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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 229, March 18, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 229, March 18, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.


Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *




"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 229.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page

  Gossiping History                                            239

  Works on Bells, by the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe                  240

  Inedited Letter of Lord Nelson, by E. W. Jacob               241

  FOLK LORE:--Herefordshire Folk Lore--Greenock
  Fair--Dragons' Blood--Charm for the Ague                     242

  Psalms for the Chief Musician: Hebrew Music, by T. J.
  Buckton                                                      242

  MINOR NOTES:--"Garble"--Deaths in the Society of
  Friends--The Eastern Question--Jonathan Swift, Dean of
  St. Patrick's, Dublin--English Literature--Irish Legislation
  --Anecdote of George IV. and the Duke of York                243


  Anonymous Works: "Posthumous Parodies," "Adventures in the
  Moon," &c.                                                   244

  Blind Mackerel                                               245

  MINOR QUERIES:--Original Words of old Scotch Airs--
  Royal Salutes--"The Negro's Complaint"--"The Cow Doctor"--
  Soomarokoff's "Demetrius"--Polygamy--Irish, Anglo-Saxon,
  Longobardic, and Old English Letters--Description of Battles
  --Do Martyrs always feel Pain?--Carronade--Darcy, of Platten,
  co. Meath--Dorset--"Vanitatem observare"--King's Prerogative
  --Quotations in Cowper--Cawley the Regicide                  245

  --Last Marquis of Annandale--Heralds' College--Teddy the
  Tiler--Duchess of Mazarin's Monument--Halcyon Days           247


  Dogs in Monumental Brasses, by the Rev. W. S. Simpson, &c.   249

  Sneezing, by C. W. Bingham                                   250

  Sir John de Morant                                           250

  Inn Signs                                                    251

  "Concilium Delectorum Cardinalium"                           252

  Pulpit Hour-glasses, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault, &c.              253

  Collodion--Double Iodide of Silver and Potassium--
  Albumenized Paper--Cyanide of Potassium                      254

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Sawdust Recipe--Brydone
  the Tourist--Etymology of "Page"--Longfellow--Canting Arms--
  Holy Loaf Money--"Could we with Ink," &c.--Mount Mill, and
  the Fortifications of London--Standing while the Lord's
  Prayer is read--A dead Sultan, with his Shirt for an Ensign
  --"Hovd mact of lact"--Captain Eyre's Drawings--Sir Thos.
  Browne and Bishop Ken, &c.                                  255


  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                258

  Notices to Correspondents                                   259

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[Greek: Outoi diaptuchthentes ôphthêsan kenoi]

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TUTORS' ASSOCIATION. By One of the Committee.

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THE CASE OF QUEEN'S COLLEGE, OXFORD: in a Letter addressed to the Rt. Hon.
W. E. Gladstone, M.P., Chancellor of the Exchequer. By JOHN BARROW, B.D.,
Fellow, and formerly Tutor, of Queen's College.

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SERMONS BY THE REV. E. HARSTON, M.A., Vicar and Rural Dean of Tamworth.

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THE WAR IN THE EAST; a Sermon preached in the Parish Church, Tamworth, Feb.
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FAMILY HISTORY OF ENGLAND, by G. R. GLEIG, M.A., Chaplain General to the

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THE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL MISCELLANY, No. V., containing a Reprint of "A Whip for
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LEILA ADA, the Jewish Convert. An Authentic Memoir. By OSBORN W. TRENERY
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  "This is the Jew
  That Shakspeare drew."

I do not know by whom or when the above couplet was first imputed to Pope.
The following extracts will show how a story grows, and the parasites
which, under unwholesome cultivation, adhere to it. The restoration of
Shakspeare's text, and the performance of Shylock as a serious part, are
told as usual.

    "In the dumb action of the trial scene he was amazingly descriptive,
    and through the whole displayed such unequalled merit, as justly
    entitled him to that very comprehensive, though concise, compliment
    paid to him by Mr. Pope, who sat in the stage-box on the third night of
    the reproduction, and who emphatically exclaimed,--

      'This is the Jew
      That Shakspeare drew.'"

    _Life of Macklin_, by J. T. Kirkman, vol. i. p. 264.: London, 1799, 2
    vols. 8vo.

The book is ill-written, and no authorities are cited.

    "A few days after, Macklin received an invitation to dine with Lord
    Bolingbroke at Battersea. He attended the rendezvous, and there found
    Pope and a select party, who complimented him very much on the part of
    Shylock, and questioned him about many little particulars, relative to
    his getting up the play, &c. Pope particularly asked him why he wore a
    _red hat_, and he answered, because he had read that Jews in Italy,
    particularly in Venice, wore hats of that colour.

    'And pray, Mr. Macklin,' said Pope, 'do players in general take such
    pains?' 'I do not know, sir, that they do; but as I had staked my
    reputation on the character, I was determined to spare no trouble in
    getting at the best information.' Pope nodded, and said, 'It was very
    laudable.'"--_Memoirs of Macklin_, p. 94., Lond. 1804.

The above work has not the author's name, and is as defective in references
as Mr. Kirkman's. It is, however, not quite so trashy. Being published five
years later, the author must have seen the preceding _Life_, and his not
repeating the story about the couplet is strong presumption that it was not
then believed. It appears again in the _Biographia Dramatica_, vol. i. p.
469., London, 1812:

    "Macklin's performance of this character (Shylock) so forcibly struck a
    gentleman in the pit, that he as it were involuntarily exclaimed, 'This
    is,' &c. It has been said that this gentleman was Mr. Pope."

I am not aware of its alteration during the next forty years, but this was
the state of the anecdote in 1853:

    "Macklin was a tragedian, and the personal friend of Alexander Pope. He
    had a daughter, a beautiful and accomplished girl, who was likewise on
    the stage. On one occasion Macklin's daughter was about to take a
    benefit at Drury Lane Theatre, and on the morning of that evening,
    whilst the father and daughter were at breakfast, a young nobleman
    entered the apartment, and, with the most undisguised ruffianism, made
    overtures of a dishonourable character to Macklin for his daughter. The
    exasperated father, seizing a knife from the table, rushed at the
    fellow, who on the instant fled, on which Macklin pursued him along the
    street with the knife in his hand. The cause of the tragedian's wild
    appearance in the street soon got vent in the city. Evening came, and
    Old Drury seldom saw so crowded a house. The play was the _Merchant of
    Venice_, Macklin sustaining the part of Shylock, and his interesting
    daughter that of Jessica. Their reception was most enthusiastic; but in
    that scene where the Jew is informed of his daughter being carried off,
    the whole audience seemed to be quite carried away by Macklin's acting.
    The applause was immense, and Pope, who was standing in the pit,

      'That's the Jew that Shakspeare drew.'

    Macklin was much respected in London. He was a native of Monaghan, and
    a Protestant. His father was a Catholic, and died when he was a child;
    and his mother being a Protestant, he was educated as such."--_Dublin
    Weekly Telegraph_, Feb. 9, 1853.

One more version is given in the _Irish Quarterly Review_, and quoted
approvingly in _The Leader_, Dec. 17, 1853.

    "The house was crowded from the opening of the doors, and the curtain
    rose amidst the most dreadful of all awful silence, the stillness of a
    multitude. The Jew enters in the third scene, and from that point, to
    the famous scene with Tubal, all passed off with considerable applause.
    Here, however, and in the trial scene, the actor was triumphant, and in
    the applause of a thousand voices the curtain dropped. The play was
    repeated for nineteen successive nights with increased success. On the
    third night of representation all eyes were directed to the stage-box,
    where sat a little deformed man; and whilst others watched _his_
    gestures, as if to learn his opinion of the performers, he was gazing
    intently upon Shylock, and as the actor panted, in broken accents of
    rage, and sorrow, and avarice--'Go, Tubal, fee me an officer, bespeak
    him a fortnight before: I will have the heart of him, if he forfeit;
    for were he out of Venice, I can make what merchandise I will: go,
    Tubal, and meet me at our synagogue; go, good Tubal; at our synagogue,
    Tubal.'--the little man was seen to rise, and leaning from the box, as
    Macklin passed it, he whispered,--

      'This is the Jew,
      That Shakspeare drew.'

    The speaker was Alexander Pope, and, in that age, from his judgment in
    criticism there was no appeal."

{240} No reference to cotemporary testimony is given by these historians.

Galt, in his _Lives of the Players_, Lond. 1831, does not notice the story.

Pope was at Bath on the 4th of February, 1741, as appears from his letter
to Warburton of that date; but as he mentions his intention to return to
London, he may have been there on the 14th. That he was not in the pit we
may be confident; that he was in the boxes is unlikely. His health was
declining in 1739. In his letter to Swift, quoted in Croly's edition, vol.
i. p. lxxx., he says:

    "Having nothing to tell you of my poetry, I come to what is now my
    chief care, my health and amusement; the first is better as to
    headaches, worse as to weakness and nerves. The changes of weather
    affect me much; the mornings are my life, _in the evenings I am not
    dead indeed, but sleepy and stupid enough_. I love reading still better
    than conversation, but my eyes fail, and the hours when most people
    indulge in company, I am tired, and find the labour of the past day
    sufficient to weigh me down; _so I hide myself in bed, as a bird in the
    nest, much about the same time_, and rise and chirp in the morning."

I hope I have said enough to stop the farther growth of this story; but
before laying down my pen, I wish to call attention to the practice of
giving anecdotes without authorities. This is encouraged by the newspapers
devoting a column to "varieties," which are often amusing, but oftener
stale. A paragraph is now commencing the round, telling how a lady took a
linendraper to a barber's, and on pretence of his being a mad relative, had
his head shaved, while she absconded with his goods. It is a bad version of
an excellent scene in Foote's _Cozeners_.

H. B. C.

Garrick Club.

       *       *       *       *       *


I have a Note of many books on bells, which may be acceptable to readers of
"N. & Q." Those marked *, Cancellieri, in his work, calls Protestant
writers on the subject.

    * Anon. Recueil curieux et édifiant sur les Cloches de l'Eglise, avec
    les Cérémonies de leur Bénédiction. Cologne, 1757.

    Barraud (Abb.). Notice sur les Cloches. 8vo., Caen, 1844.

    Boemeri (G. L.). Programma de Feudo Campanario. Gottingæ, 1755.

    Buonmattei (Ben.). Declamazione delle Campane, dopo le sue Cicalate
    delle tre Sirocchie. Pisa, 1635.

    Campani (Gio. Ant.). Opera. The frontispiece a large bell. Roma, 1495.

    Cancellieri (F.). Descrizione della nuova Campana Magiore della
    Basilica Vaticana. Roma, 1786.

    Cancellieri (F.). Descrizione delle due nuove Campane di Campidoglio
    beneditte del Pio VII. Roma, 1806, 4to.

    * Cave (G. G.). An Turrium et Campanarum Usus in Repub. Christ. Deo
    displiceat? Leipsiæ, 1709, 4to.

    Conrad (Dietericus). De Campanis. Germanice.

    * Eggers (Nic.). Dissertatio de Campanarum Materia et Forma.

    Eggers (Nic.). Dissertatio de Origine et Nomine Campanarum. Ienæ, 1684.

    Eschenwecker. De eo quod justum est circa Campanas.

    Fesc (Laberanus du). Des Cloches. 12mo., Paris, 1607-19.

    * Goezii. Diatriba de Baptismo Campanarum, Lubecæ, 1612.

    Grimaud (Gilb.). Liturgie Sacrée, avec un Traité des Cloches. Lyons,
    1666, 4to. Pavia, 1678, 12mo.

    * Hilschen (Gio.). Dissertatio de Campanis Templorum. Leipsiæ, 1690.

    * Homberg (Gas.). De Superstitiosis Campanarum pulsibus, ad eliciendas
    preces, quibus placentur fulmina, excogitatis. 4to., Frankfortiæ, 1577.

    Lazzarini (Alex.). De vario Tintinnabulorum Usu apud veteres Hebræos et
    Ethnicos. 2 vols. 8vo., Romæ, 1822.

    Ludovici (G. F.). De eo quod justum est circa Campanas. Halæ, 1708 et

    Magii (Hier.). De Tintinnabulis, cum notis F. Swertii et Jungermanni.
    12mo., Amstelodamæ et Hanoviæ, 1608, 1664, 1689. "A learned

    Martène. De Ritibus Ecclesiæ.

    * Medelii (Geo.). An Campanarum Sonitus Fulmina, Tonitura, et Fulgura
    impedire possit. 4to. 1703.

    Mitzler (B. A.). De Campanis.

    * Nerturgii (Mar.). Campanula Penitentiæ. 4to., Dresden, 1644.

    Paciaudi. Dissertazione su due Campane di Capua. Neapoli, 1750.

    Pacichelli (Ab. J. B.). De Tintinnabulo Nolano Lucubratio Autumnalis.
    Neapoli, 1693. Dr. Parr calls this "a great curiosity."

    Pagii. De Campanis Dissertatio.

    Rocca (Ang.). De Campanis Commentarius. 4to. Romæ, 1612.

    * Reimanni (Geo. Chris.). De Campanis earumque Origine, vario Usu,
    Abusu, et Juribus. 4to., Isenaci, 1769.

    Saponti (G. M.). Notificazione per la solenne Benedizione della nuova
    Campana da Collocarsi nella Metropolitana di S. Lorenzo. Geneva, 1750.

    Seligmann (Got. Fr). De Campana Urinatoria. Leipsiæ, 1677, 4to.

    * Stockflet (Ar.). Dissertatio de Campanarum Usu. 4to., Altdorfii,
    1665, 1666.

    * Storius (G. M.). De Campanis Templorum. 4to., Leipsiæ, 1692.

    Swertius (Fran.).

    Thiers (G. B.). Des Cloches. 12mo., Paris, 1602, 1619.

    Thiers (J. B). Traité des Cloches. Paris, 1721.

    * Walleri (Ar.). De Campanis et præcipuis earum Usibus. 8vo. Holmiæ,

    Willietti (Car.) Ragguaglio delle Campane di Viliglia. 4to., Roma,

    Zech (F. S.). De Campanis et Instrumentis Musicis.


Without enumerating any Encyclopædias (in most of which may be found very
able and interesting articles on the subject), in the following works the
best treatises for all _practical_ purposes will be found:

    Pirotechnia, del Vannuccio Biringuccio, nobile Senese, 1540, 1550,
    1559, 1678. There is a French translation of it by Jasper Vincent,
    1556--1572, 1627. The tenth chapter is about bells. Magius refers to it
    in these words:--"In illa, perscriptum in Italico Sermone, et
    delineatum quisque reperiet, quicquid ad artem ediscendam conducit,
    usque adeo, ut et quo pacto, Campanæ in turribus constituantur ac
    moveantur, edoceat, optimeque figuris delineatis commonstret."

    Ducange in Glossario, in vocibus Æs, Campana, Codon, Cloca, Crotalum,
    Glogga, Lebes, Nola, Petasus, Signum, Squilla, Tintinnabulum.

    Mersenni (F. M.). Harmonicorum Libri XII. Paris, 1629, 1643. (Liber
    Quartus de Campanis.) This and Biringuccio contain all the art and
    mystery of bell-casting, &c. &c.

    Puffendorff. De Campanarum Usu in obitu Parochiani publice
    significando, in ejus Observationibus. Jur. Univers., p. iv. No. 104.

And now with regard to our English authors; their productions seem to be
confined chiefly to the _Art of Ringing_, as the following list will show:

    Tintinalogia, or the Art of Ringing improved, by T. W[hite]. 18mo.,
    1668. This is the book alluded to by Dr. Burney, in his _History of
    Music_, vol. iv. p. 413.

    Campanalogia, or the Art of Ringing improved. 18mo., 1677. This was by
    _Fabian Steadman_.

    Campanalogia, improved by I. D. and C. M., London scholars. 18mo.,

    Ditto 2nd edition 18mo., 1705.

    Ditto 3rd edition 18mo., 1733.

    Ditto 4th edition 18mo., 1753.

    Ditto 5th edition, by J. Monk. 18mo., 1766.

    The School of Recreation, or Gentleman's Tutor in various Exercises,
    one of which is _Ringing_. 1684.

    Clavis Campanalogia, by Jones, Reeves, and Blackmore. 12mo., 1788.
    Reprinted in 1796 and 1800?

    The Ringer's True Guide, by S. Beaufoy. 12mo., 1804.

    The Campanalogia, or Universal Instructor in the Art of Ringing, by
    William Shipway. 12mo., 1816.

    Elements of Campanalogia, by H. Hubbard. 12mo., 1845.

    The Bell: its Origin, History, and Uses, by Rev. A. Gatty. 12mo., 1847.

    Ditto, enlarged. 1848.

    Blunt's Use and Abuse of Church Bells. 8vo., 1846.

    Ellacombe's Practical Remarks on Belfries and Ringers. 8vo., 1850.

    Ellacombe's Paper on Bells, with Illustrations, in the Report of
    Bristol Architectural Society. 1850.

    Croome's Few Words on Bells and Bell-ringing. 8vo., 1851.

    Woolf's Address on the Science of Campanology. Tract. 1851.

    Plain Hints to Bell-ringers. No. 47. of _Parochial Tracts_. 1852?

    The Art of Change-ringing, by B. Thackrah. 12mo., 1852.

To these may be added, as single poetical productions,

    The Legend of the Limerick Bell Founder, published in the _Dublin
    University Mag._, Sept. 1847.

    The Bell, by Schiller.

Perhaps some courteous reader of "N. & Q." may be able to correct any error
there may be in the list, or to add to it.

There is a curious collection of MSS. on the subject by the late Mr.
Osborn, among the _Additional MSS._, Nos. 19,368 and 19,373.


Rectory, Clyst St. George.

       *       *       *       *       *


I have in my possession a long letter written by Lord Nelson, sixteen days
before the battle of Trafalgar, to the Right Hon. Lord Barham, who was at
that time First Lord of the Admiralty. As an autograph collector, I prize
it much; and I think that the readers of "N. & Q." might be glad to see it.
It has not yet, as far as I am aware, been published:

      Victory, Oct. 5th, 1805.

      My Dear Lord,

    On Monday the French and Spanish ships took their troops on board which
    had been landed on their arrival, and it is said that they mean to sail
    the first fresh Levant wind. And as the Carthagena ships are ready,
    and, when seen a few days ago, had their topsail yards hoisted up, this
    looks like a junction. The position I have taken for this month, is
    from sixteen to eighteen leagues west of Cadiz; for, although it is
    most desirable that the fleet should be well up in the easterly winds,
    yet I must guard against being caught with a westerly wind near Cadiz:
    for a fleet of ships, with so many three-deckers, would inevitably be
    forced into the Straits, and then Cadiz would be perfectly free for
    them to come out with a westerly wind--as they served Lord Keith in the
    late war. I am most anxious for the arrival of frigates: less than
    eight, with the brigs, &c., as we settled, I find are absolutely
    inadequate for this service and to be with the fleet; and Spartel, Cape
    Cantin, or Blanco, and the Salvages, must be watched by fast-sailing
    vessels, in case any squadron should escape.

    I have been obliged to send six sail of the line to water and get
    stores, &c. at Tetuan and Gibraltar; for if I did not begin, I should
    very {242} soon be obliged to take the whole fleet into the Straits. I
    have twenty-three sail with me, and should they come out, I shall
    immediately bring them to battle; but although I should not doubt of
    spoiling any voyage they may attempt, yet I hope for the arrival of the
    ships from England, that, as an enemy's fleet, they may be annihilated.
    Your Lordship may rely upon every exertion from

      Your very faithful and obedient servant,


    I find the Guerrier is reduced to the command of a Lieutenant; I hope
    your Lordship will allow me to seek Sir William Bolton, and to place
    him in the first vacant frigate; he will be acting in a ship when the
    Captains go home with Sir Robert Calder. This will much oblige _me_.

If any valuable autographs come into my possession hereafter, you may
expect to receive some account of them.


Crawley, Winchester.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Herefordshire Folk Lore._--Pray make an imperishable Note of the following
concentration of Herefordshire folk lore, extracted from the "Report of the
Secretary of the Diocesan Board of Education," as published in _The Times_
of Jan. 28, 1854:

    "The observation of unlucky days and seasons is by no means unusual.
    The phases of the moon are regarded with great respect: in one medicine
    may be taken; in another it is advisable to kill a pig; over the doors
    of many houses may be found twigs placed crosswise, and never suffered
    to lose their cruciform position; and the horse-shoe preserves its old
    station on many a stable-door. Charms are devoutly believed in. A ring
    made from a shilling offered at the Communion is an undoubted cure for
    fits; hair plucked from the crop of an ass's shoulder, and woven into a
    chain, to be put round a child's neck, is powerful for the same
    purpose; and the hand of a corpse applied to a neck is believed to
    disperse a wen. Not long since, a boy was met running hastily to a
    neighbour's for some holy water, as the only hope of preserving a sick
    pig. The 'evil eye,' so long dreaded in uneducated countries, has its
    terrors amongst us; and if a person of ill life be suddenly called
    away, there are generally some who hear his 'tokens,' or see his ghost.
    There exists, besides, the custom of communicating deaths to hives of
    bees, in the belief that they invariably abandon their owners if the
    intelligence be withheld."

May not any one exclaim:

  "O miseras hominum mentes! O pectora cæca!
  Qualibus in tenebris vitæ, quantisque periclis
  Degitur hoc ævi, quodcunque est!"

S. G. C.

_Greenock Fair._--A very curious custom existed in this town, and in the
neighbouring town of Port-Glasgow, within forty years; it has now entirely
disappeared. I cannot but look upon it as a last remnant of the troublous
times when arms were in all hands, and property liable to be openly and
forcibly seized by bands of armed men. This custom was, that the whole
trades of the town, in the dresses of their guilds, with flags and music,
each man armed, made a grand rendezvous at the place where the fair was to
be held, and with drawn swords and array of guns and pistols, surrounded
the booths, and greeted the baillie's announcement by tuck of drum, "that
Greenock fair was open," by a tremendous shout, and a straggling fire from
every serviceable barrel in the crowd, and retired, bands playing and flags
flying, &c., home. Does any such _wappenschau_ occur in England on such
occasions now?



_Dragons' Blood._--A peculiar custom exists amongst a class, with whom
unfortunately the schoolmaster has not yet come very much in contact, when
supposed to be deserted or slighted by a lover, of procuring dragons'
blood; which being carefully wrapped in paper, is thrown on the fire, and
the following lines said:

  "May he no pleasure or profit see,
  Till he comes back again to me."

B. J. S.

_Charm for the Ague.--_

    "Cut a few hairs from the cross marked on a donkey's shoulders. Enclose
    these hairs in a small bag, and wear it on your breast, next to the
    skin. If you keep your purpose secret, a speedy cure will be the

The foregoing charm was told to me a short time since by the agent of a
large landed proprietor in a fen county. My informant gravely added, that
he had known numerous instances of this charm being practised, and that in
every case a cure had been effected. From my own knowledge, I can speak of
another charm for the ague, in which the fen people put great faith, viz. a
spider, covered with dough, and taken as a pill.


       *       *       *       *       *


The words [Hebrew: LMNTSCH BNGYNWT], at the head of Psalms iv., liv., lv.,
lxvii., and lxxvi., are rendered in the Septuagint and Vulgate [Greek: eis
to telos], _in finem_, as if they had read [Hebrew: LANETSACH], omitting
the [Hebrew: M] formative. The Syriac and Arabic versions omit this
superscription altogether, from ignorance of the {243} musical sense of the
words. The Chaldee reads [Chaldee: LSHBCH' `L CHNGYT'], "to be sung on the
pipe." The word [Hebrew: LMNTSCH] is (from [Hebrew: NTSCH], to overcome,
excel, or accomplish) a performance, and Aquila translates the entire
title, [Greek: tôi nikopoiôi en psalmois melôdêma tôi Dauid]; and Jerome,
_Victori in Canticis, Psalmus David_. But Symmachus, [Greek: epinikios dia
psaltêriôn ôidê]; and Theodotius, [Greek: eis to nikos humnois], who must
have read [Hebrew: LNTSCH]. The best reading is that of the present text,
[Hebrew: LMNTSCH], which Jarchi, Aben Ezra, and Kimchi render chief singer,
or leader of the band (=_moderatorem chori musici_), as appropriate for a
psalm to sung and played in divine service. Therefore the proper
translation is, "For the leading performer upon the neginoth." The neginoth
appear from the Greek translations, [Greek: dia psaltêriôn] and [Greek: en
psalmois] ([Greek: psallein] = playing on strings). and from its root,
[Hebrew: NGN], _to strike_, to be stringed instruments, struck by the
fingers or hand.

The words [Hebrew: LMNTSCH 'L HNCHYLWT] at the head of Psalm v. (for this
is the only one so superscribed) should, perhaps, be read with [Hebrew: `L]
instead of [Hebrew: 'L] meaning, "For the leading performer on the
nehiloth." The nehiloth appear from the root [Hebrew: CHLL], _to bore
through_, and in Piel, _to play the flute_, to be the same instruments as
the _ná-y_ of the Arabs, similar to the English flute, blown, not
transversely as the German flute, but at the end, as the oboe. But the
Septuagint, Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotius translate [Greek: huper tês
klêronomousês]: and hence the Vulgate _pro ea, quæ hereditatem
consequitur_; and Jerome, _pro hereditatibus_. Suidas explains [Greek:
klêronomousa] by [Greek: ekklêsia], which is the sense of the Syriac.

Psalm vi. is headed [Hebrew: BNGYNWT `L HSHMYNYT], and Psalm vi. [Hebrew:
`L SHMYNYT], without the "neginoth;" and the "sheminith" is also mentioned
(Chron. xv. 21.). The Chaldee and Jarchi translate "Harps of eight
strings." The Septuagint, Vulgate, Aquila, and Jerome, [Greek: huper tês
ogdoês], appear also to have understood an instrument of eight strings.



       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

"_Garble._"--MR. C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY has called attention to a growing
corruption in the use of the word "eliminate," and I trust he may be able
to check its progress. The word _garble_ has met with very similar usage,
but the corrupt meaning is now the only one in which it is ever used, and
it would be hopeless to try and restore it to its original sense.

The original sense of "to _garble_" was a good one, not a bad one; it meant
a selection of the good, and a discarding of the bad parts of anything: its
present meaning is exactly the reverse of this. By the statute 1 Rich. III.
c. 11., it is provided that no bow-staves shall be sold "ungarbled:" that
is (as Sir E. Coke explains it), until the good and sufficient be severed
from the bad and insufficient. By statute 1 Jac. I. c. 19., a penalty is
imposed on the sale of spices and drugs not "garbled;" and an officer
called the _garbler_ of spices is authorised to enter shops, and view the
spices and drugs, "and to _garble_ and make clean the same." Coke derives
the word either from the French _garber_, to make fine, neat, clean; or
from _cribler_, and that from _cribrare_, to sift, &c. (4 Inst. 264.)

It is easy to see how the corruption of this word has taken place; but it
is not the less curious to compare the opposite meanings given to it at
different times.

E. S. T. T.

_Deaths in the Society of Friends, 1852-3._--In "N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p.
488., appeared a communication on the great longevity of persons at
Cleveland in Yorkshire. I send you for comparison a statement of the deaths
in the Society of Friends in Great Britain and Ireland, from the year 1852
to 1853, the accuracy of which may be depended on; from which it appears
that one in three have attained from 70 to 100 years, the average being
about 74½; and that thirty-seven attain from 80 to 90, and eight from 90 to
100. It would be useful to ascertain to what the longevity of the
inhabitants of Cleveland may be attributed, whether to the situation where
they reside, or to their social habits.

The total number of the Society was computed to be from 19,000 to 20,000,
showing the deaths to be rather more than 1½ per cent. per annum. Great
numbers are total abstainers from strong drink.

  |     Ages.      |  Male.  | Female. |  Total. |
  | Under 1 year   |   13    |    8    |    21   |
  | Under 5 years  |   18    |   13    |    31   |
  | From  5 to  10 |    4    |    2    |     6   |
  |  ,,  10 to  15 |    5    |    6    |    11   |
  |  ,,  15 to  20 |    5    |    3    |     8   |
  |  ,,  20 to  30 |    7    |   10    |    17   |
  |  ,,  30 to  40 |    8    |    8    |    16   |
  |  ,,  40 to  50 |    7    |   14    |    21   |
  |  ,,  50 to  60 |   16    |   14    |    30   |
  |  ,,  60 to  70 |   26    |   34    |    60   |
  |  ,,  70 to  80 |   20    |   46    |    66   |
  |  ,,  80 to  90 |   13    |   24    |    37   |
  |  ,,  90 to 100 |    2    |    6    |     8   |
  | All ages       |  144    |  188    |   332   |

W. C.



_The Eastern Question._--The following extract from _Tatler_, No. 155.,
April 6, 1710, appears remarkable, considering the events of the present

    "The chief politician of the Bench was a great assertor of paradoxes.
    He told us, with a seeming concern, 'that by some news he had lately
    read from Muscovy, it appeared to him there was a storm gathering in
    the Black Sea, which might in time do hurt to the naval forces of this
    nation.' To this he added, 'that, for his part, he could not wish to
    see the Turk driven out of Europe, which he believed could not but be
    prejudicial to our woollen manufacture.' He then told us, 'that he
    looked upon those extraordinary revolutions which had lately happened
    in those parts of the world, to have risen chiefly from two persons who
    were not much talked of; and those,' says he, 'are Prince Menzicoff and
    the Duchess of Mirandola.' He backed his assertions with so many broken
    hints, and such a show of depth and wisdom, that we gave ourselves up
    to his opinions."


_Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin._--It is remarkable (and yet
it has not been noticed, I believe, by his biographers) that Dean Swift was
suspended from his degree of B.A. in Trinity College, Dublin, for exciting
disturbances within the college, and insulting the junior dean. He and
another were sentenced by the Board to ask pardon publicly of the junior
dean, on their knees, as having offended more atrociously than the rest.
These facts afford the true solution of Swift's animosity towards the
University of Dublin, and account for his determination to take the degree
of M.A. at Oxford; and the solution receives confirmation from this, that
the junior dean, for insulting whom he was punished, was the same Mr. Owen
Lloyd (afterwards professor of divinity and Dean of Down) whom Swift has
treated with so much severity in his account of Lord Wharton.


_English Literature._--Some French writer (Victor Hugo, I believe) has said
that English literature consists of four distinct literatures, English,
American, Scottish, and Irish, each having a different character. Has this
view of our literature been taken, and exhibited in all its aspects, by any
English writer and if so, by whom?

J. M.


_Irish Legislation._--I have met with the following statement: is it to be
received as true? In May, 1784, a bill, intended to limit the privilege of
franking, was sent from Ireland for the royal sanction; and in it was a
clause enacting that any member who, from illness or other cause, should be
unable to write, might authorise some other person to frank for him,
provided that on the back of the letter so franked the member gave at the
same time, under his hand, a full certificate of his inability to write.


_Anecdote of George IV. and the Duke of York._--The following letter was
written in a boy's round hand, and sent with some China cups:

    Dear Old Mother Batten,

    Prepare a junket for us, as Fred. and I are coming this evening. I send
    you these cups, which we have stolen from the old woman [the queen].
    Don't you say anything about it.


The above was found in the bottom of one of the cups, which were sold for
five guineas on the death of Mr. Nichols, who married Mother Batten. The
cups are now in possession of a Mr. Toby, No. 10. York Buildings, St.
Sidwells, Exeter.


Southcote Lodge.

       *       *       *       *       *



A remote correspondent finds all help to fail him from bibliographers and
cotemporary reviewers in giving any clue to the authorship of the works
described below. But he has been conversant enough with the "N. & Q." to
perceive that no Query, that he is aware, has yet been started in its pages
involving a problem, for which somebody among its readers and contributors
has not proved a match. Encouraged thereby, he tenders the three following
titles, in the full faith that his curiosity, which is pretty strong, will
not have been transmitted over the waste of waters but to good result.

1. _Posthumous Parodies, and other Pieces_, by several of our most
celebrated poets, but not before published in any former edition of their
works: John Miller, London, 12mo., 1814. This contains some twenty
imitations or over, of the more celebrated minor poems, all of a political
cast, and breathing strongly the tone of the anti-Jacobin verse; executed
for the most part, and several of them in particular, with great felicity.
Among that sort of _jeux d'esprit_ they hardly take second place to _The
Knife Grinder_, the mention of which reminds me to add that it is manifest
enough, from half-a-dozen places in the volume, that Canning is the "magnus
Apollo" of the satirist. The final piece (in which the writer drops his
former vein) is written in the spirit of sad earnest, in odd contrast with
the preceding _facetiæ_, and betokening, in some lines, a disappointed man.
Yet, strange to tell, through all the range of British criticism of that
year, there is an utter unconsciousness of its existence. Whether there be
another copy on this side the Atlantic, besides the one which enables me to
{245} make these few comments, your correspondent greatly doubts. One
living person there is on the other side, it is believed, who could throw
light on this question, if these lines should be so fortunate as to meet
his eye; since he is referred to, like many others, by initials and
terminals, if not in full--Mr. John Wilson Croker.

2. _Adventures in the Moon and other Worlds_: Longman & Co., sm. 8vo.,
1836. Of this work, a friend of the writer (who has but partially read it
as yet himself), of keen discernment, says: "It is a work of very marked
character. The author is an uncommonly skilful and practical writer, a
philosophical thinker, and a scholar familiar with foreign literature and
wide reaches of learning. He has great ingenuity and fancy withal; so that
he is at the same time exceedingly amusing, and suggestive of weighty and
subtle thoughts." This, too, is neglected by all the reviews.

3. _Lights, Shadows, and Reflections of Whigs and Tories_: Lond. 12mo.,
1841. This is a retrospective survey of the several administrations of
George III. from 1760 (his accession) to the regency in 1811; evincing much
political insight, with some spirited portraits, and indicative both of a
close observation of public measures and events, and of personal connexion
or intercourse with men in high place. There is a notice of this in the
_London Spectator_ of 1841 (May 29th), and in the old _Monthly Review_; but
neither, it is plain, had the author's secret.


Cambridge, Massachusetts, N.E.

P.S.--Two articles of recent time in the _London Quarterly Review_, the
writer would fain trace to their source; "The Life and Correspondence of
Robert Southey," edited by the Rev. Charles Cuthbert Southey, No. 175.
(1851), and "Physiognomy," No. 179. (1852), having three works as the
caption of the article, Sir Charles Bell's celebrated work being one.


Can any of your numerous contributors, who may be lovers of ichthyology,
inform me whether or not the mackerel is blind when it first arrives on our
coasts? I believe it to be blind, and for the following reasons:--A few
years ago, while beating up channel early in June, on our homeward-bound
voyage from the West Indies, some of the other passengers and myself were
endeavouring to kill time by fishing for mackerel, but without success.

When the pilot came on board and saw what we were about, he laughed at us,
and said, "Oh, gentlemen, you will not take them with the hook, because the
fish is blind." We laughed in our turn, thinking he took us for flat-fish,
and wished to amuse himself at our expense. Observing this he said, "I will
convince you that it is so," and brought from his boat several mackerel he
had taken by net. He then pointed out a film over the eye, which he said
prevented the fish seeing when it first made our coast, and explained that
this film gradually disappeared, and that towards the middle of June the
eye was perfectly clear, and that the fish could then take the bait.

I have watched this fish for some years past, and have invariably observed
this film quite over the eye in the early part of the mackerel season, and
that it gradually disappears until the eye is left quite clear. This film
appears like an ill-cleared piece of calf's-foot jelly spread over the eye,
but does not strike you as a natural part of the fish, but rather as
something extraneous. I have also remarked that when the fish is boiled,
that this patch separates, and then resembles a piece of discoloured white
of egg. This film may be observed by any one who takes the trouble of
looking at the eye of the mackerel.

I have looked into every book on natural history I could get hold of, and
in none is the slightest notice taken of this; therefore I suppose my
conclusion as to its blindness is wrong; but I do not consider this to be
conclusive, as all we can learn from books is, "_Scomber_ is the mackerel
genus, and is too well known to require description." I believe less is
known about fish than any other animals; and should you think this question
on natural history worthy a place in your "N. & Q.," I will feel obliged by
your giving it insertion.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Original Words of old Scotch Airs._--Can any one tell me where the
original words of many fine old Scotch airs are to be found? The wretched
verses of Allan Ramsay, and others of the same school, are adapted to the
"Yellow-haired Laddie," "Ettrick Banks," "The Bush aboon Traquair," "Mary
Scott," and hundreds of others. There must exist old words to many of these
airs, which at least will possess some local characteristics, and be a
blessed change from the "nymphs" and "swains," the "Stephens" and
"Lythias," which now pollute and degrade them. Any information on this
subject will be received most thankfully. I particularly wish to recover
some old words to the air of "Mary Scott." The only verse I remember is

  "Mary's black, and Mary's white,
  Mary is the king's delight;
  The king's delight, and the prince's marrow,
  Mary Scott, the Flower of Yarrow."

L. M. M. R.

_Royal Salutes._--When the Queen arrives at any time in Edinburgh after
sunset, it has been {246} remarked that the Castle guns are never fired in
salute, in consequence, it is said, of the existence of a general order
which forbids the firing of salutes after sunset. Is there such an order in
existence? I would farther ask why twenty-one was the number fixed for a
royal salute?


_"The Negro's Complaint."_--Who was the author of this short poem, to be
found in all the earlier collection of poetry for the use of schools? It
begins thus:

  "Wide o'er the tremulous sea,
    The moon spread her mantle of light;
  And the gale gently dying away,
    Breath'd soft on the bosom of night."


"_The Cow Doctor._"--Who is the author of the following piece?--_The Cow
Doctor_, a Comedy in Three Acts, 1810. Dedicated to the Rev. Thomas
Pennington, Rector of Thorley, Herts, and Kingsdown, Kent; author of
_Continental Excursions_, &c.

This satire is addressed to the Friends of Vaccination.[1]

S. N.

[Footnote 1: On the title-page of a copy of this comedy now before us is
written, "With the author's compliments to Dr. Lettsom;" and on the
fly-leaf occurs the following riddle in MS.:

  "Who is that learned man, who the secret disclos'd
  Of a book that was printed before 'twas composed?


  He is harder than iron, and as soft as a snail,
  Has the head of a viper, and a file in his tail."--ED.

_Soomarokoff's_ "_Demetrius._"--Who translated the following drama from the

_Demetrius_, a Tragedy, 8vo., 1806, translated by Eustaphiere. This piece,
which is a translation from a tragedy of Soomarokoff, one of the most
eminent dramatic authors of Russia, is said to be the first (and I think it
is still the only) Russian drama of which there is an English translation.

S. N.

_Polygamy._--1. Do the Jews at present, in any country, practise polygamy?
2. If not, when and why was that practice discontinued among them? 3. Is
there any religious sect which forbids polygamy, besides the Christians
(and the Jews, if the Jews do forbid it)? 4. Was Polygamy permitted among
the early Christians? Paul's direction to Timothy, that a bishop should be
"the husband of one wife," seems to show that it was; though I am aware
that the phrase has been interpreted otherwise. 5. On what ground has
polygamy become forbidden among Christians? I am not aware that it is
directly forbidden by Scripture.


_Irish, Anglo-Saxon, Longobardic, and Old English Letters._--I would be
glad to know the earliest date in which the Irish language has been
discovered inscribed on stone or in manuscript; also the earliest date in
which the Anglo-Saxon, Longobardic, and Old English letter has been known
in England and Ireland.

E. F.


_Description of Battles._--Judging from my own experience, historical
details of battles are comparatively unintelligible to non-military
readers. Now that, unhappily, we shall probably be compelled to "hear of
battles," would not some of our enterprising publishers do well to furnish
to the readers of history and of the bulletins, a popular "Guide to the
Battle Field," drawn up some talented military officer? It must contain
demonstratively clear diagrams, and such explanations of all that needs to
be known, as an officer would give, on the spot, to his nonprofessional
friend. The effects of eminences, rivers, roads, woods, marshes, &c.,
should be made plain; in short, nothing should be omitted which is
necessary to render an account of a battle intelligible to ordinary
readers, instead of being, as is too often the case, a mere chaotic
assemblage of words.


_Do Martyrs always feel Pain?_--Is it not possible that an exalted state of
feeling--approaching perhaps to the mesmeric state--may be attained, which
will render the religious or political martyr insensible to pain? It would
be agreeable to think that the pangs of martyrdom were ever thus
alleviated. It is certainly possible, by a strong mental effort, to keep
pain in subjection during a dental operation. A firmly fixed tooth, under a
bungling operator, may be wrenched from the jaw without pain to the
patient, if he will only determine not to feel. At least, I know of one
such case, and that the effort was very exhausting. In the excitement of
battle, wounds are often not felt. One would be glad to hope that Joan of
Arc was insensible to the flames which consumed her: and that the recovered
nerve which enabled Cranmer to submit his right hand to the fire, raised
him above suffering.


_Carronade._--What is the derivation of the term _carronade_, applied to
pieces of ordnance shorter and thicker in the chamber than usual? Here the
idea is that they took their name from the Carron foundries, where they
were cast. In the early years of the old war-time, there were carron pieces
or carron guns, and only some considerable time thereafter carronades. How
does this stand? and is there any likelihood of the folk story being true?




_Darcy, of Platten, co. Meath._--It is on record that, in the year 1486,
the citizens of Dublin, encouraged by the Earl of Kildare and the
Archbishop, received Lambert Simnel, and actually crowned him King of
England and Ireland in Christ's Church; and that to make the solemnity more
imposing, they not only borrowed a crown for the occasion from the head of
the image of the Virgin that stood in the church dedicated to her service
at Dame's Gate, but carried the young impostor on the shoulders of "a
monstrous man, one Darcy, of Platten, in the county of Meath."

Did this "monstrous man" leave any descendants? And if so, is there any
representative, and where, at the present day? Platten has long since
passed into other hands.


_Dorset._--In Byrom's MS. Journal, about to be printed for the Chetham
Society, I find the following entry:

    "May 18, 1725. I found the effect of last night drinking that foolish
    Dorset, which was pleasant enough, but did not at all agree with me,
    for it made me very stupid all day."

Query, What is Dorset?

R. P.

_"Vanitatem observare."_--Can any of your readers explain the following
extract from the Council of Ancyra, A.D. 314? I quote from a Latin

    "Mulieribus quoque Christianis non liceat in suis lanificiis vanitatem
    observare: sed Deum invocent adjutorem, qui eis sapientiam texendi

What is meant by "vanitatem observare?"

R. H. G.

_King's Prerogative._--A writer in the _Edinburgh Review_, vol. lxxiv. p.
77., asserts, on the authority of Blackstone (but he does not refer to the
volume and page of the _Commentaries_, and I have in vain sought for the
passages), that it is to _this day_ a branch of the king's prerogative, at
the death of _every bishop_, to have his kennel of hounds, or a
compensation in lieu of it. Does the writer mean, and is it the fact, that
if a bishop die without having a kennel of hounds, his executors are to pay
the king a compensation in lieu thereof? And if it is, what is the amount
of that compensation? Is it merely nominal? I can understand the king
claiming a bishop's kennel of hounds or compensation in feudal times, when
bishops were hunters (vide Raine's _Auckland Castle_, a work of great
merit, and abounding with much curious information); but to say, to _this
day_ it is a branch of the king's prerogative, is an insult alike to our
bishops and to religious practices in the nineteenth century. Of hunting
bishops in feudal times, I beg to refer your readers, in addition to Mr.
Raine's work, to an article in the fifty-eighth volume of the _Quarterly
Review_, p. 433., for an extract from a letter of Peter of Blois to Walter,
Bishop of Rochester, who at the age of eighty was a great hunter. Peter was
shocked at his lordship's indulgence in so unclerical a sport. It is
obvious neither Peter nor the Pope could have heard of the hunting Bishops
of Durham.


_Quotations in Cowper._--Can any of your correspondents indicate the
sources of the following quotations, which occur in Cowper's Letters
(Hayley's _Life and Letters of Cowper_, 4 vols., 1812)? In vol. iii. p.
278. the following verses, referring to the Atonement, are cited:

  [Greek: Tou de kath' haima rheen kai soi kai emoi kai adelphois]
  [Greek:   Hêmeterois, autou sôzomenois thanatôi.]

In vol. iv. p. 240. it is stated that Twining applied to Pope's translation
of Homer the Latin verse--

  "Perfida, sed quamvis perfida, cara tamen."


_Cawley the Regicide._--Mr. Waylen, in his _History of Marlborough_, just
published, shows that Cawley of Chichester, the regicide, has in Burke's
_Commoners_ been confounded with Cawley of Burderop, in Wiltshire; and he
adds, "the fact that a son of the real regicide (the Rev. John Cawley)
became a rector of the neighbouring parish of Didcot," &c. has helped to
confound the families. May I ask what is the authority for stating that the
Rev. J. Cawley was a son of the regicide?

C. T. R.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Dr. John Pocklington._--Can any of your correspondents oblige me with
information respecting the family, or the armorial bearings of Dr. John
Pocklington? He wrote _Altare Christianum_ and _Sunday no Sabbath_. The
parliament deprived him of his dignities A.D. 1640; and he died Nov. 14,
1642. Dr. Pocklington descended from Ralph Pocklington, who, with his
brother Roger, followed Margaret of Anjou after the battle of Wakefield,
A.D. 1460. He is said to have settled in the west, where he lived to have
three sons. The family is mentioned in connexion with the county of York,
as early as A.D. 1253.

X. Y. Z.

    [John Pocklington was first a scholar at Sidney Sussex College, B.D. in
    1621, and afterwards a Fellow of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. He
    subsequently became Rector of Yelden in Bedfordshire, Vicar of Waresley
    in Huntingdonshire, prebend of Lincoln, Peterborough, and Windsor; and
    was also one of the chaplains to Charles I. "On the 15th May, 1611, the
    Earl of Kent, with consent of Lord Harington, wrote to Sidney College
    to dispense with Mr. Pocklington's holding a small living with cure of
    souls. {248} See the original letter in the college treasury, box 1 or
    6." (Cole's MSS., vol. xlvi. p.207.). Among the King's Pamphlets in the
    British Museum is "The Petition and Articles exhibited in Parliament
    against John Pocklington, D.D., Parson of Yelden, in Bedfordshire, anno
    1641." The petition "humbly sheweth, That John Pocklington, D.D.,
    Rector of the parish of Yelden in the county of Bedford, Vicar of
    Waresley in the county of Huntingdon, Prebend of Lincoln, Peterborough,
    and Windsor, hath been a chief author and ringleader in all those
    innovations which have of late flowed into the Church of England." The
    Articles exhibited (too long to quote) are singularly illustrative of
    the ecclesiastical usages in the reign of Charles I., and would make a
    curious appendix to the REV. H. T. ELLACOMBE'S article at p. 257. of
    the present Number. Having rendered himself obnoxious to the popular
    faction by the publication of his _Altare Christianum_ and _Sunday no
    Sabbath_, the parliament that met on Nov. 3, 1640, ordered these two
    works to be burnt by the common hangman in both the Universities, and
    in the city of London. He died on November 14, and was buried Nov. 16,
    1642, in the churchyard of Peterborough Cathedral. On his monumental
    slab is the following inscription: "John Pocklington, S.S. Theologia
    Doctor, obiit Nov. 14, 1642." A copy of his will is in the British
    Museum (Lansdown, 990, p. 74.). It is dated Sept. 6, 1642; and in it
    bequests are made to his daughters Margaret and Elizabeth, and his sons
    John and Oliver. His wife Anne was made sole executrix. He orders his
    body "to be buried in Monk's churchyard, at the foot of those monks
    martyrs whose monument is well known: let there be a fair stone with a
    great crosse cut upon it laid on my grave." For notices of Dr.
    Pocklington, see Willis's _Survey of Cathedrals_, vol. iii. p. 521.;
    Walker's _Sufferings of the Clergy_, Part II. p. 95.; and Fuller's
    _Church History_, book xi. cent. xvii. sect. 30-33.]

_Last Marquis of Annandale._--1. When and where did he die? 2. Any
particulars regarding his history? 3. When and why was Lochwood, the family
residence, abandoned? 4. How many marquisses were there, and were any of
them men of any note in their day and generation?


    [The first marquis was William Johnstone, third Earl of Annandale and
    Hartfell, who was advanced 4th June, 1701, to the Marquisate of
    Annandale. He died at Bath, 14th January, 1721, and was succeeded by
    his son James, who died 21st February, 1730. George, his half-brother,
    born 29th May, 1720, was the third and last Marquis of Annandale. An
    inquest from the Court of Chancery, 5th March, 1748, found this marquis
    a lunatic, and incapable of governing himself and his estate, and that
    he had been so from the 12th December, 1744. He died at Turnham Green
    on the 29th April, 1792, in the seventy-second year of his age, and was
    buried at Chiswick, 7th May following. (_Gent. Mag._, May, 1792, p.
    481.) Since his decease the honours of the house of Annandale have
    remained dormant, although they have been claimed by several branches
    of the family. (Burke's _Extinct Peerages_.) Before the union of the
    two crowns the Johnstones were frequently wardens of the west borders,
    and were held in enthusiastic admiration for their exploits against the
    English, the Douglasses, and other borderers. During the wars between
    the two nations, they effectually suppressed the plunderers on the
    borders; hence their device, a winged spur, and their motto, "Alight
    thieves all," to denote their authority in commanding them to
    surrender. Lochwood, the ancient seat of the Marquisses of Annandale,
    was inhabited till 1724, three years after the death of the first
    marquis, when it was finally abandoned by the family, and suffered
    gradually to fall into decay. In _The New Statistical Account of
    Scotland_, vol. iv. p. 112., we read "that the principal estate in the
    parish of Moffat has descended to Mr. Hope Johnstone of Annandale, to
    whom it is believed the titles also, in so far as claimed, of right
    belong, and whose restoration to the dormant honours of the family
    would afford universal satisfaction in this part of Scotland; because
    it is the general feeling that he has a right to them, and that in his
    family they would not only be supported, but graced." Some farther
    particulars of the three marquisses will be found in Douglass' _Peerage
    of Scotland_ (by Wood), vol. i. p. 75., and in _The Scots Compendium_,
    edit. 1764, p. 151.]

_Heralds' College._--Richard III. incorporated the College of Arms in 1483,
and that body consisted of three kings of arms, six heralds, and four
pursuivants. Can you inform me of the names of these _first_ members of
that Heraldic body?


---- Vicarage.

    [Mark Noble, in his _History of the College of Arms_, p. 57., remarks,
    "There is nothing more difficult than to obtain a true and authentic
    series of the heralds, previous to the foundation of the College of
    Arms, or, to speak more properly, the incorporation of that body. Mr.
    Lant, Mr. Anstis, Mr. Edmondson, and other gentlemen, who had the best
    opportunities, and whose industry was equal to their advantage, have
    not been able to accomplish it; and from that time, especially in
    Richard's reign, it is not practicable. Some idea may be formed of the
    heraldic body at the commencement of this reign, by observing the names
    of those who attended the funeral of Edward IV. Sandford and other
    writers mention Garter, Clarenceux, Norroy, March, and Ireland, _kings_
    at arms; Chester, Leicester, Gloucester, and Buckingham, _heralds_; and
    Rouge-Croix, Rose-Blanch, Calais, Guisnes, and Harrington,

_Teddy the Tiler._--Who was Teddy the Tiler?

W. P. E.

    [This is a fire-and-water farce, taken from the French by G. Herbert
    Rodwell, Esq., ending with one element and beginning with the other.
    Mr. Power's performance of Teddy, as many of our readers will remember,
    kept the audience in one broad grin from beginning to end. It will be
    found in Cumberland's _British Theatre_, vol. xxv., with remarks,
    biographical and critical.]


_Duchess of Mazarin's Monument._--I read yesterday, in an interesting
French work, that the beautiful Hortense Mancini, a niece of Mazarin, and
sister to Mary Mancini, the early love of Louis XIV., after various
peregrinations, died at Chelsea, in England, on July 2, 1699. Although not
an important question, I think I may venture to ask whether any monument or
memorial of this remarkable beauty exists at Chelsea, or in its


    [Neither Faulkner nor Lysons notices any monumental memorial to the
    Duchess of Mazarin, whose finances after the death of Charles II. (who
    allowed her a pension of 4,000l. per annum) were very slender, so much
    so that, according to Lysons, it was usual for the nobility and others,
    who dined at her house, to leave money under the plates to pay for
    their entertainment. She appears to have been in arrear for the parish
    rates during the whole time of her residence at Chelsea.]

_Halcyon Days._--What is the derivation of "halcyon days?"

W. P. E.

    [The halcyon, or king's fisher, a bird said to breed in the sea, and
    that there is always a calm during her incubation; hence the adjective
    figuratively signifies placid, quiet, still, peaceful: as Dryden

      "Amidst our arms as quiet you shall be,
      As halcyons brooding on a winter's sea."

    "The halcyon," says Willsford, in his _Nature's Secrets_, p. 134., "at
    the time of breeding, which is about fourteen days before the winter
    solstice, foreshews a quiet and tranquil time, as it is observed about
    the coast of Sicily, from whence the proverb is transported, the
    halcyon days."]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ix., p. 126.)

I may refer MR. B. H. ALFORD to the Oxford _Manual of Monumental Brasses_,
p. 56., for an answer to his Query:

    "Knights have no peculiar devices besides their arms, unless we are to
    consider the lions and dogs beneath their feet as emblematical of the
    virtues of courage, generosity, and fidelity, indispensable to their
    profession. One or two dogs are often at the feet of the lady. They are
    probably intended for some favourite animal, as the name is
    occasionally inscribed," &c.

Neither dog nor lion occurs at the feet of the following knights
represented on brasses prior to 1460:

    "c. 1450. Sir John Peryent, Jun., Digswell, Herts. (engd. Boutell.)

    1455. John Daundelyon, Esq., Margate. (ditto.)

    c. 1360. William de Aldeburgh, Aldborough, Yorkshire. (engd. _Manual_.)

    c. 1380. Sir Edward Cerue, Draycot Cerue, Wiltshire. (engd. Boutell.)

    1413. c. 1420. John Cressy, Esq., Dodford, Northants. (ditto.)

    1445. Thomas de St. Quintin, Esq., Harpham, Yorkshire. (ditto.)"

Whilst a dog is seen in the following:

    "1462. Sir Thomas Grene, Green's Norton, Northants. (ditto.)

    1510. John Leventhorpe, Esq., St. Helen's, Bishopsgate. (_Manual._)

    1471. Wife of Thomas Colte, Esq., Roydon, Essex.

    c. 1480. Brass at Grendon, Northants.

    c. 1485. Brass, Latton, Essex.

    1501. Robert Baynard, Esq., Laycock, Wilts."

These examples are described or engraved in the works of the Rev. C.
Boutell, or in the Oxford _Manual_, and I have little doubt that my own
collection of rubbings (if I had leisure to examine it) would supply other
examples under both of these sections.


It is usually asserted that the dog appears at the feet of the lady in
monumental brasses as a symbol of fidelity; while the lion accompanies her
lord as the emblem of strength and courage. These distinctions, however, do
not appear to have been much attended to. The dog, in most cases a
greyhound, very frequently appears at the feet of a knight or civilian, as
on the brasses of the Earl of Warwick, 1401, Sir John Falstolf at Oulton,
1445, Sir John Leventhorpe at Sawbridgeworth, 1433, Sir Reginald de Cobham
at Lingfield, 1403, Richard Purdaunce, Mayor of Norwich, 1436, and Peter
Halle, Esquire, at Herne, Kent, 1420. Sir John Botiler, at St. Bride's,
Glamorganshire, 1285, has a dragon; and on the brass of Alan Fleming, at
Newark, 1361, appears a lion with a human face seizing a smaller lion. On a
very late brass of Sir Edward Warner, at Little Plumstead, Norfolk, 1565,
appears a greyhound, a full century after the date assigned by B. H. ALFORD
for the cessation of these symbolical figures.

Sometimes the lady has two little dogs, as Lady Bagot, at Baginton,
Warwickshire, 1407; and in one instance, that of Lady Peryent, at Digswell,
Herts, 1415, there is a hedgehog, the meaning of which is sufficiently
obvious. B. H. ALFORD, in noticing the omission of the dog in the brass of
Lady Camoys at Trotton, 1424, has not mentioned a singular substitute which
is found for it, namely, the figure of a boy or young man, standing by the
lady's right foot: but what this means I cannot attempt to determine;
perhaps her only son.

It may be interesting to add that some brasses of ecclesiastics exhibit
strange figures, not easy to interpret, if meant as symbolical. The brass
at {250} Oulton, of the priest ---- de Bacon, 1310, has a lion; that of the
Abbot Delamere, at St. Albans, 1375, two dragons; that of a priest at North
Mimms, about 1360, a stag; and, still more extraordinary, that of Laurence
Seymour, a priest, at Higham Ferrers, 1337, two dogs contending for a bone.

F. C. H.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 366. 624.; Vol. ix., p. 63.)

I can add another item of the folk lore to those already quoted. One of the
salutations, by which a sneezer is greeted amongst the lower class of
Romans at the present day, is _Figli maschi_, "May you have male children!"

The best essay on _sneezing_, that I am acquainted with, is to be found in
Strada's _Prolusions_, book iii. Prol. 4., in which he replies at some
length, and not unamusingly, to the Query, "Why are sneezers saluted?" It
seems to have arisen out of an occurrence which had recently taken place at
Rome, that a certain _Pistor Suburranus_, after having sneezed twenty-three
times consecutively, had expired at the twenty-fourth sneeze: and his
object is to prove that Sigonius was mistaken in supposing that the custom
of saluting a sneezer had only dated from the days of Gregory the Great,
when many had died of the plague in the act of sneezing. In opposition to
this notion, he adduces passages from Apuleius and Petronius Arbiter,
besides those from Ammianus, Athenæus, Aristotle, and Homer, already quoted
in your pages by MR. F. J. SCOTT. He then proceeds to give five causes from
which the custom may have sprung, and classifies them as religious,
medical, facetious, poetical, and augural.

Under the first head, he argues that the salutation given to sneezers is
not a mere expression of good wishes, but a kind of veneration: "for," says
he, "we rise to a person sneezing, and humbly uncover our heads, and deal
reverently with him." In proof of this position, he tells us that in
Ethiopia, when the emperor sneezed, the salutations of his adoring
gentlemen of the privy chamber were so loudly uttered as to be heard and
re-echoed by the whole of his court; and thence repeated in the streets, so
that the whole city was in simultaneous commotion.

The other heads are then pursued with considerable learning, and some
humour; and, under the last, he refers us to St. Augustin, _De Doctr.
Christ._ ii. 20., as recording that--

    "When the ancients were getting up in the morning, if they chanced to
    sneeze whilst putting on their shoes, they immediately went back to bed
    again, in order that they might get up more auspiciously, and escape
    the misfortunes which were likely to occur on that day."

One almost wishes that people now-a-days would sometimes consent to follow
their example, when they have "got out of bed the wrong way."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 56.)

In answer to the Query of H. H. M., I beg to state that the Sir John de
Morant chronicled by Froissart was Jean de Morant, Chevalier, Seigneur
d'Escours, and other lordships in Normandy. He was fourth in descent from
Etienne de Morant, Chevalier, living A.D. 1245, and son of Etienne de
Morant and his wife Marie de Pottier. His posterity branched off into many
noble Houses; as the Marquis de Morant, and Mesnil-Garnier, the Count de
Panzès, the Barons of Fontenay, Rupierre, Biéville, Coulonces, the
Seigneurs de Courseulles, Brequigny, &c.

The Sire Jean de Morant, born A.D. 1346, was the hero of the following
adventure, quoted from an ancient chronicle of Brittany, by
Chesnaye-Desbois. It appears that the Sire de Morant was one of five French
knights, who fought a combat _à l'outrance_ against an equal number of
English challengers, with the sanction, and in the presence, of John of
Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, A.D. 1381-2. The result was in favour of the
French. The chronicle proceeds:

    "Le Sire de Morant s'étant principalement distingué dans cette action,
    un Chevalier Anglois lui propose de venger, tête-à-tête, la défaite de
    ses compatriotes, et qu'ils en vinrent aux mains; mais que l'Anglois,
    qu'une indisposition aux genouils avoit forcé de combattre sans bottes
    garnies, avoit engagé son adversaire de quitter les siennes, en
    promettant, parole d'honneur, de ne point abuser de cette
    condescendance, à quoi le Sire de Morant consentit: le perfide Anglois
    ne lui tint pas parole, et lui porta trois coups d'épée dans la jambe.
    Le Duc de Lancastre, qui en fut témoin, fit arrêter ce lâche, et le fit
    mettre entre les mains du Sire de Morant, pour tirer telle vengeance
    qu'il jugeroit à propos, ou du moins le contraindre à lui payer une
    forte rançon. Le Seigneur de Morant remercia ce Prince, en lui disant
    'qu'il étoit venu de Bretagne non pour de l'or, mais pour l'honneur' et
    le supplia de recevoir en grace l'Anglois, attribuant à son peu
    d'adresse ce qui n'étoit que l'effet de sa trahison. Le Duc de
    Lancastre, charmé d'une si belle réponse, lui envoya une coupe d'or et
    une somme considérable. Morant refusa la somme, et se contenta de la
    coupe d'or, par respect pour le Prince."

There is a short account of the branch of Morant de Mesnil-Garnier in the
_Généalogie de France_, by Le Père Anselme, vol. ix.; but a very full and
complete pedigree is contained in the eighth volume of the _Dict. de la
Noblesse Française_, by M. de la Chesnaye-Desbois. {251}

As the Rev. Philip Morant was a native of Jersey, it is more than probable
that he was an offset of the ancient Norman stock, though their armorial
bearings are widely different. The latter bore, Azure, three cormorants
argent; but the family of Astle, of Colne Park in Essex, are said to
quarter for Morant, Gules, on a chevron argent, three talbots passant

Having only a daughter and heiress, married to Thomas Astle, Keeper of the
Records in the Tower of London, the reverend historian of Essex could
hardly have been the ancestor of the Morants of Brockenhurst.

There was also another family in Normandy, named Morant de Bois-ricard, in
no way connected with the first, who bore Gules, a bend ermine.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 148.)

ALPHEGE will find a good paper on the origin of signs in the _Mirror_, vol.
ii. p. 387.; also an article on the present specimens of country ale-house
signs, in the first volume of the same interesting periodical, p. 101. In
Hone's _Every-Day Book_, vol. i., are notices of curious signs at pp. 1262.
and 1385. In vol. ii. some very amusing specimens are given at p. 789.
Others occur in Hone's _Table-Book_, at pp. 448. 504. and 756.

F. C. H.

I can answer ALPHEGE's Query, having some notes by me on the subject. He
will pardon my throwing them, in a shapeless heap, jolting out as you
unload stones.

The Romans had signs; and at Pompeii a pig over the door represents a
wine-shop within. The Middle Ages adopted a bush. "Good wine needs no
bush," &c., answering to the gilded grapes at a modern vintner's. The bush
is still a common sign. At Charles I.'s death, a cavalier landlord painted
his bush black. Then came the modern square sign, formerly common to all
trades. Old signs are generally heraldic, and represent royal bearings, or
the blazonings of great families. The White Hart was peculiar to Richard
II; the White Swan of Henry IV. and Edward III.; the Blue Boar of Richard
III.; the Red Dragon came in with the Tudors. Then we have the Bear and
Ragged Staff of Leicester, &c. Monograms are common; as Bolt and Tun for
_Bolton_; Hare and Tun for _Harrington_. The Three Suns is the favourite
bearing of Edward IV.; and all Roses, white or red (as at Tewkesbury), are
indications of political predilection. Other signs commemorate historical
events; as the Bull and Mouth, Bull and Gate (the Boulogne engagement in
Henry VIII.'s time, and alluded to by Shakspeare). The Pilgrim, Cross Keys,
Salutation, Catherine Wheel, Angel, Three Kings, Seven Stars, St. Francis,
&c., are medieval signs. Many are curiously corrupted; as the Coeur Doré
(Golden Heart) to the Queer Door; Bacchanals (the Bag of Nails); Pig and
Whistle (Peg and Wassail Bowl); the Swan and Two Necks (literally Two
_Nicks_); Goat and Compasses (God encompasseth us); The Bell Savage (La
Belle Sauvage, or Isabel Savage); the Goat in the Golden Boots (from the
Dutch, Goed in der Gooden Boote), Mercury, or the God in the Golden Boots.
The Puritans altered many of the monastic signs; as the Angel and Lady, to
the Soldier and Citizen. In signs we may read every phase of ministerial
popularity, and all the ebbs and flows of war in the Sir Home Popham,
Rodney, Shovel, Duke of York, Wellington's Head, &c. At Chelsea, a sign
called the "Snow Shoes," I believe, still indicates the excitement of the
American war.

I shall be happy to send ALPHEGE more instances, or to answer any


A century ago, when the houses in streets were unnumbered, they were
distinguished by sign-boards. The chemist had the dragon (some astrological
device); the pawnbroker the three golden pills, the arms of the Medici and
Lombardy, as the descendant of the ancient bankers of England; the
barber-chirurgeon the pole for the wig, and the parti-coloured ribands to
bind up the patient's wounds after blood-letting; the haberdasher and
wool-draper the golden fleece; the tobacconist the snuff-taking Highlander;
the vintner the bunch of grapes and ivy-bush; and the Church and State
bookseller the Bible and crown. The Crusaders brought in the signs of the
Saracen's Head, the Turk's Head, and the Golden Cross. Near the church were
found the Lamb and Flag, The Bell, the Cock of St. Peter, the Maiden's
Head, and the Salutation of St. Mary. The Chequers commemorated the licence
granted by the Earls of Arundel, or Lords Warrenne. The Blue Boar was the
cognizance of the House of Oxford (and so The Talbots, The Bears, White
Lions, &c. may usually be reasonably referred to the supporters of the arms
of noble families, whose tenants the tavern landlords were). The Bull and
Mouth, the hostelry of the voyager to Boulogne Harbour. The Castle, The
Spread Eagle, and The Globe (Alphonso's), were probably adopted from the
arms of Spain, Germany, and Portugal, by inns which were the resort of
merchants from those countries. The Belle Sauvage recalled some show of the
day; the St. George and Dragon commemorated the badge of the Garter, the
Rose and Fleur-de-Lys, the Tudors; The Bull, The Falcon, {252} and Plume of
Feathers, Edward IV.; the Swan and Antelope were the arms of Henry V.; the
chained or White Hart of Richard II.; the Sun and Boar of King Richard
III.; the Greyhound and Green Dragon of Henry VII. The Bag o' Nails
disguised the former Bacchanals; the Cat and Fiddle the Caton Fidele; the
Goat and Compasses was the rebus of the Puritan motto "God encompasseth
us." The Swan with Two Nicks represented the Thames swans, so marked on
their bills under the "conservatory" of the Goldsmiths' Company. The Cocoa
Tree and Thatched House tell their own tale; so the Coach and Horses,
reminding us of the times when the superior inns were the only
posting-houses, in distinction to such as bore the sign of the Pack-Horse.
The Fox and Goose denoted the games played within; the country inn, the
Hare and Hounds, the vicinity of a sporting squire.


ALPHEGE will find some information on this subject in Lower's _Curiosities
of Heraldry_, _The Beaufoy Tokens_ (printed by the Corporation of London),
and the _Journal of the Archæological Association_ for April, 1853.



There are a series of articles on this subject in the _Gentleman's
Magazine_, vol. lxxxviii., parts i. and ii., and vol. lxxxix. parts i. and
ii. Taylor the Water-poet wrote _A Catalogue of Memorable Places and
Taverns within Ten Shires of England_, London, 1636, 8vo. Much information
will also be found in Akerman's _Tokens_, and Burn's _Catalogue of the
Beaufoy Cabinet_.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 54. Vol. ix., pp. 127-29.)

Novus did not require correction; but MR. B. B. WOODWARD has elaborately
confounded the genuine _Consilium_ of 1537 with Vergerio's spurious Letter
of Advice, written in 1549. _Four_ cardinals, and not _nine_ (as MR.
WOODWARD supposes), subscribed the authentic document; but perhaps _novem_
may have been a corruption of _novum_, applied to the later Bolognese
_Consilium_; or else the word was intended to denote the number of _all_
the dignitaries who addressed Pope Paul III.

R. G.

    "This Consilium was the result of an assembly of four cardinals, among
    whom was our Pole, and five prelates, by Paul III. in 1537, charged to
    give him their best advice relative to a reformation of the church. The
    corruptions of that community were detailed and denounced with more
    freedom than might have been expected, or was probably desired; so much
    so, that when one of the body, Cardinal Caraffa, assumed the tiara as
    Paul IV., he transferred his own _advice_ into his own list of
    prohibited books. The Consilium became the subject of an animated
    controversy. McCrie in his _History of the Reformation in Italy_, has
    given a satisfactory account of the whole, pp. 83, &c. The candid
    Quirini could maintain neither the spuriousness of this important
    document, nor its non-identity with the one condemned in the Index.
    (See Schelborn's Two Epistles on the subject, Tiguri, 1748.) And now
    observe, gentle reader, the pontifical artifice which this discussion
    has produced. Not in the Index following the year 1748, namely, that of
    1750 (that was too soon), but in the next, that of 1758, the article
    appears thus: 'Consilium de emendanda Ecclesia. _Cum Notis vel
    Præfationibus Hæreticorum. Ind. Trid._' The whole, particularly the
    Ind. Trid., is an implied and real falsehood."-- Mendham's _Literary
    Policy of the Church of Rome_, pp. 48, 49.

M. Barbier, in his _Dictionnaire des Pseudoynmes_, has given his opinion of
the genuineness of the Consilium in the following note, in reply to some
queries on the subject:

"Monsieur.--Le _Consilium quorundam Episcoporum_, &c., me paraît une pièce
bien authentique, puisque Brown déclare l'avoir trouvé non-seulement dans
les oeuvres de Vergerio, mais encore dans les _Lectiones Memorabiles_, en 2
vol. in fol. par Wolphius. _Je ne connais rien contre_ cette pièce.

  "J'ai l'honneur, &c.


The learned Lorente has reprinted the "Concilium" also in his work entitled
_Monumens Historiques concernant les deux Pragmatiques Sanctions_. There
can, therefore, be no just grounds for doubting the character of this
precious article.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 82. 209. 279. 328. 454. 525.)

I should be glad to see some more information in your pages relative to the
_early_ use of the pulpit hour-glass. It is said that the ancient fathers
preached, as the old Greek and Roman orators declaimed, by this instrument;
but were the sermons of the ancient fathers an hour long? Many of those in
St. Augustine's ten volumes might be delivered with distinctness in seven
or eight minutes; and some of those of Latimer and his contemporaries, in
about the same time. But, Query, are not the _printed_ sermons of these
divines merely outlines, to be filled up by the preacher _extempore_? Dyos,
in a sermon preached at Paul's Cross, in 1570, speaking of the walking and
profane talking in the church at sermon time, also laments how they grudged
the preacher his _customary hour_. So that an hour seems to have been the
practice at the Reformation. {253}

The hour-glass was used equally by the Catholics and Protestants. In an
account of the fall of the house in Blackfriars, where a party of Romanists
were assembled to hear one of their preachers, in 1623, the preacher is
described as--

    "Having on a surplice, girt about his middle with a linnen girdle, and
    a tippet of scarlet on both his shoulders. He was attended by a man
    that brought after him his book and _hour-glass_."--See _The Fatal
    Vespers_, by Samuel Clark, London, 1657.

In the Preface to the Bishops' _Bible_, printed by John Day in 1569,
Archbishop Parker is represented with an _hour-glass_ at his right hand.
And in a work by Franchinus Gaffurius, entitled _Angelicum ac Divinum opus
Musice_, printed at Milan in 1508, is a curious representation of the
author seated in a pulpit, with a book in his hand; an _hour-glass_ on one
side, and a bottle on the other; lecturing to an audience of twelve
persons. This woodcut is engraved in the second volume of Hawkins' _History
of Music_, p. 333.

Hour-glasses were often very elegantly formed, and of rich materials. Shaw,
in his _Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages_, has given an engraving
of one in the cabinet of M. Debruge at Paris. It is richly enamelled, and
set with jewels. In the churchwardens' accounts of Lambeth Church are two
entries respecting the hour-glass: the first is in 1579, when 1s. 4d. was
"payd to Yorke for the frame in which the _hower_ standeth;" and the second
in 1615, when 6s. 8d. was "payd for an iron for the _hour-glasse_." In an
inventory of the goods and implements belonging to the church of All
Saints, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, taken about 1632, mention is made of "one
_whole_ hour-glasse," and of "one _halfe_ hour-glasse." (See Brand's
_Newcastle_, vol. i. p. 370.).

Fosbroke says, "Preaching by the _hour-glass_ was put an end to by the
Puritans" (_Ency. of Antiq._, vol. i. pp. 273. 307.). But the account given
by a correspondent of the _Gentleman's Magazine_ (1804, p. 201.) is
probably more correct:

    "Hour-glasses, in the puritanical days of Cromwell, were made use of by
    the preachers; who, on first getting into the pulpit, and naming the
    text, turned up the glass; and if the sermon did not hold till the
    glass was out, it was said by the congregation that the preacher was
    lazy: and if he continued to preach much longer, they would yawn and
    stretch, and by these signs signify to the preacher that they began to
    be weary of his discourse, and wanted to be dismissed."

Butler speaks of "gifted brethren preaching by a carnal _hour-glass_"
(_Hudibras_, Part I., canto III., v. 1061.). And in the frontispiece of Dr.
Young's book, entitled _England's Shame, or a Relation of the Life and
Death of Hugh Peters_, London, 1663, Peters is represented preaching, and
holding an _hour-glass_ in his left hand, in the act of saying: "I know you
are good fellows, so let's have another _glass_." The same words, or
something very similar, are attributed to the Nonconformist minister,
Daniel Burgess. Mr. Maidment, in a note to "The New Litany," printed in his
_Third Book of Scottish Pasquils_ (Edin., 1828, p. 49.), also gives the
following version of the same:

    "A humorous story has been preserved of one of the Earls of Airly, who
    entertained at his table a clergyman, who was to preach before the
    Commissioner next day. The glass circulated, perhaps too freely; and
    whenever the divine attempted to rise, his Lordship prevented him,
    saying, 'Another glass, and then.' After 'flooring' (if the expression
    may be allowed) his Lordship, the guest went home. He next day selected
    a text: 'The wicked shall be punished, and that RIGHT EARLY.' Inspired
    by the subject, he was by no means sparing of his oratory, and the
    hour-glass was disregarded, although repeatedly warned by the
    precentor; who, in common with Lord Airly, thought the discourse rather
    lengthy. The latter soon knew why he was thus punished by the reverend
    gentleman, when reminded, always exclaiming, _not_ sotto voce, 'Another
    glass, and then.'"

Hogarth, in his "Sleeping Congregation," has introduced an hour-glass on
the left side of the preacher; and Mr. Ireland observes, in his description
of this plate, that they are "still placed on some of the pulpits in the
provinces." At Waltham, in Leicestershire, by the side of the pulpit was
(or is) an hour-glass in an iron frame, mounted on three high wooden
brackets. (See Nichols' _Leicestershire_, vol. ii p. 382.) A bracket for
the support of an hour-glass is still preserved, affixed to the pulpit of
Hurst Church, in Berkshire: it is of iron, painted and gilt. An interesting
notice, accompanied by woodcuts, of a number of existing specimens of
hour-glass frames, was contributed to the _Journal of the British
Archæological Association_, vol. iii., 1848, by Mr. Fairholt, to which I
refer the reader for farther information.


I remember to have seen it stated in some antiquarian journal, that there
are only three hour-glass stands in England where any portion of the glass
is remaining. In Cowden Church, in Kent, the glass is nearly entire.
Perhaps some of your readers will be able to mention the two other places.

W. D. H.

In Salhouse Church, near Norwich, an iron hour-glass stand still remains
fixed to the pulpit; and a bell on the screen, between the nave and the

C--s. T. P.

At Berne, in the autumn of last year, I saw an hour-glass stand _still_
attached to the pulpit in the minster.


       *       *       *       *       *



_A Prize for the best Collodion._--Your "Hint to the Photographic Society"
(Feb. 25) I much approve of, but I have always found more promptness from
individuals than from associated bodies; and all photographers I deem to be
under great obligations to _you_ in affording us a medium of communication
before a Photographic Society was in existence. During the past month your
valuable articles, from some of our most esteemed photographists, show that
your pages are the agreeable medium of publishing their researches. I would
therefore respectfully suggest that you should yourself offer a prize for
the best mode of making a good useful collodion, and that that prize should
be a complete set of your valuable journal, which now, I believe, is
progressing with its ninth volume. You might associate two independent
names with your own, in testing the merits of any sample supplied to you,
and a condition should be that the formula should be published in "N. & Q."
Your observations upon the manufacturers of paper, respecting the intrinsic
value of a premium, are equally applicable to this proposition, because,
should the collodion prepared by any of the various dealers who at present
advertise in your columns be deemed to be the most satisfactory, your
sanction and that of your friends alone would be an ample recompense. I
would also suggest that samples sent to you should be labelled with a
motto, and a corresponding motto, _sealed_, should contain the name and
address, the name and address of the successful sample _alone_ to be
opened: this would effectually preclude all preconceived notions
entertained by the testing manipulators who are to decide on the merits of
what is submitted to them.


    [We are obliged to our correspondent not only for the compliment he has
    paid to our services to photography, but also for his suggestion. There
    are many reasons, and some sufficiently obvious, why _we_ should not
    undertake the task proposed; and there are as obvious reasons why it
    should be undertaken by the Photographic Society. That body has not
    only the means of securing the best judges of such matters, but an
    invitation from such a body would probably call into the field of
    competition all the best photographers, whether professional or

_Double Iodide of Silver and Potassium._--I shall feel greatly indebted to
you, or to any correspondent of "N. & Q.," for information as to the
proportion of iodide of silver to the ounce of water, to be afterwards
taken up by a _saturated solution_ of iodide of potassium, and converted
into the double iodide of silver and potassium.

I generally pour all waste solution of silver into a jar of iodide of
potassium solution; and last year, having washed some of the precipitated
iodide of silver, I redissolved it in a solution of iodide of potassium of
an unknown strength. Paper prepared with this solution answered very
satisfactorily, kept well after excitation, and was very clear and intense;
but this was purely accidental: and if you can tell me how to insure like
success this summer, without a series of experiments, for which I have but
little time just now, the information will be very acceptable to me, and
probably to many others.

I excite my paper with equal proportions of saturated solution of gallic
acid and aceto-nitrate of silver, one or two drops of each to the drachm of
distilled water. I always plunge the bottle of gallic acid solution into
hot water when first made, which enables it to take up more of the acid; on
cooling, the excess crystallises at the bottom. This ensures an even
strength of solution: it will keep any length of time, if a small piece of
camphor be allowed to float in it.



    [The resultant iodide from fifteen grains of nitrate of silver,
    precipitated by means of the iodide of potassium, will give the
    requisite quantity of iodide for every ounce of water; or about
    twenty-seven grains of the dried iodide will produce the same effect.
    It is however far preferable, and more economical, to convert all waste
    into chloride of silver, from which the pure metal may be again so
    readily obtained. Iodide of silver, collected in the manner described
    by our correspondent, is very likely to lead to disappointment.]

_Albumenized Paper._--I have by careful observation found that the cause of
the albumen settling and drying in waving lines and blotches on my paper,
arose from some parts of the paper being more absorbent than others, the
gelatinous-like nature of the albumen assisting to retard its ready ingress
into the unequal parts, and, consequently, that those places becoming the
first dried, prevented the albumen, still slowly dripping over the now more
wetted parts, from running down equally and smoothly, thereby causing a
check to its progress; and as at last these become also dry, thicker and
irregular patches of albumen were deposited, forming the mischief in

The discovery of the cause suggested to me the propriety of either giving
each sheet a prolonged floating of from ten to fifteen minutes on the
salted albumen, or until every part had become fully and equally saturated;
or, as a preliminary to the floating and hanging up by one corner on a
line, of putting overnight between each sheet a damped piece of bibulous
paper, and placing the whole between two smooth plates of stone, or other
non-absorbent material.

Either method produces equally good results; but I now always use the
latter, thereby avoiding the necessity of otherwise having several dishes
of albumen at work at once.


_Cyanide of Potassium_ (Vol. ix., p. 230.).--I have for a long time been in
the habit of using a solution of the above-named substance for fixing
collodion _positives_, because the reduced silver has a much _whiter_
appearance when thus fixed, than when the hyposulphite of soda is used for
the same purpose; but I cannot quite agree with MR. HOCKIN that it is
_equally_ applicable to negatives, though in many cases it will do very
well. I find the reduced metal is more pervious to light when fixed with
the cyanide solution, particularly in weak negatives. Lastly, I find that a
small quantity of the {255} silver salts being added to the solution before
using, produces less injury to the half-tones, and this not by merely
weakening the solution, as one of double the strength with the silver is
better than one without it, though only half as powerful.

Your correspondent C. E. F. (_ibid._) will find his positives will not
stand a saturated solution of hyposulphite of soda, unless he prints them
so intensely dark that all traces of a picture by reflected light are
obliterated; but I have sometimes accidentally exposed my positives a
_whole day_, and retained a fair proof by soaking the apparently useless
impressions in such a solution.


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Saw-dust Recipe_ (Vol. ix., p. 148.).--See Herschel's _Discourse on the
Study of Natural Philosophy_, published in Lardner's _Cyclopædia_, p. 64.,
where he says:

    "That sawdust itself is susceptible of conversion into a substance
    bearing no remote analogy to bread; and though certainly less palatable
    than that of flour, yet no way disagreeable, and both wholesome and
    digestible, as well as highly nutritive."

To which passage the following note is appended:

    "See Dr. Prout's account of the experiments of Professor Autenrieth of
    Tubingen, _Phil. Trans._, 1827, p. 331. This discovery, which renders
    famine next to _impossible_, deserves a higher degree of celebrity than
    it has obtained."

J. M. W.

Though not exactly the recipe for _saw-dust biscuits_ which I have heard
of, there is an account of the process of making bread from bark in Laing's
"Norway" (Longman's _Traveller's Lib._), part ii. p. 219., where, on the
subject of pine-trees, it is stated:

    "Many were standing with all their branches dead, stripped of the bark
    to make bread, and blanched by the weather, resembling white
    marble,--mere ghosts of trees. The bread is made of the inner rind next
    the wood, taken off in flakes like a sheet of foolscap paper, and is
    steeped or washed in warm water, to clear off its astringent principle.
    It is then hung across a rope to dry in the sun, and looks exactly like
    sheets of parchment. When dry it is pounded into small pieces mixed
    with corn, and ground into meal on the hand-mill or quern. It is much
    more generally used than I supposed. There are districts in which the
    forests suffered very considerable damage in the years 1812 and 1814,
    when bad crops and the war, then raging, reduced many to bark bread.
    The Fjelde bonder use it, more or less, every year. It is not very
    unpalatable; nor is there any good reason for supposing it unwholesome,
    if well prepared; but it is very costly. The value of the tree, which
    is left to perish on its root, would buy a sack of flour, if the
    English market were open."

Now, if G. D., or any enterprising individual, could succeed in converting
saw-dust into wholesome food, or fit for admixture with flour, somewhat
after the above manner, it would indeed be a "happy discovery," considering
the present high price of "the staff of life." Bread has also been made
from the horse-chesnut; but the expense of preparation, removing the strong
bitter flavour, is no doubt the obstacle to its success. What could be done
with the Spanish chesnut?


The saw-dust recipe is to be found in the _Saturday Magazine_, Jan. 3,
1835, taken from No. 104. of the _Quarterly Review_. It is entitled, "How
to make a Quartern Loaf out of a Deal Board."

J. C.

Your correspondent G. D. may find something to his purpose in a little
German work, entitled _Wie kann man, bey grosser Theuerung und Hungersnoth,
ohne Getreid, gesundes Brod verschaffen?_ Von Dr. Oberlechner: Xav. Duyle,
Salzburg, 1817.

W. T.

_Brydone the Tourist_ (Vol. ix., p. 138.).--The literary world would feel
obliged to J. MACRAY to tell us the name of the writer of the criticism who
says, "Brydone never was on the Summit of Etna." Did the scholars of Italy
know more of what was done by Englishmen in Sicily in Brydone's day than
they do at present? How are the dates reconciled? Brydone would be 113
years old. Mr. Beckford, I think, must have been some thirteen or fourteen
years younger. Brydone was always considered to be in his relations in life
a man of probity and honour. I used to hear much of him from one nearly
related to me, whose father was first cousin to Brydone's wife.

H. R., NÉE F.

_Etymology of "Page"_ (Vol. ix., p. 106.).--_Paggio_ Italian, _page_ French
and Spanish, _pagi_ Provençal, is derived by Diez, _Etymologisches
Wörterbuch der Romanischen Sprachen_ (Bonn, 1853), p. 249., from the Greek
[Greek: paidion]. This derivation is evidently the true one. I may take
this opportunity of recommending the above-cited work to all persons who
feel an interest in the etymology of the Romance languages. It is not only
more scientific and learned, but more comprehensive, than any other work of
the kind.


_Longfellow_ (Vol. ix., p. 174.).--There was a family of the name of
Longfellow resident in Brecon, South Wales, about fifty or sixty years ago,
who were large landowners in the county; and one of them (Tom Longfellow,
alluded to in the lines below) kept the principal inn, "The Golden Lion,"
in that town. His son occupied a farm a few miles from Brecon, about thirty
years ago; and two of his sisters resided in the town. The family was
frequently engaged in law suits (perhaps from the _proverbially_ litigious
disposition {256} of their Welsh neighbours), and was ultimately ruined.
Many of the old inhabitants of that part of the Principality could, no
doubt, give a better and fuller account of them.

The following lines (not very flattering to the landlord, certainly), said
to have been written by a commercial traveller on an inside-window shutter
of "The Golden Lion," when Mr. Longfellow was the proprietor, may not be
out of place in "N. & Q.:"

  "Tom Longfellow's name is most justly his due,
  Long his neck, long his bill, which is very long too;
  Long the time ere your horse to the stable is led,
  Long before he's rubbed down, and much longer till fed;
  Long indeed may you sit in a comfortless room,
  Till from kitchen, long dirty, your dinner shall come;
  Long the often-told tale that your host will relate,
  Long his face whilst complaining how long people eat;
  Long may Longfellow long ere he see me again,--
  Long 'twill be ere I long for Tom Longfellow's inn."

C. H. (2)

Yesterday I happened to be looking over an old Bristol paper (Sarah
Farley's _Bristol Journal_, Saturday, June 11, 1791), and the name of
Longfellow, which I had before only known as borne by the poet, caught my
eye. At the end of the paper there is a notice in these words:

    "Advertisements are taken in for this paper by agents in various
    places, and by Mr. Longfellow, Brecon," &c.


Park Lodge, Weston-super-Mare.

There is now living at Beaufort Iron Works, Breconshire, a respectable
tradesman, bearing the name of Longfellow. He himself is a native of the
town of Brecon, as was his father also. But his grandfather was a settler;
though from what part of the country this last-named relative originally
came, he is unfortunately unable to say. He has the impression, however,
that it was from Cornwall or Devonshire. Perhaps this information will
partly answer the question of OXONIENSIS.

E. W. I.

It is by no means improbable that the name is a corruption of
_Longvillers_, found in Northamptonshire as early as the reign of Edward
I., and derived, I imagine, from the town of Longueville in Normandy. There
is a Newton Longville in this county.


Olney, Bucks.

_Canting Arms_ (Vol. ix., p. 146.).--The introduction to the collection of
arms alluded to was _not_ written by Sir George Naylor, but by the Rev.
James Dallaway, who had previously published his _Historical Enquiries_, a
work well known.


_Holy Loaf Money_ (Vol. ix., p. 150.).--At some time before the date of
present rubrics, it was the custom for every house in the parish to provide
in rotation bread (and wine) for the Holy Communion. By the first book of
King Edward VI., this duty was devolved upon those who had the cure of
souls, with a provision "that the parishioners of every parish should offer
every Sunday, at the time of the offertory, _the just value and price of
the holy loaf_ ... to the use of the pastors and curates" who had provided
it; "and that in such order and course as they were wont to find, and pay
the said holy loaf." This is, I think, the correct answer to the Query of
T. J. W.

J. H. B.

"_Could we with ink_," _&c._ (Vol. viii., pp. 127. 180.).--The idea
embodied in these lines was well known in the seventeenth century. The
following "rhyme," extracted from a rare miscellany entitled _Wits
Recreations_, 12mo., 1640, has reference to the subject.

  "_Interrogativa Cantilena._

  "If all the world were paper,
    And all the sea were inke;
  If all the trees were bread and cheese,
    How should we do for drinke?

  "If all the world were sand'o,
    Oh then what should we lack'o;
  If as they say there were no clay,
    How should we take tobacco?

  "If all our vessels ran'a,
    If none but had a crack'a;
  If Spanish apes eat all the grapes,
    How should we do for sack'a?

  "If fryers had no bald pates,
    Nor nuns had no dark cloysters;
  If all the seas were beans and pease,
    How should we do for oysters?

  "If there had been no projects,
    Nor none that did great wrongs;
  If fiddlers shall turne players all,
    How should we doe for songs?

  "If all things were eternall,
    And nothing their end bringing;
  If this should be, then how should we
    Here make an end of singing?"


_Mount Mill, and the Fortifications of London_ (Vol. ix., p. 174.).--B. R.
A. Y. will find that the name is still applied to an obscure locality in
the parish of St. Luke, situated close to the west end of Seward Street on
the north side. The parliamentary fortifications of London are described in
Maitland's _Hist._, and Mount Mill is noticed in Cromwell's _Clerkenwell_,
pp. 33. 396. This writer supposes that the _Mount_ (long since levelled)
originated in the interment of a great number of persons during the plague
of 1665; but {257} this, I think, is a mistake, for the Mount is mentioned
in a printed broadside which, if I remember rightly, bears an earlier date.
I cannot furnish its title, but it will be found in the British Museum,
with the press-mark 669. f. 8/22. A plan of the city and suburbs, as
fortified by order of the parliament in 1642 and 1643, was engraved by
George Vertue, 1738; and a small plan of the same works appeared in the
_Gentleman's Magazine_ a few years afterwards (1749?).


Olney, Bucks.

_Standing while the Lord's Prayer is read_ (Vol. ix., p. 127.).--A custom
noted to prevail at Bristol: in connexion with it, it would be interesting
to ascertain in what churches there still remain _any_ usages of by-gone
days, but which have generally got into desuetude. It is probable that in
some one or other church there may still exist a usage handed down by
tradition, which is not generally recognised nor authorised in the present
day. Perhaps by means of our widely spread "N. & Q.," and the notes of its
able contributors, this may be ascertained. By way of example, and as a
beginning, I would mention the following:--

At St. Sampson's, Cricklade (it was so before 1820), the people say,
"Thanks be to Thee, O God!" after the reading of the Gospel; a usage said
to be as old as St. Chrysostom.

At Talaton, Devon, where the congregation turn towards the singing gallery
at the west end, during the singing of the "Magnificat" and other psalms,
at the "Gloria" they all turn round to the _east_.

At Bitton, Gloucestershire, two parishioners, natives of Lincolnshire,
always gave me notice before they came to Holy Communion, as it was their
_custom_ always to do.

When a boy, I remember an old gentleman, who came from one of the Midland
Counties, always stood up at the "Glory" in the Litany. In many country
churches, the old women make a courtesy.

In many country churches, the old men bow and smooth down their hair when
they enter the church; and women make a courtesy.


Rectory, Clyst St. George.

In a late Number of your miscellany, you say it is a general practice for
congregations in churches to _stand_ during the reading of the Lord's
Prayer, when it occurs in the order of Morning Lessons. In my experience, I
do not remember any such custom prevalent in this part of the country; but
may mention, as a curious and (as far as I know, or ever heard of) singular
example of kneeling at the reading of St Matt. vi. and St. Luke xi., that
at Formby, a retired village on the Lancashire coast, my first cure, the
people observed this usage. The children in the schools were instructed to
kneel whenever they read the section of these chapters which contains the
Lord's Prayer. And at the "Burial of the Dead," as soon as the minister
came to that portion of the ceremony where the use of the Lord's Prayer is
enjoined, all the assembled mourners (old and young, and however cold or
damp the day) would devoutly kneel down in the chapel yard, and remain in
this posture of reverence until the conclusion of the service. I observed
that their Roman Catholic neighbours, who often attended at funerals, when
they happened to be present, did the same. So that it seemed to be "a
tradition derived from their fathers," and handed down "from one generation
to another."

R. L.

Great Lever, Bolton.

This custom is observed in the Cathedral at Norwich, but not (I believe) in
the other churches in that city. I remember seeing it noticed in a very old
number of the _Gentleman's Magazine_, and should be glad if any of your
correspondents could tell me which number it is. I have looked through the
Index in vain. The writer denounced it as a _Popish_ custom!


_A dead Sultan, with his Shirt for an Ensign_ (Vol. ix., p. 76.).--MR.
WARDEN will find a long and interesting description of Saladin in Knolles'
_Turkish History_, pp. 33. 57., published in London by Adam Islip in 1603.
I take from this learned work the following curious anecdote:

    "About this time (but the exact period is not stated) died the great
    Sultan Saladin, the greatest terrour of the Christians; who, mindfull
    of man's fragilitie, and the vanitie of worldly honours, commanded at
    the time of his death no solemnitie to be vsed at his buriall, but only
    his shirt in manner of an ensigne, made fast vnto the point of a lance,
    to be carried before his dead bodie as an ensigne. A plaine priest
    going before and crying aloud vnto the people in this sort: '_Saladin
    Conquerour of the East, of all the greatnesse and riches hee had in
    this life, carrieth not with him after his death anything more than his
    shirt._'"--"A sight (says Knolles) woorthie so great a king, as wanted
    nothing to his eternall commendation, more than the true knowledge of
    his salvation in Christ Jesu."

W. W.


"_Houd maet of laet_" (Vol. ix., p. 148.).--One of your correspondents
desires an explanation of _this_ phrase, which he found in the corner of an
old Dutch picture. It is a Flemish proverb; I translate it thus:

  "Keep within bounds, though 'tis late."

It may either be the motto which the artist adopted to identify his work
while he concealed {258} his name; or it may be descriptive of the picture,
which then would be an illustration of _this_ proverb. Inscribed either by
the artist himself, or by some officious person, who thus "tacked the moral
full in sight."

I think I have seen a similar inscription somewhere in Flanders on an
antique drinking-cup, a very appropriate place for such wholesome counsel.

I should like to know the subject of the picture your correspondent refers
to. In modern Dutch the proverb reads thus:

  "Houd maat of laat."


The above Dutch proverb means, in English:

  "Keep within bounds, or leave off."

[Greek: Halieus.]

_Captain Eyre's Drawings_ (Vol. ix., p. 207.).--The mention of Captain
Eyre's drawings of the Fortifications in London, and the editorial note
appended thereto, remind me of an inquiry I have long been desirous of
making respecting the curious, if authentic, drawings by this same Captain
Eyre, illustrative of Shakspeare's residence in London, described in one of
your earlier volumes (Vol. vii., p. 545.). I have not myself had an
opportunity of consulting Mr. Halliwell's first volume, but a friend who
looked at it for me says he could not find any account of them there. In
whose possession are they now?

M. A.


_Sir Thomas Browne and Bishop Ken_ (Vol. ix., p. 220.).--Had MR. MACKENZIE
WALCOTT referred to a preceding volume of "N. & Q." (Vol. viii., p. 10.),
he would have seen that the "coincidences" between these writers had been
already noticed in your pages by one of the bishop's biographers.

The life of Ken, from the pen of your correspondent, is omitted in MR.
MACKENZIE WALCOTT'S list, and may be equally unknown to that gentleman as
the note before mentioned; but in the _Quarterly Review_ (vol. lxxxix. p.
278.), and in many pages of Mr. Anderdon's valuable volume, MR. MACKENZIE
WALCOTT will find ample mention of the work in question.


_Unfinished Works_ (Vol. ix., p. 148.).--J. M. is informed that Dr. Shirley
Palmer's _Medical Dictionary_ is finished. From the Preface it appears to
have been finished in 1841; but not published (in a complete form) till
1845, with the title _A Pentaglot Dictionary of the Terms employed in
Anatomy_, &c.; London, Longman & Co.; Birmingham, Langbridge.

M. D.

"_The Lounger's Common-place Book_" (Vol. ix., p. 174.).--The editor of
this publication was Jeremiah Whitaker Newman, who died July 27, 1839, aged
eighty years. Some information respecting him and his work, supplied by me,
appeared in the _Gentleman's Magazine_, June, 1846.

J. R. W.


       *       *       *       *       *






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GOETHE'S FAUST (English). Smith's Classical Library.

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       *       *       *       *       * {259}

Notices to Correspondents.

_We are unavoidably compelled to postpone our usual_ NOTES ON BOOKS, &c.

MR. FERGUSON, _of the Exchequer Record Office, Dublin, returns his best
thanks to _J. O._ for his most acceptable present of a book of poems._

_Will_ AN OLD F.S.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., _who writes to us that the "Eyre
drawings are authentic," oblige us with his name? It is obvious that
anonymous testimony can have little weight in such a case, when opposed to
that of_ known and competent authorities.

WORKING MAN _will find the English equivalents for French weights and
measures, and much of the information he desires, in Walich's_ Popular

Bb. (Bradford) _will probably find in the _Journal of a Naturalist_,
White's _Selborne_, and the valuable series of works illustrative of the
_Natural History of England_, published by Van Voorst of Paternoster Row,
the materials of which he stands in need, and references to other

C. R. _will find scattered through our Volumes many modern instances of the
_mode of discovering the drowned_, to which his communication refers._

ABHBA. _Our Correspondent should procure a valuable tract, entitled _"An
Argument for the Greek Origin of the Monogram IHS,"_ published by the
Cambridge Camden Society (Masters), which clearly shows that this symbol is
formed out of the first two and the last letter of the Greek word_ [Greek:

P. H. F. _The communication forwarded on "_Lines attributed to Hudibras_,"
will be found in our_ 1st Volume, p. 210.

F. T. _The _Weekly Pacquet_ and the _Popish Courant_ is one and the same
periodical, the latter being merely an appendix to the former, and printed
continuously, as shown by the running paginal figures; so that when Chief
Justice Scroggs prohibited the publication of the former, he at the same
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C. K. P. (Newport). _From the specimen forwarded, we doubt whether the
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is evident, from its redness and want of gradation of tint throughout, has
been far too long exposed. We have seen the brown spots complained of occur
when the paper has been too long excited before use._

E. Y. (Rochester). _It is probable that the spot of which you complain is
from light reflected from the bottom of the camera, not from the interior
of the lens. If so, the application of a piece of black velvet would remedy
this. As the spot is always is one place, it must depend upon light
reflected from some one spot._

M. DE S. (Tendring). _We trust to be able to send a very satisfactory reply
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Direct the REV. E. DOUGLASS, 18. Holland Street, Brixton, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

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