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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 78, April 26, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes and Queries, Number 78, April 26, 1851 - A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists, - Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc" ***

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generously made available by The Internet Library of Early

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text.

       *       *       *       *       *




       *       *       *       *       *

"When found, make a note of."--CAPTAIN CUTTLE.

       *       *       *       *       *

No. 78.]
[Price, Sixpence. Stamped Edition 7d.

       *       *       *       *       *



    On the Proposed Record of Existing Monuments              313


    Illustrations of Chaucer, No. IV.                         315
    The Academies of Sir Francis Kynaston and Sir
      Balthazar Gerbier, by Dr. E. F. Rimbault                317
    Shakspeare and Fletcher, by Samuel Hickson                318
    Illustrations of Tennyson                                 319
    Folk Lore:--Sacramental Wine--Cure of Disease by
      means of Sheep                                          320
    Ancient Inedited Ballads, No. IV., by K. R. H. Mackenzie  320
    Poetical Coincidences, &c., by T. C. Smith                320
    The Republic of San Marino, by Sydney Smirke              321
    St. Francis                                               321
    Minor Notes:--Charles Lamb's Epitaph--M. or N.
      --Henry VIII. and Sir T. Curwen--Periodical Literature,
      1707--Archbishop Sancroft--Sir Henry
      Slingsby--Origin of a Surname--Madden's Reflections     322


    The Bellman, and his History                              324
    Was Sallustius a Lecturer?--Connexion between Sallustius
      and Tacitus, by K. R. H. Mackenzie                      325
    The Outer Temple, by Edward Foss                          325
    Bibliographical Queries                                   326
    Dutch Books published out of the Netherlands              326
    What was the Country of the Angles?                       326
    Minor Queries:--Villenage--Roman Roads near
      London--Mrs. Catherine Barton--Sempecta at Croyland
      --Schmidt's Antiquitates Neomagensis--Roman
      Medicine-stamps--Sir Harris Nicolas' History of the
      Royal Navy--Wooden Baldrocks--Thanksgiving-book
      --History of the Jesuits--Mind your P's and Q's
      --Mode of hiring Domestic Servants in Holderness
      --Sittings--Fest--Home-made Wines--Inscription
      on a Clock--Inscription of the Tomb of Peter
      the Hermit--Wife of James Torre--"The Bear's
      Bible"--Harris, Painter in Water-Colours--University
      Hoods--"Nullis Fraus tuta latebris"--Voltaire,
      where situated?--Table of Prohibited Degrees
      --Launcelot Littleton--The Antediluvians                327

    MINOR QUERIES ANSWERED:--Wither's Halelujah--
      Voltaire's Henriade--Christ-Cross A.--Apple-pie
      Earth's Form--Carolus Lawson                            330


    Haybands in Seals, by J. Burtt, &c.                       331
    North Side of Churchyards, by Rev. W. H. Kelke, &c.       332
    The Rolliad, and some of its Writers, by J. H. Markland,
      &c.                                                     333
    Quakers' Attempt to convert the Pope                      335
    Snail-eating                                              336
    Sir John Davies, Davis, or Davys, by W. H. Lammin         336
    Locke MSS., by Thomas Kerslake                            337
    Replies to Minor Queries:--Defoe's Anticipations--
      Epitaph in Hall's Discoveries--Saint Thomas of
      Lancaster--Francis Moore, &c.                           338


    Notes on Books, Sales, Catalogues, &c.                    341
    Books and Odd Volumes wanted                              342
    Notices to Correspondents                                 342
    Advertisements                                            342

       *       *       *       *       *


    The following communications have reached us since the publication of
    our remarks on the proposed MONUMENTARIUM ANGLICANUM (No. 73. p. 217.
    et seq.). They serve to show how much interest the subject has excited
    among those best qualified to judge of the great utility of some
    well-organised plan for the preservation of a record of our still
    existing monuments.

    MR. DUNKIN'S letter (which was accompanied by a copy of the prospectus
    issued by him in 1844) claims precedence, as showing the steps which
    _that_ gentleman has already taken. It is a communication highly
    creditable to his exertions in the cause, but does not alter our views
    as to the practicability of any successful attempt to accomplish this
    object by individual exertion.

In No. 73. Vol. iii. of "NOTES AND QUERIES" you have honoured me by an
allusion to the _Monumenta Anglicana_ I have in the press, as "a plan which
would have your hearty concurrence and recommendation, if it were at all
practicable; but which must fail from its very vastness." It may be so; but
the motto of my family is _Essayez_. Every "gigantic scheme" must have a
commencement, and this "scheme," I am perfectly aware, is one "that no
individual, however varied in attainments and abilities, could without
assistance hope to achieve." My father, upwards of half a century since,
commenced collecting mortuary memorials; many of the monuments from which
he copied the inscriptions have since been destroyed by time, and many,
very many, more by the ruthless innovations of beautifying churchwardens.
These "very vast" collections--the labour of a life--however, only form a
portion of the materials I now posses; for since I issued my prospectus in
1844, I have received many thousands of inscriptions and rubbings of
brasses from clergymen and others; and I trust I shall be favoured with
still further assistance, as in all cases where information is rendered,
the source whence derived shall be most thankfully and freely acknowledged.

The plan I have adopted with regard to arrangement is to folio each page
three times, viz., i. each parish by itself; ii. each county; iii.
alphabetically; so that each parish can be considered complete in itself;
each county can be bound up by itself; or the whole alphabetically,

The index will be also in three divisions,--i. general; ii. names of
places; iii. names of persons.

With regard to the number of volumes,--I need not say that that is entirely
_in nubibus_. My impression is limited to seventy-five copies, the same as
my father's _Oxfordshire_, with which it corresponds in size.

I should have preferred seeing the government performing the task of
preserving manuscripts of all existing monuments; but it is the fashion in
Britain for government to leave all apparently national undertakings to
individual exertion. I will here conclude with a quotation from the report
I have just published of the Transactions at the Congress of the British
Archæological Association held in Worcester:

    "Lamentation is, however, worse than useless: the spirit of the age
    forbids all idle mourning. If we would awaken a sympathy and interest
    in our pursuits, we must gird up our loins like men, and be doing, and
    that right earnestly; for it is hopeless any longer waiting for the
    government, as a 'Deus ex machina,' to help us to rescue our
    antiquities from destruction."


    Our next is from a correspondent (who has favoured us with his name)
    who proposes a scheme almost more extensive than that advocated by MR.
    DUNKIN, but who differs from that gentleman by recognising the
    necessity of combined endeavour to carry it out.

A few years since I propounded a scheme for an _Ecclesiologicon
Anglicanum_, or record of the history, not only architectural and
monumental, but also local and traditional, of every parish in England.
Though I had long conceived such a design, I must confess myself indebted
to some excellent remarks on the subject which appeared in the
_Ecclesiologist_ (New Series, No. x., April 1846). Fully aware that so
stupendous a work could never be accomplished by any single individual, I
compiled a prospectus of my design, and invited the co-operation of all
antiquaries. I proposed to publish at intervals, and in alphabetical order,
the parishes of every county, and by dividing the labour among different
coadjutors, and giving to each a separate branch of inquiry, thereby
insuring, by successive revisions, a certainty of correctness, I hoped to
succeed in the undertaking. My project was, however, laid aside by reason
of other engagements; but, as I still think it worthy of consideration, I
have troubled you with these "Notes" in the hope that, by publication in
your pages, they may be the means of suggesting to others interested in the
matter the practicability of carrying them out. Though with no definite
object in view, but with a presentiment of their after utility, I have,
during many provincial campaigns, collected architectural notes, as well as
genealogical memoranda, from the churches I have visited. To these, such as
they are, any of your readers is welcome, for the purposes to which I have
referred, and I know many who would gladly send their contributions to such
an undertaking.

W. J. D. R.

    Our next letter, though brief, is valuable as furnishing a case in
    point, to prove the practical utility which would result from the
    realisation of some well-considered scheme for the attainment of the
    great national object which we are advocating.

As an instance of the practical use of such a collection, let me inform
your readers that in 1847, being engaged in an ejectment case on the home
circuit, it became most important to show the identity of a young lady in
the pedigree, the parish register of St. Christopher le Stocks only giving
the name and date of burial. I found that when St. Christopher's was pulled
down for the enlargement of the Bank of England, some kind antiquary had
copied all the monuments. The book was found at the Herald's College; it
contained an inscription proving the identity, and a verdict was obtained.

J. S. B.

    Our last communication is, we have reason to believe, from an active
    and zealous Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, who would heartily
    co-operate in carrying out the practical suggestions thrown out in his

In Vol. iii, p. 218., you suggest that the Society of Antiquaries is the
body which should undertake the task of forming a record of existing
monuments in churches. Entirely agreeing in the opinion you have expressed,
I would venture to offer some remarks on the subject. The undertaking is a
vast and laborious one, and can only be effected by great subdivision of

That the Society of Antiquaries is the fittest agent for the work, I think
admits of little doubt; its Fellows are widely spread throughout the
country. In every neighbourhood may be found one or more gentlemen able and
willing to give their aid, and to excite others to assist. The
Archæological Institute and the British Archæological Association would
doubtless add the weight of their influence, and the personal assistance of
their members.

The clergy throughout the country would be able and willing labourers; and
surely these conjoined forces are adequate to the occasion.

One consideration suggests itself, viz., whether {315} the record be
confined to monuments in churches, or whether it should be extended to
those in churchyards? I think it should be so extended, partially--that is,
that _all_ the monuments in churches should be given; and such of the
monuments in churchyards as, upon a careful inspection, may appear to be in
any way worthy of preservation. We do not perhaps want the ten thousand
"afflictions sore" which ten thousand John Smiths are stated to have "long
time bore."

The inscriptions in churches should be accompanied with rubbings of all
brasses; and, as far as possible, with drawings of the most interesting

I am satisfied the thing can be done, if it be undertaken with prudence,
and continued with energy. The copies should be certified by the signature
of the person making them, and they should all be transcribed on paper of
the same description, so that they might be bound in volumes.

The expense would probably be considerable, because in some instances paid
labour might be requisite; but it would be as nothing compared with the
magnitude and importance of the result; and if, as is probable, the Society
of Antiquaries might hesitate at undertaking the whole charge, I doubt not
that many would contribute towards it, and amongst them

Q. D.

    A very slight consideration of the object which it is proposed to
    accomplish, and the means by which it can be attained, will show that
    it falls properly into three distinct operations, namely, Collection,
    Preservation, and Publication.

    The first and most important is, the Collection of Materials. In this,
    it is obvious, the co-operation of individuals well qualified for the
    work may be secured in all parts of the country, provided some
    well-defined plan of operation is furnished for their guidance, by some
    recognised centre of union. A Committee of the Society of Antiquaries,
    who should well consider and determine upon some uniform plan of
    recording the inscriptions, &c., is clearly the body who, from their
    position, could most effectually, and with the greatest propriety,
    issue such circulars. That the Antiquaries would in this receive the
    support of both the Archæological Societies, there cannot, of course,
    be any doubt.

    And as we have in the Society of Antiquaries a machinery already
    established for the proper collection of the materials, so we have an
    existing and most appropriate place for their preservation in the
    British Museum, where they may be consulted at all times, by all
    parties, with the greatest facility, and free of charge.

    These two great points, then, of Collection and Preservation, it is
    clear may be attained at an expense so inconsiderable, compared with
    the benefits to be gained from their accomplishment, that we cannot
    believe in their failure from want of funds.

    For the accomplishment of the third great end, that of Publication,
    there is no existing machinery. But let the work of collection and
    preservation be once fairly entered upon--let it be seen how valuable a
    collection of materials has been gathered ready to the hand of a
    Society which should undertake its publication, and there need be
    little fear that from the supporters of the various Antiquarian,
    Archæological, and Publishing Societies, now spread throughout the
    country, there would be found plenty of good men and true ready to lend
    their aid to the printings and publishing of the MONUMENTARIUM

    But as the first step is COLLECTION--and that step is the one in which
    the SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES can best move, we trust that the present
    year, in which this Society celebrates the centenary of its chartered
    existence, will be signalised by its promotion of such a Record of
    Existing Monuments as is here proposed; which cannot be otherwise
    regarded--(and we use the words of the Society's Charter)--than as
    "good, useful, honest, and necessary for the encouragement,
    advancement, and furtherance of the study and knowledge of Antiquities
    and the History of this Country."

       *       *       *       *       *



_The Pilgrimage to Canterbury._

 "Whanne that April with his shoures sote
  The droughte of March hath perced to the rote,
  And bathed every veine in swiche licour
  Of which vertue engendred is the flour;
  When Zephyrus eke with his sote brethe
  Enspired hath in every holt and hethe
  The tendre croppes--and the yonge Sonne
  Hath in the Ram his halfe cours yronne;
      *    *    *    *
  Than longen folk to gon on pilgrimages--
      *    *    *    *
      *    *    *    *
  Befelle, that in that seson, on a day."--_Prologue._

I quote these lines because I wish to show that Tyrwhitt, in taking them as
indicative of the very day on which the journey to Canterbury was
performed, committed a great mistake.

The whole of the opening of the prologue, down to the line last quoted, is
descriptive, not of any particular day, but of the usual season of
pilgrimages; and Chaucer himself plainly declares, by the words "in _that_
seson, on _a_ day"--that the day is _as yet_ indefinite. {316}

But because Tyrwhitt, who, although an excellent literary critic, was by no
means an acute reader of his author's meaning, was incapable of
appreciating the admirable combination of physical facts by which Chaucer
has not only identified the real day of the pilgrimage, but has placed it,
as it were, beyond the danger of alteration by any possible corruption in
the text, he set aside these physical facts altogether, and took in lieu of
them the seventh and eighth lines of the prologue quoted above, which, I
contend, Chaucer did not intend to bear any reference to the day of the
journey itself, but only to the general season in which it was undertaken.

But Tyrwhitt, having seized upon a favourite idea, seems to have been
determined to carry it through, at any cost, even at that of altering the
text from "_the Ram_" into "_the Bull_:" and I fear that he can scarcely be
acquitted of unfair and intentional misquotation of Chaucer's words, by
transposing "his halfe cours" into "half his course," which is by no means
an equivalent expression. Here are his own words:

    "When he (Chaucer) tells us that 'the shoures of April had _perced to
    the rote_ the drought of March' (ver. 1, 2.), we must suppose, in order
    to allow due time for such an operation, that April was far advanced;
    while, on the other hand, the place of the sun, 'having just run _half
    his course in the Ram_' (ver. 7, 8.), restrains us to some day in the
    very latter end of March. This difficulty may, and, I think, should, be
    removed by reading in ver. 8. the BULL, instead of the RAM. All the
    parts of the description will then be consistent with themselves, and
    with another passage (ver. 4425.), where, in the best MSS., the _eighte
    and twenty_ day of April is named as the day of the journey to
    Canterbury."--_Introductory Discourse._

Accordingly, Mr. Tyrwhitt did not hesitate to adopt in his text the
twenty-eighth of April as the true date, without stopping to examine
whether that day would, or would not, be consistent with the subsequent
phenomena related by Chaucer.

Notwithstanding Tyrwhitt's assertion of a difficulty only removable by
changing the Ram into the Bull, there are no less than two ways of
understanding the seventh and eighth lines of the prologue so as to be
perfectly in accordance with the rest of the description. One of these
would be to suppose the sign Aries divided into two portions (not
necessarily _equal_ in the phraseology of the time), one of which would
appertain to March, anal the other to April--and that Chaucer, by the
"halfe cours yronne," meant the _last_, or _the April_, half of the sign
Aries. But I think a more probable supposition still would be to imagine
the month of April, of which Chaucer was speaking, to be divided into two
"halfe cours," in one of which the sun would be in Aries, and in the other
in Taurus; and that when Chaucer says that "the yonge Sonne had in the Ram
his halfe cours yronne," he meant that the _Aries half of the month of
April_ had been run through, thereby indicating _in general terms_ some
time approaching to the middle of April.

Both methods of explaining the phrase lead eventually to the same result,
which is also identical with the interpretation of Chaucer's own
contemporaries, as appears in its imitation by Lydgate in the opening of
his "Story of Thebes:"

 "Whan bright Phebus passed was the Ram,
  Midde of Aprill, and into the Bull came."

And it is by no means the least remarkable instance of want of perception
in Tyrwhitt, that he actually cites these two lines of Lydgate's _as
corroborative of his own interpretation_, which places the sun _in the
middle of Taurus_.

I enter into this explanation, not that I think it necessary to examine too
curiously into the consistency of an expression which evidently was
intended only in a general sense, but that the groundlessness of Tyrwhitt's
alleged necessity for the alteration of "the Ram" into "the Bull" might
more clearly appear.

I have said that Tyrwhitt was not a competent critic of Chaucer's practical
science, and I may perhaps be expected to point out some other instance of
his failure in that respect than is afforded by the subject itself. This I
may do by reference to a passage in "The Marchante's Tale," which evinces a
remarkable want of perception not only in Tyrwhitt, but in all the editors
of Chaucer that I have had an opportunity of consulting.

The morning of the garden scene is said in the text to be "er that dayes
eight were passed of the month of _Juil_"--but, a little further on, the
same day is thus described:

 "Bright was the day and blew the firmament,
  Phebus of gold his stremes doun hath sent
  To gladen every flour with his warmnesse;
  He was that time in Geminis, I gesse,
  But litel fro his declination
  In Cancer."

How is it possible that any person could read these lines and not be struck
at once with the fact that they refer to the 8th of _June_ and not to the
8th of _July_? The sun would leave Gemini and enter Cancer on the 12th of
June; Chaucer was describing the 8th, and with his usual accuracy he places
the sun "but litel fro" _the summer solstice_!

Since "Juil" is an error common perhaps to all previous editions, Tyrwhitt
might have been excused for repeating it, if he had been satisfied with
only that: but he must signalise _his edition_ by inserting in the Glossary
attached to it--"JUIL, _the month of July_," referring, as the sole {317}
authority for the word, to this very line in question of "The Marchante's

Nor does the proof, against him in particular, end even there; he further
shows that his attention must have been especially drawn to this garden
scene by his assertion that Pluto and Proserpine were the prototypes of
Oberon and Titania; and yet he failed to notice a circumstance that would
have added some degree of plausibility to the comparison, namely, that
Chaucer's, as well as Shakspeare's, was a _Midsummer Dream_.

It is, perhaps, only justice to Urry to state that _he_ appears to have
been aware of the error that would arise from attributing such a situation
of the sun to the month of July. The manner in which the lines are printed
in _his_ edition is this:--

                 "ere the dayis eight
  Were passid, er' the month July befill."

It is just possible to twist the meaning of this into _the eighth of the
Kalends of July_, by which the blunder would be in some degree lessened;
but such a reading would be as foreign to Chaucer's astronomy as the lines
themselves are to his poetry.

A. E. B.

Leeds, April 8. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *


Among the many interesting associations connected with old Covent Garden
and its neighbourhood, we ought not to overlook Sir Francis Kynaston's
"Museum Minervæ."

In the year 1635, King Charles the First granted his letters patent to Sir
Francis Kynaston, "Esquire of the body to his Majesty," whereby a house in
Covent Garden, which Sir Francis had purchased, and furnished with books,
manuscripts, musical and mathematical instruments, paintings, statues,
antiques, &c., was appropriated for ever as a college for the education of
the young, nobility, and others, under the name of the "Museum Minervæ."
Sir Francis Kynaston was made the governor with the title of "regent;"
Edward May, Thomas Hunt, Nicholas Phiske, John Spidell, Walter Salter,
Michael Mason, fellows and professors of philosophy and medicine, music,
astronomy, geometry, languages, &c. They had power to elect professors also
of horsemanship, dancing, painting, engraving, &c.; were made a body
corporate, were permitted to use a common seal, and to possess goods and
lands in mortmain. (Pat. 11 Car. pt. 8. No. 14.) In the following year,
1636, was published, dedicated to the "Regent and Professors," _The
Constitutions of the Museum Minervæ; giving an Account of an Academy for
teaching chiefly Navigation, Riding, Fortification, Architecture, Painting,
and other useful Accomplishments_.

The "Museum" seems to have been highly patronised, for we find that on the
27th February, 1635 (the year of its foundation), Prince Charles, the Duke
of York, and the Lady Mary their sister, honoured it with their presence to
witness a masque, entitled "Corona Minervæ," which was written and prepared
for the occasion by Sir Francis Kynaston. This masque was, I believe,
printed in the year of its production, but I do not find it mentioned in
the last edition of the _Biographia Dramatica_.

Mr. Cunningham, in his _Handbook of London_, mentions (p. 42.) that

    "Sir Francis Kynaston, the poet, was living in Covent Garden in 1636,
    on the east side of the street towards Berrie" (Bedfordbury).

And again, in his notice of Bedford Street (p. 44.), he says, Sir Francis
resided "on the west side in 1637." Both these entries refer to the same
residence--a noble mansion, built in the year 1594, which, after being
inhabited by several important families, finally passed into the possession
of Sir Francis Kynaston, who altered and adapted it (rebuilding some
portions) as the college of the "Museum Minervæ." The ground plan, which is
now before me, exhibits a well-arranged and commodious building with two
fronts, one in what is now Bedfordbury, and the other (probably added by
Sir Francis) in the street now called Bedford Street. The building, when
Sir Francis Kynaston purchased it in 1634, stood in the centre of a large
garden. The surrounding streets,--King Street, New Street, Bedford Street,
Chandos Street, Henrietta Street, and Bedfordbury, were not commenced
building until the year 1637.

The "Museum Minervæ" is not named in Mr. Cunningham's excellent _Handbook_;
but when we take into consideration the enormous amount of information
required for a work of the kind, we ought not to blame the author for a few
trifling omissions.

Sir Balthazar Gerbier, an enterprising projector of the same century, by
profession a painter and an architect, but now scarcely remembered as
either, seems to have imitated the "Museum Minervæ" in an academy opened at
Bethnal Green in 1649. Here, in addition to the more common branches of
education, he professed to teach astronomy, navigation, architecture,
perspective, drawing, limning, engraving, fortification, fireworks,
military discipline, the art of well speaking and civil conversation,
history, constitutions and maxims of state, and particular dispositions of
nations, "riding the great horse," &c. Once in each week, at three o'clock
in the afternoon, Sir Balthazar gave a public lecture gratis on the various
sciences. The lectures were {318} generally advertised in the _Perfect
Diurnal_, and a few curious specimens of these advertisements may be seen
in Lysons' _Environs of London_, ed. 1795, vol. ii. p. 30.

Balthazar Gerbier was born at Antwerp about 1591, came young into England,
and was a retainer of the Duke of Buckingham as early as 1613. Upon the
accession of Charles the First, he was employed in Flanders to negociate
privately a treaty with Spain. In 1628 he was knighted at Hampton Court;
and, as he says himself in one of his books, was promised by the king the
office of surveyor-general of the works, after the death of Inigo Jones. In
1637 he was employed in some private transactions of state; and on the 13th
of July, 1641, he took the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, having a bill
of naturalisation. In 1648 he appears to have projected the above-named
academy, the failure of which very soon happened. Sir Balthazar then went
to America, where he seems to have been very ill treated by the Dutch, and
narrowly escaped with his life. He afterwards returned to England, and
designed the triumphal arch for the reception of Charles the Second. He
died at Hempsted-marshal, in 1667, whilst engaged in superintending the
mansion of Lord Craven, and was buried in the chancel of that church.

In conclusion, it may be as well to mention, that, prior to the
establishment of the "Museum Minervæ," a committee had been appointed in
the House of Lords, consisting of the Duke of Buckingham and others, for
taking into consideration the state of the public schools, and method of
education. What progress was made in this inquiry is not known, but in all
probability the academies of Sir Francis Kynaston and Sir Balthazar Gerbier
owed their origin to the meetings of this committee.


       *       *       *       *       *


I feel greatly obliged to your correspondent C. B. for the attention he has
bestowed on the question of Fletcher's connexion with _Henry VIII._, as it
is only through the concurrent judgments of those who think the subject
worthy of their full and impartial consideration, that we can hope to
arrive at the truth. His remarks (Vol. iii., p. 190.) are the more
valuable, as they coincide with a doubt in my own mind, which has, to a
great extent, ripened since I last communicated with you on the subject;
and, indeed, I have no need to hesitate in saying, that I had more
difficulty in coming to a conclusion with regard to the scene (Act III. Sc.
2.) in which the passages occur quoted by C. B., than with any other scene
in the whole play. The suggestions, that Shakspeare might have touched
scenes of which the mass had been written by Fletcher, is a point which I
had not overlooked, and which indeed, to some extent, might be said to
follow from the view I took of the relation of Shakspeare and Fletcher as
master and scholar. Yet this suggestion is especially valuable regarding
this scene, and may account for that which, without it, is not so easily

If, however, there be any lurking notion in your correspondent's mind, that
the scene in _Antony and Cleopatra_ (Act III. Sc. 1) referred to by X. Z.
(Vol. iii., p. 139.) is, judging from certain coincidences of expression,
an interpolation, and not by Shakspeare, I beg at once to be allowed to
express my total dissent from such a view. Whether, also, there may have
been any secondary allusion to some known event of the day, as X. Z.
supposes, and as is by no means improbable, I cannot say; but I protest
against its being said that the scene referred to is "totally unconnected
with what goes before, and what follows." Antony is the hero of the play;
and this scene shows the culminating point of Antony's fortunes, when his
very successes turn against him.

To return to _Henry VIII._, the compliment to the Queen, to which your
correspondent refers, is, as he very justly observes, brought in in a very
forced manner. This, to my mind, is very strong evidence; otherwise I
should not think it unworthy of Shakspeare. And it still has to be borne in
mind, that he would have had to accommodate his characters and
circumstances to the views of another writer. Shakspeare's spirit was too
catholic, too universal, to have allowed, in a work entirely his own, even
his Wolsey to have made use of the term "a spleeny Lutheran;" yet neither
in the passage in which this expression occurs, nor in the one above
referred to, is the versification characteristic of Fletcher. For my own
part, however, I cannot recognise Shakspeare's spirit in this antagonism of
creeds, which is, perhaps, even more strongly displayed in the prophetic
speech of Cranmer's in the last scene, wherein he says, "God shall be truly
known!" It may be said, that in both these instances the expressions are
true to the characters of Wolsey and Cranmer. It may be so; for both are
wanting in that ideal elevation which Shakspeare never fails to give. That,
with this reservation, he becomes the mouth-piece of each character, is
most true; and a curious instance of the writer's utter forgetfulness of
his assumed character of contemporary with the events he is relating,
occurring in Act. IV. Sc. 2 where Griffiths says--

 "He was most princely: ever witness for him
  Those twins of learning, that he rais'd in you,
  Ipswich and Oxford! _one of which fell with him_,
  Unwilling to outlive the good that did it;
  The other, though unfinish'd, yet so famous,
  So excellent in art, _and still so rising_,"--

{319} has no parallel in Shakspeare's works. To John Fletcher, indeed, at
the close of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, these things were known; but
scarcely to the attendant of Queen Katherine, who has but just narrated the
circumstances, then newly happened, of Wolsey's fall. On maturer
consideration, then, I am inclined to think that the whole of the scene
(Act III. Sc. 2.) to which your correspondent refers, was originally
written by Fletcher, although, as it now stands, it is strongly marked by
the hand of Shakspeare. In the same category, also, I am inclined to place
Scenes 3. and 4. of Act II. It will be observed that these changes are not
inconsistent with the view I had previously taken; the effect being merely,
that I am inclined to ascribe a little more than in the first instance to
the hitherto unsuspected participator in the work. I am not sure, too, that
I shall not be coming nearer to MR. SPEDDING; as, if I am not mistaken, it
is in some of these scenes that he imagines he detects "a third hand;" a
theory which, though I do not adopt, I certainly have not confidence enough
to reject altogether. But this view affects so very small a portion of the
play, that it is of very little consequence.


       *       *       *       *       *


That great poets are sometimes obscure, needs no proof. That the greatest
poets will necessarily be so to the ordinary reader, seems to me equally

Not without effort can one enter into the spontaneous thought of another,
or even of himself in another mood. How much more when that other is
distinguished from his fellows by the _greatness_ and _singularity_ of his
thoughts, and by the extreme subtilty of their connecting links. Obscurity
is not a blemish but an excellence, if the pains of seeking are more than
compensated by the pleasures of finding, the luxury of [Greek: mathêsis],
where the concentrated energy of a passage, when once understood, gives it
a hold on the imagination and memory such as were ill sacrificed to more
diluted clearness.

_Grandis præfatio tenui incepto_--a sort of apology to Tennyson for
implying that he needs illustration. Some time ago I made a few notes on
particular passages in _Locksley Hall_, which I now enclose. Some of them
are, I dare say, superfluous--some, possibly, erroneous. If so, they will
stand a fair chance of being corrected in your valuable publication.

By the bye, if a "NOTES AND QUERIES" had existed in the days of Æschylus,
we might have been saved from many a recourse to "corrupt text" and "lacunæ
admodum deflendæ."

_Notes on Locksley Hall._

Stanza 2. "Dreary gleams:" in apposition with "curlews." I know the
construction of this line has puzzled a good many readers.

Stanza 23. "Yet it shall be." Yet "decline" thou certainly wilt.

Stanza 28. "He will answer," &c. With an oath, it may be--at the least with
a coarse rebuff.

Stanza 29. "The heart's disgrace." The disgrace, the injury, and
degradation the heart has suffered--its prostitution to a mercenary service
by a marriage of interest.

Stanza 34. "Never." Alas! I never can.

Stanza 35. "In division of the records of the mind." In dividing my
recollections of her into two groups, and erasing the one.

Stanza 38. "The poet is" (as I think has been already pointed out) Dante.

Stanza 40. "He hunts," &c. He--thy husband.

Stanza 42. "Never, never," &c. Never again! (joys never to return) sung by
the ghosts of years departed.

Stanza 51. "I have but an angry fancy"--my only _qualification_.

Stanza 53. "But the jingling of the guinea," &c. But there is no fighting
now: the nations get over their quarrels in another way--by the jingling of
the guinea, instead of the clang of arms.

Stanzas 54. "Mother-age."; 93. "Mother-age, for mine I know not."

This mother-age is a great difficulty. At first I took it for _the past of
history_, but now understand by it _the past of his own life_, at least its
earliest and brightest period--that age which had been as a mother, the
only mother he ever knew.

Stanza 70. "Youthful joys." The bright hopes of his youth. (?)

Stanza 75. "Blinder motions," Less rational, less well-guided emotions.

Stanza 91. "The distance." The distant future, the "good time coming."

There are some lines in _In Memoriam_ (I have not the book at hand, but any
reader thereof will instantly recollect them), which indicate Tennyson's
acquaintance with and appreciation of Jeremy Taylor, who thus expresses the
thoughts of the "wild fellow in Petronius," suggested by the sight of a
floating corpse.

    "That peradventure this man's wife, in some part of the Continent, safe
    and warm, looks next month for the good man's return or, it may be, his
    son knows nothing of the tempest: or his father thinks of that
    affectionate kiss which is still warm upon the good old man's cheek
    ever since he took a kind farewell; and he weeps with joy to think how
    blessed he shall be when his beloved boy returns into the circle of his
    father's arms."--_Holy Dying._

Compare with "Sure never moon to evening," &c., in the same poem, and I
think the same place: {320}

 "Nec nox ulla diem, neque noctem aurora secuta est,
  Quæ non audierit mistos vagitibus ægris
  Ploratus mortis comites, et funeris atri."--_Lucretius_, ii. 579.

G. P.

       *       *       *       *       *


_Sacramental Wine_ (Vol. iii., p. 179.).--From a note by MR. ALBERT WAY, on
the use of sacramental wine, one would be led to infer that it was
recommended on account of some superstitious belief in its superior
excellency from having been used in religious worship; but I would suggest
that the same reasons which recommend Teynt wine, the kind generally used
for the Sacrament, are those which have established for it a reputation in
cases of sickness: these are its rich red colour, and sweet and agreeable

Weakness is popularly supposed to be caused by a thinness and want of
blood; if wine be recommended for this, there is a deeply rooted prejudice
in favour of red wine because the blood is red, and upon no better
principle than that which prescribes the yellow bark of the barberry for
the yellow state of jaundice; the nettle, for the nettle-rash; and the
navel-wort (_Cotyledon umbilicus_), for weakness about the umbilical
region. The truth is, that rustic practice is much influenced by the
doctrine of similitudes, the principle of "_similia similibus curantur_"
having been more extensively recognised in the olden time than since the
days of Hahnemann.

The sweetness of Teynt wine would recommend it for children, to whom a
stronger wine is generally distasteful; but Port is generally prescribed as
a tonic for adults.

It may further be remarked, that the recommendation to give Sacramental
wine might arise from the fact, that, as in some parishes more wine is
provided than is required, the remainder is put by to be given to the poor
who may require it at the hands of the clergyman.

In sending these remarks, I am led to request that your correspondents
would make Notes upon such old wives' remedies as are employed upon the
principles I have mentioned.


Cirencester, April 12.

_Cure of Disease by means of Sheep._--A child in my parish has been for
some time afflicted with disease of some of the respiratory organs. The
mother was recommended to have it carried through a flock of sheep as they
were let out of the fold in the morning. The time was considered to be of

[Hebrew: B].

L---- Rectory, Somerset.

       *       *       *       *       *


I next transcribe the following lines from the same MS. as my last. It is
another epitaph on the Mr. Browne that I mentioned in No. II. It contains a
curious illustration of a passage in Shakspeare, which has been often
debated in the pages of "NOTES AND QUERIES," and so deserves preservation.

    "Vpon the death of that right worthye man, MR. BROWNE, late of Caius
    and Gonville Colledge disceased. Epicedion."--(_Harl. MSS._, No. 367.
    fol. 155.)

 "If vowes or teares from heartes or eyes,
  Could pearce the unpenitrable skyes,
  Then might he live, that now heere lyes.

  But teares are tonguelesse, vowes are vaine,
  T' recall what fate calls; els how faine                       5
  What death hath seis'd, wold I regaine.

  But sure th' immortal one belaves
  This wished soule in 's blissfull waves:
  Ill comes too oft, when no man craves.

  Rest, therefore, vrne, rest quietlye,                         10
  And when my fates shall call on me,
  So may I rest, as I wish the.
                     "R. CONSTABLE,

I need hardly point out the striking similarity between the expression in

                 "and the delighted spirit
  To bathe in fiery floods,"--

and the third stanza of this poem.


       *       *       *       *       *



In the _Jealous Lovers_ of Thomas Randolph, the following passage occurs,
which may possibly have suggested to Lord Byron the fearful curse he has
put into the mouth of Eve, in "the grand and tremendous drama of

                 "May perpetual jealousie
  Wait on their beds, and poison their embraces
  With just suspitions; may their children be
  Deform'd, and fright the mother at the birth:
  May they live long and wretched; all men's hate,
  And yet have misery enough for pity:
  May they be long a-dying--of diseases
  Painful and loathsome," &c.

That exquisite stanza in the Third Canto of _Childe Harold_, "Even as a
broken mirror," &c., has been often admired. In Carew's poem, _The Spark_,
I find the following lines, which contain similar image:


 "And as a looking-glass, from the aspect,
  Whilst it is whole, doth but one face reflect,
  But being crack'd, or broken, there are shown
  Many half faces, which at first were one;
  So Love," &c.

To the coincidences which have been already pointed out regarding that
exquisite line in the _Bride of Abydos_:

 "The mind, the music breathing from her face,"

the following from Carew may perhaps be added:

 "The harmony of colours, features, grace,
  Resulting airs (the magic of a face)
  Of musical sweet tunes, all which combin'd,
  To crown one sovereign beauty, lie confined
  To this dark vault."--_Epitaph on the Lady S._

All will recollect the wonderful description of the shipwreck in _Don
Juan_; and more particularly the incidents so graphically related in
stanzas 52 and 53 of the Second Canto: to a part of which, the following
passage fro Lee's _Oedipus_ bears some resemblance:

             "Methought I heard a voice,
  Now roaring like the ocean, when the winds
  Fight with the waves; now in a still small tone
  Your dying accents fell, as wrecking ships,
  After the dreadful yell, sink murm'ring down,
  And bubble up a noise."

I have now before me a print of John, the first Lord Byron, engraved from a
painting in the collection of Lord Delaware; in which he is pourtrayed in
armour, with a truncheon in the left hand, and the _right arm bare_ to
above the elbow. Can this have suggested to Lord Byron the idea of
describing "Alp the renegade" as fighting with "the white arm bare," in the
_Siege of Corinth_?

Byron refers to Smollett as an authority for "blatant beast," apparently
forgetting that the figure originated with Spenser. Again, in a note to
_Don Juan_ respecting his use of the phrase "reformadoes," he remarks:

    "The Baron Bradwardine, in _Waverley_, is authority for the word."

It occurs, however, in Ben Jonson, and may be found in Blount's
_Glossographia_; Phillips's _World of Words_, and other old dictionaries of
the same period.


[Footnote 1: Sir Walter Scott.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Amidst the Apennines, far removed from the ordinary track of tourists, is
the diminutive republic of San Marino, which boasts never to have been
subjugated. Whether it has escaped invasion because it has escaped notice,
or because burglars never attack an empty cottage, is a point which I shall
not stop to discuss. Few travellers visit it, but the trouble of doing so
would be amply repaid. The situation is highly romantic; and the view from
the summit of the bold escarpment, upon which the town is perched, extends
over a wilderness of mountains.

The population of the territory is said not to exceed 6,000 or 7,000 souls.
Its whole income is derived from a moderate duty on tobacco; and its
standing army (for it possesses this indispensable incident to political
independence) is chiefly employed in vain attempts to prevent the evasion
of that duty.

Among the greatest and most highly esteemed curiosities of the place, is a
statue of Christ on the cross, with a head of real hair, which is cut twice
a year, and always grows again! This faculty of reproduction is as
profitable as it is wonderful; for, besides the resort of pious visitors,
drawn by the capillary attractions of such a miraculous piece of sculpture,
the locks that are cut off are stated, by the ecclesiastical functionaries
in charge of the statue, to be a sure preservative against all harm to the
wearer, and are of course in request as an article of commerce. My object
in communicating to you these notes, is to introduce to you a copy, which I
transcribed myself, of one of the state papers preserved in the archives of
the republic. It appears to be a letter of encouragement, addressed by the
Priors and Gonfaloniere of the republic of Florence to that of S. Marino,
during a siege that the latter was undergoing. Perhaps some of your readers
may be able to point out the precise occasion that called for the letter.


    "Magnifici viri amici ñri car^{mi}, Habbiamo vedato la lettera vi
    scrive il Governatore, et habbiamo inteso la voluntà dello exercito
    della Chiesa. Dovete essere di buono animo et stare constanti et fermi:
    et perdere la vita insieme con la libertà che è meglo allo huomo uso a
    essere libero, essere morto che essere servo. Iddio a chi piace la
    libertà vi aiutera difenderai: et noi et la ñra lega non vi manchera:
    havete inteso le provisioni facte et di denari et di gente ad Arimino;
    et faremo delle altre tante che saranno abastanza. Valete. Ex palatio
    ñro die viij. Junij, M.CCCCLXVIIIj.

     "Priores libertatis et }
      Vexillifer Justitiæ   }  Populi Florentinj.

    "Barth. Scala.

    "Magnificis Viris hominibus terræ S[=a] Marini amicis ñris car^{mis}."

       *       *       *       *       *


I think Mrs. Jameson, in her _Legends of the Monastic Orders_, has left
unnoticed the very remarkable book of the _Conformity of St. Francis's Life
with that of Jesus Christ_, a work, the blasphemy of which is only equalled
by its absurdity.

The book was written by Bartholomew of Pisa, a monk of the order, and
licensed in 1399 by the general of the Minorites.

    "Approbatum est a fr. Henrico ord. frat. Minorum generali ministro et
    servo et cæteris ministris et diffinitoribus capituli generalis apud
    Sacrum locum de Assisio die 2 Augusti A.D. 1399."


The title of the first edition, which is very rare, is as follows:

    "Liber Conformitatum Vitæ S. Francisci ad Vitam Jesu Christi. Authore
    Fr. Bartholomæo degli Albizzi, ex recens. Fran. Zenonis. Impressum
    Mediolani per Gotardum Ponticum apud templum Sancti Satyri. Anno
    M.CCCCCX. die 18 mensis Septembris. In fol. literis quadratis."

The Second edition:

    "Opus aur. et inexplicabilis bonitatis et continentiæ, Conformitatum
    scilicet vitæ Beati Fr[=a]. ad vit[=a] D[=i]. [=n]ri Jesu x[=p]i.
    Mediolani, in edibus Zanoti castilionei 1513. in fol. goth."

The third edition, also in folio, appeared at Bologne (1590) as "Liber
aureus, inscriptus liber Conformitatum, etc., per Hierem Bucchium," with
some alterations in the text.

Fourth edition:

    "Vita S. Fra[=n]. conf. ad vit. Xti., per S. Bonaventuram Conscriptu ab
    Henr. Sedulio Co[=m]. illustrata, 4to., Antr. 1597."

Another edition, by Jer. Bacch, in folio, appeared at Bologne in 1620; and
an abridged edition in octavo, by Phil. Bosquier, at Cologne, under the
title of _Antiquitates Franciscanæ_, a very good edition of the _Liber
Conform._, "Et ex Annalibus Madingi collecta per Tibur. Navarrum," was
published in 4to. at Rome in 1670.

The late Dr. Elrington had a very fine copy of the following French

    "Traite des Conformités du Disciple avec son Maitre, c'est à dire, de
    Saint François avec J. C., etc., le tout recueilli par un frere mineur
    récollect. (Valentin Marée.) Liege, 1658-60. 4 part en 3 vol. in 4to."

In 1542 a small volume was put forth, containing choice passages from the
_Liber Conformitatum_, with a preface and letter to the reader, purporting
to be from Martin Luther. It was accordingly by many attributed to him; the
real compiler was Erasmus Alberus. The title of the first edition is

    "Alcoranus Franciscorum, etc., ex libro conformitatum: Francof. 1542,
    parv. 8vo."

It was reprinted, with a French translation, by Conrad Badius, at Geneva,
1560 or 1578; so says Brunet.

The best edition of this work was that published at Amsterdam in 1734, in
two vols. 12 mo., with some capital plates by Picart. The title is--

    "L'Alcoran des Cordeliers, tant en Latin qu'en François; c'est à dire,
    Recueil des plus notables bourdes et blasphemes de ceux qui ont osé
    comparer Sainet François à Jesus Christ; tiré du grand livre des
    _Conformités_, jadis composé par frere Barthelemi de Pise, Cordelier en
    son vivant. Nouvelle edition, ornée de figures dessinées par B. Picart.
    A Amsterdam. Aux Defens de la Compagnie. MDCCXXXIV."

Another work, printed the same year, is often found with this:--

    "Legende Dorée, ou Sommaire de l'Histoire des Freres-mendians de
    l'ordre de Saint François. (Par Nic. Vignier.) Amsterdam, 1734. 12mo.
    Réimpr. sur l'ed. de Leyde, 1608 in 8vo."

Thomas of Celano, the friend and scholar of St. Francis, and the author of
the famous _Dies Iræ_, after the saint's death composed a brief account of
his life, which he afterwards greatly enlarged, and which even now is the
most authentic we possess. I should be glad to know the best, as well as
the latest editions of this life.

    "Francis," said Luther, "was no doubt an honest and just man. He little
    thought that such superstition and unbelief should proceed out of his

Berington says of St. Francis:

    "In an age of less intemperance in religion, miracles and the fancied
    intervention of peculiar favours from heaven, would not have been
    deemed necessary to stamp worth and admiration on a character which in
    itself possessed the purest excellences that fall to the lot of man.
    But this circumstance, and more than this, the reception which an
    institute so peculiarly framed met with, serve to manifest the singular
    taste of the age."--_Berington's Henry II._, p. 629.

"It is scarcely possible," says Mr. Massingberd, "to read the history of
St. Francis of Assisi, without believing that there was in him a sincere
and self-devoted, however ill-directed, piety." We must not let the foolish
legends afterwards written of him lower him in our estimation, nor cease to
regard him as a sincere and devoted Christian.


       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Notes.

_Charles Lamb's Epitaph._--Perhaps the following lines, which I have copied
from the gravestone of Charles Lamb, who lies in the churchyard at
Edmonton, may be interesting to those of your readers who are among the
admirers of the witty and gentle Elia:--

 "Farewell, dear friend; that smile, that harmless mirth,
  No more shall gladden our domestic hearth;
  That rising tear, with pain forbid to flow,
  Better than words, no more assuage our woe;
  That hand outstretch'd from small but well-earn'd store,
  Yield succour to the destitute no more.

  Yet art thou not all lost; thro' many an age
  With sterling sense and humour shall thy page
  Win many an English bosom, pleased to see
  That old and happier vein revived in thee.
  This for our earth, and if with friends we share
  Our joys in heav'n, we hope to meet thee there."

I have heard it conjectured that the above were written by Wordsworth. I
shall feel obliged if any of your readers will inform me whether the late
laureate was the author of them or not?




_M. or N._ (Vol. i., p. 415.; Vol. ii., p. 61.).--There have been several
suggestions as to the origin of the use of these letters in the services of
the church, but I do not think that any correspondent has hit upon the very
simple one which I have always considered to be most probably the true
explanation; which is, that as these services were compiled when algebra
stood much higher in the rank of sciences than it does at present, it is by
no means unlikely that these two letters should be used to signify
indefinite and variable _names_, as they are in algebra to represent
indefinite or variable _numbers_, in the same manner as A. B. C. are as
signs of known or definite, and X. Y. Z. of unknown sums.

E. H. Y.

_Henry VIII. and Sir Thos. Curwen._--The following quaint extract from
Sandford's MS. _History of Cumberland_, now in the library of the Dean and
Chapter of Carlisle, exhibits that "reknowned king," Henry VIII., in so
good-natured a light, that I think, if you can find a corner for it, it may
amuse some of your readers. That the good knight and "excelent archer"
should have been so outwitted by his son-in-law is a matter of some regret
to one of his descendants:--

    "Sir Thos. Curwen, Knight, in Henry the Eight's time, an excelent
    archer at twelvescore merks; and went up with his men to shoote with
    that reknowned King at the dissolution of abbeys: and the King says to
    him, Curwen, why doth thee begg none of these Abbeys? I wold gratify
    thee some way. Quoth the other, Thank yow, and afterward said he wold
    desire of him the Abbie of ffurness (nye unto him) for 20^{ty} one
    yeares. Sayes the King: take it for ever: quoth the other, it is long
    enough, for youle set them up againe in that time: but they not likely
    to be set up againe, this Sir Tho. Curwen sent Mr. Preston, who had
    married his daughter, to renew the lease for him; and he even rennewed
    in his own name; which when his father-in-law questioned, quoth Mr.
    Preston, you shall have it as long as you live; and I think I may as
    well have it with your daughter as another."

After some descents, this family of Preston, of the manor of Furness,
terminated in a daughter, who married Sir William Lowther, whose grandson
left his estates in Furness and Cartmell to his cousin, Lord George
Cavendish, through whom they are inherited by the Earl of Burlington. As
Harry the Eighth's good intentions towards Sir Thomas Curwen have been
frustrated, his descendants must console themselves by knowing that the
glorious old ruin of Furness could not be in better hands than his

H. C.


_Periodical Literature_, 1707.--

    "The author of the _Observator_ is MR. RIDPATH, y^e author of the
    _Flying Post_. The base author of the late paper, which has been some
    time since dropp'd, viz. _The Observator Reviv'd_, was one PEARCE, an
    exchange broker, some time since concerned in the paper called
    _Legion's Address_, and forced to fly on that account into Holland. The
    publisher of the _Phoenix_ is a Presbyterian bookseller, named J.
    Darby, in Bartholomew Close, who has told me that he was chiefly
    assisted therein by the famous MR. COLLINS, the supposed author of _The
    Use of Reason in Propositions_, &c., and Dr. Tindal's familiar
    acquaintance."--_Original Letter of the Rev. Robert Watts, M.A._, dated
    London, Feb. 6. 1707-8.

P. B.

_Archbishop Sancroft._--It is well known that Dr. William Dillingham,
Master of Emanuel College, Cambridge, published, in 1678, a volume of Latin
poems, partly translations from George Herbert, partly pieces of his own,
with some few added from other sources. But it is not known that most of
the pieces in this volume were corrected by the hand of Archbishop
Sancroft, and that one certainly was from his own pen. It occurs at p. 155.
of the octavo volume alluded to, and is entitled "Hippodromus." This is a
translation from an epigram by Thomas Bastard, first printed in 1598, and

 "I mett a courtier riding on the plaine."

That it is Archbishop Sancroft's is proved from an original letter
addressed to him by Dillingham in 1677, and preserved in the Bodleian.

P. B.

_Sir Henry Slingsby._--This gallant cavalier, who was murdered (as Lloyd
says in his _Memoirs_) by Oliver Cromwell in 1658, wrote an account of the
scenes in which he bore a part, from 1638 to 1648, which he called
"Commentaries, containing many remarkable occurrences during the Civil
Wars." Can any of your correspondents tell me where the original manuscript
is to be found, and whether it was ever printed? I have seen an indifferent
transcript, beginning, "The chappel at Red House was built by my father,
Sir Henry Slingsby." If it has never been published, it would be an
acceptable contribution to the historical memoirs of the times, and worth
the attention of the Camden Society.

P. B.

_Origin of a Surname._--Martha Denial, widow, aged seventy-five, was buried
in Ecclesfield churchyard, 3rd February, 1851. Her husband, Joseph Denial,
told the parish clerk that his grandfather was found when an infant
deserted in a church porch; and that he was surnamed Denial, as one whom
_all deny_; and was christened Daniel, which is composed of the same
letters. This is the tradition of the origin of a surname now common in
this parish.

A. G.


_Madden's Reflections._--Madden's _Reflections and Resolutions for the
Gentlemen of Ireland_. In the preface to the reprint of this work we meet
with the following paragraph:

    "The very curious and interesting work which is {324} now reprinted,
    and intended for a wide and gratuitous circulation, is also of uncommon
    rarity: there is not a copy of it in the Library of Trinity College, or
    in any of the other public libraries of this city [Dublin], which have
    been searched on purpose. The profoundly-learned Vice-Provost, Doctor
    Barrett, never met with one; and many gentlemen well skilled in the
    literature of Ireland, who have been applied to for information on the
    subject, are even unacquainted with the name of the book."

The full title of the work to which I refer, and which is an 8vo. volume of
200 or 300 pages, is _Reflections and Resolutions proper for the Gentlemen
of Ireland, as to their Conduct for the Service of their Country_. It was
printed in Dublin in 1738; it was reprinted there in 1816 at the sole
expense of the well-known philanthropist, Thomas Pleasants, and the author
was Samuel Madden, D.D., the author of several publications: a great patron
of arts and literature in his native land, and one of whom Dr. Johnson
remarked with truth,--"His was a name Ireland ought to honour." For some
authentic information respecting him, see Nichols's _Literary Anecdotes of
the Eighteenth Century_, vol. ii. pp. 31. 699.; and Grosley's _Tour in
England_, vol. ii p. 260. These writers, however, make no mention of his

The original edition may indeed be looked upon as rather rare, but not so
rare as some appear inclined to think. I have a copy, and until lately had
two; and at different times I have met with copies for sale. However, the
copy now in the library of the Royal Dublin Society was purchased some
years ago at a high price; and, unless I am mistaken, there is not one as
yet in the British Museum. The reprint which is there is much to be
preferred by readers in general.


       *       *       *       *       *



I have often read Vincent Bourne's poem, "Ad Davidem Cook, Westmonasterii
Custodem Nocturnum et Vigilantissimum, Anno 1716:" Pickering's edition, p.
129. This nightly guardian, it appears, was accompanied by a dog:

 "Cùm variis implent tenebræ terroribus orbem,
    Tu comite assuetum cum cane carpis iter,"

was armed with a stout staff, or knotty club:

 "Nec te perterrent, nodoso stipite fretum,
    Subdola qui tacito pectore furta parant,"

and carried a bell:

 "Tinnitu adventum signans, oriantur an astra,
    Narras, an purè lucida Luna micet."

To the last-mentioned part of his equipment, he owed the title of

The Bellman's duty, however, was not confined to crying the rising of the
stars, or the shining of the moon, but he cheered his nightly round with
many a chant:

  Nocturnum multo carmine fallis iter."

The next lines are descriptive of the Bellman's poetry, and tell us the
subjects of it. Of some of these I want explanation; and of all, examples.
I am at a loss to explain the following four lines:

 "Divorum hyberni menses quotcunque celebrant,
    Cuique locum et versum dat tua musa suum:
  _Crispino_ ante omnes; neque enim sine carmine fas est
    Nobile sutorum præteriisse decus."

The next lines refer to the Bellman's loyalty in ever remembering the Royal
Family; to his salutation of masters and mistresses; to the useful
instruction he pours forth in song to young men and maidens; and to the
happy marriages he wishes to such as give heed to his warnings. The Bellman
then addresses himself to men-servants and maid-servants, enjoining honesty
on the former, cleanliness on the latter. Repeatedly wishing prosperity to
his masters, he concludes with one pre-eminent exhortation to keep in mind,
that the friendly hand of death levels the highest and the lowest.

My ignorance asks several questions. When did the Bellman lay aside his
bell, and assume the rattle; and, with this change (I presume), drop the
name of Bellman for that of Watchman, to whom the silent policeman has
succeeded? Was the dog the usual aide-de-camp of the Bellman? Are there any
other instances in which the dog is mentioned as assisting the Bellman in
his nocturnal guardianship?

As to the Bellman's poetry, Milton will occur to every one:

 "Or the bellman's drowsy charm
  To bless the door from nightly harm."--_Il Penseroso._

1. Herrick's _Hesperides_, p. 169., is a Bellman's song, a blessing,

 "Past one o'clock, and almost two,
  My masters all, good-day to you."

2. Ibid. p. 251. is another song; a warning to remember the judgment-day,
and ending--

 "Ponder this when I am gone,
  By the clock 'tis almost one."

See _The Tatler_, No. 111., for the Bellman's salutation:

    "_Good morrow, Mr. Bickerstaff, good morrow, my masters all._"

 "It was the owl that shriek'd, the fatal bellman,
  Which gives the stern'st good night."--Shakspeare, _Macbeth_, Act II. Sc.

Gay refers to the Bellman's song in the following lines:

 "Behold that narrow street which steep descends,
  Whose building to the slimy shore extends;
  Here Arundel's fam'd structure rear'd its frame,
  The street alone retains the empty name;
  Where Titian's glowing paint the canvass warm'd,
  And Raphael's fair design, with judgment, charm'd,
  Now hangs _the bellman's song_, and pasted here
  The colour'd prints of Overton appear."--_Trivia_, book ii. 482.

In the _Archaic and Provincial Dictionary_, the duty of the Bellman in his
poetic character seems to be limited to blessing the sleepers. It appears
from the poem by Vincent Bourne, that his Muse took a much more extensive

Can you inform me where I can find more about the Bellman, his bell and his
dog; and, especially, his songs? Where can I find "The Bellman's Songs?"

Is "Bellman" a name given to dogs in modern times? See _Taming of the
Shrew_, Induction.

F. W. T.

    [We cannot insert F. W. T.'s Query without referring to the admirable
    translation of Vinny Bourne's Ode, which is to be found in our First
    Volume, p. 152.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Sallustius, in his celebrated abstract of the Punic records of Thempsal,
makes the following remark:

    "Nam de Carthagine silere melius puto, quam parum dicere, _quoniam alio
    properare tempus monet_."--_De Bello Jugurthino_, c. xix. ed. Allen.

Does not this sound as if the history has been read out to an assembly?
There is strong presumptive evidence in favour of such a supposition, in
the tradition of Herodotus having read aloud his history at the Grecian
Games. Besides, it was a common practice of Cicero and Plinius the Younger
to read out their orations and treatises. I cannot help thinking that the
histories of Sallustius were first delivered as lectures, _taken down by
reporters_[2] employed by himself for the purposes of preserving his words,
as he had only notes before him, fairly transcribed from the stenographic
character, and then, _but not till then_, made a subject of closet-study.
This, I think, is easy of proof, and instances may be adduced (the
expression I have quoted is one) where the lecturer peeps out.

The interpolated state in which this classic has come down to us is indeed
sad: there is scarcely a chapter throughout the Catiline and Jugurtha where
some transcriber has not been at work, sticking in words and sometimes
whole sentences, which, I am astonished to see, have escaped the notice of
Cortius, Allen, and the older editors.

I said above that Sallustius made his lectures or orations on the history
of his country a subject of closet study. He did so, and in an eminent
degree. His conciseness, clearness (when relieved from the burden of
interpolation), and usual impartiality, point to a careful and spiritual
study of Thucydides; but he could not attain to an equal degree of
sweetness as the Greek historian, on account of the general character of
their several languages differing. As far, however, as Roman could approach
to Greek, I conceive Sallustius has approached to Thucydides. Tacitus
(whose mind was impregnated with, and steeped in Sallustius) rarely
enounces a sentiment in his numerous works the origin of which is not
referable to the latter author. It requires some careful thought sometimes,
before the passages can be traced; but they _are_ traceable; and if we had
the whole works of Sallustius, I doubt not but that we should be able to
trace them all much more easily. Perhaps--I say it without stress, mind; it
is a mere suggestion--it would be possible to restore, or rather connect
some of the historical fragments of Sallustius by means of the works of
Tacitus. When we find a sentiment of Sallustius half expressed in the
fragment, and trending towards the conclusion arrived at by Tacitus, may we
not, as we know how completely the latter had imbibed the thoughts of the
former, reasonably suppose the remainder of the passage to be parallel;
and, following out the idea, restore it, taking into consideration the
difference of the mode of expression in the two eras? And this may hold
good, not only between Tacitus and Sallustius, but between Sallustius and

Such is the aspect under which I endeavour to behold the classics, viz. as
one great whole, having here and there pieces gone or faded (lost or
hopelessly corrupted), and which fit into each other, showing the building
which intellect erects, the only building calculated to withstand the hand
of time. Thanks be to printing, to cheap literature, and to English energy
and investigation, antiquity may again rear her head, and fell that it is
comprehended in all its varied bearings, and lights and shadows.

To men like Niebuhr, Grote, Layard, Prescott, St. John, Wilkinson,
Rawlinson, and Norris, do we owe a debt of gratitude, for such patience and
investigation; and no one cheers them on with a more sincere feeling, and
thanks them for their past exertions, than


[Footnote 2: Short-hand, we know, was in use at Rome.]

       *       *       *       *       *


Mr. Peter Cunningham, in his delightful _Handbook of London_, says that
when the New Temple "passed to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, the
Inner and Middle Temple were leased to the Students of the Common Law; and
the OUTER TEMPLE to Walter Stapleton, Bishop of Exeter:" and in describing
Essex House, by which name it {326} was afterwards known, he repeats the
same statement; as if the Outer Temple was part of the original property of
the Knights Templars.

I should be very glad to know what authority he has for this; because I
have very great doubt whether the "Outer Temple" ever belonged to the
Knights Templars or to the Knights of St. John, or was in any manner
comprehended within the property. The New Temple, as the whole property was
called, belonged to Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, at the time of his
death, in June, 1323. The Council of Vienna, in 1324, bestowed all the
lands of the Knights Templars on the Knights of St. John. Since my letter
to you on the general subject of the Temple, and L. B. L.'s obliging answer
(Vol. ii., pp. 103. 123.), I have been kindly furnished by Mr. Joseph
Burtt, of the Chapter House, with a deed, dated June 28, 1324, by which the
Knights of St. John granted the _whole_ of the New Temple, "totum
messuagium nostrum vocatum Novum Templum," to Hugh le Despencer the
younger; describing it to be lying _between the house_ (hospicium) _of the
Bishop of Exeter_ towards the west, and the house of Hugo de Courteneye
towards the east. This shows manifestly that if the Bishop of Exeter's
house ever belonged to the Temple, it did not at that time; and I am not
aware of any earlier evidence proving that the Templars ever possessed it.

I believe, though I have not seen the record, that, in the grant to Sir
William Paget, temp. Henry VI., it is described as the "Outer Temple;" but
I am inclined to think, from various circumstantial testimonies, that it
was merely so called because it was situate on the _outside_ of the Temple.

If any of your correspondents could illustrate this question, or that more
curious one,--when the new Temple was first divided between Inner and
Middle,--I should feel infinitely obliged.


       *       *       *       *       *


1. Can any of your readers give me any information regarding a work which I
find recorded in a catalogue thus:--_A Catalogue of above 300 Coins of
Canute, King of Denmark and England, found near Kirkwall, with Specimens._
4to. London, 1777? I should like, if possible, to have a copy of the
title-page, the size, and the number of pages; and, if possible, the name
of the compiler.

2. I should like to find out the name of the translator into English, of
Pontoppidan's _Natural History of Norway_, published in folio in London in

3. Can any of your readers oblige me with the name of the author of a
controversial sermon, entitled _Whigs no Christians_, preached at London,
on the anniversary of the martyrdom of King Charles, in 1712-13, and
published in the same year?

[Greek: Boreas].

       *       *       *       *       *


Although the Dutch language is now regarded in foreign countries with a
neglect bordering on contempt, and its study, when attended to at all,
generally undertaken as a work of necessity rather than a labour of love, I
have thought it would not be without interest to examine to what extent it
was formerly cultivated (were it even chiefly by Dutchmen) in foreign
lands; to institute a search after the productions of the Dutch mind in the
Dutch language brought forth on foreign soils; in a word, to pass in review
the Dutch books which have been published in other countries during the
period included between the invention of printing and our own days.

It appears to me that such a review would lead to much interesting
research, and would tend not only to illustrate our literature, but also to
clear up many points still obscure in our national, and more especially in
our ecclesiastical, history.

The review which I propose would be limited, in the first instance, to the
formation of an exact and complete list of such _exotic_ works, with the
addition of such notes as I might be able to add. A more experienced hand
may then make use of these materials to form a more perfect treatise on
this portion of our literature.

In execution of this plan I have already compiled a list of names of books
and authors; these have been gathered partly from an examination of the
works themselves, partly from catalogues and other sources where such works
are mentioned. Now, however, as my resources are nearly exhausted, and my
labours by no means complete, I take the liberty to lay my plan before
those who may be disposed to concur with me, those who may be able to
procure me information, those who have the possession or the care of
libraries in which such books are to be found, and of which catalogues have
not been printed; and, for the end I have in view, I invite them all to
help me in the completion of my work. The editors of the _Navorscher_ have
consented to open their columns to contributors. To spare needless trouble,
I wish it to be distinctly understood that I do not include any works
published in _Belgium_, or in the colonies now or formerly in our


Amsterdam, March 11. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *


What country was inhabited by the Angles before they occupied Britain? Adam
of Bremen (_Hist. Eccl._ c. 3.) says:

    "Igitur Saxones primo circa Rhenum sedes habitant et vocati sunt Angli
    quorum pars inde veniens in Britanniam, etc."


Notwithstanding the opinion of Turner, and most other historians, I venture
to offer a few facts in confirmation of the monk's testimony. 1. The names
of places on the Lower Rhine, and more especially in Guelderland, point to
an _Anglian_ origin for instance, _Engelanderholt_, _Engelenburg_ and
_Engelenberg_, _Angerlo_ olim _Angelerlo_. _Engeland_, near Beekbergen, is
mentioned in a charter[3] dated 801 as _villa Englandi_. Several other
places bear the same name: two near Hardenberg, one in the land of Putten,
another in our parish; which also contains _Henschoten_ olim
_Hengestschoten_, and owes its own name to _Woden_. Near Nimwegen, we have
_Horssen_. 2. Many local names in the same district, which can only be
explained by reference to the A.-S. _Hulkestein_ on the Zuyder Sea,
_Hulkestein_ near Arnhem, from A.-S. _hulc_, a dwelling: thus, stone
buildings, castles. _Thri_, A.-S., three, is mentioned in a charter dated
855 as the name of a villa, now the hamlet _Drie_, near Ermelo. _Hierd_ and
_Heerd_, from A.-S. _hierde_, perhaps also _Hardewick_ or _Harderwyk_ from
the same. _Braclog_, a wood near Engelanderholt, from _brac_, enemy, and
_locen_, an enclosure, is mentioned in a charter (801). _Luntern_ and
_Lunhorst_, from A.-S. _Lun_, poor. _Wigmond_, from _wig_, war; and _mund_,
defence. _Culenburg_, from _ciol_ or _ceol_, a ship. _Klingelbeck_, near
Arnhem, from _clingan_, to shrink up. _Ysseloord_ from _ord_, a point; and
thus confluence of two rivers, as we see also on the Rhine, _Roerort_ and
_Angerort._ _Herwynen_, _Herveld_, _Hernen_, _Herwaarden_, _Winden
Delwynen_, _Sennewyn_, can be explained[4] by A.-S. _here_ and _win_. 3.
The agreement between the names of places here, and those of every part of
England occupied by the Angles. Out of a great number of instances
collected by Mr. Molhuysen (see Nyhoff's _Bijdragen_, vol. iii.) I will
take a few. In Kent we have Appledore, Appleton, Appleby; here _Appeldorn_,
_Appel_, _Appeltern_, _Appelenburg_ on the Wahal. Ashe and Ash; _Asch_,
near Buren, and others. Barne; _Bern_ near Heusden, and _Baarn_ near
Amersfoort. Barnefield; _Barneveld_. Bonington, _Boningen_. Dover;
_Doveren_. Gillingham; _Gellinchem_. Hearne; _Hiern_, near Waardenburg.
Herne; _Hernen_. Leisdon; _Leusden_. Lone; _Loenen_. Sandwich; _Sandwyk_,
near Tiel. Watchorne; _Waghorn_, in the Velume. In Yorkshire: Beel; _De
Beele_, near Voorst. Byland; _Byland_. Campe; _Campen_. Catwich; _Katwyk_.
Dodworth; _Dodewaard_. Ecope; _Heicop_. Grimestone; _Grimmestein_, on the
Eem. Heck; _Eck_. Hampall; _Empel_, near Engelen. Herfield; _Herveld_.
Hewick; _Ewyk_, &c. &c.--The evident similarity of names in this list,
which might be extended through several pages, affords at least a strong
presumption that a part of the land of our fathers is to be sought here. I
will just add that there is a MS. containing copies of charters, registers,
&c., collected by Opstraeten van der Moelen, a genealogist, who died in the
early part of the seventeenth century, now in the possession of Mr. Van
Asch van Wyck. In this is an article entitled "De Nobili et Antiqua Familia
dicta Amersfoort seu potius Heemsfurt vel Hemefurt a vado Heeme seu Hemi
fluvii." The writer makes mention of the well-known grant of Charlemagne to
the cathedral of Utrecht, by which Lisidunum (Leusden) and four forests on
the banks of the Eem were ceded to this church: _Hengestschoten_,
_Fornese_, _Mocoroth_, and _Widoc_. The writer considers the last-named
forest to be that of _Wede_ or _Woden_; and derives thence the family-name
_Weede_. Concerning _Hengestschoten_ is remarked:

    "_Hengist_, qui circum annum 450 Britanniam insulam cum suis Frisonibus
    et Saxonibus occupat." And further: "Weede nomen adhunc retinere
    videtur a _Woden_, qui fuit avus avi _Hengesti_, sicut
    _Hengestschoten_, nune prædium dominorum Oestbroek, ab _Hengisto_

Henschoten was ceded to the abbey of Oestbroek in 1130, and sold at the
breaking up of the monasteries; and is now the property of Mr. Van Asch van
Wyck. Since, therefore, the above extract must have been written before the
Reformation, the belief that our forefathers proceeded from this country is
by no means new; and the evidence in its support is, I think, stronger than
that adduced by Turner and Lappenberg in favour of an immigration from
Sleswig; indeed it seems not improbable that the first settlers, with
_Hengist_ at their head, sailed from the mouth of the Eem. I have more to
add in a future Number, if "NOTES AND QUERIES" can afford me space.

J. S.

Woudenberg, April, 1851.

[Footnote 3: Bondam's _Charter-boek_.]

[Footnote 4: See Gibson, _A.-S. Chron._]

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries.

_Villenage._--Can any of your readers inform me at what period villenage
became extinct in this kingdom? I have now before me a grant of a manor
from the Crown, in the third and fourth year of the reigns of King Philip
and Queen Mary, conveying, amongst other goods and chattels, the bondmen,
bondwomen, and villeins, with their sequels,--"Nativos, nativas, e villanos
cum eoz sequelis." According to Blackstone, the children of villeins were
in the same state of bondage with their parents; whence they were called,
in Latin, "nativi," which gave rise to the female appellation of a villein,
who was called a _neife_. What I wish to learn is, whether the old wording
of Crown grants had survived the {328} existence of villenage; or whether
bondage was a reality in the reign of Philip and Mary; and if so, at what
it became extinct?

H. C.


    [Our correspondent's Query is an interesting one; but he does not seem
    to be aware that in our First Vol., p. 139., Mr. E. SMIRKE had given
    the names of three "bondmen of bloude" living near Brighton in 1617.]

_Roman Roads near London._--In the most ancient maps of Middlesex that I
have seen, there are no roads marked out. In a folio coloured map of
Middlesex, published by Bowen (the date of which is, I think, 1709,
although the same map has various dates, like those of Speed, where the
date only is altered several times), the roads are introduced. A Roman road
appears from the corner of the Tottenham Court Road, where the Hampstead
Road and the New Road now meet, running through what must now be the
Regent's Park, until it reaches Edgeware, and thence to Brockley Hills,
called Sulloniacæ, an ancient city in Antonine's _Itinerary_. The lanes
marking this road are so different from the other roads, as to show at once
what is intended; and yet, either in this same map or in another with the
same route, Watling Street is printed upon the highway that leads to Tyburn
Turnpike, in a manner to show the whole of that distance is meant. The
Roman road from Tottenham Court, after making its appearance in a variety
of other maps up to a certain date, about 1780, is nowhere to be found
since, in any of the Middlesex maps. Can any of your readers show by what
authority this was first introduced, and why discontinued; and if the
Watling Street branched off, upon its approach to London, where did the
part crossing Oxford Street at Tyburn lead to?


_Mrs. Catherine Barton._--In Brewster's _Life of Sir Isaac Newton_, p.
250., is the following passage:

    "This accomplished nobleman was created Earl of Halifax in 1700, and
    after the death of his first wife he conceived a strong attachment for
    Mrs. Catherine Barton, the widow of Colonel Barton, and the niece of

I wish particularly to know the _maiden_ name of this Catherine Barton; she
married Mr. Conduitt, who succeeded Sir I. Newton as Master of the Mint.

J. E. R. S.

Sampford, Braintree, April 7. 1851.

_Sempecta at Croyland._--DR. MAITLAND has so kindly answered your
correspondent's Query respecting his work on Mesmerism, that I venture to
ask him another, through the medium of your pages. Where can be found the
poem respecting the old soldier monk at Croyland (or Sempecta, as Ingulphus
calls him), from which DR. M. has given extracts in p. 305. of his _Dark

H. R. L.

Trin. Coll.

_Schmidt's Antiquitates Neomagensis--Roman Medicine-stamps._--Can any of
your readers inform me,--

1st. Of the DATE when Schmidt published his _Antiquitates Neomagensis_, and
WHERE: also in what libraries it is to be found?

2nd. Of the existence of any Roman medicine-stamps found in the British
Islands, as yet undescribed by those who have written on the subject.


_Sir Harris Nicolas' History of the Royal Navy._--Is there any probability
that the _History of the Royal Navy_, begun by Sir N. H. Nicolas, and
carried by him to the reign of Henry V., will ever be continued. It is a
most valuable work, and was stopped by his lamented death, just as it was
beginning to be most interesting.

E. N. W.

_Wooden Baldrocks._--_Thanksgiving-book._--In the vestry-books of St.
Peter's, Ruthin, co. Denbigh, there are some entries, explanations of which
will be very acceptable.

From 1683, and many subsequent years, there is a constant repetition in the
churchwarden's account of "Wooden Baldrocks," from time to time supplied
new to the parish.

In 1704, "A Thanksgiving-book" is charged in the parish accounts.

Query the use and nature of Baldrock? and what book is meant by a

About the above period, continual payments are made for the destruction of
hedgehogs, which seem to be valued at sixpence a-piece, in some cases
fourpence; and to have been allowed in the parish accounts.


_History of the Jesuits._--Who was the author of _A History of the Jesuits;
to which is prefixed a Reply to Mr. Dallas's Defence of that Order_. It was
published in two volumes 8vo., London, 1816, by Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy,
Paternoster Row.

H. R. L.

Trin. Coll.

_Mind your P's and Q's._--What is the origin of this phrase? I have heard
one solution of it, but wish to ascertain whether there is any other?

R. D. H.

_Mode of hiring Domestic Servants in Holderness--Sittings--Fest._--It is
customary once a year for men and women servants out of place to assemble
in the market places of Hedon and Patrington, the two chief towns in
Holderness, and there to await being hired. This very ancient custom is
called Hedon _Sittings_ or _Statutes_. What is the name derived from? A
small sum of money given to each servant hired, is supposed to legalise the
contract, and is called the _Fest_. From what is the word derived?

F. R. R.

_Home-made Wines._--It is stated in _The Times_ of this morning (Feb. 17)
that-- {329}

    "We know from old chronicles that most of the wine drank by Englishmen,
    under the Plantagenets, was of home production."

Can any, and if so what, authority be shown for this statement?

J. SN.

_Inscription on a Clock._--Under the curious clock in Exeter Cathedral are
inscribed these words:

    "PEREUNT ET IMPUTANTUR, sc. horæ."

I have been told that they are the concluding words of a longer inscription
on some foreign clock. Can any of your readers tell me if they be so?


_Inscription on the Tomb of Peter the Hermit._--At Huy, on the Meuse, is
shown the tomb where Peter the Hermit was buried: it is in the shape of an
obelisk, and has an inscription on each of the four sides. Of this
inscription, which is curious, and which I copied when I was there, I have
lost the greater part: can one of your correspondents supply it for me, or
tell where the lines are originally to be found, as I fancy they are
adapted to, and not made for, the monument.

The part of the inscription which I have runs as follows:


 "Soldat du Pape Urbain, aux cris de 'Dieu le veut,'
      Il a précipité l'Europe sur l'Asie;
      Le péril arrivé, sa sainte frenesie
  N'a plus trouvé qu'un cri arrive 'Sauve qui peut.'
  L'intolérant l'outrage, insulte à sa grandeur,
  Tel masque qu'il affecte, il n'est qu'une imposteur."

Another two-lined motto is headed "Les Illusions;" and a third, "La
Liberté;" but neither these, nor a longer one (which I fancy introduces the
names of Molière, Rousseau, and Fénélon), am I able to quote.

H. A. B.

_Wife of James Torre._-James Torre, the Yorkshire antiquary, married for
his first wife Elizabeth Lincolne (see _Ducatus Leod._, p. 119. Whitaker's
ed.); can any one inform me who was that lady's father, and if there is any
pedigree known of the family?

I have little doubt that the Rev. William Lincolne, rector of Halton,
Lincolnshire, mentioned by Walker, in his _Sufferings of the Clergy_, b.
ii. p. 295., was of the same family.


Bottesford Moors.

_"The Bear's Bible."_--In the library of Queen's College, Oxon, is a copy
of the Spanish version of the Bible, by Cassiod. Reyna (1569), with the
following inscription:--

    Ampliss. Antistiti. ac Dño R^{mo} D. Edmundo Grindalo, archiepiscopo
    Cantuariensi, et totius Angliæ primati digniss. _Ob erepta hujus
    Hispanicæ versionis sacrorum librorum Scripta ex hostium manibus_
    Cassiodorus Reinius ejusdem versionis author gratitudinis ergo et in
    perpetuæ observantiæ pignus D.D.D."

What are the circumstances here alluded to?

H. H. W.

_Harris, Painter in Water-Colours._--Some friends of mine have a large
paper copy of the edition of the Bible, published in 1802, by Messrs.
Nicoll, of Pall-Mall, and known as "Reeves' Bible," which is adorned with a
large number of small original drawings in water-colour by "J. Harris, of
Walworth, Surrey." I should be obliged if any of your correspondents can
give me any information respecting Mr. Harris, and can tell me whether he
is still living. The drawings were made before the year 1819.

T. C. W.

_University Hoods._--The Scotch universities of Aberdeen, St. Andrew's, and
Glasgow had, before the Reformation, or before the Revolution rather, hoods
for the several degrees of M.A., D.D., LL.D., and D.C.L. What these were,
is a question which it is now very difficult to determine; but this much is
known, that the hoods of Aberdeen were identical with those of Paris, those
of St. Andrew's with those of Louvain, and those of Glasgow with those of
Bologna. The Revolution, however, has done much to obliterate the traces of
even the Parisian hoods, and the M.A. hood of Paris is all that has
hitherto rewarded the researches of the university antiquary. Can any of
your readers assist in the somewhat interesting investigation by
endeavouring to discover, or informing us if they already know, what were
the hoods of the universities of Paris, Louvain, and Bologna, for the
several degrees I have enumerated.

G. A. J.

_"Nullis Fraus tuta latebris."_--Can any of your correspondents favour me
with a reference to the above motto?

S. S.

_Voltaire, where situated?_--The "_terre_," hamlet, or other _property_ of
_Voltaire_, from which the French poet took the addition to his paternal
name of Arouet,--where situated? That there is, or at least was, in
Voltaire's time, such an estate, Condorcet's statement (_vide_ Voltaire)
makes apparent. But the locality is not pointed out. Can any of your
correspondents help me to it?


_Table of Prohibited Degrees, 1563._--By the 99th canon of the Church of
England the "table of prohibited degrees" set forth by authority in 1563 is
ordered to "be in every church publicly set up and fixed at the charge of
the parish." Is this usually done now? and if not, why is it omitted to be

What is the authority for the insertion of the Canons, or the Articles, or
the table of the {330} prohibited degrees found in the Book of Common

J. O. M.

_Launcelot Lyttleton._--I shall be greatly obliged to any genealogist who
can tell me who was that Launcelot Lyttleton, a Lichfield gentleman, whose
eldest laughter, Mary, married the Hon. Francis Roper, and became the
mother of the fourteenth Lord Teynham. Was this Launcelot a descendant of
Sir Edward Lyttleton, temp. Eliz., who married a daughter of Sir William

I could answer my own question by an inspection of the "Roper Roll;" but
unfortunately that is in Ireland, and I may not soon discover the address
of its possessor.

H. G. R. C.


_The Antediluvians._--Can you or any of your learned correspondents inform
me of any work likely to assist me in my researches into the antediluvian
history of our race? The curious treatise of Reimmanus, and the erudite
essay of J. Joachimus Maderus, I have now before me; but it occurs to me
that, besides these and the more patent sources of information, such as
Bruckerus and Josephus, there must be other, and perhaps more modern, works
which may be more practically useful. Perhaps the author of the elegant
essay on the subject in _Eruvin_ may be able to refer to such a a work.

G. A. J.

       *       *       *       *       *

Minor Queries Answered.

_Wither's Haleluiah._--Mr. R. A. Willmott, in his _Lives of Sacred Poets_,
has done himself credit by doing justice to George Wither, and vindicating
his claims as poet, whom it has long been the fashion to underrate, but who
Southey said "had the heart and soul of a poet in him."--(_Life_, iii.

In the _Life_, Mr. Willmott says:

    "In 1641 appeared the _Haleluiah, or Britain's Second Remembrancer_ ...
    which book, now as scarce as the first _Remembrancer_ is common, I have
    not seen."

It is therefore very probable that the work is seldom to be met with. I
have a copy, but it is unfortunately imperfect; wanting a few leaves (only
a few I imagine) at the end. There is no index, nor table of contents, by
which I might ascertain the extent of the deficiency. The last page is 478,
and contains a portion of Hymn 60, part iii. If any reader of "NOTES AND
QUERIES" would kindly inform me what is the number of pages of the work,
and where a copy may be seen, he will oblige

S. S. S.

    [The work consists of 487 pages, with an index of twelve more. A copy
    of it in in the Library of the British Museum.]

_Voltaire's Henriade._--Is it known who is the author of the English
translation of this poem into blank verse, published in 1732. The preface
and the notes create a desire to know the author. In one of the notes (17)
he speaks of something as being "proved at large in my _History of
Christianity_ now ready for the press." I am not aware that any such work
exists. Was it ever published? If not what became of the manuscript?

S. T. D.

    [Voltaire's _Henriade_ was translated by John Lockman, a gentleman of
    great literary industry, who died Feb. 2, 1771. See Nichols's _Bowyer_,
    and Chalmers's _Biographical Dictionary_. A list of his published works
    will be found in Watt's _Bibliotheca Britan_.]

_Christ-Crosse A._--In Tatham's _Fancie's Theater_, 12mo., 1640, is a poem
in praise of sack, wherein the following lines occur:

 "The very children, ere they scarce can say
  Their Pater Noster, or their _Christ-crosse A_,
  Will to their Parents prattle, and desire
  To taste that Drinke which Gods doe so admire."

Can any of your readers inform me the meaning of "_Christ-Crosse A_" here
mentioned? Does it allude to some alphabet then in use?


    [The alphabet was so designated, because in the old primers a cross was
    prefixed to it. Nares tells us that in French it was called _Croix de
    par Dieu_; and upon reference to Cotgrave for an expression of that
    term we find, "The Christ's-cross-row; or the hornbook wherein a child
    learns it."]

_Apple-pie Order._--_Spick and Span new._--My wife very much grudges my
spending threepence a week for the "NOTES AND QUERIES", and threatens me
with stopping the allowance unless I obtain from some of your
correspondents answers to the two following Queries:--

1. What is the origin of the phrase "Apple-pie order?"

2. Ditto--of "Spick and span new?"


    [We leave to some of our friends the task of answering the first of the
    Queries which our correspondent has put to us by desire of his

    There is much curious illustration of the phrase _Spick and Span_ in
    Todd's _Johnson_, s. v. _Spick_: and Nares in his _Glossary_ says,
    "_Span-newe_ is found in Chaucer:

     'This tale was aie _span-newe_ to begin.'--_Troil. and Cres._, iii.

    It is therefore of good antiquity in the language, and not having been
    taken from the French may best be referred to the Saxon, in which
    _spannan_ means to stretch. Hence _span-new_ is fresh from the
    _stretchers_, or frames, alluding to cloth, a very old manufacture of
    the country; and _spick_ and _span_ is fresh from the spike, or tenter,
    and frames. This is Johnson's derivation, and I cannot but think it
    preferable to any other."

    A very early instance of the expression, not quoted by Todd, may be
    found in the _Romance of Alexander_: {331}

     "Richelich he doth him schrede
      In _spon-neowe_ knightis weode."--L. 4054-5.

    And _Weber_, in his _Glossary_ (or rather, Mr. Douce, for the "D"
    appended to the note shows it to have proceeded from that accomplished
    antiquary), explains it, "_Spon-neowe_, span-new, newly spun. This is
    probably the true explanation of spick and span new. Ihre renders
    sping-spang, _plane novus_, in voce fick fack." The learned Jamieson,
    in his _Dictionary_, s. v. _Split-new_ (which corresponds to the German
    _Splitter neu_, i. e. as new as a splinter or chip from the block),
    shows, at greater length than we can quote, that _split_ and _span_
    equally denote a splinter or chip; and in his _Supplement_, s. v.
    _Spang-new_, after pointing out the connexion between _spinga_ (assula)
    and _spaungha_ (lamina), shows that, if this be the original, the
    allusion must be to metal newly wrought, that has, as it were, the
    gloss from the fire on it: in short, that the epithet is the same as
    one equally familiar to us, i. e. _fire-new_, Germ. _vier-neu_. We will
    bring this note to a close by a reference to Sewell's _Dutch
    Dictionary_, where _Spikspëlder nieuw_ is rendered "Spick and span

_Theory of the Earth's Form._--Have any objections to the received theory
of the earth's spherical form, or any revival of the old "plane" doctrine,
been recently noticed and controverted by _scientific_ men of known


    [The old theory has been advanced, and even lectured on, within these
    two years; but no notice has been taken of it by scientific men.]

_Carolus Lawson._--Who was "Carolus Lawson," of whom I have a good print,
engraved by Heath. He is called "Scholæ Mancuniensis Archididascalus,"
1797. "Pietas alumnorum" is inscribed underneath, and on the back is
written, probably by some grateful pupil--

    "Cari propinqui, cari liberi, cari parentes, sed omnes omnium caritates
    _Archididascalus noster_ comprehendit."--_Cicero_ (verbis quibusdam


    [Mr. Charles Lawson was educated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and
    was presented by the president, Dr. Randolph, in 1749, to the place of
    Second Master of Manchester Grammar School; upon the death of Mr.
    Purnell, in 1764, he succeeded him as Head Master. The colleges of St.
    John, in Cambridge, and of Brazenose, in Oxford, can bear witness to
    the success with which he laboured for more than half a century in his
    profession, having received from the Manchester school, whilst under
    his direction, a very considerable number of well-grounded classical
    scholars. He died at Manchester on April 19, 1807, aged seventy-nine.
    Some further particulars respecting him may be found in the
    _Gentleman's Magazine_, vol. lxxvii. part i. p. 583.]

       *       *       *       *       *



(Vol. iii., pp. 186. 248. 291.)

I am sorry that in referring to a peculiarity in ancient seals under this
title, MR. LOWER should have pinned to his notice a theory which I feel
persuaded is quite untenable. It is surely something new to those who have
directed their attention to the numerous devices upon seals to find that
the husbandman had so low an opinion of his own social status as to reject
the use of any emblematical sign upon his seal, when Thomas the smith,
Roger the carpenter, and William the farrier, bore the elements of their
respective crafts as proudly as the knight did his chevron or fess. But the
question is one of facts. The following examples of the use of the
"hayband" are now before me:--

6 June, 7 Henry IV. Grant by John Dursley, citizen and armorer of London,
to William Serjaunt Taverner, of Stanes, and another, of a messuage, &c. in
Westminster. Seal of dark red was, about 1½ inch in diameter; a hay-stalk
twisted and pressed into the wax while hot, inclosing a space as large as a
shilling, in which is a poor impression of a badly engraved seal; the whole
very clumsy and rough.

26 November, 24 Henry VI. Grant by Maurice Brune, Knight, Robert Darcy,
John Doreward, Henry Clovill, Esquire, John Grene, and Henry Stampe, to
Richard Hill and others, of lands, &c., in Sprinfield, &c., in Essex. Each
seal is round and thick, and has the impression of a small armorial
bearing. The 1st, 2nd, and 5th seals have a small plaited coil of hay
pressed into the wax, and inclosing the impression.

26 Henry VI. Receipt by Jane Grene for 10l. paid her by the Earl of Ormond.
Seal of diminutive size, and the impression nearly defaced. Round the
extreme edge is a "diminutive hayband."

2 January, 34 Henry VI. Grant by Thomas Tudenham, Knight, John Leventhorp,
Esquire, and Thomas Radclyff, of the reversion of the manor of Newhall to
John Neell and others. All the seals, which are large and thick and more
than two inches in diameter, have the impression of a signet ring inclosed
with a "hayband" _of parchment_ pressed into them. One of these coils being
loose shows itself to be a thin strip of the label itself brought through
the wax.

10 February, 14 Edward IV. Lease by Sir Thomas Urswyk, Knight, Chief Baron
of the Exchequer, and Thomas Lovell, to John Morton and others, of the
manor of Newhall, Essex, and other lands, &c. The seal of Lovell has his
armorial bearings and legend; that of the Lord Chief Baron is the
impression of a signet ring, being a classical bust. The seal itself is a
thick ball of wax about {332} two inches across, pressed into the face of
which is a "hayband" or twisted coil of _thin parchment_ inclosing the

I am sure that I have seen many examples much earlier and later, but those
given are merely in reference to the theory of your Lewes correspondent.
Even they are surely inconsistent with the idea of the practice being
peculiar to any locality or distinctive of any class. My recollection would
lead me to assign the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries as the period
of its use. But still the question remains--Has it any, and what
signification? I have always considered it to have been a contrivance to
strengthen the substance of the seal itself. The earliest instances I have
seen were "appliqué" seals, such as the royal privy seals, and with these
it would seem to have originated. Their frail nature suggested the use of
some substance to protect the thin layer of wax from damage by the
crumpling of the parchment on which they were impressed. For some time its
use was confined to this kind of seal; and fashion may perhaps have
extended the practice to pendent seals, where, however, it was often
efficacious in neutralising the bad quality of the wax so general in the
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The plaiting of the hay or straw
sometimes assumed a fanciful shape. Although the impressions of seals of
the time of Henry VII. are often very bad, there are generally traces of
their existence; these may perhaps be discovered in MR. LOWER'S seals if he
looks more to the enclosure than to the substance forming it.


_Haybands in Seals._--M. A. LOWER thinks that MR. T. HUDSON TURNER has
misapplied his description of the seals in his possession. The seals are
not _impressed upon haybands_, neither do "some ends of the hay or straw
protrude from the surface." The little fillet or wreath of hay, about equal
in diameter to a shilling, is _inlaid_ upon the pendent lump of wax, and
forms the ornament or device of the seal, rather than an integral portion
of it, like that in the specimens referred to by MR. TURNER.

M. A. LOWER begs, under favour, to add, that the very fact of a Query being
inserted in the pages of this invaluable--one might almost say
indispensable--publication, implies a candid avowal _pro tanto_ of
ignorance on the part of the Querist, who might reasonably expect a plain
answer, unaccompanied by any ungracious reflection on the side of the more
highly-gifted _savant_ that furnished the reply. As a simple matter of
taste, many other correspondents besides MARK ANTONY LOWER may probably
object, like the latter's eminent namesake, Mr. Tony Weller, to being
"pulled up so wery short," especially in cases where there is a clear
misapprehension on the part of the respondent.

_Haybands in Seals._--It is impossible for one moment to doubt the
correctness of MR. HUDSON TURNER'S remarks on this question, and I hasten
to retract my own suggestions, frankly acknowledging them to be erroneous.

I had always taken the same view as MR. TURNER (for it is very palpable to
the eye, and speaks for itself), till diverted from it by one of those
sudden fancies which, spite of all caution, will ever and anon
unaccountably cross the mind and bewilder the better judgment. To have
established my view, these rushes should have been proved to be affixed to
deeds of _feoffment alone_; a point which, at the moment, I overlooked.
Even while I write, I have before me a _lease_ granted by the abbey of
Denney in the fifteenth century, with a rush in the seal; and MR. TURNER'S
cited instances of royal charters put an end to all question.

Lest others be led astray by my freak of fancy, without an opportunity of
correcting it by MR. TURNER'S statement, the proper course for me is to
acknowledge myself wrong--palpably, unmistakeably wrong,--MR. TURNER'S
explanation is the correct one; thanks to him for it--_liberavi animam

L. B. L.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., pp. 93. 253.; Vol. iii., p. 125.)

Your correspondents on this subject have generally taken it as granted,
that the prejudice against burying in this portion of the churchyard is
almost universal. In a former communication (Vol. ii., p. 93.) I stated
that there are at least some exceptions. Since that time I have visited
perhaps a hundred churchyards in the counties of York, Derby, Stafford,
Bucks, Herts, and Oxford, and in nearly half of these burial had evidently
been long since practised on the north side of the several churches. The
parish church of Ashby de la Zouch is built so near the south wall of the
churchyard, that the north must clearly have been designed for sepulture. I
was incumbent of an ancient village church in that neighbourhood, which is
built in the same manner, with scarcely any ground on the south, the north
being large and considerably raised by the numerous interments which have
taken place in it. It has also some old tombs, which ten years ago were
fast falling to decay. The part south of the church contains very few
graves, and all apparently of recent date.

In my former communication I mentioned, that in this churchyard burial has
been chiefly, till of late, on the north side of the church; and, since
that communication, a vault has been made on the south side, which has
convinced us the ground had never before been there broken up. The soil is
chalk; whereas, whenever a grave is made on the north side, human dust and
bones are so {333} abundant, that the chalk soil has almost lost its

Till more light can be thrown on the subject than what has yet appeared in
"NOTES AND QUERIES," I cannot but retain my original opinion, viz., that
the favourite part of interment, in earlier times, was that nearest the
principal entrance into the church. The original object of burying in
churches and churchyards was the better to insure for the dead the prayers
of the worshippers, as they assembled for public devotion. Hence the
churchyard nearest the entrance into church would be most in request. The
origin of the prejudice for the south side, which I believe to be of recent
date, may, I doubt not, be ascertained from any superstitious cottager who
entertains it. "It would be so cold, sir," said one to me, "to be always
lying where the sun would never shine on me."

If your correspondent on this subject in Vol. iii., p. 125., would ask an
old inhabitant of his parish which is the _backside_ of their church, and
why it is so called? he would probably come at the fact. I would refer him
to Burn's _History of Parish Registers_, page 96., foot-note, where he will
find it stated that "a part of the churchyard was sometimes left
unconsecrated, for the purpose of burying excommunicated persons."


Drayton Beauchamp.

_North Side of Churchyards._--Your correspondents seem to be agreed as to
the facts, not as to the origin of the objection. I suspect MR. HAWKER
(Vol. ii., p. 253.) is nearest the truth; and the following, from
_Coverdale on Praying for the Dead_, may help to strengthen his conjecture:

    "As men die, so shall they arise: _if in faith_ in the Lord _towards
    the south_, they need no prayers; they are presently happy, and shall
    arise in glory: _if in unbelief_ without the Lord _towards the north_,
    then are they past all hope."

N. S.

_North Side of Churchyards_ (Vol. ii., pp. 253. 346.).--The subjoined
extract from Bishop Wilkins's _Discourse concerning a New Planet, tending
to prove that it is probable our Earth is one of the Planets_, 8vo., 1640,
pp. 64-66., will serve to illustrate the passage from Milton, of the north
being "the devoted region of Satan and his hosts:"

    "It was the opinion of the Jewish rabbies, that man was created with
    his face to the east; therefore the Hebrew word signifies _ante_, or
    the east; _post_, or the west; _dextra_, or the south; _sinistra_, or
    the north. You may see all of them put together in that place of Job
    xxiii. 8, 9.: 'Behold I go forward, and he is not there; and backward,
    but I cannot perceive him: on the left hand, where he doth work, but I
    cannot behold him. He hideth himself on the right hand, that I cannot
    see him.' Which expressions are, by some interpreters, referred unto
    the four coasts of heaven, according to the common use of those
    original words. From hence it is that many of the ancients have
    concluded hell to be in the north, which is signified by the left hand;
    unto which side, our Saviour tells us, that the goats shall be divided.
    Which opinion likewise seems to be favoured by that place in Job xxvi.
    6, 7., where it is said, "Hell is naked before God, and destruction
    hath no covering.' And presently it is added, 'He stretcheth out the
    north over the empty place.' Upon these grounds, St. Jerome interprets
    that speech of the Preacher, Eccles. xi. 3.: 'If the tree fall toward
    the south, or toward the north, in the place where the tree falleth,
    there shall it be,' concerning those who shall go either to heaven or
    hell. And in this sense also do some expound that of Zechariah (xiv.
    4.), where it is said that 'the Mount of Olives shall cleave in the
    midst: half of it shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward
    the south.' By which it is intimated, that amongst those Gentiles, who
    shall take upon them the profession of Christ, there are two sorts:
    some that go to the north, that is, to hell; and others to the south,
    that is, to heaven. And therefore it is, say they, that God so often
    threatens evil out of the north: and upon this ground it is, saith
    Besoldus, that there is no religion that worships that way. We read of
    the Mahometans, that they adore towards the south; the Jews towards the
    west; Christians towards the east; but none to the _north_."

J. Y.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iii., p. 276.)

MR. DAWSON TURNER asks for information regarding three writers in the
_Rolliad_, viz.: Tickell, Richardson, and Fitzpatrick. Memoirs of the first
two are given in Chalmers's _Dictionary_; but in Moore's _Life of
Sheridan_, MR. TURNER will find several notices of them, far more
attractive than dry biographical details. They were both intimately
associated with Sheridan; Tickell, indeed, was his brother-in-law. One
would prefer calling them his _friends_, but steady friendship must rest
upon a firmer basis than those gifts of wit, talent, and a keen sense of
the ridiculous, which prevailed so largely amongst this clever trio.

Tickell's production, _Anticipation_, is still remembered from its
cleverness and humour; but when every speaker introduced into its pages has
long been dead, and some of them were little known to fame, the pamphlet is
preserved by a few solely from the celebrity which it once possessed.

His death in 1793 was a most melancholy one. It is described by Professor
Smyth in in his interesting _Memoir of Sheridan_, a book printed some years
ago for distribution among his friends, and which well deserves

Independent of his contributions to the _Rolliad_, {334} Richardson did
little as an author. His comedy of _The Fugitive_, acted and published in
1792, was well received, and is much praised. Why has this production so
completely disappeared?

General Fitzpatrick was born in 1749, and died in 1815. He was the second
son of John, Earl of Upper Ossory; twice Secretary-at-War; once secretary
to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, the Duke of Portland, but what he
regarded as his highest distinction, and it is recorded on his tomb, was
the friendship of Fox during forty years of their lives.

Some of his speeches on the union with Ireland will be found in the
thirty-fourth volume of the _Parliamentary History_.

His epitaph, by himself, is inscribed on a sarcophagus in the church-yard
at Sunning Hill, in which he describes himself--what his friends admitted
to be truth--a politician without ambition, a writer without vanity.

Which is the true reading in the following lines by Fitzpatrick on Fox? In
my copy the word "course" in the third line is erased, and the word "mind"
is substituted.

 "A patriot's even course he steered,
  Mid Faction's wildest storms unmoved:
  By all who marked his _course_ revered,
  By all who knew his heart beloved."

Sheridan says most justly:

    "Wit being generally founded upon the manners and characters of its own
    day, is crowned in that day, beyond all other exertions of the mind,
    with splendid and immediate success. But there is always something that
    equalises. In return, more than any other production, it suffers
    suddenly and irretrievably from the hand of Time."

Still some publications, from their wit and brilliancy, are sufficiently
buoyant to float down to posterity. The publication in question, the
_Rolliad_, is one; the _Anti-Jacobin_ another. You may not be unwilling, in
your useful pages, to give a list of some of the writers in the latter
publication. My own copy of it is marked from that belonging to one of the
writers, and is as follows:--

  Nos. 1. 4. 9. 19. 26, 27--33., by Mr George Ellis.
  Nos. 6. and 7., by Messrs. Ellis and Frere.
  Nos. 20, 21, 22. 30--36., by Mr. Canning.
  No. 10. by M.; No. 13. by C. B.; No. 39. by N.

To the remaining numbers, neither names nor initials are affixed. Can any
of your readers explain the initials, M., C. B., and N., and give us the
authors of the _remaining_ numbers?

In replying to Mr. TURNER'S Queries, I shall attend to the wish expressed
by so old and so valued a friend, and substitute for initials, of which he
disapproves, the name of


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iii., p. 276.)

I am much surprised at MR. DAWSON TURNER'S inquiry about these names. I
will not say with him that, "not to know them argues himself unknown." On
the contrary, my wonder is, that one, himself so well and so favourably
known as MR. TURNER, should have need to ask such a question about men with
whom, or, at least, with whose fame, he must have been a contemporary,
presuming, as I do, that he is the same MR. DAWSON TURNER with whose works
we have been acquainted for above half a century. Since, however, he has
made the Query, I will answer it as succinctly as I can.

The Right Honourable Richard Fitzpatrick was the only brother of the last
Earl of Upper Ossory, and prominent in fashion, in politics, and in elegant
literature, and not undistinguished as a soldier. He sat in _nine_
successive parliaments (in two which I knew him). As early as 1782 he was
Secretary for Ireland, and in 1783 Secretary-at-War, which office he again
filled in 1806. In the galaxy of opposition wits, when opposition was
wittiest, Fitzpatrick was generally admitted to be the first, and there
were those who thought him _in general powers_ superior even to Fox and
Sheridan. His oratory, however, did not do justice to his talents, and he
was both shy and indolent. His best speech was that in December, 1796, for
the release of Lafayette, to which even the ridicule of the _Anti-Jacobin_
allowed the merit of pathetic eloquence. His share in the _Rolliad_ was
considerable, and there are many other sprightly and some elegant specimens
of his poetical talents scattered through various publications. I wish they
were collected.

Richard Tickell, the grandson of Addison's friend, and brother-in-law to
Sheridan, was the author of _Anticipation_, one of the liveliest political
pamphlets ever written. He published many occasional poems, the best of
which is a poetical "Epistle from Charles Fox, partridge shooting, to Lord
John Townsend, cruising." MR. DAWSON TURNER will find more about him in the
_Biographical Dictionary_.

Joseph Richardson, who died in 1803, was M.P. for Newport in three
parliaments. He was an intimate friend of Sheridan's, and partner with him
in Drury Lane Theatre. He wrote a play, entitled _The Fugitive_; but he is
only remembered for his contributions (whatever they were) to the
_Rolliad_. In the _Gentleman's Magazine_ (vol. lxxiii. p. 602.), MR. DAWSON
TURNER will find a longer notice of him.

There are a few remarks on the authors of the _Rolliad_ in Moore's _Life of
Sheridan_, i. 420.


       *       *       *       *       * {335}


(Vol. iii., p. 302.)

I have never met with any satisfactory account of this singular Quaker
aggression. Perhaps it may be a contribution towards one if you can find
room for some notice of a tract in my possession. It is entitled, _A
Narrative of some of the Sufferings of J. P. in the City of Rome. London,
printed for Thomas Simmons, at the Bull and Mouth, near Aldersgate_, 1661,
4to., pp. 16. This narrative of John Perrot's does not, however, give any
particulars respecting his going to Rome, or the proceedings which led to
his captivity there, but begins with the words--

    "When I was cast into Prison, because I loved the souls of my enemies,"

and after eight pages, chiefly occupied by inflated description of his
sorrows, from which one obtains no facts, he tells us that God took pity on

    "And raised up his little babe, my dear Brother Thomas Hart, to set his
    tender soul nearer unto my sufferings, and made him take my burdens on
    his back, and the yoak of my tribulation on his neck, and made him sup
    of my sore sorrows, and drink of the bleedings of my grief,'--

and so he goes on; but we do not learn what Thomas Hart did, except that he
comforted John Perrot in his confinement.

    "Moreover," he says, "the everlasting mercies of my God did stir up the
    bowels of other two of his tender babes, named in the tent Jane Stokes
    and Charles Baylie, to come to visit me whilest I was as forsaken of
    all men."

They persevered, he tells us,

    "in their pilgrimage until they arrived to Rome, where C. B. offered
    his life to ransom me, and both of them entered into captivity for the
    love which they bore to my life."

His _Narrative_ (strictly speaking) contains no further information, but
that at the bottom of the tenth page it is dated and signed,

    "Written in Rome Prison of Madmen. JOHN."

The remaining six pages of the pamphlet consist of a letter from Charles
Baylie, giving an account of his pilgrimage with Jane Stokes, from Dover to
Calais, Paris, Marseilles, Genoa, until

    "Arriving," he says, "safe at Rome, we were drawn in our lives directly
    to the place where the dearly beloved J. P. was, and coming to the
    prison door, I enquired for him, and having answer of his being there,
    I desired for to speak with him, but it would not be permitted us; So
    it was said in me, _Write unto him_, which I did, the which he answered
    us in the fulness of love, which refreshed us after our weary steps;
    For our souls were refreshed one in another, though one another's faces
    we had never seen to the outward, and then we being kept in a holy fear
    not to do nor act one way nor other, but as we were moved of the Lord,
    least we should add to his bonds,--I say, being thus kept, we were
    delivered out of the snare of the fowler, who secretly lay in wait to
    betray our innocency; And after a little time the Lord showed me I
    should go to the inquisition, which I did, and enquired for the
    Inquisitor, as I was showed of the Lord I should do; and when I spoke
    to him I told him _I was come from England for to see my brother
    J. P._; to which he answered, _I should see him_, and appointed me to
    come to a certain place called _Minerva_, and there, saith he, _I will
    procure you the liberty of the Cardinalls to see him_; he had me also
    to the Inquisition office, where he asked many questions of me
    concerning our religion, to which I answered in the simplicity of my
    heart in the fear of the Lord; and at the appointed time I came to the
    place aforesaid, and there I was showed what further I should do, which
    was to tender my body for my brother; and so from that time I hardly
    missed opportunity to speak to them as often as they met: for their
    manner was thus to meet twice a-week, the one time at _Minerva_, and
    the other time at _Monte-Cavallo_, where the Pope's own dwelling is,
    where I also did the like, more than once, which stirred them up
    against me, in great enmity," &c.

I am afraid I am trespassing on your overfilled columns; but--omitting his
account of his going to the Jews' synagogue, and of the command which he
received to fast twenty days as a testimony against those who falsely
stated that John Luffe had fasted nineteen days and died on the
twentieth--omitting this, I must give one more extract. Having been
detained in one of his visits to the _Minerva_, he says:

    "From thence I was carried to the Inquisition, where I was shut up
    close, and after I had been there 3 dayes the Lord said to me, _Thou
    must go to the Pazzarella_, which was the Prison or Hospital of mad
    men, where our dear brother was prisoner; and it was also said unto me,
    _Thou shalt also speak to the Pope_; And at the 17 dayes end, I was led
    from the Inquisition towards the other prison, and by the way I met the
    Pope carried in great pomp; as it was the good will of the Lord that I
    should speak unto him, men could not prevent it, for I met him towards
    the foot of a bridge, where I was something nigh him, and when he came
    against me, the people being on their knees on each side of him, I
    cried to him with a loud voice in the Italian tongue, _To do the thing
    that was Just, and to release the Innocent_; and whilest I was
    speaking, the man which led me had not power to take me away until I
    had done, and then he had me to prison where my endeared brother was,
    where I fasted about 20 dayes as a witness against that bloody
    generation," &c.

As to how they got out, he only says:

    "Soon after my fast, the Lord, by an outstretched arm, wrought our
    deliverance, being condemned to perpetual galley-slavery, if ever we
    returned again unto Rome."

It appears, however, that though thus prevented from exercising his office
of a missionary in Rome, Charles Baylie did not relinquish it. In the
letter just quoted he informs his correspondent (who this was does not
appear), that since he had seen his face, he had been several times (as he
was while {336} writing) shut up in strong prisons; and the letter is dated

    "The third of the sixth month, 1661. _From the Common Gaol in_ Burkdou,
    _in_ France, _about thirty leagues from_ Dover, _where I am a sufferer
    for speaking the Word of the Lord to two Priests, saying_, All Idols,
    all Idolatries, and all Idol Priests must perish."

John Perrot seems to have considered that his mission extended over all the
world. While in Rome Prison of Madmen, he wrote an address "To all people
upon the face of the Earth," which he "sent thence the 8th of the 10th
month, 1660;" and he was, no doubt, the author of the tract which follows
it (and precedes the narrative) in my volume, entitled "Blessed openings of
a day of good things to the Turks. Written to the Heads, Rulers, Ancients,
and Elders of their Land, and whomsoever else it may concern," though it is
only signed "JOHN." To him also, I suppose, we must ascribe another tract,
_Discoveries of the Day-dawning to the Jewes. Whereby they may know in what
state they shall inherit the riches and glory of Promise_. "J. P." is all
that is given for the author's name on the title-page, but the tract is
signed [Hebrew: JWHN], that is, John. He too, I presume, was the author of
another of the tracts, _An Epistle to the Greeks, especially to those in
and about Corinth and Athens, &c. Written in Egripo in the Island of
Negroponte, by a Servant of the Lord: J. P._ He seems to have been at
Athens on the 27th day of the 7th month, in the year accounted 1657, being
the first day of the week, the day of Greek solemn worship, and to have
been "conversant" with Carlo Dessio and Gumeno Stephaci, "called Greek

S. R. M.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iii., p. 221.)

Snail-eating is by no means uncommon. When I was a youth I took a dozen
snails every morning to a lady who was of a delicate constitution, and to
whom they were recommended as wholesome food. They were boiled, and mixed
up with milk. They were the common snail, usually found about old garden
walls. A friend of mine, in walking round his garden, was in the habit of
picking the snails off his fruit-trees and eating them raw. He was somewhat
fastidious, for I have seen him take a snail, put it to his tongue, and
reject it as not of a good flavour, and select another more agreeable to
his taste. We are strange creatures of habit, especially in our feeding. I
am fond of oysters, muscles, and cockles; but I do not think anything could
induce me to taste a snail, a periwinkle, or a limpet.

B. H.

_Snail-eating._--This practice is very general in Italy. While residing
near Florence, my attention was often attracted by a heap of fifty or one
hundred very clean, empty, snail-shells, in a ditch, or under a bush; and I
indulged in many vain speculations, before I could account for so strange a

One day, however, I happened to meet the _contadina_ coming out of my
garden with a basket on her arm; and from her shy, conscious manner, and an
evident wish to avoid my seeing the contents, I rather suspected she had
been making free with my peaches. To my surprise, however, I found that she
was laden with the delicious _frutta-di-terra_ (sometimes so called, as the
Echinus, so common along the Italian coast, is called _frutta-di-mare_);
and thinking that she had been collecting them simply from regard to my
fruit and vegetables, I thanked her for her kind services. But she
understood me ironically, and, with a good deal of confusion, offered to
carry them to the kitchen, apologising most elaborately, and assuring me
that she would on no account have taken them, had not our cook told her
that we despised them, and that she would no doubt be welcome. I asked her
what in the world she intended to do with them? and, with a look of
amazement at my question, even surpassing mine at her reply, she informed
me that her brother and his wife had come to pay them a visit, and that,
with my kind permission, she would thus treat them to "_una bellissima
cena_." She had collected about three quarts, during a search of two hours.
The large brown kind only are eaten. Among the poor they are generally
esteemed a delicacy, and reputed to be marvellously nutritious.


       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. iii., p. 82.)

The following additional particulars of this eminent lawyer and poet may be
deemed interesting. In a letter from Mr. Pary to the Rev. Josiah Mead, of
the 26th November, 1626, it is stated:

    "Tomorrow, it is said Sergeant Richardson shall be Lord Chief Justice
    of the Common Pleas, and Sir John Davis nominated to the King's Bench,
    because he hath written a book in defence of the legality of this new

In another letter of the 9th December, 1626, it is stated:

    "I heard last night that Sergeant Davis, who it is said looked to be
    Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench, in place of Sir Randal Crew,
    was found dead in his bed."

And, again, in a letter from the Rev. Josiah Mead to Sir Martin Stuteville,
of the 16th Dec., 1626:

    "This of the death of Sir John Davis, for aught I {337} can hear, holds
    true. It is added, that he was at supper with my Lord Keeper that
    evening before I was told by him that he should be Lord Chief Justice
    of the King's Bench; but he lived not to see the morning. My Lord of
    Huntingdon rode up, upon this news, for he is his heir."

Ferdinando Lord Hastings, eldest son of Henry, Earl of Huntingdon, married
Lucy, daughter and heiress of Sir John Davis, and in 1613 succeeded his
father as Earl of Huntingdon.

Sir John Davis married Lady Eleanor, only daughter of the Earl of
Castlehaven, and sister of the infamous Earl. She remarried Sir Archibald
Douglas, and died in 1652. She was the lady of the anagram celebrity,
"Reveal, oh, Daniel," and "Never so mad a lady." There is no doubt that she
and her brother were as mad as could well be.

In a letter from Mr. Edward Rossingham to Sir Thomas Puckering, dated 4th
January, 1636, it is stated:

    "Sunday before Christmas the Bishop, Dean, and Chapter of Lichfield
    sent up a complaint against the Lady Eleanor Davis. It seems the
    cathedral church in Lichfield is lately very beautifully set out with
    hangings of arras behind the altar, the Communion table handsomely
    railed in, and the table itself set out in the best manner, and the
    Bishop's seat fairly built. This Lady came one Communion day, in the
    morning, with a kettle in one hand and a brush in the other, to
    sprinkle some of her holy water (as she called that in the kettle) upon
    these hangings and the Bishop's seat, which was only a composition of
    tar, pitch, sink-puddle water, &c., and such kind of nasty ingredients,
    which she did sprinkle upon the aforesaid things. This being the act of
    a mad woman, the Lords, to prevent further mischief, have given out two
    warrants, the one to bring the Lady to Bethlehem, the other to the
    keeper of Bethlehem to receive her. There are messengers gone into
    Staffordshire to bring her up."

It appeared afterwards she was so poor, that it became a question at the
Council who should maintain her. She seems to have been wholly neglected by
her second husband.

Sir John Davis and his lady are buried in the church of St. Martin's in the
Fields, and the following are their epitaphs, from Strype's _Stow_, book
vi. p. 72.:

    "D. O. M. S. Johannes Davys, Equestris ordinis quondam Attornati Regis
    Generalis amplissima Provincia in regno Hib. functus. Inde in Patriam
    revocatus inter Servientes Domini Regis ad Legem primum locum
    sustinuit. Ob. 1626."

    "Acc[=u]bat dignissimo marito incomparabilis Uxor, &c., 1652."

    "_Note._--She was the Lady Eleanora, the only daughter of the Earl of
    Castlehaven, Baron Audley."


Fulham, April 15. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *


(Vol. ii., p. 413.)

In reference to an inquiry after MSS. relating to Locke, I enclose
particulars of a small 4to. MS. volume in my possession.


    "_MANUSCRIPT._--LOCKE'S (John, _an Attorney living at Publow, and
    father of the illustrious Metaphysician of the same name_) Common-Place
    Book, containing Matters (relating to the Hundreds of Chew, Chewton,
    Kainsham, Brewton, Catsashe, Norton Ferris, Horethorne, Froome,
    Wellowe, Whitstone, Wells Forum, Portbury, Bathe Forum, Winterstoke,
    Bempstone, Kilmersdon, Brent, Hartliffe and Bedminster, Hampton and
    Claverton, and Phillips Norton Liberties, Glaston, Queene Camell, &c.)
    of daily use to him as Court Keeper to Col. Alex. Popham, a Magistrate
    and Leader of Parliamentary Forces in Somersetsh., _variously dated
    from 1629 to 1655, all in the handwriting of the elder John
    Locke_,--also many entries by other hands of other matters, in the
    remaining leaves of the same volume, many of which are probably in the
    handwriting of the afterwards distinguished younger John Locke, _4to.
    original vellum wrapper, 12l. 12s._


    Entries of Bailments and Bindings over of Prosecutors in cases of
    Felony which occurred in the neighbourhood of Pensford, for the Assizes
    at Bath, Taunton, Bridgewater, and Wells, 1630-31.

    Appointment at Bathe of Overseers of Woollen Cloth, 1631, for Chew,
    Dundry, Chewstoke, Ubley, Mids. Norton, Kainsham, Publow, Kelston,
    Mounton Coombe, Bathford, Bathwicke, Freshford, Weston, Froome, Rode,
    Beckington, Lullington, Berkley, Chew, Mells, and Leigh, Colsford,
    Hampton et Claverton, Batheaston, Charterhouse Hinton, with the names
    of the Overseers.

    Scotch Postures (Humorous).

    Names of the Tithings in the Hundreds of Chew, Chewton, and Kainsham.

    Abp. Usher on the Liturgie and Episcopall Government, 1640.

    The Sums of the Payment of each Tithing of the above hundreds of the
    1st of 15th and 10th of the Subsidy of 3-15ths and 10ths to K. James,
    to declare war against Spain, 1623-4.

    The Yearlie Proportion of the Severall Hundreds of the Easterne
    Division of the Countie towarde the releife of the Hospitall,
    1632.--Ditto, Westerne Division.

    The Yearlie Rate for the Maymed Soldiers of every Hundred and Libertie
    within this County of Somerset.

    The Rate of Kainsham Hundred, with the amount of each Parish.

    A Rate devised at Hinton in 1601, for the raising of 100 men for
    Ireland, with consent of the Bath Magistrates, and their names.

    The number and proportion of Shipping within Englande and Wales, to be
    made readie against Mar. 1, 1635.

    Hundred of Kainsham, Quarterlie Payment of each tithing to the
    Hospitalls and Maymed Soldiers.

    A Rate made at Pensford 23rd Sept., 1635, for the raising of 160l.

    The Assizes holden at Bathe, 24th July, 1637, before the Right Honble.
    S. Fynch,--the Names of the Justices (among whom are John Stowell,
    Ralph Hopton, John Horner, Rob. Hopton, John Harington, &c.), and the
    Names of the Grand Jury.

    Subsidie 17th Charles:--A Particular how each Tithing within the
    Hundreds of Chew, Chewton, and Kainsham stands chardged, for the
    Reliefe of his Maties Army and the Northerne parte of the Kingdom,
    Thomas Hunt of Dundry, Collector.

    The Protestation by Order of Parliament, 5^o Maij, 1641,--with Jo.
    Locke's acceptance of the Protestation in the Parish Church of Publoe,
    3rd Apr., 1642.

    Kainsham:--The "Purblinde, Partiall, and Innovated Rate" of this Hund.,
    24th Sept., 1649.

    Kainsham Hund.--A Rate for Ship-money--with the Particulars of every
    Tithing, Parish, and Particular Person chardged--contains the name of
    every rateable person in the parishes of Burnet, Preston, Stanton Drew,
    Stanton Prior, Salford, Publoe, Marksbury, Chelworth, Shrubwell,
    Belluton, Compton Dando, Farmborrow, Chewton, Whitchurch, Charlton,
    Brislington, and Kainsham, with the amount of this celebrated tax
    assessed to each person.

    The Names of the Lords Lieutenants nominated by the Howse of Comons,

    The Muster Roll of the Collonell Sir Rawfe Hopton, Knight, his Band of
    200 foote Soldiers, within the Eastern Division, and Regiment of the
    Countie of Somerset.--Bathe, xxi^o xxij^{do} Maij, 1639.--(Contains, a
    List of the Officers, "William Tynte," &c.--a list of bearers of Pikes,
    with the Names of the Soldiers and of the gentlemen or tithings for
    whom they serve,--also a similar list of the bearers of "Shott.")

    A list of Parishes in the Deaneries of Froome and Bedminster, with the
    name of the Clergyman of each, the arms supplied by him, and the Names
    of the men who bore them.

    A Rate for raising £41-00-03 per mensem, in the hund. of Kainsham, for
    Generall Fairfax Army, 1648.

    Several Papers relating to Differences concerning Rates between the In
    Hundred and Out Hundred of Kainsham.

    Particulars and Value of Feer's Tenement, in Belluton, now in the
    possession of Henry Stickland, given in by him this day, 24 Dec., 1655.

    Rente to my Landlord, Coll. Alex. Popham, out of the 3 Tenements I hold
    in Publoe, and the Lives thereon at the time of their obtaining, 1650.

    A Receipt for his Rente at Publoe, 3. 8bris & 11 Dec., 1638.

    _The above are in the handwriting of Jo. Locke, the elder; in another
    hand, on blank covers, left by the former, are_--Propositions on

      Philosophy:--Phisicke, Ethike, and Dialectike.
      De Providentia Dei et ad genus.
      De Prædestinatione.
      Propositiones Catholicæ.

    N.B. One of the later chapters of the Essay on the Human Understanding
    is treated under propositions nearly identical with the leaf of the MS.
    which is described in the preceding four lines.

      Copia Actus locationis Mensæ Dominicæ in Ecclesia S. Gregorij
          Civitatis London.
      Character of Drunkenness (_Rhyme_), &c. &c.

    At the end, in several hands, are various receipts: one in the elder
    Locke's handwriting, 'The Weapon Salve, and the use thereof, as it was
    sent unto mee as a most excellent and rare secret from my Cosin
    Alderman John Locke[5], of Bristoll, in his Letter, dat. 5^o Apr.
    1650,'--also 'To make Shineing Inke', signed 'J L: Ox:'

    On the last leaf is a record of the Births, Marriages and Deaths of the
    Locke Family, from 1603 to 1624, including that of John Locke, the
    father, 29 April, 1606."

[Footnote 5: High Sheriff of Bristol in 1626, and the Mayor of Bristol in
1641 who refused admittance to the royal forces. See Barrett and Seyer.]

       *       *       *       *       *

Replies to Minor Queries.

_Defoe's Anticipations_ (Vol. iii., p. 287.).--Defoe had probably seen the
English translation, or rather abridgment, of Father Dos Santos's _Ethiopia
Oriental_, in Purchas's _Pilgrimes_ (vol. ii. 1544, fol. ed.), in which
some hints are given of the great lake (nyassi, _i. e._ sea) Maravi, which
lies nearly parallel with the eastern coast, and was known to D'Anville, in
whose map _Massi_ is misengraved for Niassi. A very careful examination of
the Portuguese expeditions across the continent of Africa has been given by
Mr. Cooley, in the _Journal of the Royal Geographical Society_ (vol. xv. p.
185.; xvi. p. 138.), and he has ascertained, approximately, the extent and
position of that great lake, which, from distrust of D'Anville, one of the
most exact geographers, had been expunged from all modern maps. It is
considerably to the N. and E. of the Nyami lately determined, and of much
greater extent.


_Epitaph in Hall's Discovery_ (Vol. iii., p. 242.).--The work entitled
_Discovery of a New World, or a Description of the South Indies, hitherto
unknown, by an English Mercury, imprinted by E. Blount_, no date, 12mo., is
not, as our correspondent supposes, very rare, nor is it by Bishop Hall. It
is a free translation, or rather paraphrase, and an excellent one in its
way, by John Healey, of Bishop Hall's very entertaining _Mundus Alter et
Idem_, first published in 12mo., Francof., without date, afterwards
reprinted with Campanella's _Civitas Solis_ and Bacon's _Atlantis_ at
Utrecht, 1643, 24mo., and subsequently included in the edition of Bishop
Hall's works by Pratt, 10 vols., Lond., 1808, 8vo. The epitaph quoted is
not a satire upon any statesman of the time. The writer is describing the
Land of Changeableness, or, as it is called in the Latin original, "Variana
vel Moronia Mobilis," and gives in the course of his description this
epitaph on Andreas Vortunius (a vertendo), or, as he is styled in the
English {339} translation, "Andrew Turncoate." The epitaph occurs in p.
132. of the Latin edition of 1643, and is evidently, as indicated by the
marginal notes, an imitation or parody of the famous one on Æelia Lælia
Crispis, which has exercised the ingenuity of so many writers, and of which
our own countryman, Richard White, of Basingstoke, the historian, has given
three different interpretations. See his _Ælia Lælia Crispis, Epitaphium
Antiquum quod in Agro Bononiensi adhuc videtur, a diversis interpretatum
varie, novissime autem a Richardo Vito explicatum_, Padua, 1568, 4to. An
article on this epitaph and its various interpreters, of whom I have
collected about forty, might be made a very interesting one.


    [We wish MR. CROSSLEY--than whom no one is more competent--would favour
    us with such an article. The following communication from MR. FORBES is
    only one of several we have received, showing that the interest in this
    enigma is not abated.]

_Epitaph in Hall's Discovery_ (Vol. iii., p. 242.).--When this epitaph is
assigned to its right owner, it may perhaps throw some light on its
twin-brother--the epitaph on "Ælia Lælia Crispis"--"_about which many of
the learned have puzzled their heads_." (See _Encyc. Brit._, article
"Ænigma.") I enclose a copy of this epitaph, which you can use or not, as
you please. If you think that it might help to "unearth" Mister Andrew
Turnecoate, you may perhaps like to lay it before your readers; if, on the
other hand, that it would but increase the difficulty of the operation by
distracting attention needlessly, you can hand it over to "the Editor's
best friend"--the fire.

        "D. M.

     Ælia Lælia Crispis,
     Nec vir, nec mulier,
        Nec androgyna
    Nec puella, nec juvenis,
          Nec anus;
    Nec casta, nec meretrix,
         Nec pudica;
         Sed omnia;
   Neque fame, neque ferro,
       Neque veneno;
        Sed omnibus:
    Nec coelo, nec terris,
         Nec aquis,
      Sed ubique jacet.
    Lucius Agatho Priscius,
    Nec maritus, nec amator,
      Nec necessarius;
  Neque moerens, neque gaudens,
        Neque flens;
    Nec molem, nec pyramidem,
       Nec sepulchrum,
         Sed omnia,
    Scit et nescit, cui posuerit."


_Saint Thomas of Lancaster._--The following passage in Fuller's _Worthies_
(of Yorkshire) does not seem to have been noticed by either of your
correspondents who replied to MR. R. M. MILNES' Query in Vol. i., p. 181.:

    "Thomas Plantagenet. Before I proceed, I must confess myself formerly
    at a great loss to understand a passage in an honourable author,
    speaking of the counterfeit reliques detected and destroyed at the
    Reformation: 'The Bell of Saint Guthlac, and the _Felt_ of Saint Thomas
    of Lancaster, both remedies for the headache.' (Vice Lord Herbert's
    _Life of Henry VIII._, p. 431.) But I could recover no Saint _Thomas_
    (saving him of _Canterbury_) in any English Martyrology, till since, on
    enquiry, I find him to be this _Thomas Plantagenet_. He was Earl of
    Derby, Lancaster, Leicester, and (in the right of Alice his wife) of
    Lincoln. A popular person, and great enemy to the two Spencers, minions
    to King Edward II, who being hated as devils for their pride, no wonder
    if this Thomas was honored as a Saint and Martyr by the common sort.[6]
    Indeed he must be a very good chymist who can extract _martyr_ out of
    _malefactor_; and our chronicles generally behold him put to death for
    treason against King Edward II. But let him pass for a saint in this
    shire, though never solemnly canonised, it being true of such local
    saints, what Servius Honoratus observeth of topical gods, '_ad alias
    regiones nunquam transibant_,' they travelled not so far as to be
    honored in other countries. His beheading, _alias_ his martyrdom,
    happened at Pomfret A.D. 1322."

It would appear from the foregoing extract that Thomas of Lancaster was
never admitted into the Romish calendar of saints; though his memory was
locally revered, especially for his opposition to the two Spencers, or
Despensers, as they are called by Hume. This historian had no respect for
"the turbulent Lancaster;" but the quaint old Fuller seems to have thought
well of him.

As a _bell-man_ I am more interested in the virtues of the bell of Saint
Guthlac, than in the hat of Saint Thomas, and I take this opportunity of
asking assistance from the readers of "NOTES AND QUERIES" towards a
collection of curious anecdotes and information about bells, which I am
endeavouring to make. Any contributions will be thankfully received by me.



[Footnote 6: "_In sanctorum numerum retulit vulgus._--Camden's _Brit._ in
Yorkshire. Amongst other profits received by the abbey of Leicester, in
1348, from oblations at the church of St. Martin in that town, occurs, _pes
Thomæ Lancastriæ respondebat, 6l. 10s._"--_History of Leicestershire_, vol.
i. p. 591.]

_Francis Moore_ (Vol. iii., p. 263.).--That such a personage really did
exist there can be little doubt. Bromley (in _Engraved Portraits, &c._)
gives 1657 as the date of his birth, and says that there was a portrait of
him by Drapentier _ad vivum_. Lysons mentions him as one of the {340}
remarkable men who, at different periods, resided at Lambeth, and says that
his house was in Calcott's Alley, High Street, then called Back Lane, where
he seems to have enlightened his generation in the threefold capacity of
astrologer, physician, and schoolmaster.

J. C. B.


"_Tickhill, God help me_" (Vol. i., p. 247.; Vol. ii., p. 452.).--Although
I am full late with my pendent, I am tempted to add the instance of "Kyme
God Knows," well known to all explorers of the Fens. The adjunct, "God
knows," is supposed to be part of the following verse:

 "It's Kyme, God knows,
  Where no corn grows,
    And very little hay;
  And if there come a wet time,
    It _weshes_ all away."

If I misquote, perhaps some Fen man will set me right.

As to the "Lincoln-heath where should 'un?" instanced by your correspondent
H. C. ST. CROIX, in the No. for April 27, 1850, it is quite unknown in this
neighbourhood, and I believe must belong to some other locale.



_Meaning of Tye_ (Vol. iii., p. 263.).--On or contiguous to the South
Downs, in Sussex, there are several portions of land bearing this
designation, as Berwick Tye, Alfriston Tye, Telscombe Tye, &c. They are all
contiguous to the villages from which they derive their names. These lands
were formerly held in common by the tenants of the respective manors, and I
think the origin of the expression may be traced to the tethering or
_tying_-up of cows, horses, &c., for the double purpose of preventing their
straying, and of preserving the fences of the neighbouring tenements. I
offer this conjecture with some diffidence, because the word is very often
found in _composition_ with proper names of places, as Lavortye,
Brambletye, Holtye, Puxtye, Ollantigh. The vulgar notion, that it means a
space which originally measured ten acres, is, I think, untenable.



_Dutch Church in Norwich_ (Vol. iii., p. 209.).--Some interesting details
connected with the establishment of the Dutch Church in Norwich, as well as
the first settlement of the Walloons in that city, will be found in
Blomefield's _History of Norfolk_, vol. iii. p. 282. et seq., edit. 1806.

J. Y.

_The Dutch Church, Norwich._--Some account of this church may be seen in
Burn's _History of the Foreign Refugees_, 1846. It is to be regretted,
however, that the registers and acts of vestry are missing. The _seal_ of
the church has lately been discovered.

J. S. B.

_Lost Manuscripts_ (Vol. iii., pp. 161. 261.)--In pursuance of MR.
MACKENZIE'S suggestions respecting the search for lost manuscripts, permit
me to ask, if all hope must be considered as given up of decyphering any
more of those discovered at Herculaneum, or of resuming the excavations
there, that have been so long discontinued? Perhaps the improved chemical
processes of recent days might be found more successful in facilitating the
unrolling of the MSS., than the means resorted to so long ago by Sir H.
Davy. Can any of your correspondents state whether anything has been done
lately with the Herculaneum MSS.?

Eustace says that--

    "As a very small part of Herculaneum has hitherto been explored, it is
    highly probable that if a general excavation were made, ten times the
    number of MSS. above mentioned (1800) might be discovered, and among
    them, perhaps, or very probably, some of the first works of antiquity,
    the loss of which has been so long lamented."--_Classical Tour_, vol.
    i. 4to., p.585.

J. M.


_The Circulation of the Blood_ (Vol. iii., p.252.).--In a paraphrase on
Ecclesiastes xii. 1-6., entitled, _King Solomon's Portraiture of Old Age_,
by John Smith, M.D., London, 1676, 8vo., 1752, 12mo., the author attributes
the discovery of the circulation of the blood to King Solomon. Mede also
finds the same anticipation of science in "the pitcher broken at the
fountain." Who was the first to suggest the transfusion of blood?

T. J.

_Alliteration_ (Vol. iii., p. 165.)--Your correspondent H. A. B., in
quoting the seventh stanza from Phineas Fletcher's _Purple Island_,
observes, that the second line,

 "A life that lives by love, and loves by light,"

is "noticeable" for its _alliteration_. But the best specimen that I have
met with in English--after having read much verse, and published a volume,
which my partial friends call poetry--will be found in Quarles' _Divine
Emblems_, book ii. emblem ii. Beyond all question, Quarles was a poet that
needed not "apt alliteration's artful aid" to add to the vigour of his
verse, or lend liquidity to his lines. Quarles is often queer, quaint, and
querulous, but never prolix, prosey, or puling.

 "We sack, we ransack to the utmost sands
  Of native kingdoms, and of foreign lands:
  _We travel sea and soil; we pry, we prowl,_
  _We progress, and we prog from pole to pole_."

Verily, old Francis must have had a prophetic peep at the effects of _free
trade_, and the growing greatness of Great Britain, in the gathering of the
Nations under a huge GLASS CASE in Hyde Park, in the present year 1851!

C. G.



_Vineyards in England_ (Vol. ii., p. 392.).--The Lincoln "Vine Closes" may
as well be added to the rest. They were given to the church here by Henry
I. See the charter, entitled _Carta Hen. I. de Vinea sua Linc._, in Dugdale
(Caley's) vol. vi. p. 1272. Their site is a rather steep slope, facing the
south, and immediately east of the city. The southern aspect of our hill
was celebrated long ago by some poet, as quoted by H. Huntingdon:

 "Urbs in colle sita est, et collis vergit ad austrum".

N.B. One of the Abbey fields at Bullington, a few miles east of Lincoln, is
known as the Hopyard. The plant has never been cultivated in these parts
within memory, or the range of the faintest tradition, but the character of
the soil is clayey, and perhaps not unsuitable. Were hopyards often
attached to monasteries? The house at Bullington was of the order of



_Countess of Desmond_ (Vol. iii., p. 250.).--If your correspondents on this
subject should be wandering to the south-east of London, they may be
interested in knowing that there are two very striking portraits of this
lady in Kent, one at Knowle, near Seven Oaks; the other, which is the more
remarkable picture of the two, at Bedgebury, near Cranbrook, the seat of
Viscount Beresford.

E. H. Y.

_St. John's Bridge Fair_ (Vol. iii., pp. 88. 287.).--I cannot agree with
the conjecture that this was Peterborough Bridge Fair. On the confines of
Gloucestershire and Berkshire, at the distance of about 77 miles from
London, near Lechlade, and on the road to Farringdon, is a St. John's
Bridge, near which was a priory or hospital. It is at this place that the
Thames first becomes navigable. (Leland's _Itinerary_, vol. ii. fo. 21, 22,
23; vol. iv. fo. 48; Bowles's _Post Chaise Companion_, 1782, pl. 28;
Lysons' _Berkshire_, vol. i. p. 193., and map of county prefixed;
_Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica_, vol. i. p. 320.; _Parliamentary
Gazetteer_, art. "Lechlade.") Whether there is or ever was a fair at this
place is more than I can state; but perhaps some of your correspondents
dwelling in those parts can give information on this point.


Cambridge, April 14. 1851.

_Paring the Nails unlucky on Sundays_ (Vol. ii., p. 511.; Vol. iii, p.
55.).--Compare Sir Thomas Browne's _Vulgar Errors_, lib. v. cap. xxi. § x.


_Errata in Braithwait's Latin Drinking-song_ (Vol. iii., p. 297.).--It is
well for us that honest Barnaby is not alive to visit upon us the
scandalous "negligences and ignorances" with which our transcript of his
song abounds; and it is no excuse perhaps to say, that _the errors almost
all of them exist in the MS. from whence the transcript was made_.
Sensitive as he has shown himself "upon the errata's," _he_ would not have
accepted the apology from us which he makes for himself. "Good reader, if
this impression have errors in it, excuse it. _The copy was obscure_;
neither was the _editor_, by reason of his distance, and employments of
higher consequence, made acquainted with the publishing of it."

 "His Patavinus _erravit prelis_,
  Authorem suis lacerando telis."

The following corrections, which are necessary to the sense, have been
pointed out, and have no doubt been already silently made by many of our

            _Sic in MS._          _forsan._

  Stanza 3. hoc _te_ amoenum      hoc amoenum
            reparare              reperire

  Stanza 4. m_e_mento             m_o_mento
            gustabi_t_            gustabi_s_

  Stanza 5. solv_e_t              solv_i_t
            pot_i_s               pot_u_s

  Stanza 6. friges_t_is           friges_c_is

  Stanza 8. succed_a_nt           succed_u_nt

             Omit the comma between _Domum_ and
             _feram_, and disregard the erroneous
             punctuation generally.

There may be other errors; for, as it stands at present, the song is
inferior to the other known productions of the pleasant author of the
ITINERARIUM. We can only hope that its publication, in even this imperfect
form, may lead to the discovery of a better text; and we must be content if
the lines of the author are applied to our blunders:

 "Delirans iste _Sapiens Gottam_,
  Reddit _Coetum_ propter _Cotem_."
 "Quid si breves fiant longi?
  Si vocales sint dipthongi?
  Quid si graves sint acuti?
  Si accentus fiant muti?
  Quid si placidè, plenè, planè,

  Quid si sedem muto sede?
  Quid si carmen claudo pede?
  Quid si noctem sensi diem?
  Quid si veprem esse viam?
  Sat est, Verbum declinavi,

In the last line of the extract from "Phyllis and Flora," _hinc_ is printed
for _huic_; _inpares_, in the preceding line, is the correct reading for
_impares_. "_Impar_ richtiger Inpar" (Scheller).

S. W. S.

       *       *       *       *       *



The publication of _The National Cyclopædia of Useful Knowledge_ has just
been completed by the issue of {342} the twelfth volume. We notice this
useful condensation of _The Penny Cyclopædia_ principally, however, for a
feature which we hope to see more widely extended, namely, that of issuing
it in a strong and handsome half-binding, at the moderate charge of one
shilling per volume extra. The practice of publishing books in a bound form
(more especially such books as are intended for very general circulation)
is one which we have no doubt may be widely extended with great
satisfaction to purchasers. It has, generally speaking, been, up to the
present time, too closely confined to books of high price, adapted only to
wealthy purchasers, whom the words "bound by Hayday," or "morocco extra,"
with the necessary increase of price, charm, rather than discourage.

There is perhaps no work to which, at the present moment,--when the World's
Fair is about to commence, and we are sure to be visited by hundreds, or
rather thousands, of our Gallic friends, with whom we shall be in daily and
hourly conversation,--we can more appropriately call the attention of our
readers than to the second division (_Partie Française-Anglaise_) of M.
Tarver's _Dictionnaire Phraséologique Royal_, in which we can assure them
they will find the readiest solution of all those phraseological queries
which may arise during their intercourse with our lively neighbours. A very
cursory examination of its pages will serve to convince the inquirer of the
great learning and patient industry of M. Tarver; and his interest in the
work will not be diminished by the reflection that the name of its
accomplished author will be found in the obituary of the present week.

When noticing, a few weeks since, one of Captain Knox's interesting
volumes, we spoke of the undying popularity of White's _Selborne_. A proof
at once of this popularity, and a means of increasing it, will be found in
a new edition of this delightful book just issued as one of the volumes of
_Bohn's Illustrated Library_. It is entitled to its place in this series on
account of forty admirable woodcuts by which it is illustrated; and to a
place on the bookshelves of every Naturalist, for the sake of the
additional notes of Sir W. Jardine, and its present editor, Mr. Jesse.

Messrs. Puttick and Simpson (191. Piccadilly) will sell on Tuesday and
Wednesday next an exceedingly choice Collection of Autograph Letters,
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from Upcott's Collection. We cannot attempt to particularise the many
interesting lots which are to be found in the present collection, but
recommend the Catalogue to attention for the satisfactory manner in which
the different documents are arranged and described.

CATALOGUES RECEIVED.--B. Quaritch's (16. Castle Street, Leicester Square)
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(18. Holywell Street) Catalogue Part II. for 1851, of Books Ancient and
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*** Letters stating particulars and lowest price, _carriage free_, to be
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Notices to Correspondents.

J. S. S. (Leicester). THE CHAUCER MONUMENT. _It will require about 100l. to
make a complete restoration. Not one-half that amount has yet been

X. Y. Z. _The custom of_ "Swearing on the Horns at Highgate" _is very ably
treated by Hone_, Every-Day Book, vol. ii. p. 79 _et seq. It probably arose
from the graziers who put up at the Gate-house on their way to Smithfield,
and were accustomed, as a means of keeping strangers out of their company,
to bring an ox to the door as a test: those who did not like to be sworn of
their fraternity, and kiss its horns, not being deemed fit members of their

W. R. M. _Will this correspondent favour us with another copy of his
Queries, which were received and intended for insertion, but have
apparently been omitted by some accident?_

A. W. H. _Our correspondent will find that his Query had been anticipated
in_ Vol. i., p. 336. _Its appearance then brought it a mass of Replies,
mostly of a very unsatisfactory kind. We delayed repeating the Query until
we could find leisure to condense those replies, so as to prevent our
correspondents furnishing us with information already in our possession. We
hope to do this next week._

SING. _Bryan Waller Procter, Esq., one of the Commissioners of Lunacy._

REPLIES RECEIVED.--_Nettle in--San Graal--Duchess of Buckingham--Newburgh
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NOTES AND QUERIES _may be procured, by order, of all Booksellers and
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By the same Author.


Octavo, uniform with the "Library Edition" of Alison's Europe. Price 2l.

       *       *       *       *       *


MILITARY LIFE of JOHN, DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH. In Octavo, with Maps and Plans
of Battles. Price 18s.

       *       *       *       *       *


THE PRINCIPLES OF POPULATION, and their Connection with Human Happiness.
Two Vols. Octavo, 30s.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS, Edinburgh and London. Sold by all Booksellers.

       *       *       *       *       *

Printed by THOMAS CLARK SHAW, of No. 8. New Street Square, at No. 5. New
Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and
published by GEORGE BELL, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St.
Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet
Street aforesaid.--Saturday, April 26. 1851.

       *       *       *       *       *

Corrections made to printed original.

page 336, "From the Common Gaol in Burkdou" - original reads 'Burkdon',
this corrected by the errata in issue 80 which adds that Burkdou is

page 341, "Authorem suis lacerando telis." - original reads 'laurando',
this corrected by the errata in issue 80.

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