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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 207, October 15, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 207, October 15, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *


{357}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 207.]
SATURDAY, OCTOBER 15. 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                   Page

  Notes on Midland County Minstrelsy, by C. Clifton Barry     357
  Comet Superstitions in 1853                                 358
  The Old English Word "Belike"                               358
  Druses, by. T. J. Buckton                                   360
  FOLK LORE:--Legends of the County Clare                     360
  Shakspeare Correspondence, by Thomas Keightley, &c.         361
  Death on the Fingers                                        362

  MINOR NOTES:--On a "Custom of y^e Englyshe"--Epitaph
  at Crayford--The Font at Islip--"As good
  as a Play"                                                  363

  QUERIES:--

  Lovett of Astwell                                           363
  Oaths                                                       364
  The Electric Telegraph                                      364

  MINOR QUERIES:--Queries relating to the Porter
  Family--Lord Ball of Bagshot--Marcarnes--The
  Claymore--Sir William Chester, Kt.--Canning on
  the Treaty of 1824 between the Netherlands and
  Great Britain--Ireland a bastinadoed Elephant--Memorial
  Lines by Thomas Aquinas--"Johnson's
  turgid style"--Meaning of "Lane," &c.--Theobald
  le Botiller--William, fifth Lord Harrington--Singular
  Discovery of a Cannon-ball--Scottish Castles--Sneezing--
  Spenser's "Fairy Queen"--Poema del Cid--The Brazen Head     364

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--"The Basilics"--Fire
  at Houlton--Michaelmas Goose                                367

  REPLIES:--

  Portraits of Hobbes and Letters of Hollar, by S. W.
  Singer                                                      368
  Parochial Libraries, by the Rev. Thos. Corser               369
  Battle of Villers en Couché, by H. L. Mansel, B.D., &c.     370
  Attainment of Majority, by Russell Gole and Professor
    De Morgan                                                 371
  Similarity of Idea in St. Luke and Juvenal                  372

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Mr. Sisson's developing
  Fluid--Dr. Diamond's Process for Albumenized
  Paper--Mr. Lyte's New Process                               373

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Derivation of the Word
  "Island"--"Pætus and Arria"--"That Swinney"--The
  Six Gates of Troy--Milton's Widow--Boom--"Nugget"
  not an American Term--Soke Mill--Binometrical
  Verse--Watch-paper Inscription--Dotinchem--Reversible
  Names and Words--Detached Church Towers--Bishop
  Ferrar--"They shot him by the nine stone rig"--Punning
  Devices--Ashman's Park--"Crowns have their compass,"
  &c.--Ampers and--Throwing Old Shoes for Luck--Ennui         374

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                377
  Notices to Correspondents                                   377
  Advertisements                                              378

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.

Notes on Midland County Minstrelsy.

It has often occurred to me that the old country folk-songs are as worthy
of a niche in your mausoleum as the more prosy lore to which you allot a
separate division. Why does not some one write a Minstrelsy of the Midland
Counties? There is ample material to work upon, and not yet spoiled by
dry-as-dust-ism. It would be vain, perhaps, to emulate the achievements of
the Scottish antiquary; but surely something might be done better than the
county _Garlands_, which, with a few honorable exceptions, are sad
abortions, mere channels for rhyme-struck editors. There is one peculiarity
of the midland songs and ballads which I do not remember to have seen
noticed, viz. their singular affinity to those of Scotland, as exhibited in
the collections of Scott and Motherwell. I have repeatedly noticed this,
even so far south as Gloucestershire. Of the old Staffordshire ballad which
appeared in your columns some months ago, I remember to have heard two
distinct versions in Warwickshire, all approaching more or less to the
Scottish type:

 "Hame came our gude man at e'en."

Now whence this curious similarity in the vernacular ideology of districts
so remote? Are all the versions from one original, distributed by the
wandering minstrels, and in course of time adapted to new localities and
dialects? and, if so, whence came the original, from England or Scotland?
Here is a nut for DR. RIMBAULT, or some of your other correspondents
learned in popular poetry. Another instance also occurs to me. Most of your
readers are doubtless familiar with the pretty little ballad of "Lady Anne"
in the _Border Minstrelsy_, which relates so plaintively the murder of the
two innocent babes, and the ghostly retribution to the guilty mother. Other
versions are given by Kinloch in his _Ancient Scottish Ballads_, and by
Buchan in the _Songs of the North_, the former laying the scene in London:

 "There lived a ladye in London,
    All alone and alonie,
  She's gane wi' bairn to the clerk's son,
    Down by the green-wood side sae bonny."

{358}

And the latter across the Atlantic:

 "The minister's daughter of New York,
    Hey with the rose and the Lindie, O,
  Has fa'en in love wi' her father's clerk,
    A' by the green burn sidie, O."

A Warwickshire version, on the contrary, places the scene on our own
"native leas:"

 "There was a lady lived on lea,
    All alone, alone O,
  Down the greenwood side went she,
    Down the greenwood side, O.

 "She set her foot all on a thorn[1],
    Down the greenwood side, O,
  There she had two babies born,
    All alone, alone O.

 "O she had nothing to lap them in,
    All alone, alone O,
  But a white appurn and that was thin,
    Down the greenwood side, O," &c.

Here there are no less than four versions of the same ballad, each
differing materially from the other, but all bearing unmistakeable marks of
a common origin. It would be interesting to know the process by which this
was managed.

C. CLIFTON BARRY.

[Footnote 1: In one of the Scottish ballads the same idea is more prettily
expressed "leaned until a brier."]

       *       *       *       *       *

COMET SUPERSTITIONS IN 1853.

From the 19th of August to the present time that brilliant comet, which was
first seen by M. Klinkerfues, at Göttingen, on the 10th of June last, has
been distinctly visible here, and among the ignorant classes its appearance
has caused no little alarm. The reason of this we shall briefly explain.

During the past fifty-five years the Maltese have grievously suffered on
three different occasions; firstly, by the revolution of 1798, which was
followed by the plague in 1813; and lastly, by the cholera in 1837. In
these visitations, all of which are in the recollection of the oldest
inhabitants, thirty thousand persons are supposed to have perished.

Mindful as these aged people are of these sad bereavements, and declaring
as they do that they were all preceded by some "curious signs" in the
heavens which foretold their approach, men's minds have become excited,
and, reason as one may, still the impression now existing that some fatal
harm is shortly to follow will not be removed.

A few of the inhabitants, more terrified than their neighbours, have
fancied the comet's tail to be a fiery sword, and therefore predict a
general war in Europe, and consequent fall of the Ottoman Empire. But as
this statement is evidently erroneous, we still live in great hopes,
notwithstanding all previous predictions and "curious signs," that the
comet will pass away without bringing in its train any grievous calamity.

By the following extracts, taken from some leading journals of the day, it
will be seen that the Maltese are not alone in entertaining a superstitious
dread of a comet's appearance. The Americans, Prussians, Spaniards, and
Turks come in the same list, which perhaps may be increased by your
correspondents:

    "The Madrid journals announce that the appearance of the comet has
    excited great alarm in that city, as it is considered a symptom of
    divine wrath, and a presage of war, pestilence, and affliction for
    humanity."--Vide _Galignani's Messenger_ of August 31, 1853.

    "The entire appearance (of the comet) is brilliant and dazzling; and
    while it engrosses the attention and investigation of the scientific,
    it excites the alarm of the superstitious, who, as in ancient times,
    regard it as the concomitant of pestilence and the herald of
    war."--Vide New York correspondence of _The Sun_, Aug. 24, 1853.

    "The splendid comet now visible after sun-set on the western horizon,
    has attracted the attention of every body here. The public impression
    is, that this celestial phenomenon is to be considered as a sign of
    war; and their astrologers, to whom appeal is made for an
    interpretation, make the most absurd declarations: and I have been
    laughed at by very intelligent Turks, when I ventured to persuade them
    that great Nature's laws do not care about troubles here below."--Vide
    Turkish correspondence of _The Herald_, Aug. 25, 1853.

    "The comet which has lately been visible has served a priest not far
    from Warsaw with materials for a very curious sermon. After having
    summoned his congregation together, although it was neither Sunday nor
    festival, and shown them the comet, he informed them that this was the
    same star that had appeared to the Magi at the birth of our Saviour,
    and that it was only visible now in the Russian empire. Its appearance
    on this occasion was to intimate to the Russian eagle, that the time
    was now come for it to spread out its wings, and embrace all mankind in
    one orthodox and sanctifying church. He showed them the star now
    standing immediately over Constantinople, and explained that the dull
    light of the nucleus indicated its sorrow at the delay of the Russian
    army in proceeding to its destination."--Vide Berlin correspondence of
    _The Times_.

W. W.

Malta.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE OLD ENGLISH WORD "BELIKE."

The word _belike_, much used by old writers, but now almost obsolete, even
among the poor, seems to have been but very imperfectly understood--as far
as regards its original meaning and derivation. Most persons understand it
to be equivalent, or nearly so, to _very likely_, _in all likelihood_,
_perhaps_, or, ironically, _forsooth_; and in that {359} opinion they are
not far wrong. It occurs in this sense in numerous passages in Shakspeare;
for instance:

 "Some merry mocking lord, _belike_."--_Love's Labour's Lost._

 "O then, _belike_, she was old and gentle."--_Henry V._

 "_Belike_, this show imports the argument."--_Hamlet._

Such also was Johnson's opinion of the word, for he represents it to be
"from _like_, as by _likelihood_;" and assigns to it the meanings of
"probably, likely, perhaps." However, I venture to say, in opposition to so
great an authority, that there is no immediate connexion whatever between
the words _belike_ and _likely_, with the exception of the accidental
similarity in the syllable _like_.

We find three different meanings attached to the same form _like_ in
English, viz. _like_, similis; _to like_, i. e. to be pleased with; and the
present word _belike_, whose real meaning I propose to explain.

The first is from the A.-S. _lic_, _gelic_; Low Germ. _lick_; Dutch
_gelyk_; Dan. _lig_ (which is said to take its meaning from _lic_, a
corpse, _i. e._ an essence), which word also forms our English termination
-_ly_, sometimes preserving its old form _like_; as _manly_ or _manlike_,
_Godly_ or _Godlike_; A.-S. _werlic_, _Godlic_; to which the Teut.
adjectival termination _lich_ is analogous.

The second form, _to like_, i. e. to be pleased with, is quite distinct
from the former (though it has been thought akin to it on the ground that
_simili similis placet_); and is derived from the A.-S. _lician_, which is
from _lic_, or _lac_, a gift; Low Germ. _licon_; Dutch _lyken_.

The third form, the compound term _belike_ (mostly used adverbially) is
from the A.-S. _licgan_, _belicgan_, which means, to lie by, near, or
around; to attend, accompany; Low Germ. and Dutch, _liggen_; Germ.
_liegen_. In the old German, we have _licken_, _ligin_, _liggen_--_jacere_;
and _geliggen_--_se habere_; which last seems to be the exact counterpart
of our old English _belike_; and this it was which first suggested to me
what I conceive to be its true meaning. We find the simple and compound
words in juxtaposition in _Otfridi Evang._, lib. i. cap. 23. 110. in vol.
i. p. 221. of Schilter's _Thes. Teut._:


 "Thoh er nu biliban si,
    Farames thoh thar er si
  Zi thiu'z nu sar giligge,
    Thoh er bigraben ligge."

 "Etsi vero is (Lazarus) jam mortuus est,
    Eamus tamen ubi is sit,
  Quomodo id jam se habeat (quo in statu sint res ejus),
    Etiamsi jam sepultus jaceat."


On which Schilter remarks:

    "Zi thiu'z nu sar giligge quomodo se res habeat, hodie _standi_ verbo
    utimur,--wie es stehe, zustehe."

We thus see that the radical meaning of the word _belike_ is to lie or be
near, to attend; from which it came to express the _simple condition_, or
_state of a thing_: and it is in this latter sense that the word is used as
an adverbial or rather an interjectional expression, when it may be
rendered, _it may be so_, _so it is_, _is it so_, &c. Sometimes ironically,
sometimes expressing chance, &c.; in the course of time it became
superseded by the more modern term _perhaps_. Instances of similar
elliptical expressions are common at the present day, and will readily
suggest themselves: the modern _please_, used for entreaty, is analogous.

It is not a little singular that this account of the word _belike_ enables
us to understand a passage in _Macbeth_, which has been unintelligible to
all the commentators and readers of Shakspeare down to the present day. I
allude to the following, which stands in my first folio, Act IV. Sc. 3.,
thus:

 "    .    .    .    .     What I am truly
  Is thine, and my poor countries, to command:
  Whither indeed before they heere approach,
  Old Seyward, with ten thousand warlike men,
  Already at a point, was setting foorth:
  Now we'll together, and the chance of goodnesse
  Be like our warranted quarrel."

Now it is not easy to see why Malcolm should wish that "chance" should "be
_like_," i. e. similar to, their "warranted quarrel;" inasmuch as that
quarrel was most unfortunate and disastrous. Chance is either fortunate or
unfortunate. The epithet _just_, which might apply to the quarrel in
question, is utterly irreconcilable with _chance_. Still this sense has
pleased the editors, and they have made "of goodnesse" a precatory and
interjectional expression. Surely it is far more probable that the poet
wrote _belike_ (_belicgan_, _geliggen_) as one word, and that the meaning
of the passage is simply "May good fortune attend our enterprise." MR.
COLLIER'S old corrector passes over this difficulty in silence, doubtless
owing to the circumstance that the word was well understood in his time.

I have alluded to the word _like_ as expressive in the English language of
three distinct ideas, and in the A.-S. of at least four; is it not possible
that these meanings, which, as we find the words used, are undoubtedly
widely distinct, having travelled to us by separate channels, may
nevertheless have had originally one and the same source? I should be glad
to elicit the opinion of some one of your more learned correspondents as to
whether the unused Hebrew [Hebrew: YLN] may not be that source.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

       *       *       *       *       *

{360}

DRUSES.

Comparing the initiatory undertaking or covenant of the Druses, as
represented by Col. Churchill in his very important disclosures (_Lebanon_,
ii. 244.), with the original Arabic, and the German translation of Eichhorn
(_Repertorium für Bibl. und Morgenland_, lib. xii. 222.), I find that the
following additions made by Col. Churchill (or De Sacy, whom he follows)
are not in the Arabic, but appear to be glosses or amplifications. For
example:

    "I put my trust and confidence in our Lord Hakem, the One, the Eternal,
    without attribute and without number."

    "That in serving Him he will serve no other, whether past, present, or
    to come."

    "To the observance of which he sacredly binds himself by the present
    contract and engagement, should he ever reveal the least portion of it
    to others."

    "The most High, King of Kings, [the creator] of the heaven and the
    earth."

    "Mighty and irresistible [force]."

Col. Churchill, although furnishing the amplest account which has yet
appeared of the Druse religion, secretly held under the colour of
Mahometanism, has referred very sparingly to the catechisms of this sect,
which, being for the especial instruction of the two degrees of
monotheists, constitute the most authentic source of accurate knowledge of
their faith and practices, and which are to be found in the original
Arabic, with a German translation in Eichhorn's _Repertorium_ (xii. 155.
202.). In the same work (xiv. 1., xvii. 27.), Bruns (Kennicott's colleague)
has furnished from Abulfaragius a biography of the Hakem; and Adler (xv.
265.) has extracted, from various oriental sources, historical notices of
the founder of the Druses.

The subject is peculiarly interesting at the present juncture, as it is
probable that the Chinese religious movement, partaking of a peculiar kind
of Christianity, may have originated amongst the Druses, who appear from
Col. Churchill to have been in expectation of some such movement in India
or China in connexion with a re-appearance of the Hakem.

T. J. BUCKTON.

Birmingham.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOLK LORE.

_Legends of the County Clare._--_How Ussheen_ (_Ossian_) _visited the Land
of_ "_Thiernah Ogieh_" (_the Country of perpetual Youth_).--Once upon a
time, when Ussheen was in the full vigour of his youth, it happened that,
fatigued with the chace, and separated from his companions, he stretched
himself under a tree to rest, and soon fell asleep. "Awaking with a start,"
he saw a lady, richly clothed and of more than mortal beauty, gazing on
him; nor was it long until she made him understand that a warmer feeling
than mere curiosity had attracted her; nor was Ussheen long in responding
to it. The lady then explained that she was not of mortal birth, and that
he who wooed an immortal bride must be prepared to encounter dangers such
as would appal the ordinary race of men. Ussheen, without hesitation,
declared his readiness to encounter any foe, mortal or immortal, that might
be opposed to him in her service. The lady then declared herself to be the
queen of "Thiernah Ogieh," and invited him to accompany her thither and
share her throne. They then set out on their journey, one in all respects
similar to that undertaken by Thomas the Rhymer and the queen of Faerie,
and having overcome all obstacles, arrived at "the land of perpetual
youth," where all the delights of the terrestrial paradise were thrown open
to Ussheen, to be enjoyed with only one restriction. A broad flat stone was
pointed out to him in one part of the palace garden, on which he was
forbidden to stand, under penalty of the heaviest misfortune. One day,
however, finding himself near the fatal stone, the temptation to stand on
it became irresistible, and he yielded to it, and immediately found himself
in full view of his native land, the existence of which he had forgotten
from the moment he had entered the kingdom of Thiernah Ogieh. But alas! how
was it changed from that country he had left only a few days since, for
"the strong had become weak," and "the brave become cowards," while
oppression and violence held undisputed sway through land. Overcome with
grief, he hastened to the the queen to beg that he might be restored to his
country without delay, that he might endeavour to apply some remedy to its
misfortunes. The queen's prophetic skill made her aware of Ussheen's
transgression of her commands before he spoke, and she exerted all her
persuasive powers to prevail upon him to give up his desire to return to
Erin, but in vain. She then asked him how long he supposed he had been
absent from his native land, and on his answering "thrice seven days," she
amazed him by declaring that three times thrice seven years had elapsed
since his arrival at the kingdom of Thiernah Ogieh; and though Time had no
power to enter that land, it would immediately assert its dominion over him
if he left it. At length she persuaded him to promise that he would return
to his country for only one day, and then come back to dwell with her for
ever; and she gave him a jet-black horse of surpassing beauty, from whose
back she charged him on no account to alight, or at all events not to allow
the bridle to fall from his hand. She farther endued him with wisdom and
knowledge far surpassing that of men. Having mounted his fairy steed, he
soon found himself approaching his former home; and as he journeyed he met
a man {361} driving before him a horse, across whose back was thrown a sack
of corn: the sack having fallen a little to one side, the man asked Ussheen
to assist him in balancing it properly; Ussheen instantly stooped from his
horse, and catching the sack in his right hand, gave it such a heave that
it fell over on the other side. Annoyed at his mistake, he forgot the
injunctions of his bride, and sprung from his horse to lift the sack from
the ground, letting the bridle fall from his hand at the same time:
instantly the horse struck fire from the ground with his hoofs, and
uttering a neigh louder than thunder, vanished; at the same instant his
curling locks fell from Ussheen's head, darkness closed over his beaming
eyes, the more than mortal strength forsook his limbs, and, a feeble
helpless old man, he stretched forth his hands seeking some one to lead
him: but the mental gifts bestowed on him by his immortal bride did not
leave him, and, though unable to serve his countrymen with his sword, he
bestowed upon them the advice and instruction which flowed from wisdom
greater than that of mortals.

FRANCIS ROBERT DAVIES.

       *       *       *       *       *

SHAKSPEARE CORRESPONDENCE.

_On "Run-awayes" in Romeo and Juliet._--

 "Gallop apace, you fiery-footed steedes,
  Towards Phoebus' lodging such a wagoner
  As Phaeton would whip you to the west,
  And bring in cloudie night immediately.
  Spred thy close curtaine, Love-performing night,
  That run-awayes eyes may wincke, and Romeo
  Leape to these armes, vntalkt of and vnseene."

Your readers will no doubt exclaim, is not this question already settled
for ever, if not by MR. SINGER'S substitution of _rumourer's_, at least by
that of R. H. C., viz. _rude day's_? I must confess that I thought the
former so good, when it first appeared in these pages, that nothing more
was wanted; yet this is surpassed by the suggestion of R. H. C. As
conjectural emendations, they may rank with any that Shakspeare's text has
been favoured with; in short, the poet might undoubtedly have written
either the one or the other.

But this is not the question. The question is, did he write the passage as
it stands in the first folio, which I have copied above? Subsequent
consideration has satisfied me that he did. I find the following passage in
the _Merchant of Venice_, Act II. Sc. 6.:

             "---- but come at once,
  For the close night doth play the run-away,
  And we are staid for at Bassanio's feast."

Is it very difficult to believe that the poet who called the departing
_night_ a _run-away_ would apply the same term to the _day_ under similar
circumstances?

Surely the first folio is a much more correctly printed book than many of
Shakspeare's editors and critics would have us believe.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

The Word "_clamour" in "The Winter's Tale_."--MR. KEIGHTLEY complains (Vol
viii., p. 241.) that some observations of mine (p. 169.) on the word
_clamour_, in _The Winter's Tale_, are precisely similar to his own in Vol.
vii., p. 615. Had they been so in reality, I presume our Editor would not
have inserted them; but I think they contain something farther, suggesting,
as they do, the A.-S. origin of the word, and going far to prove that our
modern _calm_, the older _clame_, the Shakspearian _clamour_, the more
frequent _clem_, Chaucer's _clum_, &c., all of them spring from the same
source, viz. the A.-S. _clam_ or _clom_, which means a band, clasp,
bandage, chain, prison; from which substantive comes the verb _clæmian_, to
clam, to stick or glue together, to bind, to imprison.

If I passed over in silence those points on which MR. KEIGHTLEY and myself
agreed, I need scarcely assure him that it was for the sake of brevity, and
not from any want of respect to him.

I may remark, by the way, on a conjecture of MR. KEIGHTLEY'S (Vol. vii., p.
615.), that perhaps, in _Macbeth_, Act V. Sc. 5., Shakspeare might have
written "till famine _clem_ thee," and not, as it stands in the first
folio, "till famine _cling_ thee," that he is indeed, as he says, "in the
region of conjecture:" _cling_ is purely A.-S., as he will find in
Bosworth, "_Clingan_, to wither, pine, to cling or shrink up; marcescere."

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

_Three Passages in "Measure for Measure._"--H. C. K. has a treacherous
memory, or rather, what I believe to be the truth, he, like myself, has not
a complete Shakspeare apparatus. COLLIER'S first edition surely cannot be
in his library, or he would have known that Warburton, long ago, read
_seared_ for _feared_, and that the same word appears in Lord Ellesmere's
copy of the first folio, the correction having been made, as MR. COLLIER
remarks, while the sheet was at press. I however assure H. C. K. that I
regard his correction as perfectly original. Still I have my doubts if
_seared_ be the poet's word, for I have never met it but in connexion with
hot iron; and I should be inclined to prefer _sear_ or _sere_; but this
again is always physically _dry_, and not metaphorically so, and I fear
that the true word is not to be recovered.

I cannot consent to go back with H. C. K. to the Anglo-Saxon for a sense of
_building_, which I do not think it ever bore, at least not in our poet's
time. His quotation from the "Jewel House," &c. is not to the point, for
the context shows that "a building word" is a word or promise that will
{362} set me a-building, _i. e._ writing. After all I see no difficulty in
"the _all-building_ law;" it means the law that builds, maintains, and
repairs the whole social edifice, and is well suited to Angelo, whose
object was to enhance the favour he proposed to grant.

Again, if H. C. K. had looked at COLLIER'S edit., he would have seen that
in Act I. Sc. 2., _princely_ is the reading of the second folio, and not a
modern conjecture. If he rejects this authority, he must read a little
farther on _perjury_ for _penury_. As to the Italian _prenze_, I cannot
receive it. I very much doubt Shakspeare's knowledge of Italian, and am
sure that he would not, if he understood the word, use it as an adjective.
MR. COLLIER'S famed corrector reads with Warburton _priestly_, and
substitutes _garb_ for _guards_, a change which convinces me (if proof were
wanting) that he was only a guesser like ourselves, for it is plain, from
the previous use of the word _living_, that _guards_ is the right word.

THOS. KEIGHTLEY.

_Shakspeare's Works with a Digest of all the Readings_ (Vol. viii., pp. 74,
170.).--I fully concur with your correspondent's suggestion, and beg to
suggest to MR. HALLIWELL that his splendid monograph edition would be
greatly improved if he would undertake the task. As his first volume
contains but one play (_Tempest_), it may not be too late to adopt the
suggestion, so that every variation of the text (in the briefest possible
form) might be seen at a glance.

ESTE.

       *       *       *       *       *

DEATH ON THE FINGERS.

    "Isaac saith, I am old, and I know not the day of my death (_Gen._
    xxvii. 2.); no more doth any, though never so young. As soon (saith the
    proverb) goes the _lamb's_ skin to the market as that of the _old
    sheep_; and the Hebrew saying is, There be as many _young_ skulls in
    Golgotha as _old_; young men _may_ die (for none have or can make any
    agreement with the grave, or any covenant with death, _Isa._ xxviii.
    15. 18.), but old men _must_ die. 'Tis the grant statute of heaven
    (_Heb._ ix. 27.). _Senex quasi seminex_, an old man is half dead; yea,
    now, at fifty years old, we are accounted three parts dead; this lesson
    we may learn from our fingers' ends, the dimensions whereof demonstrate
    this to us, beginning at the end of the little finger, representing our
    childhood, rising up to a little higher at the end of the ring-finger,
    which betokens our youth; from it to the top of the middle finger,
    which is the highest point of our elevated hand, and so most aptly
    represents our middle age, when we come to our [Greek: akmê], or height
    of stature and strength; then begins our declining age, from thence to
    the end of our forefinger which amounts to a little fall, but from
    thence to the end of the thumb there is a great fall, to show, when man
    goes down (in his old age) he falls fast and far, and breaks (as we
    say) with a witness. Now, if our very fingers' end do read us such a
    divine lecture of mortality, oh, that we could take it out, and have it
    perfect (as we say) on our fingers' end, &c.

    "To old men death is _præ januis_, stands before their door, &c. Old
    men have (_pedem in cymbâ Charonis_) one foot in the grave already; and
    the Greek word [Greek: gêrôn] (an old man) is derived from [Greek: para
    to eis gên oran], which signifies a looking towards the ground;
    decrepit age goes stooping and grovelling, as groaning to the grave. It
    doth not only expect death, but oft solicits it."--Christ. Ness's
    _Compleat History and Mystery of the Old and New Test._, fol. Lond.
    1690, chap. xii. p. 227.

From _The Barren Tree_, a sermon on Luke xiii. 7., preached at Paul's
Cross, Oct. 26, 1623, by Thos. Adams:

    "Our bells ring, our chimneis smoake, our fields rejoice, our children
    dance, ourselues sing and play, _Jovis omnia plena_. But when
    righteousnesse hath sowne and comes to reape, here is no haruest;
    [Greek: ouk euriskô], I finde none. And as there was neuer lesse
    wisdome in Greece then in time of the Seven Wise Men, so neuer lesse
    pietie among vs, then now, when vpon good cause most is expected. When
    the sunne is brightest the stars be darkest: so the cleerer our light,
    the more gloomy our life with the deeds of darkness. The Cimerians,
    that live in a perpetuall mist, though they deny a sunne, are not
    condemned of impietie; but Anaxogoras, that saw the sunne and yet
    denied it, is not condemned of ignorance, but of impietie. Former times
    were like Leah, bleare-eyed, but fruitful; the present, like Rachel,
    faire, but barren. We give such acclamation to the Gospell, that we
    quite forget to observe the law. As vpon some solenne festivall, the
    bells are rung in all steeples, but then the clocks are tyed vp: there
    is a great vntun'd confusion and clangor, but no man knowes how the
    time passeth. So in this vniuersall allowance of libertie by the
    Gospell (which indeed rejoyceth our hearts, had we the grace of sober
    vsage), the clocks that tel vs how the time passes, Truth and
    Conscience, that show the bounded vse and decent forme of things, are
    tyed vp, and cannot be heard. Still _Fructum non invenio_, I finde no
    fruits. I am sorry to passe the fig-tree in this plight: but as I finde
    it, so I must leave it, till the Lord mend it."--Pp. 39, 40., 4to.
    Lond. 1623.

BALLIOLENSIS.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_On a "Custom of y^e Englyshe._"--When a more than ordinarily doubtful
matter is offered us for credence, we are apt to inquire of the teller if
he "sees any green" in our optics, accompanying the query by an elevation
of the right eyelid with the forefinger. Now, regarding this merely as a
"fast" custom, I marvelled greatly at finding a similar action noted by
worthy Master Blunt, as conveying to his mind an analogous meaning. I can
scarcely credit its antiquity; but what other meaning can I understand from
the episode he {363} relates? He had been trying to pass himself off as a
native, but--

    "The third day, in the morning, I, prying up and down alone, met a
    Turke, who, in Italian, told me--Ah! are you an Englishman, and with a
    _kind of malicious posture laying his forefinger under his eye_,
    methought he had the lookes of a designe."--_Voyage in the Levant,
    performed by Mr. Henry Blunt_, p. 60.: Lond. 1650.

--a silent, but expressive, "posture," tending to eradicate any previously
formed opinion of the verdantness of Mussulmans!

R. C. WARDE.

Kidderminster.

_Epitaph at Crayford._--I send the following lines, if you think them
worthy an insertion in your Epitaphiana: a friend saw them in the
churchyard of Crayford, Kent.

    "To the Memory of PETER IZOD, who was thirty-five years clerk of this
    parish, and always proved himself a pious and mirthful man.

     "The life of this clerk was just three score and ten,
      During half of which time he had sung out Amen.
      He married when young, like other young men;
      His wife died one day, so he chaunted Amen.
      A second he took, she departed,--what then?
      He married, and buried a third with Amen.
      Thus his joys and his sorrows were treble, but then
      His voice was deep bass, as he chaunted Amen.
      On the horn he could blow as well as most men,
      But his horn was exalted in blowing Amen.
      He lost all his wind after threescore and ten,
      And here with three wives he waits till again
      The trumpet shall rouse him to sing out Amen."

Tradition reports these verses to have been composed by some curate of the
parish.

QUÆSTOR.

_The Font at Islip._--

    "In the garden is placed a relic of some interest--the font in which it
    is said King Edward the Confessor was baptised at Islip. The block of
    stone in which the basin of immersion is excavated, is unusually massy.
    It is of an octangular shape, and the outside is adorned by tracery
    work. The interior diameter of the basin is thirty inches, and the
    depth twenty. The whole, with the pedestal, which is of a piece with
    the rest, is five feet high, and bears the following imperfect
    inscription:

     'This sacred Font Saint Edward first _receavd_,
        From Womb to Grace, from Grace to Glory went,
      His virtuous life. To this _fayre_ Isle _beqveth'd_,
        _Prase_ ... and to _vs_ but lent.
      Let this remaine, the Trophies of his Fame,
      A King baptizd from hence a Saint became.'

    "Then is inscribed:

     'This Fonte came from the Kings Chapel_l_ in Islip.'"--Extracted from
         the _Beauties of England and Wales_, title "Oxfordshire," p. 454.

In the gardens at Kiddington there--

    "was an old font wherein it is said Edward the Confessor was baptized,
    being brought thither from an old decayed chapel at Islip (the
    birth-place of that religious prince), where it had been put up to an
    indecent use, as well as the chapel."--Extracted from _The English
    Baronets, being a Historical and Genealogical Account of their
    Families_, published 1727.

The Viscounts Montague, and consequently the Brownes of Kiddington, traced
their descent from this king through Joan de Beaufort, daughter of John of
Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster.

C. B.

"_As good as a Play._"--I note this very ordinary phrase as having royal
origin or, at least, authority. It was a remark of King Charles II., when
he revived a practice of his predecessors, and attended the sittings of the
House of Lords.

The particular occasion was the debate, then interesting to him, on Lord
Roos' Divorce Bill.

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

LOVETT OF ASTWELL.

It is stated in all the pedigrees of this family which I have seen, that
Thomas Lovett, Esq., of Astwell in Northamptonshire, who died in 1542,
married for his first wife Elizabeth, daughter (Burke calls her "heir,"
_Extinct Baronetage_, p. 110.) of John Boteler, Esq., of Woodhall Watton,
in Hertfordshire. The pedigree of the Botelers in Clutterbuck's
_Hertfordshire_ (vol. ii. p. 476.) does not notice this marriage, nor is
there any distinct allusion to it in the wills of either family. Thomas
Lovett's will, dated 20th November, 1542, and proved on the following 19th
January, does not contain the name of Boteler. (_Testamenta Vetusta_, vol.
ii. p. 697.) His father Thomas Lovett, indeed, in his will dated 29th
October, 7 Henry VII., and proved 28th January, 1492 (_Test. Vetust._, vol.
ii. p. 410.), bequeaths to Isabel Lovett and Margaret, his daughters, "Cl.
which John Boteler oweth me," but he refers to no relationship between the
families. Again, "John Butteler, Esquier," by his will, dated 7th
September, 1513, and proved at Lambeth 11th July, 1515, appoints "his most
gracious Maister, Maister Thomas Louett," to be supervisor of his will, and
bequeaths to him "a Sauterbook as a poore remembraunce;" but he alludes to
no marriage, nor does he mention a daughter Elizabeth. This John Boteler is
said by Clutterbuck to have married three wives: 1. Katherine, daughter of
Thomas Acton; 2. Margaret, daughter of Henry Belknap, who died 18th August,
1513; 3. Dorothy, daughter of William Tyrrell, Esq., of Gipping in Suffolk:
the last-mentioned was the mother of his heir, Sir Philip Boteler, Kt.; but
I can nowhere find who was the mother of the son Richard, and the daughters
Mary and Joyce mentioned in his will, {364} or of Thomas Lovett's wife. I
cannot help fancying that Elizabeth Lovett was his only child by one of his
wives, and was perhaps heir to her mother. Can one of your contributors
bring forward any authority to confirm or disprove this conjecture? Whilst
I am speaking of the Lovett pedigree, I would also advert to two other
contradictions in the popular accounts of it. That most inaccurate of
books, Betham's _Baronetage_, vol. v. p. 517., says, Giles Pulton, Esq., of
Desborough, married Anne, daughter of Thomas Lovett, Esq., of Astwell: the
same author, vol. i. p. 299., calls her Catherine; which is correct?
Neither Anne nor Catherine is mentioned in Thomas Lovett the Elder's will
(_Test. Vetust._, vol. ii. p. 410). Again, Betham, Burke, and Bridges
(_History of Northamptonshire_, "Astwell") have rolled out Thomas Lovett
into two persons, and in fact have made him appear the son of his second
wife Joan Billinge, who was not the ancestress of the Lovetts of Astwell at
all. Nor was it possible she could be; for Thomas Lovett, in his will,
dated 1492, speaks of her as "Joan, my wife, late the wife of John Hawys,
one of the Justices of the Common Pleas." Now this John Hawys was living in
1487, and Lovett's son and heir, Thomas, was seventeen years old in 1492.
The abstract of Lovett's will in the _Test. Vetust._, calling Thomas Lovett
the Younger "my son and heir by the said Joan my wife," must therefore be
manifestly incorrect. I will not apologise for the minuteness of this
account, as I believe the correction of detail in published pedigrees to be
one of the most valuable features of "N. & Q.;" but I am almost ashamed of
the length of my communication, which I hope some of your readers may throw
light upon.

TEWARS.

       *       *       *       *       *

OATHS.

The very remarkable distinction between the manner in which English and
Welsh witnesses take the book at the time when they are sworn, has often
struck me. An English witness always takes the book with his fingers under,
and his thumb at the top of the book. A Welsh witness, on the contrary,
takes it with his fingers at the top, and his thumb under the book. How has
this singular difference arisen? I am inclined to suggest that originally
the oath was taken by merely laying the hand on the top of the book,
without kissing it. Lord Coke (3 _Inst._ 165.) says, "It is called a
corporal oath, because he toucheth with his hand some part of the Holy
Scripture." And Jacob (_L. D._, "Oath"), says it is so called "because the
witness, when he swears, _lays his right hand upon_, and toucheth the Holy
Evangelists." And Lord Hale (2 _H. P. C._ 279.) says, "The regular oath, as
is allowed by the laws of England, is 'Tactis sacrosanctis Dei
Evangeliis'," and in case of a Jew, "Tacto libro legis Mosaicæ:" and, if I
rightly remember, the oath as administered in the Latin form at Oxford
concludes: "Ita te Deus adjuvet, tactis sacrosanctis Christi Evangeliis."
In none of these instances does kissing the book appear to be essential.
Whereas the present form used in the Courts is, "So help you God, kiss the
book;" but still the witness is always required to touch the book with his
hand, and he is never permitted to hold the book with his hand in a glove.
When then did the practice of kissing the book originate? And how happens
it that the Welsh and English take the book in the hand in the different
manners I have described?

C. S. G.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.

Powerful as this extraordinary agent has become, and incalculably useful as
its operation is now found to be, it would appear that the principle of the
electric telegraph and its _modus operandi_, almost identically as at
present, were known and described upwards of a century ago. On the occasion
of a late visit to Robert Baird, Esq., of Auchmeddan, at his residence,
Cadder House, near Glasgow, my attention was called by that gentleman to a
letter initialed C. M., dated Renfrew, Feb. 15, 1753, and published that
year in the _Scots Magazine_, vol. xv. p. 73., where the writer not only
suggests electricity as a medium for conveying messages and signals, but
details with singular minuteness the method of opening and maintaining
lingual communication between remote points, a method which, with only few
improvements, has now been so eminently successful. It is usual to
attribute this wonderful discovery to the united labours of Mr. W. F. Cooke
and Professor Wheatstone, but has any one acknowledged the contribution of
C. M., and can any of the learned correspondents of "N. & Q." inform me who
he was?

INQUIRENDO.

Glasgow.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Queries relating to the Porter Family._--Above the inscription on the
tablet erected by a devoted friend to the memory of this highly-gifted
family in Bristol Cathedral, is a medallion of a portcullis surrounded by
the word AGINCOURT, and surmounted by the date 1415.--What connexion is
there between Agincourt[2] and the Porter family?

{365}

Did Sir R. K. Porter write on account of Sir John Moore's campaign in the
Peninsula?--What is the title of the book, and where can it be procured?[3]

Who was Charles Lempriere Porter (who died Feb. 14, 1831, aged thirty-one),
mentioned on the Porter tombstone in St. Paul's churchyard at Bristol?--Who
was Phoebe, wife of Dr. Porter, who died Feb. 20, 1845, aged seventy-nine,
and whose name also occurs on this stone?

Did this family (which is now supposed to be extinct) claim descent from
Endymion Porter, the loyal and devoted adherent of King Charles the Martyr?

D. Y. N.

[Footnote 2: It refers to Sir Robert Ker Porter's third great battle-piece,
AGINCOURT: which memorable battle took place October 25, 1415. Sir Robert
presented it to the city of London, and it is still in the possession of
the corporation: it was hung up in the Guildhall a few years since.]

[Footnote 3: In 1808, Sir R. K. Porter accompanied Sir John Moore's
expedition to the Peninsula, and attended the campaign throughout, up to
the closing catastrophe of the battle of Corunna. On his return to England,
he published anonymously, _Letters from Portugal and Spain, written during
the March of the Troops under Sir John Moore_, 1809, 8vo.--ED.]

_Lord Ball of Bagshot._--Coryat, in his _Crudities_, vol. ii. p. 471.,
edit. 1776, tells us that at St. Gewere, near Ober-Wesel--

    "There hangeth an yron collar fastened in the wall, with one linke fit
    to be put upon a man's neck, without any manner of hurt to the party
    that weareth it.

    "This collar doth every stranger and freshman, the first time that he
    passeth that way, put upon his neck, which he must weare so long
    standing till he hath redeemed himself with a competent measure of
    wine."

Coryat submitted himself to the collar "for novelty sake," and he adds:

    "This custome doth carry some kinde of affinity with certain sociable
    ceremonies that wee have in a place of England, which are performed by
    that most reuerend Lord _Ball_ of Bagshot, in Hampshire, who doth with
    many, and indeed more solemne, rites inuest his brothers of his
    vnhallowed chappell of Basingstone (Basingstoke?) (as all our men of
    the westerne parts of England do know by deare experience to the smart
    of their purses), to these merry burgomaisters of Saint _Gewere_ vse to
    do."

Will any of your readers state whether the custom is remembered in
Hampshire, and afford explanation as to the most Rev. Lord Ball? The
writers that I have referred to are silent, and I do not find mention of
the custom in the pages of Mr. Urban.

J. H. M.

_Marcarnes._--In Guillim's _Display of Heraldry_ (6th edit., London, 1724),
sect. 2. chap. v. p. 32., occurs the following description of a coat of
arms: "_Marcarnes_, vaire, a pale, sable."

There is no reference to a Heralds' Visitation, or to the locality in which
resided the family bearing this name and coat. It is only mentioned as an
instance among many others of the pale in heraldry. I have searched many
heraldic books, as well as copies of Heralds' Visitations, but cannot find
the name elsewhere. Will any herald advise me how to proceed farther in
tracing it?

G. R. M.

_The Claymore._--What is the original weapon to which belongs the name of
claymore (_claidh mhor_)? Is it the two-handed sword, or the basket-hilted
two-edged sword _now_ bearing the appellation? Is the latter kind of sword
peculiar to Scotland? They are frequently to be met with in this part of
the country. One was found a few years since plunged up to the hilt in the
earth on the Cotswold Hills. It was somewhat longer than the Highland
broadsword, but exactly similar to a weapon which I have seen, and which
belonged to a Lowland Whig gentleman slain at Bothwell Bridge. If these
swords be exclusively Scottish, may they not be relics of the unhappy
defeat at Worcester?

FRANCIS JOHN SCOTT.

Tewkesbury.

_Sir William Chester, Kt._--It is said of this gentleman in all the
Baronetages, that "he was a great benefactor to the city of London in the
time of Edward VI., and that he became so strictly religious, that for a
considerable time before his death he retired from all business, entered
himself a fellow-commoner at Cambridge, lived there some years' and was
reputed a learned man." Did he take any degree at Cambridge, and to what
college or hall did he belong? Must there not be some records in the
University which will yield this information? I observe the "Graduati
Cantabrigienses" only commence in 1659 in the printed list; but there must
be older lists than this at Cambridge. Collins mentions that he was so
conspicuous in his zeal for the Reformed religion, that he ran great risk
of his life in Queen Mary's reign, and that one of his servants was burnt
in Smithfield. Can any one inform me of his authority for this statement?

TEWARS.

_Canning on the Treaty of 1824 between the Netherlands and Great
Britain._--When and under what circumstances did Canning use the following
words?--

    "The results of this treaty [of 1824 between England and Holland, to
    regulate their respective interests in the East Indies] were an
    admission of the principles of free trade. A line of demarcation was
    drawn, separating our territories from theirs, and ridding them of
    their settlements on the Indian continent. All these objects are now
    attained. We have obtained Sincapore, we have got a free trade, and in
    return we have given up Bencoolen."

Where are these words to be found, and what is the title of the English
paper called by the {366} French _Courier du Commerce_?--From the
_Navorscher_.

L. D. S.

_Ireland a bastinadoed Elephant._--"And Ireland, like a bastinadoed
elephant, kneeled to receive her rider." This sentence is ascribed by Lord
Byron to the Irish orator Curran. Diligent search through his speeches, as
published in the United States, has been unsuccessful in finding it. Can
any of your readers "locate it," as we say in the backwoods of America? A
bastinado properly is a punishment inflicted by beating the soles of the
feet: such a flagellation could not very conveniently be administered to an
elephant. The figure, if used by Curran, has about it the character of an
elephantine bull.

[Old English W]

Philadelphia.

_Memorial Lines by Thomas Aquinas._--

    "Thomas Aquinas summed up, in a quaint tetrastic, twelve causes which
    might found sentences of nullity, of repudiation, or of the two kinds
    of divorce; to which some other, as monkish as himself, added two more
    lines, increasing the causes to fourteen, and to these were afterwards
    added two more. The former are [here transcribed from] the note:

     'Error, conditio, votum, cognatio, crimen,
      Cultûs disparitas, vis, ordo, ligamen, honestas,
      Si sis affinis, si forte cöire nequibis,
      Si parochi, et duplicis desit præsentia testis,
      Raptave si mulier, parti nec reddita tutæ;
      Hæc facienda vetant connubia, facta retractant.'"--From _Essay on
          Scripture Doctrines of Adultery and Divorce_, by H. V. Tabbs,
          8vo.: Lond. 1822.

The subject was proposed, and a prize of fifty pounds awarded to this
essay, by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge in the Diocese of
St. David's in 1821. This appears to me to have been a curious application
of its funds by such a society. Can any of your readers explain it?

BALLIOLENSIS.

"_Johnson's turgid style_"--"_What does not fade_?"--Can any of your
readers tell me where to find the following lines?

 "I own I like not Johnson's turgid style,
  That gives an inch th' importance of a mile,"
              &c. &c.

And

 "What does not fade? The tower which long has stood
  The crash of tempests, and the warring winds,
  Shook by the sure but slow destroyer, Time,
  Now hangs in doubtful ruins o'er its base,"
              &c. &c.

A. F. B.

_Meaning of "Lane," &c._--By what process of development could the
Anglo-Saxon _laen_ (_i. e._ the English word _lane_, and the Scottish
_loaning_) have obtained its present meaning, which answers to that of the
_limes_ of the Roman _agrimensores_?

What is considered to be the English measurement of the Roman _juger_, and
the authorities for such measurement?

What is the measurement of the Anglo-Saxon _hyde_, and the authorities for
such measurement?

H.

_Theobald le Botiller._--What Theobald le Botiller did Rose de Vernon
marry? See Vernon, in Burke's _Extinct Peerage_; Butler, in Lynch's _Feudal
Dignities_; and the 2nd Butler (Ormond), in Lodge's _Peerage_.

Y. S. M.

_William, fifth Lord Harrington._--Did William, fifth Lord Harrington,
marry Margaret Neville (see Burke's _Extinct Peerage_) or Lady Catherine
Courtenay? The latter is given in Burke's _Peerage and Baronetage_, in Sir
John Harrington's pedigree.

Y. S. M.

_Singular Discovery of a Cannon-ball._--A heavy cannon-shot, I should
presume a thirty-two pound ball, was found embedded in a large tree, cut
down some years since on the estate of J. W. Martin, Esq., at Showborough,
in the parish of Twyning, Gloucestershire. There was never till quite
lately any house of importance on the spot, nor is there any trace of
intrenchments to be discovered. The tree stood at some distance from the
banks of the Avon, and on the other side of that river runs the road from
Tewkesbury through Bredon to Pershore. The ball in question is marked with
the broad arrow. From whence and at what period was the shot fired?

FRANCIS JOHN SCOTT.

Tewkesbury.

_Scottish Castles._--It is a popular belief, and quoted frequently in the
_Statistical Account of Scotland_, and other works referring to Scottish
affairs, that the fortresses of Edinburgh Castle, Stirling Castle,
Dumbarton Castle, Blackness Castle, were appointed by the Articles of Union
between England and Scotland to be kept in repair and garrisoned. Can any
of your readers refer to the foundation for this statement? for no
reference in to be found to the subject in the Articles of Union.

SCRYMZEOUR.

Edinburgh.

_Sneezing._--Concerning _sneezing_, it is a curious circumstance that if
any one should sneeze in company in North Germany, those present will say,
"Your good health;" in Vienna, gentlemen in a _café_ will take off their
hats, and say, "God be with you" and in Ireland Paddy will say, "God bless
your honour," or "Long life to your honour." I understand that in Italy and
Spain similar expressions are used and I think I remember {367} hearing,
that in Bengal the natives make a "salam" on these occasions.

There is also, I believe, a popular idea among some of sneezing having some
connexion with Satanic agency; and I lately met with a case where a
peculiar odour was invariably distinguishable by two sisters, on a certain
individual violently sneezing.

I shall be very much obliged if any of your readers can furnish me with any
facts, theories, or popular ideas upon this subject.

MEDICUS.

_Spenser's "Fairy Queen."_--Allow me to employ an interval of leisure,
after a visit to the remains of Kilcolman Castle, in inquiring whether any
of your Irish readers can afford information respecting the existence of
the long missing books of the _Fairy Queen_? Mrs. Hall, in her work on
Ireland (vol. i. pp. 93, 94.), says that--

    "More than mere rumour exists for believing that the lost books have
    been preserved, and that the MS. was in the possession of a _Captain
    Garrett Nagle_ within the last forty years."

W. L. N.

Buttevant, co. Cork.

_Poema del Cid._--Is there any edition of the _Poema del Cid_ besides the
one published by Sanchez (_Poesias Castellanas anteriores al siglo XV._),
and reprinted by Ochoa, and appended likewise to an edition of Ochoa's
_Tesoro de los Romanceros_, &c., published at Barcelona in 1840? I shall
feel obliged by being referred to an edition in a detached form, with
glossary and notes, if such there be.

J. M. B.

_The Brazen Head._--As upon two former occasions, through the useful and
interesting pages of "N. & Q.," have been enabled to obtain information
which I could procure in no other way, I am glad to have an opportunity of
recording the obligations I myself, like many more, am under to "N. & Q.,"
and to some of your talented and kindly correspondents. Being anxious still
farther to trespass upon your space, I take this opportunity of alike
thanking you and them.--Could any reader of "N. & Q." inform me whether
more than two numbers of _The Brazen Head_ were ever published? Through the
great courtesy of talented correspondent of "N. & Q." from Worcester, I
have the first two; but I am anxious, for a literary purpose, to
_ascertain_ whether the publication was continued after.

A. F. A. W.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

"_The Basilics._"--What is the manuscript called the "Basilics" in the
following passage, which occurs in a cotemporary MS., "Memoirs of the Life
of the Right Hon. John Lord Scudamore, Viscount Sligo in Ireland," in the
library of P. Howard, Esq., at Corby Castle? Is it known where it is now
preserved?

Have these memoirs been printed? Lord S. was born in 1600, and was
ambassador to France when this circumstance occurred.

    "There having been intelligence given to his Excellence by that
    renowned person, and his then great acquaintance, Mons. Grotius, lieger
    in Paris for the crown of Sweden, of a very valuable manuscript of many
    volumes, being the body of the civil law in Greek, commonly called the
    'Basilics,' in the hands of the heirs of the famous lawyer lately
    deceased, Petrus Faber,--desirous to enrich his country with this
    treasure, he transacted and agreed with the possessors for the price of
    it, which was no less than 500l. But when it should have been
    delivered, and the money was ready to be paid down, Cardinal Richelieu
    (the great French minister of state at that time) having notice of the
    transaction interposed, and forbad the going on upon the contract, as
    thinking it would have been a diminution to their nation to permit such
    a prize to come into the hands of strangers, and by their charge and
    labour be communicated to the world."

W. C. TREVELYAN.

Wallington.

    [Basilica is a name given to a digest of laws commenced by the Emperor
    Basilius in the year 867, and completed by his son Leo the philosopher
    in the year 880, the former having carried the work as far as forty
    books, and the latter having added twenty more, in which state it was
    published. The complete edition of Charles Annibal Fabrot, which
    appeared at Paris in 1647, proved of great service to the study of
    ancient jurisprudence. It is contained in seven volumes folio, and
    accompanied with Latin version of the text, as well as of the Greek
    scholia subjoined. See a valuable article on the Greek texts of the
    Roman law, in the _Foreign Quarterly Review_, vol. vii. p. 461.--The
    MS. "Memoirs of the Hon. John Lord Scudamore" seem to have been used by
    Matthew Gibson in his _View of the Ancient and Present State of the
    Churches of Door, Horne-Lacy, and Hempsted, with Memoirs of the
    Scudamore Family_, 4to., 1727, as the substance of the passage quoted
    by our correspondent is given at p. 95. of that work.]

_Fire at Honiton._--I am solicitous to learn the particulars of a fire
which occurred at Honiton, in Devonshire, in the year 1765, when the chapel
and school-house were burned down, and the former thereupon rebuilt by
_collections_ under a _brief_.

In a review of Mr. Digby Wyatt's "Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth
Century" (in the _Athenæum_ for June 18th of the current year), reference
is made by Mrs. Treadwin of Exeter to "_a book_ mentioning two great fires
which occurred in 1756 and 1767 in Honiton," but it is not stated who was
the _author_ of that book. {368}

Can you or any of your readers furnish me with the _title_ of the book
intended, or direct me to any other sources of information on the subject
of the Honiton fires?

S. T.

    [Notices of fires at Honiton occur in the following works:--_The Wisdom
    and Righteousness of Divine Providence._ A sermon preached at Honiton
    on occasion of a dreadful fire, 21st August, 1765, which consumed 140
    houses, a chapel, and a meeting-house. By R. Harrison, 4to.
    1765.--Shaw, in his _Tour to the West of England_, p. 444., mentions a
    dreadful fire, 19th July, 1747, which reduced three parts of the town
    to ashes.--Lysons' _Devonshire_, p. 281., states that Honiton has been
    visited by the destructive calamity of fire in 1672, 1747, 1754, and
    1765. The last-mentioned happened on the 21st August, and was the most
    calamitous; 115 houses were burnt down, and the steeple of Allhallows
    Chapel, with the school, were destroyed. The damage was estimated at
    above 10,500l.]

_Michaelmas Goose._--The following little inconsistency in a
commonly-received tradition has led me, at the request of a large party of
well-read and literary friends, to request your solution of the difficulty
in an early Number of your paper.

It is currently reported, and nine men in ten will tell you, if you ask
them the reason why goose is always eaten on the 29th Sept., Michaelmas
Day, that Queen Elizabeth was eating goose when the news of the destruction
of the Invincible Armada was brought, and she immediately put down her
knife and fork, and said, "From this day forth let all British-born
subjects eat goose on this day."

Now in Creasy's _Battles_ it is stated that the Spanish fleet was destroyed
in the month of July. How could it then be the 29th of Sept. when the news
of its defeat reached her majesty? If any of your readers can solve this
seeming improbability be will greatly oblige

MICHAELMAS DAY.

    [Although it may be difficult to show how it is that the custom of
    eating goose has in this country been transferred to Michaelmas Day,
    while on the Continent it is observed at Martinmas, from which practice
    the goose is often called _St. Martin's bird_, it is very easy to prove
    that there is no foundation for the tradition referred to by our
    correspondent. For the following extract from Stow's _Annales_ (ed.
    Howes), p. 749., will show that, so far from the news of the defeat of
    the Armada not reaching Elizabeth until the 29th of September, public
    thanksgivings for the victory had been offered on the 20th of the
    preceding month:

    "On the 20th of August, M. Nowell, Deane of Paules, preached at Paules
    Crosse, in presence of the lord Maior and Aldermen, and the companies
    in their best liveries, moving them to give laud and praise unto
    Almightie God, for the great victorie by him given to our English
    nation, by the overthrowe of the Spanish fleete."]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

PORTRAITS OF HOBBES AND LETTERS OF HOLLAR.

(Vol. viii., p. 221.)

Although I cannot answer the question of SIR WALTER TREVELYAN, the
following notices respecting the portraits of the Philosopher of Malmesbury
may not be unacceptable to him and to those who hold this distinguished
man's memory in high respect.

That admirable gossip, John Aubrey, who lived in habits of intimacy with
Hobbes, has left us such a lively picture of the man, his person, and his
manners, as to leave nothing to desire. In reading it we cannot but regret
that Aubrey had not been a cotemporary of our great poet, about whom he has
been only able to furnish us with some hearsay anecdotes.

Aubrey tells us that--

    "Sir Charles Scarborough, M.D., Physician to his Royal Highness the
    Duke of York, much loved the conversation of Hobbes, and hath a picture
    of him (drawne about 1655), under which is this distich:

     'Si quæris de me, mores inquire, sed ille
        Qui quærit de me, forsitan alter erit.'"

    "In their meeting (_i. e._ the Royal Society) at Gresham College is his
    picture drawne by the life, 1663, by a good hand, which they much
    esteeme, and several copies have been taken of it."

In a note Aubrey says:

    "He did me the honour to sit for his picture to Jo. Baptist Caspars, an
    excellent painter, and 'tis a good piece. I presented it to the Society
    twelve years since."

In other places he tells us:

    "Amongst other of his acquaintance I must not forget Mr. Samuel Cowper
    (Cooper), the prince of limners of this last age, who drew his picture
    as like as art could afford, and one of the best pieces that ever he
    did which his Majesty, at his returne, bought of him, and conserves as
    one of his greatest rarities in his closet at Whitehall."

In a note he adds:

    "This picture I intend to be borrowed of his Majesty for Mr. Loggan to
    engrave an accurate piece by, which will sell well both at home and
    abroad."

Again he says:

    "Mr. S. Cowper (at whose house Hobbes and Sir William Petty often met)
    drew his picture twice: the first the King has; the other is yet in the
    custody of his (Cooper's) widowe; but he (Cowper) gave it indeed to me
    (and I promised I would give it to the archives at Oxon), but I, like a
    fool, did not take possession of it, for something of the garment was
    not quite finished, and he died, I being then in the country."

{369}

This picture is, I believe, now in my possession. It is a small half-length
oil painting, measuring about twelve inches by nine. Hobbes is represented
at an open arch or window, with his book, the Leviathan, open before him;
the dress is, as Aubrey states, unfinished, and beneath is the remarkable
inscription,--

    "AUT EGO INSANIO SOLUS: AUT EGO SOLUS NON INSANIO."

It represents the philosopher at an advanced age, and is conformable in
every respect to the following description of his person:

    "In his old age he was very bald, yet within dore he used to study and
    sit bareheaded, and said he never tooke cold in his head, but that the
    greatest trouble was to keepe off the flies from pitching on the
    baldness. His head was of a mallet forme, approved by the physiologers.
    His face not very great, ample forehead, yellowish-red whiskers, which
    naturally turned up; belowe he was shaved close, except a little tip
    under his lip; not but that nature would have afforded him a venerable
    beard, but being mostly of a cheerful and pleasant humour, he affected
    not at all austerity and gravity, and to look severe. He considered
    gravity and heavinesse of countenance not so good marks of assurance of
    God's favour, as a cheerful charitable, and upright behaviour, which
    are better signes of religions than the zealous maintaining of
    controverted doctrines. He had a good eie, and that of a hazel colour,
    which was full of life and spirit, even to his last; when he was in
    discourse, there shone (as it were) a bright live coale within it. He
    had two kinds of looks; when he laught, was witty, and in a merry
    humour, one could scarce see his eies; by and by, when he was serious
    and earnest, he opened his eies round his eie-lids: he had middling
    eies, not very big nor very little. He was six foote high and something
    better, and went indifferently erect, or rather, considering his great
    age, very erect."

Aubrey was one of the patrons of Hollar, of whom he has also given us some
brief but interesting particulars. The two following letters, which were
transcribed by Malone when he contemplated a publication of the Aubrey
papers, deserve preservation; indeed, one of them relates immediately to
the subject of this notice:

    "Sir,

    "I have now done the picture of Mr. Hobbes, and have showed it to some
    of his acquaintance, who say it to be very like; but Stent has deceived
    me, and maketh demurr to have it of me; as that at this present my
    labour seemeth to be lost, for it lyeth dead by me. However, I returne
    you many thankes for lending mee the Principall, and I have halve a
    dozen copies for you, and the painting I have delivered to your
    Messenger who brought it to mee before.

         "Your humble servant,
             "W. HOLLAR.

    "The 1st of August, 1661."

    "[For Mr. Aubrey.]

    "Sir,

    "I have beene told this morning that you are in Town, and that you
    desire to speak with mee, so I did presently repaire to your Lodging,
    but they told mee that you went out at 6 o'clock that morning, and it
    was past 7 then. If I could know certaine time when to finde you I
    would waite on you. My selve doe lodge without St. Clement's Inne back
    doore; as soon as you come up the steps and out of that doore is the
    first house and doore on the left hand, two paire of staires into a
    little passage right before you; but I am much abroad, and yet enough
    at home too.

         "Your most humble servant,
              W. HOLLAR.

    "If you had occasion to aske for mee of the people of the house, then
    you must say the Frenchman Limmner, for they know not my name
    perfectly, for reasons sake, otherwise you may goe up directly."

This minute localising of one of the humble workshops of this admirable
artist may not be unacceptable to MR. PETER CUNNINGHAM for some future
edition of his very interesting _Handbook of London_. It may not be amiss
to add that Hollar died on the 25th of March 1677, in the seventieth year
of his age and that he was buried in St. Margaret's churchyard,
Westminster, near the north-west corner of the tower, but without stone to
mark the spot.

S. W. SINGER.

Mickleham.

       *       *       *       *       *

PAROCHIAL LIBRARIES.

(Vol. viii., p. 62.)

In the vestry of the fine old priory church at Cartmel, in Lancashire,
there is a good library, chiefly of divinity, consisting of about three
hundred volumes, placed in a commodious room, and kept in nice order. This
small but valuable collection was left to the parish by Thomas Preston, of
Holker, Esq.

There is another in the vestry of the church at Castleton, in Derbyshire;
or rather in a room built expressly to contain then, adjoining the vestry.
They were left to the parish by the Rev. James Farrer, M.A., who had been
vicar of Castleton for about forty-five years, and consist of about two
thousand volumes in good condition, partly theological and partly
miscellaneous, about equally divided, which are lent to the parishioners at
the discretion of the vicar. Mr. Farrer left behind him a maiden sister,
and a brother-in-law Mr. Hamilton, who resided in Bath; the former of whom
erected the room containing the books, and a vestry at the same time and
both considerably augmented the number of volumes, and made the library
what it now is.

Under the chancel of the spacious and venerable parish church of Halifax,
in Yorkshire, are some large rooms upon a level with the lower part of the
churchyard, in one of which is contained a good library of books. Robert
Clay, D.D., vicar of Halifax, who died April 9, 1628, was buried in this
library, which he is said to have built. {370}

In the Rectory House at Whitchurch, in Shropshire, built by Richard
Newcome, D.D., rector of that place, and afterwards Bishop of St. Asaph,
there is a valuable library left as an heirloom by the bequest of Jane,
Countess Dowager of Bridgewater; who, in the year 1707, having purchased
from his executors the library of the Reverend Clement Sankey, D.D., rector
of Whitchurch, for 305l., left it for ever for the use of the rectors for
the time being. The number of the volumes was 2250: amongst which are a
fine copy of Walton's _Polyglott Bible_, some of the ancient Fathers, and
other valuable theological works. This collection has been subsequently
increased by a bequest from the late Rev. Francis Henry, Earl of
Bridgewater (of eccentric memory), rector of Whitchurch, who by his will,
dated in 1825, gave the whole of his own books in the Rectory House at
Whitchurch, to be added to the others, and left also the sum of 150l. to
the rector to be invested in his name, and the dividends thereof expended
by him, together with the money arising from the sale of his lordship's
wines and liquors in his cellars at Whitchurch, in the purchase of printed
books for the use of the rectors of that parish for the time being.

The same noble earl presented to the rector of Middle, in the county of
Salop, a small collection of books towards founding a library there: and
bequeathed by his will the sum of 800l., to be applied, under the direction
of the rector of Middle for the time being, for augmenting this library. He
also left a farther sum of 150l. to be invested in the name of the rector;
and the dividends thereof expended by him in the purchase of books for the
continual augmentation of the library, in the same manner as he had done at
Whitchurch.

It is to this Earl of Bridgewater that we are indebted not only for those
valuable works the _Bridgewater Treatises_, but also for large bequests of
money and landed property to the trustees of the British Museum, for the
purchase of manuscripts, in addition to those from his own collection,
which he had already bequeathed to the same institution.

THOS. CORSER.

Stand Rectory.

       *       *       *       *       *

BATTLE OF VILLERS EN COUCHÉ.

(Vol. viii., pp. 8. 127.)

I am in a position to furnish a more complete account of this skirmish, and
of the action of April 26, in which my grandfather, General Mansel, fell,
from a copy of the _Evening Mail_ of May 14, 1794, now in the possession of
J. C. Mansel, Esq., of Cosgrove Hall, Northamptonshire. Your correspondent
MR. T. C. SMITH appears to have been misinformed as to the immediate
suppression of the _Poetical Sketches_ by an officer of the Guards, as I
have seen the _third edition_ of that work, printed in 1796.

    "_Particulars of the Glorious Victory obtained by the English Cavalry
    over the French under the Command of General Chapuis, at Troisoille, on
    the 26th of April, 1794._

    "On the 25th, according to orders received from the Committee of Public
    Safety, and subsequently from General Pichegru, General Chapuis, who
    commanded the Camp of Cæsar, marched from thence with his whole force,
    consisting of 25,000 infantry, 3000 cavalry, and seventy-five pieces of
    cannon. At Cambray he divided them into three columns; the one marched
    by Ligny, and attacked the redoubt at Troisoille, which was most
    gallantly defended by Col. Congreve against this column of 10,000 men.
    The second column was then united, consisting of 12,000 men, which
    marched on the high road as far as Beausois, and from that village
    turned off to join the first column; and the attack recommenced against
    Col. Congreve's redoubt, who kept the whole at bay. The enemy's flank
    was supported by the village of Caudry, to defend which they had six
    pieces of cannon, 2000 infantry, and 500 cavalry. During this period
    Gen. Otto conceived it practicable to fall on their flank with the
    cavalry; in consequence of which, Gen. Mansel, with about 1450
    men--consisting of the Blues, 1st and 3rd Dragoon Guards, 5th Dragoon
    Guards, and 1st Dragoons, 15th and 16th Dragoons, with Gen. Dundas, and
    a division of Austrian cuirassiers, and another of Archduke Ferdinand's
    hussars under Prince Swartzenburg--after several manoeuvres, came up
    with the enemy in the village of Caudry, through which they charged,
    putting the cavalry to flight, and putting a number of infantry to the
    sword, and taking the cannon. Gen. Chapuis, perceiving the attack on
    the village of Caudry, sent down the regiment of carabineers to support
    those troops; but the succour came too late, and this regiment was
    charged by the English light dragoons and the hussars, and immediately
    gave way with some little loss. The charge was then continued against a
    battery of eight pieces of cannon behind a small ravine, which was soon
    carried; and, with equal rapidity, the heavy cavalry rushed on to
    attack a battery of fourteen pieces of cannon, placed on an eminence
    behind a very steep ravine, into which many of the front ranks fell;
    and the cannon, being loaded with grape, did some execution: however, a
    considerable body, with Gen. Mansel at their head, passed the ravine,
    and charged the cannon with inconceivable intrepidity, and their
    efforts were crowned with the utmost success. This event decided the
    day, and the remaining time was passed in cutting down battalions, till
    every man and horse was obliged to give up the pursuit from fatigue. It
    was at the mouth of this battery that the brave and worthy Gen. Mansel
    was shot: one grape-shot entering his chin, fracturing the spine, and
    coming out between the shoulders; and the other breaking his arm to
    splinters; his horse was also killed under him, his Brigade-Major
    Payne's horse shot, and his son and aide-de-camp, Capt. Mansel, wounded
    and taken prisoner; and it is since known that he was taken into {371}
    Arras. The French lost between 14,000 and 15,000 men killed; we took
    580 prisoners. The loss in tumbrils and ammunition was immense, and in
    all fifty pieces of cannon, of which thirty-five fell to the English;
    twenty-seven to the heavy, and eight to the light cavalry. Thus ended a
    day which will redound with immortal honour to the bravery of the
    British cavalry, who, assisted by a small body of Austrians, the whole
    not amounting to 1500, gained so complete a victory over 22,000 men in
    sight of their _corps de reserve_, consisting of 6000 men and twenty
    pieces of cannon. Had the cavalry been more numerous, or the infantry
    able to come up, it is probable few of the French would have escaped.
    History does not furnish such an example of courage.

    "The whole army lamented the loss of the brave General, who thus
    gloriously terminated a long military career, during which he had been
    ever honoured, esteemed, and respected by all who knew him. It should
    be some consolation to those he has left behind him, that his
    reputation was as unsullied as his soul was honest; and that he died as
    he lived, an example of true courage, honour, and humility. On the 24th
    General Mansel narrowly escaped being surrounded at Villers de Couché
    by the enemy, owing to a mistake of General Otto's aide-de-camp, who
    was sent to bring up the heavy cavalry: in doing which he mistook the
    way, and led them to the front of the enemy's cannon, by which the 3rd
    Dragoon Guards suffered considerably."--Extract from the _Evening
    Mail_, May 14, 1794.

From the above extract, compared with the communication of MR. SMITH (Vol.
viii., p. 127.), it appears that the 15th Light Dragoons were engaged in
both actions, that of Villers en Couché on April 24, and that of Troisoille
(or Cateau) on the 26th. In the statement communicated by MR. SIMPSON
(_Ibid._ p. 8.), there appears to be some confusion between the particulars
of the two engagements.

H. L. MANSEL, B.D.

St. John's College, Oxford

As the action at Villers en Couché has lately been brought before your
readers, allow me to direct your correspondent to the _Journals and
Correspondence of Sir Harry Calvert_, edited by Sir Harry Verney, and just
published by Messrs. Hurst and Co.,--a book which contains a good deal of
valuable information respecting a memorable campaign. Sir Harry Calvert,
under the date of the 25th of April, 1794, thus describes the action at
Villers en Couché:

    "Since Tuesday, as I foresaw was likely, we have been a good deal on
    the _qui vive_. On Wednesday morning we had information that the enemy
    had moved in considerable force from the Camp de César, and early in
    the afternoon we learned that they had crossed the Selle at Saultzoir,
    and pushed patrols towards Quesnoy and Valenciennes. The Duke [of York]
    sent orders to General Otto, who had gone out to Cambray on a
    reconnoitring party with light dragoons and hussars, to get into the
    rear of the enemy, find out their strength, and endeavour to cut them
    off. The enemy retired to Villers en Couché that night, but occupied
    Saultzoir and Haussy. Otto, fielding their strength greater than he
    expected, about 14,000, early in the evening sent in for a brigade of
    heavy cavalry for his support, which marched first to Fontaine
    Antarque, and afterwards to St. Hilaire; and in the night he sent for a
    farther support of four battalions and some artillery. Unfortunately he
    confided this important mission to a hussar, who never delivered it,
    probably having lost his way, so that, in the morning, the general
    found himself under the necessity of attacking with very inferior
    numbers. However, by repeated charges of his light cavalry, he drove
    the enemy back into their camp, and took three pieces of cannon. He
    had, at one time, taken eight; but the enemy, bringing up repeated
    reinforcements of fresh troops, retook five.

    "Our loss I cannot yet ascertain, but I fear the 15th Light Dragoons
    have suffered considerably. Two battalions of the enemy are entirely
    destroyed."

The especial bravery of the troops engaged on the 26th, which is another
subject noticed by your correspondent BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM. prompted the
following entry on his journal by Sir Harry Calvert:

    "April 26.--The enemy made a general attack on the camp of the allies.
    On their approaching the right of the camp, the Duke of York directed a
    column of heavy cavalry, consisting of the regiment of Zedwitsch
    Cuirassiers, the Blues, Royals, 1st, 3rd, and 5th Dragoon Guards, to
    turn the enemy, or endeavour to take them in flank, which service they
    performed in a style beyond all praise, charging repeatedly through the
    enemy's column, and taking twenty-six pieces of cannon. The light
    dragoons and hussars took nine pieces on the left of the Duke's camp."

Sir Harry Verney has printed in an Appendix his father's well-considered
plans for the defence of the country against the invasion anticipated in
1796.

J. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

ATTAINMENT OF MAJORITY.

(Vol. viii., pp. 198. 250. 296.)

The misunderstanding which has arisen between PROFESSOR DE MORGAN and
A. E. B. has proceeded, it appears, from the misapplication of the
statement of the latter's authority (Arthur Hopton) to the question at
issue. Where Hopton says that our lawyers count their day from sunrise to
sunset, he, I am of opinion, merely refers to certain instances, such as
distress for rent:

    "A man cannot distrain for rent or rent-charge in the night (which,
    according to the author of _The Mirror_, is after sunset and before
    sunrising)."--_Impey on Distress and Replevin_, p. 49.

In common law, the day is now supposed among lawyers to be from six in the
morning to seven at night for service of notices; in Chancery till eight at
night. And a service after such times at night {372} would be counted as
good only for the next day. In the case of Liffin _v._ Pitcher, 1 _Dowl.
N. S._ 767., Justice Coleridge said, "I am in the habit of giving
twenty-four hours to plead when I give one day." Thus it will be perceived
that a lawyer's day is of different lengths.

With regard to the time at which a person arrives at majority, we have good
authority in support of PROFESSOR DE MORGAN'S statement:

    "So that full age in male or female is twenty-one years, which age is
    completed on the day preceding the anniversary of a person's birth, who
    till that time is an infant, and so styled in law."--Blackstone's
    _Commentaries_, vol. i. p. 463.

There is no doubt also that the law rejects fractions of a day where it is
possible:

    "It is clear that the law rejecteth all fractions of days for the
    uncertainty, and commonly allows him that hath part of the day in law
    to have the whole day, unless where it, by fraction or relation, may be
    a prejudice to a third person."--Sir O. Bridgm. l.

And in respect to the present case it is quite clear. In the case of Reg.
_v._ The Parish of St. Mary, Warwick, reported in the _Jurist_ (vol. xvii.
p. 551.), Lord Campbell said:

    "In some cases the Court does not regard the fraction of a day. Where
    the question is on what day a person came of age, the fraction of the
    day on which he was born and on which he came of age is not
    considered."

And farther on he says:

    "It is a general maxim that the law does not regard the fraction of a
    day."

RUSSELL GOLE.

I only treat misquotation as an _offence_ in the old sense of the word; and
courteously, but most positively, I deny the right of any one who quotes to
omit, or to alter emphasis, without stating what he has done. That A. E. B.
did misunderstand me, I was justified in inferring from his implication (p.
198. col. 2) that I made the day begin "a minute after midnight."

Arthur Hopton, whom A. E. B. quotes against me (but the quotation is from
chapter xiv., not xiii.), is wrong in his law. The lawyers, from Coke down
to our own time, give both days, the natural and artificial, as legal days.
See Coke Littleton (Index, _Day_), the current commentators on Blackstone,
and the usual law dictionaries.

Nevertheless, this discussion will serve the purpose. No one denies that
the day of majority now begins at midnight: no one pretends to prove, by
evidence of decisions, or opinion of writers on law, that it began
otherwise in 1600. How then did Ben Jonson make it begin, as clearly
A. E. B. shows he does, at six o'clock (meaning probably a certain
sunrise)? Hopton throws out the natural day altogether in a work on
chronology, and lays down the artificial day as the only one known to
lawyers: it is not wonderful that Jonson should have fallen into the same
mistake.

A. DE MORGAN.

       *       *       *       *       *

SIMILARITY OF IDEA IN ST. LUKE AND JUVENAL.

(Vol. viii., p. 195.)

I send, as a pendant to MR. WEIR'S lines from Juvenal, the following
extract from Cicero:

    "Sed in eâ es urbe, in quâ hæc, vel plura, et ornatiora, _parietes ipsi
    loqui_ posse videantur."--Cic. _Epist._, 1. vi. 3.: Torquato, Pearce's
    12mo. edition.

Most, if not all, of the readers of "N. & Q." are I believe, pleased by
having their attention drawn to parallel passages in which a similarity of
idea or thought is found. Let us adopt for conciseness the term "parallel
passages" (frequently used in "N. & Q."), as embracing every kind of
similarity. Contributions of such passages to "N. & Q." would form a very
interesting collection. I should be particularly pleased by a full
collection of parallel passages from the Scriptures and ancient and modern
literature, and especially Shakspeare. (See MR. BUCKTON'S "Shakspearian
Parallels," _antè_, p. 240.)

To prevent sending passages that have been inserted in "N. & Q.," every
note should refer to the note immediately preceding. I send the following
parallel passages with some hesitation, because I have not my volumes of
"N. & Q." at hand, to ascertain whether they have already appeared, and
because they are probably familiar to your readers. I do not, however, send
them as novelties, but as a contribution to the collection which I wish to
see made:

    "[Greek: Apo de tou mê echontos kai ho echei arthêsetai ap'
    autou.]"--_Matt._ xxv. 29., _Luke_ xix. 26.


 "Nil habuit Codrus. Quis enim hoc negat? et tamen illud
  Perdidit infelix totum nihil."--_Juvenal_, I. iii. 208.


The rich man says:

    "[Greek: Psuchê, echeis polla agatha keimena eis etê polla; anapauou,
    phage, pie, euphrainou]."--_Luke_ xii. 19.

    "Lo, this is the man that took not God for his strength but trusted
    unto the multitude of his riches."--_Ps._ lii. 8.

    "For he hath said in his heart, Tush, I shall never be cast down there
    shall no harm happen unto me."--_Ps._ x. 6., &c. (See _Obadiah_ v. 3.:
    "Who shall bring me down to the ground?")

So Niobe boasts:

 "Felix sum, quis enim hoc neget? felixque manebo.
  Hoc quoque quis dubitet? tutam me copia fecit.
  Major sum quam cui possit Fortuna nocere."--Ovid, _Met._ VI. 194.

{373}

    "[Greek: Ti de blepeis to karphos to en tôi ophthalmôi tou adelphou
    sou, tên de en tôi sôi ophthalmôi dokon ou katanoeis]."--_Matt._ vii.
    3.


 "Cum tua pervideas oculis mala lippus inunctis,
  Cur in amicorum vitiis tam cernis acutum,
  Quam aut aquila, aut serpens Epidaurius?"--Hor. _Serm._ I. iii. 25.

    "[Greek: Hê nux proekopsen, hê de hêmera êngiken]."--_Rom._ xiii. 12.

    "[Greek: All' iomen; mala gar nux anetai, enguthi d' êôs]."--Hom.
    _Iliad_, x. 251.

F. W. J.

Brighton.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Mr. Sisson's developing Fluid._--Since I sent you the new formula for MR.
SISSON'S positive developer, which you published in Vol. viii., p. 301.,
MR. SISSON has written to me to say that if, instead of the acetic acid,
you add two drachms of formic acid, the new agent proposed by MR. LYTE, you
certainly obtain the sweetest-toned positives he has ever seen. The
pictures, he says, come out very quickly with it indeed; and with a small
lens in a sitting-room he can in about ten seconds obtain the most
wonderful detail. Every wrinkle in the face, and ladies' lace ribbons or
cap-strings, he says, come out beautifully.

The formula then, as improved by MR. SISSON, is--

  Water                       5 oz.
  Protosulphate of iron       1½ drs.
  Nitrate of lead             1 dr.
  Formic acid                 2 drs.

Perhaps you will give your readers the benefit of it in your next Number.
Having tried it myself, I think they will be delighted with the beautiful
white silvery tone, without any metallic reflection, produced in pictures
developed with it.

J. LEACHMAN.

20. Compton Terrace, Islington.

_Dr. Diamond's Process for Albumenized Paper._--Photographers are under
many obligations to DR. DIAMOND, particularly for the valuable information
communicated through "N. & Q.," and his obligingness in answering
inquiries. I make no doubt he will readily reply to the following
questions, suggested by his late letter on the process for printing on
albumenized paper.

Will the solution of forty grains of common salt and forty grains of mur.
amm., _without the albumen_, be found to answer for ordinary positive paper
(say Canson's, Turner's, or Whatman's)? and, in that case, may it be
applied with a brush?

Will the forty-grain solution of nit. sil. (without amm.) answer for paper
so prepared? and may this also be applied with a brush?

Should the positives be printed out very strongly? and how long should they
remain in the _saturated_ bath of hypo.?

Is not the use of sel d'or subject to the objection that the pictures with
which it is used are liable to fade in time?

DR. DIAMOND says that pictures produced by the use of amm. nit. of silver
are not to be depended on for permanency. If this be so, it is very
important it should be known, as the use of amm. nit. is at present
generally recommended and adopted.

C. E. F.

_Mr. Lyte's New Process._--Although I presume it is none of your affair
what is said or done in "another place," will you kindly ask MR. LYTE for
me, if he will be so good as to explain the discrepancy which appears
between his "new processes," as given in the Journal of the Photographic
Society of Sept. 21, and "N. & Q." of Sept. 10? In the former he says, for
sensitizing, take (amongst other things) iodide of ammonia 60 grains: in
"N. & Q.," on the contrary, what would seem to be the same receipt, or
intended as the same, gives the quantity of this salt one fourth less, 45
grains--a vast difference. Again, in the developing solution the quantity
of formic acid is _double_ in your paper what it is in the journal.

I should not have trespassed on your space, but would have written to MR.
LYTE directly, except from the fear that some other unfortunate
practitioner may have stumbled over the same impediment as I have done, and
may not have had courage to make the inquiry.

S. B.

    [Having forwarded this communication to MR. LYTE, we have received from
    that gentleman the following explanations of his process, &c.]

The process which was published in the _Photographic Journal_ was, I am
sorry to say, not quite correct in its proportions, on account of a mistake
in inclosing the wrong letter to the Editor; but the mistake will, I trust,
be rectified by another communication which I have now sent.

The whole of the formulæ, however, as given in "N. & Q.," are quite
correct.

Let me now, however, trespass on your pages by a few more answers to
several other Querists, and which at the same time may be acceptable to
some of your readers.

1. The developing agents which are made with iron are very applicable as
baths to immerse the plate in; and the formic acid, from its powerful
deoxidizing property, renders the iron salt more stable during long use and
exposure to the air.

2. In coating paper with albumen, if the upper edge of the paper be
sufficiently turned back, and the paper be forced down sufficiently on to
the surface of the albumen, no bubbles will form; and {374} the operator
will not be troubled with the streaks so often complained of.

3. No time can possibly be fixed for the exposure of the positive to the
action of the hypo.; and to produce the best effects, the positive must be
continually watched, both while printing and while in the hypo.

4. No hot iron should be applied to the positive after being printed, but
the picture should be allowed to dry spontaneously.

5. The developing agent with the pyrogallic and formic acids will keep good
a very long time, longer, I think, than that in which acetic acid is used,
but cannot be used as a dipping bath.

6. I find the formic acid which I obtain from different chemists rather
variable in its strength. What I use is rather below the average strength,
so that in general about six drachms of the commercial acid will suffice
where I use one ounce; but the excess seems to produce no bad result.

7. A great advantage of the pyrogallic developer which I recommend, is that
of its being able to be diluted to almost any extent, with no other result
than simply making the development slower. Another point is also worthy of
notice, viz. a method by which even a very weak positive on glass may be
converted into a very strong negative.

I take a saturated solution of bichloride of mercury in hydrochloric acid,
and add of this one to six parts of water. This I pour over the collodion
plate, and watch it till the whitening process is quite complete. Having
well washed the surface with water, I pour over it a solution of iodide of
potassium, very weak, not more than two or three grains to the ounce of
water. The effect of this is to turn the white parts to a brilliant yellow,
quite impervious to actinic rays. This process is only applicable to weak
negative or instantaneous pictures, as, if used on a picture of much
intensity, the opacity produced is too great. By using, however, instead of
the iodide of potassium, a weak solution of ammonia, as recommended by Mr.
Hunt, a less degree of intensity may be produced again a less intensity by
hyposulphate of soda and a less degree again, but still a slight darkening,
by pouring on the bichloride and pouring it off at once before the
whitening commences. I thus can tell the exact degree of negative effect in
any picture of whatever intensity. The terchloride of gold is most
uncertain in its results, at any rate I find it so.

I must again beg you to excuse the great length of my communication, and
hope it will be of service to my fellow photographers.

F. MAXWELL LYTE.

Florian, Torquay.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Derivation of the Word "Island_" (Vol. viii., p. 49.).--I have received
through the kindness of Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq., a copy of the
_Philological Journal_ for Feb. 21, 1851, in which my late observations on
the etymology of the word _island_ are shown to be almost identical with
his own, published more than two years ago, even the minutest particulars.
His own surprise on seeing my remarks must have been at least as great as
my own, on learning how singularly I had been anticipated; and those of
your readers who will refer to the number of the journal in question, will
be doubtless as much surprised as either of us.

This coincidence suggests two things: first, the truth of the etymology in
question, secondly, the excellency of that spirit which (as in this
instance) "thinketh no evil;" and, in so close a resemblance of ideas as
that before us, rather than at once start a charge of plagiarism, will
believe that it is possible for two persons, with similar habits of
thought, to arrive at the same end, and that, too, by singularly identical
means, when engaged on one and the same subject.

H. C. K.

---- Rectory, Hereford.

"_Pætus and Arria_" (Vol. viii., p. 219.).--As I have not observed a reply
to the Query respecting the author of _Pætus and Arria_, a tragedy, I beg
to state that the work was not written by a gentleman of the University of
Cambridge, but by Mr. Nicholson, son of Mr. Nicholson, a well-known and
highly respectable bookseller in Cambridge, in the early part of the
present century. The young man, who, besides being unfailing in his
attention to business, had a literary turn, and was attached to the fine
arts, died in the prime of life. After his death, the poor father, with
tears in his eyes, presented me with a copy of the tragedy. I am glad to
record this testimony to the character of persons well known to me during
several years.

[Greek: Martus Pistos].

"_That Swinney_" (Vol. viii, p. 213.).--I am well pleased with the manner
in which T. S. J. has unearthed "that Swinney," if indeed, as is very
probable, Sidney Swinney really was the man who interfered with _the great
unknown_. It may not be impertinent to state that Sidney Swinney, who was
of Clare Hall, Cambridge, became B.A. in 1744, M.A. in 1749, and D.D. (_per
saltum_) in 1763. It may also be worth noting that a George Swinney, of the
same college, became B.A. in 1767, and M.A. in 1770. This _George_ Swinney
_may_ have been _Sidney_ Swinney's son, or his near relation; and _may_
have been the man who went to Lord G. Sackville in July, 1769; but I think
this not likely. I will only observe farther that, in the "Graduati
Cantabrigienses," {375} the names are spelled _Swiney_; but changes of this
kind, by the parties themselves, are by no means uncommon.

The question, whether Swinney had ever _before_ spoken to Lord G.
Sackville, remains unanswered, although Junius most probably made a mistake
in that matter.

VALENTINE WESTON.

_The Six Gates of Troy_ (Vol. viii., p. 288.).--The passage of Dares
relative to the gates of Troy describes the deeds of Priam on succeeding to
the throne:

    "Priamus ut Ilium venit, minime moram fecit, ampliora moenia exstruxit,
    et civitatem munitissimam reddidit.... Regiam quoque ædificavit, et ibi
    Jovi Statori aram consecravit. Hectorem in Pæoniam misit, Ilio portas
    fecit, quarum hæc sunt nomina: Antenorea, Dardania, Ilia, Scæa,
    Thymbræa, Trojana. Deinde, postquam Ilium stabilitum vidit, tempus
    expectavit."--Chap. 4.

It will be observed that these six names correspond with the six names in
Shakspeare, except that Shakspeare, following some ignorant transcriber,
substitutes _Chetas_ for _Scæan_.

The work, consisting of forty-four short chapters, which has come down to
us under the title of _De Excidio Trojæ Historia_, by Dares Phrygius, is a
pseudonymous production, which cannot be placed earlier than the fifth or
sixth century. See the preface to the edition of Dederick, Bonnæ, 1835; or
the article "Dares," by Dr. Schmitz, in Dr. Smith's _Dictionary of Greek
and Roman Biography_. Other writers spoke of _four_ gates of Troy. (See
Heyne, _Exc._ XIV. _ad Æn._ II.)

L.

_Milton's Widow_ (Vol. vii., p. 596.; Vol. viii., pp. 12. 134.
200.).--Having noticed several Queries and Replies in your pages concerning
the family of the poet Milton's third wife, I beg to give the following
extracts from a pamphlet printed by Pullan of Chester so recently as 1851,
entitled _Historical Facts connected with Nantwich and its Neighbourhood_:

    "In that same year (1662), Milton was received at _Stoke Hall as the
    husband of Elizabeth Minshull_, _the grand-daughter of Geoffrey
    Minshull_."--P. 50. "Not far from the Hall, where Milton was _once a
    welcome visitor_, stands the Yew Tree House."

There can be little doubt the author of the pamphlet referred to derived
the information on which those statements were made from an _authentic
source_; and if so, it seems pretty clear, the _Elizabeth Minshull_ whom
Milton married was _grand-daughter of Geoffrey Minshull of Stoke Hall_.

T. P. L.

Manchester.

_Boom_ (Vol. vii., p. 620.; Vol. viii., p. 183.).--The Bittern is not an
uncommon bird in some parts of Wales, where it is very expressively called
_Aderyn-y-Bwn_ (the Boom-bird), or _Bwmp-y-Gors_ (Boom of the Fen): the _w_
is pronounced as double _o_.

W. R. D. S.

"_Nugget_" _not an American Term_ (Vol. vii. _passim_).--It is a mistake in
our correspondent to suppose that the word "nugget" was used in California
by American "diggers" to denominate a lump of gold. That word was never
heard of in this country until after the discoveries in Australia. It is
not used now in California, "lump" is the proper term; and when a miner
accumulates a quantity, he boasts of his "pile," or rejoices in the
possession of a "pocket full of rocks."

[Old English W].

Philadelphia.

_Soke Mill_ (Vol. viii., p. 272.).--Suit is not now enforced to the King's
Mills in the manor of Wrexham, in the county of Denbigh, but the lessee of
the manorial rights of the crown receives a payment at the rate of
threepence per bushel for all the malt ground in hand-mills within the
limits of the manor.

TAFFY.

_Binometrical Verse_ (Vol. viii., p. 292.).--This verse appeared in the
_Athenæum_ (Sept. 2, 1848, No. 1088, p. 883.), given by one correspondent
as having been previously forwarded by another; but it does not appear to
have been previously published.

M.

_Watch-paper Inscription_ (Vol. viii., p. 316.).--Twenty-five years ago
this inscription was set to music, and was popular in private circles. The
melody was moderately good, and the "monitory pulse-like beating" of course
was acted, perhaps over-acted, in the accompaniment. I am not sure it was
printed, but the fingers of young ladies produced a great many copies. Your
correspondent's version is quite accurate, and I think he must have heard
it sung, as well as read it. _Segnius irritant_, &c. is not true of what is
read as opposed to what is heard with music.

M.

_Dotinchem_ (Vol. viii., p. 151.).--Dotinchem appears to be the place which
is called _Deutichem_ in the map of the Netherlands and Belgian, published
by the Useful Knowledge Society in 1843, and _Deutekom_ in the map of the
kingdom of the Netherlands, published by the same society in 1830. Moreri
spells the name _Dotechem_, _Dotekom_, and _Dotekum_. It is situated on the
Yssel, south-east of Doesburg.

B. J.

_Reversible Names and Words_ (Vol. viii., p. 244.).--I cannot call to mind
any such _propria mascula_: but I think I can cast a doubt on your
correspondent's crotchet. Surely our _civic_ authorities (not even
excepting the _Mayor_) are veritable males, though sometimes deserving the
_sobriquet_ of "old women." Surveyors, builders, carpenters, {376} and
bricklayers are the only persons who use the _level_. On board ship, it is
the males who professionally attend at the _poop_. Our foreign-looking
friend _rotator_, at once suggestive of certain celebrated personages in
the lower house, is by termination masculine; and such members, in times of
political probation, never fail to show themselves _evitative_ rather than
plucky.

But some words are reversible in sense as well as in orthography. If a man
_draw_ "on" me, I should be to blame if at least I did not _ward_ "off" the
blow. Whom should we _repel_ sooner than the _leper_? Who will _live_
hereafter, if he be a doer of _evil_? We should always seek to _deliver_
him who is being _reviled_. Even Shakspeare was aware of the fact, that it
is a _God_ who breeds magots in a dead _dog_ (vide _Hamlet_). "Cum multis
aliis." The art of composing palindromes is one, at least, as instructive
as, and closely allied to, that of _de_-ciphering. If any one calls the
compositions in question "trash," I cannot better answer than in
palindrome, _Trash? even interpret Nineveh's art!_ for the deciphering of
the cuneiform character is both a respectable and a useful exercise of
ingenuity. The English language, however, is not susceptible of any great
amount of palindromic compositions. The Latin is, of all, the best adapted
for that fancy. I append an inscription for a hospital, which is a
paraphrase of a verse in the Psalms:

    "Acide me malo, sed non desola me, medica."

I doubt whether such compositions should ever be characterised by the term
_sotadic_. Sotadic verses were, I believe, restricted to indecent
love-songs.

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

_Detached Church Towers_ (Vol. vii. _passim_; Vol. viii., p. 63.).--At
Morpeth, in Northumberland, the old parish church stands on an eminence at
the distance of a mile from the town. In the market-place is a square clock
tower, the bells in which are used for ordinary parochial purposes.

At Kirkoswald, in Cumberland, where the church stands low, the belfry has
been erected on an adjoining hill.

E. H. A.

_Bishop Ferrar_ (Vol. viii., p. 103.).--Bishop Ferrar, martyred in Queen
Mary's reign, was not of the same family with the Ferrers, Earl of Derby
and Nottingham. Was your correspondent led to think so from the fact of the
martyr having been originally a bishop of the Isle of Man?

A LINEAL DESCENDANT OF THE MARTYR.

Cambridge.

"_They shot him by the nine stone rig_" (Vol. viii., p. 78.).--This
fragmentary ballad is to be found in the _Border Minstrelsy_. It was
contributed by R. Surtees of Mainsforth, co. Durham, and described by him
as having been taken down from the recitation of Anne Douglas, an old woman
who weeded in his garden. It is however most likely that it is altogether
factitious, and Mr. Surtees' own production, Anne Douglas being a pure
invention.

The ballad called "The Fray of Haltwhistle," a portion of which, "How the
Thirlwalls and the Ridleys a'," &c., is interwoven with the text in the
first canto of _Marmion_, is generally understood to have been composed by
Mr. Surtees. He, however, succeeded in palming it upon Scott as a genuine
old ballad; and states that he had it from the recitation of an ancient
dame, mother of one of the miners of Alston Moor. Scott's taste for old
legends and ballads was certainly not too discriminating, or he would never
have swallowed "The Fray of Haltwhistle." Perhaps he suspected its
authenticity, for he says of it:

 "Scantily Lord Marmion's ear could brook
    The harper's barbarous lay."

T. D. RIDLEY.

_Punning Devices_ (Vol. viii., p. 270.).--In the 4th volume of Surtees'
_History of Durham_, p. 48., there is an account of the Orchard Chamber in
Sledwish Hall:

    "In the centre is a shield of the arms of Clopton; being two coats
    quarterly, a lion rampant and a cross _pattée fitchée_; over all, a
    crescent for difference.[1] On two other shields, impressed from one
    mould, are the initials E. C., the date 1584, and a _tun_ with a rose
    _clapt on_."[2]

OLD GRUMBLEUM.

[Footnote 1: This note says the arms are reversed, being impressed from a
mould.]

[Footnote 2: "The crest of Clopton is a falcon _clapping_ his wings, and
rising from a tun; and I verily believe the rose _clapt on_ to be the
miserable quibble intended."]

_Ashman's Park_--_Wingfield's Portrait_ (Vol. viii., p. 299.).-Could any
correspondent in Suffolk inform me if Ashman's Park has been sold; and if
the pictures are anywhere to be found, especially that of Sir Anthony
Wingfield? The communication of H. C. K. relative to the above subject is
very interesting.

Q.

"_Crowns have their compass_," _&c._ (Vol. iv., p. 428.).--In the
well-known lines attributed to Shakspeare, and quoted in the above volume,
the third stands thus:

 "Of more than earth can earth make none partaker."

I find that Quarles has borrowed this in his _Emblems_, book i. Emblem vi.:

 "Of more than earth can earth make none possest."

HENRY H. BREEN.

St. Lucia.

{377}

_Ampers_ & (Vol. ii., pp.230. 284.; Vol. viii., pp. 173. 223. 284.).--Allow
me to thank both [Phi]. and MR. HENRY WALTER for their replies to my Query;
but I am unhappily no wiser than MR. LOWER was after [Phi].'s first
response. What on earth "et-per-se" or "and-per-se-and" can mean, I am at a
loss to imagine. Why should _et_ be called "_et_ by itself?" Until this
Query is answered, I am as much in the dark as ever. While I am upon the
matter, I would farther ask this mysterious _Ampers and_, "who gave thee
that name?" May it find a proxy to answer for it!

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

The origin of this expression is, explained in Vol. ii., p. 318. With
regard to the orthography of the word, it seems to me that, if the etymon
be followed, it ought to be written _and-per-se-and_; if the pronunciation,
_ampussy and_.

L.

_Throwing Old Shoes for Luck_ (Vol. vii., p. 411.).--There is an old rhyme
still extant, which gives an early date to this singular custom:

     "When Britons bold,
      Wedded of old,
  Sandals were backward thrown,
      The pair to tell,
      That, ill or well
  The act was all their own."

An octogenarian of my acquaintance informs me that he heard himself thus
anathematised when, leaving his native village with his bride, he refused
to comply with the extortionate demands of an Irish beggar:

 "Then it's bad luck goes wid yer,
    For my shoe I toss,
  An ye niver come back,
   'Twill be no great loss."

CHARLES REED.

_Ennui_ (Vol. vii., p. 478.).--It is a curious fact that in _English_,
properly so called, we have no word to express this certainly un-English
sensation, which we are obliged to borrow from our friends across the
channel. _They_ repay themselves with "comfortable," which is quite as
characteristically wanting in their vocabulary: so they lose nothing by the
exchange. Were we disposed to supply the gaps in our language, by using our
own native words (which is much to be desired), we might find a sufficient
(and I believe the only) synonyme in the Bedfordshire folk-word _unked_: at
any rate, it is near enough for us, for we neither require the word nor the
feeling it is meant to designate.

E. S. TAYLOR.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

FORD'S HANDBOOK OF SPAIN. Vol. I.

AUSTIN CHEIRONOMIA.

REV. E. IRVING'S ORATIONS ON DEATH, JUDGMENT, HEAVEN, AND HELL.

THOMAS GARDENER'S HISTORY OF DUNWICH.

MARSH'S HISTORY OF HURSLEY AND BADDESLEY. About 1805. 8vo. Two Copies.

NICEPHORUS CATENA ON THE PENTATEUCH.

PROCOPIUS GAZÆUS.

WATT'S BIBLIOGRAPHIA BRITANNICA. Parts V. and VI.

CARLYLE'S CHARTISM. Crown 8vo. 2nd Edition.

THE BUILDER, No. 520.

OSWALLI CROLLII OPERA. 12mo. Geneva, 1635.

GAFFARELL'S UNHEARD-OF CURIOSITIES. Translated by Chelmead. London. 12mo.
1650.

PAMPHLETS.

JUNIUS DISCOVERED. By P. T. Published about 1789.

REASONS FOR REJECTING THE EVIDENCE OF MR. ALMON, &c. 1807.

ANOTHER GUESS AT JUNIUS. Hookham. 1809.

THE AUTHOR OF JUNIUS DISCOVERED. Longmans. 1821.

THE CLAIMS OF SIR P. FRANCIS REFUTED. Longmans. 1822.

WHO WAS JUNIUS? Glynn. 1837.

SOME NEW FACTS, &c., by Sir F. Dwarris. 1850.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the
gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are
given for that purpose:

POINTER'S BRITANNIA ROMANA. Oxford, 1724.

POINTER'S ACCOUNT OF A ROMAN PAVEMENT AT STUNSFIELD, OXON. Oxford, 1713.

ROMAN STATIONS IN BRITAIN. London, 1726.

A SURVEY OF ROMAN ANTIQUITIES IN SOME MIDLAND COUNTIES. London, 1726.

    Wanted by _Rev. J. W. Hewett_, Bloxham, Banbury.

       *       *       *       *       *

THEOBALD'S SHAKSPEARE RESTORED. 4to. 1726.

G. MACROPEDII, HECASTUS, FABULA. Antwerp, 1539. 8vo.

G. MACROPEDII, FABULÆ COMICÆ. 2 Tom. 8vo. Utrecht, 1552.

    Wanted by _William J. Thoms_, 25. Holywell Street, Millbank,
    Westminster.

       *       *       *       *       *

INDICATIONS OF SPRING, by Robt. Marsham, Esq., F.R.S.

THE VILLAGE CURATE, by Hurdis.

CALENDAR OF FLORA, by Stillingfleete.

    Wanted by _J. B. Whitborne_, 54. Russell Terrace, Leamington.

       *       *       *       *       *


Notices to Correspondents.

BOOKS WANTED. _We believe that gentlemen in want of particular books,
either by way of loan or purchase, would find great facilities in obtaining
them if their names and addresses were published, so that parties having
the books might communicate directly with those who want them. Acting on
this belief, we shall take advantage of the recent alteration in the law
respecting advertisements, and in future, where our Correspondents desire
to avail themselves of this new arrangement, shall insert their names and
addresses--unless specially requested not to do so._

ALL COMMUNICATIONS _should be addressed to the Editor_, _to the care of_
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all cases of References to Books the editions referred to should be
specified_. _Every distinct subject should form a separate communication_;
_all inquiries respecting communications forwarded for insertion should
specify the subjects of such communications_.

ARTERUS (Dublin) _has not replied to our inquiry as to the book from which
he has transcribed the Latin verses which form the subject of his Query_.

OUR PROSPECTUS _has been reprinted at the suggestion of several
Correspondents_, _and we shall be happy to forward copies to any friends
who may desire to assist us by circulating them_.

SEMPER PARATUS. _We cannot afford the information desired. Out
Correspondent would probably be more successful on application to the
editor of the paper referred to._

{378}

J. R. (Bangor), _who inquires respecting_ Vox Populi Vox Dei, _is informed
that the proverb is found in_ William of Malmesbury; _and is referred for
its history to_ "N. & Q." Vol. i., pp. 370. 419. 492.; Vol. iii., pp. 288.
381.; _and M. Cornewall Lewis'_ Essay on the Influence of Authority in
Matters of Opinion, p. 172.

S. A. S. _is thanked. His hint will not be lost sight of._

A. Z. _We have received a_ Pedigree of the Reynolds Family _for this
Correspondent; where shall it be sent_?

_We are compelled to postpone until next week our_ NOTES ON BOOKS, _and_
REPLIES _to several other Correspondents_.

"NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vii., _price Three Guineas and a
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"NOTES AND QUERIES," _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO ALL WHO HAVE FARMS OR GARDENS.

THE GARDENERS CHRONICLE AND AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE.

(The Horticultural Part edited by PROF. LINDLEY.)

Of Saturday, October 8, contains Articles on

  Agriculture, Swiss, by Mr. Brown
  Agricultural progress
  ---- statistics
  Aphides, to kill, by Mr. Creed
  Asparagus, French
  Berberry blight
  Birds, instinct of, by the Rev. F. F. Statham
  Books noticed
  Bouyardias, scarlet
  British Association
  Calendar, horticultural
  ---- agricultural
  Camellia culture
  Charlock
  Corn averages and rents, by Mr. Willich
  Cuttings, to strike
  Diastema quinquevulnerum
  Draining clay
  Fibre, woody
  Fork, Mr. Mechi's steel
  Forking machine
  Hedges, ornamental
  Hitcham Horticultural Society
  Holly tree, by Mr. Brown
  Machines, forking
  Manure, liquid, and irrigation, by Mr. Mechi
  National Floricultural Society
  Nectarine, Stanwick, by Mr. Cramb
  Nymphæa gigantea, by M. Van Houtte
  Peas, late
  Pig farming
  Plants, woody fibre of
  ---- striking bedding
  ---- new
  Poultry shows
  Rents, and corn averages, by Mr. Willich
  Rye-grass, Italian
  Sinodendron cylindricum (with engraving)
  Statistics, agricultural
  Steam culture
  Village Horticultural Society
  Ward's (Mr.) garden
  Warrea quadrata
  Wheat, seed
  ---- sowing
  Wheel, when is it a lever
  Winter, tokens of
  Woody fibre

THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE AND AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE contains, in addition to
the above, the Covent garden, Mark Lane, Smithfield, and Liverpool prices,
with returns from the Potato, Hop, Hay, Coal, Timber, Bark, Wool and Seed
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transactions of the week_.

ORDER of any Newsvender. OFFICE for Advertisements, 5. Upper Wellington
Street, Covent Garden, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--Crystallised Nitrate of Silver, 4s. per oz. in bottle. All
other Photographic Chemicals at greatly reduced prices, and labelled with
Tests.

Orders addressed prepaid to JOHN THOMAS, 19. Chapel Street, Brixton Road,
Surrey, delivered Free within Ten miles. Not a Shop. List sent on receipt
of Stamp.

       *       *       *       *       *


CYANOGEN SOAP for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains.

Beware of purchasing spurious and worthless imitations of this valuable
detergent. The genuine is made only by the inventor, and is secured with a
red label pasted round each pot, bearing this signature and address:--

RICHARD W. THOMAS, Chemist, Manufacturer of pure Photographic Chemicals,
10. Pall Mall, and may be procured of all respectable Chemists in pots at
1s., 2s., and 3s. 6d. each, through MESSRS. EDWARDS, 67. St. Paul's
Churchyard, and MESSRS. BARCLAY & CO., Farringdon Street, Wholesale Agents.

       *       *       *       *       *


A Small Quantity of BLACK Prepared Paper, for taking off Monumental
Brasses, is required by a Gentleman. Address, stating Quantity and Price,
to H. D., 39. Esher Street, Kennington Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *


JUST PUBLISHED, PRICE FOURPENCE,

Or sent Free on Receipt of Six Postage Stamps,

FENNELL'S SHAKSPEARE REPOSITORY,

NO. III.

Containing the following Interesting Articles, viz. Discovery of some of
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other Relics, Shakspeare's Knowledge of Geography and the Classics
vindicated from Hypercritical and Pedantic Commentators; Curious old Song,
by John Grange; Notes on the Tempest, Gentlemen of Verona, and Merry Wives
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No. I. of the SHAKSPEARE REPOSITORY may be had, PRICE SIXPENCE, or sent
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No. II. PRICE FOURPENCE, or Six Postage Stamps; or Nos. I. II. and III.
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Address, JAMES H. FENNELL, 1. Warwick Court, Holborn, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles, consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS,
Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and
other travelling requisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on
receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening AS LARGE as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just out, price 2s.

A LETTER TO A CONVOCATION MAN, concerning the Rights Powers, and Privileges
of that Body, first published in 1697. Edited, with an Introduction and
Notes, by the REV. WILLIAM FRASER, B.C.L., Curate of Tor-Mohun.

    "No reader on the subject of Convocation can any longer allow his
    library to be without this very valuable and, until now, extremely
    scarce pamphlet."--_Western Courier._

Also, price 1s.

THE CONSTITUTIONAL NATURE OF THE CONVOCATIONS OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. By
the REV. WILLIAM FRASER, B.C.L.

    "This pamphlet has met with approval from several quarters; we must
    take it then as representing the opinions of a considerable number of
    convocation students."--_Synodalia._

London: J. MASTERS.

       *       *       *       *       *


RESTORATION OF THE BEAUCHAMP TOWER.

To be published by Subscription, with the sanction and under the immediate
patronage of General Viscount Combermere, G.C.B., G.C.H., Constable of the
Tower of London.

A SERIES OF DRAWINGS, to illustrate the Heraldry, Inscriptions, and Devices
carved on the Walls of the Beauchamp Tower of the Tower of London by
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Centuries, with Descriptive and Historical Letter-press. Price to
Subscribers, 15s.

Subscribers Names received, up to the 22nd of October, by W. R. DICK, Clerk
of the Works, Tower of London.

A List of subscribers will be given at the end of the Work.

       *       *       *       *       *


12mo., cloth, with Frontispiece, 2s. 6d.

THE VICAR AND HIS DUTIES: being Sketches of Clerical Life in a
Manufacturing Town Parish. By the REV. ALFRED GATTY.

    "As much a true effigy, though taken with pen and ink, as if Mr. Gatty
    had put that capital parish priest, the Vicar of Leeds, before his
    camera. To the many friends of Dr. Hook this little volume will be
    deeply interesting."--_Notes and Queries._

    "It unites the merit of lively and faithful sketching, sound
    principles, and popular style."--_Churchman's Magazine._

GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


BANK OF DEPOSIT.

7. St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar Square, London.

PARTIES desirous of INVESTING MONEY are requested to examine the Plan of
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Interest payable in January and July.

  PETER MORRISON,
  Managing Director.

Prospectuses free on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.

1. ALBERT TERRACE, NEW CROSS, HATCHAM, SURREY.

       *       *       *       *       *


ACHILLES LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY,--25. CANNON STREET, CITY.--The Advantages
offered by this Society are Security, Economy, and lower Rates of Premium
than most other Offices.

No charge is made for Policy Stamps or Medical Fees. Policies indisputable.

Loans granted to Policy-holders.

For the convenience of the Working Classes, Policies are issued as low as
20l., at the same Rates of Premium as larger Policies.

Prospectuses and full particulars may be obtained on application to

  HUGH B. TAPLIN, Secretary.

       *       *       *       *       *


{379}

INDIGESTION, CONSTIPATION, NERVOUSNESS, &c.--BARRY, DU BARRY & CO.'S
HEALTH-RESTORING FOOD for INVALIDS and INFANTS.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, the only natural, pleasant, and effectual
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and under all other circumstances, debility in the aged as well as infants,
fits, spasms, cramps, paralysis, &c.

_A few out of 50,000 Cures:--_

    Cure, No. 71, of dyspepsia; from the Right Hon. the Lord Stuart de
    Decies:--"I have derived considerable benefits from your Revalenta
    Arabica Food, and consider it due to yourselves and the public to
    authorise the publication of these lines.--STUART DE DECIES."

    Cure, No. 49,832:--"Fifty years' indescribable agony from dyspepsia,
    nervousness, asthma, cough, constipation, flatulency, spasms, sickness
    at the stomach, and vomitings have been removed by Du Barry's excellent
    food.--MARIA JOLLY, Wortham Ling, near Diss, Norfolk."

    Cure, No. 180:--"Twenty-five years' nervousness, constipation,
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    which no medicine could remove or relieve, have been effectually cured
    by Du Barry's food in a very short time.--W. R. REEVES, Pool Anthony,
    Tiverton."

    Cure, No. 4,208:--"Eight years' dyspepsia, nervousness, debility, with
    cramps, spasms, and nausea, for which my servant had consulted the
    advice of many, have been effectually removed by Du Barry's delicious
    food in a very short time. I shall be happy to answer any
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_Dr. Wurzer's Testimonial._

    "Bonn, July 19. 1852.

    "This light and pleasant Farina is one of the most excellent,
    nourishing, and restorative remedies, and supersedes, in many cases,
    all kinds of medicines. It is particularly useful in confined habit of
    body, as also diarrhoea, bowel complaints, affections of the kidneys
    and bladder, such as stone or gravel; inflammatory irritation and cramp
    of the urethra, cramp of the kidneys and bladder, strictures, and
    hemorrhoids. This really invaluable remedy is employed with the most
    satisfactory result, not only in bronchial and pulmonary complaints,
    where irritation and pain are to be removed, but also in pulmonary and
    bronchial consumption, in which it counteracts effectually the
    troublesome cough; and I am enabled with perfect truth to express the
    conviction that Du Barry's Revalenta Arabica is adapted to the cure of
    incipient hectic complaints and consumption.

    "DR. RUD WURZER.
    "Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. in Bonn."

London Agents:--Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her
Majesty the Queen; Hedges & Butler, 155. Regent Street; and through all
respectable grocers, chemists, and medicine venders. In canisters, suitably
packed for all climates, and with full instructions, 1lb. 2s. 9d.; 2lb. 4s.
6d.; 5lb. 11s.; 12lb. 22s.; super-refined, 5lb. 22s.; 10lb. 33s. The 10lb.
and 12lb. carriage free, on receipt of Post-office order.--Barry, Du Barry
Co., 77. Regent Street, London.

IMPORTANT CAUTION.--Many invalids having been seriously injured by spurious
imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta, Arabaca, and
others, the public will do well to see that each canister bears the name
BARRY, DU BARRY & CO., 77. Regent Street, London, in full, _without which
none is genuine_.

       *       *       *       *       *


WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

       *       *       *       *       *

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M. P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.
  T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
      Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions.
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION.--An EXHIBITION of PICTURES, by the most
celebrated French, Italian, and English Photographers, embracing Views of
the principal Countries and Cities of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent Process, One Guinea; Three extra
Copies for 10s.

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION, 168. NEW BOND STREET.

       *       *       *       *       *


DAGUERREOTYPE MATERIALS.--Plates. Cases. Passepartoutes. Best and Cheapest.
To be had in great variety at

McMILLAN'S Wholesale Depot, 132. Fleet Street.

Price List Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas, Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,

65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PICTURES.--A Selection of the above beautiful Productions
(comprising Views in VENICE, PARIS, RUSSIA, NUBIA, &c.) may be seen at
BLAND & LONG'S, 153. Fleet Street, where may also be procured Apparatus of
every Description, and pure Chemicals for the practice of Photography in
all its Branches.

Calotype, Daguerreotype, and Glass Pictures for the Stereoscope.

*** Catalogues may be had on application.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, Philosophical and Photographical Instrument
Makers, and Operative Chemists, 153. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodised Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER.--Negative and Positive Papers of Whatman's, Turner's,
Sanford's, and Canson Frères' make. Waxed-Paper for Le Gray's Process.
Iodized and Sensitive Paper for every kind of Photography.

Sold by JOHN SANFORD, Photographic Stationer, Aldine Chambers, 13.
Paternoster Row, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand. have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
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Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.--OTTEWILL'S REGISTERED DOUBLE-BODIED FOLDING CAMERA,
is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist,
from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment,
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Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames,
&c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road,
Islington.

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS, MATERIALS, and PURE CHEMICAL PREPARATIONS.

KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price of
the best forms of Cameras and other Apparatus. Voightlander and Son's
Lenses for Portraits and Views, together with the various Materials, and
pure Chemical Preparations required in practising the Photographic Art.
Forwarded free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


{380}

ARCHÆOLOGICAL WORKS

BY

JOHN YONGE AKERMAN,

FELLOW AND SECRETARY OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUITARIES OF LONDON.

       *       *       *       *       *

AN ARCHÆOLOGICAL INDEX to Remains of Antiquity of the Celtic,
Romano-British, and Anglo-Saxon Periods. 1 vol. 8vo., price 15s. cloth,
illustrated by numerous Engravings, comprising upwards of five hundred
objects.

A NUMISMATIC MANUAL. 1 vol. 8vo., price One Guinea.

    *** The Plates which illustrate this Volume are upon a novel plan, and
    will, at a glance, convey more information regarding the types of
    Greek, Roman, and English Coins, than can be obtained by many hours'
    careful reading Instead of a fac-simile Engraving being given of that
    which is already an enigma to the tyro, the most striking and
    characteristic features of the Coin are dissected and placed by
    themselves, so that the eye soon becomes familiar with them.

A DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE of Rare and Unedited Roman Coins, from the Earliest
Period to the taking of Rome under Constantine Paleologos. 2 vols. 8vo.,
numerous Plates, 30s.

COINS OF THE ROMANS relating to Britain. 1 vol. 8vo. Second Edition, with
an entirely new set of Plates, price 10s. 6d.

ANCIENT COINS of CITIES and Princes, Geographically arranged and described,
containing the Coins of Hispania, Gallia, and Britannia, with Plates of
several hundred examples. 1 vol. 8vo., price 18s.

NEW TESTAMENT, Numismatic Illustrations of the Narrative Portions of
the.--Fine Paper, numerous Woodcuts from the original Coins in various
Public and Private Collections. 1 vol. 8vo., price 5s. 6d.

AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY of ANCIENT and MODERN COINS. In 1 vol. fcp.
8vo., with numerous Wood Engravings from the original Coins, price 6s. 6d.
cloth.

    CONTENTS:--Section 1. Origin of Coinage--Greek Regal Coins. 2. Greek
    Civic Coins. 3. Greek Imperial Coins. 4. Origin of Roman
    Coinage--Consular Coins. 5. Roman Imperial Coins. 6. Roman British
    Coins. 7. Ancient British Coinage. 8. Anglo-Saxon Coinage. 9. English
    Coinage from the Conquest. 10. Scotch Coinage. 11. Coinage of Ireland.
    12. Anglo-Gallic Coins. 13. Continental Money in the Middle Ages. 14.
    Various Representatives of Coinage. 15. Forgeries in Ancient and Modern
    Times. 16. Table of Prices of English Coins realised at Public Sales.

TRADESMEN'S TOKENS, struck in London and its Vicinity, from the year 1648
to 1672 inclusive. Described from the Originals in the Collection of the
British Museum, &c. 15s.

REMAINS OF PAGAN SAXONDOM, principally from Tumuli in England. Publishing
in 4to., in Numbers, at 2s. 6d. With coloured Plates.

A GLOSSARY OF PROVINCIAL WORDS and PHRASES in Use in Wiltshire. 12mo., 3s.

THE NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE is Published Quarterly. Price 3s. 6d. each Number.

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PUBLISHED BY GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street, London.

SHORT MEDITATIONS for EVERY DAY in the YEAR. Edited by WALTER FARQUHAR
HOOK, D.D., 4 vols. fcap. 8vo., large type, 14s. cloth; 30s. morocco.

    "Remarkable for the freshness and vigour which are maintained
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    "All Church people will hail with heartfelt welcome this beautifully
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    of pious and intelligent readers."--_Church Sunday School Magazine._

THE CHRISTIAN TAUGHT by the CHURCH'S SERVICES. Edited by WALTER FARQUHAR
HOOK, D.D., Vicar of Leeds. New Edition, in 2 vols. fcap. 8vo., large type,
fine paper, 10s. calf, old style, 14s.

    "The plan is exceedingly good; the seasons of the Christian year are
    admirably marked by suitable contemplations."--_Christian
    Remembrancer._

HOLY THOUGHTS AND PRAYERS: arranged for Daily Use on Each Day of the Week,
according to the stated Hours of Prayer. New Edition, with Additions,
16mo., cloth, 2s.; calf, gilt edges, 3s.

    "Well arranged ... and from its ecclesiastical and devotional tone, is
    a valuable companion, especially for those whose occupation gives them
    opportunity for frequent religious exercises."--_Christian
    Remembrancer._

A COMPANION TO THE ALTAR. Edited by WALTER FARQUHAR HOOK, D.D. 18mo.,
cloth, 2s.; calf, gilt edges, 3s.

    "It has been reprinted for reasons which are well stated by the author
    in his original advertisement (1740):--'I have interwoven as many
    scriptural phrases as in the course of my reading I could find
    applicable to the subject. I have carefully avoided all rapturous
    expressions which can only suit a few persons, and have endeavoured to
    express myself in such a manner as may suit a young beginner in
    religion, as well as a greater proficient.'"--_Extract from Preface._

THE CHURCH SUNDAY SCHOOL HYMN BOOK. Edited by WALTER FARQUHAR HOOK, D.D.
Large paper, cloth, 1s. 6d.; calf, 3s. 6d.

*** For Cheap Editions of the above Five Books see List of the Devotional
Library.

VERSES for HOLY SEASONS. By C. F. H., Author of "Moral Songs," "The Baron's
Little Daughter," "The Lord of the Forest and his Vassals," &c. Edited by
WALTER FARQUHAR HOOK, D.D., Vicar of Leeds. Third edition, cloth, 3s.;
morocco, 6s. 6d.

    "An unpretending and highly useful book, suggestive of right thoughts
    at the right season."--_English Journal of Education._

SERMONS, SUGGESTED by the MIRACLES of our LORD and SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST. By
WALTER FARQUHAR HOOK, D.D., Vicar of Leeds. 2 vols. fcap. 8vo., 10s. cloth.
Vol. II. may be had separately, to complete sets.

These Sermons, preached every evening during Lent, are published by
request.

FIVE SERMONS; Preached before the University of Oxford. Third edition,
cloth, 3s.

A LETTER to his PARISHIONERS on the USE of the ATHANASIAN CREED. By WALTER
FARQUHAR HOOK, D.D., Vicar of Leeds. Sixth Edition, price 6d., or 4s. the
dozen.

London: GEORGE BELL.

       *       *       *       *       *


MURRAY'S HANDBOOKS FOR TRAVELLERS IN ITALY.

The following are now ready.

HANDBOOK FOR NORTH ITALY.--Being a Guide to SARDINIA, LOMBARDY, VENICE,
PARMA, PIACENZA, MODENA, LUCCA, FLORENCE, and TUSCANY, as far as the VAL
D'ARNO. With Maps and Plates. Post 8vo. 9s.

II.

HANDBOOK FOR CENTRAL ITALY. Part I.--Being a Guide to SOUTHERN TUSCANY and
the PAPAL STATES. With Maps and Plans. Post 8vo. 7s.

III.

HANDBOOK FOR CENTRAL ITALY, Part II.--Being a Guide to ROME and its
Environs. With Plan, Post 8vo. (Nearly Ready.)

IV.

HANDBOOK FOR SOUTHERN ITALY.--Being a guide to the CONTINENTAL PORTION of
the TWO SICILIES, including NAPLES, POMPEII, HERCULANEUM, VESUVIUS, BAY OF
NAPLES, &c. With Map and Plans. Post 8vo. 15s.

V.

HANDBOOK TO THE ITALIAN SCHOOLS OF PAINTING--From the German of Kugler.
With 100 Illustrations from the Old Masters. Post 8vo.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, No. CLXXXVI., is published on SATURDAY, OCTOBER 15th.

          CONTENTS:
  I. THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE.
  II. MURDER OF THOMAS A BECKET.
  III. THE DAUPHIN IN THE TEMPLE.
  IV.  THE HOLY PLACES.
  V. DIARY OF CASAUBON.
  VI. ELECTRO-BIOLOGY AND MESMERISM.
  VII. LIFE OF HAYDON.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready,

MURRAY'S MODERN DOMESTIC COOKERY BOOK. A New and Cheaper Edition, most
carefully revised and improved. With 100 Woodcuts. Price FIVE SHILLINGS,
strongly bound.

*** Of this Popular Work more than 210,000 Copies have been sold.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


COMPLETION OF THE WORK. cloth 1s.: by post, 1s. 6d., p. 192.--WELSH
SKETCHES, THIRD (and Last) SERIES. By the Author of "Proposals for
Christian Union."--Contents: 1. Edward the Black Prince. 2. Owen Glendower,
Prince of Wales. 3. Mediæval Bardism. 4. The Welsh Church.

    "Will be read with great satisfaction, not only by all sons of the
    principality, but by all who look with interest on that portion of our
    island in which the last traces of our ancient British race and
    language still linger."--_Notes and Queries._

London: JAMES DARLING. 81. Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street. in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid--Saturday, October
15, 1853.

       *       *       *       *       *


Corrections made to printed original.

page 359, "take its meaning from lic": 'form lic' in original

page 360, "a biography of the Hakem": 'Hamsah, the Hakem' in original,
corrected by errata in Issue 208.

page 364, "dated Renfrew, Feb. 15, 1753": '1653' in original, corrected by
errata in Issue 208.

page 378, "All other Photographic Chemicals": 'other' repeated in original.





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