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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 231, April 1, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 231, April 1, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *



"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 231.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                              Page
  Kennington Common, by the Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson      295
  Life and Death                                         296
  Battle of Trafalgar and Death of Nelson                297
  Heraldic Anomaly                                       298
  FOLK LORE:--Three Maids--Mother Russel's Post--Shrove
  Tuesday Custom                                         299
  Stornello                                              299

  MINOR NOTES:--Perspective--"That"--Corporation
  Enactments--Jacobite Club--Dean Nowell's first Wife--
  "Oxoniana"--An Epigram falsely ascribed to George
  Herbert--Ingulph: Bohn's "Antiquarian Library"         300

  Quotations wanted                                      301
  Sir Edmund Plowden, by S. F. Streeter                  301
  Ancient Clock, and Odevaere's History of it, by
  Octavius Morgan                                        302

  MINOR QUERIES:--Spielberg, when built?--"Ded. Pavli"--
  Mantelpiece: Mantelshelf: Mantleboard: Mantell and
  Brace--Passage in Job--Provincial Glossaries--
  Chadderton of Nuthurst, co. Lancaster--A marvellous
  Combat of Birds--Battle of the Gnats--Sandford of
  Thorpe Salvine, co. York--"Outlines of the History of
  Theology"--"Mawkin"--"Plain Dealer"--Hymn attributed
  to Handel--Degrees in Arts--"Goloshes:"
  "Kutchin-kutchu"--Cornwalls of London--Flasks for
  Wine-bottles--Froxhalmi, Prolectricus, Phytacus,
  Tuleus, Candos, Gracianus, and Tounu or Tonnu          302

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Postmaster at Merton
  College--"Lyra Apostolica"--East Dereham Manor--
  Quakers executed in North America--Inscription in
  Fulham Church--Hero of the "Spanish Lady's Love"--
  "Bothy"--"Children in the Wood"                        304

  Brydone the Tourist, by John Macray                    305
  "The Red Cow"--Cromwell's Carriages, &c.               306
  Fox-hunting, by F. M. Middleton                        307
  Weather Rules, by E. MacCulloch, &c.                   307
  Bingham's Antiquities                                  308
  Ancient Tenure of Lands                                309

  Pictures, &c.--The Double Iodide Solution--Mounting
  Photographs                                            310
  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Books on Bells--Medal in
  Honour of Chevalier St. George--Dean Swift's
  Suspension--"Vanitatem observare"--Ballina Castle,
  Mayo--Dorset--Judicial Rank hereditary--Tolling the
  Bell on leaving Church--Archpriest in the Diocese of
  Exeter--Dogs in Monumental Brasses--The Last of the
  Palæologi--Long Names, &c.                             310

  Notes on Books, &c.                                    313
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                           314
  Notices to Correspondents                              314

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       *       *       *       *       *



       *       *       *       *       *



Before all traces be lost of Kennington Common, so soon to be distinguished
by the euphonious epithet of _Park_, let me put a Query to some of your
antiquarian readers in relation thereunto; and suffer me to make the Query
a peg, whereon to hang sundry and divers little notes. And pray let no one
ridicule the idea that Kennington has its antiquities; albeit that wherever
you look, new buildings, new bricks and mortar, plaster and cement, will
meet your eye; yet, does not the manor figure in _Domesday Book?_ Is it not
dignified by the stately name of _Chenintune?_ Was it not held by Theodoric
of King Edward the Confessor? And did it not, in times gone by, possess a
royal residence?

Here, at a Danish marriage, died Hardi Knute in 1041. Here, Harold, son of
Earl Godwin, who seized the crown after the death of the Confessor, is said
to have placed it on his own head. Here, in 1231, King Henry III. held his
court, and passed a solemn and a stately Christmas. And here, says Matthew
Paris, was held a Parliament in the succeeding year. Hither, says good old
Stow, anno 1376, came the Duke of Lancaster to escape the fury of the
populace of London, on Friday, February 20, the day following that on which
Wicliffe had been brought before the bishops at St. Paul's. The Duke was
dining "with one John of Ipres" when the news arrived, borne by a
breathless messenger, that the people sought his life. When the Duke "leapt
so hastily from his oysters, that he hurt both his legges against the
foarme: wine was offered to his oysters, but hee would not drinke for
haste; he fledde with his fellowe Syr Henry Percy, no man following them;
and entring the Thamis, neuer stinted rowing vntill they came to a house
neere the manor of Kenington (besides Lambeth), where at that time the
Princesse was, with the young Prince, before whom hee made his complaint."
Doubtless, Lambeth Marsh was then what its name imports. Hither also came a
deputation of the chiefest citizens to Richard II., June 21, 1377, "before
the old King was departed," "to accept him for their true and lawfull King
and Gouernor." But the royal residence was destroyed before 1607. "The last
of the long succession of royal tenants who inhabited the ancient site,"
says a writer in the _Illustrated London News_ not long since (I have the
cutting, but neglected to note the date of the paper), "was Charles I.,
when Prince of Wales: his lodging, a house built upon a part of the site of
the old palace, is the only existing vestige, as represented in the
accompanying engraving (in the _Illus. Lond. News_), unless earlier remains
are to be found in the lower parts of the interior." But I believe that the
identity of the site of this ancient mansion (which is situated on the
western side of Lower Kennington Lane), with part of the site of the old
palace, is not quite so certain as the writer appears to intimate. In 1720,
however, the manor gave the title of Earl to William Augustus, Duke of
Cumberland, second son to George II.

Kennington Common acquired an unenviable notoriety from being the place of
execution for malefactors tried in this part of the county. "After the
suppression of the rebellion in Scotland in 1745, many of the insurgents
having been convicted of treason at Southwark, here suffered the sentence
of the law" (Dugdale's _England and Wales_, p. 1015.). "Seventeen officers
of the rebel army were hanged, drawn, and quartered" on this spot.
(Goldsmith's _History_, continued by Morell, 4to., 1807, vol. ii. p. 165.)

    "One of the last executions which took place on Kennington Common was
    that of seven men; three of whom belonged to a notorious gang of
    housebreakers, eighteen in number. These men kept shops, and lived in
    credit: of the three who were executed, one made over a sum of 2000l.
    to a friend, previous to his trial. They confessed that the profits of
    their practices, for the five years past, had been upwards of 1500l. a
    year to each. This was in the year 1765."--From a cutting, sent me by a
    friend, from the _Sunday Times'_ "Answers to Correspondents," March 13,

Here too occurred the Chartist meeting, on the memorable 10th of April,

Now comes my Query. Was there ever a theatre on Kennington Common? In the
_Biographia Dramatica_ of David Erskine Baker (edit. 1782, vol. ii. p.
239.), we are told, that the "satyrical comical allegorical farce," _The
Mock Preacher,_ published in 8vo. in 1739, was "Acted to a crowded audience
at Kennington Common, and many other theatres, with the humours of the
mob." Was it acted in a booth, or in a permanent theatre? The words, "many
other theatres," almost give one the impression that the latter is

Many more notes might be added, but I fear lest this paper should already
be too local to interest general readers. Suffice it to say, that Clayton
Street, close to the Common, takes its name from the Clayton family; one
member of which, Sir Robert Clayton, was sometime Master of the Drapers'
Company, in whose Hall a fine portrait of him is preserved. Bowling Green
Street derives its name from a bowling green which existed not very many
years since. And White Hart Street from a field, which was so called
certainly as early as 1785. On the Common was "a bridge called Merton
Bridge, which formerly was repaired by the Canons of Merton {296} Abbey,
who had lands for that purpose." (Lysons' _Environs_, edit. 4to., 1792,
vol. i. p. 327.)

It is due to your readers to state, that the authorities for the statements
made in the former part of this paper are these: Lysons' _Environs_, ut
supra, vol. i. pp. 325. 327.; Manning and Bray's _Surrey_, Lond., 1809,
fol., vol. iii. pp. 484-488.; Stow, _Annales_, edit. 4to., 1601, pp. 432,
433.; and _Bibl. Top. Brit._, 4to., 1790, vol. ii. "History and Antiq. of
Lambeth," p. 89.



       *       *       *       *       *


I have thrown together a few parallel passages for your pages, which may
prove acceptable.

1. "_To die is better than to live._"

    "I praised the dead which are already dead more than the living which
    are yet alive. Yea, better is he than both they, which hath not yet
    been, who hath not seen the evil work that is done under the
    sun."--_Eccles._ iv. 2, 3.

    "Great travail is created for every man, and a heavy yoke upon the sons
    of Adam, from the day that they go out of their _mother's womb_, till
    the day that they return to the _mother of all things_."--_Ecclus._ xl.
    1.: cf. 2 _Esdr._ vii. 12, 13.

  "Never to have been born, the wise man first
  Would wish; and, next, as soon as born to die."--_Anth.

In the affecting story of Cleobis and Biton, as related by Herodotus, we

    "The _best end of life_ happened to them, and the Deity showed in their
    case that _it is better for a man to die than to live_."

    [Greek: Diedexe te en toutoisi ho Theos hôs ameinon eiê anthrôpôi
    tethanai mallon ê zôein.]--Herod., [Greek: KLEIÔ]. i. 32.

    "As for all other living creatures, there is not one but, by a secret
    instinct of nature, knoweth his owne good and whereto he is made
    able.... Man onely knoweth nothing unlesse hee be taught. He can
    neither speake nor goe, nor eat, otherwise than he is trained to it:
    and, to be short, apt and good at nothing he is naturally, but to pule
    and crie. And hereupon it is that some have been of this opinion, _that
    better it had been, and simply best, for a man never to have been born,
    or else speedily to die_."--Pliny's _Nat. Hist._ by Holland, Intr. to
    b. vii.

  "_Happy the mortal man_, who now at last
  Has through this doleful vale of misery passed;
  Who to his destined stage has carry'd on
  The tedious load, and laid his burden down;
  Whom the cut brass or wounded marble shows
  Victor o'er Life, and all her train of woes.
  _He_, _happier yet_, who, privileged by Fate
  To shorter labour and a lighter weight,
  Received but yesterday the gift of breath,
  Order'd to-morrow to return to death.
  But O! beyond description, _happiest he_
  Who ne'er must roll on life's tumultuous sea;
  Who with bless'd freedom, from the general doom
  Exempt, must never face the teeming womb,
  Nor see the sun, nor sink into the tomb!
  Who breathes must suffer; and who thinks must mourn;
  _And he alone is blessed who ne'er was born_."--Prior's _Solomon_, b.

The proverbs, "God takes those soonest whom He loveth best," and, "Whom the
gods love die young," have been already illustrated in "N. & Q." (Vol.
iii., pp. 302. 377.). "I have learned from religion, that an early death
has often been the reward of piety," said the Emperor Julian on his
death-bed. (See Gibbon, ch. xxiv.)

2. "_Judge none blessed before his death_."[1]

    "Ante mortem ne laudes hominem," saith the son of Sirach, xi. 28.

Of this sentiment St. Chrysostom expresses his admiration, Hom. li. in. S.
Eustath.; and heathen writers afford very close parallels:

    [Greek: Prin d' an teleutêsê epischeein mêde kaleein kô olbion all'
    eutuchea,] says Solon to Croesus (Herod., [Greek: KLEIÔ.] i. 32.): cf.
    Aristot., _Eth. Nic._ ch. x., for a comment on this passage.

Sophocles, in the last few lines of the _Oedipus Tyrannus_, thus draws the
moral of his fearful tragedy:

  "[Greek: Hôste thnêton ont', ekeinên TÊN TELEUTAIAN idein]
  [Greek: HÊMERAN episkopounta, mêden' olbizein, PRIN AN]
  [Greek: TERMA TOU BIOU perasêi, mêden algeinon pathôn.]"

Elmsley, on this passage, gives the following references: Trach. I. Soph.
Tereo, fr. 10.; ibid. Tyndar. fr. 1.; Agam., 937.; Androm., 100.; Troad.,
509.; Heracl., 865.; Dionys. ap. Stob., ciii. p. 560.; Gesn., cv. p. 431.;
Grot. To which I may add the oft-quoted lines,--

                  "Ultima semper
  Expectanda dies, homini dicique beatus
  _Ante obitum_ nemo supremaque funera debet."

In farther illustration of this passage from Ecclus., let us consider the
_Death of the Righteous_.

"Let me die _the death_ of the righteous, and let my _last end_ be like
his," exclaims the truth-compelled and reluctant prophet, Numb. xxiii. 10.

The royal Psalmist, after reflecting on the prosperity of the wicked in
this world, adds:

  "Then thought I to understand this,
  But it was too hard for me,
  Until I went into the sanctuary of God:
  Then understood I the end of these men."--_Ps._ lxxiii.

And again:

  "I have seen the wicked in great power,
  And spreading himself like a green bay-tree;
  Yet he passed away, and, lo, he was not;
  Yea, I sought him, but he could not be found.
    Mark the perfect man,
  And behold the upright,
  For _the end_ of that man is _peace_."--_Ps._ xxxvii. 35-37.: cf. the
      Prayer-Book version.

The prophet Isaiah declares:

  "The righteous man is taken away because of the evil;
  _He shall go in peace_, he shall rest in his bed;
  Even the perfect man, he that walketh in the straight path."--Ch. lvii.,
      Bp. Lowth's Trans.

                      "Sure _the last end_
  Of the good man is peace! How calm his exit!
  Night-dews fall not more gently to the ground,
  Nor weary worn-out winds expire so soft.
  Behold him! in the evening tide of life,
  A life well spent, whose early care it was
  His riper years should not upbraid his green:
  By unperceived degrees he wears away;
  Yet, like the sun, seems larger at his setting!
  High in his faith and hopes, look how he reaches
  After the prize in view! and, like a bird
  That's hamper'd, struggles hard to get away!
  Whilst the glad gates of sight are wide expanded
  To let new glories in, the first fair fruits
  Of the fast-coming harvest."--Blair's _Grave_.

  "How blest the righteous when he dies!
    When sinks the weary soul to rest!
  How mildly beam the closing eyes!
    How gently heaves the expiring breast!

  "So fades the summer cloud away;
    So sinks the gale when storms are o'er;
  So gently shuts the eye of day;
    So dies a wave upon the shore.

  "Life's duty done, as sinks the clay,
    Light from its load the spirit flies;
  While heaven and earth combine to say,
    'How blest the righteous when he dies!'"--_Mrs. Barbauld._

                          "An eve
  Beautiful as the good man's quiet _end_,
  When all of earthly now is passed away,
  And heaven is in his face."--_Love's Trial._

                          "He sets
  As sets the Morning Star, which goes not down
  Behind the darken'd West, nor hides obscured
  Among the tempests of the sky, but melts away
  Into the light of heaven."

                      "As sweetly as a child,
  Whom neither thought disturbs nor care encumbers,
  Tired with long play, at close of summer's day
  Lies down and slumbers."

A holy life is the only preparation to a happy death, says Bishop Taylor.
And we have seen how much importance even heathen minds attached to _peace
at the last_. Truly, as Kettlewell said while expiring, "There is no _life_
like a happy _death_."

"Consider," says that excellent writer, Norris of Bemerton, "that _this_
life is wholly in order to _another_, and that _time_ is that sole
opportunity that God has given us for transacting the great business of
_eternity_: that our work is great, and our day of working short; much of
which also is lost and rendered useless through the cloudiness and darkness
of the morning, and the thick vapours and unwholesome fogs of the evening;
the ignorance and inadvertency of youth, and the disease and infirmities of
old age: that our portion of time is not only _short_ as to its duration,
but also _uncertain_ in the possession: that the loss of it is irreparable
to the loser, and profitable to nobody else: that it shall be severely
accounted for at the great judgment, and lamented in a sad eternity."--"Of
the Care and Improvement of Time," _Miscel._, 6th edit., p. 118.


[Footnote 1: Cf. Sir Thos. Browne's _Christian Morals_, sect. ix.]

       *       *       *       *       *


The following unpublished letter, as a historical document, is worth
preserving in the pages of "N. & Q." It relates to the important national
events of the battle of Trafalgar and death of Nelson. The writer was, at
the time, a signal midshipman in the service, and only about thirteen years
of age. He was a native of Glasgow, and died many years since, much

      H.M.S. Defence,
      At anchor off Cadiz, 28 Oct. 1805.

    My dear Betty [the writer's sister],

    I have now the pleasure of writing you, after a noble victory over the
    French and Spanish fleets, on the 21st October, off Cape Spartel. We
    have taken, burnt and sunk, gone on shore, &c., twenty-one sail of the
    line. The names I will let [you] know after. On the 19[th] our frigates
    made the signal; the Combined Fleets were coming out; so as we were
    stationed between the frigate and our fleet, we repeated ditto to Lord
    Nelson. It being calm we could not make much way, but in the course of
    the night we got a strong breeze, and next morning our frigate made the
    signal for them, being all at sea. So on the afternoon of the 20[th] we
    saw them to leeward; but it was blowing fresh and very hazy, so Lord
    Nelson made our signal for a captain; so our captain went on board, and
    Lord Nelson told Captain Hope he expected he would keep sight of them
    all night. So on the morning of the 21st we observed them to leeward
    about two miles, so we made the signal to Lord Nelson how many the
    bearings, and everything; so brave Nelson bore down immediately; and at
    twelve o'clock Lord Nelson broke the south^d line, and brave Admiral
    Collin[g]wood the north; and at two o'clock we were all in action. We
    were the last station'd ship; so when we went down we had two Frenchmen
    and one Spaniard on us at one time. We engag'd them forty-six minutes,
    when the "Achille" and "Polyphemus" came up to our assistance. The
    Spaniard ran away; we gave him chase, and fought him {298} one hour and
    forty-six minutes, when he struck, and we boarded him, and have him
    safe at anchor, as we have not had a good wind. I am sorry to say poor
    Lord Nelson was wounded the second broadside. He went down and got his
    wounds dress'd, and he was wound'd a second time, and he just lived to
    hear of the victory. The ship we took, her name is the "San Ildifonzo,"
    eighty-two guns, and a very fine ship, new. I don't think we will save
    more than twelve sail of them: but we have sunk, burnt, drove on shore,
    twenty-one sail of the line in all; and if we had not had a gale of
    wind next day we would have taken every one of them. We were riding
    close in shore with two anchors a-head, three cables on each bower, and
    all our sails were shot to pieces, ditto our rudder and stern, and
    mainmast, and everything; but, thank good, I am here safe, though there
    was more shot at my quarters than any other part of the ship. We are
    now at anchor, but expect to go to Gibraltar every day. I hope in good
    you are all in health: I was never better in all my life. My comp^{ts}
    to all friends [&c. ...] and my dear father and mother.

      I am
      Your affectionate brother,
      (Signed) CHARLES REID.

    You must excuse this letter, as half our hands are on board our prize,
    and have had no time. I have been two days writing this; five minutes
    one time and ten minutes another time, and so on. We are just getting
    under way for Gibraltar.

    Now for the French and Spanish ships taken, burnt, run on shore, &c.

      Bucentaure, 80, taken. French.
      Santiss' Trinidada, 130, sunk. Spanish.
      Santa, taken, but afterwards got into Cadiz.
      Rayo, 110, sunk. French.
      Bahama, 74, taken. French.
      Argonauta, 80, sunk and burnt.
      Neptuna, 90, on shore.
      San Ildifonzo, 80, taken by the Defence.
      Algazeras, 74, on shore; Swiftsure, 74, Gib.; Berwick, 74, Gib. All
          English ships taken by the French last war.
      Intrepid, 74, burnt.
      Aigle, 80, on shore.
      Tonguer, 80, on shore [MS. uncertain].
      De ..., 74, Gibraltar [ditto].
      Argonauta, 74, Gib.
      Redoubtable, 74, sunk.
      Achell, 74, burnt.
      Manareo, 74, on shore.
      San Augustino, 74, Gibraltar.

    There is not one English ship lost, but a number lost their masts.
    (Signed) C. R.

The writer had a brother, Andrew Reid, who bore a commission in the ships
of Captain Parry in the first Arctic expedition.

G. N.

       *       *       *       *       *


I beg to call the attention of the heraldic readers of "N. & Q." to a
singular custom of displaying their coats of arms, peculiar to the Knights
of St. John, of the venerable Language of England.

It is well known that the members of this valiant brotherhood, throughout
Europe, bear their paternal shield alone, surmounted, as the badge of their
profession, with the particular device of the order, that is, On a chief,
gules, a cross argent. The English knights, with their paternal coat, bore
also, party-per-pale, that of their mothers, with the chief of the order
over both, a strange heraldic anomaly!

I have somewhere read, but where, for lack of a "note," I cannot recollect,
that in making their proofs of nobility previous to their admission into
the order, unlike the other Languages, the cavalier of England gave in only
the names of their father and mother, but at the same time it was requisite
that these two names should be able to prove a nobility of two hundred
years each.

Perhaps the custom of bearing the paternal shield impaled with the maternal
sprung from these proofs.

In the British Museum, Harl. MSS. 1386., may be seen three examples of this
custom, in a paper entitled, _A Note of certain Knights of Rhodes_, "in
prioratû Sancti Johannis Jerusalem."

1. Sir Thomas Docwra, Grand Prior of England, A.D. 1504, a knight not more
renowned as a valiant man-at-arms, "preux et hardi," than as a skilful
diplomatist; and who, on the death of Fabricio Caretto, A.D. 1520-1, was
thought worthy to be put in competition for the Grand Mastership with the
celebrated Villiers de L'Isle Adam, and, as Vertot tells us, only lost that
dignity by a very trifling majority. His paternal coat--Sable, a cheveron
engrailed argent, between three plates, on each a pale, gules--is impaled
with that of his mother, Alice, daughter of Thomas Green, of Gressingham,
in Yorkshire; Argent, a bugle-horn sable, stringed gules, between three
griffins' heads, erased, of the second; over all, the chief of the order.

2. Sir Lancelot Docwra, near kinsman to Sir Thomas, and son of Robert
Docwra, of Docwra-Hall, in Cumberland. His arms are impaled with--Or, a
cross flory sable--the coat armour of his mother, Jane, daughter of Sir
John Lamplugh, of Lamplugh, in the same county; one "of a race," as Denton
says, "of valorous gentlemen, successively for their worthiness knighted in
the field, all, or most part of them." The chief of the order also
surmounts his shield.

3. The third is the shield of Sir John Randon; Gules, a bend checquy or and
azure, impaling Argent, a frette, and on a chief, gules, three escallops of
the field; over all, the chief of the order. {299}

If any readers of "N. & Q." could furnish me with more examples, I should
be much obliged.



       *       *       *       *       *


_Three Maids._--There is a spot on the road from Winchester to Andover
called the "Three Maids." They are I believe nameless. Tradition says that
they poisoned their father, and were for that crime buried alive up to
their necks. Travellers passing by were ordered not to feed them; but one
compassionate horseman as he rode along threw the core of an apple to one,
on which she subsisted for three days. Wonderful is it to state that three
groups of firs sprung up miraculously from the graves of the three maids.
Thus their memories have been perpetuated. The peasantry of Winchester and
its neighbourhood for the most part accredit the story, and I see no reason
for disbelieving the first part of it myself. Does any one know of a like
punishment being awarded in olden times, when the tender mercies of the law
were cruel and arbitrary?

_Mother Russel's Post._--Whilst I am on the subject of folk lore I may as
well add, that on the road to Kings Sombourn, of educational renown, there
is a spot where four roads meet. Report says that a certain Mother Russel,
who committed suicide, was buried there. A little girl in this village was
afraid to pass the spot at night on account of the ghosts, which are
supposed to haunt it in the hours of darkness. The rightful name of the
place is "Mother Russel's Post."



_Shrove Tuesday Custom_ (Vol. ix., p. 65.).--The Shrove Tuesday custom
mentioned by MR. ELLIOTT as existing at Leicester, and an account of which
he quotes from Hone's _Year-Book_, has been abolished within the last few
years. There is, I believe, still a curious custom on that day at Ludlow,
the origin and meaning of which has never, so far as I am aware, been
discovered and stated.

    "The corporation," I quote from a history of the town, "provide a rope,
    three inches in thickness, and in length thirty-six yards, which is
    given out at one of the windows of the Market House as the clock
    strikes four, when a large body of the inhabitants, divided into two
    parties, commence an arduous struggle, and as soon as either party
    gains the victory by pulling the rope beyond the prescribed limits, the
    pulling ceases, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

    "Without doubt this singular custom is symbolical of some remarkable
    event, and a remnant of that ancient language of visible signs, which,
    says a celebrated writer, 'imperfectly supplies the want of letters to
    perpetuate the remembrance of public or private transactions.' The sign
    in this instance has survived the remembrance of the occurrence it was
    designed to represent, and remains a profound mystery. It has been
    insinuated that the real occasion of this custom is known to the
    corporation, but that, for some reason or other, they are tenacious of
    the secret."

The local historian then mentions an "obscure tradition," but as it is not
in agreement with my own opinion, I omit it.

S. P. Q.

       *       *       *       *       *


Verses, the rhymes of which return after the fashion of those printed in
"N. & Q." (Vol. vi., p. 603., and Vol. vii., p. 174.), are commonly current
among the peasants of Tuscany, and in many instances form the materials of
their popular songs. It is probable that this description of rhyme
originated in the "bel paese la dove 'l si suona." They usually turn on a
combination of _three_ words, as in those quoted in Vol vii. of "N. & Q."
And the name _stornello_, as will be readily perceived, is derived from
_tornare_, to return. I send you a specimen of one of them, which has a
certain degree of historical interest attached to it, from its connexion
with the movement of 1848. It was difficult to walk through the streets of
Florence in those days without hearing it carolled forth by more than one
Florentine Tyrtæus. _Now_, I need hardly say, "we never mention it--its
name is never heard." The patriot-flag was a _tricolor_ of white, red, and
green, a nosegay of which colours a youth has brought to his mistress. She
sings as follows:

  "E gli dirò che il verde, il rosso, il bianco
  Gli stanno ben con una spada al fianco.
  E gli dirò che il bianco, il verde, il rosso,
  Vuol dir che Italia il duro giogo ha scosso.
  E gli dirò che il rosso, il bianco, il verde
  E un terno che si giuoca e non si perde."

Of which the following rough version may serve to give a
sufficiently-accurate idea of the meaning, for the benefit of your "country
gentlemen" readers:

  "And I'll tell him the green, and the red, and the white
  Would look well by his side as a sword-knot so bright.
  And I'll tell him the white, and the green, and the red
  Mean, our country has flung the vile yoke from her head.
  And I'll tell him the red, and the white, and the green
  Is the prize that we play for, a prize that we'll win."

"Un terno che si giuoca" is a phrase which refers to the system of the
public lotteries, {300} established (so much to their shame) by the Italian
governments; and a page of explanation of that system would be needful, to
make any literal translation of it intelligible to an English reader.

In conclusion I may say, in reply to the Query of HENRY H. BREEN, that the
Popes alluded to in the epigram cited by him as above referred to (Vol.
vi., p. 603.), seem evidently to have been Julius II. (Rovere), Leo X.
(Medici), Clement VII. (Medici), and Paul III. (Farnese). And the epigram
in question says no more than the truth, in asserting that they all four
occasioned infinite mischief to France.

T. A. T.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Perspective._--There is a very common error in drawing walls, the plane of
which is parallel to the plane of the picture. An instance of it occurs in
the façade of Sennacherib's Palace, Layard's 2nd book on Nineveh,
frontispiece. All the horizontal lines in the plane of the picture are
drawn parallel. The fact is, that every line above or below the line of the
horizon, though _really_ parallel to it, _apparently_ approaches it, as it
is produced to the right or left. The reason is obvious. One point in the
wall, viz. that on which you let fall a perpendicular from your eye, is
nearest to your eye. The perpendicular height of the wall, as drawn through
this point, must therefore appear greater than as drawn through any other
point more to the right or left. The lines which are really parallel do
therefore apparently converge on some point more or less distant, according
to the distance of the wall from your eye. Every drawing in which this
principle is not considered must, I think, appear out of perspective.



"_That._"--I lately met with the following grammatical puzzle among some
old papers. I forget from what book I copied it many years ago. Perhaps it
may be new to some of your readers.

  "I'll prove the word that I have made my theme,
  Is that that may be _doubled_ without blame,
  And that that that thus _trebled_ I may use,
  And that that that that critics may abuse,
  May be correct.--Farther, the Dons to bother,
  _Five_ thats may closely follow one another--
  For, be it known that we may safely write
  Or say that that that that that man writ was right;
  Nay, e'en that that that that that that has followed
  Through _six_ repeats, the grammar's rule has hallowed,
  And that that that (that _that_ that that began),
  Repeated _seven_ times is right! Deny't who can."


_Corporation Enactments._--In the town books of the Corporation of Youghal,
co. Cork, among other singular enactments of that body are two which will
now be regarded as curiosities. In the years 1680 and 1703, a cook and a
barber received their freedom, on condition that they would respectively
dress the mayor's feasts, and shave the Corporation, gratis!


_Jacobite Club._--The adherents of the Stuarts are now nearly extinct; but
I recollect a few years ago an old gentleman, in London, who was then
upwards of eighty years of age, and who was a stanch Jacobite. I have heard
him say that, "when he was a young man, his father belonged to a society in
Aldersgate Street, called the 'Mourning Bush;' and this Bush was to be
always in mourning until the Stuarts were restored." A member of this
Society having been met in mourning when one of the reigning family had
died, was asked by one of the members how it so happened? His reply was,
that he was "not mourning for the dead, but for the living." The old
gentleman was father of the Mercers' Company, and his brother of the
Stationers' Company: they were bachelors, and citizens of the old school,
hospitable, liberal, and charitable. An instance occurred, that the latter
had a presentation to Christ's Hospital: he was applied to on behalf of a
person who had a large family; but the father not being a freeman, he could
not present it to the son. He immediately bought the freedom for the
father, and gave the son the presentation! This is a rare act.

The brothers have long gone to receive the reward of their goodness, and
lie buried in the cemetery attached to Mercers' Hall, Cheapside.



_Dean Nowell's first Wife._--Churton, in his _Life of Alexander Nowell_,
dean of St. Paul's, p. 368., is at a loss to know the name of the dean's
first wife. He says:

    "Of his first wife nothing farther is known but that he was married,
    either to her or to his second wife, in or before the year 1561. His
    surviving wife, Eliz. Nowell, had been twice married before, and had
    children by both her former husbands. Laurence Ball appears to have
    been her first husband, and Thomas Blount her second."

The pedigree of Bowyer, in the _Visitation of Sussex_, in 1633-4, gives the
name of the dean's first wife:

  "Thomas    =  Jane, da. and heir of  =  Alexander Nowell,
  Bowyer        Robert Merry, son         dean of St. Paul's.
  of London.    of Thomas Merry           2nd husband."
                of Hatfield.

Y. S.

"_Oxoniana._"--To your list of desirable reprints, I beg to add the very
amusing work under this title, and originally published in four small {301}
volumes about fifty years since, and now become scarce. Additions and
corrections would add to the value and interest of a work which preserves
many curious traits of past times and of Oxford Dons.


_An Epigram falsely ascribed to George Herbert._--The recent editors of
George Herbert have printed as his, among his Latin poems, the last two
lines of the 76th epigram of Martial's eighth book:

  "Vero verius ergo quid sit, audi:
  Verum, Gallice, non libenter audis."


_Ingulph: Bohn's "Antiquarian Library."_--Will you kindly allow me to avail
myself of your columns to correct an error in my translation of "Ingulph,"
in Bohn's _Antiquarian Library_? In the note to page 2, the Abbey of
_Bardney,_ in Lincolnshire, is confounded with _Partney,_ which was one of
its cells. The mistake was not observed till, unfortunately, the sheet had
been printed; and it was accidentally omitted among the _errata_. My
authority had, I rather think, been misled by Camden.


31. St. Peter's Square, Hammersmith.

       *       *       *       *       *



  "Quid levius calamo? Pulvis. Quid pulvere? Ventus.
  Quid vento? Meretrix. Quid meretrice? Nihil."

  "What is lighter than a feather?
  Dust. The wind more light than either.
  What is lighter than the wind?
  Airy, fickle, womankind.
  What than womankind is lighter?
  Nothing, nothing--but the writer."

X. Y.

  "The knights are dust,
  Their good swords are rust,
  Their souls are with the saint, we trust."


  "Circles are prized, not that abound
  In greatness, but the exactly round.
  Thus men are honoured, who excel,
  Not in high state, but doing well."

G. C. H.

  "Ill habits gather by unseen degrees,
  As brooks to rivers, rivers run to seas."


  "The clanging trumpet sounds to arms,
  And calls me forth to battle:
  Our banners float 'midst war's alarms,
  The signal cannons rattle."

T. W.

  "Of whose omniscient and all-spreading love,
  Aught to implore were impotence of mind."


  "He no longer shall dwell
    Upon that dirty ball,
  But to heaven shall come,
    And make punch for us all."


  "Sometimes, indeed, an acre's breadth half green,
  And half strewed o'er with rubbish, may be seen.
  When lo! a board, with quadrilateral grace,
  Stands stiff in the phenomenon of space,
  Proposing still the neighbourhood's increase,
  By, 'Ground to let upon a building lease.'"

H. W.

  "Then what remains, but well our parts to chuse,
  And keep good humour whatsoe'er we lose."

F. W. J.

  "Bachelors of every station,
  Listen to my true relation."

Also a ballad describing the visit of a countryman and his wife to Oxford.
Both of Berkshire origin.


"A fellow feeling makes us wond'rous kind."

W. V.

"Sir John once said a good thing."

[Greek: Xanthos].

       *       *       *       *       *


In your publication (Vol. iv., p. 319.), one of your correspondents has
given some interesting particulars relative to Sir Edmund Plowden, New
Albion, &c., and expresses the hope that Americans will hereafter do
justice to the memory of one really deserving their respect. I am desirous
of doing something to vindicate his memory and claims; and to this end
should be greatly obliged if your correspondent would favour me with some
additional facts. To get at these, I will put some of them in the
interrogative form.

When and where was Sir Edmund born?

What is the evidence that he was in America from 1620 to 1630? If so, where
(in what localities), and what capacity?

He says that his sister married a son of Secretary Lake, _then_ in office;
but Lake was turned out several years before 1630, and Lord Baltimore took
his place, I think. Nor was Wentworth made Earl of Strafford till after the
time of the petition.

He is said to have served five years in Ireland: in what capacity?

Who were Viscount Musherry, Lord Monson, Sir Thomas Denby, (Claiborne I
know of), Capt. Balls; besides Sir John Laurence, Sir Bowyer {302}
Worstley, Barrett, &c.? Where did these parties "die, in America," in 1634?

Is the _Latin_ original of the character in existence? There is an omission
in the bounds given in the paper referred to: can I get an extract from the
original entry of limits?

Did the charter ever pass the _Great Seal_?

Would it be valid, if only passed under the private seal?

Can the date of the grant to Danby be ascertained?

Are there any memoranda of Plowden's six years' residence as Governor of
New Albion (I have some of his residence in Virginia)?

Can I get more definite facts about the misconduct of Francis?

The license for alienation, &c. is stated to have been obtained 15th of
Charles, 1646; but the 15th of Charles was 1640. When did he arrive to
attend to his property, and when was he imprisoned in the Fleet?

Who was Beauchamp Plantagenet, the author of the tract on _New Albion_,
published in 1648?

Who were Robert Evelin, Captain Young, and Master Miles, mentioned in that

Can you give me any additional facts, _dates_ especially, of events and
births, deaths, &c.?

I know not into whose hands these Queries will come; but I can say that, if
they are answered, the cause of historic truth and justice will be served;
and I shall have the aid I want towards correcting the misrepresentations
and errors that have been accumulating for years on this point.

S. F. STREETER, Sec. Md. Hist. Soc.

Baltimore Md., March 2, 1854.

P. S.--I should like to inquire, through your publication, if any one can
give me the family of Mr. Claiborne; and any facts in his history not
stated in our works?

       *       *       *       *       *


As a portion of the history of the magnificent clock, which came into my
possession last year, is connected with Holland, I think it probable that I
may, through the means of "N. & Q." and the _Navorscher_, be able to obtain
the information respecting it which I desire. I shall therefore be very
much obliged if you will give this communication a place.

It will be necessary to give a brief description of the clock, so as to
enable parties on the other side of the water to recognise and identify it.
The clock, which is of copper richly gilt, and elaborately engraved, stands
about four feet high, independent of the pedestal. It is of architectural
design, and is divided into three stories, having detached columns at each
corner. The two lower stories contain the dials in the front. The upper
story exhibits the groups of moving silver figures, which strike the
quarters, hours, and move in procession whilst a tune is played by a chime
of bells. The whole is surmounted by a dome, on which is placed a silver
cock, which flaps his wings and crows when the clock strikes. It was made
by Isaac Hahrecht (the artist who made the great clock in the cathedral at
Strasburg), according to the inscription on it, in the year 1589: and is
evidently a model of that celebrated work condensed into a single tower,
since it performs all the feats of that clock. Its reputed history, as
given in a printed account of it, is, that it was made for Pope Sixtus V.,
and was for more than two hundred years in the possession of the Court of
Rome. It afterwards came into the possession of William I., King of the
Netherlands, who authorised Odevaere the antiquary, now deceased, to
investigate everything concerning it, and to give a description of it. What
I should wish to know is, who was this Odevaere, and where is his
description of it to be found? With regard to the history of the clock, I
should wish to know the authority for the statement of its having been made
for the Pope, when and how it came to leave the Vatican; how it became the
property of the King of Holland; when and why it ceased to belong to the
crown of Holland; and under what circumstances it came over to this
country, where it was exhibited in 1850?

If any of the readers of "N. & Q.," or the _Navorscher_, can give me any
information respecting it, I shall feel greatly obliged.


9. Pall Mall.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Spielberg, when built?_--When and by whom was the prison of Spielberg, in
Moravia, built? Has it been used exclusively as a state prison?

M. J. S.

_"Ded. Pavli."_--Can you give me any information respecting a tract

    "Ded. Pavli Antiquarius, Theologia, et contra Perciocas Thologo
    Rvmætatis nostræ scholas Philippi Melanchthonis declamativncvla. Et
    quædam alia lectv dignissima."


16. Great St. Helens.

_Mantelpiece: Mantelshelf: Mantelboard: Mantell and Brace._--What is the
origin of this word, and whence came the thing? It must originally have had
a use and a meaning, before it became a haven of rest for hyacinth-glasses,
china monsters, Bohemian glass vases, and a thousand nick-nacks and odds
and ends of drawing-room {303} furniture, as it _now_ is with us. It had,
no doubt, some real work to do before it became what we are pleased to term



_Passage in Job._--The REV. MOSES MARGOLIOUTH will much oblige the writer,
and some of his friends, by giving in "N. & Q." a literal translation of
Job xix. 26. The authorised version is:

    "And though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh I
    shall see God."

The marginal reference gives:

    "After I shall awake, though this body be destroyed, yet out of my
    flesh shall I see God."



_Provincial Glossaries._--In an article in the 79th volume of the
_Edinburgh Review_, on the provincialisms of the European languages, the
writer says:

    "There are some very copious early English vocabularies lying in
    manuscript in the Cathedral libraries of Durham, Winchester, and
    Canterbury; in the British Museum, King's College, and other
    depositories, deserving collection."

Will any of your learned readers inform me of the dates of the MSS.
referred to, and by whom the collections were made? I would recommend them
to the notice of the Camden Society.


_Chadderton of Nuthurst, co. Lancaster._--What crest did this family bear,
and when did the family become extinct?

J. B.

_A marvellous Combat of Birds._--In the _Phoenix Britannicus_, by J.
Morgan, London, 4to., p. 250.[2], there is an account of--

    "The wonderful battle of stares (or starlings), fought at Cork on
    Saturday 12th, and Monday 14th, October, 1621."

And this narration relates, that on the Sunday, October 13, the intervening
day, the starlings absented themselves to fight at Woolwich, in Kent!!

Without vouching for the fact, or calling in question the prowess of this
"Irish Brigade," I leave it to be confirmed or refuted by any reader of the
"N. & Q."--_comme bon lui semblera_.

[Greek: S].

P. S.--I would, _à propos_ to the above subject, thank any reader of your
miscellany to point out to me a work by a M. Hanhart (I believe is the
name), which I think is upon _Les Moeurs des Fourmis indigènes_, in which
are given some particulars of regular conflicts between ants. I am not
aware of the exact title of the book, but I have seen an account of it in
some Edinburgh periodical, if I am not mistaken.

[Footnote 2: At p. 252. of the same article is an account of the battle of
the gnats, noticed by MR. E. W. JACOB.--ED.]

_Battle of the Gnats._--In reading Stowe's _Chronicles of England_, I hit
upon the following passage recorded in the reign of King Richard II., p.

    "A fighting among gnats at the King's Maner of _Shine_, where they were
    so thicke gathered, that the ayre was darkned with them: they fought
    and made a great battaile. Two partes of them being slayne, fel downe
    to the grounde; the thirde parte hauing got the victorie, flew away, no
    man knew whither. The number of the deade was such that might be swepte
    uppe with besomes, and bushels filled weyth them."

This is a curious incident, and I have never heard of anything of the sort
taking place in modern times. Would some of your readers who study natural
history be good enough to give me another instance? I am at present
inclined to think that the account is one of the many myths which Stow
doubtless believed.


_Sandford of Thorpe Salvine, Co. York._--Wanted, the arms and crest of the
Sandfords of Thorpe Salvine. Also any particulars of the family, from the
commencement of their residence at High Ashes, in the parish of
Ashton-under-Lyne, co. Lancashire, until the termination of that residence.
Were they of the same family with Sandford, Baron Mount Sandford?

J. B.

"_Outlines of the History of Theology_," 8vo., London, 1844, said to be
privately printed. Any information as to the author, &c. will oblige


Woburn Abbey.

_"Mawkin."_--Is this word, which signifies here "a scarecrow," merely a
Norfolk pronunciation of _mocking_? i. e. an imitation of a man--composed
of coat, hat, &c. hung upon a cross bar of wood?

J. L. S.

_"Plain Dealer."_--Can any one of your readers inform me where I can see a
copy of Aaron Hill's _Plain Dealer_, as originally published, and before it
was collected and printed in two volumes?


_Hymn attributed to Handel._--Can any of your readers give information
concerning a hymn which commences thus:

  "We'll proclaim the wond'rous story
    Of the mercies we receive,
  From the day-spring's dawn in glory,
    To the fading hour of eve."

It has been attributed to Handel. On what authority?


Olney, Bucks.


_Degrees in Arts._--In the diploma of Master of Arts which I obtained from
the University of Edinburgh, occur the words:

    "Cunctaque consecutum esse Privilegia, Immunitates, Jura, quæ hic aut
    usquam alibi Bonarum Artium Magistris concedi solent."

What are (or rather _were_, for I suppose they do not now exist) these
_privilegia_, _immunitates_, and _jura_?


_"Goloshes"--"Kutchin-kutchu."_--What is the origin of _goloshes_, as the
name of water-proof shoes? It is, of course, of American derivation. But
has it any connexion with the tribe of North American Indians, the
Goloshes? They are the immediate neighbours of those tribes of Esquimaux
who form water-proof boats and dresses from the entrails of the seal; and a
confusion of names may easily have occurred.

The expedition of Sir John Richardson to the Arctic shores, which suggests
the above Query, also gives rise to another. Did any of your readers ever
amuse themselves, as children, by performing the dance known as _kutchin
kutchu_-ing; which consists in jumping about with the legs bent in a
sitting posture? If so, have they not been struck with a philological
mania, on seeing his picture of the Kutchin-Kutcha Indians dancing; in
which the principal performer is actually figuring in the midst of the wild
circle in the way described. Is not the nursery term something more than a
mere coincidence?


_Cornwalls of London._--Perhaps some reader of "N. & Q." may be able to
inform me what were the arms, crest, and motto of the Cornwalls of London?
One of the family, John Cornwall, was a Director of the Bank of England in

F. C.


_Flasks for Wine-bottles._--When, and under what circumstances, did the
common use of flasks in this country, for holding wine, go out? Hogarth
died in 1764, and in none of his pictures, I believe, is the wine-bottle,
in its present shape, to be seen. On the other hand, I have never found any
person able to remember the use of flasks, or indeed any other than the
wine-bottle in its present shape. The change must have been rapidly
effected between 1760 and 1790. Of course I am aware that certain wines,
Greek, I believe, are still imported in flasks.


_Froxhalmi, Prolectricus, Phytacus, Tuleus, Candos, Gracianus, and Tounu or
Tonnu._--Can any of your correspondents suggest the meaning of these words,
or either them? They are not in the recent Paris edition of Ducange.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Postmaster at Merton College._--Can you tell me whether there is any known
derivation for the term "Postmaster," as applied to part of the members on
the Foundation of Merton College, Oxford? Also, What connexion there is
between this word and the Latin for it, which is seen on the college plate,
in the words "In usum Portionistarum?"

J. G. T.

Ch. Ch.

    [It seems probable that these postmasters formerly occupied one of the
    postern gates of the college. Hence we find Anthony à Wood, in his
    Life, August 1, 1635, says, "A fine of 30_li._ was set by the warden
    and fellowes of Merton College. When his father renewed his lease of
    the old stone-house, wherein his son A. Wood was borne (called
    antiently Portionists' or Postmasters' Hall), for forty yeares," &c.
    Again, April 13, 1664: "A meeting of the warden and fellowes of Merton
    College, where the renewing of the leases belonging to the family,
    concerning the housing (Portionists' Hall and its appurtenances)
    against Merton College, was by them proposed." Fuller, in his _Church
    Hist._, book III. cent. xiii. sect. 8., has given the origin of
    postmasters. "There is," says he, "a by-foundation in Merton College, a
    kind of college in the college, and this tradition goeth of their
    original:--Anciently there was, over against Merton College, a small
    unendowed hall, whose scholars had so run in arrears, that their
    opposite neighbours, out of charity, took them into their college (then
    but nine in number) to wait on the fellows. But since, they are freed
    from any attendance, and endowed with plentiful maintenance.... Bishop
    Jewel was a postmaster, before removed hence to be fellow of Corpus
    Christi." Consult also Oxoniana, vol. ii. pp. 15-22. The _Portionistæ_,
    or Postmasters, did not reside in the college till the latter end of
    the reign of Queen Elizabeth, but in a hall opposite to it, which had
    been provided for the use of the college by Peter de Habinton, or
    Habendon, the first warden. It afterwards became the property of the
    father of Anthony à Wood, and beneath its roof that distinguished
    antiquary was born, December 17, 1632. The second brother of Anthony
    became one of the postmasters of Merton College.]

_"Lyra Apostolica."_--Can you inform me who were the writers in the _Lyra
Apostolica_ who assumed the letters [alpha], [beta], [gamma], [delta],
[epsilon], [zeta]?


    [We have heard the initials attributed to the following
    writers:--[alpha], Bowden; [beta], R. H. Froude; [gamma], John Keble;
    [delta], J. H. Newman; [epsilon], Isaac Williams; [zeta], Wilberforce.]

_East Dereham Manor._--Is it true that "the manor of East Dereham of the
Queen" was wrested from the See of Ely by Queen Elizabeth's celebrated
threat of "unfrocking?"

S. Z. Z. S.

    [The memorable unique epistle from the maiden Majesty of England only
    deprived Dr. Cox, at that time, of his town-house and fair gardens,
    called Ely {305} Place, on Holborn Hill, reserving to himself and his
    successors free access, through the gate-house, of walking in the
    garden, and leave to gather twenty bushels of roses yearly therein!
    During the life of Dr. Cox an attempt was made by Elizabeth on some of
    the best manors belonging to the See of Ely; but it was not till that
    of his successor, Dr. Martin Heton, that Dereham Grange, with other
    manors, were alienated to the Crown. See Dugdale's _Monasticon_, vol.
    i. p. 466.]

_Quakers executed in North America._--Were there not several Quakers hanged
in North America on account of their religious opinions? And can you inform
me where an account of the circumstances attending this persecution (if
there ever was such an one) can be found?


    [Three Quakers were executed at Boston in 1659, viz. William Robinson,
    merchant of London; Marmaduke Stevenson of Yorkshire; and Mary Dyar. An
    account of the cruelties inflicted upon them is given in Sewell's
    _History of the Quakers_, edit. 1725, pp. 219-227.; also in a pamphlet
    entitled _A Declaration of the sad and great Persecution and Martyrdom
    of the People of God, called Quakers, in New England, for the
    Worshipping of God_: London, printed for Robert Wilson, in
    Martin's-le-Grand, 1661. It will be found among the King's Pamphlets in
    the British Museum.]

_Inscription in Fulham Church._--I should esteem it a favour if any one of
your numerous correspondents would furnish me with a correct copy of the
inscription to the memory of the son of Colonel Wm. Carlos, who so nobly
defended Charles II. at the battle of Worcester.


    ["Here lieth William Carlos of Stafford, who departed this life, in the
    twenty-fifth yeare of his age, the 19th day of May, 1668.

      'Tis not bare names that noble fathers give
      To worthy sonnes: though dead, in them they live;
      For in his progeny, 'tis Heaven's decree,
      Man only can on earth immortall bee;
      But Heaven gives soules w^h grace doth sometymes bend
      Early to God their rice and Soveraigne end.
      Thus, whilst that earth, concern'd, did hope to see
      Thy noble father living still in thee,
      Careless of earth, to heaven thou didst aspire,
      And we on earth, Carlos in thee desire."

    Arms: an oak on a fesse, three regal crowns.]

_Hero of the "Spanish Lady's Love."_--Was Sir John Bolle, of Thorpe Hall,
near Louth, the hero of the _Spanish Lady's Love_? The Bolle pedigree is in
Illingworth's _History of Scampton_.

S. Z. Z. S.

    [According to Ormerod's _Cheshire_, vol. iii. p. 333., Sir Urian Legh,
    of Adlington, disputes the fact of being the hero of that romantic
    affair. "Sir Urian Legh was knighted by the Earl of Essex at the siege
    of Cadiz, and during that expedition is traditionally said to have been
    engaged in an adventure which gave rise to the well-known ballad of
    'The Spanish Lady's Love.' A fine original portrait of Sir Urian, in a
    Spanish dress, is preserved at Bramall, which has been copied for the
    family at Adlington." So that between these two chivalrous knights it
    is difficult to decide which is the famed gallant. From the care
    exercised by Mr. Illingworth in collecting all the anecdotes and
    notices of the Bolle family, the presumptive evidence seems to favour
    his hero.]

_"Bothy."_--In the March Number of _Blackwood's Magazine_, 1854, the word
"bothy" is frequently used in an article called "News from the Farm." Will
some one of your numerous correspondents give me a little account of "the
bothy system?"


    [A bothy is a cottage or hut where labouring servants are lodged, and
    is sometimes built of wood, as we read in the _Jacobite Relics_, ii.

      "Fare thee well, my native cot,
        _Bothy_ of the birken tree!
      Sair the heart, and hard the lot,
        O' the lad that parts wi' thee."

    Bothies, or detached houses, in which the unmarried farm-servants sleep
    and prepare their victuals, and of which there is a considerable number
    in Perthshire, though convenient and beneficial in some respects, have
    not, certainly, contributed to the formation of virtuous habits. These
    servants are often migratory, removing frequently at the expiration of
    the year, according as humour or caprice may dictate, and, like birds
    of passage, taking their departure to other lands.]

_"Children in the Wood."_--Was Weyland Wood in Norfolk the scene of the
"Children in the Wood?"

S. Z. Z. S.

    [The following account of this tradition is given in _Beauties of
    England and Wales_, vol. xi. p. 269., Norfolk:--"Near the town of
    Watton is Weyland Wood, vulgarly called _Wailing_ Wood, from a
    tradition that two infants were basely murdered in it by their uncle;
    and which furnished the story of a beautifully pathetic and well-known
    ancient ballad, entitled "The Children in the Wood, or the Norfolk
    Gentleman's Last Will and Testament," preserved in Percy's _Reliques_.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ix., pp. 138. 255.)

In reply to H. R. NÉE F., I beg to state that the writer of the remarks
alluded to, on Brydone's _Tour in Sicily and Malta_, was the Rev. Robert
Finch, M.A., formerly of Balliol College in this University, and who died
about the year 1830. When I met with Mr. Finch's honest and somewhat blunt
expression of opinion, recorded in a {306} copy which once belonged to him,
of Brydone's _Tour_, I was quite ignorant of the hostile criticisms that
had appeared at different times on that once popular work; but knowing Mr.
Finch's high character for scholarship, and a knowledge of Italy, I thought
his remark worth sending to a publication intended, like "N. & Q.," as "A
Medium of Intercommunication for Literary Men, Antiquaries," &c., who are
well able to examine a Note of the kind; and either to accept it as valid,
or to reject it as untenable. On referring now to some standard works, in
order to discover the opinions of learned men respecting Mr. Brydone's
_Tour_, the first work I looked into was the _Biographie Universelle_ (in
eighty-three volumes, and not yet completed, Paris, 1811-1853), in vol.
lix. of which the following observations occur, under the name of BRYDONE

    "On lui a reproché d'avoir sacrifié la vérité au plaisir de raconter
    des choses piquantes. On l'avait accusé aussi d'avoir, par son
    indiscretion, suscité à l'Abbé Recupero, Chanoine de Catane, une
    persécution de la part de son évêque. Cette indiscretion n'eut pas
    heureusement un résultat aussi facheux; mais ses erreurs sur plusieurs
    points sont évidentes; il donne 4000 toises de hauteur à l'Etna qui
    n'en a que 1662; il commet d'autres fautes qui ont été relevées par les
    voyageurs venus après lui. Bartels (_Briefe über Kalabrien und
    Sicilien_, 2te Auflage, 3 Bd., 8vo., Götting. 1791-92) est même
    persuadé que le voyage au sommet de l'Etna, chef-d'oeuvre de narration,
    n'est qu'un roman, et cet avis est partagé par d'autres."

Göthe says (_Werke_, Band xxviii. pp. 189, 190.: Stuttgart, 1830) that when
he inquired at Catania respecting the best method of ascending Mount Etna,
Chevalier Gioeni, the professor of natural history there, gave him the
following advice and information:

    "Als wir den Ritter um die Mittel befragten wie man sich benehmen müsse
    um den Aetna zu besteigen, wollte er von einer Wagniss nach dem Gipfel,
    besonders in der gegenwärtigen Jahreszeit gar nichts hören. Ueberhaupt,
    sagte er, nachdem er uns um Verzeihung gebeten, die hier ankommenden
    Fremden sehen die Sache für allzuleicht an; wir andern Nachbarn des
    Berges sind schon zufrieden, wenn wir ein paarmal in unserm Leben die
    beste Gelegenheit abgepasst und den Gipfel erreicht haben. Brydone, der
    zuerst durch seine Beschreibung die Lust nach diesem Feuergipfel
    entzündet, ist gar nicht hinauf gekommen."

From these quotations it is evident, that Mr. Finch was not singular in the
belief he entertained; and certainly the scepticism of men so eminent as
Professor Gioeni, Dr. Barthels, and Messrs. Eyriès and Parisot (the French
writers whose names are attached to the Memoir in the _Biog. Univ._), must
be grounded on reasons deserving of attention. An ordinary reader of
Brydone would accept the account of his ascent with implicit confidence;
but when veteran professors, scientific men, and experienced travellers and
scholars refuse to believe that he reached the summit of Etna, the most
probable mode of accounting for their incredulity is, perhaps to suppose,
that in their opinion he had mistaken some other part of the mountain for
the real summit. Not having met with any detail of their reasons for
disbelief, I am only able to state their bare assertion. In my opinion, the
beautifully glowing and poetical description of the magic scene beheld by
Brydone from the mountain--a description, the perusal of which, in youth,
remains for ever after imprinted on the memory, like a passage from Addison
or Gibbon, could only have been written by an actual spectator.



       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 87.)

I have known "The Red Cow," at the top of Granham Hill, near Marlborough,
for fifty years, but do not recollect ever to have heard of any particular
origin for the sign.

The old carriages at Manton were built about a century and a half ago,
perhaps not so much, for one of the Baskerville family, on the occasion of
his being sheriff of the county to which he belonged, probably Wilts or
Hereford. There are two of them: one a square coach, and the other a very
high phaeton. The Baskerville arms--Ar. a chevron gu. between three hurts,
impaling, quarterly, one and four, or, a cross moline az, two and three,
gu. a chevron ar. between three mallets or--are painted on the panels. As I
have no ordinary of arms at hand, I cannot ascribe this impalement; but
will trust to some more learned herald among your correspondents to
determine who the lady was? When her name, perhaps Moleyns or Molyneaux, is
ascertained, reference to a Baskerville pedigree would probably determine
the husband, and the precise date of the carriages, which could not have
belonged to the Protector.

O. Cromwell's arms were, Sable, a lion rampant ar. There were also two
families styled Williams _alias_ Cromwell: one of which bore, Gu. three
cheverons ar. between as many lions rampant or; the other, Sa. a lion
rampant ar., the same as Oliver's coat, and probably derived by him from
the Williams family.

I have wandered from "The Red Cow," but I will not omit to hazard an idea
for the consideration of GLYWYSYDD. Marlborough has changed its armorial
bearings several times; but the present coat, containing a white bull, was
granted by Harvey, Clarenceux in A.D. 1565. Cromwell was attached to
Cowbridge and its cow by family {307} descent; so he was to Marlborough by
congeniality of sentiment with the burghers. Query, Whether, in affection
to the latter, he granted to the town a new coat, some such as the
following: Gules, a bull passant argent, armed or, impaling a cow passant
regardant gules: and so might originate "The Red Cow" upon Granham Hill.
History is entirely silent upon this point; but if such a combination were
ever given to Marlborough, it is quite certain that Harvey's grant was
resumed at the Restoration. I have quite forgotten to remark, that there is
a suburb at Marlborough called Cowbridge--a fact which seems to strengthen
my hypothesis.

A cow may be borne by some name, but at present I only recollect that of
Vach: to which is accorded, Ar. three cows' heads erased sable. Bulls and
oxen occur frequently; as in Fitz-Geffrey, Cowley, Bull, Oxley, Oxcliffe,
Oxendon, &c. Bulls' heads belong to the families of Bullock, Hillesdon,
Fleming, Barbor, Frend, Gornay, Bullman, and Williams, a baronet, &c.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., p. 172.)

As no answer to the Query on "Fox-hunting" has yet appeared in "N. & Q.," I
venture to send the following extracts from an article in the _Quarterly
Review_, March 1832, on "The Management of Hounds and Horses," by Nimrod.
It appears that "the first public notice of fox-hunting" occurs in the
reign of Richard II., who gave permission to the Abbot of Peterborough to
hunt the fox:

    "In Twice's _Treatise on the Craft of Hunting_, Reynard is thus

      'And for to sette young hunterys in the way
        To venery, I cast me fyrst to go;
      Of which four bestes be, that is to say,
        The Hare, the Herte, the Wulf, and the wild Boar:
      But there ben other bestes, five of the chase,
        The Buck the first, the seconde is the Do;
      The _Fox_ the third, which hath hard grace,
        The ferthe the Martyn, and the last the Roe.'

    "It is indeed quite apparent, that until at most a hundred and fifty
    years ago, the fox was considered as an inferior animal of the chase;
    the stag, buck, and even hare, ranking before him. Previously to that
    period, he was generally taken in nets or hays, set on the outside of
    his earth: when he _was_ hunted, it was among rocks and crags, or woods
    inaccessible to horseman: such a scene in short, or nearly so, as we
    have drawn to the life in Dandie Dinmont's primitive _chasse_ in _Guy
    Mannering_. It is difficult to determine when the first regularly
    appointed pack of hounds appeared among us. Dan Chaucer gives the thing
    in _embryo_:

      'Aha, the fox! and after him they ran;
      And eke with staves many another man.
      Ran Coll our dogge, and Talbot, and Gerlond,
      And Malkin with her distaff in her hond.
      Ran cow and calf, and eke the very hogges,
      So fered were for the barking of the dogges,
      And shouting of the men and women eke,
      They ronnen so, hem thought her hertes brake.'

    "At the next stage, no doubt, neighbouring farmers kept one or two
    hounds each; and, on stated days, met for the purpose of destroying a
    fox that had been doing damage to their poultry yards. By and bye, a
    few couple of strong hounds seem to have been kept by the small country
    esquires or yeomen who could afford the expense, and they joined packs.
    Such were called _trencher_ hounds, implying that they ran loose about
    the house, and were not confined in kennel."

These are but short extracts, but they comprise the whole of what is said
on the first origin of fox-hunting. The rest of the article treats of the
quality and breed of horses and hounds.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 50. 535.)

_St. Vincent's Day, Jan. 22._--In Brand's _Popular Antiquities_, Bohn's
edition, vol. i. p. 38., is to be found the following notice of this day:

    "Mr. Douce's manuscript notes say: 'Vincenti festo si Sol radiet, memor
    esto;' thus Englished by Abraham Fleming:

      'Remember on St Vincent's Day,
      If that the Sun his beams display.'

    "[Dr. Foster is at a loss to account for the origin of this command,

It is probable that the concluding part of the precept has been lost; but a
curious old manuscript, which fell into my hands some years since, seems to
supply the deficiency. The manuscript in question is a sort of household
book, kept by a family of small landed proprietors in the island of
Guernsey between the years 1505 and 1569. It contains memoranda, copies of
wills, settlements of accounts, recipes, scraps of songs and parts of hymns
and prayers; some Romanist, some Anglican, some of the Reformed Church in
France. Among the scraps of poetry I find the following rhymes on St.
Vincent's Day; the first three lines of which are evidently a translation
of the Latin verse above quoted, the last containing the to be remembered:

  "Prens garde au jour St. Vincent,
  Car sy ce jour tu vois et sent
  Que le soleil soiet cler et biau,
  Nous érons du vin plus que d'eau."

These lines follow immediately after the rhymed prognostications to be
drawn from the state of the weather on St. Paul's Day, Jan. 28. As these
{308} verses differ from those quoted in Brand, from an _Almanack_ printed
at Basle in 1672, I here give the Guernsey copy:

  "Je te donneray ugne doctryne
  Qui te vauldra d'or ugne myne;
  Et sordement sur moy te fonde,
  Car je dure autant que ce monde:
  Et sy te veulx byen advertir
  Et que je ne veulx point mentir.
  De mortaylle guerre ou chertey,
  [A line appears to be lost here]
  Si le jour St. Paul le convers
  Se trouve byaucob descouvert,
  L'on aura pour celle sayson
  Du bled et du foyn à foyson;
  Et sy se jour fait vant sur terre,
  Ce nous synyfye guerre;
  S'yl pleut ou nège sans fallir
  Le chier tans nous doet asalir;
  Si de nyelle faict, brunes ou brouillars,
  Selon le dyt de nos vyellars,
  Mortalitey nous est ouverte."

Another line appears to be omitted here; then follow immediately the lines
on St. Vincent's Day.



The following is copied from an old manuscript collection of curiosities in
my possession. I should be glad to know the author's name, and that of the
book[3] from which it is taken:--

    "_Observations on Remarkable Days, to know how the whole Year will
    succeed in Weather, Plenty, &c._

    "If it be lowering or wet on Childermas or Innocence Day, it threatens
    scarcity and mortality among the weaker sort of young people; but if
    the day be very fair, it promiseth plenty.

    "If New Year's Day, in the morning, open with dusky red clouds, it
    denotes strifes and debates among great ones, and many robberies to
    happen that year.

    "It is remarkable on Shrove Tuesday, that as the sun shine little or
    much on that day, or as other weather happens, so shall every day
    participate more or less of such weather till the end of Lent.

    "If the sun shines clear on Palm Sunday, or Easter Day, or either of
    them, there will be great store of fair weather, plenty of corn, and
    other fruits of the earth.

    "If it rains on Ascension Day, though never so little, it foretells a
    scarcity to ensue that year, and sickness particularly among cattle;
    but if it be fair and pleasant, then to the contrary, and pleasant
    weather mostly till Michaelmas.

    "If it happen to rain on Whitsunday, much thunder and lightning will
    follow, blasts, mildews, &c. But if it be fair, great plenty of corn.

    "If Midsummer Day be never so little rainy, the hazel and walnut will
    be scarce, corn smitten in many places; but apples, pear and plums will
    not be hurt.

    "If on St. Swithin's Day it proves fair, a temperate winter will
    follow; but if rainy, stormy, or windy, then the contrary.

    "If St. Bartholomew Day be misty, the morning beginning with a hoar
    frost, then cold weather will soon ensue, and a sharp winter attended
    with many biting frosts.

    "If Michaelmas Day be fair, the sun will shine much in the winter;
    though the wind at north-east will frequently reign long, and be very
    sharp, and nipping."


[Footnote 3: _The Shepherd's Kalendar_, by Thomas Passenger. See "N. & Q."
Vol. viii., p. 50., where many of his observations are quoted.--ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 197.)

I beg to send to your correspondent MR. RICHARD BINGHAM the following
replies to his seven Queries.

1. If there be any use in verifying so slight a verbal reference to
Panormitan, one of whose huge folios, Venet. 1473, I have examined in vain,
perhaps the object might be attained by the assistance of such a book as
Thomassin's _Vetus et Nova Ecclesiæ Disciplina_, in the chapter "De
Episcopis Titularibus," tom. i.

2. Bishop Bale's description of the monks of Bangor is to be found in his
_Scriptor. Britann. Catal._ Compare Richard Broughton's _True Memorial of
the ancient State of Great Britain_, pp. 39. 40, ed. an. 1650.

3. I should think in his _Colloquies_, and most probably in the
_Peregrinatio Religionis ergo_. Erasmus, in his _Modus orandi Deum_, also
observes that "quidam in concionibus implorant opem Virginis," and condemns
the "vestigia veteris Paganismi." (sigg. _u_ and _s_ 2, Basil, 1551.)

4. Respecting the existence of what is called the Epistle of St. Athanasius
to Eustathius, Cardinal Bona was right and Bingham in error. Vide St.
Athan., _Opp._ ii. 560, ed. Bened.

5. Bingham was seriously astray in consequence of his misunderstanding
Bona, who does not by any means refer to Pamelius, but to the anonymous
author of the _Antiquitatum Liturgicarum Syntagma_, who is believed to have
been Florentius Vanderhaer. If Pamelius is to be introduced at all, the
reference in Bingham should be, not to "tom. iii. p. 307.," but to i.
328-30. I would remark too that, in the heading of one of the extracts
subjoined, "ex Vita Ambrosiana," should be "ex Ritu Ambrosiano."

6. Joannes Semeca did not flourish A.D. 1250, but died in 1243. Suicer
wrongly refers to "Dist. IV. cap. iv.," and Harding, more inaccurately, to
"Dist. IV. _can._ iv." (Bp. Jewel's _Works_, {309} ed. Jelf, i. 419.) Cap.
xxviii. is the one intended, and there is no corruption whatsoever.

7. Joseph Bingham was only closely following Barrow. The first edition of
De la Bigne's _Bibliotheca Patrum_, tom. i., also has the evidently
senseless reading, "ista quidam _ego_," instead of "_nego_," about which
see Comber's _Roman Forgeries_, ii. 187. For MSS. of the Epistles of Pope
Symmachus, your correspondent may consult the Carmelite Lud. Jacob à S.
Carolo's _Bibliotheca Pontifica_, p. 216.; or, much more successfully, De
Montfaucon's _Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum Manuscriptorum_, Paris, 1739.

R. G.

Should MR. RICHARD BINGHAM not yet have verified the reference to Erasmus,
I beg to furnish him with the means of doing so but I am tolerably certain
that I recollect having met with another place in which this admirable
writer more fully censures those preachers of his Church who, at the
commencement of their sermons, called upon the Virgin Mary for assistance,
in a manner somewhat similar to that in which heathen poets used to invoke
the Muses. The following passage, however, may be quite sufficient for your
correspondent's purpose:

    "Sed si est fons gratiæ, quid opus est illi dicere Ora pro nobis? Non
    est probabile eam consuetudinem à gravibus viris inductam, sed ab
    inepto quopiam, qui, quòd didicerat apud Poëtas propositioni succedere
    invocationem, pro Musa supposuit Mariam."--Des. Erasmi Roterod.
    _Apologia adversus Rhapsodias calumniosarum querimoniarum Alberti Pii,
    quondam Carporum Principis_, p. 168. Basil. in off. Froben. 1531.

R. G.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 173.)

About the close of the tenth century (and perhaps much earlier) there began
to arise two distinct modes of holding or possessing land: the one a
_feud_, _i.e._ a stipendiary estate; the other _allodium_, the phrase
applied to that species of property which had become vested by allotment in
the conquerors of the country. The stipendiary held of a superior; the
allodialist of no one, but enjoyed his land as free and independent
property. The interest of the stipendiary did not originally extend beyond
his own life, but in course of time it acquired an hereditary character
which led to the practice of subinfeudation; for the stipendiary or
feudatory, considering himself as substantially the owner, began to imitate
the example of his lord by carving out portions of the feud to be held of
himself by some other person, on the terms and conditions similar to those
of the original grant. Here B. must be looked upon as only vassal to A.,
his superior or lord; and although feuds did not originally extend beyond
the life of the first vassal, yet in process of time they were extended to
his heirs, so that when the feudatory died, his male descendants were
admitted to the succession, and in default of them, then such of his male
collateral kindred as were of the blood of the first feudatory, but no
others; therefore, in default of these, it would consequently revert to A.,
who had a reversionary interest in the feud capable of taking effect as
soon as B.'s interest should determine. If the subinfeudatory lord
alienated, it would operate as a forfeiture to the person in immediate

W. T. T.

As a very brief reply to the queries of J. B., permit me to make the
following observations.

The Queen is lady paramount of all the lands in England; every estate in
land being holden, immediately or mediately, of the crown. This doctrine
was settled shortly after the Norman Conquest, and is still an axiom of

Until the statute _Quia Emptores_, 18 Edw. I., a tenant in fee simple might
grant lands to be holden by the grantee and his heirs _of the grantor and
his heirs_, subject to feudal services and to escheat; and by such
subinfeudation manors were created.

The above-named statute forbade the future subinfeudation of lands, and
consequently hindered the further creation of manors. Since the statute a
seller of the fee can but transfer his tenure. There are instances in which
one manor is holden of another, both having been created before the

In the instance mentioned by J. B. it is presumed that the hamlet escheated
to the heirs of A. on failure of the heirs of B. (See the statute _De Donis
Conditionalibus_, 13 Edw. I.)

It is not, and never was, necessary, or even possible, that the lord of a
manor should be the owner of all the lands therein; on the contrary, if he
were, there would be no manor; for a manor cannot subsist without a court
baron, and there can be no such court unless there are _freehold_ tenants
(at least two in number) holding of the lord. The land retained by the lord
consists of his own demesne and the wastes, which last comprise the
highways and commons. If the lord should alienate all the lands, but retain
his lordship, the latter becomes a _seignory in gross_.

Such was and is the tenure of lands in England, so far as concerns the
queries of J. B. He will find the subject lucidly explained at great length
in the second volume of Blackstone's _Commentaries_.


Lincoln's Inn.

I think that J. B. will find in Blackstone, or any elementary book on the
law of real property, all the information which he requires. The case which
he puts was, I suppose, the common case {310} of subinfeudation before the
statute of _Quia Emptores_, 18 Edw. I. A., the feoffor, reserved to himself
no estate or reversion in the land, but the seignory only, with the rent
and services, by virtue of which he might again become entitled to the land
by escheat, as for want of heirs of the feoffee, or by forfeiture, as for
felony. If the feoffment were in tail, the land would then, as now, revert
on failure of issue, unless the entail had been previously barred. The
right of alienation was gradually acquired; the above statute of _Quia
Emptores_ was the most important enactment in that behalf. With this
exception, and the right to devise and to bar entails, the lords of manors
have the same interest in the land held by freeholders of the manor that
they had in times of subinfeudation. (Blackstone's _Comm._, vol. ii. ch.
287., may be carefully consulted.)

H. P.

Lincoln's Inn.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Spots on Collodion Pictures, &c._--The principal difficulty I experience
in the collodion process is occasioned by the appearance of numberless very
minute spots or points over the whole extent of the picture. These
occurring on the whites of my pictures (positives) give them a rough,
rubbed, appearance and want of _density_, which I should feel obliged if
any of your correspondents can teach me how to overcome.

One of your photographic querists inquires the remedy for his calotype
negatives darkening all over before the minor details are brought out. I
had for a long time been troubled in the same way, but by diminishing the
aperture of my three-inch lens to half an inch, and reducing the strength
of my sensitising solution to that given by DR. DIAMOND, and, in addition,
by developing with gallic acid alone until the picture became tolerably
distinct in all its parts, and then applying the gallo-nitrate, I have
quite succeeded in obtaining first-rate negatives. It is well to prepare
only a small quantity of aceto-nitrate at once, as the acetic acid is of a
sufficiently volatile nature to escape from the solution, which is a not
unfrequent cause of the general darkening of the picture. It would be well
to substitute a more fixed acid for the acetic if this be practicable, as
it is in the collodion process, where tartaric is recommended.


Devizes, Wilts.

_The Double Iodide Solution._--The great difference in the quantity of
iodide of potassium ordered by different persons, to dissolve a given
weight of iodide of silver in a given volume of water, has induced me to
make some experiments on the subject. I find that using pure nitrate of
silver, and perfectly pure iodide of potassium (part of a parcel for which
Mr. Arnold, who manufactures iodine on a large scale in this island, got a
medal at the Exhibition of 1851), the quantity of iodide of potassium
required varies, _cæteris paribus_, to the extent of 15 per cent., with the
quantity of water added to the iodide of silver before adding the iodide of
potassium; the minimum required being when the two salts act on each other
in as dry a form as possible. Take the precipitate of iodide of silver, got
by decomposing 100 grains of nitrate of silver with 97.66 grains of iodide
of potassium; drain off the last water completely, so that the precipitate
occupies not more than five or six drachms by measure; throw on it 640
grains of iodide of potassium; rapid solution ensues; when perfectly clear,
add water up to four ounces: the solution remains unclouded. But if two or
three ounces of water had been first poured on the iodide of silver, 680
grains, as I stated in my former paper, would have been required, and
perhaps 734. The _rationale_ is, I suppose, that in a concentrated form the
salts act on each other with greater energy, and a smaller quantity of the
solvent is required than if it is diluted. Many analogous cases occur in
chemistry. I hope this little experiment will be useful to others, as a
saving of 15 per cent. on the iodide of potassium is gained. As a large
body of precipitated iodide of silver can be more completely drained than a
smaller quantity, in practice it will be found that small precipitates
require a few grains more than I have stated: thus, throw on the
precipitate of iodide of silver (got from 150 grains of nitrate), drained
dry, 960 grains of iodide of potassium; solution rapidly ensues, which,
being made up to six ounces, the whole remains perfectly clear; whereas the
iodide of silver thrown down from 50 grains of nitrate, similarly treated
with 320 grains of iodide of potassium, and made up to two ounces (the
proportional quantities), will probably require 10 or 15 grains more of
iodide to effect perfect solution, the reason being that it contained a
greater quantity of water _pro ratâ_ than the first.

The following table, showing the exact quantities of iodide of potassium
required to decompose 50, 100, and 150 grains of nitrate of silver, the
resulting weight of iodide of silver, and the weight of iodide of potassium
to make a clear solution up to 2, 4, and 6 ounces, will often be found

                        _Grs._       _Grs._      _Grs._
  Nitrate of silver       50          100         150
  Iodide of potassium     48.83        97.66      146.49
  Iodide of silver        68.82       137.64      206.46
  Iodide of potassium    320          640         960
  Water up to            2 oz.        4 oz.       6 oz.



_Mounting Photographs_ (Vol. ix., p. 282.).--J. L. S. will find the
"Indian-rubber glue," which is sold in tin cases, the simplest and cleanest
substance for mounting positives; it also possesses the advantage of being
free from the attacks of insects.


       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Books on Bells_ (Vol. ix., p. 240.).--Add to MR. ELLACOMBE'S curious list
of books on bells the following:

    "Duo Vota consultiva, unum de Campanis, alterum de Coemeteriis. In
    quibus de utriusque antiquitate, {311} consecratione, usu et effectibus
    plenè agitur, pluraque scitu dignissima ad propositi casus, aliorumque
    in praxi, hac de re occurrentium decisionem, non injucunde adducuntur.
    Auctore D. Augustino Barbosa, Protonotario Apostolico, Eminentissimorum
    DD. Cardinalium Sacræ Congregationis Indicis Consultore, Abbate de
    Mentrestido, ac insignis Ecclesiæ Vimarensis Thesaurario majore."
    [4to., no place nor date.]

I have here given the full title of a pamphlet of 112 pages, exclusive of
title, which I purchased about twenty years since of Rodd, the honourable
and intelligent bookseller of Great Newport Street. It came from the
library of Professor J. F. Vandevelde of Louvaine. Some former possessor
has written before the title, "Quamvis tantum libellus tamen rarissimus,"
and it is, perhaps, the only copy in this country. It is not in the
Bodleian catalogue, nor was it in Mr. Douce's library.

P. B.

_Medal in Honour of Chevalier St. George_ (Vol. ix., p. 105).--A. S.
inquires about a medal supposed to have been struck in honour of Prince
James (Chevalier St. George); but his account of it is so vague, that I am
unable to answer his question. If he will describe the medal, or state the
grounds upon which he supposes such a medal to have existed, I will
endeavour to solve his doubts.


_Dean Swift's Suspension_ (Vol. ix., p. 244).--I am surprised that ABHBA
should express a belief that the circumstances of Swift's college
punishment have not been noticed by _any of his biographers_, when every
syllable of his communication is detailed (with original documentary
proofs) in Dr. Barrett's _Early Life of Swift_, and is in substance
repeated in Sir Walter Scott's _Life_, prefixed to Swift's works.


"_Vanitatem observare_" (Vol. ix., p. 247).--I am sorry to have given your
correspondent F. C. H. a wrong reference, and I am not _quite_ sure about
the right one; but I think it is to a Latin translation of the Council of
Laodicea, A.D. 366, c. 36.

R. H. G.

_Ballina Castle, Mayo_ (Vol. viii., p. 411.).--I have no idea to what place
O. L. R. G. can allude as Ballina Castle; there is no place, ancient or
modern, about that town, that has that name; and the only place with the
title of castle in the neighborhood, is a gentleman's modern residence of
no great pretensions either as to size or beauty. He perhaps alludes to
Belleck Abbey, which is a fine building; but, notwithstanding its title, is
of still more modern date than the so-called castle. I am not aware of any
recent historical or descriptive work on the county generally. Cæsar Otway,
Maxwell, and the _Saxon in Ireland_, have confined their descriptions to
the "Wild West;" and the crowd of tourists appear to follow in their track,
leaving the far finer central and eastern districts untouched. The
first-named tourist appears to have projected another work on the county,
but never published it.


_Dorset_ (Vol. ix., p. 247.).--NARES gives various spellings, as _douset_,
_dowset_, _doulcet_, but in all equally derived from _dulcet_, "sweet;" and
Halliwell has "doucet drinkes;" so that the great Manchester philosopher
had probably been indulging in a too copious libation of some sweet wine,
which he styles "foolish Dorset."

F. R. R.

Dorchester beer had acquired a very great name, and was sent about England.
Out of the shire it was called "Dorset Beer," or "Dorset." That town has
lost its fame for brewing beer.

G. R. L.

_Judicial Rank hereditary_ (Vol. viii., p. 384.).--Such a list as your
correspondent gives is not easily paralleled, it is true, in the judicial
annals of England or Ireland; but in Scotland he might have found cases in
considerable number to equal or surpass those which he mentions: for
instance, in the family of Dundas of Arniston, respecting which I find the
following note in the _Quarterly Review_, vol. lvii. p. 462.:

    "The series is so remarkable, that we subjoin the details:--Sir James
    Dundas, judge of the Court of Session, 1662; Robert Dundas, son of Sir
    James, judge of the Court of Session from 1689 to 1727; Robert Dundas,
    son of the last, successively Solicitor-General and Lord Advocate, M.P.
    for the county of Edinburgh, judge of the Court of Session 1737, Lord
    President 1748, died in 1753 (father of Henry, Viscount Melville);
    Robert Dundas, son of the last, successively Solicitor-General and Lord
    Advocate, and member for the county, Lord President from 1760 to 1787;
    Robert Dundas, son of the last, successively Solicitor-General and Lord
    Advocate, Lord Chief Baron from 1801 to 1819; all these judges, except
    the Chief Baron, had been known in Scotland by the title of Lord
    Arniston. They were, we need hardly add, all men of talents, but the
    two Lords President Arniston were of superior eminence in legal and
    constitutional learning."

The Hope family, and some other Scottish ones, present as numerous a
display of legal dignitaries as the above; but the hereditary succession
from father to son is perhaps not equalled, certainly not excelled, in any
age or country. In fact, let the opponents of hereditary honours say what
they will, there is no description of talent except the poetical that has
not frequently remained in the same family for several generations


_Tolling the Bell on leaving Church_ (Vol. ix., p. 125.).--In reply to
J. H. M.'s Query, I beg to state that the chief reason for tolling the bell
while the congregation is leaving church, is to {312} inform the
parishioners who have not been able to attend in the morning, divine
service will be celebrated in the afternoon. In scattered villages, or
where a single clergyman had to perform the duties of more than one church,
this was formerly quite requisite. At a neighbouring village of Tytherly,
the custom is still observed, though no longer necessary.

W. S.

There is little doubt that priests in olden times were fond of hot dinners,
and the bell at the conclusion of the service must have been intended as a
warning to their cooks (and many others) to make ready the repast. This is
merely a supposition; but I shall cherish the idea in the want of a better
explanation. The custom has been, until very lately, observed in our little
country church. There are other customs which are still kept up, namely,
that of tolling the church bell at eight o'clock on Sunday morning, and
again at nine, as well as that of ringing a small bell when the clergyman
enters the reading-desk.

E. W. J.

Crawley, Winchester.

I believe that the custom of tolling the bell when the congregation is
leaving the church, is to notify that there will be another service in the
day. This is certainly the reason in this parish (in Leicestershire); for
after the second service the bell is not tolled, nor if, on any account,
there is no afternoon service.

S. S. S.

When I was Lecturer of St. Andrew's, Enfield, the bells rang out a short
peculiar peal immediately after Sunday Morning Prayer. I always thought it
was probably designed to give notice to approaching funeral processions
that the church service was over, as in the country burials--usually there
always on Sundays--immediately follow the celebration of morning service.


I beg to inform your correspondent J. H. M. that this is often done at
Bray, near Maidenhead.


The custom observed at Olney Church after the morning service, I have
heard, is to apprize the congregation of a vesper service to follow.


Olney, Bucks.

_Archpriest in the Diocese of Exeter_ (Vol. ix., p. 185.).--Besides the
archpriest of Haccombe, there were others in the same diocese; but, to
quote the words of Dr. Oliver, in his _Monasticon, Dioc. Exon._, p. 287.,

    "He would claim no peculiar exemption from the jurisdiction of his
    ordinary, nor of his archdeacon; he was precisely on the same footing
    as the superiors of the archpresbyteries at Penkivell, Beerferris, and
    Whitchurch, which were instituted in this diocese in the early part of
    the fourteenth century. The foundation deed of the last was the model
    in founding that of Haccombe."

In the same work copies of the foundation deeds of the archipresbytery of
Haccombe and Beer are printed.

One would suppose that wherever there was a collegiate body of clergymen
established for the purposes of the daily and nightly offices of the
church, as chantry priests, that one of them would be considered the
superior, or archipresbyter.

Godolphin, in _Rep. Can._, 56., says that by the canon law, he that is
archipresbyter is also called _dean_. Query, Would he then be other than
"Primus inter pares?"

Prince, in his _Worthies_, calls the Rector of Haccombe "a kind of
chorepiscopus;" and in a note refers to Dr. Field _Of the Church_, lib. v.
c. 37.

With regard to the Vicar of Bibury (quoted by MR. SANSOM, "N. & Q.," Vol.
ix., p. 185.), he founded his exemption from spiritual jurisdiction, I
believe, upon his holding a _Peculiar_, and not as an archpriest.


Clyst St. George.

_Dogs in Monumental Brasses_ (Vol. ix., p. 126.).--I have always understood
(but I cannot say on any authority) that the dogs at the feet of monumental
effigies of knights were symbolical of _fidelity_. That signification would
certainly be very appropriate in monuments of _crusaders_, where, I
believe, they are generally found. And I would suggest to MR. ALFORD, that
the idea might not have been confined to fidelity in keeping the vow of the
Cross, but might have been extended to other religious vows: in which case
the ladies undoubtedly might sometimes claim the canine appendage to their
effigies. The lion might perhaps symbolise _courage_, in which ladies are
not commonly supposed to excel.

M. H. R.

_The Last of the Palæologi_ (Vol. v., pp. 173. 280. 357.).--The following
scrap of information may be useful to L. L. L. and others, if too long a
time has not gone by since the subject was under discussion. In _The List
of the Army raised under the Command of his Excellency Robert Earle of
Essex_, &c.: London, printed for John Partridge, 1642, of which I have seen
a manuscript copy, the name of Theo. Palioligus occurs as Lieutenant in
"The Lord Saint John's Regiment."


Bottesford Moors, Kirton in Lindsey.

_Long Names_ (Vol. viii., pp. 539. 651.).--Allow me to add the following
polysyllabic names to those supplied by your
correspondents:--_Llanvairpwllgwyngyll_, a living in the diocese of Bangor,
became vacant in March, 1850, by the death of its incumbent, the Rev.
Richard Prichard, æt. {313} ninety-three. The labour of writing the name of
his benefice does not seem to have shortened his days.

The following are the names of two _employés_ in the finance department at
Madrid:--_Don Epifanio Mirurzururdundua y Zengotita_; _Don Juan Nepomuceno
de Burionagonatotorecagogeazcoecha_.

There was, until 1851, a major in the British army named _Teyoninhokarawen_
(one single name).

G. L. S.

_Elizabeth Seymour_ (Vol. ix., p. 174.).--According to Collins,--

    "Sir E. Seymour, first baronet, married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir
    Arthur Champeirion, of Dartington, co. Devon, by whom he had, besides
    other issue, a daughter Elizabeth, who married George Cary, of
    Cockington, co. Devon. Sir Edward Seymour, third baronet, married Anne,
    daughter of Sir William Portman, and left, besides sons, a daughter,
    also named Elizabeth, who married Sir Joseph Tredenham, of Tregony in
    Cornwall, Knight."

These two ladies, whose similarity of name probably caused the confusion,
must have lived at least half a century apart.

A. B.

       *       *       *       *       *



Those who share the well-grounded opinion of Mr. Petit, that we cannot
fully enter into the character of English architecture unless we give some
attention also to French, German, and Italian, will gladly turn to the very
profusely and handsomely-illustrated volume which he has just issued, under
the modest title of _Architectural Studies in France_, by the Rev. J. L.
Petit, M.A., F.S.A., _with Illustrations from Drawings_ by the Author and
P. H. Delamotte. It is of course impossible, within the limits of our brief
notice, to enter into any examination of Mr. Petit's views upon the subject
of Gothic architecture, the principles of which he believes to have been
more completely developed at an early period in England than anywhere else;
and we must therefore content ourselves with directing attention to the
book itself, which will in no small degree supply to the architectural
student desirous of studying French buildings, the opportunity of doing so;
and that too under the guidance of one well qualified to direct his steps.
Mr. Petit has long been known to the antiquarian world as one of our
greatest authorities on the subject of Gothic architecture; and his various
papers, illustrated by his own bold yet effective sketches in the
_Archæological Journal_, may have prepared some of our readers for a volume
of great importance; yet we think even they will be surprised at the
interest and beauty of the present book. Mr. Petit, who has had on this
occasion the assistance of Mr. Delamotte as a draughtsman, expresses his
hope that at some future time he may avail himself of that gentleman's
skill as a photographer.

There is, perhaps, no man of letters, no man of science, of whom the world
possesses so unsatisfactory an account as Jerome Cardan. The author of
_Palissy the Potter_ has therefore done good service, and executed a task
worthy of himself, by _The life of Girolamo Cardano, of Milan, Physician_.
In two small readable volumes, rich in all the characteristics of his own
peculiar mode of treatment, Mr. Morley has given us not only a clear view
of the life and character of Cardan, based on a diligent and careful
examination of his voluminous writings--for Cardan reckoned that he had
published one hundred and thirty-one books, and left in MS. nearly as
many--but also a striking picture of the age in which he lived; and the
work, which is one of great interest to the general reader, is made still
more valuable to the literary antiquary by the accuracy with which Mr.
Morley quotes his authorities.

Some interesting manuscripts were sold by Messrs. Puttick and Simpson on
Wednesday, the 22nd ultimo, including original letters by Blake, Penn,
Monk, Nelson, and other of our most renowned admirals; and of Charles I.
and Charles II., Oliver and Richard Cromwell, Desborough; and numerous
autographs of Commonwealth celebrities. The chief lot was a letter from
Cromwell to Pastor Cotton, in New England, written shortly after the battle
of Worcester, in which he alludes to the difficulties he has experienced in
treating with some of the Scotch party. Mr. Carlyle had not seen the
original, but used the copy among the Arundel MSS. It was knocked down to
Mr. Stevens, the American agent, for 36l. A printed broadsheet of the Peace
of Breda sold for 3l. 7s. A letter of Richard Cromwell brought 4l. An
autograph of Queen Bess brought 2l.; and one of Edward VI. brought 2l. 8s.
Autographs of Mary are less common: one in this collection realised 3l. 7s.
One of Nelson's letters to Lady Hamilton brought 2l. 2s. Altogether, the
prices realised were good.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Lives of The Queens of England_, by Agnes Strickland,
Vol. III. This new volume of the cheaper edition of Miss Strickland's
popular regal biographies comprises the Lives of Jane Seymour, Anne of
Cleves, Katherine Howard, Katherine Parr, and Mary.--_The Works of the Rt.
Hon. Joseph Addison, with Notes by Bishop Hurd_, Vol. II., is the new
volume of Bohn's _British Classics_, and comprises Addison's contributions
to the _Tatler_ and _Spectator_.--In the same publisher's _Standard
Library_, we have the third volume of his edition of Southey's _Works and
Correspondence of Cowper_, which embraces his Letters between the years
1783 and 1788.--_Cyclopædia Bibliographica_, Part XVIII., which extends
from _Shepherd (Rev. E. J.)_ to _Surtees (Rev. Scott F.)_.--_Whitaker's
Educational Register_, 1854. The work, which has undergone some
modifications, is now confined altogether to Educational Statistics, of
which it is a most valuable compendium.--_Remains of Pagan Saxondom_, by
J. Y. Ackerman, Parts VIII. and IX. The contents of these numbers
are:--Fragments from a Tumulus at Caenby, Lincolnshire; Fibula from
Ingarsby, Leicestershire; Glass Drinking-vessels from Cemeteries in Kent;
Fibulæ from Rugby, Warwickshire. The great peculiarity of this Series is,
that the objects are drawn of the size of the originals; thus affording
great facilities for comparing them with remains of similar character.

       *       *       *       *       *



The Volume of the LONDON POLYGLOTT which contains the Prophets.
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THE LADY'S POETICAL MAGAZINE, or Beauties of British Poets. 4 Vols. London,

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he died in 1658. At his death the titles of Annandale, Annand, and Murray
of Lochmaben, became extinct, and those of Stormont and Scoon devolved on
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B. H. A. _For the derivation of_ Czar, _see our_ last Volume, pp. 150. 226.

T. H. _On the Lord Mayor being a Privy Councillor, see our_ Fourth Volume

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  "When Greeks joined Greeks then was the tug of war"

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X. Y. Z. _Brother-german is a brother by the father's or mother's side, in
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MOORE & CO., 14. Little Tower Street. London. Sold retail at 27. COVENTRY
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PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas each.--D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square
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undersigned members of the musical profession, having fully examined the
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Rockel, Sims Reeves, J. Templeton, F. Weber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright," &c.

D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Lists and Designs Gratis.

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       *       *       *       *       *


THE EXHIBITION OF PHOTOGRAPHS, by the most eminent English and Continental
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                                            £  s. d.
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Cameras, Lenses, and all the necessary Photographic Apparatus and
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Gratuitous Instruction is given to Purchasers of Sets of Apparatus.


       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS.--Second-hand Camera for Sale, with Ross's 2½ inch lens,
capable of taking pictures 8½ by 6½. Two double Shutters for paper, and one
for Collodion, adjusting Front, &c. Price, 7l. 10s. For further particulars
apply to MR. DIXEY, King's Road, Brighton.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
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Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

Post, 1s. 2d.

       *       *       *       *       *

COLLODION PORTRAITS AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest ease and certainty
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uniformity of action over a lengthened period, combined with the most
faithful rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a most valuable agent
in the hands of the photographer.

Albumenized paper, for printing from glass or paper negatives, giving a
minuteness of detail unattained by any other method, 5s. per Quire.

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality.

Instruction in the Processes.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative
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*** Catalogues sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE SIGHT preserved by the Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit every variety
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BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
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Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
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Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.-MESSRS. A. MARION & CO. beg to inform the Artists and Amateurs
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Positive and Negative (not prepared), Simple Salted, and Salted Albumenized
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       *       *       *       *       *

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and her Colonies, Italy, the Islands of the Mediterranean, Spain, Gaul,
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Corrections made to printed original.

page 296, "a few parallel passages": 'paralled' in original.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 231, April 1, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc." ***

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