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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 239, May 27, 1854 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *


{485}

NOTES AND QUERIES:

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION FOR LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES,
GENEALOGISTS, ETC.

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *


No. 239.]
SATURDAY, MAY 27. 1854.
[Price Fourpence. Stamped Edition 5d.

       *       *       *       *       *


CONTENTS.

  NOTES:--                                                    Page
  Reprints of Early Bibles, by the Rev. R. Hooper, M.A.        487
  Marriage Licence of John Gower, the Poet, by W. H. Gunner    487
  Aska or Asca                                                 488
  Legends of the County Clare, by Francis Robert Davies        490
  Archaic Words                                                491

  MINOR NOTES:--Inscriptions on Buildings--Epitaphs--Numbers--
  Celtic Language--Illustration of Longfellow: "God's Acre"    492

  QUERIES:--
  John Locke                                                   493

  MINOR QUERIES:--"The Village Lawyer"--Richard Plantagenet,
  Earl of Cambridge--Highland Regiment--Ominous Storms--Edward
  Fitzgerald--Boyle Family--Inn Signs--Demoniacal Descent of
  the Plantagenets--Anglo-Saxon Graves--Robert Brown the
  Separatist--Commissions issued by Charles I. at Oxford       493

  MINOR QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Hogmanay--Longfellow's
  "Hyperion"--Sir Hugh Myddelton--Sangarede--Salubrity of
  Hallsal, near Ormskirk, Lancashire--Athens--James Miller     495

  REPLIES:--
  Brydone, by Lord Monson                                      496
  Coleridge's Unpublished MSS., by C. Mansfield Ingleby        496
  Mr. Justice Talfourd and Dr. Beattie                         497
  Russian "Te Deum," by T. J. Buckton, &c.                     498
  Artesian Wells, by Henry Stephens, &c.                       499
  Dog-whippers                                                 499
  Cephas, a Binder, and not a Rock, by T. J. Buckton, &c.      500
  Whittington's Stone                                          501

  PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE:--Photographic Experience--
  Conversion of Calotype Negatives into Positives--Albumenized
  Paper                                                        501

  REPLIES TO MINOR QUERIES:--Table-turning--Female Dress--
  Office of Sexton held by one Family--Lyra's Commentary--
  Blackguard--"Atonement"--Bible of 1527--Shrove Tuesday--
  Milton's Correspondence--"Verbatim et literatim"--Epigrams   502

  MISCELLANEOUS:--
  Notes on Books, &c.                                          504
  Books and Odd Volumes Wanted                                 505
  Notices to Correspondents                                    505

       *       *       *       *       *


On June 1, in One Large Volume, super-royal 8vo., price 2l. 12s. 6d. cloth
lettered.

CYCLOPÆDIA BIBLIOGRAPHICA: A Library Manual of Theological and General
Literature, and Guide to Books for Authors, Preachers, Students and
Literary Men, Analytical, Bibliographical, and Biographical. By JAMES
DARLING.

A PROSPECTUS, with Specimens and Critical Notices, sent Free on Receipt of
a Postage Stamp.

London: JAMES DARLING, 81. Great Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields.

       *       *       *       *       *


TO LITERARY MEN, PUBLISHERS, AND OTHERS.

MESSRS. HOPPER & CO., Record Agents, &c., beg to acquaint the Literary
World, that they undertake Searches among, and Transcripts from, the Public
Records, or other Ancient MSS., Translations from the Norman-French, Latin,
and other Documents, &c.

*** MSS. bought, sold, or valued.

4. SOUTHAMPTON STREET, CAMDEN TOWN.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE ORIGINAL QUADRILLES, composed for the PIANO FORTE by MRS. AMBROSE
MERTON.

London: Published for the Proprietor, and may be had of C. LONSDALE, 26.
Old Bond Street; and by Order of all Music Sellers.

PRICE THREE SHILLINGS.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, No. VII. (for May), price 2s. 6d., published Quarterly.

RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW (New Series); consisting of Criticisms upon, Analyses
of, and Extracts from, Curious, Useful, Valuable, and Scarce Old Books.

Vol I., 8vo., pp. 436, cloth 10s. 6d., is also ready.

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 36. Soho Square, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


This Day, with Woodcuts, fcp. 8vo., 5s.

THE OLD PRINTER AND THE MODERN PRESS, in relation to the important subject
of CHEAP POPULAR LITERATURE. By CHARLES KNIGHT.

Also, by the same Author, 2 vols. fcp. 8vo., 10s.

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    "The old bees die, the young possess the hive."--_Shakspeare._

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    "Mr. Charles Knight's entertaining little work is full of various
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    "This pleasant gallery of popular antiquarianism."--_John Bull._

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


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MORE WORLDS THAN ONE; the CREED of the PHILOSOPHER and the HOPE of the
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       *       *       *       *       *


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HISTORY OF LATIN CHRISTIANITY, including that of THE POPES to the
PONTIFICATE of NICHOLAS V. By HENRY HART MILMAN, D.D., Dean of St. Paul's.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


ART AND ARTISTS IN ENGLAND.

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THE TREASURES OF ART IN GREAT BRITAIN. Being an Account of the Chief
Collections of Paintings, Sculptures, MSS., &c., in this Country. By DR.
WAAGEN, Director of the Royal Gallery of Pictures at Berlin.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


MURRAY'S RAILWAY READING.

Now ready, 2 vols. fcap. 8vo., 8s.

ESSAYS FROM "THE TIMES:" Being a Selection from the Literary Papers which
have appeared in that Journal, reprinted by permission.

        CONTENTS:
          Vol. I.
  Nelson and Lady Hamilton.
  Railway Novels.
  Louis-Philippe and his Family.
  John Howard.
  Drama of the French Revolution.
  Lord Holland's Reminiscences.
  Robert Southey.
  Dean Swift--Stella and Vanessa.
  Reminiscences of Coleridge.
  John Keats.
  Grote's History of Greece.
  Literature of the Rail.

          Vol. II.
  Lord Coke.
  Discoveries at Nineveh.
  Lord Mansfield.
  Lion Hunting in Africa.
  Jeremy Taylor.
  Lord Clarendon and his Friends.
  John Sterling.
  Autobiography of a Chartist.
  Americans in England.
  Francis Chantrey.
  Career of Lord Langdale.
  Afghanistan.
  The Greek Revolution.
  Dickens and Thackeray.

*** Each Volume may be had separately.

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


{486}

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       *       *       *       *       *


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       *       *       *       *       *

ARRANGEMENT

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_THE CONVERSAZIONE_,

at the

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       *       *       *       *       *

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       *       *       *       *       *


{487}

_LONDON, SATURDAY, MAY 27, 1854._

Notes.

REPRINTS OF EARLY BIBLES.

In 1833 the authorities of the Clarendon Press put forth a quarto reprint,
word for word, page for page, and letter for letter, of the _first_ large
black-letter folio edition of 1611, of the present authorised or Royal
version of the Bible. So accurate was it, that even manifest errors of the
press were retained. It was published that the reader might judge whether
the original standard could still be exactly followed. It was accompanied
by a collation with a _smaller_ black-letter folio of 1613, in preference
to the larger folio of that year, as no two copies (entire) of the latter
could be found, all the sheets of which corresponded precisely:

    "Many of these copies contain sheets belonging, as may clearly be
    proved, to editions of more recent date; and even those which appear to
    be still as they were originally published, are made up partly from the
    edition printed at the time, and partly from the remains of earlier
    impressions."

Now this is a most interesting subject to all lovers of our dear old
English Bible. It is supposed the translators revised their work for the
1613 edition (after two years); yet the collation with the _small_ folio of
that year, shows little or no improvement, rather the contrary. I possess a
small quarto edition of 1613 (black-letter, by Barker), not mentioned by
our more eminent bibliographers, which, while admitting the better
corrections, adheres to the old 1611 folio, where the _small_ folio of 1613
unnecessarily deviates. It is certainly, I consider, a most valuable
impression. I have lately purchased a magnificent copy of the _great_ folio
of 1613. It is in the original thick oak binding, with huge brass clasps,
corners, and bosses; and appears to have been chained to a reading-desk. In
collating it, I find a sheet or two in 1 Samuel and St. Matthew most
carefully supplied from an earlier impression. The titles both to the Old
and New Testaments are exactly the same as those of the folio 1611, with
the exception of the date 1613 for 1611. It has been gloriously used, and
the imagination revels in the thought of the eyes and hearts that must have
been blessed by its perusal. I am not sufficiently conversant with our
earlier translations to identify, without reference, the sheets of the
inserted edition, and I have not time to refer. I may only say that there
is a most quaint woodcut of little David slinging a stone at the giant
Goliath. A slight collation of Genesis shows me this large edition agrees
in corrections with the small one the Clarendon Press authorities used,
though my quarto 1613 differs, adhering, as I said before, more closely to
the original standard of 1611. I would put a Query or two to your many
readers.

1. Was the great folio 1613 ever published entire, or are the sheets I have
indicated supplied in every known copy, some from earlier, some from later,
impressions? 2. Is it an established fact, that the translators revised
their work in 1613? 3. What is the small quarto of 1613 I have mentioned?

Lastly, would it not be an interesting enterprise to reprint our various
translations of the holy volume in a cheap and uniform series, like the
Parker Society published the Liturgy? A society might be formed by
subscription to support such an object. We might have Coverdale's,
Matthews', Cranmer's, Taverner's, the Geneva (1560), the Bishops'
(Parker's, 1568), and the noble authorised (Royal 1611), with their
variations noted. I cannot see any harm would arise; and surely it might
give an impulse to that noblest of all studies, the study of God's Word.
What grander volume for simplicity and elegance of language, for true
Anglo-Saxon idiom, than our present venerated translation? What book that
could interest more than Cranmer's Great Bible of 1539, from whence our
familiar Prayer-Book version of the Psalms is taken? It would give me
heartfelt pleasure to contribute my humble efforts in such a cause.

RICHARD HOOPER, M.A.

St. Stephen's, Westminster.

       *       *       *       *       *

MARRIAGE LICENCE OF JOHN GOWER THE POET.

The following special licence of marriage extracted from the Register of
William of Wykeham, preserved in the registry at Winchester, is a curious
document in itself; but if, as there is much reason for supposing, the
person on whose behalf it was granted was no less a man than the
illustrious poet--the "moral Gower"--the interest attached to it is very
much enhanced: and for this reason I am desirous of giving it publicity
through the columns of "N. & Q."--a fit place for recording such pieces of
information, relating to the lives of men eminent in the annals of
literature. I have not been able to find any notice of the marriage of John
Gower in the books to which I have been able to refer; and, though it may
be perhaps an event of little importance, it is one which a faithful
biographer would never omit to mention. The document is as follows:

    "Willelmus permissione divina Wyntoniensis Episcopus, dilecto in
    Christo filio, domino Willelmo, capellano parochiali ecclesiæ S. Mariæ
    Magdalenæ in Suthwerk, nostræ diocesis, salutem, gratiam, et
    benedictionem. Ut matrimonium inter Joannem Gower et Agnetem Groundolf
    dictæ ecclesiæ parochianos sine ulteriore bannorum editione, dumtamen
    aliud canonicum non obsistat, extra ecclesiam parochialem, in {488}
    Oratorio ipsius Joannis Gower infra hospicium cum in prioratu B. Mariæ
    de Overee in Suthwerk prædicta situatum, solempnizare valeas licenciam
    tibi tenore præsentium, quatenus ad nos attinet, concedimus specialem.
    In cujus rei testimonium sigillum nostrum fecimus his apponi. Dat. in
    manerio nostro de alta clera vicesimo quinto die mensis Januarii, A.D.
    1397, et nostræ consecrationis 31mo."

The connexion of the poet Gower with the priory of St. Mary Overy is well
known; as well as his munificence in contributing very largely to the
reconstruction of the church of the priory, in which he also founded a
chantry, and where his tomb still exists. It would appear from this
document, that he actually resided within the priory.

This marriage must have taken place late in his life. The year of his birth
is unknown. He is said to have been somewhat older than Chaucer, the date
of whose birth is also uncertain; there being some grounds for assigning it
to 1328, others, perhaps more satisfactory, for fixing it 1345. If the
latter be correct, and if we allow for the disparity of age, we may suppose
Gower to have been somewhere between fifty-five and sixty years of age at
the time of his marriage with Agnes Groundolf.

W. H. GUNNER.

Winchester.

    [A reference to the will of Gower, which is printed in Todd's
    _Illustrations of Gower and Chaucer_, p. 87. et seq., confirms the
    accuracy of our correspondent's inference, that this is the marriage
    licence of the poet, inasmuch as it shows that the Christian name of
    Gower's wife was Agnes.--ED. "N. & Q."]

       *       *       *       *       *

ASKA OR ASCA.

Throughout North America this dissyllable is found terminating names in
localities, occupied at the present day by Indian tribes speaking very
different languages; and, in these languages, with the exception of such
names, few analogous sounds exist. There are, besides, names terminating in
_esco_, _isco_, _isca_, _escaw_, _uscaw_, which, perhaps, may be placed in
the same category, being only accidental variations of _aska_, arising from
a difference of ear in those who first heard them pronounced by a native
tongue.

Are these names vernacular in any of the modern Indian languages? and, if
so, what is their real meaning? I propound these questions for solution by
any of the gentlemen at Fort Chepewyan, Norway House, &c. (since, no doubt,
"N. & Q." penetrates the Far West as well as the Far East), who may feel an
interest in the subject.

Apparently, they have been imposed by a people who occupied the whole
continent from sea to sea, as they occur from Hudson's Bay to Yucatan, and
from the Pacific to the Atlantic.

Were the American nations originally of one tongue? Humboldt, Du Ponceau,
and others have remarked that striking analogies of grammatical
construction exist in all American languages, from the Eskimo to the
Fuegian, although differing entirely in their roots. Dr. Prichard says,--

    "There are peculiarities in the very nature of the American languages
    which are likely to produce great variety in words, and to obliterate
    in a comparatively short period the traces of resemblance."--_Phys.
    Hist._ &c., vol. v. p. 317.

It may be only a curious coincidence, but it is undoubtedly true, that,
with scarcely one exception, all names (we might almost say _words_) so
terminating are more or less connected with water. The exception (if it
really be one) is _Masca_, which I have found among my old notes, followed
by the word _Montagne_; but nothing more, and I have forgotten all about
it.

For the rest, the varieties in isca, &c., spoken of before, are chiefly to
be found in the northern countries, towards Hudson's and James' Bay, &c.,
where the present spoken languages are the Eskimo or Karalit, the Cree, and
the Montagnard dialect of the Algonkin, viz. Agomisca, island in James'
Bay; Meminisca, lake on Albany River; Nemiskau, a lake; Pasquamisco, on
James' Bay; then, Keenwapiscaw, lake; Naosquiscaw, ditto; Nepiscaw, ditto;
Camipescaw, ditto; Caniapuscaw, ditto and river: the last five lie between
the head waters of the Saguenay and the bottom of James' Bay.

Again, beginning at the extreme west, we find Oonalaska, or Agoun Aliaska,
or (according to the natives) Nagoun Alaska, an island abounding in fine
springs and rivulets. Nor should I omit another of the Aleutian islands,
called Kiska.

Alaska, or Aliaska, a peninsula. The language in these instances is a
branch of the Eskimo.

Athabaska (Atapescow of Malte-Brun), lake and river. McKenzie says that the
word means, in the Knistenaux language, a flat, low, swampy country, liable
to inundations (edit. 4to., p. 122.). Here I repeat the question, is the
word vernacular, or only adopted? In such vocabularies as I have seen,
there is nothing bearing the slightest relationship to it. In one given by
Dr. Latham (_Varieties of Man_, &c., pp. 208-9.), water, in the Chepewyan,
is _tone_, and river, _tesse_.

Itaska, the small lake whence the Mississippi has its origin. The languages
prevalent in the adjacent country would be the Sioux, and the Chippeway
branch of the Algonquino.

Wapiscow, river. Language, Cree?

Nebraska, "The Shallow River," said to be the name of the Platte in the
Sioux language.

Mochasko, "Always full;" another river so called in the Sioux. Query, Are
these two vernacular? Watapan is river in that language. {489}

Oanoska is a Sioux word, meaning "The Great Avenue or Stretch;" but whether
it applies to a river I have forgotten. The quotation is from Long's
_Expedit. to St. Peter's River_, vol. i. p 339., to which I have not access
just now. Atamaska and Madagaska are two names of which I can give no
account, for the same reason as stated above at Maska.

Arthabaska is (or was) a very swampy township so named, lying south of the
St Lawrence.

Maskinonge (also the name of a fish) in which the sound occurs, although
not as a termination, is a seigneurie on the north bank of the St Lawrence,
of which the part near the river is so low that it is inundated frequently.
A river of the same name runs through this seigneurie. Both the foregoing
are in the country where the Iroquois language prevailed.

Zoraska, or Zawraska, name of a river somewhere between Quebec and James'
Bay, of which I know nothing more, having only heard it spoken of by
moose-hunters. Probably it is in a country where the language would be the
Montagnard.

Yamaska, a river on the south side of the St. Lawrence, having much marshy
ground about it, particularly near its junction with the Grand River.

Kamouraska, or Camouraska, islands in the St. Lawrence below Quebec, taking
their name from a seigneurie on the mainland; a level plain surrounded by
hills, and dotted all over with mounds. Bouchette says,--

    "D'après la position, l'apparence, et l'exacte ressemblance de ces
    espèces d'îles en terre-firme avec celles de Camouraska, entre
    lesquelles et le rivage le lit de la rivière est presqu'à sec à la
    marée basse, le naturaliste sera fortement porté à croire que ce qui
    forme à présent le continent était, à une époque quelconque, submergé
    par les vagues immenses du St Laurent, et que les élévations en
    question formaient des îles, ou des rochers exposés à l'action de
    l'eau," &c.--_Description de Bas-Canada, &c._, p. 551.

There can be no doubt, if _aska_ relate to water, that this district is
appropriately named.

We may presume the language prevalent here to have been the Algonquin,
since the inhabitants, when first visited by Europeans, were either the
Micmac or Abenaqui, both tribes of that great family.

Still further eastward, flowing from Lake Temisconata into the River St.
John, we find the Madawaska, in a country where the language was either the
Abenaqui, or a dialect of the Huron, said to be spoken by the Melicite
Indians of the St. John. Aska does not occur again in this part of North
America, as far as I call ascertain; but on looking southward it does so,
and under similar circumstances, viz. associated with water.

Tabasca, or Tobasco (for it is written both ways), a country on the borders
of Yucatan, described by the conquerors as difficult to march through, on
account of numerous pools of water and extensive swamps. Clavigero says the
present name was given by the Spaniards; but I know of no Spanish word at
all resembling it, therefore presume they must have adopted the native
appellation. The language was, and perhaps is, the Maya.

Tarasca; name of a people inhabiting the country of Mechouacan, celebrated
for its numerous fountains of fine water. Language appears to have been
Mexican. (See Clavigero, vol. i. p. 10., edit. 4to., Cullen's _Trans._; and
Dr. Prichard's _Phys. Hist._, &c., vol. v. p. 340.)

The mention of Tarasca reminds one of Tarascon, also written Tarasca. Two
instances occur in the country of Celtic Gaul; both on rivers: the one on
the Rhone, the other on the Arriège.

Having for the present finished with America, one is naturally led to
inquire whether _asca_ occurs in other parts of the world, in like manner
associated with water. Before doing so, however, I would observe that
Thompson, in his _Essay on Etymologies_, &c., p. 10., remarks that "The
Gothic termination _sk_, the origin of our _ish_, the Saxon _isk_,
signifying _assimilated_, _identified_, is used in all dialects, to the
very shores of China," &c. He instances "Tobolsk" and "Uvalsk." If, then,
it be true that _[=a]_ and _[=a]b_ are primitive sounds denoting water in
many languages, may we not here have a combination of _[=a]_ and _sk_?

But to proceed. Malte Brun mentions a city in Arabia called "Asca," one of
the places sacked by the expedition under Elius Gallus (_Précis de la
Géographie_, &c., vol. i. p. 179.). Generally speaking, Arabia is not
abounding in waters; but that very circumstance renders celebrated, more or
less, every locality where they do abound and are pure. The city,
therefore, might have been notable for its walls and fountains of pure
water.

Aska is the name of a river in Japan, remarkable for its great depth, and
for frequently changing its course (Golownin, vol. iii. p. 149.).

In north-eastern Asia we find a river called after the Tongouse,
_Tongousca_. Query, Tungouse-asca? and, following up Thompson's examples
before mentioned, we may name Yakutsk, Irkutsk, Ochotsk, Kamtchatka, &c.,
all intimately connected with water. Then there is Kandalask, a gulf of the
White Sea; Tchesk, another; Kaniska-Zemblia, an island, &c. In Spain,
Huesca is on the river Barbato. The two Gradiskas in Hungary, &c. are the
one on the Sâve, the other on the Lisonzo.

Zaleski (Pereslav) is seated on a lake; but Malte-Brun says the name means
"au-delà des bois." This may or may not be the case. The sound is here, and
in connexion with water. Pultusk is nearly surrounded by water, the Narew.
Askersan, in Sweden, stands on a lake. Gascon, {490} says Rafinesque, means
"beyond the sea" (_American Nations_, &c., No. 2. p. 41.).

Madagascar. Curious the similarity between this name of an island and the
American names Madagaska and Madawaska. By the way, I forgot to notice of
this last, that Captain Levinge, in his _Echoes from the Back Woods_, &c.,
vol. i. p. 150., derives it from Madawas (Micmac), a "porcupine;" whilst
_The Angler in Canada_ (Lanman), p. 229., says that it means "never
frozen," because part of the river never freezes. Which is right?

Tcherkask. Every one knows that the capital of the Don Cossacks is
eminently a water city. According to Pallas, the Circassians (Tcherkesses)
once were located in the Crimea. They may have extended their influence to
the Don, and the name in question may be a synthetic form of
Tcherkesse-aska.

Damasca (Latinised Damascus) is famed all over the East for its waters. The
name of the ancient city was Damas, "Le Demechk, ou Chamel-Dimichk, des
Orientaux" (Malte-Brun, viii. 215.).

The modern city is said to be called Damas, or I Domeschk, though it seems
more generally known as El Sham. Bryant says it was called by the natives
_Damasec_ and _Damakir_, the latter meaning the city (Caer?) of Dams, or of
Adama (_Mythology_, &c., vol. i. p. 69.). Can it have once been Adama, or
Dama-asca?

In Great Britain we have rivers and lakes called severally Esk, Exe or
Isca, Axe, and Usk.

Axe seems to have been written _Asca_ at one time; for Lambarde gives
Ascanmynster as the Saxon name of Axminster. Hence, also, we may infer that
Axholme Island was once Ascanholme. The Exe was probably Esk, _i.e._ water,
or river: it certainly was Uske. Iska is the British Isk Latinised by
Ptolemy; for Camden says Exeter was called by the Welsh _Caerisk_, &c. Usk
or Uske was written _Osca_ by Gyraldo Camb. (See Lambarde.)

Kyleska, or Glendha, ferry in Sutherlandshire. Kyle-aska? Kyles (Ir.), a
frith or strait.

Ask occurs frequently as the first syllable of names in England, and such
places will be almost invariably found connected with water. Camden
mentions a family of distinguished men in Richmondshire named Aske, from
whom perhaps some places derive their names, as _p. ex._ the Askhams,
Askemoore, &c. Askrigg, however, being in the neighbourhood of some
remarkable waterfalls (Camden), may have reference to them.

Now, from places let us turn to things, first noticing that _usk_, in
modern Welsh, means river. In Irish, _uisce_ or _uiske_ is water. In Hebrew
and Chaldee, _hisca_ is to wash or to drink. (See Introduction to
Valancey's _Irish Dictionary_.) In the same we find _ascu_ (ancient Irish),
a water-serpent or dog; _iasc_, fish; _easc_ (Irish), water, same as _esk_.
Chalmers, in "Caledonia," &c., has easc or esc (Gael.), water; _easc lan_
(Gael.), the full water.

Askalabos (Greek), a newt or water reptile; and asker, askard, askel, ask,
and esk, in provincial English, a water-newt. (See _Archaic Dictionary_.)

Masca, the female sea-otter; so called by the Russians.

Askalopas (Greek), a woodcock or snipe, _i.e._ a swamp-bird.

As I said before, there are few words in any of the Indian languages of
North America in which the sound _ask_ occurs; at least as far as my
limited acquaintance with them goes. The only two I can quote just now are
both in the Chippeway. One only has direct reference to water; perhaps the
other may indirectly. They are, _woyzask_, rushes, water-plants; _mejask_,
herb, or grass. The only grass the forest Indians are likely to be
acquainted with is that growing in the natural meadows along the river
banks, which are occasionally met with, and these in general are pretty
swampy.

We may wind up with our _cask_ and _flask_. I could have added much more,
but fear already to have exceeded what might hope for admittance in your
pages; therefore I will only say that, in offering these remarks, I insist
on nothing, and stand ready to submit to any correction.

A. C. M.

Exeter.

       *       *       *       *       *

LEGENDS OF THE COUNTY CLARE.

About two miles from the village of Corofin, in the west of Clare, are the
ruins of the Castle of Ballyportree, consisting of a massive square tower
surrounded by a wall, at the corners of which are smaller round towers: the
outer wall was also surrounded by a ditch. The castle is still so far
perfect that the lower part is inhabited by a farmer's family; and in some
of the upper rooms are still remaining massive chimney-pieces of grey
limestone, of a very modern form, the horizontal portions of which are
ornamented with a quatrefoil ornament engraved within a circle, but there
are no dates or armorial bearings: from the windows of the castle four
others are visible, none of them more than two miles from each other; and a
very large cromlech is within a few yards of the castle ditch. The
following legend is related of the castle:--When the Danes were building
the castle (the Danes were the great builders, as Oliver Cromwell was the
great destroyer of all the old castles, abbeys, &c. in Ireland),--when the
Danes were building the Castle of Ballyportree, they collected workmen from
all quarters, and forced them to labour night and day without stopping for
rest or food; and according as any of them fell down from exhaustion, his
body was thrown upon the wall, which was built up over him! When {491} the
castle was finished, its inhabitants tyrannised over the whole country,
until the time arrived when the Danes were finally expelled from Ireland.
Ballyportree Castle held out to the last, but at length it was taken after
a fierce resistance, only three of the garrison being found alive, who
proved to be a father and his two sons; the infuriated conquerors were
about to kill them also, when one of then proposed that their lives should
be spared, and a free passage to their own country given them, on condition
that they taught the Irishmen how to brew the famous ale from the
heather--that secret so eagerly coveted by the Irish, and so zealously
guarded by the Danes. At first neither promises nor threats had any effect
on the prisoners, but at length the elder warrior consented to tell the
secret on condition that his two sons should first be put to death before
his eyes, alleging his fear, that when he returned to his own country, they
might cause him to be put to death for betraying the secret. Though
somewhat surprised at his request, the Irish chieftains immediately
complied with it, and the young men were slain. Then the old warrior
exclaimed, "Fools! I saw that your threats and your promises were beginning
to influence my sons; for they were but boys, and might have yielded: but
now the secret is safe, your threats or your promises have no effect on
me!" Enraged at their disappointment, the Irish soldiers hewed the stern
northman in pieces, and the coveted secret is still unrevealed.

In the South of Scotland a legend, almost word for word the same as the
above, is told of an old castle there, with the exception that, instead of
Danes, the old warrior and his sons are called Pechts. After the slaughter
of his sons the old man's eyes are put out, and he is left to drag on a
miserable existence: he lives to an immense old age, and one day, when all
the generation that fought with him have passed away, he hears the young
men celebrating the feats of strength performed by one of their number; the
old Pecht asks for the victor, and requests him to let him feel his wrist;
the young man feigns compliance with his request, but places an iron
crow-bar in the old man's hand instead of his wrist; the old Pecht snaps
the bar of iron in two with his fingers, remarking quietly to the astounded
spectators, that "it is a gey bit gristle, and has not much pith in it
yet." The story is told in the second volume of Chambers's _Edinburgh
Journal_, first series, I think; but I have not the volume at hand to refer
to. The similarity between the two legends is curious and interesting.

FRANCIS ROBERT DAVIES.

       *       *       *       *       *

ARCHAIC WORDS.

(Vol. vii., p. 400., &c.)

The following list of words, which do not appear in Mr. Halliwell's
_Dictionary of Archaic Words_, may form some contribution, however small,
to the enlargement of that and of some of our more comprehensive English
dictionaries. It falls in with the desire already expressed in "N. & Q.;"
and, if the present paper seem worth inserting, may be followed by another.
In some few cases, though the word does appear in Mr. Halliwell's columns,
an authority is deficient; instances having as it were turned up, and in
rather uncommon sources, which seemed occasionally worth supplying. It must
be observed that the explanations given are, in some instances, mere
conjectures, and await more certain and accurate interpretation.

    _Aege_, age. _The Festyvall_, fol. cxii. recto, edit. 1528.

    _Advyse_, to view attentively. Strype's _Memorials_, under MARY, ch.
    xxviii. p. 234., folio, or vol. iv. p. 384. edit. 1816.

    _Apause_, to check. Foxe, _Acts and Monuments_, vii. 647.; and
    Merchant's _Second Tale_, 2093.

    _Assemble_, to resemble. Bale's _Image of both Churches_, Part II. p.
    378., edit. 1849.

    _Beclepe_, to embrace. _The Festyvall_, fol. xxxvi. recto, edit. 1528:
    "The ymage--becleped the knyght about the necke, and kyssed hym."

    _Bluck_, ...(?) "So the true men shall be hunted and blucked."--_The
    Festyvall_, fol. xxvi. recto.

    _Boystously_, roughly. "Salome--boystously handled our Lady."--_The
    Festyvall_, fol. lxvii. verso.

    _Brince_, to introduce, hand out, _propino_. "Luther first brinced to
    Germany the poisoned cup of his heresies."--Harding in Bishop Jewel's
    _Works_, vol. iv. p. 335., edit. Oxford, 1848.

    _Bussing._ "Without the blind bussings of a Papist, may no sin be
    solved."--Bishop Bale's _Image of both Churches on the Revelation_, ch.
    xiii. p. 431., edit. Cambridge, 1849.

    _Croked._ A curious application of this word occurs in _The Festyvall_,
    fol. cxxviii. recto: "A croked countenance."

    _Daying_, arbitration. Jewel's _Works_, i. 387. See Dr. Jelf's note,
    _in loc._

    _Dedeful_, operative? "This vertue is dedefull to all Chrysten
    People."--_The Festyvall_, fol. clxxii. recto.

    _Do_, to do forth; meaning, to proceed with, to go on with, occurs in
    _The Festyvall_. fol. viii. verso.

    _Domageable_, injurious. _The Festyvall_, fol. cxi. recto: "How
    domageable it is to them which use for to saye in theyr bargens and
    marchaundyses, makynge to the prejudyce--of their soules."

    _Dyssclaunderer_, a calumniator. "To stone hym (Stephen) to deth as for
    a dyssclaunderer."--_The Festyvall_, fol. lxx. verso.

    _Enclense_, to make clean. _The Festyvall_, fol. lxxxviii. recto.

    _Enforcement_, effort? Erasmus' _Enchiridion_, 1533, Rule IV. ch. xii.

    {492} _Engrease_, to overfeed. "Riches, wherewithal they are fatted and
    engreased like swine."--Foxe's _Acts and Monuments_, v. 615. edit.
    1843.

    _Ensignement_, ... (?) _The Festyvall_, fol. cliv. recto: "And whan all
    the people come so togyder at this ensignement."

    _Entrecounter_, to oppose. Brook's _Sermon_, 1553, quoted in Foxe's
    _Acts and Monuments_, vol. viii. p. 782.

    _Fele._ An application of this word may be quoted, partaking of a
    Grecism, unless we mistake: "And whan the people _felte_ the smell
    therof."--_The Festyvall_, fol. c. recto.

    _Flytterynge_: "lyghtnynge, and not flytterynge."--_The Festyvall_,
    fol. xliv. verso, edit. 1528.

NOVUS.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Notes.

_Inscriptions on Buildings._--The following inscriptions are taken from
buildings connected with the hospital of Spital-in-the-Street, co. Lincoln.

On the chapel:

 "FVI A^O D[=N]I    1398 }
  NON FVI           1594 }  DOM DEI & PAVPERVM.
  SVM               1616 }

  QVI HANC DEVS HVNC DESTRVET."

On the wall of a cottage, formerly one of the alms-houses:

 "DEO ET DIVITIBVS.
  A^O D[=N]I 1620."

On the wall of a building now used as a barn, but formerly the Court-house,
in which the Quarter Sessions for the parts of Lindsey were formerly held,
before their transfer to Kirton in Lindsey:

             "FIAT IVSTITIA.
                  1619."
               "HÆC DOMVS
  DIT, AMAT, PVNIT, CONSERVAT, HONORAT,
  EQVITIAM, PACEM, CRIMINA, JVRA, BONOS."

L. L. L.

_Epitaphs._--The following specimen of rural monumental Latin is copied
from a tombstone in the churchyard of Henbury, Gloucestershire:

              "Hic jacet
          Requiesant in pace,
          HENRICUS PARSONES.
       Qui obtit XXV. die Junes,
        Anno Dominii MDCCCXLV,
            Ætatis suæ XX.
  Cujus animia proprietur Christus."

The following is from the churchyard of Kingston-Seymour, Somersetshire:

             "J. H.
  He was universally beloved in the circle of
  His acquaintance; but united
  In his death the esteem of all,
  Namely, by bequeathing his remains."

J. K. R. W.

_Numbers._--We occasionally see calculations of how often a given number of
persons may vary their position at a table, and each time produce a fresh
arrangement. I believe the result may be arrived at by progressive
multiplication, as thus:

  Twice 1                       2
                                3
                              ---
  Giving for three persons      6 changes.
                                4
                              ---
  Giving for four persons      24 changes.
                                5
                              ---
  Giving for five persons     120 changes.
                                6
                              ---
  Giving for six persons      720 changes,

and so on. Probably also change-ringing is governed by the same mode of
calculation.

J. D. ALLCROFT.

CELTIC LANGUAGE.--As _fraus latet in generalibus_ in linguistics as in law,
I beg to suggest that, instead of using the word _Celtic_, the words
_Gaelic_, _Cymbric_, _Breton_, _Armorican_, _Welsh_, _Irish_, &c. might be
properly appropriated. The mother Celtic is lost,--her remains are to be
found only in the names of mountains, rivers, and countries; and our
knowledge of this tongue is derived from an acquaintance with her two
principal daughters, the Gaelic and Cymbric (=Kymric). The Gaelic tongue
has been driven by Germanic invasion into Ireland (Erse), and into the
Highlands of Scotland (Gaelic). The Cymbric tongue first took refuge in
Belgium, known afterwards as Breton, and still lives as Welsh and
Bas-Breton, which (and not the Gaelic) is nearest of kin in some words to
the Latin and Italian.

To understand this subject, the profound induction of Eichhoff must be
studied carefully.

T. J. BUCKTON.

Lichfield.

_Illustration of Longfellow_--"_God's Acre._"--Longfellow's very beautiful
little poem, commencing:

 "I like that ancient Saxon phrase, which calls
    The burial-ground God's acre."

is doubtless familiar to all your readers. It may interest some of them to
know, that the "ancient Saxon phrase" has not yet become obsolete. I read
the words "GOTTES ACKER," when at Basle last autumn, inscribed over the
entrance to a modern cemetery, just outside the St. Paul's Gate of that
city.

W. SPARROW SIMPSON.

       *       *       *       *       *


{493}

Queries.

JOHN LOCKE.

I shall be much obliged if any gentleman who has the power of access to the
registers of Wrington, Somerset, or who may otherwise take an interest in
the descent of John Locke the philosopher, will kindly assist me to prove
that the parents of that eminent man were as supposed to be in the
accompanying pedigree.

  Edmund Keene of Wrington, = Mary, daughter of ... described as a widow,
    county Somerset.        |   October 15, 1631. (Court Roll.)
     _______________________|_________________________________
    |                              |      |            :     |
    |                              |      |            :    ... = ... Morris.
    |                              |      |            :       /|\
    |                              |      |            :
  Edmund Keene of  = Frances,    John.  Richard  Agnes Keene, = John Locke
  Wrington. Yeoman.| daughter of          (?).    married     :
  Will dated       | ... Locke(?).                at Wrington,:
  September 12,    |  Executrix                   July 15,    :
  1667 (in which   |  of her                      1630.       :
  he mentions his  |  husband's will.                         :
  "loving brother  |                             John Locke the philosopher,
  Peter Locke."    |                              baptized August 29, 1632.
  Who was he?)     |
      _____________|_____________________
     |       |          |      |        |
  Samuel   John,      Peter. Sarah.   Mary, baptized at    = John Darbie of
  Keene.   baptized   Both baptized   Wrington, February 27,  Shirbourne,
    :      October 8,  October 24,    1633, by her father's   co. Dorset,
    :      1635.         1639.        will had lands at       Mercer.
    :        :                        Wrington and Ley.       (Deed, August
    :________:                        Will dat. August 16,    16, 1676.)
    |                                 1717. by  which she
   Frances Keene.  = Joseph Watkins   devised her estate at
  (Daughter of     |  of Abingdon.    Wrington to her niece Frances Watkins
  Samuel or John?) |                  of Abingdon, widow, remainder to her
                   |                  son Joseph. Died November 27, 1717.
                   |
  Joseph Watkins of Clapton, Middlesex, = Magdalen, daughter of... Gibbes.
                 Esq.                  /|\

I observe that in Chalmers' Dictionary the mother of Locke is called Anne,
whereas, in the Wrington register, I am informed that it appears as
Agnes,--"1630, July 15, (married) John Locke and Agnes Keene." I believe,
however, that in former days Anne and Agnes were not unfrequently
confounded, so that the apparent discrepancy may not be material.

The best evidence that is at present within my reach, in support of the
connexion here given, is a letter from Mrs. Frances Watkins, a daughter of
either Samuel or John Keene, dated "Abingdon, January, 1754," addressed to
her son "Joseph Watkins, Esq., at John's Coffee House, Cornhill, London,"
and from which I make the following extract for the information of those
who may be disposed to look into this question. She says,--

    "I am allied to Mr. Lock thus: His father and my grandmother were
    brother and sister, and his mother and my grandfather were also sister
    and brother, consequently my father and the great Lock were doubly
    first cousins. My grandfather's sister and my grandmother's brother
    produced this wonder of the world. To make you more sensible of it, a
    Lock married a Keen, and a Keen married a Lock. My aunt Keen was a most
    beautiful woman, as was all the family; and my uncle Lock an extream
    wise man. So much for genealogy. My Lord Chancellor King was allied
    thus near. I forgett whether his mother was a Keen or Lock. I had this
    information from my aunt Darby. Mr. Lock had no advantage in his
    person, but was a very fine gentleman. From foreign Courts they used to
    write, 'For John Lock, Esq., in England.'"

C. J.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries.

"_The Village Lawyer._"--Can you inform me who is the author of that very
popular farce, _The Village Lawyer_? It was first acted about the year
1787. It has been ascribed to Mr. Macready, the father of Mr. W. C.
Macready, the eminent tragedian. The real author, however, is said to have
been a dissenting minister in Dublin, and I would be obliged to any of your
readers who could give me his name.

SIGMA.

_Richard Plantagenet, Earl of Cambridge._--In a note in the first volume of
Miss Strickland's _Lives of the Queens of Scotland_, she remarks that
Bourchier, Earl of Essex, "was near of kin to the royal family, being
grand-nephew to Richard, Duke of York, father of Edward IV., but did not
share the blood of the heiress of March, _Jane_ Mortimer." I quote from
memory, not having the book at hand; but allowing that Jane for Anne may be
a slip of the pen, or a mistake of the press, where did Miss Strickland
discover any second marriage of Richard, Earl of Cambridge? All pedigrees
of the royal family that I have seen agree in giving him only one wife, and
in expressly stating her to be mother to Isabel, Countess of Essex.

J. S. WARDEN.

_Highland Regiment._-Can any of your Gaelic or military correspondents
inform me whether it is at present the custom for the officers in the
Highland regiments to wear a dirk in addition to the broadsword? Also
whether the Highland regiments were ever armed with broadswords, and {494}
whether their drill is different to that of the other troops of the line? I
have somewhere heard it said that the 28th (an English regiment) were once
armed with swords, whence their name of "The Slashers?" Is this the real
origin of the name? and if not, what is? I should also like to know the
origin of the custom of wearing undress _white_ shell jackets, which are
now worn by the Highlanders?

ARTHUR.

_Ominous Storms._--A remark by a labouring man of this town (Grantham),
which is new to me, is to the following effect. In March, and all seasons
when the judges are on circuit, and when there are any criminals to be
hanged, there are always winds and storms, and roaring tempests. Perhaps
there are readers of "N. & Q." who have met with the same idea.

JOHN HAWKINS.

_Edward Fitzgerald_, born 17th January, 1528, son of Gerald, ninth Earl of
Kildare, and brother of the celebrated "Silken Thomas," an ancestor of the
Duke of Leinster, married Mary, daughter and heiress of Sir John Leigh of
Addington, and widow of Sir Thomas Paston (called improperly Sir John).
There are contradictory pedigrees of the Leigh family in the _Surrey
Visitations_, _e. g._ Harl. MSS. 1147. and 5520. Could one of your
correspondents oblige me with a correct pedigree of this Mary Leigh; she is
sometimes called "Mabel?"

Y. S. M.

_Boyle Family._--Allow me to repeat the Query regarding Richard Boyle (Vol.
vii., p. 430.). Richard Boyle, appointed Dean of Limerick 5th Feb. 1661,
and Bishop of Leighlin and Ferns in 1666, died in 1682. Roger Boyle, the
youngest brother of Richard, was born in 1617, and educated in Trinity
College, Dublin, of which he became a Fellow. On the breaking out of the
rebellion of 1641 he went to England, and having become tutor to Lord
Paulet, he continued in that family till the Restoration, when he returned
to Ireland, and was presented with the Rectory of Carrigaline, diocese of
Cork. He was made Dean of Cork in 1662, and promoted to the Bishopric of
Down and Connor 12th Sept. 1667. He was translated to Clogher, 21st
September, 1672, and died 26th November, 1687. The sister of these prelates
was wife to the Rev. Urban Vigors (Vol. viii., p. 340.). They were near
relatives of the great Earl of Cork, and many of their descendants have
been buried in his tomb, in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. I have not
seen any reply to my Query about Mr. Vigors. May I ask is there any list of
the chaplains of King Charles I.?

Y. S. M.

_Inn Signs._--As the subject of inns is being discussed, can any of your
readers tell the origin of "The Green Man and Still?" And is there any
foundation for a statement, that "the chequers" have been found on Italian
wine-shops, and were imported from Egypt, having there been the emblem of
Osiris.

S. A.

Oxford.

_Demoniacal Descent of the Plantagenets._--In "N. & Q.," Vol. vii., p. 73.,
I asked for information as to the demoniacal ancestor of Henry II.,
confessing my own ignorance of the tradition. I received no answer, but was
induced to inquire farther by a passage in the article on "A'Becket" in the
_Quarterly Review_, xciii. 349.

    "These words goaded the king into one of those paroxysms of fury to
    which all the earlier Plantagenet princes were subject, and which was
    believed by them to arise from a mixture of demoniacal blood in their
    race."

The following is from Thierry, tom. iii. p. 330., Paris, 1830:

    "L'on racontait d'une ancienne Comtesse d'Anjou, aieule du père de
    Henri II., que son mari ayant remarqué avec effroi, qu'elle allait
    rarement à l'église, et qu'elle en sortait toujours à la sacre de la
    messe, s'avisa de l'y faire retenir de force par quatre écuyers; mais
    qu'à l'instant de la consécration, la Comtesse, jettant le manteau par
    lequel on la tenait, s'était envolée par une fenêtre, et n'avait jamais
    reparu. Richard de Poictiers, selon un contemporain, avait coutume de
    rapporter cette aventure, et de dire à ce propos: 'Est-il étonnant que,
    sortis d'une telle source, nous vivions mal, les uns avec les autres?
    Ce qui provient du diable doit retourner au diable.'"

Thierry quotes _Brompton apud Scriptores Rerum Francorum_, tom. xiii. p.
215.:

    "Istud Ricardus referre solebat, asserens de tali genere procedentes
    sese mutuo infestent, tanquam de diabolo venientes, et ad diabolum
    transeuntes."

I shall be glad of any assistance in tracing the story up or down.

H. B. C.

U. U. Club.

_Anglo-Saxon Graves._--The world is continually hearing now of researches
in Anglo-Saxon graves. I beg to inquire whether Anglo-Saxon coins or
inscriptions have been found in any of these, so as to identify them with
the people to whom these interments are ascribed? or upon what other proof
or authority these graves are so assigned to the Anglo-Saxons?

H. E.

_Robert Brown the Separatist._--Robert Brown the Separatist, from whom his
followers were called "Brownists." Whom did he marry, and when? In the
_Biog. Brit._ he is said to have been the son of Anthony Brown of Tolthorp,
Rutland, Esq. (though born at Northampton, according to Mr. Collier), and
grandson of Francis Brown, whom King Henry VIII., in the eighteenth year of
his reign, privileged by charter to wear his {495} cap in the royal
presence. He was nearly allied to the Lord Treasurer Cecil Lord Burleigh,
who was his friend and powerful protector. Burleigh's aunt Joan, daughter
of David Cyssel of Stamford (grandfather of the Lord Treasurer) by his
second wife, married Edmund Brown. She was half-sister of Richard Cyssel of
Burleigh, the Lord Treasurer's father. What connexion was there between
Edmund Brown and Anthony Brown of Tolthorp?

Fuller (_Ch. Hist._, b. ix. p. 168.) says, he had a wife with whom he never
lived, and a church in which he never preached. His church was in
Northamptonshire, and he died in Northampton Gaol in 1630.

From 1589 to 1592 he was master of St. Olave's Grammar School in Southwark.

G. R. CORNER.

Eltham.

_Commissions issued by Charles I. at Oxford._--In Lord Campbell's _Lives of
the Chancellors_, vol. ii. p. 604., it is stated that a commission was
granted to Lord Keeper Littleton to raise a corps of volunteers for the
royal service among the members of the legal profession, "and that the
docquet of that commission remains among the instruments passed under the
great seal of King Charles I. at Oxford." P. C. S. S. is very desirous to
know where a list of these instruments can be consulted?

P. C. S. S.

       *       *       *       *       *


Minor Queries with Answers.

_Hogmanay._--This word, applied in Scotland to the last day of the year, is
derived by Jamieson (I believe, but have not his _Dictionary_ to refer to)
from the Greek [Greek: hagia mênê].

Can any of your correspondents north of the Tweed, or elsewhere, give the
correct source?

W. T. M.

Hong Kong.

    [Our correspondent is probably not aware that Brand, in his _Popular
    Antiquities_, vol. i. pp. 457-461. (Bohn's edit.), has devoted a
    chapter to this term. Among other conjectural etymologies he adds the
    following: "We read in the _Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence Displayed_,
    that it is ordinary among some plebeians in the South of Scotland to go
    about from door to door on New Year's Eve, crying _Hagmena_, a
    corrupted word from the Greek [Greek: agia mênê] _i. e._ holy month.
    John Dixon, holding forth against this custom once, in a sermon at
    Kelso, says: 'Sirs, do you know what hagmane signifies? It is, _the
    devil be in the house!_ that's the meaning of its _Hebrew_ original,'
    p. 102. Bourne agrees in the derivation of Hagmena given in the _Scotch
    Presbyterian Eloquence Displayed_. 'Angli,' says Hospinian,
    '_Haleg-monath_, quasi sacrum mensem vocant.' _De Origine Ethn._, p.
    81." See also an ingenious essay on Hagmena in the _Caledonian Mercury_
    for Jan. 2, 1792, from which the most important parts have been
    extracted by Dr. Jamieson in his art. "Hogmanay."]

_Longfellow's "Hyperion."_--Can any of your readers tell me why that
magnificent work of Longfellow's, which though in prose contains more real
poetry than nine-tenths of the volumes of verse now published, is called
_Hyperion_?

MORDAN GILLOTT.

    [Hyperion is an epithet applied to Apollo, and is used by Shakspeare,
    _Hamlet_, Act I. Sc. 2.:

     "Hyperion to a satyr."

    Warburton says, "This similitude at first sight seems to be a little
    far-fetched, but it has an exquisite beauty. By the satyr is meant Pan,
    as by Hyperion _Apollo_. Pan and Apollo were brothers, and the allusion
    is to the contention between those gods for the preference in music."
    Steevens, on the other hand, believes that Shakspeare "has no allusion
    in the present instance, except to the beauty of Apollo, and its
    immediate opposite, the deformity of a satyr." Hyperion or Apollo is
    represented in all the ancient statues as exquisitely beautiful, the
    satyrs hideously ugly.]

_Sir Hugh Myddelton._--Where was Sir Hugh Myddleton buried? and has a
monument been erected to his memory? I have searched several encyclopædias
and other works, but they make no mention of his place of sepulture.

Hughson, I think, states it to be St. Matthew's, Friday Street; but I
believe this is not correct.

J. O. W.

    [There is a statue of Sir Hugh Myddelton, by Carew, in the New Royal
    Exchange. See Cunningham's _Handbook of London_, from which work we
    learn (p. 327.) that "the register of St. Matthew's, Friday Street,
    abounds in entries relating to the family of Sir Hugh Myddleton."
    Cunningham does not mention his burial-place; but in the pedigree of
    the family given in Lewis's _History of Islington_, it is stated that
    he was buried in the churchyard of St. Matthew, London.]

_Sangarede._--The expression "sangarede," or "sangared," occurs in two
ancient wills, one dated 1504, in which the testator bequeathed--

    "To the sepulkyr lyght vi hyves of beene to pray ffor me and my wyffe
    in y^e comon _sangered_."--_Lib. Fuller_, f. 70.

In the other, dated 1515, this passage occurs:

    "I wyll y^t Ione my wyff here a yeere daye for me yeerly terme of her
    lyfe in the church of Mendlshm, and after here decesse y^e towne of
    Mendelyshm here a _sangarede_ for me and my wyfe in the church of
    Mendlshm perpetually."

I should be much obliged if you or one of your correspondents could furnish
me with an intimation of the meaning of the term.

LAICUS.

    [Sangared, _i. e._ the chantry, or chanting, from the Saxon _sangere_,
    a singer.]

_Salubrity of Hallsal, near Ormskirk, Lancashire._--Between the 19th of
February and the 14th of {496} May, 1800, ten persons died in this parish
whose ages, as recorded on their tombs in the order of their departure,
were 74, 84, 37, 70, 84, 70, 72, 62, 80, 90. This year must have been a
fatal one to old people. Can any of the correspondents of "N. & Q." tell
anything about the season?

W. J.

Bootle.

    [The beginning of the year 1800 was unusually severe; in February, ice
    covered the ground so completely, that people skaited through the
    streets and roads; and in March, easterly winds prevailed with
    extraordinary violence. For the verification of these facts, consult
    the Meteorological diaries in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ of the above
    period.]

_Athens._--What is the origin of the term "violet-crowned city," as applied
to Athens? Macaulay uses the expression in his _History of England_, but
does not state how it was acquired.

E. A. T.

    [The ancient Greeks and Romans, at their festive entertainments, wore
    garlands of flowers, and the violet was the favourite of the Athenians,
    than whom no people were more devoted to mirth, conviviality, and
    sensual pleasure. Hence the epithet was also given to Venus, [Greek:
    Kupris iostephanos], as in some verses recorded by Plutarch, in his
    _Life of Solon_. Aristophanes twice applies the word to his sybarite
    countrymen: _Equites_, v. 1323., and _Acarn._ i. 637.]

_James Miller._--Who was Miller, mentioned by Warburton as a writer of
farces about 1735?

I. R. R.

    [James Miller, a political and dramatic writer, was born in Dorsetshire
    in 1703. He received his education at Wadham College, Oxford; and while
    at the university, wrote a satiric piece called _The Humours of
    Oxford_, which created him many enemies, and hindered his preferment.
    He also published several political pamphlets against Sir Robert
    Walpole; and also the tragedy of _Mahomet_, and other plays. He died in
    1744.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies.

BRYDONE.

(Vol. ix., pp 138. 255. 305. 432.)

TRAVELLER having honoured me by alluding to a little work of mine, written
thirty-five years ago, I may perhaps be permitted to correct a few errors
(trifling, because personal) in his notice. My affinity was that of a
cousin, not uncle, to the late lord my predecessor. I never had the
military rank assigned to me, but was at the time like TRAVELLER himself, a
"youngster" freshly emancipated from Oxford to the Continent: and had
little more pretension in printing the extracts from my Journal, than to
comply with the kind wishes of many friends and relatives.

But to pass to what is more important, the character of Brydone, at the
time I speak of there were no useful _handbooks_ in existence; and tourists
took for the purpose such volumes of travels as they could carry. Brydone,
for this, was unfit. The French criticism (quoted Vol. ix., 306.) rightly
says, that he sacrificed truth to piquancy in his narrations. Still it is a
heavy charge to suspect so gross a deviation, as that of inventing the
description of an ascent which he never accomplished; especially when the
ascent is a feat not at all difficult. The evidence for this disbelief must
be derived from a series of errors in the account, which I do not remember
to have observed while reading him on the spot. The charitable supposition
of MR. MACRAY, that he mistook the summit, is hardly compatible with so
defined a cone as that of Etna; but all must agree with his just estimate
of that description, and which the _Biographie Universelle_ itself terms
"chef d'oeuvre de narration." Brydone, no doubt, is as unsafe for the road
as he is amusing for the study, and perhaps from that very reason.

MONSON.

Gatton Park.

       *       *       *       *       *

COLERIDGE'S UNPUBLISHED MSS.

(Vol. iv., p. 411.; Vol. vi., p. 533.; Vol. viii., p. 43.)

When I sent you my Note on this subject at the last of the above
references, I had not read _Letters, Conversations, and Recollections of
S. T. Coleridge_, Moxon, 1836. The subjoined extracts from that work
confirm that note, vol. i, pp. 104. 156. 162.

August 8, 1820. Coleridge:

    "I at least am as well as I ever am, and my regular employment, in
    which Mr. Green is weekly my amanuensis, [is] the work on the books of
    the Old and New Testaments, introduced by the assumptions and
    postulates required as the preconditions of a fair examination of
    Christianity as a scheme of doctrines, precepts, and histories, drawn
    or at least deducible from these books."

January, 1821. Coleridge:

    "In addition to these ---- of my GREAT WORK, to the preparation of
    which more than twenty years of my life have been devoted, and on which
    my hopes of extensive and permanent utility, of fame, in the noblest
    sense of the word, mainly rest, &c. Of this work, &c., the result must
    finally be revolution of all that has been called _Philosophy_ or
    Metaphysics in England and France since the era of the commencing
    predominance of the mechanical system at the restoration of our second
    Charles, and with the present fashionable views, not only of religion,
    morals, and politics, but even of the modern physics and physiology....
    Of this work, something more than a volume has been {497} dictated by
    me, so as to exist fit for the press, to my friend and enlightened
    pupil, Mr. Green; and more than as much again would have been evolved
    and delivered to paper, but that for the last six or eight months I
    have been compelled to break off our weekly meeting," &c.

Vol. ii. p. 219. Editor:

    "The prospectus of these lectures (viz. on Philosophy) is so full of
    interest, and so well worthy of attention, that I subjoin it; trusting
    that the Lectures themselves will soon be furnished by, or under the
    auspices of Mr. Green, the most constant and the most assiduous of his
    disciples. That gentleman will, I earnestly hope--_and doubt not_--see,
    _feel_, the necessity of giving the whole of his great master's views,
    opinions, and anticipations; not those alone in which he more entirely
    sympathises, or those which may have more ready acceptance in the
    present time. He will not shrink from the great, the _sacred duty_ he
    has voluntarily undertaken, from any regards of prudence, still less
    from that most hopeless form of fastidiousness, the wish to conciliate
    those who are never to be conciliated, _inferior minds_ smarting under
    a sense of inferiority, and the imputation _which they are conscious is
    just_, that but for Him _they_ never could have been; that distorted,
    dwarfed, changed, as are all his views and opinions, by passing
    _athwart_ minds with which they could not assimilate, they are yet
    almost the only things which give such minds a _status_ in literature."

How has Mr. Green discharged the duties of this solemn trust? Has he made
any attempt to give publicity to the _Logic_, the "great work" on
_Philosophy_, the work on the Old and New Testaments, to be called _The
Assertion of Religion_, or the _History of Philosophy_, all of which are in
his custody, and of which the first is, on the testimony of Coleridge
himself, a finished work? We know from the _Letters_, vol. ii. pp. 11.
150., that the _Logic_ is an essay in three parts, viz. the "Canon," the
"Criterion," and the "Organon;" of these the last only can be in any
respect identical with the _Treatise on Method_. There are other works of
Coleridge missing; to these I will call attention in a future Note. For the
four enumerated above Mr. Green is responsible. He has lately received the
homage of the University of Oxford in the shape of a D.C.L.; he can surely
afford a fraction of the few years that may still be allotted to him in
re-creating the fame of, and in discharging his duty to, his great master.
If, however, he cannot afford the time, trouble, and cost of the
undertaking, I make him this public offer; I will, myself, take the
responsibility of the publication of the above-mentioned four works, if he
will entrust me with the MSS.

The Editor will, I doubt not, be good enough to forward to the learned
Doctor a copy of the Number in which this appeal is published.

C. MANFIELD INGLEBY.

Birmingham.

       *       *       *       *       *

MR. JUSTICE TALFOURD AND DR. BEATTIE.

(Vol. ix., p 393.)

There is so much similarity of character, in respect of sympathy for the
humbler position and the well-being of others, between this lamented judge
and that of the professor who is depicted by his biographer in the
following extract, that I hope you will agree with me in thinking it worthy
of being framed, and hung up as a companion-sketch in your pages:

    "As a Professor, not his own class only, but the whole body of students
    at the University, looked up to him with esteem and veneration. The
    profound piety of the public prayers, with which he began the business
    of each day, arrested the attention of the youngest and most
    thoughtless; the excellence of his moral character; his gravity blended
    with cheerfulness, his strictness joined with gentleness, his favour to
    the virtuous and diligent, and even the mildness of his reproofs to
    those who were less attentive, rendered him the object of their respect
    and admiration. Never was more exact discipline preserved than in his
    class, nor ever anywhere by more gentle means. His sway was absolute,
    because it was founded in reason and affection. He never employed a
    harsh epithet in finding fault with any of his pupils; and when,
    instead of a rebuke which they were conscious they deserved, they met
    merely with a mild reproof, it was conveyed in such a manner as to
    throw not only the delinquent, but sometimes the whole class into
    tears. To gain his favour was the highest ambition of every student;
    and the gentlest word of disapprobation was a punishment, to avoid
    which, no exertion was deemed too much. His great object was not merely
    to make his pupils philosophers, but to render them good men, pious
    Christians, loyal to their king, and attached to the British
    constitution; pure in morals, happy in the consciousness of a right
    conduct, and friends to all mankind."

This is the language of Dr. Beattie's biographer, who knew him intimately.
Cowper, the poet, thus writes of him to the Rev. W. Unwin, from a knowledge
of his works:

    "I thanked you in my last for Johnson; I now thank you with more
    emphasis for Beattie--the most agreeable and amiable writer I ever met
    with--the only author I have seen whose critical and philosophical
    researches are diversified and embellished by a poetical imagination,
    that makes even the driest subject, and the leanest, a feast for an
    epicure in books. He is so much at his ease too, that his own character
    appears in every page; and, which is rare, we see not only the writer,
    but the man; and that man so gentle, so well-tempered, so happy in his
    religion, and so humane in his philosophy, that it is necessary to love
    him, if one has any sense of what is lovely."--_Life of Dr. Beattie_,
    by Sir William Forbes, Bart.

J. M.

Oxford.

       *       *       *       *       *

{498}

RUSSIAN "TE DEUM."

(Vol. ix., p. 325.)

The following is a translation of this Greek doxology, as contained in the
Prayer-Book of the Greek Church, under the title '[Greek: Hôrologion to
mega, Benatiai, Tupog. Nikulaou Glukê], 1845, p. 75.:

    1. Glory to Thee, the Giver of light.

    2. Glory to God on high, and on earth peace, good-will towards men.

    3. We praise Thee, we bless Thee, we worship Thee, we glorify thee, we
    give thanks to Thee for Thy great glory;

    4. O Lord King, heavenly God, Father Almighty, O Lord, only begotten
    Son Jesus Christ, and Holy Spirit.

    5. O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, that taketh away the sin
    of the world; have mercy upon us, Thou that takest away the sins of the
    world.

    6. Accept our prayer; Thou that sittest at the Father's right hand,
    have mercy on us:

    7. For Thou only art holy; Thou only, Lord Jesus Christ, art in the
    glory of God the Father. Amen.

    8. Day by day I bless Thee, and I praise Thy name for ever, and for all
    eternity.

    9. Vouchsafe, Lord, this day to keep me sinless.

    10. Blessed art Thou, Lord, the God of our fathers; and praised and
    glorified be Thy name for ever. Amen.

    11. Lord, let Thy mercy be on us, as we trust in Thee.

    12. Blessed art Thou, Lord; teach me Thy statutes.

    13. Lord, Thou hast been our refuge from one generation to another.

    14. I said, Lord be merciful unto me; heal my soul, for I have sinned
    against Thee.

    15. Lord, I fly to Thee; teach me to do Thy will, for Thou art my God;

    16. For with Thee is a well of life, in Thy light shall we see light.

    17. Extend Thy mercy to them that know Thee.

    18. O holy God, holy Strength, holy Immortal, have mercy on us. Amen.

Verses 2. to 7. are identical with the _Gloria in Excelsis_, or the Angelic
Hymn, sung at the conclusion of the Lord's Supper in the Anglican Church,
but which commences the Mass in the Romish Church. It is of great
antiquity, being attributed to Telesphorus, A.D. 139, and is found in the
_Apostolic Constitutions_, vii. c. 48.

Verses 8, 9. 11. are the same as in the Latin _Te Deum_.

Verse 12. is from Psalm cxix. 12.

Verse 13. is from Psalm xc. 1.

Verse 14. is from Psalm xli. 4.

Verse 15. is from Psalm cxliii. 9, 10.

Verse 16. is from Psalm xxxvi. 9.

Verse 17. is from Psalm xxxvi. 10.

T. J. BUCKTON.

Lichfield.

In answer to your correspondent HONORÉ DE MAREVELLE'S Query regarding the
_Te Deum_ as sung in Russia, I beg to inform him that in whatever language
the Emperor Nicholas is most familiar with this hymn, it is sung in all
their churches in Sclavonic, which is only intelligible to the priests and
a _very small_ number of the laity, the mass of the people being quite
ignorant of this old language. All the services in Russian churches are
performed in Sclavonic.

The _Old_ Testament is not permitted to be read by the people in modern
Russ, by command of the Emperor; it is circulated sparingly in Sclavonic,
which is of course useless to most of the people, for the reason named
above. The _New_ Testament is, however, allowed to circulate in modern
Russ, and not _half_ the population read that, perhaps not more than a
third.

With regard to their images or pictures (alluded to by me in Vol. viii., p.
582.), I had not only perused the works mentioned by G. W. (Vol. ix., p.
86.) before I wrote about the Russian religion, &c., but several other
works besides.[1]

Having been in the country for some little time, and paid some attention to
the subject, I was certainly surprised to find little, if any, mention made
of their manner of worship or superstitious customs in Dr. Blackmore's
works, and wished to contribute my mite towards giving your readers some
information as to the state of this semi-civilised race.

From _Translations of Russian Works_ you can glean nothing but what the
Russian government chooses, as every work goes through a severe censorship
before it is allowed to be printed for circulation; and if there is
anything in it that is not liked, it is not permitted to be published
unless those parts are suppressed.

It is perhaps only partially known that there is some difficulty in getting
English books and newspapers into Russia, as all must go through the
censor's office. _The Times_ (which is however all but, if not quite,
prohibited at St. Petersburg, and has been so a long time), _Punch_, and
other of our papers, possess a ludicrous appearance after having passed
through the hands of the worthies in the censor's office, sometimes there
being very little left of them to read.

Whilst writing about images, I omitted to name one or two other
circumstances that have come under my own notice, showing still farther the
superstitious veneration in which they are held by the Russians.

In the case of a house on fire, one of the inmates, with his head
uncovered, carries the image three times round the burning house, under the
{499} belief that it will cause the fire to cease, never attempting to put
it out by any other means.

At Moscow there is a very noted image of the Virgin Mary; it is deposited
in a recess at one side of an archway leading to the Kremlin. Every person
passing through this archway is _obliged_ to uncover his head. I had to do
so whenever I passed through. The belief of the efficacy of this image in
healing diseases is universal. When any person is ill, by paying the
priests handsomely, they will bring it with great pomp, in a carriage and
four horses, to the sick person's house, who _must_ recover, or else, if
death ensues, they say it is _so fated_.

Instances of other images in various parts of the empire, some believed to
have fallen from heaven, might be multiplied to any extent. I mention these
to show that, whatever these representations of the Deity may be called, I
had not written unadvisedly previously, as might be surmised by G. W.'s
remarks. Everybody must deplore the wretched condition of these people; and
the Czar, well knowing their superstitious ideas, works upon their
fanatical minds with such letters as we all have had the sorrow of seeing a
specimen of in _The Times_ of to-day.[2]

J. S. A.

May 15, 1854.

[Footnote 1: Owing to an error in my original MS., or of the printers, they
were called _the "gods,"_ instead of _their gods_, answering to the ancient
_penates_.]

[Footnote 2: Vide Nicholas to the Commandant of Odessa.]

       *       *       *       *       *

ARTESIAN WELLS.

(Vol. ix., p. 222.)

Your correspondent STYLITES is strongly advised not to set about making, or
rather endeavouring to make, a well of this description till he has been
well advised of the feasibility of the scheme in his particular locality.
The old adage will apply in this case, "Ex quovis ligno," &c. It is not
everywhere that an artesian well can be obtained with any depth of bore;
that is, a well which shall bring its water to or above the surface of the
ground. But if, on sufficient knowledge of the mineralogical structure of
the country, it be declared that a well of the true artesian sort cannot be
obtained, STYLITES should dig his well, say fifteen or twenty feet deep,
and "stein" it, and then bore in search of a spring, unless a sufficient
supply is already obtained from the surface drainage. A moderate outlay in
this way, unless the impervious stratum be of very great thickness indeed,
will generally bring up water, with a natural tendency to rise within reach
of a common pump, or of a well-bucket at the least.

But it may still happen that the water of the bore has not this natural
tendency. In that case the sinking of the well may be continued till the
water is reached, and a sufficient depth of reservoir obtained at the
bottom.

M. (2)

As practical answers to the inquiries of STYLITES on this subject, I have
to say, that common wells are preferable to artesian in all cases where
abundance of water is obtained at a depth not exceeding thirty feet. I need
not tell STYLITES that the common sucking-pump will not draw up water from
a depth exceeding thirty feet. The convenience of common wells is one
reason why artesian ones are not universally adopted; and a greater reason
is that artesian wells are very much more expensive to make than common
ones. When artesian wells are preferable to common ones is, when water
cannot be obtained at a depth beyond the reach of the force-pump. Two of my
friends have made artesian wells; one a mill-spinner at Dundee, at a time
when that town was very ill supplied with water. He sunk a well 150 feet in
depth and found no water. A bore was then made through trap rock for
upwards of 150 feet, and water was found in abundance on reaching the
underlying sandstone. The water ultimately reached near to the top of the
well. The other well was made by a bleacher in the neighbourhood of Lisburn
in Ireland. All the surface springs in his bleaching-grounds, which are
extensive, did not supply a sufficient quantity for his purposes. The
subsoil being boulder clay, he had to bore through it to about 300 feet
before the water was met with; when it rose as near the top of the bore as
to permit the use of a common pump being worked by power. The theory of the
action of artesian wells has been explained by MR. BUCKTON (Vol. ix., p.
283.), but I have no hesitation in telling STYLITES that he will find water
almost anywhere in this country by means of an artesian bore.

HENRY STEPHENS.

       *       *       *       *       *

DOG-WHIPPERS.

(Vol. ix., p. 349.)

The following Notes may contain information for your correspondent C. F. W.
on the subject of dog-whippers.

Richard Dovey, of Farmcote in Shropshire, in the year 1659, charged certain
cottages with the payment of eight shillings to some poor man of the parish
of Claverley, who should undertake to awaken sleepers, and _whip dogs from
the church_ during divine service. Ten shillings and sixpence per annum is
now paid for the above service.

John Rudge by his will, dated in 1725, gave five shillings a quarter to a
poor man to go about the parish church of Trysull, in Staffordshire, during
sermon, to keep people awake, and _keep dogs out of the church_. This sum
is still paid for that purpose.

At Chislet, in Kent, is a piece of land called "Dog-whipper's Marsh," about
two acres, out of {500} which the tenants pay ten shillings a year to a
person for _keeping order in the church_ during divine service.

There is an acre of land in the parish of Peterchurch, Herefordshire,
appropriated to the use of a person for _keeping dogs out of the church_.

In the parish of Christchurch, Spitalfields, there is a charity fund called
"cat and dog money," the interest on which is now divided annually amongst
six poor widows of weavers of the names of Fabry or Ovington. There is a
tradition in the parish that this money was originally left for the support
of cats and dogs, but it is more probable that it was originally intended,
as in the cases above mentioned, to "whip dogs and cats" out of the church
during divine service, and that on the unforeseen increase in the fund
after a lapse of years, it became appropriated in the present way. This
money was the subject of a chancery suit in the last century, and the
decree therein directed the present division.

Many of your readers will call to mind the yelp of some poor cur who had
strolled through the open door of a country church on some sultry day, and
been ejected by the sexton. I myself have often listened to the pit-a-pat
in the quiet aisle, and I once remember a disturbance in church caused by
the quarrel of two dogs. Such scenes, and the fact that dogs were
considered unclean animals, most likely gave rise to the occupation of
dog-whipper as a function of the sexton. It will also be remembered that
some dogs cannot forbear a howl at the sound of certain musical
instruments; and besides the simple inconvenience to the congregation, this
howl may have been considered a manifestation of antipathy to holy
influences, as the devil was supposed to fear holy water.

Landseer's well-known picture of "The Free Church" proves to us that
amongst the Highland shepherds the office does not now at least exist: and
amongst other instances of the regular attendance at church of these
"unclean animals," I know one in Wales where a favourite dog always
accompanied his master to church, and stood up in the corner of the pew,
keeping watch over the congregation with the strictest decorum.

A NOTARY.

That persons bearing an office described by such a name were attached to
great houses in the sixteenth century, is clear from the well-known passage
in _The Two Gentlemen of Verona_, Act IV. Sc. 4., where Launce says,--

    "I, having been acquainted with the smell before, knew it was Crab; and
    goes me to the _fellow that whips the dogs_: 'Friend,' quoth I, 'you
    mean to whip the dog?' 'Ay, marry do I,' quoth he," &c.

W. B. R.

Derby.

       *       *       *       *       *

CEPHAS, A BINDER, AND NOT A ROCK.

(Vol. ix., p. 368.)

I hope you will allow me to give a few reasons for dissenting from MR.
MARGOLIOUTH. I will promise to spare your space and avoid controversy.

1. The Hebrew word _Caphis_ is only to be found in Hab. ii. 11. Hence it
has been regarded as of somewhat uncertain signification. However, by
comparison with the Syrian verb [Hebrew: KPS] (_c'phas_), we infer that it
may denote that which _grasps_, _gathers_, or _holds together_; it is
therefore not synonymous with [Greek: deô], which is to _bind_, and is used
in Matt. xvi. 19.

2. Proper names from the Hebrew, Chaldee, and Syriac, are generally written
in Greek, with the terminations of that language, as _e. g._ Jesus, John,
James, Thomas, Judas, &c., and these terminations are _added_ to the
radical letters of the name, which are all retained. It is easy to see that
_Caphis_ would become _Caphisus_, while _Cepho_ (Syriac for _rock_) would
become _Cephas_, just as _Ehudo_ (Syriac, _Jude_) becomes _Judas_.

3. Still less likely would the name _Caphis_ be to lose a radical in its
transfer to the Syriac, where Cephos is represented by _Cepho_, without
_s_.

4. The paronomasia exhibited in the Latin, "Tu es _Petrus_, et super hanc
_petram_," also appears both in the Greek and the Syriac.

5. The difference of gender between the words _Petrus_ and _petra_,
moreover, is preserved in the Syriac and appears in the Greek.

6. The figure of binding and loosing (v. 19.) is one which was common to
the three languages, Greek, Chaldee, and Syriac, in all of which it denotes
"to remit or retain" sins, "to confirm or abolish" a law, &c.

7. The occurrence of this figure in ch. xviii. 18., where the reference is
not special to Peter, but general to all the apostles. (Compare John xx.
23.)

8. The Syriac uniformly translates the name Peter by Cepho (_i. e._
Cephas), except once or twice in Peter's epistles. This at least indicates
their view of its meaning.

On the whole I see no reason to suppose that Cephas means anything but
_stone_; certainly there is much less reason for the proposed signification
of _binder_.

In John i. 42., the clause which explains the name Cephas is absent from
the Syriac version in accordance with the regular and necessary practice of
the translators to avoid tautology: "Thou shalt be called _Stone_; which is
by interpretation _Stone!_" (See the _Journal of Sacred Literature_ for
January last, p. 457., for several examples of this.) There is here surely
sufficient reason to account for the omission of this clause, which, it
{501} appears, is supported by universal MS. authority, as well as by that
of the other versions.

B. H. C.

The paronomasia of _Kipho_ (=Rock) was made in the Syro-Chaldaic tongue,
the vernacular language of our Lord and his disciples. The apostle John,
writing in Greek (i. 43.), explains the meaning of _Kipho_ ([Greek:
Kêphas]) by the usual Greek phrase [Greek: ho hermêneuetai Petros], which
phrase was necessarily omitted in the Syriac version, where this word
_Kipho_ was significant, in the original sense, as used by our Lord, and
therefore needed no such hermeneutic explanation. Had our Lord spoken in
Greek, and had the name [Greek: Kêphas] been _idem sonans_ with [Hebrew:
KPYS] (Hab. ii. 11.)--which, however, is not the case,--some slender
support might have been thereby afforded to MR. MARGOLIOUTH'S argument; but
as he admits that our Lord did _not_ speak in the Greek tongue, such
argument falls to the ground as void of all probability.

T. J. BUCKTON.

Lichfield.

       *       *       *       *       *

WHITTINGTON'S STONE.

(Vol. ix., p. 397.)

The disappearance of this celebrated memorial of a questionable legend,
seems to have been satisfactorily accounted for. The newspapers inform us
that it has been taken to a mason's yard for the purpose of reparation.

Those who lament the removal of the stone on which, as they imagine, the
runaway apprentice sat listening to the bells of Cheap, will perhaps be
surprised to hear that the object of their regret is at least the _third_
of the stones which have successively stood upon the spot long since the
days of Whittington.

1. In a learned and interesting paper communicated to the pages of
_Sylvanus Urban_ (G. M. Dec. 1852) by T. E. T. (a well-known and respected
local antiquary, who will yet, it is sincerely hoped, enrich our libraries
with a work on the ancient history of the northern suburbs, a task for
which he is pre-eminently qualified), it is shown that in all probability
the site in question was once occupied by a wayside cross, belonging to the
formerly adjacent lazar-house and chapel of St. Anthony. A certain
engraving of 1776, mentioned by Mr. T., and which is now before me,
represents a small obelisk or pyramid standing upon a square base, and
surmounted by a cross, apparently of iron. The stone (popularly regarded as
the original) was removed in 1795 by "one S----," the surveyor of the
roads. Having been broken, or as another account states, sawn in two, the
halves were placed as curb-stones against the posts on each side of Queen's
Head Lane in the Lower Street. (Nelson's _Hist. of Islington_, 1811, p.
102.; _Gent. Mag._, Sept. and Oct. 1824, pp. 200. 290.; Lewis's _Hist. of
Islington_, 1841, p. 286.) In _Adams's Picturesque Guide to the Environs of
London_, by E. L. Blanchard (a recent but dateless little work, which I
chanced to open at a book-stall a day or two ago), the present Queen's Head
tavern in the Lower Street is mentioned as containing certain relics of its
predecessor, "with the real Whittington stone (it is said) for a
threshold."

2. Shortly after the removal of this supposed "original," a new memorial
was erected, with the inscription "Whittington's Stone." This was, for some
cause, removed by order of the churchwardens in May, 1821.

3. In his second edition, 1823, Nelson says, "The present stone was set up
in 1821, by the trustees of the parish ways." This is the stone which has
lately been removed.

H. G.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE.

_Photographic Experience._--I send you the Rev. W. Le Mottée's and mine:

  W. Le M.

  1. 6 minutes' exposure.

  2. Sea-side.

     {_Iod._--Double iod. sol. from 25 gr. N. A. to 1 oz.
  3. {_Exc._--5[minim] 50 gr. A. N. A. 5[minim] G. A. Aq. 2 drs.
     {_Dev._--1^o 50 gr. A. N. A. and G. A. part. æq. 2^o G. A.

  4. Turner.

  5. 3/8 inch.

  6. 3 inches.

  7. Diam. lens 3 in. Foc. length parallel rays 12¾ in.
  Maker, Slater. Picture 8½ x 6½.

  T. L. M.

  1. 10 minutes.

  2. Sea-side.

     {_Iod._
  3. {_Exc._ As Le M.
     {_Dev._

  4. Turner.

  5. 3/8 inch.

  6. 3-1/8 inches.

  7. Diam. lens 3¼ in. Foc. length 17½ in. Maker,
  Slater. Picture 11½ x 9¼.

I have given the development according to the plan usually followed, for
the sake of comparison; but where it is desirable to work out the shadows
fully, it is far better to give longer exposure in the camera (three times
that above given), and develop with gallo-nitrate of the strength used to
excite, finishing with gallic acid. The time varies with the subject; a
cottage among trees requiring 12 to 14 minutes. Almost all the statements I
have seen, giving the time, do so absolutely; it is well to remind
photographers, that these convey no _information whatever_, unless the
focal length for parallel rays, and the diameter of the diaphragm, are also
given: the time, in practice as well as in theory, varying (_cæteris
paribus_) directly as the {502} square of the former, and inversely as the
square of the latter; and, without these corrections, the results of one
lens are not comparable with those of another.

When shall we get a good structureless paper? The _texture_ of Turner's,
especially his new paper, is a great defect; and its skies are thin, _very_
inferior to the dense velvety blacks obtained with Whatman's of old date--a
paper now extinct, and one which, unfortunately for us, it seems impossible
to reproduce.

T. L. MANSELL.

Guernsey.

_Conversion of Calotype Negatives into Positives._--At the second meeting
of the British Association at York, Professor Grove described a process by
which a negative calotype might be converted into a positive one, by
drawing an ordinary calotype image over iodide of potassium and dilute
nitric acid, and exposing to a full sunshine. Not being able to find the
proportions in any published work, can any of your numerous readers give me
the required information; and whether the photograph should be exposed in
its damp state, or allowed to dry?

G. GRANTHAM.

_Albumenized Paper._--Mr. Spencer, in the last number of the _Photographic
Journal_, in describing a mode of preparing albumenized paper, states he
has never found it necessary to iron it, as the silver solution coagulates
the albumen the moment it comes in contact with it, "and I fancy makes it
print more evenly than when heat has been employed." But Mr. Spencer uses a
nitrate of silver solution of 90 or 100 grains to the ounce, while DR.
DIAMOND recommends 40 grains. Now as it is very desirable to get rid of the
ironing if possible, my Query is, Will the 40-grain solution coagulate the
albumen so as to do away with that troublesome process?

P. P.

       *       *       *       *       *


Replies to Minor Queries.

_Table-turning_ (Vol. ix., p. 39.).--The following conclusions, from an
_exposé_ of the laws of nature relating to this subject, have been
submitted to the world, at the end of a series of articles in the _Revue
des Deux Mondes_, by M. Babinet, of the French Institute:

    "1^o. Que tout ce qui est raisonnablement admissible dans les curieuses
    expériences qui ont été faites sur le mouvement des tables où l'on
    impose les mains, est parfaitement explicable par l'énergie bien connue
    des mouvemens naissans de nos organes, pris à leur origine, surtout
    quand une influence nerveuse vient s'y joindre et au moment où, toutes
    les impulsions étant conspirantes, l'effet produit représente l'effet
    total des actions individuelles.

    "2^o. Que dans l'étude consciencieuse de ces phénomènes
    mécanico-physiologiques, il faudra écarter toute intervention de force
    mystérieuse en contradiction avec les lois physiques bien établies par
    l'observation et l'expérience.

    "3^o. Qu'il faudra aviser à populariser, non pas dans la peuple, mais
    bien dans la classe éclairée de la société, les principes des sciences.
    Cette classe si importante, dont l'autorité devrait faire loi pour
    toute la nation, s'est déjà montrée plusieurs fois au-dessous de cette
    noble mission. La remarque n'est pas de moi, mais au besoin je l'adopte
    et la défends:

     'Si les raisons manquaient, je suis sûr qu'en tout cas,
      Les exemples fameux ne me manqueraient pas!'

    Comme le dit Molière. Il est à constater que l'initiative des
    réclamations en faveur du bon sens contre les prestiges des tables et
    des chapeaux a été prise par les membres éclairés du clergé de France.

    "4^o. Enfin, les faiseurs des miracles sont instamment suppliés de
    vouloir bien, s'ils ne peuvent s'empêcher d'en faire, au moins ne pas
    les faire absurdes. Imposer la croyance à un miracle, c'est déjà
    beaucoup dans ce siècle; mais vouloir nous convaincre de la réalité
    d'un miracle ridicule, c'est vraiment être trop exigeant!"--_Revue des
    Deux Mondes_, Janvier 15, 1854.

J. M.

Oxford.

_Female Dress_ (Vol. ix., p. 271.).--I have dresses from 1768 to the
present time, two or three years only missing, from pocket-books, which I
have carefully arranged and had bound in a volume. On referring to it I
find that hoops ceased after 1786, excepting for court days. The ladies at
that time wore large hats, the same shape young people and children have at
the present day. Powder went out at the time of the scarcity, patches
before hoops, and high-heeled shoes when short waists came in fashion.

I have a small engraving of their Majesties, attended by the lord
chamberlain, &c., together with the Princess Royal, Prince Edward, and the
Princess Elizabeth, in their boxes at the opera in the year 1782. The queen
in a very large hoop, each with their hair full powdered; and the
celebrated Mademoiselle Theodore, in the favourite comic ballad called "Les
Petits Reins," the same year, with a large hoop, hair well powdered, a
little hat at the back of her head with long strings, very short
petticoats, and shoes with buckles.

JULIA R. BOCKETT.

Southcote Lodge.

_Office of Sexton held by one Family_ (Vol. ix., p. 171.).--A search into
parish registers would, I think, show that the office of clerk was often a
hereditary one. In Worcestershire, for example, the family of Rose at
Bromsgrove, and the family of Osborne at Belbroughton, have supplied
hereditary clerks to those parishes through many generations. In the latter
case, also, the trade of a tailor has also been hereditary to an Osborne,
in conjunction with his duties as clerk. The Mr. Tristram, who was the
patron of the living of Belbroughton (afterwards sold to St. John's
College, Oxford), states, in a letter to the bishop (Lyttelton), that the
Osbornes were tailors in Belbroughton in the reign of Henry VIII. They are
tailors, as well as clerks, to this day, but they can trace their descent
to a period of more than {503} three centuries before Henry VIII. The
office of parish clerk and sexton has also been hereditary in the parishes
of Hope and King's Norton, Worcestershire.

CUTHBERT BEDE, B. A.

_Lyra's Commentary_ (Vol. ix., p. 323.).--The human figure described by
EDWARD PEACOCK as impressed on one cover of his curious old copy of the
_Textus biblie_, &c., has no glory round the head, or over it, by his
account. This would warrant the conclusion that it was not intended for any
saint, or it might almost pass for a St. Christopher. But I believe it is
meant as emblematic of a Christian generally, in his passage through this
life. I suspect that what MR. PEACOCK speaks of as a "fence composed of
interlaced branches of trees," is intended to represent waves of water by
undulating lines. The figure appears to be wading through the waters of the
tribulations of this life, by the help of his staff, just as St.
Christopher is represented. This may account for the loose appearance of
his nether habiliments, which are tucked up, so as to leave the knees bare.
The wallet is a very fit accompaniment for the pilgrim's staff. The wicker
basket holds his more precious goods; but, to show the insecurity of their
tenure, the pilgrim has a sword ready for their defence.

It is not so easy to account for the animals on the other cover. My
conjecture is, that at least the four lower ones are meant for the
emblematic figures of the four evangelists. The bird may be the eagle, the
monkey the man; the dog may, on closer scrutiny, be found to look something
like the ox or calf; and the lion speaks for itself. But I can attempt no
explanation of the upper figures, which MR. PEACOCK says "may be horses." I
should much like to see drawings of the whole, both human and animal,
having a great predilection for studying such puzzles. But if the above
hints prove of any service, it will gratify

F. C. HUSENBETH, D.D.,

Compiler of the _Emblems of Saints_.

_Blackguard_ (Vol. vii., p. 77. Vol. viii., p. 414.).--Many contributions
towards the history of this word have appeared in the pages of "N. & Q."
May I forward another instance of its being in early use, although not
altogether in its modern acceptation?

A copy of a medical work in my possession (a 12mo., printed in 1622, and in
the original binding) has fly-leaves from some _printed_ book, as is often
the case in volumes of that date. These fly-leaves seem to be part of some
descriptive sketches of different classes of society, published towards the
early part of the seventeenth century; and some of your readers may be able
to identify the work from my description of these of sheets. No. 14. is
headed "An unworthy Judge;" 16. "An unworthy Knight and Souldier;" 17. "A
worthy Gentleman;" 18. "An unworthy Gentleman," &c. At p 13., No. 27.,
occurs "A Bawde of the Blacke Guard," with her description in about sixteen
lines. She is said to be "well verst in the black art, to accommodate them
of the black guard: a weesel-look't gossip she is in all places, where herr
mirth is a bawdy tale," and so on.

Judging from these fly-leaves, the work from which they have been taken
appears to have been an octavo or small quarto. "Finis" stands on the
reverse of the leaf whence my extract is copied.

JAYDEE.

Another instance of the use of the word _black-guard_, in the sense given
to it in "N. & Q." (Vol. ii., pp. 170. 285.), is to be found in Burton's
_Anatomy of Melancholy_, part i. sect. 2., "A Digression of the Nature of
Spirits, bad Angels, or Devils, &c.," in a passage, part of which is given
as a quotation. "Generally they far excel men in worth, as a man the
meanest worme;" though some of then are "inferior to those of their own
rank in worth, as the _black-guard_ of a prince's court, and to men again,
as some degenerate, base, rational creatures are excelled of brute beasts."
The edition of Burton I quote from is 1652.

C. DE D.

    "Augustus Cæsar on a time, as he was passing through Rome, and saw
    certain strange women lulling apes and whelps in their arms: 'What!'
    said he; 'have the women of these countries none other children?' So
    may I say unto you [Dr. Cole], that make so much of Gerson, Driedo,
    Royard, and Tapper: Have the learned men of your side none other
    doctors? For, alas! these that ye allege are scarcely worthy to be
    allowed amongst the _black guard_."--Bp. Jewel's _Works_ (P. S. ed.),
    vol. i. p. 72.

This is, I think, an earlier example than any that has yet been given in
"N. & Q."

W. P. STORER.

Olney, Bucks.

"_Atonement_" (Vol. ix., p. 271.).--The word [Greek: katallagê], used by
Æschylus and Demosthenes, occurs 2 Cor. v. 19., Rom. xi. 15. v. 11. The
word _atonement_ bears two senses: the first, _reconciliation_, as used by
Sir Thomas More, Shakspeare, Beaumont and Fletcher, and Bishops Hall and
Taylor; the second, _expiation_, as employed by Milton, Swift, and Cowper.
In the latter meaning, we find it in Numbers, and other books of the Old
Testament, as the translation of [Greek: hilasma].

Waterland speaks of "the doctrine of expiation, atonement, or satisfaction,
made by Christ in His blood" (_Disc. of Fundamentals_, vol. v. p. 82.).
Barrow, Secker, and Beveridge use the word _atone_ or _atonement_ in this
combined sense of the term. R. Gloucester, Chaucer, and Dryden expressly
speak "at one," in a similar way; and, {504} not to multiply passages, we
may merely cite Tyndal:

    "There is but one mediator, Christ, as saith St. Paul, 1 Tim. ii., and
    by that word understand an _atone-maker_, a peace-maker, and bringer
    into grace and favour, having full power so to do."--_Expos. of Tracy's
    Testament_, p. 275., Camb. 1850.

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A.

As a contribution towards the solution of J. H. B.'s Query, I send you the
following extracts from Richardson's _Dictionary_:

    "And like as he made the Jewes and the Gentiles _at one_ between
    themselves, even so he made them both _at one_ with God, that there
    should be nothing to break the _atonement_; but that the thynges in
    heaven and the thynges in earth shoulde be ioyned together as it were
    into _one_ body."--_Udal_, _Ephesians_, c. ii.

    "Paul sayth, 1 Tim. ij., 'One God, one Mediatour (that is to say,
    aduocate, intercessor, or an _atonemaker_) betwene God and man: the man
    Christ Jesus, which gaue himself a raunsom for all men."--Tyndal,
    _Workes_, p. 158.

I am unacquainted with the work referred to in the first extract. The
second is from _The Whole Works of W. Tindal, John Frith, and Dr. Barnes_
[edited by Foxe], Lond. 1573. The title of the work which contains the
passage is, _The Obedience of a Christian Man, set forth by William
Tindal_, 1528, Oct. 2.

[Greek: Halieus].

Dublin.

_Bible of 1527_ (Vol. ix., p. 352.).--In reference to the monogram inquired
after in this Query, I think I have seen it, or one very similar, among the
"mason marks" on Strasburg Tower, which would seem a place of Freemason
pilgrimage: for the soft stone is deeply carved in various places within
the tower with such marks as this, together with initials and dates of
visit. I have also marks very similar from the stones of the tower of the
pretty little cathedral of Freiburg, Briesgau. I should incline to think it
a Masonic mark, and not that of an engraver on wood, or of a printer.

A. B. R.

Belmont.

_Shrove Tuesday_ (Vol. ix., p. 324.).--The bell described as rung on Shrove
Tuesday at Newbury, was no doubt the old summons which used to call our
ancestors to the priest to be shrived, or confessed, on that day. It is
commonly called the "Pancake Bell," because it was also the signal for the
cook to put the pancake on the fire. This savoury couplet occurs in _Poor
Robin_ for 1684:

 "But hark, I hear the pancake bell,
  And fritters make a gallant smell."

The custom of ringing this bell has been retained in many parishes. It is
orthodoxly rung at Ecclesfield from eleven to twelve a.m. Plenty of
information on this subject may be found in Brand's _Popular Antiquities_.

ALFRED GATTY.

_Milton's Correspondence_ (Vol. viii., p. 640.).--A translation of Milton's
Latin familiar correspondence, made by John Hall, Esq., of the Philadelphia
bar, now a Presbyterian clergyman at Trenton, N.J., was published about
eighteen or twenty years ago in this city.

UNEDA.

Philadelphia

"_Verbatim et literatim_" (Vol. ix., p. 348.).--Your correspondent L. H. J.
TONNA, in proposing for the latter part of the above phrase the form _ad
literam_, might as well have extended his amendment, and suggested _ad
verbum et literam_; for I should imagine there is quite as little authority
for the word _verbatim_ being used in the Latin language, as for that of
_literatim_. Vossius is an authority for the latter; but can any of your
correspondents oblige me by citing one for the former, notwithstanding its
frequent adoption in English conversation and writings? Neither _verbatim_
nor _literatim_ will be found in Riddle.

N. L. J.

_Epigrams_ (Vol. vii., p. 175.).--The epigram, "How D.D. swaggers, M.D.
rolls," &c., was written by Horace Smith, and may be found in the _New
Monthly Magazine_ for 1823, in the article called "Grimm's Ghost. Letter
XII."

UNEDA.

Philadelphia.

       *       *       *       *       *


Miscellaneous.

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.

In days like these, when so many of our new books are but old ones newly
dressed up, a work of original research, and for which the materials have
been accumulated by the writer with great labour and diligence, deserves
especial commendation. Of such a character is the _Catholic History of
England; its Rulers, Clergy, and Poor, before the Reformation, as described
by the Monkish Historians_, by Bernard William MacCabe, of which the third
volume, extending from the reign of Edward Martyr to the Norman Conquest,
has just been published. The volumes bear evidence in every page that they
are, as the author describes them, "the results of the writing and research
of many hours--the only hours for many years that I had to spare from other
and harder toils." Himself a zealous and sincere follower of the "ancient
faith," Mr. MacCabe's views of the characters and events of which he is
treating, naturally assume the colouring of his own mind: many, therefore,
will dissent from them. None of his readers will, however, dissent from
bestowing upon his work the praise of being carefully compiled and most
originally written. None will deny the charm with which Mr. MacCabe has
invested his History, by his admirable mode of making the old Monkish
writers tell their own story. {505}

We some time since called the attention of our readers to a new periodical
which had been commenced at Göttingen, under the title of _Zeitschrift für
Deutsche Mythologie und Sittenkunde_, under the editorship of T. W. Wolf.
We have since received the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Parts of it from Messrs.
Williams and Norgate, and hope shortly to transfer from its pages to our
columns a few of the many curious illustrations of our own Folk Lore, with
which it abounds.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_The Works of John Locke_, vol. i., _Philosophical Works,
with a preliminary Essay and Notes_, by J. A. St. John, is the first volume
of a collected edition of the writings of this distinguished English
philosopher, intended to form a portion of Bohn's _Standard Library_.--_The
Diary and Letters of Madame D'Arblay_, vol. iv., 1788-89. Worth more than
its cost for its pictures of Fox, Burke, Wyndham, &c., and Hastings'
Impeachment.--_A Poet's Children_, by Patrick Scott. A shilling's worth of
miscellaneous poems from the pen of this imaginative but somewhat eccentric
bard.--_Points of War, I. II. III. IV._, by Franklin Lushington. Mr.
Lushington is clearly an admirer of Tennyson, and has caught not a little
of the mannerism and not a few of the graces of his great model.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES WANTED TO PURCHASE.

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the
gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are
given for that purpose:

The following Works of Symon Patrick, late Lord Bishop of Ely, &c.:--

A PRAYER FOR PERFECTING OUR LATE DELIVERANCE. 1689.

A PRAYER FOR CHARITY, PEACE, AND UNITY, chiefly to be used in Lent.

A PRAYER FOR THE KING'S SUCCESS IN IRELAND. 1690.

A LETTER TO THE CLERGY OF THE DIOCESE OF ELY, at his Primary Visitation.
1692.

THE DIGNITY OF THE CHRISTIAN PRIESTHOOD, delivered to his Clergy at his
Fourth Triennial Visitation. 1701.

AN EXHORTATION TO THE CLERGY BEFORE HIS FIFTH TRIENNIAL VISITATION. 1704.
With a discourse on Rev. xvi. 9., upon occasion of the late terrible Storm
of Wind.

AN EXHORTATION AT HIS SIXTH TRIENNIAL VISITATION. 1707.

  Wanted by the _Rev. Alexander Taylor_, 3. Blomfield Terrace, Paddington.

ARCHÆOLOGIA, Vol. III.

  Wanted by the _Rev. G. H. Dashwood_, Stow Bardolph, Burnham Market,
      Norfolk.

THE HUNDRED AND TEN CONSIDERATIONS OF SIGNIOR JOHN VALDESSO, translated by
Nich. Farrer. Oxford, 1638; or the later edition of 1650.

  Wanted by _Mr. J. G. Nichols_, 25. Parliament Street.

ARCHBISHOP LAWRENCE'S EXAMINATION OF GRIESBACH'S SYSTEMATIC CLASSIFICATION
OF MSS.

  Wanted by _Longman & Co._, Paternoster Row.

POEMS ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS, by William Broome, LL.D. London, 1727-1739.
8vo.

ASSIZE SERMON, by the same, on Ps. cxxii. 6. 4to. 1737.

SERMON, by the same, on 1 Tim. ii. 1, 2. 8vo. 1700.

  Wanted by _T. W. Barlow_, St. James' Chambers, Manchester.

OSW. CROLLIUS'S ADMONITORY PREFACE, in English, London, 1657, 8vo.

---- THE MYSTERIES OF NATURE. London, 1657. 8vo.

---- ON SIGNATURES. London, 1669. Folio.

  Wanted by _J. G._, care of Messrs. Ponsonby, Booksellers, Grafton Street,
      Dublin.

WARREN'S COLLECTION OF GLEES. Wanted, to perfect the Set, Nos. 7. 10. 17.
25. and 27 to 32 inclusive. Any one possessing the above, or a portion of
them, may hear of a purchaser, upon application at Novello's Sacred Music
Warehouse, 69. Dean Street, Soho Square.

       *       *       *       *       *


Notices to Correspondents.

EDEN WARWICK. _The paragraph respecting the Crystal Palace has already
appeared in our columns._

SIGMA. _How can we forward a letter to this Correspondent?_

ENQUIRER. _Our Correspondent's Query is not apparent. The Rolls House and
Chapel, in Chancery Lane, never "reverted to their original use," that is,
as a House of Maintenance for Converted Jews._

J. G. T. _For the origin of Bands worn by clergymen, lawyers, and others,
see our Second Volume_, pp. 23. 76. 126.

"VITA CRUCEM," &c. _We have to apologise for having mislaid the copy of the
following distich, requesting a translation as well as the authorship of
it:_

 "Vita crucem, et vivas, hominem si noscere velles,
  Quis, quid, cur, cujus passus amore fuit."

_Which may be literally translated, _"Shun the Cross, that you may live, if
you would know Him aright, Who and what He was, why and for love of whom He
suffered."_ These lines seem to be a caveat against the adoration of the
material Cross, and were probably composed during the domination of the
fanatics in Cromwell's time, when that redoubtable Goth, Master William
Dowsing, demolished whatever was inscribed with the Cross, whether of
brass, marble, or other material.--Our Correspondent will find the line,
_"A falcon towering in his pride of place,"_ in _Macbeth_, Act II. Sc. 4._

OUR EIGHTH VOLUME _is now bound and ready for delivery, price 10s. 6d.,
cloth, boards. A few sets of the whole Eight Volumes are being made up,
price 4l. 4s.--For these early application is desirable._

"NOTES AND QUERIES" _is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country
Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to
their Subscribers on the Saturday_.

       *       *       *       *       *


On the 1st of June, and on the first day of every Month, will be published,
price Sixpence, the

JOURNAL OF PROGRESS:

An Advocate of advanced Views in SOCIAL, MORAL, INDUSTRIAL, AND POLITICAL
ECONOMY; and RECORD OF STATISTICS.

This Journal is projected, and will be supported, by persons devoted to the
practical objects which chiefly affect the welfare of society.

It will also be sent regularly to every Member of Parliament.

GEORGE BELL, Publisher, 186. Fleet Street, London.

Order of all Booksellers and Newsmen.

       *       *       *       *       *


Now ready, crown 8vo.

A New Edition, in large type, of

THE SACRED GARLAND,

or,

THE CHRISTIAN'S DAILY DELIGHT.

"Pluck a Flower."

Price 5s. cloth lettered: 9s. full calf: 12s. morocco elegant.

Upwards of 100,000 copies of this book in a smaller form have been sold.

MILNER & SOWERBY, Halifax.

       *       *       *       *       *


MESSRS. TRÜBNER & CO. HAVE JUST PUBLISHED

WHITTY.--THE GOVERNING CLASSES OF GREAT BRITAIN: POLITICAL PORTRAITS. By
EDWARD M. WHITTY. Foolscap 8vo., price 1s. 6d.

MORELL.--RUSSIA AND ENGLAND, THEIR STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS. By JOHN REYNELL
MORELL. Foolscap 8vo., price 1s.

TRÜBNER & CO., 12. Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *


{506}

BOHN'S STANDARD LIBRARY FOR JUNE.

COWPER'S COMPLETE WORKS, edited by SOUTHEY; comprising his Poems,
Correspondence, and Translations; with Memoir. Illustrated with Fifty fine
Engravings on Steel, after designs by Harvey. To be completed in Eight
Volumes. Vol. IV. Conclusion of Memoir and Correspondence, with General
Index to same. Post 8vo. cloth. 3s. 6d.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOHN'S BRITISH CLASSICS FOR JUNE.

DEFOE'S WORKS, edited by SIR WALTER SCOTT. Vol. I. Containing the Life,
Adventures, and Piracies of Captain Singleton, and the Life of Colonel
Jack. With fine Portrait of Defoe. Post 8vo. cloth. 3s. 6d.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOHN'S ILLUSTRATED LIBRARY FOR JUNE.

INDIA, PICTORIAL, DESCRIPTIVE, and HISTORICAL, from the Earliest Times to
the Present. Illustrated by upwards of One Hundred fine Engravings on Wood,
and Map of Hindoostan. Post 8vo. cloth, 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOHN'S ANTIQUARIAN LIBRARY FOR JUNE.

ORDERICUS VITALIS: his Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy,
translated with Notes and the Introduction of Guizot, by T. FORESTER, M.A.
Vol. III. Post 8vo. cloth. 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN. 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOHN'S PHILOLOGICAL LIBRARY FOR JUNE.

LOGIC, OR THE SCIENCE OF INFERENCE, a popular Manual, by J. DEVEY. Post
8vo. cloth. 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


BOHN'S CLASSICAL LIBRARY FOR JUNE.

THE ELEGIES OF PROPERTIUS, the Satyricon of Petronius Arbiter, and the
KISSES of JOHANNES SECUNDUS, literally translated, and accompanied by
Poetical Versions, from various sources: to which are added, the LOVE
EPISTLES OF ARISTÆNETUS, translated by R. BRINSLEY SHERIDAN and H. HALHED.
Edited by WALTER K. KELLY. Post 8vo. cloth. 5s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


NORWAY. A Road Book for Tourists in Norway, with Hints to English Sportsmen
and Anglers, by THOMAS FORESTER, Esq. Post 8vo. limp cloth. 2s.

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, 5, & 6. York Street, Covent Garden.

       *       *       *       *       *


W. S. LINCOLN & SON, Caxton House, Blackfriars Road, London (removed from
Westminster Road), will forward Gratis and Post Free to all Applicants,
their June Catalogue of Cheap English and Foreign second-hand Books.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, with ten coloured Engravings, price 5s.

NOTES ON AQUATIC MICROSCOPIC SUBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY, selected from the
"Microscopic Cabinet." By ANDREW PRITCHARD, M.R.I.

Also, in 8vo., pp. 720, plates 24, price 21s., or coloured, 36s.,

A HISTORY OF INFUSORIAL ANIMALCULES, Living and Fossil, containing
Descriptions of every species, British and Foreign, the methods of
procuring and viewing them, &c., illustrated by numerous Engravings. By
ANDREW PRITCHARD, M.R.I.

    "There is no work extant in which so much valuable information
    concerning Infusoria (Animalcules) can be found, and every Microscopist
    should add it to his library."--_Silliman's Journal._

London: WHITTAKER & CO., Ave Maria Lane.

       *       *       *       *       *


W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of
Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are
greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in
Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches
among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or
other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature,
History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had
considerable experience.

1. ALBERT TERRACE, NEW CROSS, HATCHAM, SURREY.

       *       *       *       *       *


DR. DE JONGH'S LIGHT BROWN COD LIVER OIL. Prepared for medicinal use in the
Loffoden Isles, Norway, and put to the test of chemical analysis. The most
effectual remedy for Consumption, Asthma, Gout, Chronic Rheumatism, and all
Scrofulous Diseases.

Approved of and recommended by BERZELIUS, LIEBIG, WOEHLER, JONATHAN
PEREIRA, FOUQUIER, and numerous other eminent medical men and scientific
chemists in Europe. Specially rewarded with medals by the Governments of
Belgium and the Netherlands. Has almost entirely superseded all other kinds
on the Continent, in consequence of its proved superior power and
efficacy--effecting a cure much more rapidly. Contains iodine, phosphate of
chalk, volatile acid, and the elements of the bile--in short, all its most
active and essential principles--in larger quantities than the pale oils
made in England and Newfoundland, deprived mainly of these by their mode of
preparation. A pamphlet by Dr. de Jongh, with detailed remarks upon its
superiority, directions for use, cases in which it has been prescribed with
the greatest success, and testimonials, forwarded gratis on application.

The subjoined testimonial of BARON LIEBIG, Professor of Chemistry at the
University of Giessen, is selected from innumerable others from medical and
scientific men of the highest distinction:

    "SIR,--I have the honour of addressing you my warmest thanks for your
    attention in forwarding me your work on the chemical composition and
    properties, as well as on the medicinal effects, of various kinds of
    Cod Liver Oil.

    "You have rendered an essential service to science by your researches,
    and your efforts to provide sufferers with this Medicine in its purest
    and most genuine state, must ensure you the gratitude of every one who
    stands in need of its use.

    "I have the honor of remaining, with expressions of the highest regard
    and esteem,

             "Yours sincerely,
                 "DR. JUSTUS LIEBIG."

         "Giessen, Oct. 30. 1847.
     "To Dr. de Jongh at the Hague."

Sold Wholesale and Retail, in bottles, labelled with Dr. de Jongh's Stamp
and Signature, by ANSAR, HARFORD, & CO., 77. Strand, Sole Consignees and
Agents for the United Kingdom and British Possessions; and by all
respectable Chemists and Venders of Medicine in Town and Country, at the
following prices:--Imperial Measure, Half-pints, 2s. 6d.; Pints, 4s. 9d.

       *       *       *       *       *


On 1st June will be published, Part I., price 4s.

MISCELLANEA GRAPHICA: a Collection of Ancient Mediæval and Renaissance
Remains, in the possession of the LORD LONDESBOROUGH. Illustrated by F. W.
FAIRHOLT, F.S.A., &c.

The Work will be published in Nine Quarterly Parts, of royal 4to. size,
each Part containing Four Plates, One of which will be in
Chromo-lithography, representing Jewellery, Antique Plate, Arms, and
Armour, and Miscellaneous Antiquities.

London: CHAPMAN & HALL, 193. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, in 4 vols. 8vo., price 2l. in Sheets.

ORIGINES KALENDARIÆ ITALICÆ; Nundinal Calendars of Ancient Italy; Nundinal
Calendar of Romulus; Calendar of Numa Pompilius; Calendar of the Decemvirs;
Irregular Roman Calendar, and Julian Correction. TABLES OF THE ROMAN
CALENDAR, from U.C. 4 of Varro B.C. 750 to U.C. 1108 A.D. 355. By EDWARD
GRESWELL. B.D., Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford.

Oxford: at the UNIVERSITY PRESS.

Sold by JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford, and 377. Strand, London; and GARDNER, 7.
Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, 8vo., price 2s. 6d.

PRELIMINARY ADDRESS of the ORIGINES KALENDARIÆ ITALICÆ, lately published at
the OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS. With some further observations. By EDWARD
GRESWELL, B.D., Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford.

JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford; and 377. Strand, London.

Cambridge: J. DEIGHTON.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, 8vo., price 10s. in Sheets.

THEODORETI Episcopi Cyri Ecclesiasticæ Historiæ Libri Quinque cum
Interpretatione Latina et Annotationibus Henrici Valesii. Recensuit THOMAS
GAISFORD, S. T. P., Ædis Christi Decanus necnon Linguæ Græcæ Professor
Regius.

Oxonii: E TYPOGRAPHEO ACADEMICO.

Sold by JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford, and 377. Strand, London; and GARDNER, 7.
Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *


Just published, 8vo., price 5s. 6d. in Sheets.

SYNODUS ANGLICANA. By Edmund Gibson, D.D., afterwards Bishop of London.
Edited by EDWARD CARDWELL, D.D., Principal of St. Alban's Hall.

Oxford: at the UNIVERSITY PRESS.

Sold by JOHN HENRY PARKER, Oxford, and 337. Strand, London; and GARDNER, 7.
Paternoster Row.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of
upwards of 100 articles consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS,
Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and
other travellers' requisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by Post
on receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their
Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new
Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles
of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 18. & 23. West Strand.

       *       *       *       *       *


{507}

COLLODION PORTRAITS AND VIEWS obtained with the greatest ease and certainty
by using BLAND & LONG'S preparation of Soluble Cotton; certainty and
uniformity of action over a lengthened period, combined with the most
faithful rendering of the half-tones, constitute this a most valuable agent
in the hands of the photographer.

Albumenized paper, for printing from glass or paper negatives, giving a
minuteness of detail unattained by any other method, 5s. per Quire.

Waxed and Iodized Papers of tried quality.

Instruction in the Processes.

BLAND & LONG, Opticians and Photographical Instrument Makers, and Operative
Chemists, 153. Fleet Street, London.

*** Catalogues sent on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE SIGHT preserved by the Use of SPECTACLES adapted to suit every variety
of Vision by means of SMEE'S OPTOMETER, which effectually prevents Injury
to the Eyes from the Selection of Improper Glasses, and is extensively
employed by

BLAND & LONG, Opticians, 153. Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHY.--HORNE & CO.'S Iodized Collodion, for obtaining Instantaneous
Views, and Portraits in from three to thirty seconds, according to light.

Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest
Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this
beautiful Art.--123. and 121. Newgate Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.--J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 289. Strand, have,
by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal,
they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any
other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and
appreciation of half-tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of
Photography. Instruction in the Art.

THE COLLODION AND POSITIVE PAPER PROCESS. By J. B. HOCKIN. Price 1s., per
Post, 1s. 2d.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC CAMERAS.

OTTEWILL AND MORGAN'S

Manufactory, 24. & 25. Charlotte Terrace, Caledonian Road, Islington.

OTTEWILL'S Registered Double Body Folding Camera, adapted for Landscapes or
Portraits, may be had of A. ROSS, Featherstone Buildings, Holborn; the
Photographic Institution, Bond Street; and at the Manufactory as above,
where every description of Cameras, Slides, and Tripods may be had. The
Trade supplied.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS, MATERIALS, and PURE CHEMICAL PREPARATIONS.

KNIGHT & SONS' Illustrated Catalogue, containing Description and Price of
the best forms of Cameras and other Apparatus. Voightlander and Son's
Lenses for Portraits and Views, together with the various Materials, and
pure Chemical Preparations required in practising the Photographic Art.
Forwarded free on receipt of Six Postage Stamps.

Instructions given in every branch of the Art.

An extensive Collection of Stereoscopic and other Photographic Specimens.

GEORGE KNIGHT & SONS, Foster Lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Important Sale by Auction of the whole of the remaining Copies of that
    splendid National Work, known as "FINDEN'S ROYAL GALLERY OF BRITISH
    ART," the engraved Plates of which will be destroyed during the
    Progress of the Sale, and in the presence of the Purchasers.

SOUTHGATE & BARRETT have received instructions from MR. HOGARTH, of the
Haymarket, to Sell by Public Auction at their Fine Art and Book Auction
Rooms, 22. Fleet Street, London, on Wednesday Evening, June 7th, and
following Evenings,

THE WHOLE OF THE REMAINING COPIES

Of the very Celebrated Work, known as

FINDEN'S ROYAL GALLERY OF BRITISH ART,

Consisting of a limited number of Artists' and other choice proofs, and the
print impressions, which are all in an exceedingly fine state. The work
consists of 48 plates, the whole of which are engraved in line by the most
eminent men in that branch of art, and the pictures selected will at once
show that the great artists--Turner, Eastlake, Landseer, Stanfield,
Webster, Roberts, Wilkie, Maclise, Mulready, and more than thirty other
British Masters, are represented by the works which established and upheld
them in public favour, and by themes which appeal to universal sympathy and
happiest affections, or which delineate the peculiar glories of our
country, and commemorate its worthiest and most honourable achievements.

The attention of the public is also particularly directed to the fact that
ALL THE ENGRAVED PLATES from which the impressions now offered have been
taken, WILL BE DESTROYED IN THE PRESENCE OF THE PURCHASERS, at the time of
Sale. By thus securing the market from being supplied with inferior
impressions at a future time, and at a cheaper rate, the value of the
existing stock will be increased, and it will become the interest of all
who wish to possess copies of these eminent works of art, at a reduced
price, to purchase them at this Sale, which will be THE ONLY OPPORTUNITY of
obtaining them.

Under these circumstances, therefore, SOUTHGATE & BARRETT presume to demand
for this Sale the attention of all lovers of art--the amateur, the artist,
and the public:--believing that no opportunity has ever offered so happily
calculated to promote taste and to extend knowledge, while ministering to
the purest and best enjoyments which the artist conveys to the hearts and
homes of all who covet intellectual pleasures.

Framed Copies of the work can be seen at MR. HOGARTH'S, 5. Haymarket;
MESSRS. LLOYD, BROTHERS, & CO., 22. Ludgate Hill; and at the AUCTIONEERS,
22. Fleet Street, by whom all Communications and Commissions will be
promptly and faithfully attended to.

*** Catalogues of the entire Sale will be forwarded on Receipt of 12
Postage Stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *


    Sale by Auction of the Stocks of extremely Valuable Modern Engravings,
    the engraved Plates of which will be destroyed in the presence of the
    Purchasers at the Time of Sale.

SOUTHGATE & BARRETT beg to announce that they will include in their Sale by
Auction of "FINDEN'S ROYAL GALLERY," and other Valuable Works of Art of a
similar character, to take place at their Fine Art and Book Auction Rooms,
22. Fleet Street, London, on Wednesday Evening, June 7th, and Seventeen
following Evenings (Saturdays and Sundays excepted), the whole of the
STOCKS OF PROOFS AND PRINTS of the following HIGHLY IMPORTANT ENGRAVINGS,
published by MR. HOGARTH and MESSRS. LLOYD & CO.

    "Ehrenbreitstein," painted by J. M. W. Turner, R. A., engraved by John
    Pye. "Ecce Homo," from the picture by Correggio, engraved by G. T. Doo.
    "The Dame School," painted by T. Webster, R. A., engraved by L. Stocks.
    "Eton Montem," two views illustrative of, from pictures by Evans of
    Eton, engraved by Charles Lewis. "Portrait of Mrs. Elizabeth Fry,"
    engraved by Samuel Cousins, A.R.A., from a picture by George Richmond.
    "Portraits of eminent Persons," by George Richmond and C. Baugniet.
    "Portrait of W. C. Macready, Esq., as Werner," painted by D. Maclise,
    R. A., engraved by Sharpe. Flowers of German Art, a series of 20 plates
    by the most eminent engravers. Cranstone's Fugitive Etchings, 17
    plates. Turner and Girtin's River Scenery, 30 plates. "Cottage Piety,"
    painted by Thomas Faed, engraved by Henry Lemon (unpublished). "See
    Saw," painted by T. Webster, R. A., engraved by Holl (unpublished).
    "Village Pastor," painted by W. P. Frith, R. A., engraved by Holl. "The
    Immaculate Conception," painted by Guido, engraved in line by W. H.
    Watt. "Harvey demonstrating to Charles the First his Theory of the
    Circulation of the Blood," painted by Hannah, engraved by Lemon. "The
    Origin of Music," painted by Selous, engraved by Wass. "The First
    Step," painted by Faed, engraved by Sharpe. "The Prize Cartoons,"
    published by Messrs. Longmans & Co. And numerous other highly
    interesting and valuable works of Art.

ALL THE ENGRAVED PLATES of the above-mentioned engravings WILL BE DESTROYED
in the presence of the purchasers at the time of sale, which will thereby
secure to the purchasers the same advantages as are mentioned in the
advertisement given above, of the sale of the remaining copies of "Finden's
Royal Gallery."

Framed Impressions of each of the plates can be seen at MR. HOGARTH'S, 5.
Haymarket; at MESSRS. LLOYD, BROTHERS, & CO., 22. Ludgate Hill; and at the
AUCTIONEERS, 22. Fleet Street, by whom all communications and commissions
will be promptly and faithfully attended to.

*** Catalogues of the entire sale will be forwarded on receipt of 12
Postage Stamps.

       *       *       *       *       *


    The very extensive, highly important, and extremely choice Stock of
    MODERN ENGLISH AND FOREIGN ENGRAVINGS, WATER-COLOUR DRAWINGS, and
    expensive Books of Prints, of MR. HOGARTH of the Haymarket.

SOUTHGATE & BARRETT will Sell by Auction at their Fine Art and Book Auction
Rooms, 22. Fleet Street, on Wednesday Evening, June 7th, and Seventeen
following Evenings (Saturdays and Sundays excepted), in the same sale as
the "FINDEN'S ROYAL GALLERY OF BRITISH ART," this extremely valuable and
highly interesting Stock. Amongst the ENGRAVINGS will be found in the BEST
STATES OF ARTISTS' and other CHOICE PROOFS, nearly all the popular plates
that have been published during the last quarter of a century; also an
Important Collection of Foreign Line Engravings in the best states; a large
variety of Portraits and other subjects after Sir Joshua Reynolds, some
very rare; an extensive series of prints by Hogarth, in early proofs, and
with curious variations; a most complete series of artists' proofs of the
works of George Cruikshank, including nearly all his early productions,
many unique; a number of scarce Old Prints, and a series in fine states by
Sir Robert Strange. The Stock is peculiarly rich in the works of J. M. W.
Turner, R. A., and comprises artists' proofs and the choicest states of all
his important productions, and matchless copies of the England and Wales
and Southern Coast. The Collection of HIGH-CLASS WATER-COLOUR DRAWINGS
consists of examples of the most eminent artists (particularly some
magnificent specimens by J. M. W. Turner), as well as a great variety of
the early English School, and some by the Ancient Masters; also a most
interesting Collection by Members of the Sketching Society. Of the Modern
School are examples by--

  Absolon        |  Lewis, J.
  Austin         |  Liverseege
  Barrett        |  Maclise
  Cattermole     |  Muller
  Collins        |  Nesfield
  Fielding, C.   |  Prout
  Holland        |  Tayler, F.
  Hunt           |  Uwins
  Landseer, E.   |  Webster
  Leslie         |  Wilkie

Catalogues of the entire Sale will be forwarded on receipt of 12 postage
stamps, and all communications and commissions promptly and faithfully
attended to.

22. Fleet Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


{508}

WESTERN LIFE ASSURANCE AND ANNUITY SOCIETY.

3. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON.

Founded A.D. 1842.

  _Directors._

  H. E. Bicknell, Esq.          | T. Grissell, Esq.
  T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.  | J. Hunt, Esq.
  G. H. Drew, Esq.              | J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  W. Evans, Esq.                | E. Lucas, Esq.
  W. Freeman, Esq.              | J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  F. Fuller, Esq.               | J. B. White, Esq.
  J. H. Goodhart, Esq.          | J. Carter Wood, Esq.

  _Trustees._--W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell,
      Esq.
  _Physician._--William Rich. Basham, M.D.
  _Bankers._--Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.

VALUABLE PRIVILEGE.

POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary
difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to
suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in
the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in
three-fourths of the Profits:--

  Age       £   s.  d. | Age       £   s.  d.
   17       1  14   4  |  32       2  10   8
   22       1  18   8  |  37       2  18   6
   27       2   4   5  |  42       3   8   2

ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., F.R.A.S., Actuary.

Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions,
INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING
SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in
the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a
Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR
SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3.
Parliament Street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


BANK OF DEPOSIT. No. 3. Pall Mall East, and 7. St. Martin's Place,
Trafalgar Square, London.

_Established_ A.D. 1844.

INVESTMENT ACCOUNTS may be opened daily, with capital of any amount.

Interest payable in January and July.

  PETER MORRISON.
    Managing Director.

Prospectuses and Forms sent free on application.

       *       *       *       *       *


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X.,
in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates,
may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made
Patent Levers, 17, 15 and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4
guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas.
Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with
Chronometer Balance, Gold, 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket
Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully
examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and
4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT. Watch, Clock and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the
Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,

65. CHEAPSIDE.

       *       *       *       *       *


CHUBB'S LOCKS, with all the recent improvements. Strong fire-proof safes,
cash and deed boxes. Complete lists of sizes and prices may be had on
application.

    CHUBB & SON, 57. St. Paul's Churchyard, London; 28. Lord Street,
    Liverpool; 16. Market Street, Manchester; and Horseley Fields,
    Wolverhampton.

       *       *       *       *       *


PIANOFORTES, 25 Guineas each.--D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square
(established A.D. 1785), sole manufacturers of the ROYAL PIANOFORTES, at 25
guineas each. Every instrument warranted. The peculiar advantages of these
pianofortes arec best described in the following professional testimonial,
signed by the majority of the leading musicians of the age:--"We, the
undersigned members of the musical profession, having carefully examined
the Royal Pianofortes manufactured by MESSRS. D'ALMAINE & CO., have great
pleasure in bearing testimony to their merits and capabilities. It appears
to us impossible to produce instruments of the same size possessing a
richer and finer tone, more elastic touch, or more equal temperament, while
the elegance of their construction renders them a handsome ornament for the
library, boudoir, or drawing-room. (Signed) J. L. Abel, F. Benedict, H. R.
Bishop, J. Blewitt, J. Brizzi, T. P. Chipp, P. Delavanti, C. H. Dolby,
E. F. Fitzwilliam, W. Forde, Stephen Glover, Henri Herz, E. Harrison, H. F.
Hassé, J. L. Hatton, Catherine Hayes, W. H. Holmes, W. Kuhe, G. F.
Kiallmark, E. Land, G. Lanza, Alexander Lee, A. Leffler, E. J. Loder, W. H.
Montgomery, S. Nelson, G. A. Osborne, John Parry, H. Panofka, Henry
Phillips, F. Praegar, E. F. Rimbault, Frank Romer, G. H. Rodwell, E.
Rockel, Sims Reeves, J. Templeton, F. Weber, H. Westrop, T. H. Wright," &c.

D'ALMAINE & CO., 20. Soho Square. Lists and Designs Gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *


Patronised by the Royal Family.

TWO THOUSAND POUNDS for any person producing Articles superior to the
following:

THE HAIR RESTORED AND GREYNESS PREVENTED.

BEETHAM'S CAPILLARY FLUID is acknowledged to be the most effectual article
for Restoring the Hair in Baldness, strengthening when weak and fine,
effectually preventing falling or turning grey, and for restoring its
natural colour without the use of dye. The rich glossy appearance it
imparts is the admiration of every person. Thousands have experienced its
astonishing efficacy. Bottles 2s. 6d.; double size, 4s. 6d.; 7s. 6d. equal
to 4 small; 11s. to 6 small; 21s. to 13 small. The most perfect beautifier
ever invented.

SUPERFLUOUS HAIR REMOVED.

BEETHAM'S VEGETABLE EXTRACT does not cause pain or injury to the skin. Its
effect is unerring, and it is now patronised by royalty and hundreds of the
first families. Bottles, 5s.

BEETHAM'S PLASTER is the only effectual remover of Corns and Bunions. It
also reduces enlarged Great Toe Joints in an astonishing manner. If space
allowed, the testimony of upwards of twelve thousand individuals, during
the last five years, might be inserted. Packets, 1s.; Boxes, 2s. 6d. Sent
Free by BEETHAM, Chemist, Cheltenham, for 14 or 36 Post Stamps.

    Sold by PRING, 30. Westmorland Street; JACKSON, 9. Westland Row; BEWLEY
    & EVANS, Dublin; GOULDING, 108. Patrick Street, Cork; BARRY, 9. Main
    Street, Kinsale; GRATTAN, Belfast; MURDOCK, BROTHERS, Glasgow; DUNCAN &
    FLOCKHART, Edinburgh. SANGER, 150. Oxford Street; PROUT, 229. Strand;
    KEATING, St. Paul's Churchyard; SAVORY & MOORE, Bond Street; HANNAY,
    63. Oxford Street; London. All Chemists and Perfumers will procure
    them.

       *       *       *       *       *


PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION.

THE EXHIBITION OF PHOTOGRAPHS, by the most eminent English and Continental
Artists, is OPEN DAILY from Ten till Five. Free Admission.

                                            £  s. d.
  A Portrait by Mr. Talbot's Patent
    Process                                 1  1  0
  Additional Copies (each)                  0  5  0
  A Coloured Portrait, highly finished
    (small size)                            3  3  0
  A Coloured Portrait, highly finished
    (larger size)                           5  5  0

Miniatures, Oil Paintings, Water-Colour, and Chalk Drawings, Photographed
and Coloured in imitation of the Originals. Views of Country Mansions,
Churches, &c., taken at a short notice.

Cameras, Lenses, and all the necessary Photographic Apparatus and
Chemicals, are supplied, tested, and guaranteed.

Gratuitous Instruction is given to Purchasers of Sets of Apparatus.

PHOTOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION,
168. New Bond Street.

       *       *       *       *       *


ROSS & SONS' INSTANTANEOUS HAIR DYE, without Smell, the best and cheapest
extant.--ROSS & SONS have several private apartments devoted entirely to
Dyeing the Hair, and particularly request a visit, especially from the
incredulous, as they will undertake to dye a portion of their hair, without
charging, of any colour required, from the lightest brown to the darkest
black, to convince them of its effect.

Sold in cases at 3s. 6d., 5s. 6d., 12s., 15s., and 20s. each case. Likewise
wholesale to the Trade by the pint, quart, or gallon.

    Address, ROSS & SONS, 119. and 120. Bishopsgate Street, Six Doors from
    Cornhill, London.

       *       *       *       *       *


HEAL & SON'S SPRING MATTRESSES.--The most durable Bedding is a well-made
SPRING MATTRESS; it retains its elasticity, and will wear longer without
repair than any other mattress, and with _one_ French Wool and Hair
Mattress on it is a most luxurious Bed. HEAL & SON make them in three
varieties. For prices of the different sizes and qualities, apply for HEAL
& SON'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE OF BEDSTEADS, and priced LIST OF BEDDING. It
contains designs and prices of upwards of 100 Bedsteads, and prices of
every description of Bedding, and is sent free by Post.

HEAL & SON, 196. Tottenham Court Road.

       *       *       *       *       *


ALLSOPP'S PALE or BITTER ALE.--MESSERS. S. ALLSOPP & SONS beg to inform the
TRADE that they are now registering Orders for the March Brewings of their
PALE ALE in Casks of 18 Gallons and upwards, at the BREWERY,
Burton-on-Trent; and at the under-mentioned Branch Establishments:

  LONDON, at 61. King William Street, City.
  LIVERPOOL, at Cook Street.
  MANCHESTER, at Ducie Place.
  DUDLEY, at the Burnt Tree.
  GLASGOW, at 115. St. Vincent Street.
  DUBLIN, at 1. Crampton Quay.
  BIRMINGHAM, at Market Hall.
  SOUTH WALES, at 13. King Street, Bristol.

MESSRS. ALLSOPP & SONS take the opportunity of announcing to PRIVATE
FAMILIES that the ALES, so strongly recommended by the Medical Profession,
may be procured in DRAUGHT and BOTTLES GENUINE from all the most
RESPECTABLE LICENSED VICTUALLERS, on "ALLSOPP'S PALE ALE" being specially
asked for.

When in bottle the genuineness of the label can be ascertained by its
having "ALLSOPP & SONS" written across it.

       *       *       *       *       *


Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of
St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St.
Bride, in the City of London; and published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186.
Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of
London, Publisher at No. 186 Fleet Street aforesaid.--Saturday, May 27,
1854.

       *       *       *       *       *


Corrections made to printed original.

page 492, article Numbers, "and so on": 'and so one' in original.

page 496, article Athens, "some verses recorded by Plutarch": 'versus' in
original.





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