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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 236, May 6, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 236, May 6, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
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       *       *       *       *       *



"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 236.]
SATURDAY, MAY 6. 1854.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                              Page
  An Encyclopædia of Ventilation, by Bolton Corney       415
  The House of Russell, or Du Rozel, by John Macray      416
  Ferdinand Charles III., Duke of Parma                  417
  Original Royal Letters to the Grand Masters of Malta,
  by William Winthrop                                    417

  MINOR NOTES:--Whipping a Lady--Mother of Thirty
  Children--"Ought" and "Aught"--Walton--Salutations--
  Good Times for Equity Suitors--The Emperor of Russia
  and the Order of the Garter                            419

  Sir Henry Wotton's Verses, "The Character of a Happy
  Life," by John Macray                                  420

  MINOR QUERIES:--Plants and Flowers--Quotations
  wanted--Griffith, William, Bishop of Ossory--
  "Cowperiana"--John Keats's Poems--Holland--Armorial--
  Stoke and Upton--Slavery in England--"Go to Bath"--
  Mummy Chests--The Blechenden Family--Francklyn
  Household Book--Lord Rosehill's Marriage--Colonel
  Butler--Willesdon, co. Middlesex                       421

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Ashes of "Lignites"--
  Bishop Bathurst--"Selah"--The Long Parliament--"The
  Three Pigeons"--Captain Cook--Varnish for old
  Books--Cabbages                                        422

  Addison's Hymns, by J. H. Markland                     424
  Longfellow, by John P. Stillwell, &c.                  424
  Books burnt by the Hangman, by E. F. Woodman, &c.      425
  Sack                                                   427
  Irish Law in the Eighteenth Century, by Alexander
  Andrews, &c.                                           427
  Job xix. 26., by the Rev. Moses Margoliouth            428

  Experiences--The Céroléine Process--On preserving
  the Sensitiveness of Collodion Plates                  429

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Tippet--Heraldic Anomaly--
  George Wood of Chester--Moon Superstitions--"Myself"--
  Roman Roads in England--Anecdote of George IV.--
  General Fraser--The Fusion--"Corporations have no
  souls"--Apparition of the White Lady--Female Parish
  Clerk--Bothy--King's Prerogative and Hunting Bishops--
  Green Eyes--Brydone the Tourist--Descendants of John
  of Gaunt, Noses of--"Put"--"Caricature; a Canterbury
  Tale"                                                  430

  Notes on Books, &c.                                    433
  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                           433
  Notices to Correspondents                              434

       *       *       *       *       *





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EDITION OF GOLDSMITH'S WORKS, and is now published; and the Fourth Volume,
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  _April 29th_, 1854.

       *       *       *       *       * {415}


       *       *       *       *       *



    "_The House_ [_of Commons_] _met to-day_ [_27th April_] _after the
    Easter holidays--and honourable members, on entering, seemed highly to
    appreciate the unusual luxury of a little fresh air._"--THE TIMES, 28th

The failure of some late attempts to ventilate public buildings invites me
to set forth an _Encyclopædia of ventilation_--at a cheap rate, and in a
compendious form.

Aware of the abilities and celebrity of many of the writers on this
subject--from Whitehurst and Franklin to Reid and Gurney--I must ward off
the imputation of self-conceit by expressing my belief that the errors of
those who have failed should be chiefly ascribed to excessive cleverness;
to unadvised attempts at outwitting nature! I hope to escape that snare. In
the execution of my humble task, I shall entirely rely on common sense and
common experience.

Air is essential to human life, and as respiration destroys its vital
qualities, the _ventilation_ of rooms which are intended for habitation
should be a primary object in all architectural plans.

Architects, however, seldom provide for the ventilation of rooms otherwise
than as they provide for the admission of light. Now the properties of
light and air, with reference to our domestic requirements, differ in some
important particulars--of which it may not be amiss to give a brief

_Light_ moves with uniform velocity: _air_ is sometimes quiescent, and
sometimes moves at the rate of thirty miles an hour. _Light_ diffuses
itself with much uniformity: _air_ passes in a current from the point of
its entrance to that of its exit. _Light_, whatever be its velocity, has no
sensible effect on the human frame: _air_, in the shape of a partial
current, is both offensive to the feelings and productive of serious
diseases. _Light_, once admitted, supplies our wants till nightfall: _air_
requires to be replaced at very short intervals. _Light_ may be
conveniently admitted from above: _air_ requires to be admitted on the
level of the sitter. _Light_, by the aid of ground glass, may be modified
permanently: _air_ requires to be variously adjusted according to its
direction, its velocity, the seasons, the time of the day, the number of
persons assembled, &c.

An attentive consideration of the above circumstances leads me to certain
conclusions which I shall now state aphoristically, and proceed to describe
in more detail.

A room designed for a numerous assemblage of persons--as a reading-room, a
lecture-room, or a school-room--should be provided with apertures, adapted
to admit spontaneous supplies of fresh air, in such variable quantities as
may be required, on at least two of its opposite sides, and within three
feet from the floor; also, with apertures in the ceiling, or on a level
therewith, to promote the exit of the vitiated air. The apertures of both
descriptions may be quite distinct from those which admit light.

Suppose a room to be twenty-four feet square, and sixteen feet in height,
with two apertures for light on each side, each aperture being three feet
wide by eight feet in height, and rising from the floor. There are not many
rooms constructed on a plan so favourable to the admission of fresh
air--but it has some serious defects. 1. The air would enter in broad and
partial currents. 2. It would not reach the angular portions of the room.
3. The vitiated air might rise above the apertures, and so accumulate
without the means of escape.

Now, suppose the same room to have its apertures at eight feet from the
floor, and so to reach the ceiling. The escape of the vitiated air might
then take place--if not prevented by a counter-current. But whence comes
the fresh air for the occupants? There is no direct provision for its
admission. The elevated apertures are utterly insufficient for that
purpose; and _the perpetual requisite is no otherwise afforded than by the
occasional opening of a door!_

It being thus established that the same apertures can never effectually
serve for light and ventilation, I propose with regard to reading-rooms,
lecture-rooms, and school-rooms, which require accommodation for books,
maps, charts, and drawings, rather than a view of external objects, that
the windows should be placed in the upper part of the room--that the
admission of fresh air should be provided for by ducts near the floor--and
the escape of the vitiated air by openings in, or on a level with, the

The number of windows, and their size, must depend on the size of the room.
If windows are to admit light only, a smaller number may be sufficient, and
they may not be required on more than one side; a circumstance which
recommends the plan proposal, as we can seldom have windows on each side of
a room, or even on two of its opposite sides, but may devise a method of so
admitting air.

Rejecting the use of windows as a means of ventilation, and rejecting
artificial currents of every description, I propose the substitution of
air-ducts of incorrodible iron, to be inserted horizontally in the walls of
at least two opposite sides of the room, within three feet from the floor,
and at intervals of about four feet. The ducts to be six or eight inches in
diameter, according to the size of the room. The external orifice of each
duct to be formed of perforated zinc, and the internal orifice, which may
be trumpet-shaped, of {416} perforated zinc or wire-gauze, with a device
which would serve to adjust the quantum of air according to circumstances,
and to exclude it at night. By such contrivances, while the offensive and
noxious currents which proceed from wide openings would be obviated, the
supplies of fresh air would always be equal to the demand. The _purest_ air
may not be accessible--but, as Franklin says, "no common air from without
is so unwholesome as the air within a _close_ room."

The escape of the vitiated air requires less consideration. If the ceiling
of the room be flat, with another room above it, the upper part of each
window, in the shape of a narrow slip, might be made to act as a sort of
safety-valve; but if the windows are on one side only, corresponding
openings should be made on the opposite side, so that there would almost
always be, more or less, a leeward opening. A vaulted ceiling, without any
other room over it, seems to be the most desirable form, as the vitiated
air would rise and collect towards its centre, where there could be no
counter-current to impede its egress.

It is the union of those two objects, the admission of fresh air and the
riddance of the vitiated air, skilfully and economically effected, which
forms the circle of the science of ventilation.

I have restricted myself to the means of _ventilation_, which is requisite
at all seasons of the year, but am quite aware that _warmth_, or a
temperature above that of the external air, is sometimes indispensable to
health and comfort, and therefore to the free exercise of the faculties. I
believe, however, that the means proposed for the admission of fresh air
might also be made available for the admission of heated air, and that
either description of air might be admitted independently of the other, or
both descriptions simultaneously.

A vast increase of reading-rooms, lecture-rooms, and school-rooms, may be
safely predicted, and as the due ventilation of such rooms is a project of
undeniable importance, I hope this note, eccentric in form, but earnest as
to its purpose, may invite the remarks of others more conversant with
architecture and physics--either in correction, or confirmation, or
extension, of its general principles and details.


The Terrace, Barnes, 28th April, 1854.

       *       *       *       *       *


At a time when the readers of "N. & Q.," and the world at large, have been
hearing of the gift of a bell to a village church in Normandy, so
pleasantly and readily made by the princely house of Russell, far exceeding
the modest solicitation of the curé for assistance by way of a
subscription, in remembrance of the Du Rozels having left their native
patrimony in France to share the fortunes of the Conqueror in Old England,
the following particulars may not be uninteresting.

Mr. Wiffen, when compiling his elaborate _Historical Memoirs of the House
of Russell, from the Time of the Norman Conquest_, had occasion to make
some inquiries respecting a statement put forth by a M. Richard Seguin, a
rich dealer in merceries and wooden shoes at Vire, in the department of
Calvados; who, it appears, had a mania for appropriating the literary
labours of others as his own, and, in fact, is stigmatised as a _voleur
littéraire_ by M. Quérard, in his curious work entitled _Les Supercheries
Littéraires Dévoilées_. Mr. Wiffen wished to ascertain M. Seguin's
authority for affirming in some work, the name of which is not given by M.
Quérard, but which is probably the _Histoire du Pays d'Auge et des Evêques
Comtes de Lisieux_, Vire, 1832, that the Du Rozels were descended from
Bertrand de Briquebec. M. Seguin's reply is contained in the following
letter from M. Le Normand of Vire, to whom Mr. Wiffen had written,
requesting him to obtain M. Seguin's authority for his statement:

    "J'ai vu M. Séguin, et je lui ai demandé d'où provenaient les
    renseignements dont il s'était servi pour dire dans son ouvrage que les
    Du Rozel descendaient des Bertrand de Bricquebec. _Il m'a répondu qu'il
    l'ignorait_; qu'il avait eu en sa possession une grande quantité de
    Copies de Chartres et d'anciens titres qui lui avaient fourni les
    matériaux de son histoire, _mais qu'il ne savait nullement d'où elles
    provenaient_."--_Historical Memoirs, &c._, vol. i. p. 5. n. 1.

The fact appears to be, that M. Seguin had obtained possession, through
marriage, of a quantity of MSS., and was in the habit of printing them as
his own works. Some of them had belonged to an Abbé Lefranc, one of the
priests who were murdered in the diabolical massacre of the clergy in the
prisons of Paris in September, 1792; and others of the MSS. had been the
property of a M. Noël Deshayes, Curé de Compigni, whose _Mémoires pour
servir à l'Histoire des Evêques de Lisieux_, were published by Seguin as
his own, but altered and disfigured under the title of--

    "Histoire du Pays d'Auge et des Evêques Comtes de Lisieux, contenant
    des Notions sur l'Archéologie, les Droits, Coutumes, Franchises et
    Libertés du Bocage et de la Normandie; Vire, Adam, 1832."

The MS., however, from which Seguin printed his forgery, turns out to have
been but a copy; the original having since been discovered by M. Formeville
in the library of the Séminaire of Evreux, and is now about to be published
by that gentleman (see _Supercheries_, tom. iv., Paris, 1852). By a just
retribution, M. Formeville is one of the literary men to whom Sequin
refused to point out his original authorities. M. Quérard quotes some {417}
passages, in juxtaposition, from Seguin's pretended work and from the
original MS., to show how the latter had been altered and corrupted in the
printed copy. M. Seguin was quite illiterate, and has committed the most
egregious blunders in his _chef d'oeuvre de plagiat_, as his _Histoire du
Pays d'Auge_ is termed by Quérard. Many other authors, besides Mr. Wiffen
and M. Formeville, wrote to Seguin for his authorities on various subjects,
but he never pointed out a single one. Full details are given of his
literary thefts by M. Quérard and his coadjutors. When the original work of
M. Deshayes appears, in its genuine state, as promised by M. Formeville,
the world will then learn what was really stated respecting the descent of
the Du Rozels from Bertrand de Briquebec; although the amiable and
accomplished Mr. Wiffen is no longer living to avail himself of the
information. Seguin died in 1847.



       *       *       *       *       *


Englishmen might, perhaps, feel even more horror than they will do at the
assassination, on Mar. 26, of the Duke of Parma, if they were reminded that
he was the representative and lineal descendant of Charles I., and as such
possessed a claim, by hereditary descent, on our Crown, superior to that of
our gracious Queen, who is only lineally descended from James I.

I subjoin his pedigree:

               Charles I.==
        Henrietta Maria==Philip Duc d'Orleans.
Anna Maria==Victor Amadeus II., Duke of Savoy and King of
          |   Sardinia.
       Charles Emanuel III., King of Sardinia, 1730==
          Victor Amadeus III., King of Sardinia==
        Victor Emanuel, King of Sardinia, 1802==
       Maria Theresa==Charles II., Duke of Parma.
Ferdinand Charles III., Duke of Parma, born January 14, 1823,
married, November 10, 1845, Louisa Maria Theresa of Bourbon,
daughter of the late Duc de Berry, and was assassinated
March 26, 1854.

It is rather a singular circumstance, that the Duchess of Parma should have
been the wife of the hereditary heir to the throne of England, and the
sister of the hereditary heir to the throne of France,--her husband, the
Duke of Parma, having been the representative of the House of Stuart,--and
her brother, the Count de Chambord, being the representative of the House
of Bourbon.

E. S. S. W.

       *       *       *       *       *


(_Continued from_ Vol. ix., p. 267.)

Through the great kindness of my old friend at this island, Frederick
Sedley, Esq., and the continued and constant assistance of Dr. Vella, I am
now enabled to forward correct translations of the seven remaining letters
bearing the autograph of Charles II. Mindful of the space which will be
required for their insertion in "N. & Q.," I shall confine myself to a few
preliminary remarks.

The first letter in the following list is the earliest in date, as it is of
the greatest interest. In it we have, for the first time, found a curious
statement recorded by an English monarch, making known that he not only
built his galleys for the protection of trade in this sea in different
ports of the Mediterranean, _and purchased the slaves to man them of the
Order of Malta_, but also complaining to the Grand Master for permitting
the collector of customs to charge an export toll of "five pieces of gold
per head," which he considered an unjust tax on this _kind of commerce_,
and the more especially so, because it was not demanded from his neighbours
and allies, the Kings of France and Spain. That the Knights of St. John
made their prisoners slaves, disposing of some to the wealthy residents or
natives of the island, and employing others in the erection of their
dwellings, palaces, and fortifications, is well known.

Historians have stated that when Dragut landed at Malta, in July, 1551,
with Sinam, his admiral, who was in joint command, they went to the summit
of Mount Sceberras to reconnoitre before an attack should be made on the
convent. When employed on this service, Sinam, who was opposed to any
hostile movement, pointing to the castle, thus remarked, "Surely no eagle
could have chosen a more craggy and difficult place to make his nest in.
Dost thou not see that men must have wings to get up to it, and that all
the artillery and troops of the universe would not be able to take it by
force?" An old Turkish officer of his suite, addressing Dragut, thus
continued,--"See'st thou that bulwark which juts out in the sea, and on
which the Maltese have planted the great standard of their order? I can
assure thee that whilst I was a _prisoner with them, I have helped to carry
the large stones of which it is built_, and am pretty sure that before thou
canst make thyself master of it, thou wilt be overtaken by the winter
season; and probably likewise prevented from succeeding by some powerful
succours from Europe." There can be little doubt that this remark was {418}
feelingly made, and that the aged Turk who uttered it had experienced,
during his residence as a prisoner at Malta, all the horrors of slavery.
That no consideration was given to the comfort of a slave, and little value
set on his life, will be briefly shown by the following anecdote:--On the
13th of April, 1534, an accusation was made against an English knight of
the name of Massimberg, to the effect that he had unwarrantably drawn his
sword and _killed four galley slaves_; and being convicted of the crime on
the 18th of May of the same year, he was asked why judgment should not be
given against him. Massimberg thus replied, "_In killing the four slaves I
did well, but in not having at the same time killed our old and imbecile
Grand Master I did badly._" This plea not being _considered satisfactory_,
he was deprived of his habit; but two days afterwards, that is, on the 20th
May, 1534, he was reinstated in the Order, though for a time not permitted
to enjoy his former dignity of a commander. This knight was also accused of
having stolen a slave from a Maltese; but this accusation he stoutly
denied, giving, in proof of his innocence, that the man _bore on his
shoulder a brand, or mark_, by which he could be easily known as belonging
to him. (Vide Manuscript Records of the Order.)

The next letter in the following list to which I would briefly call
attention is that under date of June 21st, 1675, in which His Majesty
Charles II. refers to a misunderstanding which had taken place between his
admiral, Sir John Narbrough, and the Order of Malta. The nature of this
difficulty is well explained by giving a correct copy of the admiral's
letter to the Grand Master, which I have taken from the original now on
file in the Record Office of this island. It reads as follows:--

    To the most eminent Prince, the Lord Nicholas Cotoner, Grand Master of
    the Order of Malta.

    Most eminent Sir,

    After the tender of my humble service, with my hearty thanks for the
    manifold favours vouchsafed unto my Master, the King of Great Britain,
    &c., and for your highness' extraordinary kindness manifested to
    myself--and, most eminent sir, since your favour of _product_, I have
    sent on shore one of my captains to wait upon your highness with the
    presentment of this my grateful letter, and withal to certify to your
    eminence _that I did, and do expect, a salute to be given by your
    highness to my Master's flag which I carry_, correspondent to the
    salutes which you give to the flags of the King of Spain and the King
    of France, which are carried in the same place, _it being the
    expectation of the King my Master_.

    Formerly your eminence was pleased to make some scruple of my command
    as admiral, which I humbly conceive your highness is fully satisfied
    in, since you received the last letter from the King of Great Britain.

    Sir, I have, since my arrival at your eminence's port, often employed
    the Consul Desclaous to wait upon your highness _concerning the
    salutes_, but have not received any satisfactory answer thereto, which
    I now humbly desire may be returned unto me by my officer; and withal,
    that your eminence will be pleased to honour me with your commands
    wherein I may serve you, which shall be most cheerfully embraced, and
    readily performed by,

      Most eminent Sir,
      Your highness' most humble
      And faithful Servant,

      On board His Majesty's Ship Henrietta,
      Malta, October 17, 1675.

That the complaints of Sir John Narbrough, with reference to the Grand
Master's refusal to salute the English flag, were, in the end,
satisfactorily explained and removed, will be seen by the following
extracts taken from the _Diary of Henry Teonge_, published in London in
1825. The reverend writer was serving as chaplain on board H. M. S.
"Assistance" at the time (1675-76) his notes were written.

    "_August 1, 1675._--This morn wee com near Malta; before wee com to the
    cytty, a boate with the Malteese flagg in it coms to us to know whence
    wee cam. Wee told them from England; they asked if wee had a bill of
    health for prattick, viz., entertaynment; our captain told them he had
    _no bill but what was in his guns' mouths_. Wee cam on and anchored in
    the harbour betweene the old towne and the new, about nine of the
    clock; but must waite the governour's leasure to have leave to com on
    shoare, which was detarded _because our captain would not salute the
    cytty, except they would retaliate_. At last cam the Consull with his
    attendants to our ship (but would not com on board till our captain had
    been on shoare) to tell us that we had leave to com on shoare six, or
    eight, or ten, at a time, and might have anything that was there to be
    had; _with a promise to accept our salute kindly_. Wherupon our captain
    tooke a glasse of sack, and drank a health to King Charles, and fyred
    seven gunns: the cytty gave us five againe, which was more than they
    had don to all our men of warr that cam thither before."

    "_August 2._--This cytty is compassed almost cleane round with the sea,
    which makes severall safe harbours for hundreds of shipps. The people
    are generally extreamly courteouse, but especially to the English. A
    man cannot demonstrate all their excellencys and ingenuitys. Let it
    suffice to say thus much of this place: viz. Had a man no other
    business to invite him, yet it were sufficiently worth a man's cost and
    paines to make a voyage out of England on purpose to see that noble
    cytty of Malta, and their works and fortifications about it. Several of
    their knights and cavaliers cam on board us, six at one time, men of
    sufficient courage and friendly carriage, wishing us {419} good
    successe in our voyage, with whom I had much discourse, I being the
    only entertainer, because I could speak Latine; for which I was highly
    esteemed, and much invited on shoare again."

    "_August 3._--This morning a boate of ladys with their musick to our
    ship syd, and bottels of wine with them. They went severall times about
    our ship, and sang several songs very sweetly; very rich in habitt, and
    very courteous in behaviour; but would not com on board, though
    invited; but having taken their friscs, returned as they cam. After
    them cam, in a boate, four fryars, and cam round about our ship, puld
    off their hatts and capps, saluted us with congjes, and departed. After
    them cam a boat of musitians, playd severall lessons as they rowed
    gently round about us, and went their way."

    "_August 4._--This morning our captain was invited to dine with the
    Grand Master, which hindered our departure. In the mean time wee have
    severall of the Malteese com to visit us, all extreamly courteous. And
    now wee are preparing to sail for Tripoly. Deus vortat bene.

      "Thus wee, th' 'Assistance,' and the new Sattee,
      Doe steare our course poynt blanke for Trypoly;
      Our ship new rigged, well stord with pigg, and ghoose a,
      Henns, ducks, and turkeys, and wine cald Syracoosa."

The Rev. Mr. Teonge, having returned to Malta on the 11th of January,
1675-6, thus continues:--

    "This morning wee see the famous island of Malta; coming under Goza, a
    small island adjoyning to Malta, wee discover a sayle creeping closse
    to the shoare; we hayle her with a shott--she would not budge; we sent
    a second, and then a third, falling very neare her; then the
    leiuetenant cam aboard us, and payd for the shott; it proved a
    pittifull Frenchman."

    "_January 12._--A little after one a clock wee are at anchor in Malta
    harbour, _and have many salutes_. But we have no prattick by reason of
    the plague, which is begun heare."

    "_January 15._--This morning wee warp out of the harbour with six
    merchantmen and a doggar, which wee are to convoy towards the strait's
    mouth. Here also wee took in two mounths' provisions and fresh water.
    And as wee goe out wee meete six gallys of Malta coming in in all their
    pompe, and they salute us, and wee them, and part. And heare at Malta
    (which was very strainge to mee), at this time of the year, wee have
    radishes, cabbiges, and excellent colly flowers, and large ones for a
    penny a-piece."

On the 29th January, 1675-6, the reverend writer again returned to Malta,
and made under this date the following note:--

    "This day David Thomas and Marlin, the coock, and our master's boy, had
    their hands stretched out, and with their backs to the rayles, and the
    master's boy with his back to the maine mast, all looking one upon the
    other, and in each of their mouths a mandler spike, viz., an iron pinn
    clapt closse into their mouths, and tyd behind their heads; and there
    they stood a whole houre, till their mouths were very bloody, _an
    excellent cure for swearers_."

    "_February 4._--This day dined with us Sir Roger Strickland, Captaine
    Temple, Captaine Harrice, and one gentleman more. Wee had a gallant
    baked pudding, an excellent legg of porke, and colliflowers, an
    excellent dish made of piggs' petti-toes, two roasted piggs, one turkey
    cock, a rosted hogg's head, three ducks, a dish of Cyprus burds, and
    pistachoes and dates together, and store of good wines."

    "_February 5._--God blesse those that are at sea! The weather is very

    "_February 11._--Sir John Narbrough cam in from Trypoly, and four more
    ships with him. The noble Malteese _salute him with forty-five gunns_;
    he answers them with so many that I could not count them. And what with
    our salutes, and his answers, there was nothing but fyre and smoake for
    almost two hours."

The great length of this communication prevents my taking other extracts
from a "Diary" which contains much interesting information, and is written
in a quaint and humorous style.


La Valetta, Malta.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Whipping a Lady._--The following is from a MS. Diary of the Rev. John
Lewis, Rector of Chalfield and Curate of Tilbury:

    "August, 1719. Sir Christopher Hales being jilted by a lady who
    promised him marriage, and put him off on the day set for their
    marriage, gave her a good whipping at parting. Remember the story."

Is there any corroboration of this?

E. D.

_Mother of Thirty Children._--An instance has come under my notice of a
woman, whose maiden name was Lee, born in Surrey; married, first, Berry,
with whom she lived thirty years, and had twenty-six children (four times
twins): all survived infancy. Married, secondly, Taylor, by whom she had
four children. Died at Stratford, aged eighty-four. Within a few weeks of
her death, was as upright as a young woman. At the time of her death, there
were one hundred and twenty-two of her descendants living. She lived most
of her married life near Whitechapel and Radcliffe, and was buried in the
Brickfield burying-ground. She had sixteen boys and fourteen girls.


_"Ought" and "Aught."_--I regret to observe that _ought_ is gradually
supplanting _aught_ in our language, where the meaning intended to be
conveyed is "anything." Todd's _Johnson_ gives authorities, but may they
not be errors of the press? I am aware that use has substituted _nought_
for _naught_ in the sense of "not anything", the latter now expressing only
what is "bad," and convenience may justify that change, _nought_ being not
otherwise used. Let me add that I am the more {420} in fear for our old
servant _aught_, who surely has done _nought_ worthy of excommunication,
from observing that such a writer as the Rev. Chevenix Trench has
substituted _ought_ for _aught_ to express "anything." If convenience is
allowed to justify our having _nought_ and _naught_, it surely claims that
we should keep _aught_ and _ought_ each for its appropriate signification
in writing, impossible as it is to distinguish one from the other in



_Walton._--The following note is written on the fly-leaf at the end of
Hieron's _Sermons_, 1620:

    "Mr. Gillamour.--I pray you be entreated to lend my wife what silver
    you think fittest upon this or other bookes to supplie our present
    wants, soe as I may have them againe when I restore it to you; you
    shall doo mee a greate curtesie, and I shall be very thankfull to you.

  Yours to his power to be co[=m]anded,
  JOHS' WALTON, Cler."

I have no information as to either party, and no date is affixed to the

E. D.

_Salutations._--The parting salutations of various nations are strikingly
alike. The _vale_ of the Latins corresponds with the [Greek: chaire] of the
Greeks; and though Deity is not expressed distinctly in either, it was
doubtless understood: for who can be kept in health without, as the
ancients would say, the will of the gods? The Greek word perhaps has a
higher signification than the Latin; for it was not a mere complimentary
salutation, says Macknight: "St. John forbids it to be given to heretical
teachers, Eph. ii. 10, 11." The French, on taking leave, say "Adieu," thus
distinctly recognising the providential power of the Creator; and the same
meaning is indeed conveyed in our English word, "good-bye," which is
corruption of "God be with you." The Irish, in their warmth of manner and
love of words, often extend the expression. A well-known guide, upon my
leaving one of the loveliest spots in Wicklow, shook hands with me
heartily, and said, in a voice somewhat more tremulous through age than it
was when Tom Moore loved to listen to it: "God Almighty bless you, be with
you, and guide you safely to your journey's end!" This salutation, when
used thoughtfully and aright, has not only a pleasant sound, but deep

E. W. J.


_Good Times for Equity Suitors._--Having lately met with the following
particulars in Bishop Goodman's _Diary_, I send them for insertion, if you
think fit, in "N. & Q.:"

    "Then was the chancery so empty of causes, that Sir Thomas More could
    live in Chelsea, and yet very sufficiently discharge that office; and
    coming one day home by ten of the clock, whereas he was wont to stay
    until eleven or twelve, his lady came down to see whether he was sick
    or not; to whom Sir Thomas More said, 'Let your gentlewoman fetch me a
    cup of wine, and then I will tell you the occasion of my coming;' and
    when the wine came, he drank to his lady, and told her that he thanked
    God for it he had not one cause in chancery, and therefore came home
    for want of business and employment there. The gentlewoman who fetched
    the wine told this to a bishop, who did inform me."


_The Emperor of Russia and the Order of the Garter._--The Emperor of Russia
is a knight of the Order of the Garter. Now, according to the statutes of
the Order, no knight ought to take up arms against another, or in any way
assist anybody so to do.

In illustration of this, we find it stated in Anstis' _Register of the Most
Noble Order of the Garter_, who quotes from Caligula, L. 6., in _Bib.
Cott._, that when the French king wished to borrow a sum of money from
Henry VII., to employ in the war with the King of Naples, the answer was:

    "Que le Roy ne povoit avec son honneur bailler aide et assistence a
    icelluy son bon frere et cousin a l'encontre du Roy de Naples, qui
    estoit son confrere et allye, veu et considere qu'il avoit prise et
    recue l'ordre de la garretiere. Et si le roi autrement faisoit, ce
    seroit contrevenir au serment qu'il a fait par les statuz du dit

Will the Emperor of Russia be deprived of his ill-deserved honours, or what
is the course now pursued? It was not unusual formerly for kings to
exchange orders, and to return them in case of war.


       *       *       *       *       *



Owing to the almost perfect identity of these verses with some by a German
poet, George Rudolph Weckerlin, a doubt has been expressed in a German work
as to whether they are to be considered the production of Sir Henry Wotton,
or a translation from the _Geistliche und weltliche Gedichte_ of Weckerlin,
a lyrical poet of considerable eminence and popularity in his day, and who
died in London in 1651. Weckerlin was employed in important affairs
connected with the Protestants in Germany during the Thirty Years' War, as
secretary to an embassy in London from that country; and was also employed
on several occasions by James I. and Charles I. An edition of Weckerlin's
_Poems_ was edited by him while he resided in London, and was printed at
Amsterdam in 1641, and again in 1648. A previous collection had {421}
appeared at Stutgart in 1618. Many of his poems, which he had left in MS.
with his brother Ludwig in Germany, perished with him during the horrors of
the war. "What has become," Weckerlin feelingly exclaims, "of my _Myrta_,
that dear poem, composed of so many sonnets and stanzas?"

Perhaps some of the readers of "N. & Q.," who are conversant with the
literature of England and Germany during the period alluded to, may be able
to solve the question as to the real author of the verses mentioned.



       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Plants and Flowers._--Might I inquire of your correspondent EIRIONNACH why
his long-promised Notes on the "ecclesiastical and rustic pet names" of
plants and flowers have never been forthcoming? I have often lingered on
the threshold of the "garden full of sunshine and of bees," where
EIRIONNACH has laboured; would he kindly be my guide to the pleasant
domain, and indicate (without trespassing on your columns I mean) the
richest gatherings of the legendary lore and poetry of the vegetable
kingdom? Are there any collections of similes drawn from plants and
flowers? Dr. Aitkin has broken ground in his _Essay on Poetical Similes_.
Any notes on this subject, addressed to the "care of the Editor," will
greatly oblige


Customs, London.

_Quotations wanted._--Whence the following:

    1. "Condendaque Lexica mandat Damnatis, poenam pro poenis omnibus

Quoted at the end of the Preface to Liddell and Scott's _Lexicon_?

    2. "_Rex_ erat _Elizabeth_, sed erat _Regina Jacobus?_"[1]


[Footnote 1: Rapin has given the parentage of this pasquil at the end of
his History of James I.:

  "Tandis qu' Elizabeth fut Roy
  L'Anglois fut d'Espagne l'effroy,
  Maintenant, devise et caquette,
  Regi par la Reine Jaquette."

  "Extinctus amabitur idem."


W. T. M.

_Griffith, William, Bishop of Ossory._--Any facts relative to the life of
this prelate will be acceptable, as I am about to go to press with a work
comprising _Lives of the Bishops of Ossory_.



"_Cowperiana._"--Southey, in his preface to the last volume of his edition
of Cowper's _Works_ (dated Aug. 12, 1837), speaks of his intention to
publish two additional volumes under the title of _Cowperiana_. Were these
ever published? If not, will they ever be?


Olney, Bucks.

_John Keats's Poems._--Can any of your readers inform me what legend (if
any) John Keats the poet refers to in his beautiful poem of _St. Agnes'
Eve_, st. xix., when he says:

  "Never on such a night have lovers met,
  Since Merlin paid his demon all the monstrous debt."

And pray let me know what is implied in the concluding lines of his absurd
poem of _Hyperion_, as they have always been a mystery to me.

[Greek: Xanthos].

_Holland._--We have the kingdom of Holland, we have the Holland division of
Lincolnshire, and in Lancashire we have the two townships of Downholland
and Upholland. Is the derivation of each the same, and, if it be, what is
the affinity?


_Armorial._--Can the younger son of a peer use the supporters to his family


_Stoke and Upton._--These names of places are so very common, and in some
counties, as Bucks, Worcester, and Devon, apply to adjoining villages, that
it would be interesting to know the origin of the names, and of their


_Slavery in England._--One of the recent volumes published by the Chetham
Society, the _Stanley Papers_, part ii., contains the household books of
the third and fourth Earls of Derby, temp. Queen Elizabeth. I find in the
"orders touching the government of my Lo. his house," that at the date
thereof (1558) slavery in some form or other existed in England, for in the
mansion of this powerful noble it was provided--

    "That no _slaves_ nor boyes shall sitt in the hall, but in place
    therefore appoynted convenyent."


    "That the yemen of horses and groomes of the stable shall not suffre
    any boyes or _slaves_ to abye about the stables, nor lye in theym, nor
    in anie place about theym."

Was there then in England the form of slavery now in existence in the
United States, and until lately in the West Indies; or was it more like the
serfdom of Russia? And when was this slavery abolished in England?


"_Go to Bath._"--What is the origin of this saying?

R. R.


_Mummy Chests._--Harris, in his _Natural History of the Bible_, says:

    "The imperishable chests which contain the Egyptian mummies were of

Shaw, in his _Travels_, p. 376., says:

    "The mummy chests, and whatever figures and instruments are found in
    the catacombs, are all of them of _sycamore_."

Which is right, and how can we account for the contradiction?

N. L. J.

_The Blechenden Family._--Thomas Blechenden, D.D., a Prebendary of
Canterbury, whose will was proved in 1663, had a younger brother Richard,
who had a daughter Mary. It is desired to know if Mary married, and if so,
to whom? The family were of Ruffin's Hill in Kent, and Richard is described
as "of London."



_Francklyn Household Book._--In the extracts from this MS., given in the
_Archæologia_, vol. xv. p. 157., is an entry,--

    "Given to the prisoners at White Chappel, 1s."

Who were they?

    "Nov. 12, 1624. Given to Mr. Atkynson's man for writing out the causes
    which are to be hearde in the Star Chamber this tearme, 1s."

Who and what was Mr. Atkynson?

    "June 13, 1625. Spent by Wyllyam when he was sworn by the pages, 6s.

What does this refer to?

    "April 17, 1625. Given to Sir Charles Morrison's groomes, 3s."

Who and what was Sir Charles Morrison?

In another extract given elsewhere, I find,--

    "August 5, 1644. For bay salt to stop the barrells, 6d."

What does this mean?

    "January 17, 1644. For four giggs and scourgesticks, 1s."

What are giggs and scourgesticks?

    "November 10, 1646. For haulfe a pound of cakes and jumballs, 10d."

What are jumballs?

Can any of your readers tell me where this _Livre des Acconts pour
Chevalier Jean Francklyn en son_ [sic] _Maison au Wilsden_ now is? When the
extracts were published in the _Archæologia_, it was said to be in the
possession of the late Sir John Chardin Musgrave, Bart. I have applied to
the present Sir George Musgrave, and also to George Musgrave, Esq., of
Gordon Square, and Bedfordshire, who is descended from Sir Christopher
Musgrave, who married to his second wife a daughter of Sir George
Francklyn; but neither can give me any tidings of this MS.

J. K.

_Lord Rosehill's Marriage._--An American paper of August 22, 1768, has the

    "Last week was married in Maryland, the Right Honorable Lord Rosehill
    to Miss Margaret Cheer, a lady much admired for her theatrical

Who was Lord Rosehill?

W. D. R.


_Colonel Butler._--Can you give me any information respecting Colonel
Butler, who fought during the civil wars, I fear, under the banner of the
usurper? He belonged to a Lincolnshire family, and either his daughter or
some relative married a person of the name of Hairby or Harby.


_Willesdon, co. Middlesex._--Information is solicited respecting the
families of Willesdon, Roberts, Francklyn, Barne, Poulett, Atye, Troyford,
and Nicolls of this place, as well as of other families known to have
belonged to this parish.

Any communications as to the church, its original construction, or its
reconstruction about the end of the fourteenth, or beginning of the
fifteenth, century, or illustrative of the general history of the parish in
early or recent times, or biographical notices of its vicars, will be
gladly received; and as such information may not be generally interesting
to your readers, I would request contributors to address any communications
they may be pleased to favour me with, to J. K., care of Mr. Fenton,
Kensall Green, Harrow Road, Middlesex.

J. K.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Ashes of "Lignites."_--A paragraph has been making the circuit of the
public papers, recommending the use of ashes of _lignites_, to preserve
esculent roots. It may have originated with some dealer in _lignites_; but
plain dealers would like to be informed what _lignites_ are?


    [Lignite is a fossil wood carbonized to a certain degree, but retaining
    distinctly its woody texture. Dr. MacCulloch, _On Rocks_, p. 636.,
    observes: "In its chemical properties, lignite holds a station
    intermediate between peat and coal; while among the varieties a
    gradation in this respect may be traced; the brown and more organised
    kinds approaching very near to peat, while the more compact kinds, such
    as jet, approximate to coal."]

_Bishop Bathurst._--I have heard it often asserted that the late Dr.
Bathurst, Bishop of Norwich, was the youngest of _forty-two_ children. Can
this {423} be satisfactorily ascertained? I remember hearing it many years
since during the bishop's lifetime. Such a circumstance is not beyond the
bounds of possibility, if we are to believe the Parish Register of
Bermondsey; for there appears an entry there of the marriage, on Jan. 4,
1624-5, of James Harriott, Esq., one of the _forty_ children of his father.
I myself knew intimately a lady, a clergyman's widow, who was the mother of
twenty-six children (Vol. v., p. 106.; Vol. ix., p. 186.); and I have heard
it said that one of her brothers-in-law was father of twenty-four, and
another of fourteen children. The late Sir Robert Wigram, Bart., had
twenty-four children: he died at the age of eighty-six.

Y. S. M.

    [Mrs. Thistlethwaite, in her _Memoirs_ of her father, p. 6, states,
    that "Benjamin Bathurst, Esq., the father of the Bishop of Norwich,
    having married, first, Miss Poole, an heiress, he had issue by her
    twenty-two children; by his second wife, Miss Brodrick, daughter of Dr.
    Brodrick, a Brother of Lord Midleton's, Mr. Bathurst had a second
    family of fourteen children, of whom my father was third child and
    second son. He was a seven months' child, and I have heard that he was
    so extremely small an infant, that he could not be dressed like other
    children for some time after his birth, but was obliged to be wrapped
    in cotton. My father used to say in a joke, that he was wrapped in
    cotton, and put into a quart mug." The bishop's father had four
    children, one daughter and three sons. These four had a hundred
    children between them, thirty-six of whom fell to the lot of the
    bishop's father.]

"_Selah._"--What is the meaning of the word _Selah_, which occurs so often
in the Psalms? I have observed that most people, in reading, omit it.
Should it be read or not?


    [A diversity of opinion prevails as to the exact import of this term.
    The great musical critic Mattheson, in a work written on the word,
    having rejected eleven meanings, decides in favour of the twelfth,
    which makes the word equivalent to the modern Italian _da capo_. In
    this view, the word _selah_ directs a repetition of the air or song
    from the commencement, to the parts where it is placed. Herder held
    that _selah_ denoted a swell, or a change in the rapidity of the
    movement, or in the key. The Easterns, he says, are fond of a very
    uniform, and, as it appears to Europeans, mournful music; but at
    certain points, they of a sudden change the key, and pass into a
    different melody. These points, he thinks, were among the Hebrews
    indicated by the word _selah_. The balance of authority, however, is in
    favour of the former view.--_The People's Dict. of the Bible._ Consult
    also, Julius Bate's _Critica Hebræa_, and Gesenius' _Hebrew and English

_The Long Parliament._--Where is a list of it, including its various
changes, to be seen?

Y. S. M.

    [Among the _King's Pamphlets_ in the British Museum (Press-mark, E.
    1836.) is the following "A List of the Names of the Long Parliament,
    anno 1640; likewise of the Parliament holden at Oxford; as also of the
    three ensuing Parliaments holden at Westminster in the years 1653,
    1654, 1656, and of the late Parliament, dissolved April 22, 1659, with
    a Catalogue of the Lords of the other House. London: Printed in the
    year 1659." There is also another pamphlet entitled "The Names of the
    Members of Parliament which began on the 4th June, 1653. 4to. London,

"_The Three Pigeons._"--Was it the house at Brentford, mentioned by DR.
RIMBAULT (Vol. ix., p. 331.), that suggested Tony Lumpkin's convivial
ballad in praise of "The Three Jolly Pigeons?"



    [It is highly probable that the scene "An Ale-house Room" in
    Goldsmith's comedy _She Stoops to Conquer_ is the "Three Pigeons" at
    Brentford, as this remarkable hostel dates its origin from the days of
    Shakspeare and Ben Jonson. It is frequently mentioned by the early
    dramatists, and appears at one time to have been in some repute, having
    had for its landlord the celebrated tragedian, John Lowin, cotemporary
    of Shakspeare, and one of the original actors in his plays, who died in
    this house at a very advanced age:

      "Thou art admirably suited for the Three Pigeons
      At Brentford, I swear I know thee not."--_The Roaring Girl._

      "We will turn our courage to Braynford--westward,
      My bird of the night--to the Pigeons."--Ben Jonson's _Alchymist_.

    See Faulkner's _History of Brentford_, p. 144.]

_Captain Cook._--Wanted, the pedigree of Capt. Jas. Cook (the
circumnavigator), and full account of his lineal and collateral



    [Dr. Kippis's _Life of Captain Cook_ may be consulted with advantage.
    It is carefully compiled, and will be found in the fourth volume of his
    _Biographia Britannica_, as well as in a separate 4to. volume, 1788.
    For the death of the eldest and only surviving son of the celebrated
    navigator, see _Gentleman's Magazine_ for February, 1794, p. 182., and
    p. 199. of the same volume.]

_Varnish for old Books._--Can any of your readers oblige me with a good
receipt for varnishing the bindings of old books? Bees-wax and turpentine,
used very thin, is a tolerably good one; but I am desirous of learning


    [A little common glue-size, made thin, would be better than bees-wax
    and turpentine. The best varnish that can be used is that made in
    France, and may be had at Barbe Lechertier's, Artists' Colourman, 60.
    Regent's Quadrant. It is called French varnish for leather, and is sold
    at 14s. per pound. There is also a common varnish for leather, which
    can be purchased {424} at Reilly's varnish manufactory, 19. Old Street,
    St. Luke's. It is sold at about 3s. 6d. per pint.]

_Cabbages._--When were cabbages first cultivated in England? Who introduced

C. H.

    [Evelyn says, "'Tis scarce a hundred years since we first had cabbages
    out of Holland, Sir Anthony Ashley, of Wiburg St. Giles, in
    Dorsetshire, being, as I am told, the first who planted them in
    England."--_Acetaria_, sect. 11. They were introduced into Scotland by
    the soldiers of Cromwell's army.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ix., p. 373.)

After the correspondence that took place ("N. & Q.," Vol. v.), I had hoped
that Addison would have been left in peaceable possession of those "divine
hymns" ascribed to his pen; but this is not to be. A former correspondent,
J. G. F., doubted whether they were not composed by Andrew Marvell? This
inquiry was, I hope, satisfactorily answered, by myself in the first
instance, and afterwards by MR. CROSSLEY, Vol. v., pp. 513, 548.

In No. 234. a later correspondent, S. M., asks whether the hymn "When
rising from the bed of death," which he says is "taken from the chapter on
'Death and Judgment,' in Addison's _Evidences of the Christian Religion_,"
was written by Addison or Dr. Isaac Watts? In what edition of the
_Evidences_ does S. M. find either the chapter he speaks of, or this hymn?
The place which it occupies is in No. 513. of the _Spectator_. As I have
elsewhere stated, Addison was accustomed to throw a little mystery over
these poems; and "the excellent man in holy orders," to whom this hymn is
attributed, is unquestionably the ideal clergyman, the occasional visitor
of the club, spoken of in the second number of the _Spectator_.

In the letter that accompanies this hymn, the supposed writer says,--

    "The indisposition which has long hung upon me, is at last grown to
    such a head, that it must quickly make an end of me or of itself....
    Were I able to dress up several thoughts of a serious nature, which
    have made great impressions on my mind during a long fit of sickness,
    they might not be an improper entertainment for one of your Saturday's

What a natural remark from a writer who, Addison tells us, treats divine
topics "as one who has no interests in this world, as one who is hastening
to the object of all his wishes, and conceives hope from his decays and
infirmities!" This sublime paper, or "series of thoughts," stamped with the
peculiar beauties and polish of Addison's style, closes with the hymn in
question, composed, as the writer says, "during this my sickness."

Watts survived the date of this paper above thirty-five years. Had it been
his own composition, would he not have claimed the authorship, and
incorporated the hymn amongst his sacred songs?

Let us not, in the pages of "N. & Q." at least, witness farther attempts to
misappropriate the writings of one, whose undying fame will be
cotemporaneous with the literature of England. Still, in the beautiful
language of Addison's friend Tickell, may he in his hymns--

      ----"warn poor mortals left behind,
  A task well suited to his gentle mind."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., pp. 174. 255.)

A communication from a gentleman, who married into a family of this name,
informs me that the Longfellows of Brecon were a branch of a Yorkshire
family; and that a portion of more than one family, probably from the same
county, are now settled in Kent. My friend has not before had his attention
turned to this subject, but he promises farther inquiry.

T. S. N.


Why should W. P. STORER suppose that the name of Longfellow originated
otherwise than in the lengthy proportions of an ancestor? Surely the
well-known surnames, Rufus, Longshanks, Strongbow, are sufficient to
warrant us in saying that Longfellow need have nothing to do with
Longueville. From what shall we derive the names of Longman, Greathead,
Littlejohn, and Tallboy?



By the kindness of the Registrar-General, I am enabled to point, with some
precision, to a few of the localities in which the name of Longfellow
exists in this country. Upon reference to the well-arranged indexes in his
office, it appears that the deaths of sixty-one persons bearing this name
were recorded in the years 1838 to 1852; and of these, fifty occurred in
the West Riding of Yorkshire, namely, in Leeds thirty-five; Otley, and its
neighbourhood, ten; Selby four, and in Keighley one. The other instances
were, in the metropolis seven, and one each in Swansea, Newport (Monmouth),
Tewkesbury, and Hastings. More than one third of the males bore the
Christian name of William.

It is not probable that the Longfellows are numerous in any part of
England: indeed, as we {425} know that of the general population the
average annual mortality is 2.2 per cent, the sixty-one deaths in fifteen
years, or four deaths yearly, might be supposed to result from about two
hundred persons of the name; but inferences of this nature, except when
large masses are dealt with, are often very fallacious.

May not the derivation of the name be from _long fallow_, of the same
family as Fallows, Fellowes, Fallowfield, and Langmead, which are not


19. St. Mark's Crescent, Regent's Park.

C. H. quotes some lines said to have been written on a window-shutter of
the "Golden Lion," Brecon, when a Mr. Longfellow was proprietor, fifty or
sixty years ago:

  "Tom Longfellow's name is most justly his due;
  Long his neck, long his bill, which is very long too;
  Long the time ere your horse to the stable is led," &c.

These lines remind me of the following passage of the poet Longfellow's in
his _Hyperion_, which, not to speak of a possible plagiarism, has at least
a strange _family_ resemblance:

    "If you go to Zurich, beware how you stop at 'The Raven.' I wrote in
    the travellers' book--

      'Beware of the Raven of Zurich;
        'Tis a bird of omen ill,
      With a noisy and an unclean breast,
        And a very, very long bill.'

    "If you go to 'The Golden Falken' you will find it there. I am the
    author of those lines--LONGFELLOW."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., pp. 78. 226.)

As the subject is interesting, you will probably permit me to cite a few
more examples:--In Geo. Chalmers' _Catalogue_, "Burnt by the hangman" is
appended to a copy of Wm. Thomas' _Historie of Italie_, 1549; but I do not
find this stated elsewhere. The opinions emitted in this work are of a free
nature certainly, in respect to the governed and governing powers; but
whatever was the fate of his book, I rather think Thomas (who was executed
in Mary's reign) suffered for some alleged act of overt treason, and not
for publishing seditious books. _An Information from the States of the
Kingdome of Scotland to the Kingdome of England, showing how they have bin
dealt with by His Majesty's Commissioners_, 1640: in a proclamation (March
30, 1640) against seditious pamphlets sent from Scotland, this tract was
prohibited on account of its containing many most notorious falsehoods,
scandals, &c.; it was ordered to be burnt by the common hangman. (Rymer's
_Foed._, as quoted by Chalmers.)

There is now before me a modern impression of an old cut in two
compartments: the upper representing the demolition of the "Crosse in
Cheapeside on the 2nd May, 1643;" and the lower a goodly gathering of the
public around a bonfire, viewing, with apparent satisfaction, the committal
of a book to the flames by the common executioner, with this inscription:

    "10th May, the Boocke of Spartes vpon the Lord's Day, was burnt by the
    hangman in the place where the Crosse stoode, and at (the) Exchange."

That great lover of sights, Master Pepys, notices one of these exhibitions:

    "1661, 28th May, with Mr. Shipley," says our gossip, "to the Exchange
    about business; and there, by Mr. Rawlinson's favour, got into a
    balcone over against the Exchange, and there saw the hangman burn, by
    vote of Parliament, two old acts: the one for constituting us a
    Commonwealth, and the other I have forgot; which still do make me think
    of the greatness of this late turne, and what people will do to-morrow
    against what they all, thro' profit or fear, did promise and practise
    this day."

A note to this passage in the _Diary_ (vol. i. p. 236., 3rd edit.) supplies
the defective memory of Pepys, by informing us that the last was an "Act
for subscribing the Engagement;" and adds, on the same day there had been
burnt by the hangman, at Westminster Hall, the "Act for erecting a High
Court of Justice for trying and judging Charles Stuart." They seem to have
been just then cleansing out the Augean stable of the Commonwealth: for it
is added, "two more acts" were similarly burnt next day.

In _A Letter to a Clergyman, relating to his Sermon on the 30th Jan._, by a
Lover of Truth, 1746, the lay author (one Coade, I believe), inveighing
against high churchmen, reminds the preacher that he--

    "Was pleased to dress up the principles of the Presbyterians in a
    frightful shape; but let me tell you, Sir, in my turn, that the
    principles of your party have been burnt, not by a rude and lawless
    rabble, but by the common hangman, in broad day-light, before the Royal
    Exchange in London, and by authority of Parliament. Perhaps," he
    continues, "you never heard of this contemptuous treatment of the
    Oxford principles, and therefore I will give it you from the
    Parliamentary Records:--'Anno Domini 1710. The House of Lords, taking
    into consideration the judgment and decree of the University of Oxford,
    passed in their Convocation July 21, 1683,--it was resolved by the
    Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament assembled, that the said
    judgment and decree contains in it several positions contrary to the
    Constitution of this kingdom, and destructive to the Protestant
    Succession as by law established. And it was thereupon ordered, by the
    Lords Spiritual and Temporal in Parliament assembled, that the said
    judgment and decree shall be burnt by the hands of the common hangman
    before the Royal {426} Exchange, between hours of twelve and one, on
    Monday the 17th March, in the presence of the Lord Mayor of the City of
    London,' &c."

Doleman's _Conference about the next Succession to the Crown of England_,
reprinted at N. with licence, in 1681, was, in 1683, condemned by the
University of Oxford, and burnt by the common hangman.

In the above examples I have confined myself to those books, &c. only which
were expressly consigned to the flames by the hangman. The instances of
book-burning where this indignity was either not imposed, or its infliction
not recorded, are numerous. Among the curiosities of literature of
Elizabeth's reign, were certain books ascribed to a Dutchman, by name Henry
Nicholas, translated into English, and probably imported from the Low
Countries. This person, imbibing the "damnable heresies" of David George,
of Leyden, became the apostle of a sect who styled themselves "The Family
of Love," and their fanatical books becoming obnoxious to the dominant
party, they were, by proclamation, ordered to be burnt; and, as such
manifestations of the royal will usually ran, all persons were held
punishable for having them in their possession. (See Herbert's _Ames._) As
an example of the spiritual power thus dealing with a book, apparently upon
its own authority, the following may be offered:--_Servetus de Trinitate,
&c._ (London, 1723.) This edition, which is without name of place or
printer, and without date, was printed by Palmer for Osborne the
bookseller; but, as soon as completed was seized at the instance of Dr.
Gibson, Bishop of London, and burnt, with the exception of a very few
copies. (Davis' _Journey round the Library, &c._) The last unfortunate book
I shall mention is the _Metrical Psalms_ of Dod; which was also, most
likely, an episcopal seizure. Mr. Holland, in his _Psalmists of Britain_,
quoting from George Withers' _Scholler's Purgatory_, says, "Dod the
silkman's late ridiculous translation of the Psalms was, by authority,
worthily condemned to the fire," and, judging from its extreme scarcity, I
should say very few escaped.

J. O.

I have not seen in your list of martyred books the following, in the year
A.D. 1684: _A Plea for the Nonconformists_, by Thomas De Laune, Gentleman.
He died in Newgate, during his imprisonment for the book, in pursuance of
the following sentence:

    "Ad General. Quartercal. Session. Pacis Dom. Regis tent. pro Civitat.
    London per adjornament, apud Justice-hall in le Old Bayly, die Mercurii
    Scil. Decimo Sexto die January, Anno Regis Caroli Secundi cundi nunc
    Ang. &c.

    "Thomas De Laune Convict. pro illicite Scribend. Imprimend. et
    Publicand. Libel. Seditios. dert. concernen. librum Communis
    præcationis. Fin. 100 Marc. Et committit, etc.! Et ulterius quousq;
    Inven. bon. de se bene gerend. per spacium Unius Anni Integri ex tunc
    prox. sequen. Et quad libel. sedit. cum igne Combust. sint apud
    Excambium Regal. in London, et si Del. Sol. 5 shil. WAGSTAFFE."

In a letter containing a narrative of his trial and imprisonment, written
by him from prison, occur many touches of humour. In his remarks on the
sentence he says,--

    "The six shillings to be paid on my discharge is to the hangman, for
    the faggots, I suppose."

    "The Court told us that, in respect to our education as scholars, we
    should not be pillory'd, though ('twas said) we deserved it.... We were
    sent back to our confinement, and _the next execution-day_ our books
    were burnt WITH FIRE (not with water, you must note), and we continue
    here; but, since I writ this, Mr. Ralphson had a supersedeas by _death_
    to a _better place_!"

In his account he affirms that, on his own confession of being the author
of _The Plea_, and because he could find no bail, he was committed to

    "Lodged among the felons, whose horrid company made a perfect
    representation of that horrible place which you describe when you
    mention hell. A hard bench was my bed, and two bricks my pillow. But
    after two days and nights, _without any refreshment_, the unusualness
    of that society and place having impaired my health, which at the very
    best is tender, and crazy, I was removed, and am now in the press-yard,
    a _place of some sobriety_, though still a prison _ubi nihil amabile

Twenty years after, 1704, his Plea was republished, with his narrative, by
one of his fellow-prisoners, who had been released, and who calls it "an
elaborate piece"! He adds, that De Laune, being unable to pay

    "the seventy-five pound, his children, his wife, and himself were
    imprison'd, and _all_ dy'd in New-gate; of which myself was an
    eye-witness, and a companion with him for the same cause in the same
    prison, where I continued above a year after his death."


P. S.--Query, What is the meaning, in the foregoing, of the expression "at
the next execution-day"? Have we any instance on record of the execution of
a malefactor in front of the Royal Exchange? and, if not, did the hangman
come from Newgate, after "doing duty" there, and burn the book at the

In 1611 the books of Conrad Vorstius were publicly burnt in St. Paul's
Churchyard and both the universities by the king's order. (Wilson's _Life
and Reign of James I._, p. 120.)

On Sunday, November 21, 1613, the books of Francis Suarez, the Spanish
Jesuit, were publicly burnt at St. Paul's Cross. (_Court and Times of James
I._, vol. i. pp. 279, 280.)



       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ix., p. 272.)

With respect to the wines called Sacks, much diversity of opinion has
prevailed, and although the question has been frequently discussed, it
still remains, in a great measure, undetermined. It seems admitted, on all
hands, that the term _sack_ was originally applied to certain growths of
Spain. In a MS. account of the disbursements by the chamberlain of the city
of Worcester for 1592, Dr. Percy found the ancient mode of spelling to be
_seck_, and thence concluded that sack is a corruption of _sec_, signifying
a dry wine. Moreover, in the French version of a proclamation for
regulating the prices of wines, issued by the privy Council in 1633, the
expression _vins secs_ corresponds with the word _sacks_ in the original.
The term _sec_ is still used as a substantive by the French to denote a
Spanish wine; and the dry wine of Xerez is known at the place of its growth
by the name of _vino seco_. The foregoing account is abridged from _The
History of Ancient and Modern Wines_, by Alex. Henderson, Lond. 1824. The
following is taken from Cyrus Redding's _History of Modern Wines_, Lond.

    "In the early voyages to these islands (the Canaries), quoted in
    Ashley's collection, there is a passage relative to sack, which will
    puzzle wise heads about that wine. It is under the head of 'Nicols'
    Voyage.' Nicols lived eight years in the islands. The island of
    Teneriffe produces three sorts of wine, Canary, Malvasia, and Verdona,
    'which may all go under the denomination of sack.' The term then was
    applied neither to sweet nor dry wines exclusively, but to Canary,
    Xeres (_i. e._ sherry), or Malaga generally. In Anglo-Spanish
    dictionaries of a century and a quarter old, sack is given as _Vino de
    Canarias_. Hence it was Canary sack, Xeres sack, or Malaga sack."

[Greek: Halieus].


In reply to your correspondent, I believe sack to be nothing but _vino
secco_, dry wine, probably identical with sherry or madeira. I once, when
an undergraduate at Oxford, ordered a dozen from a travelling agent to a
London wine merchant, probably from Shakspearian associations, and my
belief is that what he sold me under that name was an Italian wine of some
sort, bearing a good deal of resemblance to the _vino panto_, of which
Perugia is the head-quarters.

B. D.

This is the same wine which is now named sherry. Falstaff calls it _sherris
sack_, and also _sherris_ only, using in fact both names indiscriminately
(2 _Henry IV._, Act IV. Sc. 3.). For various commentaries regarding it, see
Blount's _Glossographia_; Dr. Venner's _Via recta ad Vitam longam_,
published in 1637; Nares' _Glossary_, &c. Cotgrave, in his _Dictionary_,
makes sack to be derived from _vin sec_, French; and it is called _seck_ in
an article by Bishop Percy, from an old account-book at Worcester, anno
Elizbethæ 34.

N. L. J.

       *       *       *       *       *


(vol. ix., p. 270.)

What has been mistaken by your correspondent for a piece of Irish
barbarity, was, until the Act 12 Geo. III. c. 20., the usual punishment
awarded by the law to culprits standing mute upon an arraignment of felony
(that is, without speaking at all, or without putting himself upon God and
the country). The judgment in such case was:

    "That the man or woman should be remanded to the prison, and laid there
    in some low and dark room, where they should lie naked on the bare
    earth, without any litter, rushes, or other clothing, and without any
    garment about them, but something to cover their privy parts, and that
    they should lie upon their backs, their heads uncovered and their feet,
    and one arm to be drawn to one quarter of the room with a cord, and the
    other arm to another quarter, and in the same manner to be done with
    their legs; and there should be laid upon their bodies iron and stone,
    so much as they might bear, and more; and the next day following, to
    leave three morsels of barley bread without any drink, and the second
    day to drink thrice of the water next to the house of the prison
    (except running water), without any bread; and this to be their diet
    until they were dead. So as, upon the matter, they should die three
    manner of ways, by weight, by famine, and by cold. And the reason of
    this terrible judgment was because they refused to stand to the common
    law of the land."--2 _Inst._ 178, 179.

In the Year-Book of 8 Henry IV. the form of the judgment is _first_ given.
The Marshal of the King's Bench is ordered to put the criminals into
"diverses measons bases et estoppes, que ils gisent par la terre touts nuds
forsque leurs braces, que ils mettroit sur chascun d'eux tants de fer et
poids quils puissent porter et plus," &c., (as above).

It appears also, from Barrington's _Observations on the Statutes_, that,
until the above-mentioned act, it was usual to torture a prisoner by tying
his thumbs tightly together with whipcord in order to extort a plea; and he
mentions the following instances where one or more of these barbarous
cruelties have been inflicted:

    "In 1714 a prisoner's thumbs were thus tied at the same place" (Old
    Bailey), "who then pleaded; and in January, 1720, William Spigget
    submitted in the same manner after the thumbs being tied _as usual_,
    and his accomplice, Phillips, was absolutely pressed for a considerable
    time, till he begged to stand on his trial. In April, 1720, Mary
    Andrews continued so obstinate, that three whipcords were broken before
    she would plead. In December, 1721, Nathanael Haws suffered in the same
    manner by squeezing the thumbs; after {428} which he continued under
    the press for seven minutes with 250 lbs., and then submitted."

Barrington also says in the text:

    "As it is very unusual for criminals to stand mute on their trials in
    more modern days, and it was not unfrequent, if we go some centuries
    back in English History, it may not be improper to observe, that the
    occasion of its being then more common, was to prevent forfeitures, and
    involving perhaps innocent children in their parents' guilt. These
    forfeitures only accrued upon judgment of _life and limb_, and, to the
    disgrace of the crown, were too frequently levied with the utmost
    rigour. The sentence, however, hath continued to be put into execution
    till the late Act of Parliament (12 Geo. III. c. 20.) properly
    abolished it."

He mentions two other cases, one of which happened at the Sussex assizes,
under Baron Thompson, and the other at Cambridge, in 1741, when Baron
Carter was the judge. I do not think there are any more modern instances
than these, for they are the only ones cited by counsel in General Picton's
case, in justification of inflicting torture on a prisoner. (_State
Trials_, vol. xxx.) The Marquis Beccaria, in an exquisite piece of
raillery, has proposed this problem with a gravity and precision truly

    "The force of the muscles and the sensibility of the nerves of an
    innocent person being given, it is required to find the degree of pain
    necessary to make himself guilty of a given crime."--_1 Bl. Com. 327.

A prisoner standing mute at the present day would be sentenced to undergo
the punishment that would be awarded to him, if found guilty of the crime
laid to his charge.


Manchester, April 4, 1854.

Blackstone (book iv. chap. 25.) speaks of the cases in which punishment of
"peine forte et dure" was inflicted according to the ancient law. It would
occupy too great space to quote what he says on this point, and, therefore
I must refer your correspondent to his work itself, where he will also find
an inquiry into its origin. The punishment is described almost in the words
of your correspondent's quotation; thus:

    "That the prisoner be remanded to the prison from whence he came, and
    be put into a low, dark chamber; and there be laid on his back, on the
    bare floor, naked, unless where decency forbids, that there be placed
    upon his body as great a weight of iron as he could bear, and more;
    that he have no sustenance, save only, on the first day, three morsels
    of the worst bread, and, on the second day, three draughts of standing
    water, that should be nearest to the prison door; and in this situation
    this should be alternately his daily diet, _till he died_, or (as
    anciently the judgment ran) till he answered."

Blackstone farther intimates that this punishment was abolished by statute
12 Geo. III. c. 20., which shows, of course, that it continued to be
according to law for more than thirty years after the date mentioned by

R. O.

The punishment, or more properly torture, alluded to by ABHBA, was the
"peine forte et dure," commonly applied in the early part of the last
century to such criminals as refused to plead. Many died under it in order
to save their estates, &c. from forfeiture to the crowns. In my forthcoming
anecdotes of "The Eighteenth Century," several cases are cited from the
newspapers of the time; but, as the MS. is now in the printer's hands, I
cannot refer to them. Writing from memory, I think that the last case in
which this torture was applied at the Old Bailey in London was in 1735, and
reported in the _London Magazine_ of that year. The "Press-yard" at Newgate
derives its name from being the scene of these tortures.


       *       *       *       *       *

JOB XIX. 26.

(Vol. ix., p. 303.)

Perhaps the best mode in which I can comply with MR. C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY'S
request, is to send for insertion in the "N. & Q." my MS. note on the text
in question:

  [Hebrew: W'CHR `WRY NQPW Z'T]
  [Hebrew: WMBSHRY 'CHZH 'LWH:]

The difficulties which the reader experiences, on reading the authorised
version of this passage, are by no means trifling. Every one knows that the
words printed in _Italics_ are not to be found in the original; the
strictly literal rendering, according to the construction put upon the
verse by our translators, would therefore run thus:

  "And after my skin, destroy this,
  Yet in my flesh shall I see God."

To say the least of it, "it is hard to be understood." The three words in
Italics, arbitrarily introduced, make the passage by no means more

The erudite author of the marginal readings (see "N. & Q.," Vol. ix., p.
108.) felt the difficulty, and therefore proposed another translation,
which is,--

  "After I shall awake, though this _body_ be destroyed,
  Yet out of my flesh shall I see God."

By an effort of violent criticism, [Hebrew: `WRY] might be translated _my
awaking_; but it will require an extraordinary critical mind to turn
[Hebrew: NQPW Z'T] into _though this body be destroyed_.

The difficulties seem to have originated with the misapprehension of the
proper meaning of the verb [Hebrew: NQP] here. Instead of translating it
according to its primitive signification, viz. _to surround_ {429} a
foreign sense has been palmed upon it, viz. _to destroy_. Job, no doubt,
meant to say thus:

  "And after my skin has returned, this shall be;
  And out of my flesh shall I see God."

Thus the literal meaning demonstrates a connecting link between verses 25
and 26. The authorised version and the marginal reading seem to lack that

  "And I know that my Redeemer liveth,
  And He shall at length abide upon the earth."

But would you know when this _at length_ is to take place? It will come to
pass when a shaking of the dry bones shall take place, when bone to bone
shall be joined, when sinews and flesh shall come upon them, and skin cover
them above; that is, when the skeleton of my mutilated body shall be raised
a glorified body. In other words,--

  "And after my skin returned, this shall be;
  And out of my flesh shall I see God."

The most ancient translators have evidently put this construction upon the
verse under consideration. The Chaldee paraphrase runs thus:

  [Chaldee: WMN BTR D'TPCH MSHKY TH' D']
  [Chaldee: WMBSRY 'CHMY TWB 'LH'::]

  "And after my skin is healed, this shall be;
  And out of my flesh shall I see the return of God."

[Chaldee: 'TPCH] does not mean here _inflated_, as some suppose. The Syriac
version translates the word [Hebrew: NQPW] by the word [Syriac: 'TKRK],
which means _surround_, _wind round_. The Vulgate has the following version
of the patriarch's prophetic exclamation:

  "Et rursum circumdabor pelle mea,
  Et in carne mea videbo Deum meum."

Jerome evidently knew not what to do with the word [Hebrew: Z'T], and
therefore omitted it. He might have turned it to good account by
translating it _erit hoc_.

The above note has been penned upwards of five years ago, and I transcribe
it now, without a single alteration, for the benefit of MR. C. MANSFIELD
INGLEBY and his friends.


Wybunbury, Nantwich.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Photographic Experiences._--We have received from our valued correspondent
DR. MANSELL, of Guernsey, a suggestion to which we are happy to give
publicity, and to the promotion of which we shall be very glad to lend the
columns of "N. & Q." Our photographic readers are probably aware that the
Talbotype process is increasing in favour; we have recorded DR. DIAMOND'S
strong testimony to its advantages. MR. LLEWELLYN has just described his
process (which is strikingly similar) in the _Photographic Journal_; and in
a recent number of _La Lumière_ the VICOMTE VIGIER confirms the views of
our countrymen. DR. MANSELL, who has given our readers the benefit of his
experience, well remarks that in all his acquaintance with physical
science, he knows nothing more remarkable than that MR. FOX TALBOT should
not only have discovered this beautiful process, but likewise have given it
to the world (in 1841) in so perfect a form, that the innumerable
experiments of a dozen years have done nothing essential to improve it, and
the best manipulators of the day can add nothing to it. It is, however,
with a view to testing some of the points in which photographers differ, so
as to establish which are best, that DR. MANSELL suggests, that a table

  1. The time of exposure in the camera, in a bright May sun,
  2. The locality,
  3. The iodizement,
  4. The maker of the paper,
  5. The diameter of the diaphragm,
  6. Its distance from the lens, and
  7. The diameter, focal length, and maker of the lens,

would, if carefully and honestly stated by some twenty or thirty
photographers, be extremely valuable. Of this there can be little doubt,
and we hope that our scientific photographic friends, will respond to this
suggestion. We for our parts are ready to receive any such communications,
and will, at the end of the month, collate and arrange them in such form as
may best exhibit the results. It is obvious that, in a matter of such a
nature, _we_ at least should be furnished with the names of our

_The Céroléine Process._--The unfavourable state of the weather has
prevented me from making many experiments as to the value of the process
given in your 234th Number, but I have seen enough to convince me that it
will effect a great saving of trouble, and be more sensitive than any
modification of Le Gray's process that has yet been published. It will,
however, be rather more expensive, and, in the hands of persons
unaccustomed to chemical manipulations, rather difficult; but the solutions
once made, the waxing process is delightfully easy.


_On preserving the Sensitiveness of Collodion Plates._--_The Philosophical
Magazine_ of the present month contains a very important article by Messrs.
Spiller and Crookes upon this great desideratum in photographic practice.
We have heard from a gentleman of considerable scientific attainments,
that, from the few experiments which he had then made, he is convinced that
the plan is quite feasible. We of course refer our readers to the paper
itself for fuller particulars as to the reasoning which led the writers to
their successful experiment, and for all enumeration of the many advantages
which may result from their discovery. Their process is as follows:

    "The plate, coated with collodion (that which we employ contains
    iodide, bromide, and chloride of ammonium, in about equal proportions),
    is made sensitive by immersion in the ordinary solution of nitrate of
    {430} silver (30 grains to the ounce), and after remaining there for
    the usual time, is transferred for a second solution of the following

      Nitrate of zinc (fused)      2 ounces.
      Nitrate of silver           35 grains.
      Water                        6 ounces.

    The plate must be left in this bath until the zinc solution has
    thoroughly penetrated the film (we have found five minutes amply
    sufficient for this purpose, although a much longer time is of no
    consequence); it should then be taken out, allowed to drain upright on
    blotting-paper until all the surface moisture has been absorbed (about
    half an hour), and then put by until required. The nitrate of zinc,
    which is still retained on the plate, is sufficient to keep it moist
    for any length of time, and we see no theoretical or practical reason
    why its sensitiveness should not be retained as long: experiments on
    this point are in progress; at present, however, we have only subjected
    them to the trial of about a week, although at the end of that period
    they were hardly deteriorated in any appreciable degree. It is not
    necessary that the exposure in the camera should be immediately
    followed by the development, as this latter process can be deferred to
    any convenient opportunity, provided it be within the week. Previous to
    development, the plate should be allowed to remain for a few seconds in
    the original thirty-grain silver-bath, then removed and developed with
    either pyrogallic acid or a protosalt of iron, and afterwards fixed,
    &c. in the usual manner."

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Tippet_ (Vol. ix., p. 370.).--P. C. S. S. cannot help thinking that
_tippet_ is nothing more than a corruption, _per metathesia_, of
_epitogium_. Such, at least, seems to have been the opinion of old Minsheu,
who, in his _Guide to the Tongues_, 1627, describes it thus:

    "A habit which universitie men and clergiemen weare over their gownes.
    L. _Epitogium_, ab [Greek: epi] and _toga_."

P. C. S. S.

_Heraldic Anomaly_ (Vol. ix., p. 298.).--As your correspondent JOHN O' THE
FORD wishes to be furnished with examples of arms now extant, augmented
with a cross in chief, I beg to inform him that on the north side of St.
John's Gate, Clerkenwell, immediately above the arch, are three shields:
the centre one bearing a plain cross (the arms of the order); on the right,
as you face the gateway, the shield bears a chevron ingrailed between three
roundles, impaling a cross flory, over all on a chief a cross; that on the
left is merely a single shield, bearing a chevron ingrailed between three
roundles apparently (being somewhat damaged), in chief a plain cross. If
the colours were marked, they are indistinguishable,--shield and charges
are alike sable now. On the south side are two shields: that on the right
has been so much damaged that all I can make out of it is that two coats
have been impaled thereon, but I cannot discover whether it had the cross
in chief or not; that on the left bears a chevron between three roundles,
in chief a plain cross. This shield also is damaged; but, nevertheless,
enough remains to enable one to make out the charges with tolerable


_George Wood of Chester_ (Vol. viii., p 34.).--I think it very probable
that this gentleman, who was Justice of Chester in the last year of the
reign of Mary and the first of Elizabeth, will turn out to be George Wood,
Esq., of Balterley, in the county of Stafford, who married Margaret, relict
of Ralph Birkenhead, of Croughton, in Cheshire, and sixth daughter of Sir
Thomas Grosvenor, of Eaton, Knight, ancestor of the present noble house of
Westminster. If CESTRIENSIS can obtain access to Shaw's _History of
Staffordshire_, the hint I have thrown out may speed him in his



_Moon Superstitions_ (Vol. viii., pp. 79. 145. 321.)--The result of my own
observations, as far as they go, is, that remarkable changes of weather
sometimes accompany or follow so closely the changes of the moon, that it
is difficult for the least superstitious persons to refrain from imagining
some connexion between them--and one or two well-marked instances would
make many converts for life to the opinion;--but that in comparatively few
cases are the changes of weather so marked and decided as to give them the
air of cause and effect.


"_Myself_" (Vol. ix., p. 270.).--The inscription from a gravestone,
inserted by G. A. C., brought to my mind a poem by Bernard Barton, which I
had met with in a magazine (_The Youth's Instructor_ for December, 1826),
into which it had been copied from the _Amulet_. The piece is entitled "A
Colloquy with Myself." The first two stanzas, which I had always considered
original, are subjoined for the sake of comparison:

  "As I walk'd by myself, I talk'd to myself,
    And myself replied to me;
  And the questions myself then put to myself,
    With their answers I give to thee.

  Put them home to thyself, and if unto thyself,
    Their responses the same should be:
  O look well to thyself, and beware of thyself,
    Or so much the worse for thee."

T. Q. C.

Polperro, Cornwall.

I cannot inform G. A. C. by whom or in what year the lines were written,
from which the epitaph he mentions was copied; but he will find them
amongst {431} the Epigrams, &c., &c., in _Elegant Extracts_, in the edition
bearing date 1805, under the title of a Rhapsody.


_Roman Roads in England_ (Vol. ix., p. 325.).--I think that in addition to
the reference to _Richard of Cirencester_, PRESTONIENSIS should be apprised
of the late General Roy's _Military Antiquities of Great Britain_
(published by the Society of Antiquaries), a most learned and valuable
account of and commentary on _Richard de Cirencester_, and on all the other
works on the subject; Stukeley, Horsley, &c. I have my own doubts as to the
genuineness of Richard's work; that is, though I admit that the facts are
true, and compiled with accuracy and learning, I cannot quite persuade
myself that the work is that of the Monk of Westminster in the fourteenth
century, never heard of till the discovery of an unique MS. in the Royal
Library at Copenhagen about 1757. I suspect it to have been a much more
modern compilation.


_Anecdote of George IV._ (Vol. ix., pp. 244. 338.)--If JULIA R. BOCKETT has
accurately copied (as we must presume) the note that she has sent you, I am
sorry to inform her that it is a forgery: the Prince never, from his
earliest youth, signed "George" _tout court_; he always added P. If the
story be at all true, your second correspondent, W. H., is assuredly right,
that the "old woman" could not mean the Queen, who was but eighteen when
the Prince was born, and could not, therefore, at any time within which
this note could have been written, be called, even by the giddiest boy, "an
old woman." When the Prince was twelve years old, she was but thirty.


_General Fraser_ (Vol. ix., p. 161.).--The communication of J. C. B.
contains the following sentence:

    "During his interment, the incessant cannonade of the enemy covered
    with dust the chaplain and the officers who assisted in performing the
    last duties to his remains, they being within view of the greatest part
    of both armies."

As some might suppose from this that the American army was guilty of the
infamous action of knowingly firing upon a funeral, the following extract
from Lossing's _Pictorial Field Book of the Revolution_, lately published,
is submitted to the readers of "N. & Q." It tells _the whole truth_ upon
the subject. It is from vol. i. p. 66.:

    "It was just sunset in that calm October evening, that the corpse of
    General Fraser was carried up the hill to the place of burial within
    the 'great redoubt.' It was attended only by the members of his
    military family, and Mr. Brudenel, the chaplain; yet the eyes of
    hundreds of both armies followed the solemn procession, while the
    Americans, ignorant of its true character, kept up a constant cannonade
    upon the redoubt. The chaplain, unmoved by the danger to which he was
    exposed, as the cannon-balls that struck the hill threw the loose soil
    over him, pronounced the impressive funeral service of the Church of
    England with an unfaltering voice.[2] The growing darkness added
    solemnity to the scene. Suddenly the irregular firing ceased, and the
    solemn voice of a single cannon, at measured intervals, boomed along
    the valley and awakened the responses of the hills. It was a minute
    gun, fired by the Americans in honour of the gallant dead. The moment
    information was given that the gathering at the redoubt was a funeral
    company fulfilling, amid imminent perils, the last breathed wishes of
    the noble Fraser, orders were issued to withhold the cannonade with
    balls, and to render military homage to the fallen brave."

I may add, for the information of English readers, that Lossing's
_Pictorial Field Book of the Revolution_ is a work of great general
accuracy, written by a gentleman who travelled thousands of miles to
collect the materials. The drawings for the work were drawn, and the
numerous woodcuts engraved, by him. They are the finest woodcuts ever
produced in this country.



[Footnote 2: Burgoyne's _State of the Expedition_, p. 169. Lieutenant
Kingston's _Evidence_, p. 107.]

_The Fusion_ (Vol. ix., p. 323.).--The Orleans branch, though it derives
its eventually hereditary claim to the throne of France from Louis XIII.,
as stated by E. H. A., have later connexions in blood with Louis XIV. The
Regent Duke married Mdlle de Blois, the legitimated daughter of Louis XIV.
Louis-Philippe's mother was great-granddaughter of Louis XIV. by another


"_Corporations have no souls_" (Vol. ix., p. 284.).--This saying is to be
found in Coke's _Reports_, vol. x. p. 32.:

    "A corporation aggregate of many is invisible, immortal, and rests only
    in intendment and consideration of the law. They cannot commit treason,
    nor be outlawed, nor excommunicate, _for they have no souls_, neither
    can they appear in person, but by attorney."


_Apparition of the White Lady_ (Vol. viii., p. 317.).--Some account of the
origin of this apparition story is given at considerable length by Mrs.
Crowe in the _Night Side of Nature_, chapter on Haunted Houses, pp. 315.


Avington Rectory, Hungerford.

_Female Parish Clerk_ (Vol. viii., p. 338.).--The sexton of my parish, John
Poffley, a man worthy of a place in Wordsworth's _Excursion_, was telling
me but a few days ago, that his mother was the parish clerk for twenty-six
years, and that he well remembers his astonishment as a boy, whenever {432}
he happened to attend a neighbouring church service, to see a man acting in
that capacity, and saying the responses for the people.


Avington Rectory, Hungerford.

I have just seen an extract from "N. & Q." in one of our local papers,
mentioning Elizabeth King as being clerk of the parish of Totteridge in
1802, and a question by Y. S. M. if there were any similar instance on
record of a woman being a parish clerk? In answer to this Query, I beg to
inform Y. S. M. that in the village of Misterton, Somerset, in which place
I was born, a woman acted as clerk at my mother's wedding, my own baptism,
and many years subsequently: I was born in 1822.


_Bothy_ (Vol. ix., p. 305.).--For a familiar mention of this word (commonly
spelt _Bothie_), your correspondent may be referred to the poem of _The
Bothie of Toper-na-fuosich_, a Long-Vacation Pastoral, by Arthur Hugh
Clough, Oxford: Macpherson, 1848. The action of the poem is chiefly carried
on at the Bothie, the situation of which is thus described (in hexameter

  "There on the blank hill side, looking down through the loch to the
  There with a runnel beside, and pine trees twain before it,
  There with the road underneath, and in sight of coaches and steamers,
  Dwelling of David Mackaye, and his daughters Elspie and Bella,
  Sends up a volume of smoke the Bothie of Toper-na-fuosich."

This sort of verse, by the way, is thus humorously spoken of by Professor
Wilson in his dedication, "to the King," of the twelfth volume of Blackwood

  "What dost thou think, my liege, of the metre in which I address thee?
  Doth it not sound very big, verse bouncing, bubble-and-squeaky,
  Rattling, and loud, and high, resembling a drum or a bugle--
  Rub-a-dub-dub like the one, like t'other tantaratara?
  (It into use was brought of late by thy Laureate Doctor--
  But, in my humble opinion, I write it better than he does)
  It was chosen by me as the longest measure I knew of,
  And, in praising one's King, it is right full measure to give him."


_King's Prerogative and Hunting Bishops_ (Vol. ix., p. 247.).--The passage
of Blackstone, referred to by the Edinburgh Reviewer, will be found in his
_Commentaries_, vol. ii, p. 413., where reference is made to 4 [Cokes']
_Inst._ 309. See also the same volume of Blackstone, p. 427. It is evident
that Bishop Jewel possessed his "muta canum." See a curious account of a
visit to him by Hermann Falkerzhümer, in the _Zurich Letters_, second
series, pp. 84 &c.


Lincoln's Inn.

_Green Eyes_ (Vol. viii., p. 407.; Vol. ix., p. 112.).--Antoine Heroet, an
early French poet, in the third book of his _Opuscules d'Amour_, has the
following lines:

  "Amour n'est pas enchanteur si divers
  Que les yeux noirs face devenir _verds_,
  Qu'un brun obscur en blancheur clere tourne,
  Ou qu'un traict gros du vissage destourne."

(Love is not so strange an enchanter that he can make black eyes become
green, that he can turn a dark brown into clear whiteness, or that he can
change a coarse feature of the face.)



_Brydone the Tourist_ (Vol. ix., pp. 138. 255. 305.).--

    "On lui a reproché d'avoir sacrifié la vérité au plaisir de raconter
    des choses piquantes."

In a work (I think) entitled _A Tour in Sicily_, the production of Captain
Monson, uncle to the late Lord Monson, published about thirty years ago, I
remember to have read a denial and, as far as I can remember, a refutation
of a statement of Brydone, that he had seen a pyramid in the gardens or
grounds of some dignitary in Sicily, composed of--chamber-pots! I was, when
I read Mr. Monson's book (a work of some pretensions as it appeared to me),
a youngster newly returned from foreign travel, and in daily intercourse
with gentlemen of riper age than myself, and of attainments as travellers
and otherwise which I could not pretend to; many of them were Italians, and
I perfectly remember that by all, but especially by the latter, Brydone's
book was treated as a book of apocrypha.


_Descendants of John of Gaunt, Noses of_ (Vol. vii., p. 96.).--Allow me to
repeat my Query as to E. D.'s remark: he says, to be dark-complexioned and
black-haired "is the family badge of the Herberts quite as much as the
unmistakeable nose in the descendants of John of Gaunt." I hope E. D. will
not continue silent, for I am very curious to know his meaning.

Y. S. M.

_"Put"_ (Vol. vii., p. 271.).--I am surprised at the silence of your Irish
readers in reference to the pronunciation of this word. I certainly never
yet heard it pronounced like "but" amongst educated men in Ireland, and I
am both a native of this country and resident here the greater part of my
life. The Prince Consort's name I have {433} occasionally heard, both in
England and Ireland, pronounced as if the first letter was an
O--"Olbert"--and that by people who ought to know better.

Y. S. M.

_"Caricature; a Canterbury Tale"_ (Vol. ix., p. 351.).--The inquiry of H.
as to the meaning of a "Caricature," which he describes (though I doubt if
he be correct as to all the personages), appears to me to point to a
transaction in the history of the celebrated "Coalition Ministry" of Lord
North and Fox; in which--

    "Burke being Paymaster of the Forces, committed one or two imprudent
    acts: among them, the restoration of Powel and Bembridge, two
    defaulting subordinates in his office, to their situations. His friends
    of the ministry were hardly tasked to bring him through these scrapes;
    and, to use the language of Wraxall's _Memoirs_, 'Fox warned the
    Paymaster of the Forces, as he valued his office, not to involve his
    friends in any similar dilemma during the remainder of the Session.'"

A. B. R.


       *       *       *       *       *



Dr. Waagen, the accomplished Director of the Royal Gallery of Pictures,
Berlin, has just presented us with three volumes, to which, as Englishmen,
we may refer with pride, because they bear testimony not only to the
liberality of our expenditure in works of art, but also to the good taste
and judgment which have generally regulated our purchases. _The Treasures
of Art in Great Britain, being an Account of the Chief Collections of
Paintings, Drawings, Sculptures, Illuminated MSS., &c._, as the work is
designated, must become a handbook to every lover of Art in this country.
It is an amplification of Dr. Waagen's first work, _Art and Artists in
England_, giving, not only the results of the author's more ripened
judgment and extended experience, but also an account of twenty-eight
collections in and round London, of nineteen in England generally, and of
seven in Scotland, not contained in his former work. And as the Doctor has
bestowed much pains in obtaining precise information regarding the art of
painting in England since the time of Hogarth, and of sculpture since the
time of Flaxman; and also devoted much time to the study of English
miniatures contained in MSS. from the earliest time down to the sixteenth
century; of miniatures of other nations preserved in England; of drawings
by the old masters, engravings and woodcuts; he is fully justified in
saying that, both as regards the larger class of the public who are
interested in knowing the actual extent of the treasures of Art in England,
and also the more learned connoisseurs of the history of Art, this edition
offers incomparably richer and more maturely digested materials than the
former one. Let us add, that the value of this important and most useful
and instructive book is greatly enhanced by a very careful Index.

We have received from Messrs. Johnston, the geographers and engravers to
the Queen, two maps especially useful at the present moment, viz., one of
the Baltic Sea, with enlarged plans of Cronstadt, Revel, Sveaborg, Kiel
Bay, and Winga Sound; and the other of the seat of war in the Danubian
Principalities and Turkey, with map of Central Europe.

At the Annual General Meeting of the Camden Society on Tuesday last, M. Van
de Weyer, Mr. Blencowe, and the Rev. John Webb were elected of the New
Council in the place of Mr. Cunningham, Mr. Foss, and Sir Charles Young,
who retire.

The Inaugural General Meeting of the Surrey Archæological Society is
announced for Wednesday next, at the Bridge House Hotel, London Bridge,
Henry Drummond, Esq., in the chair. Objects of antiquarian and general
interest intended for exhibition may be sent, not later than Monday the
8th, to Mr. Bridger, the curator.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_The present State of Morocco, a Chapter of Mussulman
Civilisation_, by Xavier Durriew, the new Part of Longman's _Traveller's
Library_, is an interesting picture of the institutions, manners, and
religious faith of a nation too little known in Europe.--_Deeds of Naval
Daring, &c._, by Edward Giffard, _Second Series_. This new volume of
Murray's _Railway Reading_ is well timed.--_The Diary and Letters of Madame
D'Arblay_, Vol. III., carries on her record of the gossip of the Court
during the years 1786-7.--_Critical and Historical Essays, &c._, by T. B.
Macaulay, contains, among other admirable essays, those on Walpole's
Letters to Mann, William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, Mackintosh's History of the
Revolution, and Lord Bacon.

       *       *       *       *       *


Particulars of Price, &c. of the following books to be sent direct to the
gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are
given for that purpose:

ESSAYS AND SKETCHES OF LIFE AND CHARACTER, by a Gentleman who recently left
his Lodgings. London, 1820.

MEMOIR OF SHERIDAN, by the late Professor Smyth. Leeds, 1841. 12mo.

  Wanted by _John Martin_, Librarian, Woburn Abbey.

       *       *       *       *       *

Sermon. 8vo. London, 1712.

THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND NOT SUPERSTITIOUS--showing what Religions may justly
be charged with Superstition, pp. 46, 8vo. London, 1714.

Auctore Gulielmo Taswell. 8vo. London, 1718.


  The above were written by Wm. Taswell, D.D., Rector of Newington, Surrey,

MISCELLANEA SACRA; containing the Story of Deborah and Barak; David's
Lamentations over Saul and Jonathan; a Pindaric Poem; and the Prayer of
Solomon at the Dedication of the Temple, 4to., by E. Taswell. London. 1760.

THE USEFULNESS OF SACRED MUSIC, 1 Chron. 16. 39. 40. 42., by Wm. Taswell,
A.M., Rector of Wootton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire. 8vo. London, 1742.

Tazewell. London, 1829.

  Wanted by _R. Jackson_, 3. Northampton Place, Old Kent Road.

       *       *       *       *       *




LIBER PRECUM. 1660. Ch. Ch. Oxford.





LIBER PRECUM. 1819. Worcester College, Oxford.

  Wanted by _Rev. J. W. Hewett_, Bloxham, Banbury.

       *       *       *       *       *

Any of the occasional Sermons of the Rev. Charles Kingsley, of Eversley,

  Wanted by _H. C. Cowley_, Melksham, Wilts.

       *       *       *       *       *

The Numbers of the BRITISH AND COLONIAL QUARTERLY REVIEW, published in
1846, by Smith and Elder, Cornhill, containing a review of a work on
graduated, sliding-scale, Taxation. Also any work of the French School on
the same subject, published from 1790 down to the end of the Revolution.

  Wanted by _R. J. Cole_, 12. Furnival's Inn.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Wanted by _S. Hayward_, Bookseller, Bath.

       *       *       *       *       *



  Wanted by the _Rev. Frederick Smithe_, Churchdown, Gloucester.

       *       *       *       *       *

PLATONIS OPERA OMNIA (Stallbaum). Gothæ et Erfordiæ. Sumptibus Guil.
Hennings, 1832; published in Jacobs and Rost's Bibliotheca Græca. Vol. iv.
Sect. 2., containing Menexenus, Lysis, Hippias uterque, Io.

  Wanted by the _Rev. G. R. Mackarness_, Barnwell Rectory, near Oundle.

       *       *       *       *       *


  Wanted by _Hugh Owen, Esq._, Bristol.

       *       *       *       *       *

Notices to Correspondents.

F. R. F. _The Third Part of Bunyan's_ Pilgrim's Progress _is an imposture_.
See "N. & Q.," Vol viii., p. 222. _For bibliographical notices of that
work, see the Introduction to_ The Pilgrim's Progress, _published by the
Hanserd Knollys Society in 1847_.

I. R. R. _For notices of John a Cumber, see our_ Fourth Volume
passim.--Knight of L. _is Leopold of Austria_; K. C., _Knight of the
Crescent of Turkey_.--Pricket _is a young male deer of two years
old_.--Impresse _is from Ital._ imprendere, _says Blount: see also his_
Dict. s. v. devise.--_The_ Wends, _or_ Vends, _is an appellation given to
the Slavonian population, which had settled in the northern part of Germany
from the banks of the Elbe to the shores of the Baltic_.

W. W. (Malta). _Received with thanks. Letters and more sheets will be
despatched on the 17th._

A SUBSCRIBER (Atherstone) _is referred to our Reply to_ B. P. _in_ "N. &
Q." _of March 25th_, p. 290. _We propose giving a short paper on the

R. P. (Bishop Stortford) _shall receive a private communication as to his
photographic difficulties_.

B. (Manchester). _The new facts arising every day necessarily compel the
postponement of the proposed work._

_Replies to many other Correspondents next week._

ERRATA.--Vol. viii., p. 328., _for_ Sir William Upton _read_ Sir William
Ussher. Vol. viii., p. 367, _for_ Vernon _read_ Verdon, _and for_
Harrington _read_ Harington. Vol. ix., p. 373., _for Lord_ Boteloust _read_

OUR EIGHTH VOLUME _is now bound and ready for delivery_, _price 10s. 6d.,
cloth, boards. A few sets of the whole Eight Volumes are being made up,
price 4l. 4s.--For these early application is desirable._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_.

       *       *       *       *       *

OPENING of the CRYSTAL PALACE, 1854.--It is intended to OPEN the CRYSTAL
PALACE and PARK at the end of May; after which they will be open
daily--Sundays excepted.

The following are the arrangements for the admission of the public:--

Five Shilling Days.--On Saturdays the public will be admitted by payment at
the doors, by tickets of 5s. each, and by tickets to include conveyance by

Half-Crown Days.--On Fridays the public will be admitted by payment at the
doors, by tickets of 2s. 6d. each, or by tickets to include conveyance by

Shilling Days.--Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays will be
shilling days. At the gates a payment of 1s. each will admit the public, or
tickets entitling the holder to admission to the Palace and Park, and also
to conveyance along the Crystal Palace Railway, from London-bridge Station
to the Palace and back, will be issued at the following prices:--

  Including first-class carriage       2s. 6d.
  Including second        ditto        2s. 0d.
  Including third         ditto        1s. 6d.

Children.--children under 12 years of age will be admitted at half the
above rates.

Hours of Opening.--The Palace and Park will be opened on Mondays at 9
o'clock; on Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays at 10 o'clock a.m.; and on
Fridays and Saturdays at 12 o'clock; and close every day an hour before

Opening Day.--The opening will take place about the end of May; the precise
day will be announced as early as possible. On that occasion season tickets
only will be admitted.

Season Tickets.--Season tickets will be issued at two guineas each, to
admit the proprietor to the Palace and Park on the day of opening, and on
all other days when the building is open to the public.

Season tickets to include conveyance along the Crystal Palace Railway from
London Bridge to the Palace and back, without further charge, will be
issued at four guineas each, subject to the regulations of the London,
Brighton, and South Coast Railway Company; but these Tickets will be
available only for trains from and to London and the Palace, on such days
as it is open to the public, and will not be available for any intermediate

No season ticket will be transferable or available except to the person
whose signature it bears.

Family Season Tickets.--Members of the same family who reside together will
have the privilege of taking season tickets for their own use with or
without railway conveyance on the following reduced terms:--

Families taking two tickets will be entitled to 10 per cent. discount on
the gross amount paid for such tickets; taking three tickets, to a a
discount of 15 per cent.; taking four tickets, to a discount of 20 per
cent.; and five tickets and upwards, to a discount of 25 per cent. Families
claiming the above privilege, and desiring to avail themselves of it, must
apply in the accompanying form, and these tickets will be available only to
the persons named in such application. Printed forms of application may be
had at the Office, 3. Adelaide Place.

Season tickets will entitle to admission from the opening day till the 30th
April, 1855.

The tickets to include conveyance by railway will be delivered at the
office of the Secretary to the Brighton Railway, London Bridge.

Special Regulations and Bye-Laws.--All the general provisions and
regulations mentioned above are to be understood as being subservient to
such special provisions, regulations, and bye-laws on the part of the
Railway Company and the Palace Company as may be found necessary to
regulate the traffic, and to meet special occasions and circumstances which
may from time to time arise.

  By order of the Board,
  G. GROVE, Secretary.

  Adelaide Place, London Bridge,
  April 13, 1854.

       *       *       *       *       *

Form of application for Family Season Tickets.

To G. Grove, Esq., Secretary, 3. Adelaide Place, London Bridge.

Sir,--Be good enough to supply me with family season tickets for myself and
the following members of my family, who are all residing with me. Yours

  Name . . . . . . . . . . . . .
  Address  . . . . . . . . . . .
  Designation . . . . . . . . .

       *       *       *       *       *

Schedule of Prices of Family Season Tickets.

      Without conveyance    |    Including Conveyance
         by Railway.        |         by Railway.
                  £  s. d.  |               £  s. d.
  Two tickets     3  16  0  | Two tickets   7  11  6
  Three  ,,       5   7  6  | Three  ,,    10  14  6
  Four   ,,       6  15  0  | Four   ,,    13   9  0
  Five   ,,       7  17  6  | Five   ,,    15  15  0
  Six    ,,       9   9  0  | Six    ,,    18  18  0
  Seven  ,,      11   0  6  | Seven  ,,    22   1  0
  Eight  ,,      12  12  0  | Eight  ,,    25   4  0
  Nine   ,,      14   3  6  | Nine   ,,    26   7  0
  Ten    ,,      15  15  0  | Ten    ,,    31  10  0

Note.--The above application must be addressed to the Secretary, as above,
and accompanied by a remittance for the full amount of the tickets asked
for, according to the above schedule, in favour of George Fasson, 3.
Adelaide Place. Cheques must be on a London banker, and be crossed with the
words "Union Bank of London;" and no application, unless so accompanied,
will be attended to.

       *       *       *       *       *


In one Vol. 8vo., price 10s. 6d.

THE LIFE OF MRS. SHERWOOD (chiefly Autobiographical), with Extracts from
Mr. Sherwood's Journal during his Imprisonment in France and Residence in
India. Edited by her Daughter, SOPHIA KELLY, Authoress of the "De
Cliffords," "Robert and Frederic," &c. &c.

London: DARTON & CO., Holborn Hill.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, price 3s. 6d., 12mo., cloth,

AN INDEX TO FAMILIAR QUOTATIONS, selected principally from British Authors,
with parallel passages from various writers, ancient and modern. By J. C.
GROCOTT, Attorney-at-Law.

Liverpool: WALMSLEY, Lord Street. London: GEORGE BELL. 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


This Day (price 3s. 6d.), a work of Fiction, entitled QUICKSANDS ON FOREIGN
SHORES, which ought to be in the hands of every Protestant parent in the
kingdom. Its perusal cannot fail to make a deep impression, and lead every
right-minded man, who takes as his rule the motto of the great Selden,
"Liberty above all things," to use his best endeavours to aid Mr. Chambers'
motion for governmental inspection of these institutions.

BLACKADER & CO., 13. Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, Part XX., price 2s. 6d., super-royal 8vo. Part XXI. on 1st June,
completing the Work, forming one large volume, strongly bound in cloth,
Price 2l. 12s. 6d.

CYCLOPÆDIA BIBLIOGRAPHICA; a Library Manual of Theological and General
Literature, and Guide for Authors, Preachers, Students, and Literary Men,
Analytical, Bibliographical and Biographical. A Prospectus, with Opinions
of the Press, sent Free on receipt of a Postage Stamp.

London: JAMES DARLING, 81. Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, with ten coloured Engravings, price 5s.,

"Microscopic Cabinet," By ANDREW PRITCHARD, M.R.I.

Also, in 8vo., pp. 720, plates 24, price 21s., or coloured, 36s.,

A HISTORY OF INFUSORIAL ANIMALCULES, Living and Fossil, containing
Descriptions of every species, British and Foreign, the methods of
procuring and viewing them, &c., illustrated by numerous Engravings. By

"There is no work extant in which so much valuable information concerning
Infusoria (Animalcules) can be found, and every Microscopist should add it
to his library."--_Silliman's Journal_.

London: WHITTAKER & CO., Ave Maria Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *

EVANS'S SELF-ACTING KITCHEN RANGES continue to maintain their superiority
over all others, for roasting, boiling, steaming, and baking, in the best
and most economical manner, and yield a constant supply of hot water, with
the addition of a HOT PLATE over the whole extent of the Range, from 4 feet
to 6 feet long.

Every article for the Kitchen in COPPER, IRON, and BLOCK TIN, always on

       *       *       *       *       *

COLLODION PORTRAITS AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest ease and certainty
by using BLAND & LONG'S preparation of Soluble Cotton; certainty and
uniformity of action over a lengthened period, combined with the most
faithful rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a most valuable agent
in the hands of the photographer.

Albumenized paper, for printing from glass or paper negatives, giving a
minuteness of detail unattained by any other method, 5s. per Quire.

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality.

Instruction in the Processes.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative
Chemists, 153. Fleet Street, London.

*** Catalogues sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE SIGHT preserved by the Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit every variety
of Vision by means of SMEE'S OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents Injury
to the Eyes from the Selection of Improper Glasses, and is extensively
employed by

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


OTTEWILL AND MORGAN'S Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte Terrace, Caledonian
Road, Islington.

OTTEWILL'S Registered Double Body Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or
Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS, Featherstone Buildings, Holborn; the
Photographic Institution, Bond Street; and at the Manufactory as above,
where every description of Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The
Trade supplied.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS, DAGUERREOTYPISTS, &c.--Instantaneous Collodion (or
Collodio-Iodide Silver). Solution for Iodizing Collodion. Pyrogallic,
Gallic, and Glacial Acetic Acids, and every Pure Chemical required in the
Practice of Photography, prepared by WILLIAM BOLTON, Operative and
Photographic Chemist, 146. Holborn Bars. Wholesale Dealer in every kind of
Photographic Papers, Lenses, Cameras, and Apparatus, and Importer of French
and German Lenses, &c. Catalogues by Post on receipt of Two Postage Stamps.
Sets of Apparatus from Three Guineas.

       *       *       *       *       *

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.


       *       *       *       *       *

ARUNDEL SOCIETY.--The Publication of the Fourth Year (1852-3), consisting
of Eight Wood Engravings by MESSRS. DALZIEL, from Mr. W. Oliver Williams'
Drawings after GIOTTO'S Frescos at PADUA, is now ready: and Members who
have not paid their Subscriptions are requested to forward them to the
Treasurer by Post-Office Order, payable at the Charing Cross Office.

  Treasurer and Hon. Sec.
  13. & 14. Pall Mall East.
  March, 1854.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE EXHIBITION OF PHOTOGRAPHS, by the most eminent English and Continental
Artists, is OPEN DAILY from Ten till Five. Free Admission.

                                            £  s. d.
  A Portrait by Mr. Talbot's Patent
    Process                                 1  1  0
  Additional Copies (each)                  0  5  0
  A Coloured Portrait, highly finished
    (small size)                            3  3  0
  A Coloured Portrait, highly finished
    (larger size)                           5  5  0

Miniatures, Oil Paintings, Water-Colour, and Chalk Drawings, Photographed
and Coloured in imitation of the Originals. Views of Country Mansions,
Churches, &c., taken at a short notice.

Cameras, Lenses, and all the necessary Photographic Apparatus and
Chemicals, are supplied, tested, and guaranteed.

Gratuitous Instruction is given to Purchasers of Sets of Apparatus.


       *       *       *       *       *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half-tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

Post, 1s. 2d.

       *       *       *       *       *

PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas each.--D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square
(established A.D. 1785), sole manufacturers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25
Guineas each. Every instrument warranted. The peculiar advantage of these
pianofortes are best described in the following professional testimonial,
signed by the majority of the leading musicians of the age:--"We, the
under-signed members of the musical profession, having carefully examined
the Royal Pianofortes manufactured by MESSRS. D'ALMAINE & CO., have great
pleasure in bearing testimony to their merits and capabilities. It appears
to us impossible to produce instruments of the same size possessing a
richer and finer tone, more elastic touch, or more equal temperament, while
the elegance of their construction renders them a handsome ornament for the
library, boudoir, or drawing-room. (Signed) J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R.
Bishop, J. Blewitt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp, P. Delavanti, C. H. Dolby,
E. F. Fitzwilllam, W. Forde, Stephen Glover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison, H. F.
Hassé, J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes, W. H. Holmes, W. Kuhe, G. F.
Kiallmark, E. Land, G. Lanza, Alexander Lee, A. Leffler, E. J. Loder, W. H.
Montgomery, S. Nelson, G. A. Osborne, John Parry, H. Panofka, Henry
Phillips, F. Praegar, E. F. Rimbault, Frank Romer, G. H. Rodwell, E.
Rockel, Sims Reeves, J. Templeton, F. Weber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright," &c.

D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square, Lists and Designs Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *




Founded A.D. 1842.

       *       *       *       *       *


  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 3. Pall Mall East, and 7. St. Martin's Place, Trafalgar Square, London.

_Established_ A.D. 1844.

INVESTMENT ACCOUNTS may be opened daily, with capital of any amount.

Interest payable in January and July.

  Managing Director.

Prospectuses and Forms sent free on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Sliver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 Guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen, 65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *

CHUBB'S FIRE-PROOF SAFES AND LOCKS.--These safes are the most secure from
force, fraud, and fire. Chubb's locks, with all the recent improvements,
cash and deed boxes of all sizes. Complete lists, with prices, will be sent
on application.

CHUBB & SON, 57. St. Paul's Churchyard, London; 28. Lord Street, Liverpool;
16 Market Street, Manchester; and Horseley Fields, Wolverhampton.

       *       *       *       *       *


TWO THOUSAND POUNDS for any person producing Articles superior to the


BEETHAM'S CAPILLARY FLUID is acknowledged to be the most effectual article
for Restoring the Hair in Baldness, strengthening when weak and fine,
effectually preventing falling or turning grey, and for restoring its
natural colour without the use of dye. The rich glossy appearance it
imparts is the admiration of every person. Thousands have experienced its
astonishing efficacy. Bottles, 2s. 6d.; double size, 4s. 6d.; 7s. 6d. equal
to 4 small; 11s. to 6 small; 21s. to 13 small. The most perfect beautifier
ever invented.


BEETHAM'S VEGETABLE EXTRACT does not cause pain or injury to the skin. Its
effect is unerring, and it is now patronised by royalty and hundreds of the
first families. Bottles, 5s.

BEETHAM'S PLASTER is the only effective remover of Corns and Bunions. It
also reduces enlarged Great Toe Joints in an astonishing manner. If space
allowed, the testimony of upwards of twelve thousand individuals, during
the last five years, might be inserted. Packets, 1s.; Boxes, 2s. 6d. Sent
Free by BEETHAM, Chemist, Cheltenham, for 14 or 36 Post Stamps.

Sold by PRING, 30. Westmorland Street; JACKSON, 9. Westland Row; BEWLEY &
EVANS, Dublin; GOULDING, 108. Patrick Street, Cork; BARRY, 9. Main Street,
Edinburgh. SANGER, 150. Oxford Street; PROUT, 229. Strand; KEATING, St.
Paul's Churchyard; SAVORY & MOORE, Bond Street; HANNAY, 63. Oxford Street;
London. All Chemists and Perfumers will procure them.

       *       *       *       *       *

TRADE that they are now registering Orders for the March Brewings of their
PALE ALE in Casks of 18 Gallons and upwards, at the BREWERY,
Burton-on-Trent; and at the under-mentioned Branch Establishments:

  LONDON, at 61. King William Street, City.
  LIVERPOOL, at Cook Street.
  MANCHESTER, at Ducie Place.
  DUDLEY, at the Burnt Tree.
  GLASGOW, at 115. St. Vincent Street.
  DUBLIN, at 1. Crampton Quay.
  BIRMINGHAM, at Market Hall.
  SOUTH WALES, at 13. King Street, Bristol.

MESSRS. ALLSOPP & SONS take the opportunity of announcing to PRIVATE
FAMILIES that their ALES, so strongly recommended by the medical
Profession, may be procured in DRAUGHT and BOTTLES GENUINE from all the
specially asked for.

When in bottle, the genuineness of the label can be ascertained by its
having "ALLSOPP & SONS" written across it.

       *       *       *       *       *

Valuable Library of Books at Bigadon House, Devonshire, Six Miles from the
Railway Station, Totness.

TO BE SOLD BY AUCTION, by MR. JOHN HEATH, on Tuesday, May 16th, and Two
following Days, the valuable Library of Richard John King, Esq. (author of
"Anschar"), comprising some of the best standard works in Theology,
History, Classics, and the general branches of Literature. Also some
curious Works on Witchcraft and Dæmonology, early printed books, &c.

Catalogues to be had of MR. SAMPSON LOW, Ludgate Hill, and of the
Auctioneer, Totness.

       *       *       *       *       *


MR. BENTLEY will SELL by AUCTION, in the Lecture Room of the Natural
History Society, at Worcester, on Tuesday, the 23rd day of May, 1854, at
Eleven o'clock, A VALUABLE LIBRARY of RARE and CHOICE BOOKS, including one
Copy of the First Folio Edition of Shakspeare, London, 1623, and two
varying Copies of the Second Folio, London, 1632, with many valuable
Black-letter Books in Divinity and History.

Catalogues may be had at the Office of the Auctioneer, 9. Foregate Street,
Worcester, one week previous to the Sale.

       *       *       *       *       *

Sale of Photographic Pictures, Landscape Camera by Horne & Co.; also Prints
and Drawings.

PUTTICK AND SIMPSON, Auctioneers of Literary Property, will SELL by
AUCTION, at their Great Room, 191. Piccadilly, early in MAY, an important
Collection of Photographic Pictures by the most celebrated Artists and
Amateurs; comprising some _chefs d'oeuvre_ of the Art, amongst which are
large and interesting Views taken in Paris, Rouen, Brussels, Switzerland,
Rome, Venice, various parts of England and Scotland, Rustic Scenes,
Architectural Subjects, Antiquities, &c. Also, some interesting Prints and

Catalogues will be sent on Application (if at a distance, on Receipt of Two

       *       *       *       *       *

SALE of the REV. G. S. FABER'S LIBRARY.--MR. WHITE has received instruction
to sell by Auction in the House No. 1. North Bailey (next door to the
Exhibition Room), Durham, on Tuesday, May 9th, and three following days,
the extensive and valuable Library of the late REV. G. S. FABER, Prebendary
of Salisbury, and Master of Sherburn Hospital, Durham, consisting of
editions of the Fathers, Works on Divinity, General Literature, &c.

Catalogues are now ready, and may be had of MESSRS. F. & J. RIVINGTON, No.
3. Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, and of MR. S. LOW, 169. Fleet Street, London;
MESSRS. BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh; of MR. ANDREWS, Bookseller, Durham,
and of the Auctioneer.

Catalogues will be forwarded by Post by Mr. ANDREWS, Bookseller, Durham, on
receipt of Two Postage Stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *

ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles, consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS,
other travelling requisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on
receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 22. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 10 Stonefield Street, in the Parish of
St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, May 6.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 236, May 6, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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