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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 234, April 22, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc.
Author: Various
Language: English
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"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 234.]
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page
  Whitefield and Kennington Common, by H. M. Bealby            367
  Anachronisms, by Cuthbert Bede, B.A.                         367
  Cephas, a Binder, and not a Rock, by the Rev. Moses
  Margoliouth                                                  368
  Epitaphs, &c.                                                368
  The Rigby Correspondence, by James F. Ferguson               369
  The Wandering Bee                                            370

  MINOR NOTES:--Tippet--Ridings and Chaffings--Henry of
  Huntingdon's "Letter to Walter"--Arthuriana--Encyclopedia
  of Indexes, or Tables of Contents--Errata in Nichols'
  "Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica"                    370

  Genesis iv. 7.                                               371
  Roland the Brave                                             372
  Clay Tobacco-pipes, by Henry T. Riley                        372

  MINOR QUERIES:--Cabinet: Sheffield, Earl of Mulgrave,
  Marquis of Normanby, and Duke of Buckinghamshire--
  Bersethrigumnue--Lady Jane Grey--Addison and Watts--Lord
  Boteloust's Statue by Richard Hayware--Celtic in Devon--
  Knobstick--Aristotle--The Passion of our Lord dramatised--
  Ludwell: Lunsford: Kemp--Linnæan Medal--Lowth of Sawtrey:
  Robert Eden--Gentile Names of the Jews--The Black Prince--
  Maid of Orleans--Fawell Arms and Crest--"Had I met thee in
  thy beauty"--Portrait of D. P. Tremesin--Edition of
  "Othello"--Prospect House, Clerkenwell--Ancient Family of
  Widderington--Value of Money in the Seventeenth Century      373

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Ruin near St. Asaph, North
  Wales--Wafers--Asgill on Translation to Heaven--Ancient
  Custom at Coleshill                                          375

  The Songs of Degrees                                         376
  American Poems imputed to English Authors                    377
  "Feather in your Cap"                                        378
  Perspective, by Benjamin Ferrey, &c.                         378
  Lord Fairfax, by T. Balch, &c.                               379
  "Consilium Defectorum Cardinalium," by Charles Hardwick, &c. 380

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Mounting Positives--Mounting
  of Photographs and Difficulties in the Wax-paper Process--
  The New Waxed-paper, or Céroléine Process                    381

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Origin of Clubs--Dr. Whichcote
  and Dorothy Jordan--"Paid down upon the Nail"--"Man proposes,
  but God disposes"--Roman Catholic Patriarchs--Classic
  Authors and the Jews--Mawkin--Mantelpiece--Mousehunt--
  "Vanitatem observare," &c.                                   383

  Notes on Books, &c.                                          386
  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                                 387
  Notices to Correspondents                                    387

       *       *       *       *       *

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Your correspondent the REV. W. SPARROW SIMPSON (Vol. ix., p. 295.) has
given some interesting little notes respecting the past history of
Kennington Common. Other notes might be added, and which should not be
overlooked in a record of events connected with a spot whose associations
and whose name are about to pass away for ever. After all, it is a
righteous act, a noble deed, a benevolent mission, that gives a kind of
immortality to a locality. It was here that the ever memorable George
Whitefield proclaimed in an earnest voice, and with an earnest look, the
gospel of Jesus Christ to multitudes of his fellow-creatures. He was
wonderfully endowed by God for his great work, and the evidence of his vast
success is to be found in the fact that immense numbers flocked from all
parts to listen to the tidings which he had to deliver. He had audiences on
Kennington Common amounting to ten, twenty and thirty thousand people,
great numbers of whom were savingly impressed by his message. He melted
their hearts, and sent them away, reflecting on the great problems of man's
history, and on the dignity and destiny of the human mind. Take the
following from his published diary, which is now scarce, and not much

    "Sunday, April 29, 1731. At five in the evening went and preached at
    Kennington Common, about two miles from London, where upwards of 20,000
    people were supposed to be present. The wind being for me, it carried
    the voice to the extremest part of the audience. All stood attentive,
    and joined in the Psalm and Lord's Prayer so regularly, that I scarce
    ever preached with more quietness in any church. Many were much

    "Sunday, May 6, 1731. At six in the evening preached at Kennington; but
    such a sight I never saw before. Some supposed there were above 30,000
    or 40,000 people, and near fourscore coaches, besides great numbers of
    horses; and there was such an awful silence amongst them, and the Word
    of God came with such power, that all seemed pleasingly surprised. I
    continued my discourse for an hour and a half."

    "Sunday, July 22, 1739. Went to St. Paul's and received the blessed
    Sacrament, and preached in the evening at Kennington Common to about
    30,000 hearers. God gave me great power."

    "Friday, August 3, 1739. Having spent the day in completing my affairs
    (about to embark for America), and taking leave of my dear friends, I
    preached in the evening to near 20,000 at Kennington Common. I chose to
    discourse on St. Paul's parting speech to the elders at Ephesus, at
    which the people were exceedingly affected, and almost prevented my
    making any application. Many tears were shed when I talked of leaving
    them. I concluded all with a suitable hymn, but could scarce get to the
    coach for the people thronging me, to take me by the hand, and give me
    a parting blessing."

Let those who have a deep sympathy with the great and good, who have served
their age with exalted devotion and burning zeal, remember that on that
very spot which is now called Kennington Park, this extraordinary man
lifted up his powerful voice, and with commanding attitude, with the
tenderest affection, with persuasive tones, and with thrilling appeals,
proclaimed the "glorious gospel of the blessed God" to multitudes of the
human family. He preached as in the light, and on the borders of the
eternal world. It is such facts as these that will enhance in mind and
memory the interest of such a spot. The philosophy of Whitefield's life has
yet to be written.


North Brixton.

       *       *       *       *       *


Mr. Thackeray makes another trip in the present (April) number of _The
Newcomes_. Clive writes a letter dated "May 1, 183--," which is at once
answered by Pendennis, who sends him "an extract from Bagham's article on
the Royal Academy," and Mr. Thackeray makes the critic ask, "Why have we no
picture of the _sovereign and her august consort_ from Smee's brush?" To
which it may be answered, "Because, even if the '183--' represents the time
of Victoria's reign, her Majesty did not take unto herself an 'august
consort' until Feb. 10, 1840." It may also be observed, that in all the
illustrations to Mr. Thackeray's delightful story, Mr. Doyle has clothed
the _dramatis personæ_ in the dresses of the present day. A notable example
of this occurs at p. 75., in his clever sketch of Mrs. Newcome's At Home,
"a small early party" given in the year 1833, the date being determined by
a very simple act of mental arithmetic, since the author informs us that
the colonel went to the party in the mufti-coat "sent him out by Messrs.
Stultz to India in the year 1821," and which he had "been in the habit of
considering a splendid coat for twelve years past." The anachronism on Mr.
Doyle's part is probably intentional. Indeed, he only follows the example
which Mr. Thackeray had justified in these words:

    "It was the author's intention, faithful to history, to depict all the
    characters of this tale in their proper costumes, as they wore them at
    the commencement of the century. But, when I remember the appearance of
    people in those days, and that an officer and lady were actually
    habited like this [here follows one of Mr. Thackeray's graphic
    sketches], I have not the heart to disfigure my heroes and heroines by
    costumes so hideous; and have, on the contrary, engaged a {368} model
    of rank dressed according to the present fashion."--_Vanity Fair_, note
    to p. 55.

And, certainly, when one looks at a fashion-book published some twenty
years ago, one cannot feel surprised at Mr. Doyle, or any other man of
taste, preferring to commit an anachronism, rather than depict frights and


       *       *       *       *       *


Some of the multifarious readers of "N. & Q." may feel interested in the
suggestion of an original solution on Matt. xvi. 16-19. I submit it (not
presumptuously, but hopefully), that its examination and discussion, by
your learned readers, may throw more light upon my humble endeavour to
elucidate a passage which seems to have been darkened "by a multitude of

The solution I propose is an extract from my MS. annotations on the Hebrew
Old Testament, and forms a portion of a note on Habakkuk ii. 11. It will be
desirable, for the readier comprehension of my exposition, to give the
original, with a literal translation, of the verse alluded to:

              [Hebrew: KY 'BN MQYR TZ`Q]
              [Hebrew: WKPYS M`TS Y`NNH:]
 "For the [_Ebhen_] stone shall cry out of the wall,
  And the [_Caphis_] fastening shall testify out of the timber."[1]

This verse has passed into a proverb amongst the Jews in every part of the
world. It is invariably quoted to express the impossibility of secrecy or
concealment; or to intimate the inevitable publicity of a certain fact. In
short, the proverb implies the same meaning which our Lord's answer to the
Pharisees expressed, viz., "If these should hold their peace, the stones
would immediately cry out" (Luke xix. 40.). I have myself heard the words
under note used as a proverb, in this manner, amongst the Jews of Europe,
Asia, and Africa. I am, moreover, inclined to believe that it was already
one of the national proverbs in the days of our Lord.

All this may appear irrelevant to the critical exposition of this verse;
but the consideration may help to clear up an apparently obscure passage in
the New Testament, namely, Matt. xvi. 16-19. When Simon made the
declaration in verse 16., "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God,"
he might have thought of or expressed the inspired proverb:

              [Hebrew: KY 'BN MQYR TZ`Q]
              [Hebrew: WKPYS M`TS Y`NNH:]
 "For the [_Ebhen_] stone shall cry out of the wall,
  And the [_Caphis_] fastening shall testify out of the timber."

Thinking, or expressing, that concealment of the Messiahship of Jesus was

    "And Jesus [to whom word, thought, and deed were alike patent] answered
    and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona; for flesh and blood
    hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven. And I
    say also unto thee, That thou art _Caphis_; and upon the _Ebhen_ I will
    build my Church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.
    And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and
    whatsoever thou shalt _bind_ on earth, shall be _bound_ in heaven," &c.

The play (if so common an expression might be used in so sacred a theme) is
not on the word _Peter_, but on the word [Hebrew: KPYS] (_Caphis_), which
signifies a rafter, a cross beam, a _binder_; or, as the margin (on Habak.
ii. 11.) has it, "a fastener," from the verb [Hebrew: KPS] (_Caphas_), to
_bind_, to connect, to join.

That our Lord never used the Greek word [Greek: su ei Petros] all must
admit; that [Greek: Kêphas] is not the Syriac word for stone is well known
to every Oriental scholar. The proper Syriac word for stone is [Syriac:
K'P']. However, there is a resemblance between the respective words, which
may have been the origin of Simon's second surname--I mean to that of

The import of Matt. xvi. 16-19. seems to me to be this: Christ acknowledges
Simon to be part and parcel of the house, the Church; nay, more, He tells
Simon that He intends him to be a "master-builder," to join, or bind, many
members to that Church, all of which would be owned of Him. But the Church
itself must be built upon the _Ebhen_, the _Stone_; by which Jesus
evidently alluded to Ps. cxviii. 22.:

          [Hebrew: 'BN M'SW HBWNYM]
          [Hebrew: HYTH LR'SH PNH:]
 "The _Ebhen_ which the builders refused
  Is become the head stone of the corner."

(Compare Matt. xxi. 42.)

May I ask whether the words [Greek: ho ermêneutai Petros] are to be
considered as the words of St. John, or of his transcribers? The question
may appear startling to some, but my copy of the Syriac New Testament is
_minus_ that sentence.


Wybunbury, Nantwich.

[Footnote 1: See also the marginal readings.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Epitaphs._--There is, or was, one at Pisa which thus concludes:

   "Doctor doctorum jacet hac Burgundius urna,
    Schema Magistrorum, laudabilis et diuturna;
    Dogma poetarum cui littera Græca, Latina,
    Ars Medicinarum patuit sapientia trina.
    Et nunc Pisa, dole, tristeris Thuscia tota,
    Nullus sub sole est cui sic sunt omnia nota.
    Rursus ab Angelico coetu super aera vectum
    Nuper et Angelico, coelo gaude te receptum.
  Ann. Dom. MCLXXXXIIII. III Calend. Novembr."

Nearer home, in Shoreditch churchyard:

    "Sacred to the memory of Sarah Micci, who departed this life April 7th,
    1819, aged 50 years.

      Memento judicii mei, sic enim _erit_ mihi _heri_, tibi hodie."

Not far from this is the following laconic one:

    "Dr. John Gardner's last and best bed-room, who departed this life the
    8th of April, 1835, in his 84th year."

Which reminds me of one at Finedon:

 "Here lyeth Richard Dent,
  In his last tenement.

B. H. C.

_Curious Inscription_ (Vol. iv., p. 88.).--In the first edition of
_Imperatorum Romanorum Numismata Aurea_, by De Bie, Antwerp, 1615, at the
foot of a page addressed "Ad Lectorem," and marked c. ii., are the
following verses, which may be noted as forming a pendant to those referred

    ri        R     S        D       D
 "Sc  ptorum   erum  ummorum  espice  icta
    ul        V     N        R       P

   st  Qu     R    I        N   I    T
  I  a   idem  isu  aciemus  am  nde  acebunt."
   ll   F     V    F        I   V    Pl

                  Signed "C. HÆTTRON."



_Epitaph in Lavenham Church, Norfolk._--

 "Continuall prayse these lynes in brass
  Of Allaine Dister here,
  Clothier vertuous whyle he was
  In Lavenham many a yeare;
  For as in lyfe he loved best
  The poore to clothe and feede,
  Soe with the riche and alle the reste,
  He neighbourlie agreed;
  And did appoint before he died,
  A smalle yearlie rent,
  Which would be every Whitsuntide
  Among the poorest spent."

I send you this copy from a _nibbing_ of a quaint epitaph, made in the
beautiful old church of Lavenham many years since, with a view to putting a
Query as to its construction. The first two lines, as I read them, want a
verb, unless we read the conclusion of the first line as a verb, to
_in-brasse_ (_i.e._ to record in brass). Can any of your readers give me an
authority, from an old author, for the use of this or any similar verb? To
_in-grain_ seems somewhat like it, but is modern. If no authority for such
a verb can be given, I should be glad to have the construction of the lines

A. B. R.


       *       *       *       *       *


    [In "N. & Q.," Vol. vii., pp. 203. 264. 349., mention is made of this
    correspondence. The letters, of which the following are copies, were
    sold as waste paper, and are in my possession. They appear to have been
    written by the Rt. Hon. Richard Rigby, Master of the Rolls in Ireland,
    and relate to the appointment of an Examiner in the Chancery in the
    year 1783.



    St. James's Place,

    24th May, 1783.

      My dear Lord,

    I return you many thanks for your two letters of y^e 10th and 11th
    inst., and for the trouble you are so obliging as to take on y^e
    business of the Examiner's Office. I have found a copy of an
    appointment of an Examiner transmitted to me by Lodge in the year 1762,
    and I send you Mr. Meredith's appointment upon the stamp'd paper you
    inclosed to me. If that appointment will not answer, or if the stamp is
    not a proper one, as you seem to hint may be the case, I must desire
    you to tell Mr. Perry to make out a proper appointment and send it over
    ready for my signature. I shou'd hope the one I send herewith will
    answer, that you may have no further trouble. I perceive five hundred
    pounds English was y^e sum I receiv'd in 1762; and I imagine that is
    the sum Mr. Meredith proposes to give now, and to which I give my

    I thank you for inquiring after my health; my fits of the gout are not
    very violent, but I am very glad you never have any of them. Pray make
    my best comp^{ts} to Scott, and tell him that I din'd yesterday at
    Streatham with Macnamara, who is getting better, notwithstanding the
    weather here is as cold as at Christmas.

    I am, my dear Lord, with all possible regard, your most sincere friend
    and oblig'd humble servant,


    Your stamp'd paper was not large enough, but my servant found a stamp'd
    paper at Lincoln's Inn.


    St. James's Place,

    9th June, 1783.

      My dear Lord,

    Ten thousand thanks for all the trouble you are so kind (as) to take in
    my affairs; this day I receiv'd yours of the 31st May, with the bill
    {370} inclosed for 498l. 2s. 5d. If the instrument I sent over should
    not be satisfactory, I will sign any new deed which shall be sent me
    for the purpose.

    I have not much acquaintance w^{th} Lord Northington; but seeing him at
    St. James's the day he took leave of the King, I wish'd him success in
    his new government, and took the liberty to mention your name to him as
    y^e person in the whole kingdom whose advice would be most beneficial
    to him. I told him I asked no favour of him but one, which was to
    recollect what I then said to him if he should have occasion to call
    upon you for advice and assistance hereafter, when he would find it for
    his great satisfaction to be well founded.

    I am, my dear Lord, your most obliged and faithful humble servant,


      To the Rt. Honorable Lord Ch. Justice Paterson, at Dublin.
          Free, R. Rigby.

       *       *       *       *       *


 "High mountains closed the vale,
  Bare, rocky mountains, to all living things
  Inhospitable; on whose sides no herb
  Rooted, no insect fed, no bird awoke
  Their echoes, save the eagle, strong of wing;
    A lonely plunderer, that afar
    Sought in the vales his prey.

 "Thither towards those mountains Thalaba
  Advanced, for well he ween'd that there had Fate
  Destined the adventure's end.
  Up a wide vale, winding amid their depths,
  A stony vale between receding heights
  Of stone, he wound his way.
  A cheerless place! _The solitary Bee,_
  _Whose buzzing was the only sound of life,_
  _Flew there on restless wing,_
  _Seeking in vain one blossom, where to fix._"
                      _Thalaba_, book vi. 12, 13.

This incident of the wandering bee, highly poetical, seems at first sight
very improbable, and passes for one of the many strange creations of this
wild poem. But yet it is quite true to nature, and was probably suggested
to Southey, an omnivorous reader, by some out-of-the-way book of travels.

In Hurton's _Voyage to Lapland_, vol. ii. p. 251., published a few years
since, he says that as he stood on the verge of the North Cape,--

    "The only living creature that came near me was a _bee_, which hummed
    merrily by. What did the busy insect seek there? Not a blade of grass
    grew, and the only vegetable matter on this point was a cluster of
    withered moss at the very edge of the awful precipice, and it I
    gathered at considerable risk as a memorial of my visit."

So in Fremont's _Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains_, 1842,
p. 69., he speaks of standing on the crest of the snow peak, 13,570 feet
above the Gulf of Mexico, and adds:

    "During our morning's ascent, we had met no sign of animal life, except
    the small sparrow-like bird already mentioned. A stillness the most
    profound, and a terrible solitude, forced themselves constantly on the
    mind as the great features of the place. Here on the summit, where the
    stillness was absolute, unbroken by any sound, and the solitude
    complete, we thought ourselves beyond the region of animated life: but
    while we were sitting on the rock, a _solitary bee_ (_Bromus_, the
    humble bee) came winging his flight from the eastern valley, and lit on
    the knee of one of the men.

    "It was a strange place, the icy rock and the highest peak of the Rocky
    Mountains, for a lover of warm sunshine and flowers; and we pleased
    ourselves with the idea that he was the first of his species to cross
    the mountain barrier, a solitary pioneer to foretell the advance of
    civilisation. I believe that a moment's thought would have made us let
    him continue his way unharmed, but we carried out the law of this
    country, where all animated nature seems at war; and seizing him
    immediately, put him in at least a fit place, in the leaves of a large
    book, among the flowers we had collected on our way."

A. B.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Tippet._--The origin of words signifying articles of dress would be a
curious subject for investigation. Tippet is derived by Barclay from the
Saxon _tæppet_; but I find the following passage in Captain Erskine's
Journal of his recent _Cruise in the Western Pacific_, p. 36. He is writing
of the dress of the women at the village of Feleasan, in the Samoan

    "And occasionally a garment (_tiputa_) resembling a small poncho, with
    a slit for the head, hanging so as decently to conceal the bosom."

May we not trace here both the article and the name?

W. T. M.

_Ridings and Chaffings._--A singular custom prevails in South
Nottinghamshire and North Leicestershire. When a husband, forgetting his
solemn vow to love, honour, and keep his wife, has had recourse to physical
force and beaten her, the rustics get up what is called "a riding." A cart
is drawn through the village, having in it two persons dressed so as to
resemble the woman and her master. A dialogue, representing the quarrel, is
carried on, and a supposed representation of the beating is inflicted. This
performance is {371} always specially enacted before the offender's door.

Another, and perhaps less objectionable, mode of shaming men out of a
brutal and an unmanly practice, is to empty a sack of chaff at the
offender's door,--an intimation, I suppose, that _thrashing_ has been "done
within." Perhaps this latter custom gave rise to the term "chaffing."
Thirty years ago both these customs were very common in this locality; but,
either from an improved tone of morality, or from the comparative rarity of
the offence that led to them, both _ridings_ and _chaffings_ are now of
very rare occurrence.

Can any reader of "N. & Q." inform me whether these customs have prevailed,
or still prevail, in other counties?


Wymeswold, Leicestershire.

_Henry of Huntingdon's "Letter to Walter."_--Mr. Forester (Bohn's
_Antiquarian Library_) decides, in opposition to Wharton and Hardy, that
this epistle was written in 1135, during the lifetime of Henry I., and
there can be no doubt that the passage he quotes bears him out in this; but
it is not less certain that, whether owing to the death of the friend to
whom the letter was addressed, or from a wholesome fear of the resentment
of that king who is so roughly handled in it, the publication was deferred
long enough for the author to reinforce by a few "modern instances" of more
recent date, the "wise saws" which are so plentifully diffused through it:
for instance, at p. 313. he mentions the death of Louis VI. of France,
which occurred 1st August, 1137, twenty months after the death of Henry.
And it is probable that a closer search than I have the means of making,
would reveal other instances of a like nature, though this is sufficient by

After all, is it not possible that the worthy archdeacon (like Bolingbroke
at a future day) may have antedated his letter to give himself an air of
boldness and independence beyond what he really possessed? This would
account not only for the references to later occurrences, but for the
accurate fulfilment of the prophecy which he quotes about the duration of
the reign of Henry I.


_Arthuriana._--List of places designated with traditional reference to King
Arthur. (_To be continued._)

In Cornwall:

    King Arthur's Castle. Nutagel.

    King Arthur's Hall. An oblong inclosure on the moors, near Camelford.

    King Arthur's bed. A slab of granite with pack-shaped piece for
    bolster, on Trewortha tor.


_Encyclopedia of Indexes, or Tables of Contents._--I should like your
opinion, and that of the readers of "N. & Q.," as to the desirableness and
practicability of forming a collection of the indexes of those books most
commonly required to be referred to by authors and scholars. In reading up
on any subject, when it is wished to know whether any author treats upon
it, mainly or incidentally, his works must be examined at a great expense
of time and labour. Perhaps some of your learned readers will express their
views as to the value of such a thesaurus, and give suggestions as to the
principles which ought to regulate its execution.


_Errata in Nichols' "Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica."_--Works of
this kind, unless strictly accurate, cause great perplexity and confusion,
and are indeed of little use. I therefore wish to note in your pages that
at vol. viii. p. 38. of the above work it is stated that Babington "married
Juliana, daughter of Sir _Thomas_ Rowe, Alderman of London." _Harl. MSS._
1174. p. 89., 1551. p. 28., 1096. p. 71., inform us that Julian Rowe,
daughter of Sir William Rowe, who was Lord Mayor of London in 1592, married
Francis Babington. Sir William and Sir Thomas were first cousins. In the
same page Sir Thomas Rowe is stated to have died in 1612; on his tomb we
are told that he died in 1570.


       *       *       *       *       *



Can any of your learned Hebraists elucidate the passage in Gen. iv. 7.,
which called forth the following remarks from Bishop Sandford?

    "As yet I cannot abandon the literal interpretation of the words
    [Hebrew: LAPETACH CHAT`A'T ROBEITS], and I am much surprised that, in
    all the criticism bestowed on this verse by Davison and the authors
    whom he quotes, nothing is said of the word [Hebrew: PETACH]. I do not
    know of any place in Holy Scripture where this word is used
    figuratively, and unless this can be shown, there is no supporting so
    strong a metaphor as the advocates of the figurative meaning of the
    passage contend for. Davison takes no notice of the remainder of the
    verse.... Now the words are remarkable; they are the same as those in
    which the Lord declares the subjection of Eve to her husband, Gen. iii.
    16. I have always thought this passage (Gen. iv. 7.) to allude to Abel;
    and to promise to Cain the continuance of the priority of
    primogeniture, if he were reconciled to God."--_Remains of Bishop
    Sandford_, vol. i. p. 135.

With respect to the word [Hebrew: PETACH], the literal interpretation of
which is a door, entrance, or gate, Archbishop Magee renders the passage
thus: "A sin-offering lieth before or _at_ the door," the word [Hebrew:
RBEITS] implying to crouch or lie down as an animal; thereby alluding to
the sacrifice which was {372} appointed for the remission of sins, and was
typical of the great sacrifice of the Lamb of God, who was to be slain for
the sin of the world. The whole verse would thus stand, according to
Archbishop Magee's interpretation:

    "If thou doest well, shalt thou not have the excellency or
    pre-eminence? and if thou doest _not_ well, a sin-offering lieth before
    the door [_i.e._ is prepared, or at hand, for thee]; and unto thee
    shall be his subjection, and thou shalt rule over him [_i.e._ over

Luther's translation is at variance with this:

    "Wenn du fromm bist, so bist du angenehm, bist du aber nicht fromm, so
    ruhet die Sünde vor der Thür. Aber lass du ihr nicht ihren Willen,
    sondern herrsche über sie."

In the margin of Luther's Bible is a reference in this verse to Rom. vi.
12., plainly showing that he considered it as an admonition to Cain to
struggle against _sin_, lest it should gain the dominion over him.

Bishop Sandford farther observes:

    "I think that neither Davison nor the other commentators have
    completely examined Gen. iv. 7. in all its expressions and bearings. I
    am surprised at Magee's omitting the argument from St. Paul's
    declaration, that by his [Greek: pleiônthusia] Abel obtained witness
    that he was righteous.... I must repeat my wish to have the word
    [Hebrew: PETACH] well examined."

A. B. C.

P.S.--Dr. Glocester Ridley (quoted by Bishop Van Mildert, in the notes to
his _Boyle Lectures_) takes the view afterwards adopted by Archbishop
Magee, as to the meaning of the passage. (See _The Christian Passover_, in
four sermons on the Lord's Supper, by Glocester Ridley, 1742, p. 14.)

       *       *       *       *       *


Can any of your readers and correspondents, versed in "legendary lore,"
reconcile the two different tales of which "Roland the Brave" is the hero?
The one related in Mrs. Hemans's beautiful ballad describes him as reported
dead, and that his fair one too rashly took the veil in "Nonnenwerder's
cloister pale," just before his return. The story proceeds to tell how in
grief her lover sought the battle-field, and finally fell, with other brave
companions, at Roncesvalles.

I have been surprised, when perusing Dr. Forbes's highly amusing narrative
of his holiday in Switzerland (pp. 28-9.), to find that he identifies
Roland with the hero of Schiller's beautiful ballad, who rejoiced in the
unromantic appellation of _Ritter Toggenburg_. _That_ unhappy lover,
according to the poet, being rejected by his fair one, who could only
bestow on him a sister's affection, sought the Holy Land in despair, and
tried to forget his grief; but returning again to breathe the same air with
his beloved, and finding her already a professed nun, built himself a hut,
whence he could see her at her convent window. Here he watched day by day,
as the poet beautifully says; and here he was found, _dead_, "still in the
attitude of the watcher."

 "Blickte nach dem Kloster drüben,
    Blickte Stunden lang
  Nach dem Fenster seiner Lieben
    Bis das Fenster klang,
  Bis die Liebliche sich zeigte,
    Bis das theure Bild
  Sich in 's Thal herunter neigte
    Ruhig, engelmild.
    .    .    .    .    .    .
 "Und so sass er viele Tage
    Sass viel' Jahre lang,
  Harrend ohne Schmerz und Klage
    Bis das Fenster klang,
  Bis die Liebliche sich zeigte, &c. &c.

 "Unde so sass er, eine Leiche
    Eines Morgens da,
  Nach dem Fenster noch das bleiche
    Stille Antlitz sah."

Was this Ritter Toggenburg, the hero of Schiller's ballad, the nephew of
Charlemagne, Roland, who fell at Roncesvalles? Is not Dr. Forbes in error
in ascribing the Ritter's fate to Roland? Are they not two distinct
persons? Or is Mrs. Hemans wrong in her version of the story? I only quote
from memory:

 "Roland the Brave, the brave Roland!
  False tidings reach'd the Rhenish strand
  That he had fall'n in fight!
  And thy faithful bosom swoon'd with pain,
  Thou fairest maid of Allemain.
  Why so rash has she ta'en the veil
  In yon Nonnenwerder's cloister pale?
  For the fatal vow was hardly spoken,
  And the fatal mantel o'er her flung.
  When the Drachenfels' echoes rung--
 'Twas her own dear warrior's horn!
    .    .    .    .    .    .
  She died; he sought the battle plain,
  And loud was Gallia's wail,
  When Roland, the flower of chivalry,
  Fell at Roncesvalles!"

I shall be glad to have a clear idea of the true Roland and his story.

X. Y. Z.

       *       *       *       *       *


An amusing treatise might be written on the variations in shape of the
common tobacco-pipe since its first introduction into the country. Hundreds
of specimens of old pipe-heads might soon be procured, and especially in
the neighbourhood of London, where the same ground has been tilled for
gardening purposes perhaps {373} some hundreds of years, and has received
fresh supplies year after year from the ash-bin and dust-heap. I have about
a dozen in my possession, which probably belong to various periods from the
beginning of the seventeenth to the end of the eighteenth century. The
dearness of tobacco in the early times of its use is evinced by the
smallness of the bowls, for many of them would hold at most not half a
thimbleful of tobacco; while the shank, where it joins the bowl, is nearly
double the thickness of that in use at the present day. If I recollect
aright, the pipe as represented in Hogarth seems but little larger in the
bowl than that in use a century before; the shape being in both the same,
very much like that of a barrel. The sides of the bowl seem formerly to
have been made of double or treble the thickness of those now in use. This
will account for the good preservation in which they may be found after
having been in the ground one or two centuries. The clay tobacco-pipe
probably attained its present size and slimness, and (very nearly) its
present shape, about the beginning of this century. I am well aware that,
by many, all this will be esteemed as "in tenui labor," but, for my part, I
look upon no reminiscences of the past, however humble, as deserving to be
slighted or consigned to oblivion. Even the humble tobacco-pipe may be made
the vehicle of some interesting information. Will any of your
correspondents favour your other readers with some farther information on
this subject?


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Cabinet: Sheffield, Earl of Mulgrave, Marquis of Normanby, and Duke of
Buckinghamshire._--Can any reader refer me to a letter of the Duke of
Buckinghamshire's which I have read (but I entirely forget where), written
during the reign of William III., and complaining of his exclusion from the
Cabinet? He was either Lord Normanby or Lord Mulgrave when the letter was

C. H.

_Bersethrigumnue._--In the _Escheats_, 23 Hen. III. No. 20., quoted by
Nichols in his _History of Leicestershire_ (vol. iii. part 1., under
"Cotes"), occurs this unusual word. Gilbert de Segrave held the manor of
Cotes in socage of the king "by paying yearly one _bersethrigumnue_." Will
any reader of "N. & Q." favour me with its etymology or meaning? I imagine
it to have been a clerical error for _brachetum cum ligamine_, a service by
which one of the earlier lords of Cotes held these lands.


_Lady Jane Grey._--Neither Nichols in his _History of Leicestershire_, nor
his equally eminent grandson in his interesting _Chronicle of Queen Jane_,
nor, so far as I am aware, any other author, mentions the place where the
Lady Jane was buried. The general belief is, I think, that her body was
interred with that of her husband in the Tower. But a tradition has just
been communicated to me by the Rev. Andrew Bloxam, that the body was
privately brought from London by a servant of the family, and deposited in
the chapel at Bradgate. What is the fact?


_Addison and Watts._--Can any of your numerous readers inform me whether
the hymn "When rising from the bed of death," so generally ascribed to
Addison, and taken from the chapter on death and judgment in his _Evidences
of the Christian Religion_, is his own composition, or that of the
"excellent man in holy orders;" and whether this is Dr. Isaac Watts?

S. M.

_Lord Boteloust's Statue by Richard Hayware._--The statue erected to Lord
Boteloust by the "Colony and Dominion of Virginia" was "made in London,
1773, by Richard Hayware." I should be obliged for information as to Mr.



_Celtic in Devon._--When was the Celtic language obsolete in the South Hams
of Devon?

G. R. L.

_Knobstick._--In these days of strikes, turn-outs, and lock-outs, we hear
so much of "knobsticks," that I should like to know why this term has come
to be applied to those who work for less than the wages recognised, or
under other conditions deemed objectionable by trades unions.


_Aristotle._--Where does Aristotle say that a judge is a living law, as the
Law itself is a dumb judge?

H. P.

_The Passion of our Lord dramatised._--Busby, in his _History of Music_,
vol. i. p. 249., says:

    "It has been very generally supposed, that the manner of reciting and
    singing in the theatres formed the original model of the church
    service; an idea sanctioned by the fact, that the Passion of our
    Saviour was dramatised by the _early_ priests."

What authority is there for this statement?

H. P.

_Ludwell: Lunsford: Kemp._--Inscription on a tombstone in the graveyard of
the old church at Williamsburgh:

    "Under this marble lyeth the body of Thomas Ludwell, Esq., Secretary of
    Virginia, who was born at Burton, in the county of Somerset, in the
    kingdom of England, and departed this life in the year 1698: and near
    this place lie the bodies of Richard Kemp, Esq., {374} his predecessor
    in the secretary's office, and Sir Thomas Lunsford, Knt., in memory of
    whom this marble is here placed by Philip Ludwell, Esq., son of the
    said Thomas Ludwell, Esq., in the year 1727."

Information is respectfully asked as to the persons and families mentioned
in the foregoing inscription. Sir Thomas Lunsford is said to have come from
Surrey, and to have served during the civil wars.



_Linnæan Medal._--Has any reader of "N. & Q." in his possession a Linnæan
medal? I mean the one by the celebrated Liungberger, ordered by Gustavus
III. in 1778. It is of great beauty, and now very scarce: the following is
a brief description.

It is of silver, two inches diameter. Obverse, a portrait of the
naturalist, very faithful and boldly executed, yet with the utmost delicacy
of finish. The face is full of thought and feeling, and the whole
expression so spiritual, that this medallion has a strange charm; you keep
looking at it again and again. The inscription is,

"Car. Linnæus, Arch. Reg. Equ. Auratus."

On the reverse is Cybele, surrounded by animals and plants, holding a key
and weeping. Inscription,--

"Deam luctus angit amissi."

"Post Obitum Upsaliæ, D. X. Jan. MDCCLXXVIII. Rege Jubente."

In the background is a bear, on whose back an ape has jumped; but the bear
lies quietly, as if he disdained the annoyance.

This was probably in reference to what he said in the preface to his
_Systema Naturæ_: "I have borne the derision of apes in silence," &c.
Adjoining this are plants, and we recognise his own favourite flower, the
_Linnea borealis_.


_Lowth of Sawtrey: Robert Eden._--In the _Topographer and Genealogist_,
vol. ii p. 495., I find mention made of a monument at Cretingham in
Suffolk, to Margaret, wife of Richard Cornwallis, and daughter of Lowth of
Sawtrey, co. Hunts, who died in 1603. The arms are stated to
be--"Cornwallis and quarterings impaling Lowth and quarterings, Stearing,
Dade, Bacon, Rutter," &c. Will some of your correspondents give me a fuller
account of these quarterings, and of the pedigree of Lowth of Sawtrey, or
especially of that branch of it from which descended Robert Lowth, Bishop
successively of St. David's, Oxford, and London, who was born in 1710, and
died in 1787?

I should also be much obliged if any of your readers would give me any
information as to who were the parents, and what the pedigree, of the Rev.
Robert Eden, Prebendary of Winchester, who married Mary, sister of Bishop
Lowth: was he connected with the Auckland family, or with the Suffolk
family of Eden, lately mentioned in "N. & Q.?" The arms he bore were the
same as those of the former family--Gules, on a chevron between three garbs
or, banded vert, as many escallops sable.

R. E. C.

_Gentile Names of the Jews._--The Query in Vol. viii., p. 563., as to the
Gentile names of the Jews, leads me to inquire why it is that the Jews are
so fond of names derived from the animal creation. Lyon or Lyons has
probably some allusion to the lion of the tribe of Judah, Hart to the hind
of Naphtali, and Wolf to Benjamin; but the German Jewish names of Adler, an
eagle, and Finke, a finch, cannot be so accounted for. The German Hirsch is
evidently the same name as the English Hart, and the Portuguese names Lopez
and Aguilar are Lupus and Aquila, slightly disguised. Is the origin of
Mark, a very common Jewish name, to be sought in the Celtic _merch_, a



_The Black Prince._--In Sir S. R. Meyrick's _Inquiry into Ancient Armour_,
vol. ii. p. 18., he quotes Froissart as observing, after his account of the
battle of Poictiers, "Thus did Edward the Black Prince, now doubly dyed
black by the terror of his arms." I have sought in vain for this passage,
or anything resembling it, in Johnes's translation, nor can I find anywhere
this appellation as applied by Froissart to his favourite hero. Can the
passage be an interpolation of Lord Berners?


_Maid of Orleans._--Can any one of your correspondents tell who was
D'Israeli's authority for the following?--

    "Of the Maid of Orleans I have somewhere read, that a bundle of faggots
    was substituted for her, when she was supposed to have been burnt by
    the Duke of Bedford."--_Curiosities of Literature_, vol. i. p. 312.

J. R. R.

_Fawell Arms and Crest._--Could any correspondent tell me the _correct_
arms and crest of Fawell? In Burke's _General Armory_ they are given: "Or,
a cross moline gu., a chief dig." And in Berry's _Encyclopædia Heraldica_:
"Sa., a cheveron between three escallop shells argent." In neither work is
a crest registered, and yet I believe there is one belonging to the family.


"_Had I met thee in thy beauty._"--Can you or any of your correspondents
inform me who is the author of the poem commencing, with the above line,
and where it may be found? It is generally supposed to be Lord Byron's, but
cannot be found in any of his published works.

E. H.


_Portrait of D. P. Tremesin._--Has there ever been any portrait known to
exist of one Dompe Peter Tremesin, who is supposed to have been the
earliest equestrian who performed feats on horseback, and of whom mention
is thus made in the Privy Purse Expenses of King Henry VIII., p. 218.:

    "Paied to one Dompue Peter Tremesin, that _dyd ryde two horses at
    once_, by waye of rewarde, C corons, _i.e._ 23l. 6s. 8d."

J. W. G. G.

_Edition of "Othello."_--I shall feel much indebted to MESSRS. COLLIER,
SINGER, &c. for information relative to an edition of _Othello_ which was
shown to me in January, 1837, and had previously belonged to J. W. Cole
(Calcraft), Esq., then manager of the Theatre Royal, Dublin. It consisted
of the text (sometimes altered, I think) and notes connected exclusively
with astrology. There was, if I remember rightly, a frontispiece
representing some of the characters, their heads, arms, bodies, and legs
being dotted over with stars, as seen in a celestial globe. It was
published about the year 1826, and was evidently not the first play of
Shakspeare published under similar circumstances; for I recollect that when
Brabantio first appears at the window, a note informs the reader that "if
he will refer to the diagram of Brabantio in the frontispiece, he will
discover, by comparison of the stars in the two diagrams, that Brabantio
corresponds with" a character in another play of Shakspeare, the name of
which I forget. Mr. Cole is now in London, and connected with one of the
leading theatres. I do not know his address.

M. A.

_Prospect House, Clerkenwell._--Will any of your correspondents learned in
old London topography inform me when the "Prospect House, or Dobney's
Bowling Green," Clerkenwell, ceased to be a place of amusement; and where
any account is to be found of one Wildman, who is said to have exhibited
his bees there in 1772. (Vide _Mirror_, vol. xxxiv. p. 107.) And in what
consisted this exhibition? Also, if any other plate of the Three Hats
public-house, Islington, exists than that in the _Gentleman's Magazine_?
Also, if there exists any portrait of Mrs. Sampson, said to have been the
first female equestrian performer, and Life of Sampson, who used also to
perform at the gardens behind the Three Hats?

J. W. G. G.

_Ancient Family of Widderington._--In an old Prayer Book, now before me, I
find this entry:--"Ralph Witherington was married to Mary Smith the 13th
day of Nov. in the year of our Lord 1703, at seaven o'clock in the morning,
Sunday." Then follow the dates of the births of a numerous progeny. Can any
of your readers tell me who these parties were, or any particulars about
them? The early hour of a winter morning seems strange. Some of the
children settled in Dublin, and intermarried with good Irish families; but
from the entry in another part of the volume, in an older hand, of "Ralph
Witharington of Hauxley, in the parish of Warqurth, in the county of
Northumberland," the family appear previously to have lived in England.

I have never been able to find the motto of the Widderingtons. Their arms
are, of course, well known, viz., Quarterly, argent and gules, a bend
sable; crest, a bull's head: but I have never seen their legend.

W. X.

P. S.--The marriage is not entered in the registers of Warkworth. It may be
in some of the records (of the city) of Dublin. I have seen the motto
"_Veritas Victrix_" appended to a coat of arms, in which the Widderington
shield had a place; but it was believed to belong to the name of Mallet in
one of the quarters.

_Value of Money in the Seventeenth Century._--What are the data for
comparing the value of money in the seventeenth century with its present
value? What may 1000l. in 1640, in 1660, in 1680, be considered equivalent
to now?

C. H.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Ruin near St. Asaph, North Wales._--About two miles from St. Asaph, in
Flintshire, near to a beautiful trout stream, called, I think, the Elway,
stands an old ruin of some ecclesiastical edifice. There is not very much
of it now standing, but the form of the windows still exists. I have in
vain looked in handbooks of the county for an account of it, but I have
seen none that allude to it in any way. It is very secluded, being hidden
by trees; and can only be approached by a footpath. In the centre of the
edifice, there is a well of most beautiful water, supplied from some hidden
spring; and from the bottom of which bubbles of gas are constantly
ascending to the surface. The well is divided by a large stone into two
parts, one evidently intended for a bath. The peasantry in the
neighbourhood call it the Virgin Mary's Well, and ascribe the most
astonishing cures to bathing in its waters. I could not, however, find out
what it was. Some said it was a nunnery, and that the field adjoining had
been a burial-ground; but all seemed remarkably ignorant about it, and
seemed rather to avoid speaking about it; but, from what I could gather,
there was some wild legend respecting it: but, being unacquainted with the
language, I could not learn what it was. I should feed obliged if any of
your correspondents could give me a description of it, and any information
or legend connected with it. Near to it are the celebrated "Kaffen Rocks,"
which {376} show undoubted evidence, from the shells and shingle embedded
in their strata, of having at some period been submerged; and the caverns
which exist in them are very large, and bones of hyenas and other animals
are to be found in them. They are, however, very difficult to find without
a guide, and there are very few persons in the neighbourhood who seem to
know anything about them. They are very well worthy of a visit, and the
surrounding scenery is beautiful in the extreme. I shall be happy to put
any person in the way of finding them, should a desire be expressed in your



    [This is Fynnon Vair, or "the Well of Our Lady," situated in a
    richly-wooded dell near the river Elwy, in the township of Wigvair.
    This well, which is inclosed in a polygonal basin of hewn stone,
    beautifully and elaborately sculptured, discharges about 100 gallons
    per minute: the water is strongly impregnated with lime, and was
    formerly much resorted to as a cold bath. Adjoining the well are the
    ruins of an ancient cruciform chapel, which, prior to the Reformation,
    was a chapel of ease to St. Asaph, in the later style of English
    architecture: the windows, which are of handsome design, are now nearly
    concealed by the ivy which has overspread the building; and the ruin,
    elegant in itself, derives additional interest from the beauty of its
    situation. See Lewis's _Wales_, and _Beauties of England and Wales_,
    vol. xvii. p. 550.]

       *       *       *       *       *

_Wafers._--When and where were wafers invented? They were no new discovery
when Labat saw some at Genoa in 1706; but from a passage in his _Voyages
d'Espagne et Italie_, published in 1731, it would appear that they were
even then unknown in France. A writer in the _Quarterly Review_ says:

    "We have in our possession letters with the wafers still adhering,
    which went from Lisbon to Rome twenty years before that time; and
    Stolberg observes that there are wafers and wafer-seals in the museum
    at Portici."


    [Respecting the antiquity of wafers, Beckmann, in his _History of
    Inventions_, vol. i. p. 146. (Bohn's edition), has the following
    notice: "M. Spiess has made an observation which may lead to farther
    researches, that the oldest seal with a red wafer he has ever yet
    found, is on a letter written by D. Krapf at Spires, in the year 1624,
    to the government of Bayreuth. M. Spiess has found also that some years
    after, Forstenhäusser, the Brandenburg factor at Nuremberg, sent such
    wafers to a bailiff at Osternohe. It appears, however, that wafers were
    not used during the whole of the seventeenth century in the chancery of
    Brandenburg, but only by private persons, and by these even seldom,
    because, as Speiss says, people were fonder of Spanish wax. The first
    wafers with which the chancery of Bayreuth began to make seals were,
    according to an expense account of the year 1705, sent from Nuremberg.
    The use of wax, however, was still continued, and among the Plassenburg
    archives there is a rescript of 1722, sealed with proper wax. The use
    of wax must have been continued longer in the Duchy of Weimar; for in
    the _Electa Juris Publici_ there is an order of the year 1716, by which
    the introduction of wafers in law matters is forbidden, and the use of
    wax commanded. This order, however, was abolished by Duke Ernest
    Augustus in 1742, and wafers again introduced."]

       *       *       *       *       *

_Asgill on Translation to Heaven._--The Irish House of Commons, in 1703,
expelled a Mr. Asgill from his seat for his book asserting the possibility
of translation to the other world without death. What is the title of his
book? and where may I find a copy?


    [This work, published anonymously, is entitled, "An Argument proving
    that, according to the Covenant of Eternal Life revealed in the
    Scriptures, Man may be translated from hence into that Eternal Life
    without passing through Death, although the Humane Nature of Christ
    Himself could not be thus translated till He had passed through Death,"
    A.D. 1700. No name of bookseller or printer. It may be seen at the
    British Museum or Bodleian. This work raised a considerable clamour,
    and Dr. Sacheverell mentioned it among other blasphemous writings which
    induced him to think the Church was in danger.]

       *       *       *       *       *

_Ancient Custom at Coleshill._--I have somewhere seen it stated, that there
is an ancient custom at Coleshill, in Warwickshire, that if the young men
of the town can catch a hare, and bring it to the parson of the parish
before ten o'clock on Easter Monday, he is bound to give them a calf's head
and a hundred eggs for their breakfast, and a groat in money. Can you
inform me whether this be the fact? And if so, what is the origin of the


    [The custom is noticed in Blount's _Ancient Tenures_, by Beckwith,
    edit. 1684, p. 286. The origin of it seems to be unknown.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ix., p. 121.)

Too much pains cannot be expended on the elucidation of the internal
structure of the Psalms. In this laudable endeavour, your correspondent
T. J. BUCKTON has, as I conceive, fallen into an error. He assumes that
those Psalms which are entitled "Songs of Degrees" were appropriated for
the domestic use rather than the public services of the Jews. I cannot
consider that the allusions to external objects which he enumerates could
affect the argument; for, on the other hand, we find mention of the House
of the Lord (cxxii. {377} 1. 9., cxxvii. 1., cxxxii. 3. 7., cxxxiv. 1.);
the sanctuary (cxxxiv. 2.); the priests (cxxxii. 9.); and the singers
(cxxxiv. 1.), who attended by night as well as by day (1 Chron. ix. 33.):
allusions which would sufficiently warrant these Psalms being considered as
connected with the temple worship.

The name _Shir Hammachaloth_, "Song of Ascents," prefixed to these fifteen
Psalms, has given rise to much controversy. The different opinions as to
the import of this title may be thus stated: 1. The ancients understood it
to relate to the steps of the temple: of this supposition I shall speak
hereafter. 2. Luther, whom Tholuck is inclined to follow, renders it a song
in the higher choir: intimating that they should be sung from an elevated
position, or, as Patrick says, "in an elevated voice." 3. Junius and
Tremellius would translate it "Song of Excellences," or "Excellent Song."
4. Gesenius with De Wette, considers that this name refers to a particular
rhythm, in which the sense ascends in a rhythming gradation; but as this
barely appears in one Psalm (cxxi.), the facts will scarcely support the
hypothesis. 5. The more modern opinion is, that (notwithstanding four of
them being composed by David, and one _by_ Solomon) it signifies "Song of
the Ascents" [Greek: anabasis] or "Pilgrims' Song," being composed for or
sung by the people during their journeys to Jerusalem, whether on their
return from the Babylonian captivity, or as they statedly repaired to their
national solemnities.

The first of these hypotheses, though in least repute, I am inclined to

The title in Chaldee is "A Song sung upon the Steps of the Abyss;" the
Septuagint superscription "[Greek: Ôdê tôn anabathmôn];" and the Vulgate,
_carmen graduum_, "Song of the Steps." In accordance with which the Jewish
writers state, that these Psalms were sung on fifteen steps leading from
the Atrium Israelis to the court of the women. In the apocryphal book of
the "Birth of Mary," translated by Archbishop Wake, which is to be found in
the works of St. Jerome, and which is attributed to St. Matthew, there is
an account of a miracle in the early history of the Virgin Mary, in which
it is said (ch. iv.):

    "2. And there were about the temple, according to the fifteen Psalms of
    Degrees, fifteen stairs to ascend.

    "3. For the temple being built in a mountain, the altar of
    burnt-offering, which was without, could not be come near but by

It goes on to state how the infant Mary miraculously walked up these
stairs. In the account of the same miracle, in the _Protevangelion_,
ascribed to St. James, it is related (ch. vii.) how the priest--

    "5. ... placed her (the infant) upon the third _step of the altar_."

From this comparison it would appear, that the "stairs about the temple"
were synonymous with the "steps of the altar."

I would therefore suggest, for the consideration of those better acquainted
with the subject, that these Psalms were adapted to be sung (not _on_ the
steps, as some think, but) as a kind of introit while the priests ascended
the steps of the altar.

To show their adaptation for this purpose, it may be worth remarking, that
they are all, except cxxxii., introits in the first Prayer Book of Edward

J. R. G.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. viii., pp. 71. 183.)

The southern part of the U. S. seems to make as free with the reputations
of English authors, as the northern with their copyright. The name of the
South Carolina newspaper, which, with so much confirmatory evidence,
ascribed _The Calm_ to Shelley, is not given. If it was the _Southern
Literary Messenger_, the editor has been at it again. The following began
to appear in the English papers about Christmas last, and is still "going
the round:"

    "THE SORROWS OF WERTHER.--The _Southern Literary Messenger_ (U. S.) for
    the present month contains, in 'The Editor's Table,' the following
    comic poem of Thackeray's; written, we are told, 'one morning last
    spring in the _Messenger_ office,' during a call made by the author:--

     'Werther had a love for Charlotte,
        Such as words could never utter.
      Would you know how first he met her?
        She was cutting bread and butter.

     'Charlotte was a married lady,
        And a moral man was Werther;
      And for all the wealth of Indies,
        Would do nothing that might hurt her.

     'So he sigh'd, and pined, and ogled,
        And his passion boil'd and bubbled,
      Till he blew his silly brains out,
        And no more by them was troubled.

     'Charlotte, having seen his body
        Borne before her on a shutter,
      Like a well-conducted person,
        Went on cutting bread and butter.'"

I believe that Mr. Thackeray knows the value of his writings and his time
too well to _whittle_ at verses in the _Messenger_ office, and leave his
chips on the floor; and that he is too observant of the laws of fair wit to
make a falsification and call it a burlesque. _The Sorrows of Werther_ is
not so popular as when known here chiefly by a wretched version of a
wretched French version, and many who read these stanzas will be satisfied
that the {378} last conveys, at worst, a distorted notion of the end of
Göthe's story. To prevent this misapprehension, I quote from Mr. Boylan's
translation all that is told of Charlotte after Werther's suicide:

    "The servant ran for a surgeon, and then went to fetch Albert.
    Charlotte heard the ringing of the bell; a cold shudder seized her. She
    wakened her husband, and they both rose. The servant, bathed in tears,
    faltered forth the dreadful news. _Charlotte fell senseless at Albert's

       . . . . . . .

    "The steward and his sons followed the corpse to the grave. Albert was
    unable to accompany them. _Charlotte's life was despaired of._"

Perhaps "despaired of" is too strong a word for "man _fürchtete für_
Lottens Leben;" but there is no peg on which to hang the poor joke of the
last stanza.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 220.)

In reply to MR. GATTY'S question, I beg to state that the Indian wears an
eagle's feather for every enemy he has slain. I have seen a boy of fifteen
thus decorated, and was assured that it had been lawfully won.

The feather is usually stuck into the hinder part of the turban, or
head-dress, and either projects straight out, or hangs down the back. This
is exactly the fashion in which the Chinese wear the peacock's feather; and
it also is a mark of distinction for warriors, a military institution
similar to our knighthood, or, perhaps, what knighthood once was. (See De
Guignes and Barrow, &c.) I think McKenzie speaks of the eagle's feather,
but cannot quote just now. According to Elphinstone, the "Caufirs of
Caubul" (Siah-posh?) stick a long feather in their turbans for every
Mussulman they have slain.

The similarity of style in wearing their feathers, and, above all, the
coincidence of both being the reward of merit, induces a belief that in
times long gone by a relationship may have existed between the Chinese and
the American; a belief that is strengthened by other and more curious
testimony than even this.

The head-dress, or coronet of upright feathers, to which MR. GATTY seems to
allude, I have never heard of, as associated with warlike deeds. The
coronet of feathers, moreover, does not appear to have been peculiar to
America. In the _Athenæum_ for 1844 is given the representation of a naval
engagement, in which one party of the combatants "wear head-dresses of
feathers, such as are described in ancient Hindu records, and such as the
Indian Caciques wore when America was discovered by Columbus," &c. (p.
172.). Moreover, "the Lycians had caps adorned with crests, stuck round
with feathers," &c. (Meyrick's _Ancient Armour_, &c., vol. i. p. xviii.) We
may suppose this to have resembled the coiffure of the Mexican and other
North American tribes.

Mr. Rankin says the Peruvian Incas wore, as a distinction, two plumes on
the front of the head, similar to those represented in the portraits of
Tamerlane. (See _Conquest by the Mogols, &c._, p. 175.) I have seen, among
the Wyandots of Sandusky, heads which one might suppose had been the
originals of the portraits given in his plate: turban made of
gaudy-coloured silk, with two short thick feathers stuck upright in front;
the one red, the other white tipped with blue, the great desideratum being
to have them of different colours, as strongly contrasted as possible.

The Kalmucs, when they celebrate any great festival, always wear coloured
owls' feathers in their caps, &c. (See _Strahlenburg_, 4to., p. 434.) The
Dacotas also wear owls' feathers. (See Long's _Expedition to Rocky
Mountains_, vol. i. p. 161.) The Usbeck Tartar chiefs wore (perhaps _do_
wear) plumes of herons' feathers in their turbans; and the herons' plume of
the Ottoman sultan is only a remnant of the costume in which their
ancestors descended from Central Asia.

A. C. M.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 300.)

Your correspondent MR. G. T. HOARE is rather bold in describing the case he
does as a "very common error;" and I cannot agree with him that the façade
of Sennacherib's Palace (Layard's 2nd book on _Nineveh_) is an instance of
the kind. The theory that horizontal lines in the plane of the picture
should converge to a point on the horizontal line right and left of the
visual ray, is by no means new; in truth, every line according to this view
must form the segment of a circle more or less, according to circumstances.
Apply this principle to the vertical lines of a tower or lofty building,
and every such structure must be represented diminished at the top, the
vertical lines converging to a vanishing point in the sky.

Some years since, this theory was brought forward by Mr. Parsey, and the
subject fully discussed at scientific meetings. There was much ingenuity in
the arguments employed, but the illustrations were so unsatisfactory that
the system has never gained ground. The principles of perspective are most
ably exemplified in many well-known works, as they set forth very
satisfactory modes of delineation. The limits of your periodical prevent a
fuller correspondence on this subject, or I think it would not be difficult
to {379} satisfy MR. HOARE that there are great difficulties attending his

No recent discoveries in the art of perspective have tended to more
truthful representations than those produced by the recognised systems
usually adopted. The method of showing the internal courts, &c. of large
groups of buildings by isometrical perspective, although very useful for
developing architects' and engineers' projects, is not a system that will
bear the test of close examination.


G. T. HOARE is quite right in saying "that every line above or below the
line of the horizon, though _really_ parallel to it, _apparently_
approaches it, as it is produced to the right or left." But he seems to
forget that the same holds good in the picture as in the original
landscape, the part opposite the eye being nearer to it than the margin of
the paper. To produce the same effect with _converging lines_, the drawing
must be made to assume the form of a segment of a circle, the eye being
placed in the centre.



I must beg leave to differ most decidedly with MR. G. T. HOARE on this
point. If it is in accordance with the principles of perspective that,
supposing the eye and the picture in their true positions in relation to
each other and to the objects represented, every line drawn from the eye to
any point of a real object will pass through its corresponding point in the
picture, then the supposed wall will form the base of a pyramid, of which
the eye will be the apex, and the representation of the wall in the picture
a section parallel to the base, and consequently mathematically similar to
the base itself. It is perfectly true, as MR. HOARE says, "that every line
above or below the line of the horizon, though _really_ parallel to it,
_apparently_ approaches it, as it is produced to the right or left." But he
forgets that this fact applies to the picture as well as to the object. In
fact, the picture is an object, and the parallel lines in it representing
the wall must have the same apparent tendency to one another as those in
the wall itself.

[Greek: Halieus]


I am glad MR. G. T. HOARE has called attention to the defective state of
the art of perspective. His remarks, however, are too narrow. The fact is,
that _any_ two parallel straight lines appear to converge at one or both
ends, _and one or both lines assume a curvilinear shape_. For a notable
example, the vertical section of the Duke of York's column in Waterloo
Place, from all points of view, appears to bulge at the point of sight, and
to taper upwards by a curvilinear convergence of the sides.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 10.)

The following is all the information which I have been able to collect
respecting the present possessor of the title of Fairfax of Cameron, in
answer to the third Query of W. H. M. It gives me pleasure to communicate

The Lords Fairfax have been for several generations natives of the United
States. The present possessor of the title is not so called, but is known
as _Mr._ Fairfax. He resides at present in Suter County, California. His
Christian names are George William.

The gentleman who bore the title at the commencement of the present
century, was a zealous member of the republican (now called democratic)

The Fairfax family, at one time, owned all that portion of Virginia called
the Northern Neck, lying between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers.

So much for the _third_ Query. I beg leave to add a few remarks suggested
by the _fifth_.

The _citizens_ of the United States are not called _subjects_ of the United
States, and for the same reason that your excellent Queen is not called a
subject of Great Britain. Native citizens take no oath of citizenship,
expressly or _impliedly_, whatever the latter word may mean. Foreigners,
who become naturalised, do not renounce allegiance to the sovereign of
Great Britain more "pointedly" than to any other sovereign. Every one
renounces his allegiance to the potentate or power under whose sway he was
born: the Englishman to the King (or Queen) of Great Britain, the Chinese
to the Emperor of China, the Swiss to the republic of Switzerland, and so
of others.

W. H. M. says that the existence of the peers of Scotland "is denial of the
first proposition in the constitution of" the United States. If W. H. M.
will turn to this constitution, he will find that he has confounded the
Declaration of Independence with it.

Foreigners, on becoming naturalised, have to renounce their titles of
nobility; but I know of nothing to prevent a native American citizen from
being called Lord, as well as Mr. or Esq. As above mentioned, a Lord
Fairfax was so called twenty-six years after our Independence; and Lord
Stirling, who was a Major-General in the American army of the Revolution,
was always so styled by his cotemporaries, and addressed by them as "My
Lord" and "Your Lordship."

Some farther information upon this subject has been promised to me.



If W. H. M. desires particular information concerning the Fairfax family in
Virginia, it will give {380} me pleasure to send him Notes from Sparks'
_Washington, Virginia, its History and Antiquities, &c._; amongst which is
a picture of "Greenway Court Manor House." I now give only an extract from
Washington to Sir John Sinclair (Sparks, vol. xii. pp. 327, 328.), which
answers in part W. H. M.'s third Query:

    "Within full view of Mount Vernon, separated therefrom by water only,
    is one of the most beautiful seats on the river for sale, but of
    greater magnitude than you seem to have contemplated. It is called
    Belvoir, and belonged to George Wm Fairfax; who, were he now living,
    would be Baron of Cameron, as his younger brother in this country
    (George Wm. dying without issue) at present is, though he does not take
    upon himself the title. This seat was the residence of the above-named
    gentleman before he went to England ... At present it belongs to Thomas
    Fairfax, son of Bryan Fairfax: the gentleman who will not, as I said
    before, take upon himself the title of Baron of Cameron."



I cannot but deem your correspondents W. W. and H. G. in error when they
consider that the name of Baron Fairfax ought not to be retained in the
Peerage. The able heraldic editors of the Peerages are likely to be better
versed in such matters than to have perpetrated and perpetuated so
frequently the blunder; or what is to be said of Sir Bernard Burke's
elevation to be a king of arms? Not to omit the instance of the Earl of
Athlone, who, though a natural-born subject of a foreign realm, in 1795
took his seat in the House of Lords in Ireland (a case which H. G. wants
explained), we have a more recent instance in the case of the present King
of Hanover, a foreign potentate, who is Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
by inheritance, in our peerage, and whose coronation oath (of allegiance?)
must be quite incompatible with the condition of a _subject_ in another
state. I confess I should like to see this explained, as well as the
position of those (amongst whom, however, Lord Fairfax now ranks) who,
while strictly mere subjects and citizens of their own state, may have had
conferred upon themselves, or inherit, titles of dignity and privilege in a
foreign one. We usually (as in the case of the Rothschilds, &c.)
acknowledge their highest title in address, but without any adjective or
epithets to qualify with honor, such as "honorable;" as is the case, too,
with doctors of foreign universities, whose title from courtesy we also
admit, though this does not place them on a footing with those of England.
The present Duke of Wellington and the Earl Nelson inherit, I believe,
titles of dignity in foreign lands, though natural-born subjects of this
realm; and there can hardly be a doubt that Lord Fairfax inherits correctly
his British barony, though, whenever he may exercise for the first time a
_legal_ vote, he may have to exhibit proof of his being the very heir and
person qualified, merely because born and resident in a foreign state; the
same as would in such case doubtless occur with regard to the other noble
persons I have referred to.


Nantcribba Hall, N.W.

The followings entry in T. Kerslake's catalogue, _The Bristol
Bibliographer_, seems worth notice:

    "Burrough's (Jer.) Gospel Remission. True blessedness consists in
    pardon of sin, 1668, 4to., with autograph of Thos. Lord Fairfax, 1668,
    and several MS.[2] notes by him, 12s. 6d."

E. M.


[Footnote 2: One note may be thought to be characteristic. In the table
occurs, "Many think their sins are pardoned, because it is but little they
are guilty of." The general has interlined, "A pistol kills as well as a

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., pp. 127. 252.)

I have before me a copy of this very interesting document, together with an
_Epistole Joannis Sturmii de eadem re, ad Cardinales cæterosque viros ad
eam Consultationem delectos_, printed at Strasburg ("ex officina Cratonis
Mylii Argentoraten.") A.D. 1538. The report of the Committee had reached
Sturmius in the month of March, 1537-8; and his critique, addressed
especially to Contarini, bears the date "tertio Non. Aprilis." As it is a
somewhat scarce pamphlet, two or three extracts may not be unacceptable to
the readers of "N. & Q."

    "Rara res est et præter omnium opinionem oblata occasio, pontificem
    datum orbi talem, qui jurejurando fidem suorum sibi ad patefaciendam
    veritatem astrinxerit, ut si quid secus statuatis quam religio
    desideret vobis ea culpa non pontifici præstanda videatur."--C. 2.

    "At si diligenter et cum fide agatis, vestra virtute, florentem Christi
    rempublicam conspiciamus; si negligenter et cupide, ut cujus rei adhuc
    reliquiæ nonnullæ supersunt, illæ continuo ita tollantur, simul ac
    calumniari ac male agere ceperitis, ut ne vestigia quidem ullius
    sanctitatis apud vestras quidem partes posteris nostris appareant."--C.

He then passes to other topics, where he has to deplore the little sympathy
evinced by the Cardinals for Luther and his party, _e.g._ on the subject of

    "Quid de illa ratione quam poenitentibus præscribitis, nonne falsa,
    nonne perversa, nonne ad quæstum magis et ad tyrannidem quam ad vitæ
    emendationem, {381} et correctionem spectans? Et qui remedia contra hos
    morbos quærunt, eos vos ea ecclesia ejiciendos putatis, et condemnatis
    hæreseos, qui restituere pristinam puritatem religioni conantur; eos
    illam tollere, qui ceremonias purgare, eos perflegare qui auctoritatem
    ecclesiasticam recuperare atque confirmare, eos imminuere et
    labefactare clamatis."--D. 4.


Had MR. WOODWARD'S remarks come sooner under notice, they should have
received, as well deserving, a quicker reply. It is in one sense rather
annoying that he should have mistaken so widely the publication under
question, and spent so much time in confirming what few, if any, now doubt,
of the Papal origin of the _Consilium Delectorum Cardinalium_. (See
Gibbings' Preface to his _Reprint of the Roman Index Expurgatorius_, p.
xx.) The title of the tract (so to speak) commonly attributed to the same
quarter, but the justice of which is questioned, is, _Consilium quorundam
Episcoporum Bononiæ congregatorum, quod de ratione stabiliendæ Romanæ
Ecclesiæ_ Julio III. P.M. _datum est_. _This_ is the _Consilium_ to which
MR. WOODWARD's attention should have been confined; and which he will find
in the same volume of Brown's _Fasciculus_, to which he has referred me on
the real _Consilium_, pp. 644-650. It appears in English also, translated
by Dr. Clagett, in Bishop Gibson's _Preservative_, vol. i. p. 170. edit.
8vo.; and is also included (a point to be noticed) in the single volume
published of Vergerio's _Works_, Tubingen, 1563.[3]

MR. WOODWARD has no doubt frequently met, in Protestant authors, with the
quotation from this supposed Bologna Council (_Consilium_ being taken for
_Concilium_), recommending that as little as possible of the Scriptures
should be suffered to come abroad among the vulgar, that having proved the
grand source of the present calamities. Now the very air of this passage,
and of course of many others rather less disguised, is of itself sufficient
to prove that this Bologna Council is a piece of banter; the workmanship,
in fact, of Peter Paul Vergerio. Would any _real_ adherent of Rome so
express himself? "N.& Q." (Vol. ix., p. 111.) supplies a ready answer, in
the communication from F. C. H. on the so-called Catholic Bible Society.

Would a real adherent of the Papal Church again express himself in the
following _unimpassioned_ manner?

    "Nam Apostolorum temporibus (ut verum tibi fateamur, sed silentio opus
    est) vel aliquot annis post ipsos Apostolos, nulla vel Papatus, vel
    Cardinalatus mentio erat, nec amplissimos illos reditus Episcopatuum et
    Sacerdotiorum fuisse constat, nec templa tantis sumptibus extruebantur,
    &c.: æstimet ergo tua sanctitas quam male nobiscum ageretur, si nostro
    aliquo fato in pristinam paupertatem humilitatem et miseram illam
    servitutem ac potestatem alienam redigendi essemus!"


    "Deinde ubi Episcopi Sacerdotum palmas tantum inungunt, jube illos
    internam atque externam manum, ad hæc caput ipsum et simul totam faciem
    perungere. Nam si tantulum illud oleum sanctificandi vim habet, major
    certe olei quantitas majorem quoque sanctificandi vim obtinebit."

To be sure! Who can doubt it?

MR. WOODWARD will, I apprehend, readily agree that these sentences come
from no one connected with the Roman Church. And they are quoted in the
hope that Protestants will cease to cite this supposed Bologna Council as
any valid or genuine testimony to Romish proceedings and sentiments.


[Footnote 3: See an account of him in McCrie's _Hist. of the Reformation in
Italy_, pp. 77. 115. &c.]

       *       *       *       *       *


_Mounting Positives._--If the print and the mounting paper, or Bristol
board, are _both_ made equally damp, and the back of the picture covered
with thin paste, they adhere without any unevenness; and if the print is on
the fine Canson's paper, the appearance is that of an India proof. They
should remain until _perfectly dry_ in a press.


_Mounting of Photographs, and Difficulties in the Wax-paper Process._--May
I request a little additional information from your correspondent SELEUCUS,
Vol. ix., p. 310., respecting the mounting of photographs? Does he mean
merely the painting the edges, or the smearing of the photograph all over
its back with the Indian-rubber glue, prior to sticking the proof on the
cardboard? If the former, which I apprehend he does, SELEUCUS will
necessarily have the unsightly appearance of the picture's buckling up in
the middle on the board being bent forward and backward in different
directions? May I take the liberty of asking him in what respect the plan
proposed is superior to that of painting over the edges with mucilage of
gum arabic, containing a little brown sugar to prevent its cracking,
allowing it to dry, and prior to the placing it on the card, slightly
moistening it; a plan superior to that of putting it on the board at first,
as all risk of a portion of the gum oozing out at the edges is thereby

I have long been in the habit of mounting prints and photographs in a way
which prevents their buckling, keeps the paper underneath quite smooth, and
in other respects is so perfect, that it positively defies the
distinguishing of the picture from the paper on which it is mounted. I am
not certain that my plan is applicable to the mounting on card-board, as it
cannot be wetted and stretched, thinking it useless to make use of such a
costly material when a tolerably thick drawing-paper will more than serve
the same purpose at a very considerably less expense, seeing that the
photograph thus mounted bears a much closer resemblance {382} to that of a
good and costly print. A good plain or tinted sheet of drawing-paper, 30
inches by 22, may be obtained at the artists' colour shops for sixpence,
sufficiently large for two drawings, 9 inches by 11, allowing a sufficient

After various trials, the plan I have found decidedly the best is the
following:--Soak the drawing-paper in a vessel of water for ten minutes, or
until it appears by its flaccidity to have become perfectly saturated; put
it at once into an artist's stretching frame, brush over the back of the
photograph with rather thin and perfectly smooth paste, allow it a few
minutes to imbibe a portion of the moisture of the paste, and then lay it
smoothly down on the damp paper now on the stretching frame, of course
carefully pressing out all air bubbles as you gradually, beginning at one
side, smooth down the pasted picture. It should remain in a dry place (not
placed before a fire) until the whole has become quite dry, about ten or
twelve hours. It may then be taken out of the frame, cut to the desired
shape, and a single or double line nicely drawn around the picture, at a
distance suitable to each individual's taste, by the help of sepia-coloured
ink and a crowquill pen, both of which may also be bought at the artists'
colour shop. Should it be required to be still more nicely mounted, and to
appear to have been one and the same paper originally, the back edges of
the picture should, previous to laying on the paste, be rubbed down to a
fine and knife-like edge with a piece of the finest sand-paper placed on a
wine cork, or substance of a similar size. The drawing-paper should be of
the same shade and tint as the ground of the photograph.

A novice in the wax-paper process (having heretofore worked the collodion
and calotype, from its very desirable property of keeping long good after
being excited, _i. e._ the wax paper), I am very desirous of getting over
an unexpected difficulty in its manipulation; and if some one of the many
liberal-minded contributors to your justly wide-spread periodical, well
versed in that department of the art, would lend me a helping hand in my
present difficulty, I should feel more than obliged for the kindness
thereby conferred.

My wax-paper negative, much to my disappointment, occasionally exhibits,
more or less, a speckled appearance by transmitted light, which frequently,
in deep painting, impresses the positive with an unsightly spotted
character, somewhat similar to that of a bad lithograph taken from a
worn-out stone. I should wish my wax-paper negative to be similar in
appearance to that of a good calotype one, or to show by transmitted light,
as my vexatious specimen does when viewed on its right side by reflected
light. As the most lucid description must fall far short of a sight of the
article itself, I purpose enclosing you a specimen of my failure, a portion
of one of the negatives in question. Would immersion, instead of floating
on the gallo-nitrate solution, remedy the evil? Or should the impressed
sheet be entirely immersed in the developing fluid in place of being
floated? And if in the affirmative, of what strength should it be? I have
thus far tried both plans in vain.


    [The defects described by our correspondent are so frequent with
    manipulators in the wax-paper process, and which DR. MANSELL has called
    so aptly a "gravelly appearance," that we shall be glad to receive
    communications from those of our numerous correspondents who are so
    fortunate as to avoid it.]

_The New Waxed-paper, or Céroléine Process._--The following process,
communicated to the French paper _Cosmos_ by M. Stephane Geoffroy, and
copied into _La Lumière,_ appears to possess many of the advantages of the
wax-paper, while it gets rid of those blemishes of which so many complain.
I have therefore thought it deserving the attention of English
photographers, and so send a translation of it to '"N. & Q." As I have
preserved the French measures--the _litre_ and the _gramme_--I may remind
those who think proper to repeat M. Geoffroy's experiments, that the former
is equal to about 2 pints and 2 ounces of our measure; and that the
_gramme_ is equal to 15.438 grains, nearly 15½.


I send you a complete description of a method for either wet or dry paper,
which has many advantages over that of Mr. Le Gray.

I assure you it is excellent; and its results are always produced in a
manner so easy, so simple, and so certain, that I think I am doing great
service to photographers in publishing it.

1st. I introduce 500 grammes of yellow or white wax into 1 litre of spirits
of wine, of the strength usually sold, in a glass retort. I boil the
alcohol till the wax is completely dissolved (first taking care to place at
the end of my retort an apparatus, by means of which I can collect all the
produce of the distillation). I pour into a measure the mixture which
remains in the retort while liquid; while it is getting cool, the myricine
and the cerine harden or solidify, and the céroléine remains alone in
solution in the alcohol. I separate this liquid by straining it through
fine linen; and by a last operation, I filter it through a paper in a glass
funnel, after having mixed with it the alcohol resulting the distillation.
I keep in reserve this liquor in a stopper-bottle, and make use of it as I
want it, after having mixed it in the following manner.

2nd. Next I dissolve, in 150 grammes of alcohol, of 36 degrees of strength,
20 grammes of iodide of ammonium (or, of potassium), 1 gramme of bromide of
ammonium or potassium, 1 gramme of fluoride of potassium or ammonium.

I then pour, drop by drop, upon about 1 gramme of fresh-made iodide of
silver a concentrated solution of cyanide of potassium, only just
sufficient to dissolve it.

I add this dissolved iodide of silver to the preceding mixture, and shake
it up: there remains, as a sediment at the bottom of the bottle, a
considerable thickness of all the above salts, which serve to saturate the
alcohol by which I replace successively the saturated which I have
extracted by degrees in the proportions below.

3rd. Having these two bottles ready, when I wish to prepare negatives, I
take about 200 grammes of the solution No. 1. of céroléine and alcohol,
with which I mix 20 grammes of the solution No. 2.; I filter the mixture
with care, to avoid the crystals which are not dissolved, which always soil
the paper; and in a porcelain tray I make a bath, into which I lay to soak
for {383} about a quarter of an hour the papers selected and cut, five or
six at a time, till the liquor is exhausted. Taken out, hung up by the
corner, and dried, these papers, which have taken a uniform rosy tint, are
shut up free from dust, and kept dry. With regard to the sensitizing by
nitrate of silver, the bringing out of the image under the action of gallic
acid, and fixing the proof by hyposulphite of soda, I follow the usual
methods, most frequently that of Mr. Le Gray.

I add only, if I have any dissolved, 1 or 2 grammes of camphorated spirits
to 1 litre of the solution of gallic acid.

Allow me, Sir, to say a few words on the great advantages I have always
remarked in preparing my negatives by this method.

All those who use papers waxed by Mr. Le Gray's process, know how many, how
tedious, and how difficult are the operations before the sensitizing by
nitrate of silver. They know too how much care is necessary to obtain
papers uniformly prepared and without spots, in the midst of such long
operations, in which there are so many opportunities for accidents. In
fact, one must be always upon one's guard against the impurities of the wax
obtained from the shop; against the dust during the impregnation of the
paper; and, while using the iron, against the over-heating of the latter,
and against the bad quality of the paper used to blot.

Photographers know also how much wax they lose by this process, and how
much it costs for the quantities of paper necessary to dry it properly.
They know likewise how difficult and tedious it is to soak a waxed paper
which has been previously in a watery solution. On the contrary, by the
method I have described, the iodizing and the waxing is done by one single,
simple, and rapid process; the saturation is, as may be conceived, very
uniform, and very complete, thanks to the power of penetration possessed by
the alcohol; and that marbled appearance of the ordinary waxed proofs,
which is so annoying, cannot be produced by this method, thanks to the
character of the céroléine: this body is, in fact, of a remarkable

The solution of céroléine in the alcohol is more easy to prepare, and
comparatively costs little; and the remains of stearine and of myricine can
either be sold again, or, in any case, may be used to wax fixed proofs.

The solution of which I have given you the formula, is photogenic to a very
high degree; in fact, used with papers, either thin or stout, it gives,
after the first bath of gallic acid, blacks of an intensity truly
remarkable; which it is impossible to obtain to the same degree with Le
Gray's paper, and which other papers scarcely take after having been done a
second time with the acetic acid, or the bichloride of mercury. At the same
time, it preserves the lights and the half-tones in a way that surprises me
upon each new trial (I have not yet been able to obtain one clear proof by
gallic acid, with the addition of nitrate of silver). The transparency of
the proofs is always admirable, and the clearness of the object yields in
nothing to that of the proofs obtained by albumen.

The paper, prepared in the manner I have described, is also very quick as
compared with Le Gray's paper--at least one fourth quicker; and preserves
its perfect sensitiveness in the same proportion of time, three days in
twelve. Thus, it is at the same time quicker and less variable. This
comparative rapidity may be very well understood, by remembering that the
céroléine is an element much softer than its compound; and possesses a
photogenic aptness which is peculiar to itself, which science will, no
doubt, soon explain.

To succeed in the preparation of the céroléine, it is important to work
with wax of the best quality; this is not easy in Paris, where they sell,
under the name of wax, a resinous matter which is only wax in appearance.
It will be well to observe, with the greatest care, the smell and the look
of a fresh cut.

    [This article reached us after our preceding note was in type. We shall
    be glad to hear from any correspondents who have tried this process how
    far they find it to be one deserving of attention.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Origin of Clubs_ (Vol. ix., p. 327.).--Johnson's definition of club, as
"an assembly of good fellows, meeting under certain conditions," will apply
to a meeting held two centuries earlier than that established by Sir Walter
Raleigh at the Mermaid, in Friday Street. In the reign of Henry IV., there
was a Club called "La Court de bone Compagnie," of which Occleve was a
member, and probably Chaucer. In the works of the former are two ballads,
written about 1413, one a congratulation from the brethren to Henry Somer,
on his appointment as Sub-Treasurer of the Exchequer; and the other a
reminder to the same person, that the "styward" had warned him that he

 "  .    .    .    .  for the dyner arraye
  Ageyn Thirsday next, and nat it delaye."

That there were certain conditions to be observed by this Society, appears
from the latter epistle, which commences with an answer to a letter of
remonstrance the "Court" has received from Henry Somer against some undue
extravagance, and a breach of their rules. They were evidently a jovial
company; and such a history as could be collected of these Societies would
be both interesting and curious. We have proof that Henry Somer received
Chaucer's pension for him.


_Dr. Whichcote and Dorothy Jordan_ (Vol. ix., p. 351.).--The sentence which
Mr. Leigh Hunt couples with Mrs. Jordan's laugh, as among the best sermons
he ever heard, your correspondent [Greek: Xanthos] will find in the
collection of _Moral and Religious Aphorisms_ of Dr. Whichcote, first
published by Dr. Jeffery in 1703, and which were re-published by Dr. Salter
in 1753. It is to the following effect:

    "Aph. 1060. To _lessen_ the number of things _lawful in themselves_;
    brings the consciences of men in[to] slavery, multiplies sin in the
    world, makes the way {384} narrower than God has made it, occasions
    differences among men, discourages comers to religion, rebuilds the
    partition wall, is an usurpation upon the family of God, challenges
    successive ages backward and forward, assigns new boundaries in the
    world, takes away the opportunity of free-will offerings."

It is possible that Mr. Leigh Hunt may have found it in the little _Manual
of Golden Sentences,_ published by the Rev. John Hunter, Bath, 1826, 12mo.,
where it occurs at p. 64., No. xlvi.

With respect to Dorothy Jordan's laugh, to those of your readers who, like
myself, have heard it, and treasure it among their joyous remembrances, no
comment will be wanting.


"_Paid down upon the Nail_" (Vol. ix., p. 196.).--Your correspondent ABHBA
mentions Limerick, on the authority of O'Keefe the dramatist, as the place
where this saying originated; from the fact of a pillar, with a circular
plate of copper upon it, having stood in a piazza under the Exchange in
this ancient city: which pillar was called "the nail." Permit me to remark,
Bristol also claims the origin of this saying: vide the following paragraph
in No. 1. p. 4. of the _Curiosities of Bristol_, published last September:

    "We have heard it stated that this phrase first originated in Bristol,
    when it was common for the merchants to buy and sell at the bronze
    pillars (four) in front of the Exchange--the pillars being commonly
    called _Nails_."

I should infer that, from the fact of Bristol having been at the time of
the erection of these pillars (some centuries ago) by far the most
important place in the British empire (London only excepted), it is more
likely to have originated this commercial saying than Limerick.


"_Man proposes, but God disposes_" (Vol. ix., pp. 87. 202.).--I regret that
I am unable to afford MR. THOMAS any information respecting the Abbot
Gerson, to whom the authorship of the _De Imitatione_ has been attributed,
beyond what is contained in the preface to the edition which I before
quoted. The authority there cited is a dissertation, entitled _Mémoire sur
le véritable auteur de l'Imitation de Jésus-Christ_, par G. de Gregory,
Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur, etc., Paris, 1827. The contents of this
work are thus described in that preface:

    "Eques de Gregory argumentis tum externis, tum internis demonstrat:--1.
    Libellum--primitus tractatum fuisse ethicæ scholasticum, a magistro
    novitiorum elaboratum. 2. Eundem, tempore inter annum 1220 et 1240
    interjecto, suppresso nomine conscriptum esse a Joanne Gerson, monacho
    Benedictino, antea in Athenæo Vercellensi professore, postea ibidem
    monasterii S. Stephani abbate. Denique specialibus argumentis eos
    refellit, qui vel Joanni Gersoni, cancellario academiæ Parisiensi, vel
    Thomæ Kempensi hunc librum attribuendum esse contendunt."

I have been informed that an interesting article upon the question of the
authorship has recently appeared in a very recent number of a Roman
Catholic Review; I believe Brownson's _American Quarterly._

H. P.

Lincoln's Inn.

H. P. wishes for some other quotations from _De Imitatione Christi_, in
order to test the claims to originality of that extraordinary work; I
therefore now supply another--"Of two evils we ought always to choose the
least,"--because I strongly suspect that it is even some centuries older
than the time of the author, Thomas à Kempis. It will be found in b. III.
ch. xii. of the English translation.

A. B. C.

_Roman Catholic Patriarchs_ (Vol. viii., p. 317.).--The following, with the
signature W. FRASER, appeared in "N. & Q.":

    "Has any bishop of the Western Church held the title of patriarch,
    besides the Patriarch of Venice? And what peculiar authority or
    privileges has he?"

The Archbishop of Lisbon has the title of Patriarch of the Indies; but it
does not appear that he has any defined jurisdiction, being only an
inferior patriarch, and with a title little more than honorary. His grand
vicars, however, are archbishops; and his seal has, like those of other
patriarchs, the tiara encircled with two crowns only. This patriarchate was
created by Pope Clement XI., by his constitution _In supremo Apostolatus_.
Afterwards, in the year 1720, the same Pope conferred upon the Patriarch of
Lisbon the exclusive right of anointing the Kings of Portugal at their
coronation on the right arm, which had previously been the privilege of the
Archbishop of Braga.

F. C. H.

The primate of Portugal has the style of "patriarch," but I do not know of
any privileges or authority that he has beyond those appertaining to the
rank of archbishop or cardinal, when he happens to be one, as at present.


_Classic Authors and the Jews_ (Vol. ix., p. 221.).--In Smith's _Dictionary
of Greek and Roman Biography_ a few references are given, under the words
"Herodes," "Hyrcanus," &c., to classical authors who refer to the Jewish
people, their country and customs. Probably many more will be given in the
_Dictionary of Geography_, under the words "Palestine," "Jerusalem," &c.,
when the work is completed. To suppose that the classical authors allude
but seldom to the Jews is a mistake. Roman writers of the post-Augustan
period abound in allusions to them. I can supply {385} B. H. C. with a few.
The _Histories_ of Tacitus refer to them in almost every page, and book v.
especially contains an account of their origin, institutions, chief city,
and temple. Juvenal also has frequent allusions to their customs and
habits, _e. g._ Sat. iii. 14., xiv. 101. &c.; see also Horace's _Satires_,
I. iv. 143., I. v. 100., and I. ix. 70., with Macleane's notes on the two
latter passages; Pliny, V. xiv. 15., XIII. iv. 9., XXXI. viii. 44.; Quint.,
III. vii. 21.; Just., xxxvi. 2. I am not aware of any work which gives
_all_ the passages in classical authors referring to the Jews.


In answer to your correspondent B. H. C., I beg to say that I have found
out the following passages in classic authors bearing on Judea and the
Jews, all of which I have authenticated myself, except where I had not the
book at hand:

  Tacitus. Annales, ii. 85.; xii. 23. 54.; xv. 44.
  Ditto. Historiæ, i. 10.; ii. 1. 4, 5. 78. 79. 81.; v. _passim_.
  Horace. Satires, i. 4. 143.; i. 5. 100.; i. 9. 70.
  Juvenal. Satires, ii. 14.; vi. 158-160, 537-547.; xiv. 96-106.
  Persius. Satires, v. 180-189.
  Martial, iv. 4.
  Suetonius. Tiberius, 36.; Augustus, 76.; Claudius, 25.; Vespasian, 5.
      &c.; Julius Cæsar, 84.
  Pliny, v. 14, 15, 16. &c.; vii. 15.; xxviii. 7.
  Dio Cassius, lx. §6.; xxxvii. §17.
  Lucan, ii.

B. H. A.

_Mawkin_ (Vol. ix., p. 303.).--An attempt to explain the origin of the word
_maukin_, or _malkin_, may be seen in the _Philological Museum_, vol. i. p.
681. (See also Halliwell's Dict., in _Malkin_ and _Maulkin_.) The most
probable derivation of the word is, that _malkin_ is a diminutive of _mal_,
abbreviated from _Mary_, now commonly written _Moll._ Hence, by successive
changes, _malkin_ or _maukin_ might mean a dirty wench, a figure of old
rags dressed up as a scarecrow, and a mop of rags used for cleaning ovens.
The Scotch _maukin_, for a hare, seems to be an instance of an animal
acquiring a proper name, like _renard_ in French, and _jack_ for _pike_ in


_Mantelpiece_ (Vol. ix., p. 302.).--_French_, Manteau de cheminée.
_German_, Kamin Mantel. This is the moulding, or mantle, that serves to
hide (screen) the joint betwixt the wall and the fire-stove.

H. F. B.

_Mousehunt_ (Vol. ix., pp. 65, 135.).--A short time ago I was informed by a
gamekeeper, that this little animal is found in the Holt Forest. He told me
that there are three kinds of the weasel tribe in the woods: the weasel,
the stoat or stump, and the _mousehunt_ or _mousehunter_, which is also
called the _thumb_, from its diminutive size. It feeds on mice and small
birds; but my informant does not think that it attacks game.

White of Selbourne mentions that such an animal was supposed to exist in
his neighbourhood:

    "Some intelligent country people have a notion that we have, in these
    parts, a species of the genus _Mustelinum,_ besides the weasel, stoat,
    ferret, and polecat: a little reddish beast, not much bigger than a
    field-mouse, but much longer, which they call a _cane_. This piece of
    intelligence can be little depended on; but farther inquiry may be
    made."--_Natural History of Selbourne_, Let. 15.


As I can completely join in with the praise your correspondent MR. TENNYSON
awards to Mr. Fennell's _Natural History of Quadrupeds_ (except as regards
some of its woodcuts, which I understand were inserted by the publisher in
spite of the author's remonstrance), I feel induced to protect Mr. Fennell
from the hypercritical commentary of your correspondent J. S.s. (p. 136.).

In the passage quoted and commented on, had Mr. Fennell used the word
_beach_, it would certainly have referred to the sea; but the word "shore,"
which he there uses, applies to rivers as well as seas. Thus Spenser,
speaking of the river Nile, says:

 "... Beside the fruitful _shore_ of muddy _Nile_,
  Upon a sunny bank outstretched lay,
  In monstrous length, a mighty crocodile."

The passage, therefore, in Mr. Fennell's work does not seem to me to be
incorrect, as it may have reference to the _shore_ of the Tweed, Ettrick,
Yarrow, or some other rivers in Selkirkshire.

May I take the present opportunity of inquiring through your truly useful
columns, when Mr. Fennell's work on the natural history of Shakspeare,
advertised some few years since, is likely to appear?



"_Vanitatem observare_" (Vol. ix., pp. 247. 311.).--The quotation of
R. H. G. is no more to be found in the Canons of Laodicea than in those of
Ancyra. Indeed the passage has more the appearance of a recommendation,
certainly excellent, than of any grave decree of a council. It can hardly
be supposed to bear any other meaning than that Christian females ought not
to _indulge vanity_, or take occasion to be vain of their works in wool,
spun or woven; but to refer all their talent to the Almighty, who gives to
them the skill and ability to work. Here is evidently an allusion to the
skill and wisdom given to Beseleel and Ooliab:

    "Both of them hath he instructed with wisdom, to do ... tapestry and
    embroidery in blue and purple, {386} and scarlet twice dyed, and fine
    linen, and to weave all things, and to invent all things."--Exod. xxxv.

And Christian women are reminded that all their skill in such work is the
gift of God. The learned Benedictine Rupertus has a comment upon this
passage of Exodus, so apposite that its substance may appropriately
conclude this Note:

    "Disce hinc, artes omnes, etiam mechanicas, esse dona Dei, saltem
    naturalia, neque in iis ut suis, suaque industria inventis aut partis,
    _homini gloriandum esse_ (q. d. vanitatem observare), sed illas Deo
    adscribendas, ab eoque petendas, et in ejus obsequium expendendas


The passage which your correspondent R. H. G. quotes from the Council of
Ancyra, A.D. 314, is not to be found in the canons of that Council, which
are printed in their original Greek, with several Latin translations, in
Labbe's _Concilia_, vol. ii. p. 513. The meaning of the sentence does not
seem very abstruse; but before any suggestion is made for its
interpretation, it will be desirable to ascertain to what Council it


_Divining Rod_ (Vol. viii., pp. 350. 400.).--Your correspondents do not
tell us what was discovered in the places to which the rod pointed in the
hands of the ladies named; but although they cannot for a moment be
suspected of wilfully deceiving, may there not have been, as in
table-turning, an unconscious employment of muscular force? I have long
since read, and have tried with success, the following mode of producing
the effect:--Holding the rod in the usual position, one branch of the fork
in each hand, and grasping them firmly, turn your hands slowly and steadily
round inwards, _i. e._ the right hand from the right to left, and the left
from left to right--the point of the rod will then gradually descend till
it points directly downwards.


_Orange Blossoms_ (Vol. viii., p. 341.).--The compliment of Captain
Absolute to Mrs. Malaprop in _The Rivals_, contains, I have no doubt, the
allegorical reason of the employment of these flowers on bridal occasions;
and in that view they seem highly appropriate, at least in our colder
climates--where we often see many "flowers" still on the parent stem, while
the "fruit" has attained its full perfection.


"_Hip, hip, hurrah!_" (Vol. viii., pp. 88. 323. 605.).--Allow me to correct
two mistakes with reference to the notes on this subject. The note ascribed
to Dr. Burney, in a copy of Hawkins's _History of Music_, in the British
Museum, is in the handwriting of Sir John Hawkins, as are _all_ the other
notes scattered through the five volumes. These MS. notes have been
included in the recent reprint of this valuable work. In the hurry of
transcribing, Mr. Chappell (as your correspondent A. F. B. suggests)
_misread_ the MS. note. In future we must read "_hop_ drinkers," and not
"_hep_ drinkers."


_Belgium Ecclesiastical Antiquities_ (Vol. vii., p. 65.).--The inquiry of
AJAX has only been recently brought under my notice. In reply, I refer him
to _Recueil Héraldique et Historique des Familles de Belgique_. This is the
finest work on the antiquities, civil, military, and ecclesiastic, of that
country: it was printed at Antwerp by Rapell fils, and is in five large
4to. volumes. I saw a copy sold in Malines for about 3l.: it is now become
more scarce, and probably could not be obtained under 4l.


       *       *       *       *       *



The Faussett Collection has, as our readers are probably aware, become the
property not of the public, but of a private individual, Mr. Joseph Mayer,
F.S.A., of Liverpool, who, with praiseworthy liberality, has resolved to
make the Collection as useful as possible to the public. He has therefore
determined to publish, under the title of _Saxon Antiquities from the
Kentish Tumuli_, Mr. Faussett's copious MS. accounts of the opening of the
Barrows, and of the discoveries made in them; accompanied by numerous
illustrations of the more important objects themselves, especially of the
world-renowned Gold Brooches, which exhibit such exquisite specimens of the
artistic skill of our ancestors. The work will appear under the editorship
of Mr. C. Roach Smith, who will illustrate Mr. Faussett's discoveries by
the results of kindred investigations in France and Germany. The
subscription price is Two Guineas, and the number of copies will, as far as
possible, be regulated by the list of subscribers.

A few months since _The Athenæum_ announced the discovery at Lambeth, some
time previously, of a number of documents of the Cromwellian period. This
announcement attracted the attention of some French literary man, probably
M. Guizot, who appears to have made some inquiries on the subject, which
resulted in a paragraph in the _Journal des Débats_, not, indeed,
contradicting the fact of the discovery, but denying its importance. Can
any of our readers throw light upon this matter? Had our valued
correspondent DR. MAITLAND still held office at Lambeth, there would
probably not have been any doubt left as to the value or worthlessness of
any MSS. discovered under the archiepiscopal roof,--albeit, found as we
have understood these to have been, not in the department of the librarian,
or, indeed, of any of the officials, but in some out-of-the way tower. Have
these documents been examined? If so, what are they? If not, why does not
the Society of Antiquaries send a deputation to the archbishop, and request
his permission to undertake the task. Probably their labour would {387} not
be thrown away. At all events, the doubt which now exists, whether valuable
but unused materials for a most important period of our history may not be
mouldering at Lambeth, would be removed; and future Carlyles be spared
useless journeys and wasted hours to rediscover them.

A publishing Society, somewhat similar to the Camden, has been established
in the United States, under the title of _The Seventy-six Society_, for the
publication and republication of books and papers relating to the American

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_Gibbon's Rome, with Variorum Notes_, Vol. III., _Bohn's
British Classics_. The third volume of this cheap and excellent reprint of
Gibbon extends from Julian's expedition against the Persians to the
accession of Marcian.--_The Book of the Axe, containing a Piscatorial
Description of that Stream, &c._, by George P. R. Pulman. A pleasant
semi-piscatorial, semi-antiquarian, gossiping volume, welcome at this
season, when the May-fly is looked for on the waters; illustrative of the
fishing spots and historical localities of the far-famed Axe.--_Tasso's
Jerusalem Delivered, translated into English Spenserian; with a Life of the
Author_, by J. H. Wiffen, the new volume of Bohn's _Illustrated Library_,
forms a fitting companion to Wright's _Dante_, so recently noticed by us.

       *       *       *       *       *


LINGARD'S ENGLAND. Foolscap 8vo. 1844. Vols. I. To V., and X. and XI.

THE WORKS OF DR. JONATHAN SWIFT. London, printed for C. Bathurst, in Fleet
Street, 1768. Vol. VII. (Vol. VI. ending with "Verses on the Death of Dr.
Swift," written in Nov. 1731.)

BYRON'S WORKS. Vol. VI. of Murray's Edition. 1829.

The Volume of the LONDON POLYGLOTT which contains the Prophets.
Imperfection in other parts of no consequence.


THE CIRCLE OF THE SEASONS. London, 1828. 12mo. Two copies.

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  Wanted by _Lieut. Bruce_, Royal Horse Artillery, Chatham.

LATIMER'S SERMONS. Published by the Parker Society. Vol. I.

  Wanted by _Mr. J. G. Nichols_, 25. Parliament Street.

PLANS OR MAPS OF ANCIENT LONDON, and Representations of Remarkable and
Interesting Objects connected therewith--large size (such as Old St.
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A Copy of No. 1. (or early number) of "The Times" Newspaper.

A Copy of one of the "Broadsheets" issued during the Plague.

  Wanted by _Mr. Joseph Simpson_, Librarian, Literary and Scientific
      Institution, Islington, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

_We must beg the indulgence of many Correspondents for omitting to reply to
them this holiday week._

H. B. C._'s paper_, Impossibilities of History, _in our next_.

T. L. N. _For the authorship of the Latin verse on Dr. Franklin, see our
5th Volume_, pp. 17. 140. 549. 571.; _and_ Vol. vi., p. 88.

J--G., THE EDITOR, _and another Correspondent. No._

M. W. _Try a weaker solution of pyrogallic; that is, make the ordinary
3-grain to the ounce solution, and use one-third of that and one-third of
plain water, and the results will probably be what you desire. The bath
will keep for a long time, if kept free from dust, &c._

_The extent which Photography occupies in our present Number will, we are
sure, excuse us, in the eyes of several Correspondents. for the omission of
their communications._

OUR EIGHTH VOLUME _is now bound and ready for delivery, price_ 10s. 6d.,
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COLLODION PORTRAITS AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest ease and certainty
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Founded A.D. 1842.


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


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