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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 228, March 11, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 228, March 11, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.


Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 228.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *



  Where are the Wills to be deposited?                         215


  "J. R. of Cork"                                              217

  Marmortinto, or Sand-painting                                217

  The Soldier's Discipline, from a Broadside
  of the Year 1642                                             218

  Leading Articles of Foreign Newspapers                       218

  MINOR NOTES:--Materials for a History of Druidism--Domestic
  Chapels--Ordinary--Thom's Irish Almanac and Official
  Directory for 1854--Antiquity of the Word "Snub"--Charles
  I. at Little Woolford--Coincidence between Sir Thomas
  Browne and Bishop Ken--The English School of Painting--"A
  Feather in your Cap"                                         219


  Domestic Architecture: Licences to
  Crenellate, by J. H. Parker                                  220

  Dixon of Beeston, by R. W. Dixon, J.P.                       221

  MINOR QUERIES:--Atherstone Family--Classic Authors and the
  Jews--Bishop Hooper's Argument on the Vestment Controversy
  --The Title of "Dominus"--The De Rous Family--Where was
  the Fee of S. Sanxon?--Russian Emperors--Episcopal Insignia
  of the Eastern Church--Amontillado Sherry--Col. Michael
  Smith's Family--Pronunciation of Foreign Names--Artesian
  Wells--Norman Towers in London--Papyrus--Mathew, a Cornish
  Family                                                       221

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Bunyan's Descendants--Epigram
  on Dennis--Football played on Shrove Tuesday--Vossioner,
  its Meaning--The Game of Chess--A Juniper Letter             223


  Clarence                                                     224

  Milton's Widow, by T. Hughes                                 225

  Three Fleurs-de-Lys                                          225

  Books burned by the Common Hangman, by C. H. Cooper, &c.     226

  Different Productions of different Carcases                  227

  Vandyke in America, by J. Balch                              228

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Cyanide of Potassium--Mode
  of exciting Calotype Paper--The Double Iodide Solution:
  Purity of Photographic Chemicals--Hyposulphite of Soda
  Baths                                                        230

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Daughters taking their Mothers'
  Names--The Young Pretender--A Legend of the Hive--Hoby
  Family--Anticipatory Use of the Cross--Longevity--"Nugget"
  --The fifth Lord Byron--Wapple, or Whapple-way--The
  Ducking-stool--Double Christian Names--Pedigree to the
  Time of Alfred--Palace of Lucifer--Monaldeschi--Anna
  Lightfoot--Lode, &c.                                         230


  Notes on Books, &c.                                          234

  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 234

  Notices to Correspondents                                    235

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, No. VI., 2s. 6d., published Quarterly.

RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW (New Series); consisting of Criticisms upon, Analyses
of, and Extracts from, Curious, Useful, Valuable, and Scarce Old Books.

Vol. I., 8vo., pp. 436, cloth 10s. 6d., is also ready.

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       *       *       *       *       *

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  1. D'Israeli.--A Literary and Political Biography.
  2. The Theory of Food.
  3. The Autobiography of a Dissenting Minister.
  4. Lord Holland's History of the Whig Party.
  5. Sanitary Farming.
  6. St. John's Search of Beauty.
  7. Christianity, and its Modern Assailants.
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      Review of the Month, &c.

THE HOMILIST for MARCH, price 1s., contains:

  1. The Master Impulse of True Progress.
  2. Hinderance to Prayer. By Rev. David Cook, Dundee.
  3. The Terrible Hypothesis; or the Irrevocable Fate.
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  5. The Widow's Mite; or the Transcendent Worth of True Feeling.
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  7. Psalm 47,--the Moral Mirror of the Good.
  8. The Genius of the Gospel.
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LITURGIES OF QUEEN ELIZABETH.--Liturgical Services, 1558-1601; being the
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KEATINGE CLAY, B.D., Canon of Ely. One handsome volume, 8vo., containing
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PRIVATE PRAYERS put forth by Authority during the reign of Queen Elizabeth.
Including the Primer of 1559; the Orarium of 1560; the Preces Privatæ,
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the Litany of 1544. Now first collected and edited, with Preface and Notes,
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       *       *       *       *       *


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Published for HENRY COLBURN, by his Successors, HURST & BLACKETT, 13. Great
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       *       *       *       *       *

TO BOOK COLLECTORS.--MILLARD'S CATALOGUE of 10,000 vols. of Second-hand
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       *       *       *       *       *

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To be had Gratis on application.

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Of the FORMER SERIES of the

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To be completed in Five Volumes 8vo., price 15s. each.


  Chap. 1. General Sketch of the whole Period.

        2. History of England: 1815-16.

        3. History of France from the Second Restoration of Louis XVIII. to
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        4. Domestic History of England: 1817-19.

        5. Progress of Literature, Science, the Arts, &c., after the War.

        6. France from the Coup d'Etat of Sept. 1816 to the Creation of
            Peers in 1819.


  Chap. 7. Spain and Italy: 1814-20.

        8. Russia and Poland 1815-25.

        9. Royalist Reaction in France: 1819-21.

        10. Domestic History of England: 1819-22.

        11. England, France, and Spain, from the Accession of Villèle in
            1819 to the Congress of Verona in 1822.

        12. Congress of Verona--French Invasion of Spain--Death of Louis

(Volume III. will be published in the Spring.)

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London: WM. S. ORR & CO., Amen Corner, Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *

GUI DE ST. FLORE, an Historical Romance, is now publishing in "THE HOME
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London: WM. S. ORR & CO., Amen Corner, Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *

SEBASTOPOL is Described and Illustrated in "THE HOME COMPANION." an
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       *       *       *       *       *


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WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London.

Sold by all Booksellers.

       *       *       *       *       *


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193. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *

This Day is published,

OF NANTES. By CHARLES WEISS, Professor of History in the Lycée Buonaparte.
Translated, with the assistance of the Author, by FREDERICK HARDMAN. In
demy octavo, price 14s., cloth.

Edinburgh and London.

       *       *       *       *       *


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THE SYNOD OF DORT: Original Black-letter Report of the Proceedings, with
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       *       *       *       *       *

Multæ terricollis linguæ, coelestibus una.



GENERAL CATALOGUE is now Free by Post. It contains Lists of Quarto Family
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London: SAMUEL BAGSTER & SONS, 15. Paternoster Row.

[Greek: Pollai men thnêtois Glôttai, mia d' Athanatoisin]

       *       *       *       *       *



The difficulties thrown in the way of all literary and historical
inquiries, by the peculiar constitution of the Prerogative Office, Doctors'
Commons, have long been a subject of just complaint. An attempt was made by
THE CAMDEN SOCIETY, in 1848, to procure their removal, by a Memorial
addressed to the Archbishop of Canterbury, which we now print, because it
sets forth, plainly and distinctly, the nature and extent of those

    "To the Most Rev. and the Right Hon. The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury.

    "The humble Memorial of the President and Council of the Camden
    Society, respectfully showeth,

    "That the Camden Society was instituted in the year 1838, for the
    publication of early historical and literary remains.

    "It has the honour to be patronised by H.R.H. the Prince Albert; and
    has supported, from its institution, by the countenance and
    subscription of your Grace's predecessor in the See of Canterbury.

    "The Society has published forty volumes of works relating to English
    History, and continues to be actively engaged in researches connected
    with the same important branch of literature.

    "In the course of its proceedings, the Society has had brought under
    its notice the manner in which the regulations of the Prerogative
    Office in Doctors' Commons interfere with the accuracy and completeness
    of works in the preparation of which the Council is now engaged, and
    with the pursuits and labours of all other historical inquirers; and
    they beg leave respectfully to submit to your Grace the results of
    certain investigations which they have made upon the subject.

    "Besides the original wills deposited in the Office of the Prerogative
    Court, there is kept in the same repository a long series of register
    books, containing copies of wills entered chronologically from A.D.
    1383 to the present time. These registers or books of entry fall
    practically into two different divisions or classes. The earlier and
    the latter books contain information suited to the wants of totally
    different kinds of persons, and applicable to entirely different
    purposes. Their custody is also of very different importance to the
    office. The class which is first both in number of books and in
    importance contains entries of modern wills. These are daily consulted
    by relatives of testators, by claimants and solicitors, principally for
    legal purposes, and yield a large revenue to the office in fees paid
    for searches, inspections, and copies. The second class, which
    comprises a comparatively small number of volumes, contains entries of
    ancient wills, dated before the period during which wills are now
    useful for legal purposes. These are never consulted by lawyers or
    claimants, nor do they yield any revenue to the office, save an
    occasional small receipt from the Camden Society, or from some similar
    body, or private literary inquirer.

    "With respect to the original wills, and the entries of modern wills,
    your memorialists beg to express clearly that this application is not
    designed to have any reference to them. Your memorialists confine their
    remarks exclusively to the books of entries of those ancient wills
    which have long and unquestionably ceased to be useful for legal

    "These entries of ancient wills are of the very highest importance to
    historical inquirers. They abound with illustrations of manners and
    customs; they exhibit in the most authentic way the state of religion,
    the condition of the various classes of the people, and of society in
    general; they are invaluable to the lexicographer, the genealogist, the
    topographer, the biographer,--to historical writers of every order and
    kind. They constitute the most important depository in existence of
    exact information relating to events and persons of the period to which
    they relate.

    "But all this information is unavailable in consequence of the
    regulations of the office in which the wills are kept. All the books of
    entry, both of ancient and modern wills, are kept together, and can
    only be consulted in the same department of the same office, in the
    same manner and subject to precisely the same restrictions and the same
    payments. No distinction is made between the fees to be paid by a
    literary person who wishes to make a few notes from wills, perhaps
    three or four hundred years old, in order to rectify a fact, a name, a
    date, or to establish the proper place of a descent in a pedigree, or
    the exact meaning of a doubtful word, and the fees to be paid by the
    person who wants a copy of a will proved yesterday as evidence of a
    right to property perhaps to be established in a court of justice. No
    extract is allowed to be made, not even of a word or a date, except the
    names of the executors and the date of the will. Printed statements in
    historical books, which refer to wills, may not be compared with the
    wills as entered; even ancient copies of wills handed down for many
    generations in the families of the testators, may not be examined in
    the registered wills without paying the office for making new and
    entire copies.

    "No such restrictions exclude literary inquirers from the British
    Museum, where there are papers equally valuable. The Public Record
    Offices are all open, either gratuitously or upon payment of easy fees.
    The Secretary of State for the Home Department grants permission of
    access to her Majesty's State Paper Office. Your Grace's predecessor
    gave the Camden Society free access to the registers of wills at
    Lambeth--documents exactly similar to those at Doctors' Commons. The
    Prerogative Office is, probably, the only public office in the kingdom
    which is shut against literary inquirers.

    "The results of such regulations are obvious. The ancient wills at
    Doctors' Commons not being accessible to those to whom alone they are
    useful, yield scarcely any fees to the office; historical inquirers are
    discouraged; errors remain uncorrected; statements of facts in
    historical works are obliged to be left uncertain and incomplete; the
    researches of the Camden Society and other similar societies are
    thwarted; and all historical inquirers regard the condition of the
    Prerogative Office as a great literary grievance.


    "The President and Council of the Camden Society respectfully submit
    these circumstances to your Grace with a full persuasion that nothing
    which relates to the welfare of English historical literature can be
    uninteresting either to your Grace personally, or to the Church over
    which you preside; and they humbly pray your Grace that such changes
    may be made in the regulations of the Prerogative Office as may
    assimilate its practice to that of the Public Record Office, so far as
    regards the inspection of the books of entry of ancient wills, or that
    such other remedy may be applied to the inconveniences now stated as to
    your Grace may seem fit.

      "(Signed)  BRAYBROOKE, President.
      THOMAS AMYOT, Director.
      J. PAYNE COLLIER, Treas.
      H. H. MILMAN.
      WILLIAM J. THOMS, Sec.

      _25. Parliament Street, Westminster,_
      _13 April, 1848._"

As the Archbishop stated his inability to afford any relief, THE CAMDEN
SOCIETY availed themselves of the appointment of the Commission to inquire
into the Law and Jurisdiction of the Ecclesiastical and other Courts in
relation to Matters Testamentary, to address to those Commissioners, in the
month of January, 1853, a Memorial, of which the following is a copy:

    "To the Right Honourable and Honourable the Commissioners appointed by
    Her Majesty to inquire into the Law and Jurisdiction of the
    Ecclesiastical and other Courts in relation to Matters Testamentary.

    "My Lords and Gentlemen,

    "We, the undersigned, being the President and Council of the Camden
    Society, for the Publication of Early Historical and Literary Remains,
    beg to submit to your consideration a copy of a Memorial presented on
    the 13th April, 1848, by the President and then Council of this
    Society, to his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, praying that such
    changes might be made in the regulations of the Prerogative Office as
    might assimilate its practice to that of the Public Record Office, so
    far as regards the inspection of the books of entry of ancient Wills,
    or that such other remedy might be applied to the inconveniences stated
    in that Memorial as to his Grace might seem fit.

    "In reply to that Memorial his Grace was pleased to inform the
    Memorialists that he had no control whatever over the fees taken in the
    Prerogative Office.

    "The Memorialists had not adopted the course of applying to his Grace
    the Archbishop until they had in vain endeavoured to obtain from the
    authorities of the Prerogative Office, Messrs. Dyneley, Iggulden, and
    Gostling, some modification of their rules in favour of literary
    inquirers. The answer of his Grace the Archbishop left them, therefore
    without present remedy.

    "The grievance complained of continues entirely unaltered up to the
    present time.

    "In all other public repositories to which in the course of our
    inquiries we have had occasion to apply, we have found a general and
    predominant feeling of the national importance of the cultivation of
    literature, and especially of that branch of it which relates to the
    past history of our own country. Every one seems heartily willing to
    promote historical inquiries. The Public Record Offices are now opened
    to persons engaged in literary pursuits by arrangements of the most
    satisfactory and liberal character. His Grace the Archbishop of
    Canterbury gives permission to literary men to search such of the early
    registers of his See as are in his own possession at Lambeth. Access is
    given to the registers of the Bishop of London; and throughout the
    kingdom private persons having in their possession historical documents
    are almost without exception not only willing but anxious to assist our
    inquiries. The authorities of the Prerogative Office in Doctors'
    Commons, perhaps, stand alone in their total want of sympathy with
    literature, and in their exclusion of literary inquirers by stringent
    rules, harshly, and in some instances even offensively, enforced.

              "We have the honour to be,
          "My Lords and Gentlemen,
      "Your most obedient and very humble servants,

      (Signed) BRAYBROOKE, President.
      JOHN BRUCE, Director.
      J. PAYNE COLLIER, Treas.
      W. R. DRAKE.
      EDWD. FOSS.
      W. H. BLAAUW.
      WM. J. THOMS, Sec.

      _25. Parliament Street, Westminster,_
      _January, 1853._"

A Report from that Commission has been laid before Parliament; and a Bill
for carrying into effect the recommendations contained in such Report, and
transferring the powers of the Prerogative Court to the Court of Chancery,
has been introduced into the House of Lords. The Bill contains no specific
enactments as to the custody of the Wills.

Now, therefore, is the time for all who are interested in Historical Truth
to use their best endeavours to procure the insertion of such clauses as
shall place the Wills under the same custody as the other Judicial Records
of the country, namely, that of Her Majesty's Keeper of Records.

With Literature represented in the House of Lords by a Brougham and a
Campbell, in the Commons by a Macaulay, a Bulwer, and a D'Israeli, let but
the real state of the case be once made public, and we have no fear but
that the interests of English Historical Literature will be cared for and

       *       *       *       *       *



"J. R. OF CORK."

My gifted and lamented countryman "The Roscoe of Cork"[1] deserves more
notice in these pages, which he has enriched by his contributions, than the
handsome obituary of our Editor (Vol. vii., p. 394.); so a few words is
with reference to him may be acceptable.

MR. JAMES ROCHE was born in Limerick some eighty-three years ago, of an
ancient and wealthy family. At an early period of his life he was sent to
France, and educated in the Catholic College of Saintes. After completing
his studies, and paying a short visit to Ireland, he settled in Bordeaux,
where he became acquainted with the most distinguished leaders of the

MR. ROCHE was in Paris during the horrors of the first Revolution, and in
1793 was arrested there as a British subject, but was released on the death
of Robespierre. For some years after his liberation, he passed his time
between Paris and Bordeaux. At the close of the last century, he returned
to Ireland; and commenced business in Cork as a banker, in partnership with
his brother. He resided in a handsome country seat near the river Lee, and
there amassed a splendid library.

About the year 1816, a relative of mine, a wealthy banker in the same city,
got into difficulties, and met with the kindest assistance from MR. ROCHE.
In 1819 his own troubles came on, and a monetary crisis ruined him as well
as many others. All his property was sold, and his books were brought to
the hammer, excepting a few with which his creditors presented him. I have
often tried, but without success, to get a copy of the auction catalogue,
which contained many curious lots,--amongst others, I am informed, Swift's
own annotated copy of _Gulliver's Travels_, which MR. ROCHE purchased in
Cork for a few pence, but which produced pounds at the sale. MR. ROCHE,
after this, resided for some time in London as parliamentary agent. He also
spent several years in Paris, and witnessed the revolution of 1830.
Eventually he returned to Cork, where he performed the duties of a
magistrate and director of the National Bank, until his death in the early
part of 1853.

MR. ROCHE was intimately acquainted with many of the great men and events
of his time, especially with everything concerning modern French history
and literature.

MR. ROCHE was remarkable for accurate scholarship and extensive learning:
the affability of his manners, and the earnestly-religious tone of his
mind, enhanced his varied accomplishments.

For a number of years he contributed largely to various periodicals, such
as the _Gentleman's Magazine_, the _Dublin Review_, and the _Literary
Gazette_; and the signature of "J. R. of Cork" was welcome to all, while it
puzzled many.

In 1851 he printed _for private circulation_, _Essays Critical and
Miscellaneous_, by an Octogenarian, 2 vols.; printed by G. Nash, Cork. Some
of these Essays are reprints, others are printed for the first time. The
work was reviewed in the _Dublin Review_ for October, 1851.

A "Sketch of J. R. of Cork" was published in July, 1848, in Duffy's _Irish
Catholic Magazine_, which I have made use of in this Note. My object in the
present Note is to suggest that MR. ROCHE'S Reminiscences and Essays should
be given to the public, from whom I am well assured they would receive a
hearty welcome.


[Footnote 1: MR. ROCHE is thus happily designated by the Rev. Francis
Mahony in _The Prout Papers_.]

       *       *       *       *       *


There appeared in a late number of _The Family Friend_, an article on the
above process. The writer attributes its invention to Benjamin Zobel of
Bavaria; and states, that although some few persons have attempted its
revival, in no instance has success attended such efforts. This is not
correct. There was a German confectioner to King George III. whom I knew
well. His name was Haas; and those acquainted with Bristol will recollect
his well-frequented shop, nearly opposite the drawbridge on the way to
College Green, where he resided forty years ago, after retiring from his
employment at Court. There he was often engaged in decorating ceilings,
lying on his back for weeks together on a scaffold for the purpose. He also
ornamented the plateaus for the royal table; and he understood the art of
sand-painting, and practised it in the highest perfection. Whether he
preceded Zobel, or came after him, at Windsor Castle, I cannot tell; but I
can testify that he was perfect master of the art in question. I have seen
him at work upon his sand-pictures. He had the marble dust of every
gradation of colour in a large box, divided into small compartments; and he
applied it to the picture by dropping it from small cones of paper.

The article in _The Family Friend_ describes the process of Zobel to have
consisted of a previous coating of the panel for the picture with a
glutinous solution, over which the marble dust was strewed from a piece of
cord. Haas used small cones of paper; and my impression from seeing him at
work was, that he sprinkled the sand on the dry panel, and fixed the whole
finally at once by some process which he kept a secret. For I remember how
careful he was to prevent the window or door from being opened, so as to
cause a draught, before he had fixed his picture; and I {218} have heard
him lament the misfortune of having had one or two pictures blown away in
this manner.

The effect of his sand-pictures was extraordinary. They stood out in bold
relief, and with a brilliancy far surpassing any oil painting. As may be
supposed, this style of painting was particularly adapted for landscapes
and rocky scenery; and it enabled the artist to finish foliage with a
richness which nothing could surpass. Mr. Haas' collection of his
sand-paintings was a rich treat to inspect. After his death, they were sold
and dispersed; but many must be found in the collections of gentlemen in
Bristol and its neighbourhood.

F. C. H.

       *       *       *       *       *


    "_The Grounds of Military Discipline: or, Certain Brief Rules for the
    Exercising of a Company or Squadron._

          _Observed by all._

  In march, in motion, troop or stand,
  Observe both leader and right hand;
  With silence note in what degree
  You in the body placed be:
  That so you may, without more trouble,
  Know where to stand, and when to double.


  True distance keep in files, in ranks
  Open close to the front, reare, flanks,
  Backward, forward, to the right, left, or either,
  Backward and forward both together.
  To the right, left, outward or in,
  According to directions given.
  To order, close, open, double,
  Distance, distance, double, double:
  For this alone prevents distraction,
  And giveth lustre to the action.


  Face to the right, or to the left, both wayes to the reare,
  Inward, outward, and as you were:
  To the front, reare, flanks, and peradventure
  To every angle, and to the centre.


  To bring more hands in the front to fight,
  Double ranks unto the right,
  Or left, or both, if need require,
  Direct divisionall or intire:
  By doubling files accordingly,
  Your flanks will strengthened be thereby.
  Halfe files and bringers-up likewise
  To the front may double, none denies;
  Nor would it very strange appear
  For th' front half files or double the reare:
  The one half ranks to double the other,
  Thereby to strengthen one the other.


  But lest I should seen troublesome,
  To countermarches next I come.
  Which, though they many seem to be,
  Are all included in these three:
  Maintaining, gaining, losing ground,
  And severall wayes to each is found:
  By which their proper motion's guided,
  In files, in ranks, in both divided.


  Wheel your batten ere you fight,
  For better advantage to the right,
  Or left, or round about
  To either angle, or where you doubt
  Your enemie will first oppose you;
  And therefore unto their Foot close you.
  Divisionall wheeling I have seen
  In sundrie places practis'd been,
  To alter either form or figure,
  By wheeling severall wayes together.
  And, had I time to stand upon 't,
  I'de wheele my wings into the front.
  By wheeling flanks into the reare,
  They'll soon reduce them as they were.
  Besides, it seems a pretty thing
  To wheel, front, and reare to either wing:
  Wheele both wings to the reare and front;
  Face to the reare, and having done 't,
  Close your divisions; even your ranks,
  Wheel front and reare into both flanks:
  And thus much know, cause, note I'll smother,
  To one wheeling doth reduce the other.

          _Conversion and Inversion._

  One thing more and I have done;
  Let files rank by conversion:
  To th' right, or th' left, to both, and then
  Ranks by conversion fill again:
  Troop for the colours, march, prepare for fight,
  Behave yourselves like men, and so good night.

The summe of all that hath been spoken may be comprised thus:

  Open, close, face, double, countermarch, wheel, charge, retire;
  Invert, convert, reduce, trope, march, make readie, fire."


       *       *       *       *       *


The foreign correspondence of the English press is an invaluable feature of
that mighty engine of civilisation and progress, for which the world cannot
be too thankful; but as the agents in it at Paris, Berlin, Vienna, &c., are
more or less imbued with the insular views and prejudices which they carry
with them from England, Scotland, or Ireland, it were well if the daily
journals devoted more attention than they do to the _leading articles_ of
the Continental press, which is frequently distinguished by great ability
and interest, and would {219} enable Englishmen, not versed in foreign
languages, to judge, from another point of view, of Continental
affairs--now becoming of surpassing interest and importance. Translations
or abstracts of the leading articles of _The Times_, _Morning Chronicle_,
_Morning Post_, &c., are constantly to be met with in the best foreign
papers. Why should not our great London papers more frequently gratify
their readers with articles from the pens of their Continental brotherhood?
This would afford an opportunity also of correcting the false statements,
or replying to the erroneous judgments put forth and circulated abroad by
writers whose distinguished position enables them, unintentionally no
doubt, to do the more mischief. A surprising change for the better,
however, as respects Great Britain, is manifest in the tone and information
of the foreign press of late years. Let us cherish this good feeling by a
corresponding demeanour on our part.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Materials for a History of Druidism.--_

    "It would be a commendable, useful, and easy task to collect what the
    ancients have left us on the subject of Druidism. Such a collection
    would form a very small but interesting volume. It would supersede, in
    every library, the idle and tedious dreams and conjectures of the
    Stukeleys, the Borlases, the Rowlands, the Vallanceys, the Davies's,
    the Jones's, and the Whitakers. Toland's work on the Druids, though far
    from unexceptionable, has more solid intelligence than any other modern
    composition of its kind. It is a pity that he or some other person has
    not given as faithful translations of the Irish Christian MSS. which he
    mentions, as these have, no doubt, preserved much respecting Druidical
    manners and superstitions, of which many vestiges are still existing,
    though not of the kind usually referred to."

    "The Roman history of Britain can only be collected from the Roman
    writers; and what they have left is very short indeed. It might be
    disposed of in the way recommended for the History of the
    Druids."--Douce's notes on Whitaker's _History of Manchester_, vol. i.
    p. 136. of Corrections in Book i., ibid. p. 148.


_Domestic Chapels._--There is an interesting example of a domestic chapel,
with an upper chamber over it for the chaplain's residence, and a ground
floor underneath it for some undiscoverable purpose, to be seen contiguous
to an ancient farm-house at Ilsam, in the parish of St. Mary Church, in the
county of Devon.

The structure is quite ecclesiastical in its character, and appears to have
been originally, as now, detached from the family house, or only connected
with it by a short passage leading to the floor on which the chapel itself


_Ordinary._--The following is a new meaning for the word _ordinary_:--"Do
ye come in and see my poor man, for he is _piteous ordinary_ to-day." This
speech was addressed to me by a poor woman who wished me to go and see her
husband. He was ordinary enough, although she had adorned his head with a
_red_ night-cap; but her meaning was evidently that he was far from well;
and Johnson's _Dictionary_ does not give this signification to the word.

A cottage child once told me that the dog opened his mouth "a power wide."

[Old English W. N.]

_Thom's Irish Almanac and Official Directory for 1854._--In the
advertisement prefixed to this valuable compilation, which, according to
the _Quarterly Review_, "contains more information about Ireland than has
been collected in one volume in any country," we may find the following

    "All parliamentary and official documents procurable, have been
    collected; and their contents, so far as they bore on the state of the
    country, carefully abstracted; and where any deficiencies have been
    observable, the want has been supplied by applications to private
    sources, which, in every instance, have been most satisfactorily
    answered. He [Mr. Thom] is also indebted to similar applications to the
    ruling authorities of the several religious persuasions _for the
    undisputed accuracy of the ecclesiastical department of the Almanac_."

I wish to call attention to the latter words; and in so doing, I assure
you, I feel only a most anxious desire to see some farther improvements
effected by Mr. Thom.

I cannot allow "the undisputed accuracy of the ecclesiastical department,"
inasmuch as I have detected, even on a cursory examination, very many
inaccuracies which a little care would certainly have prevented. For
example, in p. 451. (_Ecclesiastical Directory_, Established Church and
Diocese of Dublin), there are at least five grave mistakes, and four in the
following page. These pages I have taken at random. I could easily point
out other pages equally inaccurate; but I have done enough I think to
prove, that while I willingly accord to the enterprising publisher the full
meed of praise he so well deserves, a little more attention should be paid
in future to the preparation of the ecclesiastical department.


_Antiquity of the Word "Snub."_--

    "Beware we then euer of discontente, and _snubbe_ it betimes, least it
    overthrowe us as it hath done manie."

    "Such _snubs_ as these be little cloudes."--_Comfortable Notes on
    Genesis_, by Gervase Babington, Bishop of Exeter, 1596.

J. R. P.

_Charles I. at Little Woolford._--There is an ancient house at Little
Woolford (in the {220} southeast corner of Warwickshire) connected with
which is a tradition that Charles I., after the battle of Edge Hill, which
is not far distant, secreted himself in an oven there. This oven is
preserved for the inspection of the curious.

B. H. C.

_Coincidences between Sir Thomas Browne and Bishop Ken._--Sir Thomas Browne
wrote his _Religio Medici_ in 1533-5; and in it suggested some familiar
verses of the "Evening Hymn" of his brother Wykehamist Bishop Ken. The
lines are as follows:

      _Sir Thomas Browne._

  "Guard me 'gainst those watchful foes,
  Whose eyes are open, while mine close;
  Let no dreams my head infest,
  But such as Jacob's temples blest:
  Sleep is a death: oh, make me try,
  By sleeping, what it is to die!
  And as gently lay my head
  On my grave, as now my bed.
  Howe'er I rest, great God, let me
  Awake again at last with Thee."

      _Bishop Ken._

  "Let no ill dreams disturb my rest;
  No powers of darkness me molest.
  Teach me to live, that I may dread
  The grave as little as my bed:
  Teach me to die, that so I may
  Rise glorious at the awful day.
  Oh, may my soul on Thee repose,
  And with sweet sleep mine eyelids close;
  Sleep that may me more vigorous make,
  To serve my God when I awake."

I have never seen this curious coincidence noticed by any of the good
bishop's biographers, Hawkins, Bowles, or Mr. Anderdon.


_The English School of Painting._--In a note to a volume of poems by Victor
Hugo, published in 1836, occur these remarks:

    "M. Louis Boulanger, à qui ces deux ballades sont dédiées, s'est placé
    bien jeune au premier rang de cette nouvelle génération de peintres,
    qui promet d'élever notre école au niveau des magnifiques écoles
    d'Italie, d'Espagne, de Flandre, et d'Angleterre."

Does this praise of the English school of painting show a correct
appreciation of its claims to distinction? or am I in error in supposing,
as I have done, that our school of painting is not entitled to the pompous
epithet of "magnifique," nor to be named in the same category with the
Italian, Spanish, and Flemish schools? I am aware of the hackneyed and
somewhat hyperbolical employment, by French writers and speakers, of such
terms as _magnifique_, _superbe_, _grandiose_; and that they do not convey
to a French ear the same idea of superiority, as they do to our more sober
English judgment; but making every allowance on this score, I confess I was
not a little startled to find such a term as _magnifique_, even in its most
moderate acceptation, applied to our efforts in that branch of art.
_Magnifique_, in truth, must be our school, when the French can condescend
to speak of it in such language!


St. Lucia.

"_A Feather in your Cap._"--My good friend Dr. Wolff mentioned in
conversation a circumstance (also stated, I fancy, in his _Journey to
Bokhara_) which seemed to afford a solution of the common expression,
"That's a feather in your cap." I begged he would give it me in writing,
and he has done so. "The Kaffr Seeyah Poosh (meaning the infidels in black
clothing) living around Cabul upon the height of the mountains of the
Himalaya, who worship a god called Dagon and Imra, are great enemies of the
Muhamedans; and for each Muhamedan they kill, they wear a feather in their
heads. The same is done among the Abyssinians and Turcomans."

Has the feather head-dress of the American Indian, and the eagle's feather
in the bonnet of the Highlander, any connexion with keeping a score of the
deaths of the enemies or game they have killed?


       *       *       *       *       *



Previous to the publication of the second volume of the _Domestic
Architecture of the Middle Ages_, you were kind enough to insert some
Queries for me respecting existing remains of houses of the fourteenth
century, which elicited some useful Notes, partly through your columns and
partly from private friends who were thus reminded of my wants. I am now
preparing for the press the third and concluding volume of that work,
comprising the period from the reign of Richard II. to that of Henry VIII.
inclusive. I shall be glad of information of any houses of that period
remaining in a tolerably perfect state, in addition to those mentioned in
the _Glossary of Architecture_. I have reason to believe that there are
many; and one class, the halls of the different guilds, seem to have been
generally overlooked.

With the kind assistance of Mr. Duffus Hardy, I have obtained a complete
list of the licences to crenellate contained in the Patent Rolls, and some
other records preserved in the Tower. Most of these have the name of the
county annexed; but there are a few, of which I add a list, in which no
county is mentioned, and local information is necessary in order to
identify them. Perhaps some {221} of your numerous readers will be able to
assist me.

_Licences to Crenellate._

  |When granted.           | Name of Place.       | To whom granted.      |
  | 22 Edward I.           | Melton.              | John de Cokefeld.     |
  | 17 Edward II.          | Molun.               | Raymond de Grismak.   |
  | 5 Edward III.          | Newton in Makerfeld. | Robert de Langeton.   |
  | 9 Edward III.          | Esselyngton.         | Robert de Esselyngton.|
  | 12 Edward III.         | Cublesdon.           | John Trussell.        |
  |     Ditto.             | La Beche.            | Nicholas de la Beche. |
  |     Ditto.             | Beaumes.             |     Ditto.            |
  | 15 Edward III.         | Pringham.            | Reginald de Cobham.   |
  |     Ditto.             | Orkesdene.           |     Ditto.            |
  |     Ditto.             | Stanstede.           | Robert Burghchier.    |
  | 16 Edward III.         | Credonio.            | Bernard de Dalham.    |
  |     Ditto.             | Heyheved.            | William Lengleys.     |
  | 18 Edward III.         | Chevelyngham.        | Thomas de Aeton.      |


       *       *       *       *       *


Will the Editor be kind enough to insert the accompanying letter, for _if
true_ it is worthy of a place in the heraldic portion of "N. & Q.," and _if
not true_, its imposture should stand recorded? On receiving it I sent a
copy to my brother, Mr. J. H. Dixon, an able antiquary, and late of the
council of the Percy Society, who, somewhat too hastily I think, and
without sufficient proof, rejected the information offered. That the family
which my brother represents is a "good old" one, is sufficiently attested
by the pedigree furnished by Thoresby in the _Ducatus Leodiensis_, and
thence copied by Mr. Burke in his _Landed Gentry_; but of its earlier
history there is no reliable account, unless that by Mr. Spence can be
considered such.

I shall feel very much obliged if any of your correspondents learned in the
genealogies of Yorkshire and Cheshire could either corroborate the
genuineness of the information tendered by Mr. Spence, or prove the
reverse; and it is only fair to that gentleman to add that he is entitled
to credibility on the written testimony of the Rev. Mr. Knox, Incumbent of


Seaton Carew, co. Durham.


    Having been engaged by Miss Cotgreave, of Notherlegh House, near
    Chester, to inspect and arrange the title-deeds and other documents
    which belonged to her father, the late Sir John Cotgreave, I find a
    very ancient pedigree of the Cotgreaves de Hargrave in that county;
    which family became extinct in the direct male line in the year 1724,
    but which was represented through females by the above Sir J. C.

    It is the work of the great Camden, anno 1598, from documents in the
    possession of the Cotgreave family, and contains the descents of five
    generations of the Dixons of Beeston, in the county of York, and
    Congleton, Cheshire, together with their marriages and armorial
    bearings, commencing with "Ralph Dixon, Esq., de Beeston and Congleton,
    living temp. Hen. VI., who was slain whilst fighting on the part of the
    Yorkists, at the battle of Wakefield, A.D. 1460."

    Presuming that you are descended from this ancient family, I will (if
    you think proper) transmit to you extracts from the aforesaid pedigree,
    as far as relates to your distinguished progenitors, conditionally that
    you remunerate me for the information and definition of the armorial
    bearings, there being five shields, containing twelve quarterings
    connected with the family of Dixon.

    Miss Cotgreave will allow me to make the extracts, and has kindly
    consented to attest the same.

    The arms of Dixon, as depicted in the Cotgreave pedigree, are "Sable, a
    fleur-de-lis or, a chief ermine," quartering the ensigns of the noble
    houses of "Robert Fitz-Hugh, Baron of Malpas in the county of Chester,
    temp. William the Conqueror; Eustace Crewe de Montalt, Lord of
    Hawarden, Flintshire, during the said reign; Robert de Umfreville, Lord
    of Tours, and Vian, and Reddesdale, in Northumberland, who flourished
    in the same reign also; Pole, Talboys, Welles, Latimer," and others.

    In the pedigree, Camden states that the aforesaid "Ralph Dixon
    quartered the ensigns of the above noble families in right of his
    mother Maude, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Ralph Fitz-Hugh de
    Congleton and Elton in the county palatine of Chester."

          I have the honour to be, Sir,
              Your very obedient humble servant,
                  WILLIAM SIDNEY SPENCE.
      Priory Place, Birkenhead,
          Dec. 14. 1848.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Atherstone Family._--Can any of your readers oblige me with information
concerning the Atherstone family? Is it an old name, or was it first given
some three or four generations back to a foundling, picked up near the town
of Atherston?

M. A. B.

_Classic Authors and the Jews._--Where can I find a complete or full
account of passages in Greek and Latin authors, which refer to Judea and
the Jews? It has been said that these references are very few, and that in
Cicero, for instance, there is not one. This last is wrong, I know. (See
_e.g._ Cic. _Pro L. Flacco_, 28., and _De Prov. Consul. 5._)

B. H. C.

_Bishop Hooper's Argument on the Vestment Controversy._--Glocester Ridley,
in his _Life of Bishop Ridley_, p. 315., London, 1763, states, in reference
to Bishop Hooper's _Book to the Council against the use of those Habits
which were then used by the Church of England in her sacred Ministries_,
written October, 1550, "Part of Hooper's book I have by me in MS." Could
any one state whether that MS. is now in existence, or where it is to be
found? It is of much importance to obtain {222} an answer to this inquiry,
as Bishop Ridley's MS. Reply to Bishop Hooper is, for the first time, about
to be printed by the Parker Society, through the kind permission of its
possessor, Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., in the second volume of the
Writings of Bradford which I am editing; and, to make Ridley's reply fully
intelligible, access is needed to Bishop Hooper's _Book to the Council_.


Weston Lane, Bath,

February 23.

_The Title of "Dominus."_--How is it that at Cambridge the title of
_Dominus_ is applied to B.A.'s, while at Oxford it is confined to the



_The De Rous Family._--Hugh Rufus, or De Rous, was Bishop of Ossory, A.D.
1202. He had been previously an Augustinian Canon of Bodmin, in Cornwall.
Query, Was he a cadet of the ancient family of De Rous; and if so, what was
his descent?


_Where was the Fee of S. Sanxon?_--At the end of "Ordericus Vitalis," in
the _Gesta Normannorum_, is a list called the "Feoda Normanniæ," wherein,
under the title "Feoda Ebroic.," occurs the entry:

  "S. Sanxon dim. f. in friche."

Francis Drake, in his _Antiquities of York_, London, 1736, p. 70., speaks
of "Sampson, or _Sanxo_," the archbishop of that see; and elsewhere
mentions the parish church of S. Sampson, "called by some Sanxo."

What I wish to ask is, Where was this half fee of S. Sanxon? Whether it had
any connexion with Sanson sur Rille? And whether it was the place from
which "Ralph de S. Sanson" or "Sanson Clericus" of the _Domesday Book_, who
was afterwards Bishop of Worcester, derived his name?

*   *

_Russian Emperors._--Is there any truth in a rumour that was current two or
three years since respecting the limited period that was placed upon the
reign of any Russian monarch? Twenty-five years was the time stated, at the
termination of which the Emperor had to abdicate. As this period has
elapsed, and no abdication has taken place by the present Autocrat, some
one may perhaps be able to state how such a statement originated, and upon
what grounds?


_Episcopal Insignia of the Eastern Church._--Having seen in a late number
of the _Illustrated London News_ (Feb. 11, 1854) a peculiarly shaped
episcopal staff, with a cross rising from between two in-curved dragons'
heads, which is represented in the hand of the metropolitan of Wallachia, I
would be glad to know whether this form is peculiar to any branch of the
Eastern Church. A reference to a work of authority on the subject will
oblige a provincialist.


_Amontillado Sherry._--What is the real meaning of this epithet? A friend,
who had travelled in Spain, and visited some famous cellars at Xeres, told
me that the peculiar flavour of the Amontillado Sherry was always an
accidental result of mixing butts of wine brought to the merchant by a
variety of growers. I mentioned this to another friend who had the wine on
his table; and he ridiculed the account, saying that the Amontillado Sherry
was from a grape peculiar to the district. What district, I could not


_Col. Michael Smith's Family._--Perhaps some of your readers may be enabled
to give me some information of the family of Smith, to which Col. Michael
Smith, Lieut.-Governor of Nevis about 1750, belongs.


_Pronunciation of Foreign Names._--How shall we pronounce Sinope, Citate,
and many other words which are now becoming familiar to our eyes? I think
the bookseller who should give us a vocabulary of proper names of foreign
persons and places, with the correct pronunciation attached, would be
encouraged by an extensive sale. So far as my knowledge extends, such a
work is a desideratum.


_Artesian Wells._--One who is about to dig a well on his land would be glad
to know:--1. Whether, in all cases, artesian wells are preferable? 2. If
yes, why they are not universally adopted, and whether they are more
expensive then the common sort? 3. If not preferable in all cases, in what
cases they are preferable?


_Norman Towers in London._--Can you inform me it there is any other church
in the city of London with a Norman tower, besides Allhallows, Mark Lane?
which, by the bye, has been colour-washed: I suppose, to preserve it!


_Papyrus._--Where, or of whom, can a specimen of Papyrus be obtained?

R. H.


_Mathew, a Cornish Family._--I am anxious to know the connexion of a family
of Mathew, late of Tresungar, co. Cornwall, with any stock in Wales; and I
will gladly defray any necessary expense of search, if can attain this
object. The descent of a family of the name, apparently the same from the
arms, in an old recueil of Devonshire families, is headed "nuper de
Walliâ;" and a visitation of that county ascribes their bearing {223} (a
stork) to a marriage with an heir of Starkey, which I have been unable to
verify. A Visitation of Cornwall, to which I have had access, gives a
grant, or probably a confirmation of the arms by Cooke. If this celebrated
Herald's grants are on record, some clew would probably be found; but I
doubt not that many of your readers well versed in genealogical research
can readily answer my Query, and I trust to their kindness to do so.



       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Bunyan's Descendants._--As a recent Query respecting John Bunyan may lead
to some notices of his descendants, perhaps I may be informed in what
edition of his works it is stated that a branch of his family settled in
Nottingham? for I find in the burgess-roll of that borough that George
Bunyan was entered freeman in 1752. William Bunyan, lieutenant in the navy,
1767; Thomas Bunyan, hosier, 1776. In event of the above story being
verified, a pedigree may possibly be extracted hereafter from the parish
registers of the town. As far as my own examination goes, the editions in
the British Museum afford no corroboration to what I have heard.


Plumstead Common.

    [We have been favoured with the following article on this subject from
    George Offor, Esq., of Hackney:

    "_Where are John Bunyan's Descendants?_--It is natural to inquire after
    the ancestors and descendants of great men, although experience proves
    that intellectual greatness runs not in blood, for earth's _great_ and
    most illustrious sons descended from and left descendants who merged
    among the masses of her _little_ ones. Of his ancestors Bunyan boasted
    not, but pleaded with the readers of the first edition of his _Sighs
    from Hell_, 'Be not ashamed to own me because of my low and
    contemptible descent in the world.' From the life of the great dreamer,
    appended to my second edition of Bunyan's works (Blackie, Glasgow), it
    appears that he left three children: Thomas, a valuable member of his
    church; Joseph, who settled in Nottingham; and Sarah. Joseph is named
    by one of Bunyan's earliest biographers, who told his father that 'a
    worthy citizen of London would take him apprentice without money, which
    might be a great means to advance him; but he replied to me, _God did
    not send him to advance his family, but to preach the Gospel_.'

    "The Rev. J. H. A. Rudd of Bedford and Elstow has most kindly searched
    the registers of Elstow and Goldington, and has discovered some
    interesting entries; and, as his numerous engagements will permit, he
    will search the registry of the parish churches in Bedford and its
    vicinity. Information would be most acceptable relative to Bunyan's
    father and mother, his two wives, and his children, John, Elizabeth,
    and Mary, who died in his life-time; and also as to Joseph. If your
    correspondent FURVUS would search the registers at Nottingham, he might
    discover some valuable records of that branch of the family. Bunyan is
    said to have been baptized about 1653; and in the Elstow register it
    appears that his daughter Mary was registered as _baptized_ July 20,
    1650, while his next daughter, Elizabeth, is on the register as _born_
    April 14, 1654, showing the change in his principles, as to infant
    baptism, to have taken place between those periods. The family Bible
    given by John Bunyan to his son Joseph, now in my possession, confirms
    the statement verbally communicated to me by his descendant Mrs.
    Senegar, that her great-grandfather Joseph, having conformed to please
    his rich wife, was anxious to conceal his affinity to the illustrious
    tinker. The registers contained in it begin with Joseph's son Thomas
    and Susannah his wife, and it is continued to Robert Bunyan, born 1775,
    and who was lately living at Lincoln. I should be most happy to show
    the Bible and copies of registers in my possession to any one who will
    undertake to form a genealogy."


_Epigram on Dennis._--

  "Should Dennis publish you had stabb'd your brother,
  Lampoon'd your monarch, or debauch'd your mother," &c.

is printed as by Savage in Johnson's _Life of Savage_. In the notes to _The
Dunciad_, i. 106., it is said to be by Pope. _Utri credemus?_

S. Z. Z. S.

    [From the fact, that this epigram was not only attributed to Pope, in
    the notes to the second edition of _The Dunciad_, published in 1729,
    but also in those of 1743, the joint edition of Pope and Warburton, and
    both published before the death of Pope, it seems extremely probable
    that he was the author of it; more especially as he had been
    exasperated by a twopenny tract, of which Dennis was suspected to be
    the writer, called _A True Character of Mr. Pope and his Writings_;
    printed for S. Popping, 1716. D'Israeli however, in his _Calamities of
    Authors_, art. "The Influence of a bad Temper in Criticism," quoting it
    from Dr. Johnson, conjectures it was written on the following occasion:
    "Thomson and Pope charitably supported the veteran Zoilus at a benefit
    play, and Savage, who had nothing but a verse to give, returned them
    very poetical thanks in the name of Dennis. He was then blind and old,
    but his critical ferocity had no old age; his surliness overcame every
    grateful sense, and he swore as usual, 'They could be no one's but that
    _fool_ Savage's,' an evidence of his sagacity and brutality. This
    perhaps prompted 'the fool' to take this fair revenge and just
    chastisement." After all, Dr. Johnson, who was at that time narrating
    Savage's intimate acquaintance with Pope, may have attributed to the
    former what seems to have been the production of the latter.]

_Football played on Shrove Tuesday._--The people of this and the
neighbouring towns invariably play at football on Shrove Tuesday. What is
the origin of the custom? and does it extend to other counties?

J. P. S.


    ["Shrove-tide," says Warton, "was formerly a season of extraordinary
    sport and feasting. There was {224} anciently a feast immediately
    preceding Lent, which lasted many days, called _Carniscapium_. In some
    cities of France an officer was annually chosen, called Le Prince
    d'Amoreux, who presided over the sports of the youth for six days
    before Ash Wednesday. Some traces of these festivities still remain in
    our Universities." In these degenerate days more is known, we suspect,
    of pancakes and fritters, than of a football match and a
    cock-fight:--the latter, we are happy to say, is now almost forgotten
    among us. As to the pancake custom, no doubt that is most religiously
    observed by the readers of "N. & Q.," in obedience to the rubric of the
    _Oxford Sausage_:

      "Let glad Shrove Tuesday bring the pancake thin,
      Or fritter rich, with apples stored within."

    According to Fitz-Stephen, "After dinner, all the youths go into the
    fields to play at the ball. The scholars of every school have their
    ball and bastion in their hands. The ancient and wealthy men of the
    city come forth on horseback to see the sport of the young men, and to
    take part of the pleasure, in beholding their agility." And till within
    the last few years:

                      "... The humble play
      Of trap or football on a holiday,
      In Finsbury fields,"--

    was sufficiently common in the neighbourhood of London and other
    places. See Brande's _Popular Antiquities_, vol. i. pp. 63-94. (Bohn's
    edition), and Hone's _Every-Day Book_, vol. i. pp. 244. 255-260.]

_Vossioner; its Meaning._--In looking over a parcel of brass rubbings made
some years since, I find the word _vossioner_ used, and not knowing its
signification, I should be glad to be enlightened on the subject; but, in
order to enable your readers to judge more correctly, I think it better to
copy the whole of the epitaph in which the word occurs. The plate is in
Ufton Church, near Southam, county Warwick; it measures eighteen inches in
width by sixteen deep.

    "Here lyeth the boddyes of Richard Hoddomes, Parsson and Pattron and
    _Vossioner_ of the Churche and Parishe of Oufton, in the Countie of
    Warrike, who died one Mydsomer Daye, 1587. And Margerye his Wiffe
    w^{th} _her_ seven Childryn, as namelye, Richard, _John_, and _John_,
    Anne, Jane, Elizabeth, Ayles, _his_ iiii Daughters, _whose soule_
    restethe with God."

I give the epitaph _verbatim_, with its true orthography. There are some
curious points in this epitaph. First, the date of the death of the
clergyman only is given; second, the children are called _hers_, while the
four daughters are _his_; and two of the sons bear the same Christian name,
whilst only one _soul_ is said to rest with God. The family is represented
kneeling. Above the inscription, and between the clergyman and his lady, is
a desk, on which is represented two books lying open before them.


    [Vossioner seems to be corruption of the Italian _vossignor_, your
    lord, or the lord, _i.e._ owner or proprietor. Many similar words were
    introduced by the Italian ecclesiastics inducted into Church livings
    during the sixteenth century. The inscription is given in Dugdale's
    _Warwickshire_, vol. i. p. 358.]

_The Game of Chess._--At what period was the noble game of chess introduced
into the British Isles; and to whom are we indebted for its introduction
among us?


    [The precise date of the introduction of this game into Britain is
    uncertain. What has been collected respecting it will be found in the
    Hon. Daines Barrington's paper in _Archæologia_, vol. ix. p. 28.; and
    in Hyde's treatise, _Mandragorias, seu Historia Shahiludii_. Oxoniæ,

_A Juniper Letter._--Fuller, in describing a letter written by Bishop
Grosthead to Pope Innocent IV., makes use of a curious epithet, of which I
should be glad to meet with another instance, if it be not simply a

    "Bishop Grouthead offended thereat, wrote Pope Innocent IV. such a
    _juniper letter_, taxing him with extortion and other vicious
    practices."--_Church History_, book III., A.D. 1254.

J. M. B.

    ["A juniper lecture," meaning a round scolding bout, is still in use
    among the canting gentry.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ix., p. 85.)

Clarence is beyond all doubt the district comprehending and lying around
the town and castle of Clare in Suffolk, and not, as some have fancifully
supposed, the town of Chiarenza in the Morea. Some of the crusaders did,
indeed, acquire titles of honour derived from places in eastern lands, but
certainly no such place ever gave its name to an honorary feud held of the
crown of England, nor, indeed, has _ever_ any English sovereign to this day
bestowed a territorial title derived from a place beyond the limits of his
own nominal dominions; the latest creations of the kind being the earldoms
of Albemarle and Tankerville, respectively bestowed by William III. and
George I., who were both nominally kings of Great Britain, _France_, and
Ireland. In ancient times every English title (with the exception of
Aumerle or Albemarle, which exception is only an apparent one) was either
personal, or derived from some place in England. The ancient earls of
Albemarle were not English peers by virtue of that earldom, but by virtue
of the tenure of lands in England, though, being the holders of a Norman
earldom, they were known in England by their higher designation, just as
some of the {225} Barons De Umfravill were styled, even in writs of
summons, by their superior Scottish title of Earl of Angos. If these earls
had not held English fees, they would not have been peers of England any
more than were the ancient Earls of Tankerville and Eu. In later times the
strictness of the feudal law was so far relaxed, that in two or three
instances English peers were created with territorial titles derived from
places in the Duchy of Normandy.

As to the locality of Clarence, see Sandford's _Genealogical History_,
1707, p. 222. There is a paper on the subject in the _Gentleman's Magazine_
for November, 1850. The king of arms called Clarenceux, or in Latin
_Clarentius_, was, as it has been very reasonably conjectured, originally a
herald retained by a Duke of Clarence. (Noble's _History of the College of
Arms_, p. 61.) Hoping ere long to send you some notes respecting certain
real or seeming anomalies amongst our English dignities, I reserve some
particulars which may, perhaps, farther elucidate the present question.


Your correspondent HONORÉ DE MAREVILLE has wandered too far in going to the
Morea to search for this title. Clare in Suffolk was one of the ninety-five
manors in that county bestowed by the Conqueror upon Richard Fitzgilbert,
who (as well as his successor Gilbert) resided at Tunbridge, and bore the
surname of De Tonebruge. His grandson Richard, the first Earl of Hertford,
fixed his principal seat at Clare, and thenceforth the family took the
surname of De Clare; and in the Latin documents of the time the several
members of it were styled _Ricardus_ (or _Gilbertus_), _Dominus Clarensis_,
_Comes Hertfordiensis_. The name of the lordship thus becoming the family
surname, it is easy to see how in common usage the formal epithet
_Clarensis_ soon became Clarence, and why Lionel, the son of Edward III.,
upon his marriage with Elizabeth de Burgh, the grand-niece and heiress of
the last Gilbertus Clarensis, should choose as the title for his dukedom
the surname of the great family of which he had now become the


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 12. 134. 200. 375. 452. 471. 544. 594.)

GARLICHITHE is again on the wrong scent. In his first communication on this
subject, he allowed himself to go astray by mistaking Randle Minshull the
_grandfather_ for Randle Minshull the _son_; and now, with the like
fatality, he fails to discriminate between Richard Minshull the _uncle_,
and Richard Minshull the _brother_, of Elizabeth Milton. A second
examination of my Reply in Vol. viii., p. 200., will suffice to show him
that Richard Minshull, the party to the deed there quoted, was named by me
as the _brother_, and not the _uncle_, of Milton's widow, and that
therefore his argument, based on disparity of age, &c., falls to the
ground. On the other hand, Richard Minshull of Chester, to whom the letter
alluded to was addressed, was the brother of Randle Minshull of Wistaston,
and by the same token, uncle of Elizabeth Milton, and of Richard Minshull,
her brother and co-partner in the deed already referred to.

GARLICHITHE, and all others who have taken an interest in this discussion,
will now, I trust, see clearly that there has been nothing adduced by
either MR. MARSH or myself inconsistent with ages or dates; but that, on
the contrary, all our premises and conclusions are borne out by evidence
clear, irreproachable, and incontestable.

All objections being now, as I conceive, fully combated and disposed of,
the substance of our investigations may be summed up in a very few words.
The statement of Pennant, adopted by all succeeding writers, to the effect
that Elizabeth, the widow of John Milton, was a daughter of Sir Edward
Minshull of Stoke, is clearly proved to be a fiction. It has been farther
proved, from the parish registers, as well as from bonds and other
documentary evidence, that she was, without doubt, the daughter of Randle
Minshull of Wistaston, a village about three miles from Nantwich; that she
was the cousin of Milton's familiar friend, Dr. Paget, and as such became
entitled to a legacy under the learned Doctor's will, and that she is
expressly named by Richard Minshull as his sister in the deed before



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., pp. 35. 113.)

DEVONIENSIS is informed that an example of this occurs in the arms of King
James's School, Almondbury, Yorkshire. The impression, as taken from the
great seal of the school, in which however the colours are not
distinguished, may be imperfectly described as follows: Three lions (two
over one) passant gardant ----, on a chief ----, three fleurs-de-lys ----.

As it is not unlikely that some other of King James's foundations may have
the same arms, it would be considered a favour if any reader of "N. & Q."
possessing the information would communicate the proper colours in this
case, or even the probable ones.


DEVONIENSIS is quite right in supposing that the bearing of three
fleurs-de-lys alone, horizontal, in the upper part of the shield,--in other
words, {226} in chief, fess-ways,--is a very rare occurrence. I know of no
instance of it in English blazon. Coupled with another and principal
charge, as a fess, a chevron, a lion, &c.; or in a chief, it is common
enough. Nor have I ever met with an example of it in French coat-armour. An
English family, named Rothfeld, but apparently of German extraction, gives:
Gules, two fleurs-de-lys, in chief, ermine. Du Guesclin bore nothing like a
fleur-de-lys in any way. The armorial bearings of the famous Constable
were: Argent, a double-headed eagle, displayed, sable, crowned, or,
debruised of a bend, gules.



P.S.--Since writing the above, I have read three replies (Vol. ix., p.
84.), which do not appear to me to exactly meet the Query of DEVONIENSIS.

I understand the question to be, does any English family bear simply three
fleurs-de-lys, in chief, fess-ways--without any additional charge? And in
that sense my reply above is framed.

The first example given by MR. MACKENZIE WALCOTT would be most satisfactory
and conclusive of the existence of such a bearing, could it be verified;
but, unfortunately, in the _Heraldic Dictionaries_ of Berry and Burke, the
name even of Trilleck or Trelleck does not occur. And in Malta, I have no
opportunity of consulting Edmondson or Robson.

Your correspondent A. B. (p. 113.) has mistaken the three white lilies for
fleurs-de-lys in the arms of Magdalen College, Oxford. Waynflete, the
founder, was also Provost of Eton, and adopted the device from the bearings
of that illustrious school; by which they were borne in allusion to St.
Mary, to whom that College is dedicated.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 272. 346. 625.; Vol. ix., p. 78.)

The well-known law dictionary, entitled _The Interpreter_, by John Cowel,
LL.D., was burned (1610) under a proclamation of James I. (D'Israeli's
_Calamities of Authors_, ed. 1840, p. 133.)

In June, 1622, the Commentary of David Pare, or Paræus _On the Epistle to
the Romans_, was burned at London, Oxford, and Cambridge, by order of the
Privy Council. (Wood's _Hist. and Antiq. of Univ. of Oxford_, ed. Gutch,
vol. ii. pp. 341-345.; Cooper's _Annals of Cambridge_, vol. iii. pp. 143,

On the 12th of February, 1634, _Elenchus Religionis Papisticæ_, by John
Bastwicke, M.D., was ordered to be burned by the High Commission Court.
(Prynne's _New Discovery of the Prelates' Tyranny_, p. 132.)

On the 10th of February, 1640-1 the House of Lords ordered that two books
published by John Pocklington, D.D., entitled _Altare Christianum_, and
_Sunday no Sabbath_, should be publicly burned in the city of London and
the two Universities, by the hands of the common executioner; and on the
10th of March the House ordered the Sheriffs of London and the
Vice-Chancellors of both the Universities, forthwith to take care and see
the order of the House carried into execution. (_Lords' Journals_, vol. iv.
pp. 161. 180.)

On the 13th of August, 1660, Charles II. issued a proclamation against
Milton's _Defensio pro Populo Anglicano_, his _Answer to the Portraiture of
his Sacred Majesty in his Solitude and Sufferings_, and a book by John
Goodwin, late of Coleman Street, London, Clerk, entitled _The Obstructors
of Justice_. All copies of these books were to be brought to the sheriffs
of counties, who were to cause the same to be publicly burned by the hands
of the common hangman at the next assizes. (Kennett's _Register and
Chronicle_, p. 207.) This proclamation is also printed in Collet's _Relics
of Literature_, with the inaccurate date 1672, and the absurd statement
that no copy of the proclamation was discovered till 1797.

In January, 1692-3, a pamphlet by Charles Blount, Esq., entitled _King
William and Queen Mary, Conquerors, &c._, was burned by the common hangman
in Palace Yard, Westminster. (Bohun's _Autobiography_, ed. S. W. Rix, vol.
xxiv. pp. 106, 109. 113.; Wilson's _Life of De Foe_, vol. i. p. 179 _n_.)

The same parliament consigned to the flames Bishop Burnet's _Pastoral
Letter_, which had been published 1689. (Wilson's _Life of De Foe_, vol. i.
p. 179.)

On the 31st of July, 1693, the second volume of Anthony à Wood's _Athenæ
Oxonienses_ was burned in the Theatre Yard at Oxford by the Apparitor of
the University, in pursuance of the sentence of the University Court in a
prosecution for a libel on the memory of Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon.
(_Life of Mr. Anthony à Wood_, ed. 1772, p. 377.)

On the 25th of February, 1702-3, the House of Commons ordered De Foe's
_Shortest Way with the Dissenters_ to be burned by the hands of the common
hangman on the morrow in New Palace Yard. (Wilson's _Life of De Foe_, vol.
ii. p. 62.)

In or about 1709, John Humphrey, an aged non-conformist minister, having
published a pamphlet against the Test, and circulated it amongst the
members of parliament, was cited before a committee, and his work was
ordered to be burned by the common hangman. (Wilson's _Life of De Foe_,
vol. iii. p. 52.)

The _North Briton_, No. 45., was on the 3rd of December, 1763, burned by
the common hangman at the Royal Exchange, by order of the House of {227}
Commons. The following account is from Malcolm's _Anecdotes of London_,
4to., 1808, p. 282.:

    "The 3rd of December was appointed for this silly ceremony, which took
    place before the Royal Exchange, amidst the hisses and execrations of
    the mob, not directed at the obnoxious paper, but at Alderman Harley,
    the sheriffs, and constables, the latter of whom were compelled to
    fight furiously through the whole business. The instant the hangman
    held the work to a lighted link it was beat to the ground, and the
    populace, seizing the faggots prepared to complete its destruction,
    fell upon the peace-officers and fairly threshed them from the field;
    nor did the alderman escape without a contusion on the head, inflicted
    by a bullet thrown through the glass of his coach; and several other
    persons had reason to repent the attempt to burn that publicly which
    the _sovereign people_ determined to approve, who afterwards exhibited
    a large _jack-boot_ at Temple Bar, and burnt it in triumph, unmolested,
    as a species of retaliation."

I am not aware that what Mr. Malcolm terms a "silly ceremony" has been
repeated since 1763.



I know not whether you have noticed the following:

    "Droit le Roy; or, A Digest of the Rights and Prerogatives of the
    Imperial Crown of Great Britain. By a Member of the Society of
    Lincoln's Inn. 'Dieu et Mon Droit.' [Royal Arms, with G. R.] London:
    printed and sold by W. Griffin, in Fetter Lane, MDCCLXIV."

Lord Mahon (_History of England_, vol. v. p. 175.) says:

    "It was also observed, and condemned as a shallow artifice, that the
    House of Lords, to counterbalance their condemnation of Wilkes's
    violent democracy, took similar measures against a book of exactly
    opposite principles. This was a treatise or collection of precedents
    lately published under the title of _Droit le Roy_, to uphold the
    prerogative of the crown against the rights of the people. The Peers,
    on the motion of Lord Lyttleton, seconded by the Duke of Grafton, voted
    this book 'a false, malicious, and traitorous libel, inconsistent with
    the principles of the Revolution to which we owe the present happy
    establishment;' they ordered that it should be burned by the hands of
    the common hangman, and that the author should be taken into custody.
    The latter part of the sentence, however, no one took any pains to
    execute. The author was one Timothy Brecknock, a hack scribbler, who,
    twenty years afterwards, was hanged for being accessary to an atrocious
    murder in Ireland."

A copy of the book (an octavo of xii. and 95 pages) is in my possession. It
was apparently a presentation copy, and formerly belonged to Dr. Disney; at
whose sale it was purchased by the late Richard Heber, as his MS. note
testifies. Against the political views which this book advocates, I say not
one word; as a legal treatise it is simply despicable.


Lincoln's Inn.

The following extract is at the service of BALLIOLENSIS:

    "In the seventh year of King James I., Dr. Cowel's _Interpreter_ was
    censured by the two Houses, as asserting several points to the
    overthrow and destruction of Parliaments and of the fundamental laws
    and government of the kingdom. And one of the articles charged upon him
    to this purpose by the Commons, in their complaint to the Lords, was,
    as Mr. Petyt says, out of the _Journal_, this that follows:

    "'4thly. The Doctor draws his arguments from the imperial laws of the
    Roman Emperors, an argument which may be urged with as great reason,
    and with as great authority, for the reduction of the state and the
    clergy of England to the polity and laws in the time of those Emperors;
    as also to make the laws and customs of Rome and Constantinople to be
    binding and obligatory in the cities of London and York.'

    "The issue of which complaint was, that the author, for these his
    outlandish politics, was taken into custody, and his book condemned to
    the flames: nor could the dedication of it to his then grace of
    Canterbury save it."--Atterbury's _Rights, Powers, and Privileges of
    Convocation_, p. 7. of Preface.



I possess a copy of _The Case of Ireland being bound by Acts of Parliament
in England stated_, by William Molyneux of Dublin, Esq., which appears to
have been literally "plucked as brand from the burning," as a considerable
portion of it is consumed by fire. I have cut the following from a sale
catalogue just sent to me from Dublin:

    "Smith's (Matthew) _Memoirs of Secret Service_, Lond. 1696. Written by
    Charles, Earl of Peterborough, and is very scarce, being burnt by the
    hangman. MS. note."



A decree of the University of Oxford, made July 21, 1683, condemning George
Buchanan's treatise _De jure regni apud Scotos_, and certain other books,
the names of which I do not know, was on March 25, 1710, ordered by the
House of Lords to be burned by the hangman. This was shortly after the
trial of Dr. Sacheverel.


Olney, Bucks.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. vi., p. 263.)

Up to a very recent period, it was held, even by philosophers, that each of
the four elements, as well as every _living_ plant and animal, both {228}
brute and human, generated insects; but of all sources of this equivocal
generation, none was considered more potent than the putrefaction or
corruption of animal matter: as Du Bartas says:

  "God, not contented to each kind to give,
  And to infuse the virtue generative,
  By His wise power, made many creatures breed,
  Of _lifeless bodies_ without Venus' deed."
                          _Sixth Day._

Pliny, after giving Virgil's receipt for making bees, gives similar

    "Like as dead horses will breed waspes and hornets; and asses carrion,
    turne to be beetle-flies by a certaine metamorphosis which Nature
    maketh from one creature to another."--Lib. xi. c. xx.

And soon after he says of wasps:

    "All the sorte of these live upon flesh, contrarie to _the manner of
    bees, which will not touch a dead carcasse_."

This brings Shakepeare's lines to mind:

  " 'Tis seldom when the bee doth leave her comb
  In the _dead carrion_."
              _Henry IV._, Part II. Act IV. Sc. 4.

The _Belfast News Letter_ of Friday, Aug. 10, 1832, gives one of these rare

    "A few days ago, when the sexton was digging a grave in Temple Cranney
    (a burying-place in Portaferry, co. Down), he came to a coffin which
    had been there two or three years: this he thought necessary to remove.
    In this operation, he was startled by a great quantity of wild bees
    issuing forth from the coffin; and upon lifting the lid, it was found
    that they had formed their combs in the dead man's skull and mouth,
    which were full. The nest was made of the hair of the head, together
    with shavings that had been put in the coffin with the corpse."

This quotation is given in an interesting work of Mr. Patterson's, _Letters
on the Natural History of the Insects mentioned in Shakspeare's Plays_:
London, 1838.

Your correspondent R. T. shows that _serpents_ were supposed to be
generated by _human_ carcases. Pliny says:

    "I have heard many a man say that the _marrow of a man's backebone_
    will breed to a snake."--_Hist. Nat._, x. 66.

The story of the "fair young German gentleman" reminds me of one of a
gentle shepherd and his beloved Amarante, told in De Britaine's _Human
Prudence_, 12th edit., Dublin, 1726, Part I. p. 171. The corpse of the
"Cæsar," seen by St. Augustine and Monica, was most probably that of
Maximus, Emperor of the West, slain by the soldiers of Theodosius, A.D.

Sir Thos. Browne--"treating of the conceit that the mandrake grows under
gallowses, and arises from the fat, or [Greek: ouron], of the dead
malefactor, and hence has the form of a man--says:

    "This is so far from being verified of animals in their corruptive
    mutations into plants, that they maintain not this similitude in their
    nearer translation into animals. So when the ox corrupteth into bees,
    or the horse into hornets, they come not forth in the image of their
    originals. So the corrupt and excrementitious humours in man are
    animated into lice: and we may observe that hogs, sheep, goats, hawks,
    hens, and others, have one peculiar and proper kind of
    vermin."--_Works_, Bohn's edit., vol. i. p. 197.

The editor furnishes the following note:

    "The immortal Harvey, in his _De Generations_, struck the first blow at
    the root of the irrational system called _equivocal generation_, when
    he laid down his brief but most pungent law, _Omnia ex ovo_. But the
    belief transmitted from antiquity, that living beings generated
    spontaneously from putrescent matter, long maintained its ground, and a
    certain modification of it is even still advocated by some naturalists
    of the greatest acuteness. The first few pages of the volume entitled
    _Insect Transformations_ (in _The Library of Entertaining Knowledge_)
    are occupied by a very interesting investigation of this subject."--See
    also Sir T. Browne's _Works_, vol. i. p. 378., vol. ii. pp. 523, 524.;
    and Izaak Walton's _Complete Angler_, passim.

The equivocal generation of bees is copiously dwelt on in Bochart's
_Hierozoicon_, London, 1663, fol., Part II. p. 502. Instances of their
attaching themselves to dead bodies, in spite of their ordinary antipathy,
are given at p. 506.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 182. 228.)

To your correspondent C. I would say, that his observation--that the Query
was as to an _engraving_, whilst my answer was as to a _picture_--is not
true; as I am sure, from memory, that MR. WESTMACOTT used the word
"portraits." But I plead in extenuation of my pretended grave offence, 1.
That the Query was not propounded by C., but by a gentleman to whom the
information given might be, as I supposed, of some interest; more
particularly as I referred to the _Travels_ of an Englishman, both of
which, author and work, were accessible. 2. That, in common with the
American readers of "N. & Q.," I regarded it as "a journal of
inter-communication," through whose columns information might be asked for,
the request to be treated with the same consideration and courtesy as
though addressed to each individual subscriber. I may add that LORD
BRAYBROOKE and MR. WODDERSPOON (Vol. iv., p. 17.) have urged "the necessity
for recording the existence of painted historical portraits, scattered, as
we know they are," &c. {229}

Now, as to the expression "worthies, famous in English history." I presume
I need do no more concerning its application to Lord Orrery, Sir Robert
Walpole, &c., than say, it was used as signifying "men of mark," without
intending to endorse their "worth" either morally, mentally, or
politically; its application to Colonel Hill and Colonel Byrd, as meaning
"men of worth," might, did your limits permit, be defended on high grounds.

Then as to the possibility of Vandyke's having painted the portraits. If C.
will have the kindness to look at C. Campbell's _History of Virginia_, he
will find,--

    "1654. At a meeting of the Assembly, William Hatchin, having been
    convicted of having called Colonel Edward Hill 'an atheist and
    blasphemer,' was compelled to make acknowledgment of his offence upon
    his knees before Colonel Hill and the Assembly."

This Colonel Hill, generally known as Colonel Edward Hill the Elder, a
gentleman of great wealth, built the mansion at Shirley, where his
portrait, brought from England, hangs in the same place, in the same hall
in which he had it put up. It represents a youth in pastoral costume, crook
in hand, flocks in the background. By a comparison of dates, C. will find
it possible for Vandyke to have painted it. (See Bryan's _Engravers and
Painters_.) It has descended, along with the estate, to his lineal
representative, the present owner. Its authenticity rests upon _tradition_
coupled with the foregoing facts, as far as I know (though the family may
have abundant documentary proof), and I doubt very much whether many
"Vandykes in England" are better ascertained. I would add that several
English gentlemen, among them, as I have heard, a distinguished ambassador
recently in this country, recognised it as a Vandyke. This picture, amongst
others, was injured by the balls fired from the vessels which ascended the
James river, under command of General Arnold, then a British officer. On
the younger Mr. Hill's tomb at Shirley is a coat of arms, a copy of which,
had I one to send, would probably point out his family in England.[2]

As to Colonel Byrd's portrait. There were, I believe, three gentlemen of
this name and title, more or less confounded in reputation, the second of
whom, generally known as "Colonel Byrd the Elder," by reason of his son's
history, was born in 1674. The picture is of his _father_, that is, of
"old," or "the first Colonel Byrd," and is in the same style as that of
Colonel Hill's, representing a shepherd lad. He was an English gentleman of
great wealth, and certainly of some benevolence. In Campbell's _Virginia_,
p. 104. (see also Oldmixon, vol. i. p. 427.), it is stated, 1690, a large
body of Huguenots were sent to Virginia. "The refugees found in Colonel
Byrd, of Westover, a generous benefactor. Each settler was allowed a strip
of land running back from the river to the foot of the hill (Henrico
County). Here they raised cattle," &c. He sent his son to England to be
educated under the care of a friend, Sir Robert Southwell. The son became a
Fellow of the Royal Society, "was the intimate and bosom friend of the
learned and illustrious Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery," was the author of
the _Westover MSS._ (mentioned in Oldmixon's preface, 2nd ed.), portions of
which, "Progress to the Mines," "History of the Dividing Line," &c., have
been printed, others are in the library of the American Philosophical
Society.[3] His portrait is "by Kneller, a fine old cavalier face," says
Campbell. The letters received at Westover might prove not uninteresting
even to C., seeing that there were so many titled people among the writers;
and to a gentleman of education and intelligence, the Westover library
would have been a treasure-house. In the Loganian Library in this city is a
large MS. folio, whose title-page declares it to be "a catalogue of books
in the library at Westover, belonging to William Byrd, Esq.," from which it
appears that in Law there were the English reporters (beginning with Y. B.)
and text-writers, laws of France, Scotland, Rome (various editions of
Pandects, &c.); Canon Law, with numerous approved commentators on each. In
Physic a great many works, which, as I am told, were, and some still are,
of high repute: I note only one, _Poor Planter's Physician interleaved_.
This, to every one who has been upon a great Virginia plantation, bespeaks
the benevolence characteristic of the proprietors of Westover. In Divinity,
besides pages of orthodox divines, Bibles in various languages (several in
Hebrew, one in seven vols.), are Socinius, Bellarmine, &c. The works on
Metallurgy, Natural History, Metaphysics, Military Science, Heraldry,
Navigation, Music, &c., are very numerous; and either of the collections of
history, or entertainment, or classics, or political science, would form no
inconsiderable library of itself. {230} An impression of Colonel Byrd's
book-plate, given by a friend, is enclosed. I must add that the pictures at
Brandon are at that mansion, through the marriage of Mr. Harrison (a signer
of the Declaration of Independence) with the daughter of the third Colonel

I have occupied much more space than I intended, but I have said enough I
hope to show, 1. That it is possible, from dates, from the character,
wealth, and position of Mr. Byrd and Mr. Hill, together with the length of
time the pictures have remained in the respective families, for Vandyke to
have painted these portraits. 2. That as men who directed the energies,
developed the resources, of our infant settlements, who brought hither the
products of science, literature, and art, who exhibited the refinements of
birth, the graces of good breeding, yet were always ready to serve their
country in the field or in the council, Mr. Byrd and Mr. Hill are vastly
more worthy of commemoration and reverence than all the Earls of
Dredlington that ever sat at his majesty's Board of Green Cloth.



[Footnote 2: It is curious to observe how matters of history appear and
disappear as it were. "The mighty Tottipottimoy," says Hudibras (part ii.
cant. ii. l. 421.),--on which the Rev. Dr. Nash has this note: "I don't
know whether this is a real name or only an imitation of North-American
phraseology; the appellation of an individual, or a title of
office:"--Tottipottimoy was king of the warlike and powerful Parnunkies,
and was defeated and slain by the Virginians, commanded by Colonel Hill, in
the action from which Bloody Run takes its name.]

[Footnote 3: There is a curious passage in the Westover MSS. concerning
William Penn, of which Mr. Macaulay should have a copy, unless one has been
already sent to him.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Cyanide of Potassium._--It may be interesting to our photographic friends
to know that cyanide of potassium is capable of replacing hyposulphite of
soda in all collodion processes. If used of the strength of five grains to
one ounce of water, no danger need be apprehended from it. Its merits are
cleanliness, quickness of operation, and the minute quantity of water
required for washing the picture fixed therewith.


_Mode of exciting Calotype Paper._--I forgot inserting this plan of
exciting in my paper: it is very clean and convenient, simple and sure.
Obtain a piece of plate glass, two or three inches larger than your paper,
level it on a table with a few bits of wood, pour on it your exciting
mixture (say aceto-nitrate and gallic acid, solution of each 20 minims,
distilled water 1 ounce), and spread it evenly over with a scrap of
blotting-paper. Float your paper two minutes, remove and blot off; this
ensures perfect evenness, especially if the paper is large. You may thus
excite half a dozen papers with little more trouble than one.


_The Double Iodide Solution--Purity of Photographic Chemicals._--The
observations of MR. LEACHMAN upon the solvent powers of iodide of potassium
(Vol ix., p. 182.) are perfectly correct, but I believe our photographic
chemicals are often much adulterated. The iodide of potassium is frequently
mixed with the carbonate. DR. MANSELL writes me word, in a comment upon
your note upon his communication, "What I used was _very_ pure, having been
prepared by Mr. Arnold with great care: it was some that had gone to the
Great Exhibition as a sample of Guernsey make, and obtained a medal." I
have this day used exactly seven ounces avoirdupois to make a pint of the
iodizing solution, which, within a few grains, agrees with my former
results. Nitrate of silver, I am informed upon a most respectable
authority, has been adulterated thirty per cent., and without careful
testing has eluded detection; but I am inclined to think our cheapest
article has come in for its largest share of mixture. I have lately
perfectly failed in the removal of the iodide of silver with a _saturated_
solution of what I purchased as hyposulphite of soda, but which could have
been little else than common Glauber's salts; for upon applying a similar
solution of some which was made by M. Butka of Prague, and supplied me by
Messrs. Simpson and Maule, the effect was almost immediate, demonstrating
how much we are misled in our conclusions, from believing we are
manipulating with the same substances, when in fact they are quite


_Hyposulphite of Soda Baths._--Is there any objection to using the same
bath (saturated solution of hyposulphite) for fixing both paper calotype
_negatives_ and positives printed on albumenized paper from glass collodion

C. E. F.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Daughters taking their Mothers' Names_ (Vol. viii., p.586.).--BURIENSIS
asked for instances of temp. Edw. I., II., III., of a daughter adding to
her own name that of her mother: as Alice, daughter of Ada, &c. Though I am
not able to furnish an instance of a daughter doing so, I can refer him to
a few of sons using that form of surname some years earlier, but the
practice seems very limited. Thus in _Liber de Antiquis Legibus_, published
by the Camden Society, we have, among the early sheriffs of London in 1193,
Willielmus filius Ysabelis, or, as in the appendix 222, Ysabel; in 1200,
Willielmus filius Alicie; in 1213, Martinus filius Alicie; and in 1233 and
1246, Simon filius Marie,--the same person that, as Simon Fitz-Mary, is
known as the founder of the Hospital of St. Mary Bethlehem Without,

W. S. W.

Middle Temple.

_The Young Pretender_ (Vol. ix., p. 177.).--Will CEYREP, or any other
correspondent, furnish me with particulars of the Young Pretender's
marriage with a daughter of the House of Stolberg; her name, place of
burial, &c.? She was descended maternally from the noble House of Bruce,
through the marriage of Thomas, second Earl of Aylesbury and third Earl of
Elgin, with Charlotte (his second wife) Countess of Sannu, or Sannau, of
the House of Argenteau. They had a daughter, Charlotte Maria, I suppose an
only child, who was married in the year 1722 to the Prince of Horn. These
had issue Mary and Elizabeth, whom also I suppose {231} to have been only
children. One of them married the Prince of Stolberg, and the other the
Prince of Salm. One of the descendants of this family was an annuitant on
the estate of the Marquis of Aylesbury, as recently as twelve or fourteen
years ago. Information on any part of this descent would confer an
obligation on


_A Legend of the Hive_ (Vol. ix., p. 167.).--With every feeling of
gratitude to EIRIONNACH, I cannot receive praise for false metre and
erroneous grammar. In the fifth line of the first stanza of the quoted
verse, the first of the above legend, "are" is redundant: and in the first
line of the next stanza, "bore" should be "bare." I remember that in more
cases than one the printer of my published rhymes has perpetrated this
latter mistake.

Suffer me to reply to a question of the same courteous critic EIRIONNACH,
in Vol. ix., p. 162., about a "Christ-cross-row." This name for the
alphabet obtained in the good old Cornish dame-schools when I was a boy. In
a book that I have seen, there is a vignette of a monk teaching a little
boy to read, and beneath

      "_A Christ-Cross Rhyme._


  "Christ his cross shall be my speed!
  Teach me, Father John, to read:
  That in church, on holy-day,
  I may chant the psalm and pray.


  "Let me learn, that I may know
  What the shining windows show;
  Where the lovely Lady stands,
  With that bright Child in her hands.


  "Teach me letters one, two, three,
  Till that I shall able be
  Signs to know and words to frame,
  And to spell sweet Jesu's name!


  "Then, dear master, will I look
  Day and night in that fair book,
  Where the tales of saints are told,
  With their pictures all in gold.


  "Teach me, Father John, to say
  Vesper-verse and matin-lay;
  So when I to God shall plead,
  Christ his cross will be my speed!"


_Hoby Family_ (Vol. viii., p. 244.; Vol. ix., pp. 19. 58.).--Sir Philip
Hoby, or Hobbie, who was born in 1505, and died in 1558, was not only
Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII., but, while he held that
office, was attached to the embassy of Sir Thomas Wyatt to the Emperor
Charles V. in 1538. He was himself ambassador to the same Emperor in 1548,
being sent by the Protector Somerset to replace the Bishop of Westminster.
It may be interesting to state that two volumes of papers containing
instructions and other letters transmitted to Sir Philip during these
embassies, and copies of his replies, together with his correspondence with
some eminent reformers, were in the possession of Wm. Hare, Esq., M.P. for
the city of Cork in 1796. An account of them, drawn up by the Rev. T. D.
Hincks, was read before the Royal Irish Academy on December 17 in that
year, and printed in the sixth volume of its _Transactions_. It is probable
that these papers had formerly belonged to Rev. Sir Philip Hoby, Bart., who
was Dean of Ardfert and Chancellor of St. Patrick's; and died without an
heir in 1766. He was descended from Sir Thomas Hoby, younger brother of Sir
Philip; who was born in 1530, and died in 1566. The father of these two
knights was William Hobbie of Leominster. I presume the two volumes of
papers referred to are in the possession of the Earl of Listowel,
great-grandson of the gentleman who possessed them in 1796.

E. H. D. D.

_Anticipatory Use of the Cross_ (Vol. viii. passim).--

    "It is strange, yet well authenticated, and has given rise to many
    theories, that the symbol of the Cross was already known to the Indians
    before the arrival of Cortez. In the island of Cozumel, near Yucatan,
    there were several; and in Yucatan itself there was a stone cross. And
    there an Indian, considered a prophet amongst his countrymen, had
    declared that a nation bearing the same as a symbol should arrive from
    a distant country! More extraordinary still was a temple, dedicated to
    the Holy Cross by the Toltec nation in the city of Cholula. Near
    Tulansingo there is also a cross engraved on a rock with various
    characters, which the Indians by tradition ascribe to the Apostle St.
    Thomas. In Oajaca, also, there existed a cross, which the Indians from
    time immemorial had been accustomed to consider as a divine symbol. By
    order of the Bishop Cervantes it was placed in a sumptuous chapel in
    the cathedral. Information concerning its discovery, together with a
    small cup, cut out of its wood, was sent to Rome to Paul V.; who
    received it on his knees, singing the hymn 'Vexilla regis,' &c."--_Life
    in Mexico_, by Madame Calderon de la Barca, Letter xxxvii.

E. H. A.

_Longevity_ (Vols. vii., viii., _passim_).--

    "Amongst the fresh antiquities of Cornwall, let not the old woman be
    forgotten who died about two years since; who was one hundred and
    sixty-four years old, of good memory, and healthful at that age; living
    in the parish of Gwithian by the charity of such as came purposely to
    see her, speaking to them (in default of English) by an interpreter,
    yet partly understanding it. She married a second husband after she was
    eighty, {232} and buried him after he was eighty years of
    age."--Scawens' _Dissertation on the Cornish Tongue_, written temp.
    Car. II.


As very many, if not all, the instances mentioned in "N. & Q." of those who
have reached a very advanced age, were people of humble origin, may we not
now refer to those of noble birth? To commence the list, I would name Sir
Ralph de Vernon, "who is said to have lived to the age of one hundred and
fifty, and thence generally was called the Old Liver." My authority is,
Burke's _Peerage and Baronetage_, edit. 1848, p. 1009.

W. W.


"_Nugget_" (Vol. viii., pp. 375. 481.).--A note from Mundy's _Our

    "The word _nugget_, among farmers, signifies a small compact beast, a
    runt: among gold-miners a lump, in contradistinction to the scale or


_The fifth Lord Byron_ (Vol. ix., p. 18.).--I believe it to be an
acknowledged fact, that an old man's memory is generally good of events of
years past and gone: and as an octogenarian I am not afraid to state that,
from the discussions on the subject, I feel myself perfectly correct as to
the main point of my observations (Vol. viii., p. 2.), viz. the error
committed in the limitation of the ultimate reversion of the estate; but as
to the secondary point to which MR. WARDEN alludes, I may perhaps be in
error in placing it on the settlement of the son, inasmuch as the effect
would be the same if it occurred in the settlement of the father; and MR.
WARDEN'S observations leave an inference that the mistake may have there
occurred; as, in such case, if the error had been discovered,--and by any
altercation the son had refused to correct the mistake, which he could and
ought to have consented to, after the failure of his own issue,--this
alone, between two hasty tempers, would have been sufficient cause of
quarrel, without reference to the question of marrying an own cousin, which
is often very justly objectionable.


_Wapple, or Whapple-way_ (Vol. ix., p. 125.).--This name is common in the
south, and means a bridle-way, or road in which carriages cannot pass. In
Sussex these ways are usually short cuts through fields and woods, from one
road or place to another. (See Halliwell's _Dictionary_, and Cooper's
_Sussex Glossary_.) The derivation is not given by either writer.


In Manning's _Surrey_, I find not any mention of this term; but apprehend
it to be a corruption of the Norman-French, _vert plain_, "a green road or
alley:" which, as our Saxon ancestors pronounced the _v_ as a _w_, easily
slides into _war plain_ or _warple_. (See Du Cange, _Supp._, _in voce_

C. H.

_The Ducking-stool_ (Vol. viii., p.315.).--As late as the year 1824, a
woman was convicted of being a common scold in the Court of Quarter
Sessions of Philadelphia County, and sentenced "to be placed in a certain
instrument of correction called a cucking or ducking-stool," and plunged
three times into the water; but the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, upon the
removal of the case by writ of error, decided that this punishment was
obsolete, and contrary to the spirit of the age.

Our fathers held the ducking-stool in higher respect, as appears from the
following presentments of the grand juries of Philadelphia, the originals
of which have been lately discovered. In January, 1717, they say (through
William Fishbourne, their foreman),--

    "Whereas it has been frequently and often presented by several former
    grand juries for this city, the necessity of a ducking-stool and house
    of correction for the just punishment of scolding, drunken women, as
    well as divers other profligate and unruly persons in this place, who
    are become a public nuisance and disturbance to this town in general;
    therefore we, the present grand jury, do earnestly again present the
    same to this court of quarter sessions for the city, desiring their
    immediate care, that _those publick conveniences_ may not be any longer
    delayed, but with all possible speed provided for the detection and
    quieting such disorderly persons."

Another, the date of which is not given, but which is signed by the same
foreman, presents "Alsoe that a ducking-stoole be made for publick use,
being very much wanting for scolding women," &c. And in 1720, another grand
jury, of which Benjamin Duffield was foreman, say:

    "The Grand Inquest, we taking in consideration the great disorders of
    the turbulent and ill-behaviour of many people in this city, we present
    the great necessity of a ducking-stool for such people according to
    their deserts."



_Double Christian Names_ (Vol. ix., p. 45.).--It is surely not correct to
say that the earliest instance of two Christian names is in the case of a
person born in 1635. Surely Henry, Prince of Wales, the son of James I., is
an earlier instance. Sir Thomas Strand Fairfax was certainly born before
that date. Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey was probably an earlier instance; and
Sir Robert Bruce Colton, the antiquary, certainly so. Writing at a distance
from my books, I can only appeal to memory; but see Southey's _Common-Place
Book_, vol. i. p. 510. Venables, in his _Travels in Russia_, {233} tells us
that "a Russian has never more than one Christian name, which must be
always that of a saint." To these a patronymic is often added of the
father's name, with the addition _vich_, as in the case of the present
Czar, Nicholas Paulovich, the son of Paul.



_Pedigree to the Time of Alfred_ (Vol. viii., p. 586.).--Some ten or twelve
years since I was staying at the King's Head Inn, Egham, Surrey (now
defunct), when a fresh-looking, respectable man was pointed out to one as
Mr. Wapshot, who had held an estate in the neighbourhood from his ancestors
prior to the Conquest. He was not represented as a blacksmith, but as
farming his own estate. I am not connected with Egham or the neighbourhood,
or I would make farther inquiry.

S. D.

_Palace of Lucifer_ (Vol. v., p. 275.).--If R. T. has not observed it, I
would refer him to the note in the Aldine edition of Milton, vol. iii. p.
263., where I find "Luciferi domus" is the palace of the sun (see
_Prolusiones_, p. 120.); and not, as T. WARTON conjectured, the abode of

I. R. R.

_Monaldeschi_ (Vol. viii., p. 34.).--_Relation du Meurte de Monaldeschi,
poignardé par ordre de Christine, reine de Suède_, by Father de Bel, is to
be found in a collection of curious papers printed at Cologne, 1664, in
12mo. It is given at length in _Cristina's Revenge, and other Poems_, by J.
M. Moffatt, London, printed for the author, 1821.

E. D.

_Anna Lightfoot_ (Vol. vii., p. 595.).--T. H. H. is referred to an
elegantly printed pamphlet called _An Historical Fragment relative to her
late Majesty Queen Caroline_, printed for J. & N. L. Hunt, London, 1824,
which, from p. 44. to p. 50., contains a very circumstantial account of
this extraordinary occurrence.

E. D.

_Lode_ (Vol. v., p. 345.).--It would not appear that this word means "an
artificial watercourse," at least from its use at Tewkesbury, where there
is still the _Lower Lode_, at which a ferry over the Severn still exists;
and there was also the _Upper Lode_, until a bridge was erected over the
river at that place. Will this help to show its proper meaning?

I. R. R.

"_To try and get_" (Vol. ix., p. 76.).--UNEDA inquires the origin of this
erroneous mode of expression? Doubtless euphony, to avoid the alliteration
of so many T's: "_t_o _t_he _t_heatre _t_o _t_ry and get," &c. But
evidently the word _to_ is understood, though not supplied after the word
_and_. Thus, "to try and (to) get," &c.


_Abbott Families_ (Vol. ix. p. 105.).--In reply to MR. ABBOTT'S Query, I
have a pedigree of Samuel Abbott, born in 1637 or 1638; second son of Wm.
Abbott of Sudbury, who was born 1603, and who was son to Charles Abbott of
Hawkden and Sudbury, an alderman, which Charles was son to Wm. Abbott of
Hawkden. This Samuel married Margaret, daughter to Thomas Spicer. Should
MR. ABBOTT wish it, I would forward him a copy of the pedigree. I can trace
no connexion between this family and that of Archbishop Abbott, whose
father, Maurice Abbott of Guildford, was son of ---- Abbott of Farnham, co.

I wish especially to know what became of Thomas Abbott, only son of Robert,
Bishop of Sarum; which Thomas dedicated his father's treatise against
Bellarmine in 1619 to his uncle the Archbishop, calling himself in the
preface, "imbellis homuncio." His sister was wife to Sir Nathaniel Brent,
whose younger son Nathaniel left all his property to his cousin Maurice
Abbott, of St. Andrew's, Holborn, Gent., in 1688; which Maurice was
possibly son to Thomas.


36. Lincoln's Inn Fields.

"_Mairdil_" (Vol. viii., p. 411.).--Is there any affinity between the word
_mairdil_, which is used in Forfarshire, to be overcome with fatigue for
any oppressive or intricate piece of work, and the word _mardel_ or
_mardle_, which signifies to gossip in Norfolk, as stated by MR. J. L.
SISSON? What will H. C. K. say to this subject? Jamieson confines _mairdil_
to an adjective, signifying unwieldy; but I have often heard work-people in
Forfarshire declare they were "perfectly _mairdiled_" with a piece of heavy
work, using the word as a passive verb. _Trachled_ has nearly the same
meaning, but it is chiefly confined to describe fatigue arising from
walking a long distance.


_Bell at Rouen_ (Vol. viii., p. 448.).--Your valuable correspondent W.
SPARROW SIMPSON, B.A., has probably taken his account of the great bell in
the cathedral at Rouen from a note made before the French Revolution of
1792-3, because the George d'Ambois, which was once considered the largest
bell in Europe (it was thirteen feet high, and eleven feet in diameter),
excepting that at Moscow, shared the destructive fate of many others at
that eventful period, and was melted down for cannon. In 1814 the bulb of
its clapper was outside the door of a blacksmith's shop, as you go out of
the city towards Dieppe. It was pointed out to me by a friend with whom I
was then travelling--a gentleman of the neighbourhood, who was at Rouen at
the time it was brought there--and there, if I mistake not, but I cannot
find my note, I saw it again within the last ten years.


Rectory, Clyst St. George.


_Smiths and Robinsons_ (Vol. ix., p. 148.).--Arms of Smith of Curdley, co.
Lancaster: Argent, a cheveron sable between three roses gules, barbed, vert
seeded, or.

Robinson (of Yorkshire): Vert, a cheveron between three roebucks trippant
or. Crest, a roebuck as in the arms. Motto, "Virtute non verbis."

Robinson of Yorkshire, as borne by Lord Rokeby: Vert, on a cheveron or,
between three bucks trippant of the last, as many quatrefoils gules. Crest,
a roebuck trippant or.


_Churchill's Grave_ (Vol. ix., p. 123.).--If I am not mistaken, there is a
tablet to the memory of Churchill, with a more lengthy inscription, within
the church of St. Mary, Dover, towards the western end of the south aisle.


       *       *       *       *       *



Before proceeding to notice any of the books which we have received this
week, we will call the attention of the publishing world to two important
works which we know to be now wanting a publisher, namely, I. _A
Syriac-English Lexicon to the New Testament and Book of Psalms_, arranged
alphabetically, with the derivatives referred to their proper roots, and a
companion of the principal words in the cognate languages; and II. _A
Syriac-English Grammar_, translated and abridged from Hoffman's larger

Samuel Pepys is the dearest old gossip that ever lived; and every new
edition of his incomparable Diary will serve but to increase his reputation
as the especial chronicler of his age. Every page of it abounds not only in
curious indications of the tone and feelings of the times, and the
character of the writer, but also in most graphic illustrations of the
social condition of the country. It is this that renders it a work which
calls for much careful editing and illustrative annotation, and
consequently gives to every succeeding edition new value. Well pleased are
we, therefore, to receive from Lord Braybrooke a fourth edition, revised
and corrected, of the _Diary and Correspondence of Samuel Pepys_. and well
pleased to offer our testimony to the great care with which its noble
editor has executed his duties. Thanks to his good judgment, and to the
great assistance which he acknowledges to have received from Messrs.
Holmes, Peter Cunningham, Yeowell, &c., his fourth edition is by far the
best which has yet appeared, and is the one which must hereafter be
referred to as the standard one. The Index, too, has been revised and
enlarged, which adds no little to the value of the book.

Mr. Murray has broken fresh ground in his _British Classics_ by the
publication of the first volume of Gibbon's _Decline and Fall of the Roman
Empire, with Notes and Preface by Dean Milman and M. Guizot_, and edited,
with Notes, by Dr. Smith. If the publisher showed good tact in selecting
Mr. P. Cunningham for editor of _Goldsmith_, he has shown no less in
entrusting the editing of his new Gibbon to Dr. Smith, whose various
Dictionaries point him out as peculiarly fitted for such a task. In such
well practised hands, therefore, there can be little doubt as to the mode
in which the labour of editing will be conducted; and a very slight glance
at the getting up of this first volume will serve to prove that, for a
library edition of Gibbon, while this is the cheapest it will be also the
handsomest ever offered to the public.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--Macaulay's _Critical and Historical Essays, People's
Edition_, Part I. The first issue of an edition of these admirable Essays,
which will, when completed, cost only Seven Shillings! Can cheapness go
much lower?--_Adventures in the Wilds of North America_, by Charles Lanman,
_edited_ by C. R. Wild, forming Parts LV. and LVI. of Longman's
_Traveller's Library_. These adventures, partly piscatorial, are of
sufficient interest to justify their publication even without the
_imprimatur_, which they have received, of so good a critic as Washington
Irving.--Darling's _Cyclopædia Bibliographica_, Part XVII., extends from
Andrew Rivet to William Shepheard.

       *       *       *       *       *





SCHILLER'S WALLENSTEIN, translated by Coleridge. Smith's Classical Library.

GOETHE'S FAUST (English). Smith's Classical Library.

THE CIRCLE OF THE SEASONS. London, 1828. 12mo.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
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Copies or Facsimiles of other Old Newspapers.

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CAMBRIDGE INSTALLATION ODE, 1835, by Chr. Wordsworth. 4to. Edition.



---- ---- ---- OF ANIMALS.

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ENQUIRY AFTER HAPPINESS. The Third Part. By Richard Lucas, D.D. Sixth
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  Wanted by _Rev. John James_, Avington Rectory, Hungerford.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

M. "Scarborough Warning."--_This expression has been fully explained in
our_ First Volume, p. 138.

J. C. B., _who writes respecting_ The Gregorian Tones, _is referred to our_
Sixth Volume, pp. 99. 178., _and our_ Seventh Volume, p. 136.

R. N. (Liverpool). _There are many letters of Charles I. among the MSS. in
the British Museum. We do not know where the Cabinet taken at Naseby is

OXON. Entire, _as applied to beer, signifies that it is drawn entirely from
one butt. Formerly the favourite beer was a mixture of ale or beer and
twopenny, until a brewer named Harwood produced a beer with the same
flavour, which he called_ entire _or_ entire butt.

G. W. T. _Old Rowley was the name of a celebrated stallion belonging to
Charles II._

C. H. N., _who writes respecting_ Royal Arms in Churches, _is referred to
our_ Sixth Volume passim.

TOM TELL-TALE _is thanked. We are in possession of information respecting
the drawings in question; but shall be glad to know of any other

CAVEAT EMPTOR. _We have lately seen a curious pseudo-letter of Cromwell,
the history of which we may perhaps lay before our readers._

FRANCIS BEAUFORT. _The copy of the_ Biblia Sacra Latina _to which our
Correspondent refers, is now in the possession of Mr. Brown, bookseller,
130. Old Street_.

J. O. _We have forwarded the book you so kindly sent to the gentleman for
whom you intended it._

COMUS _may have a copy of the_ Epitome of Locke _on applying to Mr. Olive
Lasbury, bookseller, Bristol_.

HUGH HENDERSON (Glasgow). _The fault must be in the quality of your
pyrogallic. You need have no difficulty in obtaining it pure of some of the
photographic chemists, and whose advertisements appear in our columns._

A. F. G. (March 1st.). _All papers for photographic purposes improve by
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sample, secure all you can; it will repay you well by time. Consult our
advertising columns for your market, which we prefer not to indicate._

_Errata._--Vol. ix., p. 75., col. 1. 9th line, for "previous" read
"precious"; p. 136., col. 1. line 3, for "carre" read "cane;" p. 200., col.
1. 12th line from bottom, for "Richard I." read "Henry I."

OUR EIGHTH VOLUME _is now bound and ready for delivery, price 10s. 6d.,
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"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
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       *       *       *       *       *

TO NERVOUS SUFFERERS.--A retired Clergyman having been restored to health
in a few days, after many years of great nervous suffering, is anxious to
make known to others the MEANS of a CURE; will therefore send free, on
receiving a stamped envelope, properly addressed, a copy of the
prescription used.

Direct the REV. E. DOUGLASS, 18. Holland Street, Brixton, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas each.--D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square
(established A.D. 1785), sole manufacturers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25
Guineas each. Every instrument warranted. The peculiar advantages of these
pianofortes are best described in the following professional testimonial,
signed by the majority of the leading musicians of the age:--"We, the
undersigned members of the musical profession, having carefully examined
the Royal Pianofortes manufactured by MESSRS. D'ALMAINE & CO., have great
pleasure in bearing testimony to their merits and capabilities. It appears
to us impossible to produce instruments of the same size possessing a
richer and finer tone, more elastic touch, or more equal temperament, while
the elegance of their construction renders them a handsome ornament for the
library, boudoir, or drawing-room. (Signed) J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R.
Bishop, J. Blewitt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp, P. Delavanti, C. H. Dolby, E.
F. Fitzwilliam, W. Forde, Stephen Glover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison, H. F.
Hassé, J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes, W. H. Holmes, W. Kuhe, G. F.
Kiallmark, E. Land, G. Lanza, Alexander Lee, A. Leffler, E. J. Loder, W. H.
Montgomery, S. Nelson, G. A. Osborne, John Parry, H. Panofka, Henry
Phillips, F. Praegar, K. F. Rimbault, Frank Romer, G. H. Rodwell, R.
Roekel, Sims Reeves, J. Templeton, F. Weber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright," &c.

D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Lists and Designs Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *

contains designs and prices of upwards of ONE HUNDRED different Bedsteads,
in iron, brass, japanned wood, polished birch, mahogany, rosewood, and
walnut-tree woods; also of every description of Bedding, Blankets, and

HEAL & SON, Bedstead and Bedding Manufacturers, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE EXHIBITION OF PHOTOGRAPHS, by the most eminent English and Continental
Artists, is OPEN DAILY from Ten till Five. Free Admission.

                                            £  s. d.
  A Portrait by Mr. Talbot's Patent
    Process                                 1  1  0
  Additional Copies (each)                  0  5  0
  A Coloured Portrait, highly finished
    (small size)                            3  3  0
  A Coloured Portrait, highly finished
    (larger size)                           5  5  0

Miniatures, Oil Paintings, Water-Colour, and Chalk Drawings, Photographed
and Coloured in imitation of the Originals. Views of Country Mansions,
Churches, &c., taken at a short notice.

Cameras, Lenses, and all the necessary Photographic Apparatus and
Chemicals, are supplied, tested, and guaranteed.

Gratuitous Instruction is given to Purchasers of Sets of Apparatus.

168. New Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

ARUNDEL SOCIETY.--The Publication of the Fourth Year (1852-3), consisting
of Eight Wood Engravings by MESSRS. DALZIEL, from Mr. W. Oliver Williams'
Drawings after GIOTTO'S Frescos at PADUA, is now ready: and Members who
have not paid their Subscriptions are requested to forward them to the
Treasurer by Post-Office Order, payable at the Charing Cross Office.

          JOHN J. ROGERS,
              Treasurer and Hon. Sec.
  13. & 14. Pall Mall East.
      March, 1854.

       *       *       *       *       *

of Julius Cæsar to the Accession of Queen Victoria. By HUME, SMOLLETT, and
HUGHES. With Copious Notes, the Author's last Corrections, Improvements,
and Enlargement. Also Historical Illustrations, Autographs, and Portraits.
To be published in crown 8vo., Weekly, in Seventy-two Parts, at One
Shilling each: and in Monthly Volumes, price Four Shillings, bound in

The Publication will commence on the 3rd of April, and be continued
regularly until the Work is completed.

In accordance with the universal desire of obtaining the best books at the
cheapest possible price, the Historical Works of HUME, SMOLLETT, and
HUGHES, are now submitted to the public: it being the object of the
Publisher to place within the reach of all classes of readers, in a
succession of weekly parts and monthly volumes, a more complete HISTORY OF
ENGLAND than any extant.

The eventful period in the annals of Britain which has elapsed since the
age of Smollett, whose volumes close with the reign of George the Second,
demands a faithful and impartial record; and this portion of our National
History, continued by the REV. T. S. HUGHES, late Christian Advocate at
Cambridge, will be printed from the corrected text of the third octavo
edition, which was almost entirely rewritten.

The additional volumes, containing a narrative of important events,
commence with the accession of George the Third, and will be continued to
the accession of Queen Victoria.

The Work will be completed in eighteen volumes, and embellished with
numerous Engravings on Steel, entirely re-engraved for this Edition,
comprising a selection of historical illustrations from Bowyer's History of
England, and from paintings by the most eminent masters, with portraits of
all the sovereigns from the Norman Conquest, according to the costume of
the different ages, and authentic facsimiles of their autographs.

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


GILBERT J. FRENCH, Bolton, Lancashire, has prepared his usual large Supply
of SURPLICES, in Anticipation of EASTER.

PARCELS delivered FREE at Railway Stations.

       *       *       *       *       *


COLLODION PORTRAITS AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest ease and certainty
by using BLAND & LONG'S preparation of Soluble Cotton; certainty and
uniformity of action over a lengthened period, combined with the most
faithful rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a most valuable agent
in the hands of the photographer.

Albumenised paper, for printing from glass or paper negatives, giving a
minuteness of detail unattained by any other method, 5s. per Quire.

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality.

Instruction in the Processes.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative
Chemists, 153. Fleet Street, London.

*** Catalogues sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE SIGHT preserved by the Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit every variety
of Vision by means of SMEE'S OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents Injury
to the Eyes from the Selection of Improper Glasses, and is extensively
employed by

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.--OTTEWILL & MORGAN'S Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte
Terrace, Caledonian Road, Islington. OTTEWILL'S Registered Double Body
Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS,
Featherstone Buildings, Holborn; the Photographic Institution, Bond Street:
and at the Manufactory as above, where every description of Cameras,
Slides, and Tripods may be had. The Trade supplied.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 189. Strand, have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half-tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

Post. 1s. 2d.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles, consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS,
other travelling requisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on
receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 15. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHUBB'S FIRE-PROOF SAFES AND LOCKS.--These safes are the most secure from
force, fraud, and fire. Chubb's locks, with all the recent improvements,
cash and deed boxes of all sizes. Complete lists, with prices, will be sent
on application.

CHUBB & SON, 57. St. Paul's Churchyard, London; 28. Lord Street, Liverpool;
16. Market Street, Manchester; and Horseley Fields, Wolverhampton.

       *       *       *       *       *


Society in which the advantages of Mutual Assurance can be secured by
Moderate Premiums) is now Published, and may be had free, on application.


  1. Number of proposals accepted                   716

  2. Amount of new assurances exclusive
  of annuities                           £309,393  0  0
  3. Amount of annual premiums
  on new assurances                        £8,038 12  5

  4. Amount of single payments on
  ditto                                    10,729  2  8
  -------- New premiums received
  during the year                        £18,767  15  1
  5. Amount of claims by death
  during the year                         £23,526  5  0
  6. Addition to realised fund, arising
  entirely from accumulated
  premiums during the
  year                                    £50,459  0  0


           |   Number     |   Amount of   | Accumulated
  In       |   of New     |      New      | Fund at End
  Years.   |  Policies.   |   Assurances  | of Period.
           |              |     £         |      £
  1844-45  |    658       |  281,082      |   69,009
  1846-47  |    888       |  404,734      |   95,705
  1848-49  |    907       |  410,933      |  131,406
  1850-51  |   1378       |  535,137      |  207,803
  1852-53  |   1269       |  587,118      |  305,134


THE SCOTTISH PROVIDENT INSTITUTION combines the advantage of Participation
in the whole Profits with moderate Premiums.

The premiums are as low as those of the non-participating scale of the
proprietary companies. They admit of being so not only with safety, but
with ample reversion of profits to the policy-holders, being free from the
burden of payment of dividend to shareholders.

At the first division of surplus in the present year, bonus additions were
made to policies which had come within the participating class, varying
from 20 to 54 per cent. on their amount.

In all points of practice--as in the provision for the indefeasibility of
policies, facility of licence for travelling or residence abroad, and of
obtaining advances on the value of the policies--the regulations of the
Society, as well as the administration, are as liberal as is consistent
with right principle.

Policies now issued free of stamp duty.

Copies of the last annual report, containing full explanations of the
principles, may be had on application to the Head Office in Edinburgh; of
the Society's Provincial Agent: or of the Resident Secretary, London

  JAMES WATSON, Manager.
  GEORGE GRANT, Resident Secretary.

London Branch, 12. Moorgate Street.

The London Branch will be removed on 25th March to the Society's New
Premises, 66. Gracechurch Street, corner of Fenchurch Street, City.

       *       *       *       *       *

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.


       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold. 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,


       *       *       *       *       *



Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, March 11,

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