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Title: Scientific American magazine Vol 2. No. 3 Oct 10 1846 - The Advocate of Industry and Journal of Scientific, - Mechanical and Other Improvements
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scientific American magazine Vol 2. No. 3 Oct 10 1846 - The Advocate of Industry and Journal of Scientific, - Mechanical and Other Improvements" ***

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Images generously provided by "Making of America" Cornell
University.



THE NEW YORK
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN:

_Published Weekly at 128 Fulton Street,
(Sun Building,) New York._

BY MUNN & COMPANY.

    *    *    *    *    *

RUFUS PORTER, EDITOR.

    *    *    *    *    *

TERMS.--$2 a year--$1 in advance, and the remainder in 6 months.

[Illustration: hand pointing right] _See Advertisement on last page._


=The New Roman Road.=

[The present Pope has given his consent to build railroads in his
dominions, which the former Pope was averse to. The following lines
are predicated on his consent.]

    Ancient Romans, ancient Romans--
    Cato, Scipio Africanus,
    Ye whose fame's eclips'd by no man's,
    Publius Æmilianus,
    Sylla, Marius, Pompey, Cæsar,
    Fabius, dilatory teaser,
    Coriolanus, and ye Gracchi
    Who gave so many a foe a black eye,
    Antony, Lepidus, and Crassus;
    And you, ye votaries of Parnassus,
    Virgil, and Horace, and Tibullus,
    Terence and Juvenal, Catullus,
    Martial, and all ye wits beside,
    On Pegasus expert to ride;
    Numa, good king, surnamed Pampilius,
    And Tullus, eke 'yclept Hostilius--
    Kings, Consuls, Imperators, Lictors,
    Prætors, the whole world's former victors,
    Who sleep by yellow Tiber's brink;
    Ye mighty names--what d'ye think?
    The Pope has sanctioned Railway Bills!
    And so the lofty Aventine,
    And your six other famous hills
    Will soon look down upon a 'Line.'
    Oh! if so be that hills could turn
    Their noses up, with gesture antic,
    Thus would the seven deride and spurn
    A Roman work so unromantic:
    'Was this the ancient Roman Way.

      With tickets taken, fares to pay,
    Stockers and Engineers, perhaps--
    Nothing more likely--English chaps
    Brawling away, 'Go on!' for Ito,
    And 'Cut along!' instead of Cito;
    The engine letting off its steam,
    With puff and whistle, snort and scream;
    A smell meanwhile, like burning clothes,
    Flouting the angry Roman nose?
    Is it not Conscript Fathers shocking?
    Does it not seem your mem'ry mocking?
    The Roman and the Railway station--
    What an incongruous combination!
    How odd, with no one to adore him,
      Terminus--and in the Forum!'--[Punch.


=Good Advice.=

Somebody lays down the following rules to young men in business. They
will apply equally well to young and old. 'Let the business of every
one alone, and attend to your own.--Don't buy what you don't want. Use
every hour to advantage, and study even to make leisure hours useful.
Think twice before you spend a shilling; remember you have another to
make for it. Find recreation in looking after your business, and so
your business will not be neglected in looking after recreation.--Buy
fair, sell fair, take care of the profits; look over the books
regularly, and if you find an error, trace it out. Should a stroke of
misfortune come upon you in trade, retrench--work harder, but never
fly the track; confront difficulties with unflinching perseverance,
and they will disappear at last, and you will be honored; but shrink
from the task, and you will be despised.'

    *    *    *    *    *

In Russia, coffins are generally brown, but children have pink, grown
up unmarried girls sky blue, while other females are indulged with a
violet color.

[Illustration: Barnum's Safety Apparatus]

INTRODUCTION.--Much has been said of late in and about New York on the
subject of the adoption by steamboat proprietors of some apparatus
that will in some measure secure the passengers against such
casualties as have occurred on board the Excelsior and several other
boats. There have been a great variety of inventions introduced for
the purpose of preventing explosions; but from the best information we
can obtain on the subject, we are of the opinion that Mr. Barnum's
apparatus takes a general preference over all others. It consists of
an arrangement of machinery, partly within the boiler, and which is
constructed on such a self-regulating principle as to keep up a supply
of water within the boiler, without any attention from the engineer;
and in case that the apparatus itself should become impaired or cease
to operate regular, the engineer becomes instantly notified thereof.

EXPLANATION.--It is inexpedient for us to give a full and minute
description of the several points and peculiarities of the mechanism
of this apparatus; but we may so far explain as to say that a
horizontal lever inside of the boiler, being mounted on a pivot near
its centre, and connected to a buoy or float at one end, as
represented in the engraving, (a part of the surface of the boiler
being omitted for that purpose, and not, as some might infer, to
represent the apparatus attached to a boiler already burst by an
explosion.) One of these floats is placed within a small enclosed box
within the boiler, that it may be secure from the effect of foam which
sometimes pervades the surface of the water in a steam boiler.--This
lever, near its bearing, is connected to a short valve-rod, which
governs the valves in a small valve-chamber, whereby the steam is
occasionally admitted to operate a small steam engine, placed directly
over the boiler; and this engine puts in motion a pump, by which the
water in the boiler is replenished. This engine, it will be
understood, is never put in operation except when the water in the
boiler becomes too low: and when the water rises, the elevation of the
encased float closes the valve and stops the engine. The ball on the
end of the lever acts as a counterpoise to the float, (which is of
stone) that it may be freely influenced by the rising or falling of
the surface of the water.

The small engine constructed by Mr. Barnum for this purpose, is well
adapted to its place, and has several peculiarities whereby the
valves, and consequent reciprocal motion of the engine are regulated
without the use of a crank or fly-wheel: but of these we cannot at
present give a minute description. The whole of this apparatus evinces
much scientific ability of the inventor, Daniel Barnum, Esq., resident
at present in this city, and who has received many certificates from
the first scientific men in the Union, in commendation of his
invention.


=A Piggish Parvenue.=

A proud porker, fancying that it was degrading to his dignity to root
in the gutter, came upon the sidewalk, and full of his consequence,
promenaded from morning till night, leaving his humbler companions to
munch corn, husks and potatoe parings. He fared as people usually do,
who from vanity assume a station they are not qualified to fill. In
the gutter he would have lived in unnoticed enjoyment. On the walk he
got kicked by every passenger and bitten by every cur, till hungry and
bruised he was glad to return to his proper station.--[Ex, paper.


=Wanting Workmen back Again.=

The proprietors of the cotton mill in Schuylerville, N. Y., who
reduced the wages of their hands, a week or two since, says the
Schuylerville Herald, twenty-five per cent., are now, and have been
for several days, endeavoring to induce them to return to their work,
at the old wages; but they are too late, as most of them are engaged
to work in other mills.


=Hard Climbing.=

A man in Orange county was found one night climbing an over-shot wheel
in a fulling mill. He was asked what he was doing. He said he was
'trying to go up to bed, but some how or other these stairs won't hold
still.' There are many unlucky wights who are laboriously endeavoring
to climb fortune's ladder on the same principle.


=Power of Imagination.=

An amusing incident recently occurred at Williams College, which is
thus related by a correspondent of the Springfield Gazette:

The professor of chemistry, while administering, in the course of his
lectures, the protoxide of nitrogen, or, as it is commonly called,
laughing gas, in order to ascertain how great an influence the
imagination had in producing the effects consequent on respiring it,
secretly filled the India rubber gas-bag with common air instead of
gas. It was taken without suspicion, and the effects, if anything,
were more powerful than upon those who had really breathed the pure
gas. One complained that it produced nausea and dizziness, another
immediately manifested pugilistic propensities, and before he could be
restrained, tore in pieces the coat of one of the bystanders, while
the third exclaimed, 'this is life. I never enjoyed it before.' The
laughter that followed the exposure of this gaseous trick may be
imagined.


=True Policy.=

Under all circumstances there is but one honest course; and that is,
to do right and trust the consequences to Divine Providence. 'Duties
are ours: events are God's.' Policy, with all her cunning, can devise
no rule so safe, salutary and effective, as this simple maxim.

    *    *    *    *    *

Six thousand pounds of Saxony wool have been purchased in Pennsylvania,
at sixty-two and a half cents per pound.


A LIST OF PATENTS

_Issued from the 20th of July to the 28th of July, 1846, inclusive._


To M. W. Obenchain, of Springfield, Ohio, for improvement in Carding
Machines. Patented 20th July, 1846.

To Russell Wildman, of Hartford, Ct., for improvement in Machinery for
forming Hat Bodies. Patented 20th July, 1846.

To William Sherwood, of Ridgefield, Ct., for improvement in Carpet
Looms. Patented 20th July, 1846.

To Richard Garsed, of Frankford, Pa., for improvement in Operating
Treadle Cams in Looms for Tweeling. Patented 20th July, 1846.

To James Ives, of Hamden, Ct., for improvement in Locks for Carriage
Doors. Patented 20th July, 1846.

To Jacob Peebles, of Concordia, La., for improvement in Brick
Cisterns. Patented 20th July, 1846.

To Jacob Shermer, of New Valley, Md., for improvement in Winnowing
Machines. Patented, 20th July, 1846.

To George Levan, of Gap, Pa., for improvement in Doubling and Twisting
and Reeling. Patented 20th July, 1846.

To Joseph Stevens, of Northumberland, N. Y., for improvement in
Fences. Patented 20th July, 1846.

To James Boss, of Philadelphia, Pa., for improvement in Ever Pointed
Pencils. Patented 20th July, 1846.

To Richard C. Holmes and Jonathan J. Springer, of Cape May C. H., N.
J., for improvement in Machinery for Steering Vessels. Patented 20th
July, 1846.

To Daniel Hoats, of Mifflingburgh, Pa., for improvement in Threshing
Machines. Patented 20th July, 1846.

To Tappan Townsend, of Albany, N. Y., for improvement in Warming
Railroad Cars.--Patented 24th July, 1846.

To Elizur L. Booth, of Canandaigua, N. Y., for improvement in
Threshing Machines. Patented 24th July, 1846.

To Allen Eldred, of Oppenheim, N. Y., for improvement in Potatoe
Ploughs. Patented 24th July, 1846.

To Amos L. Reed, of Pittsburgh, Pa., for improvement in Feeding Nail
Plates. Patented 24th July, 1846.

To Joseph Greenleaf, of North Yarmouth, Me., for improvement in
Washing Machines. Patented 24th July, 1846.

To James Atwater, of New Haven, Ct., for improvement in Door Locks.
Patented 24th July, 1846.

To Richard Flint, of Meriden, Ct., for improvement in Rat-Tail Files.
Patented 24th July, 1846.

To Addison Smith, of Perrysburgh, Ohio, for improvement in Magnetic
Fire Alarms.--Patented 24th July, 1846.

To Charles F. Johnson, of Oswego, N. Y., for improvement in Turret
Clocks. Patented 28th July, 1846.

To H, D. Reynolds, of Mill-Hall, Pa., for improvement in Smut
Machines. Patented 28th July, 1846.

To Charles Edward Jacot, of New York City, for improvement in Lever
Escapements. Patented 28th July, 1846.

To Ross Winans, of Baltimore, Md., for improvement in Locomotive
Carriages. Patented 28th July, 1846.

To Jonathan Knowles, of Lowell, Mass., for improvement in Children's
Chairs and Wagons. Patented 28th July, 1846.

To Moses Miller, of Fort Ann, N. Y., for improvement in Sleighs.
Patented 28th July, 1846.

To William Hatch, of Medford, Mass., for improvement in Spike and Nail
Machines.--Patented 28th July, 1846.



[Illustration: Variety]

=Old Bachelors.=

    They are wanderers and ramblers--never at home,
    Making sure of a welcome wherever they roam.
    And ev'ry one knows that the bachelor's den
    Is a room set apart for these singular men--
    A nook in the clouds, of some five feet by four,
    Though sometimes, perchance, it may be rather more,
    With skylight, or no light, ghosts, goblins and gloom,
    And ev'ry where termed, 'The Bachelor's Room.'

    These creatures, they say, are not valued at all,
    Except when the herd give a Bachelor's ball.
      Then drest in their best,
      In their gold broidered vest,
      It is known as a fact,
      That they act with much tact,
      And they lisp out 'How do?'
      And they coo and they woo,
      And they smile, for a while,
      Their fair guests to beguile;
      Condescending and bending,
      For fear of offending,
    Though inert,                       And they spy,
    They exert,                         With their eye,
    To be pert,                         And they sigh
    And to flirt,                       As they fly.

      And they whisk, and they whiz,
      And are brisk, when they quiz.

    For they meet,                      Advancing,
    To be sweet,                        And glancing,
    And are fleet,                      And dancing,
    On their feet,                      And prancing.

      Sliding and gliding with minuet pace,
      Piroueting and setting with infinite grace.

    And jumping,                        And racing,
    And bumping,                        And chasing,
    And stumping,                       And pacing,
    And thumping,                       And lacing.

    They are flittering and glittering, gallant and gay,
    Yawning all the morning, and lounging all day,
      But when he grows old,
      And his sunshine is past,
      Three score years being told,
      Brings repentance at last.

    He then becomes an odd old man:
    His warmest friend's the frying pan;
    He's fidgety, fretful and weary; in fine,
    Loves nothing but self, and his dinner and wine.

      He rates and he prates,
      And reads the debates:

    Despised by the men, and the women he hates.

    Then prosing,                       And pouring,
    And dozing,                         And snoring,
    And cozing,                         And boring,
    And nosing,                         And roaring,

    Whene'er befalls in with a rabble,
    His delight is to vapor and gabble.

    He's gruffy,                        And musty,
    And puffy,                          And tusty,
    And stuffy,                         And rusty,
    And huffy,                          And crusty,

    He sits in his slippers, with back to the door,

    Near freezing,                      And grumbling,
    And wheezing,                       And mumbling,
    And teazing,                        And stumbling,
    And sneezing,                       And tumbling,

    And curses the carpet, or nails in the floor.

    Oft falling,                        Oft waking,
    And bawling,                        And aching,
    And sprawling,                      And quaking,
    And crawling,                       And shaking,

    His hand is unsteady: his stomach is sore,

    He's railing,                       Uncheery,
    And failing,                        And dreary,
    And ailing,                         And teary,
    Bewailing,                          And weary,

      Groaning and moaning,
      His selfishness owning.
      Grieving and heaving,
      Though nought is he leaving.
      But pelf and ill health,
      Himself and his wealth.

    He sends for a doctor, to cure or to kill,
    Who gives him advice, and offence, and a pill,
    And drops him a hint about making his will,
    As fretful antiquity cannot be mended,
    The mis'rable life of a bachelor's ended.
    Nobody misses him, nobody sighs,
    Nobody grieves when the bachelor dies.


=Wellman's Illustrated Botany.=

We have received the October number of this incomparable work, and
find it equal in all respects to its "illustrious predecessors." Among
the flowers presented in full colors, by way of illustration, we
notice the Scarlet Pimpernel, China Aster, Blue Hepatia, Cerus
Speciosus, Agrimonia Eupatoria, besides several other sketches of
buds, sections, &c. We esteem this work worth at least double the
publishers' price,--$3 per annum. Published at 116 Nassau street.


=Literary Emporium.=

We have hitherto neglected to notice the September and October numbers
of this serious, rational and elegant periodical. Each number is
embellished with beautiful portraits, landscapes and flowers, and
contains the most useful and interesting reading matter, as well as
choice poetry and occasional music. Terms $1 per annum. By J. K.
Wellman, 116 Nassau street.


=A Delicate Compliment.=

Washington was sometimes given to pleasantry. Journeying east on one
occasion, attended by two of his aids, he asked some young ladies at a
hotel where he breakfasted, how they liked the appearance of his young
men! One of them promptly replied, 'We cannot judge of the STARS in
the presence of the SUN!'


=Fatal Deer Fight.=

The skeleton heads of two deers, their antlers so closely interlocked
that they cannot be disengaged without violence, were found about a
month ago by a gentleman while hunting in Nassau county, East Florida.
The ground for a quarter of an acre was completely cut up by their
hoofs.


=A Provoking Blunder.=

The letter bags for the steamer Cambria, despatched from this city,
and containing upwards of ten thousand letters for Europe, was taken
from the Boston Post Office by a country stage driver, through
mistake, and the Cambria was compelled to sail without them. They were
returned to this city.


=Curious Needlework.=

A complete map of the State of Pennsylvania, wrought in lace--in which
the town, counties, rivers, &c., are all distinctly shown, each county
being worked in a style of lace different from those adjoining--is
being exhibited in Baltimore, and commands much admiration.


=The Credit System.=

We infer, from certain polite hints and intimation, in the
'Massachusetts Farmers' and Mechanics' Leger,' that that paper is
circulated on trust. If so, the publishers are in no danger of wanting
business for some years to come.


=Charcoal Road.=

The citizens of Yazoo, Miss., have determined to make a charcoal road
over the valley swamp of that place. Sixty hands cutting timber will
burn and spread the coal over two miles in thirty days--the
embankments being already thrown up.


=Quick Work.=

The Baltimore Sun says--'A communication was made from _Buffalo to
Baltimore_ last week, and an answer was received at the telegraph
office in the former city in about _two hours_!'


=Oregon Currency.=

By an act of the Oregon Legislature, wheat is made a lawful tender, in
payment of debts or taxes, at the market prices, when delivered at
such places as it is customary for the merchants to receive it.


=Suffering by Success.=

It is reported that a gentleman congratulated Mr. Polk on having
carried all his measures through Congress. Mr. Polk replied, 'Yes, I
have carried all of them through, and am the weaker for the passage of
each one of them.'


=A Rich Ore.=

The Detroit Advertiser, in an article upon the nature of the ores in
the Lake Superior region, remarks that Messrs. Robbins and Hubbard, of
that city, have recently assayed a specimen of native copper from Lake
Superior, and found in 12 ounces of copper, not only 1-3/4 ounces of
pure silver, but several grains of gold!


=Musical.=

The gross receipts of a late musical festival at Birmingham, amounted
to $56,000. The excitement was caused by performing Mendleson's
Messiah, which we learn is to be brought out in this city.


=Singular Accident.=

The steamboat Highland having got aground near Turkey Island, on the
Mississippi, a large tree, three feet in diameter, fell directly
across the boat, smashing the cabin, breaking the connecting pipe, and
seriously injuring the pilot.


=Combined Accomplishments.=

Mr. S. Lover, who recently arrived in this city, is said to be a good
poet, a good painter, a good musician, full of wit, anecdotes and
pleasantry--it is impossible to pass a dull evening in his company.


=Marriage of Rossini.=

This celebrated composer was married at Bologna, on the 16th of
August, after a courtship of 16 years, to Mademoiselle Olympe Bearrien
of Paris. It may change the turn of his muse.


=Great Luck.=

A poor Englishman, with a wife and family living in St. Louis, has
had a fortune of $265,000 in money, and a family estate worth
$115,000, recently left him by a deceased relative.


=Zinc Mines.=

There are several mines of zinc in New Jersey, one of which is said to
consist of a deposit 600 feet in length, and is thought to contain ore
worth $2,000,000.


=A Monstrous Woman.=

The Ohio State Journal says that there is a woman in Pickaway county,
in that State, who weighs 46 pounds!


=Old Boy.=

A southern paper advertises a runaway boy, _thirty-six years of age_!

    *    *    *    *    *

By a recent telegraphic arrangement, the papers in Albany, Troy,
Utica, Syracuse, Auburn, Rochester and Buffalo, are furnished with
reports from New York twice a day,--at 2 and 8 P. M.

    *    *    *    *    *

The Connecticut river is reported to be lower than it has been known
within the remembrance of the oldest inhabitants. It is reduced to a
mere brook.

    *    *    *    *    *

A company formed in Boston has commenced operation on a copper mine in
Cumberland, R. I. About 4000 lbs. of ore were taken out a few days
since, and yields about 20 per cent.

    *    *    *    *    *

The Hon. Louis McLane gets a salary of $5000 a year--nearly $100 per
week--for holding the office of President of the Baltimore and Ohio
Railway Company.

    *    *    *    *    *

An imperial _quarter_ of Indian corn, in 480 pounds, which is equal
to eight bushels of sixty pounds each. We suppose some of our readers
would like to know about that.

    *    *    *    *    *

A solution of copper is an excellent wash for purifying sinks, and
removing all unpleasant effluvia. Two or three applications will be
effectual.

    *    *    *    *    *

We are informed that the steamer Buffalo is making arrangements for
the adoption of Barnum's Safety Apparatus.

    *    *    *    *    *

Two iron steamboats, of 70 tons each, are to run between Philadelphia
and Reading, Pa., carrying freight and passengers.

    *    *    *    *    *

The editor of the Cincinnati Commercial says that he has a project for
connecting the old and new worlds by telegraph.

    *    *    *    *    *

Twelve hundred and thirty-four miles of magnetic telegraph are
reported to be in actual operation in the United States.

    *    *    *    *    *

An association of capitalists at Worcester county, Mass., are
exploring a vein of copper in Greenfield.


=The True Ornament.=

     'The ornament of a meek and quiet spirit.'

     BY MISS E. J. ANDREWS.


    I ask not for the glittering wreath,
      Of India's sparkling diamonds rare,
    To deck my brow, while oft beneath,
      There throbs a heart with heaviest care.

    I ask not for the gilded chain,
      Of perishing and worthless gold,
    To clasp my neck, while oft in vain
      The heart's best sympathies unfold.

    Oh! give me not the worthless dust,
      For which vain, anxious mortals toil,
    To treasure up where moth and rust,
      Doth soon corrupt the hoarded pile.

    I covet not the gay attire,
      In which vain beauty oft appears,
    Oft that which wondering crowds admire,
      Needeth far more their heartfelt tears.

    But there's an ornament I crave;--
      To grant, vain world, it is not thine,
    It floateth not o'er yon proud wave,
      Nor yields it me earth's richest mine.

    Oh, may it be a guileless heart!
      In heaven's own sight of priceless worth!
    Where nought corrupting e'er hath part,
      Pure, as the source which gave it birth.

    _A spirit meek and pure within;_
      May this, alone, my life adorn,
    Unsullied by the touch of sin,
     Though subject to the proud world's scorn.

    This ornament, O God of Love!
      'Tis Thine, and Thine alone, to give;
    Oh, may I its rich beauties prove,
      And in its full possession, _live_!

    _Bethel, Conn._, 1846.


=Female Piety.=

The gem of all others which enriches the coronet of woman's character,
is unaffected piety. Nature may lavish much on her person; the
enchantment of her countenance, the grace of her mind, the strength of
her intellect; yet her loveliness is uncrowned till piety throws
around the whole the sweetness and power of its charms. She then
becomes unearthly in her desires and associations. The spell which
bound her affections to the things below is broken, and she mounts on
the silent wings of her fancy and hope to the habitation of God, where
it is her delight to hold communion with the spirits that have been
ransomed from the thraldom of Earth and wreathed with a garland of
glory. Her beauty may throw a magical charm over many; princes and
conquerors may bow with admiration at the shrine of her beauty and
love; the sons of science may embalm her memory in the page of
history; yet her piety must be her ornament, her pearl. Her name must
be written in 'The Book of Life,' that when the mountains fade away,
and every memento of earthly greatness is lost in the general wreck of
nature, it may remain and swell the list of that mighty throng who
have been clothed in the mantle of righteousness, and their voices
attuned to the melody of Heaven. With such a treasure, every lofty
gratification on earth may be purchased; friendship will be doubly
sweet; and sorrow will lose their sting; and the character will
possess a price far above rubies: life will be but a pleasant visit to
earth, and entrance upon a joyful and perpetual home. And when the
notes of the last trump shall be heard, and sleeping millions awake to
judgment, its possessor shall be presented faultless before the throne
of God with exceeding joy, and a crown of glory that shall never wear
away. Such is piety. Like a tender flower, planted in the fertile soil
of woman's heart, it grows, expanding in its foliage, and imparting
its fragrance to all around, till transplanted, and set to bloom in
perpetual vigor and unfading beauty, in the Paradise of God.


=Iron Ore.=

One of the most valuable beds of iron ore ever discovered has been
found in the northeast corner of Dodge county, Wisconsin, and is said
to yield ninety per cent. The deposit is 30 feet thick.

    *    *    *    *    *

'Pursue your calling with diligence, and your creditor shall not
interrupt you.'



NEW INVENTIONS.


=Lewis's Reversible Faucet Filters.=

Highly favorable as our opinion may be of the several excellent
filters which have been introduced, we cannot avoid giving a
preference to the one recently invented by Mr. S. H. Lewis. It
consists of a very neat faucet, calculated to be attached to a common
Croton or other hydrant, and in connection with the faucet key, is a
circular chamber, three inches in diameter, within which is a circular
filter consisting of a quantity of cotton cloth, flannel sponge or
porous porcelain (which is preferred) compressed between two
perforated metallic disks: and the faucet key is so constructed that
by turning it to the right, the water is permitted to flow through the
filter in one direction; but its course is reversed and it is made to
flow in the opposite direction through the filter by turning the key
to the left. The filter is thus cleansed at pleasure without any
trouble, on examination of the filter or chamber. They may be seen at
28 1-2 Broadway.


=West's Cheap and Convenient Filter.=

For the thousands of families in this city whose houses are not
furnished with the Croton water-pipes, a neat portable filter,
recently invented by Mr. N. West, of this city, is as near perfection,
in convenience and utility, as could be furnished for the low price of
_one dollar_, and should find a place in every house or shop where the
Croton water is used. It consists of two conical pails, one within the
other; the first is furnished with an efficient filter at the bottom
thereof; and the other has a faucet, by which the water is drawn off
as occasion requires. They may be found at 156 Delancy street.


=Improved Yoke for Oxen.=

This yoke is constructed with sliding blocks attached to the under
side of the beam of the yoke, near each end, and each sliding block is
attached to the beam by bolts which pass through mortises so that the
blocks may be made to slide occasionally to the right or left. To
these blocks are attached the bows, the position of which are adjusted
by gauge screws; and by the sliding of the blocks, the distance of the
oxen from each other may be regulated. The middle of the yoke is
furnished with a draught staple or eye-bolt which is moveable and
regulated by a hand screw at the top, whereby the _pitch_ of the
draught it regulated. Invented by David Chappel, and entered at the
Patent Office, Sept. 3d.


=Another Improvement In Stoves.=

Messrs. Hartshorn, Payson & Ring entered at the Patent Office,
September 3d, an improved stove, in which they claim the combination
of the common wood stove and cylinder coal stove, so that the coal may
be burned alone, and the draught so arranged as at the same time to
heat the wood stove with the same heat, and if wood alone should be
burned, then the draught should be so managed and arranged as at the
same time to heat the side radiators and coal cylinders. A minute
description of this improvement, is not, in this place, essential.


=Iron Shingles.=

We have never been able to understand the reason why iron has so long
been neglected as a covering for roofs, but are gratified to learn
that Mr. Wm. Beach, of Troy, N. Y., has invented and patented a mode
of using cast iron plates for covering roofs. They are about one foot
square, and are made to fit one into another, so as to render the roof
water tight, by applying white lead to the joints. It can be afforded
at 16 cents the square foot, and probably may be so far improved as to
cost no more than slate, and will be much more permanent and safe. We
see no difficulty in dispensing with white lead, however, and making
the seams tight without it.


=Improvement in the Railroad Track.=

This improvement was entered Sept. 5th, by John F. Rogers. What he
claims is the combination of the balance beam with the centre beam, by
means of the recesses in the centre beam, spring plates, having tubes
thereon on which the springs rest, and attached to the beam by bolts,
by which a compact and secure connection is formed, while all the
necessary flexibility is preserved.


=THE GREAT FAIR.=

The American Institute appears emblematical of the genius of our
countrymen--unsubdued even by conflagration, and looking upon
obstacles as incentives to redoubled effort. Contrast the smoking
ruins of Niblo's with Castle Garden, having its whole amphitheatre
enriched with a tastefully arranged collection of the most varied
products of American arts and manufactures, and behold an evidence
that we even inherit perseverance, enterprize and skill. We here see
the embodiment of the excellence of greatness of our country--an
unerring index of our future advance--if it be not that the signs of
the times indicate that madness in our rulers which precedes and
forebodes heaven's wrath. But it cannot, it must not be, that the
blood of _labor_ shall cry from the ground of America. It must be
sheathed, it must be protected. Protection is nature's first law.
Expose the bleating flocks to the hungry beasts of the forest; cut the
wings and pluck the feathers of her whom nature teaches to protect her
brood from cold and rain; say to the mother to leave her babe
unprotected and in free competition with all the elements of
destruction, sooner than refuse the protection of our Government to
the hitherto flourishing American manufactures.

Castle Garden, or more correctly Castle Clinton, is at the southern
extremity of our city. It was built for a fort--is of a circular form,
of solid mason work, surrounded by the waters of the bay--connected to
that ornament of the city, the Battery, by a long bridge. This bridge
the managers have covered with a roof, and thus secured a very
eligible and spacious apartment for the exhibition of carriages,
sleighs, carts, farming implements and machinery in great variety.
Thence the ingress suddenly opens into view the whole interior,
creating the most lively and pleasing emotions.

In the columns of the Scientific American we shall endeavor to give
those details that will, we trust, interest our readers and promote
the cause of American improvements.


=BATHS.=

After leaving the bridge, the passage way to the interior of the
Castle is ornamented on both sides with a pleasing display of
Baths--the immersion bath made of tin and of iron, and these combined
with the showering apparatus. The shower baths are variously
constructed, and some of them are of finished workmanship and costly
material. Stebbin's Patent Furniture shower Bath presents itself first
in the form of a very convenient washstand, with all its out fit; it
is next easily converted into a work stand; with equal dispatch it
assumes the form of a shower bath, furnished with every requisite. We
regard this as an ingenious piece of furniture, that will greatly
increase the use of the shower-bath, and thus add to the health of the
community.


=SOFA BEDSTEADS.=

Much ingenuity has been expended in combining the Sofa and Bedstead.
The first that attracted our attention was that manufactured by Mr.
John A. Robson, 30th st. and 8th Avenue. It is on the double cone
spring, so constructed that using it as a bed does not affect the
cushion, and vice versa. The matrass or bed is 4 by 6 feet, without an
intervening bar. It is exceedingly simple, of admirable contrivance,
and of moderate price.


=CUTLERY.=

The display of American Cutlery is rich, affording a most gratifying
evidence of the progress of the useful arts among us. Our neighbors,
J. C. Nixon & Sons, in the Sun Buildings, feel quite confident that
they will, as usual, carry off the premiums, particularly for their
much celebrated tailor's shears. In the manufacture of engravers'
tools; they challenge not only all America, but the world
itself.--They manufacture for customers, from whom their articles have
derived their just and solid reputation.

(_To be Continued._)


=Improved Steam Printing Press.=

We have recently seen a model of a new Steam Printing Press, the
invention of Mr. Wm. W. Marston, a young and ingenious mechanic of
this city. A mass of other matters prevents our giving a description
at present; we shall probably procure an engraving, however, and
publish a full description in a few days.


=Information to persons having business to transact at the Patent
Office.=

OF MODELS.

(_Continued from No. 2._)


SEC. 26. The law requires that the inventor shall deliver a model of
his invention or improvement when the same admits of a model. The
model should he neatly made, and as small as a distinct representation
of the machine or improvement, and its characteristic properties, will
admit; the name of the inventor should be printed or engraved upon, or
fixed to it, in a durable manner. Models forwarded without a name,
cannot be entered on record, and therefore liable to be lost or
mislaid.

SEC. 27. When the invention is of 'a composition of matter,' the law
requires that the application be accompanied with specimens of
ingredients, and of the composition of matter, sufficient in quantity
for the purpose of experiment.


ON GRANTING ANEW LOST PATENTS.

SEC. 28. The third sec. of the act of March 3, 1837, provides:

'SEC. 3. And be it further enacted, That whenever it shall appear to
the Commissioner that any patent was destroyed by the burning of the
Patent Office building on the aforesaid fifteenth day of December, or
was otherwise lost prior thereto, it shall be his duty, on application
therefor by the patentee, or other persons interested therein, to
issue a new patent for the same invention or discovery, bearing the
date of the original patent, with his certificate thereon, that it was
made and issued pursuant to the provisions of the third section of
this act; and shall enter the same of record; Provided, however, That
before such patent shall be issued, the applicant therefor shall
deposit in the Patent Office a duplicate, as near as may be, of the
original model, drawings, and description, with specification of the
invention or discovery, verified by oath, as it shall be required by
the Commissioner; and such patent and copies of such drawings and
descriptions, duly certified, shall be admissible as evidence in any
judicial court of the United States, and shall protect the rights of
the patentee, his administrators, heirs, and assigns, to the extent
only in which they would have been protected by the original patent
and specification.'


PROCEEDINGS ON APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS, AND ON APPEALS FROM DECISIONS
OF THE COMMISSIONER.

(Act of 1836, Section, 7.)

SEC. 29. 'That on the filing of any such application (consisting of
petition, specification, model, and drawings, or specimens,) and the
payment of the duty hereinafter provided, the Commissioner shall make,
or cause to be made, an examination, of the alleged new invention or
discovery; and if, on any such examination, it shall not appear to the
Commissioner that the same had been invented or discovered by any
other person in this country prior to the alleged invention or
discovery thereof by the applicant, or that it had been patented or
described in any printed publication in this or any foreign country,
or had been in public use or on sale, with the applicant's consent or
allowance, prior to the application, if the Commissioner shall deem it
to be sufficiently useful and important, it shall be his duty to
issue a patent therefor. But whenever on such examination it shall
appear to the Commissioner that the applicant was not the original and
first inventor or discoverer thereof, or that any part of that which
is claimed as new had before been invented or discovered or patented,
or described in any printed publication in this or any foreign country
as aforesaid, or that the description is defective and insufficient,
he shall notify the applicant thereof, giving him briefly such
information and references as may be useful in judging of the
propriety of renewing his application, or of altering his
specification to embrace only that part of the invention or discovery
which is new. In every such case, if the applicant shall elect to
withdraw his application, relinquishing his claim to the model, he
shall be entitled to receive back twenty dollars, part of the duty
required by this act, on filing a notice in writing of such election
in the Patent Office; a copy of which, certified by the Commissioner,
shall be a sufficient warrant to the Treasurer for paying back to the
said applicant the said sum of twenty dollars. But if the applicant,
in such case, shall persist in his claim for a patent, with or without
any alteration his specification, he shall be required to make oath or
affirmation anew, in manner as aforesaid; and if specification and
claim shall not have been so modified as, in the opinion of the
Commissioner, shall entitle the applicant to a patent, he may appeal
to the Chief Justice of the United States Court for the District of
Columbia, who may affirm or reverse the decision of the Commissioner
of Patents, in whole or in part, and may order a patent to issue; or
he may have remedy against the decision of the Commissioner of
Patents, or the decision of the Chief Justice of the United States
Court for the District of Columbia, by filing a bill in equity in any
of the United States Courts having jurisdiction, as hereinafter
explained.

(_To be continued._)


=Consolation for the Christian.=

'Eye hath not seen; nor ear heard; neither have entered into the heart
of man, the things which God hath prepared for those that love
Him.'--1 Cor. ii: 9. But it is said in the words following, that God
hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit. In this, we are not to
understand, that the excellent things spoken of, are _communicated_ to
men; but that by the aid of the divine Spirit they are enabled to
receive such sublime and brilliant ideas of the glorious things which
are prepared for them, that they are filled with sublime and
unspeakable joy, though they find it utterly impracticable to
describe these things to another, so as to be understood. It is like
the new name which no man can know, but him to whom it is given: and
although, in the solicitude of those who have been favored with a view
of these things, to represent them to others, the most full and
expressive forms of language have been put in requisition, it has in
every instance failed to convey the least correct idea on the subject:
because no man can see, or in anywise appreciate the excellence of
these things, without the aid of the Spirit of Truth. But to those who
obtain such enlightened views--and every man may, or might, obtain
them,--the glorious things prepared are as the 'pearl of great price,'
which, when a man hath found, he is ready to sacrifice all things
else,--riches, honors, friends, pleasures, reputation in the world, or
even life itself,--to obtain it. Neither Adam nor Eve, in their
sinless, paradisaical state, could have had any correct idea of such
delectable and glorious excellence of blessings as are prepared for
these who become 'joint heirs of the Son of God,' through the blood of
a crucified Saviour: for, had they been capable of seeing or imagining
such things, they would never have fallen. There can be no question
but that the glorious consolation of the faithful and obedient
believers, will incomparably, not to say infinitely, excel that of the
primitive state of man, or anything which could have been by man
attained, if the blessed SON had not suffered. Let the most brilliant
and soaring imagination exert its most strenuous and happy efforts in
conceiving, arranging and representing to itself the highest possible
state of bliss and glory, and it will fall as far short of the reality
of the immortal state of the glorified saints,--the salvation
purchased by the suffering of Christ,--as a mere shadow of the most
beautiful picture comes short of the rich coloring of the original.
And this fact is well known to those who have had the beauties of the
'world to come' revealed to them by the divine Spirit. These
statements may appear strange to those who are accustomed to look upon
the popular _reverend clergy_, fashionable church members and wealthy
deacons, as choice specimens of the saints of the Lord. The true, and
most favored saints, are generally found among those who are subject
to poverty and tribulation, in this world. But these blessings of the
gospel are free for all who will conform to the requisitions plainly
expressed by our Savior, and recorded by the evangelist, and
practicable by all who are willing to forsake all things else, for the
sake of this great and everlasting salvation.

    *    *    *    *    *

A cotton manufacturer in New-Haven lost his operatives, last week, by
attempting to reduce their wages.


=THE COLOR PRINTING MACHINE.=

[Illustration:]

INTRODUCTION.--There have appeared, in modern times, but few machines,
to which more importance apparently attaches, than to the one here
presented. It is well known that the best paper hangings, or
room-papers command from $1 to $1,50 per piece, of eight yards, while
most of those of American manufacture are sold for 25 to 50 cents per
piece; and this difference is occasioned by the difficulty and extra
labor of applying a great variety of different colors. But by means of
this machine, seven, twelve, or even twenty different colors, may be
accurately applied by one operation, and with less labor than is
required to print with a single color, by the ordinary method; and
thus the manufacturer will be enabled to sell, for 50 cents, such
patterns as ordinarily cost a dollar or more, to either import or
manufacture them.

EXPLANATION.--The first row of gear wheels, A B, are attached to the
ends of a row of cylinders, each cylinder being 30 inches long, and 3
inches in diameter. These cylinders support a broad, endless apron or
belt, which passes over the whole series, and supports the strip of
paper as it passes through the machine to receive the colors. The
second series of wheels, C D, are attached to cylinders of the same
dimensions of those in the first row, and are connected to each other
by intervening pinions, whereby a uniform velocity is maintained
through the whole series. The peripheries of this row of cylinders are
cut in figures, according to the design of the pattern to be worked.
The figures are left prominent, so as to come in contact with the
paper upon the apron, as the cylinder revolves; the surface between
the figures, being cut away to the depth of one eighth of an inch.
Each of these printing cylinders contains sections of the figures to
be printed, and is calculated to work a different color from the
others; and the sections of figures on each cylinder are calculated to
match those of the others, so as to complete the entire figure in all
its colors on the paper. The entire machine is put in operation by a
band, passing over the band-wheel, H. The third row of cylinders, E F,
are distributing cylinders, which are put in motion by mere contact
with the series below, and receives the several colors from the small
cylinders in the upper rows, and distributes the same upon the
prominent figures of the printing cylinders. The fourth series, I J,
are called the receiving cylinders, because they receive the colors
from the hoppers or reservoirs, M N, and impart them to the series
below. The cylinders of the third and fourth rows, are covered with
cloth, and the bottom of each hopper is so nicely fitted to its
respective cylinder, that but a small quantity of each color (which
passes through an aperture at the bottom of the hopper) adheres to the
cloth periphery of the cylinder. The colors ordinarily used consist of
various pigments, ground and mixed in water, with a solution of glue.
The principles of this mode of color printing have been satisfactorily
tested, though the entire machine has not yet been constructed: and
any person who may be disposed to construct and enjoy the exclusive
use of this invention, may have the most favorable terms.


NEW INVENTIONS.

=A New Brick Machine.=

Messrs. Culbertson, McMillen & Co. of Cincinnati, have recently put in
successful operation, a new machine, a description of which is given
in a Cincinnati paper, as follows:

'A frame of fourteen moulds, one brick to each is drawn by the power
of steam between two press rollers, the lower one of which enables the
frame to support the pressure of the upper roller, and being run
through backwards and forwards equalizes the pressure over the entire
face of the brick. These, after undergoing in this mode a pressure of
nearly one hundred tons to each brick, a pressure which covers clay,
apparently perfectly dry, with a coat of glossy moisture, are raised
above the surface of the mould by parallel levers, and are then
delivered over to a bench or table by self-acting machinery, whence
they are taken in barrows to the stacker at the kiln.

The dry clay is shoveled into a hopper, and if more of the material is
pressed into a mould than serves to make a brick, a knife which ranges
with the surface of the mould, shaves off the surplus.

Two hands shoveling, two more taking off, and one at the barrow,
constitute a gang of five persons who turn out from 30,000 to 35,000
per day of ten hours. As brick makers' days are from sun to sun, say
twelve working hours per day, during the season, from 46 to 50,000
bricks, per day, may be made by a single machine. This is, however, by
no means the most important feature in the invention.

In the ordinary mode of making bricks, the manufacturer cannot begin
operations for the season, until the spring has so far advanced that
working in wet clay will no longer chill his moulders' hands. On the
same account, he loses also morning hours, until the advance of summer
enables his hands to put in the whole period of daylight. He loses,
also, sometimes days together--from the entire stoppage of his
operations in the rainy weather, which forbids the bricks being put
out to dry. In making press brick, all these difficulties are
obviated. As a theory, operations in this mode can go on throughout
the entire winter, frost never extending into solid clay; but as a
practical business, it can be conveniently carried on two months
earlier and one month later than in the ordinary mode. Pressed brick,
made by these machines, are also stronger than their competitive
article, the last of equal hardness in burning, always giving way
when struck by the pressed bricks, as I have witnessed. Indeed, it
cannot be otherwise, the one being porous and the other as compact as
the enormous pressure employed can make it.

The machine, it must be apparent, offers peculiar advantages in
turning out brick without occupying the ordinary brick yard space
necessary for spreading wet brick out to dry. It affords great economy
in time, owing to its operations being independent of frost or rains.
To every new and thriving place commencing the making of bricks, it
dispenses with the necessity of bringing skilful workmen from other
places--in short, it enables every man to be his own brick-maker.
Under these considerations, I anticipate an extensive sale of these
machines, especially for places at a distance.


=Marble Saw Mills.=

We are informed that a large mill for sawing marble is in course of
erection at Brandon, Vt. The marble in that vicinity is principally of
a beautiful white, and of a fine texture, though not very hard.


=Railroad Locks.=

It is reported that locks for elevating railroad trains, from one
level to another, are coming into successful use in France. It appears
to us to be much behind the age, since, by certain American
inventions, an ordinary train may be elevated 100 feet in five
minutes, by the engine alone.


[Illustration: The Vertical Propeller.]

We have alluded to this subject in a former number, and now present
one of the several plans which have been introduced within the present
year, although we are not fully authorised to give the name of the
inventor of this particular plan. We have preferred to represent the
paddles and crank unconnected with an apparent vessel or section
thereof, but must require the reader to suppose that the line A B is
the level of the railing of the boat, and that the crank-shaft E
projects from the side, while the crank-pivot governs the motion of
the walking bar D E, and with it the paddles, which are supposed to be
just now dipping in the surface of the water. It will be understood
that the motion of the walking bar being circular, and that of the
heads of the paddles being vertical and nearly rectilinear, the motion
of the blades of the paddles must be elliptical, inclining to the
horizontal; and that the position of the paddles is kept so nearly
vertical that they will meet with less resistance in entering or
leaving the water than those of a common paddle wheel, while the
atmospheric resistance to be encountered thereby is much less. There
appears no reasonable doubt that this plan might be made to succeed
well on a larger scale, though it is very doubtful whether any of the
steamboat proprietors can be persuaded to adopt it until it has been
more thoroughly tested by experiment.


=A Great Astronomical Discovery.=

A late number of an astronomical journal published at Altona, near
Hamburg, contains a long article by Dr. Maedler, director of the
Dorpat Observatory, Russia, well known to the astronomical world, in
which he announces the extraordinary discovery of the _grand central
star or sun_, about which the universe of stars is revolving, our own
sun and system among the rest.

This discovery, the result of many years of incessant toil and
research, has been deduced by a train of reasoning and an examination
of facts scarcely to be surpassed in the annals of science.

He announces his discovery in the following language: 'I therefore
pronounce the Pleiades to be the central group of that mass of fixed
stars limited by the stratum composing the Milky Way and Alcyene as
the individual star of this group, which, among all others, combines
the greatest probability of being the true Central Sun.'

By a train of reasoning, which I shall not attempt to explain, he
finds the probable parallax of this great central star to be six
thousandths of one second of arc, and its distance to be 34 millions
of times the distance of the sun, or so remote that light, with a
velocity of 12 millions of miles per minute, requires a period of 537
years to pass from _the great centre_ to our sun.

As a first rough approximation, he deduces the period of the
revolution of our sun, with all its train of planets, satellites and
comets, about the grand centre, to be _eighteen millions two hundred
thousand years_.


=Ocean Steam Navigation.=

The 'Ocean Steam Company,' which has the patronage of the United
States Government to the amount of $400,000 per annum, are getting on
rapidly with the first steamship of their line. She is to be completed
and commence running on the first of March next.


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

NEW YORK, OCTOBER 10, 1846.


=Employment.=

It is dangerous for a man of superior ability to find himself thrown
upon the world without some regular employment. The restlessness
inherent in genius, being thus undirected by any permanent influence,
frames for itself occupations out of accidents. Moral integrity
sometimes falls a prey to the want of a fixed pursuit, and the man who
receives his direction in active life from the fortuitous impulse of
circumstances, will be very apt to receive his principles likewise
from chance. Genius, under such guidance, attains no noble ends, but
resembles rather a copious spring conveyed in a falling aqueduct,
where the waters continually escape through the frequent crevices, and
waste themselves ineffectually on their passage. The law of nature is
here, as elsewhere, binding, and no powerful results ever ensue from
the trivial exercise of high endowments. The finest mind, when thus
destitute of a fixed purpose, passes away without leaving permanent
traces of its existence; losing its energy by turning aside from its
course, it becomes as harmless and inefficient as the lightning,
which, of itself irresistible, may yet be rendered powerless by a
slight conductor.


=The Editor.=

Write--keep writing--is the motto of an editor. If he has no ideas, he
must dig for them; if he has but little time to arrange them, no
matter, the work must be done. Sickness may come upon him; want may
stare him in the face, but he must cogitate something for the dear
public. Perhaps in his darkest moments, he indites a paragraph that
cheers thousands. When almost desponding, his words may put courage
into the hearts of millions. Who would be an editor? Yet he has much
to encourage him. If he can call no time his own, he is not rusting
out, or in unprofitable society. A faithful contributor of the public
press, is a man of great influence. No person has more power than
himself. He instructs tens of thousands, and leads them to virtue, to
honor, to happiness. No man will have more to answer for than the
conductor of a corrupt and vacillating press.


=A Mountain in Labor.=

The workmen, says a Paris paper, are still busily engaged in
excavating Montmarte in quest of holy vases and other riches said to
have been deposited there in the early days of the French revolution
by the orders of the Lady Superior of the Abbey of Montmarte.--Two
workmen, who were at the time charged with transporting the wealth to
the place designated, were never after seen, and it is supposed that
they were sacrificed to the necessity of the secret. The Superior, at
her death, bequeathed the secret to a lady friend, who, in turn, on
her death bed, divulged it to her daughter, then thirteen years of
age. The child, now a sexagenary, disclosed it to the municipality.
Her statements have thus far been found scrupulously correct. The
_cesarian_ operation is actively going on, an excavation of 50 feet
having been made, and the mountain's speedy deliverance of a mine of
wealth is anticipated. May it not prove a mouse!


=That Editorial Committee.=

We are informed that the Editorial Committee of the National
Association of Inventors have by _their own request_ been discharged
from the supervision of the new periodical which has recently appeared
under the title of 'The Eureka.'


=News by Telegraph.=

The news by the Great Western which arrived on Wednesday week, was
published within four hours in Boston, New Haven, Springfield, Albany,
Utica, Rochester, Buffalo, Philadelphia and Baltimore.

The following beautiful extract we find in a recent number of the New
York Sun. It is from the pen of Mr. C. D. Stuart, the able
correspondent of that paper, now in London.

      "On remarking to an Englishman, that I did not see
      here in London as at home, the artizan, the drayman,
      the laborer of every kind, with a newspaper in his
      pocket, which at intervals in his toil he could glance
      at and be as learned in the condition of his country
      and the world as the man of fortune, he replied--"No,
      they have something better to do, they attend to their
      work." Here lies the rub, and it may be a fear of the
      sedition of thought that has put these close hampers
      upon the English press. It would seem by such an
      argument that the differences of condition are not
      induced by unholy oppressions, by the trampling for
      ages of one class upon another until servitude became
      almost a birth-right--and the law of strength that
      proved itself in barbarous times the "Supremacy" had
      at last from concession so long made, become the law
      of human justice and divine right. The steer may work
      under his yoke an appointed time, the slave bow mutely
      through his whole life, but the freeman--has he so
      fallen, that while the lord revels in his "club-room"
      and reads not only papers, but gilt edged and velvet
      bound books, he forsooth being a common "poor devil"
      not able to enjoy a tithe of his unearned luxury--has
      something better than reading to do. Let him dig
      then! There are those in the young republic whose
      spirit begins to animate the world, who, though they
      toil, remember, that it was said in the beginning to
      all men, "thou shalt earn thy bread by the sweat of
      thy brow," and will read freely as they drink in the
      common air, and enjoy the common light. There are
      classes in England intelligent no doubt beyond any
      other people in the world--classes that enjoy the
      means of making themselves so, but as a mass they will
      in no-wise compare with their progeny, the
      Anglo-Saxons. All that they have here in the main we
      have got, and our wits have not been blunted by a
      contact with the wilderness, and the difficulties of
      founding an empire "in the Woods." I see now more
      clearly than ever where our faults lie; contrast
      exposes them; but they are all twigs upon the rising
      trunk, which the keen knife of national experience,
      age, and the calm that must succeed the rush and
      tumult of our giant and boisterous infancy will cut
      off.--With greater pride than ever, however much I may
      like the Old World, and especially England, I look
      over the Ocean to America for an exemplification of
      what the world has not known, an _Earthly_ paradise
      for humanity.--It is but three quarters of a century,
      remember, since we were nationally born: give as the
      fourteen hundred years that have nursed and cultivated
      this Island, and where is the limit of our perfection
      and strength? On either side of that Mississippi
      back-bone of ours to the Oceans, and as far north and
      south as freedom and knowledge can pierce, America
      must be a garden and a goal, filled with every
      excellence and beauty, beyond which there can be no
      advance. We shall not live to see it, but it will
      come, only let us pull careful and steady. We have
      been Dickens'd and Trollop'd, and it should do us
      good. Nothing but the grandeur that lies germinating
      in our heart provokes this idle spleen from our
      neighbors, and the moment we cool down and think and
      curb ourselves the rest is secure."


=New Glass Factory.=

Erastus Corning & Co. are about establishing a factory near the ferry
at Troy, for the manufacture of all kinds of glass ware. The work is
fast progressing, and in about four weeks they will commence blowing.
It will afford employment to a large number of men, and will, no
doubt, meet with that success which it certainly merits.


=Result of Observation.=

The editor of the New Haven Herald sets it down as a fact in natural
history, proved by his experience for years, that when a traveller
rides up to a toll gate, the keeper--if a man, invariably brings out a
box, or a handful of change; but if a woman, she comes out and takes
the traveller's coin, and then goes back for the change.

    *    *    *    *    *

Snags and other obstructions in the Western rivers, are now
denominated _Polk stalks_.


=The Science of Astronomy.=

DESCRIPTIVE ASTRONOMY.

Mercury, the nearest planet to the sun, is a globe of about 3140 miles
in diameter, rotating on its axis in 24 hours and 5 1-2 minutes, and
revolving round the central luminary, at a distance of 37,000,000 of
miles, in 88 days.--From the earth it can only be seen occasionally in
the morning or evening, as it never rises before, or sets after the
sun, at a greater distance of the time than 1 hour and 50 minutes. It
appears to the naked eye as a small and brilliant star, but when
observed through a telescope, is horned like the moon, because we only
see a part of the surface which the sun is illuminating. Mountains of
great height have been observed on the surface of this planet,
particularly in its lower or southern hemisphere. One has been
calculated at 10 3-4 miles in height, being about eight times higher,
in proportion to the bulk of the planet, than the loftiest mountains
upon earth. The matter of Mercury is of much greater density than that
of the earth, equalling lead in weight; so that a human being placed
upon its surface would be so strongly drawn towards the ground as
scarcely to be able to crawl.

Venus is a globe of about 7800 miles in diameter, or nearly the size
of the earth, rotating on its axis in 23 hours, 21 minutes, and 19
seconds, and revolving round the sun, at the distance of 68,000,000 of
miles in 225 days.--Like Mercury, it is visible to an observer on the
earth only in the morning and evening, but for a greater space of time
before sunrise and after sunset. It appears to us the most brilliant
and beautiful of all the planetary and stellar bodies, occasionally
giving so much light as to produce a sensible shadow. Observed through
a telescope, it appears horned, on account of our seeing only a part
of its luminous surface. The illuminating part of Venus occasionally
presents slight spots. It has been ascertained that its surface is
very unequal, the greatest mountains being in the southern hemisphere,
as in the case of both Mercury and the Earth. The higher mountains in
Venus range between 10 and 22 miles in altitude. The planet is also
enveloped in an atmosphere like that by which animal and vegetable
life is supported on earth; and it has consequently a twilight. Venus
performs its revolution round the sun in 225 days. Mercury and Venus
have been termed the Inferior Planets, as being placed within the
orbit of the Earth.

The Earth, the third planet in order, and one of the smaller size,
though not the smallest, is important to us, as the theatre on which
our race have been placed to 'live, move, and have their being.' It is
7902 miles in mean diameter, rotating on its axis in 24 hours, at a
mean distance of 95,000,000 of miles from the sun, round which it
revolves in 365 days, 5 hours, 50 minutes, and 57 seconds. As a planet
viewed from another of the planets, suppose the moon, 'It would
present a pretty, variegated, and sometimes a mottled appearance. The
distinction between its seas, oceans, continents, and islands, would
be clearly marked; they would appear like brighter and darker spots
upon its disc. The continents would appear bright, and the ocean of a
darker hue, because water absorbs the greater part of the solar light
that falls upon it. The level plains, (excepting perhaps, such regions
as the Arabian deserts of sand) would appear of a somewhat darker
color than the more elevated and mountainous regions, as we find to be
the case on the surface of the moon. The islands would appear like
small bright specks on the darker surface of the ocean; and the lakes
and mediterranean seas like darker spots or broad streaks intersecting
the bright parts, or the land. By its revolution round its axis,
successive portions of the surface would be brought into view, and
present a different aspect from the parts which preceded,'--(Dick's
Celestial Scenery, 135.)

The form of the earth, and probably that of every other planet, is not
strictly spheroidal; that is, flattened a little at the poles, or
extremities of the axis. The diameter of the earth at the axis is 56
miles less than in the cross direction. This peculiarity of the form
is a consequence of the rotatory motion, as will be afterwards
explained.


[Illustration: LATEST NEWS]


=Late Foreign News.=

The steamer Hibernia arrived at Boston on Saturday last, thirteen days
from Liverpool.

The British Government and people have manifested so much violent
opposition to the marriage of the youngest son of Louis Phillipe to a
sister of the Queen of Spain, that the celebration of the nuptials has
been postponed for the present, if not forever; and there is apparent
danger of a rupture between England and France on this account.

In Spain, Don Carlos having escaped from imprisonment, it is expected
that a serious insurrection will immediately take place.

Property to the amount of $800,000 has been destroyed by incendiary
fires at Leipsic. A line of electric telegraph has been put in
operation between Brussels and Antwerp.

Twenty thousand bales of cotton were sold at Liverpool on the 14th of
September.


=Latest from the Army.=

According to recent intelligence by private letters, Gen. Kearney has
taken quiet possession of Santa Fe, notwithstanding the considerable
preparations which the Mexicans had made to defend it. Gen. Armijo had
assembled 5000 troops to defend the Canon Pass, but on account of the
disaffection and insubordination of his officers and men, he was
constrained to retreat on the approach of a few companies of
Americans.

Gen. Taylor had advanced steadily, though slowly on Monterey, and has
probably ere this, taken possession, notwithstanding the strong force,
and full supply of well mounted cannon, concentrated to oppose him.
Should he prove successful in this, it would seem that Mexico is
destined to fall under the protection of the United States, whether
our Government desires it or not. What can we do? The Mexicans will
neither treat nor fight; and although our armies move as slow as
possible, they cannot well avoid progressing through the country in
time, and are bound to furnish protection as far as they go. We shall
see.


=The Sea and Wave Roaring.=

The steamer Great Western, which arrived at this port last week,
reports having encountered one of the most terrific storms ever known
on the Atlantic Ocean. Capt. Mathews is said to have remarked that at
three different times the ship was approached by seas of such
magnitude and power that he thought destruction inevitable; but
unexpectedly each broke just before reaching the vessel. The
passengers assembled in the cabin where they joined in religious
service, and in the solemn administration of the Lord's supper. Their
lives were preserved, but some of them appeared to forget their
obligations to their preserver very quick after getting safe on shore.


=An American Slave in England.=

Douglas, who escaped from slavery and found his way to England, has
received marked attention from the nobility and gentry of England. He
has attended their soirees, occupied the most honorable positions at
their dinner parties, rode in their carriages, flirted with their
daughters, walked arm in arm through their gardens with lords,
viscounts, counts and mayors of cities.

    *    *    *    *    *

Many of the girls employed in the mills of the Nashua Corporation,
have refused to work by candlelight. They may be right.


THE =SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN=.

     Persons wishing to subscribe for this paper, have only
     to enclose the amount in a letter directed (post paid)
     to

     MUNN & COMPANY,

     Publishers of the Scientific American, New York City.

     TERMS.--$2 a year; ONE DOLLAR IN ADVANCE--the remainder
     in 6 months.

     _Postmasters_ are respectfully requested to receive
     subscriptions for this paper, to whom a discount of 25
     per cent will be allowed.

     Any person sending us 4 subscribers for 6 months, shall
     receive a copy of the paper for the same length of
     time.

Observations on the more recent Researches concerning the operations
of the Blast Furnace in the Manufacture of Iron.

BY DR. J. L. SMITH.

The great difference existing between metallurgical operations of the
present day, and those of a former period, is owing chiefly to the
ameliorations produced by the application of the science of chemistry
to the _modus operandi_ of the various changes taking place during the
operations, from their commencement to their termination.

Copper and some other metals are now made to assume forms in the
chemist's laboratory, that formerly required great artistical skill
for their production--the chemist simply making use of such agents and
forces as are at his command, and over which he has, by close
analytical study, acquired perfect control. Our object, at present, is
only to advert to the chemical investigations more recently made on
the manufacture of iron, treating of those changes that occur in the
ore, coal and flux, that are thrown in at the mouth of the furnace,
and in the air thrown in from below. For most that will be said on
this subject, we are principally indebted to the recent interesting
researches of M. Ebelman.

The importance of a knowledge of the facts to be brought forward, in
this article, will be apparent to every one in any way acquainted with
the manufacture of iron. It will be seen that the time is not far
distant when the economy in the article of fuel will amount in value
to the present profit of many of the works. The consequences must be,
that many of those works that are abandoned will be resumed, and
others erected in localities formerly thought unfit.

It is well known that the blast furnace is the first into which the
ore is introduced, for the purpose of converting it into malleable
iron, and much, therefore, depends upon the state in which the pig
metal passes from this furnace, whether subsequent operations will
furnish an iron of the first quality or not.

In putting the blast furnace into operation, the first step is to heat
it for some time with coal only. After the furnace has arrived at a
proper temperature, ore, fuel and flux, are thrown in alternately, in
small quantities, so as to have the three ingredients properly mixed
in their descent. In from 25 to 48 hours from the time when the ore is
first thrown in, the entire capacity of the furnace, from the tuyer to
the mouth, is occupied with the ore, fuel and flux, in their various
stages of transformation.

In order to explain clearly, and in as short space as possible, what
these transformations are, and how they are brought about, we may
consider:--1. The changes that take place in the descending mass,
composed of ore, fuel and flux. 2. The changes that take place in the
ascending mass, composed of air and its hygrometric moisture, thrown
in at the tuyer. 3. The chemical action going on between the ascending
and descending masses. 4. The composition of the gases in various
parts of the furnace during its operation. 5. The causes that render
necessary the great heat of the blast furnace.

1. _Changes that take place in the descending mass, composed of ore,
coal and flux._--By coal is here meant charcoal; when any other
species of fuel is alluded to, it will be specified. In the upper half
of the fire-room the materials are subjected to a comparatively low
temperature, and they lose only the moisture, volatile matter,
hydrogen, and carbonic acid, that they may contain; this change taking
place principally in the lower part of the upper half of the
fire-room.

In the lower half of the fire-room, the ore is the only material that
undergoes a change, it being converted wholly or in part into iron or
magnetic oxide of iron--the coal is not altered, no consumption of it
taking place from the mouth down to the commencement of the boshes.

From the commencement of the boshes down to the tuyer, the reduction
of the ore is completed. Very little of the coal is consumed between
the boshes and in the upper part of the hearth; the principal
consumption of it taking place in the immediate neighborhood of the
tuyer.

The fusion of the iron and slag occurs at a short distance above the
tuyer, and it is in the hearth of the furnace that the iron combines
with a portion of coal to form the fusible carburet or pig-iron. It is
also on the hearth that the flux combines with the siliceous and other
impurities of the ore. This concludes the changes which the ore, coal
and flux, undergo, from the mouth of the furnace to the tuyer.

If the fuel used be wood, or partly wood, it is during its passage
through the upper half of the fire-room that its volatile parts are
lost, and it becomes converted into charcoal. M. Ebelman ascertained
that wood, at the depth of ten feet, in a fire-room twenty-six feet
high, preserved its appearance after an exposure for 1 3-4 of an hour,
and that the mineral mixed with it preserved its moisture at this
depth; but three and a half feet lower, an exposure of 3 1-4 hours
reduced the wood to perfect charcoal, and the ore to magnetic oxide.
The temperature of the upper half of the fire-room, when wood is used,
is lower than in the case of charcoal, from the great amount of heat
made latent by the vapor arising from the wood. In the case of
bituminous coal, Bunsen and Playfair find that it has to descend still
lower before it is perfectly coked.

After the wood is completely charred, or the coal become coked, the
subsequent changes are the same that happen in the charcoal furnaces.

_To be continued._


=ANIMALCULAE IN WATER.=

[Illustration:]

The fact is generally known that nearly all liquids contain a variety
of minute living animals, though in some they are too small for
observation, even with a microscope. In others, especially in water
that has been long stagnant, these animals appear not only in hideous
forms, but with malignant and voracious propensities. The print at the
head of this article purports to be a microscopic representation of a
single drop of such water, with the various animals therein, and some
of the inventors and venders of the various improved filters for the
Croton water, would have no objection to the prevalence of the opinion
that this water contains all the variety of monsters represented in
this cut. But the fact is far otherwise; and it is doubtful whether
these animals could frequently be detected in the Croton water, with
the best solar microscope. Nevertheless, the fact is readily and
clearly established that the Croton water contains a quantity of
deleterious matter, which is arrested by the filters; and, on this
account, we cheerfully and heartily recommend the adoption of filters
by all who use this water, from either the public or private hydrants.
To this end we would call the special attention of our city readers to
the improved filters noticed under the head of "New Inventions."


=Length of Days.=

At Berlin and London the longest day has sixteen and a half hours. At
Stockholm and Upsal, the longest has eighteen and a half hours, and
the shortest five and a half. At Hamburg, Dantzic, and Stettin, the
longest day has seventeen hours, and the shortest seven. At St.
Petersburg and Tobolsk, the longest has nineteen, and the shortest
five hours. At Toreno, in Finland, the longest day has twenty-one
hours and a half, and the shortest two and a half. At Wandorbus, in
Norway, the day lasts from the 21st of May to the 22d of July, without
interruption; and in Spitzbergen, the longest day lasts three months
and a half.


=Excitement of Curiosity.=

The editor of the Cincinnati Enquirer, having been one of a recent
excursion party on the opening of a new section of railroad, remarks
on the occasion, 'It is really amusing to see the sensation a train of
railroad cars produces on all animate beings, human and brute, for the
first few times it passes over a section of road. We saw herds of
cattle, sheep, and horses, stand for a few seconds and gaze at the
passing train, then turn and run for a few rods with all possible
speed, stop and look again with eyes distended, and head and cars
erect, seemingly so frightened at the tramp of the iron horse as to
have lost the power of locomotion. Men women and children also seemed
dumbfounded at the strange and unusual spectacle. As the cars came
rumbling along early in the morning, they seemed to bring everybody
out of bed, all eager to catch a glance as we whirled past. Old men
and women, middle-aged and youth, without waiting to put on a rag in
addition to their night gear, were seen at the doors, windows and
round the corners of log huts and dwellings, gaping with wonder and
astonishment at the new, and to them grand and terrific sight.'


[COMMUNICATED.]

At the last special meeting of the National Association of Inventors,
called to hear the report on the rights and duties of the Editors of
the Eureka, on a resolution offered by one of the Editorial Committee
who had been dissatisfied by the proceedings of the 'Acting Editors,'
and refused to attend their sittings, it was reported that the 'Acting
Editors,' had exceeded their authority, and a majority of the
Editorial Committee resigned and a resolution was passed that the
resignation should be published in the Eureka, but it has not
appeared. Mr. Kingsley, one of the 'Acting Editors,' spoke at the said
meeting of having consulted counsel who had declared that the
Association were under a legal obligation to furnish Messrs. Kingley &
Pirsson with matter for publication in the Eureka, and on the
understanding that they had advanced money they were allowed to have
the first use of the reports and advertisements of the Association.
But as they in effect refuse to publish a resolution of great
importance to the reputation of all the parties interested, it is
left for the public to decide whether the 'Acting Editors' are in any
respect entitled to the name they have assumed for their paper.

ONE OF THE EDITORIAL COMMITTEE.


HUMOROUS.

=To my Sweetheart.=

      You're a broth of creature,
      In form and in feature,--
    It's myself that now tells you that same,
      And sure, by my troth,
      I'll not be very wroth.
    If you'll plaze me by changing your name

      What a swate little wife,
      As a partner for life,
    My darlint, 'tis you might be living;
      And I'm just the boy,
      To wish you much joy,
    When your heart it's to me you'll be giving.

      I'm half dead--botheration!
      With sad consternation--
    Of your flirting it is that I'm speaking;
      So plaze to be thinking,
      When you're winking and blinking.
    It's my own honest heart that you're braking.

      The divil a haper,
      Will I stand of a caper,--
    'Twould kill me to find you deceiving;
      By my sowl and I'd die,
      And that same is no lie,
    Before I'd be kilt by me grieving.

      Then spake but the word.
      My nate little bird,
    That you're niver a man's but mine;
      And straight to the praist,
      It's myself that'll haste,
    To make you my _swate waluntine_!

                        [_Teddy Magowan._


=Boys and Men.=

A youthful volunteer, the other day, out in Arkansas, was taunting a
married gentleman, who had a wife and three small children depending
upon him, for not rallying to the standard of his country, soon after
the requisition upon that State arrived. 'Tom,' said our friend, 'you
_boys_ can whip the Mexicans, but should old England take a hand in
the pie, _I'll_ join, for it will require _men_ to whip the English.'


=Trusting too Long.=

We recollect that a weekly paper was started, some years ago, in one
of the Western States, the terms of which were $2,50 in advance, $3 at
the end of the year--to which the editor jocosely added in a
paragraph, 'and $5 if never paid.' We think that most of his
subscribers took the paper upon the latter terms, since it has been
non est. He played a joke upon himself.


=Business Stand.=

A Frenchman, being about to remove his shop, his landlord inquired the
reason, stating, at the time, that it was considered a very good
stand for business. He replied, with a shrug of the shoulders, "Oh,
yes, he's very good stand for de businis; by gar, me stan' all day,
for nobody come to make me _move_!"


=Plain Directions.=

Represent me in my portrait, said a gentleman to his painter, with a
book in my hand reading aloud. Paint my servant also in a corner where
he cannot be seen, but in such a manner that he may hear me when I
call him.


=Homogeneous.=

Joe Snooks, seeing some farmer's boys employed, some at hoeing and
others at mowing, in the same field, remarked that they were a
_hoe-mow_-geneous set of fellows.

    *    *    *    *    *

The Louisville Journal, philosophizing on the recent commencement of
several newspapers, gives the following poetic remark:

   'Income and ink'em,
   Although you may link'em,
   Are not such first cousins as some folks may think'em.'

    *    *    *    *    *

We did not expect to mention large peaches again; but the Louisville
Journal speaks of a lot which measured nearly _twelve inches_ each, in
circumference.


=Proposition of a New Patent Law.=

The following remarks and proposition, which we copy from the 'Farmer
and Mechanic,' was written by a prominent member of the National
Association of Inventors, and expresses the sentiments of a large
majority of the members of that Association. No person who carefully
examines the subject, can fail of seeing that the cause of justice and
equity, as well as the advance of improvement, would be promoted by
the substitution of the principles therein expressed, in place of some
of those embraced in the existing patent laws of the United States.

"We advance the principle, which may be novel to some, that if the
inventor apply genius, time, toil, and capital, to produce anything he
may consider valuable, he has the same right to the exclusive use and
enjoyment of it as the man who may apply time, and toil, and capital,
without genius. That the application of genius does not divest him of
any right enjoyed by all others in society.

It is true, the creations of genius are sometimes intangible, but that
is no objection; all rights are abstractions, until embodied in
constitutions and laws, and rendered practical by penalties.

If an inventor can define the limits of his claim, he is entitled to
protection in it just the same as when a deed is put on record,
limiting the boundaries of a lot of ground. All rights to real
property are traced back to original discovery and occupancy, and now
all the inventor desires, or nearly all, in any patent law, is a
simple registry, just as we find in our Halls of Record. The
Commissioner of Patents should be called the Register of Patents.
Indeed, grants of land, as they are termed, have frequently been
registered by the name of patents, in our Halls of Records, so strong
is the analogy, if not perfect similarity.

Then what should be the Patent Law? We answer, by sections, at once.
The first should be declaratory of the rights of inventors, as
follows:

SEC. 1. The application of capital, time, skill and ingenuity, to the
production of new and useful discoveries, shall be protected under the
5th article of the Amendments to the Constitution, which forbids
private use without the consent of the owner, and for public use
without just compensation.

SEC. 2. Should any invention or discovery be deemed of great
importance to the general prosperity, its value shall he appraised on
the requisition of the Secretary of State, which value, which
ascertained, as hereinafter provided, shall be paid to the inventor
from the Treasury of the United States, and, until this payment shall
take place, the discovery of any inventor duly qualified to take out a
patent, shall remain his property, and inalienable without his consent
or the consent of his legal representatives.

SEC. 3. Any inventor or discoverer who may desire a patent for any
discovery of his own, shall make oath or solemnly affirm thereto, and
any specification, drawing or model, he may see fit to deposit with
the Register of Patents, shall be received by him and recorded, as a
matter of evidence of original right.

SEC. 4. There shall be no salaried Examiners of Patents, but each
patentee may contract on any terms he may see fit with any Patent
Agent or Examiner, to examine the Records of the Patent office, on the
payment of ten dollars fee for the use of the books and privilege of
the Patent Office, and no more fees than this first $10 shall be
charged on any single patent, excepting five dollars each for every
record of transfer of rights or parts of rights. Nor shall the fees be
raised until it may be discovered that they will not support the
expenses of the Patent Office. And it is provided, no expenses for the
improvement of agriculture, or any purpose foreign to the business of
the registry of Patents, and the necessary books and buildings, and
salaries of the register, librarian and two clerks and door-keeper,
shall be charged upon the Patent Fund.

SEC. 5. The Commissioner of Patents shall give advice of a scientific
and legal character as he may be desired and qualified to do, to
inventors. He may guaranty the originality of any invention at his own
risk, at any price be may agree upon with any inventor to give
certificates thereof, and this shall not interfere with his regular
salary. But it is provided that the Commissioner shall not in any
manner prevent others from examining and guarantying the originality
of any invention for which a patent may be desired. And it is also
provided that any Commissioner, Register, Clerk, Attorney, Examiner or
Agent, who may give a guaranty or warrant of the novelty of any
invention shall be held responsible in costs on any information to be
filed by any party who may feel himself aggrieved, to rescind the
patent which may not be an original invention of the claimant so
guarantied.

SEC. 6. To rescind a patent, any party feeling himself aggrieved may
file information in the District Court of the United States, of the
district in which the patentee resides, notifying the patentee of such
information filed, with what the former intends to prove, and where
the patentee may discover the evidence relied upon by the informer, on
which, the patentee may surrender his patent without costs should he
so elect. But should the patentee determine to stand trial, he shall
plead to such information within twenty days, denying the allegations
of the informer, on which the trial shall proceed in its regular order
on the calendar, and the patentee, if found wilfully and knowingly a
monopolizer of the public rights, shall suffer costs and the
reasonable expenses and counsel fee of the informer. And if such
inventor shall make oath he has not been enabled to examine the proofs
on which the informer relies to rescind his patent, he shall be
allowed such further time as the court having jurisdiction may
prescribe. And the court may make an order to the informer to exhibit
fully his evidence of priority of invention, and no other evidence
than has been exhibited to the inventor excepting rebutting, shall be
introduced on the trial to rescind the patent.

SEC. 7. The Commissioner of Patents shall collect and keep in the
Patent Office all the scientific works published and useful for
references, and pay the expenses of the same from the patent fund. But
the Commissioner shall not subscribe for more than three copies of any
publication for the use of the office as aforesaid out of the Patent
Fund.

SEC. 8. The application of any known machinery or matter of
combination of machinery, or matter to new purposes or old purposes
after a new method, or any means by which useful results are to be
more advantageously produced than formerly, shall be the subject of a
patent.

SEC. 9. A method, plan, design, or any new and useful idea, which can
be defined, shall be the subject of a patent.

SEC. 10. A simple change of form shall not entitle any one to evade
the patent of any inventor by a new patent.

The above are the principal improvements desired by inventors. Some
think it not well to ask for all they want at once, but we think
differently, for it will be said hereafter, when new amendments are
desired, 'Gentlemen, you petitioned for the very provisions you now
seek to have annulled. Your own committee was here at Washington
assenting.' What answer will there be to this? None can be made
without confusion of face for having over assented to a wrong.

We do not desire to censure the committee charged with the mission to
Washington.--They have thought to act prudently and for the greatest
good. We differ only on the real expediency of the case. We do not
believe that such men as Benton, Calhoun, and other kindred spirits,
ask or desire anything but what they think is right.

They will not sacrifice their reputation against a body of men to whom
the Republic owe so much, and who have so long suffered in silence.
The law as it now stands, is an improvement on the former law, and
considering how low was the state of morals in former times respecting
inventors, such sentiments as have been advanced by Judge Woodbury,
and which are in spirit the same as the above, are destined ultimately
to prevail. And those who choose to record their names in opposition
are free to do so, as are also the tribe of persecutors who in all
ages have stoned the prophets.

The principle endeavored to be followed throughout, is that of the
common and statutes laws respecting the rights to real property. It
may tend to create litigation, as to claims which are now refused
entirely, but if no litigation or less is the grand desideratum, why
not establish a dictatorship at once? The _ipse dixit_ of one man will
then prevent all argument. But the rights of property and jury trial
in all cases are ours by the constitution--and equally are we entitled
by the constitution to the pursuit of happiness and wealth in ærial
regions as on the common earth--and if we may not be divested of our
other property without certain laws and a fair jury trial, why should
we be of patent property? And if patent agents presume to beguile
honest inventors, why should they not be held responsible? They may
refuse to back their operation by a guaranty, but then the inventor
has a right to know it, and to know he has a remedy, should they do so
improperly. The Clerk of one of our Courts guarantied the searches of
one of his Clerks as to a piece of real property, and had to pay some
ten thousand dollars, and why should it not be so.

When a tailor makes a coat he warrants it to fit, and when a surgeon
sets a leg unscientifically he is also responsible in damages to his
patient, and as is an attorney for negligent practice. Holding
examiners responsible will leave the patent office open to the filing
of new claims at the same time that it will prevent a world of
litigation, favoritism and corruption.

We are not striking at our present worthy Commissioner, Mr. Burke. We
are friendly to him. But the more honest a man may be, the sooner will
he find himself displaced, if the office he holds may be used to grasp
a vast amount of patronage and property.'


ADVERTISEMENTS.

[**hand pointing right]This paper circulates in every State in the
Union, and is seen principally by mechanics and manufacturers. Hence
it may be considered the best medium of advertising, for those who
import or manufacture machinery, mechanics tools, or such wares and
materials as are generally used by those classes. The few
advertisements in this paper are regarded with much more attention
than those in closely printed dailies.

Advertisements are inserted in this paper at the following rates:

One square, of eight lines one insertion,   $ 0 50
 "    "          "     "   two   do.,           75
 "    "          "     "   three  do.,        1 00
 "    "          "     "   one month,         1 25
 "    "          "     "   three do.,         3 75
 "    "          "     "   six do.,           7 50
 "    "          "     "   twelve do.,       15 00


TERMS:--CASH IN ADVANCE.

    *    *    *    *    *

GENERAL AGENTS

FOR THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.

New York City,          Geo. Dexter
  "       "             Wm. Taylor & Co.
Boston,                 Messrs. Hotchkiss & Co.
Philadelphia,           Messrs. Colon & Adriance.


LOCAL AGENTS.

Albany,                 Peter Cook.
Baltimore, Md.,         S. Sands.
Cabotville, Mass.,      E. F. Brown.
Hartford, Ct.,          E. H. Bowers.
Lynn, Mass.,            J. E. F. Marsh.
Middletown, Ct.,        Wm. Woodward.
Norwich, Ct.,           Safford & Parks.
New Haven, Ct.,         E. Downes.
New Bedford, Mass.,     Wm. Robinson & Co.
Newark, N.J.            J. L. Agens.
Patterson, N.J.,        L. Garside.
Providence, R.I.,       H. & J. S. Rowe.
Springfield, Mass.,     Wm. B. Brocket.
Salem, Mass.,           L. Chandler.
Troy, N.Y.,             A. Smith.
Taunton. Mass.,         W. P. Seaver.
Worcester, Mass.,       S. Thompson.
Boston,                 Jordon & Wiley.
Newark, N. J.,          Robert Rashaw.
Williamsburgh,          J. C. Gander.

TRAVELLING AGENTS.

O. D. Davis, John Stoughton, John Murray, Sylvester Dierfenorf.

CITY CARRIERS.

Clark Selleck, Squire Selleck, Nathan Selleck.

Persons residing in the city of Brooklyn, can have the paper left at
their residences regularly, by sending their address to the office,
128 Fulton st., 2d. floor.


=AMERICAN AND FOREIGN PATENT AGENCY.=

No. 23 Chambers street, New York.

JOSEPH H. BAILEY, Engineer and Agent for procuring Patents, will
prepare all the necessary Specifications, Drawings, &c. for applicants
for Patents, in the United States or Europe. Having the experience of
a number of years in the business, and being connected with a
gentleman of high character and ability in England, he has facilities
for enabling inventors to obtain their Patents at home or abroad, with
the least expense and trouble.

The subscriber, being practically acquainted with all the various
kinds of Drawing used, is able to represent Machinery, Inventions, or
Designs of any kind, either by Authographic Drawing, or in
Isometrical, Parallel, or True Perspective, at any angle best
calculated to show the construction of the Machinery of Design
patented.

To those desiring Drawings or Specifications, Mr. B. has the pleasure
of referring to Gen. Wm. Gibbs McNiel, Civil Engineer, Prof. Renwick,
Columbia College, Prof. Morse, Jno. Lee.

Residence, No. 10 Carroll Place; office, No.
Chambers street.                   oct10 tf

    *    *    *    *    *

BLACK LEAD POTS!--The subscriber offers for sales, in lots to suit
purchasers, a superior article of BLACK LEAD POTS, that can be used
without annealing. The price is low, and founders are requested to
make a trial. SAMUEL C. HILLS,

45to2ndv6        Patent Agent, 12 Platt street.


STATE OF NEW YORK.

Secretary's Office, Albany, July 24, 1846.

To the Sheriff of the City and County of New York: Sir--Notice is
hereby given, that at the next General Election, to be held on the
Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of November next, the following
officers are to be elected, to wit:--A Governor and Lieutenant
Governor of this State. 2 Canal Commissioners, to supply the place of
Jonas Earll, junior, and Stephen Clark, whose terms of office will
expire on the last day of December next. A Senator for the First
Senatorial District, to supply the vacancy which will accrue by the
expiration of the term of service of John A. Lott on the last day of
December next. A Representative in the 30th Congress of the United
States for the Third Congressional District, consisting of the 1st,
2d, 3d, 4th and 5th Wards of the City of New York. Also a
Representative in the said Congress for the Fourth Congressional
District, consisting of the 6th, 7th, 10th and 13th Wards of said
City. Also a Representative in the said Congress for the Fifth
Congressional District, consisting of the 8th, 9th and 14th Wards of
said city. And also a Representative in the said Congress for the
Sixth Congressional District, consisting of the 11th, 12th, 15th,
16th, 17th and 18th Wards of said City.

Also the following officers for the said County, to wit: 16 Members of
Assembly, a Sheriff in the place of William Jones, whose term of
service will expire on the last day of December next. A County Clerk
in the place of James Connor, whose term of service will expire on the
last day of December next, and a Coroner in the place of Edmund G.
Rawson, whose term of service will expire on the last day of December
next.

               Yours, respectfully,
                N. S. BENTON, Secretary of State.

    *    *    *    *    *

Sheriff's Office, New York, August 3d, 1846.

The above is published pursuant to the notice of the Secretary of
State and the requirements of the statute in such case made and
provided for.

                WM. JONES, Sheriff of the City and County of New York.

[Illustration: hand pointing right]All the public newspapers in the
County will publish the above once in each week until election, and
then hand in their bills so that they may be laid before the Board of
Supervisors, and passed for payment.

See Revised Statutes, vol. 1, chap. vi. title 3d, article
3d--part 1st, page 140.                 aug18


=BRASS FOUNDRY.=

JAMES KENNEARD & CO. respectfully inform their friends and the public
that they are prepared to furnish all orders for Brass and Composition
Castings, and finishing in general at the shortest possible notice.

N.B. All orders for Rail Road, Factory and Steamboat work from any
distance, will be thankfully received and attended to with despatch
and on reasonable terms.

[Illustration: hand pointing right]Patterns made to order.
JAMES KENNEARD & CO.
oct. 10 3m*            27 1-2 Chrystie st. New York.

[Illustration: hand pointing right]NOTICE--R. C. WETMORE & CO. RETURN
their thanks to the Fire Department & Police, for the zealous exertions
used by them in saving the property in the store No. 85 Water street,
at the fire this evening.

R. C. Wetmore & Co. desire especially to acknowledge the aid of his
honor the Mayor, in preserving their books and papers.

Tuesday Night.

PROSPER M. WETMORE, Navy Agent, begs to return his grateful
acknowledgment to his Honor the Mayor, the members of the Fire
Department, and Municipal Police, for the assistance rendered him in
saving all the books and papers of the Navy Agency from the fire this
evening, Tuesday night.

NOTICE.

The Office of the Navy Agent is removed for the present to the back
office of the store No. 11 Broad street.

PROSPER M. WETMORE, Navy Agent.
[Illustration: hand pointing right]All city papers please copy, and
send bill.
o10 3t

    *    *    *    *    *

NEW IMPROVEMENT.--M. H. Mansfield, of Mifflintown, Juniata Co.,
Pennsylvania, has invented a new CLOVER HULLING MACHINE, which is one
of the best inventions of the kind now in use. This machine will hull
forty bushels of seed per day. Persons wishing to manufacture them can
procure the right on moderate terms from the inventor. For further
particulars, address.

MARTIN H. MANSFIELD,
oct.3 3t*             Mifflintown, Juniata Co. Pa.

    *    *    *    *    *

COPPER SMITH!--The subscriber takes this method of informing the
public that he is manufacturing Copper Work of every description.
Particular attention is given to making and repairing LOCOMOTIVE
tubes. Those at a distance, can have any kind of work made to
drawings, and may ascertain costs, &c., by addressing L. R. BAILEY,
cor. of West and Franklin sts., N. Y.

N.B.--Work shipped to any part of the country.

45to2dv18*

    *    *    *    *    *


=ELECTRICITY.=

SMITH'S CELEBRATED TORPEDO, OR VIBRATING
ELECTRO MAGNETIC MACHINE

--This instrument differs from those in ordinary use, by having a
third connection with the battery, rendering them much more powerful
and beneficial. As a curious Electrical Machine, they should be in the
possession of every one, while their wonderful efficacy as a medical
agent, renders them invaluable. They are used with extraordinary
success, for the following maladies.

=Rheumatism=--Palsy, curvature of the Spine, Chronic Diseases,
Tic-doloureaux, Paralysis Tubercula of the brain, heart, liver,
spleen, kidneys, sick-headache.

=Toothache=--St Vitus dance, Epilepsy, Fevers, diseases of the eye,
nose, antrum, throat, muscles, cholera, all diseases of the skin,
face, &c.

=Deafness=--Loss of voice, Bronchitis, Hooping cough.

These machines are perfectly simple and conveniently managed. The
whole apparatus is contained in a little box 8 inches long, by 4 wide
and deep. They may be easily sent to any part of the United States. To
be had at the office of the Scientific American, 128 Fulton st, 2nd
floor, (Sun building) where they may be seen IN OPERATION, at all
times of the day and evening.      2

    *    *    *    *    *

GOLD PENS!!--In consequence of the increased facility afforded by
machinery for the manufacture of my GOLD PENS, I am enabled to furnish
them to the Trade, at a much less price than they have heretofore
obtained them through my Agent.

Those purchasing direct of the manufacturer will have the double
advantage of the lowest market price, and the privilege of returning
those that are imperfect. In connection with the above, I am
manufacturing the usual style of PENHOLDER, together with my PATENT
EXTENSION PENHOLDER with PENCIL. All orders thankfully received, and
punctually attended to. A. G. BAGLEY,

sept. 25 tf                  189 Broadway, N. Y.


=Engraving on Wood.=

NEATLY AND PROMPTLY EXECUTED AT the Office of the Scientific American,
128 Fulton st, three doors from the Sun Office. Designs, DRAWINGS of
all kinds for PATENTS, &c., also made, as above, at very low
charges.       1


[Illustration: CURIOUS ARTS]


=Labor to make a Watch.=

Mr. Dent, in a lecture delivered before the London Royal Institute,
made an allusion to the formation of a watch, and stated that a watch
consists of 992 pieces; and that 40 trades, and probably 215 persons
are employed in making one of these little machines. The iron of which
the balance wheel is formed, is valued at something less than a
farthing; this produces an ounce of steel, worth 4 1-2 pence, which is
drawn into 2,250 yards of steel wire, and represents in the market,
13_l._ 3_s._; but still another process of hardening this originally a
farthing's worth of iron, renders it workable into 7,050 balance
springs, which will realize, at the common price, of 2_s._ 6_d_ each
746_l_. 5_s_, the effect of labor alone. Thus it may be seen that the
mere labor bestowed upon one farthing's worth of iron, gives it the
value of 950_l._ 5_s_, or $4,552, which is 75,680 times its original
value.


=Mule Boats.=

This kind of conveyance is, we believe, peculiar to the Illinois
River, for we never remember to have seen one belonging to any other
stream. A year or two since, we were perfectly astonished at beholding
the first one that ever arrived in this port; but now they are as
common as the species usually termed _broad horns_, and their
appearance creates about as much surprise and curiosity among the more
aristocratic order of steam and sail. A genuine mule boat is not
unlike an ocean steamer, as they are susceptible of being propelled
both by steam and wind; with this difference, the mule-boat steam is
generated upon the tread-mill plan, and by the united exertions of
some half dozen quadrupeds, generally of the long-eared kind. To this
treading or pulling apparatus are attached cylinder, pitt-man,
boilers, &c., in the shape of some three or more cog-wheels, and
immediately connected with them is a couple of shafts, which give a
rotary motion to a couple of water-wheels, one on each side, and which
usually propel a keel about 100 feet in length, and of about 75 tons
burthen; over it is a roof and covering, usually called a cargo box,
to protect the inside from the weather, and the whole making an
appearance similar to an Ohio river keel boat, with the exception of a
space left her to operate in. The difficulty and danger attending the
management of a boat propelled by steam, is upon the mule boat
entirely dispensed with.

There is no firing up, or blowing up; all that is necessary, when
wishing to commence a journey, is to start, and when tired of going,
all that is to be done is to stop the mules; in giving a lick ahead,
they are all made to bounce at once, and in giving a lick back, they
are turned around and made to pull the other way: and should the wind
prove favorable, by means of a mast, with which they are all
provided, sails can be hoisted, and the the double power of mules and
wind be put in requisition. This description of boat is getting to be
quite fashionable on the Illinois and tributaries, and some two or
three extend their trips to this city. They are a great benefit in low
water, as they are of exceeding light draught, and the running of them
is attended with but trifling expense. We learn that several new ones
are in a state of completion, on the line of the Illinois, intended as
regular traders up the Sangamon river, and from the head of navigation
on the Illinois to this city. There is nothing like enterprise, or a
mule boat on the Illinois, in a low stage of water, to get
along.--[St. Louis New Era.


=Discovery of Glass.=

'As some merchants,' says Pliny, 'were carrying nitre, they stopped
near a river which issues from Mount Carmel. As they could not readily
find stones to rest their kettles on, they used for this purpose some
of these pieces of nitre. The fire, which gradually dissolved the
nitre, and mixed it with the sand, occasioned a transparent matter to
flow, which in fact was nothing less than glass.'


=Pumping the water out of Lake Michigan.=

It is well known to our readers that, by an arrangement with the
English bond holders, the State of Illinois has given over to them the
unfinished canal, from the waters of Lake Michigan, at Chicago, to the
Illinois river.--They are about completing it, but the principal
difficulty now is, to supply it with water, owing to the level of the
lake being _eight_ feet below the bottom of the canal. To overcome
this, the present company, after various propositions, finally
bethought themselves of raising the water of the lake, so as to supply
the canal. They went to Messrs. Knapp & Totten, of this city, and
furnished them with a data to calculate whether it could be done, and
what force and what machinery would accomplish it. These gentlemen
soon furnished an answer to build some powerful machinery for that
purpose,--a steam engine and _eight_ pumps of four and a half bore and
six feet stroke. We are glad to hear that this eminently scientific
firm have been selected to execute this order. Their shop and
mechanical force are not excelled by any establishment in the United
States.--[Pittsburg Gaz.

=The Self-Regulating Ventilator.=

[Illustration:]

Explanation:--This is a cheap and simple but scientific apparatus for
regulating the air-vent of a common, cheap stove, according to the
temperature of the atmosphere in the room in which it is located. The
draught door is a plain iron door, hung by a common hinge joint at the
upper end; and to the front of the hinge is attached a piece of brass
wire, which extends vertically nearly to the top of the room, and is
connected at B to a horizontal brass wire C D. This is the only
apparatus required, but must be so adjusted as to allow the door to be
closed, or nearly so, when the temperature is about right. If the
temperature rises above that point, the horizontal wire will
immediately expand so as to allow the door to close. But as soon as
the temperature begins to fail, the wire contracts and opens the vent.
On this principle the apparatus will readily find a medium, and there
remain, varying only occasionally to accommodate itself to the
variations of the quantity of fuel in the stove. The entire expense of
this apparatus, exclusive of the stove, will not exceed 50 cents. It
is generally conceded that a large portion of cases of colds, coughs,
&c. are occasioned by irregularities of the temperature of
sitting-rooms but with this plan of regulation this evil may tie
avoided without any material expense.


=New Paper Mill.=

Mr. C. C. P. Moses has erected a line brick building, 75 by 38 feet,
three stories high, on the site of the old foundry, at Dover, N. H.,
$12,000 to $15,000. The rooms are constructed and furnished in a
complete manner for carrying on the paper making business in all its
departments. The works are nearly completed, and will be in operation
in five or six weeks.


=New Mill at Lowell.=

The Merrimack Company have in progress of erection the largest mill in
Lowell, and which is calculated to employ from 300 to 400 operatives.
The building is nearly finished, and the machinery is to embrace the
latest improvements in this or any other country.


=Machine Shop.=

A new machine shop is about commencing operation in Norwich: about
half a mile northeast from the railroad depot. The building is 100 by
40 feet, and is calculated to employ 60 hands in the manufacture of
steam engines and manufacturing machinery. The work at this shop will
be finished in the best style and at moderate prices.


=Ornamental Kites.=

[Illustration:]

This month being considered as one of the best for flying kites, we
may indulge our young friends with an article on that subject. The
principle on which kites are made to ascend by the action of the wind,
is too well understood, even by children, to require explanation. We
shall merely introduce and describe some fancy models of kites, which
are not often seen. The pattern, fig. 1, which is the figure called a
star, is very easily made. The frame consists simply of the strips, or
rods of light wood; spruce timber, willow twig's--and interlocked, as
shown in the cut; so that each rod shall pass alternately over and
under the other rods at each intersection. These rods being lashed
together at the points, the whole frame is covered with white or
yellow paper, and the twine is attached to three of the angles of the
star.

The eagle, fig. 2, is but little more difficult; a rod extends from
the beak to the tail, and is crossed by another which extends from tip
to tip of the wings. The rods being lashed together, a small thread is
drawn from the place of the head of the eagle, to the two extremities
of the wings, and thence to the leeward end of the centre rod. This
thread should be white or light blue, and will not be visible when
aloft; but the form of the eagle should be made of black, dark or
brown paper. The paper eagle must be sewed to the several threads, and
two or more threads may extend from the wings to the centre rod to
support the feathers of the wings. The eagle kite appears curious,
but is not so elegant as

The Rose, fig. 3. To construct this figure there must be four light
rods of wood, made to cross each other in the centre, being there
lashed together, and thus constituting eight arms. From the end of
each arm, a thin strip of light wood or reed, is bent in a curved form
to the next arm on either side: the bow being lashed to the arms. This
frame is covered with white paper, which is to be afterward colored
with rose color, with the yellow centre. The twine must be fastened to
four of the arms, and the tail of the kite should be covered with
green paper, which by the contrast, will have a pleasing effect.


=Rochester Edge Tools in England.=

Some time since, a Mr. Ash, an extensive manufacturer of Mechanics'
Tools at Sheffield, England, sent to this country for patterns of the
latest improvements, and amongst the rest, ordered a variety from
Messrs. Barton & Belden of Rochester, which were promptly forwarded.
On their arrival there, it seems that their make gave such universal
satisfaction, that they were immediately copied, and the fact that
they came from this country made prominent, by stamping upon them
'Rochester Pattern.'


=An Animal Curiosity.=

Travellers state that there is on the island of St. Luce a cavern, in
which is a large basin twelve or fifteen feet deep, at the bottom of
which are rocks. From these rocks proceed certain substances that
present at first, sight beautiful flowers, but on the approach of a
hand or instrument, retire like a snail, out of sight! On examination,
there appears in the middle of a disk, filaments resembling spiders'
legs, which moved briskly round a kind of petal. The filaments, or
legs, have pincers to seize their prey, when the petals close, so that
it cannot escape. Under this flower is the body of an animal, and it
is probable he lives on the marine insects thrown by the sea into his
basin.

    *    *    *    *    *

The first clock that ever measured time was made for the Caliph of
Bagdad. This art was afterwards lost for several centuries.


=Skate Runners.=

At Drontheim, in Norway, they have a regiment of soldiers, called
Skate Runners. They wear leg gaiters for travelling in deep snow, and
green uniform. They carry a short sword, a rifle fastened by a broad
strap passing over the shoulder, and a climbing staff seven feet long,
with a spike in the end. They move so fast in the snow that no cavalry
can overtake them, and it does little good to fire cannon balls at
them, as they go two or three hundred feet apart. They are very useful
soldiers in following an enemy on a march. They go over marshes,
rivers and lakes at a great rate.


=A Receipt to make Peach Wine.=

Take four or five bushels of ripe juicy peaches, mash or bruise them
in a tub, and pour them into a barrel, large enough to contain them,
and place it in a cool place. At the bottom of the barrel, before
putting in the peaches, some clean straw must be placed to prevent the
pumice from filling up the spigot. The head of the barrel must be
covered. In about three days the Peach Wine is ready for use. Draw it
off, from the spigot, and if care and attention have been adopted, a
delicious beverage will be produced.


=A Novel Enterprise.=

An expedition, which promises the most important results both to
science and commerce is at this moment fitting out in England, for the
purpose of navigating some of the more important unexplored rivers in
South America It is to be under the command of Lord Ranelagh. Several
noblemen and gentlemen have already volunteered to accompany his
lordship, and the enterprising and scientific band, it id said, will
sail as soon as the necessary arrangements shall be completed.


THE NEW YORK

=SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN:=

_Published Weekly at 128 Fulton Street., (Sun Building,) New York._

BY MUNN & COMPANY.


The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is the Advocate of Industry and Journal of
Mechanical and other Improvements: as such its contents are probably
more varied and interesting, than those of any other weekly newspaper
in the United States, and certainly more useful. It contains as much
interesting Intelligence as six ordinary daily papers, while for _real
benefit_, it is unequalled by any thing yet published. Each number
regularly contains from THREE to SIX ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS, illustrated
by NEW INVENTIONS, American and Foreign,--SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES and
CURIOSITIES,--Notices of the progress of Mechanical and other
Scientific Improvements, Scientific Essays on the principles of the
Sciences of MECHANICS, CHEMISTRY and ARCHITECTURE,--Catalogues of
American Patents,--INSTRUCTION in various ARTS and TRADES, _with
engravings_,--Curious Philosophical Experiments,--the latest RAIL
ROAD INTELLIGENCE in EUROPE and AMERICA,--Valuable information on the
Art of GARDENING, &c. &c.

This paper is especially entitled to the patronage of MECHANICS and
MANUFACTURERS, being devoted to the interests of those classes. It is
particularly useful to FARMERS, as it will not only apprise them of
IMPROVEMENTS in AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, but INSTRUCT them in various
MECHANICAL TRADES, and guard against impositions. As a FAMILY
NEWSPAPER, it will convey more USEFUL Intelligence to children and
young people, than five times its cost in school instruction.

Being published in QUARTO FORM, it is conveniently adapted to
PRESERVATION and BINDING.

TERMS.--The Scientific American is sent to subscribers in the country
at the rate of $2 a year, ONE DOLLAR IN ADVANCE, the remainder in 6
months. Persons desiring to subscribe, have only to enclose the amount
in a letter, directed to

                                     MUNN & COMPANY,

Publishers of the Scientific American, New York.

[Illustration: hand pointing right]Specimen copies sent when desired.
All letters must be POST PAID.]





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