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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 196, July 30, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 196, July 30, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 196.]
SATURDAY, JULY 30. 1853..
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                              Page
  Books chained to Desks in Churches: Font Inscription:
  Parochial Libraries, by W. Sparrow Simpson, B.A.        93
  Real Signatures _versus_ Pseudo-names, by the Rev.
  James Graves                                            94
  Popular Stories of the English Peasantry, by Vincent
  T. Sternberg                                            94
  Shakspeare Correspondence, by Cecil Harbottle, &c.      95
  Epitaph and Monuments in Wingfield Church, Suffolk      98
  Original Royal Letters to the Grand Masters of Malta    99

  MINOR NOTES:--Meaning of "Clipper"--Anathema,
  Maran-atha--Convocation and the Society for the
  Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts--Pigs said
  to see the Wind--Anecdote of the Duke of Gloucester    100

  Lord William Russell                                   100
  Ancient Furniture--Prie-Dieu                           101

  MINOR QUERIES:--Reynolds' Nephew--Sir Isaac
  Newton--Limerick, Dublin, and Cork--Praying to the
  West--Mulciber--Captain Booth of Stockport--"A saint
  in crape"--French Abbés--What Day is it at our
  Antipodes?--"Spendthrift"--Second Growth of Grass--
  The Laird of Brodie--Mrs. Tighe, Author of "Psyche"--
  Bishop Ferrar--Sir Thomas de Longueville--Quotations
  wanted--Symon Patrick, Bishop of Ely: Durham: Weston:
  Jephson--The Heveninghams of Suffolk and Norfolk--
  Lady Percy, Wife of Hotspur (Daughter of Edmund
  Mortimer, Earl of March)--Shape of Coffins--St. George
  Family Pictures--Caley (John), "Ecclesiastical Survey
  of the Possessions, &c. of the Bishop of St. David's,"
  &c.--Adamson's "Lusitania Illustrata"--Blotting-paper--
  Poetical Versions of the Fragments in Athenæus         102

  Robert Drury                                           104
  The Termination -by                                    105
  The Rosicrucians, by William Bates                     106
  Inscriptions on Bells, by W. Sparrow Simpson, B.A.     108
  Was Cook the Discoverer of the Sandwich Islands? by
  C. E. Bagot                                            108
  Megatherium Americanum, by W. Pinkerton                109

  Photographic Correspondence:--Stereoscopic
  Angles--Yellow Bottles for Photographic Chemicals      109

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Earth upon Earth,
  &c.--Picalyly--Mr. Justice Newton--Manners of the
  Irish--Arms of the See of York--"Up, Guards, and at
  'em!"--Coleridge's Christabel: the 3rd Part--Mitigation
  of Capital Punishment--The Man with the Iron Mask--
  Gentleman executed for Murder of a Slave--Jahn's
  Jahrbuch--Character of the Song of the Nightingale,
  &c.                                                    110

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                           114
  Notices to Correspondents                              114
  Advertisements                                         115

       *       *       *       *       *



It would be interesting to have a complete list of the various books still
to be found chained to desks in our ancient churches. The "Bible of the
largest volume," the "Books of Homilies allowed by authority," and the Book
of Common Prayer, are ordered by Canon 80. to be provided for every church.
In some places this regulation is still complied with: at Oakington,
Cambridgeshire, a copy of a recent (1825) edition of the Homilies lies on a
small desk in the nave. But besides these authoritative works, other books
are found _chained_ to their ancient desks: at Impington, Cambridgeshire
are, or were, "three black-letter volumes of Fox's _Martyrs_ chained to a
stall in the chancel." (Paley's _Ecclesiologist's Guide, &c._) At St.
Nicholas, Rochester, chained to a small bracket desk at the south side of
the west door, is a copy of _A Collection of Cases and other Discourses to
recover Dissenters to the Church of England_, small 8vo., 1718. The
_Paraphrase_ of Erasmus may probably be added to the list (see Professor
Blunt's _Sketch of the History of the Reformation_, 10th edit., p. 130.),
though I cannot call to mind any church in which a copy of this work may
now be found. In the noble minster church at Wimborne, Dorsetshire, is a
rather large collection of books, comprising some old and valuable
editions: all these books were, and many still are, chained to their
shelves; an iron rod runs along the front of each shelf, on which rings
attached to the chains fastened to the covers of the works have free play;
these volumes are preserved in an upper chamber on the south side of the
chancel. The parochial library at St. Margaret's, Lynn, Norfolk, is one of
considerable interest and importance; amongst other treasures are a curious
little manuscript of the New Testament very neatly written, a (mutilated)
black-letter copy of the _Sarum Missal_, and many fine copies of the works
of the Fathers, and also of the Reformers; these are preserved in the south
aisle of the chancel, which is fitted up as a library, and are in very good
order. At Margate Church are a few volumes, of what kind my note-book does
{94} not inform me. I may also mention, in connexion with St. Nicholas,
Rochester, that the font is octagonal, and inscribed with the following
capital letters, the first surmounted by a crown:

  C . R . I . * . * . * . A . N.

The large panel on each side contains one of the letters; the font is
placed close to the wall, so that the remaining letters, indicated by
asterisks, cannot now be read: the sexton said that the whole word was
supposed to be "Christian," or rather "Cristian." Beside the font is a very
quaint iron bracket-stand, painted blue and gold, "constructed to carry"
two candles.


P. S.--Permit me to correct an error of the press in my communication at p.
8. of your present volume, col. 1. l. 10. from bottom; for "worn," read

       *       *       *       *       *


It is pleasant to see so many of the correspondents of "N. & Q." joining in
the remonstrance against the anonymous system. Were one to set about
accumulating the reasons for the abandonment of pseudo-names and initials,
many of the valuable columns of this periodical might be easily filled;
such an essay it is not, however, my intention to inflict on its readers,
who by a little thought can easily do for themselves more than a large
effusion of ink on the part of any correspondent could effect. I shall
content myself with recounting the good which, in one instance, has
resulted from a knowledge of the real name and address of a contributor.

The REV. H. T. ELLACOMBE (one of the first to raise his voice against the
use of pseudo-names) having observed in "N. & Q." many communications
evincing no ordinary acquaintance with the national Records of Ireland, and
wishing to enter into direct communication with the writer (who merely
signed himself J. F. F.), put a Query in the "Notices to Correspondents,"
begging J. F. F. to communicate his real name and address. There in all
probability the matter would have ended, as J. F. F. did not happen to take
"N. & Q.," but that the writer of these lines chanced to be aware, that
under the above given initials lurked the name of the worthy, the
courteous, the erudite, and, yet more strange still, the _unpaid_ guardian
of the Irish Exchequer Records--James Frederick Ferguson,--a name which
many a student of Irish history will recognise with warm gratitude and
unfeigned respect. Now it had so happened that by a strange fortune MR.
ELLACOMBE was the repository of information as to the whereabouts of
certain of the ancient Records of Ireland (see MR. ELLACOMBE'S notice of
the matter, Vol. viii., p. 5.), abstracted at some former period from the
"legal custody" of some heedless keeper, and sold by a Jew to a German
gentleman, and the result of his communicating this knowledge to Mr.
Ferguson, has been the latter gentleman's "chivalrous" and successful
expedition for their recovery. The _English Quarterly Review_ (not
_Magazine_, as MR. ELLACOMBE inadvertently writes), in a forthcoming
article on the Records of Ireland, will, it is to be hoped, give the full
details of this exciting record hunt, and thus exemplify the _great
utility_, not to speak of the _manliness_, of real names and addresses,
_versus_ false names and equally Will-o'-the-Wisp initials.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. v., p. 363. &c.)

Will you allow me, through the medium of "N. & Q.," to say how much obliged
I should be for any communications on this subject. Since I last addressed
you (about a year ago) I have received many interesting contributions
towards my proposed collection; but not, I regret to say, quite to the
extent I had anticipated. My own researches have been principally confined
to the midland counties, and I have very little from the north or east.
Such a large field requires many gleaners, and I hope your correspondents
learned in Folklore will not be backward in lending their aid to complete a
work which Scott, Southey, and a host of illustrious names, have considered
a desideratum in our national antiquities.

I propose to divide the tales into three classes--Mythological, Humorous,
and Nurse-tales. Of the mythological I have already given several specimens
in your journal, but I will give the following, as it illustrates another
link in the transmission of MR. KEIGHTLEY'S Hindustani legend, which
appeared in a recent Number. It is from Northamptonshire.

_The Bogie and the Farmer._

Once upon a time a Bogie asserted a claim to a field which had been
hitherto in the possession of a farmer; and after a great deal of
disputing, they came to an arrangement by agreeing to divide its produce
between them. At seed time, the farmer asks the Bogie what part of the crop
he will have, "tops or bottoms." "Bottoms," said the spirit: upon which the
crafty farmer sows the field with wheat, so that when harvest arrives the
corn falls to his share, while the poor Bogie is obliged to content himself
with the stubble. Next year the spirit, finding he had made such an
unfortunate selection in the bottoms, chose the tops; whereupon cunning
Hodge set the field with turnips, thus again outwitting the simple {95}
claimant. Tired of this unprofitable farming, the Bogie agrees to hazard
his claims on a mowing-match, thinking that his supernatural strength would
give him an easy victory; but before the day of meeting, the cunning
earth-tiller procures a number of iron bars which he stows among the grass
to be mown by his opponent; and when the trial commences, the unsuspecting
goblin finds his progress retarded by his scythe coming into contact with
these obstacles, which he takes to be some very hard--very hard--species of
dock. "Mortal hard docks, these," said he; "Nation hard docks!" His blunted
scythe soon brings him to a stand still, and as, in such cases, it is not
allowed for one to sharpen without the other, he turns to his antagonist,
now far ahead, and inquires, in a tone of despair, "When d'ye wiffle-waffle
(whet), mate?" "Waffle!" said the farmer, with a well-feigned stare of
amazement, "O, about noon mebby." "Then," said the despairing spirit, "That
thief of a Christian has done me;" and so saying, he disappeared and was
never heard of more.

Under _Nurse-tales_, I include the extremely puerile stories of the
nursery, often (as in the German ones) interlaced with rhymes. The
following, from the banks of the Avon, sounds like an echo from a German

_Little Elly._

In the old time, a certain good king laid all the ghosts, and hanged all
the witches and wizards save one, who fell into a bad way, and kept a
school in a small village. One day Little Elly looked through a chink-hole,
and saw him eating man's flesh and drinking man's blood; but Little Elly
kept it all to herself, and went to school as before. And when school was
over the Ogee fixed his eyes upon her, and said--

 "All go home but Elly,
  And Elly come to me."

And when they were gone he said, "What did you see me eat, Elly?"

 "O something did I see,
  But nothing will I tell,
  Unto my dying day."

And so he pulled off her shoes, and whipped her till she bled (this
repeated three days); and the third day he took her up, and put her into a
rose-bush, where the rain rained, and the snow snowed, and the hail hailed,
and the wind blew upon her all night. Quickly her tiny spirit crept out of
her tiny body and hovered round the bed of her parents, where it sung in
mournful voice for evermore--

 "Dark, weary, and cold am I,
  Little knoweth Gammie where am I."

Of the Humorous stories I have already given a specimen in Vol. v., p. 363.

Any notes of legends, or suggestions of any kind, forwarded to my address
as below, will be thankfully received and acknowledged.


15. Store Street, Bedford Square.

       *       *       *       *       *


_The old Corrector on "The Winter's Tale."_--I am glad to find that you
have another correspondent, and a very able one too, under the signature of
A. E. B., who takes the same view of "Aristotle's checks" as I have done;
though I think he might have paid me the compliment of _just_ noticing my
prior remonstrance on this subject. It is to be lamented, that MR. COLLIER
should have hurried out his new edition of Shakspeare, adopting all the
sweeping _emendations_ of his newly-found commentator, without paying the
slightest heed to any of the suggestions which have been offered to him in
a friendly spirit, or affording time for the farther objections which are
continually pouring in. At the risk of probably wearying some of your
readers, I cannot forbear submitting to you a few more remarks; but I shall
confine them on this occasion to one play, _The Winter's Tale_: which
contains, perhaps, as many poetical beauties as any single work of our
great dramatic bard. With reference to the passage quoted in p. 437., I can
hardly believe that Shakspeare ever wrote such a poor unmeaning line as--

 "  .    .    .   they are false as _dead blacks_."

nor can I perceive any possible objection to the original words "o'er dyed
blacks." They may either mean false mourners, putting an _over_ dark
semblance of grief; or they may allude figuratively to the material of
mourning, the colours of which if _over-dyed_ will not stand. In either of
these senses, the passage is poetical; but there is nothing like poetry in
"_our dead blacks_."

In p. 450. the alteration of the word "and" to "heaven" may be right,
though it is difficult to conceive how the one can have been mistaken for
the other. At all events, the sense is improved by the change; but I do not
see that anything is gained by the substitution in the next line of "dream"
for "theme." Whatever the king said in his ravings about Hermione, might as
aptly be called part of his "theme" as part of his "dream." The subject of
his _dream_ was in fact his _theme_!

Neither can I discover any good reason for changing, in p. 452.,

 "  .    .    .   and one may drink, depart,
  And yet partake no venom,"

into "drink a part." The context clearly shows the author's meaning to have
been, that if any one _departed_ at once after tasting of the beverage, he
would have no knowledge of what he had drunk; {96} but if he remained, some
one present might point out to him the spider in the cup, and _then_ "he
cracks his gorge," &c.

In p. 460. MR. COLLIER says that the passage, "dangerous, unsafe lunes i'
the king," is mere tautology, and _therefore_ he follows the old corrector
in substituting "_unsane lunes_." Now it strikes me that there is quite as
much _tautology_ in "_unsane lunes_" as in the double epithet, "dangerous,
unsafe." It is, in fact, equivalent to "insane madness;" and, moreover,
drags in quite needlessly a very unusual and uncouth word.

In p. 481. we have the last word of the following passage--

 "I never saw a vessel of like sorrow,
  So fill'd and so becoming,"--

converted into "_o'er-running_." This may possibly be the correct reading;
but, seeing that it is immediately followed by the words--

 "  .    .    .   in pure white robes,
  Like very sanctity,"

I question whether "becoming" is not the more natural expression.

 "There weep--and leave it crying,"

is made--

 "There _wend_--and leave it crying,"

which I submit is decidedly wrong. I will not be hypercritical, or I might
suggest that in that case the words would have been "_thither_ wend;" but I
maintain that the change is contrary to the _sense_. The spirit of Hermione
never could have been intended to say that the _child_ should be left
_crying_. She would rather wish that it might _not cry_! The meaning, as it
seems to me, is, that Antigonus should _weep_ over the babe, and leave it
while so _weeping_.

In p. 487. the words "missingly noted" are altered to "_musingly_ noted,"
which is a very questionable improvement. Camillo, _missing_ Florigel from
court, would naturally _note_ his absence; and he may have _mused_ over the
causes of it, but there could be no necessity for _musing_ to note the fact
of his absence: and I cannot help thinking that the word _missingly_ is
more in Shakspeare's style.

I cannot subscribe at all to the alteration in p. 492. of the word
"unrolled" to "enrolled." To be enrolled _and placed_ in the book of virtue
is very like tautology; but I conceive Shakspeare meant Autolycus to wish
that his name might be _unrolled_ from the company of thieves and gypsies
with whom he was associated, and transferred to the book of virtue.

I am entirely at issue with the old corrector upon his _emendation_ in p.

 "  .    .    .   Nothing she does or _seems_,
  But smacks of something greater than herself;"

he says, ought to be: "Nothing she does or _says_." And how does MR.
COLLIER explain this misprint? Why, by stating that formerly "says" was
often written "saies." Now, I cannot for the life of me discover why the
word "saies" should have been mistaken for "seems," any more than the word
"says." But surely the phrase, "nothing she does or seems," is far more
poetical and elegant than the other. It says in effect: there is nothing
either in her acts or her carriage, "but smacks of something greater than
herself." We have positive evidence, however, that the passage could not
have been "nothing she does or says," viz. that this speech of Polixenes
immediately follows a long dialogue between Florizel and Perdita, which
could not have been overheard, because Camillo directly afterwards says to
the king:

 "  .    .    .   He tells her something,
  That makes her blood look out."

Thereby clearly proving, that the king could not have been remarking on
what _she said_.

The transformation of the last-mentioned line into--

 "That _wakes_ her blood--look out!"

cannot, I think, be justified on any ground. He tells her something which
"makes her blood look out." That is, something which makes her blush rush
to the surface to look out upon it! What can be more natural? The proposed
alteration is not only unnecessary, but awkward!

In p. 499., if the words "unbraided wares" must be altered, I see no reason
for the change to "_embroided_" wares. It seems to me that _embraided_
would be the most proper word.

What possible reason can there be for converting "force and knowledge," in
p. 506., to "sense and knowledge?" If I may be excused a play upon the
words, I should say the _sense_ of the passage is not at all improved, and
the _force_ is entirely lost.

I must protest most decidedly against the correction of the following
lines, p. 507.:

 "  .    .    .   Can he speak? hear?
  Know man from man? dispute his own estate?"

Dispute his own estate means, _defend_ his property, dispute with any one
who questions his rights. The original passage expresses the sense quite
perfectly, while "dispose his own estate" appears to me poor and insipid in

MR. COLLIER'S objection to the speech of Camillo, in p. 514.,

 "  .    .    .   it shall be so my care
  To have you royally appointed, as if
  The scene you play were mine;"

is, that to make the scene appear as if it were Camillo's, could be of no
service to the young prince. Now Camillo says nothing about the scene
_appearing_ as his. He says he will have the prince royally appointed, as
if the scene he played _were_ really his own: that is, as if _he_ were the
party interested in it, instead of the prince. {97}

The reading of the old corrector--

 "  .    .    .    .   As if
  The scene you play were true,"

would be nonsense; because, so far as the prince appearing to be Bohemia's
son (which was what he was most anxious about), the scene to be played was
_really true_!

The last correction I have now to notice is in the soliloquy of Autolycus
in p. 522.: where MR. COLLIER proposes to read, "who knows how that may
turn _luck_ to my advantage," instead of "may turn _back_ to my advantage."
I see no advantage in the change, but the very reverse. "Who knows but my
availing myself of the means to do the prince my master a service, may come
back to me in the shape of some advancement?" This seems to me to be the
author's meaning, and it is legitimately expressed. How frequently it has
been said that an evil deed recoils upon the head of the perpetrator! Then
why not a good deed _turn back_ to reward the doer?


P. S.--It is rather singular that A. E. B., who, as I have already shown,
has so completely _shelved_ me in his remarks upon "Aristotle's checks,"
should now complain of the very same thing himself, and say that his
"humble auxilia have been coolly appropriated, without the slightest
acknowledgment." However, as our opinions coincide upon the passage in
question, I am not disposed to pick a quarrel with him. I cannot, however,
at all concur in his alteration of the passage in _King Lear_: "Our means
secure us," to "Our means _recuse_ us." I will certainly leave him "in the
quiet possession of whatever merit is due to this _restoration_," or rather
this invention! Can A. E. B. show any other instance in which Shakspeare
has used the verb _recuse_; or will he point out any other author who has
adopted it in the sense referred to? Johnson calls it a "juridical word:"
and I certainly have no recollection of having met with it, except in
judicial proceedings.

I can neither subscribe to the emendation of A. E. B., nor to that of the
old commentator, but infinitely prefer the original words, which appear to
me perfectly intelligible. The sense, as it strikes me, is, that however we
may desire things which we have not, the _means_ we already possess are
sufficient for our security; and even our _defects_ prove serviceable.
Blindness, for instance, will make a man more careful of himself; and then
the other faculties he enjoys will secure him from harm.

_"King Lear," Act IV. Sc. 1._--

 "Our means secure us, and our mere defects
  Prove our commodities."

I should not object to your correspondent A. E. B.'s conjectural
emendation, "recuse" for "secure," but that, unless my memory and Ayscough
are both deceptive, the word "recuse" is nowhere to be found in Shakspeare;
nor, as far as I know, in any dramatist of the age. If it be used by any of
the latter, it is probably only in the strict legal meaning, which is quite
different from that which A. E. B. would attach to it. This is conclusive
with me; for I hold that there is no sounder canon in Shakspearian
criticism than never to introduce by conjecture a word of which the poet
does not himself elsewhere make use, or which is not at least strongly
sanctioned by contemporary employment.

I therefore, as the passage is flat nonsense, return to the well-abused
"corrector's" much modester emendation, "wants" for "means."

And now permit one word in defence of this deceased and untoward personage.

I think much of the unpopularity into which he has fallen with a certain
class of critics, is owing to their not allowing him fair play.

Suppose a MS. placed in our hands, containing, beyond all doubt, what MR.
COLLIER'S corrected second folio is alleged to contain, authoritative
emendations of the text: what should we, _à priori_, expect to find in it?

That text is abominably corrupt beyond a doubt; it contains many impossible
readings, which must be misprints or otherwise erroneous; it contains also
many improbable readings, harsh, strained, mean, inadequate, and the like.

Now it is excessively unlikely that a truly corrected copy, could we find
one, would remove all the impossible readings, and leave all the improbable

It is still more unlikely that, in correcting the improbable passages, it
would leave those to which Mr. A., or Mr. B., or Mr. C., ay, or all of us
together, have formed an attachment from habit, predilection, or prejudice
of some kind. Such phrases as "the blanket of the dark," "a man that hath
had losses," "unthread the rude eye of rebellion," and many more, have
become consecrated in our eyes by habit; they have assumed, as it were, the
character of additions to our ordinary vocabulary; and yet I think sound
reason itself, and that kind of secondary reason or instinct which long
familiarity with critical pursuits gives us, combine to suggest that,
_occurring in a corrupt text_, they are probably corruptions; and
corruptions in lieu of some very common and even prosaic phrases, such as
the corrector substitutes for them, and such as no conjectural critic would
venture on.

In short, the kind of disappointment which many of these corrections
unavoidably give to the reader, is with me an argument in favour of their
genuineness, not against it.

And, lastly, in so very corrupt a text, it is _à priori_ probable that many
phrases which appear to need no correction at all, are misprints or {98}
mistakes nevertheless. It is probably that the true text of the poet
contained many variations utterly unimportant, as well as others of
importance, from the printed one. Now here it is precisely, that we find in
the corrector what we should anticipate, and what it is difficult to
account for on any theory disparaging his authority. What could have
induced him to make such substitutions as _swift_ for "sweet," _then_ for
"there," _all arose_ for "are arose," _solemn_ for "sorry," _fortune_ for
"nature," to quote from a single play, the _Comedy of Errors_, which
happens to lie before me,--none of them necessary emendations, most of them
trivial, unless he had under his eye some original containing those
variations, to which he wished his own copy to conform? It is surely wild
guessing to attribute corrections like these to a mere wanton itch for
altering the text; and yet no other alternative is suggested by the
corrector's enemies.

I am myself as yet a sceptic in the matter, being very little disposed to
hasty credulity on such occasions, especially where there is a possibility
of deceit. But I must say that the doctrine of probabilities seems to me to
furnish strong arguments in the corrector's favour; and that the attacks of
professed Shakspearian critics on him, both in and out of "N. & Q.," have
hitherto rather tended to raise him in my estimation.

H. M.

_Aristotle's Checks v. Aristotle's Ethics._--

 "Only, good master, while we do admire
  This virtue, and this moral discipline,
  Let's be no stoicks, nor no stocks, I pray;
  Or so devote to Aristotle's _checks_,
  As Ovid be an outcast quite abjur'd."
          _Taming of the Shrew_, Act I. Sc. 1.

The following are instances of the use of the substantive _check_ by

    "_Orlando._ A man that had a wife with such a wit, might say,--'Wit
    whither wilt?'
    "_Rosalind._ Nay, you might keep that _check_ for it, till you met your
    wife's wit going to your neighbour's bed."

    "_Falstaff._ I never knew yet, but rebuke and _check_ was the reward of

 "_Antony._ This is a soldier's kiss; rebukable,
  And worthy shameful _check_ it were to stand
  On more mechanic compliment."

 "_Belarius._   .    .    .   O, this life
  Is nobler, than attending for a _check_."

 "_Iago._ However, this may gall him with some _check_.

 "_Desdemona._ And yet his trespass, in our common reason
    .    .    .    .   is not almost a fault
  To incur a private _check_."

These instances may show that the word in question was a favourite
expression of the poet. It is true there was a translation of the Ethics of
Aristotle in his time, _The _Ethiques_ of Aristotle_. If he spelt it
_ethiques_, no printer would have blundered and substituted _checks_.

Judge Blackstone suggested _ethicks_, but Johnson and Steevens kept to
_checks_. And Johnson, in his _Dictionary_, _sub voce_ Devote, quotes the
passage, but which, by a strange printer's misreading, is referred to
"_Tim._ of Ath." instead of _Tam. of Sh._ in Todd's edit. of _Johnson's
Dictionary_ (1818).

W. N.

Pall Mall.

       *       *       *       *       *


I am not aware if the following epitaph has yet appeared in print; but I
can safely assert that it really has a sepulchral origin; unlike those
whose doubtful character causes them to be placed by your correspondent MR.
SHIRLEY HIBBERD among the "gigantic gooseberries" ("N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p.
190.). I copied it myself from a gravestone in the churchyard of the
village of Wingfield, Suffolk. After the name, &c. of the deceased is the
following verse:

 "Pope boldly says (some think the maxim odd),
  'An honest man's the noblest work of God;'
  If Pope's assertion be from error clear,
  The noblest work of God lies buried here."

Wingfield Church itself is an interesting old place, but has been a good
deal mauled in times past; and the brasses, of which there were once
several, are all gone. It is, I believe, a good deal noted for a parvise,
or room over the porch, from which, by an opening in the wall, a view of
the altar is obtained. There are two or three piscinas in different parts
of the church, and a sedilla near the altar. The most interesting objects
are, however, three altar tombs, with recumbent figures of the Earls of
Suffolk; the earliest, which is of wood, representing either the first or
second peer of the family, with his spouse. The next in date is that of the
celebrated noble who figures in Shakspeare's _Henry VI._ The monument is,
if I recollect right, of alabaster. The figure is attired in complete
armour, and was originally painted; a good deal of the colour still
remaining. This and the following monument are partly let into the wall,
and are surmounted by beautiful Gothic canopies. The third is, I believe,
also of alabaster, and is the effigy of (I think) the nephew of Margaret of
Anjou's earl, and who lies by the side of his wife, one of Edward IV.'s

It is very likely that all I have been writing is no news to any one. In
that case I have but to ask your pardon for troubling you with such a
worthless Note.


       *       *       *       *       *



In searching through the manuscripts now filed away in the Record Office of
this island with Dr. Villa, who has charge of them, and for whose
assistance in my search I am greatly indebted, I have been gratified by
seeing several original letters, addressed by different monarchs of England
to the Grand Masters of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem. Each of the
royal letters in the following list bears the signature of the writer:

  |Writer.      |Date.                |In what  |To whom addressed,       |
  |             |                     |language |or by whom               |
  |             |                     |written. |received.                |
  |Henry VIII.  |8th January, 1523    | Latin   |Villiers de L'Isle Adam. |
  |Ditto        |1st August, 1524     | Ditto   |    Ditto.               |
  |Ditto        |14th January, 1526   | Ditto   |    Ditto.               |
  |Ditto        |10th day, 1526       | Ditto   |    Ditto.               |
  |             |(month omitted)      |         |                         |
  |Ditto        |22nd November, 1530  | Ditto   |    Ditto.               |
  |Ditto        |17th November, 1534  | Ditto   |    Ditto.               |
  |Charles II.  |17th January, 1667-8 | Ditto   |Nicholas Cotoner.        |
  |Ditto        |29th April, 1668     | Ditto   |    Ditto.               |
  |Ditto        |26th January, 1675-6 | Ditto   |    Ditto.               |
  |Ditto        |Last day of November,| Ditto   |    Ditto.               |
  |             |1674                 |         |                         |
  |Ditto        |21st June, 1675      | Ditto   |    Ditto.               |
  |James II.    |13th July, 1689      |French   |Gregory Carafa.          |
  |Anne         |8th July, 1713       | Ditto   |Raymond Perellos de      |
  |             |                     |         |  Roccaful.              |
  |George I.*   |24th August, 1722    | Latin   |Anthony Manoel de        |
  |             |                     |         |  Villena.               |
  |James (the   |14th September, 1725 |French   |    Ditto.               |
  |  Pretender) |                     |         |                         |
  |George II.   |19th June, 1741      | Latin   |Emanuel Pinto de         |
  |             |                     |         |  Fonseca.               |
  |Ditto        |8th December, 1748   | Ditto   |    Ditto.               |
  |Ditto        |6th November, 1756   | Ditto   |    Ditto.               |

    * The letter of George I. is countersigned "Carteret;" those of George
    II. by "Harrington," "H. Fox," and "Bedford." None of the other letters
    in the above list bear any signature but that of the king or queen who
    wrote them. Among the letters of Henry VIII., addressed to Villiers de
    L'Isle Adam, there is one of much interest. I refer to that of the
    earliest date, in which his majesty strongly recommended the Grand
    Master to accept of Tripoli, on the coast of Barbary, and the islands
    of Malta and Gozo, as a residence for the convent, which Charles V. had
    offered him. The importance of Malta as a military station was known in
    England three hundred years ago. L'Isle Adam (with the exception of La
    Valetta), the most distinguished of all the Maltese Grand Masters, died
    on the 21st of August, 1534. The last letter of Henry VIII., addressed
    to him, came to his successor, Nicholas Cotoner. On the mantle which
    covered the remains of this great man these few words were
    inscribed,--"Here lies Virtue triumphant over Misfortune."]

Intending in a short time to examine these royal letters more closely, and
hoping to refer to them again in "N.& Q.," I refrain from writing more at
length on the present occasion.

W. W.

La Valetta, Malta.

P.S.--Perhaps the following chronological table, referring to the Maltese
Grand Masters who are mentioned in the above Note, may not be uninteresting
to the readers of "N. & Q.":

  |Name.                    |When elected.   |When deceased at Malta.|
  |Villiers de L'Isle Adam  |At Rhodes, 1521 |1534, 21st of August.  |
  |Nicholas Cotoner         |At Malta, 1663  |1680.                  |
  |Gregory Carafa           |    Ditto 1680  |1690.                  |
  |Raymond Perellos         |    Ditto 1697  |1720.                  |
  |Anthony Manoel de Villena|    Ditto 1722  |1736.                  |
  |Emanuel Pinto de Fonseca |    Ditto 1741  |1773.                  |

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Meaning of "Clipper."_--I have more than once been asked the meaning and
derivation of the term _clipper_, which has been so much in vogue for some
years past. It is now quite a nautical term, at least among the fresh-water
sailors: and we find it most frequently applied to yachts, steamers,
fast-sailing merchant vessels, &c. And in addition to the colloquial use of
the word, so common in praising the appearance or qualities of a vessel, it
has become one quite recognised in the official description given of their
ships by merchants, &c. Thus we often see an advertisement headed "the
well-known clipper ship," "the noted clipper bark," and so forth. This use
of the word, however, and its application to _vessels_, is somewhat wide of
the original.

The word in former times meant merely a hackney, or horse adapted for the
road. The owners of such animals naturally valued them in proportion to
their capabilities for such service, among which great speed in trotting
was considered one of the chief: fast trotting horses were eagerly sought
after, and trials of speed became the fashion. A horse then, which was
pre-eminent in this particular, was termed a _clipper_, _i.e._ a _hackney,
par excellence_.

The original of the term is perhaps the following: _Klepper-lehn_ was a
feudal tenure, so termed among the old Germans, where the yearly due from
the vassal to the lord was a _klepper_, or, in its stead, so many bushels
of oats: and the word _klepper_, or _kleopper_, is explained by Haltaus.
_Glos. Germ. Med. Ævi_, 1758:

    "Equus qui corripit gradum, et gressus duplicat. Nomen habet a celeri
    correptorum passuum sonitu."

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

_Anathema, Maran-atha._--Perhaps the following observation on these words
may be as instructive to some of the readers of "N. & Q." as it was to me.
Maran-atha means "The Lord cometh," and is used apparently by St. Paul as a
kind of motto: compare [Greek: ho kurios engus], Phil. iv. 5. The Greek
word has become blended with the Hebrew phrase, and the compound used as a
formula of execration. (See Conybeare and Howson's _Life and Epistles of
St. Paul_, p. 64., note 4.)

F. W. J.

_Convocation and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign

    "When the committee I have mentioned was appointed, March 13, 1700, to
    consider what might be done towards _propagating the Christian Religion
    as professed in the Church of England in our Foreign Plantations_; and
    the committee, composed of very venerable and experienced men, well
    suited for such an inquiry, had sat several times at St. Paul's, and
    made some progress in the business referred to them, a charter was
    presently procured to place the consideration of that matter in other
    hands, where it now remains, and will, we hope, produce excellent
    fruits. But whatever they are, they must be acknowledged to have sprung
    from the overtures to that purpose first made by the lower house of
    Convocation."--_Some Proceedings in the Convocation of 1705 faithfully
    represented_, p. 10. of Preface.



_Pigs said to see the Wind._--In _Hudibras_, Independant says to Presbyter:

 "You stole from the beggars all your tones,
  And gifted mortifying groans;
  Had lights when better eyes were blind,
  _As pigs are said to see the wind_."--Pt. 3. c. ii. l. 1105.

That most delightful of editors, Dr. Zachary Grey, with all his
multifarious learning, leaves us here in the lurch for once with a simple
reference to "Hudibras at Court," _Posthumous Works_, p. 213.

Is this phrase merely an hyperbolic way of saying that pigs are very
sharp-sighted, or is it an actual piece of folk-lore expressing a belief
that pies have the privilege of seeing "the viewless wind?" I am inclined
to take the latter view. Under the head of "Superstitions," in Hone's
_Year-Book_ for Feb. 29, 1831, we find:

    "Among common sayings at present are these, _that pigs can see the
    wind_," &c.

The version I have always heard of it is--

 "Pigs can see the wind 'tis said,
  And it seemeth to them _red_."


_Anecdote of the Duke of Gloucester._--Looking through some of the
Commonwealth journals, I met with a capital _mot_ of this spirited little

    "It is reported that the titular Duke of Gloucester, being informed
    that the Dutch fleet was about the Isle of Wight, he was asked to which
    side he stood most addicted. The young man, apprehending that his
    livelihood depended on the parliament, and that it might be an art to
    circumvent him, turning to the governor, demanded of him how he did
    construe 'Quamdiu se bene gesserit.'"--_Weekly Intelligencer._


       *       *       *       *       *



Can any of your correspondents inform me where the virtuous and patriotic
William Lord Russell was buried? It is singular that neither Burnet, who
attended him to the scaffold, nor his descendant Lord John Russell in
writing his life, nor Collins's _Peerage_, nor the accounts and letters of
his admirable widow, make any allusion to his {101} remains. At last I
found, in the _State Trials_, vol. ix. p. 684., that after the executioner
had held up the head to the people, "Mr. Sheriff ordered his Lordship's
friends or servants to take the body and dispose of it as they pleased,
being given them by His Majesty's favour." Probably, therefore, it was
buried at Cheneys; but it is worth a Query to ascertain the fact.

My attention was drawn to this omission by the discovery of the decapitated
man found at Nuneham Regis ("N. & Q.," Vol. vi., p. 386.), and from
observing that the then proprietor of the place appears to have been
half-sister to Lady Russell, viz. daughter of the fourth Lord Southampton,
by his second wife Frances, heiress of the Leighs, Lords Dunsmore, and the
last of whom was created Earl of Chichester. But a little inquiry satisfied
me this could not have been Lord Russell's body; among other reasons,
because it was very improbable he should be interred at Nuneham, and
because the incognito body had a peaked beard, whereas the prints from the
picture at Woburn represent Lord Russell, according to the fashion of the
time, without a beard.

But who then was the decapitated man? He was evidently an offender of
consequence, from his having been beheaded, and from the careful embalming
and the three coffins in which his remains were inclosed. The only
conjecture I see hazarded in your pages is that of MR. HESLEDEN (Vol. vi.,
p. 488.), who suggests Monmouth; but he has overlooked the fact stated in
the original communication of L. M. M. R., that Nuneham only came into the
possession of the Buccleuch family through the Montagues, _i.e._ by the
marriage of Henry, third Duke of Buccleuch, to Lady Elizabeth Montagu; the
present proprietor, Lord John Scott, being their grandson. This marriage
took place in 1767, or eighty-two years after Monmouth's execution, and
thirty-three years after the death of his widow, the Duchess of Buccleuch
and Monmouth, who is supposed to have caused the body to be removed from
Tower Hill.

Notwithstanding the failure of heirs male in three noble families within
the century, viz. the Leighs, the Wriothesleys, and the Montagus, the
present proprietor is their direct descendant, and there are indications in
the letter referred to, that the place of interment of his ancestors, as
well as of this singular unknown, will no longer be abandoned to be a
depository of farm rubbish.

W. L. M.

       *       *       *       *       *


Perhaps some of the readers of "N. & Q." will be able to give me some
information as to the use of an ancient piece of furniture which I have met
with. At Codrington, a small village in Gloucestershire, in the old house
once the residence of the family of that name, now a farm-house, they show
you in the hall a piece of furniture which was brought there from the
chapel when that part of the building was turned into a dairy. It is a
cupboard, forming the upper part of a five-sided structure, which has a
base projecting equally with the top, which itself hangs over a hollow
between the cupboard and the base, and is finished off with pendants below
the cupboard. The panel which forms the door of the cupboard is wider than
the sides. All the panels are carved with sacred emblems; the vine, the
instruments of the Passion, the five wounds, the crucifix, the Virgin and
child, and a shield, with an oak tree with acorns, surmounted by the papal
tiara and the keys. The dimensions are as follows:

Depth from front to back, 2 feet 4½ inches.

Height, 4 feet 8 inches.

Height of cupboard from slab to pendants, 2 feet 6 inches.

Height of base, 9½ inches.

Width of side panels, 1 foot 8 inches; of centre panel, 1 foot 10½ inches.

Width of the door of the cupboard, 1 foot 5 inches.

The door has carved upon it a scene representing two men, one an old man
sitting upon a chair, the other a young one falling back from a stool; a
table separates them and in the next compartment (for an arcade runs
through the group) a female figure clasps her hands, as if in astonishment.
This I can hardly understand. But the panel with the papal ensigns I think
may throw some light on the use of the whole. In the year 1429, John
Codrington of Codrington obtained a bull from Pope Martin V. to have a
portable altar in his house, to have mass celebrated when and where he
pleased. I find that such a portable altar ought to have "a suitable frame
of wood whereon to set it." Such altars are frequently mentioned, though I
believe very few remain; but I never could hear of the existence of
anything to show what the frame would be. It occurs to me as possible that
this piece of furniture may have been used for the purpose. The whole
question of portable altars is an interesting one, and if this account
should by the means of "N. & Q." fall into the hands of any one who is
acquainted with the subject, I hope he would consider it worth a

For some time I was at a loss for another instance; however, I have just
received from a friend, who took interest in the subject, a sketch of
something almost identical from the disused chapel at Chillon in the Canton
Vaud. Of this I have not the measurements, but it stands about breast-high.
It is there called a "prie-dieu," and is said to have belonged to the Dukes
of Savoy, but the size is very unusual for such a use. I send sketches of
each of the subjects of my Query, {102} and hope that, if this should be
thought worthy of a place in "N. & Q.," some one will be able and willing
to afford some information about them. I would add as a farther Query, the
question of the meaning of the battle-axe and pansy, which appear on the
"prie-dieu" at Chillon. Is it a known badge of the Savoy family?

R. H. C.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Reynolds' Nephew._--In the Correspondence of David Garrick, vol. i. pp.
664. 658., 4to., 1831, there are letters of Sir Joshua Reynolds regarding a
play written by his nephew. Can you tell me whether this was the Rev. Mr.
Palmer, minister of the Temple Church, and who was afterwards Dean of
Gashel; or had Sir Joshua any other nephew? The letters are dated 1774, and
the author appears to have been resident in London about that time.

A. Z.

_Sir Isaac Newton._--Which is the passage in Newton's _Optics_ to which
Flamsteed refers, in his account of the altercation between them, as having
given occasion to some of the enemies of the former to tax him with
Atheism? and is there any evidence, besides what this passage may afford,
in favour of Dr. Johnson's assertion, that Newton _set out_ as an infidel?
(Boswell, July 28, 1763.) The _Optics_ were not published till 1704, but
had been composed many years previously.


_Limerick, Dublin, and Cork._--Can any of your Irish or other
correspondents inform me to whom we are indebted for the lines--

 "Limerick was, Dublin is, and Cork shall be,
  The finest city of the three"?

Also, in what respect Limerick was formerly superior to Dublin?



_Praying to the West._--A friend of mine told me that a Highland woman in
Strathconan, wishing to say that her mother-in-law prayed for my friend
daily, said: "She holds up her hands to the _West_ for you every day." If
to the _East_ it would have been more intelligible; but why to the West?

L. M. M. R.

_Mulciber._--Who was Mulciber, immortalised (!) in Garth's _Dispensary_
(ed. 1699, p. 65.) as "the Mayor Bromicham?" My copy contains on the
fly-leaf a MS. key to all the names save this.



_Captain Booth of Stockport_ (Vol. vi., p. 340.).--As yet, no reply to this
Query has been elicited; but as it is a subject of some interest to both
Lancashire and Cheshire men, I should like to ascertain from JAYTEE in what
collection he met with the MS. copy of Captain Booth's _Ordinary of Arms_?
Its existence does not appear to have been known to any of our Cheshire or
Lancashire historians; for in none of their works do I find any mention of
such an individual as Capt. Booth of Stockport. Sir Peter Leycester, in his
_Antiquities of Bucklow Hundred_, Cheshire, repeatedly acknowledges the
assistance rendered him by John Booth of Twanbow's _Book of Pedigrees_; but
this gentleman appears merely to have collected for Cheshire, and not for
Lancashire. Sir George Booth, afterwards Lord Delamere, is the only
_Captain_ Booth I have met with in my limited sphere of historical
research; and I am not aware that he ever indulged much in genealogical



"_A saint in crape._"--

 "A saint in crepe is twice a saint in lawn."

Whence this line?

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

_French Abbés._--What was the precise ecclesiastical and social _status_ of
a French Abbé before the Revolution?



_What Day is it at our Antipodes?_--Perhaps you can give me a satisfactory
answer to the following question, a reply to which I have not yet been able
to procure.

I write this at 11 p.m. on Tuesday, July 12; at our Antipodes it is, of
course, 11 a.m.: but is it 11 a.m. on Tuesday, July 12, or on Wednesday,
July 13? And whichever it is, what is the reason for its being so? for it
seems to me that the solution of the question must be perfectly arbitrary.


"_Spendthrift._"--In Lord John Russell's _Memorials of Charles James Fox_,
vol. i. p. 43., there is a letter addressed to Mr. Richard Fitzpatrick, in
which Mr. Fox asks "if he was in England when Lord Carlisle's _Spendthrift_
came out." And at the foot of the same page there is a note in which it is
stated that this "was probably some periodical paper of 1767."

My object in writing the above is for the purpose of asking what
publication the _Spendthrift_ really was, and where it can be purchased or

W. W.


_Second Growth of Grass._--The second growth of grass is known by different
names in different localities. In some it is called _fog_, in others
_after-math_ and _after-grass_. The former name is common about Uxbridge,
and the latter about Stoke Pogis, in Buckinghamshire. In Hertfordshire it
is {103} called _hugga-mabuff_; I am not certain that this is the correct
spelling of the name, never having seen it either in writing or print. In
Leicestershire and Cambridgeshire the name _eddish_ prevails, I am told,
and hence _eddish cheese_, made from the milk of cows which have grazed
_eddish_. Can any of your correspondents add to the above names, or throw a
light upon their origin?

R. W. F.


_The Laird of Brodie._--Can any of your correspondents explain what James
V. of Scotland means in his celebrated ballad when he says:

 "I thocht you were a gentleman,
  At least the Laird of Brodie."

According to the literal meaning, it would seem that the Laird of Brodie
was something less than a gentleman? Could his majesty intend to satirise
the alleged royal descent of Brodie from Bruidhie, the son of Billi, king
of the Picts (see James' _Critical Essay_), by insinuating that the "Picts"
and their descendants were not entitled to be ranked as "Generosi?"

I. H. B.

_Mrs. Tighe, Author of "Psyche."_--There is a monument in Inistioge
churchyard, co. Kilkenny, to the memory of the authoress of that beautiful
poem _Psyche_, Mrs. Mary Tighe, with a statue of her, said to be by
Flaxman, which statement, as to its being from the chisel of that
celebrated sculptor, I have seen contradicted. She was the daughter of the
Rev. W. Blackford, and married Mr. Henry Tighe of Woodstock, Ireland, in
1793. The inscription, which, I believe, is in existence, was not added to
the monument in 1845. Can any of your correspondents favour me with a copy
of it? and was the statue by Flaxman? Is there any authentic memoir of this
delightful poetess? When did her husband Mr. Tighe die? He is said to have
survived his lady, who died in 1810, but a short time; and that he was the
author of a _History of the County of Kilkenny_. I believe it was on
visiting the churchyard of Inistioge that Mrs. Hemans wrote "The Grave of a
Poetess." She is said to have been very beautiful. Is there any other
engraved portrait of her in existence beside the one annexed to the several
editions of her poems? Any particulars relating to this lady or her husband
will be esteemed by


_Bishop Ferrar._--Was the Bishop Ferrar (or Farrar), the martyr who
suffered during the reign of Mary, of the same family as Ferrers (or
Ferrars) earl of Derby and Nottingham, in the reign of Henry III.?


_Sir Thomas de Longueville._--In the year 1753, a Sir Thomas de
Longueville, baronet, was a lieutenant in his Majesty's fleet, and his
commission bore date 3rd June, 1719. I should be glad if any of your
correspondents could inform me if he was a descendant of the De
Longueville, the second _Fides Achates_ of Scotland's "ill-requited chief."
The real Sir Thomas de Longueville reposes in the churchyard of Bourtie, in
the county of Aberdeen. Bourtie is a parish fraught with historic
recollections. On the hill of Barra, within a mile of the parish church,
Bruce at once and for ever put a period to the sway and power of the
Cuming. I should be glad to learn if any of the descendants of the
_Lieutenant_ Longueville still survive, and if he was any descendant of the
favorite "De Longueville" of the olden time.


_Quotations wanted._--

  (1.) "Never ending, still beginning."

  (2.) "Chew the bitter cud of disappointment."




_Symon Patrick, Bishop of Ely--Durham--Weston--Jephson._--In a small
autobiography of Symon Patrick, the bishop's wife is stated to have been
_Penelope Jephson_, grandchild of Lady Durham of Borstall. Can any of your
readers inform me who this Lady Durham was?

Penelope Jephson was daughter of Sir Cornelius (?) Jephson, I suppose of
Mallow in Ireland.

One of Bishop Patrick's granddaughters, Penelope, married Edward Weston,
Under-Secretary of State, of Corkenhatch (Herts?). Query, Who was he, and
are there any descendants of this marriage?

K. G.

_The Heveninghams of Suffolk and Norfolk._--This ancient family traces its
pedigree through twenty-five knights in succession to Galtir Heveninghame,
who lived when Canute was king of England, ann. 1020. (See Harleian MSS.
1449. fol. 91 b.; and Southey's _Doctor_, &c.)

From one of those knights, Sir John Hevenyngham (ob. 1536), descended a
collateral branch, represented by Walter Heveningham of Pipe Hall and Aston
estates, Staffordshire (1562), who married Annela, daughter of Fitzherbert
the Judge. His eldest son was Nicholas, who married Eliza, daughter of Sir
John Beevor; and the eldest son of the last-named was Sir Walter
Heveningham (1612, ob. 1691).

Now I should feel greatly obliged to any of your readers if, from any of
the published or written documents relating to the county of Stafford, or
from any other source, they could favour me with answers to the following

1. Whom did Sir Walter Heveningham marry? His second son married the widow
of Sir Edward Simeon, Bart.; but

2. What was the name of Sir Walter's eldest son, and whom did he marry? The
issue of this {104} latter marriage was Charles Heveningham of Lichfield
(ob. 1782), who married a daughter of Robinson of Appleby, and John


_Lady Percy, Wife of Hotspur (Daughter of Edmund Mortimer, Earl of
March)._--Upon what authority does Miss Strickland say (_Lives of the
Queens of England_, vol. iv. p. 300.) that it is stated "by all ancient
heralds" that this lady died without issue? What herald can say this
without bastardising the second Earl of Northumberland? This assertion is a
very sweeping one, and I have sought in vain for the statement said to be
made by all heralds.


_Shape of Coffins._--It would be interesting to ascertain in what
localities any peculiar form of coffin is used?

In Devonshire, particularly among the farmers and poorer classes, the
_ridged_ coffin is very general, the end being gabled. The top, instead of
being flat with one board, is made of two boards, like the double roof of a
house; in other respects the shape is of the common form. The idea is, that
such coffins resist much longer the weight of the superincumbent earth; but
there can be no doubt that it is a very ancient shape. Many years ago I
heard that in some parish in this county the coffin was shaped like a
flat-bottomed boat; the boat shape is known to have been an old form.


Clyst St. George.

_St. George Family Pictures._--In Gough's _Sepulchral Monuments_, vol. iii.
p. 77., it is mentioned, with reference to the estate of Hatley St. George,
in county of Cambridge, that, at the sale of the house in 1782, "The family
pictures were removed to Mr. Pearce's house at Cople, Bedford." Can any one
tell me if the family pictures here spoken of were those of the St. George
family (which inhabited the house for six hundred years); and if so, what
has become of them?

R. A. S. O.

Ceylon, June 11, 1853.

_Caley (John), "Ecclesiastical Survey of the Possessions, &c. of the Bishop
of St. David's," 8vo. 1812._--The above is said, in a bookseller's
catalogue, to be privately printed. It is unknown to the bishop of the
diocese and Mr. Black. Can any of your readers give any information about



_Adamson's "Lusitania Illustrata."_--Is there any prospect of Mr. Adamson
continuing his _Lusitania Illustrata_? Could that accomplished Portuguese
student kindly inform me if there is any better insight into Portuguese
literature than that contained in Bouterweck's _Geschichte der Poesie und

W. M. M.

_Blotting-paper._--When did blotting-paper first come into use. Carlyle, in
his _Life of Cromwell_, twice repeats that it was not known in those days.
Is not this a mistake? I have a piece which I am able to refer to 1670.


_Poetical Versions of the Fragments in Athenæus._--Can any of your
correspondents inform me of the locus of any of these, in addition to
_Blackwood_, xxxvi., and _Fraser's Magazine_?


       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. v., p. 533.; Vol. vii., p. 485.)

Under the conviction that Robert Drury was a real character, and his
_Madagascar_ a true narrative of his shipwreck, sufferings, and captivity,
I crave your permission to give a few additional reasons why I think he
should be discharged from the fictitious, and admitted into the catalogue
of real and _bonâ fide_ English travellers.

I have before stated that Drury did not skulk in the background when he
published his book in 1727; but, on the contrary, invited the public to
Tom's Coffee-house, where he engaged to satisfy the incredulous, and
resolve the doubting. By the 3rd edition of _Madagascar_, 1743, it farther
appears that he continued "for some years before his death" to resort to
the above-named house; "at which place several inquisitive gentlemen
received from his own mouth the confirmation of those particulars which
seemed dubious, or carried with them the air of romance." The period was
certainly unpropitious for any but a writer of fiction, and Drury seems to
have anticipated no higher rank for his _Treatise_, in point of
authenticity, than that occupied by the several members of the Robinson
Crusoe school. He, however, positively affirms it to be "a plain honest
narrative of the matter of fact;" which is endorsed in the following terms
by "Capt. William Mackett:"

    "This is to certify, that Robert Drury, fifteen years a slave in
    Madagascar, now living in London, was redeemed from thence and brought
    into England, his native country, by myself. I esteem him an honest
    industrious man, of good reputation, and do firmly believe that the
    account he gives of his strange and surprising adventures is genuine
    and authentic."

Mackett was a commander in the E. I. Comp. service; and the condenser of
Drury's MSS., after showing the opportunities the Captain had of assuring
himself upon the points he certifies to, characterises him as a well-known
person, of the highest integrity and honour: a man, indeed, as unlikely to
be imposed upon, as to be guilty of lending himself to others, to carry out
a deception upon the public. {105}

Mr. Burton, in his lately published "Narratives," points out another source
of information regarding Drury, in the _Gent. Mag._ for 1769, where will be
found an account of W. Benbow; in this, allusion is made to his brother
John Benbow, who was wrecked with Drury in the "Degrave" Indiaman, on
Madagascar. W. D., who communicates the information to SYLVANUS URBAN,
asserts that he recollects hearing the MS. Journal of this John Benbow
read; and that it afforded to his mind a strong confirmation of the
truthfulness of Drury's _Madagascar_. He adds the following curious
particulars anent our subject:--"Robin Drury," he says, "among those who
knew him (and he was known to many, being _a porter at the East India
House_), had the character of a downright honest man, without any
appearance of fraud or imposture. He was known to a friend of mine (now
living), who frequently called upon him at his house in Lincoln's Inn
Fields, which were not then enclosed. He tells me he has often seen him
throw a javelin there, and strike a small mark at a surprising distance. It
is a pity," he adds, "that this work of Drury's is not better known, and a
new edition published[1] (it having been long out of print); as it contains
much more particular and authentic accounts of that large and barbarous
island, than any yet given; and, though it is true, it is in many respects
as entertaining as Gulliver or Crusoe."

It may farther be mentioned that the French, who have a good acquaintance
with Madagascar, "have found Drury's statement of the geography, the
natural history, the manners of the people, and the conspicuous men of the
time, in Madagascar, remarkably accurate." (_Bib. Gén. des Voyages_, Paris,
1808.) Archdeacon Wrangham says: "Duncombe (?) calls Drury's _Madagascar_
the best and most genuine account ever given of the island;" and the
missionary Ellis quoted Drury without the slightest suspicion that any
doubt hangs over the genuineness of his narrative. Drury's account of
himself runs thus:--"I, Robert Drury," he says, when commencing his book,
"was born on July 24, 1687, in Crutched Friars, London, where my father
then lived; but soon after removed to the Old Jury, near Cheapside, where
he was well known, and esteemed for keeping that noted house called 'The
King's Head,' or otherwise distinguished by the name of the Beef-stake
House; and to which there was all my father's time a great resort of
merchants, and gentlemen of the best rank and character." To this famous
resort of the Revolutionary and Augustan ages I lately betook myself for
_my stake_, in the hope that _mine host_ might be found redolent of the
traditional glory of his house. But alas! that worthy, although firmly
believing in the antiquity of the King's Head, and of there being _some
book_ in existence that would prove it, could not say of his own knowledge
whether the king originally complimented by his predecessor was Harry the
Eighth or George the Fourth!

In conclusion, I would just add, is not the circumstance of our subject
holding the humble post of porter at the East India House confirmatory of
that part of his story which represents him as one of the crew of Hon.
Company's ship "Degrave," whose wreck upon Madagascar I take to be an
undoubted fact? What so probable as this recognition, in a small provision
for a man in his old age, whose misfortunes commenced while in their
service? Finally, to me the whole narrative of Robert Drury seems so
probable, and so well vouched for, that I have given in my adhesion thereto
by removing him to a _higher shelf_ in my library than that occupied by
such apocryphal persons as Crusoe, Quarle, Boyle, Falconer, and a host of
the like.

J. O.

[Footnote 1: The editions of _Madagascar_ known to me are those of 1727,
1731, and 1743, by the original publisher, Meadows, Hull, 1807, and London,

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 536.)

I would suggest a doubt, whether the suffix _-by_, in the names of places,
affords us any satisfactory evidence, _per se_, of their exclusively Danish
origin. This termination is of no unfrequent occurrence in districts, both
in this country and elsewhere, to which the Danes, _properly so called_,
were either utter strangers, or wherein they at no time established any
permanent footing. The truth is, there seems to be a fallacy in this Danish
theory, in so far as it rests upon the testimony of language; for, upon
investigation, we generally find that the word or phrase adduced in its
support was one recognised, not in any single territory alone, but
throughout the whole of Scandinavia, whose different tribes, amid some
trifling variations of dialect, which can now be scarcely ascertained, were
all of them as readily intelligible to one another as are, at this day, the
inhabitants of two adjoining English counties. If this were so, it appears
that, in the case before us, nothing can be proved from the existence of
the expression, beyond the fact of its _Norse_ origin; and our reasonable
and natural course is, if we would arrive at its true signification, to
refer at once to the parent tongue of the Scandinavian nations, spoken in
common, and during a long-continued period, amid the snows of distant
Iceland, on the mountains of Norway, the plains of Denmark, and in the
forests of Sweden.

This ancient and widely-diffused language was the Icelandic, Norman, or
Dönsk tunga,--that in which were written the Eddas and Skálda, the {106}
Njála and Heimskringla. In it we have the suffix _by_, under the forms of
the verbs _ek bý_, _ek bió_, or _at búa_, and _ek byggi_ or _byggia_,
manere, habitare, incolere, struere, edificare; also the nouns _bú_
(Ang.-Sax. _bý_, Dan. _bo_, _by_), domus, habitaculum; and _búi_, incola,
colonus, vicinus; closely assimilated expressions all of them, in which the
roots are found of our English words _bide_, _abide_, _be_, _by_ (denoting
proximity), _build_, _borough_, _bury_ (Edmondsbury), _barrow_, _byre_,
_bower_, _abode_, _&c._ Now, these explanations undoubtedly confirm the
interpretation assigned by MR. E. S. TAYLOR to his terminating syllable;
and it is probable enough that the villages to which he refers received
their titles from the Danes, who, we know, on the subjugation of its former
inhabitants, possessed themselves of the country in which they are
situated. This, however, is a begging the question; for, resting simply on
the evidence of the suffix, it is equally probable that these places
preserved the names assigned to them by their former northern colonists.
But our _bý_ or _búa_, Ang.-Sax. _bugan_ and _beón_, and the Germ. (ich)
_bin_ and _bauen_, have all been referred by learned philologists to the
Greek [Greek: phuô], or to [Greek: bioô], or to [Greek: pauô, pauomai]; and
the word has affinities scattered throughout numerous languages (there are
the Camb.-Brit. _bydio_, habitare, and _byw_, vivere, for instance), so
that we are surrounded by difficulties, if we attempt to establish from its
use any such point as that involved in your correspondent's Query.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 619.)

When Pope, in dedicating his _Rape of the Lock_ to Mrs. Arabella Fermor,
was desirous of putting within the reach of that lady the information which
MR. E. S. TAYLOR has sought through your pages, he wrote:

    "The _Rosicrucians_ are a people that I must bring you acquainted with.
    The best account of them I know is in a French book called _Le Compte
    de Gabalis_, which, both in its title and size, is so like a novel,
    that many of the fair sex have read it for one by
    mistake."--_Dedicatory Letter to the Rape of the Lock._

This celebrated work was written by the Abbé Montfaucon de Villars, and
published in 1670. "C'est une partie (says Voltaire, _Siècle de Louis
XIV._) de l'ancienne mythologie des Perses. L'auteur fut tué en 1675 d'un
coup de pistolet. On dit que les sylphes l'avaient assassiné pour avoir
révélé leurs mystères." In 1680, an English translation appeared (_penes
me_), entitled:

    "The Count of Gabalis; or the Extravagant Mysteries of the Cabalists,
    exposed in Five Pleasant Discourses on the Secret Sciences. Done into
    English by P. A. (Peter Ayres), Gent., with short Animadversions.
    London printed for B. M., printer to the Royal Society of the Sages at
    the Signe of the Rosy Crusian."

The original French work went through several editions: my own copy bears
the imprint of _Amsterdam_, 1715, and has appended to it _La Suite du
Compte de Gabalis, ou Entretiens sur les Sciences secrètes, touchant la
nouvelle Philosophie_," &c.

So much in deference to Pope,--whose only object, however, was to make Mrs.
Fermor acquainted with so much of Rosicrucianism as was necessary to the
comprehension of the machinery of his poem. MR. E. S. TAYLOR must go
farther afield if he is desirous of "earning the _vere adeptus_," and
becoming, like Butler's _Ralpho_--

  For MYSTIC LEARNING wondrous able,
  In magic _Talisman_ and _Cabal_,
  Whose primitive tradition reaches
  As far as ADAM'S first green breeches;
  Deep-sighted in INTELLIGENCES,
  And much of TERRA-INCOGNITA,
  Th' intelligible world could say;
  As learned as the wild Irish are,
  Or SIR AGRIPPA; for profound
  And solid lying much renowned.
  And JACOB BEHMEN understood;
  Knew many an amulet and charm,
  That would do neither good nor harm;
  In ROSY-CRUCIAN lore as learned
  As he that _vere adeptus_ earned."
                  _Hudibras_, Part i. Canto 1.

These lines enumerate, in a scarcely satirical form, the objects and
results of a study of _Rosicrucianism_, in so far as it differs from that
of alchemy and the occult sciences. The history of the _Rosicrucians_,--or
rather the inquiry as to whether actually existed at any time such a
college or brotherhood, and, if so, to what degree of antiquity can it lay
claim,--forms another and, perhaps, somewhat more profitable subject of
attention. This question, however, having been fully discussed elsewhere, I
will conclude by a _catalogue raisonné_ of such books and essays (the most
important of which are readily obtainable) as will enable your
correspondent to acquire for himself the information he seeks.

    Allgemeine und General Reformation der ganzen weiten Welt, beneben der
    Fama Fraternitatis, oder Enstehung der Brüderschaft des löblichen
    Ordens des _Rosenkreutzes_, &c. 8vo. Cassel, 1614. [Ascribed to John
    Valentine Andrea. In this pamphlet occurs the _first_ mention of the
    society; no allusion being made to it in the works of Bacon,
    Paracelsus, Agrippa, &c. It was republished at Frankfort in 1617 under
    a somewhat different title. Appended to it is a tract entitled
    "Sendbrieff, oder Bericht an Alle welche von den _neuen_ Brüderschafft
    des Ordens von _Rosen-Creutz_ genannt etwas gelesen," &c. This work
    contains a full account of the origin and tenets of the brotherhood,
    {107} and is the source whence modern writers have drawn their
    information. It called into existence a host of pamphlets for and
    against the very existence and tenets of the society.]

    Histoire de la Philosophie Hermétique, accompagnée d'un Catalogue
    raisonné des Ecrivains de cette Science, par l'Abbé Lenglet du Fresnoy.
    3 vols. 12mo. Paris, 1742.

    Theomagia, or the Temple of Wisdom, containing the Occult Powers of the
    Angels of Astromancy in the Telesmatical Sculpture of the Persians and
    Ægyptians; the knowledge of the _Rosie-Crucian_ Physick, and the
    Miraculous in Nature, &c., by John Heydon. 8vo. 1664. [The works of
    this enthusiast are extremely curious and rare. He is also the author
    of the following.]

    The Wiseman's Crowne, or the Glory of the _Rosie-Cross_, &c.; with the
    Regie Lucis, and Holy Household of _Rosie-Crucian_ Philosophers. 8vo.

    Elhavarevna, or the English Physitian's Tutor in the Astrabolismes of
    Mettals _Rosie-Crucian_, Miraculous Sapphiric Medicines of the Sun and
    Moon, &c., all Harmoniously United, and Operated by Astromancy and
    Geomancy, in so Easie a Method that a Fine Lady may practise and
    compleat Incredible, Extraordinary Telesmes (and read her Gallant's
    devices without disturbing her fancy), and cure all Diseases in Yong
    and Old, whereunto is added Psonthonphancia, &c. 8vo. 1665.

    Dictionnaire Infernal; ou Répertoire des Etres, Apparitions de la
    Magique, des Sciences occultes, Impostures, &c., par Collin de Plancy.
    8vo. Paris, 1844.

To render this list more complete, a great number may be added, the titles
of which will be found in the following essays, from which much information
on the subject will be gained:--

    New Curiosities of Literature. By George Soane, B.A. 2 vols. 8vo.
    London, 1849. [In vol. ii. p. 135. is an able and interesting essay
    entitled "_Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry_," in which the author, with
    considerable success, endeavours to show that _Rosicrucianism_ had no
    existence before the sixteenth century, and is a mere elaboration of
    Paracelsian doctrines: and that _Freemasonry_ is nothing more than an
    offspring from it, and has, consequently, no claim to the antiquity of
    which it boasts.]

    Swift's Tale of a Tub. [In Section X. of this wonderful book will be
    found a caustic piece of satire on the futility of the _Rosicrucian_

    Butler's Hudibras. [Grey's notes to part I., _passim._]

    Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions. By Charles Mackay, LL.D. 2
    vols. 8vo. [In the section devoted to the _Alchymists_, is a carefully
    compiled account of the _Rosicrucians_.]

    Chambers's Papers for the People, No. 33., vol. v., "Secret Societies
    of the Middle Ages."

    Idem, No. 66., "Alchemy and the Alchemists."

    The Guardian, No. 166.

    The Spectator, No. 574.

    Idem, No. 379. [This number contains Budgell's _Legend of the Sepulchre
    of Rosicrucius_.]

    The Rosicrucian: a Novel. 3 vols. 8vo.

    Zanoni. By Sir E. L. Bulwer.

After the slumber of a century, with new objects and regulations,
_Rosicrucianism_ (so to speak) was revived in the country of its birth.

A very curious volume was published fifty years ago, entitled _Proofs of a
Conspiracy against all the Religions and Governments of Europe, carried on
in the secret meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati, and Reading Societies_,
by John Robinson, A.M., &c., 8vo., London, 1798. This volume is chiefly
occupied by a history of the origin, proceedings, and objects of the
_Illuminati_, a sect which had rendered important services to revolutionary
interests, and laid the foundations of European propagandism. Much curious
matter relative to this sect will also be found in George Sand's _Comtesse
de Rudolstadt_, vol. ii.; upon, or just before, its extinction, a new
political association was formed at Baden and Carlsruhe, under the auspices
of Baron van Edelsheim, police minister of the Elector, under the title of
_Die Rosenkrietzer_. This society was called into existence by a
reactionary dread of that republicanism in politics, and atheism in morals,
which seemed at that time to prey upon the vitals of European society. The
society soon spread, and had its affiliations in various parts of Germany,
giving such uneasiness to Buonaparte, to the accomplishment of whose
projects it exercised an adverse influence, that he despatched a secret
messenger for the purpose of obtaining information as to its projects and
developments. He did everything in his power to destroy the association,
which, however, survived, until his murder of Palm, the bookseller, for
publishing the _Geist der Zeit_, seeming to call for a new and modified
association, led to its extinction, and the creation of a new secret
society, the celebrated _Tungen-Bund_, in its place.

It will be seen that in the foregoing I have confined myself to that part
of your correspondent's Query which relates to "the Brethren of the
Rosy-Cross." I have not ventured to allude to the Alchymists, or the
writings of Paracelsus, his predecessors and followers, which form a
library, and demand a catalogue for their mere enumeration. If MR. E. S.
TAYLOR, however, is desirous of farther information, and will favour me
with his address, I shall be happy to assist his researches in Hermetic
philosophy to the extent of my ability.



The Society of Rosicrucians, or Rosecroix (whom Collier calls a sect of
mountebanks), first started into existence in Germany in the seventeenth
century. They laid claim to the possession of divers secrets, among which
the philosopher's stone was the least. They never dared to appear publicly,
and styled themselves _The Invisible_. {108}

In 1622 they put forth the following advertisement:

    "We, deputed by our College, the principal of the brethren of the
    Rosicrucians, to make our visible and invisible abode in this city,
    through the grace of the Most High; towards whom are turned the hearts
    of the just: we teach without books or notes, and speak the languages
    of the countries wherever we are, to draw men like ourselves from the
    error of death."

The Illuminati of Spain were a branch of this sect. In 1615 one John
Bringeret printed a work in Germany containing two treatises, entitled _The
Manifesto and Confession of Faith of the Fraternity of the Rosicrucians in

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 554. Vol. vii., p. 633.)

My note-book contains a considerable number of inscriptions on bells; some
extracted from books, but others transcribed from the bells themselves. I
send you a few of the most remarkable inscriptions, with one or two notes
on the subject.

Chesterton, Cambridgeshire:

1. "God save the Church."

2. "Non sono animabus mortuorum, sed viventium."

S. Benet's, Cambridge (see Le-Keux' _Memorials_):

  1. "Of all the bels in Bennet, I am the best,
  And yet for my casting the parish paid lest. 1607."

  2.  "Non nomen fero ficti,
      Sed nomen Benedicti. 1610."

  3. "This bell was broke, and cast againe,
      by John Draper, in 1618,
        as plainly doth appeare:
          Churchwardens were,
            Edward Dixon,
              for one,
      who stood close to his tacklyn,
    and he that was his partner then,
        was Alexander Jacklyn."

Girton, Cambridgeshire:

    "Non clamor sed amor cantat in aure Dei."

Stoneleigh, Warwickshire:

1. "Michaele te pulsante Winchelcombe a petente dæmone te libera.

2. "O Kenelme nos defende ne maligni sentiamus focula."

Eastry, Kent:

    "One bell inscribed with the names of the churchwardens and the maker;
    a shilling of William III., and other coins are let into the rim."

Erith, Kent:

    "A tablet in the belfry commemorates the ringing of a peal of 726
    changes in twenty-six minutes."

S. Clement, Sandwich, Kent:

    "In the ringing chamber of this noble tower is a windlass for lowering
    the bells in case of repairs becoming necessary, with a trap-door in
    the floor opening into the church."

S. Mary, Sandwich, Kent:

    "This bel was bought and steeple built, A.D. 1718. J. Bradley, R.
    Harvey, Ch. wardens. R. P. F."

S. Andrew, Histon, Camb.:

    "Coins of Queen Anne in the rim of one bell; but dated 1723."

S. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster (Weever, _Fur. Mon._, p. 491., edit. fol.

    "King Edward the Third built in the little sanctuarie a clochard of
    stone and timber, and placed therein three bells, for the vse of Saint
    _Stephen's_ Chappel. About the biggest bell was engrauen, or cast in
    the metall, these words:

     'King Edward made mee thirtie thousand weight and three:
      Take mee downe and wey mee, and more you shall fynd mee.'

    But these bells being to be taken downe, in the raigne of King _Henry_
    the Eight, one writes vnderneath with a coal:

     'But _Henry_ the Eight will bait me of my weight.'"

If any farther extracts may interest you, they are very much at your


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 6.)

MR. WARDEN will find this question discussed by La Pérouse (English 8vo.
edit., vol. ii. ch. 6.), who concludes unhesitatingly that the Sandwich
group is identical with a cluster of islands discovered by the Spanish
navigator Gaetan in 1542, and by him named "The King's Islands." These the
Spaniard placed in the tenth, although the Sandwich Islands are near the
twentieth, degree of north latitude, which La Pérouse believed was a mere
clerical error. The difference in longitude, sixteen or seventeen degrees,
he ascribed to the imperfect means of determination possessed by the early
navigators, and to their ignorance of the currents of the Pacific.

Allowing for the mistake in latitude, the King's Islands are evidently the
same as those found on some old charts, about the nineteenth and twentieth
degrees of north latitude, under the names of _La Mesa_, _Los Mayos_, and
_La Disgraciada_; which Capt. Dixon, as well as La Pérouse, sought for in
vain in the longitude assigned to them. They appear to have been introduced
into the {109} English and French charts from that found in the galleon
taken by Commodore Anson, and of which a copy is given in the account of
his voyage. Cook, or Lieutenant Roberts, the compiler of the charts to his
third voyage, retained them; and La Pérouse was the first to erase them
from the map. There can, indeed, be little doubt of their identity with the
Sandwich Islands. But although Cook was not actually the first European who
had visited those islands, to him rightly belongs all the glory of their
discovery. Forgotten by the Spaniards, misplaced on the chart a thousand
miles too far to the eastward, and unapproached for 240 years, their
existence utterly unknown and unsuspected, Cook was, to all intents and
purposes, their real discoverer.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 590.)

Is not the cast of a skeleton in the British Museum, recently alluded to by
A FOREIGN SURGEON, and which is labelled _Megatherium Americanum_ Blume.,
better known to English naturalists by its more correct designation of
_Mylodon robustus_ Owen; and if so, why is the proper appellation not
painted on the label? If that had been done, _A Foreign Surgeon_ would not
have fallen into the error of confounding the remains of two distinctly
different animals.

Might I beg leave to add, for the information of your correspondent, that
no British naturalist "of any mark or likelihood," has ever assumed that
(though undoubtedly sloths) either the _Mylodon_, _Scelidotherium_, or
_Megatherium_, were climbers. Indeed, the whole osseous structure of those
animals proves that they were formed to uprend the trees that gave them
sustenance. By no other hypothesis can we intelligibly account for the
immense expanse of pelvis, the great bulk of hind-legs, the solid tail, the
massive anterior limbs furnished with such powerful claws, and the
extraordinary large spinal chord--all these the characteristic features of
the _Mylodon_.

Whether there were palms or not at the period of the telluric formation, I
cannot undertake to say; but as A FOREIGN SURGEON assumes that a palm is an
exogenous tree (!), I am induced to suspect that his acquaintance with
geology may be equally as limited as his knowledge of botany. Besides, what
can he mean by speaking of a sloth "the size of a large bear?" Why, the
_Mylodon_ must have been larger than a rhinoceros or hippopotamus. The
veriest tyro in natural history would see that at the first glance of the
massive skeleton.

It is a painful and ungracious task to have to pen these observations,
especially, too, in the case of a stranger. But "N. & Q." must not be made
a channel for erroneous statements, and we "natives and to the manner born"
must be allowed to know best what is in our own museums.



       *       *       *       *       *


_Stereoscopic Angles._--Like many of your correspondents, I have been an
inquirer on the subject of stereoscopic angles, which seems to be still a
problem for solution. What is this problem? for until that be known, we
cannot hope for a solution. I would ask, is it this?--_Stereoscopic
pictures should create in the mind precisely such a conception as the two
eyes would if viewing the object represented by the stereograph._ If this
be the problem (and I cannot conceive otherwise), its solution is simple
enough, as it consists in placing the cameras _invariably_ 2½ inches apart,
on a line parallel to the building, or a plane passing through such a
figure as a statue, &c. In this mode of treatment we should have two
pictures possessing like stereosity with those on the retinas, and
consequently with like result and as our eyes enable us to conceive
perfectly of any solid figure, so would the stereograph. I believe,
therefore, that this is, under every circumstance, the correct treatment;
simply because every other mode may be proved to be false to nature.

Professor Wheatstone recommends 1 in 25 when objects are more than 50 feet
distant, and this rule seems to be pretty generally followed. Its
incorrectness admits of easy demonstration. Suppose a wall 300 feet in
extent, with abutments, each two feet in front, and projecting two feet
from the wall, at intervals of five feet. The proper distance from the
observer ought to be 450 feet, which, agreeably with this rule, would
require a space of 18 feet between the cameras. Under this treatment the
result would be, that both of the _sides, as well as the fronts_, of the
three central abutments would be seen; whilst of all the rest, only the
front and one side would be visible. This would be outraging nature, and
false, and therefore should, I believe, be rejected. The eyes of an
observer situated midway between the cameras, could not possibly perceive
either of the sides of the buttress opposite to him, and only the side next
to him of the rest. This seems to me conclusive.

Again, your correspondent [Phi]. (Vol. vii., p. 16.) says, that for
portraits he finds 1 in 10 a good rule. Let the sitter hold, straight from
the front, _i.e._ in the centre, a box 2½ inches in width. The result would
be, that in the stereographs the box would have both its sides represented,
and the front, instead of being horizontal, consisting of two inclined
lines, _i.e._ unless the cameras were {110} placed on _one line_, when it
would be horizontal. In such treatment the departure from both is as great
as in the first example, and the outrage greater, inasmuch as, under these
circumstances (I mean a boy with a box), to any person of common sense, the
caricature would be at a glance obvious. This rule, then, although it
produces stereosity enough, being false, should also be rejected.

I believe that 2½ inches will be found to be right under any circumstance;
but should sufficient reasons be offered for a better rule, I trust I am
open to conviction, and shall hail with great pleasure a demonstration of
its correctness.

Should it, however, turn out that I have given a right definition, and a
correct solution of this most interesting problem, I shall rejoice to know
that I have rendered an essential service to a great number of anxious
students in photography.



_Yellow Bottles for Photographic Chemicals._--The proposal of your
correspondent CERIDWEN to employ yellow glass bottles for preventing the
decomposition of photographic solutions has been anticipated. It was
suggested by me, in some lectures on Photography in November 1847, and in
January of the present year, that yellow bottles might be so used, as well
as for preventing the decomposition, by light, of the vegetable substances
used in pharmacy, such as digitalis, ipecacuanha, cinchona, &c. For
solutions of silver, however, the most effectual remedy against
precipitation is the use of very pure water, procured by slow
redistillation in glass vessels at a temperature much below the boiling


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Earth upon Earth, &c._--I think the information which has been elicited in
connexion with the so-called "Unpublished Epigram by Sir W. Scott," "N. &
Q.," Vol. vii., p. 498., sufficiently curious to justify an additional
reference to the sentiment in question; the more so as I have to mention
the name of its putative author. In Montgomery's _Christian Poet_, 3rd
edit. p. 58., he gives, under the title of "Earth upon Earth," five verses,
which it would appear are substantially the same as those published by
Weaver (whose _Funeral Monuments_, his only publication, I have not within
reach), but they exhibit considerable verbal difference in the verses
corresponding with those cited in "N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 576. Montgomery
tells us in a note that this extract, given under the name of William
Billyng, along with another from a poem entitled "The Five Wounds of
Christ," by the same author, were from "a manuscript on parchment of great
antiquity, in possession of William Bateman, Esq.," of which a few copies
had been printed at Manchester, and "accompanied by rude but exceedingly
curious cuts." Now who was William Billyng? And when did he live?
Montgomery says "the age of this author is well known." The death of the
Archbishop of Canterbury, to whom Weaver (_Fun. Mon._ 1631) applies the
Stratford epigraph, is temp. Edward III. Is Mr. Bateman's MS. in a hand
indicating so early a date?

J. H.

_Picalyly_ (Vol. viii., p. 8.).--In Barnaby Rich's _Honestie of this Age_,
p. 37. of the Percy Society reprint, we find this passage:

    "But he that some fortie or fifty yeares sithens should haue asked
    after a Pickadilly, I wonder who could haue understood him, or could
    haue told what a Pickadilly had beene, either fish or flesh."

Little did the writer think that in future years the name would become a
"household word;" though his prophecy as to the meaning of the word has
been fulfilled by the appearance of the Query in the pages of "N. & Q."

The editor of the work, Mr. Peter Cunningham, has a long note on the above
passage; and I am indebted to him for the following.

    "Ben Jonson (_Works_ by Gifford, viii. 370.) speaks of a _picardill_ as
    a new cut of band much in fashion:

     'Ready to cast at one whose band stands still,
      And then leap mad on a neat _picardill_.'

    "But Middleton, _The World tost at Tennis_, 1620, speaks of a
    _pickadill_ in connexion with the shears, the needle, &c. of the
    tailor; from which it appears to have been an instrument used for
    plaiting the picked vandyke collar worn in those days.

    "Mr. Gifford, in a note on another passage in Ben Jonson, says:

    '_Picardil_ is simply a diminutive of _picca_ (Span. and Ital.), a
    spear-head; and was given to this article of foppery from a fancied
    resemblance of its stiffened plaits to the bristled points of these
    weapons. Blount thinks, and apparently with justice, that _Picadilly_
    took its name frown the sale of the 'small stiff collars so called,'
    which was first set on foot in a house near the western [eastern]
    extremity of the present street by one Higgins, a tailor.'"

The bands worn by the clergy and judges, &c., at the present day, are
lineal descendants of the old _picadils_, reduced to a more sober cut; and
the picked ornament alluded to by your correspondent no doubt derived its
name from its resemblance in shape to these tokens of ancient fashion.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

_Mr. Justice Newton_ (Vol. vii., pp. 528. 600.; Vol. viii., p. 15.).--I did
not answer MR. F. KYFFIN LENTHALL'S first Query, because it was {111}
palpable, from the context, that the "Mr. Justice Newton" he inquired after
could not possibly be the Chief Justice who flourished in the fifteenth
century; and because I am not aware of any judge of the superior courts of
that name, during the time of the Commonwealth, or the years which
immediately preceded or followed that period. Indeed, his designation as
"Mr. Justice Newton, _of the Middle Temple_," plainly proves that he could
not have been a judge upon the Bench at Westminster. He may perhaps have
been a Welsh judge; or, remembering that "Mr. Justice" was the common title
for a Justice of the Peace, it is still more probable that he was merely a
magistrate of the county in which he resided.


_Manners of the Irish_ (Vol. viii., p. 5.).--In the very curious extract
given by your correspondent H., _boyranne_ is very likely to stand for
_borbhan_, the Irish for "lamentation" or "complaint." An Irish landlord
knows full well that, even up to the present day, his tenants "keep the
bread, and make _borbhan_." _Molchan_, I suspect, comes from _miolc_, whey.
_Localran_ stands for _loisgrean_, corn turned out of the ear. As to the
concluding line of the extract, I must leave it to some better Irish
scholar than I can boast myself.

 "I am the geyest mayed of all that brought the somer houme,"

plainly has reference to the old practice, still prevalent in some parts of
Ireland on May-day, when young girls carry about a figure dressed as a
baby, singing the Irish song, [Irish: thugamar féin an samhra linn], "We
have brought the summer with us" (See _Transactions of the Kilkenny
Archæological Society_). _Ultagh_ (_Ultach_) is Irish for an Ulster man, as
H. will see by consulting any Irish dictionary, and can have no connexion
with Utlagh, the Kilkenny money-lender. _Ugteller_ is of course a misprint
for _Kyteller_. Would that H. would give us his real name and address, or
at least allow me to ask whether H. F. H. do not constitute his initials in



_Arms of the See of York_ (Vol. viii., p. 34.).--I was about to send a note
to "N. & Q.," pointing out that Mr. Knight, in his heraldic illustrations
to 2 _Hen. IV._, in his _Pictorial Edition of Shakspeare_, has given the
modern bearings of the see of York to Archbishop Scroope, instead of those
which belonged to that date, when I observed a Query from TEE BEE, asking
the date and origin of the _change_ of arms which took place. I am sorry
that I am unable to give any authority for my statement, but I believe it
to be not the less true, that the change in question took place when
Cardinal Wolsey came to the see. Nor can I give any farther reason for that
change than the notorious jealousy of the Cardinal towards the superior
rank of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Up to this period the arms of the two
sees were precisely the same, though TEE BEE gives the number of crosses
"patée fitchée" on the pall for difference; I should be glad to know
whether there is good authority for this statement. The present arms of the
see evidently have reference to the dedication of the ancient cathedral
church to St. Peter.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

_"Up, Guards, and at 'em!"_ (Vol. v., p. 426.).--These oft-quoted words
have already engaged the attention of the readers of "N. & Q." Your
frequent correspondent C. (Vol. v., p. 426.) is of opinion that the Duke
_did_ make use of these, or equivalent, words. The following extract I have
copied from an article in the June number of _Bentley's Miscellany_. It
will be found at p. 700. as a foot-note to a clever article, one of a
series, entitled "Random Recollections of Campaigns under the Duke of
Wellington," written by an officer of the second brigade of Guards.

    "The expression attributed to the Duke of 'Up, guards, and at them
    again!' I have good reason for _knowing_ was never made use of by him.
    He was not even _with_ the brigade of Guards in question at the _time_
    they rose from their recumbent position to attack the French column in
    their front, and therefore could not well have thus addressed them. I
    never heard this story till long after, on my return to England, when
    it was related by a lady at a dinner-table; probably it was the
    invention of some goodly Botherby. I remember denying my belief at the
    time, and my view has since been sufficiently confirmed. Besides, the
    words bear no internal evidence of the style either of thought or even
    expression of him to whom they were attributed."

The invention of the goodly Botherby has prospered!


_Coleridge's Christabel--The 3rd Part_ (Vol. viii., pp. 11, 12.).--MR. J.
S. WARDEN asks if I am correct in stating the 3rd part of _Christabel_ to
be the composition of Dr. Maginn. I can but "_give my authority_" in a
reference to a sketch of Maginn's life, in a new and well-conducted
periodical, _The Irish Quarterly Review_, which, in the number for
September, 1852, after giving a most humorous account of a first interview
between Blackwood and his wild Irish contributor, who had for more than a
year been mystifying the editor by contributions under various signatures,
proceeds thus:--

    "A few days before the first interview with Blackwood, Maginn had sent
    in his famous 'Third part of Christabel.' It is only to be found in the
    Magazine; and as many of our readers must be unacquainted with the
    poem, we here subjoin it."

{112} The poem follows, containing the lines which led to the first inquiry
on this subject.

It was having read the Memoir in _The Irish Quarterly_ which enabled me so
promptly to remember where the lines were to be found; but I had long
before heard, and never doubted, that the clever parody was composed by Dr.

A. B. R.


_Mitigation of Capital Punishment_ (Vol. viii., p. 42.).--I am sorry MR.
GATTY takes the phrase "mythic accompaniments" as an imputation on himself.
I did not intend it for one, having no doubt that he repeated the story as
he heard it. In it were two statements of the highest decree of
improbability. One I showed (Vol. v., p. 434.) to be contrary to penal, the
other to forensic practice. One MR. GATTY found to have been only a report,
the other to have occurred at a different place and under different
circumstances. Had these been stated in the first version, I should not
have disputed them. Whittington was thrice Lord Mayor of London--that is
history, to which the prophecy of Bow-bells and the exportation of the cat
are "mythic accompaniments."

A word as to "disclosing only initials." I think you, as a means of
authentification, should have the name and address of every correspondent.
You have mine, and may give them to any one who pays me the compliment of
asking; but I do not seek farther publicity.

H. B. C.


_The Man with the Iron Mask_ (Vol. vii., pp. 234. 344.).--I think that Mr.
James, in his _Life and Times of Louis XIV._, has, to say the least, shown
strong grounds for doubting the theory which identifies this person with
Mathioli; and since then several writers have been inclined to fall back,
in the want of any more probable explanation, on the old idea that the
captive was a twin brother of Louis. What has become of the letter from M.
de St. Mars, said to have been discovered some years ago, confirming this
last hypothesis? Has any such letter been published, and, if so, what is
the opinion of its genuineness?


_Gentleman executed for Murder of a Slave_ (Vol. vii., p. 107.)--Sometime
between 1800 and 1805, Lord Seaforth being Governor of Barbadoes, a
slaveowner, having killed one of his own slaves, was tried for the murder
and acquitted, the law considering that such an act was not murder.
Thereupon Lord Seaforth came to England, obtained an act of parliament
declaring the killing of a slave to be murder, and returned to Barbadoes to
resume his official duties. Soon afterwards another slave was killed by his
owner, who was tried, convicted, and sentenced to be hanged for murder
under the new act of parliament. At the time appointed the prisoner was
brought out for execution, but so strong was public feeling, that the
ordinary executioner was not forthcoming; and on the governor requiring the
sheriff to perform his office either in person or by deputy, after some
excuses he absolutely refused. The governor then addressed the guard of
soldiers, desiring a volunteer for executioner, adding, "whoever would
volunteer should be subsequently protected as well as rewarded then." One
presented himself, and it thenceforth became as dangerous to kill a slave
as a freeman in Barbadoes.

G. M. E. C.

_Jahn's Jahrbuch_ (Vol. viii., p. 34.).--Permit me to inform your
correspondent E. C. that there is a copy of Jahn's _Jahrbücher für
Philologie und Pädagogik_ in the library of Sir Robert Taylor's
Institution, Oxford. Although this library is for the use of members of the
university, I am sure the curators of the institution will give their
permission to consult the books in it, to any gentleman who is properly
recommended to them.



_Character of the Song of the Nightingale_ (Vol. vii., p. 397.).--I imagine
that many of the writers quoted by your correspondent lived in places too
far removed to the north or west (as is my own case) ever to have heard the
nightingale, and are, in consequence, not competent authorities as to a
song they can only have described at second hand; but that Shelley was not
far wrong in styling it voluptuous, and placing it amidst the luxurious
bowers of Daphne, may receive some confirmation from an anecdote told by
Nimrod ("Life and Times," _Fraser's Magazine_, vol. xxv. p. 301.) of the
sad effects produced both on morals and parish rates by the visit of a
nightingale one summer to the groves of Erthig, near Wrexham.


I accidently met with a scrap of evidence on this point lately, as I was
driving at midnight on a sudden call to visit a dying man. The nightingales
were singing in full choir, when my servant, an intelligent young man from
the country, remarked, "A cheerful little bird the nightingale, Sir. It is
beautiful to hear them singing when one is walking alone on a dark night."

Unsophisticated judgment of this sort, when met with unsought, seems to be
of real value in a question depending for its decision so much upon the
faithful record of impressions.



MR. CUTHBERT BEDE gives, in his list of epithets of the nightingale,
"solemn," as used by Milton, Otway, Graingle. How the last two employ the
term I do not know, perhaps they {113} copied from Milton; but he uses it,
not as an epithet exactly, but to express the frequency of the bird's
appearance. "Night, her _solemn_ bird," means the _customary_ attendant of
the night: _solemn_ being used in the classical sense, and derived front
_soles_. So Virgil, "Solemnes tum forte dapes et tristia dona ante urbem in
luco," &c.

The word _solemn_ probably acquired its present signification from the
staid manner in which Englishmen go through their customary ceremonies.
"They took their pleasure _sadly_," as Froissart has it.


_Mysterious Personage_ (Vol. viii., p. 34.).--There is no mystery about the
legitimate claimant of the British throne. He is the Duke of Modena,
lineally descended from Henrietta of England, youngest daughter of Charles
I.: she married Philip Duke of Orleans, son of Louis XIII. and Anne of
Austria, and had two daughters; Louisa married to Charles II. of Spain (she
died without issue), and Anna Maria, married to Victor Amadeus, Duke of
Savoy and King of Sardinia. Their son Charles Emanuel III. succeeded in
1730, and was succeeded by his son Victor Amadeus III. He was succeeded by
his eldest son Charles Emanuel IV., who died without issue, and was
succeeded by his brother Victor Emanuel, who left twin daughters, the elder
of whom, Mary Beatrice, married Francis Duke of Modena, while the crown of
Sardinia passed to her father's heirs male. The Duchess Mary Beatrice of
Modena has left two sons, the elder of whom (born June 14, 1819) is the
direct, undoubted heir of the House of Stuart.

L. M. M. R.

_Ken: "The Crown of Glory"_ (Vol. vii., p. 597.).--This work was properly
rejected by Mr. Round in his edition of Bishop Ken's _Works_; and in the
preface he gives the reasons for so doing. The absence of certain forms of
expression was the chief test relied on. The book is so excellent, and the
prayers so warm and Ken-like, that its exclusion indicates much critical
acumen on the part of Mr. Round. Subsequently to the publication of this
collection, it was ascertained that the prayers and other parts of _The
Crown of Glory_ were taken from a book of Dean Brough, of Gloucester,
entitled _Sacred Principles_, which was published, I believe (I am writing
at a distance from my books), in 1661.

W. D----N.

_Pennycomequick, adjoining Plymouth_ (Vol. viii., p. 8.).--In days gone by,
when the boundaries of the town were much more circumscribed than at the
present day, a well-known old female (a perfect character in her way) had
long fixed her abode in a curiously built hut-like cot in the locality in
question; the rusticity of which, together with the obliging demeanour of
its tenants, had gradually induced the good folk of Plymouth to make
holiday bouts to this retired spot for the purpose of merry-making. As
years rolled on, the shrewd old dame became a general favourite with the
pleasure-seekers; the increasing frequency of these pic-nics suggesting to
her an opportunity which might be turned to good account, viz. that of
providing her visitors with the cheap requisite, boiling water, for the
brewing their sober afternoon's beverage, at the low rate of a penny a
head. Still later in the evening of life, shrugging herself closely in her
old scarlet cloak, which had served her well for better than half a
century, she would, with much apparent gusto, recount to her pleased
auditory how many a time and often she had made the "penny come quick," by
the above-recited inexpensive vocation; until at length her saying became a
by-word in the neighbourhood, and universal consent fixed on the ever-happy
octogenarian's triplet as a fitting appellation for the then nameless and
retired little nook, but now thickly studded grounds, of _Pennycomequick_.

That equally simple occurrences have frequently given rise to the names of
places, is shown by other remarkable titles of localities not far distant
from _Pennycomequick_, such as those of "The Bold Venture," and of "No



Your correspondent R. H. B. is informed that the name of this village is
Welsh, viz. _Pen y cwn gwich_, and signifies a village at the head of a

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

_Longevity_ (Vol. vii., pp. 358. 504. 607.).--May I be permitted a word
with your correspondent A. I., and at the same time assist MR. HUGHES in
his laudable attempt "to convert him to the faith?" To do this, it will not
be necessary for me to search either in annual or parish registers, or to
decipher half-defaced inscriptions on marble monuments or humble

A lady is now living, or was two months ago, in Williamsburg, State of
South Carolina, by the name of Singleton, who is known to be in the _one
hundred and thirty-first year of her age_:

    "Her mental faculties are still unimpaired, and she retains all her
    senses except that of sight, of which she was deprived at the advanced
    age of ninety-nine years by an attack of the measles. Her bodily energy
    exhibits no diminution for many years, she being still able to walk
    briskly about the room. She has outlived all her children: her oldest
    descendant living being a granddaughter, over sixty years old. The
    first granddaughter of this granddaughter, if now living, would be over
    sixteen years of age."

W. W.


_Arms: Battle-axe_ (Vol. vii., p. 407.).--The undermentioned families bore
three battle-axes {114} simply, their coats of arms varying only in metal
and colour:


Stephen Hoby (the earliest ancestor of the Bisham family of whom any record
is preserved), married ----, the daughter and heiress of ---- Bylmore,
whose arms were--Gu. three halberds (long-handled battle-axes) in pale ar.
handled or.: hence, no doubt, the three battle-axes in connexion with the
Hoby or Hobby name at Bisham Church. William Hoby, of Leominster, the tenth
in descent from the above-mentioned Stephen, married Catherine, sole
daughter and heiress of John Forden _alias_ Fordayne, by Gwentwynar,
daughter and heiress of Sir Griffith Vahan _alias_ Vaughan, Knight
Banneret; who was, as I am led to think, of Denbigh or its neighbourhood. I
shall be happy to find I have thrown any light upon the Query of A. C.

H. C. C.

_Sir G. Browne, Bart._ (Vol. vii., p. 528.)--Your correspondent NEWBURY is
in error in styling this George Browne a baronet, nor was he of West
Stafford or Wickham. He was the sole son and heir of Sir George Browne,
Knight, of Wickhambreux, co. Kent, Caversham, co. Oxford, and Cowdray in
Midhurst, co. Sussex; which last estate devolved on this family by the will
of William Fitzwilliam, Earl of Southampton, the son of Lucy (daughter and
co-heiress of John Nevill, Marquess of Montagu) by her first husband, Sir
Thomas Fitzwillam of Aldwark, co. York; which Lucy became the wife of Sir
Anthony Browne, who was knighted at the battle of Stoke, June 6, 1487, and
succeeded as above-mentioned to the Cowdray estate.

George Browne, who married Elizabeth or Eleanor, the daughter of Sir
Richard Blount, was of Wickhambreux, Caversham, and also of West Shefford
in co. Berks; his name appears as thus in the Visitation of this county
anno 1623. Of the nineteen children, he had three sons whose names are not
given, and who died in the Royal cause during the civil wars: but as
Richard, the third son, is expressly mentioned, he certainly was not one of
the three killed in the service of King Charles I. Sir George Browne,
second, but eldest surviving son, was made a K.B. at the coronation of King
Charles II.; and was celebrated by Pope in his "Windsor Forest." He married
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Francis Englefield, the second baronet of
Wootton Bassett, co. Wilts, and died _s. p. m._ George, the eldest born,
died an infant. Henry, the fourth son, died unmarried March 19, 1668, and
was buried at West Shefford; and John, the fifth son, was of Caversham, and
created a baronet May 19, 1665. He married the widow of ---- Bradley, and
was the ancestor of the baronets of Caversham, extinct in 1774. Three
daughters, whose names are not given, became nuns. Eleanor, another
daughter, died unmarried, Nov. 27, 1662, and was buried at West Shefford:
and Elizabeth was the wife of John Yate of West Hanney, co. Berks; and who
died Jan. 26, 1671, before his wife.

H. C. C.

       *       *       *       *       *



MEMOIRS OF THE ROSE, by Mr. John Holland. 1 Vol. 12mo. 1824.

LITERARY GAZETTE, 1834 to 1845.

ATHENÆUM, commencement to 1835.


MOORE'S MELODIES. 15th Edition.

WOOD'S ATHENÆ OXONIENSES (ed. Bliss). 4 vols. 4to. 1813-20.

THE COMPLAYNTS OF SCOTLAND. 8vo. Edited by Leyden. 1804.

SHAKSPEARE'S PLAYS. Vol. V. of Johnson and Steevens's edition, in 15 vols.
8vo. 1739.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_In consequence of being compelled to go to press with the present Number
on Thursday, and of the number of_ REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES _waiting for
insertion, we have been compelled to omit our_ NOTES ON BOOKS, &c.

T. M. B. _The oft-quoted lines_--

 "So down thy hill, romantic Ashbourn, glides,
  The Derby dilly, carrying THREE insides," &c.--

_will be found in the_ Poetry of the Antijacobin, _at the close of the
Second Part of_ The Loves of the Triangles.

J. D. _Where is the sentence of which you ask an explanation to be found?
Send the context, or farther particulars._

C. E. F. _and_ T. D. (Leeds). _Your inquiry as to the best mode of
constructing a glass chamber for photographic purposes will be answered in
our next._

MR. JOHN COOK _has sent us a plan for taking cheaper pictures for
stereoscopic purposes by means of a common camera, and the substitution for
the ordinary ground glass of a piece of plate glass and a piece of paper,
on which the outline of the figure is to be traced. When one sketch is thus
made, the camera is to be moved fifteen or sixteen inches to the right or
left, and a second drawing made in the same way. The plan is a very obvious
one; and though adapted for those who can draw and have an ordinary camera,
it presents few advantages to photographers._

H. H. H. (Ashburton). _Were we to recommend you to any particular maker for
your collodion tent, we should deviate from our rule of impartiality where
several vendors are concerned, and we would therefore refer you to our
advertising columns._

W. N. (Kingston). _We are sorry we cannot afford space for answering all
your Queries on the making of gun cotton. A portion made according to Dr.
Diamond's formulary has been forwarded to your address; and if it is not_
entirely _soluble, then the fault is in your ether._

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vii., _price
Three Guineas and a Half, may now be had; for which early application is

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published an noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *



THE REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, the only natural, pleasant, and effectual
remedy (without medicine, purging, inconvenience, or expense, as it saves
fifty times its cost in other remedies) for nervous, stomachic, intestinal,
liver and bilious complaints, however deeply rooted, dyspepsia
(indigestion), habitual constipation, diarrhoea, acidity, heartburn,
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rheumatism, gout, dropsy, sickness at the stomach during pregnancy, at sea,
and under all other circumstances, debility in the aged as well as infants,
fits, spasms, cramps, paralysis, &c.

_A few out of 50,000 Cures:--_

    Cure, No. 71, of dyspepsia; from the Right Hon. the Lord Stuart de
    Decies:--"I have derived considerable benefits from your Revalenta
    Arabica Food, and consider it due to yourselves and the public to
    authorise the publication of these lines.--STUART DE DECIES."

    Cure, No. 49,832:--"Fifty years' indescribable agony from dyspepsia,
    nervousness, asthma, cough, constipation, flatulency, spasms, sickness
    at the stomach, and vomitings have been removed by Du Barry's excellent
    food.--MARIA JOLLY, Wortham Ling, near Diss, Norfolk."

    Cure, No. 180:--"Twenty-five years' nervousness, constipation,
    indigestion, and debility, from which I had suffered great misery, and
    which no medicine could remove or relieve, have been effectually cured
    by Du Barry's food in a very short time.--W. R. REEVES, Pool Anthony,

    Cure, No. 4,208:--"Eight years' dyspepsia, nervousness, debility, with
    cramps, spasms, and nausea, for which my servant had consulted the
    advice of many, have been effectually removed by Du Barry's delicious
    food in a very short time. I shall be happy to answer any
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_Dr. Wurzer's Testimonial._

    "Bonn, July 19. 1852.

    "This light and pleasant Farina is one of the most excellent,
    nourishing, and restorative remedies, and supersedes, in many cases,
    all kinds of medicines. It is particularly useful in confined habit of
    body, as also diarrhoea, bowel complaints, affections of the kidneys
    and bladder, such as stone or gravel; inflammatory irritation and cramp
    of the urethra, cramp of the kidneys and bladder, strictures, and
    hemorrhoids. This really invaluable remedy is employed with the most
    satisfactory result, not only in bronchial and pulmonary complaints,
    where irritation and pain are to be removed, but also in pulmonary and
    bronchial consumption, in which it counteracts effectually the
    troublesome cough; and I am enabled with perfect truth to express the
    conviction that Du Barry's Revalenta Arabica is adapted to the cure of
    incipient hectic complaints and consumption.

    "Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. in Bonn."

London Agents:--Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her
Majesty the Queen; Hedges & Butler, 155. Regent Street; and through all
respectable grocers, chemists, and medicine venders. In canisters, suitably
packed for all climates, and with full instructions, 1lb. 2s. 9d.; 2lb. 4s.
6d.; 5lb. 11s.; 12lb. 22s.; super-refined, 5lb. 22s.; 10lb. 33s. The 10lb.
and 12lb. carriage free, on receipt of Post-office order.--Barry, Du Barry
Co., 77. Regent Street, London.

IMPORTANT CAUTION.--Many invalids having been seriously injured by spurious
imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta, Arabaca, and
others, the public will do well to see that each canister bears the name
BARRY, DU BARRY & CO., 77. Regent Street, London, in full, _without which
none is genuine_.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on application.

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Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

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London: CLARK, 17. Warwick Lane. SHEW, 32. Rathbone Place. BAKER, 244.

       *       *       *       *       *

LA LUMIERE; French Photographic Journal. The only Journal which gives
weekly all the principal Photographic News of England and the Continent;
with Original Articles and Communications on the different Processes and
Discoveries, Reports of the French Academy of Sciences, Articles on Art,
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Published every SATURDAY at PARIS, 9. Rue de la Perle.

Terms, 16s. per annum in advance. All English Subscriptions and
Communications to be addressed to the English Editor, 6. Henman Terrace,
Camden Town, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different Bedsteads;
also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and Quilts. And their new
warerooms contain an extensive assortment of Bed-room Furniture, Furniture
Chintzes, Damasks, and Dimities, so as to render their Establishment
complete for the general furnishing of Bed-rooms.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,


       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *




During the last Ten Years, this Society has issued more than _Four Thousand
One Hundred and Fifty Policies_--

Covering Assurances to the extent of _One Million Six Hundred and
Eighty-seven Thousand Pounds, and upwards_--

Yielding Annual Premiums amounting to _Seventy-three Thousand Pounds_.

This Society is the only one possessing Tables for the Assurance of
Diseased Lives.

Healthy Lives Assured at Home and Abroad at lower rates than at most other

A Bonus of 50 per cent. on the premiums paid was added to the policies at
last Division of Profits.

Next Division in 1853--in which all Policies effected before 30th June,
1853, will participate.

Agents wanted for vacant places.

Prospectuses, Forms of Proposal, and every other information, may be
obtained of the Secretary at the Chief Office, or on application to any of
the Society's Agents in the country.

  F. G. P. NEISON, Actuary.
  C. DOUGLAS SINGER, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *




BRITANNIC RESEARCHES; or, New Facts and Rectifications of Ancient British
History. By the REV. BEALE POSTE, M.A. Just published, 8vo. (pp. 488.),
with engravings, cloth, 15s.

A FEW NOTES ON SHAKSPEARE, with Occasional Remarks on Mr. Collier's Folio
of 1632. By the REV. ALEXANDER DYCE. 8vo. cloth, 5s.

WILTSHIRE TALES, illustrative of the Manners, Customs, and Dialect of that
and adjoining Counties. By J. Y. AKERMAN, ESQ. 12mo. cloth, 2s. 6d.

FACTS AND SPECULATIONS on the Origin and History of Playing Cards. By W. A.
CHATTO, Author of "Jackson's History of Wood Engraving." In one handsome
volume, 8vo., illustrated with many Engravings, both plain and coloured,
cloth, 1_l_. 1s.

BOSWORTH'S (Rev. Dr.) Compendious Anglo-Saxon and English Dictionary. 8vo.,
closely printed in treble columns, cloth, 2s.

LOWER'S (M.A.) ESSAYS on English Surnames. 2 vols. post 8vo. Third Edition,
greatly enlarged, cloth, 12s.

LOWER'S CURIOSITIES of HERALDRY, with Illustrations from Old English
Writers. 8vo., numerous Engravings, cloth, 14s.

WRIGHT'S (THOS.) ESSAYS on the Literature, Popular Superstitions, and
History of England in the Middle Ages. 2 vols. post 8vo., cloth 16s.

GUIDE TO ARCHÆOLOGY. An Archæological Index to Remains of Antiquity of the
Celtic, Romano British, and Anglo-Saxon Periods. By JOHN YONGE AKERMAN,
Fellow and Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries. 1 vol. 8vo.,
illustrated with numerous Engravings, comprising upwards of 500 objects,
cloth, 15s.

A NEW LIFE OF SHAKSPEARE; including many Particulars respecting the Poet
and his Family, never before published. By JAMES ORCHARD HALLIWELL, F.R.S.,
F.S.A., &c. 8vo., 76 Engravings by Fairholt, cloth, 15s.


       *       *       *       *       *


FOSTER'S LECTURES, delivered at Broadmead Chapel, Bristol, 3rd Edition,
edited, with Additions, by J. E. RYLAND, Esq. 2 vols. post 8vo., cloth, 3s.
6d. per volume.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE COMEDIES OF ARISTOPHANES, literally translated into English Prose, with
Copious Notes, by W. J. HICKIE. In 2 vols. post 8vo., cloth. Vol. I. with
Frontispiece. Price 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


the affairs of Britain, from the beginning of the world to A.D. 1307.
Translated by C. D. YONGE, B.A. In 2 vols. post 8vo., cloth. Vol. II. Price

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *



Respectfully informs the Clergy, Architects, and Churchwardens, that he
replies immediately to all applications by letter, for information
respecting his Manufactures in CHURCH FURNITURE, ROBES, COMMUNION LINEN,
&c., &c., supplying full information as to Prices, together with Sketches,
Estimates, Patterns of Materials, &c., &c.

Having declined appointed Agents, MR. FRENCH invites direct communications
by Post, as the most economical and satisfactory arrangement. PARCELS
delivered Free by Railway.

       *       *       *       *       *

This day is published in 8vo., with Fac-simile from an early MS. at Dulwich
College, price 1s.


JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Twenty-eighth Edition.

NEUROTONICS, or the Art of Strengthening the Nerves, containing Remarks on
the influence of the Nerves upon the Health of Body and Mind, and the means
of Cure for Nervousness, Debility, Melancholy, and all Chronic Diseases, by
DR. NAPIER, M.D. London: HOULSTON & STONEMAN. Price 4d., or Post Free from
the Author for Five Penny Stamps.

    "We can conscientiously recommend 'Neutronics,' by Dr. Napier, to the
    careful perusal of our invalid readers."--_John Bull Newspaper, June 5,

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECTACLES.--WM. ACKLAND applies his medical knowledge as a Licentiate of
the Apothecaries' Company, London, his theory as a Mathematician, and his
practice as a Working Optician, aided by Smee's Optometer, in the selection
of Spectacles suitable to every derangement of vision, so as to preserve
the sight to extreme old age.

ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, with the New Vetzlar Eye-pieces, as exhibited at the
Academy of Sciences in Paris. The Lenses of these Eye-pieces are so
constructed that the rays of light fall nearly perpendicular to the surface
of the various lenses, by which the aberration is completely removed; and a
telescope so fitted gives one-third more magnifying power and light than
could be obtained by the old Eye-pieces. Prices of the various sizes on
application to

WM. ACKLAND, Optician, 93. Hatton Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *



(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY,)

Of Saturday, July 23, contains Articles on

  Agricultural Society's show at Gloucester
  Agricultural College examination papers
  Atmospheric agents, influence of, by Mr. Rigby
  Attraction, capillary
  Books reviewed
  Bottles, to cut, by Mr. Prideaux
  Broccoli, winter
  Calendar, horticultural
  ---- agricultural
  Cattle breeding
  Diclytra v. Dielytra
  Drainage and capillary attraction
  Fir leaves, uses of dried, by Mr. Mackenzie
  Forests, royal
  Frog, reproduction of, by Mr. Lowe
  Fruit preserving
  Fungi, eatable
  Gloucestershire, trip through
  Grove Gardens, noticed
  Guano, Peruvian
  Heating, galvanised iron for, by Mr. Ayres
  Holt forest
  Implements, agricultural, at Gloucester
  Iron, galvanised
  Manure, peat mould as
  Mechi's (Mr.), gathering
  Mildew, grape
  Mulberries, to propagate, by Mr. Brown
  Mushrooms, bad
  Peat mould
  Plant-houses, to fumigate, Mr. Whalley
  Potato disease
  Poultry at Gloucester
  Preserving fruit
  Roses, Bedding
  Sheep, breeds of
  ---- handbook on
  Skimmia Japonica, by Messrs. Standish and Noble
  Societies, proceedings of the Entomological, Caledonian and Cheltenham,
      Horticultural, National Floricultural, Belfast Flax
  Stock breeding
  Strawberry, Nimrod
  Stylidium fasciculatum
  Tanks, galvanised, by Mr. Ayres
  Toad, reproduction of, by Mr. Lowe
  Vine, culture of
  ---- to propagate, by Mr. Brown
  ---- mildew
  Wheat, culture of, by Mr. Rigby

the above, the Covent Garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices,
with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool, and Seed
Markets, and a _complete Newspaper, with a condensed account of all the
transaction of the week._

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, 2s. 6d. cloth,

THE VICAR AND HIS DUTIES: being sketches of Clerical Life in a
Manufacturing Town Parish. By the REV. ALFRED GATTY, M.A., vicar of

    "We sincerely thank Mr. Gatty for his interesting Sketches."--_English

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.
Edinburgh: R. GRANT & SON.

       *       *       *       *       *

For August, Now Ready,

W. S. LINCOLN'S Ninety-Fifth Catalogue of Cheap Second-Hand English and
Foreign Books. A copy will be sent GRATIS and POSTAGE-FREE to any Gentleman
in Town or Country, who forwards his Address to Cheltenham House,
Westminster Road, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

EVERY MAN HIS OWN ENGRAVER: or, a New, Cheap, and Simple Process, by which
to produce from a Substitute, and multiply to any extent, either Portraits,
Names on Cards, Drawings, Maps, &c., the Proofs of which will be equal to
Copper-plate Engravings.

This invaluable and profitable Art will be taught to Ladies and Gentlemen,
by printed instructions, with ease and certainty, IN ONE LESSON, upon
receipt of Fourteen Postage Stamps, addressed to MR. A. B. CLEVELAND, 15.
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       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, July 30,

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 196, July 30, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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