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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 238, May 20, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 238, May 20, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 238.]
SATURDAY, MAY 20. 1854.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                    Page
  A Leader from a Foreign Newspaper: the New Russian Manifesto 463
  The Launch of the "Prince Royal" in 1610                     464
  "Notes and Queries on the Ormulum, by Dr. Monicke"           465
  The Legend of the Seven Sisters                              465

  MINOR NOTES:--Coincidences--The English Liturgy--
  "To jump for joy"--"What is Truth?"--Abolition of Government
  Patronage                                                    466

  MINOR QUERIES:--"One New Year's Day"--Greek denounced by the
  Monks--Pliny's Dentistry--J. Farrington, R.A.--Henry
  Crewkerne of Exeter--Dr. Johnson--Latin "Dante"--Ralph
  Bosvill, of Bradbourn, Kent--Major-General Wolfe--Custom at
  University College, Oxford--"Old Dominion"--"Wise men
  labour," &c.                                                 467

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Dame Hester Temple--Samuel
  White--Heralds' College--Pope                                468

  Blanco White's Sonnet, by S. W. Singer                       469
  Goloshes                                                     470
  Consonants in Welsh, by Thomas O'Coffey, &c.                 471
  Songs of Degrees (Ascents), by T. J. Buckton                 473
  The Screw Propeller                                          473
  Amontillado Sherry                                           474
  Recent Curiosities of Literature                             475
  Roland the Brave, by F. M. Middleton, &c.                    475

  Recovery of Silver                                           476

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Ashes of "Lignites"--Old Rowley--
  "Bachelors of every Station"--Mousehunt--Value of Money in
  the Seventeenth Century--Grammars for Public Schools--Classic
  Authors and the Jews--Hand-bells at Funerals--"Warple-way"--
  Medal of Chevalier St. George--Shakspeare's Inheritance--
  Cassock--Tailless Cats--Names of Slaves--Heraldic--Solar
  Annual Eclipse of 1263--Brissot de Warville--"Le Compère
  Mathieu"--Etymology of "Awkward"--Life and Death--Shelley's
  "Prometheus Unbound"--"Three Crowns and a Sugar-loaf"--
  Stanza in "Childe Harold"--Errors in Punctuation--Waugh
  of Cumberland--"Could we with ink," &c.                      477

  Books and Old Volumes Wanted                                 482
  Notices to Correspondents                                    483

       *       *       *       *       *

Now ready, No. VII. (for May), price 2s. 6d., published Quarterly.

RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW (New Series); consisting of Criticisms upon, Analyses
of, and Extracts from, Curious, Useful, Valuable, and Scarce Old Books.

Vol. I., 8vo., pp. 436, cloth 10s. 6d., is also ready.

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

containing 1200 Choice, Useful, and Curious Books at very moderate prices.
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       *       *       *       *       *

This Day, fcp. 8vo., 5s.

DANTE'S DIVINE COMEDY.--The First Part.--Hell. Translated in the Metre of
the Original, with Notes, by THOMAS BROOKSBANK, M.A., Cambridge.

London: JOHN W. PARKER & SON, West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *

This Day, 8vo., 1s.

A DIALOGUE ON THE PLURALITY OF WORLDS: being a Supplement to the Essay on
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Also, 8vo., 8s.


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       *       *       *       *       *

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By the same Author, Third Edition, with Illustrations, 3s. 6d., gilt edges.


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PERFECT PEACE. Letters Memorial of the late J. W. Hawell. By the REV. D.

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POOR LETTER "H;" its Use and Abuse, addressed to the Million. By the HON.
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TRUE COURTESY; its Want and Value; a Chapter for all. By SIR JOHN

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MR. BENTLEY will SELL by AUCTION, in the Lecture Room of the Natural
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       *       *       *       *       *

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possesion of
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Mention was recently made, in Vol. ix., p. 218., of the valuable character
of many of the leading articles in the continental journals, and a wish
expressed that translations of them were more frequently communicated in
our own papers to English readers. The great newspapers of this country are
too rich in varied talent and worldwide resources of their own, to make it
worth their while in ordinary times to pay much attention to information
and disquisition from foreign politicians, on subjects of the day; but the
infinite importance to England, and to the world, of the present warlike
struggle, renders it a matter of corresponding weight to know how far the
foreign press, in the great centres of movement and intelligence, stand
affected to Great Britain. Perhaps, therefore, as a specimen of this kind
of writing, you will for once admit, among your varied contents, the
following article from the _Kölnische Zeitung_ of May 4:

    "While in England, as a preparation for war, a day of humiliation and
    prayer is held, on which the Clergy exhort the people to look into
    their own breasts, and to discover and forsake those sins which might
    provoke God's punishments; while the most powerful nation of the world
    commences war by humbling itself before God, on the part of Russia a
    new manifesto appears, the arrogance of which can scarcely be exceeded
    by anything human. The Czar speaks as if he were the representative of
    God upon earth. His affair is God's affair. He carries on war for God,
    and for His only begotten Son, Jesus Christ our Saviour. God is for
    him, who can be against him!

    "Such a document has not proceeded from the cabinet of any European
    power since the Middle Ages. It exceeds all which even Russian
    diplomacy has accomplished, in its zeal for Christianity, during the
    last century. For it is worthy of notice that nowhere is religion so
    much publicly talked about, as in the place where least of it remains,
    among the higher classes in St. Petersburgh. Religion there is _inter
    instrumenta regni_. When Catherine II. permitted her husband Peter III.
    to be imprisoned, in order to rob him of his throne and life, the cause
    of this was communicated to the Russian people on July 9, 1762, as
    follows:--'First of all, the foundation of your orthodox Greek religion
    has been shaken and its principles are drawing near to a total
    overthrow; so that we ought to dread exceedingly lest we should see a
    change in the true ruling faith transmitted from antiquity in Russia,
    and a foreign religion introduced.' So wrote Catherine II., 'the
    greatest of the queens, and of the ----,' the friend of Voltaire, the
    greatest lady-freethinker of her age. But she wrote still
    farther:--'Secondly, the honour of Russia as a state, which has been
    brought to the highest pinnacle of her victorious arms with the loss of
    so much blood, is actually trodden under foot through the
    newly-concluded peace _with her bitterest enemy_.' And who is this
    bitterest enemy of the orthodox Russia? The King of Prussia, Frederick
    II.! Yes, the King of Prussia was once declared to be the bitterest
    enemy of orthodox Russia; and nothing stands in the way but at some
    future time he may again be declared to be so, just as at the decree of
    the incorporation of the provinces of Preutzen and Posen. The
    politicians of St. Petersburgh know that the Russian people, living on
    in animal dulness, are susceptible of no other intellectual impression
    except a religious one; and so without reflection, the cross is torn
    from the high altar, and used as a military signal. Religion was
    employed as a pretext, in order to lead the unhappy Poles step by step
    into ruin; and Russia was just so employed in Turkey, when the
    'heathen' undertook to disturb her in her Christian work. Rise up,
    therefore, orthodox nation, and fight for the true Christian faith!

    "We know not whether such a manifesto is sufficient to lead the
    Russians willingly, like a devoutly believing flock, in the name of
    Jesus Christ to the battle-field; and to perish in a war projected for
    a worldly purpose, to obtain the inheritance of the 'sick man.' But we
    do know that the manifesto will make no one believe throughout
    civilised Europe in Russia's holy views. Nations which have learned to
    think cannot help immediately perceiving the contradiction which
    prevails in this manifesto. First of all the struggle is represented as
    religious, and immediately after as political. 'England and France' it
    says, 'make war on Russia, in order to deprive her of a part of her
    territory.' The only logical connexion between the two modes of
    statement consists in the words--'their object is to cause our
    fatherland to descend from the powerful position to which the hand of
    the Almighty has raised it.' And thereupon is mentioned 'the holy
    purpose which has been assigned to Russia by divine providence.' And
    this holy purpose has been no secret for a long time. 'According to the
    design of providence,' wrote Peter the Great, 'the Russian people are
    called to universal dominion over Europe for the future.'

    "Such a future cannot longer be averted from Europe, except by common
    efforts. Prussia has come to an understanding, as to the object in
    view, with the other powers; and when an object or purpose is sought to
    be attained, the means must also be provided. To make an impression by
    words and peaceful means, is quite out of the question, after this
    imperial pastoral letter, which proclaims war in the name of God and of
    Jesus Christ. Force can only he repelled by force. It was not our wish
    to compel our government prematurely. With reference to Prussia's
    position, the warlike interference of our troops was not desired until
    England and France had concluded a firm alliance between themselves,
    and with Turkey; and had commenced the war in earnest. Now, when all
    this has taken place, and the thunder of cannon is roaring over sea and
    land; now, when Austria, which conceals within herself so many more
    dangers, prepares, with manly determination, to advance; what excuse
    can Prussia {464} have, called upon by right to the leadership; what
    excuse can she make to herself for remaining behind? In the Vienna
    protocol of April 9, Prussia has pledged herself, beyond what we could
    have dared to hope, towards the Western Powers: in the treaty with
    Austria of April 20, Prussia has bound herself, in certain
    eventualities that may occur at any moment, to a warlike support of
    Austria. Is it not, therefore, high time for Prussia to arouse herself
    from her lethargy, in order to undertake the support contracted for by
    treaty? If history teaches anywhere an evident lesson, Prussia will
    find it in her own past history. Once before Prussia promised to help
    Austria, and was not able to perform her engagement. All the misfortune
    by which we were attacked in 1806 is to be ascribed to Prussia not
    having completed her preparations in 1805, and to her not appearing in
    the field before the battle of Austerlitz. It was reported lately to be
    the saying of a brave general, that when he heard the enemies'
    batteries firing, it always seemed to him that he heard his own name
    called out. Does not Prussia also hear her own name loudly pronounced,
    in those cannon-shots fired off in the Baltic and Black Sea for the
    public law of nations by Europe's brave champions? By what means did
    the great Elector establish the honour of the Prussian name, except by
    bravely taking the field, as a model of German princes, against the
    superior force of Louis XIV.? The policy, to which the Prussian
    government has again pledged itself, will be unanimously approved of by
    the Prussian people. The abuse which Russia has made of the name of
    Religion can deceive none, but such as are willing to be deceived.
    Catholic Christendom, with the Pope and the dignitaries of the Catholic
    Church in England and France at its head, have declared which side in
    this struggle is right, and which is wrong; and Righteousness is God's
    earthly name! Not less have the noblest and most pious Protestants
    loudly raised their voices as witnesses to the truth, and against the
    common oppressor of _every_ Christian church, even his own; Religion,
    called upon for aid, denies it to Russia; and political science has
    long since pronounced her judgment, that Russia's superiority must be
    put an end to by a general opposition. If Prussia would but seize the
    opportunity, and proceed in the same path with Austria, Russia's
    ambition might be tamed by united Europe in one successful campaign.
    Now is the favourable moment for Prussia; and if it is not taken
    advantage of, generations unborn may have cause to rue it."


       *       *       *       *       *


October 20, 1608, Mr. Phineas Pette commenced the "Prince Royal," which was
launched in 1610. The keel of this "most goodly shippe for warre" was 114
feet long, and the cross-beam 44 feet in length, and she carried three
score and four pieces of great ordnance, and was of the burden of 1400
tons. On the 8th of May, 1609, the king presided at the trial of Pette at
Woolwich for insufficiency, during which Pette sat on his knees, "baited by
the great lord (Northampton) and his bandogs;" and after the ship had been
inspected by the king and his party, Mr. Pette was acquitted of the charges
brought against him. The prince visited the ship on the 30th of January,
1609, 25th of April, 18th of June, and again the following day, with the
king, and on the 24th of September it was launched. It is stated that the
garnishing of the ship began between Easter and Michaelmas, and that the
number of nobles, gentry, and citizens, resorting continually to Woolwich
to see it, was incredible. On the 9th of September, divers London maids,
with a little boy with them, visited the ship; the boy fell down into the
hold, and died the same night from the effects of his fall, being the first
accident during the building. About the middle of the month, the ship being
ready to be placed on the ways, twelve choice master carpenters of his
Majesty's navy were sent for from Chatham to assist in "her striking and
launching;" on the 18th she was safely set upon her ways, and on the 26th
was visited by the French ambassador. Preparations were made in the yard
for the reception of the king, queen, royal children, ladies, and the
council; and on the evening of the 23rd, a messenger was sent from
Theobalds, desiring the ship to be searched, lest any disaffected persons
might have bored holes privily in her bottom. On Monday 24th, the dock
gates were opened; but the wind blowing hard from the south-west, it proved
a very bad tide. The king came from Theobalds, though he had been very
little at ease with a scouring, taken with surfeiting by eating grapes, the
prince and most of the lords of the council attending him. The queen
arrived after dinner, and the lord admiral gave commandment to heave taught
the crabs and screws, though Pette says he had little hope to launch by
reason the wind overblew the tide; "yet the ship started and had launched,
but the dock gates pent her in so straight, that she stuck fast between
them, by reason the ship was nothing lifted by the tide, as we expected she
would; and the great lighter, by unadvised counsel, being cut off the
stern, the ship settled so hard upon the ground, that there was no
possibility of launching that tide; besides which there was such a
multitude of people got into the ship, that one could scarce stir by

"The king was much grieved at the frustrate of his expectation," and
returned to Greenwich at five o'clock with the queen and her train; the
prince staid a good while after conferring with the lord admiral and Mr.
Pette, and then rode off to Greenwich, with a promise to return shortly
after midnight. The night was moonlight, but shortly after midnight became
very stormy, which Mr. Pette says made him "doubt that there were {465}
some indirect working among our enemies to dash our launching."

The prince however arrived at the yard, went on board a little before two
a. m., when the word being given to get all taught, the ship went away
without any straining of screws or tackles, till she came clear afloat in
the middle of the channel. He then describes the christening of her by the
prince, by the name of the "Prince Royal"; and while warping to her
mooring, his royal highness went down to the platform of the cock-room,
where the ship's beer stood for ordinary company, and there finding an old
can without a lid, drew it full of beer himself, and drank it off to the
lord admiral, and caused him with the rest of the attendants to do the
like. The hawsers laid ashore for landfasts had been treacherously cut, but
without doing any injury to the ship. The prince left for Greenwich at nine
a. m.

J. H. P.

       *       *       *       *       *

(_Programm der Handels-Lehranstalt zu Leipzig_, 1853).

Under the above title, Dr. Monicke has published what are considered by a
foreign critic some valuable observations on the admirable Oxford edition
(by Dr. Meadows White) of _The Ormulum_, an Anglo-Saxon work, now first
edited from the original MS. in the Bodleian Library. The attention of the
readers of "N. & Q.," who are occupied in the study of the Anglo-Saxon,
with its cognate dialects, and direct descendant, will be doubly attracted
by a title with which they are so familiar, and which is associated with
some of the happiest and most peaceful moments of their life. The title of
the Essay (which I have not yet seen, and which appears to be written in
English) seems to be entirely the choice of the author, and must be
somewhat flattering to the Editor of the original "N. & Q."

J. M.


    [We have received, with something like a sense of neglected duty, this
    notice of _The Ormulum, now first edited from the Original Manuscript
    in the Bodleian; with Notes and a Glossary by Robert Meadows White,
    D.D., late Fellow of St. Mary Magdalene College, and formerly Professor
    of Anglo-Saxon in the University of Oxford_, 2 vols. 8vo. The fact is,
    we have long intended to call attention to this book, alike creditable
    to the scholastic acquirements of Dr. White, and to the authorities of
    the Oxford press; but have from week to week postponed doing so, that
    we might enter at some length into the history of _The Ormulum_, and a
    notice of the labour of its editor. In the mean time Dr. White's
    labours have received from foreign scholars that recognition which his
    countrymen have been too tardy in offering.--ED. "N. & Q."]

       *       *       *       *       *


Will the Editor of "N. & Q.," or any of his correspondents, kindly inform
me of the true circumstances from which the following legend has sprung?
The locality which was the scene of the tragedy is the little village of
Ballybunion, situated within a few miles of Kerry Head. The scenery around
is of the wildest and most striking description. Frowning, rugged cliffs,
rising abruptly out of the water to the height of over one hundred feet,
and perforated with numerous caves, into which the ocean rushes with
fearful fury in winter,--for it is a stormy coast, and rarely does a month
pass without beholding some dead, putrified body washed ashore; while
inland, a barren, uncultivated plain, consisting mostly of bog, stretches
away to nearly the foot of the Reeks, which, looming in the distance, seem
to rear their giant masses even to the sky, and form, as it were, an
impenetrable barrier between the coast and the interior. On the brink of
one of those precipices we have mentioned, there stands the ruins of a
castle, seemingly of great antiquity. Nothing now remains but the basement
storey, and that seems as if it would be able to withstand the war of winds
and waves for hundreds of years longer. According to the legend, this
castle was inhabited by a gallant chieftain at the period of the incursions
of the Danes, and who was the father of seven blooming daughters. He was
himself a brave warrior, animated with the greatest hatred against the
Ostmen, who, at that period, were laying every part of Erin waste. His
sword never rested in its sheath, and day and night his light gallies
cruised about the coast on the watch for any piratical marauder who might
turn his prow thither. One day a sail was observed on the horizon; it came
nearer and nearer, and the pirate standard was distinguished waving from
its mast-head. Immediately surrounded by the Irish ships, it was captured
after a desperate resistance. Those that remained of the crew were
slaughtered and thrown into the sea, with the exception of the captain and
his six brothers, who were reserved for a more painful death. Conveyed to
the fortress, their wounds were dressed, and they were allowed the free
range of the castle. Here, gradually a love sprung between them and the
seven Irish maidens, who yielded to their ardent protestations, and agreed
to fly with them to Denmark. Everything was arranged for the voyage, and
one fearfully stormy night in winter was chosen for the attempt. Not a
single star shone in the sky, the cold blast came sweeping from the ocean,
the rain fell in torrents, and the water roared and raged with terrific
violence amid the rocky caverns. Escaping down from the battlement by a
rope-ladder, they discovered to their horror, that on reaching the ground
they were surrounded by armed men. Not a word was uttered; but they {466}
well knew into whose hands they had fallen. Conducted again within the
fortress, they found themselves face to face with their injured father. One
deadly glance of hatred he cast on the prisoners, and, muttering some few
words to one of his attendants, he pointed towards his daughters. The man,
on receiving the command, recoiled a few paces, transfixed with horror; and
then he advanced nearer, and seemed as if remonstrating with him. But the
parent's face assumed an absolutely demoniac expression; and more
peremptorily repeating his order, he stalked out of the room. And now
commenced a fearful scene. The lovers were torn from each other's arms, and
the women were brought forth again. The storm had grown more violent, and
the spray was dashing far over the cliff, whilst the vivid flashes of
lightning afforded a horrible illumination to the dreary scene. Proceeding
along the brink of the precipice, they at length came to a chasm which
resembled somewhat the crater of a volcano, as it was completely closed,
with the exception of the opening at the top, and one small aperture below,
through which the sea rushed with terrible violence. The rolling of the
waters sounded fearfully on the ear of those around, and now at length the
sisters divined their fate. One by one they were hurled into the boiling
flood: one wild shriek, the billows closed again, and all was over. What
the fate of their lovers was, the legend says not. The old castle has
crumbled into ruins--the chieftain sleeps in an unknown grave, his very
name forgotten; but still the sad ending of the maidens is remembered, and
even unto this day the cavern is denominated the "Cave of the Seven
Sisters." Such is the above legend as it still exists amongst the
peasantry, and any of your contributors would extremely oblige by informing
me of the name of the Irish leader.


Queen's College, Cork.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.


 "Jejunus raro stomachus vulgaria temnit."--Hor. _Sat._ 2.

 "A hungry dog eats dirty pudding."

 "Dum vitant stulti vitia, in contraria currunt."--Hor. _Sat._ 1.

 "He misses one post, and runs his head against t'other."

 "[Greek: Chelidôn ear ou poiei]."--Arist. _Eth._, i. 7.

 "One swallow don't make a summer."

J. H. B.

_The English Liturgy._--

    "It is deserving of notice, that although Dr. Beattie had been brought
    up a member of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, and regularly
    attended her worship and ordinances when at Aberdeen, he yet gave the
    most decided preference to the Church of England, generally attending
    the service of that Church when anywhere from home, and constantly when
    at Peterhead. He spoke with enthusiasm of the beauty, simplicity, and
    energy of the English Liturgy, especially of the Litany, which he
    declared to be the finest piece of uninspired composition in any
    language." _Life of Dr. Beattie_, by Sir W. Forbes, Bart., vol. iii.
    p. 168. note.

J. M.


"_To jump for joy._"--This expression, now most often used figuratively,
was probably in the olden time a plain and literal description of an actual
fact. The _Anglo-Norman Poem on the Conquest of Ireland by Henry II._,
descriptive of events which occurred at the close of the twelfth century,
informs us (at p. 53.) that one of the English knights, named Maurice de
Prendergast, being desirous of returning with his followers to Wales, was
impeded in his march by "les traitres de Weyseford;" and that this so much
provoked him, that he tendered his services to the King of Ossory, who--

 "De la novele esteit heistez,
  E de joie saili à pés."

This expression, "saili à pés," is translated in the Glossary "rose upon
feet;" but the more correct rendering of it appears to me to be that of
jumping or dancing for joy.



"_What is Truth?_"--Bacon begins his "Essay of Truth" (which is dated 1625)
with these words:

    "What is truth? said jesting Pilate, and would not stay for an answer.
    Certainly, there be that delight in giddiness, and count it a bondage
    to fix a belief; affecting freewill in thinking, as well as in acting."

There is a similar passage in Bishop Andrews's sermon _Of the
Resurrection_, preached in 1613:

    "Pilate asked, _Quid est veritas?_ And then some other matter took him
    in the head, and so up he rose, and went his way, before he had his
    answer; he deserved never to find what truth was. And such is our
    seeking mostwhat, seldom or never seriously, but some question that
    comes cross our brain for the present, some _quid est veritas_? So
    sought as if that we sought were as good lost as found. Yet this we
    would fain have so for seeking, but it will not be."

Perhaps Bacon heard the bishop preach (the sermon was at Whitehall); and if
so, the passage in Andrews will explain the word "jesting" to mean, not
scoffing, but asking without serious purpose of acquiring information.

J. A. H.

_Abolition of Government Patronage._--The following passage, from Dr.
Middleton's _Dedication of the Life of Cicero_ to Lord Keeper Hervey, is
{467} interesting as showing the enlightened sentiments of an eminent
scholar a hundred years ago when addressing a minister of the crown:

    "Human nature has ever been the same in all ages and nations, and owes
    the difference of its improvements to a difference only of culture, and
    of the rewards proposed to its industry; where these are the most amply
    provided, there we shall always find the most numerous and shining
    examples of human perfection. In old Rome, the public honours were laid
    open to the virtue of every citizen; which, by raising them in their
    turns to the commands of that mighty empire, produced a race of nobles
    superior even to kings. This was a prospect that filled the soul of the
    ambitious and roused every facility of mind and body to exert its
    utmost force; whereas, in modern states, men's views being usually
    confined to narrow bounds, beyond which they cannot pass, and a partial
    culture of their talents being sufficient to procure everything that
    their ambition can aspire to, a great genius has seldom either room or
    invitation to stretch itself to its full size."



       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

"_One New Year's Day._"--An old lady used to amuse my childhood by singing
a song commencing--

 "One New Year's day, as I've heard say,
  Dick mounted on his dappled grey," &c.

The rest I forget, but I should be glad to know if it is extant, and what
is known of its origin, &c.


Somerset House.

_Greek denounced by the Monks._--

    "Almost the time (A.D. 1530) when the monks preached in their sermons
    to the people to beware of a new tongue of late discovered, called the
    Greek, and the mother of all heresies."--_Foreign Quarterly_ for
    October, 1842, No. 59. p. 137.

Can any of your readers give references to such passages in Monkish


_Pliny's Dentistry._--As your journal has become the repository of so many
novel and interesting _facts_, I trust that the following data will be
found acceptable to the readers of "N. & Q." Having had occasion, of late,
to look over the works of Pliny, I was struck with the extent to which this
ancient naturalist and philosopher has carried his researches on the above
subject; as, in some editions, the Index of the article DENTES occupies
several closely-printed columns. He recommends tooth-powder (_dentifricia_)
of hartshorn, pumice-stone, burnt nitre, _Lapis Arabus_, the ashes of
shells, as well as several ludicrous substances, in accordance with the
mystic prejudices of the age. Amongst the remedies for fixing (_firmare_)
teeth, he mentions _Inula_, _Acetum Scillinum_, _Radix Lapathi sativi_,
vinegar; and loose teeth are to be fixed by _Philidonia_, _Veratrum
nigrum_, and a variety of other remedies, amongst which some are most
rational, and tend to prove that more attention was paid to the
physiological (_hygeistic_) department relating to that portion of the
human body than we have been hitherto aware of, as even the most recent
works on Dentistry do not mention these facts.


Conduit Street.

_J. Farrington, R.A._--Having recently met with some views by J.
Farrington, R.A., without a description of the locality, I shall be obliged
by your insertion of a Query respecting information of what views were
executed by this painter, with their localities, in or about the year 1789.
As I am informed that those above referred to belong to this neighbourhood,
and therefore would be invested with interest to me, I could ascertain
their locality with precision.


King's Lynn.

_Henry Crewkerne, of Exeter_, "Captain of Dragoons, descended from
Crewkerne, of Crewkerne, in Devonshire," died at Carlow in Feb. 1664-5. Was
he descended from Crewkerne of Chilhay, Dorset? His pedigree would be very

Y. S. M.

_Dr. Johnson._--Johnson says somewhere that he never was in a tight place
but once, and that was when he had a mad bull by the tail. Had he held on,
he said he would have been dragged to death over a stubble field; while if
had not held on, the bull would have gored him to death. Now my Query is,
what did Dr. Johnson do, hold on or let go?

G. M. B.

_Latin "Dante."_--Is there not a literal Latin _prose_ translation of
Dante, somewhat rhythmical? Has not Stillingfleet cited it in the
_Origines_? If so, where is its _corpus_? And in what form, MS. or printed?
Of metrical Latin versions there are several beside those of the Jesuit
Carlo d'Aquino and Piazza. The Query is as to the prose?


_Ralph Bosvill, of Bradbourn, Kent_, Clerk of the Court of Wards, married
first, Anne, daughter of Sir Richard Clement, and widow of John Castillon,
by whom he had five children. He married secondly, Benedicta Skinner, by
whom he had six children. This I have taken from the _Visitations of Kent_.
In Harl. MS. 5532.152, he is said to have had another son Ralph, "slain in
Ireland." This Ralph was his son, and I wish to discover by which wife, as
the entry above-mentioned in the {468} MSS. is of a much later date than
the body of it. He had, I think, two other sons at least, who are not in
the books, namely, Godfrey and William. The name is sometimes called
"Boswell." Was the younger Ralph's wife, Mary, daughter of Alveray Copley
of Batley?

Y. S. M.

_Major-General Wolfe._--The following MS. is advertised for sale. Is
anything known concerning it?

    "A Copy of Orders written by Major-General Woolfe; an important
    unpublished Historical MS. This valuable collection commences with
    'General Orders to be observed by a regiment on their arrival in
    Scotland, 1748.' At p. 55. begin 'Orders by Major-General Woolfe in
    America: Halifax, April 30, 1759.' They continue dated from Louisburg,
    Point Orleans, Montmorenci, Cape Rouge, &c., to the last, which is
    dated on board the Sutherland, off St. Nicholas, Sept. 12th, the day
    before the scaling the heights of Abraham; no doubt the last issued by
    Woolfe, as on that day (13th) he fell in battle. There is no clue in
    the MS. to its compiler; it consists of 103 pages 4to., beautifully
    written, with MS. Plan of Order of Battle, of the army commanded by
    General Woolfe in America, 1789. It is believed that no printed copy
    exists of these valuable papers, which are of the highest importance to
    the Historian, as a slight extract will show. Small 4to., calf.

    'Sept. 12. The Sutherland, at anchor off St. Nicholas:--The enemies'
    forces are not divided; great scarcity of provisions in the camp, and
    universal discontent amongst the Canadians. The second officer in
    command is gone to Montreal or St. John's, which gives reason to think
    that Governor Amherst is advancing into that colony. A vigorous blow
    struck by the army at this juncture might determine the fate of Canada.
    Our troops below are ready to join us; all the light infantry and tools
    are embarked at the Point of Levi, and the troops will land where the
    enemy seems least to expect it.'"



_Custom at University College, Oxford._--What is the origin of the
following custom observed at this college? On every Easter Sunday the
representation of a tree, dressed with evergreens and flowers, is placed on
a turf, close to the buttery, and every member there resident, as he leaves
the Hall, after dinner, chops at the tree with a cleaver. The college-cook
stands by holding a plate, in which the Master deposits half a guinea, each
Fellow five shillings, and the other members two shillings and sixpence
each; this custom is called "chopping at the tree." When was this custom
instituted, and to what circumstance are we to attribute its origin? Who
presented to the chapel of this College the splendid eagle, as a lectern,
which forms one of its chief ornaments? Was it presented by Dr. Radcliffe,
or does it date its origin from the happy reign of Queen Mary?

M. A.

"_Old Dominion._"--It is stated in a newspaper that the term "Old
Dominion," generally applied here to the state of Virginia, originated from
the following facts. During the Protectorate of Cromwell the colony of
Virginia refused to acknowledge his authority, and sent to Flanders for
Charles II. to reign over them. Charles accepted, and was about to embark,
when he was recalled to the throne of England. Upon his accession, as a
reward for her loyalty, he allowed the colony to quarter the arms of
England, Ireland, and Scotland, as an independent member of the "Old
Dominion;" whence the term. What truth is there in this story?


"_Wise men labour_," _&c._--

On the fly-leaf of Sir Roger Twysden's copy of Stow's _Annales_ are the
following, lines, dated 1643:

   "Wise men labour, good men grieve,
    Knaves devise, and fooles believe;
    Help, Lord! and now stand to us,
  Or fooles and knaves will quite undoe us,
  Or knaves and fooles will quite undoe us."

From whence are these lines taken?

L. B. L.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries with Answers.

_Dame Hester Temple._--"Lady Temple lived to see seven hundred of her own
descendants: she had thirteen children." I have extracted this
"sea-serpent" from an extract in Burke from _Fuller's Worthies_, but I am
unable to refer to the original for confirmation of this astounding fact;
if true it is wonderful.

Y. S. M.

    [Fuller's amusing account of Dame Hester Temple will be found in his
    _Worthies of Buckinghamshire_, vol. i. p. 210. edit. 1840. He says:
    "Dame Hester Temple, daughter to Miles Sands, Esq., was born at Latmos
    in this county, and was married to Sir Thomas Temple, of Stow, Baronet.
    She had four sons and nine daughters, which lived to be married, and so
    exceedingly multiplied, that this lady saw seven hundred extracted from
    her body. Reader, I speak within compass, and have left myself a
    reserve, having bought the truth hereof by a wager I lost. Besides,
    there was a new generation of marriageable females just at her death;
    so that this aged vine may be said to wither, even when it had many
    young boughs ready to knit.

    "Had I been one of her relations, and as well enabled as most of them
    be, I would have erected a monument for her--thus designed. A fair tree
    should have been erected, the said lady and her husband lying at the
    bottom or root thereof; the heir of the family should have ascended
    both the middle and top bough thereof. On the right hand hereof her
    younger sons, {469} on the left her daughters, should, as so many
    boughs, be spread forth. Her grandchildren should have their names
    inscribed on the branches of those boughs; the great-grandchildren on
    the twigs of those branches; and the great-great-grandchildren on the
    leaves of those twigs. Such as survived her death should be done in a
    lively green, the rest (as blasted) in a pale and yellow fading colour.

    "Pliny, lib. vii. cap. 13. (who reports it as a wonder worthy the
    chronicle, that Chrispinus Hilarus, _prælatâ pompâ_, 'with open
    ostentation,' sacrificed in the capitol seventy-four of his children
    and children's children attending on him,) would more admire, if
    admitted to this spectacle.

    "Vives telleth us of village in Spain, of about an hundred houses,
    whereof all the inhabitants were issued from one certain old man who
    lived, when as that village was so peopled, so as the name of
    propinquity, how the youngest of the children should call him, could
    not be given.[1] 'Lingua enim nostra supra abavum non ascendit;' ('Our
    language,' saith he, meaning the Spanish, 'affords not a name above the
    great-grandfather's father'). But, had the offspring of this lady been
    contracted into one place, they were enough to have peopled a city of a
    competent proportion though her issue was not so long in succession, as
    broad in extent.

    "I confess very many of her descendants died before her death; in which
    respect she was far surpassed by a Roman matron, on which the poet thus
    epitapheth it, in her own person[2]:

     '_Viginti atque novem, genitrici Callicrateæ,_
        _Nullius sexus mors mihi visa fuit._
      _Sed centum et quinque explevi bene messibus annos,_
        _In tremulam baculo non subeunte manum._'

     'Twenty-nine births Callicrate I told,
      And of both sexes saw none sent to grave,
      I was an hundred and five winters old,
      Yet stay from staff my hand did never crave.'

    Thus, in all ages, God bestoweth personal felicities on some far above
    the proportion of others. The Lady Temple died A.D. 1656."]

[Footnote 1: In Comment upon 8th chapter of lib. xv. de Civitate Dei.]

[Footnote 2: Ausonius, Epitaph. Heröum, num. 34.]

_Samuel White._--In Bishop Horsley's _Biblical Criticism_, he refers
several times to a Samuel White, whom he speaks of in terms of contempt,
and calls him, in one place, "that contemptible ape of Grotius;" and in
another, "so dull a man." Query, who was this Mr. White, and what work did
he publish?

I. R. R.

    [Samuel White, M.A., was a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and
    Chaplain to the Earl of Portland. His work, so severely criticised by
    Bishop Horsley, is entitled _A Commentary on the Prophet Isaiah,
    wherein the literal Sense of his Prophecies is briefly explained_:
    London, 4to., 1709. In his Dedication he says: "I have endeavoured to
    set in a true light one of the most difficult parts of Holy Scripture,
    following the footsteps of the learned Grotius as far as I find him in
    the right; but taking the liberty to leave him where I think him wide
    of the prophet's meaning."]

_Heralds' College._--Are the books in the Heralds' College open to the
public on payment of reasonable fees?

Y. S. M.

    [The fee for a search is 5s.; that for copying of pedigrees is 6s. 8d.
    for the first, and 5s. for every other generation. A general search is
    2l. 2s. The hours of attendance are from ten till four.]

_Pope._--Where, in Pope's Works, does the passage occur which is referred
to as follows by Richter in his _Grönlandische Prozesse_, vol. i.?

    "Pope vom Menschen (eigentlich vom Manne) sagt, 'Er tritt auf, um sich
    einmal umzusehen, und zu sterben.'"

A. E.


       ["Awake my St. John! leave all meaner things
        To low ambition, and the pride of kings.
        Let us (since life can little more supply
        _Than just to look about us, and to die_)
        Expatiate free o'er all this scene of man."--_Essay on Man_, Epist.
            i. l. 1-5.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. vii., pp. 404. 486.)

This sonnet first appeared in _The Bijou_, an annual published by Pickering
in 1828. It is entitled:

             "NIGHT AND DEATH.

  _A Sonnet: dedicated to S. T. Coleridge, Esq._
  _by his sincere friend Joseph Blanco White._

    Mysterious night, when the first man but knew
  Thee by report, unseen, and heard thy name,
  Did he not tremble for this lovely frame,
  This glorious canopy of light and blue?
    Yet 'neath a curtain of translucent dew,
  Bathed in the rays of the great setting flame,
  Hesperus, with the host of heaven came,
  And lo! creation widen'd on his view.
    Who could have thought what darkness lay concealed
  Within thy beams, O Sun? Or who could find,
    Whilst fly, and leaf, and insect stood reveal'd,
  That to such endless orbs thou mad'st us blind?
  Weak man! Why to shun death this anxious strife?
  If _light_ can thus deceive, wherefore not _life_?"

In a letter from Coleridge to White, dated Nov. 28, 1827, he thus speaks of

    "I have now before me two fragments of letters _begun_, the one in
    acknowledgment of the finest and most graceful sonnet in our language
    (at least it is only in Milton's and Wordsworth's sonnets that I {470}
    recollect any rival, and this is not my judgment alone, but that of the
    man [Greek: kat' exochên philokalon], John Hookham Frere), the second
    on the receipt of your 'Letter to Charles Butler,'" &c.

In a subsequent letter, without date, Coleridge thus again reverts to the
circumstance of its having been published without his or White's sanction:

    "But first of your sonnet. On reading the sentences in your letter
    respecting it, I stood staring vacantly on the paper, in a state of
    feeling not unlike that which I have too often experienced in a dream:
    when I have found myself in chains, or in rags, shunned, or passed by,
    with looks of horror blended with sadness, by friends and acquaintance;
    and convinced that, in some alienation of mind, I must have perpetrated
    some crime, which I strove in vain to recollect. I then ran down to
    Mrs. Gillman, to learn whether she or Mr. Gillman could throw any light
    on the subject. Neither Mr. nor Mrs. Gillman could account for it. I
    have repeated the sonnet often, but, to the best of my recollection,
    never either gave a copy to any one, or permitted any one to transcribe
    it; and as to publishing it without your consent, you must allow me to
    say the truth: I had felt myself so much flattered by your having
    addressed it to me, that I should have been half afraid that it would
    appear to be asking to have my vanity tickled, if I had thought of
    applying to you for permission to publish it. Where and when did it
    appear? If you will be so good as to inform me, I may perhaps trace it
    out: for it annoys me to imagine myself capable of such a breach of
    confidence and of delicacy."

In his Journal, October 16 [1838?], Blanco White says:

    "In copying out my 'Sonnet on Night and Death' for a friend, I have
    made some corrections. It is now as follows:

     'Mysterious Night! when our first parent knew
        Thee from report divine, and heard thy name,
        Did he not tremble for this lovely frame,
        This glorious canopy of light and blue?
      Yet 'neath a curtain of translucent dew,
        Bathed in the rays of the great setting flame,
        Hesperus with the Host of Heaven came,
        And lo! creation widen'd in man's view.
      Who could have thought such darkness lay conceal'd
        Within thy beams, O Sun! or who could find,
        Whilst fly, and leaf, and insect stood reveal'd,
        That to such countless orbs thou mad'st us blind!
      Why do we then shun death, with anxious strife?
        If light can thus deceive, wherefore not life?'"


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 304.)

This word, SELEUCUS says, "is of course of American derivation." By no
means: it is found in German, _gallosche_ or _gallusche_; and in French,
_galoche_ or _galloche_. The word itself most likely comes to us from the
French. The dictionaries refer to Spenser as using it under the form
_galage_; and it occurs written _galege_, _galosh_, _calosh_, &c. The
French borrowed the term from the Latin _Gallicæ_; but the Romans first
derived the idea and the thing itself from Gaul, _Gallicæ_ denoting Gallic
or Gaulish shoes. Cicero speaks of the _Gallicæ_ with contempt.--"Cum
calceis et toga, nullis nec _gallicis_ nec lacerna;" and again, "Cum
_gallicis_ et lacerna cucurristi" (_Philip._ ii. 30.). Blount, in his _Law
Dictionary_ (1670), gives the following, which refers to one very early use
of the term in this country:

    "GALEGE (_galiciæ_), from the French _galloches_, which signified of
    old a certain shoe worn by the Gauls in foul weather, _as at present
    the signification with us does not much differ_. It is mentioned 4 Edw.
    IV. cap. 7., and 14 & 15 Hen. VIII. cap. 9."

Therefore the thing itself and the word were known among us before America
was discovered. As it regards the Latin word _Gallicæ_, I only know of its
use by Cicero, Tertullian, and A. Gellius. The last-named, in the _Noctes
Atticæ_, gives the following anecdote and observations relating to this
word. T. Castricius, a teacher of rhetoric at Rome, observing that some of
his pupils were, on a holiday, as he deemed, unsuitably attired, and shod
(_soleati_) with _gallicæ_ (_galloches_, _sabots_, wooden shoes or clogs),
he expressed in strong terms his disapprobation. He stated it to be
unworthy of their rank, and referred to the above-cited passage from
Cicero. Some of his hearers inquired why he called those _soleati_ who wore
goloshes (_gallicæ_) and not shoes (_soleæ_). The expression is justified
by a statement which sufficiently describes the goloshes, viz., that they
call _soleæ_ (shoes) all those which cover only the lower portions of the
foot, and are fastened with straps. The author adds:

    "I think that _gallicæ_ is a new word, which was begun to be used not
    long before Cicero's time, therefore used by him in the Second of the
    _Antonians_. 'Cum gallicis,' says he, 'et lacerna cucurristi.' Nor do I
    read it in any other writer of authority, but other words are

The Romans named shoes after persons and places as we do: for examples, see
Dr. W. Smith's _Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities_, sub voc.

B. H. C.


This word is not of American derivation. In the _Promptorium Parvulorum_ we

    "GALACHE or GALOCHE, undersolynge of manny's fote."

Mr. Way says in his note:

    "The galache was a sort of patten, fastened to the foot by cross
    latchets, and worn by men as early as the {471} time of Edward III.
    Allusion is made to it by Chaucer,

     'Ne were worthy to unbocle his galoche.'--_Squires Tale_, 10,869."

Among many other quotations Mr. Way gives the following:

 "To geten hym gilte spores,
    Or galoches y-couped."--_Piers Ploughman_, 12,099.

And in the _Wardrobe Book of Prince Henry_, A.D. 1607, are mentioned--

"1 pair of golossians, 6s.; 16 gold buckles with pendants and toungs to
buckle a pair of golosses."--_Archæol._ xi. 93.

Nares says:

    "GALAGE. A clown's coarse shoe from _galloche_, a shoe with a wooden
    sole, old French, which itself is supposed to be from _gallica_, a kind
    of shoe mentioned by Cicero, _Philip._ ii. 30., and A. Gellius, xiii.
    21. If so, the word has returned to the country whence it was first
    taken, but I doubt much of that derivation; by the passages referred to
    in the above authors, it seems more likely that the _gallica_ was a
    luxurious covering, than one so very coarse as the galloche. Perhaps
    the _caliga_, or military strong boot of the Romans, from which
    Caligula was named, may be a better origin for it. The word _galloche_
    is now naturalised among us for a kind of clog, worn over the shoes."

See also Richardson's _Dictionary_, s. v. "Galoche."


SELEUCUS need not have gone quite so far as to "the tribe of North American
Indians, the Goloshes," or to America at all, for his derivation. If he
will look in his French dictionary he will find,--

    "_Galoche_ (espèce de mule que l'on porte par dessus les souliers),

I quote from Boyer's _Dictionnaire Royal_, edit. 1753.

Cole, in his English dictionary, 1724, has--

    "_Galeges_, _galages_, _galloches_, _galloshoes_, Fr., wooden shoes all
    of a piece. With us outward shoes or cases for dirty weather, &c."

C. DE D.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 271.)

For the gratification of your correspondent J. M., I give you the result of
an enumeration of the _letters_ and _sounds_ in three versions of the
Hundredth Psalm in Welsh, and three corresponding versions of it in

1. From the authorised translations of the Bible, Welsh and English.

2. The metrical version of Tate and Brady, and that of Archdeacon Prys.

3. Dr. Watts's metrical version and a Welsh imitation of it.

  _Letters in three Welsh Versions._

                          _Bible._       _Prys._          _Watts._
  Consonants                 185           205               241
  Vowels                     148           165               159
                             ---           ---               ---
  Apparent excess of  }
  consonants in Welsh }       37            40                82

  _Letters in three English Versions._

                          _Bible._    _Tate & Brady._     _Watts._
  Consonants                 220           271               275
  Vowels                     134           163               170
                             ---           ---               ---
  Apparent excess of    }
  consonants in English }     86           108               105

  _Sounds in three Welsh Versions._

                          _Bible._       _Prys._          _Watts._
  Consonants                 150           173               200
  Vowels                     148           165               159
                             ---           ---               ---
  Real excess of consonants}
  in Welsh                 }   2             8                41

  _Sounds in three English Versions._

                          _Bible._    _Tate & Brady._     _Watts._
  Consonants                 195           241               240
  Vowels                     122           149               159
                             ---           ---               ---
  Real excess of consonants}
  in English               }  73            92                81

From this analysis it appears that the excess of consonant _letters_ over
vowels is, in English, 299; and in Welsh, 159, a little more than one-half.
The excess of consonant _sounds_ is, in English, 246; in Welsh, 51,
considerably less than one-fourth.

This result might readily have been anticipated by anybody familiar with
the following facts:

1. On examining lists of the elementary sounds of both languages, it will
be found that the Welsh has a greater number of vowels than the English,
and the English a greater number of consonants than the Welsh.

2. Welsh diphthongs are much more numerous than English.

3. In English, _three_ vowels only constitute words in themselves (_a_,
article; _I_, pronoun; _O_, interjection), and each is used only in one
sense. In Welsh, _five_ of the vowels (_a_, _e_, _i_, _o_, _y_) are words;
and they are used in at least a dozen different significations. _A_,
besides being an affirmative and interrogative adverb, answers to the
English _and_, _as_, _with_, _will go_.

4. Diphthongs forming distinct words are much more numerous in Welsh than
in English. The following occur: _ai_, _a'i_ (=_a ei_), _a'u_, _ei_, _eu_,
_ia_, _ïe_, _i'w_, _o'i_, _o'u_, _ow_, _[^w]y_, _yw_.

5. In Welsh there are no such clusters of consonants as occur in the
English words _arched_ {472} (pronounced _artsht_), _parched_, _scorched_,
_marched_, _hinged_ (_hindzhd_), _singed_, _cringed_, _fringed_, _purged_
(_purdzhd_), _charged_ (_tshardzhd_), _scratched_, &c. &c. From the
difficulty encountered in pronouncing some of these combinations, arise the
vulgar errors heard in some parts of the country: _burstis_ for _bursts_,
_castis_ for _casts_. Three consonants are very rarely thus crushed
together in Welsh,--four, never.

6. The Welsh, to avoid an unpleasant hiatus, often introduce a consonant.
Hence we have _y_ or _yr_, the; _a_ or _ac_, and; _a_ or _ag_, as; _na_ or
_nac_, not; _na_ or _nag_, than; _sy_ or _sydd_, is; _o_, from, becomes
_odd_; _i_, to, becomes _idd_. I cannot call to mind more than one similar
example in English, _a_ or _an_; and its existence is attributable to the
superfluity of consonants, _n_ being _dropped_ in _a_, not _added_ in _an_.

The mystery of the consonants in the swearing Welshman's mouth (humorously
described by Messrs. Chambers) is difficult of explanation. The words usual
in Welsh oaths afford no clue to its solution; for the name of the Deity
has two consonants and one vowel in English, while it has two vowels and
one consonant in Welsh. Another name invoked on these occasions has three
consonants and two vowels in English, and one of the vowels is usually
elided; in Welsh it has three vowels and three consonants, and colloquially
the middle consonant is dropped. The Welsh borrow a few imprecatory words
from the English, and in appropriating them they _append the vowel
termination_ o _or_ io. Prejudice or imagination, therefore, seems to have
had something to do in describing poor Taffy's profanities.

In conclusion, I may add that the Hundredth Psalm was chosen for analysis
without a previous knowledge that it would present a greater excess of
consonants (letters or sounds) in English than in Welsh. I do not believe
two chapters from the Bible can be produced, which will show an opposite


There is no _k_ in the Welsh alphabet, a circumstance which reduces the
consonants to twenty; while a farther reduction is made by the fact that
_w_ and _y_ are _always_ vowels in Welsh, instead of being only
occasionally so, as in English. J. M. will therefore find that the Welsh
alphabet contains but eighteen consonants and seven vowels, twenty-five
letters in all.

This, however, I imagine, is not the point on which he wishes for
information. If a stranger glances at a page of Welsh without being aware
that _y_ and _w_ are, strictly speaking, vowels, he will of course
naturally conclude that he sees an over proportion of consonants. Hence,
probably, has arisen the very general idea on the subject, which is perhaps
strengthened by the frequent occurrence of the double consonants _Ll_ and
_Dd_, the first of which is but a sign, standing for a peculiar softening
of the letter; and the latter for _Th_ of the English language.

Such an idea might perhaps be conveyed by the following instances, taken at
random: _Dywyll_, _Dydd_, _Gwyddna_, _Llwyn_, _Gwyrliw_, &c. But it will be
dispelled by an orthography adapted to the pronunciation; thus
_Dou-ill_[3], _Deeth_, _Goo-eeth-na_, _Lloo-een_, _Gueer-leeoo_.

J. M. will be interested to know that the Welsh language can furnish almost
unexampled instances of an accumulation of vowels, such as that furnished
by the word _ieuainc_, young men, &c.; but above all by the often-quoted
_englyn_ or stanza on the spider or silkworm, which, in its four lines,
_does not contain a single consonant_:

 "O'i wi[^w] wy i weu ê â,--a'i weau
  O'i wyau e weua:
  E weua ei [^w]e aia,
  A'i weau yw ieuau iâ."


In reply to J. M. I beg to ask who ever before heard that consonants
"cracked and cracked, and ground and exploded?" and how could the writer in
Chambers's _Repository_ possibly know that the drunken Welshman cursed and
swore in _consonants_? There is scarcely a more harshly-sounding word in
the Welsh language--admitted by a clever and satirical author to have "the
softness and harmony of the Italian, with the majesty and expression of the
Greek"--than the term _crack_, adopted from the Dutch. There is no Welsh
monosyllable that contains, like the Saxon _strength_, seven consonants
with only one vowel. There is no Welsh proper name, like Rentzsch, the
watchmaker of Regent Street, that contains six consonants in succession in
one syllable; and yet the Welsh have never accused their _younger_ sister
with the use of consonants which "cracked and cracked, and ground and
exploded." But if the Welsh language, with "its variety, copiousness, and
even harmony, to be equalled by few, perhaps excelled by none," has no
instance of six consonants in succession, it has one of six vowels in
succession, _Gwaewawr_, every one of which requires, according to the
peculiarity of its pronunciation, a separate inflection of the voice.

J. M. may be assured that the remark of the writer in question is only one
of those pitiful "cracks" which flippant authors utter in plain ignorance
of Cymru, Cymraeg, and Cymry.



I think the following _englyn_ or epigram on a silkworm, which is composed
entirely of vowels, will satisfy your correspondent. I have seen it in some
book, the name of which I forget. It {473} must be borne in mind that _w_
is a vowel in Welsh, and is sounded like _oo_ in _boot_.

 "O'i wiw [^w]y i weu ê â a'i weau
  O'i wyau e weua;
  E' weua ei [^w]e aia'.
  A'i weau yw ieuau iâ."

 "I perish by my art; dig my own grave;
  I spin my thread of life; my death I weave."


[Footnote 3: The _Dou_ to be pronounced as in _Douglass_.]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., pp. 121. 376.)

The analysis of the word [Hebrew: HAMA`ALWOT] (_the steps_), confining
ourselves to sensible objects, shows, first, the preposition [Hebrew: `AL],
_over_ (=_up_ + _on_); and, secondly, [Hebrew: MA`ALAH], the
_chamber-over_. (Neh. ix. 4., xii. 37.; Jos. x. 10.; 1 Sam. ix. 11.; Am.
ix. 6.; Ps. civ. 13.) The translators of the authorised version, in using
the word "degrees," intended probably to convey the notion of _rank_; but
the modern mixed-mathematical ideas lead us of this day rather to think of
geographical, barometrical, &c. degrees. That _steps_ is the word most
accordant with the ancient notions is evident from the concurrence of the
Greek, Latin, Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic versions, as also from the
Chaldee Targum, alluded to by J. R. G., which has the inscription [Chaldee:
SHYR' D'T'MR `AL MASWQIYN DTCHWOMA'], "a song called 'over the _steps_ of
the deep'" (Deut. viii. 7.; Ex. xv. 8.). The root of this moral is [Hebrew:
`LCH], in the Hebrew and its cognates, and the primitive notion is _to
ascend_; from which is formed in Arabic [(ARABIC)], _adscendit in tectum_;
in Syriac [(SYRIAC)], _contignatio superior, coenaculum_ (Jud. iii. 23-25.;
Luc. xxii. 12.); and the Chaldee [Chaldee: `ALIYT], _pars domus superior,
cubiculum, sive coenaculum superius_, Græc. [Greek: huperôon] (Dan. vi.
11.). See Shaw's _Itinerary_, pp. 360-365.

The [Hebrew: M] prefixed is the _participial_ form of the verb, equivalent
to the termination _ing_ in English; and converts the verb also into a
verbal noun, conveying the generalised idea of a class of _actions_; and
thereby the steps, [Hebrew: HM`LWT], _the steppings upward_, literally,
which means "the ascents," or "the ascendings."

The ascent by fifteen steps of the rabbins is probably equally apocryphal
with the quotations from St. Matthew and St. James (ix. p. 376.); for the
same reason (Ex. xx. 26.) which forbad the ascending the altar by steps,
would apply still more strongly to the supposed "fifteen steps leading from
the Atrium Israelis to the court of the _women_."[4] Although the
ground-plans of the temples are well known, their elevations are involved
in doubt.

Your journal would not afford me sufficient space for an _excursus_ to
establish the suggestion, _not_ assertion, that I have adventured as to the
_domestic_ use of the Alphabetic and Degree Psalms, but there is negative
evidence that these Psalms were _not_ used in the Jewish liturgy. I will
only refer you to Lightfoot's ninth volume (Pitman's edition), where the
Psalms used, and indeed the whole service of the Jews, is as clearly set
forth as the Greek service is in the liturgies of Basil and Chrysostom.



[Footnote 4: "Eadem ratio, ab honestate ducta, eandem pepererat apud
Romanos legem. Gellius ex Fabio Pictore, _Noct. Attic._, lib. x. c. 15., de
flamine Diali: Scalas, nisi quæ Græcæ adpellantur, eas adscendere ei plus
tribus gradibus religiosum est. Servius ad _Æneid_, iv. 646. Apud veteres,
Flaminicam plus tribus gradibus, nisi Græcas scalas, scandere non licebat,
ne ulla pars pedum ejus, crurumve subter conspiceretur; eoque nec pluribus
gradibus, sed tribus ut adscensu duplices nisus non paterentur adtolli
vestem, aut nudari crura; nam ideo et scalæ Græcæ dicuntur, quia ita
fabricantur ut omni ex parte compagine tabularum clausæ sint, ne adspectum
ad corporis aliquam partem admittant."--Rosenmüller on Exod. x. 26. The
ascent to the altar, fifteen feet high, was by a gangway, [Hebrew: KBSH].]

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 394.)

ANON. is clearly mistaken in thinking that, when Darwin says that "the
_undulating_ motion of the tail of fishes might be applied behind a boat
with greater effect than common oars," he had any idea of a screw
propeller. He meant not a _rotatory_, but, as he says, an "undulating"
motion, like that of the fish's tail: such as we see every day employed by
the boys in all our rivers and harbours, called _sculling_--that is,
driving a boat forward by the rapid lateral right and left impulsion of a
single oar, worked from the stern of the boat. It was the application of
steam to some such machinery as this that Darwin seems to have meant; and
not to the special action of a _revolving cut-water screw_.

I avail myself of this occasion to record, that about the date of Darwin's
publication, or very soon after, the very ingenious Earl Stanhope not only
thought of, but actually employed, the identical screw propeller now in use
in a vessel which he had fitted up for the purpose; and in which, by his
invitation, I, and several other gentlemen, accompanied him in various
trips backwards and forwards between Blackfriars and Westminster bridges.
The instrument was a long iron axle, {474} working on the stern port of the
vessel, having at the end in the water a wheel of inclined planes, exactly
like the flyer of a smoke-jack; while, inboard, the axle was turned by a
crank worked by the men. The velocity attained was, I think, said to be
four miles an hour. I am sorry that I am not able to specify the exact date
of this experiment, but it must have been between 1802 and 1805. What Lord
Stanhope said about employing steam to work his machine, I do not clearly
recollect. He entered into a great many details about it, but I remember
nothing distinctly but the machine itself.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., pp. 222. 336.)

The wines of Xérès consist of two kinds, viz. sweet and dry, each of which
is again subdivided into two other varieties. Amontillado sherry, or simply
Amontillado, belongs to the latter class, the other description produced
from the dry wine being sherry, properly so called, that which passes in
this country generally by that name. These two wines, although differing
from each other in the peculiarities of colour, smell, and flavour, are
produced from the same grape, and in precisely a similar manner; indeed, it
frequently happens that of two or more _botas_, or large casks, filled with
the same _moùt_ (wort or sweet wine), and subjected to the same
manipulation, the one becomes Amontillado, and the other natural sherry.
This mysterious transformation takes place ordinarily during the first, but
sometimes even during the second year, and in a manner that has hitherto
baffled the attempts of the most attentive observer to discover. Natural
sherry has a peculiar aromatic flavour, somewhat richer than that of its
brother, the Amontillado, and partakes of three different colours, viz.
pale or straw, golden, and deep golden, the latter being the description
denominated by us brown sherry. The Amontillado is of a straw colour only,
more or less shaded according to the age it possesses. Its flavour is drier
and more delicate than that of natural sherry, recalling in a slight degree
the taste of nuts and almonds. This wine, beings produced by a phenomenon
which takes place it is imagined during the fermentation, is naturally less
abundant than the other description of sherry, and there are years in which
it is produced in very small quantities, and sometimes even not at all; for
the same reason it is age for age dearer also. The word "Amontillado"
signifies like or similar to Montilla, _i. e._ the wine manufactured at
that place. Montilla is situated in Upper Andalusia, in the neighbourhood
of Cordouc, and produces an excellent description of wine, but which, from
the want of roads and communication with the principal commercial towns of
Spain, is almost entirely unknown.

The two sweet wines of Xérès are the "Paxarite," or "Pedro Ximenès," and
the "Muscatel." The first-named is made from a species of grape called
"Pedro Ximenès," sweeter in quality than that which produces the dry
sherry, and which, moreover, is exposed much longer to the action of the
sun previous to the process of manufacture; its condition when subjected to
the action of the pressers resembling very nearly that of a raisin.
Fermentation is in this case much more rapid on account of the saccharine
nature of the _moùt_ or wort. In flavour it is similar to the fruit called
"Pedro Ximenès," the colour being the same as that of natural sherry.
Muscate wine is made from the grape of that name, and in a manner precisely
similar to the Paxarite. The wine produced from this grape is still sweeter
than the Pedro Ximenès, its taste being absolutely that of the Muscat
grape. In colour also it is deeper; but the colour of both, like that of
the two dry wines, increases in proportion to their age, a circumstance
exactly the reverse of that which takes place in French wines. German
sherry wines are capable of preservation both in bottles and casks for an
indefinite period. In one of the _bodegas_ or cellars belonging to the firm
of M. P. Domecq, at Xérès, are to be seen five or six casks of immense size
and antiquity (some of them, it is said, exceeding a century). Each of them
bears the name of some distinguished hero of the age in which it was
produced, Wellington and Napoleon figuring conspicuously amongst others:
the former is preserved exclusively for the taste of Englishmen.

The history of sherry dates, in a commercial point of view, from about the
year 1720 only. Before this period it is uncertain whether it possessed any
existence at all; at all events it appears to have been unknown beyond the
immediate neighbourhood in which it was produced. It would be difficult,
perhaps, to say by whom it was first imported: all that can be affirmed
with any degree of certainty is, that a Frenchman, by name Pierre Domecq,
the founder of the house before mentioned, was among the earliest to
recognise its capabilities, and to bring it to the high state of perfection
which it has since attained. In appreciation of the good service thus
rendered to his country, Ferdinand VII. conferred upon this house the right
exclusively to bear upon their casks the royal arms of Spain. This wine,
from being at first cultivated only in small quantities, has long since
grown into one of the staple productions of the country. In the
neighbourhood of Xérès there are at present under cultivation from 10,000
to 12,000 _arpents_ of vines; these produce annually from 30,000 to 35,000
_botas_, equal to 70,000 or 75,000 hogsheads. In gathering the {475} fruit,
the ripest is invariably selected for wines of the best quality. The wines
of Xérès, like all those of the peninsula, require the necessary body or
strength to enable them to sustain the fatigue of exportation. Previous,
therefore, to shipment (none being sold under four to five years of age), a
little _eau de vie_ (between the fiftieth and sixtieth part) is added, a
quantity in itself so small, that few would imagine it to be the cause of
the slight alcoholic taste which nearly all sherries possess.

In consequence of the high price of the delicious wines, numerous
imitations, or inferior sherries, are manufactured, and sold in immense
quantities. Of these the best are to be met with at the following places:
San Lucar, Porto, Santa Maria, and even Malaga itself. The spurious sherry
of the first-named place is consumed in larger quantities, especially in
France, than the genuine wine itself. One reason for this may be, that few
vessels go to take cargoes at Cadiz; whilst many are in the habit of doing
so to Malaga for dry fruits, and to Seville for the fine wool of
Estremadura. San Lucar is situated at the mouth of the Guadalquiver.

W. C.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 136.)

Mr. Thackeray's work, _The Newcomes_, would, if consulted by your
correspondent, furnish him with farther examples. For instance, Colonel
Newcome's Christian name is stated (pp. 27. 57.) to be Thomas: at p. 49. he
is designated Col. J. Newcome. The letter addressed to him (p. 27.) is
superscribed "Major Newcome," although at p. 25. he is styled "Colonel." At
p. 71. mention is made of "Mr. Shaloo, the great Irish patriot," who at
p. 74. becomes "Mr. Shaloony," and at p. 180. relapses into the dissyllabic
"Shaloo." Clive Newcome is represented (p. 184.) as admiring his youthful
mustachios, and Mr. Doyle has depicted him without whiskers: at p. 188.
Ethel, "after Mr. Clive's famous mustachios made their appearance, rallied
him," and "asked him if he was (were?) going into the army? She could not
understand how any but military men could wear mustachios." On this the
author remarks, three lines farther on: "If Clive had been in love with
her, no doubt he would have sacrificed even those beloved _whiskers_ for
the charmer."

At p. 111. the Rev. C. Honeyman is designated "A.M.," although previously
described a Master of Arts of Oxford, where the Masters are styled "M.A."
in contradistinction to the Masters of Arts in every other university.
Cambridge Masters frequently affix M.A. to their names, but I never heard
of an instance of an Oxonian signing the initials of his degree as A.M.

Apropos of Oxford, I recently met the following sentence at p. 3. of
_Verdant Green_:

    "Although pronounced by Mrs. Toosypegs, his nurse, to be 'a perfect
    progidye,' yet we are not aware that his _début_ on the stage of life,
    although thus applauded by such a _clacqueur_ as the indiscriminating
    Toosypegs, was announced to the world at large by any other means than
    the notices in the county papers."

If the author ever watched the hired applauders in a Parisian theatre, he
would have discerned among them _clacqueuses_ as well as _clacqueurs_.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ix., p. 372.)

In justification of Dr. Forbes' identifying Roland the Brave with the hero
of Schiller's ballad, Ritter Toggenburg, I beg to refer your correspondent
X. Y. Z. to _Deutsches Sagenbuch, von L. Bechstein_, Leipzig, 1853, where
(p. 95.) the same tale is related which forms the subject of Mrs. Hemans'
beautiful ballad, only with this difference, that there the account of
Roland's death entirely agrees with Schiller's version of the story,
whereas the English poet has adopted the general tradition of Roland's fall
at Roncesvalles.

Most of the epic poems of the middle ages in which Roland's death is
recorded, especially the different old French _Chansons de Roland ou de
Roncevaux_, an Icelandic poem on the subject, and Stricker's middle-high
German lay of Roland, all of them written between A.D. 1100 and 1230--agree
in this, that after Roland's fall at Roncesvalles, and the complete rout of
the heathen by Charlemagne, the latter returns home and is met--some say at
Aix-la-Chapelle, others at Blavie, others at Paris--by Alda or Alite,
Olivier's sister, who inquires of him where Roland, her betrothed, is. On
learning his fate she dies on the spot of grief. According to monk Conrad
(about A.D. 1175), Alda was Roland's wife. See _Ruolandes Liet, von W.
Grimm_, Göttingen, 1838, pp. 295--297.

The legend of Rolandseck, as told by Bechstein from Rhenish folk lore,
begins thus:

    "Es sasz auf hoher Burg am Rhein hoch über dem Stromthal ein junger
    Rittersmann, Roland geheiszen, (manche sagen Roland von Angers, Neffe
    Karls des Groszen), der liebte ein Burgfräulein, Hildegunde, die
    Tochter des Burggrafen Heribert, der auf dem nahen Schlosz Drachenfels
    sasz," &c.

Here the question is left open whether the hero of the story was Roland the
Brave, or some other knight of that name. The latter seems the more
probable, as Roland's fall at Roncesvalles is one of the chief subjects of
mediæval poetry, whereas the death of knight Roland in sight of {476}
Nonnenwerth on the Rhine, forms the very pith of the German local legend.
From certain coincidences, however, it was easy to blend the two stories
together into one, as was done by Mrs. Hemans. As to Schiller, we may
suppose that he either followed altogether a different legend, or, perhaps
to avoid misconception, substituted another name for that of knight Roland,
similar to what he has done in other instances.

R. R.


I think your correspondent X. Y. Z. is mistaken in attributing to Mrs.
Hemans the lines on the "Brave Roland." In Mr. Campbell's _Poems_ he will
find some stanzas which bear a striking resemblance to those he has quoted.
I subjoin those stanzas to which X. Y. Z. has referred:

 "The brave Roland! the brave Roland!
  False tidings reach'd the Rhenish strand
    That he had fall'n in fight;
  And thy faithful bosom swoon'd with pain,
  O loveliest maiden of Allemayne!
    For the loss of thine own true knight.

 "But why so rash has she ta'en the veil,
  In yon Nonnenwerder's cloisters pale,
    For her vow had scarce been sworn,
  And the fatal mantle o'er her flung,
  When the Drachenfels to a trumpet rung,
   'Twas her own dear warrior's horn!

    .    .    .    .    .    .

 "She died! he sought the battle plain;
  Her image fill'd his dying brain,
    When he fell and wish'd to fall:
  And her name was in his latest sigh,
  When Roland, the flower of chivalry,
    Expired at Roncevall."

X. Y. Z. seems also to have forgotten what Mr. Campbell duly records, viz.
that Roland used to station himself at a window overlooking "the nun's
green isle;" it being after her decease that he met his death at Roncevall,
which event, by the way, is alluded to by Sir W. Scott in _Marmion_, canto

 "Oh, for a blast of that dread horn,
  On Fontarabian echoes borne,
    That to King Charles did come;
  When Roland brave, and Olivier,
  And every paladin and peer,
    At Roncesvalles died!"

H. B. F.

The legends of Roland, the nephew of Charlemagne, are very numerous and
vary much from each other. The Orlando of Pulci has a very different
history from the Orlando of Bojardo and Ariosto.

The legend of "Rolandseck and the Nonnenwerth," which has been adopted by
Campbell, not Mrs. Hemans, and charmingly set to music by Mrs. Arkwright,
is well known on the Rhine. There are two poems on the legend in Simrock's
_Rheinsagen_ (12mo., Bonn, 1841), one by the editor, and another by August
Kopisch. They exactly accord with Campbell's poem.

The legend of Ritter Toggenburg resembles that of Roland in many
particulars, but it is not the same, and it belongs to another locality, to
Kloster Fischingen, and not to Nonnenwerth. "Roland the Brave" appears in
all the later editions of Campbell's _Poems_. Simrock's _Rheinsagen_ is one
of the most delightful handbooks that any one can take through the romantic
region which the poems (partly well selected by the editor, and partly as
well written by himself) describe.

E. C. H.

The author of the beautiful lines which are quoted by your correspondent
X. Y. Z., is Campbell, not Mrs. Hemans. The poet, in the fifth stanza of
his ballad, tells how the unfortunate Roland, on finding that Hildegund had
taken the veil, was accustomed to sit at his window, and "sad and oft" to
look "on the mansion of his love below."

 "There's yet one window of that pile,
  Which he built above the nun's green isle;
    Thence sad and oft look'd he
  (When the chant and organ sounded slow)
  On the mansion of his love below,
    For herself he might not see.

 "She died! He sought the battle plain,
  Her image fill'd his dying brain,
    When he fell and wish'd to fall;
  And her name was in his latest sigh,
  When Roland, the flower of chivalry,
    Expired at Roncevall."


Scott has, in _Marmion_,--

 "When Roland brave, and Olivier,
  And every paladin and peer,
    At Roncesvalles died!"

I quote from memory, and have not the poem.

F. C. B.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Recovery of Silver._--As many correspondents of "N. & Q." have asked how
to recover the silver from their nitrate baths when deteriorated or
spoiled, perhaps the following hints may be acceptable to them. Let them
first precipitate the silver in the form of a chloride by adding common
salt to the nitrate solution. Let them then filter it, and it may be
reduced to its metallic state by either of the three following methods.

1. By adding to the wet chloride at least double its volume of water,
containing one-tenth part of sulphuric acid; plunge into this a thick piece
of zinc, and leave it here for four-and-twenty hours. The chloride of
silver will be reduced by the formation of {477} chloride and sulphate of
zinc, and of pure silver, which will remain under the form of a blackish
powder, which is then to be washed, filtered, and preserved for the purpose
of making nitrate of silver.

2. The chloride of silver which is to be reduced is put into a flask with
about twice its volume of a solution of caustic potash (of one part of
caustic potash to nine of water), in which a small portion of sugar has
been dissolved. Let it boil gently. The operation is complete when the
blackish powder which results from this process, having been washed in
several waters, is entirely soluble in nitric acid, which is easily
ascertained by experimenting on a small quantity. This powder is to be
preserved in the same way as the former for the purpose of converting it
into nitrate of silver.

3. The metallic silver is obtained in the form of a button, by mixing
thoroughly 100 parts of dried chloride of silver, 70 parts of chalk or
whitening, and 4 parts of charcoal. This mixture is to be exposed in a
crucible to a fierce red heat for at least half an hour. When completely
cold the crucible is broken, and a button of pure silver is the result. The
first two processes are those which I should most strongly recommend to
your correspondents.

N. C.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Ashes of "Lignites"_ (Vol. ix., p. 422.).--RUSTICUS is obliged to the
Editor for so soon giving a reply to his Query; but seems convicted of
being a bad penman, like many other rustics. For the strange word,
respecting which he asked for information, having seen it used in a
newspaper, was not _lignites_ but _liquites_. RUSTICUS could have guessed
that the ashes of _lignites_ were but wood-ashes under a pedantic name; but
a term which looks, to a rustic, as if chemists meant to persuade him to
burn his beer for a valuable residuum, is more perplexing.


_Old Rowley_ (Vol. ix., p. 457., &c.).--The late Sir Charles Bunbury, who
was long the father of the Jury, and considered as an oracle in all matters
relating to it, told me, many years ago, that Charles II. was nicknamed
"Old Rowley" after a favourite stallion in the royal stud so called; and he
added, that the same horse's appellation had been ever since preserved in
the "Rowley Mile," a portion of the race-course still much used, and
well-known to all frequenters of Newmarket.


"_Bachelors of every Station_" (Vol. ix., p. 301.) is the beginning of the
_Berkshire Lady_, an old ballad nearly extinct, and republished by me some
years ago in the form of a small pamphlet, which sold rapidly. If I can
procure one, it shall be forwarded to Mr. Bell.

The story is a true one, and related to a daughter of Sir William
Kendrick's, who succeeded him, and was possessor of Calcot Place in the
parish of Tylehurst, and to Benjamin Child, Esq., whom she met at a
marriage feast in the neighbourhood. A wood near Calcot is where the party
met to fight the duel in case Mr. Child rejected the proposals of marriage
made to him by Miss Kendrick.

I had the account from an old man between eighty and ninety years of age,
clerk of the parish; and my friend Miss Mitford agreed with me in the
accuracy of the story: she had it from the late Countess Dowager of
Macclesfield, an old lady celebrated for her extensive and accurate
knowledge of legendary lore.

In opening a vault in St. Mary's, Reading, last year, her coffin was found
entire, with this inscription:

    "Frances Child, wife of Benjamin Child. Esq., of Calcot, and first
    daughter of Sir Benjamin Kendrick, Bart. Died Feb. 27, 1722, aged 35.
    The Lady of Berks."

Another coffin,--

    "Benjamin Child, Esq., died 2nd May, 1767, aged 84 years."


Southcote Lodge.

_Mousehunt_ (Vol. viii., pp. 516. 606.; Vol. ix., pp. 65. 136. 385.).--In
Vol. ix., p. 65., the _Natural History of Quadrupeds_, by James H. Fennell,
is quoted; where, speaking of the Beech Marten (_alias_ Mousehunt), he

    "In Selkirkshire it has been observed to descend to _the shore_ at
    night time to feed upon mollusks, particularly upon the large Basket
    Mussel (_Mytilus modiolus_)."

In p. 136, I ventured to state that Mr. Fennell must have been a better
naturalist than geographer, as Selkirkshire was well known to be an inland
county nowhere approaching the sea by many miles. I added, that I hoped,
for Mr. Fennell's sake, that _Selkirkshire_ was either a misprint or a

In p. 385. MR. ARCHIBALD FRASER, Woodford, not choosing to exonerate Mr.
Fennell by either of my suggestions, prefers, as a staunch, but I think
rather an inconsiderate friend and champion, to _vindicate_ the paragraph
as it stands, by candidly admitting that if the word _beach_ had been used,
it would certainly have referred to the sea; but that the word _shore_
applies to rivers as well as seas. And he goes back as far as Spenser to
find an instance of its use, as applied to the banks of the river Nile.

I will not agree that this use is nearly obsolete, but give him the full
value of his quotation from Spenser. But what does he say to the _habitat_
of the _Mytilus modiolus_, which the Mousehunt goes {478} to the _shore_ to
feed upon. I quote from _Rees' Cyclopædia_, voce "MYTILUS:"

    "MODIOLUS. Shell smooth and blackish, obtuse at the smaller end, and
    rounded at the other; one side near the beaks is angular. Two varieties
    are noticed by Lister. It _inhabits_ the European, American, and Indian
    _seas_, adhering to fuci and zoophytes; is six or seven inches long,
    and about half as broad: the fish is red or orange, and eatable."

J. S.S.

_Value of Money in the Seventeenth Century_ (Vol. ix. p. 375.).--Say, in
his _Political Economy_ (Prinsep's translation, i. 413.), has furnished a
comparative statement, the result of which is, that the _setier_ of wheat,
whose relative value to other commodities has varied little from 1520 down
to the present time, has undergone great fluctuations, being worth--

  A. D. 1520          512 gr. of pure silver.
  A. D. 1536         1063        ditto.
  A. D. 1602         2060        ditto.
  A. D. 1789         2012        ditto.

Whence it may be inferred that 1000l. in 1640, 1660, and 1680 did not vary
much from its value at the present time, _such value being measured in
silver_. But as the value of all commodities resolves itself ultimately
into the cost of labour, the rate of wages at these dates, in the
particular country or part of a country, must be taken as the only safe

Thus, if labour were 20d. per diem in 1640, and is 40d. at this time,
1000_l_. in 1640 is equivalent to 500l. (only half as much) now. But, on
the contrary, as the cost of production of numerous articles by machinery,
&c. has been _by so much_ reduced, the power of purchase now, as compared
with 1640, of 1000l., is _by so much_ increased. The article itself must
determine by how much. The question put by C. H. is too general to admit of
a positive solution; but should he specify the commodity and place of
investment in the seventeenth century and to-day of the 1000l., our
statistics might still be at fault, and deny us even a proximate
determination of his inquiry. Even his 1000l., which he may consider a
fixed measure of value, or _punctum comparationis_, is varying in value
(=power of purchase) daily, even hourly, as regards almost every
exchangeable product. Tooke _On Prices_ is a first-rate authority on this



_Grammars for Public Schools_ (Vol. ix., pp. 8. 209.).--Pray add this
little gem to your list, now scarce:

    "The Gate of Tongues Unlocked and Opened, or else A Seminarie or Seed
    Plot of all Tongues and Sciences, that is, a short way of teaching and
    thorowly learning, within a yeare and a half at the farthest, the
    Latin, English, French, and any other tongue, together with the ground
    and foundation of Arts and Sciences, comprised under an hundred Titles
    and 1058 Periods. In Latine first, and now as a token of thankfulnesse
    brought to light in Latine, English, and French, in the behalfe of the
    most illustrious Prince Charles, and of British, French, and Irish
    Youths. By the labour and industry of John Anchoran, Licentiate of
    Divinity, London, 1633."

Our British youths of those days seem to have been _apt scholars_.



_Classic Authors and the Jews_ (Vol. ix., pp. 221. 384.).--Any edition of
the _Historiæ Augustæ Scriptores Sex_, containing an index, ought to supply
B. H. C. with a few additional references. See, for instance, the Index to
the Bipont Edition, 2 vols. 8vo., [MDCCLXXXVII], under the words "Judæi,"
"Judaicus," "Moses."



_Hand-bells at Funerals_ (Vol. ii., p. 478.; Vol. vii., p. 297.).--A few
years ago I happened to arrive at the small sea-port of Roscoff, near the
ancient cathedral town of St. Pol de Léon in Britanny, on the day appointed
for the funeral of one of the members of a family of very old standing in
that neighbourhood. My attention was attracted by a number of boys running
about the streets with small hand-bells, with which they kept up a
perpetual tinkling. On inquiring of a friend of mine, a native of the
place, what this meant, he informed me that it was an old custom in
Britanny--but one which in the present day had almost fallen into
disuse--to send boys round from door to door with bells to announce when a
death had occurred, and to give notice of the day and the hour at which the
funeral was to take place, begging at the same time the prayers of the
faithful for the soul of the deceased. The boys selected for this office
are taken from the most indigent classes, and, on the day of the funeral,
receive cloaks of coarse black cloth as an alms: thus attired, they attend
the funeral procession, tinkling their bells as they go along.



"_Warple-way_" (Vol. ix., p. 125.).--The communications of your
correspondents (Vol. ix., p. 232.) can scarcely be called answers to the
questions put.

I find, in Holloway's _Dictionary of Provincialisms_, 8vo., 1838, that a
ridge of land is called, in husbandry, a _warp_. It is defined to be a
quantity of land consisting of ten, twelve, or more ridges; on each side of
which a furrow is left, to carry off the water.

Again, in Halliwell's _Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words_, two
volumes, 1847, it will be {479} found that _warps_ are distinct pieces of
ploughed land, separated by furrows. I think I here give the derivation and
meaning, and refer to the authority. If the derivation be not here given,
then I would refer to the Saxon word _werpen_, meaning "to cast."

Across marshy grounds, to this day, are seen ridges forming foot-paths,
with a furrow on each side. A ridge of this sort would formerly be,
perhaps, a _warple-way_. Or perhaps a path across an open common field,
cast off or divided, as Halliwell mentions, by warps, would be a


_Wapple-way_, or, as on the borders of Surrey and Sussex it is called,
_waffel-way_: and the gate itself, _waffel-gate_. If it should appear, as
in the cases familiar to me, these waffel-ways run along the borders of
shires and divisions of shires, such as _hundreds_, I would suggest that
they were military roads,--the derivation _waffe_ (Ger.), weapon.

H. F. B.

_Medal of Chevalier St. George_ (Vol. ix., pp. 105. 311.).--With reference
to the observations of your correspondents A. S. and H., I would beg to
observe that, some time ago, I gave to the Museum at Winchester a medal
struck on the occasion of the marriage of Prince James F. E. Stuart and M.
Clementina Sobieski: on the obverse is a very striking head and bust of
Clementina, with this inscription:

 "Clementina, M. Britan., Fr., et Hib. Regina."

On the reverse is Clementina, driving an ancient chariot towards the
Colosseum, with this inscription: on the top--

 "Fortunam causamque sequor."

at the bottom--

 "Deceptis Custodibus.      MDCCXIX."

This latter inscription refers to her escape from Innspruck, where the
princess and her suite had been detained by the emperor's orders.

This marriage, to prevent which so many efforts were made, prolonged for
eighty-eight years the unfortunate House of Stuart.

E. S. S. W.

_Shakspeare's Inheritance_ (Vol. ix., pp. 75. 154.).--Probably the
following extracts from Littleton's _Tenures in English, lately perused and
amended_ (1656), may tend to a right understanding of the meaning of
_inheritance_ and _purchase_--if so, you may print them:

    "Tenant in fee simple is he which hath lands or tenement to hold to him
    and his heires for ever: and it is called in Latine _feodum simplex_;
    for _feodum_ is called inheritance, and _simplex_ as much to say as
    lawful or pure, and so _feodum simplex_ is as much to say as lawfull or
    pure inheritance. For if a man will purchase lands or tenements in fee
    simple, it behoveth him to have these words in his purchase, To have
    and to hold unto him and to his heires: for these words (his heires)
    make the estate of inheritance, _Anno_ 10 _Henrici_ 6. fol. 38.; for if
    any man purchase lands in these words, To have and to hold to him for
    ever, or by such words, To have and to hold to him and to his assigns
    for ever; in these two cases he hath none estate but for terme of life;
    for that, that he lacketh these words (his heires), which words only
    make the estate of inheritance in all feoffements and grants."

    "And it is to be understood that this word (_inheritance_) is not only
    understood where a man hath lands or tenements by descent of heritage,
    but also every fee simple or fee taile that a man hath by his purchase,
    may be said inheritance; for that, thus his heires may inherite them.
    For in a Writ of Right that a man bringeth of land that was of his own
    purchase, the writ shall say, _Quam clamat esse jus et hæreditatem
    suam_, this is to say, which he claimeth to be his right and his

    "Also _purchase_ is called the possession of lands or tenements that a
    man hath by his deed or by his agreement, unto which possession he
    commeth, not by descent of any of his ancestors or of his cosins, but
    by his own deed."


Cranbroke, Kent.

_Cassock_ (Vol. ix., pp. 101. 337.).--A note in Whalley's edition of _Ben
Jonson_ has the following remark on this word:

    "_Cassock_, in the sense it is here used, is not to be met with in our
    common dictionaries: it signifies a soldier's loose outward coat, and
    is taken in that acceptation by the writers of Jonson's times. Thus
    Shakspeare, in _All's Well that Ends Well:_

        'Half of the which dare not shake the snow from their _cassocks_.'"

This is confirmed in the passage of _Jonson_, on which the above is a note.

    "This small service will bring him clean out of love with the soldier.
    He will never come within the sign of it, the sight of a
    _cassock_."--_Every Man in his Humour_, Act II. Sc. 5.

The cassock, as well as the gown and band, seem to have been the usual
attire of the clergy on all occasions in the last century, as we find from
the paintings of Hogarth and the writings of Fielding, &c. When did this
custom cease? Can any reader of "N. & Q." supply traditional proof of
clergymen appearing thus apparelled in ordinary life?

E. H. M. L.

_Tailless Cats_ (Vol. ix., p. 10.).--On the day on which this Query met my
eye, a friend informed me that she had just received a letter from an
American clergyman travelling in Europe, in which he mentioned having seen
a tailless cat in Scotland, called a Manx cat, from having come {480} from
the Isle of Man. This is _not_ "a Jonathan." Perhaps the Isle of Man is too
small to swing long-tailed cats in.



Mr. T. D. Stephens, of Trull Green, near this town, has for some years had
and bred the Manx tailless cat; and, I have no doubt, would have pleasure
in showing them to your correspondent SHIRLEY HIBBERD, should he ever be in
this neighbourhood.

K. Y.


A friend of mine, who resided in the Park Farm, Kimberley, had a breed of
tailless cats, arising from the tail of one of the cats in the _first
instance_ having been cut off; many of the kittens came tailless, some with
half length; and, occasionally, one of a litter with a tail of the usual
length, and this breed continued through several generations.

G. J.

_Names of Slaves_ (Vol. viii., p. 339.).--I can answer the first of
J. F. M.'s Queries in the affirmative; it being common to see in Virginia
slaves, or free people who have been slaves, with names acquired in the
manner suggested: _e. g._ "Philip Washington," better known in Jefferson
county as "Uncle Phil.," formerly a slave of the Washingtons. A large
family, liberated and sent to Cape Palmas, bore the surname of "Davenport,"
from the circumstance that their progenitor had been owned by the
Davenports. In fact, the practice is almost universal. But fancy names are
generally used as first names: _e. g._ John Randolph, Peyton, Jefferson,
Fairfax, Carter, &c. A fine old body-servant of Col. Willis was called
"Burgundy," _shortened_ into "Uncle Gundy." So that "Milton," in the case
mentioned, may have been merely the homage paid to genius by some
enthusiastic admirer of that poet.



_Heraldic_ (Vol. ix., p. 271.).--On the brass of Robert Arthur, St. Mary's,
Chartham, Kent, are two shields bearing a fess engrailed between three
trefoils slipped: which may probably be the same as that about which LOCCAN
inquires, though I am unable to tell the colours. There are two other
shields bearing, Two bars with a bordure. The inscription is as follows:

    "Hic iacet d[=n]s Robertus Arthur quondam Rector isti' Eccli[=e] qui
    obiit xxviii^o die marcii A^o d[=n]i Mill[=o] CCCC^oLIIII^o. Cui'
    a[=i]e ppiciet' de' Am[=e]."

F. G.

_Solar Annual Eclipse of 1263_ (Vol. viii., p. 441.).--Mr. Tytler, in the
first volume of his _History of Scotland_, mentions that this eclipse,
which occurred about 2 P.M. on Sunday, August 5, 1263, has been found by
calculation to have been actually central and annular to Ronaldsvoe, in the
Orkneys, where the Norwegian fleet was then lying: a fine example, as he
justly adds, "of the clear and certain light reflected by the exact
sciences on history." S. asks, is this eclipse mentioned by any other
writer? As connected with the Norwegian expedition, it would seem not; but
Matthew of Westminster (vol. ii. p. 408., Bohn's edit.) mentions it having
been seen in England, although he places it erroneously on the 6th of the


_Brissot de Warville_ (Vol. ix., p. 335.).--Brissot's _Mémoires_ is a very
common book in the original, and has gone through several editions. The
passage quoted by N. J. A. was only an impudent excuse for an impudent
assumption. Brissot, in his early ambition, wished to pass himself off as a
gentleman, and called himself _Brissot de Warville_, as Danton did D'Anton,
and Robespierre de Robespierre; but when these worthies were endeavouring
to send _M. de Warville_ to the scaffold as an aristocrat, he invented this
fable of his father's having some landed property at _Ouarville en Beauce_
(not Beance), and that he was called, according to the custom of the
country, from this place, where, it seems, he was put out to nurse. When
the dread of the guillotine made _M. de Warville_ anxious to get rid of his
aristocratic pretensions, he confessed (in those same _Mémoires_) that his
father kept a cook's shop in the town of Chartres, and was so ignorant that
he could neither read nor write. I need not add, that his having had a
landed property to justify, in any way, the son's territorial appellation,
was a gross fiction.


"_Le Compère Mathieu_" (Vol. vi., pp. 11. 111. 181.).--On the fly-leaf of
my copy (three vols. 12mo., Londres, 1766) of this amusing work, variously
attributed by your correspondents to Mathurin Laurent and the Abbé du
Laurens, is written the following note, in the hand of its former
possessor, Joseph Whateley:

    "Ecrit par Diderot, fils d'un Coutelier: un homme très licentieux, qui
    écrit encore plusieurs autres Ouvrages, comme La Religieuse, Les Bijoux
    méchant (_sic_), &c. Il jouit un grand rôle après dans la Révolution.

"J. W."

By the way, A. N. styles it "a not altogether undull work." May I ask him
to elucidate this phrase, as I am totally at a loss to comprehend its
meaning. "Not undull" must surely mean _dull_, if anything. The work,
however, is the reverse of dull.



_Etymology of "Awkward"_ (Vol. viii., p. 310.--H. C. K. has probably given
the true derivation of this word, but he might have noticed the {481}
singularity of one Anglo-Saxon word branching off into two forms,
signifying different ways of acting wrong; one, _awkward_, implying
ignorance and clumsiness; the other, _wayward_, perverseness and obstinacy.
That the latter word is derived from the source from which he deduces
_awkward_, can, as I conceive, admit of no doubt.


_Life and Death_ (Vol. ix., p. 296.).--What is death but a sleep? We shall
awake refreshed in the morning. Thus Psalm xvii. 15.; Rom. vi. 5. For the
full meanings, see these passages in the original tongues. Sir Thomas
Browne, whose _Hydriotaphia_ abounds with quaint and beautiful allusions to
this subject, says, in one place, "Sleep is so like death, that I dare not
trust him without my prayers:" and he closes his learned treatise with the
following sentence:

    "To live indeed is to be again ourselves; which being not only a hope,
    but an evidence in noble believers, it is all one to lie in St.
    Innocent's churchyard as in the sands of Egypt; ready to be anything in
    the ecstasy of being ever, and as content with six feet as the moles of

             "Tabesne cadavera solvat,
      An rogus, haud refert."--_Lucan._

How fine also is that philosophical sentiment of Lucan:

 "Victurosque Dei celant, ut vivere durent,
  Felix esse mori."

Can any of your correspondents say in what work the following analogous
passage occurs, and who is the author of it? The stamp of thought is rather
of the philosophic pagan than the Christian, though the latinity is more
monkish than classic:

 "Emori nolo, sed me esse mortuum, nihil curo."

J. L.


These notes remind my parishioners of an epitaph on a child in Morwenstow

 "Those whom God loves die young!
    They see no evil days;
  No falsehood taints their tongue,
    No wickedness their ways!

 "Baptized, and so made sure
    To win their blest abode;
  What could we pray for more?
    They die, and are with God!"


_Shelley's "Prometheus Unbound"_ (Vol. ix., p. 351.).--I offer a conjecture
on the meaning of the obscure passage adduced by J. S. WARDEN. It seems
that Shelley intended to speak of that peculiar feeling, or sense, which
affects us so much in circumstances which he describes. With the slight
alterations indicated by Italics, his meaning I think will be apparent;
though in his hurry, or inadvertence, he has left his lines very confused
and ungrammatical.

 "Who made that sense which, when the winds of spring
  _Make_ rarest visitation, or the voice
  Of one beloved _is_ heard in youth alone,
  Fills the faint eyes with falling tears," &c.

F. C. H.

"_Three Crowns and a Sugar-loaf_" (Vol. ix., p. 350.).--The latter was
perhaps originally a mitre badly drawn, and worse copied, till it received
a new name from that it most resembled. The proper sign would be "The Three
Crowns and a Mitre," equivalent to "The Bishop's Arms:" if Franche was in
the diocese of Ely, or Bristol, the reference would be clearer. Similar
changes are known to have happened.


To the inquiry of CID, as to the meaning of the above sign of an inn, I
answer that there can be little doubt that its original meaning was the
Pope's tiara.

F. C. H.

_Stanza in "Childe Harold"_ (Vol. viii., p.258.).--I fear that, considering
Lord Byron's cacography and carelessness, a reference to his MS. would not
mend the matter much; as, although the stanza undoubtedly contains some
errors due to the printer or transcriber for the press, the obscurity and
unconnected language are his lordship's own, and nothing short of a
complete recast could improve it materially: however, to make the verses
such as Byron most probably wrote them, an alteration of little more than
_one letter_ is required. For "wasted," read "washed;" to supply the
deficient syllable, insert "yet" or "still" after "they," and remove the
semicolon in the next line from the middle to the end of the verse. Then
the stanza runs thus:

 "Thy shores are empires, changed in all save thee;
    Assyria, Greece, Rome, Carthage, where are they?
  Thy waters wash'd them while they yet were free,
    And many a tyrant since their shores obey,
  The stranger, slave, or savage--their decay
    Has dried up realms to deserts," &c.

The sentiment is clear enough, although not well expressed; and the use of
the present tense, "obey," for "have obeyed," is not at all warranted by
the usage of our language. In plain prose, it means--

    "Thy waters washed their shores while they were independent, and do so
    still, although many a race of tyrants has successively reigned over
    them since then: their decay has converted many fertile regions to
    wildernesses, but thou art still unchanged."

Not having your earlier volumes at hand, I cannot be sure that these
conjectures of mine are original (the correction in the punctuation of the
fourth line certainly is not), and have only to request the {482}
forbearance of any of your correspondents whose "thunder" I may have
unwittingly appropriated.


_Errors in Punctuation_ (Vol. viii., p. 217.).--Every one must agree with
R. H. C. as to the importance of correct punctuation; and it may easily be
supposed how it must puzzle readers of works whose language is in great
part obsolete, to meet with mistakes of this kind, when we find modern
writers frequently rendered almost unintelligible by similar errors. To
take those whose works have, perhaps, been oftener reprinted than any
others of this century, Byron and Scott, the foregoing passage in _Childe
Harold_ is a signal instance; and as another, the Sonnet translated by
Byron from Vittorelli, has only had corrected in the very latest editions,
an error in the punctuation of the first two lines which rendered them a
mystery to those who did not understand the original, as printed on the
opposite page. In note 12 to the 5th Canto of _Marmion_, every edition,
British or foreign, down to the present day, punctuates the last two or
three lines as follows:

    "A torquois ring;--probably this fatal gift is, with James's sword and
    dagger, preserved in the College of Heralds, London."

Sir Walter is thus made to express a doubt, which he never intended, as to
the ring being there. A comma after "ring," another after "gift," and the
omission of the dash, will restore the true meaning of the sentence.


_Waugh of Cumberland_ (Vol. ix., p. 272.).--John Waugh (D.C.L., Feb. 8,
1734)--born and educated at Appleby, Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford;
Rector of St. Peter's, Cornhill; Prebendary of Lincoln; Dean of
Gloucester,--was consecrated to the See of Carlisle Oct. 13, 1723: he died
Oct. 1734, and was buried in the church of St. Peter, Cornhill. He bore for
arms: Arg., on a chevron engrailed gules, three bezants.


_"Could we with ink," &c._ (Vol. viii. _passim_).--Perhaps one more
communication may find admission on the above interesting lines. I received
from a clerical friend, many years ago, a version of them, which differs
considerably from that given in "N. & Q.," Vol. viii., p. 127. The
variations I have marked by Italics:

 "Could _you_ with ink the ocean fill,
    _Were the whole world_ of parchment made,
  Were every _single stick_ a quill,
    And every man a scribe by trade,
  To write the love of God _alone_,
    Would drain the ocean dry,
  Nor could the _earth_ contain the _scroll_,
    Though stretch'd from sky to sky."

My friend did not profess to know who wrote these lines; but he understood
that they were an attempt to render in English verse a sublime passage of
the great St. Augustin. It is highly probable that this eminent Father was
the original author of the passage. It is extremely like one of his grand
conceptions; but I have hitherto searched his voluminous works for it in

F. C. H.

       *       *       *       *       *


Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the
gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are
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Nich. Farrer. Oxford, 1638; or the later edition of 1650.

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  Wanted by _Longman & Co._, Paternoster Row.

POEMS ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS, by William Broome, LL.D. London, 1727-1739.

ASSIZE SERMON, by the same. on Ps. cxxii. 6. 4to. 1737.

SERMON, by the same, on 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2. 8vo. 1700.

  Wanted by _T. W. Barlow_, St. James' Chambers, Manchester.

OSW. CROLLIUS'S ADMONITORY PREFACE, in English. London, 1657. 8vo.

------ THE MYSTERIES OF NATURE. London. 1657. 8vo.

------ ON SIGNATURES. London, 1669. Folio.

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WARREN'S COLLECTION OF GLEES. Wanted, to perfect the Set, Nos. 7. 10. 17.
25. and 27 to 32 inclusive. Any one possessing the above, or a portion of
them, may hear of a purchaser, upon application at Novello's Sacred Music
Warehouse, 69. Dean Street, Soho Square.


The following Works of Symon Patrick, late Lord Bishop of Ely, &c.:--


DIVINE ARITHMETIC, Sermon at the Funeral of Mr. Samuel Jacomb, June 17,

ANGLIÆ SPECULUM, Sermon at the Fast, April 24, 1678.

SERMON AT COVENT GARDEN, Advent Sunday, 1678.

SERMON ON ST. PETER'S DAY, with enlargements. 1687.


FAST SERMON BEFORE THE KING AND QUEEN, April 16, 1690: Prov. xiv. 34.




4to. 1687.





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Machines and Models, &c., contained in the Repository of the Society of
Arts, &c. By William Bailey, Registrar of the Society, 1772.

Institution in the year 1754 to 1776 inclusive. Printed for the Society by
James Phillips. 1778.

  Wanted by _P. Le Neve Foster_, 7. Upper Grove Lane, Camberwell.

SCOTT'S POETICAL WORKS. 8vo. 1830. Vol. I., or the "Minstrelsy," of that

SOUTHEY'S BRAZIL. 4to. Vols. II. and III.


PERCY SOCIETY'S PUBLICATIONS, 93 and 94. (1l. will be given for them.)

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ARCHÆOLOGIA, Numbers or Volumes, from Vol. XXV. to Vol. XXIX. inclusive.

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Notices to Correspondents.

_We have been induced, by the number of articles we have in type writing
for insertion, to omit our usual_ NOTES ON BOOKS, &c.

AGMOND. Cecil _was written by Mrs. Gore_.

F. M. M. Balaam Box _has long been used in Blackwood as the name of the
depository of rejected articles. The allusion is obvious._

H. M. H. _will find all the information he can desire respecting_ The
Gentlemen at Arms, _in Pegge's_ Curialia; _Thiselton's Memoir of that
Corps, published in 1819; or, better still, Curling's_ Account of the
Ancient Corps of Gentlemen at Arms, 8vo. 1850.

J. C. K. _The coin is a very common penny of Henry III., worth ninepence,
or a shilling at most._

BALLIOLENSIS. _Porson's jeu d'esprit is reprinted in the_ Facetiæ
Cantabrigienses (1850). p. 16.

ENQUIRER. _A triolet is a stanza of eight lines, in which, after the third
the first line, and after the sixth the first two lines, are repeated, so
that the first line is heard three times: hence the name. It is suited for
playful and light subjects, and is cultivated by the French and Germans.
The volume of_ Patrick Carey's Trivial Poems and Triolets, _edited by Sir
Walter Scott, in 1820, from a MS. of 1651, is an early instance of the use
of the term_.

A. B. M. _The line referred to_--"Pride, pomp, and circumstance of glorious
war"--_is from_ Othello, _Act III. Sc. 3_.

JARLTZBERG. _Has not our Correspondent received a note we inclosed to him
respecting_ The Circle of the Seasons?

OLD MORTALITY'S _offer of a collection of Epitaphs is declined with thanks.
We have now waiting for insertion almost as many as would fill a cemetery._

ABHBA. _The proverb "Mad as a March hare" has appeared in our_ Fourth
Volume, p. 208.--_Also, in the same volume_, p. 309. _&c., will be found
several articles similar to the one forwarded on "Bee Superstitions."_

F. (Oxford.) _The extract forwarded from Southey's_ Common Place Book _is a
copy of the title-page of the anonymous work required_.

H. C. M. _The date of the earliest Coroner's Inquest, we should think,
cannot be ascertained. The office of Coroner is of so great antiquity that
its commencement is not known. It is evident that Coroners existed in the
time of Alfred, for that king punished with death a judge who sentenced a
party to suffer death upon the Coroner's record, without allowing the
delinquent liberty to traverse._ (Bac. on Gov. 66.; 6 Vin. Abr. 242.) _This
officer is also mentioned by Athelstan in his charter to Beverly_ (Dugd.
Monast. 171.).

I. R. R. _Henry Machyn was a citizen and merchant-tailor of London from
A.D. 1550 to 1563. See a notice of him prefixed to his_ Diary, _published
by the Camden Society_.----_An account of John Stradling, the
epigrammatist, will be found in Wood's_ Athenæ (Bliss), vol. ii.
p. 396.----_Hockday, or Hokeday, is a high-day, a day of feasting and
mirth, formerly held in England the second Tuesday after Easter, to
commemorate the destruction of the Danes in the time of Ethelred._----_For
notices of George Wither in the_ Gentleman's Mag., _see_ vol. lxxxvi. pt.
ii. 32. 201.; vol. lxxxvii. pt. i. 42.; vol. lxxxviii. pt. i. 138.----_An
interesting account of the_ Paschal _Eggs is given in Hone's_ Every-Day
Book, vol. i. p. 246., vol. ii. pp. 439. 450.; _and in Brand's_ Popular
Antiquities.----_Marvell's reference is probably to Charles Gerard,
afterwards created Baron Gerard of Brandon, gentleman of the bed-chamber to
Charles II., and captain of his guards._

W. S. _The lens is certainly very good; you should practise to obtain an
accurate focus on the ground glass. An experienced hand will often
demonstrate how much the actual sharpness of a picture depends upon nice
adjustment of the focus; for though the picture looks pretty, it is not
sharp in detail._

PHOTO. _We hope shortly to be enabled to report upon the new paper
manufacturing by Mr. Saunders for photographic purposes._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_.

       *       *       *       *       *


Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte Terrace,
Caledonian Road, Islington.

OTTEWILL's Registered Double Body Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or
Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS, Featherstone Buildings, Holborn; the
Photographic Institution, Bond Street; and at the Manufactory as above,
where every description of Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The
Trade supplied.

       *       *       *       *       *

embracing an account of every article required for the processes on Silver,
Paper, and Glass, with estimates of the cost of complete sets for Home Use
and for Travellers. Postage Fourpence.

JOHN J. GRIFFIN, F.C.S., Chemist and Optician, 10. Finsbury Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c., used in this
beautiful Art.--123. & 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half-tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

Post, 1s. 2d.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO PHOTOGRAPHERS, DAGUERREOTYPISTS, &c.-- Instantaneous Collodion (or
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and German Lenses, &c. Catalogues by Post on receipt of Two Postage Stamps.
Sets of Apparatus from Three Guineas.

       *       *       *       *       *

COLLODION PORTRAITS AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest ease and certainty
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uniformity of action over a lengthened period, combined with the most
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in the hands of the photographer.

Albumenized paper, for printing from glass or paper negatives, giving a
minuteness of detail unattained by any other method, 5s. per Quire.

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality.

Instruction in the Processes.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative
Chemists, 153. Fleet Street, London.

*** Catalogues sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE SIGHT preserved by the Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit every variety
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BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *




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  On the 31st October, 1853, the sums
  Assured, including Bonus added,
  amounted to                          £2,500,000

  The Premium Fund to more than           800,000

  And the Annual Income from the
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construction renders them a handsome ornament for the library, boudoir, or
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D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Lists and Designs Gratis.

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  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
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A GENTLEMAN who is quite Conversant with the French, German, and Italian
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