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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 213, November 26, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 213, November 26, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Geneologists, etc." ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

generously made available by The Internet Library of Early

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 213.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                              Page

    The State Prison in the Tower, by William Sidney
      Gibson                                             509
    Inedited Letter from Henry VIII. of England to
      James V. of Scotland, by Thos. Nimmo               510
    Handbook to the Library of the British Museum, by
      Bolton Corney                                      511

    FOLK LORE:--Derbyshire Folk Lore--Weather Superstitions
      --Weather Rhymes, &c.--Folk Lore in
      Cambridgeshire                                     512
    Rapping no Novelty, by D. Jardine                    512

    MINOR NOTES:--Bond a Poet--The late Harvest
      --Misquotation--Epitaph in Ireland--Reynolds
      (Sir Joshua's) Baptism--Tradescant                 513


    Grammar in relation to Logic, by C. Mansfield Ingleby      514
    The Coronet [Crown] of Llewelyn ap Griffith, Prince
      of Wales                                           514

    MINOR QUERIES:--Monumental Brass at Wanlip,
      co. Leicester, and Sepulchral Inscriptions in English
      --Influence of Politics on Fashion--Rev. W. Rondall
      --Henry, third Earl of Northumberland--"When we
      survey," &c.--Turnbull's Continuation of Robertson
      --An Heraldic Query--Osborn filius Herfasti--
      Jews in China--Derivation of "Mammet"--Non-recurring
      Diseases--Warville--Dr. Doddridge--
      Pelasgi--Huc's Travels--The Mousehunt--Lockwood,
      the Court Jester--Right of redeeming Property      515

    MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Dictionary of Zingari
      --Sir Robert Coke--Regium Donum--Who
      was the Author of "Jerningham" and "Doveton?"
      --Alma Mater                                       517


    Alexander Clark                                      517
    Amcotts Pedigree, by W. S. Hesleden                  518
    Sir Ralph Winwood, by the Rev. W. Sneyd              519
    Trench on Proverbs, by the Rev. M. Margollouth, &c.       519
    On Palindromes, by Charles Reed, &c.                 520

      Temple Lands in Scotland--Lewis and Sewell
      Families--Pharaoh's Ring--"Could we with ink,"
      &c.--"Populus vult decipi"--Red Hair--"Land
      of Green Ginger"--"I put a spoke in his wheel"
      --Pagoda--Passage in Virgil--To speak in Lute-string
      --Dog Latin--Longevity--Definition of a
      Proverb--Ireland a bastinadoed Elephant--Ennui
      --Belle Sauvage--History of York--Encore--
      "Hauling over the Coals"--The Words "Cash"
      and "Mob"--Ampers and--The Keate Family, of
      the Hoo, Herts--Hour-glasses--Marriage of Cousins
      --Waugh, Bishop of Carlisle--Marriage Service--
      Hoby, Family of--Cambridge Graduates--"I own
      I like not," &c.--"Topsy Turvy"--"When the
      Maggot bites," &c.                                 520


    Notes on Books, &c.                                  527
    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                         528
    Notices to Correspondents                            528
    Advertisements                                       528

       *       *       *       *       *



A paragraph has lately gone the round of the newspapers, in which, after
mentioning the alterations recently made in the Beauchamp Tower and the
opening of its "written walls" to public inspection, it is stated that this
Tower was formerly the place of confinement for state prisoners, and that
"Sir William Wallace and Queen Anne Boleyn" were amongst its inmates.

Now, I believe there is no historical authority for saying that "the
Scottish hero" was ever confined in the Tower of London; and it seems
certain that the unfortunate queen was a prisoner in the royal apartments,
which were in a different part of the fortress. But so many illustrious
persons are known to have been confined in the Beauchamp Tower, and its
walls preserve so many curious inscriptions--the undoubted autographs of
many of its unfortunate tenants--that it must always possess great

Speaking from memory, I cannot say whether the building known as the
Beauchamp (or Wakefield) Tower was even in existence in the time of Edward
I.; but my impression is, that its architecture is not of so early a time.
It is, I believe, supposed to derive its name from the confinement in it of
Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, in 1397. Of course it was not the
only place of durance of state prisoners, but it was the prison of most of
the victims of Tudor cruelty who were confined in the Tower of London; and
the walls of the principal chamber which is on the first storey, and was,
until lately, used as a mess-room for the officers, are covered in some
parts with those curious inscriptions by prisoners which were first
described in a paper read before the Society of Antiquaries in 1796, by the
Rev. J. Brand, and published in the thirteenth volume of _The Archæologia_.

Mr. P. Cunningham, in his excellent _Handbook_, says:

    "William Wallace was lodged as a prisoner on his first arrival in
    London in the house of William de Leyre, a citizen, in the parish of
    All Hallows Staining, at the end of Fenchurch Street."


Mr. Cunningham, in his notice of the Tower, mentions Wallace first among
the eminent persons who have been confined there. The popular accounts of
the Tower do the like. It was about the Feast of the Assumption (Aug. 15)
that Wallace was taken and conducted to London; and it seems clear that he
was forthwith imprisoned in the citizen's house:

    "He was lodged," says Stow, "in the house of William Delect, a citizen
    of London, in Fenchurch Street. On the morrow, being the eve of St.
    Bartholomew (23rd Aug.), he was brought on horseback to Westminster ...
    the mayor, sheriffs, and aldermen of London accompanying him; and in
    the Great Hall at Westminster ... being impeached," &c.

The authorities cited are, Adam Merimuth and Thomas de La More. His
arraignment and condemnation on the Vigil of St. Bartholomew are also
mentioned by Matthew Westminster, p. 451. Neither these historians, or Stow
or Holinshed, afford any farther information. The latter chronicler says
that Wallace was "condemned, and thereupon hanged" (_Chron._, fol., 1586,
vol. ii. p. 313.). He was executed at Smithfield; and it is not improbable
that, if, after his condemnation, he was taken to any place of safe
custody, he was lodged in Newgate. The following entry of the expenses of
the sheriffs attending his execution is on the Chancellor's Roll of 33 Edw.
I. in the British Museum:

    "Et in expen[=s] [=t] misis [=f]cis [crossed p] eos[=d] Vice^{tes}
    [crossed p] Willo le Walleys Scoto lat^one predone puplico utlagato
    inimico et rebellione [Rx] qui in contemptu [Rx] [crossed p] Scociam se
    Regem Scocie falso fec[=a]t n[=o]iare [=t] [=t] ministros [Rx] in
    [crossed p]t[=i]bus Scocie in[=t]fecit at[crossed q] dux^t excercit[=u]
    hostili[=t] contr^a Reg[=e] [crossed p] judici[=u] Cu[=r] [Rx] apud
    West[=m] dist^ahendo suspendendo decollando e[=j] viscera concremando
    ac e[=j] corpus q^arterando cu[=j] cor[crossed p]is quar[=t]ia ad iiij
    majores villas Scocie t^asmittebantur hoc anno.... _£_xj s. xd."

The day of the trial, August 23, is generally given the date of his
execution. It therefore appears that the formidable Scot never was a
prisoner in the Tower.

The unfortunate Queen Anne Boleyn occupied the royal apartments while she
was a prisoner in the Tower. From Speed's narrative, it appears that she
continued to occupy them after she was condemned to death. On May 15 (1536)
she was (says Stow)

    "Arraigned in the Tower on a scaffold made for the purpose in the
    King's Hall; and after her condemnation, she was conveyed to ward
    again, the Lady Kingston, and the Lady Boloigne her aunt, attending on

On May 19, the unfortunate queen was led forth to "the green by the White
Tower" and beheaded.

In the record of her trial before the Duke of Norfolk, Lord High Steward
(see _Report of Deputy Keeper of Public Records_), she is ordered to be
taken back to "the king's prison within the Tower;" but these are words of
form. The oral tradition cannot in this case be relied upon, for it pointed
out the Martin Tower as the place of her imprisonment because, as I
believe, her name was found rudely inscribed upon the wall. The Beauchamp
Tower seems to have been named only because it was the ordinary state
prison at the time. The narrative quoted by Speed shows, however, that the
place of her imprisonment was the queen's lodging, where the fading honours
of royalty still surrounded Anne Boleyn.



       *       *       *       *       *


I lately transcribed several very interesting original manuscripts, chiefly
of the seventeenth century, but some of an earlier date, and now send you a
literal specimen of one evidently belonging to the sixteenth century;
although, notwithstanding the day of the month is given, the year is not.
If you think it worthy of a place in your very excellent publication, you
are quite at liberty to make use of it, and I shall be happy to send you
some of the others, if you choose to accept them. They chiefly relate to
the period when the Duke of Lauderdale was commissioner for Scotch affairs
at the English Court; and one appears to be a letter addressed by the
members of the Scottish College at Paris to James I. on the death of his


    Right excellent right high and mighty prince, our most dereste brother
    and nephew, we recommende us unto you in our most hertee and affectuous
    maner by this berer, your familyar servitor, David Wood. We have not
    only receyved your most loving and kinde let^s declaring how moch ye
    tendre and regarde the conservation and mayntennance of good amytie
    betwene us, roted and grounded as well in proximitie of blood as in the
    good offices, actes, and doyngs shewed in our partie, whiche ye to our
    greate comforte afferme and confesse to be daylly more and more in your
    consideration and remembraunce (but also two caste of fair haukes,
    whiche presented in your name and sent by youe we take in most
    thankfull parte), and give youe our most hertie thanks for the same,
    taking greate comforte and consolacion to perceyve and understande by
    your said letters, and the credence comitted to your said familyar
    servitor David Wood, which we have redd and considered (and also send
    unto youe with these our letters answer unto the same) that ye like a
    {511} good and uertuous prince, have somoche to herte and mynde the god
    rule and order uppon the borders (with redresse and reformacion of such
    attemptats as have been comytted and done in the same), not doubting
    but if ye for your partie as we intende for ours (doe effectually
    persiste and contynue in so good and uertuose purpose and intente), not
    only our realmes and subjectts shall lyue quyetly and peasably without
    occasion of breche, but also we their heddes and gouernors shall so
    encrease and augment our syncere love and affec[=o]n as shall be to the
    indissoluble assurammente of good peace and suretie to the inestimable
    benefit, wealth, and comoditie of us our realmes and subjectts

    Right excellent right high and mightie prynce, our most derest brother
    and nephew, the blessed Trynytie have you in his government.

    Given under our signet at Yorke place besides Westminster, the 7th day
    of December.

      Your lovyng brother and uncle,
          HENRY VIII.

    [This letter, which is not included in the _State Papers_, "King Henry
    VIII.," published by the Record Commissioners, was probably written on
    the 7th December, 1524-25, as in the fourth volume of that collection
    is a letter from Magnus to Wolsey, in which he says, p. 301.: "Davy
    Wood came hoome about the same tyme, and sithenne his hider comming
    hath doone, and continually dooth myche good, making honourable reaport
    not oonly to the Quenes Grace, but also to all other. He is worthy
    thankes and gramerces." This David Wod, or Wood, was a servant of the
    queen, Margaret of Scotland.]

       *       *       *       *       *


In the _Report_ of the royal commissioners on the British Museum, printed
in 1850, we read--

    "We are of opinion that, with reference to such a measure as the one
    now suggested [giving information to persons at a distance as to the
    existence of works in the library], and to other measures and
    regulations generally affecting the use of the library, it is desirable
    to prepare and publish a compendious _Guide to the reading-room_, as
    described and _suggested_ by lord Seymour at Q. 9521."

The reference is erroneous. At Q. 9521. there is not a word on the subject!
At Q. 9522. we read--

    "(_Lord Seymour_--to Antonio Panizzi, Esq.) You have heard also _some
    witnesses_ state that it would be a great advantage to those who
    frequent the reading-room if they had put into their hands some short
    printed guide to the reading-room, to tell them what books of reference
    there were, and to tell them how they were to proceed to get books, and
    other information, from the want of which they state they have been at
    a great loss? (_Mr. Panizzi._) I do not believe that it is often the
    case that persons are at a loss for want of such a guide, but _it might
    be done_," etc.

Now, the suggestion of a _short printed guide to the reading-room_ was
evidently considered as of some importance. The principle of SUUM CUIQUE is
also of some importance. We observe that lord Seymour the examiner ascribes
the suggestion to _some witnesses_--but lord Seymour the reporter claims
the credit of it for himself! It is the after-thought of his lordship of
which I have to complain.

If we turn to the evidence, it will appear that Mr. Peter Cunningham
suggested a printed "catalogue of the books in the reading-room," Q.
4800.--I must now speak of myself. When summoned before the commissioners
as a witness, I took with me the printed _Directions respecting the
reading-room_ for the express purpose of pointing out their inconsistency
and insufficiency, and of advocating the preparation of a guide-book.

I cannot repeat my arguments. It would occupy too much space. I can only
refer to the questions 6106-6116. The substance is this:--I contended that
every person admitted to the reading-room should be furnished with
instructions _how to proceed_--instructions as to the _catalogues which he
should consult_--and instructions for _asking for the books_. On that
evidence rests my claim to the credit of having suggested a _Guide to the
reading-room_. Its validity shall be left to the decision of those who
venerate the motto of Tom Hearne--SUUM CUIQUE.

The trustees of the British Museum seem to have paid no attention to the
recommendation of the royal commissioners. They issue the same _Directions_
as before. _After_ you have obtained admission to the reading-room, you are
furnished with instructions as to the mode of obtaining it!--but you have
no guide to the numerous catalogues.

What Mr. Antonio Panizzi, the keeper of the department of printed books,
says _might be done_, Mr. Richard Sims, of the department of manuscripts,
says _shall be done_. His _Handbook to the library of the British Museum_
is a very comprehensive and instructive volume. It is a triumphant
refutation of the opinions of those who, to the vast injury of literature,
and serious inconvenience of men of letters, slight common sense and real
utility in favour of visionary schemes and pedantic elaboration.

There is no want of precedents for a work of this class, either abroad or
at home. As to the public library at Paris--I observe, in my own small
collection, an _Essai historique sur la bibliothèque du roi_, par M. le
Prince; a _Histoire du cabinet des médailles_, par M. Marion du Mersan; a
_Notice des estampes_, par M. Duchesne, &c.

For a precedent at home, I shall refer to the _Synopsis of the contents of
the British Museum_. The _first_ edition of that interesting work, with the
{512} valued autograph of _G. Shaw_, is now before me. It is dated in 1808.
I have also the _sixtieth_ edition, printed in this year. I cannot expect
to see a sixtieth edition of the _Handbook_, but it deserves to be placed
by the side of the _Synopsis_, and I venture to predict for it a wide


       *       *       *       *       *


_Derbyshire Folk Lore._--Many years ago I learned the following verses in
Derbyshire, with reference to magpies:

 "One is a sign of sorrow; two are a sign of mirth;
  Three are a sign of a wedding; and four a sign of a birth."

The opinion that a swarm of bees settling on a dead tree forebodes a death
in the family also prevails in Derbyshire.

In that county also there is an opinion that a dog howling before a house
is an indication that some one is dying within the house; and I remember an
instance where, as I heard at the time, a dog continued howling in a street
in front of a house in which a lady was dying.

It is also a prevalent notion that if the sun shines through the
apple-trees on Christmas Day, there will be an abundant crop the following

I never heard the croaking of a raven or carrion crow mentioned as an
indication of anything, which is very remarkable, as well on account of its
ill-omened sound, as because it was so much noticed by the Romans.

S. G. C.

_Weather Superstitions._--If it rains much during the twelve days after
Christmas Day, it will be a wet year. So say the country people.

"If there is anything in this, 1853 will be a wet year, for it has rained
_every_ day of the twelve." So wrote I under date January 9.

No one, I think, will deny that for once the shaft has hit the mark.



_Weather Rhymes, &c._--The following are very common in Northamptonshire:

 "Rain before seven,
  Fine before eleven."

 "Fine on Friday, fine on Sunday.
  Wet on Friday, wet on Sunday."

 "The wind blows cold
  On Burton Hold (Wold).
    Can you spell _that_ with four letters?
    I can spell _it_ with two."

Burton Hold, or Wold, is near Burton Latimer.

B. H. C.

_Folk Lore in Cambridgeshire_ (Vol. viii., p. 382.).--The custom referred
to by MR. MIDDLETON, of ringing the church bell early in the morning for
the gleaners to repair to the fields, and again in the evening for their
return home, is still kept up not only at Hildersham, but also in most of
the villages in this neighbourhood. I have heard this "gleaners' bell"
several times during this present autumn; the object of course being to
give all parties a fair and equal chance. Upon one occasion, where the
villages lie rather close together, I heard four of these bells sounding
their recall from different church towers; and as I was upon an eminence
from whence I could see the different groups wending their way to their
respective villages, it formed one of the most striking pastoral pictures I
have ever witnessed, such, perhaps, as England alone can furnish.



       *       *       *       *       *


It may be interesting to the believers in modern miracles to learn that at
all events "rapping" is no new thing. I now send you the account of an
incident in the sixteenth century, which bears a strong resemblance to some
of those veracious narrations which have enlightened mankind in the
nineteenth century.

Rushton Hall, near Kettering in Northamptonshire, was long the residence of
the ancient and distinguished family of Treshams. In the reign of Queen
Elizabeth, the mansion was occupied by Sir Thomas Tresham, who was a pedant
and a fanatic; but who was an important character in his time by reason of
his great wealth and powerful connexions. There is a lodge at Rushton,
situate about half a mile from the old hall, now in ruins; but covered all
over, within and without, with emblems of the Trinity. This lodge is known
to have been built by Sir Thomas Tresham; but his precise motive for
selecting this mode of illustrating his favourite doctrine was unknown
until it appeared from a letter written by himself about the year 1584, and
discovered in a bundle of books and papers inclosed, since 1605, in a wall
in the old mansion, and brought to light about twenty years ago. The
following relation of a "rapping" or "knocking" is extracted from this

    "If it be demanded why I labour so much in the Trinity and Passion of
    Christ to depaint in this chamber, this is the principal instance
    thereof; That at my last being hither committed[1], and I usually
    having my servants here allowed me, to read nightly an hour to me after
    supper, it fortuned that Fulcis, my then servant, reading in the
    _Christian Resolution_, in the treatise of _Proof that there is a God,
    &c._, there was upon a wainscot table at that instant three loud knocks
    {513} (as if it had been with an iron hammer) given; to the great
    amazing of me and my two servants, Fulcis and Nilkton."


[Footnote 1: This refers to his commitments for recusancy, which had been

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Bond a Poet, 1642, O.S._--In the _Perfect Diurnall_, March 29, 1642, we
have the following curious notice:

    "Upon the meeting of the House of Lords, there was complaint made
    against one Bond, a poet, for making a scandalous letter in the queen's
    name, sent from the Hague to the king at York. The said Bond attended
    upon order, and was examined, and found a delinquent; upon which they
    voted him to stand in the pillory several market days in the new Palace
    (Yard), Westminster, and other places, and committed him to the
    Gatehouse, besides a long imprisonment during the pleasure of the
    house: and they farther ordered that as many of the said letter as
    could be found should be burnt."

His recantation, which he afterwards made, is in the British Museum.


_The late Harvest._--In connexion with the present late and disastrous
harvest, permit me to contribute a distich current, as an old farmer
observed to-day, "when I was a boy:"

 "When we carry wheat o' the fourteenth of October,
  Then every man goeth home sober."

Meaning that the prospect of the "yield" was not good enough to permit the
labourers to get drunk upon it.



_Misquotation._--In an article entitled "Popular Ballads of the English
Peasantry," a correspondent of "N. & Q." (Vol. v., p. 603.) quotes as "that
spirit-stirring stanza of _immortal John_," the lines:

 "Jesus, the name high over all," &c.

These lines were not written by _John_, but by _Charles Wesley_. Here is
the proof:

1st. A hymn of which the stanza quoted is the first, appears (p. 40.) in
the _Collection of Hymns_ published by John Wesley in 1779; but in the
preface he says, "but a small part of these hymns are of my own composing."

2nd. In his _Plain Account of Christian Perfection_, he says:

    "In the year 1749, my brother printed two volumes of _Hymns and Sacred
    Poems_. As I _did not see them_ before they were published, there were
    some things in them which I did not approve of; but I quite approved of
    the main of the hymns on this head."--_Works_, vol. xi. p. 376., 12mo.
    ed. 1841.

3rd. The lines quoted by your correspondent form the ninth stanza of a hymn
of twenty-two stanzas (which includes the six in John Wesley's
_Collection_), written "after preaching (in a church)," and published in
"_Hymns and Sacred Poems_. In two volumes. By Charles Wesley, M.A., Student
of Christ Church, Oxford. Bristol: printed and sold by Felix Farley, 1749."
A copy is in my possession. The hymn is No. 194.; and the stanza referred
to will be found in vol. i. p. 306.



_Epitaph in Ireland._--The following lines were transcribed by me, and form
part of an epitaph upon a tombstone or mural slab, which many years past
was to be found in (if I mistake not) the churchyard of Old Kilcullen, co.

 "Ye wiley youths, as you pass by,
  Look on my grave with weeping eye:
  Waste not your _strenth_ before it blossom,
  For if you do _yous_ will _shurdley_ want it."



_Reynolds (Sir Joshua's) Baptism._--I have been favoured by the incumbent
of Plympton S. Maurice with a copy of the following entry in the Register
of Baptisms of that parish, together with the appended note; which, if the
fact be not generally known, may be of interest to your correspondent A. Z.
(Vol. viii., p. 102.) as well as to others among the readers of "N. & Q.":

    "1723. Joseph, son of Samuel Reynolds, clerk, baptised July the 30th."

On another page is the following memorandum:

    "In the entry of baptisms for the year 1723, the person by mistake
    named _Joseph_, son of Samuel Reynolds, clerk, baptized July 30th, was
    _Joshua_ Reynolds, the celebrated painter, who died February 23, 1792."

Samuel Reynolds, the father, was master of Plympton Grammar School from
about 1715 to 1745, in which year he died. During that period his name
appears once in the parish book, in the year 1742, as "minister for the
time being" (not incumbent of the parish): the Rev. Geo. Langworthy having
been the incumbent from 1736 to 1745, both inclusive.

Query, Was Sir Joshua by mistake _baptized Joseph_? or was the mistake made
after baptism, in _registering the name_?



_Tradescant._--The pages of "N. & Q." have elicited and preserved so much
towards the history of John Tradescant and his family, that the
accompanying extract from the register of St. Nicholas Cole Abbey, in the
city of London, should have a place in one of its Numbers:

    "1638. _Marriages._--John Tradeskant of Lambeth, co. Surrey, and Hester
    Pooks of St. Bride's, London, maiden, married, by licence from Mr.
    Cooke, Oct. 1."


This lady erected the original monument in Lambeth churchyard upon the
death of her husband in 1662. She died 1678.


       *       *       *       *       *



Dr. Latham (_Outlines of Logic_, p. 21., 1847, and _English Language_, p.
510., 2nd edition) defines the conjunction to be a part of speech that
connects _propositions_, not _words_. His doctrine is so palpably and
demonstrably false, that I am somewhat at a loss to understand how a man of
his penetration can be so far deceived by a crotchet as to be blind to the
host of examples which point to the direct converse of his doctrine. Let
the learned Doctor try to resolve the sentence, _All men are either
two-legged, one-legged, or no-legged_, into three constituent propositions.
It cannot be done; _either_ and _or_ are here conjunctions which connect
words and not propositions. In the example, _John and James carry a
basket_, it is of course quite plain that the _logic_ of the matter is that
_John carries one portion of the basket, and James carries the rest_. But
to identify these two propositions with the first mentioned, is to confound
grammar with logic. The former deals with the method of expression, the
latter with the method of stating (in thought) and syllogising. To take
another example, _Charles and Thomas stole all the apples_. The fact
probably was, that Charles' pockets contained some of the apples, and
Thomas' pockets contained all the rest. But the business of grammar in the
above sentence is to regulate the _form_ of the expression, not to reason
upon the _matter_ expressed. A little thought will soon convince any person
accustomed to these subjects that _conjunctions always connect words, not
propositions_. The only work in which I leave seen Dr. Latham's fundamental
error exposed, is in Boole's _Mathematical Analysis of Logic_; the learned
author, though he seems unsettled on many matters of logic and metaphysics,
has clearly made up his mind on the point now under discussion. He says:

    "The proposition, every animal is _either_ rational _or_ irrational,
    cannot be resolved into, _Either_ every animal is rational, _or_ every
    animal is irrational. The former belong to pure categoricals, to latter
    to hypotheticals [Query _disjunctives_]. In _singular_ propositions
    such conversions would seem to be allowable. This animal is _either_
    rational _or_ irrational, is equivalent to, _Either_ this animal is
    rational, _or_ it is irrational. This peculiarity of _singular_
    propositions would almost justify our ranking them, though truly
    universals, in a separate class, as Ramus and his followers did."--P.

This certainly seems unanswerable.

If Dr. Latham is a reader of "N. & Q.," I should be glad if he would give
his reasons for adhering to his original doctrine in the face of such facts
as those I have instanced.



       *       *       *       *       *


A notice, transferred to _The Times_ of the 5th instant from a recent
number of _The Builder_, on the shrine of Edward the Confessor, after
mentioning that "to this shrine Edward I. offered the Scottish regalia and
the coronation chair, which is still preserved," adds, "Alphonso, about
1280, offered it the golden coronet of Llewelyn, Prince of Wales, and other

Who was Alphonso? And would the contributor of the notice favour the
readers of "N. & Q." with the authority _in extenso_ for the offering of
this coronet?

The period assigned for the offering is certainly too early; Llewelyn ap
Griffith, "the last sovereign of one of the most ancient ruling families of
Europe" (_Hist. of England_, by Sir James Mackintosh, vol. ii. p. 254.),
having been slain at Builth, Dec. 11, 1282. Warrington (_Hist. of. Wales_,
vol. ii. p. 271.), on the authority of Rymer's _Foedera_, vol. ii. p. 224.,
says: "Upon stripping Llewelyn there were found his Privy Seal; a paper
that was filled with dark expressions, and a list of names written in a
kind of cypher;" omitting, it will be observed, any reference to Llewelyn's
coronet. That monarch's crown was probably obtained and transmitted to
Edward I. on the capture, June 21, 1283, or shortly after, of his brother
David ap Griffith, Lord of Denbigh, who had assumed the Welsh throne on the
demise of Llewelyn; the Princess Catherine, the daughter and heir of the
latter, and _de jure_ sovereign Princess of Wales, being then an infant.
Warrington states (vol. ii. p. 285.) that when David was taken, a relic,
highly venerated by the Princes of Wales, was found upon him, called
_Crosseneych_, supposed to be a part of the real cross brought by St. Neots
into Wales from the Holy Land; and he adds that, besides the above relic,
which was voluntarily delivered up to Edward by a secretary of the late
Prince of Wales, "the crown of the celebrated King Arthur, with many
precious jewels, was about this time presented to Edward," citing as his
authorities _Annales Waverleienses_, p. 238.; Rymer's _Foedera_, vol. ii.
p. 247.

There are some particulars of these relics in the _Archæologia Cambrensis_;
but neither that periodical, nor the authorities referred to by Warrington,
are at the moment accessible to me.


       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Monumental Brass at Wanlip, Co. Leicester, and Sepulchral Inscriptions in
English._--In the church of Wanlip, near this town, is a fine brass of a
knight and his lady, and round the margin the following inscription,
divided at the corners of the slab by the Evangelistic symbols:

    "Here lyes Thomas Walssh, Knyght, lorde of Anlep, and dame Kat'ine his
    Wyfe, whiche in yer tyme made the Kirke of Anlep, and halud the
    Kirkyerd first, in Wirchip of God, and of oure lady, and seynt
    Nicholas, that God haue yer soules and mercy, Anno Dni mill[=m]o
    CCC^{mo} nonagesimo tercio."

Mr. Bloom states, in his _Mon. Arch. of Great Britain_, p. 210., that--

    "There are, perhaps, no sepulchral inscriptions in that tongue
    (English) _prior to the fifteenth century_; yet at almost the beginning
    of it, some are to be met with, and they became more common as the
    century drew to a close."

Is there any monumental inscription in English, earlier than the above
curious one, known to any of your correspondents?



_Influence of Politics on Fashion._--Can any one of the numerous readers of
"N. & Q." explain the meaning of the following passage of the note of p.
305. of Alison's _History of Europe_, 7th edition?--

    "A very curious work might be written on the influence of political
    events and ideas on the prevailing fashions both for men and women;
    there is always a certain analogy between them. Witness the
    shepherd-plaid trousers for gentlemen, and coarse shawls and muslins
    worn by ladies in Great Britain during the Reform fervour of 1832-4."


King William's College, Isle of Man.

_Rev. W. Rondall._--Can any of your correspondents give information
respecting the Rev. William Rondall, Vicar of Blackhampton, Devonshire
(1548), who translated into English a portion of the writings of the
learned Erasmus?


_Henry, third Earl of Northumberland._--The above nobleman fell on the
battle field of Towton (Yorkshire), 29th March, 1461, and was interred in
the church of St. Denys, or Dionisius, in York, where his tomb, denuded of
its brass, is still pointed out. Pray does an account exist, in any of our
old historians, as to the removal of the body of the above nobleman from
that dread field of slaughter to his mansion in Walmgate in the above city,
and of his interment, which doubtless was a strictly private one? Again,
does any record exist of the latter event in any book of early registers
belonging to the above church? Doubtless many readers of "N. & Q." will be
able to answer these three Queries.


Piersebridge, Darlington.

_"When we survey," &c._--Where are the following lines to be found?

 "When we survey yon circling orbs on high,
  Say, do they only grace the spangled sky?
  Have they no influence, no function given
  To execute the awful will of Heaven?
  Is there no sympathy pervading all
  Between the planets and this earthly ball?
  No tactile intercourse from pole to pole,
  Between the ambient and the human soul?
  No link extended through the vast profound,
  Combining all above, below, around?"


_Turnbull's Continuation of Robertson._--Some years ago, a continuation of
Robertson's work on _Scottish Peerages_ was announced by Mr. Turnbull,
Advocate of Edinburgh.--I shall be glad to be informed whether it as
published; and by whom or where.


_An Heraldic Query._--Will any one of your contributors from Lancashire or
Cheshire, who may have access to ancient ordinaries of arms, whether in
print or in manuscript, favour me by saying whether he has ever met with
the following coat: Per _pale_, argent and sable, a fess embattled, between
three falcons counterchanged, belled or? It has been attributed to the
family of Thompson of Lancashire, by Captain Booth of Stockport, and an
heraldic writer named Saunders; but what authority attaches to either I am
not aware. Is it mentioned in Corry's _Lancashire_?


_Osborn filius Herfasti._--Were Osborn, son of Herfast, abbot of S.
Evroult, and Osborn de Crepon (filius Herfasti patris Gunnoris comitissæ),
_brothers_? or were there two Herfasts?


_Jews in China._--A colony of Jews is known to exist in the centre of
China, who worship God according to the belief of their forefathers; and
the aborigines of the northern portion of Australia exercise the rite of
circumcision. Can these colonists and aborigines be traced to any of the
nations of the lost tribes?


_Derivation of "Mammet."_--The Rev. B. Chenevix Trench, in his book on the
_Study of Words_, 4th edition, p. 79., gives the derivation of the old
English word _mammet_ from "Mammetry or Mahometry," and cites, in proof of
this, Capulet calling his daughter "a whining _mammet_." Now Johnson, {516}
in his _Dictionary_, the folio edition, derives _mammet_ from the word
_maman_, and also from the word _man_; and mentions Shakspeare's

    "This is no world to play with _mammets_, or to tilt with
    lips."--_Henry IV._ (First Part), Act II. Sc. 3.

As both Dr. Johnson, the Rev. Ch. Trench, and many others, agree that
_mammet_ means "puppet," why not derive this word from the French _marmot_,
which means a puppet.--Can any of the readers of the "N. & Q." give me a
few examples to strengthen my supposition?


King William's College, Isle of Man.

_Non-recurring Diseases._--Among the many diseases to which humanity is
subject, there are some which we are all supposed to have once, and but
once, in our lifetime. Is this an unquestioned fact? and if so, has
anything like a satisfactory explanation of it been offered?

[Hebrew: P].

_Warville._--There being no _w_ in the French language, whence did Brissot
de Warville derive the latter word of his name?



_Dr. Doddridge._--A poem entitled "To my Wife's Bosom," and beginning

 "Open, open, lovely breast,
  Let me languish into rest!"

occasionally appears with the name of the Rev. Dr. Doddridge as the author.
Is it his?

M. E.


_Pelasgi._--In an article which appeared some time ago in Hogg's
_Instructor_, Thomas de Quincey, speaking of the Pelasgi, characterises
them as a race sorrowful beyond conception.--What is known of their history
to lead to this inference?


West Hartlepool.

_Huc's Travels._--I was lately told, I think on the authority of a writer
in the _Gardener's Chronicle_, that the travels of Messrs. Huc and Gabet in
Thibet, Tartary, &c., was a pure fabrication, concocted by some Parisian
_littérateur_. Can any of your readers confirm or refute this statement?

C. W. B.

_The Mousehunt._--I should feel much obliged to any reader of "N. & Q." who
would refer me to any mention of in print, or give me any information from
his own personal experience, respecting a small animal of the weasel tribe
called the mousehunt, an animal apparently but little known; it is scarcely
half the size of the common weasel, and of a pale mouse-colour. It is said
to be well known in Suffolk, whence, however, after some trouble, I have
been unsuccessful in obtaining a specimen; young stoats or weasels having
been sent me instead of it. I could not find a specimen in the British
Museum. Some years ago I saw two in Glamorganshire; one escaped me; the
other had been killed by a ferret, but unfortunately I neglected to
preserve it. Near the same spot last year a pair of them began making their
nest, but being disturbed by some workmen employed in clearing out the
drain in which they had ensconced themselves, were lost sight of and

Mr. Colquhoun, in _The Moor and the Loch_, ed. 1851, says:

    "The English peasantry assert that there are two kinds of weasel, one
    very small, called a 'cane,' or 'the mousekiller.' This idea, I have no
    doubt, is erroneous, and the 'mousekillers' are only the young ones of
    the year, numbers of these half-grown weasels appearing in summer and

The only description I have met with in print is in _Bell's Life_ of Dec.
7, 1851, where "Scrutator," in No. 15. of his Letters "On the Management of
Horses, Hounds, &c.," writes:

    "I know only of one species of stoat, but I have certainly seen more
    than one species of weasel.... There is one species of weasel so small
    that it can easily follow mice into their holes; and one of these, not
    a month ago, I watched go into a mouse's hole in an open grass field.
    Seeing something hopping along in the grass, which I took for a large
    long-tailed field mouse, I stood still as it was approaching my
    position, and when within a foot or two of the spot on which I was
    standing, so that I could have a full view of the animal, a very small
    weasel appeared, and quickly disappeared again in a tuft of grass. On
    searching the spot I discovered a mousehole, in which Mr. Weasel had
    made his exit."


_Lockwood, the Court Jester._--In some _MS._ accounts temp. Edw. VI., Mary,
and Elizabeth, now before me, payments to "Lockwood, the king's jester," or
"the queen's jester, whose name is Lockwood," are of almost annual
occurrence. He appears to have travelled about the country like the
companies of itinerant players.

Are any particulars known respecting him, and where shall I find the best
account of the ancient court jesters? I am aware of Douce's work, and the
memoirs of Will. Somers, the fool of Henry VIII.



_Right of redeeming Property._--In some country or district which I have
formerly visited, there exists, or did recently exist, a right of redeeming
property which had passed from its owner's hands, somewhat similar to that
prescribed to the Jews in Leviticus xxvi. 25. &c., and analogous to the
custom in Brittany, with which Sterne's beautiful story has made us {517}
familiar. Can you help me to remember where it is?

C. W. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Dictionary of Zingari._--Can you direct me to a glossary or dictionary of
this language? I have seen Borrow's _Lavengro_, and am not aware whether
either of his other works contains anything of the sort. I should imagine
it cannot be a perfect language, since the Rommanies located in our
locality invariably use the English articles and pronouns; but knowing
nothing more of it than what I glean from casual intercourse, I am unable
to decide to my own satisfaction.



    [A dictionary of the Zincali will be found in the first three editions
    of the following work: _The Zincali; or, an Account of the Gypsies of
    Spain_; with an original Collection of their Songs and Poetry, and a
    copious Dictionary of their Language. By George Borrow, 2 vols., 1841.
    This dictionary is omitted in the fourth edition of 1846; but some
    "Specimens of Gypsy dialects" are added. Our correspondent may also be
    referred to the two following works, which appear in the current number
    of Quarritch's Catalogue: "Pott, Die Zigeuner in Europa und Asien, vol.
    i. Einleitung und Grammatik, ii. Ueber Gaunersprachen, Wörterbuch and
    Sprachproben, 2 vols. 8vo. sewed, 15s. Halle, 1844-45." "Rotwellsche
    Grammatik oder Sprachkunst; Wörterbuch der Zigeuner-Sprache, 2 parts in
    1, 12mo. half-bound morocco, 7s. 6d. Frankfurt, 1755."]

_Sir Robert Coke._--Of what family was Sir Robert Coke, referred to in
_Granger_, vol. iii. p. 212., ed. 1779, as having collected a valuable
library bestowed by George, first Earl of Berkeley, on Sion College,
London, the letter of thanks for which is in Collins?

T. P. L.


    [Sir Robert Coke was son and heir to Sir Edward Coke, Lord Chief
    Justice of the Kings Bench. The Cokes had been settled for many
    generations in the county of Norfolk. Camden has traced the pedigree of
    the family to William Coke of Doddington in Norfolk, in the reign of
    King John. They had risen to considerable distinction under Edward
    III., when Sir Thomas Coke was made Seneschal of Gascoigne. From him,
    in the right male line, was descended Robert Coke, the father of Sir
    Edward. See Campbell's _Lives of Chief Justices_, vol. i. p. 240.]

_Regium Donum._--What is the origin and history of the "Regium Donum?"


King William's College, Isle of Man.

    [In the year 1672, Charles II. gave to Sir Arthur Forbes the sum of
    600l., to be applied to the use of the Presbyterian ministers in
    Ireland. He professed not to know how to bestow it in a better manner,
    as he had learnt that these ministers had been loyal, and had even
    suffered on his account; and as that sum remained undisposed of in "the
    settlement of the revenue of Ireland," he gave it in his charity to
    them. This was the origin of the _Regum donum_. As the dissenters
    approved themselves strong friends to the House of Brunswick, George
    I., in 1723, wished too to reward them for their loyalty, and, by a
    retaining fee, preserve them stedfast. A considerable sum, therefore,
    was annually lodged with the heads of the Presbyterians, Independents,
    and Baptists, to be distributed among the necessitous ministers of
    their congregations.]

_Who was the Author of "Jerningham" and "Doveton?"_ (Vol. viii., p.
127.).--MR. ANSTRUTHER begs to decline the compliment; perhaps the
publisher of the admirable _History of the War in Affghanistan_ can find a
head to fit the cap.


    [On a reference to our note-book, we find our authority for attributing
    the authorship of these works to Mr. Anstruther is the _Gentleman's
    Magazine_ for September, 1837, p. 283. In the review of _Doveton_ the
    writer says, "There is in it a good deal to amuse, and something to
    instruct, but the whole narrative of _Mr. Anstruther_ is too
    melodramatic," &c. However, as he declines the compliment, perhaps some
    of our readers will be able to find the right head to fit the cap.]

_Alma Mater._--In Ainsworth's _Latin Dictionary_ I observed he limits the
use of that expression to Cambridge. I have been accustomed to see it used
for Oxford, or any other university. What is his reason for applying it to
Cambridge alone?

MA. L.

    [Bailey, too, in his _Dictionary_, applies the epithet exclusively to
    Cambridge, _Alma mater Cantabrigia_: so that it seems to have
    originated with that university. It is now popularly applied to Oxford,
    and other universities, by those who have imbibed the milk of learning
    from these places. The epithet has lately been transplanted to the
    United States of America.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. viii., p. 18.)

In communicating a few particulars about Alexander Clark, I must disappoint
your correspondent PERTHENSIS; _my_ subject answering in no respect to
Peter Buchan's "drucken dominie," the author of the _Buttery College_.
Alexander Clark, who has fallen in my way, belongs to the class of "amiable
enthusiasts;" a character I am somewhat fond of, believing that in any
pursuit a dash of the latter quality is essential to success.

Clark was by profession a gardener; and as my friends in the north always
seek to localise their worthies, I venture to assign him to Annandale. My
first acquaintance with him arose from his {518} _Emblematical
Representation_ falling into my hands; and, pursuing my inquiries, I found
this was but one of some half-dozen visionary works from the same pen. In
his _View of the Glory of the Messiah's Kingdom_, we have the origin of his
taking upon himself the prophetic character; it is entitled:

    "A Brief Account of an Extraordinary Revelation, and other Things
    Remarkable, in the Course of God's Dealings with Alexander Clark,
    Gardener at Dumcrief, near Moffat, Anandale, in the Year 1749."

    "In the month of August, 1749," says he, "at a certain time when the
    Lord was pleased to chastise me greatly in a bed of affliction, and in
    the midst of my great trial, it pleased the Almighty God wonderfully to
    surprise me with a glorious light round about me; and looking up, I saw
    straight before me a glorious building in the air, as bright and clear
    as the sun: it was so vastly great, so amiable to behold, so full of
    majesty and glory, that it filled my heart with wonder and admiration.
    The place where this sight appeared to me was just over the city of
    Edinburgh; at the same instant I heard, as it were, the musick bells of
    the said city ring for joy."

From this period, Clark's character became tinged with that enthusiasm
which ended in his belief that he was inspired; and that in publishing

    "Signs of the Times: showing by many infallible Testimonies and Proofs
    out of the Holy Scripture, that an extraordinary Change is at Hand,
    even at the very Door,"--

he was merely "emitting what he derived directly, by special favour, from

    "The Spirit of God," he says on another occasion, "was so sensibly
    poured out upon me, and to such a degree, that I was thereby made to
    see things done in secret, and came to find things lost, and knew where
    to go to find those things which were lost!"

This _second sight_, if I may so call it, set our author upon drawing aside
the veil from the prophetic writings; and his view of their mystical sense
is diffused over the indigested and rambling works bearing the following

    "A View of the Glory of the Messiah's Kingdom." 1763.

    "Remarks upon the Accomplishment of Scripture Prophecy."

    "A Practical Treatise on Regeneration." 1764.

    "The Mystery of God opened," &c. Edinburgh. 1768.

    "An Emblematical Representation of the Paradise of God, showing the
    Nature of Spiritual Industry in the Similitude of a Garden, well
    ordered, dressed, and kept, with Sundry Reflections on the Nature of
    Divine Knowledge, 1779."

In his _Address to the Friendly Society of Gardeners_, Clark gives some
account of his worldly condition; of his early training in religious
habits; his laborious and industrious devotion to his profession, with
which he seems to have been greatly enamoured, although poorly paid, and
often in straits. Subsequently to the great event of his life--his
vision--our subject appears to have come south, and to have been in the
employment of Lord Charles Spencer at Hanworth in Middlesex. Like most of
the prophets of his day, Clark was haunted with the belief that the last
day was approaching; and considering himself called upon to announce to his
acquaintance and neighbours that this "terrible judgment of God was at
hand," he got but contempt and ridicule for his pains:--more than that,
indeed, for those raising the cry that he was a madman, they procured the
poor man's expulsion from his situation. Under all these discouraging
circumstances, he maintained his firm conviction of the approaching end of
time: so strongly was his mind bent in this direction, that "I opened the
window of the house where I then was," says he, "thinking to see Christ
coming in the clouds!"

    "I was three days and three nights that I could not eat, drink, nor
    sleep; and when I would close my eyes, I felt something always touching
    me; at length I heard a voice sounding in mine ears, saying 'Sleep not,
    lest thou sleep the sleep of death:' and at that I looked for my Bible,
    and at the first opening of it I read these words, which were sent with
    power, 'To him that overcometh,'" &c.

Poor Clark, like his prototype Thomas Newans, laboured hard to obtain the
sanction of the hierarchy to his predictions:

    "I desire no man," he says, "to believe me without proof; and if the
    Reverend the Clergy would think this worth their perusal, I would very
    willingly hear what they had to say either for or against."

The orthodoxy of the "Reverend the Clergy" was not, however, to be moved;
and Alexander Clark and his books now but serve the end of pointing a
moral. With more real humility and less presumption, there was much that
was good about him; but letting his heated fancies get the better of the
little judgment he possessed, our _amiable enthusiast_ became rather a
stumbling-block than light to his generation.

J. O.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 387.)

Although I may not be able to furnish your inquirer with full pedigree of
this family, my Notes may prove useful in making it out.

From a settlement after marriage in 1663, of Vincent Amcotts of Laughton,
in the county of Lincoln, gentleman, I find his wife's name to be Amy; but
who she was is not disclosed. It appears she survived her husband, and was
his {519} widow and relict and executrix living in 1687. Their eldest
daughter Elizabeth married John Sheffield, Esq., of Croxby, and I have
noted three children of theirs, viz. Vincent, who died s.p.; Christopher,
who, with Margaret, his wife, in 1676 sold the Croxby estate; and Sarah.
What farther as to this branch does not appear, although my next Vincent
Amcotts may be, and probably was, a descendant. This Vincent Amcotts was of
Harrington, in the county of Lincoln, Esq.; and who, from his marriage
settlement dated May 16 and 17, 1720, married Elizabeth, the third of the
four daughters of John Quincy of Aslackby, in the county of Lincoln,
gentleman: and I find the issue of this marriage to be Charles Amcotts of
Kettlethorpe, in the county of Lincoln, Esq., who died in 1777 s.p.; Anna
Maria, whom married Wharton Emerson; Elizabeth, who died previous to her
brother Charles; and Frances, who married the Rev. Edward Buckworth of
Washingborough, in the county of Lincoln, Clerk, Doctor of Laws.

After the death of Charles Amcotts, we find Wharton Emerson at
Kettlethorpe, having assumed the name of Amcotts: he was created a baronet
in 1796, the title being limited in remainder to the eldest son of his
daughter Elizabeth. Sir Wharton Amcotts married a second wife, Amelia
Campbell, by whom he had a daughter, but what became of her does not
appear. Elizabeth, the daughter and heir of Sir Wharton Amcotts by his
first wife Anna Maria Amcotts, married in 1780 John Ingilby, Esq., of
Ripley, who in the next year was created a baronet: and they appear to have
had eleven children, viz. John Charles Amcotts, the present Sir William
Amcotts Ingelby, in whom both titles are vested, Elizabeth, Augusta, Anna
Maria, and Ann; which last three died in infancy; Diana, Vincent Bosville,
who died at a year old, and Julia and Constance. Thus far my Notes extend.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 272.)

I have an original letter of Sir Ralph Winwood's in French, addressed "A
Monsieur Mons^r Charles Huyghens, Secrétaire du Conseil d'estat de
Mess^{rs} les Estats à la Haye," which, as it may possibly be interesting
to your correspondent H. P. W. R., I here transcribe:

    "Mons^r.--Vos dernières m'ont rendu tesmoignage de vostre bonn'
    affection en mon endroict. Car je m'asseure que vous n'eussiez jamais
    recommendé vostre filz à ma protection si mon nom n'eust esté
    enregistré au nombre de vos meilleurs et plus affectionnés amys. Je
    m'en vay, dans peu de jours, trouver Sa Ma^{té} en son retour d'Escoce,
    et j'espere sur la fin du moys de 7^{bre} de me rendre à ma maison à
    Londres. Sur ce temps-là, s'il vous plaira d'envoyer v^{re} filz vers
    moy, il sera le bien venu. Son traittement rendra tesmoinage de
    l'estime que je fais de vostre amitié. De vous envoyer des nouvelles,
    ce seroyt d'envoyer _Noctuas Athenas_. Tout est coÿ icy. La mort de
    Concini a rendu la France heureuse. Mais l'Italie est en danger d'estre
    exposée à la tirannie d'Espagne. Je vous baise les mains, et suis,
    Mons^r, vostre plus affectionné servit^r,

              RODOLPHE WINWOOD.
     "De Londres, le 7^{me} de Juillet."

The year is not indicated, but the allusion to the death of Concini (the
celebrated Maréchal d'Ancre, who was assassinated by order of Louis XIII.)
proves that this letter was written in 1617, and very shortly before the
death of the writer, which occurred on the 27th of October in that year.

M. Charles Huyghens, to whom the letter is addressed, was probably the
father of Constantine Huyghens, the Dutch poet-politician, who was
secretary and privy counsellor to the Stadtholders Frederick Henry, and
William I. and II., and who, not improbably, was the son here mentioned as
recommended to the protection of Sir R. Winwood, and who, at that date,
would have been twenty-one years of age.

Constantine was himself the father of the still more celebrated Christian
Huyghens, the astronomer and mathematician. The seal on the letter, which
is in excellent preservation, is a shield bearing the following arms: 1.
and 4. a cross botonné, 2. and 3. three fleurs-de-lis.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 387.)

I hope that neither Mr. Trench nor his critic E. M. B. will consider me
interfering by my making an observation or two on the correct rendering of
the latter part of Ps. cxxvii. 2. Mr. Trench is perfectly correct by
supposing an ellipsis in the sentence alluded to, and the words

  [Hebrew: YTN LYDYDW SHN']

should have been translated, "He will give to his beloved whilst he [the
beloved] is asleep." The translation of the authorised version of that
sacred affirmation is unintelligible. Mr. Trench has the support of
Luther's version, which has the sentence thus:

 "Seinen Freunden giebt er es schlafend."

The celebrated German Jewish translator of the Old Testament agrees with
Mr. Trench. The following is Dr. Zunz's rendering:

 "Das giebt er seinem Liebling im Schlaf."


The following is the Hebrew annotation in the far-famed Moses Mendelsohn's
edition of the Book of Psalms:


"The holy and blessed One will give it to his beloved, in whom He delights,
whilst he is yet asleep and without fatigue."

I need not adduce passages in the Hebrew Psalter, where such ellipsises do
occur. E. M. B. evidently knows his Hebrew Bible well, and a legion of
examples will immediately occur to him.


Wybunbury, Nantwich.

If E. M. B. will refer to Hengstenberg's _Commentary on the Psalms_, he
will find that Mr. Trench is not without authority for his translation of
Ps. cxxvii. 2. I quote the passage from Thompson and Fairbairn's
translation, in Clark's _Theological Library_, vol. iii. p. 449.:

    "[Hebrew: SHN'] for [Hebrew: SHNH] is not the accusative, but the
    preposition is omitted, as is frequently the case with words that are
    in constant use. For example, [Hebrew: BQR, `RB], to which [Hebrew:
    SHNH] here is poetically made like. The exposition _He gives sleep_,
    instead of _in sleep_, gives an unsuitable meaning. For the subject is
    not about the sleep, but the gain."

C. I. E.


Has the translation of Ps. cxxvii. 2., which Mr. Trench has adopted, the
sanction of any version but that of Luther?

N. B.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol vii., p. 178. &c.)

Several of your correspondents have offered Notes upon these singular
compositions, and AGRICOLA DE MONTE adduces


as an example. As neither he nor MR. ELLACOMBE give it as found _out_ of
this country, allow me to say that it was to be seen on a benitier in the
church of Notre Dame at Paris. If it were not for the substitution of the
adjective [Greek: MONAN] for the adverb [Greek: MONON], the line would be
one of the best specimens of the recurrent order.

I notice that a correspondent (Vol. vii., p. 336.) describes the Palindrome
as being universally _sotadic_. Now, this term was only intended to apply
to the early samples of this fanciful species of verse in Latin, the
production Sotades, a Roman poet, 250 B.C. The lines given by BOEOTICUS
(Vol. vi., p. 209.),

 "Roma tibi subito motibus ibit amor?"

owe their authorship to his degraded Muse, and many others which would but
pollute your pages.

The hexameter "Sacrum pingue," &c. given by [Omega]. [Phi]. (Vol. vi., p.
36.), is to be found in Misson's _Voyage to Italy_, copied from an old
cloister wall of Santa Maria Novella at Florence. These ingenious verses
are Leoline[2], and it is noted that "the sacrifice of Cain was not a
living victim."

I have seen it stated that the English language affords but _one_ specimen
of the palindrome, while the Latin and Greek have many. The late Dr. Winter
Hamilton, the author of _Nugæ Literariæ_, gives this solitary line, which
at the best is awkwardly fashioned:

 "Lewd did I live & evil did I dwel."

Is any other known?

Some years since I fell in with that which, after all, is the most
wonderful effort of the kind; at least I can conceive of nothing at all
equal to it.

It is to be found in a poem called [Greek: Poiêma Karkinekon], written in
ancient Greek by a modern Greek called Ambrosius, printed in Vienna in
1802, and dedicated to the Emperor Alexander. It contains 455 lines, every
one of which is literal palindrome.

I have some hesitation in giving even a quotation; and yet, notwithstanding
the forced character of some of the lines, your readers will not fail to
admire the classic elegance of this remarkable composition.

 "[Greek: Eu Elisabet, Alla t' ebasileue.]
  [Greek: Elabe ta kaka, kai akaka katebale.]
  [Greek: Areta pêgase de sa gê patera.]
  [Greek: Sômati sô phene phene phôs itamôs.]
  [Greek: Su dê Hêrôs hoios ô Rhôs hoios hôrê hêdus:]
  [Greek: Noi su laôi alaôi alusion.]
  [Greek: Neme êthê laôi tôi alêthê emen.]
  [Greek: Su eso ethnei ekei entheos eus.]
  [Greek: Hô Rhôs ele ti su lusiteles ôrô.]
  [Greek: Alla ta en nôi bale, labôn nea t' alla]
  [Greek: Sôtêr su eso ô elee thee leô, hos eus rhêtôs]
  [Greek: Son hade sôtêra idia rhêtôs edanos.]"


Paternoster Row.

[Footnote 2: Leo was a poet of the twelfth century.]

Here is a Palindrome that surrounds a figure of the sun in the mosaic
pavement of Sa. Maria del Fiori at Florence:

 "En giro torte sol ciclos et rotor igne."

Could any of your correspondents translate this enigmatical line?


E. I. Club.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_The Claymore_ (Vol. viii., p. 365.).--I believe there is no doubt that the
true Scottish claymore is the heavy two-handed sword, examples of which are
preserved at Dumbarton Castle, and at {521} Hawthornden, and respectively
attributed to William Wallace, and to Robert the Bruce. The latter is a
very remarkable specimen, the grip being formed either of the tusk of a
walrus or of a small elephant, considerably curved; and the guard is
constructed of two iron bars, terminated by trefoils, and intersecting each
other at right angles. The blade is very ponderous, and shorter than usual
in weapons of this description.

The claymore of modern times is a broadsword, double or single-edged, and
provided with a basket hilt of form peculiar to Scotland, though the idea
was probably derived from Spain. Swords with basket hilts were commonly
used by the English cavalry in the reigns of Charles I. and II., but they
are always of a different type from the Scotch, though affording as
complete a protection to the hand. I possess some half-dozen examples, some
from Gloucestershire, which are of the times of the civil wars. There are
many swords said to have been the property of Oliver Cromwell; one is in
the United Service Museum: all that I have seen are of this form.



_Temple Lands in Scotland_ (Vol. viii., p. 317.).--Your correspondent
ABREDONENSIS, upon a reference to the undernoted publications, will find
many interesting particulars as to these lands, viz.:

    1. "Templaria: Papers relative to the History, Privileges, and
    Possessions of the Scottish Knights Templars, and their Successors the
    Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem, &c. Edited by James Maidment. Sm.
    4to. 1828-29."

    2. "Abstract of the Charters and other Papers recorded in the
    Chartulary of Torphichen, from 1581 to 1596; with an Introductory
    Notice and Notes, by John Black Gracie. Sm. 4to. 1830."

    3. "Notes of Charters, &c., by the Right Hon. Thomas Earl of Melrose,
    afterwards Earl of Haddington, to the Vassals of the Barony of Drem,
    from 1615 to 1627; with an Introductory Notice, by John Black Gracie.
    Sm. 4to. 1830."

    4. "Fragmenta Scoto-Monastica: Memoir of what has been already done,
    and what Materials exist, towards the Formation of a Scottish
    Monasticon; to which are appended, Sundry New Instances of Goodly
    Matter, by a Delver in Antiquity (W. B. Turnbull). 8vo. 1842."

The "Introductory Notices" prefixed to Nos. 2. and 3. give full particulars
of the various sales and purchases of the Superioritus, &c., by Mr. Gracie
and others.

T. G. S.


_Lewis and Sewell Families_ (Vol. viii., p. 388.).--Your correspondent may
obtain, in respect to the Lewis family, much information in the _Life and
Correspondence of Matthew Gregory Lewis_, two vols. 8vo., London, 1839,
particularly at pp. 6. and 7. of vol. i. He will there find that Matthew
Lewis, Esq., who was Deputy Secretary of War for twenty-six years, married
Frances Sewell, youngest daughter of the Right Hon. Sir Thos. Sewell; that
Lieut.-Gen. Whitelocke and Gen. Sir Thos. Brownrigg, G.C.B., married the
other two daughters of Sir Thos. Sewell; and that Matthew Gregory Lewis,
who wrote the _Castle Spectre_, &c., was son of Matthew Lewis, Esq., the
Deputy Secretary of War.

With regard to the Sewell family. The Right Hon. Sir Thos. Sewell, who was
Master of the Rolls for twenty years, died in 1784; and there is, I
believe, a very correct account of his family connexions in the
_Gentleman's Magazine_ for 1784, p. 555. He died intestate, and his eldest
son, Thos. Bailey Heath Sewell, succeeded to his estate of Ottershaw and
the manors of Stannards and Fords in Chobham, Surrey. This gentleman was a
magistrate for the county of Surrey; and in the spring of 1794, when this
country was threatened by both foreign and domestic enemies, he became
Lieut.-Col. of a regiment of Light Dragoons (fencibles), raised in Surrey
(at Richmond) by George Lord Onslow, Lord-Lieut. of the county, in which he
served six years, till the Government not requiring their services they
were disbanded. Lieut.-Col. Sewell died in 1803, and was buried in the
church at Chobham, where there is a monument to his memory. Of his family
we have not farther knowledge than that he had a son, Thos. Bermingham
Heath Sewell, who was a cornet in the 32nd Light Dragoons, and lieutenant
in the 4th Dragoon Guards during the war of the French Revolution. The
_History and Antiquities of Surrey_, by the Rev. Owen Manning and Wm. Bray,
in three vols. folio, 1804, has in the third volume much concerning the
Sewell family.

D. N.

_Pharaoh's Ring_ (Vol. viii., p. 416.).--The mention of the ring conferred
on, or confided to, Joseph by the Pharaoh of Egypt, as stated in Genesis
xli. 42., reminds me of a ring being shown to me some years ago, which was
believed by its then possessor to be the identical ring, or at all events a
signet ring of the very Pharaoh who promoted Joseph to the chief office in
his kingdom.

It was a ring of pure gold, running through a hole in a massive wedge of
gold, about the size, as far as I recollect, of a moderate-sized walnut. On
one of its faces was cut the hieroglyphic (inclosed as usual with the names
of Egyptian kings in an oval), as I was assured, of the king, the friend of
Joseph, as was generally supposed by the readers of hieroglyphics: I
pretend to no knowledge of them myself.

The possessor of the ring, who showed it to me, was Mr. Sams, one of the
Society of Friends, a bookseller at Darlington. Since railroads have {522}
whirled me past that town, I have lost my means of periodical communication
with him. He had, not long before I saw him last, returned from the Holy
Land, where he assured me he had visited every spot that could be
identified mentioned in the New Testament. He had also been some time in
Egypt, and had brought home a great quantity of Egyptian antiquities. The
lesser ones he had in the first floor of a carver and gilder's in Great
Queen Street, between the Freemason's Tavern and Lincoln's Inn Fields. He
was then anxious that these should be bought for the British Museum, and I
think that at his request I wrote to the Earl of Aberdeen to mention this,
and that the answer was that there was already so large a collection in the
Museum, that more, as they must most of them be duplicates, would be of no

What has become of them I know not. I was told that a number of his larger
antiquities, stone and marble, were for some time placed on Waterloo
Bridge, that being a very quiet place, where people might view them without
interruption. I did not happen to be in London that season, and therefore
did not see them.

J. SS.

    [The whole of Mr. Sams's collection of Egyptian antiquities were bought
    by Joseph Mayer, Esq, F.S.A., of Liverpool, about two years ago, to add
    to his previous assemblage of similar monuments, and are placed by him,
    with a very valuable collection of mediæval antiquities, in the
    Egyptian Museum, 8. Colquitt Street, Liverpool. The small charge of
    sixpence for each visit opens the entire collection to the public; but
    it is a lamentable fact, that the curiosity or patriotism of the
    inhabitants does not cover Mr. Mayer's expenses by a large annual

_"Could we with ink,"_ &c. (Vol. iii., pp. 127. 180. 257. 422.).--Have not
those correspondents who have answered this Query overlooked the concluding
verse of the gospel according to St. John, of which it appears to me that
the lines in question are an amplification without improvement? Mahomet, it
is well known, imitated many parts of the Bible in the Koran.

E. G. R.

_"Populus vult decipi"_ (Vol. vii., p. 578.; Vol. viii, p. 65.).--As an
illustration of this expression the following anecdote is given. When my
father was about thirteen years old, being in London he was, on one
occasion in company with Dr. Wolcot (Peter Pindar), who, calling him to
him, laid his hand on his head, and said, "My little boy, I want you to
remember one thing as long as you live--the people of this world love to be



_Red Hair_ (Vol. vii., p. 616.; Vol. viii., p. 86.).--It is frequently
stated that the Turks are admirers of red hair. I have lately met with a
somewhat different account, namely, that the Turks consider red-haired
persons who are fat as "first-rate" people, but those who are lean as the
very reverse.

M. E.


_"Land of Green Ginger"_ (Vol. viii., p. 227.).--The authority which I am
able to afford MR. RICHARDSON is simply the tradition of the place, which I
had so frequently heard that I could scarcely doubt the truth of it; this I
intended to be deduced, when I said I did not recollect that the local
histories gave any derivation, and that it was the one "generally received
by the inhabitants."

To any mind the solution brought forward by MR. BUCKTON (Vol. viii., p.
303.) carries the greatest amount of probability with it of any yet
proposed; and should any of your correspondents have the opportunity of
looking through the unpublished history of Hull by the Rev. De la Pryme,
"collected out of all the records, charters, deeds, mayors' letters, &c. of
the said town," and now placed amongst the Lansdowne MSS. in the British
Museum, I am inclined to think it is very likely it would be substantiated.

In Mr. Frost's valuable work on the town, which by the way proves it to
have been "a place of opulence and note at a period long anterior to the
date assigned to its existence by historians," he differs materially from
MR. RICHARDSON, in considering that Hollar's plate was "engraved about the
year 1630," not in 1640 as he states. There is also another which appeared
between the time of Hollar and Gent, in Meisner's _Libellus novus politicus
emblematicus Civitatum_, published in 1638, which though not "remarkable
for accuracy of design," is well worthy of notice. It bears the title "Hull
in Engellandt," and also the following curious inscriptions, which I copy
for the interest of your readers:

    "Carcer nonnunquam firmum propugnaculum. Noctua clausa manet in carcere
    firmo; Insidias volucrum vetat enim cavea."

     "Wann die Eull eingesperret ist,
      Schadet ihr nicht der Feinde list,
      Der Kefig ist ihr nicht unnütz,
      Sondern gibt wieder ihr Feind schütz."

These lines refer to a curious engraving on the left side of the plan,
representing an owl imprisoned in a cage with a quantity of birds about,
endeavouring to assail it.



_"I put a spoke in his wheel"_ (Vol. viii., p. 351.).--Does not this phrase
mean simply interference, either for good or evil? I fancy the metaphor is
really derived from putting the bars, or spokes, into a capstan or some
such machine. A number {523} of persons being employed, another puts his
spoke in, and assists or hinders them as he pleases. Can a _stick_ be
considered a _spoke_ before it is put into its place, in the nave of the
wheel at least? We often hear the observation, "Then I put in my spoke,"
&c. in the relation of an animated discussion. May I venture to suggest a
pun on the preterite of the verb _to speak_?


_Pagoda_ (Vol. viii., p. 401.).--May not the word _pagoda_ be a corruption
of the Sanscrit word "Bhagovata," sacred?



_Passage in Virgil_ (Vol. viii., p. 270.).--On this part of Johnson's
letter, Mr. Croker observes:

    "I confess I do not see the object, nor indeed the meaning, of this

The allusion is to Eclogue viii. 43.:

 "Nunc scio, quid sit Amor: duris in cotibus illum
  Aut Tmarus, aut Rhodope, aut extremi Garamantes,
  Nec generis nostri puerum nec sanguinis, edunt."

As the shepherd in Virgil had found Love to be not the gentle being he
expected, but of a savage race--"a native of the rocks"--so had Johnson
found a patron to be "one who looked with unconcern on a man struggling for
life," instead of a friend to render assistance.

Supposing Johnson's estimate of Lord Chesterfield's conduct to be correct,
I cannot help thinking the allusion to be eminently happy.


_To speak in Lutestring_ (Vol. viii., p. 202.).--_Lutestring_, or
_lustring_, is a particular kind of silk, and so is _taffeta_; and thus the
phrase may be explained by Shakspeare's _Love's Labour's Lost_, Act V. Sc.

 "Taffeta phrases, silken terms precise."

Junius intended to ridicule such kind of affectation by persons who were,
or ought to have been, grave senators.


_Dog Latin_ (Vol. viii., p. 218.).--A facetious friend, alluding
particularly to law Latin with its curious abbreviations, says that it is
so called because it is _cur-tailed_!


_Longevity_ (Vol. viii., p. 113.).--I recollect seeing an old sailor in the
town of Larne, county Antrim, Ireland, in the year 1826-27, of the name of
Philip Lake, aged 110, who was said to have been a cabin boy in Lord
Anson's vessel, in one of his voyages. If any of your correspondents can
furnish the registry of his death it would be interesting.


Mary Simondson, familiarly known as "Aunt Polly," died recently at her
cottage near Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, at the advanced age of 126 years.

M. E.


_Definition of a Proverb_ (Vol. viii., p. 243.)--C. M. INGLEBY inquires the
source of the following definition of proverb, viz. "The wisdom of many,
and the wit of one."

    "To Lord John Russell are we indebted for that admirable definition of
    a proverb: 'The wisdom,' &c."--See Notes to Rogers's _Italy_, 1848.

The date is added since, in an edition of 1842; this remark makes no part
of the note on the line, "If but a sinew vibrate," &c.

Q. T.

_Ireland a bastinadoed Elephant_ (Vol. viii., p. 366.).--I venture to
suggest whether this expression may not be something more than a bull, as
[Old English W]. inclines to call it. If any one will look at a physical
map of Ireland at some little distance, a very slight exercise of the
"mind's eye" will serve to call up in the figure of that island the shape
of a creature kneeling and in pain. Lough Foyle forms the eye; the coast
from Bengore Head to Benmore Head the nose or snout; Belfast Lough the
mouth; the coast below Donaghdee the chin; County Wexford the knees. The
rest of the outline, according to the imagination of the observer, may
assume that of an elephant, or something, perhaps, "very like a whale."
Some fanciful observation of this kind may have suggested the otherwise
unaccountable simile to Curran.


_Ennui_ (Vol. vii., p. 478.; Vol. viii., p. 377.).--The meaning of this
admirable word is best gleaned from its root, viz. _nuit_. It is somewhat
equivalent to the Greek [Greek: agrupnia], and signifies the sense of
weariness with doing nothing. It gives the lie to the _dolce far niente_:
vide Ps. cxxx. 6., and Job vii. 3, 4. _Ennui_ is closely allied to our
_annoy_ or _annoyance_, through _noceo_, _noxa_, and their probable root
_nox_, [Greek: nux.] It is precisely equivalent to the Latin _tædium_,
which may be derived from _tæda_, which in the plural means a torch, and
through that word may have a side reference to night, the _tædarum horæ_:
cf. Ps. xci. 5. The subject is worthy of strict inquiry on the part of
comparative philologists.



_Belle Sauvage_ (Vol. viii., p. 388.).--Your Philadelphian correspondent
asks whether Blue Bell, Blue Anchor, &c., are corruptions of some other
emblem, such as that which in London transformed _La Belle Sauvage_ into
the _Bell Savage_.

This is not the fact. The Bell Savage on Ludgate Hill was originally kept
by one Isabella Savage. A cotemporary historian, writing of one of the
leaders in a rebellion in the days of Queen {524} Mary, says, "He then sat
down upon a stone opposite to Bell Savage's Inn."



_History of York_ (Vol. viii., p. 125.).--There is a _History of York_,
published in 1785 by Wilson and Spence, described to be an abridgment of
Drake, which is in three volumes, and may be a later edition of the same
work to which MR. ELLIOT alludes.

F. T. M.

86. Cannon Street.

_Encore_ (Vol. viii., p. 387.).--If A. A. knows the meaning of "this French
word" I am a little surprised at his Query. Perhaps he means to ask why a
French word should be used? It probably was first used at concerts and
operas (_ancora_ in Italian), where the performers and even the
performances were foreign, and so became the fashion. Pope says:

 "To the same notes thy sons shall hum or snore,
  And all thy yawning daughters cry _encore_."

It was not, I think, in use so early as Shakspeare's time, who makes Bottom
anticipate that "the Duke shall say, Let him roar _again_, let him roar
_again_," where the jingle of "encore" would have been obvious. It is
somewhat curious that where we use the French word _encore_, the French
audiences use the Latin word "bis."


_"Hauling over the Coals"_ (Vol. viii., p. 125.).--This saying I conceive
to have arisen from the custom prevalent in olden times, when every Baron
was supreme in his own castle, of extracting money from the unfortunate
Jews who happened to fall into his power, by means of torture. The most
usual _modus operandi_ seems to have been roasting the victims over a slow
fire. Every one remembers the treatment of Isaac of York by Front-de-Boeuf,
so vividly described in Sir Walter Scott's _Ivanhoe_. Although the practice
has long been numbered amongst the things that were, the fact of its having
once obtained is handed down to posterity in this saying, as when any one
is taken to task for his shortcomings he is _hauled over the coals_.



_The Words "Cash" and "Mob"_ (Vol. viii., p. 386.).--MR. FOX was right:
_mob_ is not genuine English--teste Dean Swift! A lady who was well known
to Swift used to say that the greatest scrape she ever got into with him
was by using the word _mob_. "Why do you say that?" he exclaimed in a
passion; "never let me hear you say that again!" "Why, sir," she asked,
"what am I to say?" "The rabble, to be sure," answered he. (Sir W. Scott's
_Works of Swift_, vol. ix.) The word appears to have been introduced about
the commencement of the eighteenth century, by a process to which we owe
many other and similar barbarisms--"beauties introduced to supply the want
of wit, sense, humour, and learning." In a paper of _The Tatler_, No. 230.,
much in the spirit, and possibly from the pen, of Swift, complaint is made
of the "abbreviations and elisions" which had recently been introduced, and
a humorous example of them is given. By these, the author adds,

    "Consonants of most obdurate sound are joined together without one
    softening vowel to intervene; and all this only to make one syllable of
    two, directly contrary to the example of the Greeks and Romans, and a
    natural tendency towards relapsing into barbarity. And this is still
    more visible in the next refinement, which consists in pronouncing the
    first syllable in a word that has many, and dismissing the rest. Thus
    we cram one syllable and cut off the rest, as the owl fattened her mice
    after she had bit off their legs to prevent their running away; and if
    ours be the same reason for maiming our words, it will certainly answer
    the end, for I am sure no other nation will desire to borrow them."

I have only to add (see _Blackwood's Magazine_, vol. ii., 1842) that "mob
is _mobile_."

_Cash_ appears to be from the French _caisse_, a chest, cash.



_Cash_ is from the French _caisse_, the moneychest where _specie_ was kept.
So _caissier_ became "cashier," and _specie_ "cash."

_Mob_, Swift tells us (_Polite Conversation_, Introd.), is a contraction
for _mobile_.

CLERICUS RUSTICUS has not, I fear, Johnson's _Dictionary_, where both these
derivations are given.


_Ampers &._ (Vol. ii., pp. 230. 284.; Vol. viii. _passim_).--MR. INGLEBY
may well ask what "and-per-se-and" can mean. The fact is, this is itself a
corruption. In old spelling-books, after the twenty-six letters it was
customary to print the two following symbols with their explanations

  &c. et cetera.
  & (per se), and.

Children were taught to read the above "et-cee, et cetera" and "et-per-se,
and." Such, at least, was the case in a Dublin school, some ninety years
ago, where my informant, now many years deceased, was educated. As _se_ was
not there pronounced like _cee_, but like _say_, there was no danger of
confounding the two names. In England, where a different pronunciation of
the Latin word prevailed, such confusion would be apt to occur; and hence,
probably, English teachers substituted _and_ for _et_; from which, in
course of time, the other corruptions mentioned by MR. LOWER were

E. H. D. D.


_The Keate Family, of the Hoo, Herts_ (Vol. viii., p. 293.).--The following
account is taken from Burke's _Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England_,
Lond. 1841:

    "William Keate of Hagbourne, in Berkshire, left five sons. The second
    son, Ralph Keate of Whaddon, in Wiltshire, married Anne, daughter of
    John Clarke, Esq., of Ardington, in Berkshire, and had with other issue
    Gilbert Keate, Esq., of London, who married, first, John, daughter of
    Niclolas Turbervile, Esq. of Crediton, in Devon, and, secondly,
    Elizabeth, daughter of William Armstrong, Esq., of Remston, Notts, and
    by her had another son, Jonathan Keate, Esq., of the Hoo, in the county
    of Hertford, which estate he acquired with his first wife, Susannah
    daughter of William, and sister and heir of Thomas Hoo, of the Hoo and
    Kimpton, both in Hertfordshire. Mr. Keate was created a baronet by King
    Charles II., 12th June, 1660. Sir Jonathan was sheriff of the county of
    Hertford, 17 Charles II., and knight of the same shire in Parliament,
    in the thirtieth of the same reign. By his first wife he had issue,
    Gilbert Hoo, his heir, Jonathan, Susan, Elizabeth: all died _sine
    prole_. He married, secondly, Susanna, daughter of John Orlebar,
    citizen of London, but by her had no issue. He died 17th September,
    1700. The baronetcy became extinct in the person of Sir William Keate,
    D.D., who died 6th March, 1757."

[Greek: Halieus]

_Hour-glasses_ (Vol. viii., p. 454.).--In the church of Wiggenhall, St.
Mary the Virgin, the iron frame of an hour-glass, affixed to a wooden
stand, immediately opposite the pulpit, still remains.

W. B. D.

An iron hour-glass stand still remains near the pulpit in the church of
Ashby-Folville, in this county (Leicester). It is fixed to the wall
containing the staircase to the rood-loft.

In the old church of Anstey, recently pulled down and rebuilt, was an
ancient hour-glass stand, consisting of a pillar of oak, about four feet
high, the top of which is surmounted by a light framework of wood for the
reception of the hour-glass. This specimen is preserved in the museum of
this town.


_Marriage of Cousins_ (Vol. viii., p. 387.).--If there is any foundation
for such a statement as is contained in the Query of J. P. relative to the
marriage of cousins, it consists rather in the marriage of first cousins
once removed than of second cousins. It will be seen that the latter
relationship belongs to the same generation, but it is not so with the
former, which partakes more of the nature of uncle and aunt with nephew and


Cornworthy Vicarage, Totnes.

There is no legal foundation for the statement that marriage with a second
cousin is valid, and with a first cousin invalid. The following quotation
from Burn's _Ecc. Law_ by Phill., vol. ii. p. 449., will probably be
considered to explain the matter:

    "By the civil law first cousins are allowed to marry, but by the canon
    law both first and second cousins (in order to make dispensations more
    frequent and necessary) are prohibited; therefore, when it is vulgarly
    said that first cousins may marry, but second cousins cannot, probably
    this arose by confounding these two laws, for first cousins may marry
    by the civil law, and second cousins cannot by the canon law."

J. G.


_Waugh, Bishop of Carlisle_ (Vol. viii., p. 271.), was the son of Thomas
and Margaret Waugh, of Appleby, in Westmoreland; born there 2nd February,
1655; educated at Appleby school; matriculated at Queen's College, Oxford,
4th of April, 1679; took his degree of M.A. the 7th of July, 1687; and
elected Fellow on the 18th of January following. He married Elizabeth,
widow of the Rev. Mr. Fiddes, rector of Bridewell, in Oxford, who was the
only surviving child of John Machen, Esq., of ----, in the county of
Oxford, by whom he left son, John Waugh, afterwards chancellor of the
diocese of Carlisle.


_Marriage Service_ (Vol. viii., p. 150.).--I have been many years in holy
orders, and have always received the fee together with the ring on the
Prayer Book, as directed in the Rubric. The ring I return to the bridegroom
to place upon the bride's finger; the fee (or offering) I deposit in the
offertory basin, held for that purpose by the clerk, and on going to the
chancel (the marriage taking place in the body of the church) lay it on the
altar. Note.--In the parish in which I first ministered, the marriages had
always been commenced in the body of the church, as directed; in the second
parish in which I ministered, that custom had only been broken by the
present incumbent a few years since.


I have seen the Rubric carried out in this particular, in St. Mary's
Church, Kidderminster.


_Hoby, Family of_ (Vol. viii., p. 243.).--In answer to MR. J. B. WHITBORNE,
I beg to state that the Rev. Sir Philip Hoby, Baronet, was in the early
part of the last century chancellor of the archdiocese of Dublin. He was an
intimate friend of Archbishop Cobbe, and there is a picture of him in
canonicals at Newbridge, co. Dublin.

T. C.

_Cambridge Graduates_ (Vol. viii., p. 365.).--Your correspondent will find
a list of B.A.'s of Cambridge University from the years 1500 to 1717 in
Add. MS. 5885., British Museum.



_"I own I like not," &c._ (Vol. viii., p. 366.).--The lines--

 "I own like not Johnson's turgid style," &c.

are by Peter Pindar, whose works I have not, and so cannot give an exact
reference. The extract containing them will be found in Chambers'
_Cyclopædia of English Literature_, vol. ii. p. 298.


_"Topsy Turvy"_ (Vol. viii., p. 385.).--This is ludicrously derived, in
_Roland Cashel_, p. 104., from _top side t'other way_.


_"When the Maggot bites"_ (Vol. viii., pp. 244. 304. 353.).--Another
illustration of this phrase may be found in Swift (Introduction to _Tale of
a Tub_):

    "The two principal qualifications (says he) of a fanatic preacher are,
    his inward light, and his head full of _maggots_; and the two different
    fates of his writings are to be burnt or worm-eaten."

The word _maggot_ is sometimes used for the whim or crotchet itself; thus

 "To reconcile our late dissenters,
  Our brethren though by different venters;
  Unite them and their different _maggots_,
  As long and short sticks are in faggots."--_Hudibras_, part III. canto 2.

So also it is used by Samuel Wesley (father of the founder of the
Methodists) in his rare and facetious volume entitled _Maggots, or Poems on
several Subjects never before handled_, 12mo., 1685.



_"Salus populi," &c._ (Vol. viii., p. 410.).--The saying "Salus populi
supreme lex" is borrowed from the model law of Cicero, in his treatise _de
Legibus_, III. 3. It is made one of the duties of the consuls, the supreme
magistrates, to regard the safety of the state as their highest rule of

    "Regio imperio duo sunto; iique præeundo, judicando, consulendo
    Prætores, Judices, Consules appellantor. Militiæ summum jus habento,
    nemini parento: _ollis salus populi suprema lex esto_."

The allusion appears to be to the formula used by the senate for conferring
supreme power on the consuls in cases of emergency: "Dare operam, ne quid
respublica detrimenti caperet." (See Sallust, _Bell. Cat._ c. 29.)


Aristotle regards the safety of the citizens as the great end of law (see
his _Ethics_, b. I. ch. 4.); and Cicero (_de Finibus_, lib. ii. c. 5.) lays
down a similar principle.

B. H. C.

_Theodoro Paleologus_ (Vol. viii., p. 408.).--The inscription referred to
was printed in _Archæologia_, vol. xviii., and with some account of the
Paleologi to which a Querist was referred in "N. & Q.," Vol. v., p. 280.
(see also pp. 173. 357.). It is astonishing how much will be found in that
"Californian mine," if the most excellent indices of the several volumes
are only consulted. Your correspondent could in the present case have
pointed out the errors of the inscription already in print had the indices
to "N. & Q." attracted him.


_Worm in Books_ (Vol. viii., p. 412).--In reply to ALETHES I beg to
acquaint him that I have tried various means for destroying the worm in old
books and MSS., and the most effectual has been the chips of Russia
leather; indeed, in but one instance have I known them fail.


_The Porter Family_ (Vol. viii., p. 364.).--1. The reason of the word
_Agincourt_ being placed above the inscription in Bristol Cathedral is,
that the Porter family were descendants of Sir William Porter who fought at

2. Charles Lempriere Porter was the son of Dr. Porter.

3. This family was descended from Endymion Porter of classic and loyal

J. R. W.


[Footnote 3: [The biographical notices of Endymion Porter are extremely
scanty. Can our correspondent furnish any particulars respecting

_Buckle_ (Vol. viii., p. 304.).--This word is in common use by the artizans
who work upon sheet-iron, to denote the curl which a sheet of iron acquires
in passing through a pair of rollers. The word has been derived from the
French _boucle_, a curl. The shoe-buckle has got its name from its curved
form. In the days in which every man in this country, who was in easy
circumstances, wore a wig, it was well known that to put a wig in _buckle_,
meant to arrange its curls in due form.

 "When Hopkins dies, a thousand lights attend
  The wretch, who living sav'd a candle's end:
  Should'ring God's altar a vile image stands,
  Belies his features, nay, extends his hands;
  That live-long wig which Gorgon's self might own,
  Eternal _buckle_ takes in Parian stone."--Pope, _Moral Essays_, Epistle

N. W. S.

_The "Forlorn Hope"_ (Vol. viii., p. 411.).--This is no quotation; but the
expression arose in the army from its leader or captain, who, being often a
disappointed man, or one indifferent to consequences, now ran the "forlorn
hope" either of ending his days or obtaining a tomb in Westminster Abbey.
From the captain, after a time, the term descended to all the little
gallant band. In no part of our community will you find such {527} meaning
expressions (often very slang ones) used as in the army. A lady, without
hearing anything to shock "ears polite," might listen to the talk of a mess
table, and be unable to understand clearly in what the conversation
consisted. "He is gone to the bad"--meaning, he is ruined. "A wigging from
the office" (a very favourite expression)--a reprimand from the colonel.
"Wigging" naturally arising from tearing the hair in anger or sorrow, and
the office of course substituting the place from whence it comes for the
person who sent it. Besides may others, _quæ nunc_, &c.


_Nightingale and Thorn_ (Vol. iv., p. 175., &c.).--

 "If I had but a pottle of sack, like a sharp prickle,
  To knock my nose against when I am nodding,
  I should sing like a nightingale."--Fletcher, _The Lover's Progress_, Act
      III. Sc. 2.



_Burial in Unconsecrated Ground_ (Vol. vi., p. 448.; Vol. viii., p.
43.).--The following curious entry occurs in the parish register of
Pimperne, Dorset:

 "Anno 1627. Vicesimo quinto Octobris.

    "Peregrinus quidam tempore pestes in communi campo mortuus eodem loco
    quo inventus sepultus."

There was a pestilence in England in 1625. In 1628 sixteen thousand persons
died of the plague at Lyons.

W. E.

I do not know whether the case recorded in _London Labour and the London
Poor_, vol. i. p. 411.--by the way, is that work ever to be completed, and
how far has it gone?--of a man buried at the top of a house at Foot's Cray,
in Kent, has been noticed by any correspondent.


_Sangaree_ (Vol. iii., p. 141.).--I take it that the word ought to be
spelled _sansgris_, being derived from the French words _sans_, without,
and _gris_, tipsy, meaning a beverage that would not make tipsy. I have
been a good deal in the French island of Martinique, and they use the term
frequently in this sense as applied to a beverage made of white wine ("Vin
de Grave"), syrup, water, and nutmeg with a small piece of fresh lime-skin
hanging over the edge of the glass. A native of Martinique gave me this as
the derivation of the word. The beverage ought not to be stirred after the
nutmeg is put in it, as the fastidious say it would spoil the flavour.

T. B.

_Point of Etiquette_ (Vol. viii., p. 386.).--The title _Miss_, without the
Christian name, belongs to the eldest unmarried daughter of the
representative of the family only. If he have lost his own children, his
brother is _heir presumptive_ merely to the family honours; and can neither
assume nor give to his daughter the titles to which they are only
expectants. The matter becomes evident, if you test the rule by a peerage
instead of a squirage. Even the eldest daughter of a baronet or landed
gentleman loses her title of Miss, when her brother succeeds to the
representation, provided he have a daughter to claim the title.

P. P.

_Etymology of "Monk" and "Till," &c._ (Vol. viii., pp. 291. 409.).--Will
you allow me one word on these two cases? _Monk_ is manifestly a Greek
formative from [Greek: monos], and denotes a _solitaire_.

The proposed derivation of _till_, from _to-while_, is not new; but still
clearly mistaken, inasmuch as the word _till_ is found in Scotch, Swedish,
Norwegian, Danish, and others of the family. A word thus compounded would
be of less general use. Besides which, _to-while_ would scarcely produce
such a form as _till_; it would rather change the _t_ into an aspirate,
which would appear as _th_.

B. H. C.

_Forrell_ (Vol. vii., p. 630.).--Your correspondent T. HUGHES derives this
word (applied in Devonshire, as he tells us, to the cover of book) from
_forrell_, "a term still used by the trade to signify an inferior kind of
vellum." Is it not more natural to suppose it to be the same word which the
French have made _fourreau_, a cover or sheath? (See Du Cange, vv.
_Forellus, Forrellus_.)

J. H. T.


_Parochial Libraries_ (Vol. vii., p. 507.; Vol. viii. _passim_).--There is
a library at Wimborne Minster, in the Collegiate Church, which, on my visit
two years since, appeared to contain some valuable volumes, and was
neglected and in very bad condition.


       *       *       *       *       *



Dr. Lardner has just published the third and concluding course of his
_Handbook of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy_. The subjects treated of in
the present volume are _Meteorology and Astronomy_, and they are
illustrated with thirty-seven lithographic plates, and upwards of two
hundred engravings on wood. The work was undertaken with the very popular
object of supplying the means of acquiring a competent knowledge of the
methods and results of the physical sciences, without any unusual
acquaintance with mathematics; and in the methods of demonstration and
illustration of this series of treatises, that principle has as far as
possible, been adopted so that by means of the present volumes, persons who
have not even a superficial knowledge of geometry and algebra may yet
acquire with great facility a considerable acquaintance with the sciences
of which they treat. The present volume contains a very elaborate index,
which, {528} combined with the analytical tables of contents, give to the
entire series all the usefulness of a compendious encyclopædia of natural
philosophy and astronomy.

_Willich's Income Tax Tables, Fourth Edition, 1853-1860_, price _One
Florin_, show at one view the amount of duty at the various rates fixed by
the late act, and are accompanied by a variety of statistical information,
tending to show that the wealth of the nation has increased in as great, if
not a greater, ratio, than the population. The price at which the work is
issued serves to lead our attention to a little pamphlet, published at
sixpence, or 25 _mils_, by Mr. Robert Mears, entitled _Decimal Coinage
Tables for simplifying and facilitating the Introduction of the proposed
new Coinage_.

_The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy by Ordericus Vitalis,
translated with Notes, and the Introduction of Guizot_, by Thomas
Forrester, M.A. Vol. I., is a new volume of the interesting Series of
Translations of the early _Church Historians of England_ publishing by Mr.
Bohn, to which we propose calling the especial attention of our readers at
some future period. The importance which our French neighbours attach to
the writings of Ordericus Vitalis is shown by the fact that the French
Historical Society, after publishing a translation, are now issuing an
edition of the original text, from a laborious collation of the best MSS.,
under the editorship of M. Auguste le Prevost. The present translation is
based upon that edition.

We have on several occasions called the attention of our readers to the
Collection of Proclamations in the possession of the Society of
Antiquaries, and to the endeavours making by that learned body to secure as
complete a series as possible of these valuable but hitherto little used
materials for English History. Some contributions towards this object have,
we believe, been the results of our notices; and we have now to state, that
at the opening meeting on Thursday the 17th, it was announced that William
Salt, Esq., F.S.A., had presented to the library two volumes of
Proclamations of the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. Great as is the
pecuniary value of this munificent donation, it is far exceeded by its
importance in filling up a large gap in the existing Series. A _Catalogue
Raisonnée_ of the whole collection is in preparation by Robert Lemon, Esq.,
of the State Paper Office, a gentleman well qualified for the task, and its
early publication may, we trust, be received as an evidence of the
beneficial influence which the Society of Antiquaries is hereafter destined
to exercise on the historical literature of England.

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upwards of 100 articles, consisting of

WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling requisites, Gratis on
application, or sent free by Post on receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.


       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1, Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
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Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
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BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
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THE REVALENTA ARABICA FOOD, the only natural, pleasant, and effectual
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    Cure, No. 71, of dyspepsia; from the Right Hon. the Lord Stuart de
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_Dr. Wurzer's Testimonial._

    "Bonn, July 19. 1852.

    "This light and pleasant Farina is one of the most excellent,
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    "Counsel of Medicine, and practical M.D. in Bonn."

London Agents:--Fortnum, Mason & Co., 182. Piccadilly, purveyors to Her
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respectable grocers, chemists, and medicine venders. In canisters, suitably
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6d.; 5lb. 11s.; 12lb. 22s.; super-refined, 5lb. 22s.; 10lb. 33s. The 10lb.
and 12lb. carriage free, on receipt of Post-office order.--Barry, Du Barry
Co., 77. Regent Street, London.

IMPORTANT CAUTION.--Many invalids having been seriously injured by spurious
imitations under closely similar names, such as Ervalenta, Arabaca, and
others, the public will do well to see that each canister bears the name
BARRY, DU BARRY & CO., 77. Regent Street, London, in full, _without which
none is genuine_.

       *       *       *       *       *

Solicitors' & General Life Assurance Society,


_Subscribed Capital, ONE MILLION._


The Security of a Subscribed Capital of ONE MILLION.

Exemption of the Assured from all Liability.

Premiums affording particular advantages to Young Lives.

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POLICIES FREE OF STAMP DUTY and INDISPUTABLE, except in case of fraud.

At the General Meeting, on the 31st May last, A BONUS was declared of
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       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.

       *       *       *       *       *


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M. P.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.
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  J. B. White, Esq.
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  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4
   22       1  18   8
   27       2   4   5
   32       2  10   8
   37       2  18   6
   42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions.
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
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       *       *       *       *       *


On Thursday, the 5th of January, 1854, will be published, price Twopence,
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To carry the design into effect, assistance has been obtained from eminent
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and discoveries.

During the first year either three or four volumes will be completed. The
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the Mathematical Sciences.

The "Circle of the Sciences" will thus, by the aid of copious Analytical
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reference, without the irksome repetition which alphabetical arrangements
necessarily involve.

       *       *       *       *       *

On the 1st of December an Introductory Treatise,


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until January, 1854.

"Orr's Circle of Sciences" can be supplied by every Bookseller in the
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       *       *       *       *       *

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  1. On a Decimal Coinage.
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  3. Baths and Wash-houses.
  4. Financial Improvement.
  5. New Customs Tariff.
  6. Ireland: in Prospects.
  7. Fluctuations of the Funds.
  8. Average Prices of Corn, &c.

          PART II.

  9. Abstracts of Public Acts.
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  11. Chronicle of the Session of Parliament.
  12. Private Bills of the Session of Parliament.
  13. Public Petitions, 1852-3.
  14. Public Improvements, with Woodcuts.
  15. Chronicle of Occurrences, 1852-3.
  16. Necrological Table of Literary Men, Artists, &c.

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  Oxford & London: JOHN HENRY PARKER.
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These Works are printed in quarto, uniform with the Club-Books, and the
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       *       *       *       *       *


MORTE ARTHURE: The Alliterative Romance of the Death of King Arthur; now
first printed, from a Manuscript in the Library of Lincoln Cathedral.
Seventy-five Copies printed. 5l.

    *** A very curious Romance, full of allusions interesting to the
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THE CASTLE OF LOVE: A Poem, by ROBERT GROSTESTE, Bishop of Lincoln; now
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and Ancient Inedited Manuscripts from the Fifteenth to the Seventeenth
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numerous woodcuts and facsimiles of Shakespeare's Marriage Bond, and other
curious Articles. Seventy-five Copies printed. 1l. 1s.


THE PALATINE ANTHOLOGY. An extensive Collection of Ancient Poems and
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GARLAND. One Hundred and Ten Copies printed. 2l. 2s.


Reprints of very Rare Tracts. Seventy-five Copies printed. 2l. 2s.

    CONTENTS:--Harry White his Humour, set forth by M. P.--Comedie of the
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Quarto (Preface omitted), to range with Todd's "Johnson," with Margins
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THE POETRY OF WITCHCRAFT, Illustrated by Copies of the Plays on the
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BOOKS, AND OTHER RELIQUES, Illustrative of the Life and Works of
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attributed to Shirley, a Poem by N. BRETON, and other Micellanies. Eighty
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JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, November
26, 1853.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

page 520, "Santa Maria Novella at Florence": 'Santa Marca Novella' in

page 521, "Templaria ... Sm. 4to. 1828-29.": 'Sm. 4vo.' in original.

page 529, "Brief History of its Formation": 'Formatiom' in original.

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