," who was then forty-two years
of age, and whom the writer oddly calls Richard II., had any reason to
complain of want of zeal in his troops. They fought well, and flogged
well--if they flogged at all. Richard died of gangrene in the shoulder; and
I have the authority of an eminent physician for saying, that gangrene, so
near the vital parts, would produce such mental and bodily prostration,
that it is highly improbable that the patient, unless in delirium, should
give such an order, and impossible that he should live through its

Hume and Lingard do not allude to the "discipline;" and the silence of the
latter is important. Henry says:

    "Having expressed great penitence for his vices, and having undergone a
    very severe discipline from the hands of the clergy, who attended him
    in his last moments," &c.--Vol. iii. p. 161. ed. 1777.

He cites Brompton, and there I find the penance given much stronger than in
_The Tablet_:

    "Præcepitque pedes sibi ligari, et in altum suspendi nudumque corpus
    flagellis cædi et lacerari, donec ipse præciperat ut silerent. Cumque
    diu cæderetur, ex præcepto, ad modicum siluerunt. Et spiritu iterum
    reassumpto, hoc idem secundo ac tertio in abundantiâ sanguinis
    compleverunt. Tamdiu in se revertens, afferri viaticum sibi jussit et
    se velut proditorem et hostem, contra dominum suum ligatis pedibus fune

This is taken from Brompton's Chronicle in _Decem Scriptores Historiæ
Anglicanæ_, 1652, p. 1279., edited by Selden. As Brompton lived in the
reign of Edward III., he is not a high authority upon any matter in that of
Richard I. I cannot find any other. Hoveden and Knyghton are silent. Is the
fact stated elsewhere? Hoveden states, and the modern historians follow
him, that after the king's death, Marchader seized the archer, flayed him
alive, and then hanged him. My medical authority says, that no man could be
flayed _alive_: and that the most skilful operator could not remove the
skin of one arm from the elbow to the wrist, before the patient would die
from the shock to his system.

Mr. Riley, in a note on the passage in Hoveden, cites from the _Winchester
Chronicle_ a possible account of Gurdum being tortured to death. The
historian of _The Tablet_, in the same article, says:

    "We are far from attributing absolute perfection to the son of Henry
    II., one of that awful race popularly believed to be descended from the
    devil. When Henry, as a boy, practising Whiggery by revolting against
    his father, was presented to St. Bernard at the Court of the King of
    France, the saint looked at him with a sort of terror, and said, 'From
    the Devil you came, and to the Devil you will go.'"

The fact that Henry II. rebelled against his father is not given in any
history which I have {73} read; and the popular belief in the remarkable
descent of Henry, and consequently of our present royal family, is quite
new to me, and to all of whom I have inquired. Still, finding that the
writer had an authority for the "discipline," he may have one for the
Devil. If so, I should like to know it; for I contemplate something after
the example of Lucian's _Quomodo Historia sit conscribenda_.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

       *       *       *       *       *


Having disposed of the allegation that the Greek Iambic,

 "[Greek: hon theos thelei apolesai prôt' apophrenai],"

was from Euripides, by denying the assertion, I am also, on farther
investigation, compelled to deny to him also the authorship of the cited

    "[Greek: hotan de Daimôn andri porsunêi kaka, ton noun eblapse

Its first appearance is in Barnes, who quotes it from Athenagoras "sine
auctoris nomine." Carmeli includes it with others, to which he prefixes the

    "A me piacque come al Barnesio di porle per disteso, ed a canto
    mettervi la traduzione in nostra favella, _senza entrare tratto tratto
    in quistioni_ inutili, _se alcuni versi appartengano a Tragedia di
    Euripide, o no_."

There is, then, no positive evidence of this passage having ever been
attributed, by any competent scholar, to Euripides. Indirect proof that it
could not have been written by him is thus shown:--In the Antigone of
Sophocles (v. 620.) the chorus sings, according to Brunck,--

 "[Greek: Sophiai gar ek tou]
  [Greek: kleinon epos pephantai;]
  [Greek: To kakon dokein pot' esthlon]
  [Greek: tôid' emmen, hotôi phrenas]
  [Greek: theos agei pros atan;]
  [Greek: prassein d' oligoston chronon ektos atas]."

    "For a splendid saying has been revealed by the wisdom of _some one_:
    That evil appears to be good to him whose mind God leads to
    destruction; _but that he (God) practises this a short time without
    destroying such a one_."

Now, had Barnes referred to the scholiast on the Antigone, or remembered at
the time the above-cited passage, he would either not have omitted the
conclusion of his distich, or he would at once have seen that a passage
quoted as "[Greek: ek tou], _of some one_," by Sophocles, seventeen years
the senior of Euripides, could not have been the original composition of
his junior competitor. The conclusion of the distich is thus given by the
old scholiast:

 "[Greek: hotan d' ho Daimôn andri porsunêi kaka,]
  [Greek: ton noun eblapse prôton hôi BOULEUETAI]."

The words "when he wills it" being left out by Barnes and Carmeli, but
which correspond with the last line of the quotation from Sophocles. The
old scholiast introduces the exact quotation referred to by Sophocles as "a
celebrated (notorious, [Greek: aoidimon]) and splendid saying, revealed by
the wisdom of _some one_, [Greek: meta sophias gar hupo tinos]."

Indeed, the sentiment must have been as old as Paganism, wherein, whilst
all _voluntary_ acts are attributed to the individual, all _involuntary_
ones are ascribed to the Deity. Even _sneezing_ was so considered: hence
the phrase common in the lower circles in England, "Bless us," and in a
higher grade in Germany, "Gott segne euch," which form the usual chorus to
a sneeze.

The other scholiast, Triclinius, explains the passage of Sophocles by
saying, "The gods lead to error ([Greek: blabên]) him whom they intend to
make miserable ([Greek: dustuchein]): hence the application to Antigone,
who considers death as sweet."



       *       *       *       *       *


_A Passage in "The Taming of the Shrew."_--Perhaps I mistake it, but MR. C.
MANSFIELD INGLEBY seems to me to write in a tone as if he fancied I should
be unwilling to answer his questions, whether public or private. Although I
am not personally acquainted with him, we have had some correspondence, and
I must always feel that a man so zealous and intelligent is entitled to the
best reply I can afford. I can have no hesitation in informing him that, in
preparing what he terms my "monovolume Shakspeare," I pursued this plan
throughout; I adopted, as my foundation, the edition in eight volumes
octavo, which I completed in 1844; that was "formed from an entirely new
collation of the old editions," and my object there was to give the most
accurate representation of the text of the folios and quartos. Upon that
stock I engrafted the manuscript alterations in my folio 1632, in every
case in which it seemed to me possible that the old corrector might be
right--in short, wherever two opinions could be entertained as to the
reading: in this way my text in the "monovolume Shakspeare" was "regulated
by the old copies, and by the recently discovered folio of 1632."

MR. INGLEBY will see that in the brief preface to the "monovolume
Shakspeare," I expressly say that "while a general similarity (to the folio
1632) has been preserved, care has been taken _to rectify the admitted
mistakes of the early impression_, and to introduce such alterations of a
corrupt and imperfect text, as were warranted by better authorities. Thus,
while the new readings of the old corrector of the folio 1632, considerably
exceeding a thousand, are duly inserted in the places {74} to which they
belong, the old readings, which, during the last century and a half, have
recommended themselves for adoption, and have been derived from a
comparison of ancient printed editions, have also been incorporated." I do
not know how I could have expressed myself with greater clearness; and it
was merely for the sake of distinctness that I referred to the result of my
own labours in 1842, 1843, and 1844, during which years my eight volumes
octavo were proceeding through the press. Those labours, it will be seen,
essentially contributed to lighten my task in preparing the "monovolume

My answer respecting the passage in _The Taming of the Shrew_, referred to
by MR. INGLEBY, will, I trust, be equally satisfactory; it shall be equally

I inserted _ambler_, because it is the word substituted in manuscript in
the margin of my folio 1632. I adopted _mercatantè_, as proposed by
Steevens, not only because it is the true Italian word, but because it
exactly fits the place in the verse, _mercatant_ (the word in the folios)
being a syllable short of the required number. In the very copy of Florio's
_Italian Dictionary_, which I bought of Rodd at the time when I purchased
my folio 1632, I find _mercatantè_ translated by the word "marchant,"
"marter," and "trader," exactly the sense required. Then, as to "surely"
instead of _surly_, I venture to think that "surely" is the true reading:

    "In gait and countenance surely like a father."

"Surely like a father" is certainly like a father; and although a man may
be _surly_ in his "countenance," I do not well see how he could be _surly_
in his "gait;" besides, what had occurred to make the pedant _surly_? This
appears to me the best reason for rejecting _surly_ in favour of "surely;"
but I have another, which can hardly be refused to an editor who professes
to follow the old copies, where they are not contradicted. I allude to the
folio 1628, where the line stands precisely thus:

    "In gate and countenance surely like a Father."

The folio 1632 misprinted "surely" _surly_, as, in _Julius Cæsar_, Act I.
Sc. 3., it committed the opposite blunder, by misprinting "surly" _surely_.
Another piece of evidence, to prove that "surely" was the poet's word in
_The Taming of the Shrew_, has comparatively recently fallen in my way; I
did not know of its existence in 1844, or it would have been of
considerable use to me. It is a _unique_ quarto of the play, which came out
some years before the folio 1623, and is not to be confounded with the
quarto of _The Taming of the Shrew_, with the date of 1631 on the
title-page. This new authority has the line exactly as it is given in the
folio 1623, which, in truth, was printed from it. It is now before me.


July 10.

_Critical Digest of various Readings in the Works of Shakspeare._--There is
much activity in the literary world just now about the text of Shakspeare:
but one most essential work, in reference to that text, still remains to be
performed,--I mean, the publication of a complete digest of _all_ the
various readings, in a concise shape, such as those which we possess in
relation to the MSS. and other editions of nearly every classical author.

At present, all editions of Shakspeare which claim to be considered
critical, contain much loose information on readings, mixed up with notes
(frequently very diffuse) on miscellaneous topics. This is not in the least
what we require: we need a regular _digest_ of readings, wholly distinct
from long debates about their value.

What I mean will be plain to any one who is familiar with any good critical
edition of the Greek New Testament, or with such books as Gaisford's
_Herodotus_, the Berlin _Aristotle_, the Zurich _Plato_, and the like. We
ought to have, first, a good text of Shakspeare: such as may represent, as
fairly as possible, the real results of the labours of the soundest
critics; and, secondly, page by page, at the foot of that text, the
following particulars:

I. All the readings of the folios, which should be cited as A, B, C, and D.

II. All the readings of the quartos, which might be cited separately in
each play that possesses them, either as a, b, c, d; or as 1, 2, 3, and 4.

III. A succinct summary of all the respectable criticisms, in the way of
conjecture, on the text. This is especially needed. The recent volumes of
Messrs. Collier, Singer, and Dyce, show that even editors of Shakspeare
scarcely know the history of all the emendations. Let their precise
_pedigree_ be in the last case recorded with the most absolute brevity;
simply the _suggestion_, and the names of its proposers and adopters.

IV. To simplify this last point, a new siglation might be introduced to
denote the various critical editions.

Such a publication should be kept distinct from any commentary; especially
from one laid out in the broad flat style of modern editors. Mr. Collier's
volume of _Emendations_, &c., for instance, need not have occupied half its
present space, if he had first denoted his MS. corrector by some short
symbol, instead of by a lengthy phrase; and, secondly, introduced his
suggestions by some such formularies as those employed in classical
criticisms, instead of toiling laboriously after variations in his style of
expression, till we are wearied by the real iteration which lies under the
seeming diversity.

There should be none of this _phrasework_ in the digest which I recommend.
If indeed it were found absolutely necessary to connect it with a
commentary, then arrange the two portions of the {75} apparatus as in
Arnold's edition of _Thucydides_: the _variæ lectiones_ in the middle of
the page, and the comment in a different type below it. But I repeat, it
would be better still to give us the digest _without_ the comment. All
would go into one large volume. And it cannot be doubted that such a
volume, if thoroughly well done, would furnish at once a sort of _textus
receptus_, and a critical basis, from which future editors might commence
their labours. It would also be an indispensable book of reference to all
who treat of, or are interested in, the poet's text. Such, I say, would be
its certain prospects if the editor were at once an accurate, painstaking
scholar, and a man of true poetical feeling. The labour would be great, but
so would be the reward. It is only what the ablest scholars have proudly
undertaken for the classics, even in the face of toils far more severe.
Would that Mr. Dyce could be roused to attempt it!


    [Some such edition as that alluded to by our correspondent has been
    long desired and contemplated. A proposal in connexion with it has been
    afloat for some time past, and we had hoped would have been publicly
    made in our pages before now. There are difficulties in the way which
    do not exist in the parallel instances from classical literature, and
    which do not seem to have occurred to our correspondent; but the
    project is in good hands, and we hope will soon be brought to

_Emendations of Shakspeare._--I am sadly afraid, what with one annotator
and another, that we, in a very little time, shall have Shakspeare so
modernised and weeded of his peculiarities, that he will become a very
second-rate sort of a person indeed; for I now see with no little alarm,
that one of his most delightful quaintnesses is to give way to the march of
refinement, and be altogether ruined. Hazlitt, one the most original and
talented of critics, has somewhere said, that there was not in any passage
of Shakspeare any single word that could be changed to one more
appropriate, and as an instance he gives a passage from _Macbeth_, which
certainly is one of the most perfect and beautiful to be found in the whole
of his works:

 "This castle hath a pleasant seat; the air
  Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself
  Unto our gentle senses.
                      This guest of summer,
  The temple-haunting martlet, does approve
  By his loved mansionry, that the heaven's breath
  Smells wooingly here: no jutty, frieze, buttress,
  Nor coin of vantage, but this bird hath made
  His pendent bed, and procreant cradle: where they
  Most breed and haunt, I have observed, the air
  Is delicate."

There are some who differ from Hazlitt in the present day, and assert that
there is an error in the press in Dogberry's reproof of Borachio for
calling him an "ass." The passage as it stands is as follows:

    "I am a wise fellow; and which is more, an officer, and which is more,
    a _householder_, and which is more, as pretty a piece of flesh as any
    is in Messina, and one that knows the law, go to; and a rich fellow
    enough, go to; and a fellow that hath had _losses_, and one that hath
    two gowns, and everything handsome about him."

His having had losses evidently meaning, though he was then poor, that his
circumstances were at one time so prosperous, that he could afford to
_bear_ losses; and he, even then, had a superfluity of wardrobe in "two
gowns, and everything handsome about him." But this little word _losses_,
the perfect Shakspearian quaintness of which is universally acknowledged,
is to be changed into _leases_; if it should be _leases_, how is it that it
does not follow upon "householder," instead of being introduced so many
words after? as, if _leases_ were the proper word, it would assuredly have
suggested itself immediately as an additional item to his respectability as
a householder: for a moment only fancy similar corrections to be introduced
in others of Shakspeare's plays, and Falstaff be made to exclaim at the
robbery at Gad's Hill, "Down with them, they dislike us old men," instead
of "they hate us youth;" for Falstaff was no boy at the time, and this
might be advanced as an authority for the emendation. But seriously, if
this alteration is sent forth as a specimen of the improvements about to be
effected in Shakspeare, from an edition of his plays lately discovered, I
shall, for one, deeply regret that it was ever rescued front its oblivion;
for with my prejudices and prepossessions against interpolations, and in
favour of old readings, I shall find it no easy matter to reconcile my mind
to the new. Strip history of its romance, and you deprive it of its
principal charm; the scenery of a play-house imposes upon us an illusion,
and though we know it to be so, it is not essential that the impression
should be removed. I remember once travelling at night in Norfolk, and a
part of my way was through a wood, at the end of which I came upon a lake
lit up by a magnificent moon. I subsequently went the same road by day: the
wood, I then found, was a mere belt of trees, and the lake had dwindled to
a duck-pond. I have ever since wished that the first impression had
remained unchanged; but this is a digression. There is no author so
universal as Shakspeare, and would that be the case if he was not
thoroughly understood? He is appreciated alike in the closet and on the
stage, quoted by saints and sages, in the pulpit and the senate, and your
nostrum-monger advertises his wares with a quotation from his pages; does
he then require interpreting who is his own interpreter? Johnson says of
him that--

 "Panting Time toil'd after him in vain."

{76} And that he--

 "Exhausted worlds and then imagined new."

There is no passion that he has not pourtrayed, and laid bare in its beauty
or deformity; no feeling or affection to which his genius has not given the
stamp of immortality: and does he want an interpreter? It is treading on
dangerous ground to attempt to improve him. Even MR. KNIGHT, enthusiast as
he is in his veneration for Shakspeare, and who, by his noble editions of
the poet's works, has won the admiration and secured the gratitude of every
lover of the poet, has gone too far in his emendations when he changes a
line in _Romeo and Juliet_ from

 "Hence will I to my ghostly father's cell."


 "Hence will I to my ghostly friar's close cell."

As in the latter case the line will not scan unless the word "friar" be
reduced to a monosyllable, which, on reflection, I think MR. KNIGHT will be
inclined to admit. But my paper is, I fear, extending to a limit beyond
which you have occasionally warned your correspondents not to go, and I
must therefore draw my remarks to a close, with a hope that not any offence
will be taken where none is intended by those to whom any of my
observations may apply.



       *       *       *       *       *


Amongst the numerous emblematic works, it has often appeared to me that the
above work should be republished entire; to give any part of it would be
spoiling a most admirable series. I should desire to see it executed not as
a fac-simile, but improved by good modern artists. The history of "The
Dance of Death" is too long and too obscure to enter upon here; but from
the general tenor of the accounts and criticisms of the work, it does not
appear to have originated at all with Hans Holbein, or even his father, who
also really painted it at Basil, in Switzerland, but to have had its origin
in more remote times, as quoted in several authors, that anciently
monasteries usually had a painted representation of a Death's Dance upon
the walls. It is a subject, therefore, open to any artist, nor could it be
said he had pirated anything if he treated the subject after his own
fashion. "The Dance of Death" begins of course with king, the queen, the
bishop, the lawyer, the lovers, &c., and ends with the child, whom Death is
leading away from the weeping mother. The original plates of Hollar, from
Holbein's drawings, are possibly still extant, but they are by no means
perfect, although admirable in expression. The deaths or skeletons are very
ill-drawn as to the anatomical structure, and were they better the work
would be excellent. The Death lugging off the fat abbot is inimitable; and
the gallant way he escorts the lady abbess out the convent door is very
good. I have the engravings by Hollar, and have made some of the designs
afresh, intending to lithograph them at some future day; but there being
thirty subjects in all, the work would be a difficult task. Mr. J. B. Yates
might, indeed, with his excellent collection of Emblemata, revive this old
and beautiful taste now in abeyance: it is now rarely practised by our
painters. There is, however, a very fine picture in the Royal Academy
Exhibition, by Mr. Goodall, which is, strictly speaking, an emblem, though
the artist calls it an historical episode. Now it appears to me an episode
cannot be reduced into a representation; it might embrace a complete
picture in writing, but as I read the picture it is an emblem, and would
have been still more perfect had the painter treated it accordingly. The
old man at the helm of the barge might well represent Strafford, because,
though he holds the tiller, he is not engaged in steering right, his eyes
are not directed to his port. Charles himself, rightly enough, has his back
to the port, and is truly not engaged in manly affairs, nor attending to
his duty; but the sentiment of frivolity here painted cannot, I should say,
attach itself to him, for he is not to be reproached with idling away his
time with women and children, as this more strictly must be laid to his
son. But the port where some grim-looking men are seriously waiting for
him, completes a very happy and poetical idea, but incomplete as an emblem,
which it really is; and were the emblematic rules more cultivated, it would
have told its story much better.

At present, the taste of the day lies in more direct caricature, and our
volatile friend _Punch_ does the needful in his wicked sallies of wit, and
his fertile pencil. His sharp rubs are perhaps more effective to John
Bull's temper, who can take a blow with Punch's truncheon and bear no
malice after it,--the heavy lectures of the ancients are not so well suited
to his constitution.



       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Old Lines newly revived._--The old lines of spondees and dactyls are just
now applicable:--

  C[=o]nt[=u]rb[=a]b[=a]nt[=u]r C[=o]nst[=a]nt[=i]n[=o]p[)o]l[)i]t[=a]n[=i]
  Inn[)u]m[)e]r[=a]b[)i]l[)i]b[=u]s s[=o]l[)i]c[)i]t[=u]d[)i]n[)i]b[=u]s."



_Inscription near Cirencester._--In Earl Bathurst's park, near Cirencester,
stands a building--the resort in the summer months of occasional pic-nic
parties. During one of these visits, at which I {77} was present, I copied
an inscription, painted in old characters on a board, and nailed to one of
the walls, and as the whole thing had not the appearance of belonging to
modern times, and, as far as I could decipher it, it referred to some
agreement between Alfred and some of his neighbouring brother kings,
concerning boundaries of territory, I send it to you for insertion.




_Wordsworth._--In Wordsworth's touching "Lament of Mary Queen of Scots,"
one of the stanzas opens with:

 "_Born all too high; by wedlock rais'd_
  _Still higher_, to be brought thus low!"

Is it straining a point to suppose that the author has here translated the
opening words of the well-known epitaph on the Empress Matilda, mother of
our Henry II.?

 "_Ortu magna; viro major_; sed maxima prole;
  Hic jacet Henrici filia, sponsa, parens."

A. W.


"_Magna est Veritas et prævalebit._"--I was asked the other day whence came
this hackneyed quotation. It is taken from the uncanonical Scriptures, 3
Esdras iv. 41.:

    "Et desiit loquendo: Et omnes populi clamaverunt, et dixerunt: Magna
    est veritas, et _prævalet_."

T. H. DE H.

"_Putting your Foot into it._"--The legitimate origin of this term I have
seen thus explained. Perhaps it may pass as correct until a better be
found. According to the _Asiatic Researches_, a very curious mode of trying
the title to land is practised in Hindostan. Two holes are dug in the
disputed spot, in each of which the lawyers on either side put one of their
legs, and remain there until one of them is tired, or complains of being
stung by insects, in which case his client is defeated. An American writer
has remarked that in the United States it is generally the _client_, and
not the _lawyer_, "who puts his foot in it."

W. W.


       *       *       *       *       *



Dr. Maitland, in his valuable volume on the "Dark Ages," has the following
remarks on a subject which I think has not met with the attention it

    "Those who are in the habit of looking at such things, know how
    commonly early printed books, whose binding has undergone the
    analytical operation of damp, or mere old age, disclose the under end
    pieces of beautiful and ancient manuscript. They know how freely
    parchment was used for backs and bands, and fly-leaves, and even for
    covers. The thing is so common, that those who are accustomed to see
    old books _have ceased to notice it_."

In order to come within the design of your pages, I must put this in the
shape of a Query, and ask, if it is not a pity that this fact has _ceased
to be noticed_? We do not know what treasures may be contained in the
shabby covers which we contemplate getting rid of. "There are thousands"
(of MSS.), says the same writer, "equally destroyed,--thousands of murdered
wretches not so completely annihilated: their ghosts do walk the earth;
they glide unseen into our libraries, our studies, our very hands; they are
all about and around us. We even take them up and lay them down, without
knowing of their existence; unless time and damp (as if to punish and mock
us for robbing them of their prey) have loosed their bonds, and set them to
confront us."

Archbishop Tenison had not "ceased to notice it." He very diligently
rescued these "fragments" from the hands of his bookbinder and it is to be
regretted that he did not take equal precaution in preserving them.
Recently, all that I could collect have been cleaned, inlaid, and arranged
chronologically, making two interesting and valuable volumes.

How far would it be desirable to unite for the purpose of collecting MS.
fragments, and early printed leaves?

Might not a Society, which should have for its especial object the
_discovery_, cataloguing, and circulating information about these stray
bits, be of great service? _E. g._ I have before me five volumes of
Justinian's _Codices_ and _Digesta_, Paris, 1526; the covers of which are
made of MS. Thirteen leaves go to make one board. They are written on both
sides and thus an easy multiplication gives us 260 pages of MS., or early
printing, in the covers of one work!

It is not unlikely that, if the results of research in this direction were
carefully registered, many perfect pieces might be recovered.


Archbishop Tenison's Library, St. Martin-in-the-Fields.

       *       *       *       *       *



I have just met with a passage in the _Pseudodoxia Epidemica_ of Sir Thomas
Browne, wherein this invention is foreshadowed in terms more remarkable and
significant, if less imaginative and beautiful, than that from _The
Spectator_, to which public attention has already been directed, and which,
I conceive, must unquestionably have been written, with this particular
example of the "received tenets and commonly presumed truths" of the
learned physician's day, distinctly present to the mind of Addison. The
passage referred to is as follows:

    "There is another conceit of better notice, and _whispered thorow the
    world_ with some attention; credulous and vulgar auditors readily
    believing it, and more judicious and distinctive heads not altogether
    rejecting it. The conceit is excellent, and, if the effect would
    follow, somewhat divine: whereby we might communicate like spirits, and
    confer on earth with Menippus in the moon. And this is pretended from
    the sympathy of two needles touched with the same loadstone, and placed
    in the centre of two abecedary circles, or rings with letters described
    round about them, one friend keeping one, and another the other, and
    agreeing upon the hour wherein they will communicate. For then, _saith
    tradition_, at what distance of place soever, when one needle shall be
    removed unto any letter, the other, by a wonderful sympathy, will move
    unto the same."--Book II. chap. ii, 4to., 1669, p. 77.

Thus it is that "coming events cast their shadows before:" and, in the
present case, one is curious to learn how far back the _shadow_ may be
traced. By whom has this _conceit_ been _whispered thorow the world_? and
in what musty tomes is that _tradition_ concealed, which speaks concerning
it? Kircher's _Catena Magnetica_ might haply tell us something in reply to
these inquiries.

In conformity with an often repeated suggestion to the correspondents of
"N. & Q.," to the simple signature of my _habitat_, alone hitherto adopted
by me, I now subjoin my name.



       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Sir Walter Raleigh._--In the discussions on the copyright question some
years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh was mentioned as one of the authors whose
posterity is totally extinct; but in his Life, as given in _Lodge's
Portraits_, his descendants are given as far down as his
great-grandchildren, of whom many were still living in 1699, at which
period, says Mr. Lodge, my information ceases. It seems unlikely that a
family then so numerous should have utterly perished since, both in its
male and female branches; and perhaps some of your correspondents may be
able to trace their subsequent history: the _name_ is certainly not
extinct, whether its bearers be his descendants or not.

Is the gallant Sir Walter Raleigh Gilbert descended from one of Sir
Walter's half-brothers?


_Ancient Fortifications: Hertstone, Pale, Brecost._--In the Clause Rolls,
16 John, M. 6. (_Public Records_, vol. i. p. 192.) is a warrant of King
John's, addressed to the bailiffs of Peter de Maulay of Doncaster, as

    "Mandam' vob' q[=d] villa de Danecast[=r] claudi faciatis heritone et
    palo sc[=d]m q[=d] fossatu f[=cm] exigit, et una leve bretasca fi
    faciatis su[p=] ponte ad villa defendenda."

Which, in Miller's History of that town (p. 40.), is thus translated:

    "We command ye, cause the town of Doncaster to be inclosed with
    _hertstone_ and _pale_, according as the ditch that is made doth
    require; and that ye make a light _brecost_ or barbican upon the
    bridge, to defend the town."

I shall be obliged by being informed if _hertstone_ is the correct
translation of the word "heritone," and, if so, what species of
fortification it was. _Pale_ is probably a defence composed of high wooden
stakes. _Brecost_ is questionable, I imagine, and should most likely be
spelt _bretesk_ or _bretex_. I shall be glad, however, of explanations of
the words.

C. J.

_Newton and Somers._--It has been said that there is a complimentary
allusion to Somers in Newton's writings. Where?


_Daventry, Duel at._--

 "Veni Daintreo cum puella,
  Procerum celebre duello."

 "Thence to Daintree with my jewel,
  Famous for a noble duel."--_Drunken Barnaby's Journal._

Can any Northamptonshire reader of "N. & Q." say between whom, and when,
this duel took place?

J. H. L.

_Passage in Burial Service._--Whence comes the expression in the Burial
Service, "In the midst of life we are in death." I have observed that Mr.
Palmer, in his _Origines Liturgicæ_, refers for a parallel passage to
ancient liturgies, but, if I mistake not, to none but those used in
England. The passage is very scriptural: but I do not believe it exists in
the Bible.

J. G. T.

"_They shot him on the nine-stane rig._"--Where is the ballad beginning
with the words--

 "They shot him on the nine-stane rig,
    Beside the headless cross."

to be found? Who is the author?


_Wardhouse, and Fishermen's Custom there._--In a MS. local history, written
in 1619, there is this {79} passage: "They bought herrings during the
season, and then departed, _as those fishermen which kill fish at Wardhouse
do use to do at present_."

Where was Wardhouse, and what was the custom there?

C. J. P.

Great Yarmouth.

"_Adrian turn'd the bull._"--In an old MS. in my possession, the following
verse occurs:--

 "Of whate'er else your head be full,
  Remember Adrian turn'd the bull;
 'Tis time that you should turn the chase,
  Kick out the knave and take the place."

Would any of the correspondents of "N. & Q." be so good as to explain to me
the reference in the second line of the verse?

G. M.

_Cary's "Palæologia Chronica._"--I have an old book entitled:

    "Palæologia Chronica; a Chronological Account of Ancient Time.
    Performed by Robert Cary, D.LL., Devon. London: printed by J. Darby,
    for Richard Chiswell, at the Rose and Crown in St. Paul's Church Yard,

and shall be glad to be informed whether the author was any relation of Dr.
Valentine Carey, who was consecrated bishop of Exeter in 1620, and died in
1626. (See Walton's _Life of Dr. Donne_.)


Bradford, Yorkshire.

_The Southwark Pudding Wonder._--I have been very much pleased with the
perusal of a collection of MS. letters, written by the celebrated antiquary
William Stukeley to Maurice Johnson, Esq., the founder of the Gentlemen's
Society at Spalding. These letters have not been published; the MSS. exist
in the library of the Spalding Society. They contain much interesting
matter, and furnish many traits of the manners, character, and modes of
thinking and acting of their respected author.

Can any of your readers explain the meaning of the following passage, which
is found in a letter dated 19th June, 1718: "_The Southwark Pudding wonder
is over?_"

In the same letter the Dr. alludes to a contested election for the office
of Chamberlain of the City of London, which took place in 1718:

    "The city is all in an uproar about the election of a chamberlain, like
    a country corporation for burgesses, where roast pig and beef and wine
    are dealt about freely at taverns, and advertisements about it more
    voluminous than the late celebrated Bangorean Notification, though not
    in a calm and undisturbed way."


Stoke Newington.

_Roman Catholics confined in Fens of Ely._--Mr. Dickens, in _Household
Words_, No. 169. p. 382., in the continuation of a "Child's History of
England," says, when alluding to the threatened invasion of England by the
Spanish Armada:

    "Some of the Queen's advisers were for seizing the principal English
    Catholics, and putting them to death; but the queen--who, to her
    honour, used to say that she would never believe any ill of her
    subjects, which a parent would not believe of her own
    children--neglected the advice, and only confined a few of those who
    were the most suspected among them, in the fens of Lincolnshire."

Mr. Dickens had, of course, as he supposed, good authority for making this
statement; but, in reply to a private communication, he states it should
have been _Fens of Ely_. I am, perhaps convicting myself of gross ignorance
by seeking for information respecting it; nevertheless, I venture to ask
the readers of at "N. & Q." for a reference to the authentic history, where
a corroboration of Mr. Dickens' statement is to be found?


Stoke Newington.

_White Bell Heather transplanted._--Is it generally known that _white bell_
heather becomes _pink_ on being transplanted from its native hills into a
garden? Two plants were shown to me a few days ago, by a country neighbour,
flowering pink, which were transplanted, the one three, and the other two,
years ago; the former had white bells for two years, the latter for one
year only. What I wish to know is, Whether these are exceptional cases or

W. C.


_Green's "Secret Plot."_--Can you inform me where the scene of the
following drama is laid, and the names of the _dramatis personæ_? _The
Secret Plot_; a tragedy by Rupert Green, 12mo., 1777. The author of this
play, which was published when he was only in his ninth year, was the son
of Mr. Valentine Green, who wrote a history of Worcester.

A. Z.

"_The full Moon brings fine Weather._"--When did this saying originate, and
have we any proof of its correctness? The late Duke of Wellington is
reported to have said, that, as regarded the weather, it was "nonsense to
have any faith in the moon." (Vide Larpent's _Private Journal_, vol. ii. p.

W. W.


_Nash the Artist._--In the year 1802, Mr. F. Nash made a water-colour
drawing of the Town Hall, churches, &c., in the High Street of the ancient
borough of Dorchester; a line engraving (now rather scarce) was shortly
afterwards published therefrom by Mr. J. Frampton, then a bookseller in the
town. Can any reader of the {80} "N. & Q." inform me what Mr. Nash this
was, and what became of him? Was he related to the _Castles and Abbeys_



_Woodwork of St. Andrew's Priory Church, Barnwell._--The Cambridge
Architectural Society, which is now attempting the restoration of St.
Andrew's Priory Church, Barnwell, will feel deeply indebted to any of your
readers who can give them any information respecting the carved woodwork
removed from that church some forty years ago, to make way for the present
hideous arrangement of pews and pulpit. A man who lives on the spot speaks
of a fine wood screen, and highly decorated pulpit, some portions of which
were sold by auction; and the rest was in his possession for some time, and
portions of it were given away by him to all who applied for it.


Trin. Coll. Camb.

"_The Mitre and the Crown._"--I find the following work, at first published
anonymously, reprinted as Dr. Atterbury's in Sir Walter Scott's edition of
the _Somers' Tracts_. No reason is assigned by the editor for ascribing it
to him, and I should be glad to know whether there is any satisfactory
evidence for doing so. The original tract appears as anonymous the Bodleian

    "The Mitre and the Crown, or a real Distinction between them: in a
    Letter to a Reverend Member of the Convocation: Lond. 1711, 8vo."

[Greek: Halieus].


_Military Music._--Was military music ever played at night in the time of
King Charles I.?



       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Stoven Church._--Can you give me any information concerning the _original_
church of Stoven, Suffolk, which was of good Norman work throughout, as
lately ascertained by the vast number of Norman mouldings found in the
walls in restoring it?

L. (2)

    [In Jermyn's "Suffolk Collections," vol. vi. (Add. MSS. 8173.), in the
    British Museum, are the following Notes of this church, taken 1st June,
    1808, by H. I. and D. E. D.: "The Church consists of a nave and
    chancel, both under one roof, which is covered with thatch. The chancel
    is 30 ft. 3 in. long, and 15 ft. 5 in. wide. The communion-table is
    neither raised nor inclosed. The floor of the whole church is also of
    the same height. The nave is 30 ft. long, and 16 ft. 1 in. wide.
    Between the chancel and nave are the remains of a screen, and over it
    the arms of George II., between two tables containing the Lord's
    Prayer, &c. In the N. E. angle is the pulpit, which is of oak, hexagon,
    ordinary, as are also the pews and seats. At the W. end stands the
    font, which is octagon, the faces containing roses and lions, and two
    figures holding blank escutcheons, the pedestal supported by four
    lions. The steeple is in the usual place, small, square, of flints, but
    little higher than the roof. In it is only one bell, inscribed 1759.
    The entrance into the church on the N. side is through a circular Saxon
    arch, not much ornamented. On the side is another of the same
    description, but more ornamented, with zig-zag moulding, &c." Then
    follow the inscriptions, &c. in the chancel, of Mrs. Elizabeth Brown,
    John Brown, Thomas Brown; in the nave, of Henry Keable, with extracts
    from the parish register commencing in 1653.]

_The Statute of Kilkenny._--Said to have been passed in 1364. What was the
nature of it?


    [This statute legally abolished the ancient code of the Irish, called
    the Brehon laws, and was passed in a parliament held at Kilkenny in the
    40th Edward III., under the government of Lionel, Duke of Clarence,
    Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. By this act, the English are commanded in
    all controversies to govern themselves by the common laws of England,
    so that whoever submitted himself to the Brehon law, or the law of the
    Marches, is declared a traitor. Among other things the statute enacted
    that "the alliaunce of the English by marriage with any Irish, the
    nurture of infantes, and gossipred with the Irish, be deemed high
    treason." And again, "If anie man of English race use an Irish name,
    Irish apparell, or any other guize or fashion of the Irish, his lands
    shall be seized, and his bodie imprisoned, till he shall conform to
    English modes and customs." This statute was followed by the 18th Henry
    VI. c. i. ii. iii., and the 28th Hen. VI., c. i., with similar
    prohibitions and penalties. These prohibitions, however, had little
    effect; nor were the English laws universally submitted to throughout
    Ireland until the time of James I., when the final extirpation of the
    ancient Brehon law was effected.]

_Kenne of Kenne._--Can any of your Kentish correspondents inform me to whom
a certain Christ. Kenne of Kenne, in co. Somerset, sold the manor of
"Oakley," in the parish of Higham, near Rochester; and in whose possession
it was about the close of the reign of Queen Elizabeth or commencement of
James I.?

The above Kenne, by marrying Elizabeth, the daughter of Sir Roger
Cholmeley, and widow of Sir Leonard Beckwith, of Selby, in co. York,
acquired possession of the same manor in co. Kent.

After the death of his first wife, he married a Florence Stalling, who
survived him. He died in 1592.

F. T.

    ["Christopher Kenne of Kenne, in the county of Somerset, Esq., was
    possessed of the manor of Little Okeley, in Higham, Kent, in the right
    of his wife, the daughter and co-heir of Sir Roger Cholmeley, anno {81}
    22 Eliz.; and then, having levied a fine of it, sold it to Thompson,
    and he, in the reign of Charles I., alienated it to Best."--_Hasted._

    Of course, the Christian name of Thompson, and other particulars if
    required, can be obtained by a reference to the foot of the fine in the
    Record Office, Carlton Ride.]

_Rents of Assize, &c._--In the _Valor Ecclesiasticus_, the following
varieties of income derived from rent of land constantly recur, viz.:

 "De redditu (simply).
  De redditu assisæ.
  De redditu libero.
  De redditu ad voluntatem."

Can the distinction between these be exactly explained by any corresponding
annual payments for land according to present custom? And will any of your
readers be kind enough to give such explanation?


    [_Redditus._--Rents from lands let out to tenants; modern farm rents.

    _Redditus Assisæ._--Quit rents: fixed sums paid by the tenants of a
    manor annually to the lord; as in modern times.

    _Redditus Liberi._--Those quit rents which were paid to the lord by
    "liberi tenentes," freeholders; as distinguished from "villani bassi
    tenentes," &c.

    _Redditus ad voluntatem._--Annual payments "ad voluntatem donatium;"
    such as "confrana," &c. The modern Easter Offering perhaps corresponds
    with them.]

_Edifices of Ancient and Modern Times._--Can any of your architectural or
antiquarian readers inform me where a chronological list of the principal
edifices of ancient and modern times can be found?


    [Consult _Chronological Tables of Ancient and Modern History
    Synchronistically and Ethnographically arranged_, fol., Oxford, 1835.
    For those relating to Great Britain, see Britton's _Chronological and
    Historical Illustrations_, and his _Architectural Antiquities of Great

_Gorram._--Please to direct me where I can find a short account of Gorram,
an ecclesiastical writer (I suppose) mentioned by D'Aubigné, vol. v. p.

L. (2)

    [The divine alluded to by D'Aubigné is no doubt Nicholas de Gorran, a
    Dominican, confessor to Philip the Fair of France. He was an admired
    and eloquent preacher, and his Sermons, together with a Commentary on
    the Gospels, appeared at Paris, 1523 and 1539. He died in 1295.]

"_Rock of Ages._"--Who is the author of the hymn beginning "Rock of Ages?"

J. G. T.

    [That celebrated advocate for _The Calvinism of the Church of England_,
    the Rev. Augustus Montague Toplady.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vii., p. 591.)

Responding to the challenge of your correspondent MR. ANDREWS, I copy the
following from my common-place book:

_From Lintot's memorandum-book of "Copies when purchased."_

                                                      £   s.  d.
  1705. Recruiting Officer                           16   2   6
  1706. Beaux Stratagem                              30   0   0


  1712. The Miller's Tale, with some characters
    from Chaucer                                      5   7   6

  _Mr. Centlivre._

  1703. May 14.  Love's Contrivance                  10   0   0
  1709. May 14.  Busy Body                           10   0   0

  _Mr. Cibber._

  1701. Nov. 8.  A third of Love's Last Shift         3   4   6
  1705. Nov. 5.  Perolla and Izadora                 36  11   0
  1707. Oct. 27. Double Gallant                      16   2   6
        Nov. 22. Lady's Last Stake                   32   5   0
        Feb. 26. Venus and Adonis                     5   7   6
  1708. Oct. 9.  Comical Lover                       10  15   0
  1712. Mar. 16. Cinna's Conspiracy                  13   0   0
  1718. Oct. 1.  The Nonjuror                       105   0   0

  _Mr. Gay._

  1713. May 12.  Wife of Bath                        25   0   0
  1714. Nov. 11. Letter to a Lady                     5   7   6
  1715. Feb. 14. The What-d'ye-call-it?              16   2   6
        Dec. 22. Trivia                              43   0   0
                 Epistle to the Earl of Burlington   10  15   0
  1717. May 4.   Battle of the Frogs                 16   2   6
        Jan. 8.  Three Hours after Marriage          43   2   6
                 Revival of the Wife of Bath         75   0   0
        The Mohocks, a farce       2l. 10s.
        Sold the Mohocks to him again.
                                                    234  10   0

  _Captain Killegrew._

  1718-l9. Feb. 14. Chit Chat                        84   0   0

  _Mr. Ozell._

  1711. Nov. 18. } Translating Homer's Iliad,
  1712. Jan. 4.  }     books i. ii. iii.             10   8   6
  1713. April 29. Translating Molière                37  12   6

  _N. Rowe, Esq._

        Dec. 12.  Jane Shore                         50  15   0
  1715. April 27. Jane Grey                          73   5   0


  1727. July 14. A Collection of Poems.              35  15   0



  1712. Feb. 19. Statius, 1st book, and Verstumnus
                 and Pomona                          16   2   6
        Mar. 21. First edition of the Rape            7   0   0
        April 9. To a lady presenting Voiture.
        Upon Silence. To the author
        of a poem called Successio                    3  16   6

  1712-13. Windsor Forest (Feb. 23)                  32   5   0

  1713. July 23. Ode to St. Cecilia's Day            15   0   0

  1714. Feb. 20. Addition to the Rape                15   0   0
        Mar. 23. Homer, vol. i.                     215   0   0
        650 copies on royal paper                   176   0   0

  1715. Feb. 1. Temple of Fame                       32   5   0
        April 21. Key to the Lock                    10  15   0

  1716. Feb. 9. Homer, vol. ii.                     215   0   0
        May 2.  650 royal paper                     150   0   0
        July 17. Essay on Criticism                  15   0   0

  1717. Aug. 9. Homer, vol. iii.                    215   0   0

  1718. Jan. 6.  650 royal paper                    150   0   0
        Mar. 3.  Homer, vol. iv.                    210   0   0
                 650 royal paper                    150   0   0
        Oct. 17. Homer, vol. v.                     210   0   0

  1719. April 6. 650 royal paper                    150   0   0

  1720. Feb. 26. Homer, vol. vi.                    210   0   0
        May 7.   650 royal paper                    150   0   0

  1721. Parnell's Poems                              15   0   0
        Paid Mr. Pope for the subscription-money
        due on the 2nd volume of his
        Homer, and on his 5th volume, at
        the agreement for the said 5th vol.--(I
        had Mr. Pope's assignment for
        the royal paper that was then left of
        his Homer)                                  840   0   0

  Copy-money for the Odyssey, vols. i. ii. iii.,
    and 750 of each volume printed on royal
    paper, 4to.                                     615   0   0

  Copy-money for the Odyssey, vols. iv. and
    v., and 750 of each royal                       425  18   7½
                                                  £4244   8   7½

From that storehouse of instruction and amusement, Nichols's _Anecdotes_,
vol. viii. pp. 293-304.

I take this opportunity of forwarding to you a curious memorandum which I
found in rummaging the papers of a "note-maker" of the last century. It
appears to be a bill of fare for the entertainment of a party, upon the
"flitch of bacon" being decreed to a happy couple. It is at Harrowgate, and
not at Dunmow, which would lead us to believe that this custom was not
confined to one county. The feast itself is almost as remarkable, as
regards its component parts, as that produced by Mr. Thackeray, in his
delightful "Lectures," as characteristic of polite feeding in Queen Anne's

    "_June 25.--Mr. and Mrs. Liddal's Dinner at Green Dragon, Harrowgate,
    on taking Fflitch Bacon Oath._

          _Bill Fare._
      Beans and bacon.
      Cabbage, colliflower.
      Three doz. chickens.
      Two shoulders mutton, cowcumbers.
      Two turbets.
      Rump beef, &c. &c.
      Goose and plumbpudding.
      Quarter lamb, sallad.
      Tarts, jellies, strawberries, cream.
      Cherrys, syllabubs, and blomonge.
      Leg lamb, spinnage.
      Crawfish, pickled salmon.
      Fryd tripe, calves' heads.
      Gravy and Pease soup.
      Two piggs.
      Breast veal, ragoud.
      Ice cream, pine apple.
      Surloin beaf.
      Pidgeons, green peas.
      Lobsters, crabs.
      Twelve red herrings, twenty-two dobils."

W. R.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 489.)

Perhaps the following may be of service as a farther illustration of this

Zacharie Boyd says, in _The Last Battell of the Sovle in Death_, 1629,
reprinted Glasgow, 1831, at p. 469.:

    "Now after his Battell ended hee hath surrendered the spirit,
    _Clepsydra effluxit_, his _houre-glasse_ is now runne out, and his
    soule is come to its wished home, where it is free from the fetters of

This divine was minister of the barony parish of Glasgow, the church for
which was then in the crypt of the cathedral. I have no doubt the
hour-glass was there used from which he draws his simile. Your
correspondent refers to sermons an hour long, but, to judge from the
contents of "Mr. Zacharie's" MS. sermons still preserved in the library of
the College of Glasgow, each, at the rate of ordinary speaking, must have
occupied at least an hour and a half in delivery. When he had become infirm
and near his end, and had found it necessary to shorten his sermons, his
"kirk session" was offended, as--

    "Feb. 13, 1651. Some are to speak to Mr. Z. Boyd about the soon
    skailing (dismissing) of the Baronie Kirk on Sunday afternoon."

Though sermons are now generally restricted from three quarters to an
hour's delivery, the practice of long preaching in the olden times in the
west of Scotland had much prevailed. Within my own recollection I have
heard sermons of nearly two hours' duration; and early among a few classes
of the first Dissenters, on "Sacramental Occasions" as they are yet called,
the services lasted altogether (not unfrequently) continuously from ten
o'clock on Sabbath forenoon, to three and {83} four o'clock the following
morning. A traditional anecdote is current of an old Presbyterian
clergyman, unusually full of matter, who, having preached out his
hour-glass, was accustomed to pause, and addressing the precentor,
"_Another glass and then_," recommenced his sermon.

A pictorial representation of the hour-glass in a country church is to be
seen in front of the precentor's desk, or pulpit, in a very scarce
humorsome print, entitled "Presbyterian Penance," by the famous David
Allan. It also figures in the engraving of the painting by Wilkie, of John
Knox preaching before Mary Queen of Scots. About twenty years ago it was
either in the Cathedral of Stirling or the Armory of the Castle (the
ancient chapel), that I saw the hour-glass (about twelve inches high) which
had been connected with one or other of the pulpits, from both of which
John Knox is said to have preached. It is likely the hour-glass is there
"even unto this day" (unless abstracted by some relic hunter); and if it
could be depended on as an original appendage to the pulpits, would prove
that its use was coeval with the times of the Scottish Reformation. I think
its high antiquity as certain as the oaken pulpits themselves.

At an early period the general poverty of the country, and the scarcity of
clocks and watches, must have given rise to the adoption of the hour
sand-glass, a simple instrument, but yet elegant and impressive, for the
measurement of a brief portion of our fleeting span.

G. N.


On the 31st May, 1640, the churchwardens of great Staughton, co.
Huntingdonshire, "are, and stand charged with (among other church goods), a
pulpit standinge in the church, having a cover over the same, and an
houre-glasse adjoininge."

Copy of a cutting from a magazine, name and date unknown:

    "Among Dr. Rawlinson's manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, No. 941
    contains collection of _Miscellaneous Discourses_, by Mr. Lewis of
    Margate, in Kent, whence the following extract has been made:

    "'It appears that these hour-glasses were coeval with our Reformation.
    In a fine frontispiece, prefixed to the Holy Bible of the bishops'
    translation, printed in 4to. by John Day, 1569, Archbishop Parker is
    represented in the pulpit with an hour-glass standing on his right
    hand; ours, here, stood on the left without any frame. It was proper
    that some time should be prescribed for the length of the sermon, and
    clocks and watches were not then so common as they are now. This time
    of an hour continued till the Revolution, as appears by Bishop
    Sanderson's, Tillotson's, Stillingfleet's, Dr. Barrow's, and others'
    sermons, printed during that time.'

    "The writer of this article was informed in 1811 by the Rev. Mr.
    Burder, who had the curacy of St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street, that the
    large silver hour-glass formerly used in that church, was melted down
    into two staff heads for the parish beadles.

    "An hour-glass frame of iron, fixed in the wall by the side of the
    pulpit, was remaining in 1797 in the church of North Moor, in


St. Neots, Huntingdonshire.

In many of our old pulpits built during the seventeenth century, when hour
sermons were the rule, and thirty minutes the exception, the shelf on which
the glass used to stand may still be seen. If I recollect rightly, that of
Miles Coverdale was thus furnished, as stated in the newspapers, at the
time the church of Bartholomew was removed. Perhaps this emblem was adopted
on gravestones as significant of the character of Death as a minister or

The late Basil Montague, when delivering a course of lectures on "Laughter"
at the Islington Institution some few years since, kept time by the aid of
this antique instrument. If I remember aright, he turned the glass and
said, "_Another glass and then_," or some equivalent expression.


There is an example at the church of St. Alban, Wood Street, Cheapside.
This church was rebuilt by Sir C. Wren, and finished 1685; showing that the
hour-glass was in use subsequent to the times alluded to.


I saw on 13th January last, an iron hour-glass stand affixed to a pillar in
the north aisle of Belton Church, in the Isle of Axholme.


Bottesford Moors, Kirton-in-Lindsey.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 571.)

The subject of the Query put by your correspondent is one that has
frequently occurred to me, but which is involved in obscurity. Heraldic
writers generally have contented themselves with the mere statement of
ladies' arms being thus borne; and where we do find an opinion hazarded, it
is more in the form of a quotation from a nameless author, or of a timid
suggestion, than an attempt to elucidate the question by argument or from

By some this form of shield is said to have descended to us from the
Amazons, who bore such: others say, from the form of their tombstones! Now
we find it to represent the ancient spindle so much used by ladies; and
again to be a shield found by the Romans unfit for use, and therefore
transferred to the weaker sex, who were "allowed to place their ensigns
upon it, with one corner always uppermost." {84}

Here are quotations from a few of our writers on the science of Heraldry:--

BURKE, _Encyclop. Herald._ 1844. Queen Victoria bears her arms on a full
and complete shield; "for," says the old rhyme--

 "Our sagest men of lore define
  The kingly state as masculine,
  Paiseant, martial bold and strong,
  The stay of right, the scourge of wrong;
  Hence those that England's sceptre wield,
  Must buckle on broad sword and shield,
  And o'er the land, and o'er the sea,
  Maintain her sway triumphantly."

This, unfortunately, is only one side of the question: and, though
satisfactorily accounting for the shape of the shield of royalty, does not
enlighten us on the "origin and meaning" of the lozenge.

BARRINGTON, _Display of Heraldry_, 1844:--

    "An unmarried daughter bears her father's arms on a lozenge-shaped
    shield, without any addition or alteration."

BERRY, _Encycl. Herald._ 1830:--

    "The arms of maidens and widows should be borne in shields of this

ROBSON, _British Herald_, 1830:--

    "Lozenge, a four-cornered figure, differing from the fusil, being
    shorter and broader. Plutarch says that in Megara [read Megura], an
    ancient town of Greece, _the tombstones under which the bodies of
    Amazons lay_ were of that form: some conjecture this to be the cause
    why ladies have their arms on lozenges."

PORNY, _Elements of Heraldry_, 1795, supposes--

    "The lozenge may have been originally a _fusil_, or _fusée_, as the
    French call it: it is a figure longer than the lozenge, and _signifies
    a spindle_, which is a woman's instrument."

This writer also quotes _Sylvester de Petra Sancta_, who would have this
shield to "_represent a cushion_, whereon women used to sit and spin, or do
other housewifery."

BRYDSON, _Summary View of Heraldry_, 1795:--

    "The shields on which armorial bearings are represented are of various
    forms, as round, oval, or somewhat resembling a heart; which last is
    the most common form. Excepting sovereigns, women unmarried, or widows,
    bear their arms on a lozenge shield, which is of a square form, so
    placed as to have one of its angles upwards, _and is supposed to
    resemble a distoff_."

BOYES, _Great Theatre of Honour_, 1754. In this great work the various
forms of shields, and the etymology of their names, are treated on at
considerable length. The Greeks had five:--the _Aspis_, the _Gerron_ or
_Gerra_, the _Thurios_, the _Laiveon_, and the _Pelte_ or _Pelta_. The
Romans had the _Ancile_, the _Scutum_, the _Clypeus_, the _Parma_, the
_Cetra_, and others; but none of these approached the shape of the lozenge.
The shields of modern nations are also dealt with at length; still the
author appears to have had no information nor an opinion upon the lozenge,
which he dismisses with these remarks:--

    "L'écu des filles est _en lozenge_, de même de celui des veuves; et en
    France et ailleurs, celles-ci l'ornent et l'entourent d'une cordelière
    ou cordon à divers neuds. Quant aux femmes mariées, elles accollent
    d'ordinaire leurs armes avec celles de leurs époux; mais quelquefois
    elles les portent aussi _en lozenge_."

COATES, _Dictionary of Heraldry_, 1725, quotes Colombière, a French herald,
who, he says, gives upwards of thirty examples of differently formed
shields; but no allusion is made to the lozenge.

CARTER, _Honor Redivivus_, 1660.

DUGDALE, _Ancient Usage in bearing Arms_, 1682.

GWILLIM, _Display of Heraldry_, 1638.

CAMDEN, _Remains_, 1637.

GERARD LEGH, _Accedence of Armorie_, 1576.

None of these authors have touched on the subject; which, considering that
at the least two of them are the greatest authorities, appears somewhat

FERNE, _Blazon of Gentrie_, 1586--

    "Thinks the lozenge is formed of the shield called _Tessera_ or
    _Tessela_, which the Romans, finding unfit for use, did allow to women
    to place their ensigns upon, with one of its angles always upmost."

Though unable at this moment to furnish examples in proof of my opinion, I
must say that it is contrary to the one expressed by your correspondent
CEYREP, that "formerly all ladies of rank" bore their arms upon a complete
shield, or bore shields upon their seals. The two instances cited by him
are rather unfortunate, the connexion of both ladies with royalty being
sufficiently close to suggest the possibility of their right to the "full
and complete" shield.

Margaret, Duchess (not Countess) of Norfolk, was sole heir of her father,
Thomas of Brotherton, fifth Earl of Norfolk, son of King Edward I., and
Marshal of England. She, "for the greatness of her birth, her large
revenues and wealth," was created Duchess of Norfolk for life; and at the
coronation of King Richard II. she exhibited her petition "to be accepted
to the office of High Marshal," which was, I believe, granted. In such
case, setting aside her royal descent, I apprehend that, by virtue of her
office, she would not bear her arms in a lozenge. She bore the arms of
England with only a label for difference.

Margaret, Countess of Richmond, was herself royally descended, being
great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, son of Edward III.; was
daughter-in-law of Henry V.'s widow, and mother of Henry VII. Being
descended from the antenuptial children of John of Gaunt's third wife, who
had been legitimatised by act of parliament for all purposes except
succession to the crown, {85} Henry VII. would probably desire by every
means in his power to suppress anything suggestive of his unsubstantial
title to the crown. It might be by his particular desire that his mother
assumed the full regal shield, on which to emblazon arms differing but
slightly from those of her son, the king.

It is not, however, my opinion that the form of shield under consideration
is anything like so ancient as some of the authors would make it. I do not
believe it comes to us either from the Amazons or the Romans.

My own opinion, in the absence of any from the great writers to guide me,
is, that we owe the use of this form of shield amongst ladies to
_hatchments_ or _funeral achievements_. During the time of mourning for
persons of rank, their coats of arms are set up in churches and over the
principal entrances of their houses. On these occasions it is well known
their arms are always placed in a large black lozenge; a form adopted as
the most proper figure for admitting the coats of arms of sixteen ancestors
to be placed round it, four on each of the sides of the square.

It was not until the reign of Richard III. that the College of Arms was
regularly incorporated; and though the science of heraldry received its
highest polish during the splendid reigns of Edward III. and Henry V., it
had yet scarcely been subjected to those rules which since the
establishment of the College have controlled it. Mark Noble, in his
_History of the College of Arms_, says that the latter reign--

    "If it did not add to the wealth of the nation at large, gave rise to a
    number of great families, enriched by the spoils of Azincourt, the
    plunder of France, and the ransom of princes. The heraldic body was
    peculiarly prized and protected by the king, who, however, was very
    whimsical in the adoption of cognizances and devices."

During the greater portion of the fourteenth century, and the early part of
the fifteenth, there was a rage for jousts, tilts, and tournaments; and
almost every English nobleman had his officers of arms; dukes, marquesses,
and earls were allowed a herald and pursuivant; the lower nobility, and
even knights, might retain one of the latter. To these officers belonged
the ordering of everything relating to the solemn and magnificent funerals,
which were so general in these centuries, and which they presided over and

During the reign of Edward IV. the exact form of these obsequies was
prescribed. Not only were the noblemen's own heralds there, but the king's
also; and not in tabards bearing the sovereign's, but the deceased's arms.

So preposterously fond of funeral rites were monarchs and their subjects,
that the obsequies of princes were observed by such sovereigns as were in
alliance with them, and in the same state as if the royal remains had been
conveyed from one Christian kingdom to another. Individuals had their
obsequies kept in various places where they had particular connexions.[3]

Is it too much then to presume that in the midst of all this pomp and
affectation of grief, the hatchment of the deceased nobleman would be
displayed as much, and continued as long, as possible by the widow? May we
not reasonably believe that these ladies would vie with each other in these
displays of the insignia of mourning, until, by usage, the lozenge-shaped
hatchment became the shield appropriated to the sex?

These hypotheses are not without some foundation; but if any of your
correspondents will enunciate another theory, I shall be glad to give it my
support if it is found to be more reasonable than the foregoing.


Bury, Lancashire.

[Footnote 3: Noble.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Multiplication of Photographs._--In Vol. viii., p. 60. is a letter from
MR. JOHN STEWART of Pau suggesting certain modes of operating in producing
positive photographs, and which suggestions are apparently offered as
_novelties_, when, in fact, they have been for some considerable time in
practice by other manipulators. Of course, I do not suppose that they are
otherwise regarded by MR. STEWART than as novelties, who cannot be
acquainted with what is doing here; but it appears to me desirable to
discriminate between facts that are _absolutely_, and those that are
_relatively_ new.

Most of the transparent stereoscopic photographs sold in such numbers by
all our eminent opticians, _are actually produced_ in the way recommended
by MR. STEWART; and reduced copies of photographs, &c., have been produced
in almost every possible variety by DR. DIAMOND, and many others of our
most eminent photographers. Very early in the history of this science, the
idea was suggested by Mr. Fox Talbot himself, of taking views of a small
size, and enlarging them for multiplication; and, if I am rightly informed,
Mr. Ross was applied to to construct a lens specially for the purpose. Some
months back, as early at least as March or April in the present year, Mr.
F. H. Wenham actually printed on common chloride paper a _life-size_
positive from a small negative on collodion; and immediately afterwards
adopted the use of iodized paper for the same purpose; and after he had
exhibited the proofs, I myself repeated the experiment. In fact, had there
been time at the last meeting of the Photographic Society, a paper on this
very subject would have been read by Mr. Wenham; but the {86} business
before the meeting was too extensive to admit of it. My object is not, of
course, to offer any objection to the proposition, but simply to put in a
claim of merit for the idea originally due to Mr. Fox Talbot, and
secondarily to Mr. Wenham, who I believe was an earlier operator in this
way than any one.


_Yellow Bottles for Photographic Chemicals._--As light transmitted through
a yellow curtain, or yellow glass, does not affect photographic operations,
would it not be desirable to keep the nitrate of silver and its solutions
in yellow glass bottles, instead of covering the plain white glass with
black paper, as I see directed in some cases?


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Donnybrook Fair_ (Vol. vii., p. 549.).--ABHBA will find his answer in
D'Alton's _History of the County of Dublin_, p. 804.:

    "About the year 1174, Earl 'Strongbow' gave Donnybrock (Devonalbroc),
    amongst other lands, to Walter de Riddlesford; and in 1204, King John
    granted to the corporation of Dublin license for an _annual eight-day
    fair here_, commencing on the day of the finding of the Holy Cross (May
    3rd), with similar stallages and tolls, as established in Waterford and

This scene of an Irishman's glory has been daguerreotyped in lines that may
be left in your pages, as being probably quite as little known to your
readers as is the work above cited:

 "Instead of weapons, either band
  Seized on such arms as came to hand.
  And as famed Ovid paints th' adventures
  Of wrangling Lapithæ and Centaurs,
  Who at their feast, by Bacchus led,
  Threw bottles at each others' head;
  And these arms failing in their scuffles,
  Attack'd with andirons, tonges, and shovels:
  So clubs and billets, staves and stones,
  Met fierce, encountering every sconce,
  And cover'd o'er with knobs and pains,
  Each void receptacle for brains."

J. D.

_Abigail_ (Vol. iv., p. 424.; Vol. v., pp. 38. 94. 450., Vol. viii., p.
42.).--Not having my "N. & Q." at hand, I cannot say what may have been
already told on this subject, but I think I can answer the Queries of your
last correspondent, H. T. RYLEY. There can be, I think, no doubt that the
familiar use of the name Abigail, for the _genus_ "lady's maid," is derived
from one whom I may call _Abigail the Great_; who, before she ascended King
David's bed and throne, introduced herself under the oft-reiterated
description of a "hand-maid." (See 1 Sam. xxv. 24, 25, 27, 28, 31.) I have
no _Concordance_ at hand, but I suspect there is no passage in Scripture
where the word _hand-maid_ is more prominent; and so the idea became
associated with the name _Abigail_. An _Abigail_ for a hand-maid is
therefore merely analogous to a _Goliath_ for a giant; a _Job_ for a
patient man; a _Samson_ for a strong one; a _Jezebel_ for a shrew, &c. I
need hardly add, that H. T. RYLEY'S conjecture, that this use of the term
_Abigail_ had any relation to the Lady Masham, is, therefore, quite
supererogative--but I may go farther. The old Duchess of Marlborough's
_Apology_, which _first_ told the world that Lady Masham's Christian name
was Abigail, and that she was a poor cousin of her own, was not published
till 1742, when all feeling about "Abigail Hill and her brother Jack" was
extinct. In fine, it will be found that the use of the term _Abigail_ for a
lady's maid was much more frequent _before_ the change of Queen Anne's Whig
ministry than _after_.


_Honorary Degrees_ (Vol. viii, p. 8.).--Honorary degrees give no corporate
rights. Johnson never himself assumed the title of Doctor; conferred on him
first by the University of Dublin in 1765, and afterwards in 1775 by that
of Oxford. See Croker's _Boswell_, p. 168. n. 5., for the probable motives
of Johnson's never having called himself Doctor.


_Red Hair_ (Vol. vii., p. 616.).--The Danes are said to have been (and to
be even now) a red-haired race.

They were long the scourge of England, and to this possibly may be
attributed in some degree the prejudice against people having hair of that

In Denmark, it is said, red-hair is esteemed a beauty.

That red-haired people are fiery and passionate is undoubtedly true; at
least I vouch for it as far as my experience goes; but that they emit a
disagreeable odour when inattentive to personal cleanliness, is probably a
vulgar prejudice arising from the colour of their hair, resembling that of
the fox--_unde_ the term "foxy."

A. C. M.


_Historical Engraving_ (Vol. vii., p. 619).--I am glad I happen to be able
to inform E. S. TAYLOR that his engraving, about the restoration of Charles
II., is to be found in a book entitled--

    "Verhael in forme van Journal, van de Reys ende 't Vertoeven van den
    seer Doorluchtige ende Machtige Prins Carel de II." &c. "In 's
    Graven-hage, by Adrian Vlack, M.DC.LX." &c.

Folio. The names at the corner of the engraving are apparently "F. T.
vliet, jn. P. Phillipe, sculp."

J. M. G.

_Proverbs quoted by Suetonius_ (Vol. vii., p. 594).--A full explanation of
the proverb [Greek: speude bradeôs] {87} will be found in the _Adagia_ of
Erasmus, under the head "Festina lente," p. 588., edit. 1599. That it was a
favourite proverb of the Emperor Augustus is also stated by Gellius, _Noct.
Att._ x. 11., and Macrob., Saturn. vi. 8. The verse,--

 "[Greek: asphalês gar est' ameinôn ê thrasus stratêlatês],"

is from the _Phoenissæ_ of Euripides, v. 599.


"_Sat cito, si sat bene_" (Vol. v., p. 594; Vol. viii., p. 18.).--Your
correspondent C. thinks that F. W. J. is mistaken in calling it a favourite
maxim of Lord Eldon. Few persons are more apt to make mistakes than
F. W. J. He therefore sends the following extract from Twiss's _Life of
Lord C. Eldon_, vol. i. p. 49. They are Lord Eldon's own words, after
having narrated the anecdote to which C. refers:

    "In short, in all that I have had to do in future life, professional
    and judicial, I have always felt the effect of this early admonition on
    the pannels of the vehicle which conveyed me from school, 'Sat cito, si
    sat bene.' It was the impression of this which made me that
    deliberative judge--as some have said, too deliberative; and reflection
    on all that is past will not authorise me to deny, that whilst I have
    been thinking 'Sat cito, si sat bene,' I may not sufficiently have
    recollected whether 'Sat bene, si sat cito' has had its influence."

The anecdote, and this observation upon it, are taken by Twiss from a book
of anecdotes in Lord Eldon's own handwriting.

F. W. J.

_Council of Laodicea, Canon 35._ (Vol. viii., p. 7.).--CLERICUS (D.) will
find _Angelos_ in the text, without _Angulos_ in the margin, in any volume
which contains the version by Dionysius Exiguus, or that by Gentianus
Hervetus; the former printed Mogunt. 1525; Paris, 1609, 1661, and 1687: the
latter, Paris, 1561 and 1618; and sufficiently supplied by Beverege and
Howell. Both translations are given by Crabbe, Surius, Binius, and others.

The corrupt reading _Angulos_, derived from Isidorus Mercator, appears in
the text, and without a marginal correction, in James Merlin's edition of
the _Councils_, Colon. 1530; in Carranza's _Summa_, Salmant. 1551, Lugd.
1601, Lovan. 1668 (in which last impression, the twelfth, the true heading
of the Canon, according to Dionysius and Crisconius, viz. "De his qui
_Angelos_ colunt," is restored); and in the _Sanctiones Ecclesiasticæ_ of
Joverius, Paris, 1555.

For _Angelos_ in the text, with a courageous "fortè legendum" _Angulos_ in
the margin, in Pope Adrian's _Epitome Canonum_, we are deeply indebted to
Canisius (_Thesaur. Monum._, ii. 271. ed. Basnage); and this is the method
adopted by Longus à Coriolano and Bail.

R. G.

_Anna Lightfoot_ (Vol. vii., p. 595.).--I have heard my mother speak of
Anna Lightfoot: her family belonged to the religious community called
Friends or Quakers. My mother was born 1751, and died in the year 1836. The
aunt of Anna Eleanor Lightfoot was next-door-neighbour to my grandfather,
who lived in Sir Wm. Warren's Square, Wapping. The family were from
Yorkshire, and the father of Anna was a shoemaker, and kept a shop near
Execution Dock, in the same district. He had a brother who was a
linendraper, living in the neighbourhood of St. James's, at the west end of
the town; and Anna was frequently his visitor, and here it was that she
became acquainted with the great man of the day. She was missing, and
advertised for by her friends; and, after some time had elapsed, they
obtained some information as to her retreat, stating that she was well
provided for; and her condition became known to them. She had a son who was
a corn-merchant, but, from some circumstance, became deranged in his
intellects, and it is said committed suicide. But whether she had a
daughter, I never heard. A retreat was provided for Anna in one of those
large houses surrounded with a high wall and garden, in the district of
Cat-and-Mutton Fields, on the east side of Hackney Road, leading from Mile
End Road; where she lived, and it is said died, but in what year I cannot
say. All this I have heard my mother tell when I was a young lad;
furthermore your deponent knoweth not.

J. M. C.

_Jack and Gill_ (Vol. vii., p. 572.).--A somewhat earlier instance of the
occurrence of the expression "Jack and Gill" is to be found (with a slight
difference) in John Heywood's _Dialogue of Wit and Folly_, page 11. of the
Percy Society's reprint:

 "No more hathe he in mynde, ether payne or care,
  Than hathe other Cock my hors, or Gyll my mare!"

This is probably not more than twenty years earlier than your
correspondent's quotation from Tusser.

H. C. K.

_Simile of the Soul and the Magnetic Needle_ (Vol. vi. _passim_; Vol. vii.,
p. 508.).--Southey, in his _Omniana_ (vol. i. p. 210.), cites a passage
from the _Partidas_, in which the magnetic needle is used in illustration.
It is as follows:

    "E bien assí como los marineros se guian en la noche escura por el
    aguja, que les es medianera entre la piedra é la estrella, é les
    muestra por de vayan, tambien en los malos tiempos, como en los buenos;
    otrosí los que han de consejar al Rey, se deven siempre guiar por la
    justicia; que es medianera entre Dios é el mundo, en todo tiempo, para
    dar guardalon á los buenos, é pena á los malos, á cada uno segund su
    merescimiento."--2 _Partida_, tit. ix. ley 28.

This passage is especially worthy of attention, as having been written half
a century before the supposed invention of the mariner's compass by Flavius
Gioias at Amalfi; and, as Southey {88} remarks, "it must have been well
known and in general use before it would thus be referred to as a familiar

I do not think that any of your correspondents have quoted the halting
lines with which Byron mars the pathos of the Rousseau-like letter of Donna
Julia (_Don Juan_, canto I. stanza cxcvi.):

 "My heart is feminine, nor can forget--
  To all, except one image, madly blind;
  So shakes the needle, and so stands the pole,
  As vibrates my fond heart to my fix'd soul."



_Gibbon's Library_ (Vol. vii., pp. 407. 455. 535.).--The following
quotation from Cyrus Redding's "Recollections of the Author of Vathek"
(_New Monthly Magazine_, vol. lxxi. p. 308.) may interest J. H. M. and your
other correspondents under this head:

    "'I bought it (says Beckford) to have something to read when I passed
    through Lausanne. I have not been there since. I shut myself up for six
    weeks, from early in the morning until night, only now and then taking
    a ride. The people thought me mad. I read myself nearly blind.'

    "I inquired if the books were rare or curious. He replied in the
    negative. There were excellent editions of the principal historical
    writers, and an extensive collection of travels. The most valuable work
    was an edition of _Eustathius_; there was also a MS. or two. All the
    books were in excellent condition; in number, considerably above six
    thousand, near seven perhaps. He should have read himself mad if there
    had been novelty enough, and he had stayed much longer.

    "'I broke away, and dashed among the mountains. There is excellent
    reading there, too, equally to my taste. Did you ever travel alone
    among mountains?'

    "I replied that I had, and been fully sensible of their mighty
    impressions. 'Do you retain Gibbon's library?'

    "'It is now dispersed, I believe. I made it a present to my excellent
    physician, Dr. Schall or Scholl (I am not certain of the name). I never
    saw it after turning hermit there.'"



_St. Paul's Epistles to Seneca_ (Vol. vii., pp. 500. 583.).--The
affirmation so frequently made and alluded to by J. M. S. of Hull, that
Seneca became, in the last year of his life, a convert to Christianity, is
an old tradition, which has just been revived by a French author, M. Amédée
Fleury, and is discussed and attempted to be established by him at great
length in two octavo volumes. I have not read the book, but a learned
reviewer of it, M. S. De Sacy, shows, with the greatest appearance of
reason and authority, that the tradition, instead of being strengthened, is
weakened by all that M. Fleury has said about it. M. De Sacy's review is
contained in the _Journal des Débats_ of June 30, in which excellent paper
he is a frequent and delightful writer on literary subjects. In the hope
that it may interest and gratify J. M. S. to be informed of M. Fleury's new
work, I send this scrap of information to the "N. & Q."



_"Hip, Hip, Hurrah!"_ (Vol. vii., pp. 595. 633).--The reply suggested by
your correspondent R. S. F., that the above exclamation originated in the
Crusades, and is a corruption of the initial letters of "Hierosolyma est
perdita," never appeared to me to be very apposite.

In _A Collection of National English Ballads_, edited and published by W.
Chapple, 1838, in a description of the song "Old Simon, the King," the
favourite of Squire Western in _Tom Jones_, the following lines are quoted:

 "'Hang up all the poor hep drinkers,'
  Cries old Sim, the king of skinkers."[4]

A note to the above states, in reference to the word "hep," that it was a
term of derision, applied to those who drank a weak infusion of the "hep"
(hip) berry, or sloe. "Hence," says the writer, "the exclamation of 'Hip,
hip, hurrah,' corrupted from 'Hip, hip, away.'" The couplet quoted above
was written up in the Apollo Room at the Devil Tavern, Temple Bar, where
Ben Jonson's club, the "Apollo Club," used to meet. Many a drinker of
modern Port has equally good reason to exclaim with his brethren of old,
"Hip, hip, away!"


[Footnote 4: A _skinker_ is one who serves drink.]

_Emblemata_ (Vol. vii., p. 614.).--I have a small edition of the _Emblemata
Horatiana_, with the following title-page:

    "Othonis VænI Emblemata Horatiana Imaginibus in _æs_ incisis atque
    Latino, Germanico, Gallico et Belgico carmine Illustrata: Amstelædami,
    apud Henricum Wetstenium, M. DC. LXXXIV."

The engravings, of which there are 103, measure about four inches by three;
the book contains 207 pages, exclusive of the index. "Amicitiæ Trutina,"
mentioned by MR. WELD TAYLOR, is the sixty-sixth plate on page 133.

There is another volume of Emblems by Otho Venius, of which I have a copy:

    "Amorum Emblemata Figuris Æneis Incisa, studio Othonis VænI: Batavo
    Lugdunensis Antverpiæe Venalia apud Auctorem prostant apud Hieronymum
    Verdussen, MDCIIX."

The engravings, of which (besides an allegorical frontispiece representing
the power of Venus) there are 124, are oval, measuring five inches in
length by three and a half inches in height. The designs appear to me to be
very good. On the {89} first plate is the name of the engraver, "C. Boel
fecit." Each engraving has a motto, with verses in Latin, Italian, and
French. Recommendatory verses, by Hugo Grotius, Daniel Heinsius, Max.
Vrientius, Ph. Rubentius, and Petro Benedetti, are prefixed. It appears
from Rose's _Biographical Dictionary_ (article "Van Veen"), that Venius
published another illustrated work, _The Seven Twin Sons of Lara_. Is this
work known?

Horace Walpole did not appreciate Venius. He says:

    "The perplexed and silly emblems of Venius are well known."--_Anecdotes
    of Painting_, vol. ii. p. 167.

The Emblems of Gabriele Rollenhagius (of which I have also a copy) consist
of two centuries. The engravings are circular, with a motto round each, and
Latin verses at foot. My edition was published at Utrecht, MDCXIII.

I write rather in the hope of eliciting information, than of attempting to
give any, on a subject which appears to me to deserve farther inquiry.

Q. D.

_Campvere, Privileges of_ (Vol. vii., pp. 262. 440.).--Will your
contributors J. D. S. and J. L. oblige me with references to the works in
which these privileges are mentioned?

They will find them noticed also at pages 67. and 68. of the second volume
of L. Guicciardini's _Belgium_ (ed. 1646): "_Jus Gruis liberæ._" This is
mentioned as one of the privileges of Campvere. Can any of your legal
friends tell me what this is, and where I may find it treated of?


_Slang Expressions: "Just the Cheese"_ (Vol. vii., p. 617.).--This phrase
is only some ten or twelve years old. Its origin was this:--Some desperate
witty fellows, by way of giving a comic turn to the phrase "C'est une autre
chose," used to translate it, "That is another cheese;" and after awhile
these words became "household words," and when anything positive or
specific was intended to be pointed out, "That's the cheese" became
adopted, which is nearly synonymous with "Just the cheese."


_The Honorable Miss E. St. Leger_ (Vol. vii., p. 598.).--Perhaps your
correspondent MR. BREEN may like to be informed that the late General the
Honorable Arthur St. Leger related to me the account of his relative having
been made a master mason, and that she had secreted herself in an old
clock-case in Doneraile House, on purpose to learn the secrets of the
lodge, but was discovered from having coughed. The Rev. Richard Arthur St.
Leger, of Starcross, Devon, has an engraving of the lady, who is
represented arrayed in all the costume of a master mason, with the apron,
ring, and jewel of the order.



_Queries from the Navorscher_ (Vol. vii., p. 595.)--"The Choice of
Hercules," in the _Tatler_, was written by Addison; Swift did not
contribute more than one article to that publication, a treatise on
"Improprieties of Language." The allegory of "Religion being the Foundation
of Contentment" in the _Adventurer_, was the work of Hawkesworth, to whose
pen most of those papers are attributable.

"_Amentium haud amantium._"--The alliteration of this passage in the
_Andria_ of Terence is somewhat difficult to preserve in English; perhaps
to render it

    "An act of _frenzy_ rather than _friendship_,"

would keep up the pun, though a weak translation, bringing to mind the
words of the song:

 "O call it by some other name,
  For _friendship_ is too cold."

In French the expression might be turned "follement plutôt que
folâtrement," although this is a fault on the other side, and a stronger
word than the original.

T. O. M.

"_Pity is akin to love_" (Vol. i., p. 248.).--Though a long time has
elapsed since the birthplace of these words was queried, no answer has, I
think, appeared in your columns. Will you then allow me to refer H. to
Southern's _Oroonoko_, Act II. Sc. 1.?

 "_Blandford._ Alas! I pity you.

  _Oroonoko._ Do pity me;
  _Pity's akin to love_, and every thought
  Of that soft kind is welcome to my soul.
  I would be pity'd here."

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

       *       *       *       *       *



Our library table is covered at this time with books for all classes of
readers. The theological student will peruse with no ordinary interest the
learned _Dissertation on the Origin and Connexion of the Gospels, with a
Synopsis of the Parallel Passages in the Original and Authorised Version,
and Critical Notes_, by James Smith, Esq., of Jordan Hill: and when he has
mastered the arguments contained in it, he may turn to the new number of
_The Journal of Sacred Literature_, in which will be found a great variety
of able papers. Our antiquarian friends will be gratified with a volume
compiled in a great measure from original family papers, by its author Mr.
Bankes, the Member for Dorsetshire; and which narrates _The Story of Corfe
Castle, and of many who have lived there, collected from Ancient Chronicles
and Records; also from the Private Memoirs of a Family resident there in
the Time of the Civil Wars_. The volume, which is with good feeling
inscribed by the author to his friends and neighbours, Members of the
Society for Mutual Improvement in the borough of Corfe Castle, contains
many interesting {90} notices of his ancestors, the well-known judge, Sir
John Bankes and his lady--so memorable for her gallant defence of Corfe
Castle--drawn from the family papers. _The Royal Descent of Nelson and
Wellington from Edward I., King of England, with Tables of Pedigree and
Genealogical Memoirs_, compiled by G. R. French, is a handsomely printed
volume, which will please the genealogist; while the historical student
will be more interested in _The Flowers of History, especially such as
relate to the Affairs of Britain from the Beginning of the World to the
Year 1307, collected by Matthew of Westminster, translated by C. D. Yonge_,
Vol. I., a new volume of Bohn's _Antiquarian Library_, and an important
addition to his series of translations of our early national chronicles.
The classical student is indebted to the same publisher for the second
volume of Mr. Owen's _Translation of the Organon, or Logical Treatises of
Aristotle_: nor will he regard as the least important addition to his
library, the new Part (No. VII.) of Smith's _Dictionary of Greek and Roman
Geography_, which extends from _Cyrrhus_ to _Etruria_, and is distinguished
by the same excellences as the preceding Parts. We must conclude these
Notes with a brief reference to a handsome reprint of the great work of De
Quincy, the appearance of which in the _London Magazine_ some thirty years
since created so great a sensation, we mean of course his _Confessions of
an English Opium-eater_.

       *       *       *       *       *


LITERARY GAZETTE, 1834 to 1845.

ATHENÆUM, Commencement to 1835.


MOORE'S MELODIES. 15th Edition.

WOOD'S ATHENÆ OXONIENSES (ed. Bliss). 4 vols. 4to. 1813-20.

THE COMPLAYNTS OF SCOTLAND. 8vo. Edited by Leyden. 1804.

SHAKSPEARE'S PLAYS. Vol. V. of Johnson and Steevens's edition, in 15 vols.
8vo. 1739.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

CECIL HARBOTTLE _in our next._

W. MERRY _and_ M. E. C. _Our Correspondents are right. The oversight in
question is certainly open to their censure._

_Answers to other Correspondents next week._

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vii., _price
Three Guineas and a Half, may now be had; for which early application is

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
booksellers may receive Copies in that nights parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, Price 25s., Second Edition, revised and corrected. Dedicated by
Special Permission to


Very Rev. H. H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's. The Music arranged for
Four Voices, but applicable also to Two or One, including Chants for the
Services. Responses to the Commandments and a Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTING,
by J. B. SALE, Musical Instructor and Organist to Her Majesty. 4to., neat,
in morocco cloth, price 25s. To be had of Mr. J. B. SALE, 21. Holywell
Street, Millbank, Westminster, on the receipt of a Post-office Order for
that amount: and, by order, of the principal Booksellers and Music

    "A great advance on the works we have hitherto had, connected with our
    Church and Cathedral Service."--_Times._

    "A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly unequalled in this
    country."--_Literary Gazette._

    "One of the best collections of tunes which we have yet seen. Well
    merits the distinguished patronage under which it appears"--_Musical

    "A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together with a system of Chanting
    of a very superior character to any which has hitherto
    appeared."--_John Bull._

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

Also, lately published,

J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as performed at the Chapel
Royal St. James, price 2s.

C. LONSDALE. 26. Old Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c., &c., used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 163. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist, from its capability of
Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment, its extreme Portability
and its adaptation for taking either Views or Portraits.

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames,
&c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road,

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *

BROMIZED COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO. Chemists, 289. Strand, are ready to
supply the above Photographic Agent: Vide _Photographic Journal_, June
21st. Their Iodized Collodion is highly sensitive, and retains all its
qualities unimpaired for three months. The Sensitive Solution can be had
separate. Pure Chemicals, Apparatus, and all the requisites for the
practice of Photography, and Instruction in all its Branches.

A very superior Positive Paper.

       *       *       *       *       *

LA LUMIERE; French Photographic Journal. The only Journal which gives
weekly all the principal Photographic News of England and the Continent;
with Original Articles and Communications on the different Processes and
Discoveries, Reports of the French Academy of Sciences, Articles on Art,
Reviews, &c.

Published at PARIS every SATURDAY.

Terms, 16s. per annum in advance. All English Subscriptions and
Communications to be addressed to the English Editor, 6. Henman Terrace,
Camden Town, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-eighth Edition.

NEUROTONICS, or the Art of Strengthening the Nerves, containing Remarks on
the influence of the Nerves upon the Health of Body and Mind, and the means
of Cure for Nervousness, Debility, Melancholy, and all Chronic Diseases, by
DR. NAPIER, M.D. London: HOULSTON & STONEMAN. Price 4d., or Post Free from
the Author for Five Penny Stamps.

    "We can conscientiously recommend 'Neurotonics,' by Dr. Napier, to the
    careful perusal of our invalid readers."--_John Bull Newspaper, June 5,

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 1s., free by Post 1s. 4d.,

Translated from the French.

Sole Agents in the United Kingdom for VOIGHTLANDER & SON'S celebrated
Lenses for Portraits and Views.

General Depôt for Turner's, Whatman's, Canson Frères, La Croix, and other
Talbotype Papers.

Pure Photographic Chemicals.

Instructions and Specimens in every Branch of the Art.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *




Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECTACLES.--WM. ACKLAND applies his medical knowledge as a Licentiate of
the Apothecaries' Company, London, his theory as a Mathematician, and his
practice as a Working Optician, aided by Smee's Optometer, in the selection
of Spectacles suitable to every derangement of vision, so as to preserve
the sight to extreme old age.

ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, with the New Vetzlar Eye-pieces, as exhibited at the
Academy of Sciences in Paris. The Lenses of these Eye-pieces are so
constructed that the rays of light fall nearly perpendicular to the surface
of the various lenses, by which the aberration is completely removed; and
with a telescope so fitted gives one-third more magnifying power and light
than could be obtained by the old Eye-pieces. Prices of the various sizes
on application to

WM. ACKLAND, Optician, 93. Hatton Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases. in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *

UNITED KINGDOM LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY: established by Act of Parliament in
1834.--8. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, London.


  Earl of Courtown
  Earl Leven and Melville
  Earl of Norbury
  Earl of Stair
  Viscount Falkland
  Lord Elphinstone
  Lord Belhaven and Stenton
  Wm. Campbell, Esq., of Tillichewan


_Chairman._--Charles Graham, Esq.
_Deputy-Chairman._--Charles Downes, Esq.

  H. Blair Avarne, Esq.
  E. Lennox Boyd, Esq., F.S.A., _Resident_.
  C. Berwick Curtis, Esq.
  William Fairlie, Esq.
  D. Q. Henriques, Esq.
  J. G. Henriques, Esq.
  F. C. Maitland, Esq.
  William Railton, Esq.
  F. H. Thomson, Esq.
  Thomas Thorby, Esq.


_Physician._--Arthur H. Hassall, Esq., M.D., 8. Bennett Street, St.
_Surgeon._--F. H. Tomson, Esq., 48. Berners Street.

The Bonus added to Policies from March, 1834, to December 31, 1847, is as

    Sum    |   Time   |   Sum added to     |   Sum
  Assured. | Assured. |      Policy        | Payable
           |          +--------------------+ at Death.
           |          | In 1841. In 1848.  |
      £    |          |   £ s.d.|   £  s.d.|    £  s.d.
     5000  | 14 years | 683 6 8 | 787 10 0 | 6470 16 8
   * 1000  |  7 years |  -  -   | 157 10 0 | 1157 10 0
      500  |  1 year  |  -  -   |  11  5 0 |  511  5 0

* EXAMPLE.--At the commencement of the year 1841, a person aged thirty took
out a Policy for 1000l., the annual payment for which is 24l. 1s. 8d.; in
1847 he had paid in premiums 168l. 11s. 8d.; but the profits being 2¼ per
cent. per annum on the sum insured (which is 22l. 10s. per annum for each
1000l.) he had 157l. 10s. added to the Policy, almost as much as the
premiums paid.

The Premiums, nevertheless, are on the most moderate scale, and only
one-half need be paid for the first five years, when the Insurance is for
Life. Every information will be afforded on application to the Resident

       *       *       *       *       *



RESPECTFULLY informs the Clergy, Architects, and Churchwardens, that he
replies immediately to all applications by letter, for information
respecting his Manufactures in CHURCH FURNITURE, ROBES, COMMUNION LINEN,
&c., &c., supplying full information as to Prices, together with Sketches,
Estimates, Patterns of Materials, &c., &c.

Having declined appointing Agents, MR. FRENCH invites direct communications
by Post, as the most economical and satisfactory arrangement. PARCELS
delivered Free by Railway.

       *       *       *       *       *

contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different Bedsteads;
also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and Quilts. And their new
warerooms contain an extensive assortment of Bed-room Furniture, Furniture
Chintzes, Damasks, and Dimities, so as to render their Establishment
complete for the general furnishing of Bed-rooms.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, the only natural, pleasant, and effectual
remedy (without medicine, purging, inconvenience, or expense, as it saves
fifty times its cost in other remedies) for nervous, stomachic, intestinal,
liver and bilious complaints, however deeply rooted, dyspepsia
(indigestion), habitual constipation, diarrhoea, acidity, heartburn,
flatulency, oppression, distension, palpitation, eruption of the skin,
rheumatism, gout, dropsy, sickness at the stomach during pregnancy, at sea,
and under all other circumstances, debility in the aged as well as infants,
fits, spasms, cramps, paralysis, &c.

_A few out of 50,000 Cures:--_

    Cure, No. 71, of dyspepsia; from the Right Hon. the Lord Stuart de
    Decies:--"I have derived considerable benefits from your Revalenta
    Arabica Food, and consider it due to yourselves and the public to
    authorise the publication of these lines.--STUART DE DECIES."

    Cure, No. 49,832:--"Fifty years' indescribable agony from dyspepsia,
    nervousness, asthma, cough, constipation, flatulency, spasms, sickness
    at the stomach, and vomitings have been removed by Du Barry's excellent
    food.--MARIA JOLLY, Wortham Ling, near Diss, Norfolk."

    Cure, No. 180:--"Twenty-five years' nervousness, constipation,
    indigestion, and debility, from which I had suffered great misery, and
    which no medicine could remove or relieve, have been effectually cured
    by Du Barry's food in a very short time.--W. R. REEVES, Pool Anthony,

    Cure, No. 4,208:--"Eight years' dyspepsia, nervousness, debility, with
    cramps, spasms, and nausea, for which my servant had consulted the
    advice of many, have been effectually removed by Du Barry's delicious
    food in a very short time. I shall be happy to answer any
    inquiries.--REV. JOHN W. FLAVELL, Ridlington Rectory, Norfolk."

_Dr. Wurzer's Testimonial._

    "Bonn, July 19. 1852.

    "This light and pleasant Farina is one of the most excellent,
    nourishing, and restorative remedies, and supersedes, in many cases,
    all kinds of medicines. It is particularly useful in confined habit of
    body, as also diarrhoea, bowel complaints, affections of the kidneys
    and bladder, such as stone or gravel; inflammatory irritation and cramp
    of the urethra, cramp of the kidneys and bladder, strictures, and
    hemorrhoids. This really invaluable remedy is employed with the most
    satisfactory result, not only in bronchial and pulmonary complaints,
    where irritation and pain are to be removed, but also in pulmonary and
    bronchial consumption, in which it counteracts effectually the
    troublesome cough; and I am enabled with perfect truth to express the
    conviction that Du Barry's Revalenta Arabica is adapted to the cure of
    incipient hectic complaints and consumption.

    "Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. in Bonn."

London Agents:--Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her
Majesty the Queen; Hedges & Butler, 155. Regent Street; and through all
respectable grocers, chemists, and medicine venders. In canisters, suitably
packed for all climates, and with full instructions, 1lb. 2s. 9d.; 2lb. 4s.
6d.; 5lb. 11s.; 12lb. 22s.; super-refined, 5lb. 22s.; 10lb. 33s. The 10lb.
and 12lb. carriage free, on receipt of Post-office order.--Barry, Du Barry
Co., 77. Regent Street, London.

IMPORTANT CAUTION.--Many invalids having been seriously injured by spurious
imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta, Arabaca, and
others, the public will do well to see that each canister bears the name
BARRY, DU BARRY & CO., 77. Regent Street, London, in full, _without which
none is genuine_.

       *       *       *       *       *




















JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *




JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published,



  1. Recent Metaphysics.
  2. Miss Yonge's Novels.
  3. Palmer's Dissertations on the Orthodox Communion.
  4. Stirling's Cloister Life of Charles V.
  5. Alford's Greek Testament. Vol. II.
  6. Modern Poetry.
  7. Church Penitentiary Association.
  8. Spicilegium Solesmense.
  9. Notices of New Books, &c.

London: J. & C. MOZLEY, 6. Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *



BRITANNIC RESEARCHES; or, New Facts and Rectifications of Ancient British
History. by the REV. BEALE POSTE, M.A. Just published, 8vo. (pp. 488.),
with engravings, cloth, 15s.

A FEW NOTES ON SHAKSPEARE, with Occasional Remarks on Mr. Collier's Folio
of 1632. By the REV. ALEXANDER DYCE. 8vo. cloth, 5s.

WILTSHIRE TALES, illustrative of the Manners, Customs, and Dialect of that
and adjoining Counties. By J. Y. AKERMAN, ESQ. 12mo. cloth, 2s. 6d.

FACTS AND SPECULATIONS on the Origin and History of Playing Cards. By W. A.
CHATTO, Author of "Jackson's History of Wood Engraving." In one handsome
volume, 8vo., illustrated with many Engravings, both plain and coloured,
cloth, 1l. 1s.

BOSWORTH'S (Rev. Dr.) Compendious Anglo-Saxon and English Dictionary. 8vo.,
closely printed in treble columns, cloth, 2s.

LOWER'S (M.A.) ESSAYS on English Surnames. 2 vols. post 8vo. Third Edition,
greatly enlarged, cloth, 12s.

LOWER'S CURIOSITIES of HERALDRY, with Illustrations from Old English
Writers. 8vo., numerous Engravings, cloth, 14s.

WRIGHT'S (THOS.) ESSAYS on the Literature, Popular Superstitions, and
History of England in the Middle Ages. 2 vols. post 8vo., cloth, 16s.

GUIDE to ARCHÆOLOGY. An Archæological Index to Remains of Antiquity of the
Celtic, Romano British, and Anglo-Saxon Periods. By JOHN YONGE AKERMAN,
Fellow and Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries. 1 vol. 8vo.,
illustrated with numerous Engravings, comprising upwards of 500 objects,
cloth, 15s.

A NEW LIFE OF SHAKSPEARE; including many Particulars respecting the Poet
and his Family, never before published. By JAMES ORCHARD HALLIWELL, F.R.S.,
F.S.A., &c. 8vo., 76 Engravings by Fairholt, cloth, 15s.


       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, in 4 vols. 8vo., price 50s. cloth.

Reigns from the Norman Conquest to the Accession of Henry VIII. The Fifth
Edition, revised; with the Author's final Corrections added by the Author's

By the same Author, New Editions,

THE HISTORY OF THE ANGLO-SAXONS. The Seventh Edition. 3 vols. 8vo., price

THE SACRED HISTORY OF THE WORLD. The Eighth Edition, in 3 vols. post 8vo.,
price 31s. 6d.


       *       *       *       *       *

A COMPLETE HISTORY OF DRUGS, by M. POMET; with what is Observable from
MESSRS. LEMERQ and TOURNEFORT. Divided into Three Classes: Vegetable,
Animal, and Mineral, and their Use in Chemistry, Pharmacy, and the Arts.
Illustrated with above 400 Copper Cuts. Done into English. 2 vols. 4to. in
one. London: R. Bornirck & Co., 1712. Dedicated to Dr. Sloane.

Ursellis Typ. Conellatorii. Numerous Woodcuts. To be disposed of.

Apply by letter to W. C., care of MR. BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


An Original and Highly Interesting Newspaper (_A Little Mercury_, of eight
pages), published in the ever Memorable Year of the Martyrdom of KING
CHARLES THE FIRST, 205 years ago! Very rare, exceedingly curious, and in
fine preservation! Sent free on receipt of 12s. 6d.

An Original, Rare, and Curious Newspaper (_A Little Mercury_, of sixteen
pages), published in CHARLES THE SECOND'S Reign, sent free on receipt of

An Original Newspaper (_A Little Gazette_), rich in curious historical and
domestic announcements, published in CHARLES THE SECOND'S Reign, sent free
on receipt of 4s. 6d.

An Original Newspaper of JAMES THE SECOND'S Reign, rare and curious, sent
free on receipt of 3s. 6d.

An Original Newspaper of WILLIAM AND MARY'S Reign, rare and curious, sent
free on receipt of 3s. 6d.

An Original Newspaper of QUEEN ANNE'S Reign, ornamented with curious
woodcuts, rare and very interesting, sent free on receipt of 3s.

An Original Newspaper of GEORGE THE FIRST'S Reign, with a curious woodcut
title, rare, sent free on receipt of 2s. 6d.

An Original Newspaper of GEORGE THE SECOND'S Reign, sent free on receipt of

An Original Newspaper of GEORGE THE THIRD'S Reign, sent free on receipt of

Apply, BY LETTER ONLY, inclosing a Remittance, either Post-office Order, or
Postage Stamps, addressed to MR. JAMES HAMILTON FENNELL, 1. Warwick Court,
Holborn, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


WOOD ENGRAVINGS.--Illustrations for Books, Periodicals, Newspapers, and
every Class of Wood Engravings executed in a Superior Style, at reasonable
Prices, by GEORGE DORRINGTON, Designer and Engraver on Wood, 4. Ampton
Street, Gray's Inn Road.--Specimens and Estimates forwarded upon receipt of

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, July 23,

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

page 57, "Spicilegium Solesmense": 'Solesmence' in original.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 195, July 23, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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