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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 203, September 17, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 203, September 17, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *


{261}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 203.]
SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 17. 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

                                                             Page

    Our Shakspearian Correspondence                           261

  NOTES:--

    Mr. Pepys and East London Topography, &c.                 263
    Picts' Houses in Aberdeenshire                            264

    FOLK LORE:--Legends of the County Clare--Devonshire
    Cures for the Thrush                                      264

    HERALDIC NOTES:--Arms of Granville--Arms of
    Richard, King of the Romans                               265
    Shakspeare Correspondence, by J. O. Halliwell and
    Thos. Keightley                                           265

    MINOR NOTES:--Longfellow's Poetical Works--Sir
    Walter Raleigh--Curious Advertisement--Gravestone
    Inscription--Monumental Inscription                       267

  QUERIES:--

    Sir Philip Warwick                                        268
    Seals of the Borough of Great Yarmouth, by E. S.
    Taylor                                                    269

    MINOR QUERIES:--Hand in Bishop Canning's Church
    --"I put a spoke in his wheel"--Sir W. Hewit--
    Passage in Virgil--Fauntleroy--Animal Prefixes
    descriptive of Size and Quality--Punning Devices
    --"Pinece with a stink"--Soiled Parchment Deeds
    --Roger Wilbraham, Esq.'s, Cheshire Collection
    --Cambridge and Ireland--Derivation of Celt--
    Ancient Superstition against the King of England
    entering or even beholding the Town of Leicester
    --Burton--The Camera Lucida--Francis Moore--
    Waugh, Bishop of Carlisle--Palace at Enfield--
    "Solamen miseris," &c.--Soke Mills--Second Wife
    of Mallet                                                 269

    MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Books burned by
    the Common Hangman--Captain George Cusack--
    Sir Ralph Winwood                                         272

  REPLIES:--

    Books chained to Desks in Churches, by J. Booker, &c.     273
    Epitaphs by Cuthbert Bede, B.A., &c.                      273
    Parochial Libraries                                       274
    "Up, Guards, and at them!" by Frank Howard                275

    PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Mr. Muller's Process
    --Stereoscopic Angles--Ammonio-nitrate of
    Silver                                                    275

    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Sir Thomas Elyot--
    Judges styled "Reverend"--"Hurrah" and other
    War-cries--Major André--Early Edition of the
    New Testament--Ladies' Arms borne in a Lozenge
    --Sir William Hankford--Maullies, Manillas--The
    Use of the Hour-glass in Pulpits--Derivation of the
    Word "Island"--A Cob-wall--Oliver Cromwell's
    Portrait--Manners of the Irish--Chronograms and
    Anagrams--"Haul over the Coals,"--Sheer Hulk--
    The Magnet--Fierce--Connexion between the
    Celtic and Latin Languages--Acharis, &c.                  276

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

    Notes on Books, &c.                                       282
    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                              282
    Notices to Correspondents                                 282
    Advertisements                                            283

       *       *       *       *       *


OUR SHAKSPEARIAN CORRESPONDENCE.

We have received from a valued and kind correspondent (not one of those
emphatically good-natured friends so wittily described by Sheridan) the
following temperate remonstrance against the tone which has distinguished
several of our recent articles on Shakspeare:--

_Shakspeare Suggestions_ (Vol. viii., pp. 124. 169.).--

 "Most busy, when least I do."

I am grateful to A. E. B. for referring me to the article on "Shakspeare
Criticism" in the last number of _Blackwood's Magazine_. It is a very able
paper, and worthy of general attention.

I ought to add some few explanatory observations upon the subject of my
former communication, but the tone of A. E. B.'s comments forbids me to
proceed with the discussion; the more especially as my suggestion has been
made a reason for introducing into your pages comments which seem to me to
be altogether unwarrantable upon other portions of the article in
Blackwood. Whoever may be the writer of that article--I do not know--he
needs no other defence than a reference to his paper. It is not on his
account that I venture to allude to this subject; it is rather on yours,
Mr. Editor, and with a view to the welfare of your paper. I cannot think
that you or it will be benefited by converting conversational gossip about
Shakspeare difficulties into "a duel in the form of a debate," seasoned
with sarcasm, insinuation, and satiric point. This is not the kind of
matter one expects to find in "N. & Q." neither do I think your pages
should be made a vehicle for "showing up" such of "the herd of menstrual
Aristarchi" as chance to differ in opinion from some of your smart and
peremptory, but not unfrequently inaccurate and illiberal correspondents.

I know that you yourself are in this respect much in the power of your
contributors. Probably you were as ignorant of the existence of the article
in Blackwood as I was.[1] It is now brought {262} before your notice, and I
invite you to look at it, and judge for yourself whether A. E. B. has
treated you, your paper, or the writer of that very excellent article, with
common fairness in the remarks to which I allude.

I make these observations on two grounds: first, as one who has many
reasons for being anxious for the prosperity of "N. & Q.;" and secondly,
because I know it to be the opinion of several of your earliest and warmest
friends, that there is a tendency in some of your Shakspeare contributors
to indulge in insinuation, imputation of motives, and many other things
which ought never to appear in your pages. We lately observed, with deep
regret, that you were misled (not by A. E. B.) into the insertion of
unjustifiable insinuations, levelled against a gentleman whom we all know
to be a man of the highest personal honour.

The questions which are mooted in your pages ought to be discussed with the
mutual forbearance and enlarged liberality which are predominant in the
general society of our metropolis; not with the keen and angry partizanship
which distinguishes the petty squabbles of a country town.

ICON.

    Our readers know that we ourselves recently noticed the tendency of too
    many of our correspondents to depart from the courteous spirit by which
    the earlier communications to this Journal were distinguished. The
    intention we then announced of playing the tyrant in future, and
    exercising with greater freedom our "editorial privilege of omission,"
    we now repeat yet more emphatically. ICON well remarks that we are much
    in the power of our contributors. Indeed we are more so than even he
    supposes.

    An article on the _Notes and Emendations_ which lately appeared in our
    columns concluded, in its original form, with an argument against their
    genuineness, based on the use of a word unknown to Shakspeare and his
    cotemporaries. This appeared to us somewhat extraordinary, and a
    reference to Richardson's excellent Dictionary proved that our
    correspondent was altogether wrong _as to his facts_. We of course
    omitted the passage; but we ought not to have received a statement
    founded on a mistake which might have been avoided by a single
    reference to so common a book.

    Again, at p. 194. of the present volume, another correspondent, after
    pointing out some coincidences between the old Emendator and some
    suggested corrections by Z. Jackson, and stating that MR. COLLIER never
    once refers to Jackson, proceeds: "MR. SINGER, however, talks
    familiarly about Jackson, in his _Shakspeare Vindicated_, as if he had
    him at his fingers' ends; and yet, at p. 239., he favours the world
    with an _original_ emendation (viz. 'He did _behood_ his anger,'
    _Timon_, Act III. Sc. 1.), which, however, will be found at page 389.
    of Jackson's book." Now, after this, who would have supposed that, as
    we learn from MR. SINGER, "MR. INGLEBY has founded his charge on such
    slender grounds as one cursory notice of Jackson at p. 288. of my book,
    where I mentioned him merely on the authority of MR. COLLIER." And who
    that knows MR. SINGER will doubt the truth of his assertion, that he
    has not even seen Jackson's book for near a quarter of a century, and
    that he had not the slightest reason to doubt that the conjecture of
    _behood_ for _behave_ was his own property?[2]

    But there is another gentleman who, although he has never whispered a
    remonstrance to us upon the subject, has even more grounds of complaint
    than MR. SINGER, for the treatment which he has received in our
    columns; we mean our valued friend and contributor MR. COLLIER, who we
    feel has received some injustice in our pages. But the fact is that,
    holding, as we do unchanged, the opinion which we originally expressed
    of the great value of the _Notes and Emendations_--knowing MR.
    COLLIER'S character to be above suspicion--and believing that the
    result of all the discussions to which the _Notes and Emendations_ have
    given rise, will eventually be to satisfy the world of their great
    value,--_we_ have not looked so strictly as we ought to have done, and
    as we shall do in future, to the tone in which they have been discussed
    in "N. & Q."

    And here let us take the opportunity of offering a few suggestions
    which we think worthy of being borne in mind in all discussions on the
    text of Shakspeare, whether the object under consideration be what
    Shakspeare actually wrote, or what Shakspeare really meant by what he
    did write.

    First, as to this latter point. Some years ago a distinguished scholar,
    when engaged in translating Göthe's _Faust_, came to a passage involved
    in considerable obscurity, and which he found was interpreted very
    differently by different admirers of the poem. Unable, under these
    circumstances, to procure any satisfactory solution of the poet's
    meaning, the translator applied to Göthe himself, and received from him
    the candid reply which we think it far from improbable that Shakspeare
    himself might give with reference to many passages in his own
    writings,--"That {263} he was very sorry he could not assist him, but
    he really did not know exactly what he meant when he wrote it." We
    doubt not some of our contributors could supply us with many similar
    avowals.

    This opinion will no doubt offend many of those blind worshippers of
    Shakspeare, who will not believe that he could have written a passage
    which is not perfect, and who, consequently, will not be satisfied with
    any note, emendation, or restoration which does not make the passage
    into which it is introduced "one entire and perfect chrysolite." But
    this is unreasonable. We have direct evidence of the imperfect
    character of much that Shakspeare wrote. When told that Shakspeare had
    never blotted a line, Ben Jonson--no mean critic, and no unfriendly
    one--wished he had "blotted a thousand." Would rare Ben have uttered
    such a wish ignorantly and without cause? We believe the existence of
    such defects in the writings of Shakspeare, as they were left by him.
    It follows, therefore, that in our opinion Shakspeare is under great
    obligations to the undeservedly-abused commentators.[3] It would be
    strange indeed, when we consider how many men of genius and learning
    have busied themselves to illustrate his writings, if none of them
    should have caught any inspiration from his genius. We believe they
    have done so. We believe Theobald's "babbled o' green fields" to be one
    of many instances in which, with reference to some one particular
    passage, the scholiast has proved himself worthy of and excelling his
    author. Yes, Shakspeare, the greatest of all uninspired writers, was
    but mortal; and his worshippers would sometimes do well bear in mind
    that their golden image had but feet of clay.

[Footnote 1: We had not seen this very able article until our attention was
called to it by this letter. We regret that the author of it was not aware
of what had been written in "N. & Q." on many of the points discussed by
him. Such knowledge might have modified some of his views.]

[Footnote 2: On this point we would call especial attention to MR.
HALLIWELL'S communication on the _Difficulty of avoiding Coincident
Suggestions on the Text of Shakspeare_, which will be found in our present
Number.]

[Footnote 3: One of the most specious arguments which have been advanced
against the genuineness of the _Notes and Emendations_ is, that they agree
in many instances with readings which had been suggested many years before
the discovery of the MS. Notes. Of course it is obvious that, wherever the
readings are right, they must do so; and these coincidences serve to
satisfy us of the correctness of both.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.

MR. PEPYS AND EAST LONDON TOPOGRAPHY, ETC.

In "N. & Q." (Vol. i., p. 141.) there appeared an article upon the Isle of
Dogs, &c., which spoke of the neglected topography of the east of London,
and requested information on one or two points. Having felt much interested
in this matter, I have endeavoured to obtain information by personal
investigation, and send you the following from among a mass of Notes:--

1. _Isle of Dogs._ In a map drawn up in 1588 by Robert Adams, engraved in
1738, this name is applied to an islet in the river Thames, still in part
existing, at the south-west corner of the peninsula. From this spot the
name appears to have extended to the entire marsh.

2. _Dick Shore_, Limehouse. This is now called _Duke Shore_, Fore Street.
In Gascoyne's Map of Stepney, 1703, it is called _Dick Shoar_. Since that
time _Dick_ has become a _Duke_. Mr. Pepys would find boats there now if he
visited the spot.

3. Mr. Pepys, in his _Diary_ of Mar. 23, 1660, speaks of "the great
breach," near Limehouse. The spot now forming the entrance to the City
Canal or South Dock of the West India Dock Company was called "the breach,"
when the canal was formed.

4. July 31, 1665. Mr. Pepys speaks of the _Ferry_ in the Isle of Dogs. This
ferry is named as a horse-ferry by Norden in the _Britanniæ Speculum_, 1592
(MS.). The ferry is still used, but only seldom as a horse-ferry.

5. Oct. 9, 1661. Mr. P. mentions Captain Marshe's, at Limehouse, close by
the lime-house. There is still standing there a large old brick house,
which may be the same; and the lime-kiln yet exists, for, as Norden says,
"ther is a kiln contynually used."

6. Sept. 22, 1665. Mr. P. speaks of a discovery made "in digging the late
docke." This discovery consisted of nut trees, nuts, yew, ivy, &c., twelve
feet below the surface. Johnson no doubt told him the truth. The same
discovery was made in 1789, in digging the Brunswick Dock, also at
Blackwall, and elsewhere in the neighbourhood.

This very week (Aug. 25, 1853) I procured specimens of several kinds of
wood, with land and freshwater shells, from as great a depth in an
excavation at the West India Docks; the wood from a bed of peat, the shells
from a bed of clay resting upon it. There exists an ancient house at the
dock which Mr. P. visited, and which is probably the same.

Other illustrations of the _Diary_ from this quarter might be adduced; let
these, however, suffice as a specimen.

It may probably be new to most of your readers, as it is to me, that an
ancient house in Blackwall (opposite the Artichoke Tavern) is said to have
been the residence of Sebastian Cabot at one time, and at another that of
_Sir Walter Raleigh_. Whether the tradition be true or not, the house is
very curious, and worth a visit, if not worthy of being sketched and
engraved to preserve its memory. Perhaps the photograph in this case could
be applied.

It is not impossible that Sir John de Pulteney or Poultney, to whom the
manor of Poplar was granted in the 24th of Edward III., resided on this
spot. My reasons for thinking it are--this fact, which connects him with
the neighbourhood; and the inference from two other facts, viz. that the
house in which Sir John resided in town was {264} called _Cold Harbour_,
and that _Cold Harbour_ is here also to be found. Sir John Pulteney is thus
connected with both the places known by this name.

I would give my name in verification, but you have it, as you should have
the names and addresses of all your correspondents.

B. H. C.

Poplar.

       *       *       *       *       *

PICTS' HOUSES IN ABERDEENSHIRE.

A short time ago, one of those remarkable remains of a very remote
antiquity, and called by the country-people Picts' Houses, Yird, Eirde, or
Erde houses, was discovered by Mr. Douglass, farmer, Culsh, in the parish
of Tarland, Aberdeenshire, near his farm-steading, on the property of our
noble Premier. It is a subterranean vault, of a form approaching the
semicircular, but elongated at the farther end. Its extreme length is
thirty-eight feet; its breadth at the entrance a little more than two feet,
gradually widening towards the middle, where the width is about six feet,
and it continues at about that average. The height is from five and a half
to six feet. The sides are built with stones, some of them in the bottom
very large; the roof is formed of large stones, six or seven feet long, and
some of them weighing above a ton and a half. They must have been brought
from the neighbouring hill of Saddle-lick, about two miles distant, being
of a kind of granite not found nearer the spot. The floor is formed of the
native rock (hornblende), and is very uneven. When discovered it was full
of earth, and in the process of excavation there was found some wood ashes,
fragments of a glass bottle, and an earthenware jar (modern), some small
fragments of bones, and one or two teeth of a ruminant animal, and the
upper stone of a querne (hand-corn-mill, mica schist), together with a
small fragment, probably of the lower stone. But, alas! there were no
hieroglyphics or cuneiform inscriptions to assist the antiquary in his
researches. These underground excavations have been found in various
parishes in Aberdeenshire, as well as in several of the neighbouring
counties. In the parish of Old Deer, about fifty years ago, a whole village
of them was come upon; and about the same time, in a den at the back of
Stirlinghill, in the parish of Peterhead, one was discovered which
contained some fragments of bones and several flint arrow-heads, and
battle-axes in the various stages of manufacture. In no case, however, have
any of those previously discovered been of the same magnitude as the one
described above. They were generally of from twelve to fifteen feet in
length, and from three to four feet in height, and some only six feet in
length, so that this must have been in its day (when?) a rather
aristocratic affair. Have any similar excavations been found in England?
The earliest mention of the parish of Tarland, of which there is any
account, is in a charter granted by Moregun, Earl of Mar, to the Canons of
St. Andrews, of the Church of S. Machulnoche (S. Mochtens, Bishop and
Confessor) of Tharuclund, with its tithes and oblations, its land and mill,
and timber from the Earl's woods for the buildings of the canons, A.D.
1165-71; and a charter of King William the Lion, and one of Eadward, Bishop
of Aberdeen, both of same date, confirming the said grant.

ABREDONENSIS.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOLK LORE.

_Legends of the County Clare._--How Fuen-Vic-Couil (Fingall) obtained the
knowledge of future events.--Once upon a time, when Fuen-Vic-Couil was
young, he fell into the hands of a giant, and was compelled to serve him
for seven years, during which time the giant was fishing for the salmon
which had this property--that whoever ate the first bit of it he would
obtain the gift of prophecy; and during the seven years the only
nourishment which the giant could take was after this manner: a sheaf of
oats was placed to windward of him, and he held a needle before his mouth,
and lived on the nourishment that was blown from the sheaf of corn through
the eye of the needle. At length, when the seven years were passed, the
giant's perseverance was rewarded, and he caught the famous salmon and gave
it to Fuen-Vic-Couil to roast, with threats of instant destruction if he
allowed any accident to happen to it. Fuen-Vic-Couil hung the fish before
the fire by a string, but, like Alfred in a similar situation, being too
much occupied with his own reflections, forgot to turn the fish, so that a
blister rose on the side of it. Terrified at the probable consequences of
his carelessness, he attempted to press down the blister with his thumb,
and feeling the smart caused by the burning fish, by a natural action put
the injured member into his mouth. A morsel of the fish adhered to his
thumb, and immediately he received the knowledge for which the giant had
toiled so long in vain. Knowing that his master would kill him if he
remained, he fled, and was soon pursued by the giant breathing vengeance:
the chace was long, but whenever he was in danger of being caught, his
thumb used to pain him, and on putting it to his mouth he always obtained
knowledge how to escape, until at last he succeeded in putting out the
giant's eyes and killing him; and always afterwards, when in difficulty or
danger, his thumb used to pain him, and on putting it to his mouth he
obtained knowledge how to escape.

Compare this legend with the legend of Ceridwen, Hanes Taliessin,
_Mabinogion_, vol. iii. pp. 322, 323., the coincidence of which is very
curious. Where also did Shakspeare get the {265} speech he makes one of the
witches utter in _Macbeth_:

 "By the _pricking of my thumbs_,
  Something wicked this way comes."

FRANCIS ROBERT DAVIES.

_Devonshire Cures for the Thrush._--"Take three rushes from any running
stream, and pass them separately through the mouth of the infant: then
plunge the rushes again into the stream, and as the current bears them
away, so will the thrush depart from the child."

Should this, as is not unlikely, prove ineffectual, "Capture the nearest
duck that can be met with, and place its mouth, wide open, within the mouth
of the sufferer. The cold breath of the duck will be inhaled by the child,
and the disease will gradually, and as I have been informed, not the less
surely, take its departure."

T. HUGHES.

Chester.

       *       *       *       *       *

HERALDIC NOTES.

_Arms of Granville._--The meaning of the peculiar bearing which, since the
thirteenth century, has appertained to this noble family, has always been a
matter of uncertainty to heraldic writers: it has been variously blazoned
as a clarion, clavicord, organ-rest, lance-rest, and sufflue. The majority
of heralds, ancient and modern, term it a clarion without quite defining
what a clarion is: that it is meant for a musical instrument (probably a
kind of hand-organ), I have very little doubt; for, in the woodcut Mrs.
Jameson gives in her _Legends of the Madonna_ (p. 19.) of Piero Laurati's
painting of the "Maria Coronata," the uppermost angel on the left is
represented as carrying an instrument exactly similar to this charge as it
is usually drawn. The date of this painting is 1340. This is probably about
the date of the painted glass window in the choir of Tewkesbury Abbey
Church, where Robert Earl of Gloucester bears three of these clarions on
his surcoat; and upon a careful examination of these, I was convinced that
they were intended to represent instruments similar to that carried by the
angel in Laurati's painting.

_Arms of Richard, King of the Romans._--This celebrated man, the second son
of King John, Earl of Cornwall and Poictou, was elected King of the Romans
at Frankfort on St. Hilary's Day (Jan. 13th) 1256. His earldom of Cornwall
was represented by--Argent, a lion rampant gules crowned or; his earldom of
Poictou by a bordure sable, bezantée, or rather of peas (_poix_) in
reference to the name _Poictou_; and as king of the Romans he is said to
have borne these arms upon the breast of the German double-headed eagle
displayed sable, which represented that dignity. I do not recollect having
seen them under this last form, but I have "made a Note of" several other
variations I have met with:--

1. In Dorchester Church, Oxfordshire, in painted glass: Argent, a lion
rampant, gules crowned or, within a bordure sable bezantée.

2. On the seal of a charter granted by the earl to the monks of Okeburry: a
lion rampant crowned. No bordure.

3. On an encaustic tile in the old Singing-school at Worcester: A lion
rampant _not_ crowned, with a bordure bezantée. Another tile has the eagle,
single-headed, displayed.

4. Encaustic tiles at Woodperry, Oxfordshire: A row of tiles with the lion
rampant, apparently within a bordure, but without the bezants; followed by
another row which has the eagle displayed, but not double-headed.

5. On an encaustic tile at Hailes Abbey, Gloucestershire, founded by him:
The double-headed eagle only, _countercharged_.

6. On a tile in the Priory Church of Great Malvern: The double-headed eagle
displayed, within a circular bordure bezantée.

7. On a tile which I have seen, but cannot just now recollect where: The
double-headed eagle, bezantée, without any bordure.

       *       *       *       *       *

A curious instance of ex-officio arms added to the paternal coat, occurs on
the monument of Dr. Samuel Blythe, at the east end of St. Edward's Church,
Cambridge. He was Master of Clare Hall, and in this example his paternal
arms--Argent, a chevron gules, between three lions rampant sable--occupy
the lower part of the shield, being divided at the fess point by something
like an inverted chevron, from the arms of Clare Hall, which thus occupy
the upper half of the shield. The date is 1713. Is this way of dividing the
arms a blunder of the painter's, or can any of your readers point out a
similar instance?

NORRIS DECK.

       *       *       *       *       *

SHAKSPEARE CORRESPONDENCE.

_Difficulty of avoiding Coincident Suggestions on the Text of
Shakspeare._--A correspondent in Vol. viii., p. 193., is somewhat
unnecessarily severe on MR. COLLIER and MR. SINGER, for having overlooked
some suggestions in Jackson's work: the enormous number of useless
conjectures in that publication rendering it so tedious and unprofitable to
consider them attentively, the student is apt to think his time better
engaged in investigating other sources of information. I think, therefore,
little of MR. COLLIER overlooking the few coincident suggestions in
Jackson, which are smaller in number than I had anticipated; the real cause
for wonder consisting in the ignoring so many conjectures that have been
treated of years ago, often at great length, by some of the {266} most
distinguished critics this country has produced. Generally speaking,
however, there is in these matters such a tendency for reproduction, I
should for one hesitate to accuse any critic of intentional unfairness,
merely because he puts forth conjectures as new, when they have been
previously published; and I have found so many of my own attempts at
emendation, thought to be original, in other sources, that I now hesitate
at introducing any as novel. These attempts, like most others, have only
resulted occasionally in one that will bear the test of examination after
it has been placed aside, and carefully considered when the impression of
novelty has worn off. I think we may safely appeal to all critics who
occupy themselves much with conjectural criticism, and ask them if TIME
does not frequently impair the complacency with which they regard their
efforts on their first production.

Vol. viii., p. 216., contains more instances of coincident suggestions,
R. H. C. indulging in two conjectures, both supported very ably, but in the
perfect unconsciousness that the first, _rude day's_, was long since
mentioned by Mr. Dyce, in his _Remarks_, 1844, p. 172., and that the
second, the change of punctuation in _All's Well that Ends Well_, is the
reading adopted by Theobald, and it is also introduced by Mr. Knight in the
text of his "National Edition," p 262., and has, I believe, been mentioned
elsewhere. It may be said that this kind of repetition might be obviated by
the publication of the various readings that have been suggested in the
text of Shakspeare, but who is there to be found Quixotic enough to
undertake so large and thankless a task, one which at best can only be most
imperfectly executed: the materials being so scattered, and often so
worthless, the compiler would, I imagine, abandon the design before he had
made great progress in it. No fair comparison can be entertained in this
respect between the text of Shakspeare and the texts of the classic
authors. What has happened to R. H. C., happens, as I am about to show, to
all who indulge in conjectural criticism.

Any reader who will take a quantity of disputed passages in Shakspeare, and
happens to be ignorant of what has been suggested by others, will discover
that, in most of the cases, if he merely tries his skill on a few simple
permutations of the letters, he will in one way or another stumble on the
suggested words. Let us take, for example, what may be considered in its
way as one of the most incomprehensible lines in Shakspeare--"Will you go,
_An-heires_?" the last word being printed with a capital. Running down with
the vowels from _a_, we get at once an apparently plausible suggestion,
"Will you go _on here_?" but a little consideration will show how extremely
unlikely this is to be the genuine reading, and that Mr. Dyce is correct in
preferring _Mynheers_--a suggestion which belongs to Theobald, and not, as
he mentions, to Hanmer. But what I maintain is, that _on here_ would be the
correction that would occur to most readers, in all probability to be at
once dismissed. MR. COLLIER, however, says "it is singular that nobody
seems ever to have conjectured that _on here_ might be concealed under
_An-heires_;" and it would have been singular had this been the case, but
the suggestion of _on here_ is to be found in Theobald's common edition.
Oddly enough, about a year before MR. COLLIER'S volume appeared, it was
again suggested as if it were new.

Let us select a still more palpable instance (_Measure for Measure_, Act
II. Sc. 1.): "If this law hold in Vienna ten years, I'll rent the fairest
house in it after threepence a _bay_." If this reading be wrong, which I do
not admit, the second change in the first letter creates an obvious
alteration, _day_, making at least some sort of sense, if not the correct
one. Some years ago, I was rash enough to suggest _day_, not then observing
the alteration was to be found in Pope's edition, and MR. COLLIER has
fallen into the same oversight, when he gives it as one of the corrector's
new emendations. I regard these oversights as very pardonable, and
inseparable from any extensive attempt to correct the state of the text.
All Shakspearian conjectures either anticipate or are anticipated.

Mr. Dyce being _par excellence_ the most judicious verbal critic of the
day, it will scarcely be thought egotistical to claim for myself the
priority for one of his emendations--"_Avoid thee_, friend," in the _Few
Notes_, p. 31., a reading I had mentioned in print before the appearance of
that work. This is merely one of the many evidences that all verbal
conjecturers must often stumble on the same suggestions. Even the MS.
corrector's alteration of the passage is not new, it being found in Pope's
and in several other editions of the last century; another circumstance
that exhibits the great difficulty and danger of asserting a conjecture to
be absolutely unknown.

J. O. HALLIWELL

P.S. The subject is, of course, capable of almost indefinite extension, but
the above hasty notes will probably occupy as much space as you would be
willing to spare for its consideration.

_Alcides' Shoes._--There is merit, in my opinion, in elucidating, if it
were only a single word in our great dramatist. Even the attempt, though
mayhap a failure, is laudable. I therefore have made, and shall make, hit
or miss, some efforts that way. For example, I now grapple with that very
odd line--

 "As great Alcides' shoes upon an ass."--_King John_, Act II. Sc. 1.

out of which no one has as yet extracted, or I think ever will extract, any
good meaning: _Argal_, {267} it is corrupt. Now it appears to me that the
critic who proposed to read _shows_, came very near the truth, and would
have hit it completely if he had retained _Alcides'_, for it is the
genitive with _robe_ understood. To explain:

Austria has on him the "skin-coat" of Coeur-de-Lion, and Blanch cries,--

 "O! well did he become that lion's robe,
  That did disrobe the lion of that robe."

"It lies," observes the Bastard,

 "It lies as sightly on the back of him (_Austria_)
  As great Alcides' (_robe_) shows upon an ass:--
  But, ass, I'll take that burden from your back," &c.

Were it not that _doth_ is the usual word in this play, I might be tempted
to read _does_. In reading or acting, then, the _cæsura_ should be made at
_Alcides'_, with a slight pause to give the hearer time to supply _robe_. I
need not say that the robe is the lion's skin, and that there is an
allusion to the fable of the ass.

Now to justify this reading. Our ancestors knew nothing of our mode of
making genitives by turned commas. They formed the gen. sing., and nom. and
gen. pl., by simply adding _s_ to the nom. sing.; thus king made _kings_,
_kings_, _kings_ (not _king's_, _kings_, _kings'_), and the context gave
the case. If the noun ended in _se_, _ce_, _she_, or _che_, the addition of
_s_ added a syllable, as _horses_, _princes_, &c., but it was not always
added. Shakspeare, for example, uses _Lucrece_ and _cockatrice_ as
genitives. I find the first instances of such words as _James's_, &c.,
about the middle of the seventeenth century, but I am not deeply read in
old books, so it may have been used earlier.

In foreign words like _Alcides_, no change ever took place; it was the same
for all numbers and cases, and the explanation was left to the context.
Here are a couple of examples from Shakspeare himself:

 "My fortunes every way as fairly ranked--
  If not with vantage--as Demetrius."--_Midsummer Night's Dream_, Act I.
      Sc. 1.

    "To Brutus, to Cassius. Burn all. Some to Decius house, and some to
    Cascas; some to Ligarius. Away! go!"--_Julius Cæsar_, Act III. Sc. 3.

All here are genitives, as well as _Cascas_. If any doubt, Brutus and
Cassius, we have just been told, "Are rid like madmen through the gates of
Rome," so _they_ could not be burned. I say now, _judicet lector_!

I must not neglect to add that there was another mode of forming the
genitive, namely, by the possessive pronoun, as _the king his palace_. "A
fly that flew into my _mistress_ her eye," is the title of one of Carew's
poems.

THOS. KEIGHTLEY.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Longfellow's Poetical Works._--One of the best printed editions of
Longfellow's _Poetical Works_ which has appeared in England is ushered in
by "An Introductory Essay" by the Rev. G. Gilfillan, A.M. I had lived in
hopes, through each successive edition, that either the good taste of the
publishers would strike out the preface entirely, or the amended taste of
its author curtail some of its redundancies. As neither has been the case,
but the 4th edition of the book now lies before me, I beg to offer the
following examples:

1. Of Ancient History:

    "His [Longfellow's] ornaments, unlike those of the _Sabine_ maid, have
    not crushed him."

2. Of Modern History--_Dickens a Poet_:

    "A prophet may wrap himself up in austere and mysterious solitude: a
    poet must come 'eating and drinking.' Thus came Shakspeare, Dryden,
    Burns, Scott, Göthe; and thus have come in our day, _Dickens_, Hood,
    and Longfellow."

Is the song of "The Ivy Green" in _Pickwick_ sufficient to justify this
appellation? I do not remember any other "Poem" by Charles Dickens.

3. Of Metaphors. Out of sixteen pages it is difficult to make a selection,
but the following are striking:

    "If not a prophet, _torn by a secret burden, and uttering it_ in wild
    tumultuous strains,... he has found inspiration ... in the legends of
    other lands, whose _native vein_, in itself exquisite, has been _highly
    cultivated_ and _delicately cherished_."

    "Excelsion," we are told, "is one of those happy thoughts which seem to
    drop down, like fine days, from some serener region, or _like moultings
    of the celestial dove_, which _meet instantly the ideal_ of all minds,
    _and run on afterwards_, and for ever, _in the current of the human
    heart_."

Does not this almost come up to Lord Castlereagh's famous metaphor? It
certainly goes beyond Mr. Gilfillan's own praise of Longfellow, whose
sentiment is described as "never false, nor strained, nor mawkish. It is
_always mild_,... and _sometimes_ it _approaches the sublime_." Mr. G. goes
one step farther.

W. W.

Northamptonshire.

_Sir Walter Raleigh._--I find the following remonstrance in defence of this
distinguished man, against the imputation of Hume, in a letter addressed by
Dr. Parr to Charles Butler:

    "Why do you follow Hume in representing Raleigh as an infidel? For
    Heaven's sake, dear Sir, look to his preface to his _History of the
    World_; look at his _Letters_, in a little 18mo., and here, but here
    only, you will find a tract [entitled The Sceptic], which led Hume to
    talk of Raleigh as an unbeliever. It is an epitome of the principles of
    the old sceptics; and to me, who, like Dr. Clarke and Mr. Hume, am a
    reader {268} of Sextus Empiricus, it is very intelligible. Indeed, Mr.
    Butler, it is a most ingenious performance. But mark me well: it is a
    mere _lusus ingenii_."

Mr. Butler appends this note:

    "Mr. Fox assured the Reminiscent, that either he, or Mrs. Fox to him,
    had read aloud the whole, with a small exception, of Sir Walter
    Raleigh's History."--Butler's _Reminiscences_, vol. ii. p. 232.

BALLIOLENSIS.

_Curious Advertisement._--The following genuine advertisement is copied
from a recent number of the _Connecticut Courant_, published at Hartford in
America:

 "Julia, my wife, has grown quite rude,
  She has left me in a lonesome mood;
  She has left my board,
  She has took my bed,
  She has gave away my meat and bread,
  She has left me in spite of friends and church,
  She has carried with her all my shirts.
  Now ye who read this paper,
  Since she cut this reckless caper,
  I will not pay one single fraction
  For any debts of her contraction.
                  LEVI ROCKWELL.
  East Windsor, Conn. Aug. 4, 1853."

G. M. B.

_Gravestone Inscription._--I send an inscription on a gravestone in
Northill churchyard, Bedfordshire, which is now nearly obliterated, given
me by the Rev. John Taddy:

 "Life is a city full of crooked streets,
  Death is the market-place where all men meets.
  If life were merchandise which men could buy,
  The rich would only live, the poor would die."

JULIA R. BOCKETT.

Southcote Lodge.

_Monumental Inscription._--

    "Here lyeth the body of the most noble Elizabeth, daughter of John of
    Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, own sister to King Henry the Fourth, wife of
    John Holland, Earl of Huntingdon and Duke of Exeter, after married to
    Sir John Cornwall, Knight of the Garter, and Lord Fanhope. She died the
    4th year of Henry the Sixth, Anno Domini 1426."

The above is on a monument in Burford Church, in the county of Salop, and
will perhaps be interesting to your correspondent MR. HARDY.

Burford Church, in which there are several other interesting monuments, is
situated in the luxuriant valley of the Teme, about eight miles south-east
of Ludlow.

A SALOPIAN.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

SIR PHILIP WARWICK.

    "A Discourse of Government, as examined by Reason, Scripture, and the
    Law of the Land. Written in 1678, small 8vo.: London, 1694."

    "Memoirs of the Reign of King Charles I., &c., 8vo.: London, 1702."

To one or the other of these publications there was prefixed a preface
which, as giving offence to the government, was suppressed. I agree with
Mr. Bindley, who says (writing to Mr. Granger),

    "The account you have given in your books of the _suppressed preface_
    to Sir Philip Warwick's _Memoirs_, is an anecdote too curious not to
    make one wish it _authenticated_."--_Letters to Mr. Granger_, p. 389.

The statement of Granger is adopted also by the Edinburgh editor of the
_Memoirs_ in 1813 (query, Sir W. Scott?), who says in his preface,

    "These Memoirs were first published by the learned Dr. Thomas Smith, a
    nonjuring divine, distinguished by oriental learning, and his writings
    concerning the Greek Church. The learned editor added a preface so much
    marked by his political principles, that he was compelled to _alter and
    retrench it_, for fear of a prosecution at the instance of the
    crown."--_Preface_, p. ix.

So far as concerns the _Memoirs_. But in a note prefixed to a copy of the
_Discourse of Government_, now in the Bodleian among Malone's books, and in
his handwriting, it is stated,--

    "This book was published by Dr. Thomas Smith, the learned writer
    concerning the Greek Church. The preface, not being agreeable to the
    Court at the time it was published (the 5th year of William III.), was
    suppressed by authority, but is found in this and a few other copies.
    Granger says (vol. iv. p. 60., vol. v. p. 267., new edit.) that this
    preface by Dr. Smith was prefixed to Sir P. W.'s _Memoirs of Charles
    I._; but this is a mistake. Whether Smith was the editor of the
    _Memoirs_ I know not.--EDMOND MALONE."

The obnoxious preface is assigned to the _Discourse of Government_ also, by
a writer in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for 1790, p. 509., where is a
portrait of Warwick, and a notice of his life.

The Edinburgh editor of the _Memoirs_ gives the _original preface_ of that
work, which presents nothing at which exception could be taken. But as my
copy of the _Discourse_ is one of the few which (according to Malone)
retains the address of "the publisher to the reader," I transcribe the
following passages, which perhaps will sufficiently explain the suppression
in 1694:

    "As to the disciples and followers of Buchanan, Hobbs and Milton, who
    have exceeded their masters in downright impudence, scurrility, and
    lying, and the new modellers of commonwealths, who, under a zealous
    pretence of securing the rights of a _fancied original contract_
    against the encroachments of monarchs, are sowing the seeds of eternal
    disagreements, confusions, {269} and bloody wars throughout the world
    (for the influence of evil principles hath no bounds, but, like
    infectious air, spreads everywhere), the peaceable, sober, truly
    Christian, and Church-of-England doctrine contained in this book, so
    directly contrary to their furious, mad, unchristian, and fanatical
    maxims, it cannot otherwise be expected but that they will soon be
    alarmed, and betake themselves to their usual arts of slander and
    reviling, and grow very fierce and clamorous upon it. Whatever shall
    happen," &c.

Subsequently the author is spoken of as

    "A gentlemen of sincere piety, of strict morals, of a great and vast
    understanding, and of a very solid judgement; a true son of the Church
    of England, and _consequently a zealous asserter and defender of the
    truly Christian and apostolical doctrine of non-resistance_; always
    loyal and faithful to the king his master in the worst of times," &c.

After these specimens, there will be little difficulty, I think, in
determining that Granger was mistaken in describing the preface to the
_Memoirs_ as that which was suppressed, and that it was the publisher's
"address to the reader" of the _Discourse_ which incurred that sentence.
Dr. Thomas Smith appears to have edited both works; and in the same address
informs us of other works of Warwick in

    "Divinity, philosophy, history, especially that of England, practical
    devotion, and the like. This I now publish [the _Discourse_] was
    written in the year 1678 (and designed as an appendix to his _Memoirs
    of the Reign of King Charles the First_, of most blessed memory, which
    hereafter may see the light, when more auspicious times shall encourage
    and favour the publication), which he, being very exact and curious in
    his compositions, did often refine upon," &c.

It may be well to inquire whether any of these theological or philosophical
lucubrations are yet extant. Was Sir Philip connected at all with Dr.
Smith, or was he descended from Arthur Warwick, author of _Spare Minutes_?

BALLIOLENSIS.

       *       *       *       *       *

SEALS OF THE BOROUGH OF GREAT YARMOUTH.

I shall be exceedingly obliged by any explanatory remarks on the following
list of seals:--

1. Oval (size 2.1 in. by 1.3). The angel Gabriel kneeling before a standing
figure of the Virgin, and holding a scroll, on which is inscribed AVE
MARIA. Legend:

    * [cross] S. HOS * PITALIS * IER * NE * NACH.

Yarmouth was anciently called Gernemutha, or Iernemutha; and Ives
attributes this seal to Yarmouth, though both the legend and the
workmanship have a decidedly foreign appearance.

Can any more satisfactory locality be assigned it?

2. Circular (1 in. in diameter). Three fishes naiant (the arms of
Yarmouth), within a bordure of six cusps. Legend:

  SAAL D' ASAI D' GRANT GARNAMVT.

Workmanship of about the fourteenth century; use unknown; but it has been
employed for sealing burgess letters for many years past, until 1847.

Can it have reference to the staple? (Vid. Statutes at Large, Anne; 27 Ed.
III. stat. 2.; 43 Ed. III. cap. 1.; 14 Ric. II. cap. 1.)

3. Circular (size 1.1 in. diameter). On an escutcheon a herring hauriant;
the only instance of this bearing in connection with Yarmouth. Legend:

    S. OFFIC : CORROTULAT : Í : NOVE : IERNMUTH.

Of this seal nothing whatever is known. Its workmanship is of the fifteenth
century. The suggested extension of the legend is "Sigillum officii
contrarotulatoris"--in nova Jernemutha, or in _nave_ Jernemuthe. But was
Yarmouth ever called _nova Gernemutha_? or what was the office alluded to?

The above are required for a literary purpose; and as speedy an answer as
possible would much oblige me.

E. S. TAYLOR.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Hand in Bishop Canning's Church._--In Bishop Canning's Church, Wilts, is a
curious painting of a hand outstretched, and having on the fingers and
thumb several inscriptions in abbreviated Latin. Can any correspondent tell
me when and why this was placed in the church; and also the inscriptions
which appear thereon?

RUSSELL GOLE.

_"I put a spoke in his wheel."_--What is the meaning of the phrase, "I put
a spoke in his wheel?"

In April last, a petition was heard in the Rolls Court on the part of the
trustees of Manchester New College, praying that they might be allowed to
remove that institution to London; and a single trustee was heard against
such removal. One of the friends of the college was on this occasion heard
to remark, "the removal to London was going on very smoothly, and it would
have been done by this time, if this one trustee had not _put his spoke in
the wheel_:" meaning, that the conscientious scruple of this trustee was
the sole _impediment to the movement_. Is this the _customary_ and proper
mode of using the phrase; and, if so, how can putting a spoke to a wheel
impede its motion?

On the other hand, having heard some persons say that they had always
understood the phrase to denote affording _help_ to an undertaking, and
confidently allege that this must be the _older_ and {270} more correct
usage, for "what," say they, "is a wheel without spokes?" I inquired of an
intelligent lady, of long American descent, in what way she had been
accustomed to hear the phrase employed, and the answer was "Certainly as a
help: we used to say to one who had anything in hand of difficult
accomplishment, 'Do not be faint-hearted, I'll give you a spoke.'"

Dr. Johnson, in the folio edition of his _Dictionary_, 1755, after defining
a spoke to be the "bar of a wheel that passes from the nave to the felly,"
cites:

 "    .    .    .    .       All you gods,
  In general synod, take away her power,
  Break all the _spokes_ and fellies to her wheel,
  And bowl the round nave down the hill of Heaven."--_Shakspeare_.

G. K.

_Sir W. Hewit._--At p. 159. of Mr. Thoms's recent edition of Pulleyn's
_Etymological Compendium_, Sir W. Hewit, the father-in-law of Edward
Osborne, who was destined to found the ducal family of Leeds, is said to
have been "a pin-maker." Some other accounts state that he was a
clothworker; others again, that he was a goldsmith. Which is correct; and
what is the authority? And where may any pedigree of the Osborne family,
_previous to Edward_, be seen?

H. T. GRIFFITH.

_Passage in Virgil._--Dr. Johnson, in his celebrated Letter to Lord
Chesterfield, says, in reference to the hollowness of patronage: "The
shepherd, in Virgil, grew at last acquainted with Love; and found him a
native of the rocks." To what passage in Virgil does Johnson here refer,
and what is the point intended to be conveyed?

R. FITZSIMONS.

Dublin.

_Fauntleroy._--In Binns' _Anatomy of Sleep_ it is stated that a few years
ago an affidavit was taken in an English court of justice, to the effect
that Fauntleroy was still living in a town of the United States.

Can any of your correspondents refer me to the circumstance in question?

C. CLIFTON BARRY.

_Animal Prefixes, descriptive of Size and Quality._--Will somebody oblige
me by pointing out in the modern languages any analogous instances to the
Greek [Greek: bon], English _horse_-radish, _dog_-rose, _bull_-finch, &c.?

C. CLIFTON BARRY.

_Punning Devices._--Sir John Cullum, in his _Hist. of Hawsted_, 1st edit.
p. 114., says that the seal of Sir William Clopton, knight, t. Hen. VII.,
was "a ton, out of which issues some plant, perhaps a _caltrop_, which
might be contracted to the first syllable of his name." This appears to be
too violent a contraction. Can any of your readers suggest any other or
closer analogy between the name and device?

BURIENSIS.

"_Pinece with a stink._"--In Archbishop Bramhall's _Schism Guarded_
(written against Serjeant) there is a passage in which the above curious
expression occurs, and of which I can find no satisfactory, nor indeed any
explanation whatever. The passage is this (_Works_, vol. ii. p. 545., edit.
Ox.):

    "But when he is baffled in the cause, he hath a reserve,--that
    Venerable Bede, and Gildas, and Foxe in his Acts and Monuments, do
    brand the Britons for wicked men, making them 'as good as Atheists; of
    which gang if this Dinoth were one,' he 'will neither wish the Pope
    such friends, nor envy them to the Protestants.'

    "What needeth this, when he hath got the worst of the cause, to defend
    himself like a _pinece with a stink_? We read no other character of
    Dinoth, but as of a pious, learned, and prudent man."

Can any of your readers furnish an explanation?

R. BLAKISTON.

_Soiled Parchment Deeds._--Having in my possession some old and very dirty
parchment deeds, and other records, now almost illegible from the
accumulation of grease, &c., on the surface of the skins, I am desirous to
know if there be any "royal road" to the cleansing and restoration of these
otherwise enduring MSS.?

T. HUGHES.

Chester.

_Roger Wilbraham, Esq.'s Cheshire Collection._--Can any of your
correspondents say where the original collection made by the above-named
gentleman, or a copy of them, referred to in Dr. Foote Gower's _Sketch of
the Materials for a Cheshire History_, may now be met with?

CESTRIENSIS.

_Cambridge and Ireland._--In the first volume of the _Pictorial History of
England_, p. 270., it is stated that--

    "Martin skins are mentioned in _Domesday Book_ among the commodities
    brought by sea to Chester; and this appears from other authorities to
    have been one of the exports in ancient times from Ireland. Notices are
    also found of merchants from Ireland _landing at Cambridge_ with
    cloths, and exposing their merchandise to sale."

The authority quoted for this statement is Turner, vol. iii. p. 113.

On referring to Turner's _Anglo-Saxons_, I find it stated:

    "We read of merchants from Ireland _landing at Cambridge_ with cloths,
    and exposing their merchandise to sale."

Mr. Turner refers to Gale, vol. ii. p. 482.

I do not know to what work Mr. Turner refers, unless to Gale's _Rerum
Anglicarum Scriptores {271} Veteres_; on examining this I can find no
passage at the page and volume indicated, on the subject.

Can any of your readers state where it is to be found? It appears
remarkable that the merchants from Ireland should land at the inland town
of Cambridge, and it seems a probable conjecture that Cambridge is a
mistake for Cambria.

William of Malmesbury speaks of a commerce between Ireland and the
neighbourhood of Chester, and it seems much more probable that the
merchants of Ireland landed in Wales than in Cambridge.

JOHN THRUPP.

_Derivation of Celt._--What is the proper derivation of the word _celt_, as
applied to certain weapons of antiquity? A good authority, in Dr. Smith's
_Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities_, p. 351., obtains the term
from--

    "Celtes, an old Latin word for a chisel, probably derived from cælo, to
    engrave."

Mr. Wright (_The Celt, Roman, and Saxon_, p. 73.) says that Hearne first
applied the word to such implements in _bronze_, believing them to be
"Roman _celtes_ or chisels;" and that--

    "Subsequent writers, ascribing these instruments to the Britons, have
    retained the name, forgetting its origin, and have applied it
    indiscriminately, not only to other implements of bronze, but even to
    the analogous instruments of _stone_."

And he objects to the term "as too generally implying that things to which
it is applied are Celtic." On the other hand, Dr. Wilson (_Prehistoric
Annals_, p. 129.) prefers to retain the word, inasmuch as the Welsh
etymologists, Owen and Spurrell, furnish an ancient Cambro-British word
_celt_, a flint stone. M. Worsaae (_Primeval Antiq._, p. 26.) confines the
term to those instruments of bronze which have a hollow socket to receive a
wooden handle; the other forms being called paalstabs on the Continent. It
seems clear that there is no connexion between this word and the name of
the nation (_Celtæ_); but its true origin may perhaps be elicited by a
little discussion in the pages of "N. & Q."

C. R. M.

_Ancient Superstition against the King of England entering or even
beholding the Town of Leicester._--The existence of a superstition to this
effect is recorded in Rishanger's _Chronicle_, and also, as I am informed,
in that of Thomas Wikes; but this I have not at present an opportunity of
consulting.

Rishanger's words are:

    "Rex [Henricus III.] autem, capta Norhamptun., Leycestr. tendens, in ea
    hospitatus est, quam nullus regni præter eum etiam videre,
    prohibentibus quibusdam superstitiose, præsumpsit."--P. 26.

It is also mentioned by Matthew of Westminster. (Vide Bohn's edition, vol.
ii. p. 412.) The statement, that no king before Henry III. had entered the
town, is however incorrect, as William the Conqueror and King John are
instances to the contrary.

Can any of your correspondents explain the origin of this superstition, or
favour me with any farther notices respecting it?

It is not unworthy of observation that very many of the royal personages
who have visited Leicester, have been either unfortunate in their lives, or
have met with tragical deaths.

We may, however, hope, for the credit of the town, that their misfortunes
may be attributed to other causes, rather than to their presence within its
time-hallowed walls.

WM. KELLY.

Leicester.

_Burton._--Is there any family of this name who can make out a descent
from, or connexion with, a Mr. John Burton, alderman of Doncaster, who died
1718?

C. J.

_The Camera Lucida._--I should feel much obliged to any reader of "N. & Q."
who would be kind enough to answer the following questions, and refer me to
any work treating of the handling and management of the Camera Lucida. I
have one made by King of Bristol, and purchased about thirty years ago: it
draws out, like a telescope, in three pieces, each six inches long; and at
full length will give a picture of the dimensions of twenty inches by
twelve. The upper piece is marked from above downwards, thus: at two inches
below the lens, "2;" at an inch below that point, "3;" at half an inch
lower, "4;" at half an inch lower still, "5;" half an inch below the point
"5," a "7" is marked; and half an inch below the "7," there is a "10;" at
seven-eighths below this last, "D" is marked. What reference have these
nicely graduated points to the distance of an object from the instrument?
Do the figures merely determine the size of the picture to be taken? How is
one to be guided in their use and application to practice?

CARET.

_Francis Moore._--Francis Moore was born at Bakewell about the year 1592,
and was Proctor of Lichfield Cathedral at the time of the Great Rebellion.
I am anxious to know who were his parents, and what their place of abode.

EDWARD PEACOCK.

Bottesford Moors, Kirton-in-Lindsey.

_Waugh, Bishop of Carlisle._--What were the family arms of Dr. John Waugh,
Bishop of Carlisle, who died October 29, 1734? Was he of a Scotch family,
and are any of his descendants now living?

RUFUS.

_Palace at Enfield._--We read that there was formerly a royal palace at
Enfield in Middlesex, ten miles north from London; and one room still {272}
remains in its original state. Can you, or any of your subscribers, inform
me whereabouts in the town it is situated? Also, the date of erection of
the church?

HAZELWOOD.

_"Solamen miseris," &c._--Please to state in what author is the following
line? No one knows.

    "Solamen miseris socios habuisse doloris."

A CONSTANT READER.

_Soke Mills._--Correspondents are requested to communicate the names of
"Soke" or Manorial Mills, to which the suit is still enforced.

S. M.

_Second Wife of Mallet._--The second wife of Mallet was Lucy Elstob, a
Yorkshire lady, daughter of a steward of the Earl of Carlisle. Can any of
your readers inform me at what place in Yorkshire her father resided, and
where the marriage with Mallet in 1742 took place? She survived her
husband, and lived to the age of eighty years. Where did she die, and what
family did Mallet leave by his two wives?

F.

Leamington.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

_Books burned by the Common Hangman._--

    "Historia Anglo-Scotica: or an Impartial History of all that happen'd
    between the kings and kingdoms of England and Scotland from the
    beginning of the Reign of _William the Conqueror_ to the Reign of Queen
    Elizabeth, &c., by James Drake, M.D., 8vo., London, 1703."

Of this work it is said, in a note in the _Catalogue_ of Geo. Chalmers'
library (fourth day's sale, Sept. 30, 1841), that--

    "On June 30, 1703, the Scotch parliament ordered this book to be burned
    by the hands of the common hangman, and that the magistrates of
    Edinburgh should see it carried into effect at eleven o'clock on the
    following day."

Will any correspondent of yours furnish me with some notice of Dr. Drake,
the author, and also explain the ground of offence upon which his book was
condemned? I confess to be unable to discover anything to offend; neither,
as it seems, could Mr. Surtees, for he says:

    "I quote Drake's _Historia Anglo-Scotica_, 1703, a book which, for what
    reason I never could discover, was ordered to be burned by the common
    hangman."--_History of Durham_, vol. iv. p. 55. note _l_.

Any notices of books which have been signalised by being subjected to
similar condemnation, would much interest me, and perhaps others of your
readers.

BALLIOLENSIS.

    [The ground of offence for burning the _Historia Anglo-Scotica_ is
    stated in _The Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland_, vol. xi. p. 66.,
    viz.: "Ordered, that a book published by the title of _Historia
    Anglo-Scotica_, by James Drake, M.D., and dedicated to Sir Edward
    Symour containing many false and injurious reflections upon the
    sovereignty and independence of this crown and nation, be burnt by the
    hand of the common hangman at the mercat Cross of Edinburgh, at eleven
    o'clock to-morrow (July 1, 1703), and the magistrates of Edinburgh
    appointed to see the order punctually executed." It would appear from
    the dedication prefixed to this work, that Drake merely pretended to
    edit it, for he says, that "upon a diligent revisal, in order, if
    possible, to discover the name of the author, and the age of his
    writing, he found that it was written in, or at least not finished
    till, the time of Charles I." But he says nothing more of the MS., nor
    how it came into his hands. A notice of Dr. Drake is given in
    Chalmers's _Biographical Dictionary_, and in the preface to _The
    Memorial of the Church of England_, edit. 1711, which was also burnt by
    the common hangman in 1705. See "N. & Q.," Vol. iii., p. 519.]

_Captain George Cusack._--It appears by an affidavit made by a Mr. Thomas
Nugent in the year 1674, and now of record in the Exchequer Record Office,
Dublin, that--

    "He, being on or about the 20th of September preceding in London, was
    by one Mr. Patrick Dowdall desired to goe along with him to see one
    George Cusack, then in prison there for severall hainous offences
    alleadged to have beene by him committed, which he could not do by
    reason of other occasions; but having within two or three days
    afterwards mett with Mr. Dowdall, was told by him that he had since
    their last meeting seene the said Cusack in prison (being the
    Marshalsea in Southwark) with bolts on, and that none of Cusack's men
    who were alsoe in prison were bolted:"

that on the 11th of November Cusack was still in restraint, and not as yet
come to his trial:

    "That there were _bookes written of the said Cusack's offences_, which
    he heard cryed about in the streets of London to be sold, and that y^e
    generall opinion and talke was that the said Cusack should suffer death
    for his crimes."

By a fragment of an affidavit made by a Mr. Morgan O'Bryen, of the Middle
Temple, London, it appears that this man was a Captain George Cusack, who,
I presume, was a pirate. May I take leave to ask, are the above-mentioned
books in existence, and where are they to be found?

JAMES F. FERGUSON.

Dublin.

    [In the British Museum is the following pamphlet:--"The Grand Pyrate:
    or the Life and Death of Captain George Cusack, the Great Sea-Robber,
    with an Accompt of all his notorious Robberies both at Sea and Land;
    together with his Tryal, Condemnation, and Execution. Taken by an
    Impartial Hand." London, 1676, pp. 24. 4to.]

_Sir Ralph Winwood._--I am particularly desirous of obtaining some
information respecting {273} Sir Ralph Winwood, private secretary to James
I., and should feel much obliged if any of your numerous correspondents
would favour me with anything they may know concerning him, or with the
titles of any works in which his name is mentioned.

H. P. W. R.

    [Biographical notices of Sir Ralph Winwood will be found in _Biographia
    Britannica_, Supplement; Lloyd's _State Worthies_; Wood's _Athenæ_;
    Granger and Chalmers' Biographical Dictionaries. Sir F. Drake's Voyage,
    by T. Maynarde, is dedicated to him. Letters to him from Sir Thomas
    Roe, in 1615, 1616, are in the British Museum, Add. MS. 6115. fol. 71.
    75. 146. And a letter to him from Sir Dudley Carlton will be found in
    the _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. lvii. p. 143. The Diaries of the time
    of James I. may also be consulted; a list of them is given in "N. &
    Q.," Vol. vi., p. 363.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

BOOKS CHAINED TO DESKS IN CHURCHES.

(Vol. viii., p. 93.)

The authority for this ancient custom appears to be derived from an act of
the Convocation which assembled in 1562. Strype informs us (_Annals_, vol.
i. c. 27.) that at this Convocation the following injunctions were given:

    "First, That a Catechism be set forth in Latin, which is already done
    by Mr. Dean of Paul's [Dean Nowell], and wanteth only viewing.
    Secondly, That certain Articles [the Thirty-nine Articles], containing
    the principal grounds of Christian religion, be set forth much like to
    such Articles as were set forth a little before the death of King
    Edward, of which Articles the most part may be used with additions and
    corrections as shall be thought convenient. Thirdly, That to these
    Articles also be adjoined the _Apology_, writ by Bishop Jewell, lately
    set forth after it, hath been once again revised and so augmented and
    corrected as occasion serveth. That these be joined in _one_ book; and
    by common consent authorised as containing true doctrine, and be
    enjoined to be taught the youth in the Universities and grammar schools
    throughout the realm, and also in cathedral churches, and collegiate,
    and in private houses: and that whosoever shall preach, declare, write,
    or speak anything in derogation, depraving or despising of the said
    book, or any doctrine therein contained, and be thereof lawfully
    convicted before any ordinary, &c., he shall be ordered as in case of
    heresy, or else shall be punished as is appointed for those that offend
    and speak against the Book of Common Prayer, set forth in the first
    year of the Queen's Majesty's reign that now is: that is to say, he
    shall for the first offence forfeit 100 marks; for the second offence,
    400 marks; and for the third offence, all his goods and chattels, and
    shall suffer imprisonment during life."

It is probable that this book found a place in churches as affording a
standard of orthodoxy easy of reference to congregations in times not
sufficiently remote from the Reformation, to render the preaching of Romish
doctrines unlikely. This, if the surmise be correct, would be emphatically
to bring the officiating minister to book. In Prestwich Church, the desk
yet remains, together with the "Book of Articles," bound up as prescribed
with Jewel's _Apology_ (black-letter, 1611), but the chain has disappeared.
The neighbouring church of Bingley has also its desk, to which the chain is
still attached; but the "Book of Articles" has given place to some more
modern volume.

JOHN BOOKER.

Prestwich.

MR. SIMPSON will find some account of the _Paraphrase of Erasmus_ so
chained (of which he says he cannot recal an instance) at Vol i., p. 172.,
and Vol. v., p. 332.

The following list (remains of which more or less perfect, with chains
appended, are still extant) will probably be interesting to many of your
readers:

 "_Books chayned in the Church, 25th April, 1606._

  Dionisius Carthusian vpon the New Testament, in two volumes.
  Origen vpon St. Paules Epistle to the Romanes.
  Origen against Celsus.
  Lira vpon Pentathucke of Moses.
  Lira vpon the Kings, &c.
  Theophilact vpon the New Testam^t.
  Beda vpon Luke and other P^{ts} of the Testam^t.
  Opuscula Augustini, thome x.
  Augustini Questiones in Nou[=u] Testament[=u].
  The Paraphrase of Erasmus.
  The Defence of the Apologye.
  Prierius Postill vpon the Dominicall Gospells."
          From Ecclesfield Church accounts.

J. EASTWOOD.

In Malvern Abbey Church is a copy of Dean Comber's _Companion to the
Temple_, chained to a desk, and bearing a written inscription to the effect
that it should never be removed out of the church; but should remain
chained to its desk for ever, for the use of any parishioner who might
choose to come in and read it there.

N. B. I have mislaid my copy of this inscription: and should feel greatly
obliged to any of your correspondents who may be residing in or near Great
Malvern, for a transcript of it. As it may be thought somewhat long for
your pages, perhaps some correspondent would kindly copy it out for me, and
inclose it to Rev. H. T. GRIFFITH, Hull.

University Club.

       *       *       *       *       *

EPITAPHS.

(Vol. vii. _passim._)

A goodly collection of singular epitaphs has appeared in "N. & Q."; but I
believe it yet lacks {274} a specimen of the following tomfoolery--an
initial epitaph. Green, in his _History of Worcester_, gives the following
inscription from a monument under the north-west window of St. Andrew's
Church in that city:

 "Short of Weight.
      H L T B O
         R W
     I H O A J R
    A D 1780 A 63."

Green adds the following explanation of this riddle:

    "In _full measure_ it would have stood thus: 'Here Lieth The Body Of
    Richard Weston, In Hopes Of A Joyful Resurrection. Anno Domini 1780.
    Aged 63.'"

Richard Weston was a baker, and the "Short of weight" gives the clue to the
nature of his dealings, and also to the right reading of the epitaph.

The following is from Ombersley Churchyard, Worcestershire:

 "Sharp was her wit,
    Mild was her nature;
  A tender wife,
    A good humoured creature."

From the churchyard of St. John, Worcester:

 "Honest John's
  Dead and gone."

From the churchyard of Cofton Hackett, Worcestershire, are the two
following:

    "Here lieth the body of John Galey, sen., in expectation of the Last
    Day. What sort of man he was that day will discover. He was clerk of
    this parish fifty-five years. He died in 1756, aged 75."

The next is also to a Galey. Your correspondent PICTOR (Vol. viii., p. 98.)
gives the same epitaph, slightly altered, as being at Wingfield, Suffolk:

 "Pope boldly asserts (some think the maxim odd),
  An honest man's the noblest work of GOD.
  If this assertion is from error clear,
  One of the noblest works of GOD lies here."

From Alvechurch, Worcestershire; to a man and wife:

    "He, an honest, good-natured, worthy man; she, as eminent for conjugal
    and maternal virtues during her marriage and widowhood, as she had been
    before for amiable delicacy of person and manners."

The following, which is probably not to be surpassed, appeared in one of
the earliest numbers of _Household Words_. It is from the churchyard of
Pewsey, Wiltshire:

    "Here lies the body of Lady O'Looney, great-niece of Burke, commonly
    called the Sublime. She was bland, passionate, and deeply religious:
    also, she painted in water-colours, and sent several pictures to the
    Exhibition. She was first cousin to Lady Jones: and of such is the
    kingdom of heaven."

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

If epitaphs of recent date are admitted in "N. & Q.," perhaps the
following, upon an editor, which lately appeared in the _Halifax Colonist_,
may not be out of place in your publication:

 "Here _lies_ an editor!
    _Snooks_ if you will;
  In mercy, kind Providence,
    Let him _lie still_.
  He _lied_ for his living: so
    He lived, while he _lied_,
  When he could not _lie longer_,
    He _lied_ down, and died."

W. W.

Malta.

 "Here lies a Wife, a Friend, a Mother,
  I believe there never was such another;
  She had a head to earn and a heart to give,
  And many poor she did relieve.
  She lived in virtue and in virtue died,
  And now in Heaven she doth reside.
  Yes! it is true as tongue can tell,
  If she had a fault, it was loving me too well.
  And when I am lying by her side,
  Who was in life her daily pride,
  Tho' she's confined in coffins three,
  She'd leave them all and come to me!"

The above lines, written on a tablet in a church at Exeter, were composed
by Mr. Tuckett, tallow-chandler, to the memory of his wife. An old
subscriber of "N. & Q." thinks this epitaph more strange and curious than
any which has yet appeared in the columns of that valuable publication.

ANON.

       *       *       *       *       *

PAROCHIAL LIBRARIES.

(Vol. vii., p. 507.)

I copy the following from the fly-leaf of _A Treatise of Ecclesiastical
Benefices and Revenues_, by the learned Father Paul, translated by Tobias
Jenkins, 8vo., Westminster, 1736:

    "Bibliotheca de Bassingbourn in Com. Cant. Dono dedit Edvardus
    Nightingale de Kneeseworth Armiger Filius et Hares Fundatoris. Feb.
    1^{mo}, 1735^{to}."

How the volume got out of the library I know not: it was purchased some
years since at a sale in Oxford.

Y. B. N. J.

To the list of parochial libraries allow me to add that of Denchworth, near
Wantage, Berks. In a small apartment over the porch, the _parvise_, I
recollect, some years since, to have seen a very fair collection of old
divinity, the books being, all of them, confined by chains, according to
the ancient usage, an instance of which I never saw elsewhere. {275}

At St. Peter's Church, Tiverton, there is also a collection of books,
mostly the gift of the Newtes, Richard (rejected in 1646 and restored in
1660), and John his son, rectors of the portions of Tidcombe and Clare in
that church. The books are preserved in a room over the vestry.

BALLIOLENSIS.

Another _venerable_ archdeacon now living permitted the churchwardens of
Swaffham to give him a fine copy of Cranmer's Bible belonging to the church
library.

S. Z. Z. S.

Add to the list Finedon, in Northamptonshire, where there is a collection
of upwards of 1000 volumes in the parvise over the porch.

E. H. A.

       *       *       *       *       *

"UP, GUARDS, AND AT THEM!"

(Vol. v., p. 426.; Vol. viii., pp. 111. 184.)

The authority for the Duke of Wellington having used these words at the
battle of Waterloo is Capt. Batty, of the Grenadier Guards, in a letter
written a few days after the battle, published in Booth's _Battle of
Waterloo_, and illustrated by George Jones, Esq., R.A., who is believed to
have superintended the whole publication. I append the extract:--

    "Upon the cavalry being repulsed, the Duke himself ordered our second
    battalion to form line with the third battalion, and, after advancing
    to the brow of the hill, to lie down and shelter ourselves from the
    fire. Here we remained, I imagine, near an hour. It was now about seven
    o'clock. The French infantry had in vain been brought against our line
    and, as a last resource, Buonaparte resolved upon attacking our part of
    the position with his veteran Imperial Guard, promising them the
    plunder of Brussels. Their artillery and they advanced in solid column
    to where we lay. The Duke, who was riding behind us, watched their
    approach; and at length, when within a hundred yards of us, exclaimed
    'Up, guards, and at them again!' Never was there a prouder moment than
    this for our country or ourselves," &c.--Second Letter of Capt. Batty,
    Grenadier Guards, dated June 22, 1815, from the village of Gommignies;
    his First Letter being dated Bavay, June 21, 1815.

This circumstantial account, written so few days after the battle,
detailing affirmatively the command to the guards as heard by one of
themselves, will probably countervail the negative testimony of C. as
derived from the Duke's want of recollection: as well as the "Goodly
Botherby's" of MR. CUTHBERT BEDE. As an instance of the Duke's impressions
of the battle, I may add, that he stated that there was _no smoke_, though
Mr. Jones told me, that when he was on the ground two days afterwards the
smoke was still hanging over it.

FRANK HOWARD.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Mr. Muller's Process._--MR. SISSON inquires for any one's experience in
the use of the above formula, and I beg to say I remember when it was
published I tried it, but gave it up. It is an excellent plan, but requires
improvement. The following were my objections:

If the objects are not well illuminated by the sun, the image is not sharp.
The skies taken are singularly the reverse of the iodide-of-potash method,
as they are almost transparent.

The solutions of iron are a constant trouble by precipitating.

It has the same disadvantages as other modes on paper from inequality in
the strength of the image. The photographic _pons asinorum_ appears however
to be got over by the process, viz. taking the picture at once in the
camera, and it is very possible that it can be made perfect. A small
quantity of chromate of potash, about one grain to three ounces of solution
of iodide of iron, gives a little more force to the picture.

I find the nitrate of lead a very useful salt in iodizing paper. Six grains
of the salt to the ounce of water, and tincture of iodine added till a pale
yellow, will give additional sensitiveness to iodized paper, if the sheets
are floated upon the solution. This will shorten the time in the camera
nearly five minutes; but it requires care, as it is apt to solarize.

A weak solution of iodide of iron has also the same effect, and, if blotted
off at once, it will not blacken by the use of gallic acid.

WELD TAYLOR.

Bayswater.

_Stereoscopic Angles._--When I last addressed you, I fancied I should set
the stereoscopic-angle question at rest. It appears, however, that MR. G.
SHADBOLT is unconvinced, and as I alone (to the best of my knowledge) have
defined and solved the problem in relation to this subject, you will
perhaps allow me to offer a few words in rejoinder to MR. S.'S arguments
which, had that gentleman thought more closely, would not have been
advanced. This is also requisite, because, from their speciousness, they
are likely to mislead such as take what they read for granted. MR. S. says
that when the stereographs are placed at the same distance from the eyes as
the focal length of the lens, that 2¼ inches is the best space for the
cameras to be apart; and that were this space increased, the result would
be as though the pictures were taken from models. To this I reply, that the
only correct space for the cameras to be apart is 2½ inches (_i. e._ the
space usually found to be from pupil to pupil of our eyes), and this under
every circumstance; and that any departure from this must produce error. As
to the model-like appearance, I cannot see the reason of {276} it. Next MR.
SHADBOLT says, and rightly, that when the pictures are seen from a less
distance than the focal length of the lens, they appear to be increased in
bulk. But the "obvious remedy" I pronounce to be wrong, as it must produce
error. The remedy is nevertheless obvious, and consists in placing the
stereographs at the same distance from the eyes as the focal length of the
lens. But, if this cannot be done, it were surely better to submit to some
trifling exaggeration than to absolute deformity and error. MR. S. says
also, that as we mainly judge of distance, &c. by the convergence of the
optic axis of our eyes (Query, How do persons with only one eye judge?),
so, in short or medium distances, it were better to let the camera radiate
from its centre to the principal object to be delineated. The result of
this must be error, as the following illustration will show. Let the sitter
(for it is especially recommended in portraits) hold before him,
horizontally, and in parallelism with the picture, a ruler two feet long;
and let planes parallel to the ruler pass through the sitter's ears, eyes,
nose, &c. The consequence would be that the ruler, and all the other planes
parallel to it, would have two vanishing points, and all the features be
erroneously rendered. This, to any one conversant with perspective, should
suffice. But, as all are not acquainted with perspective, perhaps the
following illustration may prove more convincing. Suppose an ass to stand
facing the observer; a boy astride him, with a big drum placed before him.
Now, under the treatment recommended by MR. G. SHADBOLT, both sides of the
ass would be visible; both the boy's legs; and the drum would have two
heads. This would be untrue, absurd, ridiculous, and quite as wonderful as
Mr. Fenton's twelve-feet span view from across the Thames.

Once more, and I shall have done with the present arguments of MR. G.
SHADBOLT. He says that the two pictures should have exactly the same range
of vision. This I deny: for, were it so, there would be no stereoscopic
effect. Let the object be a column: it is evident that a tangent to the
left side of the column from the right eye, could not extend so far to the
left as a tangent to the left side of the column from the left eye, and
_vice versâ_. And it is only by this difference in the two pictures (or, in
other words, the range of vision) that our conceptions of solidity are
created. This is not exactly the test to suit the views of MR. SHADBOLT, as
I am quite aware; but I chose it for its simplicity, and because it will
bear demonstration; and my desire has been to elicit truth, and not to
perpetuate error.

In conclusion, I beg to refer MR. G. SHADBOLT to my definition and solution
of the stereoscopic problem--which I then said I _believed_--but which I
now unhesitatingly _assert_ to be correct.

T. L. MARRIOTT.

_Ammonio-nitrate of Silver._--The inability of your correspondent
PHILO-PHO. to form the ammonio-nitrate of silver from a solution of nitrate
of silver, which has been used to excite albumenized paper, is in all
probability owing to the presence of a small quantity of nitrate of
ammonia, which has been imparted to the solution by the paper.

Salts of ammonia form, with those of silver, double salts, from which the
oxide of silver is not precipitated by the alkalies.

I cannot however explain how it was that the solution had lost none of its
silver, for the paper could not in such case have been rendered sensitive.

J. LEACHMAN.

20. Compton Terrace, Islington.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Sir Thomas Elyot_ (Vol. viii., p. 220.).--Particulars respecting this once
celebrated diplomatist and scholar may be collected from Bernet's _Hist.
Reformation_, ed. 1841, i. 95.; Strype's _Ecclesiastical Memorials_, i.
221. 263., Append. No. LXII.; Ellis's _Letters_, ii. 113.; _Archæologia_,
xxxiii.; Wright's _Suppression of Monasteries_, 140.; _Lelandi Encomia_,
83.; Leland's _Collectanea_, iv. 136-148.; _Retrospective Review_, ii.
381.; _Privy Purse Expenses of Princess Mary_, 82. 230.; Chamberlain's
_Holbein Heads_; Smith's _Autographs_; Fuller's _Worthies_
(Cambridgeshire); Wood's _Athenæ Oxonienses_, i. 58.; Lysons'
_Cambridgeshire_, 159.

The grant of Carlton cum Willingham in Cambridgeshire to Sir Thomas Elliot
and his wife is enrolled in the Exchequer (_Originalia_, 32 Hen. VIII.,
pars 3. rot. 22. vel 221.); and amongst the Inquisitions filed in that
Court is one taken after his death (_Cant. and Hunt._, 37 vel 38 Hen.
VIII.).

I believe it will be found on investigation, that Sir Richard Elyot (the
father of Sir Thomas) was of Wiltshire rather than of Suffolk. See Leland's
_Collectanea_, iv. 141. n., and an Inquisition in the Exchequer of the date
of 6 or 7 Hen. VIII. thus described in the Calendar: "de manerio de
Wanborough com. Wiltes proficua cujus manerii Ricardus Eliot percepit."

C. H. COOPER.

Cambridge.

_Judges styled "Reverend"_ (Vol. viii., p. 158.).--As it is more than
probable that your pages may in future be referred to as authority for any
statement they contain, especially when the fact they announce is vouched
by so valued a name as that of my friend YORK HERALD, I am sure that he
will excuse me for correcting an error into which he has fallen, the more
especially as Lord Campbell is equally mistaken (_Lord Chancellors_, i.
539.).

YORK HERALD states, that "Anthony Fitz-Herbert was appointed Chief Justice
of the Common {277} Pleas in 1523, and died in 30 Henry VIII." Fitz-Herbert
was never _Chief Justice_. He was made a judge of the Common Pleas in 1522;
and so continued till his death at the time mentioned, 1538. During that
period, the office of Chief Justice of the Common Pleas was successively
held by Sir Thomas Brudenell till 1531, by Sir Robert Norwich till 1535,
and then by Sir John Baldwin, who was Chief Justice at the time of
Fitz-Herbert's death.

William Rastall (afterwards Judge), in the early part of his career, joined
his father in the printing business, and there are several books with his
imprimatur. It was during that time probably that he formed the table to
the _Natura Brevium_ of Anthony Fitz-Herbert, mentioned in the title-page
to YORK HERALD'S volume.

EDWARD FOSS.

_"Hurrah" and other War-cries_ (Vol. vii., pp. 595. 633.; Vol. viii., pp.
20. 88.).--_Hurrah_ is the war-cry of many nations, both in the army and
navy. The Dutch seem to have adopted it from the Russians, _poeta invito_,
as we see in the following verses of Staring van den Willenborg:

   "Is 't hoera? Is 't hoera?
  Wat drommel kan 't u schelen?
    Brul, smeek ik, geen Kozakken na!
  Als Fredrik's batterijën spelen--
    Als Willem's trommen slaan
    Blijv' Neêrland's oorlogskreet: 'Val aan!'
  Waar jong en oud de vreugd der overwinning deelen,
    Bij Quatre-Bras' trofee,
    Blijve ons gejuich _Hoezee_!"

Accept or reject this doggerel translation:

 "Is it hurrah? Is it hurrah?
  What does that concern you, pray?
  Howl not like Cossacks of the Don!
  But, when Frederic's batteries pour--
  When William's drums do roar--
  Holland's war-cry still be 'Fall on!'
  When old and young
  Raise the victor's song,
  At Quatre-Bras' trophy,
  Let _Huzzah_ our joy-cry be!"

_Hoera_ (hurrah) and _hoezee_ (huzza), then, in the opinion of Staring, and
indeed of many others, have not the same origin. Some have derived _hoezee_
from _haussé_, a French word of applause at the hoisting (Fr. _hausser_) of
the admiral's flag. Bilderdijk derives it from Hussein, a famous Turkish
warrior, whose memory is still celebrated. Dr. Brill says, "_hoezee_ seems
to be only another mode of pronouncing the German _juchhé_." Van Iperen
thinks it taken from the Jewish shout, "Hosanna!" Siegenbeek finds "the
origin of _hoezee_ in the shout of encouragement, 'Hou zee!' (hold sea)."
Dr. Jager cites a Flemish author, who says "that this cry ('hou zee,' in
French, _tiens mer_) seems especially to belong to us; since it was
formerly the custom of our seamen always 'zee te houden' (to keep the sea),
and never to seek shelter from storms." Dr. Jager, however, thinks it
rather doubtful "that our _hoezee_ should come from 'hou zee,' especially
since we find a like cry in other languages." In old French _huz_ signified
a cry, a shout; and the verb _huzzer_, or _hucher_, to cry, to shout; and
in Dutch _husschen_ had the same meaning.--From the _Navorscher_.

_Major André_ (Vol. viii., p. 174).--The sisters of Major André lived until
a comparatively very recent date in the Circus at Bath, and this fact may
point SERVIENS to inquiries in that city.

T. F.

In reply to SERVIENS'S Query about Major André, I beg to inform him that
there is a good picture of the Major by Sir Joshua Reynolds in the house of
Mrs. Fenning, at Tonbridge Wells, who, I have no doubt, would be enabled to
give him some particulars respecting his life.

W. H. P.

_Early Edition of the New Testament_ (Vol. viii., p. 219.).--The book,
about which your correspondent A. BOARDMAN inquires, is an imperfect copy
of Tyndale's _Version of the New Testament_: probably it is one of the
_first edition_; if so, it was printed at Antwerp in 1526; but if it be one
of the second edition, it was printed, I believe, at the same place in
1534. Those excellent and indefatigable publishers, Messrs. Bagster & Sons,
have within the last few years reprinted both these editions; and if your
correspondent would apply to them, I have no doubt but they will be able to
resolve him on all the points of his inquiry.

F. B----W.

_Ladies' Arms borne in a Lozenge_ (Vol. vii., p. 571. Vol. viii., pp. 37.
83.).--As this question is still open, I forward you the translation of an
article inserted by me in the first volume of the _Navorscher_.
Lozenge-formed shields have not been always, nor exclusively, used by
ladies; for, in a collection of arms from 1094 to 1649 (see _Descriptive
Catalogue of Impressions from Scottish Seals_, by Laing, Edinburgh) are
many examples of ladies' arms, but not one in which the shield has any
other form than that used at the time by men. In England, however, as early
as the fourteenth century, the lozenge was sometimes used by ladies, though
perhaps only by widows. Nisbet (_System of Heraldry_, ii. 35.) mentions a
lozenge-formed seal of Johanna Beaufort, Queen Dowager of Scotland,
attached to a parchment in 1439; while her arms, at an earlier period, were
borne on a common shield (_Gent. Mag._, April, 1851). In France the use of
the lozenge for ladies was very general; yet in the great work of Flacchio
(_Généalogie de la Maison de la Tour_) are found several hundred examples
of ladies' arms on oval {278} shields; and in _Vredii Genealogia comitum
Flandriæ_ (p. 130.), on shields rounded off below. On the other hand,
lozenges have sometimes been used by men: for instance, on a seal of
Ferdinand, Infant of Spain, in Vredius, l. c. p. 148.; also on a dollar of
Count Maurice of Hanau, in Kohler's _Müntzbelustig_. 14. See again the arms
of the Count of Sickingen, in Siebmacher, Suppl. xi. 2. So much for the use
of the lozenge. Most explanations of its origin appear equally far-fetched.
That of Menestrier, in his _Pratique des Armoires_ (p. 14.), seems to me
the least forced. He derives the French name _lozange_ from the Dutch
_lofzang_:

    "In Holland," he says, "the custom prevails every year, in May, to
    affix verses and _lofzangen_ (songs of praise) in lozenge-formed
    tablets on the doors of newly-made magistrates. Young men hung such
    tablets on the doors of their sweethearts, or newly-married persons.
    Also on the death of distinguished persons, lozenge-shaped pieces of
    black cloth or velvet, with the arms, name, and date of the death of
    the deceased, were exhibited on the front of the house. And since
    _there is little to be said of women, except on their marriage or
    death, for this reason has it become customary on all occasions to use
    for them the lozenge-shaped shield_."

In confirmation of this may be mentioned, that formerly _lozange_ and
_lozanger_ were used in the French for _louange_ and _louer_; of which
Menestrier, in the above-quoted work (p. 431.), cites several instances.

Besides the conjectures mentioned by H. C. K. and BROCTUNA, may be cited
that of Laboureur: who finds both the form and the name in the Greek word
[Greek: oxugônios] (_ozenge_ with the article, _l'ozenge_); and of
Scaliger, who discovers _lausangia_ in _laurangia_, _lauri folia_. See
farther, Bernd. _Wapenwesen_, Bonn, 1841.

JOHN SCOTT.

Norwich.

_Sir William Hankford_ (Vol. ii., p. 161. &c.).--Your learned correspondent
MR. EDWARD FOSS proves satisfactorily that Sir W. Gascoigne was not
retained in his office of Chief Justice by King Hen. V. But MR. FOSS seems
to have overlooked entirely the Devonshire tradition, which represents Sir
William _Hankford_ (Gascoigne's successor) to be the judge who committed
Prince Henry. Risdon (_v_. Bulkworthy, _Survey of Devon_, ed. 1811, p.
246.), after mentioning a chapel built by Sir W. Hankford, gives this
account of the matter:

    "This is that deserving judge, that did justice upon the king's son
    (afterwards King Henry V.), who, when he was yet prince, commanded him
    to free a servant of his, arraigned for felony at the king's bench bar;
    whereat the judge replied, he would not. Herewith the prince, enraged,
    essayed himself to enlarge the prisoner, but the judge forbad; insomuch
    as the prince in fury stept up to the bench, and gave the judge a blow
    on the face, who, nothing thereat daunted, told him boldly: 'If you
    will not obey your sovereign's laws, who shall obey you when you shall
    be king? Wherefore, in the king's (your father's) name, I command you
    prisoner to the king's bench.' Whereat the prince, abashed, departed to
    prison. When King Henry IV., his father, was advertised thereof (as
    fast flieth fame), after he had examined the circumstances of the
    matter, he rejoiced to have a son so obedient to his laws, and a judge
    of such integrity to administer justice without fear or favour of the
    person; but withal dismissed the prince from his place of president of
    the council, which he conferred on his second son."

Risdon makes no mention of Sir W. Hankford's being retained in office by
King Henry V. But at p. 277., _v._ Monkleigh, he gives the traditional
account of Hankford's death (anno 1422), which represents the judge, in
doubt of his safety, and mistrusting the sequel of the matter, to have
committed suicide by requiring his park-keeper to shoot at him when under
the semblance of a poacher:

    "Which report (Risdon adds) is so credible among the common sort of
    people, that they can show the tree yet growing where this fact was
    committed, known by the name of Hankford Oak."

J. SANSOM.

_Mauilies, Manillas_ (Vol. vii., p. 533.).--W. H. S. will probably find
some of the information which he asks for in _Two Essays on the Ring-Money
of the Celtæ_, which were read in the year 1837 to the members of the Royal
Irish Academy by Sir William Betham, and in some observations on these
essays which are to be found in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ of that year.
During the years 1836, 1837, and 1838, there were made at Birmingham or the
neighbourhood, and exported from Liverpool to the river Bonney in Africa,
large quantities of _cast-iron_ rings, in imitation of the _copper_ rings
known as "Manillas" or "African ring-money," then made at Bristol. A vessel
from Liverpool, carrying out a considerable quantity of these cast-iron
rings, was wrecked on the coast of Ireland in the summer of 1836. A few of
them having fallen into the hands of Sir William Betham, he was led to
write the _Essays_ before mentioned. The making of these cast-iron rings
has been discontinued since the year 1838, in consequence of the natives of
Africa refusing to give anything in exchange for them. From inquiry which I
made in Birmingham in the year 1839, I learnt that more than 250 tons of
these cast-iron rings had been made in that town and neighbourhood in the
year 1838, for the African market. The captain of a vessel trading to
Africa informed me in the same year that the Black Despot, who then ruled
on the banks of the river Bonney, had threatened to mutilate, in a way
which I will not describe, any one who should be detected in landing these
counterfeit rings within his territories.

N. W. S.

{279}

_The Use of the Hour-glass in Pulpits_ (Vol. vii., p. 589.; Vol. viii., p.
82.).--Your correspondent A. W. S. having called attention to the use of
the hour-glass in pulpits (Vol. vii., p. 589.), I beg to mention two
instances in which I have seen the stands which formerly held them. The
first is at Pilton Church, near Barnstaple, Devon, where it still (at least
very lately it did) remain fixed to the pulpit; the other instance is at
Tawstock Church (called, from its numerous and splendid monuments, the
Westminster Abbey of North Devon), but here it has been displaced, and I
saw it lying among fragments of old armour, banners, &c., in a room above
the vestry. They were similar in form, each representing a man's arm, cut
out of sheet iron and gilded, the hand holding the stand; turning on a
hinge at the shoulder it lay flat on the panels of the pulpit when not in
use. When extended it would project about a yard.

BALLIOLENSIS.

George Poulson, Esq., in his _History and Antiquities of the Seignory of
Holderness_ (vol. ii. p. 419.), describing Keyingham Church, says that--

    "The pulpit is placed on the south-east corner; beside it is an iron
    frame-work, used to contain an hour-glass."

EDWARD PEACOCK.

Bottesford Moors, Kirton-in-Lindsey.

_Derivation of the Word "Island"_ (Vol. viii., p. 209.).--Your
correspondent C. gives me credit for a far greater amount of humour than I
can honestly lay claim to. He appears (he must excuse me for saying so) to
have scarcely read through my observations on the derivation of the word
_island_, which he criticises so unmercifully; and to have understood very
imperfectly what he has read. For instance, he says that my "derivation of
_island_ from _eye_, the visual orb, because each are (_sic_) surrounded by
water, seems like banter," &c. Had I insisted on any such analogy, I should
indeed have laid myself open to the charge; but _I did nothing of the
kind_, as he will find to be the case, if he will take the trouble of
perusing what I wrote. My remarks went to show, that, in the A.-S.
compounded terms, _Ealond_, _Igland_, &c., from which our word _island_
comes, the component _ea_, _ig_, &c., does not mean _water_, as has
hitherto been supposed to be the case, but an _eye_; and that on this
supposition alone can the simple _ig_, used to express an _island_, be
explained. Will C. endeavour to explain it in any other way?

Throughout my remarks, the word _isle_ is not mentioned. And why? Simply
because it has no immediate etymological connexion with the word _island_,
being merely the French word naturalised. The word _isle_ is a simple, the
word _island_ a compound term. It is surely a fruitless task (as it
certainly is unnecessary for any one, with the latter word ready formed to
his hand in the Saxon branch of the Teutonic, and, from its very form,
clearly of that family), to go out of his way to torture the Latin into
yielding something utterly foreign to it. My belief is, that the
resemblance between these two words is an accidental one; or, more
properly, that it is a question whether the introduction of an _s_ into the
word _island_ did not originate in the desire to assimilate the Saxon and
French terms.

H. C. K.

_A Cob-wall_ (Vol. viii., p. 151.).--A "cob" is not an unusual word in the
midland counties, meaning a lump or small hard mass of anything: it also
means a blow; and a good "cobbing" is no unfamiliar expression to the
generality of schoolboys. A "cob-wall," I imagine, is so called from its
having been made of heavy lumps of clay, beaten one upon another into the
form of a wall. I would ask, if "gob," used also in Devonshire for the
stone of any fruit which contains a kernel, is not a cognate word?

W. FRASER.

Tor Mohun.

_Oliver Cromwell's Portrait_ (Vol. vi. _passim_).--In reference to this
Query, the best portrait of Oliver Cromwell is in the Baptist College here,
and 500 guineas have been refused for it.

I am not aware if it is the one alluded to by your correspondents. The
picture is small, and depicts the Protector _without_ armour: it is by
Cooper, and was left to its present possessors by the Rev. Andrew Gifford,
a Baptist minister, in 1784.

Two copies have been made of it, but the original has never been engraved;
from one of the copies, however, an engraving is in process of execution,
after the picture by Mr. Newenham, of "Cromwell dictating to Milton his
letter to the Duke of Savoy." The likeness of Cromwell in this picture is
taken from one of the copies.

The original is not allowed to be taken from off the premises on any
consideration, in consequence of a dishonest attempt having been made, some
time ago, to substitute a copy for it.

BRISTOLIENSIS.

_Manners of the Irish_ (Vol. viii., pp. 5. 111.)--A slight knowledge of
Gaelic enables me to supply the meaning of some of the words that have
puzzled your Irish correspondents. _Molchan_ (Gaelic, _Mulachan_) means
"cheese."

 "Deo gracias, is smar in Doieagh."

I take to mean "Thanks to God, God is good." In Gaelic the spelling would
be--"is math in Dia." A Roman Catholic Celt would often hear his priest say
"Deo Gratias."

The meaning of the passage seems to be pretty clear, and may be rendered
thus:--The Irish farmer, although in the abundant enjoyment of {280} bread,
butter, cheese, flesh, and broth, is not only not ashamed to complain of
poverty as an excuse for non-payment of his rent, but has the effrontery to
thank God, as if he were enjoying only those blessings of Providence to
which he is justly entitled.

W. C.

Argyleshire.

_Chronograms and Anagrams_ (Vol. viii., p. 42.).--Perhaps the most
extraordinary instance to be found in reference to chronograms is the
following:

    "Chronographica Gratulatio in Felicissimum adventum Serenissimi
    Cardinalis Ferdinandi, Hispaniarum Infantis, a Collegio Soc. Jesu.
    Bruxellæ publico Belgarum Gaudio exhibita."

This title is followed by a dedication to S. Michael and an address to
Ferdinand; after which come one hundred hexameters, _every one of which is
a chronogram_, and each chronogram gives the same result, viz. 1634. The
first three verses are,--

 "AngeLe CæLIVogI MIChaëL LUX UnICa CætUs.
  Pro nUtU sUCCInCta tUo CUI CUnCta MInIstrant.
  SIDera qUIqUe poLo gaUDentIa sIDera VoLVUnt."

The last two are,--

 "Vota Cano: hæC LeVIbus qUamVIs nUnC InCLyte prInCeps.
  VersICULIs InCLUsa, fLUent in sæCULa CentUm."

All the numeral letters are printed in capitals, and the whole is to be
found in the _Parnassus Poeticus Societatis Jesu_ (Francofurti, 1654), at
pp. 445-448. of part i. In the same volume there is another example of the
chronogram, at p. 261., in the "Septem Mariæ Mysteria" of Antonius Chanut.
It occurs at the close of an inscription:

 "StatUaM hanC--eX Voto ponIt
  FernanDUs TertIUs AUgUstUs."

The date is 1647.

    "Henriot, an ingenious anagrammatist, discovered the following anagram
    for the occasion of the 15th:

     'Napoleon Bonaparte sera-t-il consul à vie,
      La [le] peuple bon reconnoissant votera Oui.'

    There is only a trifling change of _a_ to e."--_Gent. Mag._, Aug. 1802,
    p. 771.

The following is singular:

 "Quid est veritas? = Vir qui adest."

I add another chronogram "by Godard, upon the birth of Louis XIV. in 1638,
on a day when the eagle was in conjunction with the lion's heart:"

 "EXorIens DeLphIn AqUILa CorDIsqUe LeonIs
  CongressU GaLLos spe LætItIaqUe refeCIt."

B. H. C.

_"Haul over the Coals"_ (Vol. viii., p. 125.).--This appears to mean just
the same as "roasting"--to inflict upon any one a castigation _per verbum_
and in good humour.

_To cover over the coals_ is the same as to cower over the coals, as a
gipsy over a fire. Thus Hodge says of Gammer Gurton and Tib, her maid:

                     "'Tis their daily looke,
  They cover so over the coles their eies be bleared with smooke."

_To carry coals to Newcastle_ is well understood to be like giving alms to
the wealthy; but viewed in union with the others would show what a
prominent place coals seem to have in the popular mind.

B. H. C.

Poplar.

_Sheer Hulk_ (Vol. viii., p. 126.).--This phrase is certainly correct.
_Sheer_ = mere, a hulk, and nothing else. Thus we say _sheer_ nonsense,
_sheer_ starvation, &c.; and the song says:

 "Here a _sheer hulk_ lies poor Tom Bowling,
      The darling of our crew," &c.

The etymology of _sheer_ is plainly from _shear_.

B. H. C.

Poplar.

_The Magnet_ (Vol. vi. _passim_).--This was used by Claudian apparently as
symbolical of Venus or love:

 "Mavors, sanguinea qui cuspide verberat urbes,
  Et Venus, humanas quæ laxat in otia curas,
  Aurati delubra tenent communia templi,
  Effigies non una Deis. Sed ferrea Martis
  Forma nitet, Venerem _magnetica gemma figurat_."--Claud. _De Magnete._

B. H. C.

Poplar.

_Fierce_ (Vol. viii., p. 125.).--OXONIENSIS mentions a peculiar use of the
word "fierce." An inhabitant of Staffordshire would have answered him: "I
feel quite _fierce_ this morning."

W. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

_Connexion between the Celtic and Latin Languages_ (Vol. viii., p.
174.).--Your correspondent M. will find some curious and interesting
articles on this subject in vol. ii. of _The Scottish Journal_, Edinburgh,
1848, p. 129. _et infra_.

DUNCAN MACTAVISH.

Lochbrovin.

_Acharis_ (Vol. viii., p. 198.).--A mistake, probably, for _achatis_, a
Latinised form of _achat_, a bargain, purchase, or act of purchasing. The
passage in Dugdale seems to mean that "Ralph Wickliff, Esq., holds
two-thirds of the tithes of certain domains sometime purchased by him,
{281} formerly at a rental of 5s., now at nothing, because, as he says,
they are included in his park."

J. EASTWOOD.

_Henry, Earl of Wotton_ (Vol. viii., p. 173.).--Philip, first Earl of
Chesterfield, had a son Henry, Lord Stanhope, K.B., who married Catherine,
the eldest daughter and co-heir of Thomas, Lord Wotton, and had issue one
son Philip, and two daughters, Mary and Catherine. Lord Stanhope died s. p.
Nov. 29, 1634. His widow was governess to the Princess of Orange, daughter
of Charles I., and attending her into Holland, sent over money, arms, and
ammunition to that king when he was distressed by his rebellious subjects.
For such services, and by reason of her long attendance on the princess,
she was, on the restoration of Charles II. (in regard that Lord Stanhope,
her husband, did not live to enjoy his father's honours), by letters patent
bearing date May 29, 12 Charles II., advanced to the dignity of Countess of
Chesterfield for life, as also that her daughters should enjoy precedency
as earl's daughters.

She took to her second husband John Poliander Kirkhoven, Lord of Kirkhoven
and Henfleet, by whom she had a son, _Charles Henry_ Kirkhoven, the subject
of the Query.

This gentleman, chiefly on account of his mother's descent, was created a
baron of this realm by the title of Lord Wotton of Wotton in Kent, by
letters patent bearing date at St. Johnstone's (Perth) in Scotland, August
31, 1650, and in September, 1660, was naturalised by authority of
parliament, together with his sisters. He was likewise in 1677 created Earl
of _Bellomont_ in Ireland, and, dying without issue, left his estates to
his nephew Charles Stanhope, the younger son of his half-brother the Earl
of Chesterfield, who took the surname of Wotton.

This information is principally from Collins, who quotes "Ec. Stem. per
Vincent." I have consulted also Bank's _Dormant Baronage_, Burke's _Works_,
and Sharpe's _Peerage_.

BROCTUNA.

Bury, Lancashire.

_Anna Lightfoot_ (Vol. vii., p. 595.).--An account of "the left-handed wife
of George III." appeared in Sir Richard Phillips' _Monthly Magazine_ for
1821 or 1822, under the title of (I think) "Hannah Lightfoot, the fair
Quaker."

ALEXANDER ANDREWS.

_Lawyers' Bags_ (Vol. viii., p. 59.).--Previous correspondents appear to
have established the fact that green was the orthodox colour of a lawyer's
bag up to a recent date. May not the change of colour have been suggested
by the sarcasms and jeers about "green bags," which were very current
during the proceedings on the Bill of Pains and Penalties, commonly known
as the _Trial_ of Queen Caroline, some thirty years ago? The reports of the
evidence collected by the commission on the Continent, was laid on the
table in a _sealed green bag_, and the very name became for a time the
signal for such an outcry, that the lawyers may have deemed it prudent to
strike their colours, and have recourse to some other less obnoxious to
remark.

BALLIOLENSIS.

_"When Orpheus went down"_ (Vol. viii., p. 196.).--In reply to the Query of
G. M. B. respecting "When Orpheus went down," I beg to say that the author
was the Rev. Dr. Lisle (most probably the Bishop of St. Asaph). The song
may be found among Ritson's _English Songs_. When it was first published I
have not been able to ascertain, but it must have been in the early part of
the last century, as the air composed for it by Dr. Boyce, most likely for
Vauxhall, was afterwards used in the pasticcio opera of _Love in a
Village_, which was brought out in 1763.

C. OLDENSHAW.

Leicester.

_Muffs worn by Gentlemen_ (Vol. vi. _passim_; Vol. vii., p. 320.).--In
Lamber's _Travels in Canada and the United States_ (1815), vol. i. p. 307.,
is the following passage:

    "I should not be surprised if those _delicate young soldiers_ were to
    introduce muffs: they were in general use among the men under the
    French government, and are still worn by two or three old gentlemen."

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

_Wardhouse, and Fisherman's Custom there_ (Vol. viii., p. 78.).--Wardhouse
or Wardhuuse, is a port in Finland, and the custom was for the English to
purchase herrings there, as they were not permitted to fish on that coast.
In _Trade's Increase_, a commercial tract, written in the earlier part of
the seventeenth century, the author, when speaking of restraints on fishing
on the coasts of other nations, says:

    "Certain merchants of Hull had their ships taken away and themselves
    imprisoned, for fishing about the Wardhouse at the North Cape."

W. PINKERTON.

Ham.

_"In necessariis unitas," &c._ (Vol. viii., p. 197.).--The sentence, "In
necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas," may be seen
sculptured in stone over the head of a doorway leading into the garden of a
house which was formerly the residence of Archdeacon Coxe, and subsequently
of Canon Lisle Bowles, in the Close at Salisbury. It is quoted from
Melancthon. The inscription was placed there by the poet, and is no less
the record of a noble, true, and generous sentiment, than of the
discriminating taste and feeling of him by whom it was thus appreciated and
honoured. {282} Would that it might become the motto of _all_ our cathedral
precincts!

W. S.

Northiam.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

_The Botany of the Eastern Borders, with the Popular Names and Uses of the
Plants, and of the Customs and Beliefs which have been associated with
them_, by George Johnson, M.D. This, the first volume of _The Natural
History of the Eastern Borders_, is a book calculated to please a very
large body of readers. The botanist will like it for the able manner in
which the various plants indigenous to the district are described. The
lover of Old World associations will be delighted with the industry with
which Dr. Johnson has collected, and the care with which he has recorded
their popular names, and preserved the various bits of folk lore associated
with those popular names, or their supposed medicinal virtues. The
antiquary will be gratified by the bits of archæological gossip, and the
biographical sketches so pleasantly introduced; and the general reader with
the kindly spirit with which Dr. Johnson will enlist him in his company--

 "    .    .    .   Unconstrain'd to rove along
  The bushy brakes and glens among."

Marry, it were a pleasant thing to join the _Berwickshire Natural History
Club_ in one of their rambles through the Eastern Borders.

Mr. Bohn has just added to his _Antiquarian Library_ a volume which will be
received with great satisfaction by all who take an interest in the
antiquity of Egypt. It is a translation by the Misses Horner of Dr.
Lepsius' _Letters from Egypt, Ethiopia, and the Peninsula of Sinai, with
Extracts from his Chronology of the Egyptians, with reference to the Exodus
of the Israelites, revised by the Author_. Dr. Lepsius, it may be
mentioned, was at the head of the scientific expedition appointed by the
King of Prussia to investigate the remains of ancient Egyptian and
Ethiopian civilisation, still in preservation in the Nile valley and the
adjacent countries; and in this cheap volume we have that accomplished
traveller's own account of what that expedition was able to accomplish.

We are at length enabled to answer the Query which was addressed to us some
time since on the subject of the continuation of Mr. MacCabe's _Catholic
History of England_. The third volume is now at press, and will be issued
in the course of the next publishing season.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_A Letter to a Convocation-Man concerning the Rights,
Powers, and Privileges of that Body, first published in 1697. Edited, with
an Introduction and Notes_, by the Rev. W. Fraser, B.C.L. This reprint of a
very rare tract will no doubt be prized by the numerous advocates for the
re-assembling of Convocation, who must feel indebted to Mr. Fraser for the
care and learning with which he has executed his editorial task.--_A
Collection of Curious, Interesting, and Facetious Epitaphs, Monumental
Inscriptions, &c._, by Joseph Simpson. We think the editor would have some
difficulty in authenticating many of the epitaphs in his collection, which
seems to have been formed upon no settled principle.--_The Physiology of
Temperance and Total Abstinence, being an Examination of the Effects of the
Excessive, Moderate, and Occasional Use of Alcoholic Liquors on the Healthy
Human System_, by Dr. Carpenter: a shilling pamphlet, temperately written
and closely argued, and well deserving the attention of all, even of the
most temperate.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

THE MONTHLY ARMY LIST from 1797 to 1800 inclusive. Published by Hookham and
Carpenter, Bond Street. Square 12mo.

JER. COLLIER'S ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND. Folio Edition. Vol. II.

LONDON LABOUR AND THE LONDON POOR.

LOWNDES' BIBLIOGRAPHER'S MANUAL. Pickering.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE LONDON GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY.

PRESCOTT'S HISTORY OF THE CONQUEST OF MEXICO. 8 Vols. London. Vol. III.

MRS. ELLIS'S SOCIAL DISTINCTION. Tallis's Edition. Vols. II. and III. 8vo.

HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF NEWBURY. 8vo. 1839. 340 pages. Two Copies.

VANCOUVER'S SURVEY OF HAMPSHIRE.

HEMINGWAY'S HISTORY OF CHESTER. Large Paper. Parts I. and III.

CORRESPONDENCE ON THE FORMATION OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC BIBLE SOCIETY. 8vo.
London, 1813.

ATHENÆUM JOURNAL FOR 1844.

PAMPHLETS.

JUNIUS DISCOVERED. By P. T. Published about 1789.

REASONS FOR REJECTING THE EVIDENCE OF MR. ALMON, &c. 1807.

ANOTHER GUESS AT JUNIUS. Hookham. 1809.

THE AUTHOR OF JUNIUS DISCOVERED. Longmans. 1821.

THE CLAIMS OF SIR P. FRANCIS REFUTED. Longmans. 1822.

WHO WAS JUNIUS? Glynn. 1837.

SOME NEW FACTS, &c., by Sir F. Dwarris. 1850.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Notices to Correspondents.

REPLIES. _We have again to beg those Correspondents who favour us with_
REPLIES _to complete them by giving the Volume and Page of the original_
QUERIES. _This would give little trouble to each Correspondent, while its
omission entails considerable labour upon us._

W. C. "When Greeks join'd Greeks" _is from Lee's Alexander the Great_.

A CONSTANT READER. _The contractions referred to stand for_ Pence _and_
Farthings.

C. W. (Bradford). _We can promise that if the book in question is obtained,
our Correspondent shall have the reading of it._

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. _We hope next week to lay before our readers_
DR. DIAMOND'_s process for printing on albumenized paper. We shall also
reply to several Photographic querists._

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vii., _price
Three Guineas and a Half, may now be had; for which early application is
desirable._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *


{283}

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    "DR. RUD WURZER.
    "Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. in Bonn."

London Agents:--Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her
Majesty the Queen; Hedges & Butler, 155. Regent Street; and through all
respectable grocers, chemists, and medicine venders. In canisters, suitably
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6d.; 5lb. 11s.; 12lb. 22s.; super-refined, 5lb. 22s.; 10lb. 33s. The 10lb.
and 12lb. carriage free, on receipt of Post-office order.--Barry, Du Barry
Co., 77. Regent Street, London.

IMPORTANT CAUTION.--Many invalids having been seriously injured by spurious
imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta, Arabaca, and
others, the public will do well to see that each canister bears the name
BARRY, DU BARRY & CO., 77. Regent Street, London, in full, _without which
none is genuine_.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodised Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.

OTTEWILL'S REGISTERED DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERA, is superior to every
other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist, from its capability of
Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment, its extreme Portability,
and its adaptation for taking either Views or Portraits.

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames,
&c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road,
Islington.

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *


IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J.B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand. have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS, MATERIALS, and PURE CHEMICAL PREPARATIONS.

KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price of
the best forms of Cameras and other Apparatus. Voightlander and Son's
Lenses for Portraits and Views, together with the various Materials, and
pure Chemical Preparations required in practising the Photographic Art.
Forwarded free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

       *       *       *       *       *

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M. P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
      Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions.
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


BANK OF DEPOSIT.

7. St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar Square, London.

PARTIES desirous of INVESTING MONEY are requested to examine the Plan of
this Institution, by which a high rate of Interest may be obtained with
perfect Security.

Interest payable in January and July.

  PETER MORRISON,
  Managing Director.

Prospectuses free on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


DAGUERREOTYPE MATERIALS.--Plates. Cases. Passepartoutes. Best and Cheapest.
To be had in great variety at

McMILLAN'S Wholesale Depot, 132. Fleet Street.

Price List Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas, Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,

65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


{284}

JUST PUBLISHED, PRICE FOURPENCE,

Or sent Free on Receipt of Six Postage Stamps,

FENNELL'S SHAKSPEARE REPOSITORY,

NO. III.

Containing the following Interesting Articles, viz. Discovery of some of
Shakspeare's Manuscripts, with Extracts therefrom; Shakspearian Deeds and
other Relics; Shakspeare's Knowledge of Geography and the Classics
vindicated from Hypercritical and Pedantic Commentators; Curious Old Song,
by John Grange; Notes on the Tempest, Gentlemen of Verona, and Merry Wives
of Windsor; Shakspeare and Bartholomew Fair; Dr. William Kenrick's Lectures
on Shakspeare, &c. &c.

No. I. of the SHAKSPEARE REPOSITORY may be had, PRICE SIXPENCE, or sent
Free on Receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

No. II., PRICE FOURPENCE, or Six Postage Stamps; or Nos. I. II. and III.
sent Free on receipt of Eighteen Stamps.

Address, JAMES H. FENNELL, 1. Warwick Court, Holborn, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


MURRAY'S HANDBOOKS FOR TRAVELLERS.

A NEW AND CHEAPER ISSUE.

HANDBOOK--TRAVEL TALK. 3s. 6d.

HANDBOOK--BELGIUM AND THE RHINE. 5s.

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HANDBOOK--NORTH GERMANY, HOLLAND, BELGIUM, AND THE RHINE. 9s.

HANDBOOK--SOUTH GERMANY AND THE TYROL. 9s.

HANDBOOK--FRANCE AND THE PYRENEES. 9s.

HANDBOOK--SPAIN, ANDALUSIA, ETC. 16s.

HANDBOOK--NORTH ITALY AND FLORENCE. 9s.

HANDBOOK--CENTRAL ITALY, TUSCANY, AND THE PAPAL STATES. 7s.

HANDBOOK--CENTRAL ITALY AND ROME. (Just Ready.)

HANDBOOK--SOUTH ITALY AND NAPLES. 15s.

HANDBOOK--EGYPT AND THEBES. 15s.

HANDBOOK--DENMARK, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN. 12s.

HANDBOOK--RUSSIA AND FINLAND. 12s.

HANDBOOK--GREECE AND IONIAN ISLANDS. (Nearly Ready.)

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, cloth, 480 pages, 8vo., price 3s. 6d., the new volume of THE
BRITISH CONTROVERSIALIST: containing able Debates on many of the most
important questions of the day, and a section which might be denominated
"NOTES AND QUERIES FOR THE PEOPLE."

    "Contains a large amount of sound and very useful
    information."--_Eclectic Review._

    "It is full of intelligence and instruction."--_Papers for the
    Schoolmaster._

London: HOULSTON & STONEMAN, Paternoster Row, and all Booksellers.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just out, price 2s.

A LETTER TO A CONVOCATION MAN, concerning the Rights, Powers, and
Privileges of that Body, first published in 1697. Edited, with an
Introduction and Notes, by the REV. WILLIAM FRASER, B.C.L., Curate of
Tor-Mohun.

    "No reader on the subject of Convocation can any longer allow his
    library to be without this very valuable and, until now, extremely
    scarce pamphlet."--_Western Courier._

Also, price 1s.,

THE CONSTITUTIONAL NATURE OF THE CONVOCATIONS OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. BY
THE REV. WILLIAM FRASER, B.C.L.

    "This pamphlet has met with approval from several quarters; we must
    take it then as representing the opinions of a considerable number of
    convocation students."--_Synodalia._

London: J. MASTERS.

       *       *       *       *       *


W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT AND LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has
considerable experience.

1. ALBERT TERRACE, NEW CROSS, HATCHAM, SURREY.

       *       *       *       *       *


A DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE of a General Collection of Ancient and Modern Gems,
Cameos, as well as Intaglios. By JAMES TASSIE, Modeller. Arranged and
described by R.E. RASPE, and illustrated with Copper-plates. 2 vols. 4to.,
London, 1791, boards, in first-rate condition, scarce, 1l. 11s. 6d.

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, Two New Volumes (price 26s. cloth) of THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND and
the Courts at Westminster. By EDWARD FOSS, F.S.A.

  Volume Three, 1272-1377,
  Volume Four, 1377-1485.

Lately published, price 28s. cloth,

  Volume One, 1066-1199,
  Volume Two, 1190-1272.

    "A book which is essentially sound and truthful, and must therefore
    take its stand in the permanent literature of our country."--_Gent.
    Mag._

London: LONGMAN & CO.

       *       *       *       *       *


MURRAY'S RAILWAY READING.

Just ready, with Woodcuts, fcap. 8vo., 1s.

THE GUILLOTINE. An Historical Essay. By the RIGHT HON. JOHN WILSON CROKER.
Reprinted from "The Quarterly Review."

The former Volumes of this Series are--

LOCKHART'S ANCIENT SPANISH BALLADS.

HOLLWAY'S MONTH IN NORWAY.

LORD CAMPBELL'S LIFE OF LORD BACON.

WELLINGTON. By JULES MAUREL.

DEAN MILMAN'S FALL OF JERUSALEM.

LIFE OF THEODORE HOOK.

LORD MAHON'S STORY OF JOAN OF ARC.

HALLAM'S LITERARY ESSAYS AND CHARACTERS.

THE EMIGRANT. By SIR F. B. HEAD.

WELLINGTON. By LORD ELLESMERE.

MUSIC AND DRESS. By a LADY.

LAYARD'S POPULAR ACCOUNT OF NINEVEH.

BEES AND FLOWERS. By a CLERGYMAN.

LORD MAHON'S HISTORY OF THE "FORTY-FIVE."

ESSAYS FROM "THE TIMES."

GIFFARD'S DEEDS OF NAVAL DARING.

THE ART OF DINING.

OLIPHANT'S JOURNEY TO NEPAUL.

THE CHACE, THE TURF, AND THE ROAD. By NIMROD.

JAMES' FABLES OF ÆSOP.

  To be followed by

BEAUTIES OF BYRON: PROSE AND VERSE.

A SECOND SERIES OF ESSAYS FROM "THE TIMES."

The ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. By SIR J. G. WILKINSON.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London: and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, September
17, 1853.

       *       *       *       *       *


Corrections made to printed original.

page 279, "Molchan ... means cheese": 'chuse' in original, corrected by a
correspondent in Issue 206. p. 351.

page 280, "cower over the coals": 'lower' in original, corrected by errata
in Issue 208.





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