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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 216, December 17, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 216, December 17, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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generously made available by The Internet Library of Early

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *



"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 216.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page
  Teaching a Dog French, by Arthur Paget                       581
  The Religion of the Russians                                 582
  Leicestershire Epitaphs, by William Kelly                    582
  Longfellow's "Reaper and the Flowers"                        583

  MINOR NOTES:--"Receipt" or "Recipe"--Death of Philip III.
  of Spain--Churchwardens--Epigram--Oxford Commemoration Squib,
  1849--Professor Macgillivray--Manifesto of the Emperor
  Nicholas                                                     583

  William Cookworthy, the Inventor of British Porcelain,
  by J. Prideaux                                               585
  Catholic Floral Directories, &c.                             585
  George Alsop                                                 585

  MINOR QUERIES:--B. L. M.--Member of Parliament electing
  himself--"Suaviter in modo, fortiter in re"--Jacobite Garters
  --Daughters taking their Mothers' Names--General Fraser--A
  Punning Divine--Contango--Pedigree to the Time of Alfred--
  "Service is no inheritance"--Antiquity of Fire-irons--
  General Wolfe at Nantwich--"Corporations have no Souls,"
  &c.--Leeming Family--MS. Poems and Songs--Bishop Watson      585

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Herbert's "Memoirs of the Last
  Years of Charles I."--"Liturgy of the Ancients"--"Ancient
  hallowed Dee"--Who was True Blue?--Charge of Plagiarism
  against Paley--Weber's "Cecilia"--Andrew Johnson--MS. by
  Glover--Gurney's Short-hand--Spurious Don Quixote            587


  Pronunciation of Hebrew Names and Words in the Bible, by
  T. J. Buckton, &c.                                           590
  Lord Halifax and Mrs. Catherine Barton, by Weld Taylor       590
  Inscriptions in Books                                        591
  Praying to the West                                          592
  "Green Eyes," by C. Forbes, &c.                              592
  The Myrtle Bee, by W. R. D. Salmon                           593
  Tin                                                          593
  Milton's Widow                                               594
  Books chained to Desks in Churches--Old Parochial Libraries  595
  The Court-house, by P. H. Fisher                             596

  PHOTOGRAPHY.--On the Simplicity of the Calotype Process,
  by Dr. Diamond                                               596

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Belike--Stage-coaches--Birthplace
  of King Edward V.--Ringing Church Bells at Death--What is
  the Origin of "Getting into a Scrape?"--High Dutch and Low
  Dutch--Discovery of Planets--Gloves at Fairs--Awk--Tenet--
  Lovett of Astwell--Irish Rhymes--Passage in Boerhaave--
  Unkid--To split Paper--La Fleur des Saints--Dr. Butler and
  St. Edmund's Bury, &c.                                       600

  Notes on Books, &c.                                          606
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 607
  Notices to Correspondents                                    607
  Advertisements                                               608

       *       *       *       *       *



"N. & Q." the other day (Vol. viii., p. 464.) contained a curious tale of a
cat: will you insert as a pendent the following one of a dog? The
supposition that D. Julio was some obnoxious Frenchman protected by the
Government, seems necessary to account for the "teachyng a dogg frenche" in
front of his door constituting such a dire offence. His name occurs, if I
remember rightly, in Dr. Dee's _Diary_ (Cam. Soc.), but I have not the book
at hand to refer to. Perhaps some of your correspondents may inform me who
he was. The original is in the Lansdowne MS. (114. No. 8.) in the British
Museum; and the fact of its being amongst Lord Burleigh's papers shows that
the occurrence took place between 1571 and 1598, the respective dates of
his appointment as "l tresurer" and his death.


       *       *       *       *       *

"_D. Julio's Abstract of the Deposicons of ye witnesses sworne touching ye
speches of John Paget_.

        "To proue that one William (sic) Paget, on the V^{th} day of this
        present moneth, being Friday, betwixt VIII and IX of the clocke at
        nyght, went vp and down teachyng a dogg frenche.

    "1. M^{ris} Karter, a jentilwoman borne, sayeth, that about the same
    tym, she did hear the said Paget, that he wold teache his dogg to speak

    "2. M^{ris} Anne Coot, a jentilwoman, affirmeth the same.

    "3. One William Poyser, yeoman, sayeth, that he harde Paget saye that
    he wold make his dogg speake as good frenche as any of them.

    "4. James Hudson sayeth, that standing at his maisters doore he did
    hear Paget speake to his dogg in a straunge language, but what language
    he knew not.

    "5. Edward, a grosser, is to be deposed that he harde Paget say, I will
    teache my dogg to speake frenche, and was talking with his dogg in

        "To proue that the sayd Paget did say, Shortlye will come vnto the
        realme frenche dogges, I hope I shall see thame all rootted out.

    "1. M^{ris} Karter sayeth, she harde Paget say, Shortlie wil come vnto
    the realme frenche dogges, I hope I shall see thame all rootted out.


    "2. M^{ris} Anne Coot affirmeth the same.

    "3. William Poyser sayeth, he harde Paget say, Within this week or two,
    there will come a great many frenche dogges.

    "4. M^{ris} Eleonore Borgourneci vppon her othe affirmeth the same.

    "5. The l maior writteth in his l[=r]e to my l tresurer that Paget
    affirmeth before him that he wold the realme were ryd of all yll
    straungers, adding this qualification. [Qualification not given.]

        "To proue the great assembly that was with Paget, before D. Julio
        came home to his howse.

    "1. John Polton saieth, when his maister came home there was about a
    hundreth persone of men, women, and chyldren, vp and downe there.

    "2. James Hudson sayeth, that he thinketh there was about ^{XX}IIII
    people assembled in the streett before this examinat his maister came

    "3. Richard Preston sayeth, that there was in his iudgement aboue a
    hundred people in the streett before this deponets maister came home,
    and after his m^r came home the nomber of the people were greater.

        "To proue that the sayd Paget did resiste to the constable when he
        came to apprehend him.

    "1. William Poyser sayeth, when the constable came to apprehende the
    sayd Paget he kept the constable out with force, and sayd he should not
    enter on him.

    "2. James Hudson sayeth, Paget wold not suffer the constable to entere
    vnto his howse, but sayd if any man will entere vnto this howse, yf it
    were not f^r felony or treason to apprehend him, he wold kill hym, yf
    he could, f^r he sayd his howse was his castell.

    "3. Richard Preston sayeth, when the constable came to apprehende
    Pagett, he hauing a bill or halberd in his hand, did keape him out of
    his howse, and sayd, he showld not enter except it were f^r felonye or
    treason, or that he brought my l maiors warrant."

       *       *       *       *       *


Public attention being very particularly directed towards the Russian
nation at the present time, a few remarks regarding some peculiarities in
their manner of worship, &c., which probably are not generally known, may
be interesting.

I have been for some time past endeavouring to determine the exact nature
of the homage the Russians pay to the "gods"--whether they should be called
_images_ or _pictures_? and whether the Russians should be considered
idolaters or not?

Whenever a Russian passes a church, his custom is to cross himself (some do
so three times, accompanying it with bowing). In every room in their houses
an image (or picture) is placed in the east corner, before which they
uncover their heads and cross themselves on entering.

Their churches are filled with these their representatives of the deity,
and it is very curious to observe a devout Russian kissing the toe of one,
crossing himself before another, while to another he will in addition
prostrate himself, even with his head to the ground; this latter is also
very frequently done at intervals during the celebration of their services:
but their churches are always open, so that if any one wants to pay
devotion to a particular image (or picture) while no service is going on,
he can do so.

I understand that they consider they worship the deity through these
representations. In the present day these gods are called _obraaz_, of
which the literal translation is _image_. The old Sclavonic word for them
is _eekona_, which was formerly in general use, and has exactly the same
meaning, answering to the Greek word [Greek: eikôn]. As far as I can make
out, neither of these words can be translated _picture_; but I do not
remember to have found this point touched upon in any books I I have read
on Russia or its religion; and hope, if any correspondent is able to give
us farther information on the subject, he will do so.

The Russians also believe in relics, in their efficacy in healing diseases,
working other miracles, &c. Notwithstanding this, a very short time ago, a
new relic was found in the south of Russia, and a courier being immediately
despatched with it to the Emperor at St. Petersburg; on his arrival, his
Imperial Majesty (expecting some important news regarding his operations in
the neighbourhood of Turkey), when told his errand, exclaimed, "Away with
the relic! it is time to put an end to such nonsense." Would that this were
to be carried out! But their superstitions seem too deeply rooted to be
done away with in a short time.

J. S. A.

       *       *       *       *       *


Having seen only one epitaph from this county among those which have
appeared in "N. & Q.," I annex a few specimens, which you may perhaps deem
worth inserting in your pages.


 "These pretty babes, who we did love,
  Departed from us like a dove;
  These babes, who we did much adore,
  Is gone, and cannot come no more."


 "My days on earth they were but few,
  With fever draughts and cordials few,
  They wasted like the morning dew."


 "All triumph yesterday, to-day all terror!
  Nay, the fair morning overcast ere even:
  Nay, one short hour saw well and dead, War's mirror
  Having Death's swift stroke unperceived given."



 "An honest, prudent wife was she;
  And was always inclin'd
  A tender mother for to be,
  And to her neighbours kind."

Belgrave. This I quote from memory; it may not be verbally, but it is
substantially correct:

 "Laurance Stetly slumbers here;
  He lived on earth near forty year;
  October's eight-and-twentieth day
  His soul forsook its house of clay,
  And thro' the pure ether took its way.
  We hope his soul doth rest in heaven.

Newtown Linford, adjoining Bradgate Park. In this churchyard is a tombstone
on which is engraved only the letters of the alphabet and the simple
numerals. The story goes, that he who lies below, an illiterate inhabitant
of the village in the last century, whose name, I believe, is now
forgotten, being very anxious that, after death, a tombstone should be
erected to perpetuate his memory, and being fearful that his relatives
might neglect to do so, came to Leicester to purchase one himself. Seeing
this stone in the mason's workshop (where it was used by the workmen as a
pattern for the letters and figures), he bought it "a bargain," supposing
it would serve his purpose as well as a new one, and after his decease it
was placed at the head of his grave, where it now appears.

All Saints' churchyard, Leicester. On two children of John Bracebridge, who
were both named John, and died infants:

 "Both John and John soon lost their lives,
  And yet, by God, John still survives."

Throsby (_Hist. of Leic._) relates that Bishop Thurlow, at one of his
visitations, had the words _by God_ altered to _thro' God_.



       *       *       *       *       *


On looking over, a short time ago, a book of German songs, I was much
struck by the similarity of thought, and even sometimes of expression,
between the above piece from Mr. Longfellow's _Voices of the Night_, and a
song by Luise Reichardt, a few verses of which I subjoin; as perhaps the
song may not be known to some of your correspondents.

    "It is a favourite theme," as Sir W. Scott says, "of laborious dulness
    to trace such coincidences, because they appear to reduce genius of the
    higher order to the usual standard of humanity, and of course to bring
    the author nearer to a level with his critics."

It is not, however, with the view of detracting from the originality of Mr.
Longfellow, that these two small pieces are put side by side; for possibly
the song alluded to was never seen by our transatlantic neighbour, but
merely for the purpose of showing how the poets treat the same, and
certainly not very novel subject.

        (Von Luise Reichartdt.)
 "Es ist ein Schnitter, der heisst Tod,
  Der hat Gestalt vom höchsten Gott.
  Heut' wetzt er das Messer,
  Es schneid't schon viel besser,
  Bald wird er drein schneiden,
  Wir müssen's nur leiden.
    Hüte dich, schön's Blümelein!

 "Was heut' noch grün und frisch dasteht,
  Wird morgen schon hinweg gemäht;
  Die edlen Narzissen,
  Die Zierden der Wiesen
  Die schön' Nyagnithen,
  Die turkischen Binden.
    Hüte dich, schön's Blümelein!

 "Viel hundert tausend ungezählt,
  Was nur unter die Sichel fällt:
  Ihr Rosen, ihr Lilien,
  Euch wird er austilgen,
  Auch die Kaiserkronen
  Wird er nicht verschonen,
    Hüte dich, schön's Blümelein!

 "Trotz, Tod! Komm her, ich fürcht' dich nicht!
  Trotz, eil daher in einem Schnitt!
  Werd' ich nur verletzet,
  So werd' ich versetzet,
  In den himmlischen Garten,
  Auf den wir alle warten,
    Freue dich, schön's Blümelein!"

J. C. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_"Receipt" or "Recipe."_--In one of Mr. Ryle's popular tracts, "_Do you
pray?_" Wertheim and Mackintosh: London, 1853, occurs the following
expression, p. 18.:

    "What is the best _receipt_ for happiness?"

Is the use of "receipt" for "recipe" to be admitted into the English

W. E.

_Death of Philip III. of Spain._--D'Israeli, in his _Curiosities of
literature_, states to the effect that this kings fatal illness was induced
by the overheating of a brazier, whereof state etiquette forbad the removal
until the person in regular attendance should arrive. For this statement he
quotes no authority, and consequently MR. BOLTON CORNEY, in his
_Illustrations of the Curiosities of Literature_ (2nd ed., p. 87.),
discredits the story.

It is singular that MR. CORNEY should have forgotten that the anecdote is
given by the Maréchal {584} de Bassompierre, who was at Madrid at the time
of the king's death; the Maréchal's informant was the Marquis de Pobar,
_who was present at the scene_. Is not this sufficient? (See _Mémoires de
Bassompierre_, under the date of 11th of March, 1621, vol. i. p. 548. of
the edition of Cologne, 1665.)

C. V.

_Churchwardens._--In an old scrap-book in my possession, I met with the
following, which, should you deem it of sufficient interest, I shall be
glad to see inserted in "N. & Q." The print appears to be about sixty or
seventy years old, and evidently from a newspaper:

    "The institution of churchwardens is of remote antiquity, they having
    been first appointed at the African Council, held under Celestine and
    Boniface, about the year of our Lord 423. These officers have at
    different periods been distinguished by different appellations,
    _Defensores_, _Oeconomi_, and _Præpositi Ecclesiæ_, _Testes Synodales_,
    &c. In the time of Edward III. they were called Church Reves, as we
    read in Chaucer:

     'Of church reves, and of testamentes,
      Of contractes, and of lacke of sacramentes.'

    At this day they are called Churchwardens; all those names being
    expressive of the nature of the office, which is to guard, preserve,
    and superintend the rights, revenues, buildings, and furniture of the
    church. In an old churchwarden's book of accounts, belonging to the
    parish of Farringdon, in the county of Berks, and bearing date A.D.
    1518, there is the form of admitting churchwardens into their office at
    that period, in the following words: 'Cherchye Wardenys, thys shall be
    your charge: to be true to God and to the cherche: for love nor for
    favor off no man wythin thys parriche to withold any ryght to the
    cherche; but to resseve the dettys to hyt belongythe, or else to go to
    the devell.'"

Your readers will observe that the last is a very summary kind of sentence.
Any farther information relating to the institution of churchwardens[1]
will be esteemed by


[Footnote 1: On the institution of churchwardens consult Burn's
_Ecclesiastical Law_, tit. Churchwardens; and the works noticed in "N. &
Q.," Vol. vii., p. 359.]

_Epigram._--In an old book I found this epigram, published in 1660, more
suitable perhaps for your columns during the excitement of the Papal
aggression than now:

                 "ON ROME.
 "Hate and debate Rome through the world hath spread,
  Yet Roma, amor is, if backward read;
  Then is it strange, Rome hate should foster? no,
  For out of backward love, all hate doth grow."



_Oxford Commemoration Squib_, 1849.--The following _jeu d'esprit_ was
circulated in Oxford at the Commemoration in 1849; it created a great
sensation at the time, from its clever allusion to the political changes on
the other side of the channel, and, I think, deserves to be rescued from
oblivion by a place in the columns of "N. & Q.:"


     "Citizen Academicians,

    "The cry of Reform has been too long unheard. Our infatuated rulers
    refused to listen to it. The term of their tyranny is at length
    accomplished. The Vice-Chancellor has fled on horseback. The Proctors
    have resigned their usurped authority. The Scouts have fraternised with
    the friends of liberty. The University is no more. A Republican Lyceum
    will henceforth diffuse light and civilisation. The hebdomadal board is
    abolished. The Legislative Powers will be entrusted to a General
    Convention of the whole Lyceum. A Provisional Government has been
    established. The undersigned citizens have nobly devoted themselves to
    the task of administration.

      (Signed) "Citizen CLOUGH (_President of the Executive Council_).
                  BOSSOM (_Operative_).
                  JOHN CONINGTON.

Your academical readers will appreciate the signatures.


_Professor Macgillivray._--The mention by W. (Vol. viii., p. 467.) of this
lamented naturalist's posthumous work, descriptive of the _Natural History
of Balmoral_, and of its intended publication by Prince Albert, induces me
to hope that you will give insertion to the following extract from
Professor Macgillivray's _History of the Molluscous Animals of
Aberdeenshire_, &c., as showing the character of the man, and the spirit in
which he prosecuted his researches.

    "The labour required for such an investigation cannot be at all
    appreciated by those who have not directed their energies towards such
    an object. The rocky coasts and sandy beaches of the sea, the valleys
    and hills of the interior, the pastures, mossy banks, thickets, woods,
    rocks, ruins, walls, ditches, pools, canals, rills, and rivers, were
    all to be assiduously searched. No collections of mollusca made in the
    district were known to me, nor do any of our libraries contain the
    works necessary to be consulted, although that of King's College
    supplies some of great value. In a situation so remote from the great
    centres of civilisation, the solution of doubts is often difficult of
    attainment, and there is always a risk of describing as new what may
    already have been entered into the long catalogue of known objects. But
    the pleasure of continually adding to one's knowledge, the sympathy of
    friends, the invigorating influence of the many ramblings required, the
    delight of aiding others in the same pursuits, and many other
    circumstances, amply suffice to carry one through greater difficulties
    than those alluded to, even should the sneers of the {585}
    ignorantly-wise, or the frowns of the pompously-grave, be directed
    toward the unconscious wight, who, immersed in mud, gropes with the
    keenness of a money-gatherer, for the to them insignificant objects,
    which have exercised the wisdom and the providence of the glorious
    Creator."--Preface, p. 10.


_Manifesto of the Emperor Nicholas._--Some of the newspapers, having stated
that the concluding Latin words in this manifesto--"Domine in te speravi,
ne confundar in eternum"--are from the Psalms, I beg to say that these
words are not taken from the Scriptures of either Testament, nor from the
Apocrypha; but constitute the last verse of the "Te Deum," commencing, "We
acknowledge thee to be the Lord," and ending, "O Lord, in thee have I
trusted, let me never be confounded." It is usual to sing "Te Deum" after
victories, but Nicholas begins his song _before_ he achieves one: taking
the _last_ verse _first_.



       *       *       *       *       *



In endeavouring to revive the neglected memory of this good and great man,
I have carefully looked over the chief periodicals of his day (1730 to
1780) with very little success; perhaps because those I have at command,
the _Gentleman's Magazine_, _Universal Magazine_, and _Universal Museum_,
were not those selected for his correspondence.

If any of your readers can refer me to any papers or essays of his, or any
details of the internal management of his China works, or of his public or
private life, it will be doing me a great favour.

What I have hitherto collected are chiefly fragmentary accounts of his life
and character; general notices of his discovery of the China clay and
stone, of the progress of his manufactory, and of his treatment of British
cobalt ores; details of his experiments on the distillation of sea-water
for use on ship-board; a treatise in detail on the divining rod; and
several of his private letters, chiefly religious.

Most of these I have thrown out in print, under the title of _Relics of
William Cookworthy, &c._, which I am desirous of making much more complete.


       *       *       *       *       *


More than a year ago (Vol. vi., p. 503.) I made a Query respecting Catholic
Floral Directories, and two works in particular which were largely quoted
in Mr. Oakley's _Catholic Florist_, Lond. 1851; and I again alluded to them
in Vol. vii., p. 402., but have not got any reply. The two works referred
to, viz. the _Anthologia Borealis et Australis_, and the _Florilegium
Sanctorum Aspirationum_, are not to be heard of anywhere (so far as I can
see) save in Mr. Oakley's book. During the last year I have ransacked all
the bibliographical authorities I could lay hold of, and made every inquiry
after these mysterious volumes, but all in vain.

The orthography and style of the passages cited are of a motley kind, and
most of them read like modern compositions, though here and there we have a
quaint simile and a piece of antique spelling. In fact they seem more like
imitations than anything else; and I cannot resist the temptation of
placing them on the same shelf with McPherson's _Ossian_ and the poems of
Rowley. In some places a French version of the _Florilegium_ is quoted:
even if that escaped one's researches, is it likely that two old English
books (which these purport to be), of such a remarkable kind, should be
unknown to all our bibliographers, and to the readers of "N. & Q.," among
whom may be found the chief librarians and bibliographers in the three
kingdoms. Is it not strange also that Mr. Oakley and his "compiler" decline
giving any information respecting these books?

I shall feel extremely obliged to any correspondent who will clear up this
matter, and who will furnish me with a list of Catholic Floral Directories.


       *       *       *       *       *


George Alsop was ordained deacon 1666-67, priest 1669, by Henry King,
Bishop of Chichester. He printed in 1669--

    "An Orthodox Plea for the Sanctuary of God, Common Service, and White
    Robe of the House. Printed for the Author, and sold by R. Reynolds, at
    the Sun and Bible in the Postern."

It is a small 8vo. of eighty-six pages, exclusive of the dedication to the
Bishop of Chichester, and an Epistle to the Reader, and has a portrait of
the author by W. Sherwin.

Can any of your readers give me any account of this George Alsop, his
preferment, if any, and the time of his death?

He is, I feel persuaded, a different person from the author of _A Character
of Maryland_, 12mo., 1666.

P. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_B. L. M._--What is the meaning of the abbreviation B. L. M. in Italian
epistolary correspondence? I have reason to believe that it is used {586}
where some degree of acquaintance exists, but not in addressing an entire
stranger. In a correspondence now before me, one of the writers, an Italian
gentleman, uses it in the subscription to _every one_ of his letters,
_except the first_, thus:

 "Ho l'honore d' essere col piu profondo rispetto B. L. M.
                          Il di Lei Umiliss. Dev. Servo."

 "Frattanto la prego di volermi credere nella piu ampla estentione del
     termine B. L. M.
                          Il di Lei Ubb^o. ed Obligato Servitore."

I need not add more examples. There is nothing in Graglia's _Collection of
Italian Letters_ that explains it.

J. W. T.


_Member of Parliament electing himself._--In the biographical notices of
the author of an _Inquiry into the Rise and Growth of the Royal Prerogative
in England_, 1849, I find the following curious circumstances:

    "The writ for election (of a member for the county of Bute) was
    transmitted to the sheriff, Mr. McLeod Bannatine, afterwards Lord
    Bannatine. He named the day, and issued his precept for the election.
    When the day of election arrived, Mr. Bannatine was the only freeholder
    present. As freeholder he voted himself chairman of the meeting; as
    sheriff he produced the writ and receipt for election, read the writ
    and the oaths against bribery at elections; as sheriff he administered
    the oaths of supremacy, &c., to himself as chairman; he signed the
    oaths as chairman and as sheriff; as chairman he named the clerk to the
    meeting, and called over the roll of freeholders; he proposed the
    candidate and declared him elected; he dictated and signed the minutes
    of election; as sheriff he made an indenture of election between
    himself as sheriff and himself as chairman, and transmitted it to the
    crown office."

Can any of your correspondents furnish me with a similar case?

H. M.


"_Suaviter in modo, fortiter in re._"--This rule is strongly recommended by
Lord Chesterfield in one of his letters, as "unexceptionably useful and
necessary in every part of life." Whence is it taken, and who is its

J. W. T.


_Jacobite Garters._--Can any of your readers inform me of the origin of the
"rebel garters," a pair of which I possess, and which have been carefully
handed down with other Stuart relics by my Jacobin fathers?

They are about 4 feet long, and 1¼ inch deep, of silk woven in the loom;
the pattern consists of a stripe of red, yellow, and blue, once repeated,
and arranged so that the two blue lines meet in the centre. At each end,
for about six or seven inches, and at spaces set at regular intervals,
these lines of colour are crossed, so as to form a check or tartan; the
spaces corresponding with the words in the following inscription, and one
word being allotted to each space:

    "_Come lett us with one heart agree_"

and it is continued on the other:

    "_To pray that God may bless P. C._"

The tartan, however, does not appear to be the "Royal Stuart."

Probably they were distributed to the friends and adherents of poor Prince
Charles Edward, to commemorate some special event in his ill-fated career.
But it would be interesting to know if many of them remain, and, if
possible, their correct history.

E. L. I.

_Daughters taking their Mothers' Names._--Can any of your readers favour me
with any instances, about the time of the first, second, and third Edwards,
of a daughter adding to her own name that of the mother, as Alicia,
daughter of Ada, &c.


_General Fraser._--Have there been any _Life_ or _Memoirs_ ever published
of General Fraser, who fell in Burgoyne's most disastrous campaign? If any
such exist I should be glad to know of them.



_A Punning Divine._--Wanted the whereabouts of the following sentence,
which is said to be taken from a volume of sermons published during the
reign of James I.:

    "This _dial_ shows that we must _die all_; yet notwithstanding, _all
    houses_ are turned into _ale houses_; our _cares_ into _cates_; our
    _paradise_ into a _pair o' dice_; _matrimony_ into a _matter of money_,
    and _marriage_ into a _merry age_; our _divines_ have become _dry
    vines_; it was not so in the days of _Noah_,--O no!"

W. W.


_Contango._--A technical term in use among the sharebrokers of Liverpool,
and I presume elsewhere, signifying a sum of money paid for accommodating
either a buyer or seller by carrying the engagement to pay money or deliver
shares over to the next account-day. Can your correspondents say from
whence derived?


_Pedigree to the Time of Alfred._--Wapshott, a blacksmith in Chertsey,
holds lands held by his ancestors temp. Alfred (McCulloch's _Highlands_,
vol. iv. p. 410.). Can this statement be confirmed in 1853?

A. C.

"_Service is no inheritance._"--Will you or any of your readers have the
goodness to inform me {587} what is the origin of the adage occurring twice
in the _Waverley Novels_, thus:

    "Service, I wot, is no inheritance now-a-days; some are wiser than
    other some," &c. (See _Peveril of the Peak_, chap. xiv.)


    "Ay, St. Ronan's, that is a' very true,--but service is nae
    inheritance, and as for friendship it begins at hame."--_St. Ronan's
    Well_, chap. x.

I have seen a stone in an old building in the north of Scotland, with the
following inscription, cut in letters of an ancient form: "Be gude in
office, or (or perhaps 'for,' part of the stone being here broken off)
servitude is no inheritance to none." And I am curious to know the origin
of this proverb, so similar to that put by Sir Walter Scott in the mouths
of two of his homely characters; the one English and the other Scotch. An
answer will very much oblige

G. M. T.


_Antiquity of Fire-irons._--In an old book, published 1660, I met with the
following couplet:

 "The burnt child dreads the fire; if this be true,
  Who first invented tongs its fury knew."

Query, When were fire-irons first used?


_General Wolfe at Nantwich._--I observe in the pamphlet entitled
_Historical Facts connected with Nantwich and its Neighbourhood_, lately
referred to in "N. & Q.," it is stated that according to local tradition
General Wolfe, the hero of Quebec, may in his boyhood have lived in the Yew
Tree House, near Stoke Hall. Now as this brave warrior was a native of
Kent, it is scarcely probable he would have been a visitor at the house
alluded to, unless he had relatives who resided there. Is he known to have
had any family connexion in that quarter, since the fact of his having had
such, if established, would tend to confirm the traditionary statement
respecting his domicile at the Yew Tree House?

T. P. L.


_"Corporations have no Souls," &c._--It was once remarked that public
corporations, companies, &c. do harsh things compared with what individuals
can venture to do, the fact being that they have neither noses to be pulled
nor souls to be saved; you have no hold upon them either in this world or
the next.


_Leeming Family._--A member of the Society of Friends, named Thomas
Leeming, lived at or near Wighton in the Wolds, in the East Riding of
Yorkshire, between the years 1660 and 1670. What were the dates of his
birth and death? what were the names of his parents, his brothers, and his
children? did any of them leave their native country? and how would a
letter from the inquirer reach a descendant of the family, who could
furnish farther information on the subject? An answer to the whole or part
of the above Queries will much oblige the undersigned.


_MS. Poems and Songs._--In the third volume of MR. PAYNE COLLIER'S
invaluable _History Of English Dramatic Poetry_, p. 275., it is stated,--

    "Mr. Thorpe, of Bedford Street, is in possession of a MS. full of songs
    and poems, in the handwriting of a person of the name of Richard
    Jackson, all copied prior to the year 1631, and including many
    unpublished pieces by a variety of celebrated poets."

Can any of the contributors to "N. & Q." oblige P. C. S. S. by informing
him where this MS. now exists, and whether the whole, or any portion of it,
has been published?

P. C. S. S.

_Bishop Watson._--In a lecture delivered by this bishop at Cambridge, he
gave the following quotation:

 "Scire ubi aliquid invenire posses, ea demum maxima pars eruditionis est."

Will any of your readers inform me whence the passage is taken?


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Herbert's "Memoirs of the Last Years of Charles I."_--Can any of your
correspondents inform me under what title and at what date Sir Thomas
Herbert's _Narrative of the Last Years of Charles I._ was published? I have
at present in my possession what appears to be the original MS., and am
desirous of comparing it with the printed copy. The MS. bears the title of
_Carolina Threnodia: a Plain and very Particular Narrative of what happened
in the Last Years of King Charles the First_, by Sir Thomas Herbert, an eye
and ear witness. Its opening pages contain a reference to other letters on
the same subject of an earlier date (May 1 and 13, 1678). Were these
letters ever published, under what title, and when?

J. B.


    [This work has already been incidentally noticed in our Second Volume,
    pp. 140. 220. and 476.; and in Vol. iii., p. 157. Two editions of
    Herbert's Memoirs have been published; the first in 1702, and the
    second in 1813. The edition of 1702 is the best, as it contains an
    "Advertisement to the Reader," and several documents omitted in the
    edition published by G. and W. Nicol of Pall Mall in 1813. The
    following is the title to it:--

    "Memoirs of the Two last Years of the Reign of that unparallel'd
    Prince, of ever-blessed Memory, King Charles I. By Sir Tho. Herbert,
    Major Huntington, {588} Col. Edw. Coke, and Mr. Hen. Firebrace. With
    the Character of that Blessed Martyr, by the Reverend Mr. John Diodati,
    Mr. Alexander Henderson, and the Author of the _Princely Pelican_. To
    which is added, the Death-Bed Repentance of Mr. Lenthal, Speaker of the
    Long Parliament; extracted out of a Letter written from Oxford, Sept.
    1662. London: printed for Robert Clavell, at the Peacock, at the
    West-end of St. Paul's, 1702,"

    The "Advertisement to the Reader" states that, "there having been of
    late years several Memoirs printed and published relating to the life
    and actions of the Royal Martyr, King Charles I., of ever-blessed
    memory, it was judged a proper and seasonable time to publish Sir
    Thomas Herbert's _Carolina Threnodia_, under the title of his
    _Memoirs_, there being contained in this book the most material
    passages of the two last years of the life of that excellent and
    unparallel'd prince, which were carefully observ'd and related by the
    author in a large answer of a letter wrote to him by Sir William
    Dugdale. In the same book is printed Major Huntington's relation made
    to Sir William of sundry particulars relating to the King; as also
    Colonel Edw. Coke's and Mr. Henry Firebrace's narratives of several
    memorable passages observed by them during their attendance on him at
    Newport, in the Isle of Wight, anno '48. All these were copied from a
    MS. of the Right Reverend the Bishop of Ely, lately deceased; and, as I
    am credibly informed, a copy of the several originals is now to be seen
    amongst the Dugdale MSS. in Oxford library. To these Memoirs are added
    two or three small tracts, which give some account of the affairs of
    those times, of the character of K. Charles I., and of his just claim
    and title to his _Divine Meditations_. These having been printed anno
    1646, 48, 49, and very scarce and difficult to procure, were thought
    fit to be reprinted for publick service. As to the letter which gives
    an account of Mr. Lenthal's carriage and behaviour on his death-bed, it
    was printed anno 1662, and the truth of it attested by the learned Dr.
    Dickenson, now living in St. Martin's Lane.... This I thought fit to
    advertise the reader of, by way of introduction, that he might be
    satisfied of the genuineness of the respective pieces, and thereby be
    encouraged to peruse them with confidence and assurance."]

"_Liturgy of the Ancients._"--Who was the author of a thin 4to. book
entitled _The Liturgy of the Ancients represented, as near as may be, in
English Forms, &c._, "London, printed for the Authour, 1696." He added to
it "A Proposal of a compleat work of Charity."



    [Edward Stephens is the author of this Liturgy, who describes himself
    as "late of Cherington, co. Gloucester, sometime barrister-at-law of
    the Hon. Society of the Middle Temple, and since engaged, by a very
    special Divine Providence, in the most sacred employment." He farther
    informs us, that "when it pleased God to discharge him from the civil
    service, his first business in public was a gentle and tacit admonition
    of the neglect of the most solemn and peculiar Christian worship of God
    in this nation; accompanied by such public acts in the very heart of
    the chief city, as made it a most remarkable witness and testimony
    against them who would not receive it, but rejected the counsel and
    favour of God towards them." Stephens's Liturgy has been republished by
    the Rev. Peter Hall, in his _Fragmenta Liturgica_, vol. ii., who thus
    notices the author:--"Stephens was the leader of a class by no means
    contemptible, though himself as odd a mixture of gravity and
    scurrility, learning and trifling, pietism that could stoop to
    anything, and liberalism that stuck at nothing, as English theology
    affords." Some account of Edward Stephens will be found in Leslie's
    _Letter concerning the New Separation_, 1719; and in _An Answer to a
    Letter from the Rev. C. Leslie, concerning what he calls the New
    Separation_, 1719. Stephens advocated the practice of daily communion.]

"_Ancient hallowed Dee._"--What is the historical, traditional, or
legendary allusion in this epithet, bestowed by Milton on the river Dee?

J. W. T.


    [Dee's divinity was Druidical. From the same superstition, some rivers
    in Wales are still held to have the gift or virtue of prophecy.
    Giraldus Cambrensis, who wrote in 1188, is the first who mentions Dee's
    sanctity from the popular traditions. In Spenser, this river is the
    haunt of magicians:

       "Dee, which Britons long ygone
      Did call DIVINE."

    And Browne, in his _Britannia's Pastorals_, book ii. § 5., says,

     "Never more let HOLY Dee,
        Ore other rivers brave," &c.

    Much superstition was founded on the circumstance of its being the
    ancient boundary between England and Wales; and Drayton, in his tenth
    Song, having recited this part of its history, adds, that by changing
    its fords it foretold good or evil, war or peace, dearth or plenty, to
    either country. He then introduces the Dee, over which King Edgar had
    been rowed by eight kings, relating to the story of Brutus. See more on
    this subject in Warton's note to line 55. in Milton's _Lycidas_:

    "Now yet where Deva spreads her wizard stream."

_Who was True Blue?_--In the churchyard of Little Brickhill, Bucks, is a
table monument bearing the following inscriptions:

    "Here lieth y^e body of _True Blue_, who departed this life January y^e
    17th, 1724-5, aged 57. Also y^e body of Eleanor, y^e wife of _True
    Blue_, who departed this life January 21st, 1722-3, ageed (sic) 59."

Who was "True Blue?" If it were not for his wife Eleanor, one would take
him to be some kin to "Eclipse" or "Highflyer." Lysons makes no mention of
such a person; nor, I am assured by a friend who has made the search for
me, does Lipscomb; although another friend referred me there under the
conviction that he was not only named, but that his history was given. The
kind {589} of tombstone is sufficient to show that he was a person of some
property, and yet he has not only no "Esq." affixed to his name, but it is
without the prefix "Mr." One can scarcely doubt that the name is not a real
one. Browns, Blacks, Whites, and Greens there are in abundance, but nobody
ever heard of a "Blue;" nor, so far as I know, did anybody ever christen
his child "True." Yet what could have been the incidents of a life that
required the fiction to be carried even to the grave?


    [The foregoing monumental inscription is given in Lipscomb's _Bucks_,
    vol. iv. p. 76., to which is subjoined the following note:--"The
    singularity of this name has occasioned much curiosity; but no
    information can be obtained besides that of _True Blue_ having been a
    stranger, who settled here, and acquired some property, which after his
    decease was disposed of. It has been conjectured that he lived here
    under a feigned name. One Hercules True, about 1645, kept a house at
    Windsor, to which deer-stealers were accustomed to resort; and he
    uttered violent threats against a person, whose son, having been killed
    in attempting to resist the deer-stealers in the Great Park, Thomas
    Shemonds prosecuted the murderers, and True declared he would knock his
    brains out, and is believed to have afterwards absconded."]

_Charge of Plagiarism against Paley._--Has any reply been made to the
accusation against Paley, brought forward some years ago in _The Athenæum_?
It was stated (and apparently proved) that his _Natural Theology_ was
merely a translation of a Dutch work, the name of whose author has escaped
my recollection. I suppose the archdeacon would have defended this shameful
plagiarism on his favourite principle of expediency. It seems to me,
however, that it is high time that either the accusation be refuted, or the
culprit consigned to that contempt as a man which he deserved as a


    [We have frequently had to complain of the loose manner in which
    Queries are sometimes submitted to our readers for solution. Here is a
    specimen. The communication above involves two other Queries, which
    should have been settled before it had been forwarded to us, namely, 1.
    In what volume of the _Athenæum_ is the accusation against Paley made?
    and, 2. What is the title of the Dutch work supposed to be pirated?
    After pulling down six volumes of the _Athenæum_, we discovered that
    the charge against Paley appeared at p. 803. of the one for the year
    1848, and that the work said to be pirated was written by Dr. Bernard
    Nieuwentyt of Holland, and published at Amsterdam about the year 1700.
    It was translated into English, under the title of _The Religious
    Philosopher_, 3 vols. 8vo., 1718-19. The charge against Paley has been
    ably and satisfactorily discussed in the same volume of the _Athenæum_
    (see pp. 907. 933.), and at the present time we have neither "ample
    room nor verge enough" to re-open the discussion in our pages.]

_Weber's_ "_Cecilia._"--Can you inform me whether a work by Gottfried
Weber, entitled _Cecilia_, is to be had in English or in French? I find it
constantly referred to in the said Weber's work on the _Theory of Musical
Composition_, and in Müller's _Physiology_.

For any information you can give me on the subject I shall feel much



    [_Cæcilia_ is a musical art journal published in Germany, and is thus
    noticed at page 12. of Warner's edition of Godfrey Weber's _Theory of
    Musical Composition_:--"Since 1824 we have been laid under great
    obligations to our distinguished mathematician and writer on acoustics,
    Professor _W._ Weber, for most interesting developments on all these
    points, which he has arranged into an article in the journal _Cæcilia_,
    vol. xii., expressly for musicians and musical instrument

_Andrew Johnson._--In the character of Samuel Johnson, as drawn by Murphy,
there is the remark, "Like his uncle Andrew in the ring at Smithfield,
Johnson, in a circle of disputants, was determined neither to be thrown or
conquered." Other allusions are made, in Boswell's _Life_, to this uncle
having "kept the ring," but I cannot find out who he could have been. There
was a noted bruiser, Tom Johnson; but certainly he was not the person in
question. I shall be glad if any of your readers can inform me who this
"Uncle Andrew" was, and what authority there is for believing that he was a
pugilistic champion of note.


    [In the _Variorum Boswell_, i. e. Croker's ed., 1847, p. 198., PUGILLUS
    will find a note by the editor, stating that Dr. Johnson told Mrs.
    Piozzi that his uncle Andrew "for a whole year kept the ring at
    Smithfield, where they wrestled and boxed, and never was thrown or

_MS. by Glover._--Can MR. BOLTON CORNEY, or MR. R. SIMS, inform me whether
the Lansdowne MS. 205. is in Glover's handwriting?

H. M.

    [This volume (Lansdowne, 205.) contains twenty-six articles in
    different hands. Art. 3. contains _pedigrees by Glover in his own
    hand_. See MS. Harl. 807., and an autograph letter in MS. Cot., Titus
    B. vii. fol. 14.]

_Gurney's Short-hand._--Can any of your correspondents inform me if there
have been any alterations in this system of short-hand since 1802? Also, if
it be now much used?



    [This well-known system of short-hand is certainly still in use,--in
    fact, is that employed at the present time by the Gurneys, who are the
    appointed short-hand writers to the Houses of Lords and Commons.]


_Spurious Don Quixote._--What English and French versions are there of the
spurious continuation of _Don Quixote_ by Avellaneda?


    [A notice of the English translations is given in Lowndes's _Bib.
    Man._, vol. i. p. 374., art. Cervantes. Consult also Ebert's _Bibl.
    Dict._, vol. i. p. 299., for the French translations.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. viii., p. 469.)

Your correspondent does not, of course, inquire what is the proper Hebrew
pronunciation of the several _letters_, but rather what is the accented
syllable in each word. To pronounce in a manner nearly approaching to the
Hebrew might make the congregation stare, but would appear very pedantic to
a learned ear. The safest mode is to examine the Greek of the Septuagint,
or of the New Testament (if the reader does not understand Hebrew), and
observe the place of the acute accent. On that place, if it be on the
penultimate or antepenultimate, the accent should be laid in English. But
if the accent be on the last syllable, though it is strictly right to place
it there also in English, it is not worth while to do so, for fear of
making hearers talk about a strange sound, instead of attending to the
service. It will be safer to accent the penultimate in dissyllables, and
the antepenultimate in trisyllables, which in the Greek are acutitones; in
fact, to pronounce, as all clergymen used to pronounce, until a pedantic
and ignorant practice arose of lengthening, or rather accenting, every
syllable in the penultimate, which had or was supposed to have a long
quantity in Greek. Hence the comparatively new habit of pronouncing [Greek:
Sabaôth], [Greek: Zaboulôn], [Greek: sabachthani], [Greek: Akeldama], with
a strong accent on the penultima; whereas the old-fashioned way of
accenting the antepenultima makes no one stare, and is a much nearer
approach to the true pronunciation. There is a curious inconsistency in the
common way of reading, in English, [Greek: Samareia] and [Greek:
Kaisareia]. Samar[=i]a is decidedly a Greek word; but yet, in this word, it
is usual to accent the antepenultima. Cesar[)e]a is decidedly a Latin word
Græcised, and yet it is usual to read this with an accent on the penultima.
I never observed any of those who read Sabáoth, Zabúlon, and sabachtháni,
read either Samaría or Cesárea. The Greek accents on Hebrew words always
accord, as Hebraists know, with the tonic accent in that language.

E. C. H.

As a contribution to the desirable object of settling the pronunciation of
the words mentioned, the following representation of their pronunciation in
the originals is offered. The vowels are to be read as in Italian, the _th_
as in English, and the _hh_ as _ch_ in German:

    Hebrew. Sabaoth = ts[)i]-v[=a]-['=o]th.

    Hebrew. [The] Moriah = [h[)a]m-]m['=o]-r[=i]-y['=a]h.

    Syriac. Aceldama = hh[)i]-k[')a]l-d[)i]-m['=a].

    Syro-Chaldee. Eli Eli lamma sabachthani = [=e]-l['=i] [=e]l['=i]
    l[)a]m-m['=a] s[)a]-b[')a]hh-t[)a]-n['=i], as in Matthew; or
    [)e]-l['=o]-h[=i], as in Mark.

    Chaldee. Abednego = [)a]-véd n[)i]-g['=o].

The _conventional_ pronunciation given by Walker is perhaps best adapted to
English ears, which would be quite repulsed by an attempt to restore the
ancient pronunciation of such familiar words, for instance, as Jacob,
Isaac, Job, and Jeremiah.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 429. 543.)

One has some doubt, in reading PROFESSOR DE MORGAN'S article on the above
subject, what inference is to be drawn from it. If it is to prove a private
marriage between Halifax and Mrs. Barton, on the strength of the date on
the watch at the Royal Society being falsified, it is a failure. I have
examined that watch since PROFESSOR DE MORGAN published his Note, and can
testify most decidedly that, if anything, the inscription is older than the
case, nor is there a vestige of anything like unfair alteration; and any
one accustomed to engraving would arrive at the same conclusion. The
outside case is beautifully chased in Louis Quatorze style: but the inner
case, on which the inscription is graven, has no need of such elaborate
work, nor is such work ever introduced on the inside of watches; they are
invariably smooth.

And all that is noticeable in the present instance is, that the writing has
lost the sharpness of the graver by use, or returning it into its case; or
more probably the case has not been used at all, being cumbersome and set
aside as a curious work of art, which indeed it is.

The date on the watch is 1708, and PROFESSOR DE MORGAN states that Mrs.
Barton was married in 1718; the watch therefore denies this; but when she
married Conduit ought, if possible, to be found out by register, which
might prove the watch date untrue; but the watch declares she was Mrs.
Conduit in 1708. She was then of course twenty-eight years of age: thus we
come to a {591} plainer conclusion that when she lived with Halifax, or
whatever other arrangement they made, a position which is said to have
occurred between 1700 and the time of Halifax's death in 1715, she was
really Mrs. Conduit, and not Catherine Barton. And thus we are brought to
think that if there is any private marriage in the case, it is between the
lady and Mr. Conduit; at all events she went back to her husband, if the
watch is true.

As to an apology for Newton, I look upon it in a very different light:
first, I should say he had no clear right to interfere in the matter, as
the lady was married; and supposing he had, he could have done no more than
expostulate. He lived in a world of his own studies, and did not choose to
be interrupted by quarrels and scandals. And it is certainly a proper
addition to say, that the public morals of that age are not to be judged by
the present standard. All these account very well for Newton's silence on
the subject; but to settle the matter, some search might be made in the
registers of the parishes where they resided, in order that the subject may
be fully explained.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii. pp. 64. 153. 472.)

In the famous _Rouen Missal_, called St. Guthlac's book, is the following
inscription in the handwriting of Robert, Bishop of London, and afterwards
Archbishop of Canterbury, who was formerly head of the monastery of
Jumièges, to which the book belonged, and where, in 1053, he died:

    "Quem si quis vi vel dolo seu quoquo modo isti loco subtraxerit, animæ
    suæ propter quod fecerit detrimentum patiatur, atque de libro viventium
    deleatur, et cum justis non scribatur."

John Grollier had on all his books inscribed:

    "Portio mea, domine, sit in terra viventium;"

and underneath:

    "Io. Grollierii et Amicorum."

Henry de Rantzan wrote a decree for his library, of which here is the
fulminatory clause:

 "Libros partem ne aliquam abstulerit,
  Extraxerit, clepserit, rapserit,
  Concerpserit, corruperit,
                  Dolo malo,
  Illico maledictus,
  Perpetuo execrabilis,
  Semper detestabilis,
                  Esto, maneto."

See Dibdin's bibliographical works.

J. S.


The two following are copied from the _originals_ written in the fly-leaf
of Brathwayte's _Panedone, or Health from Helicon_, pub. 1621, in my

 "Whose book I am if you would know,
  In letters two I will you show:
  The first is J, the most of might,
  The next is M, in all men's sight;
  Join these two letters discreetly,
  And you will know my name thereby.
                          JAS. MORREY."

 "Philip Morrey is my name,
  And with my pen I write the same;
  Tho' had such pen been somewhat better,
  I could have mended every letter."


On the fly-leaf of _Theophila, or Love's Sacrifice_, a divine poem by
E. B., Esq., London, 1652, I find the following rare morsel:

  Rector of St. Andrews, Droitwich.

 "Father Tinker, when you are dead,
  Great parts a long wir you are fled,
  O that they wor conferred on mee,
  Which would ad unto God's glory."

The subject of the above laudation flourished in the early part of the last

In a Geneva Bible, date 1596:

 "Thomas Haud: his booke:
  God giue him grace theare on to looke:
  And if my pen it had bin better,
  I would haue mend it euery letter.



_German Book Inscription._--You have not yet, I think, had a German
book-inscription: allow me to send you the following out of an old _Faust_,
bought last year at Antwerp:

   "Dieses Buch ist mir lieb,
    Wer es stielt ist ein Dieb;
  Mag er heissen Herr oder Knecht,
  Hängen ist sein verdientes Recht."

Underneath is the usual picture of the gallows-tree and its fruit.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 343. &c.)

The setting sun and the darkness of evening has been immemorially connected
with death, just as the rising orb and the light of morning with life. In
Sophocles (_Oedipus Rex_, 179.), Pluto is called [Greek: hesperos theos];
and the "Oxford translation" has the following note on the line:

    "In Lysia's Oration against Andocides is this passage: To expiate this
    pollution (the mutilation of the {592} Hermæ), the priestesses and
    priests _turning towards the setting sun, the dwelling of the infernal
    gods_, devoted with curses the sacrilegious wretch, and shook their
    purple robes, in the manner prescribed by that law, which has been
    transmitted from the earliest times."--Mitford, _History of Greece_,
    ch. xxii.

Liddell and Scott consider [Greek: Erebos] (the nether gloom) to be derived
from [Greek: erephô], to cover; akin to [Greek: eremnos], and probably also
to Hebrew _erev_ or _ereb_, our _eve_-ning; and mention as analogous the
Egyptian Amenti, _Hades_, from _ement_, the west. (Wilkinson's _Egyptians_,
ii. 2. 74.)

Turning to the East on solemn occasions is a practice more frequently
mentioned. There is an interesting note on the subject in the Translation
above quoted, at Oedipus Col., 477.,

    "[Greek: choas cheasthai stanta pros prôtên heô],"

and doubtless much more may be found in the commentators. The custom, as is
well known, found its way into the Christian Church.

    "The primitive Christians used to assemble on the steps of the basilica
    of St. Peter, to see the first rays of the rising sun, and kneel,
    curvatis cervicibus in honorem splendidi orbis. (S. Leo. Serm. VII. _De
    Nativ._) The practice was prohibited, as savouring of, or leading to,
    Gentilism. (Bernino, i. 45.)"--Southey's _Common-Place Book_, ii. 44.

    "The rule of Orientation, though prescribed in the Apostolic
    Constitutions, never obtained in Italy, where the churches are turned
    indiscriminately towards every quarter of the heaven."--_Quarterly
    Review_, vol. lxxv. p. 382.

In the Reformed Church in England the custom is _recognised_, as far as the
position of the material church goes. (See rubric at the beginning of the
Communion Service.) "The priest shall stand at the _north side_ of the
table;" but turning eastward at the Creeds has no sanction that I know of,
but usage. (Compare Wheatly _On the Common Prayer_, ch. ii. § 3., ch. iii.
§ 8.; and Williams, _The Cathedral_ ("Stanzas on the Cloisters"),

The _rationale_ of western paradise is given in the following extract, with
which I will conclude:

    "When the stream of mankind was flowing towards the West, it is no
    wonder that the weak reflux of positive information from that quarter
    should exhibit only the impulses of hope and superstition. Greece was
    nearly on the western verge of the world, as it was known to Homer; and
    it was natural for him to give wing to his imagination as he turned
    towards the dim prospects beyond.... All early writers in Greece
    believed in the existence of certain regions situated in the West
    beyond the bounds of their actual knowledge, and, as it appears, of too
    fugitive a nature ever to be fixed within the circle of authentic
    geography. Homer describes at the extremity of the ocean the Elysian
    plain, "where, under a serene sky, the favourites of Jove, exempt from
    the common lot of mortals, enjoy eternal felicity." Hesiod, in like
    manner, sets the Happy Isles, the abode of departed heroes, beyond the
    deep ocean. The Hesperia of the Greeks continually fled before them as
    their knowledge advanced, and they saw the terrestrial paradise still
    disappearing in the West."--Cooley's _History of Maritime Discov_.,
    vol. i. p. 25., quoted in Anthon's _Horace_.

A. A. D.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 407.)

In the edition of Longfellow's _Poetical Works_ published by Routledge,
1853, the note quoted by Mr. Temple ends thus:

    "Dante speaks of Beatrice's eyes as _emeralds_ (_Purgatorio_, xxxi.
    116.). Lami says, in his _Annotazioni_, 'Erano i suoi occhi d' un
    turchino verdiccio, simile a quel del mare.'"

More in favour of "green eyes" is to be found in one of Gifford's notes on
his translation of the thirteenth satire of _Juvenal_. The words in the
original are:

    "Cærula quis stupuit Germani lumina."--_Juv._ Sat. XIII. 164.

And Gifford's note is as follows:

    "Ver. 223 ... and _eyes of sapphire blue_?]--The people of the south
    seem to have regarded, as a phenomenon, those blue eyes, which with us
    are so common, and, indeed so characteristic of beauty, as to form an
    indispensable requisite of every Daphne of Grub Street. Tacitus,
    however, from whom Juvenal perhaps borrowed the expression, adds an
    epithet to _cærulean_, which makes the common interpretation doubtful.
    'The Germans,' he says (_De Mor. Ger._ 4.), 'have _truces et cærulei
    oculi_, fierce, lively blue eyes.' With us, this colour is always
    indicative of a soft, voluptuous languor. What, then, if we have
    hitherto mistaken the sense, and, instead of blue, should have said
    sea-green? This is not an uncommon colour, especially in the north. I
    have seen many Norwegian seamen with eyes of this hue, which were
    invariably quick, keen, and glancing.

    "Shakspeare, whom nothing escaped, has put an admirable description of
    them into the mouth of Juliet's nurse:

     'O he's a lovely man! An eagle, madam,
      Hath not so _green_, so quick, so fair an eye,
      As Paris hath.'

    "Steevens, who had some glimpse of the meaning of this word, refers to
    an apposite passage in _The Two Noble Kinsmen_. It is in Æmilia's
    address to Diana:

     '  .    .    .    .    .    .  Oh vouchsafe
      With that thy rare _green eye_, which never yet
      Beheld things maculate,' &c.

    "It is, indeed, not a little singular, that this expression should have
    occasioned any difficulty to his commentators; since it occurs in most
    of our old poets; {593} and Drummond of Hawthornden uses it
    perpetually. One instance of it may be given:

     'When Nature now had wonderfully wrought
      All Auristella's parts, except her eyes:
      To make those twins, two lamps in beauty's skies,
      The counsel of the starry synod sought.
      Mars and Apollo first did her advise,
      To wrap in colours _black_ those comets bright,
      That Love him so might soberly disguise,
      And, unperceived, wound at every sight!
      Chaste Phoeebe spake for purest _azure_ dyes;
      But Jove and Venus _green_ about the light,
      To frame, thought best, as bringing most delight,
      That to pined hearts hope might for aye arise.
      Nature, all said, a paradise of _green_
      Placed there, to make all love which have them seen.'"
            Gifford's _Translation of Juvenal and Persius_,
              3rd edition, 1817.

Gifford's quotation from _Romeo and Juliet_ (errors excepted) is to be
found in Act III. Sc. 5.



    "Isabelle était un peu plus âgée que Ferdinand. Elle était petite, mais
    bien faite. Ses cheveux, au moins très blonds, _ses yeux verts et
    pleins de feu_, son teint un peu olivâtre, ne l'empêchaient pas d'avoir
    un visage imposant et agréable. (_Révolutions d'Espagne_, tom. iv. liv.
    viii.; Mariana, _Hist. d'Espagne_, tom. ii. liv. xxv.; _Hist. de
    Ferdinand et d'Isabelle_, par M. l'Abbé Mignot, &c.)"--Florian,
    Gonzalve de Cordoue, _Précis Historique sur les Maures d'Espagne_,
    quatrième époque, note _i_.

E. J. M.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 173. 450.)

Allow me to thank C. BROWN for the reply he has sent to my inquiries on
this subject. I shall certainly avail myself with pleasure of the
permission he has given me to communicate with him by letter; but before
doing so, I hope you will allow me to address him this note through the
medium of your pages. The existence of the Myrtle Bee as a distinct species
has been denied by ornithologists, and as I think the question is more
likely to be set at rest by public than by private correspondence, I trust
C. BROWN will not consider that I am presuming too much on his kindness if
I ask him to send me farther information on the following points: What was
the exact size of the bird in question which he had in his hand? What was
its size compared with the Golden-crested Wren? Was it generally known in
the neighbourhood he mentions, and by whom was it known? By the common
people as well as others? From what source did he originally obtain the
appellation "Myrtle Bee," as applied to this bird? It has been suggested to
me that the bird seen by C. Brown may have been the Dartford Warbler
(_Sylvia provincialis_, Gmel.), wings short, tail elongated (this, if the
Myrtle Bee is the Dartford Warbler, would account for its "miniature
pheasant-like appearance"); a bird which, as we are informed in Yarrell's
_Hist. of British Birds_, 1839, vol. i. p. 311. _et seq._, haunts and
builds among the furze on commons; flies with short jerks; is very shy;
conceals itself on the least alarm; and creeps about from bush to bush.
This description would suit the Myrtle Bee. Not so the colour, which is
chiefly greyish-black and brown; whereas the bird seen by your
correspondent was "dusky light blue." Nor again does the description of the
Dartford Warbler, "lighting for a moment on the very point of the sprigs"
of furze (vid. Yarrell _ut sup._), coincide with the account of the bird
seen by C. BROWN, who "never saw one sitting or light on a branch of the
myrtle, but invariably flying from the base of one plant to that of
another." In conclusion I would venture to ask whether your correspondent's
memory may not have been treacherous respecting the colour of a bird which
he has not seen for twenty-five years, and whether he has ever seen the
Dartford Warbler on Chobham or the adjacent commons?


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 290. 344.).

The first mention I remember of the place from whence tin came, is in
Herodotus (lib. iii. c. 115.). He there says:

    "But concerning the extreme parts of Europe towards the west, I am not
    able to speak certainly. For I neither believe that a certain river is
    called Eridanus by the barbarians, which flows into a northern sea, and
    from which there is a report that the amber is wont to come, nor have I
    known (any) islands, being Cassiterides ([Greek: kassiteridas eousas]),
    from which the tin is wont to come to us. For, on the one hand, the
    very name Eridanus proves that it is Hellenic and not Barbaric, but
    formed by some poet; and on the other, I am not able, though paying
    much attention to this matter, to hear of any one that has been an
    eye-witness that a sea exists upon that side of Europe. But doubtless
    both the tin and the amber are wont to come from the extreme part of

[Greek: Kassiteros], according to Damm, is so called because it is more
ready to melt than other metals, i. e. [Greek: kausiteros], from [Greek:
kaiô], to burn; this derivation agrees with that given by MR. CROSSLEY of
tin, "from the Celtic tin, to melt readily;" and it receives some support
from Hesiod (_D. G._ 861.), where he speaks of the earth burning and
melting as tin or as iron, which is the hardest of metals.

But I own I doubt this derivation. First, {594} because it is quite clear
to my mind that Herodotus had no idea that it had a Greek derivation. He
assigns the Greek origin of the word Eridanus as a reason for disbelieving
the statement as to it; and had he known that Cassiteros had a like origin,
it cannot be doubted that he would have assigned the same reason as to it
likewise. Instead of which he resorts to the fact that he could not obtain
any authentic account of any sea on that side of Europe, as a proof that
the Cassiterides did not exist. In truth, his assertion as to the Greek
origin of the one, coupled with the reason that is added, seems almost, if
not quite, equivalent to a denial that the other had a Greek origin.
Secondly, it is in the highest degree improbable that these islands should
have received their name from the Greeks, as it is contrary to all
experience that a country should be named by persons ignorant of its
existence. The names of places are either given to them by those who
discover them, or the names by which they are called by their inhabitants
are adopted by others.

At the time Cæsar invaded this island, there was a people whom he calls
Cassi (_Cæs. de B. G._, lib. v. 21.), of whose prince Camden says, "from
the Cassii their prince, Cassivellaunus or Cassibelinus, first took his
name;" and he adds that "it seems very probable that Cassivellaunus denotes
as much as the Prince of the Cassii." (_Camd. Brit._, p. 278., edit. 1695.)
According to which the word would be compounded of _Cassi_ and _vellaunus_
or _belinus_; and this derivation is fortified by the word Cunobelinus,
which plainly is formed in a similar manner. Now there is a Celtic word,
_tir_ or _ter_ (from which _terra_ is derived), and the Welsh word _tir_
(which I have heard pronounced _teer_), all denoting land. If then this
word be added to Cassi, we have Cassiter, that is, the land of the Cassi,
Cassiland. And as we have England, Scotland, and Ireland, possibly the
ancient inhabitants may have called their country Cassiter; and as
_chalybs_, steel, was so called both by the Greeks and Romans from the
people that made it, so might tin be from the country where it was found.
My derivation is conjectural, no doubt, and as such I submit it with great
deference to the candid consideration of your readers.

Isaiah, who lived B.C. 758, mentions tin in i. 25.

Ezekiel, who lived B.C. 598, mentions tin xxii. 18. 20.; and xxvii. 12.,
speaking of Tyre, he says:

    "Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kinds of
    riches; with silver, iron, _tin_, and lead, they traded in thy fairs."

This passage clearly shows that, at the time spoken of by Ezekiel, the
trade in tin was carried on by the inhabitants of Tarshish, whether that
place designates Carthage, or Tartessus in Spain, or not; and there can be
little doubt that they brought the tin from England; and the addition of
silver, iron, and lead, tends to strengthen this opinion.

Herodotus recited his History at the Olympic Games, B.C. 445; and probably
the same people traded in tin in his time as in the time of Ezekiel.

The Hebrew word for tin is derived from a verb meaning "to separate," and
seems to throw no light on the subject.

S. G. C.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 452. 544. &c.)

Your correspondents MR. MARSH and MR. HUGHES are entitled to an apology
from me for having so long delayed noticing their comments on my
communication on the above subject in Vol. viii, p. 134., which comments
have failed in convincing me that I have fallen into the error they
attribute to me, because it is manifest Richard Minshull of Chester, son of
Richard of Wistaston, the writer of the letter of May 3rd, 1656, set forth
in the Rev. Mr. Hunter's _Milton Pamphlet_, pp. 37. and 38., could only
have been _fifteen_ years old when that letter was written, he having, as
MR. HUGHES states, been born in 1641, so that he must have been only three
years the junior of his supposed niece, Mrs. Milton, then Miss Minshull,
born in 1638, according to MR. MARSH'S account of her baptism; and
furthermore he, Richard, son of the writer of the said letter, must be
fairly presumed to have been married at the date of such letter, which he
(the Father) thus commences: "My love and best respects to you and my
daughter [meaning no doubt his daughter-in-law], tendered with trust of
your health." Very unlikely language for a parent to address to his son, a
boy of _fifteen_, on so important a subject as a family pedigree. If this
youthful Richard Minshull really was Mrs. Milton's uncle, his brother
Randle Minshull, her father, must have been very many years older than him,
which was not very probable.

I noticed in a recent Number of your pages, with great satisfaction, a
communication from CRANMER, who has avowed himself to be your correspondent
MR. ARTHUR PAGET, for which, in common with MR. HUGHES and others, I feel
very thankful to him, notwithstanding it falls short of connecting Mrs.
Milton with Richard Minshull of Wistaston, the Holme correspondent of 1656.

That historians have been much misled in assuming that Mrs. Milton was a
daughter of Sir Edward Minshull of Stoke, cannot, I think, be questioned;
although it may be very fairly asked whether there were not other
respectable Minshull families living in the neighbourhood of Wistaston, of
which Mrs. Milton might have been a member, and yet allied to the Paget and
Goldsmith families.



MR. HUGHES is quite right, both in his facts, so far as they go, and in the
inference he draws from them in confirmation of the now well ascertained
identity of Milton's widow with the daughter of Randle Mynshull of
Wistaston. His observations derive additional force from the fact, that two
generations of Minshull of Wistaston married ladies of the name of
Goldsmith. Thomas Minshull, the great-grandfather of Milton's widow,
married ---- Goldsmith of Nantwich, as his son Richard informed Randal
Holmes, in a letter among the Harl. MSS., noticed by MR. HUNTER, and as
pointed out by MR. HUGHES; but the writer of that letter also married a
lady of the same name, Elizabeth, daughter of Nicholas Goldsmith, of
Bosworth, in the county of Leicester. The fact is worth noticing, though no
very accurate estimate can be formed of the precise degree of relationship
to be inferred from the title of "cousin" a couple of centuries ago. My
authority is the Cheshire visitation of 1663-4. Several other MS. pedigrees
are in existence; in some of which the lady's name is stated as Ellen,
instead of Elizabeth, and her father's as Richard instead of Nicholas.
Thomas Minshull of Manchester, the uncle of Milton's widow, deserves
perhaps a passing word of notice, as having embalmed the mortal remains of
Humphrey Chetham.

J. F. M.


Our elegant poet Fenton, having written a _Life of Milton_, and no doubt
often visited his place of nativity (Shelton, in the Staffordshire
Potteries), he surely must have known _something_ respecting _Milton's_
third wife's family, who lived only a few miles from thence; and if the
Fenton papers have, as is probable, been preserved by his family, some of
whom I am informed still live in the neighbourhood of Shelton, it is not
unlikely they will throw some light on the family of the poet's widow.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 93.)

On a recent visit to Aberystwith, I walked to the mother church of
Llanbadarn, a fine old building, which I was glad to find, since a former
visit, was undergoing important repairs in its exterior. While inspecting
the interior, I requested the clerk to show me into the vestry, and upon
inquiring if the church possessed any black-letter Bible, Foxe's _Martyrs_,
or any of those volumes which at the Reformation were chained to the desks
or pews, he opened a case in the vestry, in which I was sorry to observe
many volumes, not of that early date, but about a century and a half old,
yet valuable in their day as well as at present, in a sad dilapidated
state, arising from the dampness of the room, which is without a
fire-place. Many of the volumes were the gift of a Doctor Fowle, with his
autograph, stating that they were given as a lending library to the

The present incumbent is the Rev. ---- Hughes, a very excellent and zealous
pastor, with the modern church in Aberystwith annexed, who should this
narrative meet his eye, or be communicated to him, might be induced to make
inquiries into the losses which had taken place, and prevent farther
dilapidations and decay, in what was no doubt, once considered a valuable
acquisition to the inhabitants of the parish.

Permit me to add, that in a room over the entrance porch of that venerable
Saxon church St. Peter in the East, at Oxford, there is a large lending
library for the use of the parishioners, largely contributed to by several
of its recent and present zealous incumbent, and to which church so much
has lately been done to remove former eye-sores, and to render it one of
the most chastely decorated and best attended parish churches in the

J. M. G.


In an old MS. headed

    "Articles, Conditions, and Covenants, upon which the Provost and other
    officers of King's College in Cambridge have admitted Michael Mills,
    Schollar of the said College, to be Keeper of the Publick Library of
    the said College."

the seventh and last article is--

    "For the rendering his business about the library more easy, each
    person that makes use of any book or books in the said library, is
    required to sett 'em up again decently, without entangling the chains;
    by which is signified to all concerned that no person whatsoever, upon
    any pretence, is permitted to carry any book out of the library to
    their chambers, or any otherwise to be used as a private book, it being
    against the statutes of our college in y^t case provided."

Under "Orders for regulating the publick library of King's College," Order

    "All the fellows and scholars, and all other persons allowed the use of
    the library, shall carefully set up those they use in their proper
    place, without entangling the chains."

Michael Mills got King's in 1683.

T. H. L.

In the church of Wiggenhall, St. Mary the Virgin, the following books may
be seen fastened by chains to a wooden desk in the chancel: Foxe's _Book of
Martyrs_, in three volumes, chained to the same staple; the Book of
Homilies; the Bible, with calendar in rubrics; and the works of Bishop
Jewell, in one volume. The title-page is lost from all the above: in other
respects they are in a fair state of preservation, considering their {596}
antiquity, of which their characters being old English, is a sufficient

W. B. D.

At a _soirée_ recently held at Crosby Hall, there were exhibited by the
churchwardens of St. Benet's, Gracechurch Street, Erasmus' _Commentary on
the Gospels_ in English, with the chains annexed, by which they were
fastened in the church. There are two volumes, in good preservation, and
black letter.

In Minster Church, near Margate, Kent, there is an oak cover to a Bible
chained to a desk, temp. Henry VIII. The whole of the letter-press has been
taken away (by small pieces at a time) by visitors to this beautiful Norman


At Bromsgrove Church, Worcestershire, a copy of Bishop Jewel's Sermon on 1
Cor. ix. 16. (1609) is chained to a small lectern.

At Suckley Church, also in Worcestershire, there is a black-letter copy of
the Homilies, 1578.


There is a copy of Foxe's _Monuments_ so chained in the chancel of Luton
Church, Bedfordshire.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 493.)

This place is not "an old out-of-the-way place," as described to F. M., but
stands in a paddock adjoining the churchyard, in the town of "Painswick, in
Gloucestershire." It is a respectable old stone-built house in the
Elizabethan style; and stands on an eminence commanding a view of one of
the pleasant valleys which abound in this parish. I do not know of, and do
not believe that there is, any "full description of it." Neither of the
county histories, of Atkyns (1712), Rudder (1779), Rudge (1803), or
Fosbrook (1807), mentions the court-house, though probably it is referred
to by Atkyns as "a handsome pleasant house adjoining the town, [then]
lately the seat of Mr. Wm. Rogers."

If either Charles I. or II. slept there, it was doubtless King Charles I.,
on the night of the 5th of September, 1643, on which day he raised the
siege of Gloucester, and

    "Thousands of the royalist army marched in the rain up Painswick hill,
    on the summit of which they encamped in the ancient entrenchment of the
    part called Spoonbed hill. On this hill, tradition says, as Charles was
    sitting on a stone near the camp, one of the princes, weary of their
    present life, asked him 'When should they go home?' 'I have no home to
    go to,' replied the disconsolate king. He went on to Painswick, and
    passed the night there."--_Bibliotheca Gloucestriensis_ (Webb),
    Introduction, p. 68., referring to Rudder (p. 592.) for the tradition
    as to the colloquy.

The lodge, an old wooden house, in this parish more properly deserves the
character of an "old out-of-the-way house." I remember it many years ago,
when it contained a court, in which were galleries approached by stairs,
and leading to the sleeping-rooms of the mansion; such as were formerly in
the court-yard of the Bull and Mouth Inn, London, and are now in the yard
of the New Inn, Gloucester.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Read before the Photographic Society, Nov. 3, 1853.)

I feel that some few words are required to explain to the Society the
reasons which have induced me to call their attention to a branch of
photography, which of all others has been dwelt upon most fully, and
practised with such success by so many eminent photographers.

The flourishing state of this Society, which is constantly receiving an
accession of new Members, indicates the great number that have lately
commenced the practice of photography, and to those I hope my observations
will not prove unacceptable, because of all others the calotype process is
undoubtedly the simplest, and the most useful; not only from that
simplicity, but from its being available when other modes could not be

I am also induced to urge on the attention of the Society the advantages of
this, one of the earliest processes, because I think that there has been
lately such an eager desire for something new, that we all have more or
less run away from a steady wish to improve if possible the original
details of Mr. Fox Talbot; and have been tempted to practise new modes,
entailing much more care and trouble, without attaining a correspondingly
favourable result.

Amongst antiquaries I have long noticed, that many who have especially
studied one particular {597} branch of archæology, think and speak
slightingly of those departments in which they are not much interested. One
fond of research in the early tumuli is esteemed to be a mere "pot and pan
antiquary" by one who, in his turn, is thought to waste his time on
"mediæval trash;" and this feeling pervades its many sections.

I hope I shall not give offence in saying, that amongst photographers I
have noticed somewhat of a similar spirit, namely, an inclination to value
and praise a production, from the particular mode of operation adopted,
rather than from its intrinsic merits. The collodion, the waxed paper, or
the simple paper processes have merits pertaining to themselves alone; and
those who admire each of these several processes are too apt to be
prejudiced in favour of the works produced by them.

Before proceeding farther, permit me to observe, that if some of my remarks
appear _too_ elementary, and _too_ well known by many assembled here, my
reason for making them is, that I have myself experienced the want of
_plain simple rules_, notwithstanding the many able treatises upon the
subject which have already been written: I hope, therefore, I shall receive
their pardon for entering fully into detail, because a want of success may
depend upon what may appear most trivial.

I think the greatest number of failures result from not having good iodized
paper; which may be caused by

  1. The quality of the paper;
  2. The mode of preparing it;
  3. The want of proper _definite_ proportions for a particular make of

because I find very different results ensue unless these things are
relatively considered.

I have not met with satisfactory results in iodizing the French and German
papers, and the thick papers of some of our English makers are quite

Turner's paper, of the "Chafford Mills" make, is greatly to be preferred,
and therefore I will presume that to be used, and of a medium thickness.
The great fault of Turner's paper consists in the frequent occurrence of
spots, depending upon minute portions of brass coming from the machinery,
or from the rims of buttons left in the rags when being reduced to pulp,
and thus a single button chopped up will contaminate a large portion of
paper; occasionally these particles are so large that they reduce the
silver solutions to the metallic state, which is formed on the paper; at
other times they are so minute as to simply decompose the solution, and
white spots are left, much injuring the effect of the picture.

Whatman's paper is much more free from blemishes, but it is not so fine and
compact in its texture; the skies in particular exhibiting a minutely
speckled appearance, and the whole picture admitting of much less

All papers are much improved by age; probably in consequence of a change
which the size undergoes by time. It is therefore advisable that the
photographer, when he meets with a desirable paper, should lay in a store
for use beyond his immediate wants.

It may not be inappropriate to mention here, in reference to the minuteness
attainable by paper negatives, that a railway notice of six lines is
perfectly legible, and even the erasure for a new secretary's name is
discernible in the accompanying specimen, which was obtained with one of
Ross's landscape lenses, without any stop whatever being used, and after an
exposure of five minutes _during a heavy rain_. The sky is scarcely so
dense as could be desired, which will be fully accounted for by the dull
state of the atmosphere during the exposure in the camera.

Having selected your paper as free from blemishes as possible, which is
most readily ascertained by holding it up to the light (as the rejected
sheets do perfectly well for positives, it is well to reject _all_ those
upon which _any_ doubt exists), mark the smoothest surface;--the touch will
always indicate this, but it is well at all times not to handle the
surfaces of papers more than can be avoided. There is much difference in
various individuals in this respect; some will leave a mark upon the
slightest touch, whereas others may rub the paper about with perfect

I prefer paper iodized by the single process; because, independently of the
case and economy of time, I think more rapidity of action is attained by
paper so treated, as well as that greater intensity of the blacks, so
requisite for producing a clear picture in after printing.

To do this, take sixty grains of nitrate of silver and sixty grains of
iodide of potassium, dissolve each separately in an ounce of distilled
water, mix and stir briskly with a glass rod so as to ensure their
_perfect_ mixture; the precipitated iodide of silver will fall to the
bottom of the vessel; pour off the fluid, wash once with a little distilled
water, then pour upon it four ounces of distilled water, and add 650 grains
of iodide of potassium, which _should_ perfectly redissolve the silver and
form a clear fluid. Should it not (for chemicals differ occasionally in
their purity), then a little more should be very cautiously added until the
fluid is perfectly clear.

The marked side of the paper should then be carefully laid upon the surface
of this fluid in a proper porcelain or glass dish. Then immediately {598}
remove it, lay it upon its dry side upon a piece of blotting-paper, and
stroke it over once or twice with a glass rod; this as effectually expels
all the particles of air as complete immersion; it is also more economical,
and has the advantage of requiring much less time in the after-immersion in
the hypo. when it is required to remove the iodide. Either pin the paper
up, or lay it down upon its dry side, and when it becomes tolerably dry
(perfect dryness is not requisite), immerse it in common cold water for the
space of four hours, changing the water during that time three or four
times, so that all the soluble salts may be removed; often move the papers,
so that when several sheets are together, one does not press so much upon
another that the water does not equally arrive at all the surface.

If this paper is well made, it is of a pale straw colour, or rather
primrose, and perfectly free from unevenness of tint. It will keep good for
several years; if, however, the soluble salts have not been _entirely_
removed, it attracts damp, and becomes brown and useless or uncertain in
its application.

Some of our oldest and most successful operators still adhere to and prefer
the iodized paper prepared by the double process, which certainly effects a
saving in the use of the iodide of potassium. The following is the easiest
way of so preparing it:--Having floated your marked surface of the paper on
a 30-grain solution of nitrate of silver, and dried it[4], immerse it for
20 minutes in a solution of iodide of potassium of 20 grains to the ounce,
when it immediately assumes the desired colour. It is then requisite,
however, that it should undergo the same washing in pure water as the paper
prepared by the single process.

Upon the goodness of your iodized paper of course depends your future
success. Although it is not requisite to prepare it by candle-light (which
in fact is objectionable from your inability to see if the yellow tint is
equally produced), I think it should not be exposed to too strong a light;
and as the fly-fisher in the dull winter months prepares his flies ready
for the approaching spring, so may the photographer in the dull weather
which now prevails, with much advantage prepare his stock of iodized paper
ready for the approach of fine weather.[5]

Many other ways of iodizing paper have been recommended which have proved
successful in different hands. Dr. Mansell, of Guernsey, pours the iodide
solution upon his paper, which previously has had all its edges turned up
so as to resemble a dish; he rapidly pours it off again after it has
completely covered the paper, and then washes it in three waters for only
ten minutes in all: he considers that thereby none of the size of the paper
is removed, and a more favourable action is obtained. In the experiments I
have tried with the use of the air-pump, as recommended by Mr. Stewart, I
have met with much trouble and little success; and I am inclined to
attribute the very beautiful specimens which he has produced to his own
good manipulation under a favourable climate.[6]

To excite the paper take 10 drops (minims) of solution of aceto-nitrate of
silver, and 10 drops of saturated solution of gallic acid, mixed with 3
drachms of distilled water.

The aceto-nitrate solution consists of--

  Nitrate of silver    30 grains.
  Glacial acetic acid   1 drachm.
  Distilled water[7]    1 ounce.

If the weather is warm, 6 drops of gallic acid to the 10 of aceto-nitrate
will suffice, and enable the prepared excited paper to be kept longer.

This exciting fluid may be applied either directly {599} by means of the
glass rod, or by floating, as before, and then the glass rod. But if
floating is resorted to, then a larger quantity must be prepared. As soon
as it is applied the paper should be blotted off by means of blotting-paper
(which should never be used more than once in this way, although preserved
for other purposes), and put into the dark frames for use.[8] It is not
requisite that the paper should be perfectly dry. This exciting should be
conducted by a very feeble light; the paper is much more sensitive than is
generally supposed; in fact, it is then in a state to print from by the aid
of gas or the light of a common lamp, and very agreeable positives are so
produced by this negative mode of printing.

I would advise the aceto-nitrate of silver and the solution of gallic acid
to be kept in two bottles with wooden cases differing in their shape, so
that they may not be mistaken when operating, in comparative darkness. A ¼
of an ounce of gallic acid put into such a 3-ounce bottle, and _quite_
filled up with distilled water as often as any is used, will serve a very
long time.

I would also recommend that the paper should be excited upon the morning of
the day upon which it is intended to be used; no doubt the longer it is
kept, the less active and less certain it becomes. I have, however, used it
successfully eight days after excitement, and have a good negative produced
at that length of time. The general medium time of exposure required is
five minutes. In the negatives exhibited, the time has varied from three
minutes to eight, the latter being when the day was very dull.

The pictures should be developed by equal quantities of the aceto-nitrate
of silver and the saturated solution of gallic acid, which are to be mixed
and immediately applied to the exposed surface. This may be done several
hours after the pictures have been removed from the camera. Care should be
taken that the back of the picture does not become wetted, as this is apt
to produce a stain which may spoil the printing of the positive.

If upon the removal of the paper from the dark frame, the picture is very
apparent, by first applying little gallic acid, and immediately afterwards
the _mixed_ solutions, less likelihood is incurred of staining the
negative, which will be more evenly and intensely developed. If a browning
take place, a few drops of strong acetic acid will generally check it.

Should the picture be very tardy, either from an insufficient exposure,
want of light, or other cause, a few drops of a solution of pyrogallic
acid, made with 3 grains to the ounce of water, and a drachm of acetic
acid, will act very beneficially. It sometimes gives an unpleasant redness
upon the surface, but produces great intensity upon looking through it.
Until the pyrogallic solution was added, there was scarcely anything
visible upon the specimen exhibited, the failure having in the _first_
instance happened from the badness of the iodized paper.

As soon as the picture is sufficiently developed it should be placed in
water, which should be changed once or twice; after soaking for a short
time, say half an hour, it may be pinned up and dried, or it may at once be
placed in a solution almost saturated, or quite so, of hyposulphite of
soda, remaining there no longer than is needful for the entire removal of
the iodide, which is known by the disappearance of the yellow colour.

When travelling it is often desirable to avoid using the hyposulphite, for
many reasons (besides that of getting rid of extra chemicals), and it may
be relied on that negatives will keep even under exposure to light for a
very long time. I have kept some for several weeks, and I believe Mr.
Rosling has kept them for some months.

The hyposulphite, lastly, should be effectually removed from the negative
by soaking in water, which should be frequently changed.

Some prefer to use the hypo, quite hot, or even boiling, as thereby the
size of the paper is removed, allowing of its being afterwards readily
waxed.[9] I have always found that pouring a little boiling water upon the
paper effectually accomplishes the object; some negatives will readily wax
even when the size is not removed. A box iron very hot is best for the
purpose; but the most important thing to attend to is that the paper should
be perfectly dry, and it should therefore be passed between blotting-paper
and well ironed before the wax is applied. Negatives will even attract
moisture from the atmosphere, and therefore this process should at all
times be resorted to immediately before the application of the wax.

Some photographers prefer, instead of using wax, to apply a solution of
Canada balsam in spirits of turpentine. This certainly adds much to the
transparency of the negative; and, in some instances, may be very
desirable. Even in so simple a thing as white wax, there is much {600}
variety; some forming little flocculent appearances on the paper, which is
not the case with other samples. Probably it may be adulterated with
stearine, and other substances producing this difference.

Before concluding these remarks, I would draw attention to the great
convenience of the use of a bag of yellow calico, made so large as to
entirely cover the head and shoulders, and confined round the waist by
means of a stout elastic band. It was first, I believe, used by Dr.
Mansell. In a recent excursion, I have, with the greatest ease, been
enabled to change all my papers without any detriment whatever, and thereby
dispensed with the weight of more than a single paper-holder. The bag is no
inconvenience, and answers perfectly well, at any residence you may chance
upon, to obstruct the light of the window, if not protected with shutters.

I would also beg to mention that a certain portion of the bromide of silver
introduced into the iodized paper seems much to accelerate its power of
receiving the green colour, as it undoubtedly does in the collodion.
Although it does not accelerate its _general_ action, it is decidedly a
great advantage for foliage. Its best proportions I have not been able
accurately to determine; but I believe if the following quantity is added
to the portion of solution of iodide of silver above recommended to be
made, that it will approach very near to that which will prove to be the
most desirable. Dissolve separately thirty grains of bromide of potassium,
and 42 grains of nitrate of silver, in separate half-ounces of distilled
water; mix, stir well, and wash the precipitate; pour upon it, in a glass
measure, distilled water up to one ounce; then, upon the addition of 245
grains of iodide of potassium, a clear solution will be obtained; should it
not, a few more grains of the iodide of potassium will effect it. It may be
well to add that I believe neither of the solutions is injured by keeping,
especially if preserved in the dark.

I would here offer a caution against too great reliance being placed upon
the use of gutta-percha vessels when travelling, as during the past summer
I had a bottle containing distilled water which came into pieces; and I
have now a new gutta-percha tray which has separated from its sides. This
may appear trivial, but when away from home the greatest inconvenience
results from these things, which may be easily avoided.[10]

Dishes of zinc painted or japanned on the interior surface answer better
than gutta-percha, and one inverted within another forms, when travelling,
an admirable lid-box for the protection of glass bottles, rods, &c. On the
Continent wooden dishes coated with shellac varnish are almost entirely

[Footnote 2: In a communication I formerly addressed to my friend the
Editor of "N. & Q.," one of the arguments I used in favour of the collodion
process was, that the operator was enabled at once to know the results of
his attempts; and was not left in suspense concerning the probable success,
as with a paper picture requiring an after development.

I made that observation not only from the partial success which had then
attended my own manipulations, but from the degree of success which was
attained by the majority of my photographic friends. But that objection is
now almost entirely removed by the comparative certainty to which the paper
process is reduced.]

[Footnote 3: The effect was illustrated in two negatives of the same
subject, taken at the same time, exhibited to the meeting, and which may
now be seen at Mr. Bell's by those who take an interest in the subject.]

[Footnote 4: For this purpose, strips of wood from 1 inch to 1½ square will
be found much more convenient to pin the paper to than the tape or string
usually recommended. The pressure of a corner of the paper to the wood will
render it almost sufficiently adherent without the pin, and do away with
the vexation of corners tearing off.]

[Footnote 5: Some difference of opinion seemed to exist at the reading of
the paper, as to the propriety of preparing iodized paper long before it
was required for use, and I have since received some letters from very able
photographers who have attributed an occasional want of success to this
cause. I have, however, never myself seen good iodized paper deteriorated
by age. Many friends tell me they have used it when several years old; and
I can confirm this by a remarkable instance. On Tuesday (Dec. 6) I was
successful in obtaining a perfectly good negative in the usual time from
some paper kindly presented to me by Mr. Mackinly, and which has been in
his possession since the year 1844. I should add, the paper bears the mark
of "J. Whatman, 1842," and has all the characters of Turner's best
photographic paper. It appears to be a make of Whatman's paper which I have
not hitherto seen, and, from its date, was evidently not made for
photographic purposes.]

[Footnote 6: The paper may be iodized by pouring over it 30 minims of the
iodizing solution, and then smoothing it over with the glass rod. Care must
however be taken not to wet the back of the paper, as an unevenness of
depth in the negative would probably be the result.]

[Footnote 7: Much more attention should be paid to the purity of the
distilled water than is generally supposed. In the many processes in which
distilled water is used, there is none in which attention to this is so
much required as the calotype process. I mention this from having lately
had some otherwise fine negatives spoiled by being covered with spots,
emanating entirely from impurities in distilled water purchased by me
during a late excursion into the country.]

[Footnote 8: It is very requisite that the glasses of the frames should be
thoroughly cleansed before the excited papers are put into them. Although
not perceptible to the eye, there is often left on the glass (if this
precaution is not used) a decomposing influence which afterwards shows
itself by stains upon the negative.]

[Footnote 9: If boiling water is carefully poured in the negative in a
porcelain dish, it will frequently remove a great deal of colouring matter,
thereby rendering the negative still more translucent. It is astonishing
how much colouring matter a negative so treated will give out, even when to
the eye it appears so clean as not to require it.]

[Footnote 10: MR. SHADBOLT suggested a remedy for the disasters referred to
by DR. DIAMOND with regard to the gutta-percha vessels. Gutta-percha is
perfectly soluble in chloroform. MR. SHADBOLT therefore showed that if the
operator carries a small bottle of chloroform with him, he would be able to
mend the gutta-percha at any moment in a few seconds. It was not necessary
that the bottle should hold above half an ounce of chloroform.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Belike_ (Vol. viii., p. 358.).--The reasoning by which H. C. K. supports
his conjecture that "belike" in _Macbeth_ is formed immediately by
prefixing _be_ to a supposed verb, _like_, to lie, is ingenious, but far
from satisfactory. In the first place, we never used _to like_ in the sense
of _to lie_, the nearest approach to it is _to lig_. And in the next place,
the verb to _like_, to please, to feel or cause pleasure, to approve or
regard with approbation, as a consequential usage (agreeably to the Dutch
form of Liicken (Kilian), to _assimilate_), is common from our earliest
writers. Instances from Robert of Gloucester, Chaucer, and North, with
instances also of _mislike_, to displease, may be found in Richardson and
others in Todd's _Johnson_.

Now, when we have a word well established in various usage (as _like_,
similis), from which other usages may be easily deduced, why not adopt that
word as the immediate source, rather than seek for a new one? That _like_,
now written _ly_, is from _lic_, a corpse, _i.e._ an essence, has, I
believe, the merit of originality; so too, his notion that _corpse_ is an
_essence_, and the more, as emanating from a rectory, which probably is not
far removed frown a churchyard.

H. C. K., it is very _likely_, is right in his conception that all his
three _likes_ "have had originally one and the same source;" but he does
not appear inclined to rest contented with the very sufficient one in our
parent language, suggested by Richardson (in his 8vo. dictionary), the
Gothic _lag-yan_; A.-S. _lec-gan_, or _lic-gan_, to lay or lie.

I should interpret _belike_ (for so I should write it with H. C. K.) by



_Stage-coaches_ (Vol. viii., p. 439.).--The following Note may perhaps
prove acceptable to G. E. F. The article from which it was taken contained,
if I remember rightly, much more information upon the same subject:

    "The stage-coach 'Wonder,' from London to Shrewsbury, and the
    'Hirondelle' belonged to Taylor of Shrewsbury. The 'Hirondelle' did 120
    miles in 8 hours and 20 minutes. One day a team of four greys did 9
    miles in 35 minutes. The 'Wonder' left {601} Lion Yard, Shrewsbury, one
    morning at 6 o'clock, and was at Islington at 7 o'clock the same
    evening, being only 13 hours on the road."--_The Times_, July 11, 1842.

W. R. D. S.

_Birthplace of King Edward V._ (Vol. viii., p. 468.).--

    "1471. In this year, the third day of November, Queen Elizabeth, being,
    as before is said, in Westminster Sanctuary, was lighted of a fair
    prince. And within the said place the said child, without pomp, was
    after christened, whose godfathers were the abbat and prior of the said
    place, and the Lady Scrope godmother."--Fabian's _Chronicle_, p. 659.,
    Lond. 1811.


Fuller, in his _Worthies_, vol. ii. p. 414., says Edward, eldest son of
Edward IV. and Elizabeth his queen, was born in the sanctuary of
Westminster, November 4, 1471.


_Ringing Church Bells at Death_ (Vol. viii., p. 55. &c.).--The custom of
ringing the church bell, as soon as might be convenient after the passing
of a soul from its earthly prison-house, in the manner described in "N. &
Q.," existed ten years ago in the parish of Rawmarsh, in the West Riding of
Yorkshire, and had existed there before I became its rector, twenty-two
years ago. First a brisk peal was rung, if I mistake not, on one of the
lighter bells, which was raised and lowered; then, upon the same, or some
other of the lighter bells, the sex of the deceased was indicated by a
given number of distinct strokes,--I cannot with certainty recall the
respective numbers; lastly, the tenor bell was made to declare the supposed
age of the deceased by as many strokes as had been counted years.


_What is the Origin of "Getting into a Scrape?"_ (Vol. viii., p. 292.).--It
may have been, first, a tumble in the mire; by such a process many of us in
childhood have both literally and figuratively "got into a scrape." Or,
secondly, the expression may have arisen from the use of _the razor_, where
to be shaved was regarded as an indignity, or practised as a token of deep
humiliation. D'Arvieux mentions an Arab who, having received a wound in his
jaw, chose rather to hazard his life, than allow the surgeon to take off
his beard. When Hanun had shaved off half the beards of David's servants,
"David sent to meet them, because they were greatly ashamed: and the king
said, 'Tarry at Jericho until your beards be grown, and then return'" (2
Sam. x. 4, 5.). The expedient of _shaving off the other half_ seems not to
have been thought on, though that would naturally have been resorted to,
had not the indignity of being rendered beardless appeared intolerable.
Under this figure the desolation of a country is threatened. "In the same
day shall the Lord shave with a razor that is hired, by them beyond the
river, even by the King of Assyria, the head, and the hair of the feet, and
it shall consume the beard" (Isaiah vii. 20.). Again, as a token of grief
and humiliation: "Then Job arose and rent his mantle, and shaved his
beard," &c.--"There came fourscore men, having their heads shaven, and
their clothes rent, and having cut themselves," &c. (Jer. xli. 5.). Or,
thirdly, the allusion may be to the consequence of becoming infected with
some loathsome cutaneous disease. "So Satan smote Job with sore boils from
the sole of his foot unto his crown. And he took him a potsherd to _scrape_
himself withal" (Job ii. 7, 8.).

J. W. T.


_High Dutch and Low Dutch_ (Vol. viii., p. 478.).--Nieder Deutsch, or
rather Neder Duitsch, is the proper name of the Dutch language; at least it
is that which the people of Holland give to it. Low German does not
necessarily mean a vulgar patois. It is essentially as different a language
from High German, or rather more so, as Spanish is from Portuguese. I
believe German purists would point out Holstein, Hanover, Brunswick (not
Dresden), as the places where German is most classically spoken. I wish one
of your German (not Anglo-German) readers would set us right on this point.
The term Dutch, as applied to the language of Holland as distinguished from
that of German, is a comparative modernism in English. High Dutch and Low
Dutch used to be the distinction; and when Coverdale's _Translation of the
Bible_ is said to have been "compared with the Douche," German, and not
what we now call Dutch, is meant. Deutsch, in short, or Teutsch, is the
generic name for the language of the Teutones, for whom Germani, or
Ger-männer, was not a national appellation, but one which merely betokened
their warlike character.

E. C. H.

_Discovery of Planets_ (Vol. vii., p. 211.).--I should wish to ask MR. H.
WALTER, who has a learned answer about the discovery of planets, whether
the idea which he there broaches of a lost world where sin entered and for
which mercy was not found, be his own original invention, or whether he is
indebted to any one for it, and if so, to whom?


_Gloves at Fairs_ (Vol. viii., pp. 136. 421.).--This title has changed into
a question of the open hand as an emblem of power. In addition to the
instances cited by your correspondents, the following may be mentioned.

The Romans used the open hand as a standard.

The Kings of Ulster adopted it as their peculiar cognizance; thence it was
transferred to the shield of the baronets created Knights of Ulster by
James I.; to many of whose families recent {602} myths have in consequence
attributed bloody deeds to account for the cognizance of the bloody hand.
The Holte family of Aston Hall, near this town, affords an instance of such
a modern myth, which has, I think, already appeared in "N. & Q." The
subject of _modern myths_ would form a very interesting one for your pages.

An open hand occurs on tombs in Lycia. (Fellowes' _Lycia_, p. 180.)

The Turks and Moors paint an open hand as a specific against the evil eye.
(Shaw's _Travels in Barbary_, p. 243.)

The open hand in red paint is of common occurrence on buffalo robes among
the tribes of North America, and is also stamped, apparently by the natural
hand dipped in a red colour, on the monuments of Yucatan and Guatemala.
(Stephen's _Yucatan_.)



_Awk_ (Vol. viii., p. 310.).--H. C. K. asks for instances of the usage of
the word _awk_. He will find one in Richardson's _Dictionary_, and two of

    "The _auke_ or left hand."--Holland's _Plutarch_.

    "They receive her _aukly_, when she (Fortune) presenteth herself on the
    _right_ hand."--_Ibid._

    "To undertake a thing _awkely_, or ungainly."--Fuller's _Worthies_.



_Tenet_ (Vol. viii., p. 330.) was used by Hooker and Hall, and is also
found in state trial, 1 Hen. V., 1413, of Sir John Oldcastle. Sir Thomas
Browne, though he writes _tenets_ in his title, has _tenent_ in c. i. of
b. vii. But these variations may be generally placed to the account of the
printers in those days. (See TENET, in Richardson.)



_Lovett of Astwell_ (Vol. viii., p. 363.).--Since I wrote on this subject,
I have consulted Baker's excellent _History of Northamptonshire_, and I
find the pedigree (vol. i. p. 732.) fully bears out my strictures on Betham
and Burke's account of Thomas Lovett, and his marriage with Joan Billinger.
With regard to Elizabeth Boteler, Mr. Baker simply states that Thomas
Lovett, Esq., of Astwell, married to his first wife Elizabeth, daughter of
John Boteler, Esq., of Watton Woodhall, Herts; but I observe that (_Idem._
vol. i. p. 730.) there is in Wappenham Church (the parish of which Astwell
is hamlet) a brass to the memory of "Constance, late the wife of John
Boteler, Esq., and sister to Henry Vere, Esq., who died May 16, 1499:" this
lady, I conjecture, was the mother of Elizabeth Boteler, afterwards Lovett;
and her daughter must have been heir to her mother, as the arms of Vere and
Green are quartered on her grandson Thomas Lovett's tombstone in the same
church; as well as on another monument of the Lovetts, the inscription of
which is now obliterated. The pedigree of the Botelers in Clutterbuck
(_Herts_, vol. ii. p. 475.) does not give this marriage; but John Boteler,
Esq., of Watton Woodhall, who was of full age in 1456, and whose first wife
Elizabeth died Oct. 28, 1471, is said to have married to his second wife
Constance, daughter of ---- Downhall of Gedington, co. Northamptonshire.
Can this be the lady buried at Wappenham? She was the mother of John
Boteler, Esq., Watton Woodhall, Sheriff of Herts and Essex in 1490;
therefore her daughter would not be entitled to transmit her arms to her
descendants. Or could the last-mentioned John Boteler, who died in 1514,
have had another wife besides the three mentioned in Clutterbuck? There can
be no question that one of the two John Botelers of Watton Woodhall married
Constance de Vere, as the marriage is mentioned on the monument at
Wappenham. I hope some of your genealogical readers may examine this point.


_Irish Rhymes_ (Vol. viii., p. 250.).--In "The Wish," appended to _The
Ocean_ of Young (afterwards suppressed in his collected works, but quoted
by Dr. Johnson), are the following rhymes:

       "Oh! may I _steal_
        Along the _vale_
  Of humble life, secure from foes."

And again:

 "Have what I _have_,
  And live not _leave_."

And yet again:

       "Then leave one _beam_
        Of honest _fame_,
  And scorn the labour'd monument."

And in his "Instalment" (which shared the same fate as "The Wish"):

 "Oh! how I long, enkindled by the _theme_,
  In deep eternity to launch thy _name_."

Young was no "Mil_a_sian:" so these rhymes go to acquit Swift of the
Irishism attributed to him by CUTHBERT BEDE; as, taken in connexion with
those used by Pope and others, it is clear they were not uncommon or
confined to the Irish poets. At the same time, I cannot think them either
elegant or musical, nor can I agree with one of your correspondents, that
their occasional use destroys the sameness of rhyme. If poets were to
introduce eccentric rhymes at pleasure, to produce variety, the shade of
Walker would I think be troubled sorely.


_Passage in Boerhaave_ (Vol. vii., p. 453.).--As the passage is incorrectly
given from memory, it {603} is not easy to say where it is to be found. I
venture, however, to lay before the FOREIGN SURGEON the following, from the
_Institutiones Medicæ cæt. digestæ_, ab Herm. Boerhaave (Vienna, 1775), p.

    "Unde tamen mors senilis per has mutationes accidit inevitabilis, et ex
    ipsa sanitate sequens."

And from Ph. Ambr. Marhesz, Prælectiones in H. Boerh., _Inst. Med._
(Vienna, 1785), vol. iii. p. 44.:

    "Tum vivere cessat decripitus senex, sine morbo in mortem transiens,
    nisi senectutis vitium ineluctabile pro morbo habeas."

See also § 475. Possibly the required passage may be found in Burton's
_Account of the Life, &c. of Dr. Boerhaave_ (London, 1743). Allow me,
however, to quote the following from a discourse of Joannes Oosterdijk
Schacht (Boerhaave's cotemporary), delivered by him September 12, 1729,
when he entered on the professorship at Utrecht. From this it will appear
that the words ascribed to Boerhaave may be attributed to other learned

    "Nemini igitur mirum videatur, si innumeris stipata malis superveniat
    senectus, quam nec solam nec morbis tantum comitatam obrepere, sed
    ipsam morbum esse, et olim vidit vetustas, et hodierna abunde docet
    experientia."--Joann. Oosterdijk Schacht, _Oratio Inauguralis cæt._
    (Traj. ad Rhenum, 1729).

From the _Navorscher_.

L. D. R.


_Craton the Philosopher_ (Vol. viii., p. 441.).--

    "At that time two brothers, who were extremely rich, sold their
    inheritance by the advice of Crato the philosopher, and bought diamonds
    of singular value, which they crushed in the Forum before all the
    people, thus making an ostentatious exhibition of their contempt for
    the world. St. John, happening to be passing through the Forum,
    witnessed this display, and, pitying the folly of these misguided men,
    kindly gave them sounder advice. Sending for Crato their master, who
    had led them into error, he blamed the wasteful destruction of valuable
    property, and instructed him in the true meaning of contempt for the
    world according to Christ's doctrine, quoting the precept of that
    teacher, his own Master, when, in reply to the young man who inquired
    of Him how he might obtain eternal life, He said, 'If thou wilt be
    perfect, go and sell all that thou hast and give to the poor, and thou
    shalt have treasure in heaven; and come and follow me.' Crato the
    philosopher, acknowledging the soundness of the apostle's teaching,
    entreated him to restore the jewels which had been foolishly crushed to
    their former condition. St. John then gathered up the precious
    fragments, and, while he held them in his hand, prayed for some time
    with his eyes raised to heaven. His prayer being concluded, and all the
    faithful present having said _Amen_, the broken pieces of the jewels
    became so closely united, that there remained not the slightest
    appearance of any fracture. Then Crato the philosopher, with all his
    disciples, threw himself at the apostle's feet, believed, and were
    baptized; and Crato, preaching openly the faith of the Lord Jesus,
    became a true philosopher. Moreover, the two brothers who before
    destroyed their property to no purpose, now, in obedience to the
    evangelical precept, sold their jewels, and distributed the price in
    alms to the poor of Christ. And a multitude of believers began to
    attach themselves to St. John, and to follow his steps."--_Ordericus
    Vitalis_, b. II. ch. v. (Mr. Forrester's translation), Bohn's edit.,
    vol. i. pp. 240, 241.


_The Curfew_ (Vol. vii., pp. 167. 539.).--Add to the already long list of
places where the curfew bell is still rung the following:

St. Werburgh's (Cathedral) Chester, Acton, Audlem, Nantwich, Wybunbury; all
in Cheshire and adjoining parishes.

Madeley, Staffordshire. In this place also (Audlem) the very ancient custom
of chiming at funerals is still maintained.


Audlem, Nantwich.

_Thomas Blount_ (Vol. viii., p. 286.).--Since forwarding the monumental
inscription inserted as above, which makes this gentleman's death to take
place on Dec. 26, I find that Sir William Dugdale, with whom Blount was on
terms of intimacy, as he calls him "my very worthy friend," has the
following notice of him in his _Diary_ under the year 1679:

    "December 16. Mr. T. Blount dyed, at Orlton, Herefordshire, of an

Thus making a difference of ten days, which is probably an error made by
the engraver of the inscription. It may be interesting to know from the
same authority, that Mr. Blount's chamber was in Fig Tree Court, on the
back side of the Inner Temple Hall, London, his country residence being at
Orlton. From his correspondence with Sir William, it appears that he
rendered him much assistance in his works.


_Pronunciations of "Coke" and "Cowper"_ (Vols. iv. and v. _passim_; Vol.
vi., p. 16.).--So much, and so well to the purpose, has already been said
in "N. & Q.," in support of the averment that the former of these names was
originally pronounced _Cook_, that it may appear needless to adduce
additional evidence; still, considering the source from which the testimony
I am now bringing forward is derived, I think I may stand excused for
recurring to the subject. It is from the Court Books of the manor of
Mitcham (the birthplace of Sir Edward Coke), and from the parochial
registers; in which, and, indeed, in all cotemporary records where sound
was followed in the spelling, I find the name of this family written {604}
_Cook_ or _Cooke_. The great Sir Edward's own baptismal register is thus
entered--1551, Feb. 7. "Edward Cooke genero." Surely this is conclusive.
The same pronunciation was vulgarly followed almost up to the present time.
There must be many who remember at the Norfolk elections the cry of "Cook
for ever," as well as that of the opposite political party who threw up
their caps for _Woodhouse_; for so _Wodehouse_ was in like manner
pronounced. Again, the Hobarts, another Norfolk family, were always called
_Hubbarts_; and more anciently Bokenham, _Buckenham_, Todenham,
_Tuddenham_, and others I could name, showing that in the Norfolk dialect
the usage was in pronunciation to soften the _o_.

Now as regards the sound of Cowper, the same class of authorities, old
deeds, court rolls, and parish registers, appears to lead to a different
conclusion from that of your other correspondents. We have now no _Cowper_
family of Norfolk origin; of _Coopers_ we have multitudes: the names of
whose forefathers were written _Couper_ or _Cowper_; and if written as
pronounced, the analogical inference is that the original pronunciation was
_Cowper_, Cooper being merely the modern way of spelling; and curiously
enough, the parish of _Hoo_, in this county, is called and now usually
spelt _How_.

G. A. C.

_Unkid_ (Vol. viii., p. 353.).--_Unketh_, _uncouth_, are different writings
of the same word. Jamieson has _uncoudy_, which he explains, dreary; and
_coudy_, i. e. couth, couthy, nearly allied to _cuth_, notus (see _couth_
(could), _uncouth_, _unketh_, in Richardson; and _coudy_, _uncoudy_, in
Jamieson). Lye has "_Uncwid_, solitary; whence, perhaps, the not entirely
obsolete _unkid_." Grose also tells us that, in the north, _uncuffs_ and
_uncuds_ mean news. It is very plain that these are all the same word,
differently written and applied.



_To split Paper_ (Vol. viii., p. 413.).--

    "Procure two rollers or cylinders of glass, amber, resin, or metallic
    amalgam; strongly excite them by the well known means so as to produce
    the attraction of cohesion, and then, with pressure, pass the paper
    between the rollers; one half will adhere to the under roller, and the
    other to the upper roller; then cease the excitation, and remove each
    part."--From the _Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal_.

A. H. B.

_La Fleur des Saints_ (Vol. viii., p. 410.).--The work which Molière
intended was in all probability the French translation of a Spanish work
entitled _Flos Sanctorum_. The author of it was Alonso de Villegas. It was
first printed at Toledo in 1591, and an English version appeared at Douay
in 1615. Some idea of the contents may be gathered from the following
title: _Flos Sanctorum, Historia General de la Vida, y Hechos de Jesu
Christo Dios y Señor nuestro; y de todos los Santos, de que reza, y haze
fiesta la Iglesia Catolica, &c._ My copy is the Madrid edition of 1653.


St. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge.

_Dr. Butler and St. Edmund's Bury_ (Vol. viii., p. 125.).--Could this have
been Dr. William Butler, of eccentric memory, born at Ipswich about 1535,
and buried in St. Mary's Church, Cambridge, 1618?

G. A. C.

_Major André_ (Vol. viii., p. 174.).--Two nephews of Major André, sons of
his sister, Mrs. Mills, are resident in Norwich, both being surgeons there.
Perhaps, on application, your correspondent SERVIENS would be able to
obtain from them some serviceable information regarding this unfortunate

G. A. C.

_Wooden Tombs and Effigies_ (Vol. viii., p. 255.).--In the church of
Chew-Magna, co. Somerset, is the effigy of Sir John Hautville, cut (says
Collinson, vol. ii. p. 100.) in one solid piece of Irish oak. He lies on
his left side, resting on his hip and elbow, the left hand supporting his
head. The figure is in armour, with a red loose coat without sleeves over
it, a girdle and buckle, oblong shield, helmet, and gilt spurs. The right
hand rests on the edge of the shield. This monument was brought many years
ago from the neighbouring church (now destroyed) of Norton Hautville. Sir
John lived temp. Henry III. The popular story of him is that he was a
person of gigantic strength, and that he carried, for a feat, three men to
the top of Norton church tower, one under each arm, and the third in his
teeth! (Collinson, vol. ii. p. 108.)

J. E. J.

_Froissart's Accuracy_ (Vol. viii., p. 494.).--The accuracy of Froissart as
an historian has never been questioned, says T. J. This assertion ought not
to pass without a note. If T. J. will look into Hallam's _Lit. of Europe_,
ch. iii., he will find that judicious and learned critic comparing
Froissart with Livy for "fertility of historical invention," or, in other
words, for his unhesitatingly supplying his readers with a copious and
picturesque statement of the details of events, where they were palpably
out of the reach of his knowledge.

As a gleaner of chivalrous gossip, and a painter of national manners,
Froissart is perhaps unequalled. Take up his account of a campaign on the
Scottish borders, and he relates the proceedings in his amusing style, as
if he had been behind every bush with the Scotch, and hunting for them in
vain with every English banner. But if his accuracy be inquired into, he
tells you that Carlisle, which he calls Cardoel en Gales, is on {605} the
Tyne, and was garrisoned in vain with "grand planté de Galois," to prevent
the Scotch from passing the Tyne under its walls (vol. i. ch. xviii. xix.

So much by way of note; but there is a Query which I should be glad to see
answered. Bayle (art. Froissart) quotes a German critic as affirming that
in the Lyons edition of Froissart, by Denys Saulvage, 1559: "Omnia quæ Aulæ
Gallicæ displicebant, deleta, vixque decimam historiæ partem relictam
esse." Does Col. Johnes notice this inaccuracy in the edition generally
procurable? And does he state whether he saw, or consulted, or received any
benefit from the existence of the MS. copy of Froissart, once in the
library of Breslaw?


_Nursery Rhymes_ (Vol. viii., p. 452.).--I fear J. R.'s anxiety to find a
Saxon origin to a nursery rhyme has _suggested_ unconsciously a version
which does not otherwise exist. The rhyme in my young days used to be,--

 "Hushaby, baby, on the tree top,
  When the wind blows the cradle will rock."

--a sufficient rhyme for the nursery.



"_Hip, hip, hurrah!_" (Vol. viii., pp. 88. 323.).-- SIR J. EMERSON TENNENT,
in answering MR. BRENT'S observation at p. 88., seems to have been fighting
a shadow. Upon reference to Mr. Chappell's _Collection_, vol. ii. p. 38.,
quoted by MR. BRENT, it appears that a note by Dr. Burney, in a copy of
Hawkins's _History of Music_, in the British Museum, is the authority for
the reading:

 "Hang up all the poor _hep_ drinkers,
  Cries old Sim, the King of skinkers."

In the folio edition of Ben Jonson's _Works_, published by Thomas Hodgkin,
London, 1692, in which the "Leges Convivales" are I believe for the first
time printed, the verses over the door of the Apollo are given, and the
couplet runs:

 "Hang up all the poor _hop_ drinkers,
  Cries Old Sym, the King of skinkers."

Probably Mr. Chappell misread Dr. Burney's MS. note: at all events MR.
BRENT'S ingenious suggestion is without foundation.

A. F. B.


_Dodo_ (Vol. vii., p. 83.).--Dodo or Doun Bardolf married Beatrix, daughter
of William de Warren of Wormegay. She was a widow in 1209, and remarried
the famous Hubert de Burgh.


_Oaths_ (Vol. viii., p. 364.).--Your correspondent assumes that the act of
kissing the Bible, or other book containing the Holy Gospels, by a judicial
witness, is a part of the oath itself. Is it such, or is it merely an act
of reverence to the book? In support of the latter supposition, I would
quote Archdeacon Paley, who says, that after repeating the oath,--

    "The juror kisses the book; the kiss, however, seems rather an act of
    reverence to the contents of the book, as in the Popish ritual the
    priest kisses the gospel before he reads it, than any part of the
    oath."--_Mor. and Pol. Ph._, p. 193., thirteenth edition.

In none of the instances given by C. S. G. does kissing the book appear to
be essential. Does not this rather favour Dr. Paley's explanation? which,
if it be correct, would, I think, afford grounds for concluding that the
practice of kissing the book accompanied the taking of ancient oaths, and
is not, as C. S. G. suggests, an addition of later times.

Again, may I bring forward the same authority in opposition to that quoted
by your correspondent with reference to the origin of the term corporal

    "It is commonly thought that oaths are denominated corporal oaths from
    the bodily action which accompanies them, of laying the right hand upon
    a book containing the four gospels. This opinion, however, appears to
    be a mistake, for the term is borrowed from the ancient usage of
    touching upon these occasions the _corporale_, or cloth, which covered
    the consecrated elements."--P. 191.

R. V. T.

Mincing Lane.

The old custom of taking the judicial oath by merely laying the right hand
upon the book, is undoubtedly, thinks ERICA, of Pagan origin. In my humble
opinion it is far too common with us to ascribe things to Pagan origin. I
would venture to assert that the origin of this form of judicial oath may
be traced to Deuteronomy xxi. 1-8., where at the sacrifice offered up in
expiation of secret murder, the rulers of the city nearest the spot where
the corpse was found were in presence of the corpse to wash their hands
_over_ the victim, and say, "Our hands did not shed this blood, nor did our
eyes see it."


_Mayors and Sheriffs_ (Vol. viii., p. 126.).--In answer to a SUBSCRIBER,
there can be little or no doubt, I consider, but that the mayor of a town
or borough is the principal and most important officer, and ought to have
precedence of a sheriff of a town or borough. By stat. 5 & 6 Wm. IV. cap.
76. sec. 57., it is enacted, "That the mayor for the time being of every
borough shall, during the time of his mayoralty, have precedence in all
places within the borough." As sheriffs of towns, and counties of towns, do
not derive their appointments from the Crown, but from the councils of
their respective towns, &c. (see sec. 61. of the {606} above Act), I do not
imagine that they can legally claim precedence of mayors, on the alleged
ground of any "representation of Majesty," in the face of the particular
enactment above quoted; which, indeed, seems to me to give to the mayor
within his own borough precedence of a high sheriff of a county, if present
on any public occasion. I am not aware that the sheriff of borough, as
such, can "_claim_ to have a grant of arms, if he has not any previous;"
although I have no doubt he may readily obtain one, upon payment of the
usual fees.

C. J.

_Mousehunt_ (Vol. viii., p. 516.).--

    "A Mousehunt is a little animal of the species of weasel; it has a very
    slender body, about the length of a rat, with a long hairy tail, bushy
    at the end; the back is of a reddish-brown colour, the hair long and
    smooth; the belly is white, as are also its feet; it runs very swiftly,
    swaying its body as it moves along from side to side. The head is short
    and narrow, with small ears, like those of a rat; the eyes are black,
    piercing, and very bright. Their chief food is rats, mice, young
    chickens, little birds, and eggs. They frequent mole-hills, and are
    often caught in the traps set for the moles; they are destroyed by
    ferrets and dogs. These mousehunts live, for the most part, in holes
    beneath the roots of trees, or in old buildings."

The above description of the Mousehunt is given in _The History of a
Field-mouse_ by Miss Black. Should it be thought of sufficient authority to
deserve a place in "N. & Q.," the coincidence which led "Little Downy" to
be read to a little girl on the morning of Nov. 26 will amuse.

E. B. R.

_"Salus populi," &c._ (Vol. viii., p. 410.).--Selden, in his _Table Talk_
(art. PEOPLE), states, on what authority I know not, that this was part of
the law of XII Tables.

E. S. T. T.

_Love Charm from a Foal's Forehead_ (Vol. viii., p. 292.).--The word which
H. P. wants is _Hippomanes_. The reference which the Lexicons give is to
Aristotle's _History of Animals_, viii. 23. 5.

I shall be glad to have some of H. P.'s references to Tacitus, as I cannot
now call one to mind. In connexion with the subject, I should like to know
if the white star, which used to be so fashionable on horses' foreheads,
was always or generally produced artificially.



_Land of Green Ginger_ (Vol. viii., pp. 160. 227.). --So named, in all
probability, from green ginger having been manufactured there. Green ginger
was one of the favourite conserve of our ancestors, and great quantities of
it were made in this country from dried ginger roots. In an old
black-letter work without date, but unmistakeably of the sixteenth century,
entitled _The Book of pretty C[=o]ceits, taken out of Latine, French,
Dutch, and English_, there is a receipt "To make Green Ginger," commencing
thus:--"Take rases of cased ginger and use them in this sort." I need not
quote the long-winded receipt. Suffice it to say that dried ginger was
placed in alternate layers with fine white sand, and the whole mass kept
constantly wet until the ginger became quite soft. It was then washed,
scraped clean, and put into sirup. There can be no greater difficulty in
finding a derivation for the Land of Green Ginger, than for Pudding Lane,
or Pie Corner.



       *       *       *       *       *



The Members of the _Camden Society_ have just received two volumes, with
which we doubt not all will be well pleased. The first is a farther
portion, namely, from M to R, of Mr. Way's most valuable edition of the
_Promptorium Parvulorum_. A glance at the foot-notes, so rich in
philological illustration, and a knowledge that Mr. Way's labours have been
greatly impeded by his removal from London, where only he can meet with the
authorities which he is obliged to consult, may well explain the delay
which has taken place in its publication. But we doubt not that the Camden
Council are justified in the hope which they have expressed that the favour
with which the present portion is received, will encourage the editor to
proceed with all possible dispatch to the conclusion of the work.

Rich, like the _Promptorium_, in philological illustration, and of the
highest value as a contribution to the social history of the thirteenth
century, is the next work; and for which the Camden Members are indebted to
the learned Vicar of Holbeach, The Rev. James Morton. _The Ancren Riwle; a
Treatise on the Rules and Duties of Monastic Life_, which he has edited and
translated from a Semi-Saxon MS. of the thirteenth century, is a work which
many of our best scholars have long desired to see in print,--we believe we
may add, that many have thought seriously of editing. The information to be
derived from it, with regard to the state of society, the learning and
manners, the moral and religious teaching, and the language of the period
in which it was written, is so various and so important, that it is clear
the Camden Society has done good service in selecting it for publication;
while the manner in which it has been edited by Mr. Morton, and the
translation and complete Glossarial Index with which he has enriched it,
show that the Council did equally well in their choice of an editor. The
work does the highest credit both to that gentleman and to the Camden

Mr Bridger, of 3. Keppel Street, Russell Square, is desirous of making
known to our readers that he is engaged in compiling a "Catalogue of
Privately Printed Books in Genealogy and kindred subjects," and to solicit
information in furtherance of his design, {607} more especially with regard
to privately printed sheet pedigrees. The Catalogue will be printed for
private distribution, and he will be happy to give a copy to any one who
may favour him with communications.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--As usual, we have a large item to enter under this head to
the account of that enterprising caterer of good and cheap books, Mr. Bohn.
We have two volumes of his _Standard Library_, namely, Adam Smith's _Theory
of Moral Sentiments; and Dissertation on the Origin of Languages, with the
Biographical and Critical Memoir of the Author_, by Dugald Stewart--and a
work of greater present interest, though in itself of far less importance,
namely, Ranke's _History of Servia_, and his _Insurrection in Bosnia,
translated from the German_, by Mrs. A. Kerr, and the _Slave Provinces of
Turkey, chiefly from the French_ of M. Cyprien Robert, a volume which will
be read with eagerness in the present condition of the political world.
_Justin, Cornelius Nepos, and Eutropius, literally translated, with Notes
and a General Index_, by the Reverend J. Selby Watson, M.A., forms the new
volume of the same publisher's _Classical Library_. Mr. Bohn has this month
commenced a New Series under the title of Bohn's _British Classics_. The
first work is an edition of Gibbon's _Decline and Fall_, with the notes of
Guizot, Wenck, and other continental writers; and farther illustrations by
an English Churchman. In thus choosing Gibbon, Mr. Bohn has not shown his
usual tact. He may not mean his edition to be a rival to that published by
Mr. Murray under the editorship of Dean Milman; but he will find much
difficulty in dissuading the reading world that it is not so intended. We
speak thus freely, because we have always spoken so freely in commendation
of Mr. Bohn's projects generally.--_Catalogue of my English Library,
collected and described_ by Henry Stevens, F.S.A., is a catalogue of the
books essential to a good English library of about 5000 volumes, and such
as Mr. Stevens, the indefatigable supplier of book rarities and book
utilities to his American brethren, feels justified in recommending. It
would be found so capital a Hand-book to all classes, that we are sorry to
see it is only printed for private distribution.--_The Botanist's
Word-book_, by G. Macdonald, Esq., and Dr. James Allan. This little
vocabulary of the terms employed in the Science of Botany, which may now
almost be described as the science of Long Names, will be found most useful
by all who pursue that fascinating study.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE FRIENDS. 1773. 2 Vols.


*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
sent to MR. BELL, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the
gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are
given for that purpose:

ORMEROD'S CHESHIRE. Parts II. and X. Small Paper.

HEMINGWAY'S CHESTER. Parts I. and III. Large Paper.

  Wanted by _T. Hughes_, 13. Paradise Row, Chester.

       *       *       *       *       *



  Wanted by _F. Dinsdale_, Leamington.

       *       *       *       *       *





ANNALS OF PHILOSOPHY for January, 1824.

UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE for January, 1763.


  Wanted by _Mr. H. T. Bobart_, Ashby-de-la-Zouch.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE BIBLE in Shorthand, according to the method of Mr. James Weston, whose
Shorthand Prayer Book was published in the Year 1730. A Copy of Addy's
Copperplate Shorthand Bible, London, 1687, would be given in exchange.

HÆRETICI. 4to. Vitemb. 1674.





  Wanted by _Rev. Richard Gibbings_, Falcarragh, Letterkenny, Co. Donegal.

       *       *       *       *       *



  Wanted by _Mr. J. Phillips_, Stamford.

       *       *       *       *       *

Nicholls. 2 Vols. 8vo. London, Ridgway, 1820.

  Wanted by _G. Cornewall Lewis_, Kent House, Knightsbridge.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_We have this week the pleasure of again presenting our readers with a
Thirty-two page Number, in consequence of the number of Advertisements and
the length of _DR. DIAMOND'S_ valuable paper. This latter we recommend to
the attention of our antiquarian friends, who will find, as we have done,
that the process is at once simple and certain, and one which may be
mastered with very little trouble._

NON-MEDICUS. _Your correction of an obvious blunder in the
Registrar-General's Report is not fitted for our columns._

F. W. _The proverb_ Good wine needs no bush _has reference to the practice
which formerly prevailed of hanging a tuft of ivy at the door of a vintner,
as we learn from_--

 "Now a days the good wyne needeth none ivye garland."

_Ritson, in a note on the epilogue to Shakespeare's_ As You Like It,
_speaks of the custom as then prevalent in Warwickshire, and as having
given the name to the well-known_ Bush Inn _at Bristol_.

B. W. C. (Barum). _The subject is under serious consideration, but the
difficulties are greater than our friendly Correspondent imagines._

J. D. Les Lettres Cabalistiques _were written by M. D'Argens, the author
of_ Les Lettres Juives _and_ Les Lettres Chinoises.

MR. J. A. DUNKIN, _of Dartford, Kent, would feel obliged with the loan of
the following work_: Memoirs of the Origin of the Incorporation of the
Trinity House of Deptford Strond. _It is not in the British Museum._

FOLK LORE.--_We propose next week to present our readers with a Christmas
Number, rich in_ Folk Lore, _and other kindred subjects_.

_Many replies to Correspondents are unavoidably postponed._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_.

"NOTES AND QUERIES," Vols. i. _to_ vii., _price Three Guineas and a
Half.--Copies are being made up and may be had by order._

       *       *       *       *       *


In small 8vo. volumes, neatly bound,


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*** The Works in this Series are all copyright, and cannot be had in any
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The new volume, published on the 15th inst., contains, THE TWO BROTHERS.

          Volumes already published:
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       8. Broad Grins from China. 1s.
       9. Albert Smith's Life at Home and Abroad. 1s.
      10. Sketches of English Character.  By Mrs. Gore. 1s.
      11. Professor Creasy's Battle of Waterloo. 1s.
      12. Emille Carlen's Brilliant Marriage. 1s.
      13. Merrimee's Colomba. A Story of Corsica. Double vol. 1s. 6d.
      14. Merrimee's Massacre of St. Bartholomew. A Chronicle of Charles
          IX. Double vol. 2s.
      15. John Drayton. the Liverpool Engineer. Double vol. 2s.
      16. Stella and Vanessa. A Romance of the Days of Swift. Double vol.
      17. Ned Myers. By J. Fenimore Cooper. 1s.

To be followed by

  Basil. By Wilkie Collins.
  Stanley Thorn. By the Author of "Valentine Vox."

RICHARD BENTLEY, New Burlington Street.

And to be had of all Booksellers, and at all Railway Stations.

       *       *       *       *       *

In imperial quarto, beautifully printed in colours, price 21s. half-bound

of the "Physical Atlas," &c. With a complete Index of Places. by T. HARVEY,

Edinburgh and London.

Of whom may be had,

octavo, price 12s. 6d.

       *       *       *       *       *

In super-royal 16mo., illustrated by "Phiz," price 3s. 6d. cloth; 4s. 6d.
coloured, gilt edges.

Life of Stothard," "Trelawny," &c.

    "Mrs. Bray's knowledge of the locality, her affection for her subject,
    her exquisite feeling for nature, and her real delight in fairy lore,
    have given a freshness to the little volume we did not expect. The
    notes at the end contain matter of interest for all who feel a desire
    to know the origin of such tales and legends."--_Art Journal._

GRANT & GRIFFITH, Corner of St. Paul's Churchyard.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, fcap. 8vo., price 5s. cloth,

MRS. R. LEE, Author of "The African Wanderers," &c. Illustrations by

By the same Author,

ANECDOTES of the HABITS and INSTINCT of ANIMALS. Illustrations by H. WEIR.
New Edition, 5s. cloth.

    "Amusing, instructive, and ably written."--_Literary Gazette._

    "Mrs. Lee's authorities--to name only one, Professor Owen--are, for the
    most part, first-rate."--_Athenæum._

GRANT & GRIFFITH, Corner of St. Paul's Churchyard.

       *       *       *       *       *

HEAL AND SON'S EIDER DOWN QUILTS are made in three Varieties,--the BORDERED
QUILT, the PLAIN QUILT, and the DUVET. The Bordered Quilt is in the usual
form of Bed Quilts, and is a most elegant and luxurious article. The Plain
Quilt is smaller, and is useful as an extra covering on the bed, or as a
wrapper in the carriage, or on the couch. The Duvet is a loose case filled
with Eider Down as in general use on the Continent. Lists of Prices and
Sizes sent free by Post, on application to

HEAL & SON'S Bedding Factory, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X., in
Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates, may
now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board
of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen.


       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, with ten coloured Engravings, price 5s.

"Microscopic Cabinet." By ANDREW PRITCHARD, M.R.I.

Also, in 8vo.; pp. 720; Plates 24; price 21s., or coloured, 36s.,

A HISTORY of INFUSORIAL ANIMALCULES, Living and Fossil, containing
Descriptions of every Species, British and foreign; the methods of
procuring and viewing them, &c., illustrated by numerous Engravings. BY

    "There is no work extant in which so much valuable information
    concerning Infusoria (Animalcules) can be found, and every Microscopist
    should add it to his library."--_Silliman's Journal._"

Also, price 8s. 6d.,

MICROGRAPHIA, or Practical Essays on Reflecting and Solar Microscopes;
Eye-Pieces; Micrometers, &c.

Also, edited by the same, price 18s.,

ENGLISH PATENTS; being a Register of all those granted in the Arts,
Manufactures, Chemistry, &c., during the first forty-five years of this

WHITTAKER & Co., Ave Maria Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *

On 15th of December, price 2d.; stamped, 3d.

THE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL MISCELLANY, NO. II., contains a reprint of the very
rare, and probably unique, Tract of SIR DUDLEY DIGGES on the NORTH-WEST
PASSAGE to India and China printed in 1611, and is appended to JOHN

JOHN PETHERAM, 94. High Holborn.

       *       *       *       *       *


    This Evening, at 6.--Remainders of numerous magnificent Illustrated
    Books.--By SOUTHGATE & BARRETT, at their Rooms, 22. Fleet Street, THIS
    EVENING, December 15th, and following Evenings (Saturday and Sunday
    excepted), at 6,

ROBERTS'S HOLY LAND, EGYPT, NUBIA, &c.; Digby Wyatt's Industrial Arts of
the Nineteenth Century (of both of which the lithographic stones will be
destroyed during the progress of the sale); Digby Wyatt's Metal Work, and
its Artistic Design; Kirby Wyatt's Geometrical Mosaics of the Middle Ages;
Darrell's China, India, and the Cape, coloured and mounted; Nash's Mansions
of England in the Olden Time; Gruner's Specimens of Ornamental Art; Musée
Royal (picked proofs before the letters); Richardson's Studies from Old
English Mansions; and a great number of Books of Prints by eminent Artists
will be sold in this Sale. Catalogues (1s. each, returnable to Purchasers)
will be forwarded to gentlemen sending their Address.

       *       *       *       *       *

    This Evening, at 6. First Class English Engravings.--By SOUTHGATE &
    BARRETT, at their Rooms, 22. Fleet Street, THIS EVENING, Dec. 15, and
    following Evenings, at 6,

CHOICE ENGRAVINGS, including all the best Productions of Sir Edwin
Landseer, R.A.; comprising the Stag at Bay (both large and small), the
Cover Hack, the Drive, Three Sporting Dogs, Return from the Warren, the
Mothers, complete Sets of his Etchings, and others; Turner's Dover and
Hastings; Ansdell's Just Caught; the Halt, and the Combat; Webster's
Rubber; Etty's Judgment of Paris; Harvey's Bowlers, and First Reading of
the Bible in Old St. Paul's; Murillo's Holy Family; the Rainbow, by
Constable; Mated and Checkmated, the Duet, and other graceful Compositions
by Frank Stone; Going With and against the Stream, after Jenkins; and
numerous others. All in the finest possible states.

       *       *       *       *       *





       *       *       *       *       *

These Works are printed in quarto, uniform with the Club-Books, and the
series is now completed. Their value chiefly consists in the rarity and
curiosity of the pieces selected, the notes being very few in number. The
impression of each work is most strictly limited.

       *       *       *       *       *


MORTE ARTHURE: The Alliterative Romance of the Death of King Arthur; now
first printed, from a Manuscript in the Library of Lincoln Cathedral.
Seventy-five Copies printed. 5l.

    *** A very curious Romance, full of allusions interesting to the
    Antiquary and Philologist. It contains nearly eight thousand lines.


THE CASTLE OF LOVE: A Poem, by ROBERT GROSTESTE, Bishop of Lincoln; now
first printed from inedited MSS. of the Fourteenth Century. One Hundred
Copies printed. 15s.

    *** This is a religious poetical Romance, unknown to Warton. Its
    poetical merits are beyond its age.


and Ancient Inedited Manuscripts from the Fifteenth to the Seventeenth
Century. Seventy-five Copies printed.

    *** Out of print separately, but included in the few remaining complete


numerous woodcuts and facsimiles of Shakespeare's Marriage Bond, and other
curious Articles. Seventy-five Copies printed. 1l. 1s.


THE PALATINE ANTHOLOGY. An extensive Collection of Ancient Poems and
Ballads relating to Cheshire and Lancashire; to which is added THE PALATINE
GARLAND. One Hundred and Ten Copies printed. 2l. 2s.


Reprints of very Rare Tracts. Seventy-five Copies printed. 2l. 2s.

    CONTENTS:--Harry White his Humour, set forth by M. P.--Comedie of the
    two Italian Gentlemen--Tailor's Travels from London to the Isle of
    Wight, 1648--Wyll Bucke his Testament--The Booke of Merry Riddles,
    1629--Comedie of All for Money, 1578--Wine, Beere, Ale, and Tobacco,
    1630--Johnson's New Booke of New Conceites, 1630--Love's Garland, 1624.


THE YORKSHIRE ANTHOLOGY.--An Extensive Collection of Ballads and Poems,
respecting the County of Yorkshire. One Hundred and Ten Copies printed. 2l.

    *** This Work contains upwards of 400 pages, and includes a reprint of
    the very curious Poem, called "Yorkshire Ale," 1697, as well as a great
    variety of Old Yorkshire Ballads.


Quarto (Preface omitted), to range with Todd's "Johnson," with Margins
sufficient for Insertions. One Hundred and Twelve Copies printed in this
form. 2l. 2s.


INVENTORIES, Illustrating the History of Prices between the Years 1650 and
1750, with Copious Extracts from Old Account-Books. Eighty Copies printed.
1l. 1s.


THE POETRY OF WITCHCRAFT, Illustrated by Copies of the Plays on the
Lancashire Witches, by Heywood and Shadwell, viz., the "Late Lancashire
Witches," and the "Lancashire Witches and Tegue O'Divelly, the Irish
Priest." Eighty Copies printed. 2l. 2s.


THE NORFOLK ANTHOLOGY, a Collection of Poems, Ballads, and Rare Tracts,
relating to the County of Norfolk. Eighty Copies printed. 2l. 2s.


BOOKS, AND OTHER RELIQUES, Illustrative of the Life and Works of
Shakespeare. Illustrated with Woodcuts. Eighty Copies printed. 1l. 1s.


attributed to Shirley, a Poem by N. BRETON, and other Miscellanies. Eighty
Copies printed. 2l. 2s.

    *** A Complete Set of the Fourteen Volumes, 21l. A reduction made in
    favour of permanent libraries on application, it being obvious that the
    works cannot thence return into the market to the detriment of original

       *       *       *       *       *

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *





       *       *       *       *       *

Traditional, and Romantic, Chronologically arranged, with Introductory
Notices, Historical and Critical; together with a Selection of Modern
Imitations, and some Translations, revised and enlarged. 15s. 8vo.,
Roxburghe Style, or 2 vols. cloth.

8vo. 1l. 11s. 6d. half-bound morocco; 2l. 2s. morocco, elegantly gilt.

*** Another Edition, Large Paper, imp. 4to. ILLUSTRATED BY MARTIN'S LARGER
PLATES, good Impressions, half-bound russia elegant, 3l. 3s. (Only 100
Copies printed.)

    "He is more original, more self-dependent, than Raffaele or Michael
    Angelo; they perfected the style of others--of Massaccio and
    Signorelli; Martin borrowed from none."--_Sir E. L. B. Lytton._

       *       *       *       *       *

Cheap, Compact, and Complete Editions, Octavo.

SPENSER'S WORKS. Portrait, &c. 9s.

SPECTATOR, with Portraits and Lives of the Authors. 9s.


PERCY'S RELIQUES of ANCIENT ENGLISH POETRY. 3 vols. fcap. 8vo., with
Illuminated Titles, 15s. cloth; 18s. half-morocco; 1l. 11s. 6d. morocco

Also, to match,


    "Washbourne's Editions of Percy and Ellis are tempting
    books."--_Gentleman's Magazine._

MASSINGER'S WORKS, by GIFFORD. Portrait, &c. 9s.


Engravings, and Notes. Small 8vo., 9s. cloth; 14s. morocco, or calf
antique; also L. P. crown 8vo., cloth, 12s.

An enlarged Edition, with 4,000 Plates, 2 vols. 21s.

BOOK of FAMILY CRESTS, &c.; with upwards of 4,000 Engravings, illustrative
of the Crests of nearly every Family.

    "No wonder this book sells."--_Spectator._

The best recommendation as to its correctness (in the main) is, that it has
been used as a book of reference in the Heralds' College.

BOOK OF MOTTOES, with Translations and Bearers' Names, cloth gilt, 3s. 6d.

Fourteenth Edition, and 80th Year of its Publication,

CLARK'S INTRODUCTION to HERALDRY. Upwards of 1,000 Plates, including the
Arms of numerous Families, small 8vo. 7s. 6d.; correctly coloured, 18s.;
or, 10s. 6d. on paper prepared for Learners.

    "I do not think I can offer better information than will be found in
    Clark's Introduction to Heraldry."--_Basil Montagu._

Illustrated by 100 Portraits and Engravings on Copper and Wood.

BUTLER'S HUDIBRAS, by DR. NASH, with some of Gray's Notes. 2 vols. crown
8vo., 18s.

HERBERT'S POEMS AND COUNTRY PARSON, complete: 3s. 6d. cloth; 7s. morocco;
9s. antique morocco or calf.

       *       *       *       *       *

*** Please to note WASHBOURNE'S Editions.

       *       *       *       *       *

This Day, Fourth and Cheaper Edition, in cloth and coloured, 5s.

BIBLE MAPS; an Historical and Descriptive Atlas of Scripture Geography,
wherein the Ancient Authorities are verified, and corrected from the
Information of Modern Travellers up to the present Time. With Copious

London: J. W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors end Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.


       *       *       *       *       *

RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW (New Series), consisting of Criticisms upon, Analyses
of, and Extracts from, Curious Useful and Valuable Old Books. Vol. I. Pp.
436. Cloth, 10s. 6d. Part V., price 2s. 6d., published Quarterly, is now

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square.

       *       *       *       *       *

Price 2s., or, Post Free, 2s. 6d. in Stamps.

PANTOMIME BUDGETS: contains Notes and Queries on Things in General, and
Taxation in particular.

CROSS & SON, 18. Holborn.

       *       *       *       *       *


AMUSEMENT FOR LONG EVENINGS, by means of STATHAM'S Chemical Cabinets and
Portable Laboratories, 5s. 6d., 7s. 6d., 10s. 6d., 21s., 31s. 6d., 42s.,
63s., and upwards. Book of Experiments, 6d. "Illustrated Descriptive
Catalogue" forwarded Free for Stamp.

    WILLIAM E. STATHAM, Operative Chemist, 29_c._ Rotherfield Street,
    Islington, London, and of Chemists and Opticians everywhere.

       *       *       *       *       *

In 1 vol. 8vo., price 12s. 6d. cloth.

Theological Tutor of the Old College, Homerton. By JOHN MEDWAY.

London: JACKSON & WALFORD, 18. St. Paul's Churchyard.

       *       *       *       *       *

In fcap. 8vo., price 6s. cloth.

Recollections of the Discourses of his Closing Years, from Notes at the
Time. By One of his Sons.

London: JACKSON & WALFORD, 18. St. Paul's Churchyard.

       *       *       *       *       *

In fcap. 8vo., with Vignette, price 5s. cloth.

SCENES in OTHER LANDS; with their Associations. By JOHN STOUGHTON.

London: JACKSON & WALFORD, 18. St. Paul's Churchyard.

       *       *       *       *       *

In fcap. 8vo., price 2s. 6d., sewed, a revised and Cheaper Edition of


London: JACKSON & WALFORD, 18. St. Paul's Churchyard.

       *       *       *       *       *

In fcp. 8vo., price 5s. cloth.

PRAYERS. Chiefly adapted for Times and Occasions of Personal Trial. By JOHN

London: JACKSON & WALFORD, 18. St. Paul's Churchyard.

       *       *       *       *       *

Second Edition, in fcap. 8vo., price 4s. cloth.

Love of Creatures and of the Creator. Christian Conversation. In Three

London: JACKSON & WALFORD, 18. St. Paul's Churchyard.

       *       *       *       *       *

In square crown 8vo., price 21s.; or, 36s. bound in morocco.

Wood, from Designs by Members of the Etching Club.

    "Apart from the grace and beauty of the illustrations, it is by far the
    most correct and careful of the existing editions."--_Forster's Life of


       *       *       *       *       *

Price One Guinea, in massive carved covers; or 30s. bound,

MIRACLES OF OUR LORD, illuminated in the Missal Style. By HENRY NOEL

By the same Illuminator,



       *       *       *       *       *


Solicitors' & General Life Assurance Society,


Subscribed Capital, _ONE MILLION_.


The Security of a Subscribed Capital of ONE MILLION.

Exemption of the Assured from all Liability.

Premiums affording particular advantages to Young Lives.

Participating and Non-Participating Premiums.

In the former EIGHTY PER CENT. or FOUR-FIFTHS of the Profits are divided
amongst the Assured Triennially, either by way of addition to the sum
assured, or in diminution of Premium, at their option.

No deduction is made from the four-fifths of the profits for Interest on
Capital, for a Guarantee Fund, or on any other account.

POLICIES FREE OF STAMP DUTY and INDISPUTABLE, except in case of fraud.

At the General Meeting, on the 31st May last, A BONUS was declared of
nearly Two Per Cent. per annum on the _amount assured_, or at the rate of
from THIRTY to upwards of SIXTY per cent. on the _Premiums paid_.

POLICIES share in the Profits, even if ONE PREMIUM ONLY has been paid.


The Directors meet on Thursdays at 2 o'Clock. Assurances may be effected by
applying on any other day, between the hours of 10 and 4, at the Office of
the Society, where prospectuses and all other requisite information can be


       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

XYLO-IODIDE OF SILVER, exclusively used at all the Photographic
Establishments.--The superiority of this preparation is now universally
acknowledged. Testimonials from the best Photographers and principal
scientific men of the day, warrant the assertion, that hitherto no
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pictures, combined with the greatest rapidity of action. In all cases where
a quantity is required, the two solutions may be had at Wholesale price in
separate Bottles, in which state it may be kept for years, and Exported to
any Climate. Full instructions for use.

CAUTION.--Each Bottle is Stamped with a Red Label bearing my name, RICHARD
W. THOMAS, Chemist, 10. Pall Mall, to counterfeit which is felony.

CYANOGEN SOAP: for removing all kinds of Photographic Stains. Beware of
purchasing spurious and worthless imitations of this valuable detergent.
The Genuine is made only by the Inventor, and is secured with a Red Label
bearing this Signature and Address, RICHARD W. THOMAS, CHEMIST, 10. PALL
MALL, Manufacturer of Pure Photographic Chemicals: and may be procured of
all respectable Chemists, in Pots at 1_s_., 2_s_., and 3s. 6d. each,
through MESSRS. EDWARDS, 67. St. Paul's Churchyard; and MESSRS. BARCLAY &
CO., 95. Farringdon Street, Wholesale Agents.

       *       *       *       *       *

POLICY HOLDERS in other COMPANIES, and intending Assurers generally, are
invited to examine the Rates, Principles, and Progress of the SCOTTISH
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Full Reports and every Information had (Free) on Application.

*** Policies are now issued Free of Stamp Duty; and attention is invited to
the circumstance that Premiums payable for Life Assurance are now allowed
as a Deduction from Income in the Returns for Income Tax.

  GEORGE GRANT, Resident Sec.
  London Branch, 12. Moorgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


A COMPLETE SET OF APPARATUS for 4l. 4s., containing an Expanding Camera,
with warranted Double Achromatic Adjusting Lenses, a Portable Stand,
Pressure Frame, Levelling Stand, and Baths, complete.

PORTRAIT LENSES of double Achromatic combination, from 1l. 12s. 6d.

LANDSCAPE LENSES, with Rack Adjustment, from 25s.

A GUIDE to the Practice of this interesting Art, 1s., by post free. 1s. 6d.

French Polished MAHOGANY STEREOSCOPES, from 10s. 6d. A large assortment of
STEREOSCOPIC PICTURES for the same in Daguerreotype, Calotype, or Albumen,
at equally low prices.


Beautifully finished ACHROMATIC MICROSCOPE, with all the latest improvement
and apparatus, complete from 3l. 15s., at

C. BAKER'S. Optical and Mathematical Instrument Warehouse, 244. High
Holborn (opposite Day & Martin's).

       *       *       *       *       *

celebrated French, Italian, and English Photographers, embracing Views of
the principal Countries and Cities of Europe, is now OPEN. Admission 6d. A
Portrait taken by MR. TALBOT'S Patent Process, One Guinea; Three extra
Copies for 10s.


       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

is superior to every other form of Camera, for the Photographic Tourist,
from its capability of Elongation or Contraction to any Focal Adjustment,
its Portability, and its adaptation for taking either Views or
Portraits.--The Trade supplied.

Every Description of Camera, or Slides, Tripod Stands, Printing Frames,
&c., may be obtained at his MANUFACTORY, Charlotte Terrace, Barnsbury Road,

New Inventions, Models, &c., made to order or from Drawings.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

Post, 1s. 2d.

       *       *       *       *       *

SPECTACLES.--Every Description of SPECTACLES and EYE-GLASSES for the
Assistance of Vision, adapted by means of Smee's Optometer: that being the
only correct method of determining the exact focus of the Lenses required,
and of preventing injury to the sight by the use of improper Glasses.

BLAND & LONG. Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS,
other travelling requisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on
receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

PRINCE OF WALES'S SKETCH-BOX.--Containing Colours, Pencils, &c., with
printed directions, as now used by the Royal Family. Price 5s.

MILLER'S, Artist's Colour Manufacturer, 56. Long Acre, London; and at her
Majesty's Steam Colour and Pencil Works, Pimlico.

       *       *       *       *       *






       *       *       *       *       *

THE BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER. With Fifty Illustrations, from Designs by
Ancient and Modern Artists. Selected by the REV. H. J. ROSE and REV. J. W.
BURGON. In One handsome Volume, 8vo. The Prayer-Book is printed in very
large type, with Rubrics in Red. Elegantly bound in antique calf, with
vermillion edges, 2l. 5s.

DAILY CHURCH SERVICES. In One Portable Volume, containing the Prayers and
Lessons for Daily Use: or, the Course of Scripture Readings for the Year,
authorised by the Church. Also, a Table of the Proper Lessons for Sundays
and Holydays, with References to the Pages. Price 10s. 6d., bound; 16s. in
Hayday's morocco.

    This volume will be found equally useful to those who read the Church
    Service at home, as for those who use it at church, as the lessons and
    services for every day are distinctly marked, forming a very suitable
    book for a present. It is also kept by any respectable bookseller in a
    variety of elegant bindings.

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       *       *       *       *       *

THE PENNY POST for 1853 is now ready, bound in cloth, lettered with
Frontispiece, price 1s. 6d.

       *       *       *       *       *

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5 New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and Published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, December
17, 1853.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

page 591, "the Greek of the Septuagint, or of the New Testament": 'not of
the New Testament' in original, corrected by errata in Issue 217.

ibid., "it is usual to read this with an accent on the penultima":
'antepenultima' in original, corrected by errata in Issue 217.

page 594, "Richard, son of the writer of the said letter" : 'son of'
inserted by errata in Issue 218.

ibid., "he (the Father) thus commences" : '(the Father)' inserted by errata
in Issue 218.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 216, December 17, 1853 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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