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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 215, December 10, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 215, December 10, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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generously made available by The Internet Library of Early

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *



"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 215.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page
  Original Royal Letters to the Grand Masters of Malta,
  by William Winthrop                                          557
  Penny Sights and Exhibitions in the Reign of James I.,
  by A. Grayan                                                 558
  The Impossibilities of our Forefathers                       559
  Parallel Passages, by the Rev. John Booker                   560
  Astrology in America                                         561

  MINOR NOTES:--"Hierosolyma est perdita"--Quaint Inscription
  in a Belfry--The Chronicles of the Kings of Israel and
  Judah--The Using a Circumstance as a "Peg," or "Nail," to
  hang an Argument on, &c.--Turkish and Russian Grammars--
  Chronograms in Sicily--Stone Pulpits--Advertisements and
  Prospectuses                                                 561


  English Refugees at Ypenstein                                562

  MINOR QUERIES:--Petrarch's Laura--"Epitaphium Lucretiæ"--
  McDowall Family--Arms of Geneva--Webb of Monckton Farleigh--
  Translation Wanted--Latin Translation from Sheridan, &c.--
  Gale of Rent--Arms of Sir Richard de Loges--Gentile Names
  of the Jews--Henry, Earl of Wotton--Kicker-eating--Chadderton
  of Nuthurst, co. Lancashire--George, first Viscount
  Lanesborough, and Sir Charles Cotterell--"Firm was their
  faith," &c.--The Mother of William the Conqueror--Pedigree
  of Sir Francis Bryan                                         562

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS--"The Whole Duty of Man"--"It
  rained cats and dogs and little pitchforks:" Helter-skelter--
  Father Traves--Precise Dates of Births and Deaths of the
  Pretenders--Clarence                                         564

  Mackey's "Theory of the Earth"                               565
  Sincere, Simple, Singular                                    567
  Poetical Tavern Signs                                        568
  Homo Unius Libri                                             569
  The Forlorn Hope, by W. R. Wilde                             569
  Tieck's "Comoedia Divina"                                    570
  Liveries worn by Gentlemen                                   571

  Calotype Process--Albumenized Paper                          572

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Marcarnes--X on Brewers' Casks--
  No Sparrows at Lindham--Theobald le Botiller--Vault at
  Richmond, Yorkshire--Lord Audley's Attendants at Poictiers--
  Portraits at Brickwall House--The Words "Mob" and "Cash"--
  English Clergyman in Spain--The Cid--Exterior Stoups--Green
  Jugs used by the Templars--"Peccavi," I have Scinde--
  Raffaele's "Sposalizio"--Early Use of Tin: Derivation of the
  Name of Britain--Unpublished Epigram by Sir Walter Scott--
  Derivation of the Word "Humbug"--Bees--Topsy Turvy--Parish
  Clerks and Politics, &c.                                     572

  Notes on Books, &c.                                          577
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 578
  Notices to Correspondents                                    578
  Advertisements                                               578

       *       *       *       *       *



(_Continued from_ p. 99.)

In my first communication I did myself the pleasure to send you a correct
list of all the royal letters which had been sent by different English
monarchs to the Grand Masters of Malta, with their dates, the languages in
which they were written, and stating to whom they were addressed. I now
purpose to forward with your permission from time to time, literal
translations of these letters, which Mr. Strickland of this garrison has
kindly promised to give me. The subjoined are the first in order, and have
been carefully compared, by Dr. Vella and myself, with the originals now in
the Record Office.

No. I.

    Henry by the grace of God, King of England and France, Defender of the
    Faith, and Lord of Ireland, to the Rev. Father in Christ, Philip
    Villiers de L'Isle Adam, Grand Master of the Order of Jerusalem.

  Our most dear friend--Greeting:

The venerable and religious men, Sir Thomas Docreus, Prior of St. John's in
this kingdom, and Sir W. Weston of your convent, Turcoplerius, have lately
delivered to us the epistle of your Reverence, and when we had read it,
they laid before us the commission which they had in charge, with so much
prudence and address, and recommended to us the condition, well being, and
honour of their Order with so much zeal and affection, that they have much
increased the good will, which of ourselves we feel towards the Order, and
have made us more eager in advancing all its affairs, so that we very much
hope to declare by our actions the affection which we feel towards this

And that we might give some proof of this our disposition, we have written
at great length to His Imperial Majesty, in _favour of maintaining the
occupation_ of Malta, and we have given orders to our envoys there to help
forward this affair as much as they are able. The other matters, indeed,
{558} your Reverence will learn more in detail from the letters of the said

  From our Palace at Richmond,
      Eighth day of January, 1523,
              Your good friend,
                  HENRY REX.

No. II.

    Henry by the grace of God, King of England and France, Defender of the
    Faith, and Lord of Ireland, to the Rev. Father in Christ, Philip
    Villiers de L'Isle Adam, Grand Master of the Order of Jerusalem.

  Our most dear friend--Greeting:

By other of our letters we have commended to your Reverence our beloved Sir
W. Weston, Turcoplerius, and the whole Order of Jerusalem in our kingdom;
but since we honour the foresaid Sir W. Weston with a peculiar affection,
we have judged him worthy that we should render him more agreeable and more
acceptable to your Reverence, by this our renewed recommendation; and we
trust that you will have it the more easily in your power to satisfy this
our desire, because, on account of the trust which you yourself placed in
him, you appointed him special envoy to ourselves in behalf of the affairs
of his Order, and showed that you honoured him with equal good will. We
therefore most earnestly entreat your Reverence not to be backward in
receiving him on his return with all possible offices of love, and to serve
him especially in those matters which regard his office of Turcoplerius,
and his Mastership. Moreover, if any honours in the gift and disposal of
your Reverence fall due to you, with firm confidence we beg of you to
vouchsafe to appoint and promote the foresaid Sir William Weston to the
same, which favour will be so pleasing and acceptable to us, that when
occasion offers we will endeavour to return it not only to your Reverence,
but also to your whole Order. And may every happiness attend you.

  From our Palace at Windsor,
      First day of August, 1524,
              Your good friend,
                  HENRY REX.

No. III.

    Henry by the grace of God, King of England and France, Defender of the
    Faith, and Lord of Ireland, to the Rev. Father in Christ, Philip
    Villiers de L'Isle Adam, Grand Master of the Order of Jerusalem.

  Our most dear friend--Greeting:

Ambrosius Layton, our subject, and brother of the same Order, has delivered
to us your Reverence's letter, and from it we very well understand the
matters concerning the said Order, which your Reverence had committed to
his charge to be delivered to us; but we have delayed to return an answer,
and we still delay, because we have understood that a general Chapter of
your whole Order will be held in a short time, to which we doubt not that
the more prudent and experienced of the brethren of the Order will come,
and we trust that, by the general wish and counsel of all of you, a place
may be selected for this illustrious Order which may be best suited for the
imperial support and advancement of the Republic, and for the assailing of
the infidels. When therefore your Reverence shall have made us acquainted
with the place selected for the said Chapter, you shall find us no less
prompt and ready than any other Christan prince in all things which can
serve to the advantage and support of the said Order.

  From our Palace at Richmond,
      Fourth day (month omitted), 1526,
              Your good friend,
                  HENRY REX.

That the subject of the above letters may be better understood, it may be
necessary to state that L'Isle Adam was driven out of Rhodes by the Sultan
Solyman, after a most desperate and sanguinary struggle, which continued
almost without intermission from the 26th of June to the 18th of December,
1523. From this date to the month of October, 1530, nearly seven years, the
Order of St. John of Jerusalem had no fixed residence, and the Grand Master
was a wanderer in Italy, either in Rome, Viterbo, Naples, or Syracuse,
while begging of the Christian Powers to assist him in recovering Rhodes,
or Charles V. to give him Malta as a residence for his convent. It was
during this period that the above letters, and some others which I purpose
sending hereafter, were written.


       *       *       *       *       *


The following curious list may amuse some of your readers. I met with it
among the host of panegyrical verses prefixed to Master Tom Coryate's
_Crudities_, published in 1611. Even in those days it will be admitted that
the English were rather fond of such things, and glorious Will himself
bears testimony to the fact. (See _Tempest_, Act II. Sc. 2.) The hexameter
verses are anonymous; perhaps one of your well-read antiquaries may be able
to assign to them the author, and be disposed to annotate them. I would
particularly ask when was Drake's ship broken up, and is there any date on
the chair[1] made from the wood, which is now to be seen at the Bodleian
Library, Oxford?

 "Why doe the rude vulgar so hastily post in a madnesse
  To gaze at trifles, and toyes not worthy the viewing?
  And thinke them happy, when may be shew'd for a penny
  The Fleet-streete Mandrakes, that heavenly motion of Eltham,
  Westminster Monuments, and Guildhall huge Corinæus,
  That horne of Windsor (of an Unicorne very likely),
  The cave of Merlin, the skirts of Old Tom a Lincolne,
  King John's sword at Linne, with the cup the Fraternity drinke in,
  The tombe of Beauchampe, and sword of Sir Guy a Warwicke,
  The great long Dutchman, and roaring Marget a Barwicke,
  The mummied Princes, and Cæsar's wine yet i' Dover,
  Saint James his ginney-hens, the Cassawarway[2] moreover,
  The Beaver i' the Parke (strange Beast as e'er any man saw),
  Downe-shearing Willowes with teeth as sharpe as a hand-saw,
  The lance of John a Gaunt, and Brandon's still i' the Tower,
  The fall of Ninive, with Norwich built in an hower.
  King Henries slip-shoes, the sword of valiant Edward,
  The Coventry Boares-shield, and fire-workes seen but to bedward,
  Drake's ship at Detford, King Richard's bed-sted i' Leyster,
  The White Hall Whale-bones, the silver Bason i' Chester;
  The live-caught Dog-fish, the Wolfe, and Harry the Lyon,
  Hunks of the Beare Garden to be feared, if he be nigh on.
  All these are nothing, were a thousand more to be scanned,
  (Coryate) unto thy shoes so artificially tanned."

In explanation of the last line, Tom went no less than 900 miles on one
pair of soles, and on his return he hung up these remarkable shoes for a
memorial in Odcombe Church, Somersetshire, where they remained till 1702.

Another "penny" sight was a trip to the top of St. Paul's. (See Dekker's
_Gul's Horne Book_, 1609.)


[Footnote 1: The date to Cowley's lines on the chair is 1662.]

[Footnote 2: "An East Indian bird at Saint James, in the keeping of Mr.
Walker, that will carry no coales, but eate them as whot as you will."]

       *       *       *       *       *


In turning over the pages of old authors, it is amusing to note how the
_mountains_ of our primitive ancestors have become _mole-hills_ in the
hands of the present generation! A few instances would, I think, be very
instructive; and, to set the example, I give you the following from my own

_The Overland Journey to India._--From the days of Sir John Mandeville,
until a comparatively recent period, how portentous of danger, difficulty,
and daring has been the "Waye to Ynde wyth the Maruelyes thereof!"

In _Lingua, or the Combat of the Tongue_, by Brewer, London, 1657,
originally published in 1607, Heursis complains that Phantases had
interrupted his cogitations upon three things which had troubled his brain
for many a day:

    "_Phant._ Some great matters questionless; what were they?

    _Heur._ The quadrature of the circle, the philosopher's stone, and the
    _next way to the Indies_.

    _Phant._ Thou dost well to meditate on these things all at once, for
    they'll be found out altogether, _ad græcas calendas_."

Dr. Robertson's _Disquisition on the Knowledge the Ancients had of India_,
shows that communications overland existed from a remote period; and we
know that the East India Company had always a route open for their
dispatches on emergent occasions; but let the reader consult the
_Reminiscences_ of Dr. Dibdin, and he will find an example of its utter
uselessness when resorted to in 1776 to apprize the Home Government of
hostile movements on the part of an enemy. To show, however, in a more
striking light, the difference between the "overland route" a century back,
and that of 1853, I turn up the _Journal of Bartholomew Plaisted_: London,
1757. This gentleman, who was a servant of the East India Company, tells us
that he embarked at Calcutta in 1749 for England; and, after encountering
many difficulties, reached Dover _viâ_ Bussorah, Aleppo, and Marseilles in
twelve months! Bearing this in mind, let the reader refer to the London
daily papers of this eighth day of November, 1853, and he will find that
intelligence reached the city on that afternoon of the arrival at Trieste
of the _Calcutta_ steamer, furnishing us with telegraph advices from--

  Bengal, Oct. 3.        36 days!
  Bombay, Oct. 14.       25 days!!
  Hong Kong, Sept. 27.   46 days!!!

Rapid as this is, and strikingly as it exemplifies the gigantic appliances
of our day, the cry of Heursis in the play is still for the _next_, or a
nearer _way to India_; and, besides the _Ocean Mail_, the magnificent
sailing vessels, and the steamers of _fabulous_ dimensions said to be
building for the Cape route to perform the passage from London to Calcutta
in thirty days, we are promised the _electric telegraph_ to furnish us with
news from the above-named ports in a less number of _hours_ than _days_ now


We have thus seen that the impetus once given, it is impossible to limit or
foresee where this tendency to knit us to the farthermost parts of the
world will end!

"Steam to India" was nevertheless almost stifled at its birth, and its
early progress sadly fettered and retarded by those whose duty it was to
have fostered and encouraged it--I mean the East India Company. From this
censure of a body I would exclude some of their servants in India, and
particularly a name that may be new to your readers in connexion with this
subject, that of the late Mr. Charles P. Greenlaw of Calcutta, to whom I
would ascribe all honour and glory as the great _precursor_ of the
movement, subsequently so triumphantly achieved by the Peninsular and
Oriental Company. This gentleman, at the head of the East India Company's
Marine Establishment in Bengal, brought all the enthusiasm of his character
to bear upon the question of steam _viâ_ the Red Sea; and raised such an
agitation in the several Presidencies, that the _slow coach_ in Leadenhall
Street was compelled to move on, and Mr. Greenlaw lived to see his labours
successful. Poor Greenlaw was as deaf as a post, and usually carried on his
arm a flexible pipe, with an ivory tip and mouth-piece, through which he
received the communications of his friends. How often have I seen him,
after an eloquent appeal on behalf of his scheme, hand this to the party he
would win over to his views: and if the responses sent through it were
favourable, he was delighted; but, if the contrary, his irascibility knew
no bounds; and snatching his pipe from the mouth of the senseless man who
could not see the value of "steam for India," he would impatiently coil it
round his arm, and, with a recommendation to the less sanguine to give the
subject the attention due to its importance, would whisk himself off to
urge his point in some other quarter! I have already said that Mr. Greenlaw
lived to see the overland communication firmly established; and his fellow
citizens, to mark their high estimation of his character, and the unwearied
application of his energies in the good cause, have embellished their fine
"Metcalfe Hall" with a marble bust of this best of advocates for the
interests of India.

J. O.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 372.)

Adopting the suggestion of F. W. J., I contribute the following parallel
passages towards the collection which he proposes:

    1. "And He said unto them, Take heed and beware of covetousness, for a
    man's life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which he
    possesseth."--Luke xii. 15.

 "Non possidentem multa vocaveris
  Recte beatum; rectius occupat
    Nomen beati, qui Deorum
      Muneribus sapienter uti,
  Duramque callet pauperiem pati;
  Pejusque leto flagitium timet."--Hor. _Carm._, lib. IV. ode ix.

    2. "For that which I do I allow not: for what I would that do I not;
    but what I hate that do I."--Rom. vii. 15.

 "Sed trahit invitam nova vis; aliudque Cupido,
  Mens aliud suadet. Video meliora, proboque:
  Deteriora sequor."--Ovid, _Metam._, lib. VII. 19-21.

 "Quæ nocuere sequar, fugiam quæ profore credam."--_Hor._, lib. I. epist.
     viii. 11.

    3. "Without father, without mother, without descent," &c.--Heb. vii. 3.

 "Ante potestatem Tullî atque ignobile regnum,
  Multos sæpe viros, nullis majoribus ortos
  Et vixisse probes," &c.--Hor. _Sat._ I. vi. 9.

    4. "For I have said before, that ye are in our hearts to die and live
    with you."--2 Cor. vii. 3.

 "Tecum vivere amem, tecum obeam libens."--Hor. _Carm._, lib. III. ix.

    5. "Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die."--1 Cor. xv. 32.

 "Convivæ certe tui dicunt, Bibamus moriendum est."--Senec. _Controv._ xiv.

    6. "Be not thou afraid though one be made rich, or if the glory of his
    house be increased; for he shall carry nothing away with him when he
    dieth, neither shall his pomp follow him."--Ps. xlix. 16, 17.

 "How loved, how honoured once, avails thee not;
  To whom related, or by whom begot:
  A heap of dust alone remains of thee.
 'Tis all thou art, and all the proud shall be."--Pope.

 "Divesne, prisco natus ab Inacho,
  Nil interest, an pauper, et infima
    De gente sub divo moreris,
      Victima nil miserantis Orci."--Hor. _Carm._, lib. II. iii.

The following close parallelism between Ben Jonson and Horace, though a
little wide of your correspondent's suggestion, is also worthy of notice. I
have never before seen it remarked upon. It would, perhaps, be more correct
to describe it as a plagiarism than as a parallelism:

   "_Mosca._                  And besides, Sir,
  You are not like the thresher that doth stand
  With a huge flail, watching a heap of corn,
  And, hungry, dares not taste the smallest grain,
  But feeds on mallows, and such bitter herbs;
  Nor like the merchant, who hath filled his vaults
  With Romagnia, and rich Candian wines,
  Yet drinks the lees of Lombard's vinegar:
  You will lie not in straw, whilst moths and worms
  Feed on your sumptuous hangings and soft beds;
  You know the use of riches."--Ben Johnson, _The Fox_.

 "Si quis ad ingentem frumenti semper acervum
  Prorectus vigilet cum longo fuste, neque illinc
  Audeat esuriens dominus contingere granum,
  Ac potius foliis parcus vescatur amaris:
  Si, positis intus Chii veterisque Falerni
  Mille cadis--nihil est, tercentum millibus, acre
  Potet acetum; age, si et stramentis incubet, unde--
  Octoginta annos natus, cui stragula vestis,
  Blattarum ac tinearum epulæ, putrescat in arca."--Hor. _Sat._, lib. II.



       *       *       *       *       *


The six following advertisements are cut from a recent Number of the _New
York Herald_:

    "Madame Morrow, seventh daughter of a seventh daughter, and a
    descendant of a line of astrologers reaching back for centuries, will
    give ladies private lectures on all the events of life, in regard to
    health, wealth, love, courtship, and marriage. She is without exception
    the most wonderful astrologist in the world, or that has ever been
    known. She will even tell their very thoughts, and will show them the
    likenesses of their intended husbands and absent friends, which has
    astonished thousands during her travels in Europe. She will leave the
    city in a very short time. 76. Broome Street, between Cannon and
    Columbia. Gentlemen are not admitted."

    "Madame la Compt flatters herself that she is competent, by her great
    experience in the art of astrology, to give true information in regard
    to the past, present, and future. She is able to see clearly any losses
    her visitors may have sustained, and will give satisfactory information
    in regard to the way of recovery. She has and continues to give perfect
    satisfaction. Ladies and gentlemen 50 cents. 13. Howard Street."

    "Mad. la Compt has been visited by over two hundred ladies and
    gentlemen the past week, and has given perfect satisfaction; and, in
    consideration of the great patronage bestowed upon her, she will remain
    at 13. Howard Street for four days more, when she will positively sail
    for the South."

    "Mrs. Alwin, renowned in Europe for her skill in foretelling the
    future, has arrived, and will furnish intelligence about all
    circumstances of life. She interprets dreams, law matters, and love, by
    astrology, books, and science, and tells to ladies and gentlemen the
    name of the persons they will marry; also the names of her visitors.
    Mrs. Alvin speaks the English, French and German languages. Residence,
    25. Rivington Street, up stairs, near the Bowery. Ladies 50 cents,
    gentlemen 1 dollar."

    "Mrs. Prewster, from Philadelphia, tenders her services to the ladies
    and gentlemen of this city in astrology, love, and law matters,
    interpreting dreams, &c., by books and science, constantly relied on by
    Napoleon; and will tell the name of the lady or gentleman they will
    marry; also the names of the visitors. Residence, No. 59. Great Jones
    Street, corner of the Bowery. Ladies 50 cents, gentlemen 1 dollar."

    "The celebrated Dr. F. Shuman, Swede by birth, just arrived in this
    city, offers his services in astrology, physiognomy, &c. He can be
    consulted on matters of love, marriage, past, present, and future
    events in life. Nativity calculated for ladies and gentlemen. Mr. S.
    has travelled through the greater part of the world in the last
    forty-two years, and is willing to give the most satisfactory
    information. Office, 175. Chambers Street, near Greenwich."

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

"_Hierosolyma est perdita._"--Whilst studying in Germany, I remember seeing
one day some Jews in a great passion because a few little boys had been
shouting "Hep! hep!" On information I heard, that whenever the German
knights headed a Jew-hunt in the Middle Ages, they always raised the cry
"Hep! hep!" This is remembered even to the present day.


King William's College, Isle of Man.

_Quaint Inscription in a Belfry._--I think the following unique piece of
authorship deserves, for its quaint originality, a corner in "N. & Q." It
is copied from an inscription dated Jan. 31, 1757, in the belfry of the
parish church of Fenstanton, Hunts:

 "January y^e 31, 1757.
  Hear was ten defran^t
  Peals Rung in 50 minutes
  which is 1200,
  Changes by thouse,
  names who are Under.

  1. Jn^o Allin
  2. Jm^s Brown
  3. Jno. Cade
  4. Rob^t Cole
  5. Will^m How."

 "All you young Men y^t larn y^o Ringen Art,
  Besure you see & will perform your part
  no Musick with it Can Excell.
  nor be compared to y^e Melodeus bells."

Perhaps I may as well add that this is a faithful copy of the original
inscription, both in orthography and punctuation.


St. Ives, Hunts.

_The Chronicles of the Kings of Israel and Judah._--After the many
conjectures which have been formed respecting the [Hebrew: SPR DBRY HYMYM]
of the kings of Israel and Judah, allow me to suggest the probability of
their bearing some resemblance to the records of the "wars" and "might" of
the monarchs of Assyria, recently brought to light by Mr. Layard.

[Hebrew: P].

_The Using a Circumstance as a "Peg," or "Nail," to hang an Argument on,
&c._--In the parliamentary debates we frequently read of one honorable
member accusing another honorable member of dragging in a certain
expression or quotation for the mere sake of hanging upon it some argument
or observation apposite to his motion or resolution.--Query, The origin of
this term?

My attention was drawn to it by reading the First Lesson at Morning Prayer
for 25th May, viz. Ezra ix. 8., where the expression means something to
hold by, or some resting-place.

In the following verse, the term is changed into "a wall," meaning some
support or help.

Has this passage ever challenged the attention of any of your numerous
readers, or can the common saying fairly be referred to it?



_Turkish and Russian Grammars._--At the present moment it may be found
interesting to make a note of it for "N. & Q.," that the first {562}
Turkish and Russian grammars published in this country appeared at Oxford;
the Turkish, by Seaman, in 1670, and the Russian, by Ludolf, in 1696. Both
are written in Latin.

J. M.


_Chronograms in Sicily._--After the opening of the gold mines at
Fiume-di-Nisi, which are now being reworked, the Messinese struck coins
bearing the motto--

 "eX VIsCerIbVs MeIs haeC fVnDItVr."


On a fountain near the church of St. Francesco di Paola:

                 "D. O. M.
  Imperante Carlo VI., Vicregente Comite de Palma,
        Gubernante Civitatem Comite de Wallis.

                  P. P. P.
  Vt aCtIonIbVs nostrIs IVste proCeDaMVs."

Which gives VCIIVIIVCDMV. 1724.

The death of Charles, Infanta of Spain, is thus indicated:

 "FILIVs ante DIeM patrIos InqVIrIt In annos."


G. E. T. S. R. N.

_Stone Pulpits._--A complete list of _ancient_ stone pulpits in England and
Wales would be desirable. Their positions should be specified; and whether
in use or not, should be stated. I have seen the following:

Nantwich, Cheshire; at the junction of north transept and chancel (not

Bristol Cathedral; adjoining one of the north pillars of nave (not used).

Wolverhampton Collegiate Church; adjoining one of south pillars of nave (in


Audlem, Nantwich.

_Advertisements and Prospectuses._--It is, I believe, the custom for the
most part to make wastepaper of the advertisements and prospectuses that
are usually stitched up, in considerable numbers, with the popular reviews
and magazines. Now, as these adventitious sheets often contain scraps and
fragments of contemporaneous intelligence, literary and bibliographical,
with occasional artistic illustrations, would it not be well to preserve
them, and to bind them up in a separate form at the end of the year;
connecting them with the particular review or magazine to which they
belonged, but describing also the contents of the volume by a distinct

If the work of destruction of such frail, but frequently interesting
records, should go on at the present rate, posterity will be in danger of
losing many valuable data respecting the state of British literature at
different periods, as depicted by a humbler class of documents, employed by
it for the diffusion of its copious productions.


       *       *       *       *       *



When I was at Alkmaar about thirty years ago, I strolled to the
neighbouring village of Heilo, on the road to Limmen, where I saw,
surrounded by a moat, the foundations of the castle of Ypenstein. A view of
this once noble pile is to be found in the well-known work of Rademaker,
_Kabinet van Nederlandsche en Kleefsche Oudheden_. This place, as tradition
tells, once witnessed the perpetration of a violent deed. When the son of
the unfortunate Charles I. was an exile in our country, this house
Ypenstein was occupied by a family of English emigrants, high in rank, who
lived here for a while in quiet. How far these exiles were even here secure
from the spies of Cromwell appeared on a certain dark night, after a
suspicious vessel had been seen from the village of Egmond, when an armed
band of the Protector's Puritans, led by a guide, marched over the heath to
the house Ypenstein, seized all the inhabitants, and carried them off, by
the way they had come, to the coast, put them on board, and transported
them most probably to England. In such secresy and silence was this
violation of territory and the rights of hospitality perpetrated, that no
one in the neighbourhood perceived anything of the occurrence, except a
miller who saw the troop crossing the pathless heath in the direction of
the coast, but could not conceive what had brought so many persons together
in such a place at midnight.

I would gladly learn whether anything is known of this transaction; and if
so, where I may find farther particulars of this English family, their
probable political importance, &c. To investigate the truth of this
tradition, that we may acquit or convict the far-famed Cromwell of so foul
a crime, cannot certainly be untimely now that two celebrated learned men
have undertaken to vindicate his memory.--From the _Navorscher_.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Petrarch's Laura._--Mr. Mathews, in his _Diary of an Invalid in Italy,
&c._, p. 380., in speaking of the outrages and indignities which, during
the Revolution, were committed throughout France on the remains of the
dead, and were amongst the most revolting of its horrors, mentions, on the
authority of a fellow-passenger, an eye-witness, that the body of
Petrarch's Laura had been seen exposed to the most brutal indignities in
the streets of Avignon. He told Mr. Mathews that {563} it had been
embalmed, and was found in a mummy state, of a dark brown colour. I have
not met with any mention of these these circumstances elsewhere. Laura is
stated to have died of the plague (which seems to render it unlikely that
her body was embalmed): and according to Petrarch's famous note on his MS.
of Virgil, she was buried the same day, after vespers, in the church of the
Cordeliers. The date was April 1, 1348. That church was long celebrated for
her tomb, which contained also the body of Hugues de Sade, her husband. The
edifice is stated to be ruined, its very site being converted into a
fruit-garden; but the tomb is said to be still entire under the ground: and
more than twenty years after the French Revolution, a small cypress was
pointed out as marking the spot where Laura was interred.

Is the circumstance of the desecration of her tomb mentioned by any other
writer? If it really took place, are we to conclude that the tree--if it
still exists--marks only the place where she had been interred: for, that
the body was rescued and recommitted to the tomb, can hardly be supposed?


"_Epitaphium Lucretiæ._"--The following lines are offered for insertion,
not because I doubt their being known to many of your readers, but with a
view to ask the name of the author:

         "_Epitaphium Lucretiæ._
  Dum foderet ferro tenerum Lucretia pectus
    Sanguinis et torrens egrederetur: ait,
 'Accedant testes me non cessisse tyranno
   'Ante virum sanguis, spiritus ante Deos.'"


_McDowall Family._--More than a century ago there was a family (since
extinct) of the name of McDowall, in the county Cavan, Ireland, belonging
to some branch of the ancient and noble Scottish family of that name, who
had migrated to these shores. Perhaps some of your readers could inform me
as to what branch they belonged, and when they settled in Ireland, as also
if there be any pedigree of them extant, as I am very anxious to learn
something of them at all events?



_Arms of Geneva._--Will any of your correspondents oblige me with a
technical blazon of the arms of the town of Geneva?

F. F. B.

Bury St. Edmunds.

_Webb of Monckton Farleigh._--Perhaps some reader of "N. & Q." would be so
good as to inform me what were the arms, crest, and motto of the Webbs of
Monckton Farleigh, co. Wilts; also, if there be any pedigree of them
extant, and where it is to be found; or otherwise would direct me what
would be my best means to ascertain some account of that family, who are
now represented by the Duke of Somerset?



_Translation Wanted._--Can any of your correspondents inform me where I may
meet with a translation by the Rev. F. Hodgson, late Provost of Eton, &c.,
of the _Atys_ of Catllus?


_Latin Translation from Sheridan, &c._--My treacherous memory retains one
line only of each of two translations into Latin verse, admirably done, of
two well-known pieces of English poetry. The first from a song by Sheridan,
of the lines:

 "Nor can I believe it then,
  Till it gently press again."

 "Conscia ni dextram dextera pressa premat."

The second:

 "Man wants but little here below,
    Nor wants that little long."

is thus rendered:

 "Poscimus in terris pauca, nec illa diù."

If in the circle of your correspondents the complete translations can be
furnished, you will by their insertion, gratify other lovers of modern
Latin poetry besides


_Gale of Rent._--I can imagine what is meant by a _gale of rent_, and be
thankful I have not to pay one. But what is the origin of the term _gale_
as thus applied?

Y. B. N. J.

_Arms of Sir Richard de Loges._--What were the arms borne by Sir Richard de
Loges, or Lodge, of Chesterton, in the county of Warwick, temp. Henry IV.?


_Gentile Names of the Jews._--Are the Jews known to each other by their
Gentile names of Rothschild, Montefiore, Davis, &c.? or are these only
their _nommes de guerre_, assumed and abandoned at will on change of

G. E. T. S. R. N.

_Henry, Earl of Wotton_ (Vol. viii., pp. 173. 281.).--The editors of the
_Navorscher_ express their thanks to BROCTUNA for his reply to their Query,
but hope he will kindly increase their debt of gratitude by elucidating
three points which seem to them obscure:

1. Which Lord Stanhope died childless? Not Henry, Lord Stanhope, for he
(see p. 281.) left a son and two daughters; nor yet Philip, for his widow
had borne him daughters. Or have we wrongly understood the letters _s. p._
to signify _sine prole_?

2. Was it the Earl of Chesterfield, half-brother of Charles Henry van den
Kerckhove, or Charles {564} Stanhope his nephew, who took the name of

3. Knight's _National Cyclopædia of Useful Knowledge_ (vol. xi. p. 374.)
names James Stanhope, Earl Stanhope, the eldest son of the Hon. Alexander
Stanhope, second son of Philip Stanhope, first Earl of Chesterfield. Had
the latter then, besides the above-named (see p. 281.) Henry, Lord
Stanhope, also other sons?

_Kicker-eating._--Can any of your West Yorkshire readers supply me with
information relative to a practice which is said formerly to have prevailed
at Cleckheaton, of eating "kicker," or horseflesh? It is a fact that
natives of that locality who come to reside at Leeds are still subjected to
the opprobrium of being _kicker-eaters_.

H. W.

_Chadderton of Nuthurst, co. Lancashire._--When did the family of
Chadderton become extinct? Had Edmund Chadderton, son and heir of George
Chadderton by Jane Warren of Poynton, any descendants? and if so, what were
their names and the dates of their respective births, marriages, and
deaths? In short, any particulars relating to them down to the period of
the extinction of this family would be most acceptable.

J. B.

_George, first Viscount Lanesborough, and Sir Charles Cotterell._--G. S. S.
begs to submit the following questions to the readers of "N. & Q.:" When
did George Lane, first Viscount Lanesborough, in Ireland, die? And when Sir
Charles Cotterell, the translator of _Cassandra?_ Where were they both

_"Firm was their faith," &c._--Who was the writer of those beautiful lines,
of which the following, the only verse I remember, is a portion?

 "Firm was their faith, the ancient bands,
  The wise in heart, in wood and stone,
  Who rear'd with stern and trusting hands,
  The dark grey towers of days unknown.
  They fill'd those aisles with many a thought,
  They bade each nook some truth recall,
  The pillar'd arch its legend brought,
  A doctrine came with roof and wall!"

And where can they be met with entire?

P. M.

_The Mother of William the Conqueror._--Can you or any of your
correspondents say which is right? In Debrett's _Peerage_ for 1790 the
genealogy of the Marchioness Grey gives her descent from "Rollo or Fulbert,
who was chamberlain to Robert, Duke of Normandy; and of his gift had the
castle and manor of Croy in Picardy, whence his posterity assumed their
surname, afterwards written de Grey. Which Rollo had a daughter Arlotta,
mother of William the Conqueror." Now history says that the mother of the
Conqueror was Arlette or Arlotte, the daughter of a tanner at Falaise. We
know how scrupulous the Norman nobility were in their genealogical records;
and likewise that in the lapse of time mistakes are perpetuated and become
history. Can history in this instance be wrong? and if so, how did the
mistake arise? I shall feel obliged to any one who can furnish farther
information on the subject.


_Pedigree of Sir Francis Bryan._--This accomplished statesman, and ornament
of Henry VIII.'s reign, married Joan of Desmond, Countess Dowager of
Ormonde, and died childless in Ireland A.D. 1550. Query, Did any cadet of
his family accompany him to that country? I found a Louis Bryan settled in
the county of Kilkenny in Elizabeth's reign, and suspect that he came in
through the connexion of Sir F. Bryan with the Ormonde family. Any
information as to the arms and pedigree of Sir F. Bryan will greatly oblige



       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

"_The Whole Duty of Man._"--Of what nature is the testimony that this book
was written by Dorothy Coventry, "the good Lady Pakington?"


    [The supposition that Lady Packington was the author of _The Whole Duty
    of Man_, arose from a copy of it in her handwriting having been found
    at Westwood after her death. (Aubrey's _Letters_, vol. ii. p. 125.) But
    the strongest evidence in favour of Lady Packington is the following
    note: "Oct. 13, 1698. Mr. Thomas Caulton, Vicar of Worksop, in
    Nottinghamshire, in the presence of William Thornton, Esq., and his
    lady, Mrs. Heathcote, Mrs. Ashe, Mrs. Caulton, and John Hewit, Rector
    of Harthill, declared the words following: 'Nov. 5, 1689. At
    Shire-Oaks, Mrs. Eyre took me up into her chamber after dinner, and
    told me that her daughter Moyser, of Beverley, was dead. Among other
    things concerning the private affairs of the family, she told me who
    was the author of _The Whole Duty of Man_, at the same time pulling out
    of a private drawer a MS. tied together, and stitched in 8vo., which
    she declared was the original copy written by Lady Packington her
    mother, who disowned ever having written the other books imputed to be
    by the same author, excepting _The Decay of Christian Piety_. She
    added, too, that it had been perused in MS. by Dr. Covel, Master of
    Trinity College, Cambridge, Dr. Stamford, Prebendary of York, and Mr.
    Banks, Rector of the Great Church at Hull.' Mr. Caulton declared this
    upon his death-bed, two days before his decease. W. T. and J. H." This
    is quoted from the Rev. W. B. Hawkins's Introduction to Pickering's
    edition of 1842; and a similar account, with unimportant variations, is
    given in "N. & Q.," Vol. ii. p. 292.: see also Vol. v., p. 229., and
    Vol. vi., p. 537.]


_"It rained cats and dogs and little pitchforks."_--_Helter-skelter._--What
can be the origin of this saying? I can imagine that rain may descend with
such sharpness and violence as to cause as much destruction as a shower of
"pitchforks" would; but if any of your readers can tell me why heavy rain
should be likened to "cats and dogs," I shall be truly obliged. Many years
ago I saw a most cleverly drawn woodcut, of a party of travellers
encountering this imaginary shower; some of the animals were descending
helter-skelter from the clouds; others wreaking their vengeance on the
amazed wayfarers, while the "pitchforks" were running into the bodies of
the terrified party, while they were in vain attempting to run out of the
way of those which were threatening to fall upon their heads, and thus
striking them to the ground. So strange an idea must have had some peculiar
origin.--Can you or your readers say what it is?

M. E. C.

P. S.--I find I have used a word above, of which every one knows the
_signification_, "helter-skelter;" but I, for one, confess myself ignorant
of its _derivation_. And I shall be glad to be informed on the subject.

    [As to the etymology of _helter-skelter_, Sir John Stoddart remarks,
    "The real origin of the word is obscure. If we suppose the principal
    meaning to be in the first part, it may probably come from the Islandic
    _hilldr_ pugna; if in the latter part, it may be from the German
    _schalten_, to thrust forward, which in the dialect of the north of
    England means 'to scatter and throw abroad as molehills are when
    levelled;' or from _skeyl_, which in the same dialect is 'to push on
    one side, to overturn.'"]

_Father Traves._--Can any of your Lancashire readers refer me to a source
whence I might obtain information on matters pertaining to the life of one
Father Travers [Traves], the friend and correspondent of the celebrated
martyr John Bradford?

As yet I have but met with the incidental mention of his name in the pages
of Fox, and in Hollingworth's _Mancuensis_, pp. 75, 76.


    [The name is spelt by Fox sometimes Traves and sometimes Travers; but
    who he was there is no particular mention; except that it appears from
    Bradford's letters that he was some friend of the family, and from the
    superscription to one of them, that he was the minister of Blackley,
    near Manchester, in which place, or near to which, Bradford's mother
    must then have resided. Strype says, he was a learned and pious
    gentleman, his patron and counsellor.--_Mem. Eccles._, vol. iii. part
    I. p. 364.]

_Precise Dates of Births and Deaths of the Pretenders._--Will any one be so
kind as to tell me the date of the birth and death of James VIII. and his
son Charles III. (commonly called Prince Charles Edward Stuart)? These
dates are given so variously, that I am anxious to ascertain them

L. M. M. R.

    [We believe the following to be the precise dates:--James VIII., born
    June 10, 1688; died January 2, 1765-6. Charles Edward, born December
    20, 1720 (sometimes printed as New Style, Dec. 31); died January 31,

_Clarence._--Whence the name of this dukedom? Was the title borne by any
one before the time of Lionel, son of Edward III.?

W. T. M.

    [The title CLARENCE was, as we learn from Camden (_Britannia_, edit.
    Gough, vol. ii. pp. 73, 74.), derived from the honour of Clare, in
    Suffolk; and was _first_ borne by Lionel Plantagenet, third son of
    Edward III., who married Elizabeth de Burgh, daughter and heir of
    William, Earl of Ulster, and obtained with her the honour of Clare. He
    became, _jure uxoris_, Earl of Ulster, and was created, September 15,
    1362, Duke of Clarence.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. viii., p. 468.)

About the year 1827, when the prosecutions for blasphemy were leading
hundreds and thousands to see what could be said against Christianity, with
a very powerful bias to make the most of all that they could find, some
friends of mine, of more ingenuity than erudition, strongly recommended to
my attention the works of a shoemaker at Norwich, named Mackey, who they
said was more learned than any one else, and had completely shown up _the
thing_. It is worth a note that I perfectly remember the cause of their
excitement to have been the imprisonment of the Rev. Robert Taylor, for
publishing various arguments against revelation. I examined several works
of Mackey's, and I have yet one or two bound up among my wonders of nature
and art. As in time to come, when neither love nor money will procure a
copy of these books, some tradition may set inquirers looking after them,
perhaps it may be worth while to preserve a couple of extracts for the
benefit of those who have the sense to hunt the index of "N. & Q." before
they give up anything.

    "The Virgin Andromeda, the daughter of _Cepheus_ and _Cassiopeia_, was
    the representative of Palestina; a long, narrow, rocky strip of land;
    figuratively called the daughter of Rocks and Mountains; because it is
    a country abounding with rocks and stones. And the Greeks, really
    supposing _Cepha_, a rock or stone, to have been the young ladies
    father, added their sign of the masculine gender to it, and it became
    Cepha-_us_. And mount Cassius being its southern boundary was called
    _Cassiobi_; from its being also the boundary of the _overflowed Nile_,
    called Obi, which the Greeks {566} softened into _Cassiopeia_, and
    supposed it to have been her mother;..."--_Mythological Astronomy, part
    second_, Norwich, 1823, 12mo., p. xiii.

    "The story of ABRAHAM, notwithstanding all the endeavours of
    theologians to give it the appearance of the history of human beings,
    has preserved its mythological features with an outline and colouring,
    easily to be recognised by every son of _Urania_ [Ur of the Chaldees is
    subsequently made to contain the root of _Uranus_]. We have just seen
    that the Egyptians have their harvest about the time which the sun
    _passes over_ the equator, and if we go back to the time of _Abraham_
    we shall find that the equator [perhaps he means equinox] was in
    _Taurus_; the Egyptians must, then, have had their harvest while the
    sun was in the Bull; the Bull was, therefore, in their figurative way
    of speaking, the father of harvest, not only because he ploughed the
    ground, but because the sun was there when they got in their harvest:
    thus the Bull was doubly distinguished as their benefactor; he was now,
    more than ever, become the _Bull of life_, i. e. he was not only called
    _Abir_, the Bull, but _Abir-am_ or Ab'-r-am, the _Bull of life_,--the
    father of harvest. And as their harvest was originally under the
    direction of Iseth, or Isis, whatever belonged to harvest was _Isiac_;
    but the Bull, _Abiram_, was now become the _father of Isiac_! and to
    give this the appearance of a human descent, they added to Abir, the
    masculine affix _ah_; then it became AB'-RH-AM who was the father of
    Isiac. And we actually find _this equivoque_ in the hebrew history of
    _Abram_ whom the Lord afterwards called _Abraham_, who was the _father
    of Isaac_, whose seed was to be countless as the sand on the sea-shore
    for multitude; even this is truly applied to _Isiac_ the offspring of
    Ab'-rh-am; for countless indeed are the offspring of the _scythe and
    sickle_! but if we allow _Isiac_ to be a _real son of Ab-rah-am_ we
    must enquire after his _mother_. During the time that the equator
    [perhaps he means the sun] is passing through the constellation of the
    Bull in the spring, the Bull would _rise in the east_ every morning in
    the harvest time, in Egypt,--but in the _poetical language of the
    ancients_, it would be said that, when ABIR-AM _consorts_ with _Aurora_
    he will produce _Isiac_. But _Aurora_ is well known to be the _golden
    splendour of the east_, and the brightness of the east is called
    _Zara_, and the morning star is _Serah_, in the eastern languages, and
    we find a similar change of sound in the name of Isaac's mother, whom
    the Lord would no longer call _Sarai_ but Sarah. _These_ ARE remarkable
    coincidences!"--_Companion to the Mythological Astronomy_, Norwich,
    1824, 12mo. pp. 177-179.


In answer to the inquiry respecting this singular man, I beg to say that I
remember him between the years 1826 and 1830, as a shoemaker in Norwich. He
was in a low rank of trade, and in poor circumstances, which he endeavoured
to improve by exhibiting at private houses an orrery of his own making. He
was recognised as a "genius;" but, as may be seen by his writings, had
little reverence for established forms of belief. At the period of which I
speak, which was soon after the publication of his first work, I knew but
little of his mind, and lost sight of him altogether till about 1840. Then
circumstances connected with my own line of study led me to call on him in
Doughty's Hospital, Norwich, an asylum for aged persons. I found him
surrounded by astronomical apparatus, books, the tools of his former trade,
and all kinds of strange litters. In the conversation that ensued, I
learned much of the workings of his mind; though his high self-appreciation
could not descend to unreserved converse with a woman. My object was, to
ascertain by what steps he had arrived at his theory of the earth's motion,
but I could gain nothing distinct. He mentioned the _Asiatic Researches_ as
containing vast information on his peculiar subject; quoted Latin, and I
think Greek, authors; and seemed to place great dependence on Maurice and
Bryant; but, above all, on Capt. Wilford's _Essays_. He showed me some
elaborate calculations, at which he was then working and still fancied
himself qualified, perhaps destined, to head a great revolution in the
astronomical world. I cannot say how far his knowledge of geology went, as
I am not well acquainted with that science. He had evidently read and
studied deeply, but alone; his own intellect had never been brushed by the
intellects and superior information of truly scientific men, and it
appeared to me that a vast deal of dirt, real dirt, had accumulated in his
mind. My visit disappointed and pained me, but he seemed gratified, and I
therefore promised to call again, which I did, but he was not at home. I
think this visit was soon after he had removed into the hospital, for I
then purchased his last work, _The Age of Mental Emancipation_, published
1836, before he obtained that asylum. He died before 1849, but I do not
know the exact year.

In any next visit to Norwich, I will make inquiries on all points relating
to Mackey, of the very few persons now left who took interest in him, and I
think I can find the printer of his last pamphlet.

I have not the work mentioned in "N. & Q.;" but, besides his last work, I
have _The Mythological Astronomy of the Ancients demonstrated_, which is
partly in poetry.

I have been obliged to write this Note in the first person, as I can give
only my own impressions respecting Mackey; and I wish that ere this you may
have received clearer information from more competent persons. If your
Querist have the _least grain_ of faith in the theory of Mackey, I hope he
will not let the subject drop, for I have long been deeply interested in

F. C. B.


Mackey, of whom your correspondent inquires, was an entirely self-educated
man, but a learned shoemaker, residing in Norwich. He devoted all his
leisure time to astronomical, geological, and {567} philological pursuits;
and had some share in the formation of a society in his native town, for
the purpose of debating questions relative to these sciences. I have
understood that he was for some time noticed by a small portion of the
scientific world, but afterwards neglected, as, from his own account, he
appears also to have been by his literary fellow townsmen; and at last to
have died in a Norwich alms-house. This is but a meagre account of the man,
but it is possible that I may be able to glean farther particulars on the
subject; for a medical friend of mine, who some time ago lent me
_Mythological Astronomy_, promised to let me see some papers in his
possession relative to this learned shoemaker's career, and to a few of his
unpublished speculations. When I have an opportunity of seeing these, I
shall be glad to communicate to your correspondent through "N. & Q."
anything of interest. The title-page of _Mythological Astronomy_ runs thus:

    "The Mythological Astronomy of the Ancients demonstrated by restoring
    to their Fables and Symbols their Original Meanings. By Sampson Arnold
    Mackey, Shoemaker. Norwich: printed by R. Walker, near the Duke's
    Palace. Published May 1, 1822, by S. A. Mackey, Norwich."

The book contains a variety of subjects, but principally treats of the
Hindoo, Greek, and Roman mythology; and endeavours to deduce all the fables
and symbols of the ancients from the starry sphere. It also contains a
singular hypothesis of the author's upon the celebrated island of Atlantis,
mentioned by Plato and other Greek authors; and some very curious
speculations concerning the doctrine of the change in the angle which the
plane of the ecliptic makes with the plane of the equator.

Urania's _Key to the Revelations_ is bound up with the above work. I forgot
to say that his _Ancient Mythology demonstrated_ is written in verse, and
afterwards more fully explained by notes. His poetical abilities, however,
neither suit the subject, nor are of a very high order. His prose is
better, but here and there shows the deficiency of education.

E. M. R.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 195. 328. 399.)

When a hive of bees is taken, the practice is to lay the combs upon a sieve
over some vessel, in only that the honey may drain out of the combs. Whilst
the combs are in the hive, they hang perpendicularly, and each cell is
horizontal; and in this position the honey in the cells which are in the
course of being filled does not run out; but when the combs are laid on the
sieve horizontally, the cells on the lower side of the combs hang
perpendicularly, and then the honey begins to run out of those that are not
sealed up. The honey that so runs out is perfectly pure, and free from wax.
The cells, however, that are sealed up with wax still retain their honey;
and the ordinary process to extract it is to place the sieve with the combs
upon it so near a fire as gradually to melt the wax, so as to let the honey
escape. During this process, some portion of wax unavoidably gets mixed
with the honey. Here then we have two kinds of honey: one in a perfectly
pure state, and wholly _sine cerâ_; the other in some degree impure, and
mixed _cum cerâ_. Can anything be more reasonable than to suppose that the
former was called _sincerum mel_, just as we call it virgin honey? And this
accords with Ainsworth's derivation, "ex sine et cerâ: ut mel purum dicitur
quod cerâ non est permixtum." If it be said that there is nothing to show
that the old Romans adopted the process I have described, I reply it is
immaterial what process they followed in order to extract what would not
flow out of itself; as whatever did flow out of itself would be _mel sine

If such were the origin of the term, it is easy to see how appropriately,
in a secondary sense, it would denote whatever was pure, sweet,
unadulterated, and ingenuous.

Now if we apply this sense to the line:

 "Sincerum est nisi vas quodcunque infundis acescit,"--

it will mean, "unless the vessel be sweet and pure, it will turn whatever
you pour into it sour."

This is the interpretation that has always hitherto been put upon the line;
which is thus translated by Tommaso Gargallo, vol. iii. p. 19. edit. 1820:

 "Se non è puro il vase, ecco già guasto
  Che che v' infondi."

And by Francis (vol. iv. p. 27., 6th edit.):--

 "For tainted vessels sour what they contain."

The context shows that this is the correct translation, as _sincerum vas_
is obviously in opposition to "auriculas _collectâ sorde_ dolentes," in the
preceding line.

The line itself plainly refers to the well-known fact, that if wine or
other liquor be poured into a foul vessel, it will be polluted by it. Nor
can I avoid noticing the elegant opposition, according to this
construction, between the sweetness in _sincerum_, and the acidity in

I also think that MR. INGLESBY'S version cannot be correct for the
following reason. Cracks may exist in every part of a vessel alike; and as
the part filled by the liquor is always many times greater than the
remainder of the vessel, cracks would more frequently occur in the former;
and, as where air can get in the liquor can get out, it {568} is plain that
in the majority of instances the liquor would run away instead of turning
sour. Now the line plainly contains a _general_ affirmative proposition
that all liquor whatsoever will be turned sour, unless the vessel be
_sincerum_; and therefore that version cannot be right which applies only
to a few instances.

"Sincerum cupimus vas incrustare" is well rendered by Gargallo (vol. ii. p.

 "  .    .    .    .  Insudiciar bramiamo
  Anco il vase più puro;"

and by Francis (vol. iii. p. 39.):

 "And joy th' untainted vessel to begrime."

The passage is well explained in the note to Baxter's _Hor._ (p. 310. edit.

    "Incrustari vas dicitur cum aliquo vitioso succo illinitur atque

And the passage in the 18th satire of Lucilius shows that this is an
accurate explanation:

 "  .    .    .    .    .  Regionibus illis
  Incrustatu' calix rutâ caulive bibetur."

A practice, I rather think, prevails in some parts of England of rubbing
the inside of a vessel with sweet herbs, in order to flavour cyder or other

It appears from the same note:

    "Fracta vasa et gypsare et pelliculare Veteres consuevêre. Gypsantur et
    pelliculantur vasa plena ad aëra et sordes excludendas. Sincerum
    proprie mel sine cerâ, vel, quod magis huc pertinet, vas non ceratum:
    nam a ceraturâ odorem vel saporem trahit."

If these passages show the practice of sealing vessels with wax, they also
show that the wax was what affected the flavour of the liquor.

MR. JEFFCOCK plainly errs in saying that _simplex_ "does not mean without a
fold, but once folded." In Latin we have the series _simplex_, _duplex_,
_triplex_, &c., corresponding precisely to the English _single_, _double_,
_treble_, &c. And as _single_ denotes a thing without a fold, so does
_simplex_. MR. JEFFCOCK'S derivation would make _simplex_ and _duplex_ mean
the same thing. Now _duplex_ does not mean twice folded, but double.

Nor can I think that _singulus_ can be "semel and termination." Ainsworth
derives it from the Hebrew [Hebrew: SGLH], which denotes whatever is
peculiar or singular. It occurs to me to suggest whether it may not be
derived from _sine angulis_. The term denotes unity--one person, one thing.
Now the Roman mark for one is a straight line, and that is "that which lies
evenly between its extreme points;" it is emphatically a line without bend,
angle, or turning--"linea sine angulis:" _angulus_, like its Greek
original, denoting any bend, whether made by a straight or curved line.

Though I cannot at this moment refer to any other Latin words compounded of
_sine_, we have in Spanish _simpar_, without equal: _sinigual_,
_sinjusticia_, _sinrazon_, _sinnumero_, _sinsabor_.

The delight I take in endeavouring to attain the correct meaning of the
classics will, I hope, form some apology for the length of this Note.

S. G. C.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 242.)

In an old collection of tavern signs of the last century, among many others
I find the following. On the sign of the "Arrow," at Knockholt, in Kent,--

 "Charles Collins liveth here,
  Sells rum, brandy, gin, and beer;
  I made this board a little wider,
  To let you know I sell good cyder."

On the sign of the "Shoulder of Mutton and Cat," at Hackney, in

 "Pray Puss don't tear,
  For the mutton is so dear;
  Pray Puss don't claw,
  For the mutton yet is raw."

On the sign of the "Gate," at Blean Hill, in Kent,--

 "Stop, brave boys, and _squench_ your thirst,
  If you won't drink, the horses must."

On the sign of the "Ship in Distress," in Middle Street, Brighton,

 "With sorrows I am compass'd round;
  Pray lend a hand, my ship's aground."

On the sign of the "Waggon and Horses," in Black Lion Street,

 "Long have I travers'd both far and near,
  On purpose to find out good beer,
  And at last I found it here."


At a small way-side beer-shop in the parish of Werrington in the county of
Devon, a few years since there was the following sign:

         "The Lengdon Inn, kept by M. Vuller.
  Gentlemen walk in and sit at your aise,
  Pay for what you call for, and call for what you plaise;
  As tristing of late has been to my sorrow,
  Pay me to-day and I'll tristee to-morrow."

J. D.


Not far from Kilpeck, Herefordshire, I have seen a wayside public-house,
exhibiting the sign of the "Oak," under which is the following couplet:

 "I am an oak, and not a yew,
  So drink a cup with good John Pugh."

{569} As "good John Pugh" sold excellent cider, I did not repent complying
with the injunction.



This is at a roadside public-house near Maidenhead, known by the sign of
the "Gate." It is thus:

 "This gate hangs high,
    It hinders none;
  Drink hearty, boys,
    And travel on."

I remember a sign near Marlborough of the "Red Cow," and the landlord,
being also a milkman, had inscribed under the rude drawing of a cow these

 "The Red Cow
  Gives good milk now."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 440.)

I have not verified in the works of St. Thomas this saying ascribed to him,
but I subjoin a passage from Bishop Taylor, where it is quoted:

    "A river cut into many rivulets divides also its strength, and grows
    contemptible and apt to be forded by a lamb and drunk up by a summer
    sun; so is the spirit of man busied in variety, and divided in itself;
    it abates its fervour, cools into indifferency, and becomes trifling by
    its dispersion and inadvertency. Aquinas was once asked, with what
    compendium a man might best become learned? He answered, _By reading of
    one book_; meaning that an understanding entertained with several
    objects is intent upon neither, and profits not." --_Life of Christ_,
    part ii. s. xii. 16.

He also quotes Ecclus (xi. 10.), St. Gregory, St. Bernard, Seneca,
Quintillian, and Juvenal to the same purpose.

Southey quotes part of this passage from Bishop Taylor (in the _Doctor_)
and adds:

    "Lord Holland's poet, the prolific Lope de Vega, tells us to the same
    purport. The _Homo Unius Libri_ is indeed proverbially formidable to
    all conversational figurantes: like your sharpshooter, he knows his
    piece, and is sure of his shot."

The truth of this dictum of St. Thomas cannot be too much insisted on in
this age of many books, which affords such incentives to literary
dissipation and consequent shallowness.

    "An intellectual man, as the world now conceives of him, is one who is
    full of 'views,' on all subjects of philosophy, on all matters of the
    day. It is almost thought a disgrace not to have a view at a moment's
    notice on any question from the Personal Advent to the Cholera or
    Mesmerism. This is owing in a great measure to the necessities of
    periodical literature, now so much in request. Every quarter of a year,
    every month every day, there must be a supply for the gratification of
    the public, of new and luminous theories on the subjects of religion,
    foreign politics, home politics, civil economy, finance, trade,
    agriculture, emigration, and the colonies. Slavery, the gold fields,
    German philosophy, the French empire, Wellington, Peel, Ireland, must
    all be practised on, day after day, by what are called original
    thinkers."--_Dr. Newman's Disc. on Univ. Educ._, p. xxv. (preface).

This writer follows up the subject very ably, and his remarks on that
spurious philosophism which shows itself in what, for want of a better
word, he calls "viewiness," are worth the attention of all _homines unius

P.S.--As I think of it, I shall make a cognate Query. Some facetious
opponent of the schoolmen fathered on St. Thomas Aquinas an imaginary work
in sundry folio volumes entitled _De Omnibus Rebus_, adding an equally
bulky and imaginary supplement--_Et Quibusdam Aliis_. This is as often used
to feather a piece of unfledged wit, as the speculation concerning the
number of angels that could dance on the point of a needle, and yet I have
never been able to trace out the inventor of these visionary tomes.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 411.)

My attention was directed to the consideration of this expression some
years ago when reading in John Dymmoks' _Treatise of Ireland_, written
about the year 1600, and published among the _Tracts relating to Ireland,
printed for the Irish Archæological Society_, vol. ii., the following

    "Before the vant-guard marched the _forelorn hope_, consisting of forty
    shott and twenty shorte weapons, with order that they should not
    discharge untill they presented theire pieces to the rebells' breasts
    in their trenches, and that sooddenly the short weapons should enter
    the trenches pell mell: vpon eyther syde of the vant-guarde (which was
    observed in the batle and reare-guarde) marched wings of shott
    enterlyned with pikes, to which were sent secondes with as much care
    and diligence as occasion required. The baggage, and a parte of the
    horse, marched before the battell; the rest of the horse troopes fell
    in before the _rearewarde_ except thirty, which, in the head of the
    _rearelorne hope_, conducted by Sir Hen. Danvers, made the retreit of
    the whole army."--P.32.

The terms _rearelorne hope_ and _forlorne hope_ occur constantly in the
same work, and bear the same signification as in the foregoing.

Remarking upon this circumstance to my friend the late Dr. Graves, he wrote
the following notice of the word in the _Dublin Quarterly Journal of
Medical Science_, of which I was then the editor, in Feb. 1849:

    "Military and civil writers of the present day seem quite ignorant of
    the true meaning of the words {570} _forlorn hope_. The adjective has
    nothing to do with despair, nor the substantive with the 'charmer which
    lingers still behind;' there was no such poetical depth in the words as
    originally used. Every corps marching in any enemy's country had a
    small body of men at the head (_haupt_ or _hope_) of the advanced
    guard; and which was termed the _forlorne hope_ (_lorn_ being here but
    a termination similar to _ward_ in _forward_), while another small body
    at the head of the rere guard was called the _rear-lorn hope_ (xx.). A
    reference to Johnson's _Dictionary_ proves that civilians were misled
    as early as the time of Dryden by the mere sound of a technical
    military phrase; and, in process of time, even military men forgot the
    true meaning of the words. It grieves me to sap the foundations of an
    error to which we are indebted for Byron's beautiful line:

 'The full of hope, misnamed _forlorn_.'"



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 126.)

The title-page of this work is: _Comoedia Divina, mit drei Vorreden von
Peter Hammer, Jean Paul, und dem Herausgeber_, 1808. The absence of
publisher's name and place of publication leaves little doubt that the name
W. G. H. Gotthardt, and the date "Basel, Mai 1, 1808," are both fictitious.

But for finding the passage cited by M. M. E. at p. 38., I should have
supposed that the Munich critic had referred to some other book with the
same title. No one who has read this can suppose it was written by Tieck.
The Catholic-romantic school, of which he was the most distinguished
member, furnishes the chief objects of the author's ridicule. Novalis,
Görres, and F. Schlegel are the most prominent; but at p. 128. is an absurd
sonnet "an Tieck."

The _Comoedia Divina_ is a very clever and somewhat profane satire, such as
Voltaire might have written had he been a German of the nineteenth century.
It opens with Jupiter complaining to Mercury of ennui (_eine langweilige
Existenz_), and that he is not what he was when young. Mercury advises a
trip to Leipzig fair, where he may get good medical advice for his gout,
and certainly will see something new. They go, and hear various dealers
sing the catalogues of their goods. The lines quoted by M. M. E. are sung
by a young man with a puppet-show and barrel-organ to the burden:

 "Orgelum Orgelei,
  Dudeldum Dudeldei."

He exhibits things taken from the physics of Oken, the metaphysics of
Schelling, and the æsthetics of Görres. The whole of the song is good; and
I quote one stanza as showing a sound appreciation of the current

 "Die Intelligenz construirt sich in der Zeit
  Als Object, und erkennt sich, und das ist gescheidt,
  Denn aus diesen und andern Constructuren
  Entstehen Lehrbücher und Professuren."

They visit the garret of Herr Novalis Octavianus Hornwunder, a maker of
books to order upon every subject: they learn the mysteries of the
manufacture. The scene is clever, but much of the wit is unappreciable as
directed against productions which have not survived. Jupiter, in
compassion to Hornwunder, changes him to a goose, immediately after which a
bookseller enters, and, mistaking the gods for authors, makes them an offer
of six dollars and twelve groschen the octavo volume, besides something for
the kitchen. Jupiter, enraged, changes him to a fox, which forthwith eats
the goose "feathers and all."

They then go to see the play of the Fall of Man (_Der Sündenfall_). The
subject is treated after the manner of Hans Sachs, but with this
difference, that the simple-minded old Nuremberger saw nothing incongruous
in making Cain and Abel say their catechism, and Cain go away from the
examination to fight with the low boys in the street; whereas the author of
_Der Sündenfall_ is advisedly irreverent. Another proof, if one were
wanted, that he was not Tieck.

_Die Ungöttliche Comödie_ is not by Batornicki, but translated by him from
the Polish. In the preface he apologises for inelegant German, as that is
not his native language; and I presume he is a Pole, as he says the
author's name is known among us (_unter uns_). As he calls it a poem
(_Dichtung_) the original is probably in verse. I think the Munich critic
could have seen only some extracts from the _Comoedia Divina_; for, so far
from Batornicki "plundering freely," I do not find any resemblance between
the works except in the sole word _comoedia_. The _Comoedia Divina_ is a
mockery, not political, but literary, and as such anti-mystic and
conservative. _Die Ungöttliche Comödie_ is wild, mystical, supernatural,
republican, and communistic. It contains passages of great power,
eloquence, and pathos. German critics are often prosy and inefficient, but
not given to wilful misrepresentation or carelessness in examining the
books they review. The writer in the Munich journal must be held an

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vi., p. 146.; Vol. viii., p. 473.)

The prevalence of the custom of the liveries of noble and other persons
being worn by others than the retainers of the family, in the reigns of
Henry VI. and Elizabeth, is exemplified by two documents preserved amongst
the MSS. of the corporation of this borough. The first, which is also
curious as a specimen of the language of the period, is an award under the
seal of Margaret of Anjou; under whom, as they had previously done under
Katherine, queen of Henry V., the corporation farmed the bailiwick of the

    "Margaret, by the grace of God, Quene of England and of Ffraunce and
    Lady of Irland, Doughter of the Kyng of Sicile and Jer[=l][=m]. Be it
    knawen to all men to whom this p'sent writyng (endented) shall come,
    that whereas a certeyn Co[=m]ission of my fuldoutfull Lord was directed
    to c'teyn [p=]sones to enquere as well of yevyng of lyu'e, as of other
    diu's articles ... before the Co[=m]issioners of the seyd Co[=m]ission
    it was p'sented by William Neuby and other of our te[=n][=n]tz of
    Leycestre ... that c'teyn [p=]sones, in Leycestre, had taken clothyng
    of diu'rez p'sones, ayenst the forme of the statut; that ys to wete,
    that some of hem had taken clothyng of the Viscount Beaumont, and some
    of S^r Edward Grey, Lord Fferrers of Growby, and some of hem had taken
    clothyng of other diu'res [p=]sones, by cause of which p'sentement
    diu'res [p=]sones, some of the houshold of the seyd Lord Fferrers, and
    some of the clothing of the said Lord, with other wele wilners to the
    said Lord, as yet not to us knawen, by supportacon and favour, and for
    pleasance to the said Lord, as we ben enfo'med ... betyn and sore
    woundetyn the said William Neuby, and manesten to bete other of our
    te[=n][=n]tz of Leycestre." ... She doth therefore "ordeyn, deme, and
    awarde" that the said Lord Ferrers pay c. marks to William Neuby, that
    he "be goode lorde to the said William Neuby; and to all other
    te[=n][=n]tz in our lordship of Leycestre; and that the said lord shall
    not geve any clothyng or liue'y to any [p=]sone dwellyng within our
    said lordship," &c.... "Yeven the xx day of May, the yere of the reign
    of my most douted Lord Kyng Henr' the Sext, xxvii."

The above extracts show one of the evils to which the practice led;
another, mentioned in the deed, was that of deerstealing. William Newby was
mayor of the town in 1425, 1433, and 1444-5.

The second document is a curious letter from the mayor and some members of
the corporation to George Earl of Huntington, lord-lieutenant of the
county, and a frequent resident in the town, where a part of his mansion,
called "Lord's Place," and in which James I. was entertained, still exists.
The draft of this letter forms part of an interesting series of
correspondence between the corporation and the earl, respecting the
nomination of the parliamentary representatives of the town in 1601.

The earl recommended that Mr. (afterwards Sir) William Herrick and Mr.
Bromley should be chosen, and in strong language warned them against
electing Mr. George Belgrave of Belgrave (who had greatly offended him), as
he hears "that Belgrave still contineweth his great practising in labouring
to be chosen;" and he adds, "Goode Mr. Mayor, be carefull of this, as you
and the rest will looke to make accompt of me."

It appears that many members of the corporation were secretly favourable to
Mr. Belgrave, and he was elected, as explained in the following letter:

    "Right Ho^e, oure humble dewties remeberd, &c., may yt please yo^r good
    Lpp. to be c'tified, that upon Tuesday morninge laste, being assembled
    for the choice of o^r Burgesses, Mr. George Belgrave p'sented himselfe
    amongest us, in a blewe coat w^{th} a bull head, affirminge and
    protestinge he was yo^r L[=p]'s s'[=v]t, and that S^r Henrie
    Harrington, verye late the night before, had obteyned that favour of
    yo^r ho^r in his behalfe; and muche bemoned his former undewtifull
    cariage towards yo^r L[=p], w^{th} a remorsive remembrance of many most
    ho. favours receaved from yo^r L[=p] and yo^r house, towards his
    auncestors, him, and his; and, recommendinge his former suite to be one
    of oure Burgesses, being demanded whether he had any letter from yo^r
    L[=p], answered, that this (poyntinge at his coat and cognizance) he
    hoped was a sufficient testimonie of y^r L[=p]'s favour towards him,
    and of his submission towards yo^r ho^r; and further, that it was so
    late before S^r Henrie cold [p=]cure yo^r L[=p]'s said favour, as that
    you cold not well write, and, for the truth of the [p=]mises, he
    offered his corporal oathe. Whereupon we, thinkinge all this to be
    true, made choyce of him, w^{th} Mr. Will[=m] Herricke, to be o^r
    Burgesses. And now, this evening, wee are credibly certified that y^r
    L[=p] hath geven him no suche entertaynem^t; and thus by his said lewde
    and most dishonest dealinge, being much abused, we thought it o^r
    dewties forthew^{th} to signifie the same unto yo^r L[=p], humbly
    cravinge yo^r L[=p]'s most ho^rable favor for some reformacon of this
    vile practize. And thus, w^{th} remembrance of oure dewties, wee humbly
    take o^r leaves. From Leic^r, this xx^{th} day of October, 1601.

 "Youre honor's most humble to co[=m]aunde,
      Signed by     "Will[=m] ROWES, Maior,
                  ROBERT HEYRICKE,"
                    And ten others.

An angry and characteristic reply from the earl follows, but with which, as
it is printed in Thompson's _History of Leicester_ (p. 318.), I will not
trespass upon your valuable space. It may be sufficient to say, that he
tells the mayor that--

    "Notwithstanding this treacherous devise of that cunninge practisore, I
    feare it will appeare, upon due scanninge of this accydent, y^t there
    remaynes a false brother amongst you.... And as for y^e p'sone hymself
    whoe hathe thus shameleslye sought to dishonoure me and deceave you, I
    will, by the grace of God, take suche order as in honor and lawfullye I
    maye, bothe {572} for y^e better unfouldinge of this, as also for suche
    punnyshm^t as the law will inflict."

In pursuance of this determination, the earl exhibited an information
against Mr. Belgrave in the Star Chamber. The subsequent proceedings which
took place on the subject in parliament will be found noticed in D'Ewes's
_Journal_, and quoted in Thompson's _History of Leicester_, pp. 319-323.



       *       *       *       *       *


_Queries on Dr. Diamond's Calotype Process._--Would you kindly ask DR.
DIAMOND, to whom I should imagine all of us are more or less indebted, the
following questions respecting the very valuable paper on the calotype in
the last _Photographic Journal_?

1. As to the white spots which make their appearance in developing, on
Turner's paper especially, and which he says are owing to minute pieces of
metal in the paper, what is the best way of hiding them in the negative, so
that they may as little as possible injure the positive? I have suffered
sadly from this cause; and have tried to stop them with ammonio-nitrate,
which turns after a time to red, and stops the light effectually; but I
should prefer some black colouring the strength of which one could measure
by seeing its immediate effect.

2. And again, when one has black spots, what is the best means of lessening
their intensity, if not of wholly removing them?

[Greek: Phôtographos.]

    [Where light spots occur in a negative, DR. DIAMOND recommends, as the
    most effectual mode of stopping them, a little gamboge neatly applied
    with a camel-hair pencil. Where a great intensity is desired, Indian
    ink may be applied in the same manner, taking care in both cases to
    smooth off the edges with a dry brush. The cyanide of potassium applied
    in the same way, but _with very great care_, will remove the black
    spots. Before it appears to have quite accomplished its object, a
    negative should be immersed in water, as its action is so energetic.]

_Albumenized Paper._--I have followed DR. DIAMOND'S directions for
albumenizing paper (thin Canson negative) as accurately as I can, but I
cannot prevent the albumen in drying, when pinned up, from forming into
waves or streaks. This will be best understood from a specimen of a sheet
which I inclose, and I shall be much obliged if you can tell me how this
can be avoided. Some albumenized paper which I have purchased is quite free
from this defect, but being at a distance from London, it is both
convenient and economical to prepare my own paper.

C. E. F.

    [We would recommend our correspondent to remove his paper from the
    albumen still more slowly; and to take care not to draw it along, but
    so to lift it that the last corner is not moved until it is raised from
    the albumen. In pinning up be careful that the paper takes the inward
    curl, otherwise the appearances exhibited will be almost sure to take
    place. As the albumenizing liquid is of very trifling cost, we
    recommend the use of two dishes, as by that means a great economy of
    time is obtained.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Marcarnes_ (Vol. viii., p. 365.).--Can this curiously sounding name be an
archaic form of Mackarness, a name, I think, still borne by living persons?



_X on Brewers' Casks_ (Vol. viii., p. 439.).--Your correspondent B. H. C.,
though ingenious, is in error. The X on brewers' casks originated in the
fact, that beer above a certain strength paid 10_s_. duty; and the X became
a mark to denote beer of that better quality. The doubling and tripling of
the X are nothing but inventions of the brewers to humbug the public.

[Hebrew: B]. [Hebrew: D].

_No Sparrows at Lindham_ (Vol. vii., p. 233.).--Amongst the various
responses in connexion with the Queries given on the page above noted,
communicated direct, the only one which I have thought worthy of insertion
in my MSS. is as follows:

    "As for there being no sparrows at Lindham, it may be accounted for in
    the following legend:--A few years ago I was in that district when I
    heard some account of a person called 'Tom of Lindham;' who, by the
    way, was a curious personage, and performed some very extraordinary and
    out-of-the-way feats. At one time he was left at home to protect the
    corn from the _sparrows_; when, _to save trouble_, he got all of them
    into the barn, and put a _harrow_ into the window to keep them in; and
    so _starved_ (_i. e._ hungered) them to death."

Furthermore Mr. Whittaker kindly communicated of the above Yorkshire

    "At the close of Tom's life he took it into his head to make a road
    across a part of Hatfield Chase to his own dwelling; when, according to
    the legend, he employed supernatural aid: with this clause in the
    contract, that he, Tom, should not inquire any particulars as to the
    character of his assistants or helpmates. One day, however, being more
    curious than prudent, he looked behind him; his workmen immediately
    disappeared, and Tom of Lindham was no more heard of. His road still
    remains in the state he left it."


Piersebridge, near Darlington, Durham.

_Theobald le Botiller_ (Vol. viii., p. 366.).--Theobald le Botiller was an
infant at his father's death, 1206. He had livery in 1222; and in 9 Hen.
III., {573} 1225, married Rohesia or Rose de Verdun, not _Vernon_. She was
so great an heiress that she retained her own name, and her posterity also
bore it. She founded the Abbey of Grâce Dieu, Leicestershire, in 1239; and
died 1247-8. Her husband died in 1230, leaving two sons: John de Verdun,
who inherited, and Nicholas, who died in Ireland without issue; and one
daughter Maud, who married John FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel.


Hampton Court Palace.

_Vault at Richmond, Yorkshire_ (Vol. viii., p. 388.).--Touching the
"vault," or underground passage, "that goeth under the river" of Swale,
from the Castle of Richmond to the priory of St. Martin, every tradition,
_i. e._ as to its whereabouts, is, I believe, now wholly lost.

Your Querist, however, who seems to feel an interest in that beautiful and
romantic portion of the _north countrie_, will perhaps welcome the
following mythe, which is connected, it is possible, with the identical
_vault_ which is depictured by Speed in his _Plan of Richmond_. It was
taken down from the lips of a great-grand-dame by one of her descendants,
_both of whom are still living_, for the gratification of your present
correspondent, who, like Luther,

    "Would not for any quantity of gold part with the wonderful tales which
    he has retained from his earliest childhood, or met with in his
    progress through life."

But to my legend:

Once upon a time a man, walking round Richmond Castle, was accosted by
another, who took him into a _vennel_, or underground passage, below the
castle; where he beheld a vast multitude of people lying as if they were
sleeping. A _horn_ and a _sword_ were presented to him: the horn to blow,
and the sword to draw; in order, as said his guide, to release them from
their slumbers. And when he had drawn the sword half out, the sleepers
began to move; which frightened him so much, that he put it back into the
sheath: when instantly a voice exclaimed,

         "Potter! _Potter Thompson!_
          If thou had either drawn
          The _sword_, or blown the _horn_,
  Thou had been the luckiest man that ever was born."

So ends the Legend of the Richmond Sleepers and Potter Thompson; which,
mayhap, is scarcely worth preserving, were it not that it has preserved and
handed down the characteristic, or rather trade, cognomen and surname of
its timorous at least, if not cowardly, hero.


Piersebridge, near Darlington, Durham.

_Lord Audley's Attendants at Poictiers_ (Vol. viii., p. 494.).--A notice of
the arguments in opposition to the statement, rested mainly on the grant of
arms by John Touchet, Lord Audley, to the descendant of Sir James de
Mackworth, in consideration of his having been one of these esquires,
occurs in Blore's _Rutland_, p. 130. and p. 224. And it appears to be
satisfactorily shown by the grant itself, that it was not made on account
of the services of Sir James.

J. P. Jun.

_Portraits at Brickwall House_ (Vol. vii., p. 406.).--Immerzeel says, in
his _Levens der Kunstschilders_ (_Lives of the Painters_), vol. iii. pp.
238, 239.:

    "Thomas van der Wilt, born at Piershil in the district of Putten, was a
    disciple of Verkolje at Delft, where he also settled. He painted
    portraits, domestic scenes, &c., which were not free from stiffness. He
    also engraved in mezzotinto after Brouwer, Schalken, and others. His
    drawings were engraved by his son William, who died young."

He was living in 1701, and was probably grandson of a person of the same
name who resided in 1622 at Soetermeer near Leyden, for in the register of
the villages of Rhynland are found:

    "Jan Thomas van der Wilt and Maritgen Pietersdr, his wife, with Thomas,
    Maritgen, Pieter, Cornelis, Grietge, Jannetge, and Ingethen, their

The portrait painted by Terburgh probably represents Andries de Graeff,
who, in 1672, is called by Wagenaar, in his _Vaderlandsche Hist._ of that
year (p. 82.), late burgomaster of Amsterdam. It is then necessary to
ascertain whether this late burgomaster died in 1674. The family de Graeff
also resided at Delft, where several of its members became magistrates.


The portrait of the old gentleman is, in my opinion, doubtless that of
Andries de Graeff, who was elected burgomaster of Amsterdam in 1660, and
filled the office several times afterwards, although after the year 1670
his name no more appears on the list of burgomasters, which can very well
agree with the date of death (1674) on the portrait.--From the



_The Words "Mob" and "Cash"_ (Vol. viii., pp. 386. 524.).--CLERICUS
RUSTICUS will find the origin and first introduction of the word _mob_
fully stated in Trench's _Lectures on the Study of Words_ (p. 124. fourth
ed.). In addition to the quotations there made, CLERICUS RUSTICUS may refer
to Dryden's preface to _Cleomenes_ (1692), to the 230th number of _The
Tatler_, written by Swift (an. 1710), and to the Dean's _Introduction to
Polite Conversation_.

_Cash._--What Lord Holland may have meant by a legitimate English word it
is hard to say. Dr. Johnson derives it from the Fr. _caisse_ (or _casse_),
which Cotgrave interprets "a box, a _case_, {574} or chest; also, a
merchant's _cash_ or counter." Todd confirms the correctness of Johnson's
etymology by a usage in Winwood's _Memorials_; where the Countess of
Shrewsbury is said to have 20,000l. in her _cash_. And Richardson farther
confirms it by a quotation from Sir W. Temple; and one from Sherwood, who
explains _cashier_, "Qui garde le _casse_ de l'argent de merchand;" and a
merchant's _cash_, "_casse_ de merchand."



_English Clergyman in Spain_ (Vol. viii., p. 410.).--The clergyman was
perhaps attached to the army of England in Spain, in the capacity of
chaplain. I recommend a search for the record of his licence, which will
very probably recite his appointment; and this record is most likely to be
found with the proper officer of the diocese of London, in Doctors'
Commons. I have seen one extraordinary discovery of information of the kind
now sought by D. Y., in this quarter; and D. Y. will probably be so kind as
to note his success in "N. & Q.," if he obtains his information here or


_The Cid_ (Vol. viii., p. 367.).--I find in the catalogue of my library,
the greatest part of which was destroyed by fire in 1849, amongst other
books relating to _The Cid_, the following:

    "Romancero, e Historia del muy valeroso Cavallero el Cid Ruy Diaz de
    Bivar, en lenguaje antiguo, recopilado por Juan de Escobar. En esta
    ultima impression van añadidos muchos romances, que hasta aora no han
    sido impressos, ni divulgados, 12mo. con licençia. En Pamplona, por
    Martin de Zavala, año 1706."

    "Romancero e Historia del mui valeroso Cabellero el Cid Rui-diaz de
    Vibar, en lenguage antiguo, recopilado por Juan de Escobar, neuva
    edicion, reformada sobre las antiguas, añadida e illustrada con varias
    notas y composiciones del mismo tiempo y asunto para su mas facil
    intelligencia, y adornada con un epitome de la Historia verdadera del
    Cid. Por D. Vicente Gonçales del Reguero. 12mo. con licencia, Madrid,
    Imprenta de Cano, 1818."

In Thorpe's _Catalogue_, 1841, No. 1355, is an edition, 12mo., Segovia,


_Exterior Stoups_ (Vol. v., p. 560.; Vol. vi., pp. 18. 86. 160. 345. 497.
591., &c.).--Having introduced this subject to "N. & Q.," you will perhaps
allow me to return to it, by adding to the list of churches where exterior
stoups may be seen, the names of Leigh and Shrawley, Worcestershire. A
recent visit to these places made me aware of the existence of the stoups.
That at Leigh is in a shattered condition, and is on the south side of the
western doorway: it is now covered in by a porch of later date. That at
Shrawley is on the eastern side of the south door, and is hollowed out
within the top of a short column. Shrawley Church possesses many points of
interest for the antiquary: among which may be mentioned, a Norman window
pierced through one of the buttresses of the chancel. Among the noticeable
things at Leigh Church is a rude sculpture of the Saviour placed exteriorly
over the north door of the nave, in a recess, with semicircular heading and
Norman pillars. The rector is gradually restoring this fine church.


_Green Jugs used by the Templars_ (Vol. viii., p. 171.)--In clearing out
the ground for the foundation of Raymond Buildings in Gray's Inn, about
thirty years since, two earthen green jugs were dug up, which are preserved
by the benchers as a memento of "the olden times."

They will hold very little more than half a pint of liquor, are tall and of
good proportions, but so small at the top as almost to preclude their being
used to drink out of, and having a lip it is surmised that they held the
portion assigned to each student, who was also supplied with a drinking

I have seen a jug of the same description in the possession of a gentleman
in Lincoln's Inn, which he informed me was brought to light in excavating
for the new hall. It is therefore probable that all the inns of court were
accustomed to provide jugs of the same description.


_"Peccavi," I have Scinde_ (Vol. viii, p. 490.).--Your correspondent MR. G.
LLOYD, who says he does "not know on what authority" it is stated that "the
old and lamented warrior, Sir Charles Napier, wrote on the conquest of
Scinde, _Peccavi_!" is informed that the sole author of the despatch was
_Mr. Punch_.


In a note touching these well-known words, MR. G. LLOYD says, "It is also
stated, I do not know on what authority, that the old and lamented warrior,
Sir Charles Napier, wrote on the conquest of Scinde, _Peccavi_!" The author
of _Democritus in London, with the Mad Pranks and Comical Conceits of
Motley and Robin Good-Fellow_, thus alludes to this saying in that work. I
presume he had good authority for so doing:

  _Sir P_.   "What exclaim'd the gallant Napier,
          Proudly flourishing his rapier!
          To the army and the navy,
          When he conquer'd Scinde?   '_Peccavi!_'"


_Raffaelle's Sposalizio_ (Vol. vii., p. 595.; Vol. viii., p. 61.).--The
reason why the ring is placed on {575} the third finger of the right hand
of the Blessed Virgin in Raffaelle's "Sposalizio" at Milan, and in
Ghirlandais's frescoe of the same subject in the Santa Croce at Florence,
is to be found in the fact that the right hand has always been considered
the hand of power or dignity, and the left hand of inferiority or
subjection. A married woman always wears her ring on the third finger of
the left hand to signify her subjection to her husband. But it has been
customary among artists to represent the Blessed Virgin with the ring on
the right hand, to signify her superiority to St. Joseph from her
surpassing dignity of Mother of God. Still she is not always represented
so, for in Beato Angelico's painting of the marriage of Mary and Joseph she
receives the ring on her left hand. See woodcut in Mrs. Jameson's _Legends
of Madonna_, p. 170. In the Marriage of the Blessed Virgin by Vanloo, in
the Louvre, she also receives the ring on the left hand. Giotto, Taddeo
Gaddi, Perugino, &c., have painted the "Sposalizio," but I have not copies
by me to refer to.


_Early Use of Tin._--_Derivation of the Name of Britain_ (Vol. viii., pp.
290. 344. 445.).--Your correspondent G. W. having been unable to inform DR.
HINCKS who first suggested the derivation of _Britannia_ from _Baratanac_
or _Bratanac_, I have the pleasure to satisfy him on this point by
referring him to Bochart's _Geographia Sacra_, lib. I. c. xxxix. In that
great storehouse of historical information, the Memoirs of the Academy of
Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, there are some profound researches by
Melot and others, in which may be found answers to all the Queries proposed
by G. W.

The islands, rivers, mountains, cities, and remarkable places of Phoenician
colonies, had even in the time of the habitation of the Greeks and Romans
Phoenician names, which, according to the spirit of the ancient languages
of the East, indicated clearly the properties of the places which bore
those names. See instances in Bochart, _ubi supra_; Sammes's _Britannia
Antiqua Illustrata, or the Antiquities of Ancient Britain derived from the
Phoenicians_; and D'Hancarville's Preface to Hamilton's _Etruscan, &c.


_Unpublished Epigram by Sir Walter Scott_ (Vol. vii., pp. 498. 576.).--The
following extract is from the _Gentleman's Magazine_, March, 1824, p. 194.:

    "Mr. J. Lawrence of Somers Town observes: 'In the summer of the year
    1770 I was on a visit at Beaumont Hall on the coast of Essex, a few
    miles distant from Harwich. It was then the residence of Mr. Canham....
    I was invited to ascend the attics in order to read some lines,
    imprinted by a cowboy of precocious intellect. I found these in
    handsome, neatly executed letters, printed and burnished with
    leaf-gold, on the wall of his sleeping-room. They were really golden
    verses, and may well be styled Pythagorean from their point, to wit:

 'Earth goes upon the earth, glittering like gold;
  Earth goes to the earth sooner than 'twould;
  Earth built upon the earth castles and towers;
  Earth said to the Earth, All shall be ours.'

    The curiosity of these lines so forcibly impressed them on my memory,
    that time has not been able to efface a tittle of them. _But from what
    source did the boy obtain them?_"

Permit me to repeat this Query?

J. R. M., M.A.

_Derivation of the Word "Humbug"_ (Vol. viii. _passim_).--Not being
satisfied with any of the derivations of this word hitherto proposed in
your pages, I beg to suggest that perhaps it may be traced to a famous
dancing master who flourished about the time when the word first came into
use. The following advertisement appeared in the _Dublin Freeman's Journal_
in Jan. 1777:

    "_To the Nobility._

    "As Monsieur Humbog does not intend for the future teaching abroad
    after 4 o'clock, he, at the request of his scholars, has opened an
    academy for young ladies of fashion to practise minuets and cotillions.
    He had his first assembly on Friday last, and intends continuing them
    every Friday during the winter. He does not admit any gentlemen, and
    his number of ladies is limited to 32; and as Mrs. Humbog is very
    conversant in the business of the Toilet Table, the ladies may depend
    on being properly accommodated. Mr. Humbog having been solicited by
    several gentlemen, he intends likewise to open an academy for them, and
    begs that those who chuse to become subscribers will be so good as to
    send him their addresses, that he may have the honour of waiting upon
    them to inform them of his terms and days. Mr. Humbog has an afternoon
    school three times a week for little ladies and gentlemen not exceeding
    14 years of age. Terms of his school are one guinea per month and one
    guinea entrance. Any ladies who are desirous of knowing the terms of
    his academy may be informed by appointing Mr. Humbog to wait upon them,
    which he will do on the shortest notice. Capel St. 21 Jan. 1777."


_Bees_ (Vol. viii., p. 440.).--In the midland counties the first migration
of the season is _a swarm_, the second _a cast_, and the third _a spindle_.


_Topsy Turvy_ (Vol. viii., p. 385.).--I have always understood this to be a
corruption of "Topside t'other way," and I still think so.


_Parish Clerks and Politics_ (Vol. viii., p. 56.).--In the excitement
prevalent at the trial of Queen Caroline, I remember a choir, in a village
not a hundred miles from Wallingford, Berks, singing {576} with great gusto
the 1st, 4th, 11th, and 12th verses of 35th Psalm in Tate and Brady's New


_Phantom Bells--"The Death Bell"_ (Vol. vii. passim).--I have never met, in
any work on folk-lore and popular superstitions, any mention of that
unearthly bell, whose sound is borne on the death-wind, and heralds his
doom to the hearer. Mickle alludes to it in his fine ballad of "Cumnor

 "The _death-belle_ thrice was heard to ring,
    An aerial voice was heard to calle,
  And thrice the raven flapp'd its wing,
    Arounde the towers of Cumnor Halle."

And Rogers, in his lines "To an Old Oak:"

 "There once the steel-clad knight reclined,
    His sable plumage tempest-tossed:
  And as the _death-bell_ smote the wind,
  From towers long fled by human kind,
    His brow the hero crossed."

When ships go down at sea during a terrible tempest, it is said the
"death-bell" is often distinctly heard amid the storm-wind. And in tales of
what is called Gothic superstition, it assists in the terrors of the

Sir W. Scott perhaps alluded to the superstition in the lines:

 "And the kelpie _rang_,
  And the sea-maid sang
    The dirge of lovely Rosabelle."


_Porter Family_ (Vol. viii., p. 364.).--Full particulars of the existing
branch of this ancient family can be afforded by the Rev. Malcom Macdonald
of South End, Essex, chaplain to Lady Tamar Sharpe, the aunt and guardian
of the representatives of Sir R. K. Porter.

M. H. J.

Thavies Inn.

_The Mitred Abbot in Wroughton Church, Wilts_ (Vol. viii., p. 411.).--The
figure was painted in fresco, not on a pillar, but on the spandril-space
between two arches. The vestments, as far as I can make out, are an alb, a
tunicle and a cope, and mitre. The hands do not appear to hold anything,
and I see nothing to show it to represent a mitred abbot rather than a
bishop. The colours of the cope and tunicle were red and green, the
exterior of the cope and the tunicle being of one colour, the interior of
the cope of the other. The figure was the only perfect one when I visited
the church, and the rain was washing it out even as I sketched; but there
had been one between every two arches, and there were traces of colour
throughout the aisle, and the designs appeared to me unusually elegant. I
believe my slight sketch to be all that now remains; and shall be glad to
send a copy of it to your correspondent if he wishes for it, and will
signify how I may convey it to him.

_Passage in Virgil_ (Vol. viii., p. 270.).--Is this the passage referred to
by Doctor Johnson?

 "Nunc scio, quid sit Amor: duris in cotibus illum
  Aut Tmarus, aut Rhodope, aut extremi Garamantes,
  Nec generis nostri puerum, nec sanguinis, edunt."
                  Virgil: _Bucolica_, Ecl. viii. l. 43.

"The shepherd in Virgil grew at last acquainted with Love, and found him a
native of the rocks." Dr. Johnson found his reward not in vain
solicitations to patrons, but in the fruits of his literary labours.

The famous lines in Spenser's "Colin Clout's come home again,"[3] on the
instability and hollowness of patronage, may occur to the reader:

 "Full little knowest thou, that hast not tride,
  What hell it is in suing long to bide:
  To lose good days that might be better spent,
  To waste long nights in pensive discontent.
  To speed to-day, to be put back to-morrow,
  To feed on hope, to pine with fear and sorrow.
  To fret thy soul with crosses and with cares;
  To eat thy heart through comfortless despaires," &c.


[Footnote 3: In Mother Hubberd's Tale.--ED.]

_Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, Chief Justice_ (Vol. viii., pp. 158. 276.).--In
"A Letter to a Convocation Man," which was recently edited by a frequent
contributor to your pages, the REV. W. FRASER, B.C.L., and is favourably
mentioned by you, I find the following sentence, declaring that Sir Anthony
Fitzherbert _was_ Chief Justice:

    "I must admit that it is said in the second part of Rolle's
    _Abridgment_, that the Archbishop of Canterbury was prohibited to hold
    such assemblies by Fitzherbert, Chief Justice, because he had not the
    King's licence. But he adds that the Archbishop would not obey it; and
    he quotes Speed for it."--P. 38. of original pamphlet, and p. 36. of
    Mr. Fraser's reprint.

MR. FRASER merely refers to Sir Anthony Fitzherbert as being made judge of
the Common Pleas in 1523, and does not enter into this question, which
deserves investigation.

M. W. R.

"_To put a _spoke_ in his wheel_" (Vol. viii., pp. 269. 351.).--W. C.'s
answer to G. K.'s inquiry is so very facetious, that I must confess I do
not understand it.

As to the meaning of the expression, I think there can be no doubt.
Ainsworth interpreted "Scrupulum injecisti mihi, spem meam remoratus es."

In Dutch, "Een spaak in t'wiel steeken," is "To traverse, thwart, or cross
a design." See Sewel's _Woordenboek_.

The effect is similar to that of _spiking_ cannon. And it is not improbable
that _spoke_, known by the {577} ignorant to form part of the wheel, has
been by them corrupted from _spike_: and that the act is, driving a _spike_
into the nave, so as to prevent the wheel from turning on its axle.



_Ballina Castle_ (Vol. viii., p. 411.).--O. L. R. G. inquires about Ballina
Castle, Castlebar, and of the general history, descriptions, &c. of the co.
Mayo. In the catalogue of my manuscript collections, prefixed to my _Annals
of Boyle, or Early History of Ireland_ (upwards of 200 volumes), No. 37.
purports to be "one volume 8vo., containing full compilations of records
and events connected with the county of Mayo, with reference to the
authorities," and it has special notices of Castlebar, Cong, Burrishoole,
Kilgarvey, Lough Conn, &c., and notes of scenery and statistics. I offered
in the year 1847 to publish a history of the county if I was indemnified,
but I did not succeed in my application. I have, of course, very full
notices of the records, &c. of Ballina, and the other leading localities of
that interesting but too long neglected county, which I would gladly draw
out and assign, as I would any other of my manuscript compilations, to any
literary gentleman who would propose to prepare them for publication, or
otherwise extract and report from them as may be sought.


48. Summer Hill, Dublin.

_Mardle_ (Vol. viii., p. 411.).--This is the correct spelling as fixed by
Halliwell. I should propose to derive it from A.-S. _mathelian_, to speak,
discourse, harangue; or A.-S. _methel_, discourse, speech, conversation.
(Bosworth.) Forby gives this word only with the meaning "a large pond;" a
sense confined to Suffolk. But his vocabulary of East Anglia is especially
defective in East Norfolk words--an imperfection arising from his residence
in the extreme west of that county.

E. G. R.

_Charles Diodati_ (Vol. viii., p. 295.).--MR. SINGER mentions that Dr.
Fellowes and others have confounded Carlo Dati, Milton's Florentine friend,
with Charles Diodati, a schoolfellow (St. Paul's, London) to whom he
addresses an Italian sonnet and two Latin poems. Charles Diodati practised
physic in Cheshire; died 1638. Was this young friend of Milton's a relative
of Giovanni Diodati, who translated the Bible into Italian; born at Lucca
about 1589; became a Protestant; died at Geneva, 1649?

MA. L.

_Longevity_ (Vol. viii., p. 442.).--MR. MURDOCH'S Query relative to
Margaret Patten reminds me of a print exhibited in the Dublin Exhibition,
which bore the following inscription:

    "Mary Gore, born at Cottonwith in Yorkshire, A.D. 1582; lived upwards
    of one hundred years in Ireland, and died in Dublin, aged 145 years.
    This print was done from a picture _taken_ (the word is torn off) when
    she was an hundred and forty-three. Vanluych _pinxit_, T. Chambers


_"Now the fierce bear," &c._ (Vol. viii., p 440.).--The lines respecting
which [Greek: th.] requests information are from Mr. Keble's _Christian
Year_, in the poem for Monday in Whitsun Week. They are, however,
misquoted, and should run thus

 "Now the fierce bear and leopard keen
  Are perish'd as they ne'er had been,
    Oblivion is their home."

G. R. M.

       *       *       *       *       *



As long as poetry of the highest order is appreciated in England, Gray's
_Elegy written in a Country Churchyard_ will never want readers to pore
over its beauties, or artists ready to dedicate their talents to its
illustration. Of the latter fact we have evidence in a new edition just
issued by Mr. Cundall, which is illustrated on every page with engravings
on wood from drawings by Birkett Foster, George Thomas, and a Lady. The
artists have caught the spirit of the poet, and their fanciful creations
have been transferred to the wood with the greatest delicacy by the
engravers,--the result being a most tasteful little volume, which must take
a foremost rank among the gift-books of the coming Christmas.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Smiths's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, by
various Writers_, Part VIII., which extends from the conclusion of the
admirable article on _Etruria_ to _Germania_, and includes _Gallia
Cisalpina_ and _Transalpina_, which scarcely required the initials (G. L.)
to point out the accomplished scholar by whom they are written.--Darlings
_Cyclopædia Bibliographica_: Parts XIV. and XV. extend from _O. M.
Mitchell_ to _Platina or De Sacchi_. The value of this analytical,
bibliographical, and biographical Library Manual will not be fully
appreciable until the work is completed.--_The National Miscellany_, Vol.
I. The first Volume of this magazine of General Literature is just issued
in a handsome form, suitable to the typographical excellence for which this
well-directed and well-conducted miscellany is remarkable.--_Remains of
Pagan Saxondom, principally from Tumuli in England_, Part VIII.: containing
Bronze Bucket, found at Cuddesden, Oxfordshire; and Fibula, found near
Billesdon, Leicestershire. We would suggest to Mr. Akerman that the Bronze
Bucket is scarcely an example of an object of archæological interest, which
requires to be drawn of the size of the original, and coloured from it: and
that the value of his useful work would be increased by his adhering to his
original arrangement, by which the illustrative letter-press appeared in
the same part with the engraving to which it referred.

       *       *       *       *       *



Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the
gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are
given for that purpose:



BROWNE HIST. NAT. JAMAICÆ. Lond. 1756. Folio.



ANNALS OF PHILOSOPHY for January, 1824.


UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE for January, 1763.




  Wanted by _Mr. H. T. Bobart_, Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE BIBLE in Shorthand, according to the method of Mr. James Weston, whose
Shorthand Prayer Book was published in the Year 1730. A Copy of Addy's
Copperplate Shorthand Bible, London, 1687, would be given in exchange.

  Wanted by _Rev. Richard Gibbings_, Falcarragh, Letterkenny, Co. Donegal.

       *       *       *       *       *



  Wanted by _Mr. J. Phillips_, Stamford.

       *       *       *       *       *


NICHOLS' LITERARY ANECDOTES, and the Continuation.

  Wanted by _F. Dinsdale_, Leamington.

       *       *       *       *       *


JONES'S (of Nayland) SERMONS, by Walker. 2 Vols. 8vo.

PLAIN SERMONS. 10 Vols. 8vo.




  Wanted by _Simms & Son_, Booksellers, Bath.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Wanted by _James Dearden_, Upton House, Poole.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Wanted by _Rev. John James Avington_, Hungerford.

       *       *       *       *       *

(with the Postscript), by George Miller, D.D., F.T.C.D. Dublin, 1804.

A [First] LETTER TO THE REV DR. PUSEY, in reference to his Letter to the
Lord Bishop of Oxford, by George Miller, D.D. London, 1840.

  Wanted by _Rev. B. H. Blacker_, 11. Pembroke Road, Dublin.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

W. H. M. W. _The Heralds' visitation for Wiltshire in 1622 will be found in
the British Museum, Harl. MSS. 1165 and 1443. See too Sims's_ Indexes to
Pedigrees, _&c._

RALPHO'S _communication should have been addressed to the writer, quoting
the lines on which he comments_.

GAMMER GURTON'S _suggestion is a very good one; and we can promise that our
Christmas Eve Number shall be rich in_ FOLK LORE.

G. S. M., _who desires information respecting the history of Newspapers,
their progress and statistics, is referred to F. K. Hunt's_ Fourth Estate,
a Contribution towards a History of Newspapers and of the Liberty of the
Press, _2 vols. 8vo., London, 1850. Several articles on the subject will be
found in our own columns_.

_If_ F. S. A. _applied to the proper authorities, we cannot doubt that the
information he received is true_.

J. W. N. K. _We have referred the descriptions of the pictures to one of
the very highest authorities in London, who is of opinion that if the marks
on the back_ are genuine, _they are the marks of the owner, not of the

J. T. _The volume_ Remarques de Pierre Motteux sur Rabelais _is no doubt a
translation of the notes which Motteux inserted in the English version, of
which the first three books were translated by Urquhart, the other two by
himself. This translation has, we think, been reprinted by Bohn_.

J. W. T. _The monastic work inquired after is noticed by another
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Dr. Diamond on the simplicity of the Calotype Process _is, on account of
its length from the many additions made to it, unavoidably postponed until
next week_.

T. L. (Islington). _The ingredients referred to are all used by Le Gray,
the originator of the waxed-paper process. They are supposed not only to
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qualities. We have no doubt that a letter addressed to the College of
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D. G. (Liverpool). _It would be not only difficult but more expensive to
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F. H. D. _Albumenized paper will keep many days after it has been excited
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and Turner's papers twenty days old, and with perfectly satisfactory
results. The thin Canson is of all others most disposed to brown; but it is
preferable to all others in use from the richness of the tints produced and
its rapidity of printing._

_Erratum._--Vol. viii, p. 546. l. 20. from bottom, for "burnishing" read

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XYLO-IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Photographic
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KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price of
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Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

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IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.-J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
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Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
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celebrated French, Italian, and English photographers, embracing Views of
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PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE CO'S Iodized Collection, for obtaining Instantaneous
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Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
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Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

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is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist,
from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment,
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New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

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Now ready, in 8vo., price 7s. 6d., a Second and enlarged Edition of

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Sepulchral Memorials of the English at Bruges.

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Pedigrees of Pycheford, of Pycheford, co. Salop, and of Pitchford, of Lee
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The Manor of Bampton, co. Oxford, and Family of Horde.

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Some Account of the Manor of Apuldrefield, in the Parish of Cudham, Kent,
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Petition to Parliament from the Borough of Wotton Basset, in the Reign of
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    "An acute speculator, a fair critic, and a lucid writer, and in
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    affording a perspicuous and impartial survey of the various modern
    systems of German Philosophy, at once comprehensive and compendious.
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Edinburgh: T. & T. CLARK.


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Now ready, Vols. III and IV. (price 28s. cloth) of

THE JUDGES OF ENGLAND and the Courts at Westminster. By EDWARD FOSS F.S.A.

Volume Three, 1272-1377.
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Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
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Fleet Street in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, December
10. 1853.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

page 562, "the Turkish, by Seaman": 'Leaman' in original, corrected by
errata in Issue 218.

page 568, "linea sine angulis": 'angulus' in original, corrected by errata
in Issue 218.

page 573, "the Abbey of Grâce Dieu, Leicestershire": 'Liecestershire' in

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