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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 233, April 15, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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       *       *       *       *       *


{341} NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 233.]
SATURDAY, APRIL 15. 1854.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page
  Palindrome Verses                                            343
  Children crying at their Birth                               343
  Unpublished Letter of Lord Nelson, by E. G. Bass             344

  FOLK LORE:--Devonshire Superstitions--Quacks--Burning a
  Tooth with Salt                                              344
  Parallel Passages, by H. L. Temple, Cuthbert Bede, &c.       345

  MINOR NOTES:--Vallancey's Green Book--Herrings--Byron and
  Rochefoucauld--"Abscond"--Garlands, Broadsheets, &c.--
  Life-belts--Turkey and Russia--"Verbatim et literatim"       347

  QUERIES:--
  Prints of London before the Great Fire                       348
  Battle of Otterburn, by J. S. Warden                         348
  De Beauvoir Pedigree, by T. R. Potter                        349

  MINOR QUERIES:--Dog-whippers: Frankincense--Atchievement in
  Yorkshire: Lipyeatt Family--"Waestart"--Rebellion of 1715--
  "Athenian Sport"--Gutta Percha made soluble--Arms of Anthony
  Kitchen--Griesbach Arms--Postage System of the Romans--Three
  Crowns and Sugar-loaf--Helen MacGregor--Francis Grose the
  Antiquary--"King of Kings:" Bishop Andrews' Sermons--Scroope
  Family--Harrison the Regicide: Lowle--"Chair" or "Char"--
  Aches--Leeming Hall--Caricature; a Canterbury Tale--Perpetual
  Curates not represented in Convocation--Dr. Whichcote and
  Dorothy Jordan--Moral Philosophy--Shelley's "Prometheus
  Unbound"--Turkish Language                                   349

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Illustrated Bible of 1527--
  Heraldic Query--Richard de Sancto Victorie--St. Blase        352

  REPLIES:--
  Leicester as Ranger of Snowdon                               353
  Inman Family, by T. Hughes                                   353
  Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault      354
  Hardman's Account of Waterloo                                355
  Churches in "Domesday Book," by Wm. Dobson                   355
  Memoirs of Grammont, by W. H. Lammin                         356
  Celtic and Latin Languages                                   356

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Box Sawdust for Collodion--
  Proportions of Chlorides and Silver--Photographic Copies of
  Rembrandt--Coloured Photographs                              358

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Dr. Eleazar Duncon--Christian
  Names--Abigail--"Begging the question"--Russian Emperors--
  Garble--Electric Telegraph--Butler's "Lives of the Saints"--
  Anticipatory Use of the Cross--The Marquis of Granby, &c.    359

  MISCELLANEOUS:--
  Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                 362
  Notices to Correspondents                                    362

       *       *       *       *       *


Just Published, with ten coloured Engravings, price 5s.,

NOTES ON AQUATIC MICROSCOPIC SUBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY, selected from the
"Microscopic Cabinet." By ANDREW PRITCHARD, M.R.I.

Also, in 8vo., pp. 720. plates 24, price 21s., or coloured, 36s.,

A HISTORY OF INFUSORIAL ANIMALCULES, Living and Fossil, containing
Descriptions of every species, British and Foreign, the methods of
procuring and viewing them, &c., illustrated by numerous Engravings. By
ANDREW PRITCHARD, M.R.I.

    "There is no work extant in which so much valuable information
    concerning Infusoria (Animalcules) can be found, and every Microscopist
    should add it to his library."--_Silliman's Journal._

London: WHITTAKER & CO., Ave Maria Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, 18 mo., _1s._

SERMONS FOR WAYFARERS. Dedicated by permission to the Lord Bishop of Ripon,
with a prefatory Epistle to the Rev. Dr. Hook. By the REV. A. GATTY.

London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


ARCHÆOLOGY OF THE STREETS OF DUBLIN, and CELTIC RECORDS OF IRELAND, ETC.

For the Series of Papers illustrating the above, see Vols. I. II. and III.
of the "Irish Quarterly Review." Price, bound, 11s. each.

London: SIMPKIN & CO.
Dublin: W. B. KELLY.

       *       *       *       *       *


CATALOGUE OF VERY RARE BOOKS.--EMANUEL MAI, Bookseller of Berlin, has just
published a Catalogue of PRECIOUS MANUSCRIPTS, INCUNABULA, and very rare
Books on Theology, Philosophy, Antiquities, Philology, Education, the Fine
Arts, Bibliography, Numismatics, Engravings, and General Literature. The
Catalogue contains 17,708 Numbers, or 80,000 Volumes, and is systematically
arranged with Bibliographical Notices. The Catalogue will be forwarded,
Post paid, to those who will forward 2s. in Postage Stamps to MR. FRANZ
THIMM, Foreign Bookseller, 3. Brook Street, New Bond Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Post Free.

THE CATTLE UPON A THOUSAND HILLS. A List of GREAT OLD ENGLISH BOOKS for
Sale, by

JOHN TUPLING, 320. Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


CHEAP BOOKS.--C. HILL'S CATALOGUE, No. 13., just published, including a
long Article on NAPOLEON. Sent Free on Application.

14. KING STREET, HOLBORN.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, No. CLXXXVIII., is published THIS DAY.

              CONTENTS:
     I. LAURENCE STERNE.
    II. SACRED GEOGRAPHY.
   III. LORD HOLLAND'S MEMOIRS OF THE WHIG PARTY.
    IV. THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
     V. THE CRIMINAL LAW DIGEST.
    VI. WAAGEN'S TREASURES OF ART IN BRITAIN.
   VII. THE TURKS AND THE GREEKS.
  VIII. THE NEW REFORM BILL.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, No. VI., 2s. 6d., published Quarterly.

RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW (New Series); consisting of Criticisms upon, Analyses
of, and Extracts from, Curious, Useful, Valuable, and Scarce Old Books.

Vol. I., 8vo., pp. 436. cloth 10s. 6d., is also ready.

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Price One Shilling,

THE NATIONAL MISCELLANY FOR APRIL contains:

  1. The New Civil Service Scheme.
  2. The Flaw in the Column.
  3. The Labour Parliament.
  4. An Avalanche on the Great St. Bernard.
  5. Mediæval London.
  6. Saturday Night.
  7. The Weekly Periodicals.
  8. Sea Life and Sea Literature.
  9. Notices.
  10. Poetry.

At the OFFICE, No. 1. Exeter Street, Strand, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


Forwarded Free on receipt of 30 Postage Stamps.

ARCHITECTURAL BOTANY; setting forth the Geometrical Distribution of
Foliage, Flowers, Fruit. &c., with 20 Original Designs for decorating
Cornices, Spandrils, Crosses, Corbels, Capitals, Bosses, Panels, &c. By
W. P. GRIFFITH, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.

*** Part II. nearly ready.

London: 9. St. John's Square.

       *       *       *       *       *


On April 30th will be published, in fcp. 8vo., boards, price 1s. 6d.

ADVENTURES OF A BASHFUL IRISHMAN. By W. F. DEACON, Author of "Annette,"
"Vincent Eden," &c.

    *** The late Judge Talfourd, in his Memoir of Mr. Deacon, calls this
    humorous Tale "A pleasant history of an Irish Gil Blas, containing
    satirical notices of prominent Irish Patriots, and a description of an
    Irish Trial, in which there is a vivid and extremely amusing caricature
    of O'Connell."

London: DAVID BRYCE, 48. Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *


{342}

ARCHÆOLOGICAL WORKS BY JOHN YONGE AKERMAN,

FELLOW AND SECRETARY OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF LONDON.

AN ARCHÆOLOGICAL INDEX to Remains of Antiquity of the Celtic,
Romano-British, and Anglo-Saxon Periods. 1 vol. 8vo., price 15s. cloth,
illustrated by numerous Engravings, comprising upwards of five hundred
objects.

A NUMISMATIC MANUAL. 1 vol. 8vo., price One Guinea.

    *** The Plates which illustrate this Volume are upon a novel plan, and
    will, at a glance, convey more information regarding the types of
    Greek, Roman, and English Coins, than can be obtained by many hours'
    careful reading. Instead of a fac-simile Engraving being given of that
    which is already an enigma to the tyro, the most striking and
    characteristic features of the Coin are dissected and placed by
    themselves, so that the eye soon becomes familiar with them.

A DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE of Rare and Unedited Roman Coins, from the Earliest
Period to the taking of Rome under Constantine Paleologos. 2 vols. 8vo.,
numerous Plates, 30s.

COINS OF THE ROMANS relating to Britain, 1 vol. 8vo. Second Edition, with
an entirely new set of Plates, price 10s. 6d.

ANCIENT COINS of CITIES and Princes, Geographically arranged and described,
containing the Coins of Hispania, Gallia, and Britannia, with Plates of
several hundred examples. 1 vol. 8vo., price 18s.

NEW TESTAMENT, Numismatic Illustrations of the Narrative Portions of
the.--Fine paper, numerous Woodcuts from the original Coins in various
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AN INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY of ANCIENT and MODERN COINS. In 1 vol. fcp.
8vo., with numerous Wood Engravings from the original Coins, price 6s. 6d.
cloth.

CONTENTS:--Section 1. Origin of Coinage--Greek Regal Coins. 2. Greek Civic
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5. Roman Imperial Coins. 6. Roman British Coins. 7. Ancient British
Coinage. 8. Anglo-Saxon Coinage. 9. English Coinage from the Conquest. 10.
Scotch Coinage. 11. Coinage of Ireland. 12. Anglo-Gallic Coins. 13.
Continental Money in the Middle Ages. 14. Various Representatives of
Coinage. 15. Forgeries in Ancient and Modern Times. 16. Table of Prices of
English Coins realised at Public Sales.

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to 1672 inclusive. Described from the Originals in the Collection of the
British Museum, &c. 15s.

REMAINS OF PAGAN SAXONDOM, principally from Tumuli in England. Publishing
in 4to., in Numbers, at 2s. 6d. With coloured Plates.

A GLOSSARY OF PROVINCIAL WORDS and PHRASES in Use in Wiltshire. 12mo., 3s.

THE NUMISMATIC CHRONICLE is published Quarterly. Price 3s. 6d. each Number.

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE TOPOGRAPHER & GENEALOGIST,

EDITED BY JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS, F.S.A.

_The XIIIth Part of this Work is now published, price_ 3s. 6d.,
_containing_:

Some Account of the Manor of Apuldrefield, in the Parish of Cudham, Kent,
by G. Steinman Steinman, Esq., F.S.A.

Petition to Parliament from the Borough of Wotton Basset, in the reign of
Charles I., relative to the right of the Burgesses to Free Common of
Pasture in Fasterne Great Park.

Memoranda in Heraldry, from the MS. Pocket-books of Peter Le Neve, Norroy
King of Arms.

Was William of Wykeham of the Family of Swalcliffe? By Charles Wykeham
Martin, Esq., M.P., F.S.A.

Account of Sir Toby Caulfield rendered to the Irish Exchequer, relative to
the Chattel Property of the Earl of Tyrone and other fugitives from Ulster
in the year 1616, communicated by James F. Ferguson, Esq., of the Exchequer
Record Office, Dublin.

Indenture enumerating various Lands in Cirencester, 4 Hen. VII. (1489).

       *       *       *       *       *

Two Volumes of this Work are now completed, which are published in cloth
boards, price Two Guineas, or in Twelve Parts, price 3s. 6d. each. Among
its more important articles are--

    Descent of the Earldom of Lincoln, with Introductory   Observations on
    the Ancient   Earldoms of England, by the Editor.

    On the Connection of Arderne, or Arden, of   Cheshire, with the Ardens
    of Warwickshire.   By George Ormerod, Esq., D.C.L., F.S.A.

    Genealogical Declaration respecting the Family   of Norres, written by
    Sir William Norres, of   Speke, co. Lanc. in 1563; followed by an
    abstract   of charters, &c.

    The Domestic Chronicle of Thomas Godfrey,   Esq., of Winchelsea, &c.,
    M.P., the father of   Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, finished in 1655.

    Honywood Evidences, compiled previously to  1620, edited by B. W.
    Greenfield, Esq.

    The Descendants of Mary Honywood at her   death in 1620.

    Marriage Settlements of the Honywoods.

    Pedigrees of the families of Arden or Arderne,   Arundell of Aynho,
    Babington, Barry, Bayley,   Bowet, Browne, Burton of Coventry,
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    D'Oyly, Drew,   FitzAlan, Fitzherbert, Franceis, Fremingham,   Gyll,
    Hammond, Harlakenden, Heneage,   Hirst, Honywood, Hodilow, Holman,
    Horde, Hustler, Isley, Kirby, Kynnersley,   Marche, Marston, Meynell,
    Norres, Peirse,   Pimpe, Plomer, Polhill or Polley, Pycheford,
    Pitchford, Pole or De la Pole, Preston, Viscount   Tarah, Thexton,
    Tregose, Turner of   Kirkleatham, Ufford, Walerand, Walton, and   Yate.

    The Genealogies of more than ninety families   of Stockton-upon-Tees,
    by Wm. D'Oyly   Bayley, Esq., F.S.A.

    Sepulchral Memorials of the English at Bruges   and Caen.

    Many original Charters, several Wills, and   Funeral Certificates.

    Survey, temp. Philip and Mary, of the Manors   of Crosthole, Landren,
    Landulph, Lightdurrant,   Porpehan and Tynton, in Cornwall;
    Aylesbeare and Whytford, co. Devon; Ewerne   Courtenay, co. Dorset;
    Mudford and Hinton,   West Coker, and Stoke Courcy, co. Somerset;
    Rolleston, co. Stafford; and Corton, co.   Wilts.

    Survey of the Marshes of the Medway, temp.   Henry VIII.

    A Description of Cleveland, addressed to Sir   Thomas Chaloner, temp.
    James I.

    A Catalogue of the Monumental Brasses, ancient   Monuments, and Painted
    Glass existing   in the Churches of Bedfordshire, with all   Names and
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    Catalogue of Sepulchral Monuments in Suffolk,   throughout the hundreds
    of Babergh,   Blackbourn, Blything, Bosmere and Claydon,   Carlford,
    Colnies, Cosford, Hartismere,   Hoxne, Town of Ipswich, Hundreds of
    Lackford   and Loes. By the late D. E. Davy, Esq.,   of Ufford.

    Published by J. B. NICHOLS & SONS, 25.   Parliament Street,
    Westminster; where may   be obtained, on application, a fuller abstract
    of the contents of these volumes, and also of   the "Collectanea
    Topographica et Genealogica,"   now complete in Eight Volumes.

       *       *       *       *       *


WORKS BY THE REV. DR. MAITLAND.

THE DARK AGES; being a Series of ESSAYS intended to illustrate the State of
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EIGHT ESSAYS on various Subjects. In small 8vo. 4s. 6d.

A LETTER to the REV. DR. MILL, containing some STRICTURES on MR. FABER'S
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THE VOLUNTARY SYSTEM. New Edition. Small 8vo. 5s. 6d.

NOTES on the CONTRIBUTIONS of the REV. GEORGE TOWNSEND, M.A., Canon of
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A LETTER to the REV. HUGH JAMES ROSE, B.D., Chaplain to His Grace the
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       *       *       *       *       *


{343}

_LONDON, SATURDAY, APRIL_ 15, 1854.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notes.

PALINDROME VERSES.

BOEOTICUS inquires (Vol. vi., p 209.) whence comes the line--

 "Roma tibi subito motibus ibit amor."

In p. 352. of the same volume W. W. T. (quoting from D'Israeli's
_Curiosities of Literature_ a passage which supplies the hexameter
completing the distich, and attributes the verses to Sidonius Apollinaris)
asks where may be found a legend which represents the two lines to have
formed part of a dialogue between the fiend, under the form of a mule, and
a monk, who was his rider. B. H. C., at p. 521. of the same volume, sends a
passage from the _Dictionnaire Littéraire_, giving the complete distich:

 "Signa te, signa, temere me tangis et angis.
  Roma tibi subito motibus ibit amor,"

and attributing it to the devil, but without supplying any more authentic
parentage for the lines. The following Note will contribute a fact or two
to the investigation of the subject; but I shall be obliged to conclude by
reiterating the original Query of BOEOTICUS, Who was the real author of the
lines?

In a little work entitled _A Summer in Brittany_, published by me in 1840,
may be found (at p. 99. of vol. i.) a legend, which relates how one Jean
Patye, canon of Cambremer, in the chapter of Bayeux, rode the devil to
Rome, for the purpose of there chanting the epistle at the midnight mass at
Christmas, according to the tenor of an ancient bond, which obliged the
chapter to send one of their number yearly to Rome for that purpose. This
story I met with in a little volume, entitled _Contes populaires, Préjugés,
Patois, Proverbes de l'Arrondissement de Bayeux, recueillis et publiés_,
par F. Pluquet, the frontispiece of which consists of a sufficiently
graphic representation of the worthy canon's feat. Pluquet concludes his
narrative by stating that--

    "Etienne Tabourot dans ses _Bigarrures_, publiées sous le nom du
    _Seigneur des Accords_, rapporte que c'est à Saint Antide que le
    diable, qui le portait à Rome sur son dos, adresse le distique latin
    dont il est question ci-dessus."

It should seem that this trick of _carrying people to Rome_ was attributed
to the devil, by those conversant with his habits, in other centuries
besides the nineteenth.

I have not here the means of looking at the work to which Pluquet refers;
but if any of your correspondents, who live in more bookish lands than
this, will do so, they may perchance obtain some clue to the original
authorship of the lines; for in Sidonius Apollinaris I cannot find them.
The only edition of his works to which I have the means of referring is the
quarto of Adrien Perrier, Paris, 1609. Among the verses contained in that
volume, I think I can assert that the lines in question are not. We all
know that the worthy author of the _Curiosities of Literature_ cannot be
much depended upon for accuracy.

Once again, then, Who was the author of this specimen, perhaps the most
perfect extant, of palindromic absurdity?

T. A. T.

Florence.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHILDREN CRYING AT THEIR BIRTH.

    "When I was born, I drew in the common air, and fell upon the earth,
    which is of like nature, _and the first voice which I uttered was
    crying, as all others do_."--_Wisd._ vii. 3.

 "Tum porro Puer, ut sævis projectus ab undis
  Navita, _nudus, humi jacet_, Infans, indigus omni
  Vitali auxilio; cum primum in luminis oras
  Nixibus ex alvo matris natura profudit:
  _Vagituque locum lugubri complet_, ut æquum est,
  Cui tantum in vita restet transire malorum."
                  _Lucret. De Rer. Nat._, v. 223.

For the benefit of the lady-readers of "N. & Q." I subjoin a translation of
these beautiful lines of Lucretius:

    "The infant, as soon as Nature with great pangs of travail hath sent it
    forth from the womb of its mother into the regions of light, lies, like
    a sailor cast out from the waves, _naked upon the earth_ in utter want
    and helplessness; _and fills every place around with mournful wailings_
    and piteous lamentation, as is natural for one who has so many ills of
    life in store for him, so many evils which he must pass through and
    suffer."

 "Thou must be patient: we came crying hither;
  Thou know'st, the first time that we smell the air,
  We wawle and cry--
  When we are born, we cry that we are come
  To this great stage of fools."--Shakspeare's _Lear_.

    "Who remindeth me of the sins of my infancy? 'For in Thy sight none is
    pure from sin, not even the infant whose life is but a day upon the
    earth.' (Job xxv. 4.) Who remindeth me? Doth not each little infant, in
    whom I see what of myself I remember not? What then was my sin? Was it
    that I _hung upon the breast and cried_?"--St. Austin, _Confess._, lib.
    i. 7.

    "For man's sake it should seeme that Nature made and produced all other
    creatures besides; though this great favour of hers, so bountifull and
    beneficiall in that respect, hath cost them full deere. Insomuch as it
    is hard to judge, whether in so doing she hath done the part of a kind
    mother, or a hard and cruell stepdame. For first and foremost, of all
    other living creatures, man she hath brought forth all naked, and
    cloathed him with the good and riches of others. To all the rest she
    hath given sufficient to clad them everie {344} one according to their
    kind; as namely shells, cods, hard hides, prickes, shagge, bristles,
    haire, downe, feathers, quils, skailes, and fleeces of wool. The verie
    trunkes and stemmes of trees and plants, shee hath defended with bark
    and rind, yea, and the same sometime double against the injuries both
    of heat and cold: man alone, poore wretch, she hath laid _all naked
    upon the bare earth, even on his birth-day, to cry and wraule presently
    from the very first houre that he is borne into this world_: in suche
    sort as, _among so many living creatures, there is none subject to shed
    teares and weepe like him. And verily to no babe or infant is it given
    once to laugh before he be fortie daies old_, and that is counted verie
    early and with the soonest.... The child of man thus untowardly borne,
    and who another day is to rule and command all other, loe how he lyeth
    bound hand and foot, weeping and crying, and beginning his life with
    miserie, as if he were to make amends and satisfaction by his
    punishment unto Nature, for this onely fault and trespass, that he is
    borne alive."--Plinie's _Naturall Historie_, by Phil. Holland, Lond.
    1601, fol., intr. to b. vii.

The following queries are extracted from Sir Thomas Browne's "Common-place
Books," _Aristotle, Lib. Animal._:

    "Whether till after forty days children, though they cry, weep not; or,
    as Scaliger expresseth it, 'Vagiunt sed oculis siccis.'

    "Whether they laugh not upon tickling?

    "Why, though some children have been heard to cry in the womb, _yet so
    few cry at their birth_, though their heads be out of the
    womb?"--Bohn's ed. iii. 358.

Thompson follows Pliny, and says that man is "taught _alone_ to weep"
("Spring," 350.); but--not to speak of the

                 "Cruel crafty crocodile,
  Which, in false grief hiding his harmful guile,
  Doth weep full sore and sheddeth tender tears,"

as Spenser sings--the camel weeps when over-loaded, and the deer when
chased sobs piteously. Thompson himself in a passage he has stolen from
Shakspeare, makes the stag weep:

                  ----"he stands at bay;
  _The big round tears_ run down his dappled face;
  He groans in anguish."--Autumn, 452.

    "Steller relates this of the _Phoca Ursina_, Pallas of the camel, and
    Humboldt of a small American monkey."--Laurence _On Man_, Lond. 1844,
    p. 161.

Risibility, and a sense of the ridiculous, is generally considered to be
the property of man, though _Le Cat_ states that he has seen a chimpanzee
laugh.

The notion with regard to a child crying at baptism has been already
touched on in these pages, Vol. vi., p. 601.; Vol. vii., p. 96.

Grose (quoted in Brand) tells us there is a superstition that a child who
does not cry when sprinkled in baptism will not live; and the same is
recorded in Hone's _Year-Book_.

EIRIONNACH.

       *       *       *       *       *

UNPUBLISHED LETTER OF LORD NELSON.

The following letter of Lord Nelson may, especially at the present moment,
interest and amuse some of the readers of "N. & Q." The original is in my
possession, and was given me by the late Miss Churchey of Brecon, daughter
of the gentleman to whom it was addressed. Can any of your readers inform
me where the "old lines" quoted by the great hero are to be found?

E. G. BASS.

Ryde, Isle of Wight.

Merton, Oct. 20, 1802.

Sir,

Your idea is most just and proper, that a provision should be made for
midshipmen who have served a certain time with good characters, and
certainly twenty pounds is a very small allowance; but how will your
surprise be increased, when I tell you that their _full_ pay, when
watching, fighting and bleeding for their country at sea, is not equal to
that sum. An admiral's half-pay is scarcely equal, including the run of a
kitchen, to that of a French cook; a captain's but little better than a
valet's; and a lieutenant's certainly not equal to a London footman's; a
midshipman's nothing. But as I am a seaman, and faring with them, I can say
nothing. I will only apply some very old lines wrote at the end of some
former war:

   "Our God and sailor we adore,
    In time of danger, not before;
  The danger past, both are alike requited,
  God is forgotten, and the sailor slighted."

Your feelings do you great honour, and I only wish all others in the
kingdom were the same. However, if ever I should be placed in a situation
to be useful to such a deserving set of young men as our mids, nothing
shall be left undone which may be in the power of,

          Dear Sir,
              Your most obedient servant,
                      NELSON AND BRONTE.

  Walton Churchey, Esq.,
    Brecon, S. Wales.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOLK LORE.

_Devonshire Superstitions._--Seeing that you sometimes insert extracts from
newspapers, I forward you a copy of a paragraph which appeared in _The
Times_ of March 7, 1854, and which is worth a corner in your folk-lore
columns:

    "The following gross case of superstition, which occurred as late as
    Sunday se'nnight, in one of the largest {345} market towns in the north
    of Devon, is related by an eye-witness:--A young woman, living in the
    neighbourhood of Holsworthy, having for some time past been subject to
    periodical fits of illness, endeavoured to effect a cure by attendance
    at the afternoon service at the parish church, accompanied by thirty
    young men, her near neighbours. Service over, she sat in the porch of
    the church, and each of the young men, as they passed out in
    succession, dropped a penny into her lap; but the last, instead of a
    penny, gave her half-a-crown, taking from her the twenty-nine pennies
    which she had already received. With this half-crown in her hand, she
    walked three times round the communion-table, and afterwards had it
    made into a ring, by the wearing of which she believes she will recover
    her health."

HAUGHMOND ST. CLAIR.

_Quacks._--In the neighbourhood of Sevenoaks, Kent, a little girl was
bitten by a mad dog lately. Instead of sending for the doctor, her father
posted off to an old woman famous for her treatment of hydrophobia. The old
woman sent a quart bottle of some dark liquid, which the patient is to take
twice or thrice daily: and for this the father, though but a poor labourer,
had to pay one pound. The liquid is said by the "country sort" to be
infallible. It is made of herbs plucked by the old woman, and mixed with
milk. Its preparation is of course a grand secret. As yet, the child keeps
well.

Near Whitechapel, London, is another old woman, equally famous; but her
peculiar talent is not for hydrophobia, but for scalds. Whenever any of the
Germans employed in the numerous sugar-refineries in that neighbourhood
scald themselves, they beg, instead of being sent to the hospital, to be
taken to the old woman. For a few sovereigns, she will take them in, nurse,
and cure them; and I was informed by a proprietor of a large sugar-house
there, that often in a week she will heal a scald as thoroughly as the
hospital will in a month, and send the men back hearty and fit for work to
boot. She uses a good deal of linseed-oil, I am told; but her great secret,
they say, is, that she gives the whole of her time and attention to the
patient.

P. M. M.

Temple.

_Burning a Tooth with Salt._--Can any one tell us whence originates the
custom, very scrupulously observed by many amongst the common people, when
a tooth has been taken out, of burning it--generally with salt?

TWO SURGEONS.

Half Moon Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PARALLEL PASSAGES.

 "The wine of life is drawn, and the mere lees
  Is left this vault to brag of."--_Macbeth_, Act II. Sc. 3.

 "These spells are spent, and, spent with these,
  The wine of life is on the lees."--_Marmion_, introd. to canto i.

       *       *       *       *       *

    "The _old_ and true saying, that a man is generally more inclined to
    feel kindly towards one on whom he has conferred favours than towards
    one from whom he has received them."--Macaulay, _Essay on Bacon_,
    p. 367. (1-vol. edit.)--Query, whose saying?

    "On s'attache par les services qu'on rend, bien plus qu'on n'est
    attaché par les services qu'on reçoit. C'est qu'il y a, dans le coeur
    de l'homme, bien plus d'orgueil que de reconnaissance."--Alex. Dumas,
    _La Comtesse de Charny_, II. ch. iii.

       *       *       *       *       *

 "But earthlier happy is the rose distilled
  Than that, which, withering on the virgin thorn,
  Grows, lives, and dies in single blessedness."--_Midsum. Night's Dream_,
      Act I. Sc. 1.

    "_Maria._ Responde tu mihi vicissim:--utrum spectaculum amoenius: rosa
    nitens et lactea in suo frutice, an decerpta digitis ac paulatim
    marcescens?

    "_Pamphilus._ Ego rosam existimo feliciorem quæ marcescit in hominis
    manu, delectans interim et oculos et nares, quam quæ senescit in
    frutice."--Erasmus, _Procus et Puella_.

       *       *       *       *       *

 "And spires whose silent finger points to heaven." (?)

 "And the white spire that points a world of rest."--Mrs. Sigourney,
     _Connecticut River_.

       *       *       *       *       *

 "She walks the waters _like a thing of life_."--_Byron._

             "The master bold,
    The high-soul'd and the brave,
  Who ruled her _like a thing of life_
    Amid the crested wave."--Mrs. Sigourney, _Bell of the Wreck_.

       *       *       *       *       *

 "Thy heroes, tho' the general doom
  Have swept the column from the tomb,
  A mightier monument command,--
  The mountains of their native land!"--_Byron._

 "Your mountains build their monument,
  Tho' ye destroy their dust."--Mrs. Sigourney, _Indian Names_.

       *       *       *       *       *

 "Else had I heard the steps, tho' low
  And light they fell, as when earth receives,
  In morn of frost, the wither'd leaves
    That drop when no winds blow."--Scott, _Triermain_, i. _5._

 "Dropp'd, like shed blossoms, silent to the grass."--Hood, _Mids.
     Fairies_, viii.

 "There is sweet music here that softer falls
  Than petals from blown roses on the grass."--Tennyson, _Lotos-eaters_.

{346}

 "Two such I saw, what time the labour'd ox
  In his loose traces from the furrow came."--Milton, _Comus_.

 "While labouring oxen, spent with toil and heat,
  In their loose traces from the field retreat."--Pope, _Pastoral_, iii.

       *       *       *       *       *

 "It is the curse of kings, to be attended
  By slaves that take their humours for a warrant
  To break into the bloody house of life,
  And, on the winking of authority,
  To understand a law: to know the meaning
  Of dangerous majesty, when perchance it frowns
  More upon humour than advised respect."--_King John_, Act IV. Sc. 2.

                 "O curse of kings!
  Infusing a dread life into their words,
  And linking to the sudden transient thought
  The unchangeable, irrevocable deed!"--Coleridge, _Death of Wallenstein_,
      v. 9.

       *       *       *       *       *

 "Conscience!   .    .    .    .    .    .
  Your lank jawed, hungry judge will dine upon 't,
  And hang the guiltless rather than eat his mutton cold."--C. Cibber,
      _Richard III_.

 "The hungry judges soon the sentence sign,
  And wretches hang that jurymen may dine."--Pope, _Rape of the Lock_, iii.
      21.

HARRY LEROY TEMPLE.

"Death and his brother Sleep." Quoted (from Shelley) with parallel passages
from Sir T. Browne, Coleridge, and Byron in "N. & Q.," Vol. iv., p. 435.
Add to them the following:

 "Care-charmer Sleep, son of the sable Night,
  Brother to Death, in silent darkness born."

_Samuel Daniel_, Spenser's successor as "voluntary Laureate."

 "Care-charming Sleep, thou easer of all woes,
  Brother to Death."--Fletcher, _Valentinian_.

 "The death of each day's life."--Shakspeare, _Macbeth_, Act II. Sc. 2.

 "Teach me to live, that I may dread
  The grave as little as my bed."--_Bishop Ken._

 "We thought her sleeping when she died;
  And dying, when she slept."--_Hood._

 "Somne levis, quanquam certissima mortis imago
    Consortem cupio te tamen esse tori;
  Alma quies, optata, veni, nam sic sine vitâ
    Vivere quam suave est; sic sine morte mori."--_T. Warton._
          [_Finely translated by Wolcot._]
 "Come, gentle sleep! attend thy vot'ry's pray'r,
  And, though Death's image, to my couch repair;
  How sweet, though lifeless, yet with life to lie,
  And, without dying, oh, how sweet to die!"

 "While sleep the weary world reliev'd,
  By counterfeiting death revived."--Butler, _Hudibras_.

 "Shake off this downy sleep, death's counterfeit,
  And look on death itself!"--Shakspeare, _Macbeth_, Act II. Sc. 3.

 "Nature, alas! why are thou so
  Obliged unto thy greatest foe?
  Sleep that is thy best repast,
  Yet of death it bears a taste,
  And both are the same things at last."--Dennis, _Sophonisba_.

       "Great Nature's second course,
  Chief nourisher in life's feast."--Shakspeare, _Macbeth_, Act II. Sc. 2.

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A.

    "Nothing doth countervail a faithful friend."--_Ecclesias._ vi. 15.

 "Nil ego contulerim jucundo sanus amico."--Hor. _Sat._ v. 44.

    "If thou wouldst get a friend, _prove him_ first, and be not hasty to
    credit him."--_Ecclesias._ v. 7.

    "_Diu cogita_, an tibi in amicitiam aliquis recipiendus sit: cum
    placuerit fieri, toto illum pectore admitte: tam audacter cum illo
    loquere, quam tecum."--Seneca, _Epist._ iii.

    "Quid dulcius, quam habere amicum quicum omnia audeas sic loquere quam
    tecum."--Cic., _de Amic._ 6.

 "The friends thou hast, and their _adoption tried_,
  Grapple them to thy heart with hoops of steel."

       *       *       *       *       *

 "But do not dull thy palm with entertainment
  Of each new-hatch'd, unfledg'd comrade."--Shakspeare, _Hamlet_, Act I.
      Sc. 3.

    "Bring not every man into thy house."--_Ecclesias._ vi. 7.

       *       *       *       *       *


    "A man's attire, and excessive laughter, and gait, show what he
    is."--_Ecclesias._ xix. 30.

 "---- The apparel oft proclaims the man."--_Hamlet_, Act I. Sc. 3.

       *       *       *       *       *

 "Unus Pellæo juveni non sufficit orbis:
  Æstuat infelix angusto limite mundi,
  Ut Gyaræ clausus scopulis, parvâque Seripho."--_Juv._ x. 168.

    "_Hamlet._ What have you, my good friends, deserved at the hands of
    fortune, that she sends you to prison here?

    _Guildenstern._ Prison, my lord!

    _Ham._ Denmark's a prison.

    _Rosencrantz._ Then is the _world_ one.

    _Ham._ A goodly one, in which there are many confines, wards, and
    dungeons; Denmark being one of the worst.

    _Ros._ We think not so, my lord.

    _Ham._ Why, then, 'tis none to you; for there is nothing either good or
    bad, but thinking makes it so: to me it is a prison.

    _Ros._ Why, then, your ambition makes it one; 'tis too narrow for your
    mind."--Shakspeare, _Hamlet_, Act II. Sc. 2.

       *       *       *       *       *

{347}

    "Ad hanc legem natus es; hoc patri tuo accidit, hoc matri, hoc
    majoribus, hoc omnibus ante te, hoc omnibus post te, series invicta, et
    nullâ mutabilis ope, illigat ac trahit cuncta."

 "_King._ ---- You must know, your father lost a father;
  That father lost--lost his;   .    .    .
    .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .
  To reason most absurd, whose common theme
  Is death of fathers, and who still hath cry'd,
  From the first corse, 'till he that died to-day,
  _This must be so_."--_Hamlet_, Act I. Sc. 2.

       *       *       *       *       *

    "[Greek: Apo de tou mê echontos]," &c.--_Ante_, Vol. viii., p. 372.

    "Besides this, _nothing_ that he so plentifully gives me."--Shakspeare,
    _As You Like It_, Act I. Sc. 1.

J. W. F.

Having observed several Notes in different Numbers of your interesting
publication, in which sentences have been quoted from the works of ancient
and modern authors that are almost alike in words, or contain the same
ideas clothed in different language, I would only add, that those of your
readers or correspondents who take an interest in such inquiries will find
instances enough, in a work which was published in Venice in 1624, to fill
several columns of "N. & Q." The volume is entitled _Il Seminario de
Governi di Stato, et di Guerra_.

W. W.

Malta.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Vallancey's Green Book._--Perhaps your readers are not aware of the
existence of the curious and interesting volume mentioned in the following
cutting from Jones's last _Catalogue_ (D'Olier St. Dublin). It may
therefore be worth making a note of in your columns:

    "1008. Vallancey's Green Book, _manuscript, folio_.

    *** Vallancey's Green Book, so named from being bound in green vellum,
    was the volume in which the celebrated Irish antiquary, General Charles
    Vallancey, entered the titles of all the manuscripts and printed works
    relative to Ireland which he had occasion to consult in his antiquarian
    researches. The copy now offered for sale is believed to be the only
    one extant. Bound in the same volume is a collection of the titles of
    all the manuscripts relating to Ireland, which are preserved in the
    Archbishop of Canterbury's library, at Lambeth, London."

R. H.

Trin. Coll., Dublin.

_Herrings._--"The lovers of fish" may be glad to learn what a bloater is, a
mystery which I endeavoured to unravel when lately on the Norfolk coast. A
bloater, I was informed, is a large, plump herring (as we say a _bloated_
toad); and the genuine claimants of the title fall by their own weight from
the meshes of the net.

The origin of the simile--"As dead as a herring"--may not be generally
known. This fish dies immediately upon its removal from the native element
(strange to say) from want of air; for swimming near the surface it
requires much, and the gills, when dry, cannot perform their function.

C. T.

_Byron and Rochefoucauld._--The following almost word-for-word renderings
of two of Rochefoucauld's _Réflexions_ occur in the third and fourth
stanzas of the third canto of Byron's _Don Juan_. I am not aware that any
notice has been taken of them beyond a note appended to the first passage,
in Moore's edition of Byron's _Works_, attributing the _mot_ to Montaigne:

 "Yet there are some, they say, who have had _none_,
  But those who have ne'er end with only _one_."--_Byron._

    "On peut trouver des femmes qui n'ont jamais eu de galanterie; mais il
    est rare d'en trouver qui n'en aient jamais eu
    qu'une."--Rochefoucauld's _Maximes et Réflexions Morales_.

 "In her first passion, woman loves her lover,
  In all the others all she loves is love."--_Byron_

    "Dans les premières passions les femmes aiment l'amant; dans les autres
    elles aiment l'amour."--Rochefoucauld's _Maximes et Réflexions
    Morales_.

SIGMA.

Customs, London.

"_Abscond._"--This is a word which appears to have lost its primary meaning
of concealment, apart from that of escape. Horace Walpole, however, uses it
in the former sense:

    "Virette _absconds_, and has sent M. de Pecquigny word that _he shall
    abscond_ till he can find a proper opportunity of fighting him."

CHEVERELLS.

_Garlands, Broadsheets, &c._--Will you allow me to suggest to your
correspondents, that it would be very desirable, for literary and
antiquarian purposes, to form as complete a list as possible of public and
private collections of garlands, broadsheets, chap-books, ballads, tracts,
&c.; and to ask them to forward to "N. & Q." the names of any such public
or private collections as they may be acquainted with. I need not say
anything of the importance and value of the ballads, &c., contained in such
collections, to the historical student and the archæologist, for their
value is too well known to require it; but I would earnestly urge the
formation of such a list as the one I now {348} suggest, which will greatly
facilitate literary researches.

J.

_Life-belts._--Suppose that each person on board the Tayleur had been
supplied with a life-belt, how many hundreds of lives would have been
saved? And when it is considered that such belts can be made for less than
half-a-crown each, what reason can there be that government should not
require them to be carried, at least in emigrant vessels, if passengers are
so ignorant and stupid as not voluntarily to provide them for themselves?

THINKS I TO MYSELF.

_Turkey and Russia--The Eastern Question_ (Vol. ix., p. 244.).--The past
history of these rival states presents more than one parallel passage like
the following, extracted from Watkins's _Travels through Switzerland,
Italy, the Greek Islands, to Constantinople, &c._ (2nd edit., two vols.
8vo. 1794):

    "The Turks have been, and indeed deserve to be, praised for the manner
    in which they declared war against the Russians. They sent by Mr.
    Bulgakoff, her Imperial Majesty's minister at the Porte, to demand the
    restitution of the Crimea, which had been extorted from them by the
    merciless despot of R----a, (_sic_) when too much distressed by a
    rebellion in Egypt to protect it. On his return without an answer they
    put him in the Seven Towers, and commenced hostilities. They hate the
    Russians; and to show it the more, frequently call a Frank _Moscoff_.
    To the English they are more partial than to any other Christian
    nation, from a tradition that Mahomet was prevented by death from
    converting our ancestors to his faith."--Vol. ii. pp. 276-7.

J. MACRAY.

Oxford.

"_Verbatim et literatim._"--As this phrase often finds insertion, even in
the pages of "N. & Q.," it may be well to call attention to the fact that
there is no such adverb as _literatim_ in the Latin language. There is the
adverb _literate_, which means after the manner of a literate man,
learnedly; but to express the idea intended by the coined word _literatim_,
I think we must use the form _ad literam_--"_Verbatim et ad literam._"

L. H. J. TONNA.

       *       *       *       *       *


Queries.

PRINTS OF LONDON BEFORE THE GREAT FIRE.

In addition to the Tower, there was in Cromwell's time the fortification of
Baynard's Castle, near Blackfriars, and the city gates were also
fortifications on a small scale; they were rebuilt (St. John's,
Clerkenwell, excepted, which was spared) after the Great Fire, and were
taken down somewhere about 1760. Can any of your readers tell me whether
there is any series of prints extant of the most remarkable buildings which
were destroyed by the fire? There are some few maps, and a print or two
interspersed here and there, in the British Museum; but is there any
regular series of plates? We know that Inigo Jones built a Grecian portico
on to the east end of the Gothic cathedral of old St. Paul's, surmounted
with statues of Charles I., &c.; that the Puritans destroyed a beautiful
conduit at the top of Cheapside; that Sir Thomas Gresham's Exchange was
standing. But among the many city halls burnt down, were there any fine
specimens of architecture, any churches worthy of note? And as Guildhall
was not entirely consumed, what parts of the present edifice belong to the
olden time?

You are doubtless aware that the fire did not extend to St. Giles's
Cripplegate, and that at the back of the church are remains of the old city
walls.

ARDELIO.

       *       *       *       *       *

BATTLE OF OTTERBURN.

On what authority does Mr. Tytler (_History of Scotland_, vol. iii. pp.
45--53.), in his otherwise very fair account of this celebrated battle,
assert that the Earl of Douglas was a younger man than Hotspur? I have no
doubt that he found it so recorded somewhere, and willingly believed that
his countrymen had prevailed, not only over superior numbers of the enemy,
but also over greater experience on the part of the hostile general; but a
little more investigation would have shown him that the difference of age
lay the other way. Henry Percy, by his own account (in the Scrope and
Grosvenor Controversy), was born in 1366, and was therefore twenty-two when
the battle was fought. I do not know that there is any direct evidence to
Douglas's age, but the following considerations appear to me decisive as to
his being much older than his rival.

1. Froissart's visit to Scotland was undoubtedly prior to 1366 (although
the exact date is not given), and during his stay of fifteen days at
Dalkeith, he saw much of the youthful heir of that castle, the future hero
of Otterburn, and describes him as a "promising youth."

2. Hotspur, in his deposition above mentioned, says that he first bore arms
at the siege of Berwick in 1378; but his antagonist must have commenced his
military career long before, as Froissart mentions him as knighted on the
occasion of the battle fought a few days after the surrender of that place,
between Sir Archibald Douglas and Sir Thomas Musgrave; none but kings' sons
were knighted in childhood in those days, or without undergoing a long
previous probation in the inferior grades of chivalry.

3. An early and constant family (if not general) tradition asserts that
Douglas had a natural son {349} (ancestor of the Cavers family), old enough
to bear his father's banner in the battle; on this, however, I lay little
stress, as Froissart distinctly assigns that honourable post to another
person, David Campbell, who was slain by the side of his lord.

Mr. Tytler is also evidently wrong in placing, on the authority of
Macpherson's _Notes on Winton_, this battle on the 5th of August, 1388.
Froissart gives the date as the 19th of August, and as the moon was full on
the 18th, the combatants would have bright moonlight all night, which
agrees with all the narratives; on the 5th they would have little
moonlight, and would have lost it soon.

Though not very germane to the matter, except as being a point of
chronology, I may add here that the remarkable solar eclipse, long
remembered in Scotland by the name of the "Dark Hour," did not occur, as
stated by Mr. Tytler, on 17th June, 1432, but on the same month and day of
the following year.

J. S. WARDEN.

       *       *       *       *       *

DE BEAUVOIR PEDIGREE.

I have in my possession a curious ancient pedigree of De Beauvoir and
Harryes, headed thus:

    "The name De Beauvoir is from ---- in the kingdom of England; came into
    England with y^e Conquest of the Norman Duke, from whom is descended
    all that are now in England, they bearing for their coate armour the
    _first_, Azure, a chevron or, between three cinquefeuilles argent, by
    the name of De Beauvoir. The _second_ he beareth the guelles a chevron
    between three hayeres heads erased, by the name of Harreys. The _third_
    (or) a lyon rampant azure, by the name of Throlpe. The _fourth_,
    Argent, a fess between three cressentes azure, by the name of ...
    within a mantle doubled guelles on two helmetes and torseyes proper and
    the first a demy-dragon, adorned properly guelles and argent, vert, by
    the foresaid name De Beauvoir; on the second a harye sitting argent
    between two bushes vert."

The pedigree begins with "Sir Robert Beauvoir, Lord Beauvoir, Lord Baron of
Beaver Castle, Knt.;" and the maternal line with "Sir Robert Harryes of
Malden in Essex, Knt., came into England with the Saxons."

In the tenth descent the sole heiress is represented as marrying "Robert,
Lord Bellmoint," whose sole daughter married "John, Lord Manners, father of
Edmund Manners, first Earl of Rutland, from whom is descended Roger, Earl
of Rutland, now living."

The pedigree ends with the nineteenth descendant, Henry de Beauvoir, of the
Isle of Guernsey, who married the daughter of Peter Harreys of the Isle of
Guernsey.

Can any reader of "N. & Q." inform me whether descendants of that marriage
are still to be found, and where?

There are points in the pedigree, as genealogists will see, totally
discrepant from the Peerages.

THOMAS RUSSELL POTTER.

Wymeswold.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

_Dog-whippers: Frankincense._--Can any reader throw light upon the
following entries in the churchwardens' account-book for the parish of
Forest Hill, near Oxford?

    "1694. P^d to Tho. Mills for whipping dogs out of church, 1 shilling.

    "1702. P^d for frankincense for the church, 6 pence."

The only passage which occurs to me as at all bearing upon so late a use of
incense in parish churches in this country, is the following extract from
Herbert:

    "The country parson hath a care that his church be swept and kept
    clean; and at great festivals, strewed and stuck with boughs, and
    perfumed with incense."

This hardly brings the custom later than 1630.

As regards the former entry, I am told by a friend that the office of
dog-whipper existed about fifty years ago for the church of Heversham in
Westmoreland.

C. F. W.

_Atchievement in Yorkshire--Lipyeatt Family._--Found and noted in a
Yorkshire church tower, an atchievement painted apparently about forty or
fifty years ago, of which no account can be given by the sexton or parish
clerk. Query, to what names do the bearings belong? viz. Vert, on a fess
or, between three bezants, three lions passant azure. Impaling: Vert, three
swans in tri, statant, wings erect, argent. Crest, a lion passant azure,
langued gules. The swans have head, neck, and body like swans, but their
legs appear to have been borrowed from the stork. It is suspected that the
dexter coat belongs to one of the Wiltshire Lipyeatts.

Is there any pedigree of the Lipyeatt family, who were burghers of wealth
and consideration in the town of Marlborough, from the middle of the
seventeenth century down to the latter part of the eighteenth?

PATONCE.

"_Waestart._"--A common expression of sorrow or condolence among the lower
classes in the manufacturing district around Leeds, in Yorkshire. Whence
does it arise? Is it an abbreviation of "Woe to my heart," "Woe is me"?

J. L. S., Sen.

_Rebellion of 1715._--Has any report been published of the trial of the
prisoners taken at Preston? Mr. Baron Bury, Mr. Justice Eyre, and Mr. Baron
Montague opened the Commission at Liverpool. The trials began on January
20, 1716, and lasted till February 8.

THOMAS BAKER.

{350}

"_Athenian Sport._"--Who was the writer of _Athenian Sport, or Two Thousand
Paradoxes, merely argued to amuse and divert the Age_, by a Member of the
Athenian Society, London, 1707?[1] It would almost appear to have been a
burlesque upon the _Athenian Oracle_.

HENRY T. RILEY.

[Footnote 1: Lowndes has attributed this work, but we think incorrectly, to
the celebrated John Dunton.--ED.]

_Gutta Percha made soluble._--Can any one inform me how gutta percha may be
made so soluble, that a coating of it may be given any article, which shall
dry as hard as its former state? I have tried melting it in a ladle, but it
never hardened properly.

E. B.

Leeds.

_Arms of Anthony Kitchen._--Can any of your correspondents inform me what
were the arms of Anthony Kitchen, Bishop of Llandaff in 1545? And what
relation, if any, of Robert Kitchen, who was Mayor of Bristol in 1588? The
latter was of Kendal in Westmoreland.

D. F. T.

_Griesbach Arms._--Could any correspondent versed in German heraldry tell
me the arms of the German family of Griesbach, or refer me to any work
containing a collection of German arms?

CID.

_Postage System of the Romans._--Could any of your correspondents inform me
where I may find a perfect account of the postal system of the Romans? We
know that they must have had such a system, but I have forgotten the author
who gives any description of it.

ARDELIO.

_Three Crowns and Sugar-loaf._--Passing through Franche (a village near
Kidderminster in Worcestershire) the other day, I saw an inn called "The
Three Crowns and Sugar-loaf." As there seems to me not the _least_
connexion between a crown and a sugar-loaf, I send this to "N. & Q." in
hopes of an explanation from some of its readers more skilled than myself
in such matters.

CID.

_Helen MacGregor._--In Burke's _Landed Gentry_ (Supplement, art. "MacGregor
of Craigrostan and Inversnaid") this redoubted heroine is described as "a
woman of _agreeable temper_ and domestic habits, active and careful in the
management of her family affairs." This is so directly opposed, not only to
Scott's description, but to the generality of traditions about her, that,
as Campbell says, "it makes the hair of one's literary faith stand on end."
Helen was, very likely, a different person from what she afterwards became,
ere the events happened that drove Rob Roy "to the hill-side to become a
broken man;" but one can hardly imagine her, in her most happy days, to
have been such a person as is above depicted--an amiable wife and clever
housekeeper. The pen of a descendant is evident, in the partial description
given of both husband and wife.

J. S. WARDEN.

_Francis Grose the Antiquary._--Francis Grose, the distinguished antiquary,
was Captain and Adjutant of the Surrey Militia, commanded by Col. Hodges,
in which regiment he served for many years; but on some occasion, probably
breach of discipline, he was brought to a general court-martial. The
regiment formed part of the large encampment of 15,000 men on Cocksheath,
near Maidstone, in 1778. I think the trial took place then, or within a
year or two of that date; and should be thankful to any reader of "N. & Q."
who would supply me with the precise date when the court-martial assembled?

[Greek: Ss.]

"_King of Kings:" Bishop Andrews' Sermons._--From MS. Account of Fellows of
Kings, compiled from 1750, A.D. 1583, Geffrey King, D.D., Professor of
Hebrew, Cambridge, first chaplain to Bancroft and James I., whether he or
Thos. King, 1605, or James King, 1609? One of them began his sermon at St.
James: "I, King of Kings, come to James the First and Sixth, nothing
wavering."

    "These puns much applauded in those times, insomuch that the preacher
    would stop to receive applause, which was expressed by loud and
    repeated hums. In Bishop Andrews' printed Sermons, these stops may be
    discovered."

Is this true of Bishop Andrews' _Sermons?_

J. H. L.

_Scroope Family._--Will any one be so good as to clear up the doubts
noticed in the peerage books as to the family of Henry Lord Scroope, of
Bolton, who died about 22 Henry VII.? His wives are generally stated to
have been daughters of the Earl of Northumberland and Lord Scroope of
Upsal; but other accounts are to be met with. What however I particularly
refer to, is the question, who was the mother of his daughter Alice, who
married Sir Gilbert Talbot? Lady Talbot could not have been by the daughter
of Lord Scroope of Upsal; as, if so, she and her issue would have inherited
her grandfather's barony, which it is certain was enjoyed by his younger
brothers. Very likely Mr. Scroope's unpublished volume on the Lords Scroope
and their seat Coombe Castle explains this.

S. N.

_Harrison the Regicide--Lowle._--Thomas Willing, son of Joseph Willing and
Anne Lowle (his second wife), married July 16, 1704, Anne Harrison, a
grand-daughter of the Regicide. Charles (son of Thomas and Anne, born in
Bristol, 1710) married Anne Shippen. One of their daughters married Sir
Walter Stirling; and a {351} great-granddaughter (Miss Bingham) married Mr.
Baring, afterwards Lord Ashburton. I should be obliged for information as
follows:

1. Through what descent was Anne Harrison a descendant of the Regicide?

2. Is anything known of the Lowle family? Their arms were, "Sa., a hand
grasping three darts argent."

 T. BALCH.

Philadelphia.

_"Chair" or "Char."_--I am desirous of ascertaining the meaning of this
term, as occurring frequently in the Cambridgeshire Fens. It is variously
spelt, _chair_, _chaire_, _chare_, or _char_. In the Cambridgeshire dialect
it may be remarked, _air_ or _are_ is pronounced as "ar." Thus, _upstairs_,
_bare_, are "upstars," "bar." There is a Char Fen at Stretham, laid down in
Sir Jonah Moore's Map (1663). There is also a Chare Fen at Cottenham; and
at Littleport is a place called Littleport Chair. This last had the name at
least as early as Edward II.'s reign; as in a description of a neighbouring
fen, not later than that date, one boundary is "A le _chaire_ per
Himmingslode usque Gualslode End." A friend who has searched the documents
in the Fen Office at Ely on this subject for me, has been unable to
discover the least clue to the meaning of the term.

At Newcastle-on-Tyne, a narrow street or passage between houses is called a
_chare_; but there is nothing narrow about Char Fen, which was part of an
open common. The course of the rivers at Littleport may be imagined to form
a rude outline of a chair or seat; but this does not apply to the other
instances in which the name occurs.

There are numerous local names in the fens, of which the history may be
traced for some centuries, deserving investigation.

E. G. R.

_Aches._--I am aware that there is abundant proof of "aches" being a
dissyllable when Shakspeare wrote, and long after; but I wish to know
whether there is any _rhyme_ earlier than that in Butler, which fixes the
pronunciation as _artches_.

S. S.

_Leeming Hall._--There was formerly a mansion somewhere between Liverpool
and Preston, called Leeming Hall. Can any of the correspondents of "N. &
Q." inform me if it still exists, and what is the name of the present
owner? I should also be glad to have some information respecting the
genealogy of the family of Leemings, who formerly lived there, or to learn
the name and residence of some member of the family to whom I could apply
for such information.

G.

_Caricature; a Canterbury Tale._--Many facts are recorded in the
caricatures of the day, of which there is no other account. The reference
of the following may be well known, but I should feel obliged by any of
your correspondents explaining it. Fox, the Prince of Wales, and a third
figure (?), are in a boat pushing off from shore, with Burke looking over a
wall with a large bag in his hand. He says, "D----me, Charley, don't leave
me in the lurch;" who replies, "Self-preservation is the first law of
nature." His companions joining with "Push off, Charley, push off."

H.

_Perpetual Curates not represented in Convocation._--In _Lectures on Church
Difficulties_, by the Rev. J. M. Neale, I find this statement:

    "Under the old regime rectors and vicars were alone, generally
    speaking, allowed a vote in the election of proctors, to the exclusion
    from that privilege of even perpetual curates."--Lecture xi., p. 133.

I believe that this is correct, and that the curates spoken of as having
their votes rejected in Day _versus_ Knewstubbs, were perpetual curates:
but can some of your correspondents confirm this view by facts?

WM. FRASER.

Tor-Mohun.

_Dr. Whichcote and Dorothy Jordan._--In the preface to the edition of the
plays of Wycherley and others, edited by Mr. Leigh Hunt, the following
passage occurs:

    "The two best sermons we ever heard (and no disparagement to many a
    good one from the pulpit) were a sentence of Dr. Whichcote's against
    the multiplication of things forbidden, and the honest, heart and soul
    laugh of Dorothy Jordan."

I feel rather curious to read a sentence which is said to possess so much
instruction.

[Greek: Xanthos].

_Moral Philosophy._--What English writers have treated of the obligation of
oaths and promises, or generally of moral philosophy, between the
Reformation and the time of Bishop Sanderson?

H. P.

_Shelley's "Prometheus Unbound."_--Can any of your correspondents, by
conjecture or reference to the original MS., elucidate the meaning of the
following passage, which occurs in Act II. Sc. 4. of this extraordinary
poem? It sounds so sweetly that one cannot but wish it were possible to
understand it.

 "_Asia._ Who made that sense which, when the winds of spring
  In rarest visitation, or the voice
  Of one beloved heard in youth alone,
  Fills the faint eyes with falling tears which dim
  The radiant looks of unbewailing flowers,
  And leaves this peopled world a solitude
  When it returns no more?"

Shelley's mysticism is very often such as to render him unintelligible to
ordinary readers, but it is combined here with a want of grammatical {352}
connexion that makes obscurity ten times more obscure. I have not the least
idea whether "fills" refers to "sense which," or to "voice;" but
whichsoever it may belong to, it is evident that the other nominative
singular, as also the plural "winds of spring," have no verbs, either
expressed or understood, to govern. A line or two may have dropped out; but
all editions as far as I am aware, give the passage as above. In Act I., at
p. 195. line 7 of the edition of 1853, occurs a curious error (I presume of
the press); Mercury, addressing the Furies, says:

       "Back to your towers of iron,
  And gnash beside the streams of fire, and wail
  Your foodless teeth."

The having no food to put between one's teeth is no doubt a very sufficient
cause for wailing, but still I think the passage would run better if
"gnash" and "wail" exchanged places. How do other editions give it?

J. S. WARDEN.

_Turkish Language._--Are there any easy dialogues in the Turkish language,
but in the English type, to be obtained; and where? If there be not, I
think it would be desirable to publish some, with names of common objects,
&c.

HASSAN.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

[Illustration]

_Illustrated Bible of 1527._--Can you inform me whether there is any Bible
published in 1527 at Lyons, with Hans Holbein's cuts in it, and what
engraver used this monogram, as I have a Bible of that date, the plates of
which are almost fac-similes (some of them) of Holbein's cuts, which were
published by Pickering? The date of the Bible is 1527.

    "Impressa autem Lugduni per Jacobum Mareschall feliciter explicat, anno
    nostri Salutis 1527."

L. S. C.

    [Several editions of the Bible were printed in the early part of the
    sixteenth century at Lyons, some of them ornamented with cuts from
    designs similar to those of Holbein. Two or three from the press of
    Mareschall are in the British Museum. We believe there were no Bibles
    printed at Lyons in which it was acknowledged that the cuts were
    designed by Holbein. The following notice of the monogram occurs in
    _Dictionnaire des Monogrammes_, par F. Bruilliot, part i. p. 421., No.
    3208.: "Cette marque, dont on ne connait pas la signification, se
    trouve sur une copie d'une gravure en bois de Jean Springinklee,
    représentant l'enfant Jésus couché à terre, entouré de trois anges, et
    adoré par St. Joseph et par la Ste. Vierge. A droite au travers d'une
    fenêtre près d'une colonne on remarque le boeuf et l'âne, et au milieu
    du fond deux bergers dont l'un ôte son chapeau. La marque est au bas à
    gauche près de l'habit de St. Joseph. Bartsch décrit l'original, _P.
    Gr._ t. vii. p. 328., No. 51."]

_Heraldic Query._--Can you help me towards ascertaining the date and
meaning of the following device, which I find upon an old picture-frame,
the portrait once inclosed in which has long since been destroyed?

On a disk, of about six inches in diameter, are engraved the royal arms of
Great Britain, without the harp, but with the Scots lion. You will at once
perceive the peculiarity of this bearing, the harp and the lion having been
added at the same time by James I. The leopards occupy the first quarter,
the ground of which is seméed with _hearts_; the Scots lion the second, his
feet resting upon a quaint band, which seems to occupy the place of the
usual bordure. The three fleurs-de-lis, very much broadened, and taking
almost the shape of crowns, occupy the places of the third and fourth
quarters.

The only instance I can find of a single lion or leopard appearing upon a
coin without the harp, is a coin (a half-florin) of Edward III., on the
obverse of which appears a leopard crowned, with a banner of the arms of
England fastened to his neck, and flowing back upon his shoulder.

RUDING.

Oxford and Cambridge Club.

    [Our correspondent has wasted his ingenuity: the bearings are, first
    quarter, Denmark, Or, semée of hearts gules, three lions passant
    guardant. Second quarter, Norway, a lion crowned, or holding a Danish
    battle-axe. In base Azure, three crowns, or two and one, Sweden.
    Surmounted by the royal crown. See _Souverains du Monde_, t. iii.
    p. 430.]

_Richard de Sancto Victorie._--In Anthony Mundy's _Successe of the Times_,
under the head "Scotland," he says,--

    "In this King Alexander's reign (1110) lived also the holy man, Richard
    de Sancto Victorie, being a Scot borne, but lyving the more part of his
    time at Paris, in Fraunce, where he died, and lieth buried in the Abbey
    of S. Victorie, he being a brother of the same house."

Can you furnish any particulars of my countryman Richard?

PERTHENSIS.

    [Richard, Abbot of St. Victor, was born in the reign of David I. After
    such education as Scotland afforded, in polite literature, the sacred
    Scriptures, and mathematics, the principal objects of his early
    studies, he went over to Paris. Here the fame of Hugh, Abbot of St.
    Victor, induced him to settle in that monastery, to pursue his
    theological studies. In 1164, upon the death of Hugh, he was chosen
    prior, which office he filled for nine years with great wisdom and
    prudence. He died March 10, 1173, and was buried in that monastery. He
    was the author of several treatises on subjects of practical divinity,
    and on scripture criticism, particularly on the description of
    Solomon's temple, Ezekiel's temple, and on the apparent contradictions
    in the books of Kings and Chronicles. They were all published at Paris
    in 1518 and 1540 in {353} two vols. folio, at Venice in 1692, at
    Cologne in 1621, and at Rouen in 1650, which is reckoned the best
    edition. A summary account of his works is given in Mackenzie's _Lives
    and Characters of Writers of the Scots Nation_, vol i. p. 147., edit.
    1708.]

_St. Blase._--In Norwich, every fifty years, the festival of Bishop Blase
is observed with great ceremony. What connexion had he with that city?

W. P. E.

    [Norwich formerly abounded with woolcombers, who still esteem Bishop
    Blase as their patron saint, probably from the [Combe of Yren] with
    which he was tortured previously to his martyrdom. "No other reason,"
    says Alban Butler, "than the great devotion of the people to this
    celebrated martyr of the Church, seems to have given occasion to the
    woolcombers to choose him the titular patron of their profession; on
    which account his festival is still kept by them with a solemn guild at
    Norwich."]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

LEICESTER AS RANGER OF SNOWDON.

(Vol. ix., p. 125.)

In a note to Parry's _Royal Visits and Progresses in Wales_, p. 317., I
find the following allusion to the circumstances mentioned in ELFFIN AP
GWYDDNO'S Query regarding Leicester's Rangership of Snowdon, and the
patriotic opposition offered to his oppressions. I regret I am unable to
afford the desired information respecting the imprisonment of the Welsh
gentleman in the Tower. Could not this be furnished by some of your readers
who have access to public documents and records of the period? This
imprisonment is not mentioned either in the account I append, or in a
longer one to be found in Appendix XVI. vol. iii. of Pennant's _Tour in
Wales_:

    "Among the Welsh nobility who formed a part of her Majesty's household,
    were Sir Richard Bulkeley, Bart., and Mrs. Blanche Parry, both of whom
    seem to have been brought up in the court from their infancy, and,
    consequently, in great esteem with her Majesty; so much so, that the
    Earl of Leicester, the Queen's favourite, began to be jealous of Sir
    Richard: and with a view of having him removed from court, he made an
    attempt to have him accused, upon false evidence, of treason. With this
    wicked design, the Earl of Leicester informed her Majesty that the
    council had been examining Sir Richard Bulkeley, and that they found
    him a dangerous person; that he dwelt in a suspicious corner of the
    world, and should be committed to the Tower. 'What! Sir Richard
    Bulkeley!' said the Queen; 'he never intended us any harm. We have
    brought him up from a boy, and have had special trial of his fidelity;
    ye shall not commit him.' 'We have the care of your Majesty's person,'
    said the Earl, 'and see more and hear more of the man than you do: he
    is of an aspiring mind, and lives in a remote place.' 'Before God!'
    replied the Queen; 'we will be sworn upon the Holy Evangelists, he
    never intended any harm.' And then her Majesty ran to the Bible, and
    kissing it, said: 'You shall not commit him; we have brought him up
    from a boy.' Sir Richard, however, was too high-minded to suffer such
    an imputation to be laid to his character. He insisted on an inquiry;
    during which it appeared, that Lord Dudley, Earl of Leicester, had been
    appointed a ranger of the Royal Forest of Snowdon, which, in the
    Queen's time, included some portion of Merioneth and Anglesey. This
    nobleman's insolence to the inhabitants of the forest was more than
    could be brooked. He tried to bring many freeholders' estates within
    the boundary; juries were empannelled, but the commissioners rejected
    their returns as unfavourable to the Earl. Those honest jurors,
    however, persisted, and found a verdict for the country. But in the
    year 1538, he succeeded by a packed jury, who appeared in his livery,
    blue, with ragged staves on the sleeves; men who, after this nefarious
    act, were stigmatised with the title of 'The Black Jury who sold their
    country.' Sir Richard Bulkeley, who, with Sir William Herbert and
    others, superseded a prior commission, resisted this oppression with
    great firmness, and laid those odious grievances before the Queen,
    whose regard for her loyal subjects in Wales was evinced by the
    recalling of the first commission, by proclamation at Westminster, in
    1579. The Earl being worsted, sought the life of Sir Richard by having
    him charged as above. But this generous and patriotic nobleman, by his
    excellent and manly conduct, overthrew every malevolent design of his
    enemy; and came out of this fiery trial as clear as the pellucid
    crystal of Snowdon."

R. E. G. C.

       *       *       *       *       *

INMAN FAMILY.

(Vol. ix., p. 198.)

A SUBSCRIBER having challenged me by name to assist him in resolving his
"historic doubts," I hasten to afford him what information I possess,
conscious at the same time that I can add little or nothing that will
materially aid him in his investigation.

First, then, as to Owen Gam. This name savours strongly of the leek, both
Christian and surname being unequivocally British. _Gam_, in Welsh,
signifies the "one-eyed;" we may conclude, therefore, that this gentleman,
or one of his progenitors, had lost an eye in one of the frays common in
bygone days, and so acquired the appellation of _Gam_. A SUBSCRIBER has
omitted to give dates with his Queries, and thus leaves us in the dark as
to the precise period he refers to; still, it may interest him to know that
David Gam, a landed proprietor of some importance in Herefordshire, temp.
Henry IV. and V., who had married the sister of Owen Glyndwr, was
discovered in an attempt to assassinate his brother-in-law, the royal
chieftain; and was, in consequence, arrested {354} and confined ten years
in Owen's prison at Llansaintffraid. He was afterwards released; and
distinguished himself, together with some near relatives, as Pennant
relates, at the battle of Agincourt, where he fell, pierced with wounds,
while assisting in the rescue of his royal master King Henry. Possibly,
Owen Gam may have been a descendant of this half-hero, half-assassin.

Llewellyn Clifford, again, is a name strongly suggestive of its owner's
connexion with Cambria. If A SUBSCRIBER has exhausted the resources of the
Clifford pedigrees, it were, I suppose, useless to refer him to the
ancestry of the defunct Earls of Cumberland; and especially to that part of
it represented by Sir Roger de Clifford, of Clifford, co. Hereford, a
famous soldier in the days of Henry III. and Edward I. He accompanied the
latter monarch in his inroads into Wales, and fell in battle there, not far
from Bangor, circa 1282-3, leaving several children; one of the younger of
whom I conjecture to have been the father of the before-named Llewellyn
Clifford. After having subjugated the country, we can easily fancy the
conquerors perpetuating the event by naming certain of their posterity
after the fallen prince Llewellyn.

As for Sir William de Roas (or Ros), A SUBSCRIBER is wrong in supposing his
name to have been Ingman; for although he resided at Ingmanthorpe, co.
York, his surname, in common with that of a long line of ancestry and
descendants, was De Ros only. He was the grandson of Robert de Ros, the
founder of the two castles, Werke and Hamlake, and one of the leaders of
the baronial forces in their armed opposition to the tyrant King John.

Before closing this communication, I would suggest to A SUBSCRIBER, and to
all others propounding genealogical Queries, the absolute necessity of
affixing _dates_ to their inquiries in every possible instance; as nothing
is easier than to go astray, sometimes for half-a-dozen generations, in
fixing the identity of a solitary individual.

T. HUGHES.

Chester.

       *       *       *       *       *

ROBERT DUDLEY, EARL OF LEICESTER.

(Vol. ix., pp. 105. 160.)

That this infamous man _did_ die of poison, is, I believe, the general
opinion. The late Dr. Cooke Taylor has the following passage upon the
subject, in his _Romantic Biography of the Age of Elizabeth_, vol. i.
p. 115.:

    "Nearly all the cotemporary writers assert that Leicester fell a victim
    to poison; Naunton declares that he, by mistake, swallowed the potion
    he had prepared for another person; and, as there can be no doubt that
    the Earl was a poisoner of great eminence and success, the story is far
    from being improbable. The Privy Council must have believed that his
    death was not natural, for they minutely investigated a report that he
    had been poisoned by the son of Sir James Crofts, in revenge for the
    imprisonment of his father. Some suspicious circumstances were elicited
    during the examination; but the matter was suddenly dropped, probably
    because an inquiry into any one of the complicated intrigues of
    Elizabeth's court would have involved too many persons of honour and
    consequence."

Drummond of Hawthornden, in his _Notes of Conversations with Ben Jonson_,
has the following curious note:

    "The Earl of Leicester gave a bottle of liquor to his lady, which he
    willed her to use in any faintness; which she, after his returne from
    Court, not knowing it was poison, gave him, and so he died."

This is a strong confirmation of the statement given by Sir Robert Naunton.

In one of the many valuable notes appended by Dr. Bliss to the _Athenæ
Oxonienses_, is the following cotemporary narrative, copied from a MS.
memoranda on a copy of _Leicester's Ghost_:

    "The author (of the poem) hath omitted the end of the Earle, the which
    may thus and truely be supplied. The Countesse Lettice fell in love
    with Christopher Blunt, gent., of the Earle's horse; and they had many
    secret meetings, and much wanton familiarity; the which being
    discovered by the Earle, to prevent the pursuit thereof, when Generall
    of the Low Countreys, hee tooke Blunt with him, and theire purposed to
    have him made away: and for this plot there was a ruffian of Burgundy
    suborned, who, watching him in one night going to his lodging at the
    Hage, followed him and struck at his head with a halbert or battle-axe,
    intending to cleave his head. But the axe glaunced, and withall pared
    off a great piece of Blunt's skull, which was very dangerous and longe
    in healinge: but he recovered, and after married the Countesse; who
    took this soe ill, as that she, with Blunt, deliberated and resolved to
    dispatch the Earle. The Earle, not patient of this soe greate wrong of
    his wife, purposed to carry her to Kenilworth; and to leave here there
    untill her death by naturall or by violent means, but rather by the
    last. The Countesse also having a suspicion, or some secret
    intelligence of this treachery against her, provided artificial meanes
    to prevent the Earle; which was by a cordiall, the which she had no fit
    opportunity to offer him till he came to Cornebury Hall, in
    Oxfordshire; where the Earle, after his gluttonous manner, surfeiting
    with excessive eating and drinking, fell soe ill that he was forced to
    stay there. Then the deadly cordiall was propounded unto him by the
    Countesse; as Mr. William Haynes, sometimes the Earle's page, and then
    gentleman of his bed-chamber, told me, who protested hee saw her give
    that fatall cup to the Earle, which was his last draught, and an end of
    his plott against the Countesse, and of his journey, and of himselfe;
    and soe--_Fraudis fraude sua prenditur artifex._"--_Athenæ Oxon._, vol.
    ii. col. 74, 75. note.

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

       *       *       *       *       *

{355}

HARDMAN'S ACCOUNT OF WATERLOO.

(Vol. viii., p. 199.; Vol. ix., p. 176.)

I perfectly recollect reading, when a boy, a critique on this poem, and
being much amused thereby. The critique appeared in the _Literary Gazette_
or _Athenæum_, as well as I remember. I never saw the poem, but I recollect
some of the lines quoted, which went nearly as follows:--

 "The following morning, at break of day,
  An orderly dragoon did come this way:
  'Holloa! holloa! I say, give ear,
  Is Adjutant Hardman quartered here?
  Holloa! halloa! I am not wrong,
  Is Adjutant Hardman here at home?'"

I merely quote from memory and hope, therefore, that any deviations from
the original may be pardoned.

Lieutenant (Brevet Captain) Hardman, if not a first-rate poet, is a gallant
soldier, and I rejoice to see his name in the _Army List_ for March, 1854.
I cannot ascertain at what period he joined the army, but he was present at
the cavalry engagements of Sahagun and Benevente, on December 20th and
27th, 1808, on the retreat of Sir John Moore's army to Coruña, for which he
is decorated with a Peninsula medal. For his bravery as a non-commissioned
officer he was promoted, May 19, 1813, to a cornetcy in the royal wagon
train; and was transferred, August 12 following, to the 23rd Light
Dragoons, and was same day appointed Regimental Adjutant of that corps. On
the almost total change of officers that took place in the 10th Hussars,
owing to the quarrels of Colonels Quentin and Palmer, Lieutenant Hardman
succeeded Captain Bromley, on December 15, 1814, as Lieutenant and Adjutant
in the corps in which he had commenced his military career; a sufficient
proof of his having been a zealous, active, and efficient non-commissioned
officer, when serving as such in the regiment. He embarked at Ramsgate with
the service squadrons of his regiment in April, 1815, and landed at Ostend,
whence the 10th regiment proceeded to Brussels: it was present at Quatre
Bras, although not engaged with the enemy: and at Waterloo it behaved with
the greatest gallantry, and lost two officers, nineteen soldiers, and
fifty-one horses killed, in addition to six officers and twenty-six men
wounded. Lieutenant Hardman's position as adjutant necessarily kept him in
the vicinity of his commanding officers, Col. Quentin and Major Howard;
therefore he was an eye-witness of poor Howard's death. Lieutenant Hardman
received the Waterloo medal. The 10th Hussars landed at Ramsgate, from
Boulogne, in January, 1816, and marched to Brighton, where Lieutenant
Hardman resigned the adjutantcy, February 8, 1816, and exchanged to
half-pay of the regiment, June 6, same year, since which period he has not
served upon full pay.

G. L. S.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHURCHES IN "DOMESDAY BOOK."

(Vol. viii., p. 151.)

A. W. H. says, "In the case of many parishes it is stated [in _Domesday
Book_], that there was a church there: is it considered _conclusive_
authority that there was not one, if it is not mentioned in _Domesday
Book_?" This question has, I doubt not, often engaged the attention of
antiquaries; and I am somewhat surprised that the Query has elicited no
reply. The conclusion has often been drawn that, no church being mentioned,
none existed before the survey. It would appear this conclusion has been an
erroneous one. In the last volume issued by the Chetham Society (_Documents
relating to the Priory of Penwortham, and other Possessions in Lancashire
of the Abbey of Evesham_, edited by W. A. Hulton, Esq.) that point is ably
discussed; and as Mr. Hulton's views on a subject of so much interest
cannot but be valuable, I venture to extract them, as worthy of a place in
"N. & Q." He says:

    "Donations of churches with tithes are made directly after the survey
    of _Domesday_ was taken. And yet that survey is entirely silent as to
    their existence. Similar omissions have given rise to doubts, whether
    the institution of our parochial economy had been carried out to its
    full extent previous to the Conquest, and whether we are not indebted
    to the Normans for its full perfection. Such doubts are unfounded....
    There is nothing in _Domesday_ to justify the doubts alluded to. A
    consideration of the objects of that survey will dissipate them: the
    purpose was principally financial. It was directed so as to obtain a
    correct account of the taxable property within the kingdom. And it was
    immaterial whether the proceeds were paid altogether to the owner, or a
    definite portion was diverted into other channels. Therefore those
    churches which were endowed only with tithes of the surrounding
    districts, as Eccleston and Croston, Penwortham and Leyland, in Leyland
    Hundred, and Rochdale and Eccles, in Salford Hundred, were unnoticed,
    although the two first-named churches were granted by Roger de Poictou,
    with their tithes and other appurtenances, to the Priory of Lancaster;
    and the pages of the _Coucher Book of Whalley_ prove the two latter
    churches to have existed at a date perhaps anterior to the Conquest.
    But the case was different when a church was endowed with glebe-land.
    Such a church appeared in the light of a landowner, and in that
    character is its existence notified. Thus, in modern Lancashire, south
    of the Ribble, the churches of Wigan and Winwick, Childwall, Walton,
    Warrington, Manchester, Blackburn, and Whalley are expressly named in
    _Domesday_, but invariably in connexion with the ownership of land. It
    seems clear, therefore, that the silence of _Domesday_ cannot be urged
    as a proof of the {356} non-existence of a church, or of the subsequent
    grant of those rights and privileges by which its due efficiency is
    maintained."--_Introd._, p. xxiii.

WM. DOBSON.

Preston.

       *       *       *       *       *

MEMOIRS OF GRAMMONT.

(Vol. viii., pp. 461. 549.; Vol. ix., pp. 3. 204.)

    "Ceste noble race de Grantmont."--_Brantôme._

The following are some of the principal events in the life of the Chevalier
de Grammont.

He was born in the year 1621, probably at the family seat of Bidache, in
Gascony.

He was sent to the college at Pau in Béarn, the nearest university to the
family residence. His studies here did not much benefit him; and although
intended for the church, we find him at a later period actually highly
commending the Lord's Prayer, and seriously inquiring by whom it was
written. On his declining a clerical life, he was sent to the French army
in Piedmont in 1643. He served under his brother, the Marshal, and the
Prince de Condé; and was present at the three battles of Fribourg on the
3rd, 5th, and 9th Aug. 1644; and at that of Nordlinguen on the 3rd Aug.
1645. It was at the battle of Fribourg that the Prince de Condé, having
failed in his first attack on the enemy, got off horseback, and placed
himself at the head of the regiment of Conti, whilst all the officers and
volunteers alighted also, amongst whom is mentioned the Chevalier de
Grammont; and this reassuring the soldiers, they charged the enemy, who
fled into a wood under favour of the approaching night. At Nordlinguen, the
Marshal de Grammont was taken prisoner, and nearly murdered by the Germans,
to revenge the death of their General, the great Mercy, who was slain in
the battle. The Marshal was subsequently exchanged against Gen. Gleen.

In 1647 Grammont served again under his brother and the Prince de Condé in
Spain: and in 1648 he was present with them at the battle of Lens on the
20th Aug., where the Archduke Leopold and General Beck were totally
defeated in Flanders.

The troubles of the Fronde now commenced; and in the first instance
Grammont zealously attached himself to the prince. In Dec. 1649, he tested
the accuracy of the report that it was intended to assassinate the prince
by sending his own coach with the prince's liveries over the Pont Neuf, to
see what would occur. The result was, the coach was fired at; but, as no
one was in it, the would-be assassins did no harm. During the imprisonment
of the princes, Grammont, with others, joined the Spanish army which had
advanced into Picardy, in consequence of the treaty the Duchesse de
Longueville and Turenne had made with the King of Spain.

We do not find when Grammont left the prince's party; the prince himself
admitted it was with honour. He seems to have connected himself with
Gaston, Duke of Orleans; and is styled about this time by "la Grande
Mademoiselle" as one of her father's gentlemen. She also relates that when
the royal forces threatened Orleans, the inhabitants sent to the duke for
succour, and he sent the Count de Fiesque and Mons. de Grammont, who
appeased their fears. The duke also advised his daughter to take the
opinion of Fiesque and Grammont in all matters, as they had been in Orleans
long enough to know what ought to be done. When Mademoiselle was trying to
effect an entrance into the city, Grammont incited the inhabitants to
assist in breaking open a gate, which the authorities, under fear of the
royal displeasure, were afraid to direct. The gate was broken open, and she
was borne in triumph along the streets.

It was probably at this period that Grammont sighed for the Countess de
Fiesque (about whom he, and his nephew the Count de Guiche, quarrelled); as
Mademoiselle, in her _Memoirs_, relates that, in the year 1656, on her
interview with Christina, Queen of Sweden, she presented to her, amongst
others, the Countess de Fiesque, one of her ladies of honour. The Queen
observed: "The Countess de Fiesque is not so beautiful as to have made so
much noise; is the Chevalier de Grammont still in love with her?"

In 1654 Grammont accompanied the Court to Peronne; where they anxiously
awaited Turenne's attempt to force the Prince de Condé's lines at Arras, as
related in the _Memoirs_.

On the 25th Nov. 1655, Madame de Sevigné writes to Bussi-Rabutin, relating
an anecdote in which Grammont was a party.

Madame de Motteville relates that Queen Christina rallied the Chevalier de
Grammont on the passion he had then for the Duchesse de Mercoeur, one of
Cardinal Mazarin's nieces; and spared him only on account of the utter
hopelessness of it.

It is about this period we are inclined to place Grammont's first visit to
England; where curiosity, Hamilton informs us, drew him to see so
remarkable a character as Cromwell; but this visit will be a good
starting-place for the next Number.

W. H. LAMMIN.

Fulham.

       *       *       *       *       *

CELTIC AND LATIN LANGUAGES.

(Vol. viii., pp. 174. 280. 353.; Vol. ix., p. 14.)

    "Professor F. W. Newman, in his little work entitled _Regal Rome_,
    maintains that the old languages of Italy, especially the Umbrian and
    Sabine, contained a striking predominance of Celtic ingredients, and he
    wishes to show that this is still evident even in the Latin of Cicero.
    His proof rests on vocabularies (pp. 19--26.), especially in regard to
    the military, political, and {357} religious words which he supposes
    the Romans derived from the Sabines (p. 61.). With regard to these
    lists, I have to observe, that while all that is valid in the
    comparison merely gives the Indo-Germanic of the Celtic languages--a
    fact beyond dispute--Mr. Newman takes no pains to discriminate between
    the marks of an original identity of root, and those words which the
    Celts of Britain derived from their Roman conquerors."--Donaldson's
    _Varronianus_, p. 64.

    "It is to be remarked, that almost _all the words_ of the British
    tongue agree either with the Greek or Latin. It is this strong
    similarity of features between their own language and those of Greece
    and Italy, that has induced so many of my countrymen to claim for it
    the honour of being the mother-tongue of all, and to scorn all
    examination which did not commence with this confession. Even the late
    learned Dr. Owen Pugh has, in his _Dictionary_, by arbitrarily
    selecting certain syllables as the roots of all Cumrian words, done
    much to foster this overweening conceit. The system was carried to its
    extreme point of absurdity by the Rev. Edward Davies, who by the help
    of such syllables expected to unravel the mysteries of all languages.
    This failure has I hope paved the way for the more sober consideration
    of the question, which, if worked out fairly, will in my opinion
    establish the claim of the Cumrian tongue, if not to be the mother of
    all tongues, at least to be a valuable branch of the Caucasian tree of
    languages. Now, had the two races, the Roman and Cumrian, remained
    always separate, a comparative etymology would have been an easy task;
    for no more would be necessary than to put the similar roots, having
    the same meaning, side by side. But, unfortunately for the scholar who
    undertakes to prove the question, the Romans were in this island four
    hundred years, colonised it partly, and partly gave it their own form
    of civilisation. As before mentioned, the inhabitants adopted with
    avidity the Roman dress, language, and literature. That language must
    therefore be supposed to have entered deeply into the composition of
    the present Cumrian tongue. The sceptical examiner may therefore
    reasonably object, that any similarity between the two languages might
    have originated in the adoption of that of Rome by the British
    provincials. In answer to this I refer in the first place to Lloyd's
    reasoning, quoted in the note," viz. that the same similarity exists
    between the Latin and the Erse [see Newman, in the _Classical Museum_,
    vol. vi.]. "In the second place to the fact, that Wales and Cornwall do
    not appear to have been occupied, like the rest of England, by the
    Romans."... "Still, however, the long residence of the Romans in the
    island, with the known influence always produced by such a state of
    things, renders every statement grounded on the similarity alone of the
    languages of the two races, the conquered and the conquerors, liable to
    suspicion. I have therefore been compelled to enter upon an exceedingly
    difficult investigation, which, if successful, must prove the radical
    identity of the Latin and Cumrian tongues. The proof is this: If there
    are derivative words in the Latin, of which we must seek the primitives
    in the Cumrian, and if these primitives be shown to furnish an
    explanation of many words before inexplicable on etymological
    principles. For example, if the word 'to tread' under various forms be
    found, with the meaning 'to trample with the feet,' in most of the
    western languages of Europe, and have no noun to base itself upon in
    these languages, and yet the noun 'traed the feet' be found in one of
    them, the inference is irresistible that the verb in all its forms was
    derived from this root. To deny this would be equivalent to a denial
    that the Latin verb _calcare_ came from _calx_, 'the heel.' In the
    following list, such words alone, with a few exceptions for the sake of
    etymological illustration, have been introduced. It might have been
    indefinitely extended, but the difficulty was to confine the examples
    within moderate limits."--Williams on _One Source of the Non-Hellenic
    Portion of the Latin Language_.[2]

This eminent scholar supplies sixty-two, with explanatory notes, and
subjoins a list of sixty-three. Under the example "Occo, occare, _to
harrow_," he observes:

    "Persons who wish to draw subtle inferences say that all the terms of
    the Romans connected with agriculture may be referred to a Greek
    source, while the terms expressive of war and hunting are non-Hellenic.
    The induction fails completely in both parts, as might easily be shown.
    When Cæsar landed in Britain, the natives were agriculturists, densely
    planted. And Halley proved, that the harvest which Cæsar's soldiers
    reaped had ripened at the average period of a Kentish harvest in his
    days. Assuredly then the Britons had not the agricultural names to
    learn from the Romans of an after age."

    "I begin," says Newman, "with the country and domestic animals, which
    will show how very far from the truth Niebuhr was, when he imagined
    that in words connected with 'the gentler pursuits of life' the Roman
    language has peculiarly extensive agreement with the Hellenic."

When your correspondent T. H. T. says--

    "Professor Newman, in his _Regal Rome_, has drawn attention to the
    subject; but his induction does not appear sufficiently extensive to
    warrant any decisive conclusion respecting the position the Celtic
    holds as an element of the Latin,"--

he could not have known that the same writer has, in the sixth volume of
the _Classical Museum_, continued the comparison at great length; and as
that work falls into the hands of but few, I shall transcribe some passages
which may throw light on the subject:

    "It has for some years been recognised, at least by several English
    scholars, that there is a remarkable similarity between the Celtic
    languages and Latin. In the case of Welsh it was, I believe, at first
    supposed that the words must have been introduced by the Roman dominion
    in Britain; but when the likeness was found to exist in the Erse, and
    that the Erse was even more like to Latin (as regards the consonants)
    than the Welsh is, this idea of course fell to {358} the ground. The
    scholar and physiologist, who pressed into notice the strong
    similarities of the Celtic to the European languages, and claimed a
    place for Celtic within that group, Dr. Prichard, has naturally fixed
    his attention with so much strength on the _primitive_ relations of all
    these tongues, as to be jealous and suspicious of an argument, which
    alleges that the one has borrowed from the other. Some ten years ago,
    by his favour, I read a MS. of a vocabulary (the composition of Dr.
    Stratton, formerly of Aberdeen), which compared the Gaelic with the
    Latin tongue in alphabetical order without comment or development. From
    this vocabulary Prichard gives an extract in his chapter on the Italian
    nations, and finds it entirely to confirm his views that the Roman
    language has not suffered any larger admixture by a foreign action.
    What is or was Dr. Stratton's opinion, I never heard. His vocabulary
    first suggested to me the value of this inquiry, and that is all.
    Having now been led to a fuller examination of the Welsh and Gaelic
    dictionaries, I find not only a far greater abundance of material
    (especially in the Welsh) than I could have imagined; but also, that by
    grouping words aright, conclusions result such as I had not expected,
    and adverse to those of Dr. Prichard."

Professor Newman, as T. H. T. has observed, confined himself to a tabular
view of Celtic and Latin words; but the grammatical structure and formal
development of the two languages have not been overlooked in the
philological literature of England. These interesting inquiries have been
pursued by Dr. Prichard, in his elaborate treatise on the _Eastern Origin
of the Celtic Nations_, and the Rev. W. D. Conybeare, (in his _Theological
Lectures delivered in Bristol College in 1831-33_) has shown that it is by
thus analysing the grammatical structure, which forms the very skeleton of
languages, rather than by confining our attention to mere vocabularies,
that we may best detect their true affinities, and has illustrated this
doctrine by a few Welsh examples. In the _West of England Archæological
Journal_ is exhibited (I believe by the same author) the identity of verbal
forms in the Welsh and Latin languages.

Nevertheless, Archdeacon Williams maintains that two languages may have a
common vocabulary, but different grammars[3]:

    "The Latin language, whether from Pelasgic or Achæan influence, adopted
    at an early period the Hellenic grammar; and, under the skilful hands
    of the bilingual Ennius, became that polished interpreter of thought,
    which yields in regularity and majesty to the Greek alone. The Cumri
    either retained, which is more probable, a still more ancient, or
    invented a grammar, now peculiar to themselves. This, although it be
    simple and scientific in the highest degree, is so completely at
    variance with all the other grammars of the civilised world, that
    scholars who have to acquire it late in life feel the strongest
    repugnance to its forms and principles, and are tempted to regard a
    language more fixed and unchangeable in its principles than any other
    existing, as more slippery and grasp-escaping than the Proteus of the
    Grecian mythology."

Since I wrote these extracts, I have been much gratified by the perusal of
Archdeacon Williams's _Gomer_, which I recommend to all interested in this
inquiry.

  BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM.

[Footnote 2: In _Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh_, vol.
xiii.]

[Footnote 3: In his _Gomer_ he shows that the Latin and Cymraeg display
great similarity in the tenses of the substantive verb.]

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Box Sawdust for Collodion._--The following will be of some use to your
photographic readers:

I find that, by treating box sawdust with nitric and sulphuric acid (in the
same manner as cotton), and then dissolving it in ether, it gives a far
more sensitive collodion than either cotton or paper, and the pictures
produced by it are of unequalled brilliancy.

Can you inform me whether portraits can be taken _for sale_, by the
collodion process, without infringing upon the patents?

CHAS. WHITWORTH.

Henrietta St., Birmingham.

_Proportions of Chlorides and Silver._--I trust you will allow me space in
your valuable work for some remarks in reference to an important
photographic query, viz. What are the proportions of chlorides and silver
uniformly suited to give the best positive pictures?

I am led to propose this subject for the consideration of practical
photographists, and, if possible, that amateurs may arrive at something
like a rule to guide them in printing positives that will please.

The necessity of these remarks, to me at least, appear very evident from
the wide space which stands between the proportions proposed by various
operators. MR. LYTE, "N. & Q.," Vol. ix., p. 158., says 42 grains of
chloride and 100 grains of silver to 1 oz. of water. MR. POLLOCK, "N. &Q.,"
Vol. vii., p. 588., says 20 grains chloride, and 90 grains of silver to the
ounce. MR. HOCKIN has 10 grains chloride, silver 60. MR. DELAMOTTE, for
albumenized paper, chloride 60 grains, silver 120. MR. THORNTHWAITE begins
as low as chloride ½ grain, and silver 30 grains; and lastly, amidst a long
range of proportions, from 1 grain of chloride to the ounce, and silver 20
grains to the ounce, DR. DIAMOND, a great authority in photography, assures
all that the best results can be obtained by using of chloride 5 grains to
the ounce, and of silver 40 grains to the ounce. If so, let the
photographic world know that the latter proportions are sufficient, and the
others needless, wasteful, and expensive without cause. I trust you agree
with me in thinking that it would be of use to a large number of beginners
to have the proportions best suited for printing positives defined as near
as possible, and not be left to guess at proportions varying from ½ grain
to 60 grains, and from 20 to 120. I have written hurriedly, and hope you
will see the object I aim at.

AMATEUR.

{359}

_Photographic Copies of Rembrandt._--The extreme rarity and great pecuniary
value of many of Rembrandt's finest etchings are doubtless well known to
many of our readers, as being such as to put these master-pieces of art
beyond the reach of ordinary purchasers. This series of works, calculated
beyond all others of their kind to delight the possessor, will however,
thanks to photography, soon be obtainable by all admirers of the great
master. Two distinguished French photographers, the brothers MM. Bisson,
have succeeded in obtaining, by means of this wonderful art, copies of a
fidelity attainable by no other process: so that the wondrous lights,
shades, half-tones, and chiaro-obscuro, for which Rembrandt is so
remarkable, are preserved in all their original beauty. The plates will be
accompanied by descriptive letter-press, and by a Biography of Rembrandt
from the pen of M. Charles Blanc. As the works are so numerous, the first
series will consist of forty plates, to be issued in ten livraisons, each
containing four plates, price twenty francs; a very moderate sum, if we
remember that among the works thus to be issued, at a cost of five francs
each, will be found copies of such gems as the _Avocat Tolling_ and the
_Pièce de Cent Florins_.

_Coloured Photographs._--I have lately seen, and very much admired, some
specimens of photographic coloured portraits. They have all the broad
effect of the great masters perfectly in detail, and none of the niggling
effect of many coloured photographs, which are in fact specimens of
miniature painting rather than photography--the outline alone being given
by the photographic art. The specimens I refer to appear to have been
soaked in oil, or some transparent varnish, and then coloured in separate
tints, probably from the back; the shadows being _entirely_ photographic.
It is evident they are quickly and easily executed; but I am desirous of
knowing the exact process, and shall be much obliged for information on the
subject.

AN AMATEUR.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Dr. Eleazar Duncon_ (Vol. ix., pp. 56. 184.).--Dr. Eleazar Duncon, and his
brother Mr. John Duncon, are mentioned in Barnabas Oley's Preface to George
Herbert's _Country Parson_, as having "died before the miracle of our happy
Restoration." There was another brother, Mr. Edmund Duncon, rector of
Fryarn Barnet, in the county of Middlesex; sent by Mr. Farrer to visit
George Herbert, during his last illness.

E. H. A.

_Christian Names_ (Vol. vii., pp. 406. 488. 626.).--The earliest instance I
have yet met with, of an individual with two Christian names, occurs in the
compulsory cession of the Abbey of Vale Royal to King Henry VIII.; the deed
conveying which is still extant in the Augmentation Office. It is in Latin,
and signed by John Harwood the Abbot, Alexander Sedon the Prior, _William
Brenck Harrysun_, and twelve other monks of the Abbey. Vale Royal Abbey is
now the seat of Lord Delamere, into whose family it came by purchase in
1616, from the descendant of Sir Thomas Holcroft, the original grantee from
the crown.

T. HUGHES.

Chester.

I send you a much earlier instance of two Christian names than any that has
hitherto been given in your pages. Henry Prince of Wales, son of King Henry
IV., was baptized by the names Henry Frederick. Vide Camden's _Remains_,
4to., 1605. I have not a reference to the page.

C. DE D.

_Abigail_ (Vol. iv., pp. 424., &c.; Vol. viii., p. 653.).--Your recent
correspondents on this subject do not appear to have met with the passage
in which I mentioned, that since putting the question, I had found that a
waiting-maid in Beaumont and Fletcher's comedy of _The Scornful Lady_ was
named Abigail; and that, as the play appeared to have been a favourite one,
the application of the name to the class generally was probably owing to
it. In the absence of any proof of its having been previously used in this
sense, I still continue to think that this conjecture was well founded.
Considering the terms on which Dean Swift was with the Mashams, he was the
last person in the world to have used such a term, unless it had been so
long in familiar use as to be deprived of all appearance of personal
allusion to them.

J. S. WARDEN.

"_Begging the question_" (Vol. viii., p. 640.).--This phrase is identical
with that of "petitio principii," a figure of speech well known both to
logicians and mathematicians, _i. e._ assuming a point as proved, and
reasoning upon it as such, which has in fact not been proved.

J. S. WARDEN.

_Russian Emperors_ (Vol. ix., p. 222.).--I am informed by a late resident
in Russia that the rumour to which MR. CROSFIELD refers has no foundation.
I am farther informed, however, that after a twenty-five years' reign the
monarch has even more absolute and despotic authority than before the lapse
of that time. I hope this subject may be well ventilated, as considerable
misapprehension exists about it.

JOHN SCRIBE.

_Garble_ (Vol. ix., p. 243.).--Your correspondent E. S. T. T. was mistaken
when he said that the "corrupt" meaning of the word _garble_ is now the
only one ever used. In proof of this I would give one instance, familiar to
me, in which it still retains its "good" signification. In "working"
cochineal, spices, and other similar merchandise at the warehouse in which
they are stored upon their arrival in this country, the operation of {360}
sifting and separating the good from the bad is termed _garbling_: the word
being here employed in the very same sense as in the examples quoted by
E. S. T. T., illustrative of its original meaning, and which sense he
erroneously stated it no longer possessed.

R. V. T.

Mincing Lane.

I cannot agree with your correspondent E. S. T. T., that a corruption of
meaning has taken place in this word; and that whereas it originally meant
a selection of the good and a discarding of the bad parts of anything, its
present meaning, is exactly the reverse of this. Its original signification
is correctly stated: the garbling of spices, drugs, &c., meant the
selection of the good and the rejection of the bad. But the garbling of a
passage cited as a testimony is a precisely analogous process. The person
who garbles the passage omits those parts which can be used against his
view, and adduces only those parts which support his conclusion. He selects
the parts which are good, and rejects those which are bad, _for his
purpose_. When a passage is said to be garbled, it is always implied that
the person who quotes it has suppressed a portion which tells against
himself; but that portion is, so far as he is concerned, the _bad_, not the
_good_ portion. The secondary and metaphorical is therefore precisely
analogous to the primary and literal sense of the word, and not the reverse
of it.

L.

_Electric Telegraph_ (Vol. ix., p. 270.).--As every new attempt to improve
this invaluable invention, and to extend its use, is of world-wide
importance, the following extract from _La Presse_, a French newspaper of
March 23rd, will excite inquiry:

    "On écrit de Berne, le 17 Mars, MM. Brunner et Hipp, directeurs des
    télégraphes électriques de la Suisse, viennent d'inventer un appareil
    portatif à l'aide duquel, en l'appliquant à un point quelconque des
    fils télégraphiques, on peut transmettre une dépêche. L'essai de cet
    appareil a été fait à deux lieues de Berne, dans un lieu où il n'existe
    aucune section de télégraphie."

The writer goes on to say that the experiment had been tested with success
on the lines to Zurich, Basle, Geneva, &c.

J. MACRAY.

Oxford.

_Butler's "Lives of the Saints"_ (Vol. viii., p.387.).--The inquiry
respecting the various editions of this valuable work not having yet
received any answer, the following information may in some degree satisfy
the inquirer. The first edition of the Rev. Alban Butler's _Lives of the
Saints_ was published in the author's lifetime, at various intervals from
1754 to 1759, when the last of the four volumes appeared, of which the
edition was composed. Part II. of vol. iii. is now before me, with the date
1758. No other edition appeared till after the death of the learned and
pious author, which took place in 1773.

The second edition was undertaken by the most Rev. Dr. Carpenter, Roman
Catholic Archbishop of Dublin, and appeared in 12 vols. in 1779. It is
stated in the title-page to be "corrected and enlarged from the author's
own MS." It did contain all the notes omitted in the previous edition, and
other matter prepared by the author. The third edition was published in
Scotland, and other editions followed; but I am unable to give any
particulars of them. But the splendid stereotype edition, published in
London by Murphy, in 1812, in 12 vols., is by far the best ever produced,
or ever likely to appear. Since this there have been other editions; one in
2 vols., published in Ireland, and a cheap edition in 12 small vols.,
printed at Derby; but they deserve little notice.

F. C. H.

_Anticipatory Use of the Cross_ (Vol. viii. _passim_).--In answer to
particular inquiry, I have been furnished by a resident in Macao with an
answer, of which the following is the substance:--The cross is commonly
used in China, and consists of any flat boards of sufficient size, the
upright shaft being usually eight to ten feet high. The transverse bar is
fixed by a single nail or rivet, and is therefore often loose, and may be
made sometimes to traverse a complete circle. It is not so much an
instrument of punishment in itself, as it is an operation-board whereon to
confine the criminal, not with nails, but ropes, to undergo--as in the case
of a woman taken in adultery--the cutting away of the flesh from the bosom.
He adds, that he has witnessed such punishment, and he has no doubt that
the cross has been used in this way in China immemorially. Any of your
correspondents will much oblige me by correcting or confirming this
statement from positive testimony.

T. J. BUCKTON.

Lichfield.

_The Marquis of Granby_ (Vol. ix., p. 127.).--A portrait of this nobleman
constitutes the sign of a public-house at Doncaster, and of another at
Bawtry, nine miles from that town. His lordship, it is said, occasionally
occupied Carr House, near the former place, as a hunting-box in the middle
of the last century. As an instance of his lordship's popularity, I may
here add, that out of compliment to him, and for his greater convenience in
hunting, at a period when there was a considerable extent of uninclosed and
undrained country around Doncaster, the corporation directed several banks
and passages to be made on their estate at Rossington; and in 1752, that
body likewise presented the Marquis with the freedom of the borough.

C. J.

{361}

_Irish Letters_ (Vol. ix., p. 246).--The following inscription on the
monument of Lugnathan, nephew of St. Patrick, at Inchaguile, in Lough
Corrib, co. Galway, is supposed to be the most ancient in Ireland:

"LIE LUGNAEDON MACC LMENUEH."
"The stone of Lugnaodon, son of Limenueh."

The oldest Irish manuscript is the Book of Armagh, which contains a copy of
the Gospels, and some very old lives of St. Patrick. (See O'Donovan's
_Irish Grammar_, Dublin, 1845, p. lii.)

THOMPSON COOPER.

Cambridge.

_Rev. John Cawley_ (Vol. ix., p. 247.).--In reply to the inquiry of C. T.
R., What is the authority for stating that the Rev. John Cawley, rector of
Didcot, was a son of Cawley the regicide? I send you the following extract
from Wood's _Athenæ_ (Bliss's edition), vol. iv. col. 580.:

    "John Cawley, son of Will. Cawley of the city of Chichester, gent.,
    was, by the endeavours of his father, made Fellow of All Souls' College
    (from that of Magdalen) by the visitors appointed by Parliament, anno
    1649; took the degrees in arts, that of Master being completed in 1654;
    and whether he became a preacher soon after, without any orders
    conferred on him by a bishop, I cannot tell. Sure I am, that after his
    Majesty's restoration, he became a great loyalist, disowned the former
    actions of his father, who had been one of the judges of King Charles
    I.; when he was tryed for his life by a pretended court of justice,
    rayled at him (being then living in a skulking condition beyond sea);
    and took all opportunities to free himself from having any hand or
    anything to do in the times of usurpation. About which time, having
    married one of the daughters of Mr. Pollard of Newnham Courtney, he
    became rector of Dedcot, or Dudcot, in Berkshire; rector of Henley in
    Oxfordshire; and in the beginning of March, 1666, Archdeacon of
    Lincoln."

[Greek: Halieus.]

Dublin.

_New Zealander and Westminster Bridge_ (Vol. ix., pp. 74. 159.).--Your
correspondents have traced this celebrated passage to a letter from Horace
Walpole to Sir H. Mann, and to passages in poems by Mrs. Barbauld and Kirke
White. It appears to me that the following extract from the Preface to
P. B. Shelley's _Peter Bell the Third_, has more resemblance to it. It is
addressed to Moore:

    "Hoping that the immortality which you have given to the Fudges you
    will receive from them; and in the firm expectation, that when London
    shall be an habitation of bitterns, when St. Paul's and Westminster
    Abbey shall stand shapeless and nameless ruins, in the midst of an
    unpeopled marsh; when the piers of Westminster Bridge shall become the
    nuclei of islets of reeds and osiers, and cast the jagged shadows of
    their broken arches on the solitary stream; some transatlantic
    commentator will be weighing in the scales of some new and now
    unimagined system of criticism, the respective merits of the Bells, and
    the Fudges, and their historians."

JOHN THRUPP.

10. York Gate.

Several passages from different writers having been mentioned in your
columns as likely to have suggested to our brilliant essayist and historian
his celebrated graphic sketch of the New Zealander meditating over the
ruins of London, I would beg leave to hint the probability that not one of
those many passages were present to his mind or memory at the moment he
wrote. The fact is that the picture is so true to nature, and has been so
often sketched, and the associations and reflections arising from it so
often felt and described, that I cannot for a moment admit the insinuation
of a charge of plagiarism, or even unconscious adaptation of another's
thoughts in one so abundantly stored with imagery of his own, that the very
overflowings of his own wealth would enrich a generation of writers. It has
however occurred to me that his classic mind might have remembered the
picture of Marius amid the ruins of Carthage, or, more probably, the still
more striking passage in the celebrated letter of Sulpicius to Cicero, on
the death of his daughter Tullia, in which he describes himself, on his
return from Asia, as sailing from Ægina towards Megara, and contemplating
the surrounding countries:

    "Behind me lay Ægina, before me Megara; on my right I saw Piræus, and
    on my left Corinth. These cities, once so flourishing and magnificent,
    now presented nothing to my view but a sad spectacle of desolation."

And he then proceeds with his melancholy reflections on so many perishing
memorials of human glory and grandeur in so small a compass.

G. W. T.

Volney wrote thus:

    "Qui sait si sur les rives de la Seine, de la Tamise ... dans le
    tourbillon de tant de jouissances ... un voyageur, comme moi, ne
    s'asseoira pas un jour sur de muettes ruines, et ne pleurera pas
    solitaire sur la cendre des peuples et la mémoire de leur
    grandeur?"--_Les Ruines_, chap. ii. p. 11.

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

_Misapplication of Terms_ (Vol. ix., p. 44.).--I cannot pretend to set up
my judgment against that of MR. SQUEERS, who has in his favour the
proverbial wisdom of the Schools. Riddle, however, who I believe is an
authority, gives the word LEGO no such meaning as "to hearken." If Plautus
uses the word in that sense, as it is an uncommon one, the passage should
have been quoted, or a reference given. The meaning of {362} the word
appears to be "to collect, run over, see, read, choose." In justification
of my criticism, and in reply to MR. SQUEERS, I shall quote Horne Tooke's
remark, in speaking of "[Greek: ta deonta], or things which ought to be
done;" _Div. Purley_, Pt. II. ch. viii. (vol. ii. pp. 499-501., edit.
1849):

    "The first of these, LEGEND, which means _That which ought to be read_,
    is, from the early misapplication of the term by impostors, now used by
    us as if it meant, _That which ought to be laughed at_. And so it is
    explained in our Dictionaries."

At the hazard of being again deemed hypercritical, while on this subject,
_the misapplication of terms_, I must question the correctness of the
phrase "_Under_ the _circum_stance." A thing must be _in_ or _amidst_ its
_circum_-stances; it cannot be _under_ them. I admit the commonness of the
expression, but it is not the less a solecism. Can you inform me when it
was introduced? I hope it is not old enough to be considered inveterate.
The best authors write "in the circumstances;" and yet so prevalent is the
anomaly, that in a very respectable periodical, not long since, the French
"_dans_ les circonstances présentes," given as a quotation, is rendered
"_Under_ the present circumstances."

J. W. THOMAS.

Dewsbury.

_Hoglandia_ (Vol. viii., p. 151.).--In reply to an inquiry for the full
title of a book from which a quotation is given in _Pugna Porcorum_, the
full title is [Greek: Choirochôrographia], _sive Hoglandiæ descriptio_,
published anonymously in 1709, in retaliation of Edward Holdsworth's
_Muscipula_. "Hoglandia" is Hampshire, and Holdsworth probably was a
Hampshire man, for he was educated at Winchester, and we may presume the
anonymous author to have been a Cambro-Briton.

H. L.

       *       *       *       *       *


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H. MARTIN. _Mr. Keble's edition of Hooker is more carefully edited than
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ABHBA. _The reference must certainly be to Richard Sterne, Archbishop of
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NEISON ON RAILWAY ACCIDENTS. _A Correspondent wishes to know where this
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W. S. _For the etymology of lampoon, see Todd's_ Johnson, _and
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song. It imports_ Let us drink, _from the old French_ lamper, _and was
repeated at the end of each couplet at carousals_.

W. A. W. (Brighton). _The specked appearance is entirely owing to your
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{363}

RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF THE CAMBRIDGE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY.

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OCTAVO SERIES.

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III. Ancient Cambridgeshire. By C. C. BABINGTON, M.A. 3s. 6d.

Reports and Communications, Nos. I. and II. 1s. each.

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J. DEIGHTON; MACMILLAN & CO., Cambridge.

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       *       *       *       *       *


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LIFE OF JEROME CARDAN, of Milan, Physician. By HENRY MORLEY.

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Also, by the same Author,

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{364}

WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

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Founded A.D. 1842.

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
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   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas each.--D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square
(established A.D. 1785), sole manufacturers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25
Guineas each. Every instrument warranted. The peculiar advantages of these
pianofortes are best described in the following professional testimonial,
signed by the majority of the leading musicians of the age:--"We, the
undersigned members of the musical profession, having carefully examined
the Royal Pianofortes manufactured by MESSRS. D'ALMAINE & CO., have great
pleasure in bearing testimony to their merits and capabilities. It appears
to us impossible to produce instruments of the same size possessing a
richer and finer tone, more elastic touch, or more equal temperament, while
the elegance of their construction renders them a handsome ornament for the
library, boudoir, or drawing-room. (Signed) J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R.
Bishop, J. Blewitt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp, P. Delavanti, C. H. Dolby,
E. F. Fitzwilliam, W. Forde, Stephen Glover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison, H. F.
Hassé, J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes, W. H. Holmes, W. Kuhe, G. F.
Kiallmark, E. Land, G. Lanza, Alexander Lee, A. Leffler, E. J. Loder, W. H.
Montgomery, S. Nelson, G. A. Osborne, John Parry, H. Panofka, Henry
Phillips, F. Praegar, E. F. Rimbault, Frank Romer, G. H. Rodwell, E.
Rockel, Sims Reeves, J. Templeton, F. Weber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright," &c.

D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Lists and Designs Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *


CHUBB'S LOCKS, with all the recent improvements. Strong fire-proof safes,
cash and deed boxes. Complete lists of sizes and prices may be had on
application.

CHUBB & SON, 57. St. Paul's Churchyard, London; 28. Lord Street, Liverpool;
16. Market Street, Manchester; and Horseley Fields, Wolverhampton.

       *       *       *       *       *


IMPERIAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY.

1. OLD BROAD STREET, LONDON.

Instituted 1820.

       *       *       *       *       *

SAMUEL HIBBERT, ESQ., _Chairman_.

WILLIAM R. ROBINSON, ESQ., _Deputy-Chairman_.

       *       *       *       *       *

The SCALE OF PREMIUMS adopted by this Office will be found of a very
moderate character, but at the same time quite adequate to the risk
incurred.

FOUR-FIFTHS, or 80 per cent. of the Profits, are assigned to Policies
_every fifth year_, and may be applied to increase the sum insured, to an
immediate payment in cash, or to the reduction and ultimate extinction of
future Premiums.

ONE-THIRD of the Premium on Insurances of 500l. and upwards, for the whole
term of life, may remain as a debt upon the Policy, to be paid off at
convenience; or the Directors will lend sums of 50l. and upwards, on the
security of Policies effected with this Company for the whole term of life,
when they have acquired an adequate value.

SECURITY.--Those who effect Insurances with this Company are protected by
its Subscribed Capital of 750,000l., of which nearly 140,000l. is invested,
from the risk incurred by Members of Mutual Societies.

The satisfactory financial condition of the Company, exclusive of the
Subscribed and Invested Capital, will be seen by the following Statement:

  On the 31st October, 1853, the sums
  Assured, including Bonus added,
  amounted to                          £2,500,000

  The Premium Fund to more than           800,000

  And the Annual Income from the
  same source, to                         109,000

Insurances, without participation in Profits, may be effected at reduced
rates.

  SAMUEL INGALL, Actuary.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALLSOPP'S PALE or BITTER ALE. MESSRS. S. ALLSOPP & SONS beg to inform the
TRADE that they are now registering Orders for the March Brewings of their
PALE ALE in Casks of 18 Gallons and upwards, at the BREWERY,
Burton-on-Trent; and at the under-mentioned Branch Establishments:

  LONDON, at 61. King William Street, City.
  LIVERPOOL, at Cook Street.
  MANCHESTER, at Ducie Place.
  DUDLEY, at the Burnt Tree.
  GLASGOW, at 115. St. Vincent Street.
  DUBLIN, at 1. Crampton Quay.
  BIRMINGHAM, at Market Hall.
  SOUTH WALES, at 13. King Street, Bristol.

MESSRS. ALLSOPP & SONS take the opportunity of announcing to PRIVATE
FAMILIES that their ALES, so strongly recommended by the Medical
Profession, may be procured in DRAUGHT and BOTTLES GENUINE from all the
most RESPECTABLE LICENSED VICTUALLERS, on "ALLSOPP'S PALE ALE" being
specially asked for.

When in bottle, the genuineness of the label can be ascertained by its
having "ALLSOPP & SONS" written across it.

       *       *       *       *       *


W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.

1. ALBERT TERRACE, NEW CROSS, HATCHAM, SURREY.

       *       *       *       *       *


Patronised by the Royal Family.

TWO THOUSAND POUNDS for any person producing Articles superior to the
following:

THE HAIR RESTORED AND GREYNESS PREVENTED.

BEETHAM'S CAPILLARY FLUID is acknowledged to be the most effectual article
for Restoring the Hair in Baldness, strengthening when weak and fine,
effectually preventing falling or turning grey, and for restoring its
natural colour without the use of dye. The rich glossy appearance it
imparts is the admiration of every person. Thousands have experienced its
astonishing efficacy. Bottles, 2s. 6d.; double, 4s. 6d.; 7s. 6d. equal to 4
small; 11s. to 6 small; 21s. to 13 small. The most perfect beautifier ever
invented.

SUPERFLUOUS HAIR REMOVED.

BEETHAM'S VEGETABLE EXTRACT does not cause pain or injury to the skin. Its
effect is unerring, and it is now patronised by royalty and hundreds of the
first families. Bottles, 5s.

BEETHAM'S PLASTER is the only effectual remover of Corns and Bunions. It
also reduces enlarged Great Toe Joints in an astonishing manner. If space
allowed, the testimony of upwards of twelve thousand individuals, during
the last five years, might be inserted. Packets, 1s.; Boxes, 2s. 6d. Sent
Free by BEETHAM, Chemist, Cheltenham, for 14 or 36 Post Stamps.

    Sold by PRING, 30. Westmorland Street; JACKSON, 9. Westland Row; BEWLEY
    & EVANS, Dublin; GOULDING, 108. Patrick Street, Cork; BARRY, 9. Main
    Street, Kinsale; GRATTAN, Belfast; MURDOCK, BROTHERS, Glasgow; DUNCAN &
    FLOCKHART, Edinburgh. SANGER, 150. Oxford Street; PROUT, 229. Strand;
    KEATING, St. Paul's Churchyard; SAVORY & MOORE, Bond Street; HANNAY,
    63. Oxford Street; London. All Chemists and Perfumers will procure
    them.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles, consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS,
Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and
other travelling requisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on
receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,

65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish
of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, April 15.
1854.

       *       *       *       *       *


Corrections made to printed original.

page 358, "I find that, by treating box sawdust": 'It find that' in
original.

page 361, "unimagined system of criticism": 'sytem' in original.





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