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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 214, December 3, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *


{533}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 214.]
SATURDAY, DECEMBER 3. 1853.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page

    Peter Brett                                                533
    Richard's "Guide through France," by Weld Taylor           534
    Women and Tortoises                                        534
    Weather Rules, by W. Winthrop                              535
    Occasional Forms of Prayer, by Rev. Thomas Lathbury        535

    MINOR NOTES:--Chair Moving--Epitaph on Politian
      in the Church of the Annunciation at Florence--
      Epitaph in Torrington Churchyard, Devon--The
      early Delights of Philadelphia--Misapplication of
      Terms--"Plantin" Bibles in 1600--Ancient Gold
      Collar found in Staffordshire                            537

  QUERIES:--

    Pictures in Hampton Court Palace                           538

    MINOR QUERIES:--Helmets--The Nursrow--City
      Bellmen--Pope's Elegy on An Unfortunate Lady--
      "Too wise to err, too good to be unkind"--Passage
      in the "Christian Year"--David's Mother--Emblems
      --"Kaminagadeyathooroosoomokanoogonagira"
      --"Quid facies," &c.--Will of Peter the Great--
      H. Neele, Editor of Shakspeare--MS. by Rubens on
      Painting--Peter Allan--Haschisch or Indian Hemp
      --Crieff Compensation--Admission to Lincoln's Inn,
      the Temple, and Gray's Inn--Orders for the Household
      of Lord Montagu                                          538

    MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Cateaton Street--
      Portrait of Lee, Inventor of the Stocking-Frame--
      Cocker's Arithmetic--Lyke Porch or Litch Porch--
      Henry Burton--British Mathematicians--"Les
      Lettres Juives"                                          540

  REPLIES:--

    Attainment of Majority                                     541
    Lord Halifax and Mrs. Catherine Barton                     543
    Milton's Widow, by T. Hughes                               544
    Anticipatory Use of the Cross, by J. W. Thomas and
      Eden Warwick                                             545
    Decorative Pavement Tiles from Caen, by Albert Way
      and Gilbert J. French                                    547
    Mottos of the Emperors of Germany                          548

    PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Simplicity of Calotype
      Process--Albumized Paper--New Developing
      Mixture--Queries on the Albumenized Process              548

    REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Poems in connexion
      with Waterloo--Richard Oswald--Grammont's
      Marriage--Life--Muscipula--Berefellarii--Harmony
      of the Four Gospels--Picts' Houses and Argils
      --Boswell's "Johnson"--Pronunciation of "Humble"
      --Continuation of Robertson--Nostradamus--
      Quantity of Words--"Man proposes, but God disposes"
      --Polarised Light                                        549

  MISCELLANEOUS:--

    Notes on Books, &c.                                        552
    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                               553
    Notices to Correspondents                                  553
    Advertisements                                             554

       *       *       *       *       *


Notes.

PETER BRETT.

Your correspondent T. K. seems to think that Scotchmen, and Scotch
subjects, have an undue prominence in "N. & Q.:" let me therefore introduce
to your readers a neglected _Irishman_, in the person of Peter Brett, the
"parish clerk and schoolmaster of Castle-Knock." This worthy seems to have
been a great author, and the literary oracle of the district over which he
presided, and exercised the above-named important functions. His _magnum
opus_ appears to have been his _Miscellany_; a farrago of prose and verse,
which, to distinguish it from the herd of books bearing that title, is
yclept, _par excellence_, Brett's _Miscellany_. When Mr. Brett commenced to
enlighten the world, and when his candle was snuffed out, I know not. My
volume of the above work purports to be the fifth:

    "Containing above a hundred useful and entertaining Particulars,
    Divine, Moral, and Historical; chiefly designed for the Improvement of
    Youth, and those who have not the Opportunity of reading large Volumes.
    Interspersed with several Entertaining Things never before printed.
    Dublin, 1762."

The parish clerk's _bill of fares_ is of the most seductive kind. Under all
the above heads he has something spicy to say, either in prose or verse;
but the marrow of the book lies in the Preface. To say that a man, holding
the important offices of parish clerk and schoolmaster, could be charged
with conceit, would be somewhat rash; if, therefore, in remarking upon the
rare instance of a parish clerk becoming an author, he lets out that
"whatever cavillers may say about his performance, they must admit his
extensive reading, and the great labour and application the concoction of
these books has cost him," he is but indulging in a feeling natural to a
man of genius, and a pardonable ebullition of the _amour propre_. Mr. Brett
seems to have been twitted with the charge of taking up authorship as a
commercial spec; he sullenly admits that his book-making leaves him
something, but nothing like a recompense, and draws an invidious comparison
between one Counsellor Harris and himself; the {534} former having received
200l. per annum for collecting materials for the _Life of King William
III._, while he, the schoolmaster of Castle-Knock, scarcely gets salt to
his porridge for his _Collections and Observations for perpetuating the
Honour and Glory of the King of Kings_.

Peter farther boasts that these his volumes

    "Contain the juice and marrow of many excellent and learned authors,
    but compacted after such an ingenious manner, that the learned would
    find it a great difficulty to show in what authors they are to be
    found!"

A plan for which, I think, the learned would award him the _birch_. Mrs.
Brett is no less a genius than her husband; and she takes advantage of the
publication of the _Miscellany_, to stick the following little bill upon
the back of the title:

    "Ann Brett, wife of the said Peter, at the sign of the _Shroud_ in
    Christ Church Lane, opposite to the Church, makes and sells all Sorts
    of Shrouds, draws all Sorts of Patterns, does all manner of Pinking,
    and teaches Young Misses Reading and Writing, Arithmetic, and Plain
    Work. The Dublin Society," she adds, "was pleased to honour her with a
    handsome Present for her Curious Performance with the Pen."

J. O.

       *       *       *       *       *

RICHARD'S "GUIDE THROUGH FRANCE."

(Translated from the French on the 12th edition. Paris: Audin, 25. Quai des
Augustins.)

As we are not supposed to be sensible of our own failings, I should much
wish to know whether any English-French exists equal to some French-English
I know of, and inclose a specimen. MR. P. CHASLES has played the critic so
well with the English tongue, that perhaps he can find us a few specimens.
Without doubt, it will be a wholesome correction to the Malaprop spirit if
she is shown up a little; and I regret extremely that MR. P. CHASLES was
not invited to correct the proofs of the _Itinéraire de France_. Here we
are posting with M. Richard:

    "The courier à franc-étrier cannot use bridle of their own, they must
    not outrun the postilion who leads them, and the post master if they
    might arrive at, without their postillion, must not give them horse
    before this last is come. The supply-horses, according to the number of
    persons, shall be put to carriages as much as the disposition of the
    vehicles will admit. For example, three horses shall be put to
    cabriolets, and till six to the berline, but as it should not be
    possible, to put a horse en arbalête (cross-bow) without notable
    accidents, either to caleches with two horses or to the limonieres;
    they shall be obliged to pay the charge for supply horse."

Here we are in a steamer, p. 52.:

    "The sea is smooth, the sky pure, the air calm, everything promises a
    happy navigation, our boat is in a very favourable position in the
    middle of the Seine, on the right hand the hills of Honfleur, on the
    left the coast of Ingouville, let us pause a little more on these
    shores we are going to leave: behold on the east the fortifications of
    Havre, small seats! clusters of trees! this is the village of l'Eure
    threatened by the sea of an entire destruction. We must not pass over
    this green hill so delightful to view, standing on the opposite shore
    seamen would not forgive my silence, among these high trees stands a
    chapel dedicated to Notre-Dame-de-Grace. Ingouville is of 4,800
    inhabitants, among which a great many Englishmen live there as in their
    own country, having their particular churchyard, physicians, and many
    occasions of hearing from England, which they can perceive from their
    pavilions. The traveller can go to Elbeuf by land or water. The lover
    of the scenes of nature will enjoy very romantical prospects, a new
    kind of view will strike his sight, a long train of rocks called
    D'Orival, the most part steep, covered with evergreen trees, which seem
    shoot out, with difficulty, of their craggings."

He tells us Soissons (p. 102.) "has a college, a pretty theatre, and a
bishoprick-sec, from the Cradle of Christianity into the Gauls." At
Coulommières (Seine et Marne), "the sciences are not cultivated, but the
inhabitants know pretty well how to play at nine pins." At Fontaines les
Cornues, "the inhabitants of Paris with a small expense can procure to
himself a scenery scarecely to be found in the other quarter of the globe!"
At Chatillion-sur-Seine, "the streets are neat and well aired." At Arles,
p. 361., a head of a goddess carved in marble:

    "The way in which the neck and left shoulder are ended, points out that
    the head is _related_ to a figure in drapery cut in another block."

    "The merchant of Bordeaux is distinguished by his noble easy and
    pompous manner, he makes himself easily forgiven a sort of boasting,
    which is the foible of the country."

How the ladies bathe at Mont d'Or, p. 218.:

    "At five in the morning bathing begins. Two hardy Highlanders go and
    fetch in a kind of deal boxes the fashionable lady, who when in town
    never quits her bed-down before noon, the annuitant, the rich man, are
    all brought in the same manner in these boxes. It is one of the most
    pleasant bathing establishments; it offers a peristyle, a small
    resting-room, a warming-place for linen, with partitions to prevent its
    mixture."

The work consists of 446 mortal pages though I am bound to say a portion
here and there is respectably written.

WELD TAYLOR.

       *       *       *       *       *

WOMEN AND TORTOISES.

I had intended sending you a paper on Bishop Taylor's _Similes_, with
Illustrative Notes on some Passages in his Works; but I soon found that
your utmost indulgence could not afford me a tithe of {535} the space I
would require. Instead, therefore, send you an illustration of a single
simile, as it is short, and not the least curious in the lot:

    "All _vertuous women_, _like tortoises_, carry their house on their
    heads, and their chappel in their heart, and their danger in their eye,
    and their souls in their hands, and God in all their actions."--_Life
    of Christ_, Part I. s. ii. 4.

    "_Phidias made the statue of Venus at Elis with one foot upon the shell
    of a tortoise_, to signify two great duties of a virtuous woman, which
    are to keep home and be silent."--_Human Prudence_, by W. De Britaine,
    12th edit.: Dublin, 1726, 12mo., p. 134.

    "Vertuous women should keep house, and 'twas well performed and ordered
    by the Greeks:

     '    .    .    .   mulier ne qua in publicum
      Spectandam se sine arbitro præbeat viro:'

    Which made Phidias, belike, at Elis paint _Venus treading on a
    tortoise_: a symbole of women's silence and housekeeping.... I know not
    what philosopher he was, that would have women come but thrice abroad
    all their time, to be _baptized_, _married_, _and buried_; but he was
    too straitlaced."--Burton's _Anat. Mel._, part iii. sec. 3. mem. 4.
    subs. 2.

    "_Apelles us'd to paint a good housewife upon a snayl_; which intimated
    that she should be as slow from gadding abroad, and when she went she
    shold carry her house upon her back: that is, she shold make all sure
    at home. Now, to a good housewife, her house shold be as the sphere to
    a star (I do not mean a _wandring_ star), wherin she shold twinckle as
    a star in its orb."--Howell's _Parly of Beasts_: Lond. 1660, p. 58.

The last passage reminds us of the fine lines of Donne (addressed to _both_
sexes):

 "Be then thine own home, and in thyself dwell;
    Inn anywhere;
  And seeing the _snail_, which everywhere doth roam,
  Carrying his own home still, still is at home,
  Follow (for he is easy-paced) this _snail_:
  Be thine own palace, or the world's thy jail."

EIRIONNACH.

       *       *       *       *       *

WEATHER RULES.

(Vol. vii., pp. 373. 522. 599. 627.)

J. A., Jun., being desirous of forming a list of weather rules, I send the
following, in the hope that they may be acceptable to him, and interesting
to those of your readers who have never met with the old collection from
which they are taken.

          _English._

  In April, Dove's-flood is worth a king's good.
  Winter thunder, a summer's wonder.
  March dust is worth a king's ransom.
  A cold May and a windy, makes a fat barn and findy.

          _Spanish._

  April and May, the keys of the year.
  A cold April, much bread and little wine.
  A year of snow, a year of plenty.
  A red morning, wind or rain.
  The moon with a circle brings water in her beak.
  Bearded frost, forerunner of snow.
  Neither give credit to a clear winter nor cloudy spring.
  Clouds above, water below.
  When the moon is in the wane do not sow anything.
  A red sun has water in his eye.
  Red clouds in the east, rain the next day.
  An eastern wind carrieth water in his hand.
  A March sun sticks like a lock of wool.
  When there is a spring in winter, and a winter in spring, the year is
      never good.
  When it rains in August, it rains wine or honey.
  The circle of the moon never filled a pond, but the circle of the sun
      wets a shepherd.

          _Italian._

  Like a March sun, which heats but doth not melt.
  Dearth under water, bread under snow.
  Young and old must go warm at Martlemas.
  When the cock drinks in summer, it will rain a little after.
  As Mars hasteneth all the humours feel it.
  In August, neither ask for olives, chesnuts, nor acorns.
  January commits the fault, and May bears the blame.
  A year of snow, a year of plenty.

          _French._

  When it thunders in March, we may cry Alas!
  A dry year never beggars the master.
  An evening red, and a morning grey, makes a pilgrim sing.
  January or February do fill or empty the granary.
  A dry March, a snowy February, a moist April, and a dry May, presage a
      good year.
  To St. Valentine the spring is a neighbour.
  At St. Martin's winter is in his way.
  A cold January, a feverish February, a dusty March, a weeping April, a
      windy May, presage a good year and gay.

W. WINTHROP.

Malta.

       *       *       *       *       *

OCCASIONAL FORMS OF PRAYER.

I now send you a list of Occasional Forms of Prayer in my own possession,
in the hope that the example may be followed by other individuals.

    A Fourme to be used in Common Prayer table twise a Weke, and also an
    Order of Publique Fast to be used every Wednesday, &c. during this time
    of Mortalitie, &c. London, 1563.

This was the first published occasional form of the reign of Elizabeth.

{536}

    A Fourme to be used in Common Prayer every Sunday, Wednesday, and
    Friday throughout the whole Realme: to excite and stirre up all Godly
    People to pray for the Preservation of those Christians and their
    Countreys that are now invaded by the Turke in Hungary or elsewhere.
    Set fourthe by The Reverend Father in God, Matthew, Archbishop of
    Cantaburie. Imprinted by Richarde Jugge and John Cawood. 4to.

There is no date; but it is ascertained that this form was put forth in the
year 1566.

    The Order of Prayer and other Exercises upon Wednesdays and Fridays,
    &c. 4to. Christopher Barker. 1580.

This was put forth in consequence of an earthquake.

    Prayers. 1584.

They consist of "A Prayer for all Kings," &c., "A Prayer for the Queene,"
&c., and "A Prayer in the Parliament onely." They are appended to _Treasons
of Pary_, forming part of the volume.

    An Order for Prayer and Thanksgiving for the Safety of Her Majesty.
    1594.

    Certaine Prayers set forth by Authoritie to be used for the Prosperous
    Successe of her Majesties Forces and Navy. 4to. The Deputies of
    Christopher Barker, 1597.

    An Order for Prayer and Thanksgiving (necessary in these dangerous
    Times) for the Safety of her Majestie and the Realme. 4to. The Deputies
    of C. Barker. _No date._

    An Order for Publike Prayers within the Province of Canterbury. No
    date. By the Queen's Printer.

    Prayers for the Queen's safe Deliverance, London, 1605.

    Form of Prayer, &c. Nov. 5. London, 1605.

The original edition.

    Form of Prayer, &c., Nov. 5. London, 1620.

    Form, &c. for the 5th of August, being the Day of His Highnesse's happy
    Deliverance from the Earle of Gowry. London, 1623.

    Form, &c. Fast during the Plague. 1625.

The "Prayer for the Parliament" appears for the first time in this form.

    Form, &c. Fast. War and Pestilence. 1626.

    Form, &c. Fast. War. 1628.

    Forme of Prayer, &c. for averting God's heauy Visitation, &c. 1636.

This is the form which was attacked by Burton and Prynne, and on which a
charge was raised against Laud.

    Form, &c. Fast. Plague. 1640

    Form, &c. Fast. War. Oxford, 1643.

This is the form authorised by Charles I. to be used at the commencement of
the war. It is frequently alluded to by the Parliamentary writers of the
period. The House of Commons had ordered a monthly fast, and Charles
commanded that the second Friday in every month should be set apart for the
same purpose. This form was to be used on such occasions.

    Form, &c. Fast. Oxford, 1643.

The same as the preceding, but a different edition, one being in
black-letter, the other in Roman. Both were printed in Oxford, and in the
same year.

    A Collection of Prayers and Thanksgivings used in His Majesties Chapel
    and in his Armies, upon occasion of the late Victories against the
    Rebels. Oxford, 1643.

This was reprinted at York in 1644.

    The Cavaliers' New Common Prayer Booke, unclasp't. Reprinted at London,
    with some briefe and necessary Obseruations to refute the Lyes and
    Scandalls that are contained in it. 1644.

This is a reprint of the preceding form, with a scurrilous preface and
observations. The prayers are given as they stand in the Royal form, but
with parenthetical sentences of a most abusive character after almost every
paragraph. Thus, after the clause, "Pity a despised Church," the authors
add, "You mean the prelates and their hierarchy." After the next clause,
"and a distracted State," they add, "made so by your wicked party." In one
of the thanksgivings, after "Glory be to God," we have, "Your mock prayers
defraud Him of His glory." Then, after the words "We praise thee, we bless
thee," &c., from the Communion Office, we have, "Softly, lest you want
breath, and thank the old Common Prayer Book for that."

    Private Forms for these Sad Times. Oxford, 1645.

    A Form of Thanksgiving, to be used the Seventh Day of September,
    thorowout the Diocese of Lincoln, and in the Jurisdiction of
    Westminster.

This remarkable form has no date, but it was put forth by Williams, then
Bishop of Lincoln and Dean of Westminster, in the year 1641. The House of
Commons had ordered a day of Thanksgiving; but they were greatly offended
with Williams, on account of this form, and, instead of going to St.
Margaret's Church as usual, where it was ordered to be read, they attended
divine service, after their own fashion, in the chapel of Lincoln's Inn.

    A Supply of Prayers for the Ships of this Kingdom that want Ministers
    to pray with them agreeable to the Directory, &c. London. Published by
    authority.

A Presbyterian form, and the only one ever published by men who decried all
forms. It was put forth, as the preface admits, because the sailors clung
to the Book of Common Prayer.

    Prayers to be used in the Armies. 1648.

    A Form of Prayer used at His Majesties Chapel at the Hague. 1650.

    Prayers for those who mourn, &c. 1659.

    Form of Common Prayer, to be used on the Thirtieth of January, &c.
    1661.

This form differs materially from that subsequently put forth by
Convocation, with the revised Prayer Book of 1662. There was also another
form still earlier, in the year 1661, in which some singular and obnoxious
petitions relative to Charles I. were found. {537}

    A Form of Prayer with Thanksgiving, to be used on the 29th of May,
    1661.

The original edition. It differs from that which was sanctioned by
Convocation and published in 1662.

    Form of Prayer, &c. June 12. Fast during a Dearth. 1661.

    Form, &c. Fast during a Sickness. 1661.

    Form, &c. Fast, to implore a Blessing on the Naval Forces. April 5,
    1665.

    Form, &c. Thanksgiving for Victory by Naval Forces. July 4, 1665.

    Form, &c. Fast, on occasion of the Fire of London, 1666.

    Form, &c. Thanksgiving for Victories at Sea. 1666.

    Form, &c. Fast. 1674.

    Form, &c. Fast. 1678.

    Form, &c. Fast. Dublin, 1678.

    Form, &c. Fast. Dublin, 1679. To seek Reconciliation with God, and to
    implore Him that he would infatuate and defeat the Counsels of the
    Papists our Enemies. By the Lord Lieutenant.

    Form, &c. Fast. 1680.

    Form, &c. Thanksgiving. 1683. For the discovery of Treason.

    Form, &c. Thanksgiving. 1685.

    Form of Prayer with Thanksgiving for 29th May, 1685.

First edition of this reign. It was altered by the authority of the Crown.

    Form of Prayer, &c. January 30, 1685.

First edition of this reign.

    Form of Prayer, &c. February 6, 1685.

The accession service of James II.

    A Form or Order of Thanksgiving, to be used, &c. in behalf of the King,
    the Queen, and the Royal Family, upon occasion of the Queen's being
    with Child. 1687.

This form was the occasion of much comment at the time.

    A Form of Prayer with Thanksgiving, &c., for the Birth of the Prince.
    1688.

    A Form, &c. Fast. 1689.

    A Form, &c. Fast. 1690.

    A Form, &c. Fast. 1694.

    A Form, &c. Fast. 1714. Thanksgiving on the Accession of George I.

THOMAS LATHBURY.

Bristol.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Chair Moving._--Recent occurrences made me look back at Glanvill's _Blow
at Modern Sadducism_, and I observed that in his account of the "Dæmon of
Tedworth," who was supposed to haunt the house of Mr. Mompesson, and who
was the original of Addison's "drummer," it is stated that on the 5th
November, 1662, "in the sight and presence of the company, the chairs
walked about the room," p. 124.

N. B.

_Epitaph on Politian in the Church of the Annunciation at Florence._--

 "Politianus in hoc tumulo jacet Angelus, unum
  Qui caput, et linguas (res nova) tres habuit."--From _Travels of Sir John
      Reresby_.

Y. B. N. J.

    [The following translation of this epitaph is given in the _Ency.
    Britannica_, but it is there stated to be in St. Mark's, Florence:

     "Here lies Politian, who, things strange indeed,
      Had, when alive, three tongues, and but one head."]

_Epitaph in Torrington Churchyard, Devon._--

 "She was--my words are wanting to say what.
  Think what a woman should be--she was that."

Which provoked the following reply:

 "A woman should be both a wife and mother,
  But Jenny Jones was neither one nor t'other."

BALLIOLENSIS.

_The early Delights of Philadelphia._--In Gabriel Thomas's _Description of
the Settlement of Philadelphia_ occurs the following passage:

    "In the said city are several good schools of learning for youth, for
    the attainment of arts and sciences, also reading and writing. Here is
    to be had, on any day in the week, cakes, tarts, and pies; we have also
    several cook-shops, both roasting and boiling, as in the city of
    London: happy blessings, for which we owe the highest gratitude to our
    plentiful Provider, the great Creator of heaven and earth."

Is not this a superb jumble?

A LEGULEIAN.

_Misapplication of Terms._--_Legend_ is a thing "to be read" (_legendum_),
but it is often improperly applied to traditions and _oral_ communications.
Of this there have been some instances in "N. & Q." One has just turned up,
Vol. v., p. 196.: "I send you these legends _as I have heard them from the
lips_ of my nurse, a native of the parish."

J. W. THOMAS.

Dewsbury.

_"Plantin" Bibles in 1600._--While looking over the "Stackhouse Library"
(see "N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 327.), I observed on the fly-leaf of an
Hebrew Bible, 1600 (A. 100 in catalogue), a short MS. memorandum, which I
think worth preserving. It ran as follows:

                                             _£_ s. d.
 "Plantin Heb. Bible, interlineing costes    2 10  0
  Plantin in octavo                          1  0  0
  Buxtorf's Biblia in two vols.              2 10  0
  Hebw Bible, 4to. 2 vols.                   2  0  0
  Inne 16^o 8 vols.                          2  0  0"

R. C. WARDE.

Kidderminster.

_Ancient Gold Collar found in Staffordshire._--It may probably interest
some of your readers to {538} know that a very ancient golden collar was
lately found in the village of Stanton, Staffordshire, which is about three
miles north of Ashbourne.

A labourer digging up a field, which had not been ploughed or dug up in the
memory of man, turned up the collar, which, being curled up at the time,
sprang up, and the labourer taking it for a snake, struck it out of his way
with his spade: the next morning it was discovered not to be a snake.
Unfortunately the blow had broken off a small piece at one end. The collar
is now in the possession of the person with whom the curate of Stanton
lodges. The description given to me is, that it is about two feet long, and
formed of three pieces of gold twined together, and, with the above
exception, in a very good state of preservation.

I hear that there is a similar collar in the British Museum, that was found
in Ireland, but none that was found in England; and that the authorities of
the Museum have been informed of this collar, but have taken no steps to
obtain possession of it.

S. G. C.

    [Our correspondent is under an erroneous impression as to gold torques
    not being found in England. Several are figured in the _Archæologia_,
    and we have some reason to believe that the torque now described, and
    of which we should be glad to receive any farther particulars,
    resembles one which formed part of the celebrated Polden find described
    by Mr. Harford in the fourteenth volume of the _Archæologia_, and
    figured at p. 90.; and also that found at Boyton in Suffolk in 1835,
    and engraved in the _Archæologia_, vol. xxvi. p. 471.--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

PICTURES IN HAMPTON COURT PALACE.

There are two or three of these concerning which I should be obliged to any
reader of your publication who would satisfy my Queries.

No. 119., "The Battle of Forty," by P. Snayers. This seems a kind of
_combat à outrance_ of knights _armés de pied en cap_. Where can I find any
account or detail of it?

No. 314., "Mary of Lorraine, mother of Mary Queen of Scots." This is a very
pleasing picture, in good preservation, and as it was not in its present
position two years ago, I conclude it has recently been added. She was
ninth child of Claude de Lorraine, first Duc de Guise, born in 1515, and
married in 1538 to James V. of Scotland, and she died in the forty-fifth
year of her age, 10th June, 1560. There are the arms of the Guise family in
the right-hand corner, with a date of 1611. Pray by whom was it painted,
and where can find any notices respecting it?

No. 166., "George III. reviewing the 10th Light Dragoons, commanded by the
Prince of Wales." This picture was considered the _chef d'oeuvre_ of Sir
William Beechey, and was painted in 1798; and it has been supposed the
likeness of the Duke of York was the best taken of that Prince. Could any
reader inform me on what day this review took place?[1]

When one sees a picture of Shakspeare, No. 276., and more especially in the
palace of his cotemporary sovereigns, one is naturally led to inquire into
its authenticity. I am therefore desirous to obtain some information
relative to it.

In "N. & Q.," vol. vi., p. 197., you had several correspondents inquiring
concerning the custom of royalty dining in public: perhaps it may interest
them to know that there are two very attractive pictures of this ceremony
in this collection, numbered 293 and 294: the first is of Charles I. and
Henrietta Maria; the other Frederick V., Count Palatine and King of
Bohemia, who married Elizabeth, daughter of James I. These two pictures are
by Van Bassen, of whom, perhaps, some correspondent may be enabled to give
an account.

[Phi].

Richmond, Surrey.

[Footnote 1: George III. had one or two copies of this picture taken for
him; and there is a curious circumstance relative to one of these, which
Lady Chatterton mentions in her _Home Sketches_, published in three vols.
8vo., 1841: "In one respect the picture (which George III. gave to Lord
Sidmouth, and which the latter had put up at the stone lodge in Richmond
New Park) differs from the original at Hampton Court: it is singular enough
that in this copy the figure of the Prince is omitted, _which was done by
the King's desire_, and is a striking and rather comical proof of the
dislike which he felt towards his son. When the Prince became King, he
dined here, and remarked to Lord Sidmouth that his portrait had been
omitted, and hinted that it ought to be restored. This, however, was
evaded, and the copy remains in its original state."--Vol. i. pp. 18, 19.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Helmets._--What is the antiquity of the practice of placing helmets over
the shields of armorial bearings; and what are the varieties of helmets in
regard to the rank or degree of persons?

S. N.

_The Nursrow._--What is the origin of the word _Nursrow_, a name applied by
Plott, in his _History of Staffordshire_, to the shrew mouse, and by the
common people in Cheshire at the present day to the field-mouse; or rather,
perhaps, indiscriminately to field and shrew mice?

N. R.

_City Bellmen._--When were city bellmen first established? By whom
appointed? What were their duties? What and how were they paid? What have
been their employment and duties down to the present day?

CRITO.

{539}

_Pope's Elegy on an Unfortunate Lady._--In the new editions of Pope's
_Works_, in course of publication, edited by Mr. Carruthers, Inverness, it
is conjectured that the poet threw "ideal circumstances" into his most
pathetic and melodious elegy, and "when he came to publish his letters, put
wrong initials, as in other instances, to conceal the real names" (Pope's
_Poet. Works_, Ingram, Cook, and Co., vol. ii. p. 184.). The initials are
Mrs. W., niece of Lady A. I have always thought that a clue might be
obtained to the name of this lady, by following up the hints in Pope's
printed correspondence. Mrs. or Miss W. is mentioned or alluded to by
Craggs and Pope, in connexion with the characters in the _Rape of the
Lock_. One suggests the other. Inquiry should be directed to the families
of Fernor of Tusmore, Lord Petre, and Sir George Brown. But I have heard a
tradition in a Catholic family in the north of England that the lady was a
Blount; probably one of the Blounts of Soddington, or of some one of the
numerous branches of that ancient family.

AN INQUIRER.

_"Too wise to err, too good to be unkind."_--In what author may this
passage be found?

 "Too wise to err, too good to be unkind."

E. P. H.

Clapham.

_Passage in the "Christian Year."_--In the beautiful lines on Confirmation
in this work, the following verse occurs:

 "Steady and pure as stars that beam
    In middle heaven, all mist above,
  Seen deepest in the frozen stream:--
    Such is their high courageous love."

I should be grateful for an explanation of the _third_ line.

A. A. D.

_David's Mother._--I used to think it was impossible to ascertain from the
Old Testament the name of David's mother. In the _Genealogies recorded in
the Sacred Scriptures_, by J. S. (usually assumed to stand for John Speed,
the historian and geographer), the name of the Psalmist's mother is given
"Nahash." Can this be made out satisfactorily? Will the text 2 Sam. xvii.
25., as compared with 1 Chron. ii. 15., warrant it?

Y. B. N. J.

_Emblems._--Can any of your readers inform me what are the emblematic
meanings of the different precious stones, or of any of them? or in what
work I shall find them described?

N. D.

_"Kaminagadeyathooroosoomokanoogonagira."_--In an appeal to the Privy
Council from Madras, the above unparalleled long word occurs as the
descriptions of an estate. I believe that its extreme length and
unpronounceable appearance is without an equal. Can any of your readers
acquainted with Indian literature translate it? if so, it would greatly
oblige

F. J. G.

_"Quid facies," &c._--I have lately met with the following curious play on
words in an old MS. book. Can any of your correspondents give any account
of it?

 "Quid facies, facies Veneris si veneris ante?
    Ne pereas, per eas; ne sedeas, sed eas!"

BALLIOLENSIS.

_Will of Peter the Great._--M. Lamartinière, in a French pamphlet on the
Eastern question, gives a document in several articles containing advice
with respect to the policy of his successors on the throne of Russia, in
which he advises her to make great advances in the direction of
Constantinople, India, &c., and advocates the partition of Poland. Upon
what authority does this document rest? and who is M. Lamartinière?

R. J. ALLEN.

_H. Neele, Editor of Shakspeare._--In the preface to _Lectures on English
Poetry, being the Remains of the late Henry Neele_ (Lond. 1830), mention is
made of a new edition of Shakspeare's dramatic works, "under the
superintendence of Mr. Neele as editor, for which his enthusiastic
reverence for the poet of 'all time' peculiarly fitted him, but which, from
the want of patronage, terminated after the publication of a very few
numbers." These very few numbers must have appeared about 1824-1827; yet
the answer to my repeated inquiries after them in London is always "We
cannot hear of them." Can any one give me farther information?--From the
_Navorscher_.

J. M.

_MS. by Rubens on Painting._--May I inquire of M. PHILARÈTE CHASLES whether
he ever saw or heard of a manuscript said to be written in Latin by Rubens,
and existing in the _Bibliothèque Nationale_ at Paris? One or two fragments
have occasionally been quoted: I think one may be found in Sir Joshua
Reynolds' _Discourses_, and the same is used by Burnet in his work on
painting; but no authority is given as to the source of the information.[2]

If such a work can be found, it would confer a great boon upon the
profession of the fine arts, if it were brought to light without delay.

WELD TAYLOR.

[Footnote 2: [This may probably be Rubens's MS. Album, of which an account
is given in Vertue's _Anecdotes of Painting_, vol. ii. pp. 185, 186.--ED.]]

_Peter Allan._--Will some correspondent of "N. & Q." afford information as
to the exact date and place of birth of the celebrated Peter Allan, whose
cave at Sunderland is regarded as one of the principal curiosities of the
north of England? {540} What is known of his general history; and is any
member of his family now living?

E. C.

_Haschisch or Indian Hemp._--I have been for some time trying to procure
some of the _Haschisch_, or Indian hemp, about which Dr. Moreau has
published such an amusing book, _Du Haschisch et de l'Aliénation Mentale_,
Par. 1845.--Can any of your readers tell me where I can get any? The
narcotic effects of the common hemp plant are well known in our country
districts: where, under its ironical alias _Honesty_, the dried stalk is
often smoked, but the tropical variety appears to be infinitely more
powerful in its operation.

V. T. STERNBERG.

_Crieff Compensation._--During the rebellion in 1715, the village of
Crieff, Perthshire, was burnt by the Highland army, on account of the
attachment of its inhabitants to the royal cause. It has been stated that,
some years ago, the descendants of the sufferers received from government a
sum equivalent to a certain proportion of the loss which had been
sustained.

Is there any official record in reference to this compensation?

D.

_Admission to Lincoln's Inn, the Temple, and Gray's Inn._--Have there ever
been published, or do there exist anywhere in MSS., lists of the persons
who have been from time to time matriculated as students of those inns of
court?

A publication of them would be of the greatest value to the biographical
department of literature.

G.

_Orders for the Household of Lord Montagu._--The second Viscount Montagu,
grandson and heir of Anthony Browne, created Viscount in 1554, ob. 1592,
compiled a detailed code of regulations for his family, thus entitled:

    "A Booke of Orders and Rules established by me, Anthony, Viscount
    Mountague, for the better direction and government of my howsholde and
    family, together with the generall dutyes and charges apperteyninge to
    myne officers and other servantes. Anno D[=n]i 1595."

Has this curious illustration of ancient domestic manners ever been
published?

ALBERT WAY.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

_Cateaton Street._--I am anxious to ascertain the meaning and derivation of
this word: the London Cateaton Street, I believe, is changed into Gresham
Street. I have lately learnt that there is a Cateaton Street in Liverpool
also.

ETYMO.

    [Cateaton Street, or "Catteten Street," says Stow, "is a corruption of
    Catte Street, which beginneth at the north end of Ironmonger Lane, and
    runneth to the west end of St. Lawrence Church." In 1845, this street
    was renamed Gresham Street.]

_Portrait of Lee, Inventor of the Stocking-frame._--In Hatton's _History of
London_ (published in 1708), it is stated that a picture (by Balderston) of
Lee, the inventor of the stocking-frame, hung in the hall of the Framework
Knitters' Company. The inquirer wishes to ascertain whether the picture is
yet in existence or not; and, if still in existence, where it can be seen.

M. E.

    [In Cunningham's _Handbook of London_, p. 527., s. v. _Weavers' Hall,
    Basinghall Street_, is a quotation from the _Quarterly Review_ for
    January, 1816, in which the picture is spoken of as then existing in
    the Stocking Weavers' Hall.]

_Cocker's Arithmetic_ (Vol. iv., pp. 102. 149.).--Some correspondence
appears in "N. & Q." about the first edition of "Old Cocker." I should be
glad to ascertain the date of the latest edition.

TYRO.

    [The British Museum contains the following editions of Cocker's
    _Arithmetic_:--the 20th, Lond. 1700; the 37th, perused and published by
    John Hawkins (with MS. notes), Lond. 1720; 41st, Lond. 1724; 50th,
    corrected by Geo. Fisher, Lond. 1746. Watt notices one revised by J.
    Mair, Edinb. 1751. In Professor de Morgan's _Arithmetical Books_, p.
    56., where a full history of Cocker's book is given, mention is made of
    an Edinburgh edition, 1765, and a Glasgow edition of 1777.]

_Lyke Porch or Litch Porch._--What is the proper name for the porch found,
not unfrequently, at the churchyard gate under which the body was, I
believe, supposed to rest before the funeral? Is it _lyke_ or _litch_? The
derivation may be different in different parts of England, as they were
originally Saxon or Danish. _Lüg_ Dan., _lyk_ Dutch, and _leiche_ Ger., are
all different forms of the same word. The first two approach nearer to
_lyke_, the latter to _litch_.

J. H. L.

    [In most works on ecclesiastical architecture it is called _lich-gate_,
    from Anglo-Saxon _lich_, a corpse: hence _Lich-field_, the field of
    dead bodies. In the _Glossary of Architecture_ we read "_Lich-gate_, or
    corpse-gate, _leichengang_, Germ., from the Ang.-Sax. _lich_, a corpse,
    and _geat_, a gate; a shed over the entrance of a churchyard, beneath
    which the bearers sometimes paused when bringing a corpse for
    interment. The term is also used in some parts of the country for the
    path by which a corpse is usually conveyed to the church."]

_Henry Burton._--Henry Burton was born in 1579; studied at Oxford, and was
at one time minister of St. Matthew, Friday Street. In 1636, he drew upon
himself the vengeance of the Star-Chamber, by two discourses in which he
severely inveighed against the bishops. For this offence he was fined,
deprived of his ears, and sentenced to imprisonment for life. He was
liberated by {541} the parliament in 1640, and died in 1648. What
theological works did he write?--From the _Navorscher_.

DIONYSIUS.

    [Burton's pen was so prolific, that we cannot find room for a list of
    his works; and must refer DIONYSIUS to the Bodleian Catalogue, where
    they fill nearly a column, and to Watt's _Bibliotheca_, s.v.]

_British Mathematicians._--I am anxious to learn if there is any book which
contains an account of the lives and works of eminent British
arithmeticians and mathematicians?

EUCLID.

    [Consult the following:--_Biographia Philosophica_: being an Account of
    the Lives, Writings, and Inventions of the most eminent Philosophers
    and Mathematicians, by Benjamin Martin: London, 1764, 8vo. There is
    also a Chronological Table of the most eminent Mathematicians affixed
    to John Bossut's _General History of Mathematics_, translated from the
    French by John Bonnycastle: London, 1803, 8vo. Some notices of our
    early English mathematicians will also be found in the _Companion to
    the Almanac_ for 1837, and in the _Magazine of Popular Science_, Nos.
    18. 20. and 22.]

_"Les Lettres Juives."_--Will any of your correspondents inform me who is
the author of _Lettres Juives_? The first volume of my edition, in eight
volumes 12mo., has the portrait of Jean Batiste B., Marquis de ----, né le
29 Juin, 1704.

J. R.

Sunderland.

    ["Par le Marquis D'Argens," says Barbier.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

ATTAINMENT OF MAJORITY.

(Vol. viii., pp. 198. 250.)

In replying to Professor DE MORGAN'S last communication on this subject, it
may be as well, in order to avoid future misunderstanding, to revert
briefly to my original question. I pointed out Ben Jonson's assertion,
through a character in one of his plays, that about the beginning of the
seventeenth century, it was the custom to regard the legal rights of
majority as commencing with six o'clock A.M., and I asked to have that
assertion reconciled with our present commencement at midnight, and with
the statement that the latter is in accordance with the old reckoning.

Thus I started with the production of affirmative evidence, to rebut which
I cannot find, in the replies of PROFESSOR DE MORGAN, any negative evidence
stronger than his individual opinion, which, however eminent in other
respects, has undoubtedly the disadvantage of being two hundred years later
than the contemporary evidence produced by me. I afterwards cited Arthur
Hopton as authority that lawyers in England, in his time, did make use of a
day which he classifies as that of the Babylonians; but inasmuch as he
apparently restricts its duration to twelve hours, whereas all ancient
writers concur in assigning to the Babylonians a day of twenty-four hours,
there is evidently a mistake somewhere, attributable either to Hopton or
his printers.

This mistake may have arisen either from a misprint, or from a
transposition of a portion of the sentence.

The supposition of a misprint is favoured by the circumstance that Hopton
was, at the time, professing to describe natural days of _twenty-four_
hours; of these there are four great classes of commencement, from the four
principal quarters of the day; viz. from midnight, from mid-day, from
sun-setting and from sun-rising. Hopton had already assigned three of them
to different nations, and the fourth he had properly assigned, so far as
its commencement at sunrise was concerned, to the Babylonians. What, then,
can be more probable than that he intended this day also, like the rest, to
be of twenty-four hours' duration; and that the words "holding till
sun-setting" ought, perhaps, to have been printed "holding till
sun-_rising_?"

This way of reconciling seeming anomalies, by the supposition of probable
misprints, receives great encouragement in the occasional occurrence of
similar mistakes in the most carefully printed modern books. I lately
noticed, while reading Sir James Ross's _Southern Voyage of Discovery_, a
work printed by the Admiralty, and on which extraordinary typographical
care had been bestowed, the following, at page 121. of vol. ii.:

    "It was full moon on the 15th of September, at 5·38 A.M."

But the context shows that "full moon" ought to have been printed _new
moon_, and that "5·38 A.M." outlet to be 5·38 P.M.: and what renders these
two mistakes the more remarkable is, that they have no sort of connexion,
nor is the occurrence of the one in any way explanatory of the other.

Now, the misprint of "sun-setting" for _sun-rising_, which I am supposing
in Hopton's book, would be much more likely of occurrence than these,
because these form part of a series of carefully examined data from which a
scientific deduction is to be drawn, while Hopton's is a mere loose
description. And, moreover, a twenty-four hour day, commencing and ending
with _sunrise_, does not, after all, appear to be so wholly unknown to
English law as PROF. DE MORGAN supposes, since Sir Edward Coke, to whom the
professor especially refers, describes such a day in these words:

    "Dies naturalis constat ea 24 horis et continet diem solarem et noctem;
    and therefore in Inditements for Burglary and the like, we say in nocte
    ejusdem diei. Iste dies naturalis est spatium in quo sol progreditur ab
    oriente in occidentem et ab occidente iterum in orientem."

{542}

But there is another way of reconciling the discrepancy--Hopton may not
have intended the words "holding till sun-setting" to apply to the
Babylonians, but only to "the lawyers in England," whose day, he says,
_commenced_ at the same time as the Babylonian day. The transposition of
the words in question to the end of the sentence would give such a meaning,
viz. "The Babylonians begin their day at sun-rising, and so do our lawyers
count it in England, holding till sun-setting." Altered in this way, the
latter clause does not necessarily apply to the Babylonians.

Here again we have a lawyers' day almost verbally identical with one
assigned to them by Sir Edward Coke: "Dies artificialis sive solaris
incipit in ortu solis et desinit in occasu, and of this the law of England
takes hold _in many cases_."

Nor does Lord Coke strengthen or vary his description in the least, when
speaking of the day commencing at midnight; he uses again the same
expression with regard to it, "The Egyptians and Romans from midnight, and
so doth the law of England _in many cases_."

Hence the authority of Chief Justice Coke, is at best only neutral; for who
will undertake to prove to which of these classes of "many cases" Lord Coke
meant to assign the attainment of majority?

In support of Ben Jonson's testimony, it may be urged that the midnight
initial of the day was itself derived by us from the Romans; and it is
nearly certain that _they_ did not perform any legal act, connected with
birthday, until the commencement of the _dies solis_.

A proof of this may be observed in the discussion by Aulus Gellius (_Noct.
Attic._, iii. 2.) as to which day, the preceding or the following, a
person's birth, happening in the night, was to be attributed. He quotes a
fragment from Varro,--

    "Homines qui ex media nocte ad proximam mediam noctem his horis XXIV
    nati sunt, uno die nati dicuntur."

On which Gellius remarks:

    "From these words it may be observed that the arrangement of (birth)
    days was such, that to any person born after sunset, and before
    midnight, the day from which that night had proceeded should be the
    birthday; but to any person born during the last six hours of the
    night, the day which should succeed that night must be the birthday."

This explanation might seem almost purposely written in reply to some such
difficulty as occurred to PROFESSOR DE MORGAN (_antè_, p. 250.), when he
remarks that, if birthday were to be confined to daylight, "a child not
born by daylight would have no birthday at all!" But since it was notorious
amongst the Romans that the civil day began at midnight, such a _quæri
solitum_ as this could never have been mooted, if the birthday observance
had not been known and acknowledged to have a different commencement. In
continuation of the same subject, Gellius proceeds to quote another passage
from Varro, which I shall also repeat, not only as furnishing still farther
proof that the Romans did not regard the night as forming any part of the
birthday, but also as affording an opportunity of recording an opinion as
to the interpretation of Varro's words, which, in this passage, do not
appear to have ever been properly understood.

After stating that many persons in Umbria reckon from noon to noon as one
and the same day, Varro remarks:

    "Quod quidem nimis absurdum est; nam qui calendarum hora sexta natus
    est apud Umbros, dies ejus natalis videri debebit et calendarum
    dimidiatus, et qui est post calendas dies ante horam ejusdem diei
    sextam."

Now why should _beginning one's birthday at noon_ appear so absurd to
Varro? Simply because the hours of the night were not then supposed to be
included in the birthday at all, and therefore Varro could not _realize_
the idea of a birthday continued through the night.

He says that, according to the Umbrian reckoning, a person born on any day
_after_ the point of noon, would have only half a birthday on that day; and
for the other half, he would have to take the forenoon of the following
day. Varro had no notion of joining the afternoon of one day to the
forenoon of another, because he looked upon the unbroken presence of the
sun as the very essence of a natal day.

Nothing can be plainer than that this was the true nature of the absurdity
alluded to; but it would not suit the prejudices of the commentators,
because it would compel them to admit that _sexta hora must have been in
the afternoon_, in opposition to their favourite dogma that it was always
in the forenoon.

For if Varro had intended to represent sexta hora in the _forenoon_, he
would have said that the other half-day must be taken from the _after_noon
of the _pridie_, instead of saying, as he does say, that it must be taken
from the _fore_noon of the _postridie_ of the Calends.

Consequently, Varro means by "qui Calendarum hora sexta natus est," a
person born in the sixth hour of the day of the Calends; the sixth hour
being that which immediately succeeded noon--the _media hora_ of Ovid. But
what Varro more immediately means by it is, not any particular point of
time, but generally any time _after noon_ on the day of the Calends.

That the true position of _sexta hora_, when implying duration, was in the
afternoon, has long been a conviction of mine; and I have elsewhere
produced undeniable evidence that it was so {543} considered by ancient
authors. But this passage from Varro is a new and hitherto unnoticed proof,
and certainly it ought to be a most convincing one, because it seems
impossible to give Varro's words a rational meaning without the admission
of this hypothesis, while with it everything is clear and consistent.

The commentators, driven by the necessity I have just pointed out, either
to admit the afternoon position of _sexta hora_, or to abstain from reading
it as a _space_ of time, have attempted to force a meaning by reading
_sexta hora_ in its other sense, an absolute mathematical point, the
_punctus ipse_ of noon.

In so doing they have not scrupled to libel Varro's common sense; they
represent his idea of the absurd to consist in the embarrassment that would
be caused by the birth occurring at the critical moment of change,--split
as it were _upon the knife-edge of noon_; so that, in the doubt that would
arise as to which day it should belong, it must be attributed partly to
both!

This interpretation is so monstrous, and so evidently wide of the meaning
of the words, that its serious imputation would scarcely be believed, if it
were not embalmed in the Delphin edition of Aulus Gellius, where we read
the following footnote referring to the _argumentum ad absurdum_ of Varro:

    "Infirmum omnino argumentum, et quod perinde potest in ipsum Varronem
    retorqueri. Quid enim? Si quis apud Romanos Calendis hora vi. noctis
    fuerit natus, nonne pariter dies ejus natalis videri debebit, et partim
    Calendarum, et partim ejus dici qui sequetur?"

It is not worth while to inquire what may have been the precise dilemma
contemplated by the writer of this note, since most certainly it is not a
reflex of Varro's meaning. The word _dimidiatus_ is completely cushioned,
although Gellius himself has a chapter upon it a little farther on in the
same volume.

The anomaly that amused Varro was the necessity of piecing together two
halves not belonging to the same individual day and with the hiatus of a
night between them; a necessity that would assuredly appear most absurd to
one who had no other idea of birthday than the twelve consecutive hours of
artificial day, which he would call "the natural day."

This proneness of the Romans to look upon the _dies solis_ as the only
effective part of the twenty-four hours, is again apparent in their
commencement of horary notation at sunrise, six hours later than the actual
commencement of the day. And in our own anomalous repetition of twice
twelve, we may still trace the remains of the twelve-hour day; we have
changed the initial point, but we have retained the measure of duration.

It is, however, certain that the two methods of reckoning time continued
for a long time to exist contemporaneously. Hence it became necessary to
distinguish one from the other _by name_, and thus the notation from
midnight gave rise, as I have remarked in one of my papers on Chaucer, to
the English idiomatic phrase "of the clock;" or the reckoning of the clock,
commencing at midnight, as distinguished from Roman equinoctial hours,
commencing at six o'clock A.M. This was what Ben Jonson was meaning by
attainment of majority at _six o'clock_, and not, as PROFESSOR DE MORGAN
supposes, "probably a certain sunrise." Actual sunrise had certainly
nothing to do with the technical commencement of the day in Ben Jonson's
time. For convenience sake, six o'clock had long been taken _as
conventional sunrise all the year round_; and even amongst the Romans
themselves, equinoctial hours were frequently used at all seasons. Actual
sunrise, in after times, had only to do with "hours inequall," which are
said to have fallen into disuse, in common life, so early as the fifth or
sixth century.

I trust I may now have shown reasonable grounds for the belief that Ben
Jonson may, after all, have had better authority than his license as a
dramatic poet, for dating the attainment of majority at six o'clock A.M.;
and that nothing short of contemporary evidence directly contradictory of
the custom so circumstantially alluded to by him, ought to be held
sufficient to throw discredit upon it. It is one of the singular
coincidences attending the discussion of this matter by Gellius, that, at
the conclusion of the chapter I have been expatiating upon, he should cite
the authority of Virgil; observing that the testimony of _poets_ is very
valuable upon such subjects, even when veiled in the obscurity of poetic
imagery.

A. E. B.

Leeds.

       *       *       *       *       *

LORD HALIFAX AND MRS. CATHERINE BARTON.

(Vol. viii., p 429.)

Your Correspondent PROF. DE MORGAN has so ingeniously analysed the facts,
which he already possesses, bearing on the connexion of Sir Isaac Newton's
niece with Lord Halifax, and her designation in the _Biographia
Britannica_, that I am tempted to furnish him with some additional
evidence. This question of Mrs. Catherine Barton's widowhood has often been
canvassed by that portion of her relatives who do not possess the custody
of Sir Isaac Newton's private letters.

The Montagues had a residence in the village of Bregstock in
Northamptonshire, where the Bartons lived. The Bartons were a family of
good descent, and had long been lessees of the crown with the Montagues for
lands near Braystock.

There were several Colonel Bartons, whose respective ages and relationship
can best be {544} exhibited by a short pedigree. Thomas Barton had two
sons, Thomas and Robert.

Robert (born in 1630, and who died in 1693) married Hannah Smith, Newton's
half-sister, by whom he had Hannah (born 1678), Catherine (born 1679, died
1739), Colonel Robert (born 1684).

Thomas (born in 1619, died in 1704) married Alice Palmer, by whom he had
Thomas, who married Mary Dale, by whom he had Thomas (d. s. p.), Colonel
Matthew (born 1672), Colonel Noel (born 1674, died 1714). Thomas had a
second son, Geoffrey, who married Elizabeth ----, by whom he had Charles
(born 1700), Cutts (born 1706), Catherine (born 1709), Montague (born
1717), and others.

In a family paper written by a granddaughter of Colonel Noel Barton, at her
mother's dictation, it is stated that Colonel Matthew married a relative of
Sir Isaac Newton, and was Comptroller of the Mint; but this paper is not
very correct in its other statements.

On the other hand, a connexion of the family who signs himself H. in an old
number of the _Gentleman's Magazine_, says of Newton:

    "He had a half-sister, who had a daughter, to whom he gave the best of
    educations, the famous witty Miss Barton, who married Mr. Conduit of
    the Mint."

Mr. Conduit writes, that his wife lived twenty years before and after her
marriage with Sir Issac.

I had always thought that Catherine Barton's brother Robert had died too
early to attain the rank of Colonel. In the British Museum, in the
Register, there is an account of a sermon preached at the funeral of Robert
Barton in the year 1703. I could not find the sermon.

The famous Duchess of Marlborough thus satirises Mouse Montague:

    "He was a frightful figure, and yet pretended to be a lover; and
    followed several beauties, who laughed at him for it."

It is worth mentioning that Colonel Noel Barton died in London in 1714,
while in attendance on his patron Lord Gainsborough, soon after he had been
appointed Governor of the Leeward Islands. This was the year before Lord
Halifax's _Life_ was written, and possibly might have been the cause of the
designation "Widow" being applied to Catherine Barton by mistake. Whatever
the connexion of this lady with Lord Halifax may have been, it does not
seem to have given any offence to her relatives. You will observe that
Geoffrey Barton names his sons Charles and Montague, and his daughter
Catherine. Charles afterwards received the rectory of St. Andrew's Holborn
from the family of Montague; and Cutts was Dean of Bristol under Bishop
Montague. And Montague obtained preferment from Mr. Conduit. Neither the
family of Montague, nor that of Barton, seem to have thought the connexion
discreditable. Moreover, the births of these children of Geoffrey Barton, a
clergyman, occurred at the very period when the name of Catherine should
have been most distasteful, had the intimacy been dishonourable.

Mr. Conduit died in the year 1738, and Mrs. Conduit in the year 1739; and
Catherine Conduit did not become Lady Lymington till 1740. Probably both
Mr. and Mrs. Conduit made wills. Have they been examined at Doctors'
Commons?

J. W. J.

       *       *       *       *       *

MILTON'S WIDOW.

(Vol. viii., pp. 12. 134. 200. 375. 452. 471.)

It is pleasing to find so much interest excited among the readers of "N. &
Q." relative to the parentage of this lady; and we may fairly hope that the
spirit of research which has thus been awakened, will not die away until
the last spark of error and mystery has been extinguished.

T. L. P. has favoured us with quotations from a little pamphlet, entitled
_Historical Facts connected with Nantwich and its Neighbourhood_. Now,
after giving this work a most careful perusal, I cannot but think that the
title of the book is, in this instance at least, a misnomer. The authoress,
for it was written by a lady long resident in the vicinity, has evidently
wrought upon the foundations of others; and taking the veteran Ormerod as a
sufficient authority, has given full vent to her imagination, and pictured,
with "no 'prentice hand," the welcome visits of Milton to Stoke Hall, a
place which, in all probability, was never once honoured with the presence
of this great man. There is no evidence whatever adduced to give even the
semblance of colour to this unfortunate error; whereas, on the side of the
Wistaston family, the proofs of its identity as the family of Mrs. Milton
are numerous and, to my notion, incontrovertible.

As if, indeed, to give us "confirmation sure" of the truth of this
position, our old friend CRANMORE starts up, "like a spirit from the vasty
deep," and, after an absence of many months from our ranks, pays off his
ancient score by producing the evidence he so long ago promised us. From it
we gather that Thomas Paget, the father, named his _cousin_ Minshull,
apothecary in Manchester, overseer of his will; and that his son, Nathan
Paget, eighteen years afterwards, names in his will John Goldsmith and
Elizabeth Milton as _his cousins_, and makes bequests to them accordingly.
Now, it so happens that Thomas, son of Richard Minshull of Wistaston, was
an _apothecary_, and that he settled in _Manchester_, and thereupon founded
the family of Minshull of Manchester. This {545} gentleman was doubtless
the _cousin_ referred to in the will of the elder Paget. It farther
happens, that Thomas Minshull, the grandfather of this Manchester
apothecary, married a daughter of Goldsmith of Nantwich. The John Goldsmith
of the Middle Temple would then doubtless be the nephew or grand-nephew of
this lady, and in either case a _cousin_ of Thomas Minshull of Manchester,
and of Elizabeth Minshull of Wistaston. This is another, if not a
completing link in the genealogical chain, and convinces me, now more than
ever, of the correctness of my conclusions.

I may add that the whole of the deeds referred to by MR. SINGER are now in
the safe and worthy keeping of Mr. J. Fitchett Marsh of Warrington; and
that they are published _in extenso_, together with a valuable essay on
their historical importance by their present possessor, in the first volume
of _Miscellanies_ issued by the Chetham Society.

T. HUGHES.

       *       *       *       *       *

ANTICIPATORY USE OF THE CROSS.

(Vol. viii., pp. 132. 417.)

I am not sure that any of your correspondents have noticed the resemblance
between the letter T t, especially in some of its ancient forms, and the
form of the cross. In the Greek, Etruscan, and Samaritan forms of this
letter, we have representations of the three principal forms which the
cross has assumed: [Tau cross], +, ×. It is also remarkable that in Ezekiel
ix. 4. 6.: "Set a mark on the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry,"
&c., the word rendered "mark" is [Hebrew: T\dagesh\W] (_Tau_), the name of
the Hebrew letter answering to the above: and as the Samaritan alphabet,
which the present Hebrew characters have superseded, was then in use, it is
highly probable that the "mark" referred to in Ezekiel's vision was the
Samaritan _Tau_, as seen on ancient Hebrew shekels, resembling a St.
Andrew's cross.

A circumstance relating to the Paschal sacrifice mentioned by Justin
Martyr, in his conference with Trypho the Jew, and which he asserts without
contradiction from his learned opponent, is worthy of a note:

    "This lamb, which was to be roasted whole, was a symbol of the
    punishment of the cross, which was inflicted on Christ, [Greek: To gar
    optômenon probaton, k.t.l.] For the lamb which was roasted was so
    placed as to resemble the figure of a cross; with one spit it was
    pierced longitudinally, from the tail to the head; with another it was
    transfixed through the shoulders, so that the forelegs became
    extended."--Vid. Just. Martyri _Opera_, edit. Oberther, vol. ii. p.
    106.

Your correspondent H. N. appears to have fallen into several errors, which
(having appeared in "N. & Q.") ought not to pass unnoticed.

1. He confounds the basilica with the cruciform cathedral, and with "the
plan of the Roman forum."

Basilica (from Gr. [Greek: Basilikê], a royal dwelling) was the name given
by the Romans to those public edifices in which justice was administered
and mercantile business transacted. Several of these buildings, or the
remains of them, still exist in Rome, each forum probably having had its
basilica. Vitruvius, who constructed one at Fanum, says it ought to be
built "on the warm side of the forum, that those whose affairs call them
thither might confer without being incommoded by the weather." Yet H. N.
says: "The basilica seems to have originally been the architectural plan of
the Roman forum." The most perfect specimen of the antique basilica is that
discovered at Pompeii, on the south side of the form and at right angles
with it. By consulting a good plan of Pompeii, or glancing at a plan of its
basilica, any one may see that it was not cruciform, but "in the form of a
long parallelogram," with a central space and side porticoes, answering to
the nave and aisles of a church. The early Christians adopted the basilica
form for their churches: those built in the form of a Greek or Latin cross
are of much later date. Yet H. N.'s learned friend exclaims, when viewing
the temple of Muttra, "Here is the cross! the basilica carried out with
more correctness of order and symmetry than in Italy!"

2. H. N. assumes that the Jews practised crucifixion as a punishment, and
"may have imitated the Assyrians, as crucifixion may have been adopted long
before that of Christ and the two thieves (Qy. robbers)." Crucifixion
appears to have been in use from a very remote period, but was never
adopted by the Jews. The Romans, who with all their greatness were an
atrociously cruel people, employed it as the peculiar and appropriate
punishment of delinquent slaves. Christ was "crucified under Pontius
Pilate," the Roman Procurator of Judea, at a time when that country had
become subject to the Romans, and its rulers could say, "It is not lawful
for us to put any man to death."

3. When H. N. refers to "the advocates of conversion and their itinerant
agents," it is difficult to perceive exactly what he intends, except "to
hint a fault and hesitate dislike." But before a writer undertakes to cast
a reflection on those great societies who have been labouring--not by
coercion, but by instruction and persuasion, by the circulation of the
scriptures and the preaching of the Gospel--to substitute Christianity for
idolatry among those who are under the government of Great Britain, he
should well understand the grounds of his censures, so as to be able "to
explain to the conversionists that, unless this doctrine be openly refuted,
the missionaries may in truth be fighting their own shadow." {546}

How then has H. N. explained the doctrine which they are to refute--the
meaning of the "cross and basilica" in India? The only witness in proof of
it has disappeared "by falling into a volcanic crater." He himself
professes to be quite ignorant of cathedral architecture and the English
government, and English gentlemen generally, who have shamefully secreted
such a treasure, are equally ignorant. Why had they not consulted the
living Church of Hindooism, and shown it a little sympathy and respect with
a view to getting enlightened? Whereas "the little they do know is derived
from books." Farther, "the elder civilians, men of ability, classical
scholars, and first-rate Asiatic linguists," when assembled in that very
building, though they descanted on the sanctity of the place, "not one of
them knew nor remarked the 'cross and basilica.'" And when visiting the
great temple of Benares, H. N. does not recollect that the cross was either
noticed to him or by him.

It may be true that when the Hindoo "system of government existed in
efficiency, there was neither crime nor punishment"--a shadowy tradition, I
presume, of the state of innocence! It may also be true that "the mythology
of the Nile agrees with that of the Ganges." But it would not follow that
the cross is a myth derived from the mysteries of Egypt or the astronomy of
India. It would still remain an unquestionable fact, that the cross, for
ages an instrument of ignominious torture under Pagan Rome, only ceased to
be so when Christianity had won its way through all ranks of society up to
the imperial throne; then its employment was abolished by Constantine,
partly from the humanising influence of the new faith, and partly out of
reverence to Him who had suffered on it for the world's redemption.

The anticipations of Christianity supplied by Paganism, of which Krishna
"burnishing the head of the serpent" is a striking example, may be easily
accounted for, and their source pointed out. As a corruption of the
earliest revelation, Paganism contains, as might be expected, a portion of
truth blended with much error. Indeed, it would be no difficult task to
prove that classical and oriental mythology is in some sense, and to a
great extent, the shadow of biblical truth. What then? In endeavouring to
supplant idolatry in the Roman empire, were the Apostles and first
preachers of Christianity merely "fighting their own shadow?" They
recognised those truths which even heathens admit, but opposed and
overthrew the accumulated errors of ages. Yet there were some even then who
condemned the preaching of the cross as "foolishness," till success
demonstrated its wisdom.

Lastly, H. N., having "travelled much in this country and on the
Continent," is convinced "that superstition prevails comparatively _less_
in Asia than in Europe," and that "the pages of 'N. & Q.' abundantly
corroborate the opinion."

This is far more startling than the discovery of the "cross and basilica"
at Muttra. To admit it, however, would require us to disregard the
testimony of a cloud of witnesses, and to ignore all our former reading.
The vast systems of Asiatic superstition, it seems, are less objectionable
than our own folk lore; the tremendous shades of Brahma and Budhu, of
Juggernaut and the goddess Kali, with their uncouth images and horrid
worship, are harmless when compared with Puck, the Pixies, and Robin
Goodfellow; and Caste, Suttee, and Devil-worship[3] are evils of less
magnitude than cairns, kist-vaens, and cromlechs. The mental balance must
be peculiarly constructed that could lead to such a decision. Certainly
H. N. is no Rhadamanthus. "Dat veniam corvis, vexat censure columbas."

The appeal to "N. & Q." in corroboration of his opinion forms a pleasant
and suitable conclusion of the whole: for while in India superstition still
undeniably lives and "prevails," it is one special object of "N. & Q." to
embalm the remains of local superstitions in Great Britain that have either
breathed their last, or are _in extremis_; to collect the relics of
long-departed superstitions that were once vigorous and rampant in our
island, but are now in danger of being lost and forgotten. Their very
remnants and vestiges have become so rare that they are unknown to the
great mass of the community; and the learned, therefore, especially those
versed in ethology, are urged to hunt them out wherever they exist in the
different districts of the country, before they fall into utter oblivion.

J. W. THOMAS.

Dewsbury.

[Footnote 3: For proof of the existence of Devil-worship, see _Yakkun
Nottanawa_, a Cingalese poem, translated by John Callaway, printed for the
Oriental Translation Fund: J. Murray, 1829.]

I would beg to suggest to H. N. that if his friend Count Venua saw in the
Hindoo temple at Muttra both the form of a perfect cross and of a
"basilica, carried out with more correctness of order and symmetry than in
Italy," he must have been so totally ignorant of early architecture as to
make his observations quite worthless, since there is no more similitude
between the cruciform church and the basilica than there is between two
parallel lines (=) and two lines crossing each other at right angles (+).

"The precise shape of the cross on the Temple of Serapis" can only be
inferred from the words of the historian cited, and the inference therefrom
is strong that it was the _crux ansata_.

EDEN WARWICK

Birmingham.

       *       *       *       *       *

{547}

DECORATIVE PAVEMENT TILES FROM CAEN.

(Vol. viii., p. 493.)

The tiles presented, in 1786, to Mr. Charles Chadwick, of Mavesyn-Ridware,
Staffordshire, are preserved in the church at that place. They form two
tablets affixed to the wall in the remarkable sepulchral chapel arranged
and decorated, at a great cost, by the directions of that gentleman towards
the close of the last century, when the greater portion of the church was
rebuilt. The north chapel, or aisle, containing the tombs of the Mavesyns
and the Ridwares, the ancient lords of the estates which descended to Mr.
Chadwick, was preserved; and here are to be seen two cross-legged effigies,
a curious incised portraiture on an altar-tomb, representing Sir Robert
Mavesyn, 1403, with other incised slabs and interesting memorials; to which
were added, by Mr. Chadwick, a series of large incised figures, which
surround the chapel. These last are not shown in the view given in Shaw's
_History of Staffordshire_, vol. ii. p. 191., having been executed since
the publication of that work; and it is stated that they were engraved by
the parish clerk under Mr. Chadwick's direction, being intended to pourtray
the successive lords of the place from the Norman times to the sixteenth
century, each in the costume of his period. There are also numerous
atchievements and other decorations attached to the walls; amongst these
are the pavement tiles from Caen, one of which bore the same arms as are
assigned to the family of Malvoisin-Rosny, and on that account probably Mr.
Chadwick placed these relics from Normandy amongst the enrichments of his
mausoleum.

In regard to MR. BOASE'S first inquiry, "Who was Charles Chadwick, Esq.?"
it may suffice to cite the detailed account of the family given by Shaw,
and the short notice of that gentleman which will be found in the _History
of Staffordshire_, vol. ii. p. 185.

On a visit to Mavesyn-Ridware in 1839, I was struck with the appearance of
these tiles; their design and fashion at once recalled those from Caen with
which I had been familiar in Normandy. Having ascertained their origin, I
took occasion to state the fact of their preservation at this church in the
"Notes on Decorative Tiles," communicated to Mr. Parker by me, and given in
the fourth edition of his useful _Glossary of Architecture_, in 1845: see
p. 367.

It should be observed that the number of tiles composing the two tablets
now to be seen is forty; whilst the number, as stated _Gent. Mag._, vol.
lix. part i. p. 211., and in a second letter from Mr. Barrett, in vol. lx.
part ii. p. 710., not cited by MR. BOASE in his Query, is twenty. MR. BOASE
is probably aware that the sixteen tiles from the Great Guard Chamber at
Caen, which supplied the subject of Mr. J. Major Henniker's memoir, were
presented by him to the Society of Antiquaries of London, and are now in
their museum, as noticed in the catalogue, compiled by myself, p. 30.

A coloured drawing of an heraldic pavement at Caen, taken about 1700, is
preserved in a volume of the great collection formed by M. de Gaignieres,
and bequeathed by Gough to the Bodleian Library. It comprises chiefly
drawings of French sepulchral monuments, arranged by localities; and there
is one volume, entitled _Recueil de Tapisseries, d'Armoiries et de
Devises_, in which may be found the interesting memorial of this decorative
pavement of tiles, which was destroyed during the fury of the Revolution.

ALBERT WAY.

Charles Chadwick, Esq., of Healy Hall, Lancashire, and Mavesyn-Ridware, in
the county of Stafford, to whom the monks of St. Stephen, at Caen,
presented, in the year 1786, a series of encaustic tiles with heraldic
devices taken from the floor of the (so called) "Great Guard Chamber of the
Palace of the Dukes of Normandy," died in 1829. I infer that the tiles were
brought to the Lancashire residence of Mr. Chadwick because the description
and the drawing for the engraving were both supplied to the _Gentleman's
Magazine_ by a Lancashire antiquary, Thomas Barnett, of Hydes Cross,
Manchester: but as the descendants of Mr. Chadwick no longer reside in
Lancashire, the hall being occupied by a woollen manufacturer, I have been
unable to obtain any information respecting the tiles, though long desirous
to do so.

I direct attention to another series of the same tiles, sixteen in number,
which were presented to the Society of Antiquaries through the president,
the Earl of Leicester, in 1788, by John Henniker, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., S.A.,
and M.P., who afterwards took the additional name of Major. This gentleman
received the tiles from his brother, Captain Henniker, then resident at
Caen; and in 1794 he published an interesting account of them with
engravings, entitled _Two Letters on the Origin, Antiquity, and History of
Norman Tiles stained with Armorial Bearings_ (London, John Bell, Strand).
The engravings both in this volume and in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ are
indifferently executed, and too small in scale to be of use. Mr. Henniker
describes the colours of his tiles to be "yellow and brown," while Mr.
Barnett states that the tiles in Mr. Chadwick's possession were "light grey
and black;" a curious discrepancy, seeing that in all other respects they
were exactly similar. These tiles are of so much heraldic and antiquarian
interest that if either set could be made available for the purpose, it is
very desirable that they be engraved of full size, and printed by the
modern easy process to imitate the colours.

GILBERT J. FRENCH.

       *       *       *       *       *

{548}

MOTTOS OF THE EMPERORS OF GERMANY.

(Vol. viii., p. 170.)

With your permission I shall enlarge the list of mottos of the German
emperors, as well by commencing with the Germano-Frankish era as by
supplying those omitted in the series given by MR. JOSHUA G. FITCH. My
authorities are Reusneri _Symbola Imperatoria tribus classibus Cæs. Rom.
Italic., C. R. Græcorum, C. R. Germanico_; and Sadeler, _Symbola divina et
humana Pontificum, Imperatorum, Regum_, &c.:

    Caroli Magni. 752. _Christus regnat, vincit, triumphat._

    Ludovici Pii. 814. _Omnium rerum vicissitudo._

    Lotharii I. 840. _Ubi mel, ibi fel._

    Ludovici II. 855. _Par sit fortuna labori._

    Caroli II. (Calvi.) 875. _Justitiam injustitia parit._

    Caroli III. (Crassi.) 881. _Os garrulum intricat omnia._

    Arnulphi. 888. _Facilis descensus Averni._

    Ludovici III. 899. _Multorum manus, paucorum consilium._

    Othonis Magni. _Aut mors aut vita decora._

    Othonis III. _Unita virtus valet._

    Henrici II. (Claudi.) _Ne quid nimis._

    Friderici I. (Ænobarbi.) _Aliud. Qui nescit dissimulare nescit
    imperare._

    Friderici II. _Minarum strepitus, asinorum crepitus._ The following is
    the correct reading of the words given in Vol. viii., p. 170.:
    _Cumplurium triariorum ego strepitum audivi._

    Adolphi. _Animus est qui divites facit._

    Alberti I. _Aliud. Quod optimum idem jucundissimum._

    Henrici VII. _Aliud. Fide et consilio._

    Ludovici IV. _Sola bona quæ honesta._
    _Aliud. Deo et Cæsari._[4]

    Caroli IV. _Optimum aliena insania frui._
    _Aliud. Nullius pavet occursum._

    Wenceslai. _Morosophi moriones pessimi._
    _Aliud. Tempestati parendum._

    Sigismundi. _Aliud. Sic cedunt munera fatis._

    Alberti II. _Aliud. Fugam victoria nescit._

    Friderici III. _Rerum irrecuperabilium foelix oblivio._
    _Aliud. A. E. I. O. U._

That these vowels are supposed to signify "Austriæ est imperare orbi
universo" has already been communicated in "N. & Q." Reusner has given then
another interpretation "Aquila electa iuste vincit omnia."

"Aliud. Hic regit, ille tuetur. Leges et arma in promptu habes, illæ
regunt, hæc tuentur imperium. A Justiniano habet," &c.--Sadeler, p. 43.

    Maximiliani I. _Aliud. In manu Dei Regis est [cor]._
    _Aliud. Per tot discrimina._

    Caroli V. _Aliud. Nondum in auge [Sol]._
    _Aliud. Fundatori quietis [laurea]._

    Ferdinandi. _Fiat justitia aut pereat mundus._
    _Aliud. A. I. P. Q. N. S. I. A._

     "Accidit in puncto quod non speratur in anno;
        Temporis in puncto qui sapit, ille sapit."

    Maximiliani II. _Comminuam vel extinguam._
    (_Puta semiplenam Turcarum lunulam._)

    Rudolphi II. _Aliud. Ex voluntate Dei omnia._
    _Aliud. Sic ad astra._
    _Aliud. Tu ne cede malis._

In Reusner's work the mottos are accompanied by copious and erudite
comments; and in Sadeler's by engravings also; the devices or achievements
of distinguished men, denominated in the Italian language _Imprese_, and in
the Latin _Symbola Heroica_.

BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM.

[Footnote 4: "Symbolum [aquila solem contrà tuens] quo jam se non tantum
adversario opponit sed cum Deo parum modestè ponit. Est quidem aquila Jovi
sacra ut ad fabulas rem revolvamus. Sed absit mihi omnis cum Deo
comparatio."--Sadeler, p. 39.]

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Simplicity of Calotype Process._--The session of the Photographic Society
was commenced with a paper from our original correspondent, DR. DIAMOND,
under the above title. Our journal having led to such facilities of
question and answer, has induced many of our readers to ask upon several
points additional instructions, some of which we have ourselves thought
might have been made more clear and having written to DR. DIAMOND he has
promised us a revised copy for our next Number. Replying to some of our
Querists, he says, "The plain photographic facts are correct; but I wrote
the paper on the morning of the day on which the Society met, and was not
aware it was to be printed in the _Journal_ until I received my copy."

_Albumenized Paper._--As my only object writing on this subject was to
communicate to others the plan which _I_ had found _in practice_ most
successful, I think it necessary to correct some points of misapprehension
which it is evident your correspondent K. N. M. has fallen into, Vol.
viii., p. 501.

In the process I recommended, the paper, if cockled up, readily becomes
flat and even if kept in a portfolio or any similar receptacle; and as I
_never float_ my paper to sensitize it, I have not the inconvenience of the
silver solution becoming spoiled by particles of the albumen. The 100
grains to the ounce for the solution I do not find more extravagant when
applied, as I have indicated, with a glass rod, than one of 30 grains to
the ounce when the paper is floated, because in the former case I use only
just enough to cover the paper, viz. forty-five minims to a half-sheet of
{549} Canson's paper, and there is no loss from any portion adhering to the
dishes, evaporation, or filtering. This is far more than would be imagined
when only a sheet or two of paper is required at one time. Lastly, with
regard to the _strokes_ being visible after printing the positive, I do not
find them so in general, though occasionally such a thing does happen when
sufficient care has not been taken in the preparation; but I find striæ
quite as visible on two positives prepared by DR. DIAMOND himself, which he
kindly gave me: however, I will forward a sample of my paper for your
judgment, and also a portion for K. N. M. if he will take the trouble of
trying the same.

GEO. SHADBOLT.

_New Developing Mixture._--Having for some months past used the following
developing mixture, and finding it very bright and easily applied, I beg to
offer it to your notice. It does not cost more than three farthings per
ounce, and therefore may be worth the consideration of beginners. I do not
know a better where the metallic appearance is not desired.

  No. 1. Pyrogallic acid          2 grains.
        Glacial acetic acid      1 drachm.
        Water                    1 oz.

  No. 2. Protosulphate of iron   10 grains.
        Nitric acid              2 drops.
        Water                    1 oz.

  To six drachms of No. 2. add two of No. 1.

I pour it on, but do not return it to the bottle, as it is apt to spoil if
so used.

T. L. MERRITT.

_Queries on the Albumenized Process._--Allow me to put a few questions
through your valued paper.

In the albumen process on glass, Messrs. Ross and Thomson, in
Thornthwaite's _Guide_, recommend 10 drops of sat. solution of iodized
potassa to each egg. Now is it meant _ten drops_, or _ten minims_? If the
former, a drop varies with the bottle and quantity of liquid in it; and ten
drops are nearly half the bulk of ten minims, generally speaking. Then as
to the egg: an egg in this country is only at most 6 [drachm]; in England
an egg appears twice as large.--Could you state the general bulk of an egg
in England, and to what quantity by bulk or weight of albumen the 10 drops
or minims are to be applied? When I say an egg is only 6 [drachm], I mean
the white of one.

A SUBSCRIBER.

Bombay.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Poems in connection with Waterloo_ (Vol. vii., p. 6.).--A correspondent of
the _Naval and Military Gazette_ of November 19, 1853, signing himself
"M.A., Pem. Coll., Oxford," has pointed out an error into which I had
fallen "respecting the elm-trees at and connected with Waterloo."

I certainly was given to understand, when I received the monody, that it
was written by the public orator on the death of his son _who fell at
Waterloo_: whereas it clearly appears by the obituary in the _Gentleman's
Magazine_, that _Ensign William Crowe_, first battalion, 4th foot, _son of
the public orator_ at Oxford, _was killed at the attack_ upon New Orleans
Jan. 8, 1815.

I hasten to acknowledge my mistake, though I am glad that the two copies of
verses found place in your columns.

BRAYBROOKE.

_Richard Oswald_ (Vol. viii., p. 442.)--Your Querist will find many letters
to and from him in Franklin's _Memoirs_. He was for some years a merchant
in the city of London. In 1759 he purchased the estate of Auchincruive, in
the county of Ayr, and died there in 1783. No memoir of him has ever been
published. He was for many years an intimate friend of Lord Shelbourne, who
sent him to Paris in 1782, and again in 1783, to negotiate with Franklin,
with whom he had been for some time acquainted. During the Seven Years' War
he acted as commissary-general to the allied armies under the Duke of
Brunswick, who said of him in the official despatches, that "England had
sent him commissaries fit to be generals, and generals not fit to be
commissaries."

J. H. E.

_Grammont's Marriage_ (Vol. viii., p. 461.).--In one of the notes to
Grammont, originally, I believe, introduced by Sir W. Scott in his edition,
but which appears at p. 415. of Bohn's reprint, we are told on the
authority of the _Biographia Gallica_, vol. i. p. 202.:

    "The famous Count Grammont was thought to be the original of _The
    Forced Marriage_. This nobleman, during his stay at the court of
    England, had made love to Miss Hamilton, but was coming away from
    France without bringing matters to a proper conclusion. The young
    lady's brothers pursued him, and came up with him near Dover, in order
    to exchange some pistol shot with him. They called out, 'Count
    Grammont, have you forgot nothing at London?' 'Excuse me,' answered the
    Court guessing their errand, 'I forgot to marry your sister; so lead
    on, and let us finish that affair.'"

My object in this communication is to supply an omission in MR. STEINMAN'S
very interesting Notes, who does not show, as he might have done, how the
letters of M. de Comminges prove the truth of this story. For, from the
passage quoted by MR. STEINMAN from the letter to the king, dated Dec.
20-24, 1663, it is evident that the count was about on that day to leave
England "without bringing matters to a proper conclusion;" while that he
married the lady within a day or {550} two of that date may fairly be
inferred from the announcement on Aug. 29-Sept. 8, 1664, that "Madame la
Comtesse de Grammont accoucha hier au soir d'un fils." MR. STEINMAN'S
omission was probably intentional; I have supplied it in the hope that the
date and place of the marriage may now be ascertained, and for the purpose
of expressing my hope that we shall soon be favoured by MR. STEINMAN'S
return to this subject.

HORACE WALPOLE, Jun.

_Life_ (Vol. vii., p. 429.).--Let me give A. C. the testimony of two poets
and a philosopher in support of the "general feeling" about the renewal of
life, which will surely bear down the authority of three writers mentioned
by him.

Cowper's notion may be gathered from the couplet:

 "So numerous are the follies that annoy
  The mind and heart of every sprightly boy."

Kirke White must have had a similar idea:

 "There are who think that childhood does not share
  With age the cup, the bitter cup, of care;
  Alas! they know not this unhappy truth,
  That every age and rank is born to ruth."

The next four lines may also be attentively considered. I quote from his
"Childhood," one of his earliest productions by the way--but what
production of his was not early?

Still more decidedly, however, on the point speaks Cicero (_de Senectute_):

    "Si quis Deus mihi largiatur ut ea hâc ætate repuerescam, et in cunis
    vagiam, _valde recusem_."

The following passage is also at A. C.'s service, provided you can find
space for it, and there are "no questions asked" as to its whereabouts:

    "I have heard them say that our childhood's hours are the happiest time
    of our earthly race; and they speak with regret of their summer bowers,
    and the mirth they knew in the butterfly chase; and they sorrow to
    think that those days are past, when their young hearts bounded with
    lightsome glee, when, by none of the clouds of care o'ercast, the sun
    of their joy shone cheerily. But, oh! they surely forget that the boy
    may have grief of his own that strikes deep in his heart; that an angry
    frown, or a broken toy, may inflict for a time a cureless smart; and
    that little pain is as great to him as a weightier woe to an older
    mind. Aye! the harsh reproof, or unfavoured whim, may be sharp as a
    pang of a graver kind. Then, how dim-sighted and thoughtless are those,
    who would they were frolicsome children and free; they should rather
    rejoice to have fled from the woes that hung o'er them once so heavily.
    In misfortune's rude shocks the practised art of _the man_ may
    perchance disclose relief; but _the child_, in his innocence of heart,
    will bow 'neath the stroke of a trifling grief."

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

_Muscipula_ (Vol. viii., p. 229.--_The Name Lloyd._--Besides the
translation of this poem by Dr. Hoadly, of which a note in Dodsley informs
us that the author, Holdsworth, said it was "exceedingly well done," I have
before me another, printed in London for R. Gosling, 1715, with an engraved
frontispiece, illustrative of the triumphant reception of Taffy's
invention. The depredations of the mouse are illustrated in the various
figures around, as cheeses burrowed through, even the invasion of a
sleeping Welshman's very [Greek: erkos odontôn], &c. The title is, _The
Mouse-Trap, a Poem done from the original Latin in Milton's Stile_:

 "Ludus animo debet aliquando dari,
  Ad cogitandum melior ut redeat tibi"--_Phæd._

Both translations are in blank verse, but that of the latter is very
_blank_ indeed, and possesses little in common with Milton's _style_,
except the absence of rhyme. It thus begins:

 "The British mountaineer, who first uprear'd
  A mouse-trap, and engoal'd the little thief,
  The deadly wiles and fate inextricable,
  Rehearse, my Muse, and, oh! thy presence deign,
  Auxiliar Phoebus, mortal foe to mice:
  Whence bards in ancient times thee Smintheus term'd," &c.

Muscipula must have made some sensation to have been translated by two
different persons. _Welsh rabbits_, and their supposed general fondness for
_cheese_, have furnished many a joke at the expense of the inhabitants of
the principality. Among others the following quiz may not be out of place
on the famous Cambro-Britannic name of Lloyd:

 "Two gibbets dejected,        LL
    A cheese in full view,       O
  A toaster erected              Y
    And a cheese cut in two,     D."

  Ballard MSS. in the Bodleian, vol. xxix. p. 80.

BALLIOLENSIS.

_Berefellarii_ (Vol. viii., p. 420.).--M. PHILARÈTE CHASLES has
misrepresented JOHN JEBB'S Query and conjecture about _berefellarii_ (Vol.
vii., p. 207.). He never spoke of these officers as "_half ecclesiastics_
(!), dirty, shabby, ill-washed attendants." They were priests of an
inferior grade, answering to the minor canons of cathedrals, and superior
to the vicars choral, who were also called _personæ_ and _rectores chori_.
He has far too great a respect for collegiate foundations to use such
opprobrious terms when speaking of any class of ministers of divine
service. The only conjecture J. JEBB made was, that the word might possibly
have been a corruption (arising from incorrect writing) of _beneficiarii_,
which is continually used abroad for the inferior clergy of collegiate
churches, though not common in {551} England. It is just _possible_, though
not very probable, that this somewhat foreign word was misread, and gave
rise to a blundering corruption conveying ludicrous ideas, the "turpe
nomen" alluded to by the Archbishop of York tempore Ric. II. The
conjectural derivation of the word from Anglo-Saxon words was not my own,
but that of a subsequent correspondent. It is just one of those conjectures
which, like that of "Mazarinæus," may be quite as likely to be false as
true. I could suggest twenty that would be quite as likely; such as
_bier-followers_ (attenders on funerals, as did the clerks and inferior
clergy in cathedrals), or _bury fellows_ (query, burying fellows), or _beer
fellows_ (like the _beerers_ in Dean Aldrich's famous catch), or _belly
fillers_, &c., or lastly, some corruption of _Beverly_ itself.
_Barefellows_ is as likely as any. Still I cannot think that these
functionaries were low or contemptible. Their position corresponded to a
very honourable status in cathedral churches.

JOHN JEBB.

_Harmony of the Four Gospels_ (Vol. viii., pp. 316. 415.)--I am greatly
obliged to MR. HARDWICK, MR. BUCKTON, and J. M. for their valuable and
satisfactory replies to my Query. To the list of those Harmonies published
since the Reformation, may be added that of John Hind, 1632, under the
title of

    "The Storie of Stories, or the Life of Christ, according to the foure
    holy Evangelists: with a harmonie of them, and a table of their
    chapters and verses, collected by Johan Hind. London, printed by Miles
    Flesher, 1632."

It is dedicated to the "Lady Anne Twisden," with whom, and her son the
learned Sir Roger Twisden, this John Hind, "a German gentleman of
Mecklenburgh, a most religious honest knowing man, lived above thirty
years," &c.

Surely Doddridge's _Family Expositor_ should be added to the list.

Z. 1.

_Picts' Houses and Argils_ (Vol. viii., p. 264.).--Malte-Brun, in his
_Universal Geography_, English translation, vol. vi. p. 387., has a passage
in his description of Russia which applies to this matter. The steppes of
Nogay lie immediately to the north of the peninsula of the Crimea, both
being included in the Russian government of Taurida, and both countries
were formerly inhabited by the Cimbri or Cimmerians. Malte-Brun says:

    "The colonists are in many places ill provided with timber for
    building; they live under the ground, and the hillocks, which are so
    common in the country, and which served in ancient times for graves or
    monuments of the dead, are now converted into houses, the vaults are
    changed into roofs, and beneath them are subterranean excavations.
    Kurgan is the Tartar name for these tumuli; they are scattered
    throughout New Russia; they were raised at different times by the
    different people who ruled over that region. The Kurgans are not all of
    the same kind; some are not unlike the rude works of the early
    Hungarians, others are formed of large and thin stones, like the
    Scandinavian tombs. It is to be regretted that the different articles
    contained in them have been only of late years examined with care."

This does not establish the identity of the Argil and Kurgan, but I think
it shows more particular information is likely to be met with on the
subject. M. Malte-Brun, vol. vi. p. 152., in his description of Turkey,
mentions a curious town on the hills of the Strandschea, a little to the
west of Constantinople. It is called Indchiguis, and is inhabited by
Troglodytes; its numerous dwellings are cut in solid rocks, stories are
formed in the same manner, and many apartments that communicate with each
other.

W. H. F.

_Boswell's "Johnson"_ (Vol. viii., p. 439.).--

 "Crescit, occulto velut arbor ævo,
  Fama Marcelli: micat inter omnes
  Julium sidus, velut inter ignes
              Luna minores."--Hor. _Carm._ I. xii. 45-48.

F. C. has overlooked the _point_ of Boswell's remark, viz. that Johnson had
been "inattentive to metre."

C. FORBES.

Temple.

_Pronunciation of "Humble"_ (Vol. viii., p. 393.).--I venture once more to
trespass on your pages, in the hope of helping to settle the right
pronunciation of _humble_. In the controversy respecting it, the derivation
of the word should not be overlooked, as it is a most important point; for
I consider that the improper use of the _h_ has arisen from people not
knowing from whence the word was taken. Now, as I am of opinion that it
will go far to prove that the _h_ should be silent in _humble_, by giving a
list of the radical words in the English language in which that letter is
silent, and their derivations, I beg to do so: premising that they are
derived from the Celtic language, in which the _h_ is not used in the same
manner that it is in other languages:

_Heir_, from _oigeir_, i. e. the young man who succeeds to a property: the
word is pronounced _air_.

_Honest_, from _oinnicteac_, i. e. just, liberal, generous, kind.

_Honour_, from _onoir_, i. e. praise, respect, worship.

_Hour_, from _uair_, pronounced _voir_, i. e. time present, a period of
time, any time.

_Humble_, from _umal_, i. e. lowly, obedient, submissive.

_Humour._ The derivation of this word is obscure, but in the sense of
_mirth_ it may be derived from _uaim-mir_, i. e. loud mirth, gaiety.

The compounds formed from these words have the _h_ silent; and every other
word beginning with {552} that letter should have it fully sounded. Such
being my practice, I cannot be accused of cultivating the _Heapian
dialect_, which I hold to be equally abominable with the improper use of
the letter _h_.

FRAS. CROSSLEY.

May not the following be the true solution of the question? All _existing_
humility is either pride or hypocrisy; pride aspirates the _h_, hypocrisy
suppresses it. I always aspirate.

M.

_Continuation of Robertson_ (Vol. viii., p. 515.).--The supplementary
volume proposed by MR. TURNBULL, which is wanted extremely, was never
published, owing to the fact that eighty subscribers could not be found to
indemnify him for the expense of printing.

G.

_Nostradamus_ (Vol. vii., p. 174.).--My edition of _Nostradamus_, 1605
(described in "N. & Q.," Vol. iv., p. 140.), has the quotation in question;
but the first line has "le sang du juste," not "le sang du jusse."

The ed. of 1605 is undoubtedly genuine. Besides the twelve centuries of
prophecies, it contains 141 "Presages tirez de ceux faits par M.
Nostradamus," and fifty-eight "Prédictions admirables pour les ans courans
en ce Siècle, recueillies des mémoires de feu M. Nostradamus," with a
dedication to Henry IV. of France, "par Vincent Seve, de Beaucaire, 19
Mars, 1605."

R. J. R.

_Quantity of Words_ (Vol. viii., p. 386.).--ANTI-BARBARUS need not say we
always pronounce Candace long, for I have never heard it otherwise than
short. Labbe says it should be short, and classes it with short
terminations in _[)a]cus_; but I am not aware that there is any poetical
authority for it. _Canace_ and _canache_ are both short in Ovid; all which
may have helped to the inference for _Cand[)a]ce_. Facciolati has an
adjective _cand[)a]cus_, to which I refer your correspondent.

W. HAZEL.

_"Man proposes, but God disposes"_ (Vol. viii., p. 411.).--This saying is
older than the age of Thomas à Kempis, who was born about A.D. 1380. It
probably originated in two passages of Holy Scripture, on one or both of
which it may have been an ancient comment:

    "Hominis est animam præparare, et Domini gubernare linguam." "Cor
    hominis disponit viam suam, sed Domini est dirigere gressus
    ejus."--Proverbs xvi. 1. 10.

The sentiment in both is the same, and their pith is given in a still more
brief and condensed form in our own proverb. It is remarkable that while
Dr. A. Clarke, in his notes on Proverbs xvi., has quoted it without
reference to its authorship in the edition of Stanhope's version of _De
Imitatione Christi_, which I happen to have, it is not to be found; but its
place (according to your correspondent's reference) is occupied by the _two
texts_ above quoted. The work referred to is asserted by some to have been
only translated or transcribed by à Kempis, and written by John Gerson,
Chancellor of the University of Paris, a great theologian, who died in
1429. Be that as it may, I can assure your correspondent A. B. C. that the
saying in question _did not_ originate with the author of that work. In
Piers Ploughman's _Vision_, written A.D. 1362, it is thus introduced:

 "And _Spiritus justitiæ_
  Shall juggen, wol he nele he (_will he nil he!_)
  After the kynges counseil,
  And the comune like.
  And _Spiritus prudentiæ_,
  In many a point shall faille,
  Of that he weneth will falle,
  If his wit ne weere.
  Wenynge is no wysdom,
  Ne wys ymaginacion.
  _Homo proponit, et Deus disponit_,
  And governeth alle good vertues."
    Vol. ii. p. 427., ll. 13984-95. Ed. London: W. Pickering, 1842.

In the same way the author frequently introduces Latin texts from the
Bible, and other books of authority and devotion. In the notes the editor
generally refers to the place from whence the quotation is taken; but as
there is no reference in connexion with the present passage, I infer that
he was not aware of its source.

J. W. THOMAS.

Dewsbury.

_Polarised Light_ (Vol. viii., p. 409.).--I am unable to furnish H. C. K.
with knowledge from the fountain-head touching this phenomenon. On
referring, however, to a little work, much valued in my boyish days, I find
it thus mentioned:

    "The blue light of the sky is completely polarised at an angle of
    seventy-four degrees from the sun, in a plane passing through the sun's
    centre."--P. 219. _Newtonian Philosophy_, by Tom Telescope: Tegg, Lond.
    1838.

Surely the Herschels mention this.

R. C. WARDE.

Kidderminster.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

The attempt to establish a _Surrey Archæological Society_ has at length
proved successful. Upwards of one hundred and seventy Members have already
joined the Society. The Duke of Norfolk has accepted its Presidency, and
the Earl of Ellesmere, the Bishop of Winchester, and Lord Viscount Downe,
are among the number of its Vice-Presidents. The Society has good work
before it, and we trust will set about it in a way to {553} secure the
success which we wish it. The Honorary Secretary and Treasurer is George
Bish Webb, Esq., of 46. Addison Road North, Notting Hill; from whom
gentlemen desirous of enrolling themselves as Members may obtain copies of
the Prospectus, Rules, &c. of the Society.

The mention of one county Society seems to call attention to another,
namely, the _Somersetshire Archæological and Natural History Society_, the
volume of whose Proceedings for 1852 is now before us, and affords
satisfactory proof that the zeal and energy of its members, of which it
numbers nearly five hundred, are by no means diminished. The papers and the
illustrations of the volume are highly creditable to all concerned.

The want of a collection of the early antiquities of this country has long
been the greatest reproach which foreigners have been able to make against
the British Museum. An opportunity of removing this has lately presented
itself by an offer to the trustees of the well-known and probably unique
collection, _The Faussett Museum_. Strange to say, that offer was declined:
but, as a communication from the Society of Antiquaries strongly urging the
propriety of a reconsideration of this decision--so that an opportunity
which may never recur may not be lost--has been addressed to the trustees,
we still hope that _the Faussett Museum_ will yet fill the empty cases at
Great Russell Street, and form, as it is well calculated to do, the nucleus
of a national collection of our own national antiquities. We understand Mr.
Wylie has most liberally offered to present his valuable Fairford
Collections to the Museum, if the Faussett Collection is secured for it.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_The Life and Works of William Cowper_, by Robert Southey,
Vol. I. This, the first volume of a new edition, which will be comprised in
eight instead of fifteen volumes--cost twenty-eight instead of seventy-five
shillings, and yet contain additional plates and matter,--is the new issue
of Bohn's _Standard Library_.--_The Laws of Artistic Copyright and their
Defects_, by D. R. Blaine, Esq. A little volume well calculated to instruct
artists, sculptors, engravers, printsellers, &c., so that they may clearly
understand their rights, their remedies for the infringement of those
rights, and the proper mode of transferring their property.--_The Attic
Philosopher in Paris, being the Journal of a Happy Man_, forms No. LI. of
Longman's _Traveller's Library_, and is a fit companion to the _Confessions
of a Working Man_, by the same author, Emile Souvestre, published in the
same series a few months since.--_Apuleius: Metamorphoses, or Golden Ass,
and other Works._ A new translation, to which are added a metrical version
of Cupid and Psyche, and Mrs. Tighe's Psyche, is the new volume of Bohn's
_Classical Library_.--_Handbook to the Library of the British Museum, &c._,
by Richard Sims. After the notice of this useful little volume taken by MR.
BOLTON CORNEY in our last Number, we may content ourselves with expressing
our hope that the trustees, whose desire it must be to facilitate in every
way the use of the Museum library, will avail themselves of the earliest
opportunity of marking their approval of this able attempt on the part of
one of their officers--a junior though he be--to promote so important an
object.

       *       *       *       *       *

BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the
gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are
given for that purpose:

NICHOLS' LITERARY ANECDOTES, and the Continuation.

THE HIVE. 3 Vols. London, 1724.

THE FRIENDS. 2 Vols. London, 1773.

LONDON MAGAZINE. 1732 to 1779.

  Wanted by _F. Dinsdale_, Leamington.

       *       *       *       *       *

JOSEPH MEDE'S WORKS.

JONES'S (of Nayland) SERMONS, by Walker. 2 Vols. 8vo.

PLAIN SERMONS. 10 Vols. 8vo.

DEATH-BED SCENES. Best Edition.

ROSE'S (H. J.) SERMONS.

WILBERFORCE'S LIFE. 5 Vols.

  Wanted by _Simms & Son_, Booksellers, Bath.

       *       *       *       *       *

HUTCHINS'S DORSETSHIRE. Last Edition.

  Wanted by _James Dearden_, Upton House, Poole.

       *       *       *       *       *

CLARENDON'S HISTORY OF THE REBELLION. Folio. Oxford, 1703. Vol. I.

  Wanted by _Rev. John James Avington_, Hungerford.

       *       *       *       *       *

RECOLLECTIONS AND REFLECTIONS DURING THE REIGN OF GEORGE III., by John
Nicholls. 2 Vols. 8vo. London, Ridgway, 1820.

  Wanted by _G. Cornewall Lewis_, Kent House, Knightsbridge.

       *       *       *       *       *

AN EXAMINATION OF THE CHARTERS AND STATUTES OF TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN
(with the Postscript), by George Miller, D.D., F.T.C.D. Dublin, 1804.

A [First] LETTER TO THE REV. DR. PUSEY, in reference to his Letter to the
Lord Bishop of Oxford, by George Miller, D.D. London, 1840.

  Wanted by _Rev. B. H. Blacker_, 11. Pembroke Road, Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *

DILLWIN'S BRITISH CONIFERÆ. 4to. 115 Coloured Plates. London, 1809.

(SCIOPPIUS) SCALIGER HYPOBOLYMÆUS, h. e. Elenchus Epistolæ Josephi Burdonis
Pseudo-Scaligeri de Vetustate et Splendore Gestis Scaligeri. 4to. Mainz,
1607.

  Wanted by _Williams and Norgate_, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


Notices to Correspondents.

ÆSTIMATOR _is informed that a new edition of Sir R. Philips's_ Million of
Facts _has just been published_.

N. E. H. _will find a full history of Cocker's_ Arithmetic _in De Morgan's_
Books of Arithmetic.

C. E. C. (Reading). _The volume in question is Lyte's Translation of
Dodoens'_ Historie of Plantes.

T. C. B. _Defoe's_ De Jure Divino _was first published in folio, 1706_.
_See Wilson's_ Life, vol. ii. p. 465. _et seq._

X. Y. Z. _Is our Correspondent sure that a clergyman on being inducted is
locked up in the church and obliged to toll the bell himself?_

P. M. HART _will find the line_,

 "Men are but children of a larger growth,"

_in Dryden's_ All for Love.

S. S. (Andover). _We do not believe that Mr. Brayley ever published any
more than the first volume of his_ Graphic and Historical Illustrator.

C. H. (Cambridge) _is referred to_ "N. & Q.," Vol. i., pp. 211. 236. 325.
357. 418., _for the history of the proverbial saying_, "God tempers the
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{554}

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Founded A.D. 1842.

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Considered in relation to the Philosophy of Binocular Vision. An Essay, by
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London: WALTON & MABERLEY, Upper Gower Street, and Ivy Lane, Paternoster
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       *       *       *       *       *


SPECTACLES.-- Every Description of SPECTACLES and EYEGLASSES for the
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       *       *       *       *       *


{555}

Now ready, royal 12mo., pp. 430, with a Plan showing the localities of the
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Containing a Brief history of its Formation, and of the various Collections
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{556}

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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street. in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, December
3, 1853.

       *       *       *       *       *


Corrections made to printed original.

page 541, "Les Lettres Juives.": 'Juices' in original.





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