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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 77, April 19, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 77, April 19, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *



       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 77.]
[Price Threepence. Stamped Edition 4d.

       *       *       *       *       *


  NOTES:--                                                     Page
    Latin Drinking Song by Richard Braithwait, by S. W.
      Singer                                                    297
    Strange Appearances in the Sky, by Rev. A. Gatty            298
    "After me the Deluge," by Douglas Jerrold                   299
    Bishop Thornborough's Monument                              299

    Minor Notes:--King Richard III.--Shakspeare a
      thorough Sailor--"A fellow-feeling." &c.--Early
      Instances of the Word "News"--Under the Rose              300

    Portraits of Spenser                                        301
    The Vendace                                                 301

    Minor Queries:--Ex Pede Herculem--"To-day we
      purpose"--"God takes those soonest whom He loves
      the best"--Quakers' Attempt to convert the Pope
      --Whychcote of St. John's--Meaning of Rechibus--
      Family of Queen Katherine Parr--Skort--Religious
      Teaching in the German Universities--Epigram by
      Dunbar--Endymion Porter--Sathaniel--The Scoute
      Generall--Anthony Pomeroy, Dean of Cork                   302

    MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Civil War Tract--Trisection
      of the Circle--Wolsey's Son--Cardinals and
      Abbots in the English Church                              303

    Sir Balthazar Gerbier, by J. Crossley                       304
    The Travels of Baron Munchausen                             305

    Replies to Minor Queries:--Tobacco in the East--
      Captain John Stevens--MS. Catalogue of Norman
      Nobility--Illustrations of Chaucer, No. III.--
      Comets--Pope Joan--Abbot Euctacius--The
      Vellum-bound Junius--Meaning of Waste-book--
      Cowdray--Solemnisation of Matrimony--Epitaph
      on the Countess of Pembroke--Scandal against
      Queen Elizabeth--The Tanthony--The Hippopotamus
      --Tu autem--Places called purgatory--Swearing
      by Swans, &c.--Edmund Prideaux and the Post-office
      --Small Words and "Low" Words--Lord
      Howard of Effingham--Obeahism, &c.                        306

    Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                      310
    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                                311
    Notices to Correspondents                                   311
    Advertisements                                              311

       *       *       *       *       *



I have been surprised, from the facility with which the author of "Drunken
Barnaby" seems to pour out his Leonine verse, that no other productions of
a similar character are known to have issued from his pen. I am not aware
that the following drinking song, which may fairly be attributed to him,
has ever appeared in print. It was evidently unknown to the worthy
Haslewood, the crowning glory of whose literary career was the happy
discovery of the author, Richard Braithwait. I transcribe it from the MS.
volume from which James Boswell first gave to the world Shakspeare's verses
"On the King." Southey has somewhere said that "the best serious piece of
Latin in modern metre is Sir Francis Kinaston's _Amores Troili et
Cressidæ_, a translation of the two first books of Chaucer's Poem[1]; but
it was reserved for _famous_ BARNABY to employ the barbarous ornament of
rhyme, so as to give thereby point and character to good Latinity."

Southey does not seem to have known those remarkable productions of the
middle ages, which have been made accessible to us by the researches of
Docen, of Grimm, of Schmeller, and of Mr. Wright; and, above all, of that
exquisite gem, "De Phyllide et Flora," first printed by Docen[2], and since
given by Mr. Wright in his collection of _Poems attributed to Walter de
Mapes_. We have, however, a much better text from the hand of Jacob Grimm,
in the _Memoirs of the Academy of Berlin for 1843_, p. 239. Of this poem it
is perhaps not exaggeration to say, that it is an Idyll which would have
done honour to the literature of any age or country; and if it is the
production of Walter de Mapes, we have reason to be proud of it. It is a
dispute between two maidens on the qualities of their lovers, the one being
a soldier, the other a priest. It breathes of the spring, of nature, and of

 "Erant ambæ virgines et ambæ reginæ
  Phyllis coma libera Flora comto crine,
  Non sunt formæ virginum sed formæ divinæ,
  Et respondent facies luci matutinæ.

  Nec stirpe, nec facie, nec ornatu viles,
  Et annos et animos habent juveniles
  Sed sunt parum inpares, et parum hostiles
  Nam hinc placet clericus illi vero miles."

{298} Love is called in to decide the dispute, and it causes no surprise to
find, after due ventilation of the cause, the judgment of the court to be:

 "Secundum scientiam et secundum morem,

Your readers who are not already acquainted with this interesting picture
of ancient manners will, I think, be pleased with having it pointed out to
their notice.

Should the following song not be already in print, I can also furnish from
the same source a version of the ballad on "Robin Goodfellow" by the same
hand, should it be acceptable.[3]



 "O Pampine! quo venisti?
  Cur me spectas fronte tristi?
  Tolle caput, sis jucundus,
  Tolle poculum exue fundus,
  Et salutem jam bibamus,
  Ad sodales quos amamus;
  O Pampine! tibi primum
  Haustum summus hunc ad imum.

  Ecce de christallo factum
  Purum vas, et hoc intactum,
  Lympha nunc et succo plenum,
  Nec includit hoc venenum;
  Medicamen quod repellit
  Omnes malos, nec fefellit,
  O Pampine! invito Momo,
  Tibi, tu es meus homo.

  Hic est sacer fons et flumen,
  Quod qui potant vocant numen,
  Iras pellit, demit lites,
  Et superbos facit mites;
  Et post flumen hoc te amoenum
  Annos reparare senum:
  O Pampine! tibi habe,
  Bibe si sis dignus tabe.

  Hoc si tu gustabit nectar,
  Si sis Paris fies Hector,
  Iras demit inquietas,
  In memento facit lætas;
  Pro doloribus est solamen,
  Pro pulicibus medicamen;
  O Pampine! habe tibi,
  Bibe tu cum ego bibi.

  Hic est aqua vera fortis,
  Vincula quæ solvet mortis,
  Aut, si placet, aqua vitæ,
  Roborans ab atra Dite:
  Hinc sunt uti qui potestis
  Omnia, cibus, potis, vestis;
  O Pampine! tibi cito
  Bibe, aut ab hinc abito.

  Si frigistis, sine joco,
  Solo hoc utare foco,
  Si esuries hic sunt oves,
  Pulli, vituli, et boves;
  Quod si sitis ecce montem,
  Quem si scandes habet fontem;
  O Pampine! bibe rursus,
  Bibe, tu nam venit cursus.

  Si ægrotas sume potum,
  Vis ut valeas tolle totum,
  Cape potum hunc paratum,
  Sanus eris,--est probatum;
  Si in corpore aut in mente
  Dolebant in quavis dente;
  O Pampine! tibi statim
  Sume potum hinc gradatim.

  Bacche jam et jam Silene,
  Pocula impleatis plene,
  Ope jam adiutus vestra
  Domum, feram e fenestra.
  Ædes vertunt jam rotundæ,
  Et succedant res secundæ:
  O Pampine! tibi bibo,
  Bibe, vale! ego abibo."

[Footnote 1: Southey was not aware that the whole of Chaucer's Poem, and
the "Testament of Cressid," by Henryson, was translated by Kinaston and
accompanied by a copious commentary in English, but only exists in one sole
MS. The press of the Camden Society would be well employed on it.]

[Footnote 2: In Baron von Aretin's _Beytrage zur Geschichte und Literatur_,
vol. vii. p. 301.; but the copy, though a good text, was defective at the

[Footnote 3: [We are sure we are only expressing the opinion of the
majority of our readers when we say it will be _most acceptable_.--ED.]]

       *       *       *       *       *


Strange appearances in the sky have not been without their ominous
signification from the time that the greater and lesser lights were placed
there at the creation, to the rainbow after the Deluge; and onward to the
"star in the east" which announced our Saviour's birth, and the "light from
heaven" which accompanied St. Paul's conversion. But the question is,
whether there has since been any meaning in other like celestial
illuminations? Some historical credit is claimed for the fiery sword, and
armies fighting in the air, which preceded the siege of Jerusalem: for the
cross of the Emperor Constantine: for the bow about the sun seen by
Augustus Cæsar, when he took possession of the Roman empire: and for stars,
or other heavenly lights, which have seemed to herald the births or deaths
of illustrious personages. But are these stories to be believed? and, if
they are, where is the line of credibility to be drawn? People cannot come
together, and talk either on this subject, or on that of ghosts, but every
one "hath a revelation, hath an interpretation." The poet, walking on the
mountains, looked into the sky, and

 "The appearance, instantaneously disclosed,
  Was of a mighty city--boldly say
  A wilderness of building, sinking far,
  And self-withdrawn, into a wondrous depth,
  Far sinking into splendour--without end?"

The two following extracts are from private letters now before me. The
first account was written in 1825 by a physician, still alive, and {299}
who at the time read an account of what he had seen at a meeting of the
Plinian Society. He says,

    "I last evening read a paper upon an extraordinary appearance of
    letters, formed by the clouds, seen by a Mr. T. and myself. We had also
    with us two little boys, one nine, the other eleven years of age, who
    were able to make out each letter equally with ourselves. These
    children were at the time walking some distance behind us: but, upon
    their coming up, and being shown the letters, they read them without
    having heard any observation of ours respecting them. We saw them for
    about two minutes, when they gradually changed their form--each letter
    changing its perpendicular for a horizontal position, and at length the
    whole becoming converted into that form of cloud denominated
    cirro-stratus. I will endeavour to give you a faint idea of the
    appearance, by forming the letters as well as my memory will enable me.
    I make no comment upon the words themselves, as they are too
    extraordinary for observation of any kind. It was upon the 12th of last
    month: several showers had fallen in the course of the day, but the
    afternoon was fine. The time seven in the evening. The letters were
    formed upon a fine blue surface, having no other clouds near them,
    except very small ones, which tended much to heighten the effect of the

    [Illustration: (ETERNAL)]

    [Illustration: (MILLENNIUM)]

    "You will observe several deficiencies in the letters of the first
    word, viz. in the first 'E;' also in the 'N,' the second part being
    short; and a slight defect in the letter 'A.' With respect to the
    second word, the first six letters were very perfect: the others, with
    the exception of the 'M,' mere strokes; but in number sufficient to
    make up the word: and they had the appearance of having been perfect. I
    can assure you they were anything but obscure, and required very little
    stretch of the imagination. In the first word the letters were
    equidistant and beautifully uniform. The second word was not quite
    straight, being curved towards its termination. This appeared to me to
    arise from the change of position which the letters were undergoing, as
    before stated."

My other extract is from a letter written in 1851. The scene to which it
refers is a sick chamber occupied by an octogenarian grandmother, who is
_in extremis_. Her daughter, who writes the account, is present, together
with a grandchild, who is nearly eleven years old. The nurse has left the

    "We afterwards stood by poor grandmamma's fire, and then we sat at her
    window to see the moon rise. There were many clouds about it, and
    directly under it was the most marked figure of our Saviour on the
    cross. The head was concealed in light, but the arms were outstretched,
    and the body quite distinct. M. saw it too, and said, 'How appropriate,
    aunt, for the beginning of Lent!' She has never alluded to it since,
    nor, of course, have I; nor do I think any more of it, than that _there
    it was_: and there is something happy in the fancy, at all events, for
    it shone on her dying bed."

As you admit folk lore into "NOTES AND QUERIES," also well-attested
anecdotes, although these may not absolutely conduce to the advancement of
learning or art, perhaps you will receive this paper for the amusement of
those who, like myself, feel an interest in anything which takes us a
little out of the _hardware facts_ of "the age we live in."



       *       *       *       *       *


If stolen wisdom could be returned to its rightful authors, great, indeed,
would be the transfer of property. Prince Metternich is said to be the
sayer of "After me the Deluge." And yet the Prince took the saying from the
mouth of Madame Pompadour; and she took it--from whom? It may be reasonably
doubted that her brain originated it; for it was not an order of brain that
packs wisdom in few syllables.

    "'After me the Deluge,' said Prince Metternich; a fine saying, but a
    false prophecy we trust."

I quote this from an admirable paper in _The Times_ of to-day (April 10.)
on the Crystal Palace, and quote the subscribed from an _Essai sur la
Marquise de Pompadour_, prefixed to the _Mémoires de Madame du Hausset,
Femme de Chambre de Madame Pompadour_, in Barrière's _Bibliothèque des

    "Madame de Pompadour, dans l'ivresse de la prospérité, répondit à
    toutes les menaces de l'avenir par ces trois [_quatre_] mots, "APRÈS
    NOUS, LE DÉLUGE," qu'elle répétait souvent."

In this case, "Pompadour _v._ Metternich," surely a verdict must be
returned for the lady, unless Voltaire puts in a future claim.


West Lodge, Putney Common.

       *       *       *       *       *


    [The writer of the following interesting communication does not appear
    to be aware that he is obliging us and a correspondent D. Y., who had
    asked (Vol. iii., p. 168.) for an explanation of the phrase _Denarius
    Philosophorum_, in the Bishop's Monument.]

Our local antiquaries have long been puzzled by an inscription in the Lady
chapel of our cathedral. It stands on the monument of Bishop Thornborough,
and was prepared by himself fourteen years before his decease in 1641, at
the age of ninety-four. He was addicted to alchymy, and published a book in
1621, entitled [Greek: Lithotheôrikos], _sive_, _Nihil aliquid_, _omnia_,
_&c._ In the course of some recent studies in the Pythagorean philosophy,
my attention was accidentally engaged by this {300} inscription; and it at
once struck me that it was _thence_ that the explanation was to be derived.
The epitaph is as follows: on one side,

    "Denarius Philosophorum, Dum Spiro, Spero."

on the other,

    "In Uno, 2^o. 3^o. 4^{or} 10. non Spirans Spera_bo_."

The latter letters are now effaced.

It is well known that the Pythagoreans found all the modes of space in the
relations of numbers.

The monad, or unit, was not only the _point_ whence all extension proceeds,
but it further symbolised the First Principle, the origin of all. The duad
represented the line, as being bounded by two points or monads. The triad
stood for surface as length and width. The tetrad for the perfect figure,
the cube, length, depth, and width. The decad, or denarius, indicated
comprehensively all being, material and immaterial, in the utmost
perfection: hence the term _decas_, or _denarius_, was used summarily for
the whole science of numbers, as in the title of Meursius's tract _De
Denario Pythagorico_, which was published four years after the date of the
inscription, and when the philosophy was attracting much attention among
European scholars. To be as concise as possible then, I presume that the
old bishop intended that the tomb on which his effigy lies was his access
to that perfection of existence which philosophers had designated by the
_decas_, or _denarius_. During the present life he was hoping for it, "Dum
Spiro, Spero."--On the other side: "In Him, who is the source, the
beginning, the middle, and the end of all existence and perfection (in Uno,
2^o. 3^o. 4^{or} 10. non Spirans Sperabo), though I breathe no more, yet
shall I hope."

Such is probably the meaning of his pious conceit, and I offer it as a
solution of what has long served for a riddle to the visitors of our
cathedral. Beyond this, your readers and myself may be equally indifferent
to such cabalistical quaintness. But let us treat it with charity, as the
devout consummation of an aged alchymist.

O. F.

College Green, Worcester, March, 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_King Richard III._ (Vol. iii., p. 221.).--On the 14th May, 1491 (6 Henry
VII.), one Master William Burton, the schoolmaster of St. Leonard's
Hospital, in the city of York, was accused before the magistrates of having
said that "King Richard was an hypocrite, a _crocheback_, and buried in a
dike like a dog." This circumstance is recorded in a contemporary document
of unquestionable authenticity (vide extracts from _York Records in the
Fifteenth Century_, p. 220.); and must remove all doubt as to the fact of
Richard's bodily deformity. The conjecture of Dr. Wallis, quoted by
G. F. G., can have no weight when opposed by clear evidence that the word
"crouchback," as a term of reproach or contempt, was applied to King
Richard within a few years after his death, by one to whom his person must
have been familiarly known.


_Shakespeare a thorough Sailor._--Let me point attention to a _genuine_
nautical expression, in the use of which Shakespeare shows himself _a
thorough sailor_:

 "The wind sits in the _shoulder_ of your sail."--_Hamlet_, Act I. Sc. 3.

In a "fore and aft sail" of the present day, the "shoulder" is the
_foremost upper_ corner, and the _last part of the canvass_ on which the
wind fixes its influence when a vessel is "sailing by the wind," or even
"off the wind." The "veriest lout" in the "after-guard" will appreciate the
truthfulness and beauty of the metaphor.

A. L.

_"A fellow-feeling," &c._--

 "A fellow-feeling makes one wondrous kind."

This oft-quoted line is from Garrick's Epilogue on quitting the stage.


_Early Instances of the World "News."_--Without the slightest intention of
re-opening the discussion as to whether the word "newes" be of native
growth or imported, I would beg leave to suggest as a means of completing
_its history_, that should any of the readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES," whose
researches may lead amongst the authorities of the _fifteenth_ century,
meet with instances of the word in familiar use between A.D. 1400 and A.D.
1500, they would notify the same.

The earliest date of its colloquial use as yet recorded in "NOTES AND
QUERIES," is A.D. 1513: on the other hand, the word, so far as I am aware,
is nowhere used by Chaucer, although his near approach to it in the
following lines is very remarkable:

 "There is right now come into the toune a gest,
  A Greek espie, and telleth _newe things_,
  For which I come to tell you newe tidings."--_Troilus and Creseide_, b.
      ii. 1113.

After this, the transition to the word itself is so extremely easy, that it
could not be far distant.

A. E. B.

_Under the Rose._--It may interest the inquirers into the origin of this
expression to know, that at Lullingston Castle in Kent, the residence of
Sir Percival Dyke, there is in the hall an old picture, or painted carving
(I forget which, as it is many years since I saw it), of a rose, some two
feet in diameter, surrounded by an inscription, which, if I remember right,
runs as follows, or nearly so:--

 "Kentish true blue;
  Take this as a token,
  That what is said here
  Under the rose is spoken."

It is now, or was when I saw it, in the hall of that {301} ancient mansion,
but I believe had been brought from an old house in the neighbourhood.

E. H. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *



The engraved portraits of Spenser differ so much from each other as to
throw doubts on their resemblance to the poet.

I have now before me the following:

1. That prefixed to Bell's edition, 1777, engraved by Cook from "an
original in Lord Chesterfield's collection."

2. Prefixed to an edition in one volume published by Spiers, 1840.

3. Prefixed to Moxon's edition, 1845.

We are not told from what paintings Nos. 2. and 3. are engraved, but they
resemble each other, and are somewhat like that in Bell's edition; so I
shall set these three down as forming one class of portraits. No. 2. has,
however, a curious inscription, _Edmund Spenser_, _obiit 1559_, which would
lead us to reject it altogether, and look on it as an imaginary likeness.

4. The portrait in Pickering's Aldine edition, 1839: this bears no
resemblance, either in costume or features, to those already mentioned;
but, if I mistake not, is like that in Todd's edition, published in
1805,--we may call these a second class.

An original portrait of Spenser is said to be in Lord Chesterfield's
collection; another in Duplin Castle, the seat of Lord Kinnoul (of this
there is a copy at Althorpe by Sir Henry Raeburn). Mr. Wright, in his
_Memorials of Cambridge_, mentions a portrait at Pembroke College, "a copy
by Wilson," but he does not say from what original: Mr. Craik, in _Spenser
and his Writings_, speaks of _two_ as being in this college.

The writer thinks he recollects a law-suit relative to a portrait of the
poet, which had been sold to the late Sir Robert Peel, and which was stated
to have come from Ireland. Perhaps some of your readers could give
information respecting this picture.

It is clear, if the first three are all from the Chesterfield original,
that this painting, and the one from which Mr. Pickering's is taken, cannot
both be portraits of Spenser. The object of this Query is to ascertain, if
possible, which engraving, or class of engravings, resembles the poet.

E. M. B.

       *       *       *       *       *


The very remarkable fish called the _Vendace_ is to be found but in one
place in the three kingdoms,--the Castle Loch of Lochmaben, a parish to the
south of Dumfriesshire in Scotland. The Vendace, it is said, derives its
name from _Vendois_ in France, and was brought to this country by one of
the James's. This, however, is mere conjecture, and, from its habits,
highly improbable--because _they die the moment they are either touched or
exposed to the air_.

According to Mr. Stewart (_Elements of Natural Hist._), the Vendace belongs
to a species which he calls _Salmo albula_, or the "Juvangis."

    "This species," he adds, "is found in Lochmaben in Scotland, and
    _nowhere else_: it is said to have been carried thither from England in
    the time of Robert the Bruce."

Mr. Stewart describes the fish, but from his description it is evident he
has never seen it. The following one is exact:--

    "This beautiful fish measures from four to six inches in length, and
    tapers gradually to the tail. When taken out of the water, it has a
    bright silvery white appearance, with a slight tendency to a light blue
    along the back and part of the sides. In size it resembles a small
    herring or par, but particularly the former, not only in the mouth and
    external appearance, but also in the anatomical structure. _Upon the
    top of the head_ there is a very distinct _shape of a heart_, covered
    with a transparent substance of a brownish colour, resembling a thin
    lamina of mica slate, _through which the brain is visible_. This
    peculiar mark proves it to be as yet a distinct and undescribed
    species. Nothing is ever found visible to the naked eye in the stomach
    of the Vendace. They are extremely delicate, and are allowed to be the
    most pleasing to the taste of all fish. The general mode of catching
    them is with a net, as there is no instance known of their having been
    caught either with bait or the artificial fly. The pike, with which
    this lake abounds, is their greatest enemy. It has been frequently
    stated that no fewer than fifteen distinct species of fish, fit for the
    table, have been found in the Castle Loch."

Dr. Knox, sometime Lecturer upon Anatomy in Edinburgh, states:

    "That he has not only discovered the food of the Vendace, but actually
    exhibited it before the Members of the Royal Society, and offers
    suggestions for the stocking of the various lakes in Britain with this
    exquisite fish; pointing out first the necessity of locating its
    natural food, without which it cannot live."

Allowing, however, that some neighbouring lake could be covered with some
of these invisible and "incredibly minute entomostraceous animals," which
the learned lecturer says constitute their food, we should still find a
difficulty in transferring the fish; as every attempt to do so, though
conducted with the greatest possible care and nicety, _has failed_.

In the preceding account, I have followed the Rev. John Gardiner of
Lochmaben, who, in 1835, drew up an admirable account of his parish, which
is inserted in the statistical survey of the county.

The gentlemen of the county have formed a {302} _Vendace Club_, which meets
at Lochmaben annually on the 25th and 26th of July, when they dine off the
fish. I asked one of the members how long it had been in existence, and he
said about thirty years.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Ex Pede Herculem._--I shall feel much obliged if any of your
correspondents or readers can inform me of the origin of the proverb "Ex
pede Herculem." In what classical author is it to be found? I have looked
in vain through _Erasmi Adagia_ for it.

H. H.

"_To-day we purpose._"--Will any one be good enough to say where these
lines (quoted by Mr. Ruskin, _Modern Painters_, vol. ii. p. 188.) are to be

 "To-day we purpose, ay, this hour we mount
  To spur three leagues towards the Apennine;
  Come down, we pray thee, ere the hot sun count
  His dewy rosary on the eglantine"

G. N.

"_God takes those soonest whom He loves the best._"--Where shall we find
the origin of this expression, so frequently occurring on tombstones in
almost all parts of the country? Or how far back can it be traced? The
following, in Rainham church, Kent, is of the year 1626:

 "Here slepes my babe in silence, heauen's his rest,
  For God takes soonest those he loueth best."

T. H. K.

Malew, Man.

_Quakers' Attempt to convert the Pope._--At what period, and in what author
besides Veryard's _Tour in the Low Countries_, is the story of two Quakers
being imprisoned in the Lazzaretto in Rome, for attempting to convert the
Pope, to be found? Were they persons of any standing in the Society?

B. S. S.

_Whychcote of St. John's._--In one of the volumes published under the
foregoing title, in 1833, there is a striking story, evidently fictitious
in the main, but assuming, as an element of fact, the remembered existence
of a head-stone over a grave in the little burial-ground, under the shadow
of the venerable ruins of Tynemouth Priory in Northumberland, containing
the single word "Fanny." Does any one of the Tyneside readers of the "NOTES
AND QUERIES" personally recollect the actual existence of such a memorial?
Is the _real name_ of the author of the entertaining work disclosed in any
subsequent publication, or is it generally known?

J. D.

_Meaning of Rechibus, &c._--Among the rights claimed by the Esturmys in
Savernak forest, 8 Edw. III., occurs--

    "Et omnia placita de leporibus, rechibus, heymectis, tessonibus,
    vulpibus, murilegis, et perdricibus:"

which I translate--

    "And all pleas concerning hares, traps, hedgehogs, badgers, foxes,
    wild-cats, and partridges:"

but I confess I have no confidence in some of these words, as the
glossaries in the British Museum Library fail to explain them. I therefore
solicit your courteous assistance.


_Family of Queen Katherine Parr._--The pedigree of the once eminent family
of Parr, as recorded in various printed works--Dugdale, Nicholls, Burke,
&c., is far from being complete or satisfactory. Could any one versed in
the genealogy of the northern counties supply any information on the
following points?--

I. The early descent.--Dugdale in his _Baronage_, commences with Sir
William Parr, who married Elizabeth De Ros, 1383; but he states the family
to have been previously "of knightly degree." A MS. pedigree in the
Herald's College also mentions Sir William as "descended from a race of
knights." Where is an account of this race to be found?

II. The separation between the two lines of Parr and Kendal.--Sir Thomas
Parr, father of Queen Katherine, died 1518, and his _Inq. p. m._ states him
to have held manors, messuages, lands, woods, and rents, in Parr, Wigan,
and Sutton. Ten years afterwards, 1528, Bryan Parr was found by _Inq. p.
m._ to have held the manor, messauges, woods, lands, &c. of Parr. How was
Bryan related to Sir Thomas?

III. The descendant in the fourth degree of Bryan was Henry Parr, of Parr,
who was, according to a MS. in the college, aged twenty in 1621. Had he any

If no positive information can be afforded, yet a clue to where it might be
sought for would oblige.



 "Or wily Cyppus that can wink and snort,
  While his wife dallies on Mæcenas' skort."--Hall, _Satires_, Book iv.
      Sat. 1. (Whittingham's edition, 1824.)

Of course the general meaning of these two verses is obvious enough. But
how is the latter to be read? Are we to read "dallies on," as one word,
_i.e._ keeps dallying, and "skort" (as a mere abbreviation of the Latin
"scortum") as nominative in apposition with "wife?" If so, the verse is
intelligible, though harsh enough even for Hall.

If not, the word "skort" must have some other meaning which I am
unacquainted with. I cannot find it at all in Halliwell, the only authority
I have at hand to refer to.

K. I. P. B. T.


_Religious Teaching in the German Universities._--Will any of your numerous
readers direct me to any book or books containing information on the
_present state_ of religion and religious teaching in the German


_Epigram by Dunbar--Endymion Porter._--Can any of your correspondents
supply the deficient verses in the following epigram, addressed by Thomas
Dunbar, keeper of the Ashmolean Museum from 1815 to 1822, to Miss Charlotte
Ness, who required him to explain what was meant by the terms _abstract_
and _concrete?_

 "Say what is _abstract_, what _concrete_,
    Their difference define?
  They both in one fair person meet,
    And that fair form is thine.
      *    *    *    *
      *    *    *    *
  For when I lovely Charlotte view,
    I then view loveli_ness_."

Can any one substantiate the local tradition the Endymion Porter was born
at the manor-house of Aston Subedge, in Gloucestershire; or furnish any
particulars of his life before he became gentleman of the bedchamber to
Prince Charles?


_Sathaniel._--Can any of your correspondents inform me in what book, play,
poem, or novel, a character named Sathaniel appears? There is a rather
common picture bearing that title; it represents a dark young lady, in
Eastern dishabille, with a turban on her head, reclining on a
many-cushioned divan, and holding up a jewel in one hand. I have seen the
picture so often, that my curiosity as to the origin of the subject has
been completely aroused; and I have never yet found any one able to satisfy

F. T. C.

_The Scoute Generall._--I have in my possession a small 4to. MS. of 32
pages, entitled _The Scoute Generall_, "communicating (impartially) the
martiall affaires and great occurrences of the grand councell (assembled in
the lowest House of Parliament) unto all kingdomes, by rebellion united in
a covenant," &c., which is throughout written in verse, and particularly
satirical against the Roundheads of the period (1646), and remarkable for
the following prognostication of the death of the unfortunate monarch
Charles I.:

 "Roundheads bragge not, since 'tis an old decree,
  In time to come from chaines wee should be free:
  Traytors shall rule, Injustice then shall sway,
  Subjects and nephewes shall their king betray;
  And he himselfe, O most unhappy fate!
  For kings' examples, kingdomes imitate:
  What he maintain'd, I know it was not good,
  Brought in by force, and out shall goe by blood," &c.

It occupies about thirty lines more. At the bottom of the title, and at the
conclusion of the postscript, it has merely the initials S. D. Could any of
your worthy correspondents inform me who S. D. was?

The MS. is evidently cotemporary, and, according to the introduction, was
"ordered to be forthwith published, [MDCXLVI in apostrophus form].;" and as
I cannot trace that such a production was ever issued, the answer would
confer a favour on


City Road, April 1. 1851.

_Arthur Pomeroy, Dean of Cork._--Can any one of your genealogical readers
assist me in ascertaining the parentage of Arthur Pomeroy, who was made
Dean of Cork in 1672? He was fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, in which
university he graduated as A.B. in 1660, M.A. in 1664, and S.T.P. in 1676.
He is stated in Archdale's edition of Lodge's _Peerage of Ireland_ (article
"Harberton") to have sprung from the Pomeroys of Ingsdon in Devonshire, and
is stated to have gone to Ireland as chaplain to the Earl of Essex, Lord

J. B.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries Answered.

_Civil War Tract._--

    "A Letter sent from a worthy Divine, to the Right Honourable the Lord
    Mayor of the City of London. Being a true relation of the battaile
    fought betweene His Majesty and his Excellence the Earle of Essex. From
    Warwicke Castle, the 24. of October, 1642, at two a clock in the
    morning. Together with a Prayer for the happy uniting of the King and
    parliament, fit to be used by all good Christians, daily in their
    houses. London, Octob. 27. Printed for Robert Wood. 1642."

The above is the title of a tract now in my possession. Is it known to any
collector of tracts relating to the Battle of Edgehill? Who was the "worthy
divine," the writer?

P. Q.

    [On the title-page of this tract among the King's pamphlets in the
    British Museum, the name of Mr. Bifield has been written. No doubt it
    is the production of the Rev. Adoniram Byfield, chaplain to Col.
    Cholmondeley's regiment, in the army of the Earl of Essex in 1642, and
    who was subsequently one of the scribes to the Assembly of Divines, and
    a most zealous Covenanter. See Wood's _Athenæ_, by Bliss, vol. iii. p.

_Trisection of the Circle._--Has the problem of the trisection of the angle
been solved? or, if not, is there any reward for its solution; and what
steps should be taken to obtain it?


    [The problem of the trisection of the angle by aid of the straight line
    and circle, used as in Euclid, has never been solved--no reward was
    ever offered for its solution.]

_Wolsey's Son._--Can any of your readers give an account of a son of
Cardinal Wolsey, whose existence is recorded in a letter from Eustace {304}
Chapuys to the Emperor Charles V., October 25, 1529, in the following

    "The cardinal has now retired with a very small train to a place about
    ten miles hence. A son of his has been sent for from Paris, who was
    there following his studies, and of whom I have formerly made some
    mention to your Majesty"--_Correspondence of Charles V._, p. 291.

Cardinal Beaton had lots of bastards, but I never remember to have seen in
any account of Wolsey mention made of natural children.

J. M.

    [The existence of a natural son of Cardinal Wolsey is a _fact_ as well
    ascertained as any other _fact_ of the Cardinal's history, and referred
    to in the various biographies of him that have appeared. His name was
    Thomas Winter. In Chalmers's _Biographical Dictionary_, vol. xxxii. pp.
    255. and 256. _note_, reference is made to a Bull of Pope Julius II.,
    dated August, 1508, to be found in Kennet's MSS. in the British Museum,
    in which he is styled, "dilecti filio Thomæ Wulcy," Rector of Lymington
    diocese of Bath and Wells, Master of Arts, "_pro dispensatione ad
    tertium incompatibile_." This is explained by the passage in Wood's
    _Athenæ Oxon. Fasti_, part i. p. 73. (Bliss ed.), relating to him.
    "This Tho. Winter, who was nephew (or rather nat. son) to Cardinal Tho.
    Wolsey, had several dignities confer'd upon him before he was of age,
    by the means of the said Cardinal," viz. the archedeaconry of York,
    1523; chancellorship of the church of Sarum; the deanery of Wells,
    1525; the provostship of Beverly; and the archdeaconry of Richmond,
    &c.: on which there is a note by Baker, that "this Tho. Winter is said
    to have held of the church's goods clearly more than 2000 pds. per an."
    Wood adds, that about the time of the Cardinal's fall, he gave up all
    or most of his dignities, keeping only the archdeaconry of York, which
    he resigned also in 1540. In Grove's _Life and Times of Cardinal
    Wolsey_, vol. iv. p. 315., among the "Articles" against the Cardinal,
    Article XXVII. expressly charges him, "that he took from his son Winter
    his income of 2,700l. a-year, applied it to his own use, and gave him
    only 200l. yearly to live on." A reference is made in Sir H. Ellis's
    _Letters Illustrative of English History_, 2nd Series, vol. ii. p. 70.,
    to a letter of Edmund Harvel to Dr. Starkey, dated from Venice, April
    1535, in which the writer expresses his obligations to Mr. Winter, for
    his "friendly mynde toward him," and begs him to return his thanks.

    In Mr. Galt's _Life of Wolsey_ (Appendix IV. p. 424. of Bogue's
    edition) will be found a copy of a letter from John Clusy to Cromwell,
    in relation to a natural daughter of Wolsey's in the nunnery of

_Cardinals and Abbots in the English Church._--It may not be generally
known, but the fact is so, that the English church numbers two CARDINALS
and a LORD ABBOT amongst her members. In Whitaker's _Clerical Diary_, under
the head of London Diocese, there is attached to St. Paul's a senior and a
junior cardinal; and in Ireland exists the exempt jurisdiction of Newry and
Mourne, under the government of the Lord Abbot, who is the Earl of
Kilmorey. Can any of your readers give me any information respecting these

W. J.

    [_Cardinal._--The title of cardinal (_cardinalis_) in early times was
    frequently applied to any bishop, priest, or deacon holding an official
    post. In France there were many cardinal priests: thus, the curate of
    the parish of St. John de Vignes is called, in old charters, the
    cardinal priest of that parish. There were also cardinal deacons, who
    had the charge of hospitals for the poor, and who ranked above the
    other deacons. Thus, two of the minor canons of St. Paul's are called
    _cardinals of the choir_, whose duties are to preserve order in Divine
    service, administer the Eucharist, and officiate at funerals. In former
    times, they heard confessions and enjoined penances. (Newcourt's
    _Repertorium_, vol. i. p. 233.) It was not till the twelfth century
    that the Sacred College of Cardinals was organised; nor was it till
    1567 that clergymen were forbidden by Pius V. to assume the title of
    cardinal unless appointed by the Pope.

    _Lay Abbots._--In early times we frequently find secular persons
    denominated "field abbots" and "abbot counts," upon whom the sovereign
    had bestowed certain abbeys, for which they were obliged to render
    military service, as for common fiefs. In the time of Charles the Bald
    many of the nobility in France were abbots, having a dean to officiate
    for them. Thus, too, in Scotland, James Stuart, the natural son of
    James V., was, at the time of the Reformation, Prior of St. Andrew's,
    although a secular person. The Earl of Kilmorey, who is impropriator of
    the tithes of St. Mary, Newry, is a lay abbot, or representative of the
    preceding abbots of a Cistertian Abbey which formerly existed in that
    town. His abbatial functions, however, are confined to convening
    ecclesiastical courts, and granting probates of wills, and licenses for
    marriages, subject only to the metropolitan jurisdiction of the
    Archbishop of Armagh. A remnant of the secularisation of ecclesiastical
    dignities has already been noticed in our pages (Vol. ii., pp. 447.
    500.), in the case of the late Duke of York, who was at the same time
    Commander-in-chief and Bishop of Osnaburg.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. ii., p. 375.)

Your correspondent J. MT. has great reason to congratulate himself on the
possession of the singularly curious tract which he describes, and which
gives an autobiography of this extraordinary adventurer. I am not aware of
any other copy in any public or private collection. I have a 4to. tract in
nineteen pages, evidently printed abroad, the title of which is--

"Balthazar Gerbier, Knight,
All Men that love Truth."


This gives a very interesting life of him by himself, perfectly distinct
from, and containing many particulars not given in the tract possessed by
your correspondent, which also contains matter not in the above. I have
likewise another tract, privately printed in Holland in English, French,
and Dutch, in fifteen pages 12mo., the English title to which is--

"A true Manifest,
By S^r B. Gerbier.

In this, which gives some curious particulars as to "Mr. Hughe Peeters,"
and the book entitled _The Nonsuch Charles_, he refers to another "little
manifest" published on the 2nd day of October, 1652, "that the world might
take notice that he was not at all invested with any foreigne engagement."
Of the tract so referred to, I regret to say no copy is known. None of the
other three tracts appear to have been seen by Horace Walpole, who had
collected a great number of Gerbier's pamphlets, and also the MS. next
mentioned, which, at the Strawberry Hill sale, came together into my
possession. The MS. contains the original appointments of Sir Balthazar to
the offices he held while in England, a pedigree of his family beautifully
emblazoned, and a large quantity of MS., prose and poetry, in his
autograph; including a most extensive collection of projects and proposals,
which seem to have been equally at the service of England or France. The
best account we have of Gerbier is that which Horace Walpole has supplied
in the _Anecdotes of Painting_ (see _Works_, vol. iii. p. 189.); but his
diplomatic negotiations, and his career as an artist and adventurer, never
forgetting his academy at Whitefriars and Bethnal Green, would furnish
matter for a very amusing volume. The general biography, however, to which
he would be most appropriately remitted, and which is still a desideratum
in literature, is that which is proposed by Dr. Johnson, in Chalmers's
admirable parody:

    "I think a good book might be made of scoundrels. I would have a
    _Biographia Flagitiosa_, the Lives of Eminent Scoundrels from the
    earliest accounts to the present day."


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 519.; Vol. iii., p. 117.)

Is not your correspondent J. ME. in error when he says the original travels
of the Baron were written to ridicule Bruce? I think this will only apply
to the second volume, or "Sequel," seeing that there exists an edition of
_Gulliver Revived_, printed at Oxford, 1786, four years before Bruce
published. J. ME. further remarks, that there was at one time reason to
believe that James Graham was the author of the well-known book in
question, but that circumstances have come to his knowledge altogether
precluding the possibility that the author of _The Sabbath_ and _The
Travels of Baron Munchausen_ are identical.

To me it appears there were _two_ of these James Grahams, and that from
their being contemporaries, they are usually rolled into one. I have in my
library a volume containing _Wallace, a Tragedy_, Edinburgh, 1799; and
_Mary Stewart, Queen of Scots, an Historical Drama_, Edinburgh, 1801, which
appears to have belonged to Mr. George Chalmers, upon the titles of which
that gentleman has written, "by James Graham, Advocate, Edinburgh, son of
T. Graham, a writer of reputation in Glasgow."

From this one would think Mr. Chalmers had the author of _The Sabbath_ in
his eye: a conclusion, however, difficult to come to in the face of a
critique which thus characterises the tragedy of _Wallace_:

    "The play is not uninteresting, and the author has exhibited occasional
    proofs of poetical genius; but there are some passages in the piece
    that fall little short of blasphemy:"

--a charge which, of course, could never apply to this "lovable" and
subsequently _reverend_ author of _The Sabbath_, a poem breathing the
humblest piety, and published only five years after _Wallace_; consequently
here is, in the author of the tragedy of _Wallace_, another James Graham at
the service of J. ME., to whom, if his other proofs are strong, the Baron
may be assigned with more probability.

I may add, taking it for granted that Chalmers was right in claiming these
two plays for a James Graham, that there is the strongest corroborative
proof of there being two of the name in the existence of _Mary Stewart, a
Dramatic Poem_, the acknowledged performance of the author of _The Sabbath_
(see his _Poems_, 2 vols. 1809), a production differing in title, and
bearing no resemblance, I should think, to the first named.

While upon the subject, and presuming that the tragedy of _Wallace_ is
known to J. ME., I may take the opportunity to ask him, as he is _ayont the
Tweed_, whether there is really any authority for the assertion contained
in the Abbotsford Library Catalogue, and also in that of Constable's
Library, sold in 1817, that of this anonymous tragedy of _Wallace_ there
were _only six copies printed_? Upon the face of mine there is nothing to
indicate its rarity, it being an octavo, printed for A. Constable; but the
remarkable book may be some other: your correspondents will, however, I
dare say, be able to enlighten me.


_Baron Munchausen_ (Vol. ii., p. 519.).--As it was nearly thirty years
since I had seen the _Percy Anecdotes_, I was obliged to speak doubtfully
of {306} having derived from that work the statements that the author of
_Munchausen_ was a Mr. "M----," and that he was a prisoner in France.
Accident has within the last few days thrown in my way the very volume of
the _Anecdotes_ in which this is stated (vol. v., _Anecdotes of Captivity_,
p. 103.); and I find that I was mistaken only in supposing "M----'s" place
of confinement to have been the Bastile, whereas the time is said to have
been the Reign of Terror, and therefore of course the Bastile cannot have
been the place.

J. C. R.

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Tobacco in the East_ (vol. ii., pp. 155. 231.).--M. D. asks for "chapter
and verse" of A. C. M.'s reference to Sale's _Koran_ respecting tobacco.

Had A. C. M. recollected that tobacco (_Nicotiana_) is an American plant,
he would hardly have asked whether "_tobacco_ is the word in the original"
of the tradition mentioned by Sale in his _Preliminary Discourse_, § 5. p.
123. (4to. ed. 1734.) Happily Reland, whom Sale quotes (_Dissert.
Miscell._, vol. ii. p. 280.), gives his authority, the learned orientalist,
Dr. Sike, who received the Hadéth at Leghorn from Ibn Sáleh, a young
Muselman. It says, in good Arabic, that in the latter days Moslims,
undeserving of the name, shall drink hashish (hemp), and call it tabák; the
last words, "_yukál lehn tabáku_," are no doubt a modern addition by those
who had heard of _tambákó_ (the Romaic [Greek: tanpakon]). As the use of
hashish or _hashishah_ (the herb), more completely _hashishata fukara_,
i.e. Monk's Wort, a technical term for _hemp_, chewed as a narcotic by
fakirs (monks), was not known till A.H. 608 (A.D. 1211), it could not be
mentioned in the Koran unless Mohammed were, as Sale observes, "a prophet
indeed." _Tabakak_, a plate, dish, or shelf, is now sometimes used by
ignorant persons in the East for _tambákó_, of which a complete account is
given in the _Karábádén_, or great treatise of Materia Medica in Persian.
Of that work, there is a beautifully written copy, made, probably, for the
late Mr. Colebrooke, by whom it was presented to the library of the Royal
Asiatic Society. I shall conclude by another Query: What is the Greek word
transformed by Asiatic scribes into _Karábádén_?


_Captain John Stevens_ (Vol. ii., p. 359.).--This ingenious man, as to whom
your correspondent inquires, was one of the hard-working translators in the
early part of the last century. The materials for his biography are very
scanty. He was a Roman Catholic, and at the Revolution followed the
fortunes of his abdicating master, in whose service he accepted a
commission, and accompanied him in the wars in Ireland. He was also
employed in several other services, and died October 27, 1726. See
_Biographia Dramatica_, vol. i. p. 691., edit. 1812. He is not noticed in
Chalmers's _Biographical Dictionary_, though as the continuator of
Dugdale's _Monasticon_ he unquestionably ought to have been. Watt gives a
list (_Bib. Brit._, vol. i. p. 880.) of his books and translations; but it
is, as usual, very defective and erroneous. It does not include his
translation of _Don Quixote_, of _Dupin_, of _An Evening's Intrigue_ (1707,
8vo.), and a great number of other works; and it ascribes to him the
_History of the Wars of Charles XII., King of Sweden_, London, 1715, which
was written, as it needs no great sagacity to discover, by Daniel Defoe,
though Chalmers and Wilson have not noticed it.


_MS. Catalogue of Norman Nobility_ (Vol. iii., p. 266.).--The MS. Catalogue
of Norman Nobility referred to in No. 75., a document of great value, is or
was in the possession of Sir William Betham, having been purchased by him
about six years ago, from Mr. Boone, of New Bond Street.

Your correspondent will find that Odardus de Loges was infeoffed by Earl
Ranulph the 1st in the barony of Wigton in Cumberland, in which he was
confirmed by Henry I. Bigod, whose name was attached to the charter of
foundation of St. Werburg's Abbey, is elsewhere, according to Ormerod,
called Robert.

M. J. T.

_Illustrations of Chaucer, No. III._ (Vol. iii., p. 258.).--

 "_Fro Venus_ VALANUS _might this palais see._"
             (or) volant
  ? Might Venus, _volans_ fro this palais, see.

[Greek: Phôs].

_Comets_ (Vol. iii., pp. 223. 253.).--If your correspondent S. P. O. R.
wish to go fully into the history of comets, and be not alarmed at the
prospect of three thick folios, through which I have gone, I can assure
him, with considerable interest, let me recommend to him _Theatrum
Cometicum, Auctore Stanislao Lubienietz Lubieniecio Rolitsio_, Amst., in 2
vols. (but generally bound in three) folio. The first contains an immense
correspondence, not merely with astronomers, but with poets, critics,
physicians, and philosophers, to whom the indefatigable editor wrote for
their opinions on the subject of comets. The second vol. gives a history of
comets from the Deluge to 1665, and is a repository of everything bearing
upon the subject. From this work Bayle derived his learning, when he wrote
his most amusing work on comets.


_Pope Joan_ (Vol. iii., p. 265.).--NEMO will find much information on the
question, "Whether Pope Joan ever held the keys of St. Peter?" in Alexander
Cooke's _Dialogue between a Protestant and a Papist; manifestly proving
that a Woman_ {307} _called Joane was Pope of Rome: against the surmises
and objections made to the contrary by Robert Bellarmini and Cæsar
Baronius, Cardinals, Florimondus Ræmondus, and other Popish Writers,
impudently denying the same_, 4to, pp. 128, 1610. The work was dedicated to
the Archbishop of York, and was reprinted in 1625 in 4to., and in French,
1633, 8vo. The author, in his address _To the Popish Reader_, says:

    "_I offer unto thee here a discourse touching_ POPE JOANE _(if thou
    darest read it, for fear of falling into thy Pope's curse), whose
    Popedome I will make good unto thee, not by the testimonies of_
    Pantaleon, _and_ Functius, _and_ Sleidan, _and_ Illyricus, _and_
    Constantinus Phrygio, _and_ John Bale, _and_ Robert Barnes, _because
    thou hast condemned their persons, and their books too, to hell; but by
    the testimonies of thy brethren, the sonnes of thine own mother;
    because, as one saith_, 'Amici contra amicum, et inimici pro inimico,
    invincibile testimonium est.'"


The Close, Exeter.

_Abbot Eustacius_ (Vol. iii., p. 141.).--As J. L.'s inquiry after an abbot
of that name has hitherto been unsuccessful, perhaps he would like to know
that Eustacia was abbess of the monastery at Shaftesbury (founded by King
Alfred), tempore incerto, but probably in the time of Stephen. See Willis's
_History of Abbeys_, and a _History of the Ancient Town of Shaftesbury_, p.


_The Vellum-bound Junius_ (Vol. iii., p. 262.).--In the Minor Queries of
your Number 75., you have kindly inserted my notice on the vellum-bound
_Junius_. I beg to state further, that the reason of my being so desirous
to procure this copy at the Stowe sale was, that it was not only bound in
vellum, but was also _printed_ on that article. If any of your
correspondents can inform me of another copy _printed_ on vellum, I should
be glad.


Bank of England, April 5, 1851.

_Meaning of Waste-Book_ (Vol. iii., pp. 118. 195. 251.).--Among a list of
"the books printed for, and are to be sold by John Hancock, at the sign of
the Three Bibles in Pope's-head Alley, in Cornhill," I find _The Absolute
Accountant, or London Merchant_, containing instructions and directions for
the methodical keeping of merchant's accounts, after the most exact and
concise way of debtor and creditor; also a _Memorial_, vulgarly called a
waste-book, and a cash-book, with a journal and a ledger, &c., 1670. This
is the first reference I have seen to the correct designation of the book,
which might have received it vulgar name of _waste_ from wast, the second
person of _was_--thus the Memorial or the Wast-book.


_Cowdray_ (Vol. iii., p. 194.).--There is a misprint here of _Eastbourne_
for _Easebourne_. There is a curious note on Cowdray, and the superstition
attached to it, in Croker's _Boswell_, p. 711. 8vo. edit.


_Solemnisation of Matrimony_ (Vol. ii., p. 464.).--A. A. will find, from
Blackstone's _Commentaries_, vol. ii. p. 135., that in feudal times a
husband had the power of protecting his lands from the wife's claim to
dower, by endowing her, _ad ostium Ecclesiæ_, with specific estates to the
exclusion of others; or, if he had no lands at the time of the marriage, by
an endowment in goods, chattels, or money. When special endowments were
thus made, the husband, after affiance made and troth plighted, used to
declare with what specific lands he meant to endow his wife ("_quod dotat
eam de tali manerio_," &c.); and therefore, in the old York ritual (_Seld.
Ux. Hebr._ l. ii. c. 27.) there is at this part of the matrimonial service
the following rubric--"_Sacerdos interroget dotem mulieris; et si terra ei
in dotem detur, tunc dicatur psalmus iste_", &c. When the wife was endowed
_generally_, the husband seems to have said "with all my lands and
tenements I thee endow," and then they all became liable to her dower. When
he endowed her with personalty only, he used to say, "with all my worldly
goods (or, as the Salisbury ritual has it, "with all my worldly chattels")
I thee endow," which entitled the wife to her thirds, or _pars
rationabilis_, of his personal estate, which is provided for by Magna
Charta, cap. 26. The meaning, therefore, of the words noticed in A. A.'s
Query, if they can be said to have any meaning in the present state of the
law, is simply that the wife's dower is to be general, and not specific,
or, in other words, that she is to have her _pars rationabilis_ in _all_
her husband's goods.

J. F. M.

_Epitaph on the Countess of Pembroke_ (Vol. iii., p. 262.).--Although
J. H. M. has concluded that William Browne was not the author of this
epitaph, because it is not to be found amongst his _Pastorals_, it would
nevertheless appear that the lines are rightly attributed to him, if the
following extract may be relied on:

    "The well-known epitaph of the celebrated Countess of Pembroke, the
    sister of Sir Philip Sidney, has been generally ascribed to Ben Jonson.
    The first stanza is printed in Jonson's poems; but it is found in the
    manuscript volume of poems by William Browne, the author of
    _Britannia's Pastorals_, preserved in the Lansdown Collection, British
    Museum, No. 777., and on this evidence may be fairly appropriated to
    him, particularly as it is known that he was a great favourite with
    William, Earl of Pembroke, son of the Countess."--_Relics of
    Literature_: London, Boys, 1823, p. 60.


_Scandal against Queen Elizabeth_ (Vol. ii., p. 393.; Vol. iii., pp. 11.
151. 197. 225.).--Your correspondents seem to have overlooked the
celebrated {308} letter of Queen Mary of Scotland, printed in the _State
Trials_, and lately reprinted by Lord Campbell in his _Lives of the
Chancellors_, tit. Sir C. Hatton. I may as well add (though I do not
believe the fact) that my grandmother (herself a Devereux) repeated to me
the tradition of a son of Queen Elizabeth's having been sent to Ireland.


_The Tanthony_ (Vol. III., pp. 105. 229.).--I am obliged to A. for the
trouble he has taken in reference to my Query; but perhaps I may be correct
in my suggestion, for on looking into the second volume of the
_Archæological Journal_ the other day, I accidentally found an account of
the discovery of a figure of St. Anthony at Merthyr, near Truro, in which
it is mentioned that

    "Under the left arm appears to have passed a staff, and the pig, with
    _a large bell_ attached to its neck, appears in front of the
    figure."--P. 202.

I shall be much obliged to anybody who will settle the point
satisfactorily. The fair held on old St. Andrew's Day is always called in
Kimbolton and the neighbourhood "Tandrew" fair, so why not "Tanthony" for
"Saint Anthony?"


_The Hippopotamus_ (Vol. iii., p. 181.).--Your correspondent MR. E. S.
TAYLOR will find in Vol. ii, p. 458, an example of the word [Greek:
hippopotamos] cited from Lucian, a writer anterior both to Horapollo and
Damascius. In the same page is a reference to the story of the wickedness
of the hippopotamus in Plutarch; so that Horapollo and Damascius,
doubtless, borrowed from a common source, or repeated a current fable, to
be found in many writings then extant.


_Tu Autem_ (Vol. iii., p. 265).--The words "Tu autem, Domine, miserere
nostri," "But Thou, O Lord! have mercy upon us," were originally a form of
prayer used by the preacher at the end of his discourse, as a supplication
for pardon for any sinful pride or vainglory, into which he might have been
betrayed in addressing his congregation. Hence the words "tu autem," as
Pegge properly says, came to denote a hint to the reader to leave off.

The custom is still in constant use among the members of the cathedral
church of Durham. At the public dinners given by the canons, in what is
there called "hospitality residence," one of the choristers comes in after
dinner, dressed in his official costume, and, taking his station behind the
canon in residence, reads, in the manner which is now well known as
_intoning_, eight verses of the 119th Psalm, first saying, "Here beginneth
the ---- part of the 119th Psalm."

When the eight verses are concluded, the canon turns round to the
chorister, saying "tu autem," giving him a shilling; to which the chorister
replies, "Domine miserere nostri," and retires.

The explanation of the words, as originally employed, is given by Rupertus
_De Divinis Officiis_, lib. i. c. xiv.:


    "Quodque in fine dicit, 'Tu autem Domine miserere nostri,' hoc innuit,
    ne ipsum quidem bonum officium prædicandi sine alicujus vel levis culpæ
    pulvere possa pagi. Nam, ut ait B. Augustinus, 'Verbum prædicationis
    securiùs auditur quàm dicitur. Prædicator quippe cùm benè dicere se
    sentit, difficile nimis est ut non quantulumcunque spiritu elationis
    tangat; et quia quasi per terram ambulat et pedes ejus pulvere
    sordidantur, idcirco misericordiâ Dei indiget, ut in hâc parte lavetur,
    etiamsi mundus sit totus.'"

From this explanation it is plain, that the Monk of St. Albans, writing to
the abbot--

 "Si vis, veniam; Sin autem, tu autem,"

would be understood to express--

    "If you wish, I will come; but if otherwise, there is an end of the

T. C.

Durham, April 8. 1851.

_Places called Purgatory_ (Vol. iii., p. 241.).--There is a farm-house
still called "Purgatory," about two miles south of Durham, east of the
London road, and close to the left bank of the river Wear. The farm is part
of the estate of a highly respectable family, which has, I believe, always
been Roman Catholic. No reason for the name is known in the neighbourhood.

T. C.

Durham, April 8. 1851.

_Swearing by Swans, &c._ (Vol. ii., p. 392.; Vol. iii., pp. 70. 192.).--In
addition to what has already appeared on this subject, the following
extract from Tyrwhitt's _Glossary to Chaucer_ will, I hope, be acceptable.

    "Ale and Bred. This oath of Sire Thopas on ale and bred was perhaps
    intended to ridicule the solemn vows, which were frequently made in the
    days of chivalrie, to a peacock, a pheasant, or some other _noble
    bird_."--See M. de Sainte Palaye, _Sur l'anc. Cheval._, Mem. iii^{me}.

This practice is alluded to in "Dunbar's Wish that the King were Johne
Thomsonnis man" (MS. Maitland, st. v.):

 "I would gif all that ever I have
  To that condition, so God me saif,
  That ye had VOWIT TO THE SWAN
  Ane yeir to be John Thomsonnis man."

And so in the _Prol. to the Contin. of the Canterb. T._, ver. 452., the
Hosteler says:

    "I MAKE A VOWE TO THE PECOCK, ther shall wake a foule mist."

The instance given in Vol. iii., p. 192., is recorded by Monstrelet, _Hist.
de France, Charles VII._

T. J.

_Edmund Prideaux and the Post-office_ (Vol. iii., pp. 186. 266.).--In a MS.
on parchment, now {309} before me, are contained entries of the dates of
the various letters patent and grants connected with the post-office, to
the latter end of the reign of Charles I., and the names of the persons to
whom the grants were made. The earliest date is the 37th of Henry VIII.,
and the last the 13th of Charles I. If an extract from the MS., which gives
a similar index to the appointments in the Courts of Law, the Customs, the
Forests, and a great variety of other offices, will assist your
correspondent, I shall be happy to supply it. I may notice, what seems to
have been overlooked by your two correspondents who have replied to the
inquiry, that some account of Prideaux is given by Wood (Vid. _Fast._ vol.
i. p. 424., edit. Bliss), from which it appears that he was M.A. of
Cambridge, Member of the Inner Temple, Member of Parliament for Lyme in
Dorsetshire, and Recorder of Exeter; and that his death took place on the
19th Aug., 1659 (misprinted 1569 in this edit.), and that--

    "From his employments gaining a vast estate, he left at the time of his
    death an incredible mass of gold (as the credible report then went),
    besides lands of very great demesnes."


_Small Words and "Low" Words_ (Vol. ii., pp. 305. 349. 377.).--Apropos to
Pope's use of "low words," in the sense of _short_ words, conf. Boileau,
satire iv. 97. 8.


 "Lui faisant voir ses vers et sans force et sans graces,
  Montés sur deux grands mots, comme sur deux échasses."

On which one of his commentators makes the following note:

    "Boileau, pour se moquer des mots gigantesques, citoit ordinairement ce
    vers de Chapelain:

     'De ce sourcilleux roc l'inébranlable cime.'

    Et il disposoit ce vers comme il est ici à côté. Dans cette disposition
    il semble que le mot 'roc' soit monté sur deux échasses.'

I commend to [Phi].'s attention this instance of a "low" word supported on
two "high" ones.

K. I. P. B. T.

_Lord Howard of Effingham_ (Vol. iii., pp. 185. 244.).--It has been
supposed that the Earl of Nottingham was a Catholic, and having held office
in the reign of Queen Mary, he probably was so at that time; but he
certainly was a Protestant during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and in the
beginning of James I. was at the head of a commission to discover and expel
all Catholic priests. (Vide _Memorials of the Howard Family_.)

R. R. M.

_Obeahism.--Ventriloquism_ (Vol. iii., pp. 59. 149.).--T. H. will find, in
the authorities given below, that Obeahism is not only a rite, but a
religion, or rather superstition, viz. _Serpent-worship_. _Modern Universal
History_, fol. vol. vi. p. 600.; 8vo. vol. xvi. p. 411.; which is indebted
for its information to the works of De Marchais, Barbot, Atkyns, and
Bosman: the last of which may be seen in Pinkerton's _Collection_, vol.
xvi., and a review of it in _Acta Eruditor._, Lips. 1705, p. 265., under
the form of an "Essay on Guinea." In Astely's _Collection of Voyages_,
there is an account compiled from every authority then known, and a very
interesting description of the rites and ceremonies connected with this
superstition. According to the same authors, the influence of the Obeist
does not depend on the exercise of any art or natural magic, but on the
apprehensions of evil infused into his victim's mind. See also Lewis's
_Journal of a Residence among the Negroes in the West Indies_.

The following references will furnish a reply at once to two Queries; to
that here noticed, and to that on "Ventriloquism" (Vol. ii., p. 88.).

The name of the sacred serpent, which in the ancient language of Canaan was
variously pronounced, was derived from "ob" (inflare), perhaps from his
peculiarity of inflation when irritated. See Bryant's _Analysis_, vol. i.;
Deane's _Worship of the Serpent_, p. 80. From a notion of the mysterious
inflation produced by the presence of the divine spirit, those who had the
spirit of Ob, or Python, received the names of Ob, or Pythia; according to
the not unusual custom for the priest or priestess of any god to take the
name of the deity they served. See Selden, _De Dis Syris_, Synt. 1. c. 2.
It is a curious coincidence, that as the Witch of Endor is called "Oub,"
and the African sorceress "Obi," from the serpent-deity _Oub_, so the old
English name of a witch, "hag," bears apparent relationship to the word
_hak_, the ancient British name of a species of snake. In Yorkshire,
according to Stukeley, they call snakes "hags" and "hag-worms," (Abury, p.

In the Breton language, _Belech_ is "Priest," and may similarly indicate a
priest of Bel-the-Dragon.

From the Hebrew _Ob_, the Greek [Greek: ophis] was probably derived; for
the same word, in Hebrew, Arabic, and Greek, which denotes "divination"
denotes a "serpent." "Nachash,"[4] "ilahat,"[5] "[Greek: oiônizesthai],"[6]
have the same double signification as if the serpent were recognised as the
grand inspirer of the heathen prophets. See Faber's _Horæ Mosaicæ_, vol. i.
p. 98.

The word "Ob" was translated by the LXX. [Greek: engastrimuthos], "a
ventriloquist," in {310} accommodation to the received opinions respecting
the Pythian priestess. See the Notes to Creech's _Lucretius_, book v.;
Jones's (of Nayland) _Physiolog. Disquis._ p. 290. The deception practised
by the Witch of Endor, and by the damsel mentioned in Acts xvi. 16., was of
this description. See Wierus de _Præstig. Dæmon._ p. 203.; and Reginald
Scot's _Discoverie of Witchcraft_, p. 148.

The serpent, which with heathen mythologists had various acceptations (see
Vossius, _Theologia Gent. et Physiologia Christ._), was also understood as
a natural symbol or hieroglyphic of the air. Can any of your learned
correspondents furnish materials illustrative of this figurative relation
between the serpent and the elements?

T. J.

[Footnote 4: See Parkhurst.]

[Footnote 5: Dickinson's _Delphi Phoenic._, p. 10.]

[Footnote 6: Stillingfleet's _Orig. Sacræ_, book iii. c. iii. s. 18.]

_Meaning of Peep_ (Vol. ii., p. 118.).--You have already told us the
meaning of the word _peep_ in the phrase "Wizards that _peep_ and that
mutter;" in confirmation I may add that the noise made by the queen bee in
the hive previous to swarming is in Devonshire called _peeping_.

J. M. (4.)

_Venwell or Venville_ (Vol. iii., p. 38.).--_Venwell_ or _Venville_ appears
to me to be a corruption of the word _fengfield_; and the meaning of it
seems to be, that custom of delivering possession of land to a purchaser by
cutting a piece of turf from the field bought, and delivering it into his

I well remember, when a boy, accompanying my father to receive possession
of an outlying field, distant from the main estate which he had bought; the
seller's agent, I think, came with us and cut a small piece of turf from
the ground, and delivered it into my father's hands, saying (if I recollect
right), "By this turf I deliver this field into your possession." By this
means my father "_fenged_" (took) the "_field_" into his own hands, and
became the legal proprietor of it.


_Venville._--The peat or black earth of Dartmoor is still called _ven_ or
_fen_. Is it not more probable that the adjoining parishes (or parts of
them) are said to be in Venville or fengfield, from their being within the
peat district, than that an abbreviation of a legal term, _fines
villarum_--_fin. vil._, should become naturalised among the peasantry, as
is the case with the word Venville?

The second part of the word seems akin to the Scottish _fail_, "a turf, or
that clod covered with grass cut off from the rest of the sward."


_Hand-bells at Funerals_ (Vol. ii., p. 478.).--In the _Testamenta
Eboracensia_, p. 163., Johannes Esten de Scardeburgh, le Ankersymth,
bequeaths 2d.--

    "Clerico ecclesiæ pro pulsacione campanarum, et le belman portand'
    campanam per villam excitandum populum ad orandum."

A hand-bell (as I am informed by a Roman Catholic gentleman) often precedes
the Host, when carried in procession to the sick, &c., in order to clear
the way, and remind passengers of the usual reverence paid at such times.



_Shillings and Sixpences of George III._ (Vol. iii., p. 275.).--R. W. C.
has fallen into a misconception in supposing that these coins present an
erroneous spelling of the Latinized style of the monarch, whilst the
contemporary crowns and half-crowns have the correct orthography. The
spelling of the legend on the sixpences and shillings was intentional, and
with a meaning, being inscribed in an abridged form--GEOR: III. D: G:
BRITT: REX F: D:--the reduplication of the T was designed, after classical
precedent, to represent the plural _Britanniarum_, i.e., Great Britain and


_Odour from the Rainbow_ (Vol. iii., p. 224.).--I hope that I have found
JARLTZBERG'S note in the following lines:

 "Like to that smell which oft our sense descries
  Within a field which long unploughëd lies,
  Somewhat before the setting of the sun;
  And where the rainbow in the horizon
  Doth pitch her tips; or as when in the prime,
  The earth being troublëd with a drought long time,
  The hand of heaven his spongy clouds doth strain,
  And throws into her lap a shower of rain;
  She sendeth up (conceivëd from the sun)
  A sweet perfume and exhalation."
      Browne, _Britannia's Pastorals_, Book i. Song 2.
          [Clarke's Cabinet Series, 1845, p. 70.]


_Odour from the Rainbow._--The following stanzas are from a poem, called
"The Blind Girl," in a publication by Pickering, 1845, of _Memorials of a
Tour, and Miscellaneous Poems_, by Robert Snow, Esq. Lond., 1845:--

 "Once in our porch whilst I was resting,
    To hear the rain-drops in their mirth,
  You said you saw the rainbow cresting
    The heavens with colour, based on earth:

  And I believe it fills the showers
    With music; and when sweeter air
  Than common breathes from briar-rose bowers,
    Methinks, the Rainbow hath touched there."

    [We have reason to believe that the idea was suggested to Mr. Snow
    neither from Bacon's _Sylva_, nor from any of our English poets, but
    from a Greek writer after the Christian era, referred to by Coleridge
    in his _Table Talk_.]

       *       *       *       *       *



Mr. Hepworth Dixon, who is already favourably known as the author of a
_Life of Howard_, has just published _William Penn, an Historical
Biography_. It is unquestionably a book of considerable talent; and even
those who may be most inclined to dissent from the {311} author's views of
the political principles of the Quakers (and we suspect many of the Quakers
themselves will be found among that number), will admit that in treating
him not as a mere Quaker, as preceding biographers had been too much
disposed to do, but as "a great English historical character--the champion
of the Jury Laws--the joint leader, with Algernon Sidney, of the
Commonwealth men--the royal councillor of 1684-8--the courageous defender
of Free Thought--the founder of Pennsylvania"--Mr. Dixon has succeeded in
the task which he had proposed to himself, namely, that of transforming
William Penn "from a myth into a man." His vindication of this great man
from what he designates "The Macaulay Charges" would not, however, have
lost one iota of its efficiency, had it been couched in somewhat more
measured terms.

Mr. Murray announces _The Grenville Papers; being the Private
Correspondence of Richard Grenville Earl Temple, his brother George
Grenville, their Friends and Contemporaries_, as in the press. It will
contain some letters from Junius, and Mr. Grenville's Diary, particularly
during his premiership, from 1763 to 1765. The fifth and sixth volumes of
Lord Mahon's _History of England from the Peace of Utrecht_ are also at

Lady Theresa Lewis is nearly ready with a work which cannot but be of great
interest. It is entitled _Lives of the Friends and Contemporaries of Lord
Chancellor Clarendon, illustrative of Portraits in his Gallery; with an
Account of the Origin of the Collection; and a descriptive Catalogue of the
Pictures_. It will form two volumes, and be accompanied by illustrative

Mr. Colburn announces a new library edition of Miss Strickland's _Lives of
the Queens of England_. Although revised and considerably augmented by new
materials which have been placed at Miss Strickland's disposal since the
appearance of the earlier impressions of her book, this edition is to be
comprised in eight monthly volumes.

BOOKS RECEIVED.--_The Buried City of the East: Nineveh._ A popular view of
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perhaps, for those who may be unable to consult the stirring narrative of
Layard himself, but must send to his pages a great number of readers, in
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individual perseverance.--_The Iliad of Homer, literally translated, with
explanatory Notes_, by T. A. Buckley, B.A., is the new volume of Bohn's
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       *       *       *       *       *


In post 8vo., price 10s. 6d.

IRELAND, during the Reigns of Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth.

Edited, with Notes, from Autographs in the State-Paper Office,


RIVINGTONS, St. Paul's Church Yard, and Waterloo Place.

       *       *       *       *       *

Published by C. Knight, 90. Fleet Street.

ATLAS COMPLETE, with Index, 212 Maps, plain, in 1 vol., half morocco or
russia, 6l. 7s. Coloured, 1 vol., half morocco or russia. 9l. 14s.

LIBRARY ATLAS, 161 Maps, 1 volume, plain, 5l. 5s.; coloured, 7l. 7s.

FAMILY ATLAS, 54 Maps, plain, 2l. 2s.; coloured 2l. 16s.

SCHOOL ATLAS, MODERN and ANCIENT, 39 Maps, plain, 1l. 3s.; colored, 1l.

OUTLINE MAPS, FOR LEARNERS, Part I., 12 Maps, 4s.; Part II., 8 Maps, 3s.

SINGLE MAPS, plain, 6d. each; coloured, 9d.

MAP OF LONDON, for the convenience of VISITORS to the EXHIBITION, plain,
1s.; coloured, 1s. 6d.; bound in cloth, 3s.

The whole of the Maps are corrected to the present time, and a Prospectus,
with full particulars, will be forwarded post-free on application to the
Publisher, 90. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published, foolscap 8vo., cloth with Steel Engraving, price 4s. 6d.


London: GEORGE BELL, 186. Fleet Street.

       *       *       *       *       *

A New Edition, 24mo., price 5s., of

KEMPIS DE IMITATIONE CHRISTI, et Contemptu Mundi, omniumque ejus vanitatum,
Libri IV. Codex De Advocatis Seculi xiii. With Life by CHARLES BUTLER.

WILLIAM PICKERING, 177. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *

A New Edition, 8vo., with Frontispiece, "Ecce Homo," engraved by Robinson,
after a Painting by Guercino, 9s.,


Translated from the Latin original, ascribed to THOMAS À KEMPIS. By T. F.

WILLIAM PICKERING, 177. Piccadilly.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5 New
Street Square, in the parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, April 19, 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

page 300, "The duad represented the line" - original reads 'decad', making
no sense in view of what follows. Duad (more likely to be misread than
dyad) seems correct.

page 302, "there is a striking story" - original reads 'strlking'.

page 304, "a letter from Eustace Chapuys" - original reads 'Chaupys'.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 77, April 19, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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