By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Notes and Queries, Number 206, October 8, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 206, October 8, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

generously made available by The Internet Library of Early

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 206.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                   Page
  Notes on Newspapers: "The Times," Daily Press
  &c., by H. M. Bealby                                        333
  "In quietness and confidence shall be your strength,"
  by Joshua G. Fitch                                          335
  Binders of the Volumes in the Harleian Library              335
  French Verse, by Thos. Keightley                            336
  A Spanish Play-bill, by William Robson                      336
  Shakspeare Correspondence, by Robert Rawlinson,
  C. Mansfield Ingleby, &c.                                   336

  MINOR NOTES:--Injustice, its Origin--Two Brothers
  of the same Christian Name--Female Parish Clerk             338

  Descendants of Milton                                       339
  An anxious Query from the Hymmalayas                        339

  MINOR QUERIES:--"De la Schola de Sclavoni"--Mineral
  Acids--Richard Geering--Stipendiary
  Curates--Our Lady of Rounceval--Roden's Colt--Sir
  Christopher Wren and the Young Carver--Vellum
  Cleaning--Dionysia in Boeotia--Poll Tax
  in 1641--Thomas Chester Bishop Of Elphin, 1580--Rev.
  Urban Vigors--Early English MSS.--Curing
  of Henry IV.--Standard of Weights and Measures--Parish
  Clerks' Company--Orange Blossom--Mr.
  Pepys his Queries--Foreign Medical Education                339

  of Durham--Huggins and Muggins--Balderdash--Lovell,
  Sculptor--St. Werenfrid and Butler's "Lives
  of the Saints"                                              341


  Sir W. Hankford--Gascoigne's Tomb, by Mr. Foss, &c.         342
  Translation of the Prayer Book into French                  343
  Praying to the West                                         343
  Jacob Bobart, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault                         344
  Early Use of Tin.--Derivation of the Name of Britain,
  by the Rev. Dr. Hincks and Fras. Crossley                   344
  Yew-trees in Churchyards, by J. G. Cumming, Wm.
  W. King, &c.                                                346
  Stars are the Flowers of Heaven, by W. Fraser               346
  Books burned by the common Hangman, by John S. Burn, &c.    346

  Pumphrey's Process for securing black Tints
  in Positives                                                348

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Baskerville the Printer--Lines
  on Woman--Haulf-naked--Cambridge and Ireland--
  Autobiographical Sketch--Archbishop Chichely--"Discovery of
  the Inquisition"--Divining Rod--"Pinece with a stink"--
  Longevity--Chronograms--Heraldic Notes--Christian Names--
  "I put a spoke in his wheel"--Judges styled Reverend--Palace
  at Enfield--Sir John Vanbrugh--Greek Inscription on a
  Font--"Fierce"--Giving Quarter--Sheriffs of Glamorganshire--
  "When the maggot bites"--Connexion between the Celtic and
  Latin Languages--Bacon's Essays, &c.                        349

  Notes on Books, &c.                                         354
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                354
  Notices to Correspondents                                   354
  Advertisements                                              355

       *       *       *       *       *



A newspaper, rightly conducted, is a potent power in promoting the
well-being of universal man. It is also a highly moral power--for it
quickens mind everywhere, and puts in force those principles which tend to
lessen human woe, and to exalt and dignify our common humanity. The daily
press, for the most part, aims to correct error--whether senatorial,
theological, or legal. It pleads in earnest tones for the removal of public
wrong, and watches with a keen eye the rise and fall of great interests. It
teaches with commanding power, and makes its influence felt in the palace
of the monarch, as well as through all classes of the community. It helps
on, in the path of honorable ambition, the virtuous and the good. It never
hesitates or falters, however formidable the foe. It never crouches,
however injurious to itself the free and undisguised utterance of some
truths may be. It is outspoken. When the nation requires them, it is bold
and fearless in propounding great changes, though they may clash with the
expectations of a powerful class. It heeds the reverses to which a nation
is subjected, and turns them to good account. It does not abuse its power,
and is never menaced. It is unshackled, and therefore has a native growth.
It looks on the movements of the wide world calmly, deliberately, and
intelligently. We believe the independency of the daily press can never be
bribed, or its patronage won by unlawful means. Its mission is noble, and
the presiding sentiment of the varied intellect employed upon it is "the
greatest good to the greatest number." It never ceases in its operations.
It is a perpetual thing: always the same in many of its aspects, and yet
always new. It is untiring in its efforts, and unimpeded in its career. We
look for it every day with an unwavering confidence, with an almost
absolute certainty. Power and freshness are its principal characteristics;
and with these it combines a healthy tone, a fearless courage, and an
invincible determination. That it has its imperfections, we do not
deny--and what agency is {334} without them? It is not free from error, and
no estate of the realm can be. The purity of the public press will be
increased as Christianity advances. There is no nation in the world which
can boast of a press so moral, and so just, as the daily newspaper press of
Great Britain. The victories it achieves are seen and felt by all: and when
compared with the newspaper press of other countries, it has superior
claims to our admiration and regard.

Taking _The Times_ as the highest type of that class of newspapers which we
denominate the daily press, these remarks will more particularly apply. The
history of such a paper, and its wonderful career, is not sufficiently
known, and its great commercial and intellectual power not adequately
estimated. The extinction of such a journal (could we suppose such a
thing,) would be a public calamity. Its vast influence is felt throughout
the civilised world; and we believe _that_ influence, generally speaking,
is on the side of right, and for the promotion of the common weal. It is
strange that such an organ of public sentiment should have been charged
with the moral turpitude of receiving bribes. That it should destroy its
reputation, darken its fair fame, and undermine the very foundation of its
prosperity, by a course so degrading, we find it impossible to believe. We
feel assured it is far removed from everything of the kind: that its course
is marked by great honesty of purpose, and its exalted aim will never allow
it to stoop to anything so beneath the dignity of its character, and so
repugnant to every sense of rectitude and propriety. It is no presumption
to assert that, under such overt influences, it remains unmoved and
immovable; and to reiterate a remark made in the former part of this
article, "its independency can never be bribed, or its patronage won by
unlawful means." Looking at it in its colossal strength, and with its
omnipotent power (for truth is omnipotent), it may be classed, without any
impropriety, among the wonders of the world.

Allow me to give to the readers of "N. & Q." the following facts in
connexion with _The Times_, and on the subject of newspapers generally.
They are deserving of a place in your valuable journal. There were sold of
_The Times_ on Nov. 19, 1852, containing an account of the Duke of
Wellington's funeral, 70,000 copies: these were worked off at the rate of
from 10,000 to 12,000 an hour. _The Times_ of Jan. 10, 1806, with an
account of the funeral of Lord Nelson, is a small paper compared with _The
Times_ of the present day. Its size is nineteen inches by thirteen: having
about eighty advertisements, and occupying, with woodcuts of the coffin and
funeral car, a space of fifteen inches by nine. Nearly fifty years have
elapsed since then, and now the same paper frequently publishes a double
supplement, which, with the paper itself, contains the large number of
about 1,700 advertisements.[1] 54,000 copies of _The Times_ were sold when
the Royal Exchange was opened by the Queen; 44,500 at the close of Rush's
trial. 1828, the circulation of _The Times_ was under 7,000 a day; now its
average circulation is about 42,000 a day, or 12,000,000 annually.[2] The
gross proceeds of _The Times_, in 1828, was about 45,000l. a year: and,
from an article which appeared twelve months ago in its columns, it now
enjoys a gross income equal to that of a flourishing German principality.

We believe we are correct when we assert, that there were sold of the
_Illustrated London News_, with a narrative of the Duke's funeral (a double
number), 400,000 copies. One newsman is said to have taken 1000 quires
double number, or 2000 quires single number: making 27,000 double papers,
or 54,000 single papers (twenty-seven papers being the number to a quire),
and for which he must have paid 1075l.[3] It is a remarkable fact, that
Manchester, with a population of 400,000, has but three newspapers;
Liverpool, with 367,000, eleven; Glasgow, with 390,000, sixteen; Dublin,
with but 200,000, no less than twenty-two. The largest paper ever known was
published some years ago by Brother Jonathan, and called the _Boston
Notion_. The head letters stand two inches high; the sheet measures five
feet ten inches by four feet one inch, being about twenty-four square feet;
it is a double sheet, with ten columns in each page; making in all eighty
columns, containing 1,000,000 letters, and sold for 3½d. In the good old
times, one of the earliest provincial newspapers in the southern part of
the kingdom was printed by a man named Mogridge, who used to insert the
intelligence from Yorkshire under the head "Foreign News."

It is curious to search a file of old newspapers. It is seldom we have the
opportunity of doing so, because we rarely preserve them in consecutive
order. It is easy to keep them, and would repay the trouble, and their
value would increase as years rolled on. Such reading would be very
interesting, and more so than we can at all imagine. It is a history of
every day, and a record of a people's sayings and doings. It throws us back
on the past, and makes forgotten times live again. Some of the early
volumes of _The Times_ newspaper, for instance, would be a curiosity in
their {335} way. We should read them with special interest, as reflecting
the character of the age in which they appeared, and as belonging to a
series exercising a mighty influence in moulding and guiding the commercial
and political opinions of this great nation. The preservation of a
newspaper, if it be but a weekly one, will become a source of instruction
and amusement to our descendants in generations to come.


North Brixton.

[Footnote 1: The largest number of advertisements in one paper with a
double supplement was in June last, 2,250.]

[Footnote 2: The quantity of paper used for _The Times_ with a single
supplement is 126 reams, each ream weighing 92 lbs., or 7 tons weight of
paper; with a double supplement, 168 reams.]

[Footnote 3: During the week of the Duke's funeral, there were issued by
the Stamp Office to the newspaper press more than 2,000,000 of stamps.]

       *       *       *       *       *


There is an old house in the "Dom Platz," at Frankfort, in which Luther
lived for some years. A bust of him in relief is let into the outer wall;
it is a grim-looking ungainly effigy, coarsely coloured, and of very small
pretensions as a work of art; but evidently of a date not much later than
the time of the great Iconoclast. Round the figure, the following words are
deeply cut: "In silentio et in spe, erit fortitudo vestra." Can any of your
readers tell me whether any particular circumstance of Luther's life led
him to adopt this motto, or otherwise identified it with his name; or
whether the text was merely selected by some admirer after his death, to
garnish this memorial?

In either case it is not uninteresting to notice, that this passage of
Scripture has been employed more than any other as the watchword of that
religious movement in the English Church which we are accustomed to
associate with Oxford and the year 1833. It forms the motto on the
title-page of the _Christian Year_; it has been very conspicuous in the
writings of many eminent defenders of the same school of theology, and it
is thus alluded to by Dr. Pusey in the preface to that celebrated sermon on
the Eucharist, for which he received the University censure:

    "Since I can now speak in no other manner, I may in this way utter one
    word to the young, to whom I have heretofore spoken from a more solemn
    place; I would remind them how almost prophetically, sixteen years ago,
    in the volume which was the unknown dawn and harbinger of the
    re-awakening of deeper truth, this was given as the watchword to those
    who should love the truth, 'In quietness and confidence shall be your
    strength.' There have been manifold tokens that patience is the one
    great grace which God is now calling forth in our church," &c.

I will not here inquire which of the two great religious revolutions I have
mentioned has been more truly characterised by the spirit of this beautiful
and striking text, but perhaps some of your readers will agree with me in
thinking that the coincidence is at least a note-worthy one; and not the
less so, because it was probably undesigned.


       *       *       *       *       *


In Dr. Dibdin's _Bibliographical Decameron_, 1817, vol. ii. p. 503., he
thus introduces the subject:

    "The commencement of the eighteenth century saw the rise and progress
    of the rival libraries of Harley and Sunderland. What a field,
    therefore, was here for the display of the bibliopegistic art! Harley
    usually preferred red morocco, with a broad border of gold, and the
    fore-edges of the leaves without colour or gilt. Generally speaking,
    the Harleian volumes are most respectably bound; but they have little
    variety, and the style of art which they generally exhibit rather
    belongs to works of devotion."

In a note on the above passage, Dibdin adds:

    "I have often consulted my bibliomaniacal friends respecting the name
    of the binder or binders of the Harleian Library. Had Bagford or Wanley
    the chief direction? I suspect the _latter_."

If Dr. Dibdin and his "bibliomaniacal friends" had not preferred the easy
labour of looking at printed title-pages to the rather more laborious task
of examining manuscripts, they might readily have solved the Query thus
raised by referring to Wanley's _Autograph Diary_, preserved in the
Lansdowne Collection, Nos. 771, 772, which proves that the binders employed
by Lord Oxford were Christopher Chapman of Duck Lane, and Thomas Elliot.
Very many entries occur between January 1719-20 and May 1726, relative to
the binding both of manuscripts and books in morocco and calf; and it
appears, in regard to the former material, that it was supplied by Lord
Oxford himself. Some of these entries will show the jealous care exercised
by honest Humphrey Wanley over the charge committed to him.

    "25th January, 1719-20. This day having inspected Mr. Elliot's bill, I
    found him exceedingly dear in all the work of Morocco, Turkey, and
    Russia leather, besides that of velvet.

    "28th January, ----. Mr. Elliot the bookbinder came, to whom I produced
    the observations I made upon his last bill, showing him that (without
    catching at every little matter) my Lord might have had the same work
    done as well and cheaper, by above 31l. He said that he could have
    saved above eight pounds in the fine books, and yet they should have
    looked well. That he now cannot do them so cheap as he rated them at;
    that no man can do so well as himself, or near the rates I set against
    his. But, upon the whole, said he would write to my Lord upon the

    "13th July, 1721. Mr. Elliot having clothed the CODEX AVREVS in my
    Lord's Morocco leather, took the same from hence this day, in order to
    work upon it with his best tools; which, he says, he can do with much
    more convenience at his house than here.

    "19th January, 1721-22. Mr. Chapman came, and received three books for
    present binding. And upon {336} his request I delivered (by order) six
    Morocco skins to be used in my Lord's service. He desires to have them
    at a cheap price, and to bind as before. I say that my Lord will not
    turn leather-seller, and therefore he must bring hither his proposals
    for binding with my Lord's Morocco skins; otherwise his Lordship will
    appoint some other binder to do so.

    "17th September, 1725. Mr. Elliot brought the parcel I last delivered
    unto him, but took one back to amend a blunder in the lettering. He
    said that he has used my Lord's doe-skin upon six books, and that they
    may serve instead of calf; only the grain is coarser, like that of
    sheep, and this skin was tanned too much.

    "23rd December, 1725. Mr. Chapman came, but I gave him no work; chiding
    him for being so slow in my Lord's former business, which he had
    frequently postponed, that he might serve the booksellers the sooner."


       *       *       *       *       *


In the _Diary of T. Moore_ I lately read, with some surprise, the following

    "Attended watchfully to her [Mdlle Duchesnois] recitative, and find
    that in nine verses out of ten 'A cobbler there was, and he lived in a
    stall' is the tune of the French heroics."--April 24, 1821.

    "Two lines I met in Athalie; how else than according to the 'Cobbler
    there was,' &c., can they be repeated?

     'N'a pour servir sa cause et venger ses injures,
      Ni le coeur assez droit, ni les mains assez pures.'"--May 30, 1821.

Now, if this be the mode of reading these lines, I confess all my ideas are
erroneous with respect to French poetry. I have always considered that
though hemistichs and occasionally whole lines occur in it, which bear a
resemblance to the Spanish Versos de Arte Mayor, the anapæstic measure of
"A Cobbler" is quite foreign to it. I may, however, be mistaken; and it is
in the hope of eliciting information on the subject that I send these few
remarks to "N. & Q." Should it appear that I am not wrong, I will on a
future occasion endeavour to develop my ideas of the French rhythm; a
subject that I cannot recollect to have seen treated in a satisfactory
manner in any French work.

Bishop Tegnér, the poet of Sweden, seems also to have differed in opinion
with Moore respecting the rhythm of French poetry, for he compares it to
the dancing of a deaf man, who forms his steps accurate, but who does not
keep time. Both are alike mistaken, in my opinion; and their error arises
from their judging French poetry by rules that are foreign to it. The
rhythm of French verse is peculiar, and differs from that of any other


       *       *       *       *       *


Though not much a frequenter of theatres of late, I was recently induced,
by the flourishing public announcements, to go to Drury Lane Theatre; with
the chance, but scarcely in the hope, of seeing what I never yet have seen,
a perfect Othello. Alas! echo still answers _never yet_. But yours are not
the pages for dramatic criticism.

As my bill lay before me, I could not help thinking what an execrably bad
taste our modern managers show in the extravagant and ridiculous
announcement of the splendour of the _star_ you come to contemplate! If Mr.
Brooke have great merit, he needs not all this sound of trumpets; if he
have it not, he is only rendered the more contemptible by it. I have some
of the play-bills of John Kemble's last performances before me, and there
is none of this fustian: the fact, the performance, and the name are simply
announced. If our taste improves in some respects, it does not in this; it
is a retrogression--a royal theatre sinking back into the booth of a fair.
Shakspeare's and Byron's texts have been converted into the showman's
explanations of panoramas: to what vile uses they may be next applied,
there is no guessing. Poor Shakspeare! how I have pitied him, and you too,
Mr. Editor, as I have seen him for so many months undergoing the operation
of the _teazle_ in "N. & Q.!" I hope there will be soon an end of this
"skimble stuff," "signifying nothing."

But my observation upon the Drury Lane play-bill reminded me of one I have
in my common-place book; and, as a correspondent and reader of "N. & Q.," I
think it my duty to send it:

    _A Spanish Play-bill, exhibited at Seville_, 1762.

    "To the Sovereign of Heaven--to the Mother of the Eternal World--to the
    Polar Star of Spain--to the Comforter of all Spain--to the faithful
    Protectress of the Spanish Nation--to the Honour and Glory of the Most
    Holy Virgin Mary--for her benefit, and for the Propagation of her
    Worship--the company of Comedians will this day give a representation
    of the Comic Piece called--


    The celebrated Italian will also dance the Fandango, and the Theatre
    will be respectably illuminated."



       *       *       *       *       *


_The Meteorology of Shakspeare._--A treatise might be written on
meteorology, and might be illustrated entirely by passages taken from the
writings of "the world's greatest poet." "N. & Q." may not be the fitting
medium for a lengthened treatise, but it is the most proper depository of a
few loose Notes on the subject. {337} Those who study Shakspeare should, to
understand him, thoroughly study Nature at the same time: but to our
meteorology. Recent observers have classified clouds as under:

  |Howard's Latin |  Foster's English   |  Local Names.        |
  |Nomenclature.  |       Names.        |                      |
  |Cumulus.       |   Stackencloud.     |    Woolbag.          |
  |Cirrus.        |   Curlcloud.        |    Goatshair, Grey   |
  |Stratus.       |   Fallcloud.        |      Marestails.     |
  |Nimbus.        |   Raincloud.        |                      |

There are composite forms of cloud, varieties of the above, which need not
be noticed here. The Cumulus is the parent cloud, and produces every other
form of cloud known, or which can exist. Mountain ranges and currents of
air of unequal temperatures may produce visible vapour, but not true cloud.

_Cumulus._ This cloud is always formed at "the dew point." The vapour of
the lower atmosphere, at this elevation, is condensed, or rendered visible.
In fog the dew point is at the surface of the earth; in summer it may be
several thousands of feet above. The Cumulus cloud forms from below. The
invisible vapour of the lower atmosphere is condensed, parts with its
thousand degrees of latent heat, which rush upwards, forcing the vapour
into the vast hemispherical heaps of snowy, glittering clouds, which, seen
in midday, appear huge mountains of clouds; the "cloud-land" of the poet,
floating in liquid air. The Cumulus cloud is ever changing in form.
Cumulating from a level base, the top is mounting higher and higher, until
the excessive moisture is precipitated in heavy rain, hail, or thunder

The tops of the Cumulus, carried away by the upper equatorial currents,
form the Cirrus clouds, which clouds must be frozen vapour, as they are
generally from twenty to thirty thousand feet above the level of the sea.
The base of the Cumulus is probably never more, in England, than five
thousand feet high, rarely this. The _Nimbus_ is the _Cumulus_ shedding its
vapour in rain; and the _Stratus_ is the partially exhausted and fading

Poets in all ages have watched the clouds with interest; and Shakspeare has
not only correctly described them, but has, in metaphor, used them in some
of his sublimest passages. Ariel will "ride on the curled clouds" to
Prospero's "strong bidding task" that is, ride on the highest Cirrus cloud,
in regions impassable to man. How admirably the raining Cumulus (Nimbus
cloud) is described in the same play:

    "_Trinculo._ Here's neither bush[4] nor shrub, to bear off any weather
    at all, and another storm brewing. I hear it sing i' the wind: yond'
    same black cloud, yond' huge one, looks like a foul[5] bumbard that
    would shed his liquor ...

    ... Yond' same cloud cannot choose but fall by pailfuls."

Hamlet points to a changing Cumulus cloud, when he says to Polonius, "Do
you see that cloud, that almost in shape like a camel?"

 "_Pol._ By the mass, and 'tis like a camel, indeed.
  _Ham._ Methinks it is like a weasel.
  _Pol._ It is back'd like a weasel.
  _Ham._ Or like a whale?
  _Pol._ Very like a whale."

But the finest cloud passage in the whole range of literature is contained
in _Antony and Cleopatra_, painting, as it does, the fallen and wasting
state of the emperor (Act IV. Sc. 12.):

 "_Ant._ Eros, thou yet behold'st me?
  _Eros._ Ay, noble lord!
  _Ant._ Sometime we see a cloud that's dragonish:
  A vapour, sometime, like a bear, or lion,
  A tower'd citadel, a pendant rock,
  A forked mountain, or blue promontory
  With trees upon't, that nod unto the world,
  And mock our eyes with air. Thou hast seen these signs:
  They are black vesper's pageants.
  _Eros._ Ay, my lord.
  _Ant._ That which is now a horse, even with a thought,
  The rack dislimns; and makes it indistinct,
  As water is in water.
  _Eros._ It does, my lord.
  _Ant._ My good knave, Eros, now thy captain is
  Even such a body: here I am Antony;
  Yet cannot hold this visible shape, my knave."

Those who wish to understand this sublime passage must watch a bank of
Cumulus clouds at the western sky on a summer's evening. The tops of the
clouds must not be more than five or ten degrees above the apparent
horizon. There must also be a clear space upwards, and the sun fairly set
to the last stages of twilight. It will then be comprehended as to what is
meant by "black vesper's pageants," and Warton and Knight will no more
mislead by their note. It is only at "black vespers" that such a pageant
can be seen, when the liberated heat of the Cumulus cloud is forcing the
vapour into the grand or fantastic shapes indicated to the poet's eye and

How truly does Antony read his own condition in the changing and perishable
clouds. Shakspeare names or alludes to the clouds in more than one hundred
passages, and the form of cloud is ever correctly indicated. Who does not
remember the {338} passages in _Romeo and Juliet_? Much more might be
written on this subject.


[Footnote 4: _Bush_, not brush, as misprinted in Knight's edition.]

[Footnote 5: _Foul._ Surely this ought to be _full_. A foul bumbard might
be empty. "Foulness" and "shedding his liquor" are not necessarily
contingent; but fulness and overflowing are. A _full_ vessel, shaken,
cannot choose "but shed his liquor."]

       *       *       *       *       *

At the Hull meeting of the British Association, Mr. Russell, farmer,
Kilwhiss, Fife, read a paper on "The Action of the Winds which veer from
the South-west to West, and North-west to North." This he wound up by a
reference to Shakspeare, which may be worthy of _noting_:

    "In concluding, I cannot help remarking that this circuit of the wind
    from SW. by W. to NW. or N., from our insular position, imparts to our
    climate its fickleness and inconstancy. How often will our brightest
    sky become suffused by the blackest vapours on the slightest breach of
    SW. wind, and the clouds will then disappear as speedily as they
    formed, when the NW. upper current forces their stratum of moist air to
    rise and mingle with the dryer current above. I do not know who first
    noticed and recorded this change of the wind from SW. to NW., but the
    regularity of the phenomenon must teach us that the law which it obeys
    is part of a grand system, and invites us to trace its action. I do not
    think it will be out of place to point out the fact that the great
    English poet seems to have been quite familiar with this feature of our
    weather, not only in its most striking manifestations in the autumn and
    winter months, to which he especially refers, but even in its more
    pleasant aspects of summer. Shakspeare likens the wind in this shifting
    to an individual who pays his addresses in succession to two fair
    ones--first he wooes the North, but in courting that frigid beauty a
    difference takes place, whereupon he turns his back upon her and courts
    the fair South. You will observe the lines are specially applied to the
    winter season--

     'And more inconstant than the wind, who wooes
      Even now the frozen bosom of the _north_,
      And, being anger'd, puffs away from thence,
      Turning this _face_ to the dew-dropping _south_.'

    --I am not aware that the philosophic truth contained in these lines
    has ever before been pointed out. The beautiful lines which the poet,
    in his prodigality, put into the mouth of one of his gay frolicsome
    characters, the meaning of them he no doubt thought might have been
    understood by every one; but his commentators do not seem to have done
    so. In some editions turning his _side_ has been put for _face_, which
    is feeble and unmeaning. And I do not think the recent emendation by
    Mr. Collier on the text is any improvement, where _tide_ is substituted
    for _face_, which impairs both the beauty and harmony of the metaphor."


       *       *       *       *       *

_A Word for "the Old Corrector."_--Allow me, as an avowed enemy to "the Old
Corrector's" _novelties_, render "the Great Unknown" one act of justice. I
am convinced there are but two practically possible hypotheses, on which to
account for the MS. emendations: either the emendations were for the most
part made from some authoritative document, or they are parts of a modern
fabrication. No third supposition can be reasonably maintained. MR.
KNIGHT'S view, for example, gives no account of the _immense_ number of
coincidences with the conjectural emendations of the commentators.
Whichever of the two hypotheses be the true one, I need hardly say that MR.
COLLIER'S name is a sufficient guarantee for all honorable dealing, so far
as he is connected with the MS. corrections.

Permit me farther to do an act of justice to MR. COLLIER himself. In my
note on a passage in _The Tempest_, I stated that _Mr. Collier_ had
overlooked a parallel passage in _Richard II._ It was I who had overlooked
MR. COLLIER'S supplemental note. However, I must add, that how MR. COLLIER
could persuade himself to print _heat_ for "cheek," in his "monovolume
edition," after he had seen the passage in _Richard II._, is utterly beyond
my power of comprehension.



       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Injustice, its Origin._--In looking through a file of papers a few days
since, I met with the following as being the origin of this term, and would
ask if it is correct?

    "When Nushervan the Just was out on a hunting excursion, his
    companions, on his becoming fatigued, recommended him to rest, while
    they should prepare him some food. There being no salt, a slave was
    dispatched to the nearest village to bring some. But as he was going,
    Nushervan said, 'Pay for the salt you take, in order that it may not
    become a custom to rob, and the village ruined.' They said, 'What harm
    will this little quantity do?' He replied, The _origin of injustice_ in
    the world was at first small, but every one that came added to it,
    until it reached its present magnitude.'"

W. W.


_Two Brothers of the same Christian Name._--An instance of this occurs in
the family of Croft of Croft Castle. William Croft, Esq., of Croft Castle,
had issue Sir Richard Croft, Knight, his son and heir, the celebrated
soldier in the wars of the Roses, and Richard Croft, Esq., second son,
"who, by the description of Richard Croft the Younger, received a grant of
lands" in 1461. (_Retrospective Review_, 2nd Series, vol. i. p. 472.)


_Female Parish Clerk._--In the parish register of Totteridge appears the

    "1802, March 2. Buried, Elizabeth King, widow, for forty-six years
    clerk of this parish, in the ninety-first year of her age."--_Burn on
    Parish Registers_, 110.

Is there any similar instance on record of a woman being a parish clerk?

Y. S. M.

       *       *       *       *       *




It is well known that the issue of the poet became extinct in 1754, unless
they survived in the descendants of Caleb Clarke, the only son of Milton's
third daughter, Deborah. Caleb Clarke went out to Madras, and was parish
clerk at Fort St. George from 1717 to 1719. In addition to a daughter, who
died in infancy, he had two sons, Abraham and Isaac; of neither of whom is
anything known, except that the former married a person of the same surname
as himself; and had a daughter Mary, baptised in 1727. Sir James Mackintosh
made some ineffectual attempts to trace them, and came to the conclusion
that they had migrated to some other part of India.

I am perhaps catching at a straw: but it is possible there may be something
more than a coincidence in the name of _Milton Clark_, who is spoken of in
the fourth chapter of the _Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin_ as brother to Lewis
Clark, the original of the character of George Harris. Perhaps some of your
transatlantic friends can inform us:

1st. Whether there is, or has been, in use any system of assigning names to
slaves, which would account for their bearing the Christian and surname of
their owners or other free men, and thus lead to the inference that there
has been some free man of the name of Milton Clark.

2nd. Whether there is any family in America of the name of Clark, in which
Milton, or even Abraham or Isaac, is known to have been adopted as a
Christian name; and, if so, whether there is any tradition in the family of
migration from India.

J. F. M.

       *       *       *       *       *


I was honoured, a few days ago, with a communication from India, which
contains a Query that is out of my power to answer. But being very
solicitous to do my best towards affording the desired information, I
bethought myself of sending the letter, _in extenso_, for insertion in your
very valuable and exceedingly useful miscellany. I venture to think that
you will agree with me, that the interesting nature of the communication
entitles it to a place in "N. & Q." As the letter speaks for itself, I
shall say no more about it, but proceed to transcribe the greatest part of
it at once.

    "Landour Academy, May 26th, 1853.

    "Rev. M. Margoliouth,

    "Sir,--I do not know in what terms to apologise to you for this
    communication, especially as it may entail trouble on you, which can
    result in my advantage alone.

    "I am a Jew, believing that Jesus is the Messiah; and I trust this will
    induce you to assist me in my search after some of my relations whom I
    believe to be in England.

    "I wrote to Dr. Adler, Chief Rabbi of the Jews in England, some years
    ago, but his information was limited to some distant connexions, the
    Davises, Isaacs, and Lewises, who still professed Judaism. Subsequent
    inquiries discovered two uncles of mine, Charles Lewes and Mordan
    Lewes, in London, who informed me that my grandfather, Isaac Levi, was
    for ten years a clergyman of the Church of England, and had
    congregation at Lynn, in Norfolk, and that he had published a tract
    against Judaism. Beyond this I can get no farther information: my
    uncles are either too poor or unwilling to prosecute their inquiries
    any farther. Could you ascertain for me whether my grandfather left any
    family, and if any member is still alive? My object is to discover
    their existence, and to renew a correspondence which has been
    interrupted for more than forty years.

    "I am the grandson of Isaac Levi, for many years dead, reader of a
    congregation of Jews in London; my father, Benjamin Levi, is still
    alive, and is with me. I keep a school at Landour, in the Hymmalayas,
    in the north-western provinces of India. I have been led to write to
    you after reading your _Pilgrimage to the Land of My Fathers_, and
    seeing in it that you are the author of a work entitled _The Jews in
    Great Britain_, which I have not seen, and concluding from this that if
    any one can obtain information you can.

    "I send this letter to Messrs. Smith and Elder, booksellers, of
    Cornhill, London, with a request to send it to you through your
    publisher, Mr. R. Bentley," &c. &c.

I do not feel justified in publishing the last two paragraphs in my
correspondent's letter, and have therefore omitted them. I shall feel
extremely obliged to any of the readers of "N. & Q." who could and would
help me to answer the anxious Query from the Hymmalayas.

M. M.

Wybunbury, Nantwich.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

"_De la Schola de Sclavoni._"--On a large marble slab at North Stoneham,
near Southampton, is the following, inscription:

    Año Dni MCCCCLXXXI Sepvltvra de la Schola de Sclavoni."

Is this the burial-place of the family of one of the foreign merchants
settled in this country, and can any of the correspondents of "N. & Q."
give any information about it?


_Mineral Acids._--As it is generally supposed that these powerful solvents
were not known anterior to circiter A.D. 1100, I should be glad to learn
what opinion is entertained by the learned concerning {340} the death of
the prophet Haken al Mokannah. This person is said to have disappeared in
785, or 163 of the Hejrah, by casting himself into a barrel of corrosive
fluids, which dissolved his body. Is it not the best supposition, that this
story was supposed by Khondemir and others, in more advanced ages of
science, to account for the fact of his having disappeared, and of his real
fate having never been ascertained? I have never seen this apparent
anticipation of chemical discoveries animadverted on.

A. N.

_Richard Geering._--Wanted, arms, pedigree, and particulars of the family
of Richard Geering, one of the six clerks in Chancery in Ireland from March
1700 to April 1735. One of his daughters, Prudence, married, in 1722,
Charles Coote, Esq., M.P., and by him was mother of the last Earl of
Bellamont. Another daughter, Susannah, was wife of Mr. Charles Wilson; who
was, it is believed, a connexion of the family of Ward of Newport, in
Shropshire. Any information about Mr. Wilson's ancestry would be very

Y. S. M.

_Stipendiary Curates._--What is the earliest mention of stipendiary curates
in our ecclesiastical establishment? And what other national churches have
priests placed in a corresponding position?


_Our Lady of Rounceval._--Can you or any of your correspondents furnish me
with particulars of our Lady of Rounceval?


_Roden's Colt._--A lady of a certain age is said in common parlance to be
"Forty, save one, the age of Roden's colt." What can Nimrod tell us
touching this proverbialised animal?



_Sir Christopher Wren and the Young Carver._--A reader has a floating
notion in his head of having once read in the _Literary Gazette_ a strange
story of a country boy going to town to seek employment as a carver or
sculptor; of his being accosted by Sir Christopher Wren, and offering to
carve for him a sow and pigs, &c. Can any correspondent have pity on him,
and tell him where to find the tale?

A. H.

_Vellum Cleaning._--Are there not preparations in use for cleaning the
backs of old vellum-bound books without destroying the polish? How made, or
where procurable?

J. F. M.

_Dionysia in Boeotia._--Can any of your readers refer me to a passage in
any ancient author in which this supposed town is mentioned?

Dumersan refers to Diodorus Siculus as his authority for its existence, but
my search in that author has been vain, and I am not alone in that respect.



_Poll Tax in 1641._--I find in Somers' _Tracts_, 2nd ed. vol. iv. p. 298.:

    "The copy of an order agreed upon in the House of Commons upon Friday,
    18th June, wherein every man is rated according to his estate, for the
    king's use."

Is there on record the return made to this order; and where may it be


_Thomas Chester, Bishop of Elphin, 1580._--This prelate, who was the second
son of Sir William Chester, Kt., Lord Mayor of London in 1560, by his first
wife Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Lovett, Esq., of Astwell in
Northamptonshire, is said by Anthony à Wood (_Athenaæ Oxon._, ed. Bliss,
vol. ii. p. 826.) to have "given way to fate at Killiathar in that city, in
the month of June in 1584." The calendars of the Will Office of the
Prerogative Court of Canterbury do not contain his name; can any of your
Irish contributors inform me whether his will was proved in Ireland? I
should be glad to know, too, what will offices exist in Ireland, and from
what period they date their commencement. He is said to have married ----,
daughter of Sir James Clavering, Kt., of Axwell Park in Northumberland:
does any pedigree of the Claverings supply this lady's Christian name? His
eldest brother, William Chester, Esq., married his cousin-german Judith,
daughter and co-heiress of Anthony Cave, Esq., of Chichley Hall, Bucks, and
was ancestor to the extinct family of the baronets of that name and place.
Bishop Chester died _s. p._


_Rev. Urban Vigors._--Amongst the chaplains of King Charles I., was there
one of the name of Vigors, the Rev. Urban Vigors of Taunton? Any
particulars of him will be acceptable.

Y. S. M.

_Early English MSS._--What is the earliest document, of any historical
import to this country, now existing in MS.?


_Curing of Henry IV._--The best account of the curing of Hen. IV. from the
leprosy: vide Lambard's _Dictionary_, p. 306.


_Standard of Weights and Measures._--I would gladly learn something of the
system of weights and measures in other countries, and particularly whether
in England and America there exists for this object any government
inspection; and if so, how this is executed? A list of works on this
subject would be most welcome. I am acquainted only with the works of
Ravon, _Fabrication des Poids et Mesures_, Paris, 1843, and of Tarbé,
_Poids, Mesures et Vérification_, both found in the _Encyclopédie Roret_;
and the _Vollständige Darstellung_ {341} _des Masz- and Gewicht-Systems in
Grossherzogthum Hessen_, by F. W. Grimm, Darmstadt, 1840.--From the

[Phi]. [Phi].

_Parish Clerks' Company._--

    "In making searches in registers of parishes within the bills of
    mortality, a facility is afforded by the company of parish clerks; by
    paying a fee of about two guineas, a circular is sent to all the parish
    clerks, with the particulars of information required: the registers are
    accordingly searched, and the result communicated to the clerk of the

The above I give from Burn's _History of Parish Registers_, p. 217. note,
published in 1829. Is this the case at present and if so, what is the
direction of the clerk of the Company? I wish this system existed in

Y. S. M.

_Orange Blossom._--Can any reader of "N. & Q." inform me why the flowers of
the orange blossom are so universally used in the dress of a bride? and
from what date they have been so used?


_Mr. Pepys his Queries._--I cannot say that I met with Pepys as Fielding
did Shakspeare, in a _Journey from this World to the next_; but I met with
seven of his Queries among the Rawlinson MSS. in the Bodleian, addressed to
Sir William Dugdale, a name dear to all orthodox antiquaries. It would
appear the Secretary to the Admiralty felt the want of a "medium of
inter-communication" in his day. Here are his Queries:

1. Whether any foreigners are to be found in our list of English admirals?

2. The reason or account to be given of the place assigned to our admirals
in the Act of Precedence?

3. Whether any of the considerable families of our nobility or gentry have
been raised by the sea?

4. Some instances of the greatest ransoms heretofore set upon prisoners of
greatest quality.

5. The descent and posterity of Sir Francis Drake; and what estate is now
in the possession of any of his family derived from him.

6. Who Sir Anthony Ashby was?

7. What are and have been generally the professions, trades, or
qualifications, civil or military, that have and do generally raise
families in England to wealth and honour in Church and State?


50. Burton Street.

_Foreign Medical Education._--Can any contributor direct me to any sources
of information on the regulations concerning medical instruction and
medical degrees in the principal universities on the Continent?


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Chandler, Bishop of Durham._--Lord Dover, in the second volume of his
edition of Walpole's _Letters to Sir Horace Mann_, p. 373., in a note, thus
speaks of this prelate:

    "A learned prelate and author of various polemical works, he had been
    raised to the see of Durham in 1730, as it was then said, by symoniacal

Can any of your readers inform me where I can obtain evidence of the
symoniacal means by which _it is said_ this bishop obtained the bishopric
of Durham? One would scarcely think so cautious a man as Lord Dover would
refer to the imputation, without some evidence on which his lordship could

Mr. Surtees, in his _History of the Bishops of Durham_, makes no allusion
to the symoniacal means by which Chandler obtained his promotion to the see
of Durham. He gives a list of the bishop's printed works, amongst which is
a "charge to the grand jury of Durham concerning engrossing of corn, &c.,
1740." Can you, or any of your readers, inform me where this pamphlet is to
be met with? For I am curious to know how a bishop could make a _charge_ to
a grand jury. There must surely be some mistake in the title of the



    [The charge of simony is loosely noticed by Shaw in his _History of
    Staffordshire_, vol. i. p. 278. He says, "Edward Chandler was
    translated from Lichfield and Coventry to Durham in 1730; and it was
    then _publicly said_ that he gave 9000l. for that opulent see." To this
    Chalmers, in his _Biog. Dict._, adds, "which is scarcely credible." The
    Charge by the bishop is in the British Museum: it is entitled, "A
    Charge delivered to the Grand Jury at the Quarter-Sessions held at
    Durham, July 16, 1740, concerning engrossing of corn and grain, and the
    riots that have been occasioned thereby." 4to., Durham.]

_Huggins and Muggins._--Can any of your readers assign the origin of this
jocular appellation? I would hazard the conjecture, that it may be
corruption of _Hogen Mogen_, High Mightinesses, the style, I believe, of
the States-General of Holland; and that it probably became an expression of
contempt in the mouths of the Jacobites for the followers of William III.,
from whence it has passed to a more general application.

F. K.


    [HUGGER-MUGGER, says Dr. Richardson, is the common way of writing this
    word, from Udal to the present time. No probable etymology, he adds,
    has yet been given. Sir John Stoddart (_Ency. Metropolitana_, vol i. p.
    120.) has given a long article on this word, which concludes with the
    following remarks:--"The last etymology that we shall mention is from
    the Dutch title, {342} _Hoog Moogende_ (High Mightinesses), given to
    the States-General, and much ridiculed by some of our English writers;
    as in _Hudibras_:

     'But I have sent him for a token
      To your Low-country, _Hogen Mogen_.'

    It has been supposed that _hugger-mugger_, corrupted from _Hogen
    Mogen_, was meant in derision of the secret transactions of their
    Mightinesses; but it is probable that the former word was known in
    English before the latter, and upon the whole it seems most probable
    that _hugger_ is a mere intensitive form of _hug_, and that _mugger_ is
    a reduplication of sound with a slight variation, which is so common in
    cases of this kind."]

_Balderdash._--What is the meaning and the etymology of "balderdash?"



    [Skinner suggests the following etymology: "BALDERDASH, _potus mixtus_,
    credo ab A.-S. _bald_, audax, _balder_, audacior vel audacius, et
    nostro _dash_; _miscere_, q.d. _potus temere mixtus_." Dr. Jamieson
    explains it as "foolish and noisy talk. Islandic, _bulldur_, stultorum
    balbuties." Dr. Ogilvie, however, has queried its derivation from the
    "Spanish _balda_, a trifle, or _baldonar_, to insult with abusive
    language; Welsh, _baldorz_, to prattle. Mean, senseless prate; a jargon
    of words; ribaldry; anything jumbled together without judgment."]

_Lovell, Sculptor._--What is known of this artist? That he was in advance
of the age he flourished in is evinced by his beautifully executed
engravings in _Love's Sacrifice_ (fol. Lond. 1652), which for delicacy of
work are far beyond anything of the period.



    [Is the name Lovell, or Loisell? for we find that Strutt, in his
    _Dictionary of Engravers_, vol. ii. p. 101., speaks of "P. Loisell
    having affixed some slight etchings, something in the style of Gaywood
    (if I mistake not), to Benlowe's _Theophilia_, _or Love's Sacrifice_."]

_St. Werenfrid and Butler's_ "_Lives of the Saints._"--One of your
correspondents will perhaps explain the cause of an omission in Butler's
_Lives of the Saints_. The life of St. Werenfrid, whose anniversary is the
14th of August, is abstracted, vol. iii. p. 492. His name occurs in the
table of contents: and pages 493 and 494, where the life should have
appeared, are wanting; still page 495 follows 492 correctly in type, so
that the former must have been reprinted _after_ the castration of the
leaf. Was the saint deemed unworthy of the place which had been allotted to

J. H. M.

    [In the best edition of Butler's _Lives_ (12 vols., 1812-13), the life
    of St. Werenfrid is given on Nov. 7. He is honored in Holland on the
    14th of August; and his life appears in _Britannia Sancta_ on that day,
    but in the Bollandists on the 28th of August.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. viii., p. 278.)

On reading MR. SANSOM'S letter, it occurred to me that I had seen a
different account of the master being shot by his park-keeper; and on
search I found the following in 1 Hale's _P. C._ p. 40., which I send, as
it may tend to clear up the question:

    "In the case of Sir William Hawksworth, related by Baker in his
    _Chronicle of the Time of Edward IV._, p. 223. (_sub anno_ 1471), he
    being weary of his life, and willing to be rid of it by another's hand,
    blamed his parker for suffering his deer to be destroyed; and commanded
    him that he should shoot the next man that he met in his park that
    would not stand or speak. The knight himself came in the night into the
    park, and being met by the keeper, refused to stand or speak. The
    keeper shot and killed him, not knowing him to be his master. This
    seems to be no felony, but excusable by the statute of _Malefactores in

This account varies from Ritson's in the name "Hawksworth" instead of
"Hankford," and the date 1471 instead of 1422. It seems plain that Lord
Hale had no idea that the person shot was a judge: and possibly the truth
may be, that it was a descendant of the judge that was shot. Even if
Hankford's death were in 1422, as stated by Risdon, the traditional account
that he caused his own death "in doubt of his safety" does not seem very
probable, as Henry V. came to the throne in 1412-13. Probably some of your
readers may be able to clear up the matter.

I was at Harewood the other day, and examined a tomb there alleged to be
that of the C.-J. Gascoigne. In the centre of the west end of the tomb is a
shield: first and fourth, five fleurs-de-lys (France); second and third,
three lions passant gardant (England).--May I ask how these arms happen to
be on this tomb?

There are several other shields on the tomb, but all are now
undistinguishable except one; which appears to be a bend impaling a
saltire, as far as I can make it out: the colours are wholly obliterated.
The head of the figure has not a coif on it, as I should have anticipated;
but a cap fitting very close, and a bag is suspended from the left arm.--Is
it known for certain that this is C.-J. Gascoigne's tomb?

S. G. C.


       *       *       *       *       *

MR. SANSOM need not have been very much surprised that I should have
omitted noticing a tradition concerning Sir William Hankford, when I was
merely rectifying an error with reference to Sir William Gascoigne. That I
have not overlooked entirely "the Devonshire tradition, which represents
Sir William Hankford to be the judge {343} who committed Prince Henry," may
be seen in _The Judges of England_, vol. iv. p. 324., wherein I show the
total improbability of the tale. And my disbelief in the story of
Hankford's death, and its more probable application to Sir Robert Danby, is
already noticed in "N. & Q.," Vol. v., p. 93.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii., p. 382.)

In answer to some of the questions proposed by O. W. J. respecting the
Prayer Book translated into French, I am able to give this information.

A copy of a French Prayer Book is to be found in the Bodleian Library
(Douce Coll.), which is very probably the first edition of the translation.
A general account of this book may be gained from Strype's _Mem. Eccl. K.
Ed. VI._ (vol. iii. p. 208. ed. 1816); also Strype's _Mem. Abp. Cranmer_
(b. ii. c. 22. sub fin. and c. 33., and App. 54. and 261.); also Collier's
_Eccl. Hist._, vol. ii. p. 321.

From these sources we may conclude that a translation of the first book of
_K. Ed. VI._ was begun very soon after its publication in England, at the
instigation of Pawlet (at that time governor of Calais), with the sanction
of the king and the archbishop "for the use of the islands of Guernsey and
Jersey, and of the town and dependencies of Calais;" but it does not seem
to have been completed before the publication of the second book took
place, and so the alterations were incorporated into this edition.

The translator was "Françoys Philippe, a servant of the Lord Chancellor"
(Thos. Goodrick, Bishop of Ely), as he styles himself. The printer's name
is Gaultier. It was put forth in 1553.

There is still extant an "Order in Council" for the island of Jersey, dated
April 15, 1550, commanding to "observe and use the service, and other
orders appertaining to the same, and to the ministration of the sacraments,
set forth in the booke sent to you presentlye." It is uncertain what the
book here referred to was, whether a translation or a copy of the English

There are copies extant of another liturgy put forth in 1616, purporting to
be "newly translated at the command of the king." The printer's name is
Jehan Bill, of London. The name of John Bill appears also as king's printer
in the English authorised edition of 1662.

Another was published in 1667, by Jean Dunmore and Octavien Pulleyn.

The edition of 1695, published by _Erringham_ (Everingham) and R. Bentley,
has the sanction of K. Charles II. appended to it.

Numerous editions have since been published, varying in many important
points (even of doctrine) from one another, and from their English
original. There is now no authorised edition fit for general use; the older
translations having become too antiquated by the variations in the French
language to be read in the churches.

M. A. W. C.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 208.)

Although going over old ground, yet, if it be permitted, I would note a
curious coincidence connected with this far-spread veneration for the West.

As mentioned by G. W., the Puranas point to the "Sacred Isles of the West"
as the elysium of the ancient Hindûs, "The White Islands of the West." The
Celtæ of the European continent believed that their souls were transported
to England, or some islands adjacent. (See _Encyclopédié Méthodique_, art.
"Antiquités," vol. i. p. 704.) The Celtic elysium, "Flath-Innis," a remote
island of the West, is mentioned by Logan in his _Celtic Gaël_, vol. ii. p.
342., who no doubt drew his information from the same source as Professor
Rafinesque, whose observations on this subject I transcribe, viz.:

    "It is strange but true, that, throughout the earth, the place of
    departed souls, the land of spirits, was supposed to be in the West, or
    at the setting sun. This happens everywhere, and in the most opposite
    religions, from China to Lybia, and also from Alaska to Chili in
    America. The instances of an eastern paradise were few, and referred to
    the eastern celestial abode of yore, rather than the future abode of
    souls. The Ashinists, or Essenians, the best sect of Jews, placed
    Paradise in the Western Ocean; and the Id. Alishe, or Elisha of the
    Prophets, the happy land. Jezkal (our Ezekiel) mentions that island;
    the Phoenicians called it Alizut, and some deem Madeira was meant, but
    it had neither men nor spirits! From this the Greeks made their Elysium
    and Tartarus placed near together, at first in Epirus, then Italy, next
    Spain, lastly in the ocean, as the settlers travelled west. The sacred
    and blessed islands of the Hindus and Lybians were in this ocean;
    Wilford thought they meant the British Islands. Pushcara, the farthest
    off, he says, was Iceland, but may have meant North America.

    "The Lybians called their blessed islands 'Aimones;' they were the
    Canaries, it is said, but likely the Atlantides, since the Atlantes
    dwelt in the Aimones," &c.

And farther he says, the Gauls had their Cocagne, the Saxons their
Cockaign, Cocana of the Lusitanians,--

    "A land of delight and plenty, _which is proverbial to this day_! By
    the Celts it was called 'Dunna feadhuigh,' a fairy land, &c. But all
    these notions have earlier foundations, since the English Druids put
    their paradise in a remote island in the west, called {344}
    'Flath-Innis,' the flat island", &c.--_American Nations_, vol. ii. p.
    245. _et infra_.

The coincidence then is this. The same veneration for the West prevails
among many of our Indian tribes, who place their Paradise in an island
beyond the Great Lake (Pacific), and far toward the setting sun. There,
good Indians enjoy a fine country abounding in game, are always clad in new
skins, and live in warm new lodges. Thither they are wafted by prosperous
gales; but the bad Indians are driven back by adverse storms, wrecked on
the coast, where the remains of their canoes are to be seen covering the
strand in all directions.

I cannot refrain from adding here another coincidence connected with
futurity. The above idea of sailing to the Indian Paradise, though
prevalent, is not general; for instance, the Minnetarees and Mandans
believed that to reach Paradise the souls of the departed had to pass over
an extremely narrow bridge, which was done safely by the good Indians, but
the bad ones slipped off and were buried in oblivion. (See Long's
_Expedition to the Rocky Mountains_, vol. i. p. 259.)

The Chepewa crosses a river on a bridge formed by the body of a large snake
(see Long's _Expedition to St. Peter's River_, vol. i. p. 154.); and in the
same volume it is stated that the Dacota, or Sioux, believe they must pass
over a rock with a sharp edge like a knife. Those who fall off go to the
region of evil spirits, where they are worked, tormented, and frequently
flogged unmercifully.

Now, this bridge for gaining Paradise is just the Alsirat of the
Mahomedans; I think it will be found in the _Bibliothèque Orientale_ of
D'Herbelot; at all events it is mentioned in the preliminary discourse to
Sale's _Koran_. Sale thinks Mahomet borrowed the idea from the Magians, who
teach, that on the last day all mankind must pass over the "Pûl Chînavad"
or "Chînavar," _i.e._ "The Straight Bridge." Farther, the Jews speak of the
"Bridge of Hell," which is no broader than a thread. According to M.
Hommaire de Hell, the Kalmuck Alsirat is a bridge of iron (or causeway)
traversing a sea of filth, urine, &c. When the wicked attempt to pass along
this, it narrows beneath them to a hair's breadth, snaps asunder, and thus
convicted they are plunged into hell. (_Travels in the Steppes of the
Caspian, &c._, p. 252.)

Having already trespassed most unconscionably, I forbear farther remark on
these coincidences, except that such ideas of futurity being found amongst
nations so widely separated, cannot but induce the belief of a common
origin, or at least of intimate communication at a former period, and that
so remote as to have allowed time for diverging dialects to have become, as
it were, distinct languages.

A. C. M.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 37.)

The completion of a laborious literary work has taken my attention away
from the "N. & Q." for some weeks past, otherwise I should sooner have
given MR. BOBART the following information.

The engraving of old Jacob Bobart by W. Richardson is _not_ of any value,
being a copy from an older print. Query if it is not a copy of the very
rare engraving by Loggan and Burghers?

The original print of the "founder of the physick garden," "D. Loggan del.,
M. Burghers sculp., 1675," which Mr. Bobart wishes to procure, may be
purchased of A. E. Evans, 403. Strand, for 2l. 12s. 6d. I also learn from
Mr. Evans' invaluable _Catalogue of Engraved British Portraits_ (an octavo
of 431 pages, lately published), that there exists a portrait of Bobart,
"the classical alma mater coachman of Oxford," whole length, by Dighton,
1808. The same catalogue also contains other portraits of the Bobarts.

Since my last communication on the present subject, I find the following
memorandums in one of my note-books, which possibly may be unknown to your
correspondent; they relate to MSS. in the British Museum.

Add. MS. 5290. contains 227 folio drawings of various rare plants, the
names of which are added in the autograph of Jacob Bobart the elder.

Sloane MS. 4038. contains some letters from Jacob Bobart to Sir Hans
Sloane, 1685-1716; also one from Anne Bobart, dated 1701.

Sloane MS. 3343. contains a catalogue of plants and seeds saved at Oxford,
by Mr. Bobart, 1695-6.

Sloane MS. 3321., consisting of scientific letters addressed to Mr.
Petiver, contains one from Jacob Bobart, and another from Tilleman Bobart.
The latter has a letter dated "Blenheim, Feb. 5, 1711-12," to some person
unknown, in Sloane MS. 4253.

_Tilleman_ Bobart appears to have been employed in laying out the park and
gardens at the Duke of Marlborough's magnificent seat at Blenheim. A member
of his original papers and receipts were lately disposed of by auction at
Messrs. Puttick and Simpson's. (See the sale catalogue of July 22, 1853,
lot 1529.)


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 290.)

Many questions are proposed by G.W., to which it is extremely improbable
that any but a conjectural answer can ever be given. That tin was in common
use 2800 years ago, is certain. Probably evidence may be obtained, if it
have not been so {345} already, of its use at a still earlier period; but
it is unlikely that we shall ever know who first brought it from Cornwall
to Asia, and used it to harden copper. It is, however, a matter of interest
to trace the mention of this metal in the ancient inscriptions, Egyptian
and Assyrian, which have of late years been so successfully interpreted.
Mistakes have been made from time to time, which subsequent researches have
rectified. It was thought for a long time that a substance, mentioned in
the hieroglyphical inscriptions very frequently, and in one instance said
to have been procured from Babylon, was _tin_. This has now been
ascertained to be a mistake. Mr. Birch has proved that it was _Lapis
lazuli_, and that what was brought from Babylon was an artificial
blue-stone in imitation of the genuine one. I am not aware whether the true
hieroglyphic term for _tin_ has been discovered. Mention was again supposed
to have been made of _tin_ in the annals of Sargon. A tribute paid to him
in his seventh year by Pirhu (Pharaoh, as Col. Rawlinson rightly identifies
the name; not Pihor, Boccharis, as I at one time supposed), king of Egypt,
Tsamtsi, queen of Arabia, and Idhu, ruler of the Isabeans, was supposed to
have contained tin as well as gold, horses, and camels. This, however, was
in itself an improbable supposition. It is much more likely that incense or
spices should have been yielded by the countries named than tin. At any
rate, I have recently identified a totally different word with the name of
tin. It reads _anna_; and I supposed it, till very lately, to mean "rings."
I find, however, that it signifies a metal, and that a different word has
the signification "rings." When Assur-yuchura-bal, the founder of the
north-western palace at Nimrúd, conquered the people who lived on the banks
of the Orontes from the confines of Hamath to the sea, he obtained from
them twenty talents of silver, half a talent of gold, one hundred talents
of _anna_ (tin), one hundred talents of iron, &c. His successor received
from the same people all these metals, and also copper.

It is already highly probable, and farther discoveries may soon convert
this probability to certainty, that the people just referred to (whom I
incline strongly to identify with the _Shirutana_ of the Egyptian
inscriptions) were the merchants of the world before Tyre was called into
existence; their port being what the Greeks called Seleucia, when they
attempted to revive its ancient greatness. It is probably to them that the
discovery of Britain is to be attributed; and it was probably from them
that it received its name.

In G. W.'s communication, a derivation of the name from _barat-anac_, "the
land of tin," is suggested. He does not say by whom, but he seems to
disclaim it as his own. I do not recollect to have met with it before; but
it appears to me, even as it stands, a far more plausible one than
_bruit-tan_, "the land of tin:" the former term being supposed to be Celtic
for _tin_, and the latter a termination with the sense of _land_: or than
_brit-daoine_, "the painted (or separated) people."

I am, however, disposed to think that the name is not of Phoenician origin,
but was given by their northern neighbours, whom I have mentioned as their
predecessors in commerce. These were evidently of kindred origin, and spoke
a language of the same class; and I think it all but certain, that in the
Assyrian name for tin (_anna_) we have the name given to it by this people,
from whom the Assyrians obtained it. "The land of tin" would be in their
language _barat_ (or probably _barit_) _anna_, from which the transition to
Britannia presents no difficulty. I assume here that _b-r-t_, without
expressed vowels, is a Phoenician term for "land of." I assume it on the
authority of the person, whoever he may be, that first gave the derivation
that G. W. quotes. I have no Phoenician authority within reach: but I can
readily believe the statement, knowing that _banit_ would be the Assyrian
word used in such a compound, and that _n_, _r_, and _b_ are perpetually
interchanged in the Semitic languages, and notoriously so in this very
root. _Ummi banitiya_, "of the mother who produced me," is pure Assyrian;
and so would _banit-anna_, "the producer of tin," be; all names of lands
being feminine in Assyrian.

It would be curious if the true derivation of the world-renowned name of
Britain should be ascertained for the first time through an Assyrian


Killyleagh, Down.

       *       *       *       *       *

As there are several Queries in the Note of G. W. which the Celtic language
is capable of elucidating, I beg to offer a few derivations from that

Britain is derived from _briot_, painted, and _tan_, a country--_i. e._
"the country of the painted people." It is a matter of history, that the
people of Britain dyed their bodies with various colours.

_Tin_ is from the Celtic _tin_, to melt readily, to dissolve. It is also
called _stan_: Latin, _stannum_.

Hercules is from the Phoenician or Celtic, _Earr-aclaide_, pronounced
_Er-aclaie,_ i. e. the noble leader or hero.

Melkarthus is derived from _Mal-catair_, pronounced _Mal-cahir_, i. e. the
champion or king of the city (of Tyre).

Moloch cannot be identical with the Tyrian Hercules, as Moloch was the god
of fire: probably a name for the sun, from the Celtic _molc_, i. e. fire.


       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. viii., p. 244.)

Whilst offering a solution to the Query of R. C. WARDE, as to the placing
yew-trees in churchyards, I am obliged to differ from him _toto coelo_, by
considering the derivation of the name of the plant itself, though I must
candidly confess that the solution of the Query and the derivation of the
word are my own.

_Yew_ is ancient British, and signifies _existent_ and enduring, having the
same root as _Jehovah_; and _yew_ is Welsh for _it is_, being one of the
forms of the third person present indicative of the auxiliary verb _bód_,
to be. Hence the yew-tree was planted in churchyards, not to indicate
_death_, despair, but _life_, hope and assurance. It is one of our few
evergreens, and is the most enduring of all, and clearly points out the
Christian's hope in the immortality of the soul: _Resurgam_.

Whilst on the word _yew_, I may perhaps observe that I am hardly inclined
now (though I once was so) to derive from it, as the author of the
_Etymological Compendium_ does, the name _yeoman_: I think that yeoman is
not _yew_-man, "a man using the yew-bow," but _yoke_-man, a man owning as
much land as a _yoke_ of oxen could plough in a certain time.


The following extract frown the _Handbook of English Ecclesiology_, p.
190., may be of some assistance to your correspondent:

    "YEW. These were planted generally to the south of the church, to
    supply green for the decoration of churches at the great festivals;
    this tree being an emblem of immortality. It is a heathen prejudice
    which regards it as mournful. It is not probable yews were used as
    palms; the traditional name given to the withy showing that this was
    used in the procession on that festival."


Instead of troubling you with a particular answer to MR. WARDE'S inquiry,
let me refer him to the _Forest Trees of Britain_, by the Rev. C. A. Johns,
p 297. _et seq._, where, among many other curious and interesting facts, he
will find the various reasons assigned by different authors, ancient and
modern, for the plantation of yew-trees in churchyards. I do not find,
however, that the origin ingeniously assigned by MR. WARDE is among the


I have always supposed, but I know not upon what authority, that the custom
of planting yew-trees in churchyards originated in the idea of supplying
the yeomen of the parish with bows, in the good old archery days.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vii. _passim._)

I sent a Note to "N. & Q" some time ago, expressing my conviction that the
original _locale_ of this beautiful idea was in St. Chrysostom. but, as I
could not then give a reference to the passage which contained it, my
suggestion was of course not definite enough to call for attention. I am
now able to vindicate to the "golden-mouthed" preacher of Antioch this
expression of poetic fancy, the origination of which has excited, and
deservedly, so much inquiry among the readers of "N. & Q." It occurs in
Homily X., "On the Statues," delivered at Antioch. I transcribe the passage
from the translation in _The Library of the Fathers_:

    "Follow me whilst I enumerate the meadows, the gardens, the flowering
    tribes; all sorts of herbs and their uses, their odours, forms,
    disposition; yea, but their very names; the trees which are fruitful
    and the barren; the nature of metals; that of animals, in the sea or on
    the land; of those that swim and those that traverse the air; the
    mountains, the forests, the groves; _the meadow below and the meadow
    above_; _for there is a meadow on the earth_, _and a meadow too in the
    sky_, THE VARIOUS FLOWERS OF THE STARS; the rose below, and the rainbow
    above!... Contemplate with me the beauty of the sky; how it has been
    preserved so long without being dimmed, and remains as bright and clear
    as if it had been only fabricated to-day; moreover the power of the
    earth, how its womb has not become effete by bringing forth during so
    long a time!" &c. Homily X., "On the Statues," pp. 178-9.



P.S.--Are the following lines, which contain this idea, and were copied
long ago from the poet's corner of a provincial paper, with the title of
"The Language of the Stars, a fragment," worth preserving?

 "The stars bear tidings, voiceless though they are:
 'Mid the calm loveliness of the evening air,
  As one by one they open clear and high,
  And win the wondering gaze of infancy,
  They speak,--yet utter not. Fair heavenly flowers
  Strewn on the floor-way of the angels' bowers!
 'Twas HIS own hand that twined your chaplets bright,
  And thoughts of love are in your wreaths of light,
  Unread, unreadable by us;--there lie
  High meanings in your mystic tracery;
  Silent rebukings of day's garish dreams,
  And warnings solemn as your own fair beams."

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 272.)

Your correspondent BALLIOLENSIS should remember that at the time Dr. Drake
published his {347} _Historia Anglo-Scotica_, 1703, there were no bounds to
the angry passions and jealousies evoked by the discussion of the projected
union; consequently, what may appear to as in the present day an
insufficient reason for the treatment the book met with in the northern
metropolis, wore a very different aspect to the Scots, who, under the
popular belief that they were to _be sold_ to their enemies, saw every
movement with distrust, and tortured everything said or written on this
side the Tweed, upon the impending question, to discover an attack upon
their national independence, their church, and their valour.

Looking at Dr. Drake's book, then, for the data upon which it was
condemned, we find that it opens with a prefatory dedication to Sir E.
Seymour, one of Queen Anne's Commissioners for the Union, and a high
churchman, wherein the author distinctly ventures a blow at Presbytery when
he says to his patron:

    "The languishing oppressed Church of Scotland is not without hopes of
    finding in you hereafter the same successful champion and restorer that
    her sister of England has already experienced."

He farther calculated upon Sir Edward inspiring the neighbouring nation
"with as great a respect for the generosity of the English as they have
heretofore had to dread their valour." Now the Scots neither acknowledged
the Episcopacy which Seymour is here urged to press upon them, nor had they
any such slavish fear of the vaunted English prowess with which Dr. Drake
would have them intimidated; without going farther, therefore, into the
book, it appears to me that the Scots parliament had a right to consider it
written in a bad spirit, and to pacify the people by condemning it.

Defoe, in his _History of the Union_ (G. Chalmers' edition, London, 1786),

    "One Dr. Drake writes a preface to an abridgment of the _Scots
    History_, wherein, speaking something reflecting upon the freedom and
    independence of Scotland, the Scots parliament caused it to be burned
    by the hangman in Edinburgh."

In his _Northern Memoirs_, 1715, Oldmixon observes:

    "They (the Jacobites) therefore put Dr. Drake, author of the _High
    Church Memorials_, upon publishing an antiquated Scotch history, on
    purpose to vilify the whole nation in the preface, and create more ill
    blood. This had the desired effect. The Scots parliament highly
    resented the affront, and ordered it to be burnt by the common hangman
    at Edinburgh."

D'Israeli, in his _Calamities of Authors_, has the following interesting
notice of Drake:

    "I must add one more striking example of a political author in the case
    of Dr. James Drake, a man of genius and an excellent writer. He
    resigned an honorable profession, that of medicine, to adopt a very
    contrary one, that of becoming an author by profession for a party. As
    a Tory writer he dared every extremity of the law, while he evaded it
    by every subtlety of artifice; he sent a masked lady with his MSS. to
    the printer, who was never discovered; and was once saved by a flaw in
    the indictment, from the simple change of an _r_ for a _t_, or _nor_
    for _not_, one of those shameful evasions by which the law, to its
    perpetual disgrace, so often protects the criminal from punishment. Dr.
    Drake had the honor of hearing himself censured from the throne, of
    being imprisoned, of seeing his _Memorials of the Church of England_
    burned at (the Royal Exchange) London, and his _Hist. Angl. Scot._ at
    Edinburgh. Having enlisted himself in the pay of the booksellers, among
    other works, I suspect, he condescended to practise some literary
    impositions; for he has reprinted Father Parsons famous libel against
    the Earl of Leicester, under the title of _Secret Memoirs of Robert
    Dudley, E. of L._, 1706, with a preface pretending it was printed from
    an old MS."

The same instructive writer adds:

    "Drake was a lover of literature; he left behind him a version of
    Herodotus, and a system of anatomy, once the most popular and curious
    of its kind. After all this turmoil of his literary life, neither his
    masked lady nor the flaws in his indictments availed him; government
    brought a writ of error, severely prosecuted him; and abandoned, as
    usual, by those for whom he had annihilated a genius which deserved a
    better fate, his perturbed spirit broke out into a fever, and he died
    raving against cruel persecutors, and patrons not much more humane."

Another book before me, and one which shared the fate of Drake's in
Edinburgh, is _The Superiority and Direct Dominion of the Imperial Crown of
England over the Crown and Kingdom of Scotland, the true Foundation of a
compleat Union reasserted_; 4to. London, 1705. This had appeared the year
before, but was reproduced to answer the objections to it from the other
side. It was written by William Attwood, Esq. If it required a nice
discrimination to discover the offence of Drake, there was no such dubiety
about this book, which goes the whole length of Scottish vassalage; and Mr.
Attwood would lead us to believe that he knocks over the arguments of
Hodges and Anderson[6] for Scottish independence with as much ease as he
would ninepins.


Unfortunately these subjects are again forced upon us, and a reference to
some of the books I have cited will enable gentlemen who are curious upon
the point to judge for themselves in the matter of the present agitation of
"Justice to Scotland."

J. O.

[Footnote 6: Jas. Hodges, a Scotch gentleman, who supported the
Independency in a work entitled _War betwixt the Two Kingdoms considered_,
for which, says Attwood, "he had 4800 Scots Punds given him for nothing but
begging the question, and bullying England with the terror of her arms."

"An Historical Essay, showing that the Crown of Scotland is Independent;
wherein the gross Errors of a late book, entitled 'The Superiority and
Direct Dominion,' &c., and some other books for that purpose, are exposed
by Jas. Anderson, A.M., Writer to His Majesty's Signet," Edin. 1705. For
this work Anderson received the thanks of the Scottish parliament, as well
as some pecuniary reward. (Chalmers' _Life of Ruddiman_.) The authors of
these books having made out a case which was adopted as the national one,
it is nowise surprising that they should hand over Drake and Attwood to the
hangman for attempting to demolish it.]

On May 5, 1686, M. Claude's account of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew was
burnt in the Old Exchange, "so mighty a power and ascendant here had the
French ambassador." (Evelyn's _Memoirs_.)


       *       *       *       *       *


_Stereoscopic Angles._--As I presume that MR. T. L. MERRITT is, like
myself, only desirous of arriving at truth, I beg to offer the following
reply to his last communication (Vol. viii., pp. 275-6.), in which he
misinterprets some observations of mine upon the subject in question.

With regard to the distance quoted by me of 2¼ inches, I look upon it as
the same thing as intended by MR. MERRITT--that is, the _average_ distance
between the centres of the eyes; and it amounts simply to a difference of
_opinion_ between us; but, so far as that point is concerned, I am quite
ready to adopt 2½ inches as a standard, although I believe that the former
is nearer the truth: however, I require more than a mere _assertion_ that
"the _only_ correct space for the cameras to be apart is 2½ inches, and
this under every circumstance, and that _any_ departure from this _must_
produce error." I quote verbatim, having merely Italicised three words to
point my meaning more clearly. An object being 5 feet distant, and another
at 10 feet from the observer, a line between the eyes will subtend a very
_much larger_ angle in the former than in the latter instance: hence the
inclination of the axes of the eyes is the chief criterion by which people
with the usual complement of those useful organs judge of proximity: but if
half a dozen houses are made to appear as if 10 or 12 feet distant (by
means of the increase of the angle between the points of formation of the
pictures), while the angle which each picture subtends is relatively small;
it is clear that both eyes will see in relief at a short distance half a
dozen houses in a space not large enough for a single brick of one of them,
and, _consequently_, _the view will appear as if taken from a model_. MR.
MERRITT will object that an erroneous effect is produced; if he will refer
to my statement (Vol. viii., p. 228.), he will find that it is precisely
what I admitted; and he appears to have overlooked the _proviso_ attached
to my next observation (judging by his comment thereon), so I shall make no
farther remark upon that point, beyond inquiring why the defect he is
content to put up with is called a _trifling exaggeration_, while that
which is less offensive to me is designated as _absolute deformity_ and
error? Persons with one eye are _not good judges_ of distance, and this may
be easily tested thus:--Close one eye, and endeavour to dip a pen in an
inkstand at some little distance not previously ascertained by experiment,
with both eyes open; it will be found far less easy than would be imagined.
One-eyed people, from habit, contrive to judge of distance mainly by
_relative position_, and by moving the head _laterally_ cause a change
therein: to them, all pictures are, to an extent, stereoscopic.

I am really amazed that my advocacy of the radial, instead of the parallel,
position of the cameras should have been so misunderstood. Surely, it
cannot be seriously asserted that the former will produce _two_ vanishing
points, and the latter only one? And as to the supposition connected with
the boy, the ass, and the drum, a camera that would produce the effect of
showing both sides of the ass, both legs of the boy, and both heads of the
drum, _with a movement of only 2½ inches_, whether radially or parallel,
would indeed be a curiosity. But if the motion of the camera extended over
a space sufficiently large to exhibit the phenomena alluded to, then it
would confirm what I have before advanced, viz. present the idea of a
_small model_ of the objects, which could be so placed as to show naturally
these very effects.

That the axes of the eyes are inclined when viewing objects, is readily
proved thus:--Let a person look across the road at any object--say a
shop-window; but stand so that a _lamp-post near him_ shall intervene, and
be in a _direct line_ between the observer's nose and the object viewed. If
he be requested to observe the post instead of the distant object, the
pupils of his eyes will be seen to approach one another; and on again
looking to the distant object, will instantly recede. The _range_ of vision
is another point that appears to be misunderstood, as we are differing
about words instead of facts. The column is an illustration that will
_exactly_ suit my views; for I call the _range_ of vision the same if taken
from side to side of the column, although it is perfectly true that the
tangents to the two eyes differ by the angle they subtend: but certainly
MR. WILKINSON'S case (Vol. viii., p. 181.) of seven houses and five
bathing-machines in one picture, and five houses and eight machines in the
other, illustrates an instance where the range of vision is not the same;
but I contend that the stereoscopic effect is then _confined_ to five {349}
houses and five machines, otherwise MR. WILKINSON'S supposititious case
(_ibid._), of all machines in one, and all houses in the other, might be
considered as stereoscopic.

In concluding this very lengthened and, I fear, tedious reply, I beg to
assert that I am most willing to recant any proposition I may have put
forth, if _proved_ to be erroneous; but I must have proof, not mere
assertion. And farther, my willing thanks are always tendered to any one
kind enough to correct an error.


_Mr. Pumphrey's Process for securing black Tints in Positives._--The
importance that appears to be attached by some of thy correspondents to the
stereoscopic appearance of photographs, induces me to call the attention of
those who may not have noticed it to the fact that, as all camera pictures
are monocular, they are best seen by closing one eye, and then they truly
represent nature; and the effect of distance (which so often appears
wanting in photographs) is given with marvellous effect, so well indeed as
to render the use of a stereoscope unnecessary. Like other photographers, I
have been long seeking for a method, easy, cheap, and certain, for
obtaining the black tints that are so highly prized by many in the French
positives; and having at last attained the object of my search, I lose no
time in laying it before my fellow-operators.

I obtain these results with a twenty-grain solution of nitrate of silver, a
fact that will, I think, commend the plan to most operators. Thou wilt be
able to judge of the result from the inclosed specimen.[7] I use Canson's
paper, either albumenized or plain (but the former is far preferable). If
albumen is used, I dilute it with an equal measure of water, and add half a
grain of common salt (chloride of sodium) to each ounce of the mixture.
This is applied to the paper with a soft flat brush, and all bubbles
removed, by allowing a slender stream of the mixture to flow over its
surface: it is then hung up to dry, and afterwards the albumen is
coagulated with a hot iron. If the paper is used plain, a solution of
common salt (half a grain to one ounce of water) is placed in a shallow
tray, and the paper floated on its surface for a minute, and then hung up
to dry. Excite, in either case, with an ammonio-nitrate of silver solution
(twenty grains to one ounce of water), by floating the paper, prepared side
downwards, for one minute, and hang up to dry.

Print tolerably strongly, and the proof will be of a reddish-brown. Fix in
tolerably strong solution of hypo. sodæ (I never weigh my hypo., so cannot
give the proportion), that either has been in use some time, or else, if
new, has been nearly saturated with darkened chloride of silver. When
fixed, remove the proofs into another vessel of the same solution of hypo.,
to which has been added chloride of gold and acetic acid. The way I do this
is to dissolve one drachm of chloride of gold in two and a half ounces
(1200 minims) of water. Of this I take twenty minims (which will contain
one grain Au Cl_3) and forty minims of acetic acid (Beaufoy's) for every
dozen proofs (of the size of 7 × 9 in.), that I mean to operate on, and
having mixed the gold and acetic acid with the solution of hypo., place the
proofs in it till they attain the desired colour: they are then to be
washed and dried in the usual way.

Knowing that so cheap and easy a process for obtaining these tints would
have been a great boon to me a short time since, I lose no time in
communicating this to the readers of "N. & Q." I shall feel a pleasure in
explaining the plan more in detail to any photographer who may feel
disposed to drop me a line.


Osbaldwick, near York.

[Footnote 7: The specimens forwarded by MR. PUMPHREY are most

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Baskerville the Printer_ (Vol. viii., p. 203.).--In reply to MR. ELLIOTT'S
inquiry, I beg to say that Baskerville the printer was merely named as one
who had directed his interment in unconsecrated ground. The exact place of
his burial was not deemed a point of importance, but it having been
questioned, I am able to state that the spot was correctly described by me.
Nichols, in his _Literary Anecdotes_ (vol. viii. p. 456.), tells us that
"Baskerville was buried in a tomb of masonry, in the shape of a cone,
_under a windmill_ in his garden; on the top of this windmill, after it
fell into disuse, he had erected an urn, and had prepared an inscription,"
of which MR. ELLIOTT has given a portion.

In his will, dated January 6, 1773, he directs his body "to be buried in a
conical building heretofore used as a _mill_, which I have lately raised
higher, and painted and prepared for it." It seems somewhat surprising that
one, who shocked even John Wilkes as "a terrible infidel," should have
printed a most beautiful folio Bible, at an expense of 2000l., and three or
more editions of the Book of Common Prayer. Still more, in 1762, he tells
Walpole that he had a grant from the University of Cambridge to print their
8vo. and 12mo. Common Prayer Books, and that for this privilege he laboured
under heavy liabilities to the University. Baskerville doubtless regarded
these books with a tradesman's eye, indifferent to the subjects of the
works issued from his press, provided they sold. It would, however, be very
unjust to this admirable printer to name him without praise for the
distinguished beauty of his typography: it was clear and elegant, and he
{350} was most curious in the choice both of his paper and ink.

J. H. M.

_Lines on Woman_ (Vol. viii., p. 204.).--The four beautiful lines which
W. V. cites are the conclusion of a poem entitled "Woman," written by Eton
Barrett. About the close of the last century, Eton Barrett and his younger
brother Richard Barrett were at a private school on Wandsworth Common. My
brothers and I were their schoolfellows. The Barretts were Irish boys; I
think (but I speak very doubtfully) from Cork. Eton Barrett was a boy of
more than ordinary talent. He was a genius among the lesser lights around
him. I remember his writing a play with prologue and epilogue, which was
performed before the master and his family, &c., with so much success, that
the master prohibited any future dramatic performances, fearing, that he
might incur blame for encouraging too much taste for the theatre. Our
master gave up his school before the year 1800. Eton Barrett, a great many
years ago, published a little volume of poems, of which "Woman" was one. I
do not remember that I ever met him since our school-days. I have heard
that he adopted Tory politics in Ireland, and that his brother attached
himself to O'Connell, and conducted some newspaper; but this is mere
report. Allow me to take this opportunity for observing, that many of the
communications to "N. & Q.," such as those in which matters of fact are
stated, ought, it may justly be urged, to be authenticated by the signature
of the contributor. I feel the truth of this so strongly, that, though I do
not sign my name, yet I have thought it right to make myself known to you,
so that you know the person who contributes under the signature

F. W. J.

_Haulf-naked_ (Vol. viii., p. 205.).--The manor house of Halnaker,
adjoining Walberton and Goodwood, is thus spoken of by Dallaway in his
_Hist. of Sussex_, "Rape of Chichester," p. 131.:--"Halnaker, called in
_Domesday_ 'Halneche,' and in writings of very ancient date Halnac,
Halnaked, and Halfnaked." Then follows a short description of the old

It has been lately visited by the Archæological Association, under the
direction of Lord Talbot de Malahide; and it is probable that the
industrious antiquaries of Sussex will soon give us a more detailed account
of it in their next volume of _Transactions_.

M. (2.)

_Cambridge and Ireland_ (Vol. viii., p. 270.).--The story of Irish
merchants _landing_ at Cambridge is "very like a whale," "touched upon the
deserts of Bohemia." I think, however, that I can trace the source of this
glaring and oft-repeated error, as there really exists a documentary
connexion between Irish cloth and the town of Cambridge.

Referring to a collection of notes on the ancient commerce and manufactures
of Ireland, which I have lately made, I find--cited as an instance of the
general use of Irish cloth in England at an early period--that Henry IV.,
in 1410, gave a royal grant of tolls, for the purpose of paving the town of
Cambridge; in which, among other articles, Irish cloth is taxed at the rate
of twopence per hundred. The grant, "De villa Cantabrigiæ paveanda," will
be found in Rymer's _Foedera_.



_Autobiographical Sketch_ (Vol. vii., p. 477.).--The fragments found by
CHEVERELLS are parts of _The Library of Useless Knowledge_, by Athanasius
Gasker, Esq., F.R.S., &c.: London, W. Pickering, 1837.

H. J.

_Archbishop Chichely_ (Vol. viii., p. 198).--The Statute Book of All Souls
College; Robert Hoveden's _Life of Chichely_; and the respective Lives by
Arthur Duck and O. L. Spencer, have all been examined for the date of Henry
Chichely's birth, but without success.

The most probable conjecture is, that he was born in 1362; since in 1442
(see his "Letter to Pope Eugenius," printed in the Appendix to Spencer's
_Life_) he describes himself as having either completed or entered upon his
eightieth year.


"_Discovery of the Inquisition_" (Vol. viii., p. 137.).--It is a mistake to
suppose that all John Day's publications are rare. Montanus's _Discovery
and playne Declaration of sundry subtill Practices of the Holy Inquisition
of Spayne, newly translated_, 4to., 1568, is not uncommon. Herbert and
Heber possessed copies; and a copy sold at Saunders's in 1818 for five
shillings. My own copy (a remarkably fine one) cost sixteen shillings at
Evans's in 1840. The edition of 1569, containing some additions, is of
greater rarity.


_Divining Rod_ (Vol. viii., p. 293.).--In the first edition of his
_Mathematical Recreations_, Hutton laughed at the divining rod. In the
interval between that and the second edition, a lady made him change his
note, by using one before him at Woolwich. Hutton had the courage to
publish the account of the experiment in the second edition (vol. iv. pp.
216-231.), after the account he had previously given. By a letter from
Hutton to Bruce, printed in the memoir of the former which the latter
wrote, it appears that the lady was Lady Milbanke.


"_Pinece with a stink_" (Vol. viii, p. 270.).--Archbishop Bramhall's editor
should have spelled the first word _pinnace_, and then your correspondent
MR. BLAKISTON could easily have understood the {351} allusion. In speaking
of the offensive composition, well known to sailors, the word _revenge_,
and not _defend_, was used by Bramhall.

R. G.

_Longevity_ (Vol. viii., p. 113.).--I do not think any of your
correspondents has noticed the case of John Whethamstede, Abbot of St.
Albans, who wrote a Chronicle of the period between 1441 and 1461: "He was
ordained a priest in 1382, and died in 1464, when he had been eighty-two
years in priest's orders, and was above one hundred years old." Surely this
is a case sufficiently authenticated for your more sceptical readers.
(Henry's _History of Great Britain_, 2nd ed., Lond. 1788, vol. x. p. 132.)


_Chronograms_ (Vol. viii., pp. 42. 280.).--The following additional
specimen of this once popular form of numerical puzzle is not, I think,
unworthy a corner in "N. & Q."

On the upper border of a sun-dial, affixed to the west end of Nantwich
Church, Cheshire, there appeared, previous to its removal about 1800, the
undermentioned inscription:

    "Honor DoMIno pro paCe popVLo sVo parta."

Now, seeing that Nantwich was, during the civil dissensions which
culminated in the murder of Charles I., a rampant hot-bed of anarchy and
rebellion, we should hardly be prepared for such a complete repudiation of
those principles as is conveyed in the line before us, did we not know that
the same anxiety to get rid of the "Bare-bones" incubus universally
prevailed. The numerals, it will be seen, make up the number 1661, which
was the year of the coronation of King Charles II.; and, no doubt, also the
year in which the dial in question was erected.



_Heraldic Notes_ (Vol. viii., p. 265.).--The bearing of the arms of Clare
Hall by Dr. Blythe is not strictly correct, because, with the exception of
the three principal Kings of Arms, the Earl Marshal, the Master of
Ordnance, and a few others especially, arms of office do not exist in
England. The general mode of bearing them is by impalement, giving the
preference (dexter) to the arms of dignity. In the example under notice,
the arms of dignity or office are borne upon a _pile_, which has somewhat
the appearance of an inverted chevron. It is not at all a common mode of
bearing additions; but I remember one case, viz. the grant by King Henry
VIII. to the Seymours, after his marriage to Lady Jane, of the lions of
England on a pile.


Bury, Lancashire.

_Christian Names_ (Vol. vii. _passim_).--May I be permitted to correct one
or two errors in MR. BATES'S Note on this subject, Vol. vii. p. 627.?

The person described as a "certain M. L-P. Saint-Florentin" was no less a
person than the Duke de la Vrillière, who filled several important offices
during the reign of Louis XV. The allusion in the epigram to his "trois
noms" has no reference to his _names_, whether Christian or patronymic, in
the sense in which the question has been discussed in "N. & Q.," but to the
three _titles_ which he successively bore as a public man. He commenced his
career as M. de Phélippeaux; was afterwards created Comte de
Saint-Florentin, and sometime before his death was raised to the dignity of
Duke de la Vrillière.

My authority for this statement is the cotemporary work, _Les Mémoires
secrets de Bachaumont_, where, under date of December, 1770, the epigram is
thus introduced, with a variation in the first line:

    "Un autre plaisant a fait d'avance l'épitaphe de M. le duc de la
    Vrillière. Elle roule sur ses trois noms différents de Phélippeaux,
    Saint-Florentin, et la Vrillière:

     'Ci-git, malgré son rang, un homme fort commun,
      Ayant porté trois noms, et n'en laissant aucun.'"

The sense being, that his titles had been his only distinction, and that
even they had not been sufficient to rescue his character from obscurity
and contempt.

However "applicable" this epigram may be to the bearers or borrowers of
three names, it will be some comfort to them to know that its point was not
directed against them, but against a class of men of much higher
pretensions, of one of whom it has been said:

 "_He left the name_, at which the world grew pale,
  To point a moral, or adorn a tale."


St. Lucia.

"_I put a spoke in his wheel_" (Vol. viii., p. 269.).--If G.K., being
wronged, should cherish the unchristian spirit of revenge, let him
playfully insert a spoke in the wheel of his friend's tandem, as it bowls
along behind a pair of thorough-bred tits, with twelve months' hard
condition upon old oats in them.

By simply putting a spoke in the wheel of the waggon employed in the
removal of the Manchester College to London, one trustee opposed a decided
"impediment to the movement" of that institution.

W. C.

P. S.--Allow me to point out a misprint at Vol. viii., p. 279, "Manners of
the Irish:" for _chuse_ read _cheese_.

_Judges styled Reverend_ (Vol. viii., pp. 158. 276.).--With respect to the
error into which I was led in making Anthony Fitzherbert _Chief_ Justice of
the Common Pleas, I beg to express my thanks for our good friend's
correction. My statement {352} was founded on the authority of the
Visitation-Book of the county of Derby, A.D. 1634, in which Anthony
Fitzherbert is "Chief Justice of ----;" and, as the question of his rank as
a judge was not one at the moment of communicating my Note, I made no
farther inquiry. I find, however, upon reference to Vincent's _Collections
for Derbyshire_, that Anthony Fitzherbert is styled, in a very good
pedigree of his family, "Unus Justiciariorum de Co[=i] Banco." Had I turned
to Dugdale's _Origines Juridiciales_, the error might have been avoided.

THOS. W. KING (York Herald).

_Palace at Enfield_ (Vol. viii., p. 271.).--Queen Elizabeth, in the early
part of her reign, frequently kept her court at Enfield. Her palace was the
manor-house, near the church, of which little now remains. In Lysons' time
(1793) it had been in a great measure rebuilt, and divided into tenements.
He adds, "the part which contains the _old room_ is in the occupation of
Mrs. Perry."

When I saw this room, about twenty years ago, it was in its original state,
with oak panels and a richly ornamented ceiling. The chimney-piece was
supported by columns of the Ionic and Corinthian order, and decorated with
the cognizances of the rose and portcullis, and the arms of France and
England quartered, with the garter and the royal supporters. Underneath was
this motto, "Sola salus servire Deo, sunt cætera fraudes."

In the garden was a magnificent tree, a cedar of Libanus, which was pointed
out to me as having been planted by Queen Elizabeth. But upon this point
tradition was at fault. In the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for 1779, p. 138.,
may be seen an account of this remarkable cedar, which was planted by Dr.
Robert Uvedale, the botanist, a tenant of the manor-house in 1670.

The church at Enfield does not date farther back than the middle of the
fifteenth century. The devices of a rose and ring, which occur over the
arches of the nave, seen also upon the tower of Hadley Church, with the
date 1444, "supposing it to have been, as is very probable," says Lysons,
"a punning cognizance adopted by one of the priors of Walden, to which
monastery both churches belonged, will fix the building of the present
structure at Enfield to the early part of the fifteenth century."


_Sir John Vanbrugh_ (Vol. viii., pp. 65. 160. 232.).--Are not your
correspondents on the wrong scent as regards the birthplace of Sir John
Vanbrugh? In the memoir prefixed to the collection of his _Plays_, 2 vols.
12mo., 1759, it is said:

    "Sir John Vanbrugh, an eminent dramatic writer, son of Mr. Giles
    Vanbrugh of London, merchant, was born in the parish of St. Stephen's,
    Walbrook, in 1666. The family of Vanbrugh were for many years merchants
    of great credit and reputation at Antwerp, and came into England in the
    reign of Queen Elizabeth, on account of the persecution for religion."

Mr. Cunningham (_Handbook of London_, p. 282.) speaks of _William_
Vanderbergh, the supposed father of Sir John, as residing in
Lawrence-Poultney Lane in 1677. He refers to Strype's map of Walbrook and
Dowgate wards, and _A Collection of the Names of the Merchants living in
and about the City of London_, 12mo. 1677.

The writer of the notice of Sir John Vanbrugh in Chambers' _Cyclopædia of
English Literature_, vol. i. p. 597., says:

    "Vanbrugh was the son of a successful sugar-baker, who rose to be an
    esquire, and comptroller of the treasury chamber, besides marrying the
    daughter of Sir Dudley Carlton. It is doubtful whether the dramatist
    was born in the French Bastile, or the parish of St. Stephen's,
    Walbrook. The time of his birth was about the year 1666, when Louis
    XIV. declared war against England. It is certain he was in France at
    the age of nineteen, and remained there some years."

The family vault of the Vanbrughs is certainly in St. Stephen's Church,
Walbrook, where Sir John was buried on the 30th of March, 1726.


_Greek Inscription on a Font_ (Vol. viii., p. 198.).---This Query has
already been answered and illustrated in Vol. vii., pp. 178. 366. 417.; but
the following passage may be of interest, as affording instances of the
same inscription in France, and pointing out the probable source of its
usage, viz. from the ancient Greek metropolitan church at Constantinople:

    "St. Mémin est une abbaye célèbre sous l'ancien nom de Micy, sur la
    rivière de Loire, proche d'Orléans. Il y a dans l'église de ce
    monastère un benétier de forme ronde, avec cette inscription grecque
    gravée sur le bord du bassin, [GREEK: NIPSON ANOMÊMA MÊMONAN OPSIN]. La
    même chose est à Paris, au benétier de St. Etienne d'Egrès, et aussi
    autrefois à celui de Sainte Sophie à Constantinople."--_Voyages
    liturgiques de France, par le Sieur Moleon_, p. 219., 8vo. 1718.

It may be added (on Cole's authority, vol. XXXV. f. 19b.) that the same
inscription is inscribed round a large silver basin used formerly at the
master's table on festival days, in Trinity College Hall, Cambridge; and I
have also seen it on a sliver-gilt rose-water basin, introduced at the
banquets given by the master of Magdalene College in the same university.


"_Fierce_" (Vol. viii., p. 280.).--In this part of the country the words
_pert_, pronounced "peart," and _pure_, bear the same meaning, of well in
health and spirits.




_Giving Quarter_ (Vol. viii., p. 246.).--It must be observed that the older
form of the expression is "keeping quarter:"

 "That every one should kill the man he caught,
  To _keep no quarter_."--_Drayton in Richardson._

Now very obvious application of the word _quarter_, instanced by Todd, is
to signify the proper station or appointed place of any one.

    "They do best who, if they cannot but admit love, yet make it _keep
    quarter_, and sever it wholly from their serious affairs."--Bacon's

To keep quarter, then, is to keep within measure, within the limits or
bounds appointed by some paramount consideration; and hence, as in the
following passage from Shakspeare (where it is clumsily interpreted amity
or companionship), the word is used as synonymous with terms or conditions:

             "Friends all but now,
  In quarter and in terms like bride and groom
  Divesting them for bed, and then but now
  Swords out and tilting one at other's breast."

In the same sense Clarendon speaks of "offering them _quarter_ for their
lives if they would give up the castle," _i. e._ offering them conditions
for their lives on their performing their part of the bargain.

Again, in a passage of Swift, cited by Todd: "Mr. Wharton, who detected
some hundred of the bishop's mistakes, meets with very ill quarter from his
Lordship," _i. e._ meets with very ill conditions of treatment from him.
Finally, _to give quarter_ in the military sense is to give conditions
absolutely, as opposed to the unmitigated exercise of the victor's power,
and, as the most important of all conditions, to spare life.

H. W.

_Sheriffs of Glamorganshire_ (Vol. iii., p. 186.).--The list of the
Glamorganshire sheriffs here inquired for was not printed by Mr. Traherne,
but by the Rev. H. H. Knight, M.A., of Neath, and of Nottage Court, in
Glamorganshire: it is a little pamphlet in a paper cover.


"_When the maggot bites_" (Vol. viii., p. 244.).--A correspondent asks why
a thing done on the spur of the moment is said to be done "when the maggot
bites." It signifies rather doing a thing when the fancy takes one. When a
person acts from no apparent motive in external circumstances, he is said
to have a maggot in his head, to have a bee in his bonnet or, in French,
"Avoir des rats dans la tête;" in Platt-Deutsch, to have a mouse-nest in
his head, the eccentric behaviour being attributed to the influence of the
internal irritation.

H. W.

_Connexion between the Celtic and Latin Languages_ (Vol. viii., p.
174.).--Your correspondent M. will find much valuable information on this
subject in a work entitled _Thoughts on the Origin and Descent of the
Gael_, by James Grant, Esq., Advocate: Edinburgh, Constable & Co., 1814.



_Bacon's Essays_ (Vol. viii., p. 143.).--Bacon's Essay VII.: "Optimum
elige," &c. Pythagoras, in _Plutarch de Exilio_.--Essay XV.: "Dolendi
modus," &c. Plin., lib. viii. ep. 17. fin.

C. P. E.

"_Exiguum est._" _&c._ (Vol. viii., p. 197.).--"Exiguum est ad legem bonum
esse." Vide _Senec. de Ira_, ii. 27.

C. P. E.

_Muffs worn by Military Men on a March_ (Vol. viii., p. 281.).--In the year
1592 the Duke of Nevers was despatched by Henry IV. with all speed to a
place called Bully, in order to cut off the retreat of the Duke of Guise,
lately defeated near Bures. Sully speaks of him thus:

    "The Duke of Nevers, the slowest of men, began by sending to make
    choice of the most favourable roads, and marched with a slow pace
    towards Bully, with his hands and his nose in his muff, and his whole
    person well packed up in his coach."--_Memoirs of Sully_, vol. i. p.
    235., English edit., Edinburgh, 1773.



"_Earth says to Earth_" (Vol. vii., pp. 498. 576.).--A fac-simile of these
lines, discovered in the chapel of the Guild of the Holy Cross at
Stratford-on-Avon (with many other curious plates), may be seen in Fisher's
_Illustrations of the Paintings_, &c., edited by J. G. Nichols, Esq., and
published in 1802, and afterwards continued.

ERICA speaks of "Weaver's" Account. Unless this is a misprint for
"Wheler's" (_Account of Stratford-on-Avon_), perhaps he will oblige me with
the full title of Weaver's work.


_Poetical Tavern Signs_ (Vol. viii., p. 242.).--I would add the following
sign-inscription to those noted by R. C. WARDE. It was on the walls of a
tavern half-way up Richmond Hill, three miles south of Douglas, Isle of
Man, kept by a man of the name of Abraham Lowe:

 "I'm Abraham Lowe, and half-way up the hill,
  If I were higher up, what's funnier still,
  I should be belowe. Come in and take your fill
  Of porter, ale, wine, spirits, what you will.
  Step in, my friend, I pray no farther go;
  My prices, like myself, are always low."

J. G. C.

_Unkid_ (Vol. viii., p. 221.).--Is not the word _hunks_, so common in
people's mouths,--_An old hunks_, an old miser or miserable wretch, to be
referred to the same derivation as _unkid_, _hunkid_?

F. B--w.


_Camera Lucida_ (Vol. viii., p. 271.).--CARET will find Dr. Wollaston's
description of his invention, the "Camera Lucida," in the 17th volume of
_Nicholson's Journal_.

M. C. M.

       *       *       *       *       *



Messrs. MacMillan of Cambridge have commenced the publication of a series
of theological manuals by _A History of the Christian Church_ (_Middle
Age_), by Charles Hardwick, M.A.; which, although written for this series,
claims to be regarded as an integral and independent treatise on the
Mediæval Church. The work, which extends from the time of Gregory the Great
to 1520, when Luther, having been extruded from those churches that adhered
to the communion of the Pope, established a provisional form of government,
and opened a fresh era in the history of Europe, is distinguished by the
same diligent research and conscientious acknowledgment of authorities
which procured for Mr. Hardwick's _History of the Articles of Religion_
such a favourable reception. The work is illustrated by four maps, which
have been especially constructed for it by Mr. A. Keith Johnston.

The amiable and accomplished author of _Proposals for Christian Union_, and
of _Welsh Sketches_, has just issued the third and concluding series of his
little volumes on Welsh history, civil and ecclesiastical. We have no doubt
that the eight chapters of which it consists, and in which he treats of
Edward the Black Prince, Owen Glyndwr, Prince of Wales, Mediæval Bardism,
and the Welsh Church, will be read with great satisfaction, not only by all
sons of the Principality, but by all who look with interest on that portion
of our island in which the last traces of our ancient British race and
language still linger.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_The Journal of Sacred Literature_, No. IX. for October,
continues to put forth strong claims to the support of those who have a
taste for pure biblical literature. From the address of its new editor, it
would seem not to be so well known as the object for which it is
established plainly deserves.--_Cyclopædia Bibliographica_, Part XIII. for
October, continues its useful course. Every succeeding number only serves
to prove how valuable the work will be when completed.--_The Shakspeare
Repository_, edited by J. H. Fennell, No. III., is well worth the attention
of our numerous Shakspearian readers.

       *       *       *       *       *











CARLYLE'S CHARTISM. Crown 8vo. 2nd Edition.


OSWALLI CROLLII OPERA. 12mo. Geneva, 1635.

GAFFARELL'S UNHEARD-OF CURIOSITIES. Translated by Chelmead. London. 12mo.

BEAUMONT'S PSYCHE. 2nd Edit. folio. Camb., 1702.


JUNIUS DISCOVERED. By P. T. Published about 1789.





WHO WAS JUNIUS? Glynn. 1837.

SOME NEW FACTS, &c., by Sir F. Dwarris. 1850.

*** _Correspondents sending Lists of Books Wanted are requested to send
their names and addresses._

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

BOOKS WANTED.--_We believe that gentlemen in want of particular books,
either by way of loan or purchase, would find great facilities in obtaining
them if their names and addresses were published, so that parties having
the books might communicate directly with those who want them. Acting on
this belief, we shall take advantage of the recent alteration in the law
respecting advertisements, and in future, where our Correspondents desire
to avail themselves of this new arrangement, shall insert their names and
addresses_--_unless specially requested not to do so_.

J. N. RADCLIFFE. _We shall be glad to receive the Legendary Lore mentioned
by our Correspondent._

REV. H. G. _Your letter has been forwarded to_ A. F. B. (Diss).

S. Z. Z. S. _We have a letter waiting for this Correspondent; how can we
forward it?_

C. E. F. _Warm water and a few small shot will thoroughly cleanse the
bottles in which collodion has been kept._

AN AMATEUR EXPERIMENTALIST. _Formerly the pint used in the compounding of
medicines, chemicals, &c. consisted of sixteen fluid ounces, weighing one
pound Avoirdupois weight. Now the imperial pint of twenty ounces is in
general use. The Troy and apothecaries' ounce are the same, and contain
forty grains more than the Avoirdupois ounce. In making collodion, take any
quantity of ether, and dissolve the gun cotton in it; if too thick, it may
always be reduced by the addition of more ether. Uniodized collodion may be
bought quite as cheap as it may be made; and it generally has the advantage
of having been made in a large body, and allowed time to settle, whereby
the clear portion only is more easily decanted off for sale._

_Having active professional duties, it has been only at his leisure that_
DR. DIAMOND _has been enabled to give his attention to Photography, which
has been the main cause of the delay complained of; but the delay will
prove an advantage, for such important improvements are almost daily taking
place in the art that works published a short time since are becoming
comparatively useless._

HUGH HENDERSON. _1st, Black Japan varnish is very improper for your
positive pictures; it often cracks, and is long in drying. Black lacquer
varnish, procurable at Strong's, the varnish makers in Long Acre, is the
best we have been able to procure. 2nd, The solution for development will
keep any length of time; you may use it by dipping or otherwise_.

W.C., _who recommends the use of a plate glass bath enveloped in gutta
percha, is informed that we have had such a bath in use for many months,
and it answers our purpose exceedingly well_.

ABRAHAM. _As we have often said before, we think that a good lens requires
no "actinic" focus to find. In a properly constructed lens the chemical and
visual foci are identical; and we would ourselves not be troubled with the
use of one in which they differed. Our advertising columns will point out
to you where such a lens man be procured. We believe, where there is a
difference between the two foci, chemical and visual, that other
distortions also take place, accounting for some of the unpleasant effects
complained of in Photography._

_A few complete sets of_ "NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vii., _price
Three Guineas and a Half, may now be had; for which early application is

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday_, _so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels_, _and deliver them
to their Subscribers on the Saturday._

       *       *       *       *       *




Founded A.D. 1842.

       *       *       *       *       *


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M. P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions.
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


7. St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar Square, London.

PARTIES desirous of INVESTING MONEY are requested to examine the Plan of
this Institution, by which a high rate of Interest may be obtained with
perfect Security.

Interest payable in January and July.

  Managing Director.

Prospectuses free on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

DAGUERREOTYPE MATERIALS.--Plates, Cases, Passepartoutes. Best and Cheapest.
To be had in great variety at

McMILLAN'S Wholesale Depot, 132. Fleet Street.

Price List Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION. No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,


       *       *       *       *       *


       *       *       *       *       *

THE REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, the only natural, pleasant, and effectual
remedy (without medicine, purging, inconvenience, or expense, as it saves
fifty times its cost in other remedies) for nervous, stomachic, intestinal,
liver and bilious complaints, however deeply rooted, dyspepsia
(indigestion), habitual constipation, diarrhoea, acidity, heartburn,
flatulency, oppression, distension, palpitation, eruption of the skin,
rheumatism, gout, dropsy, sickness at the stomach during pregnancy, at sea,
and under all other circumstances, debility in the aged as well as infants,
fits, spasms, cramps, paralysis, &c.

_A few out of 50,000 Cures:--_

    Cure, No. 71, of dyspepsia; from the Right Hon. the Lord Stuart de
    Decies:--"I have derived considerable benefits from your Revalenta
    Arabica Food, and consider it due to yourselves and the public to
    authorise the publication of these lines.--STUART DE DECIES."

    Cure, No. 49,832:--"Fifty years' indescribable agony from dyspepsia,
    nervousness, asthma, cough, constipation, flatulency, spasms, sickness
    at the stomach, and vomitings have been removed by Du Barry's excellent
    food.--MARIA JOLLY, Wortham Ling, near Diss, Norfolk."

    Cure, No. 180:--"Twenty-five years' nervousness, constipation,
    indigestion, and debility, from which I had suffered great misery, and
    which no medicine could remove or relieve, have been effectually cured
    by Du Barry's food in a very short time.--W. R. REEVES, Pool Anthony,

    Cure, No. 4,208:--"Eight years' dyspepsia, nervousness, debility, with
    cramps, spasms, and nausea, for which my servant had consulted the
    advice of many, have been effectually removed by Du Barry's delicious
    food in a very short time. I shall be happy to answer any
    inquiries.--REV. JOHN W. FLAVELL, Ridlington Rectory, Norfolk."

_Dr. Wurzer's Testimonial._

    "Bonn, July 19. 1852.

    "This light and pleasant Farina is one of the most excellent,
    nourishing, and restorative remedies, and supersedes, in many cases,
    all kinds of medicines. It is particularly useful in confined habit of
    body, as also diarrhoea, bowel complaints, affections of the kidneys
    and bladder, such as stone or gravel; inflammatory irritation and cramp
    of the urethra, cramp of the kidneys and bladder, strictures, and
    hemorrhoids. This really invaluable remedy is employed with the most
    satisfactory result, not only in bronchial and pulmonary complaints,
    where irritation and pain are to be removed, but also in pulmonary and
    bronchial consumption, in which it counteracts effectually the
    troublesome cough; and I am enabled with perfect truth to express the
    conviction that Du Barry's Revalenta Arabica is adapted to the cure of
    incipient hectic complaints and consumption.

    "Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. in Bonn."

London Agents:--Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her
Majesty the Queen; Hedges & Butler, 155. Regent Street; and through all
respectable grocers, chemists, and medicine venders. In canisters, suitably
packed for all climates, and with full instructions, 1lb. 2s. 9d.; 2lb. 4s.
6d.; 5lb. 11s.; 12lb. 22s.; super-refined, 5lb. 22s.; 10lb. 33s. The 10lb.
and 12lb. carriage free, on receipt of Post-office order.--Barry, Du Barry
Co., 77. Regent Street, London.

IMPORTANT CAUTION.--Many invalids having been seriously injured by spurious
imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta, Arabaca, and
others, the public will do well to see that each canister bears the name
BARRY, DU BARRY & CO., 77. Regent Street, London, in full, _without which
none is genuine_.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand. have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

       *       *       *       *       *

is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist,
from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment,
its extreme Portability, and its adaptation for taking either Views or

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames,
&c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road,

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, price 4s. 6d. By Post, 5s.

THE PRACTICE OF PHOTOGRAPHY. A Manual for Students and Amateurs. By PHILIP
DELAMOTTE, F.S.A. Illustrated with a Photographic Picture taken by the
Collodion Process. This Manual contains much practical information of a
valuable nature.

JOSEPH CUNDALL, 198. New Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *



The following are now ready.

D'ARNO. With Maps and Plans. Post 8vo. 9s.


the PAPAL STATES. With Maps and Plans. Post 8vo. 7s.


HANDBOOK FOR CENTRAL ITALY. Part II.--Being a Guide to ROME and its
Environs. With Plan, Post 8vo. (Nearly Ready.)


NAPLES, &c. With Map and Plans. Post 8vo. 15s.


With 100 Illustrations from the Old Masters. Post 8vo.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles, consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS,
other travelling requisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on
receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different Bedsteads:
also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and Quilts. And their new
warerooms contain an extensive assortment of Bed-room Furniture, Furniture
Chintzes, Damasks, and Dimities, so as to render their Establishment
complete for the general furnishing of Bed-rooms.

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.


       *       *       *       *       *

DAILY CHURCH SERVICES in one Portable Volume, containing the Prayers and
Lessons for daily use, or the Course of Scripture Readings for the Year,
authorised by the Church. Also a Table of the Proper Lessons for Sundays
and Holydays, with references to the pages. Price 10s. 6d. bound, or 16s.
in Hayday's Morocco.

This book is also kept by any respectable bookseller in a variety of
elegant bindings.

Oxford & London: J. H. Parker.

       *       *       *       *       *


  1. Cyphers.
  2. Roman London.
  3. The Table-Turner outdone.
  4. Turkey--its Past and Present.
  5. A String of Facts about Siam.
  6. Symbolic Jewellery.
  7. Tanglewood Tales, for Girls and Boys.
  8. A few Notes from Cairo.

Price One Shilling.


       *       *       *       *       *

Just published in fcp. 8vo., illustrated with Wood-engravings by Jewitt.
price 5s. cloth.

Figheldean, Wilts, Author of "America and the American Church," &c.

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready price 25s., Second Edition, revised and corrected. Dedicated by


The words selected by the Very Rev. H. H. MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's.
The Music arranged for Four Voices, but applicable also to Two or One,
including Chants for the Services, Responses to the Commandments, and a
Concise SYSTEM OF CHANTING, by J. B. SALE. Musical Instructor and Organist
to Her Majesty. 4to., neat, in morocco cloth, price 25s. To be had of Mr.
J. B. SALE, 21. Holywell Street, Millbank. Westminster, on the receipt of a
Post-office Order for that amount: and, by order, of the principal
Booksellers and Music Warehouses.

    "A great advance on the works we have hitherto had, connected with our
    Church and Cathedral Service."--_Times._

    "A collection of Psalm Tunes certainly unequalled in this
    country."--_Literary Gazette._

    "One of the best collections of tunes which we have yet seen. Well
    merits the distinguished patronage under which it appears."--_Musical

    "A collection of Psalms and Hymns, together with a system of Chanting
    of a very superior character to any which has hitherto
    appeared."--_John Bull._

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

Also, lately published,

J. B. SALE'S SANCTUS, COMMANDMENTS and CHANTS as performed at the Chapel
Royal St. James, price 2s.

C. LONSDALE. 26. Old Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Fifth Edition, 16s.

of St. Asaph.

By the same Author, WHAT IS CHRISTIANITY?

Cheaper Edition. 1s. 6d.

JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Cheaper Edition, Two Volumes octavo, 25s.


By the same Author, PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL ECONOMY. Third Edition. Two
Volumes octavo, 30s.

JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Foolscap Octavo, 3s. 6d.

Translated by OTTO WENCKSTERN.

JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Book Auction Rooms, 191. Piccadilly. Established 1794.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON beg to announce that their Season for Sales of Literary
Property will commence on Wednesday next, October 12. In addressing
Executors and others entrusted with the disposal of Libraries, and
collections (however limited or extensive) of Manuscripts, Autographs,
Prints, Pictures, Music, Musical Instruments, Objects of Art and Vertu, and
Works connected with Literature, and the Arts generally, would suggest a
sale by Auction as the readiest and surest method of obtaining their full
value; and they flatter themselves that the central situation of their
premises (near St. James's Church), their extensive connexion of more than
half a century's standing, and the careful circulation of their Catalogues
in all parts of the country, and occasionally throughout Europe and
America, are advantages that will not be unappreciated. Messrs. P. & S.
will also receive small parcels of Books or other Literary Property, and
insert them in occasional sales with property of a kindred description,
thus giving the same advantages to the possessor of a few Lots as to the
owner of a large Collection.

*** Libraries Catalogued, Arranged, and Valued for the Probate or Legacy
Duty, or for Public or Private Sale.

       *       *       *       *       *

Library, Bookcase, Fire-proof Safe, &c.


PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, on Wednesday, October 12th,
and Five following days, Sunday excepted, a Large and Valuable Collection
of Books, from several Private Libraries, consisting of Standard Works,
English and Foreign, in most Departments of Literature: amongst which are,
Manning and Bray's History of Surrey, 3 vols.; Clutterbuck's History of
Hertfordshire, 3 vols.; Polwhele's History of Devon, 3 vols.; Stowe's
London, by Strype, 2 vols., best edition; Vesputius' Neue unbekanthe
Landte, 1508, rare; Ludolphus de Suchen de Terra Sancta, editio princeps,
rare; Shakspeare's Works, second edition 1632, third edition 1663; Holy
Bible. Macklins's splendid edition, 3 vols., half russia; D'Oyley and
Mants' Commentary, 3 vols.; Penny Cyclopædia, 27 vols., calf extra; the
separate and collected works of many Popular Authors; Law Books; a few
Curious Broadsides; some Interesting Heraldic and Genealogical Collections;
about 500 vols. of Novels and Romances; a few Engravings; a set of
Raphael's Cartoons, framed; a neat Mahogany Bookcase; Fire-proof Safe;
Curious Antique Guipure Lace; and other valuable Miscellaneous Property.
Catalogues will be sent on application: if in the country, on receipt of
six stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, October
8. 1853.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

page 350, "entered upon his eightieth year": 'eighteenth' in original.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 206, October 8, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.