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Title: Scientific American magazine, Vol. 2 Issue 1 - The advocate of Industry and Journal of Scientific, - Mechanical and Other Improvements
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Scientific American magazine, Vol. 2 Issue 1 - The advocate of Industry and Journal of Scientific, - Mechanical and Other Improvements" ***

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[Illustration: Issue Title]



THE NEW YORK
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN



A WEEKLY JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION, ART, SCIENCE,
MECHANICS, CHEMISTRY, AND MANUFACTURES.



NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 26, 1846.

       *       *       *       *       *



SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN

_Published Weekly at_ 128 _Fulton Street_,

(_Sun Building_,) _New York_.

BY MUNN & COMPANY.

RUFUS PORTER, EDITOR.

TERMS.--$2 a year--$1 in advance, and the remainder in 6 months.

[Symbol: right Index] _See Advertisement on last page_.

       *       *       *       *       *



CONTENTS.


Nature's Image of Washington                                   1
The Viol Seraphine*                                            1
An Eclipse in Arabia                                           1
Giving Credit                                                  1
The Bowie Knife and its Inventor                               1
Forests and Streams                                            1
Prussian Music                                                 1
Philosophy                                                     1
Polite Preaching                                               1
Pure Air                                                       2
The Deerfield (N. H.) Phenomena                                2
Extraordinary Instance of Gambling                             2
Gen. Taylor's Patriotism                                       2
The Columbian Magazine                                         2
A Mountain In Labor                                            2
The Pope's Will                                                2
Improved Railroad                                              2
Sageisms                                                       2
As Good as Cash                                                2
How Very Hot It Is                                             2
California Farming                                             2
Diversification of Language                                    2
"Keep that Testament In your vest pocket, over your heart."    2
Temperance in the Army                                         2
Modes of Raising Ponderous Articles                            3
Information to persons having business
to transact at the Patent Office                               3
The Regulator(?)*                                              3
A Remarkable Mineral Spring                                    3
Cool Forethought                                               3
It May Be So                                                   3
Howe's Sewing Machine                                          4
Steering Apparatus                                             4
Electro-Magnetic Boat                                          4
Improvement in Boats                                           4
Casting Iron Cannon by a galvanic Process                      4
New Shingle Machine                                            4
Improvement in Blacksmiths Forges                              4
Improved Fire Engine                                           4
A simple Cheese-Press*                                         4
Cast Iron Roofing                                              4
The New and Wonderful Pavement                                 4
To render Shingles Durable                                     4
Best Plan of a Barn                                            4
Robert Fulton                                                  4
Introduction to Volume II                                      5
Advantage of Low Fares                                         5
Avalon Railroad Iron                                           5
The Magnetic Telegraph                                         5
Advertising In London                                          5
Deerfield Bridge                                               5
Information Wanted                                             5
Railroad Intelligence                                          5
Arrival of the Cambria                                         5
The Mexican War                                                5
Trade to Santa Fe                                              5
THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN--subscriptions                         5
The Harbor of Havana*                                          6
A Very Long Nose                                               6
Sol. Smith                                                     6
A Profitable Hoax                                              6
Reforming                                                      6
Wrong Side Up*                                                 6
Importance of Humility                                         6
The Eureka: or Journal of the National
Association of Inventors                                       7
ADVERTISEMENTS                                                 7
The Ball of the Bears                                          7
All is not Gold that Glitters                                  7
Painting In Imitation of Rose-Wood                             8
India Rubber                                                   8
Communication on Atmospheric Resistance                        8
The Conical Windlass*                                          8
Requisite Strength of Steam Boilers                            8
Bagley's Gold Pens                                             8
The Humming Bird                                               8

(Illustrated articles are marked with an asterisk.)

       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: POETRY]


NATURE'S IMAGE OF WASHINGTON.

BY MARSHALL S. PIKE, OF THE HARMONEONS


DESCRIPTIVE: Opposite Harper's Ferry,--which is situated on a pleasant
elevation at the junction of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers--a few
rods north of "Pinnacle Bluff," a flighty eminence on the Blue Ridge
Mountains, stands a most singular formation of rock, known as
'Washington's Face'; and which, to a casualist void of imaginative
powers, is easily recognized if pointed out by a guide; but to a close
observer, however, with common discernable perception, it presents _at
first sight_ a most striking and correct resemblance of _the great
original_. From midway the bridge which crosses the Potomac, the
countenance and contour of the face _to me_, appeared discriminatingly
perfect, and constrained me to look upon it as _one_ of the most
wonderful, and the noblest work of revealed nature.

  In the high barren cliffs of the Blue Mountain Ridge,
  That frightfully hang o'er the trestle-built bridge,
  Juts out into space a huge rocky bluff,
  Which the elements rudely left broken and rough.
  Near this, stands a bust so exquisitely fair,
  That the chisel of art would be uselessness there!
  For nature wrought well till the model was done--
  An impress on stone of our GREAT WASHINGTON.

  The Earth born from chaos at some mighty shock,
  Left the image to rest on the high mountain rock,
  On a turret-like peak, in the heavens above,
  _As a sentinel over the country we love:_
  Where the sunbeam could linger till daylight had fled,
  Where the bright stars of night, form a crown o'er its head;
  And where, through the greenwood, the faintest breeze creeps,
  To sigh for the Hero, who deathlessly sleeps.

  There it stands like a giant in storm and in calm,
  Like the Hero in battle, no foeman could harm!
  And commandingly looks with a Patriot's pride,
  On the wild mountain stream of Potomac's fast tide,
  Whose waters swell on in the valley between,
  Through the vast hilly regions and forests of green;
  O'er a rock-bottomed track, to the blue-bosomed sea,
  From its struggles to rest, like our sire of the free.

  Stand up there in might, till the bright sun shall die,
  Till the stars glimmer out their light in the sky,
  And the moon shall no longer lend beauty or light,
  But _all_ shall again be dark chaos and night,--
  Till then, let its base be the tall craggy steep,
  Where rocks are o'er moss-grown, and ivy-vines creep;
  With the Heaven's wide canopy over its head,
  _An immortal image of greatness that's dead._

       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: THE VIOL SERAPHINE]


INTRODUCTION.--The clear tones of a viol or bass viol are generally
admitted to be more melodious than those produced by other kinds of
instruments, and many have expressed a desire to see an instrument so
constructed as to be played with keys, like the organ or piano forte,
and give the tones of the violin. This is the character of the
instrument here introduced. It is elegant in appearance; occupies less
than half the space of a piano forte, and is so light and portable
that a lady-performer may readily place it before her, and thus avoid
the necessity,--unpleasant to all parties,--of turning her back on the
company. We do not say that an instrument of this kind has been as yet
constructed complete: but the principle has been proved, and it may,
and probably will be soon, offered to the public, at a cost not
exceeding sixty dollars.

EXPLANATION.--In the engraving, a side view elevation only is
represented, showing only one string and one key of a series of twenty
or more of each. The body of the machine A B, is a light hollow chest
about three feet square and six inches deep, supported by four posts
or legs with castors. Two bridges, C and D, extend across the breadth
of the chest. The bridge D is supported by a cleat, E, in which is
inserted the pin F, to which is attached one end of the string C D F.
The other end of the string is simply attached to the bridge C. A
key-lever, G H, passes through the bridge, and is mounted on a pivot
therein. The front end of the key (G) is held in its ordinary position
by a small spring thereunder, and may be easily depressed by the
finger of the performer: the other end of the key serves as the
bearing of the pivot of a delicate arbor, the opposite pivot of which
has its bearing in the bridge D. On the front end of this arbor is a
wheel three-fourths of an inch in diameter, with its periphery smooth,
and polished with rosin, or rosin varnish; and so adjusted, that by
the depression of the key, this wheel is brought up in contact with
the string, whereby, if in motion rotarily, a full sound is produced,
as if a violin bow was drawn across the string. On the other end of
the arbor is a grooved pulley, over which passes a silken cord, which
also passes round a delicate band-wheel, I, below, and by which,
motion is communicated to the arbor and sounding wheel. The band-wheel
is mounted on a shaft, I J, which has its bearings in two small head
blocks which project from two crossbars: and from the block J is
suspended a vertical rod, to the bottom of which is attached a
treadle, K L, and from which a curved ratch, L M, extends upward and
takes to a small ratchet on the shaft I J; so that, by the horizontal
motion of the treadle, the motion is communicated to the wheel, &c.
The teeth of the ratch and ratchet have so gentle an inclination on
one side of each, that although the ratch applies force to the ratchet
in the upward direction, they slide freely over in their return. It
may be understood that the machine is to have two treadles and two
ratches, which move forward alternately: and that twenty or more
arbors, pulleys, strings and keys are arranged in series, although
only one of each is represented in the engraving. The cord applies to
each pulley in the series, by passing over the first, under the
second, and over the third, and so on, descending from the last of the
series to the band-wheel. Each arbor is placed directly under its
respective string, and it is also proposed to place moveable stops
under the strings, at equal distances from the key bridge, and to
regulate the tones by adjusting the stops, without depending on the
pins at the ends for that purpose. We shall employ a competent
mechanic to construct one or more of these instruments as soon as
convenient, and give due notice accordingly.

       *       *       *       *       *



AN ECLIPSE IN ARABIA.


Casting my eyes over the bright, full moon, I perceived that an
eclipse was just coming upon it. What astronomer had calculated this
eclipse for Arabia? It was indeed a privilege to witness one in the
bright sky that over-spread the lonely mountains of Seir. Soon we were
seated in a circle, with our Arabs round their watch-fire, enquiring
of them their views of an eclipse, and explaining to them ours. They
appeared to have no idea of its real cause, regarding it as a judgment
from God, a sign of a bad season, and little camel feed. When we
undertook to explain to them the theory of the earth being round,
turning over every day, sometimes getting between the sun and moon,
they seemed to look upon us as telling very strange tales. The eclipse
was nearly total. I gazed upon it with interest, and then eyed the
strange scene around me. The wild, lonely landscape of rock and
sand--the camels kneeling round the bivouac--the wild faces of the
Arabs, reflecting the red light of the fire round which they were
seated--their wild voices and strange guttural language, all combined
to produce an effect so startling, that I felt till then I had never
been thoroughly sensible of our complete separation from the civilized
world.

       *       *       *       *       *



GIVING CREDIT.


"One of our exchange" says one of our exchanges, "came to us this week
with four of our editorials _not credited_." A frivolous complaint.
Not a week passes but we find in some of our exchanges from ten to
twenty of our editorials; and instead of complaining, we are thankful
for being thus complimented.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE BOWIE KNIFE AND ITS INVENTOR.


This instrument was devised by Col. James Bowie, an American, and a
man of desperate valor. He considered, and apparently with justice,
too, that, in close fighting, a much shorter weapon than the sword
ordinarily in use, but still _heavy_ enough to give it sufficient
force, and, at the same time, contrive to cut and thrust, would be far
preferable, and more advantageous to the wearer. He accordingly
invented the short sword, or knife, which has since gone under his
name. It is made of various sizes; but the best, I may say, is about
the length of a carving knife--case perfectly straight in the first
instance, but greatly rounded at the end on the edge side; the upper
edge at the end, for the length of about two inches, is ground into
the small segment of a circle and rendered sharp; thus leaving an
apparent curve of the knife, although in reality the upturned point is
not higher than the line of the back. The back itself gradually
increases in weight of metal as it approaches the hilt, on which a
small guard is placed. The Bowie knife, therefore, has a curved, keen
point; is double edged for the space of about a couple of inches of
its length; and when in use, falls with the weight of a bill
hook.--Bowie went to Texas during the troubles which preceded the
independence of that country,--and was lying sick in bed at the
fortress of the Alamo, when, on the 6th of March, 1836, it was stormed
by Santa Anna and taken. Bowie was murdered there upon his pillow. The
hand that formed the dreadful knife could no longer wield it.

       *       *       *       *       *



FORESTS AND STREAMS.


That remarkable man, Humbolt, has reduced it almost to a
demonstration, that the streams of our country, fail in proportion to
the destruction of its timber. And of course, if the streams fail, our
seasons will be worse; it must get drier and drier in proportion.
Humbolt, speaking of the Valley of Araguay in Venezuela, says that the
lake receded as agriculture advanced, until the beautiful plantations
of sugar-cane, banana and cotton-trees, were established on its banks,
which (banks) year after year were farther from them. After the
separation of that Province from Spain, and the decline of agriculture
amid the desolating wars which swept over this beautiful region, the
process of clearing was arrested, and old lands grew up in trees with
that rapidity common to the tropics, and in a few years the
inhabitants were alarmed by a rise of the waters, and an inundation of
their choice plantations.

       *       *       *       *       *



PRUSSIAN MUSIC.


The Boston Brigade Band has been presented with a copy of the
collection of the celebrated martial music of the Prussian army.
Prussia has long been famous for the excellence of its military bands,
and the music which they have produced is of the highest order. We
hope this attempt to introduce it into our city will improve the style
of martial music here.

       *       *       *       *       *



PHILOSOPHY.


"Uncle Jo," said an observing little boy, "our folks always put up the
window when the room is filled with smoke, and the wind always blows
in so as to prevent the smoke from going out that way: now where does
the smoke go?" "It goes into the people's eyes," was uncle Jo's
philosophic answer.

       *       *       *       *       *



POLITE PREACHING.


A certain preacher, when treating on the subject of repentance, said,
"My dear hearers, you must repent; if you do not, you will go to a
place which it would be improper to mention in this polite assembly."

       *       *       *       *       *



Mr. H. Longfellow of Cincinnati, has about one hundred acres under
culture of grapes, strawberries, peaches and raspberries.


[Illustration: VARIETY.]



PURE AIR.


  Throw open the window and fasten it there!
    Fling the curtain aside and the blind,
  And give a free entrance to heaven's pure air,
    'Tis the life and health of mankind.

  Behold that dull concourse in yonder closed space,
    With visages sluggish and red;
  How calmly they sit, each one in his place,
    While their lungs with poison are fed.

  What makes the grave deacon so drowsy at church?
    The scholar so dull in his class?
  Dry sermons!--dry studies!--the brain's in the lurch,
    For want of pure oxygen gas.

  Come, 'rouse, from your stupor, before it's too late,
    And do not yourself so abuse--
  To sit all day with your feet on the grate;
    No wonder you're getting the "blues!"

  Are you fond of coughs, colds, dyspepsia and rheums?
    Of headaches, and fevers and chills?
  Of bitters, hot-drops, and medicine fumes,
    And bleeding, and blisters and pills?

  Then shut yourself up like a monk in his cave,
    Till nature grows weary and sad,
  And imagine yourself on the brink of the grave.
    Where nothing is cheerful and glad.

  Be sure when you sleep, that all is shut out:
    Place, too, a warm brick to your feet--
  Wrap a bandage of flannel your neck quite about
    And cover your head with the sheet.

  But would you avoid the dark gloom of disease?
    Then haste to the fresh open air,
  Where your cheek may kindly be tanned by its breeze;
    'Twill make you well, happy and fair.

  O, prize not this lightly, so precious a thing;
    'Tis laden with gladness and wealth--
  The richest of blessings that heaven can bring,
    The bright panacea of health.

  Then open the window, and fasten it there!
    Fling the curtain aside and the blind.
  And give a free entrance to heaven's pure air,
    'Tis light, life, and joy to mankind.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE DEERFIELD (N. H.) PHENOMENA.


We have frequently heard of singular and unaccountable reports, as of
explosion, in Deerfield, but nothing so definite as the following
statement by a correspondent of the Portsmouth Journal.

"Mr Editor,--During the last twelve years, certain curious, not to say
alarming phenomena in the town of Deerfield, N. H., have excited the
fears of the inhabitants, and we think should, ere this, have
attracted the attention of the scientific. These are reports of
explosions in the ground, apparently of a volcanic or gaseous nature.
When first heard they were attributed to the blasting of rocks in
Manchester, a new town some ten miles distant; but from the frequency
of the reports at all hours in the night as well as the day, from the
consideration that they were so loud, and were heard in all seasons,
winter as well as summer, it was soon concluded that they had some
other origin. The explosions, if they may be so called, commenced on a
ridge of land running S. E. and N, W, some five miles in length, and
principally on that portion called the South Road. They have, however,
extended, and arc now heard in a northerly direction. The sounds have
become louder, and during the last fall and the present spring or
summer, as many as twenty have been heard in one night. Many of them
jar the houses and ground perceptibly, so much so, that a child whose
balance is not steady, will roll from one side to the other. They are
as loud as a heavy cannon fired near the house, with no reverberation,
and little roll. Last fall some of the inhabitants were riding in a
wagon when an explosion was heard, and they saw the stone wall, which
was apparently quite compact, fall over on one side of the way, and a
second after upon the other. The stone wall of an unfinished cellar
also fell in. This can be attested by many witnesses. There is no
regularity in these reports, as they are heard at intervals of a day,
a week, and sometimes of months: but for the last year they have
become very common, and are heard almost every week more or less."

       *       *       *       *       *



EXTRAORDINARY INSTANCE OF GAMBLING.


It is well known upon the western waters, that the firemen and other
hands employed upon the boats spend much of their idle time in playing
cards. Of the passion for gaming, thus excited, an instance has been
narrated to us upon the most credible authority, which surpasses the
highest wrought fictions of the gambler's fate. A colored fireman, on
board a steamboat running between Saint Louis and New-Orleans, had
lost all his money at poker with his companions. He then staked his
clothing, and being still unfortunate, pledged his own freedom for a
small amount. Losing this, the bets were doubled, and he finally at
one desperate hazard, ventured his full value as a slave, and laid
down his free papers to represent the stake. He lost, suffered his
certificates to be destroyed, and was actually sold by the winner to a
slave dealer, who hesitated not to take him at a small discount upon
his assessed value. When last heard of by one who knows him, and
informed us of the fact, he was still paying in servitude the penalty
of his criminal folly.

       *       *       *       *       *



GEN. TAYLOR'S PATRIOTISM.


In answer to the complimentary resolutions passed at a meeting in this
city some weeks since, Gen. Taylor says, "It is a source of
gratulation to me that the meeting refrained from the meditated
nomination for the presidency. For the high office in question I have
no aspirations. The government has assigned to me an arduous and
responsible duty in the prosecution of the existing war: in conducting
it with honor to the country lie all my real aspirations."

       *       *       *       *       *



THE COLUMBIAN MAGAZINE.


The October number of this splendid work will be found to be equal, if
not superior, to anything and everything of the kind in the literary
region. It presents three superb embellishments--"A Cure for Love,"
mezzotint, by Sadd; "View on the St. Lawrence," fine steel engraving,
by C. F, Giles, and a plate of fashions; in a new style, besides a
piece of first rate music. This work is published monthly by Isreal
Post, 140 Nassau st. Terms, only $3 per annum.

       *       *       *       *       *



A MOUNTAIN IN LABOR.


The workmen, says a Paris paper, are still busily engaged in
excavating Montmartre in quest of holy vases and other riches said to
have been deposited there in early days of the French revolution by
the orders of Lady Superior of the Abbey of Montmartre. Two workmen,
who were at the time charged with transporting the wealth to the place
designated were never seen, and it is supposed that they were
sacrificed to the necessity of the secret. The Superior, at her death,
bequeathed the secret to a lady friend, who in turn, on her death bed,
divulged it to her daughter, then 13 years of age. The child, now a
sexagenary, disclosed it to the municipiality. Her statements have
thus far been found scrupulously correct. The _cesarian_ operation is
actively going on, an excavation of fifty feet having been made, and
the mountain's speedy deliverance of a mine of wealth is anticipated.
May it not prove a mouse!

       *       *       *       *       *



THE POPE'S WILL.


The late Pope has left a fortune of eleven millions of francs, which,
after some religious bequests; is to be divided among his relations!
upon the singular condition that they never contest the will, and that
they never take up their residence in Rome.

       *       *       *       *       *



IMPROVED RAILROAD.


The Harlem Railroad Company have laid down a section of their road
with cast iron rails of a new construction, invented by Mr. Imley.
These rails are highly approved, and are expected to supersede the
common wrought rails to a considerable extent.

       *       *       *       *       *


It is reported that Mr. Isaac Fisk of Massachusetts, spells his name
"Eyzurk Physque." Well, what if he does?

       *       *       *       *       *



SAGEISMS.


He who is passionate and hasty is generally honest. It's your cool,
dissembling, smiling hypocrite, of whom you should beware. There is no
deceit about a bull dog. It's only the cur that sneaks up and bites
you when your back's turned. Again, we say, beware of a man who has
psalmody in his looks.

If a person is bent on quarrelling with you, leave the whole of it to
himself, and he will soon become weary of his unencouraged occupation.
Even the most malicious ram will soon cease to butt against a
disregarding object, and will usually find his own head more injured
than the object of his blind animosity. So let them kick.

An easy flow of words is no sign of an abundance of ideas. Swift made
a wise comparison when he likened a well stored mind to a crowded
church, where the people elbow each other, and cannot get out.

"If a civil word or two will render a man happy," said a French king,
"he must be a wretch indeed who will not give them to him. Such a
disposition is like lighting another man's candle by one's own, which
loses none of its brilliancy by what the other gains."

       *       *       *       *       *



IN PREPARATION.


We have in course of preparation for future numbers, some large and
elegant engravings, illustrative of some of the most interest and
deeply scientific _new inventions_, together with illustrations of
architecture, geometry and magnetism. Also a variety of intelligence
in _arts and trades_.

       *       *       *       *       *



A STRONG POSITION.


"Gentlemen of the jury," said an eminent lawyer, "there are four
points in this case. In the first place, we contend that we never had
the plaintiff's horse; second, that we paid him for the use of the
horse; third, he agreed to let us use the horse for his keeping,
without any charge; and fourth, that his horse is a jackass."

       *       *       *       *       *



AS GOOD AS CASH.


An editor out west having asked the consent of a father to his
daughter's hand in marriage, the provident old gentleman inquired how
much money he could bring the bride. The editor said he hadn't got any
money, but he would give her a puff in his paper. The father was
satisfied.

       *       *       *       *       *



HOW VERY HOT IT IS.


The following lines would have been inserted earlier, but the weather
was so hot we could not attend to it.

  Did you ever know such weather?
  Seven bright burning days together!
  Swelt'ring nights and broiling days,
  Sultry moonbeams, sun's hot rays:
  No one knows which way to turn him,
  All things either melt or burn him;
  Half the weight of all the nation,
  Is flying off in perspiration,
  And every man, and woman too,
  As languidly they look at you,
  Exclaims, with moist and mournful phiz,
    "Dear me! how very hot it is!"

  Ladies all languid in muslin array,
  Loll upon couches the live long day,
  Looking more lovely than we can say--
  Though, alas! they are rapidly melting away
  "Bring me _an ice!_" they languidly cry,
  But alas and alack! it is "all in my eye"--
  For before it reaches the top of the stairs,
  It's turned into water quite "unawares,"
  While John with his salver, looks red and stares,
  And the moist confectioner inwardly swears,
  As he wipes with his apron his long, pale phiz,
    "Oh--pooh! how infernally hot it is!"

  Oh, what a treat 'twould be to wade
  Chin deep in fresh ice and lemonade!
  Or to sit a deep marble bowl within,
  And camphor gurgling around your chin--
  Hissing and sparkling round your nose,
  Till you open your mouth and down it goes,
  Gulp by gulp, and sup by sup,
  As you "catawumpishly chew it up."
  Refreshing your heart and cooling your faces--
  Burnt down as they've been with all sorts of sauces
  Oh, the fellow who thus could lave his phiz
    Needn't care how hot the weather is!

       *       *       *       *       *


A son of the Emperor Nicholas, of Russia, is now travelling in the
United States. He is said to be an intelligent looking man.

       *       *       *       *       *



CALIFORNIA FARMING.


A gentleman, writing from California to the editors of the Saint Louis
Reveille, says his stock consists of about four thousand head of oxen,
one thousand seven hundred horses and mules, three thousand sheep, and
as many hogs. They all pasture! themselves without difficulty in the
rich prairies and bottoms of the Sacremento, and only require to be
attended. This is dune by the Indians, of whom he employs four
hundred. His annual crop of wheat is about twelve thousand bushels,
with barley, peas, beans, etc, in proportion.

       *       *       *       *       *



DIVERSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE.


_A poetic line from Gray admits of the following twenty-eight
variations without changing the accent:_

  The weary ploughman plods his homeward way,
  The ploughman, weary, plods his homeward way,
  His homeward way the weary ploughman plods,
  His homeward way the ploughman weary plods,
  The weary ploughman homeward plods his way,
  The ploughman, weary, homeward plods his way,
  His way, the weary ploughman homeward plods,
  His way, the ploughman, weary, homeward plods,
  The ploughman, homeward, plods his weary way,
  His way the ploughman, homeward, weary plods,
  His homeward weary way the ploughman plods,
  Weary, the ploughman homeward plods his way,
  Weary, the ploughman plods his homeward way,
  Homeward, his way the weary ploughman plods,
  Homeward, his way the ploughman, weary, plods,
  Homeward, his weary way, the ploughman plods,
  The ploughman, homeward, weary plods his way,
  The ploughman, weary, homeward plods his way,
  His weary way, the ploughman homeward plods,
  His weary way, the homeward ploughman plods,
  Homeward the plowman plods his weary way,
  Homeward the weary ploughman plods his way,
  The weary ploughman, his way, homeward plods,
  The ploughman, weary, his way homeward plods,
  The ploughman plods his weary, homeward way,
  Weary, the ploughman, his way homeward plods,
  Weary, his homeward way the ploughman plods.

          From the Gem of the Prairie.

       *       *       *       *       *



"KEEP THAT TESTAMENT IN YOUR VEST POCKET, OVER YOUR HEART."


We have been forcibly reminded of an interesting anecdote of the
Revolution, while witnessing so many young men in the ranks of the
volunteer companies, in connection with the highly praiseworthy
resolution of the Nashville Young Men's Bible Society, to present a
copy of the New Testament to each officer and private constituting the
regiment quartered here.

The fond-hearted mother had assisted in adjusting upon her son the
"tow frock and trowsers," had tightly secured the knapsack, canteen
and cartridge box in the strings twisted with her own fingers from the
same material as his clothes; as he turned, on opening the door, to
speak the "manly good-bye," she suppressed the parting tear, lest it
might damp the flame of freedom which fired his noble soul, and echoed
the "good-bye" with a forced smile.

As she went to the window to take another look, she discovered the
Testament had been forgotten; she caught it in her hand, ran to the
door--called him loudly, holding the book in her uplifted hand, in
order to show him why she stopped, and soon stood by his side. Without
uttering a word she put the book in its place, grasped his hand,
looked him full in the face, and with quivering lips, heart big with
emotion, checks bedewed with tears of maternal affection, she spoke:
"My son, I would not have you stay; your country has the FIRST claim
upon you; be true to that as you have been dutiful to me, and Heaven
will protect you--KEEP THAT TESTAMENT IN YOUR VEST POCKET, OVER YOUR
HEART!"

After faithfully serving the term of his enlistment, he returned to
his home. Before he uttered a word, he took from his "vest pocket" the
old Testament, and there lay British bullet, snugly imbedded where the
force of the powder had driven it, and this was the only shot he had
received while fighting for his country.--_Nashville Union_.

       *       *       *       *       *



TEMPERANCE IN THE ARMY.


We are gratified to learn that Gen. Taylor has totally prohibited the
traffic in intoxicating liquors in the vicinity of the army. One
fellow, persisting in the trade, was put in the guard house by Capt.
Miles: and when liberated, on going to Gen. Taylor's tent with a
complaint, was kicked out. He finally took marching orders _t'other
way_.

       *       *       *       *       *



MODES OF RAISING PONDEROUS ARTICLES.


A wedge is considered to be the most simple of "mechanical powers,"
and is often used in cases where no other apparatus can be made to
apply; as in splitting logs and other adhesive articles. If a massive
rock is to be elevated from the ground, a wedge must first be driven
between that and its foundation, preparatory to the application of
levers. Yet the wedge is in most cases objectionable on account of the
friction with which its use is attended. The next, and most common
power applied for elevating buildings on large rocks, is the simple
lever, commonly called a pry. This usually consists of a long straight
beam or pole, one end of which is placed under the object to be
raised, while a fulcrum consisting of a stone or block of wood, is
placed under the lever, at a short distance from the object to be
raised. The opposite extremity then being forced down by the weight of
one or more of the workmen, a force is applied to the object to be
raised, bearing the same proportion to that applied to the lever, that
the distance between the fulcrum and the extreme end of the lever does
to that between the fulcrum and the object. Levers made of iron, and
simply denominated "iron bars," are commonly used in raising and
removing rocks. A machine called a "bed-screw" is frequently used for
elevating buildings. It originally consisted principally of a large
vertical screw, which was placed on a foundation called the "bed," and
was turned by levers; but many improvements and variations have been
added, till, in some instances, the screw has been dispensed with, and
a rack and pinion have been substituted. Some of the best in use
consist of a vertical iron rack, which is occasionally forced upward
by the teeth of a pinion: a geer wheel on the same axle with the
pinion being driven by the thread of a horizontal screw, to the head
of which is attached a crank. By a machine of this construction,
properly proportioned, one man may raise about twenty tons weight.
Vertical screws, turned by levers, have been frequently used for the
purpose of raising vessels to repair. But in these cases a large
portion of the power applied is lost in the friction of the screw, and
the process is laborious and tedious. This is probably the most
awkward and injudicious method that has been applied to that purpose.
Another method which has been applied to the purpose of elevating
vessels, is decidedly ridiculous, although less laborious than the
former. It is called the "hydraulic power," and consists in forcing
water into large cylinders, by forcing pumps which are operated by
steam power; while the water thus forced into the cylinder moves a
piston and piston-rod, to which is connected several stout chains,
which passing over corresponding pulleys, descend to a platform, on
which rests the vessel to be raised. An expensive apparatus, called
the "Marine Railway," constructed on the principle of the _inclined
plane_, with a huge and complicated carriage to travel thereon, has
been extensively used for taking vessels out of the water to repair.
This plan is objectionable, however, on several accounts. It requires
the application of a great quantity of power to overcome the friction
of its many axles and machinery, in addition to what is requisite to
overcome the gravity of the vessel. It is, moreover, injurious to the
vessels which are taken up thereby, on account of its elevating the
forward part, before the centre and stern become seated on the
carriage. The most judicious mode in present use, for raising vessels
to repair, and which must be preferred to all others, where there is a
supply of water from an elevated reservoir, is on the principle of
locks; the vessel being floated into one apartment, is elevated by the
induction of water from above, till it can be floated over an elevated
platform, where it is left at rest, while the water is allowed to pass
off below. The sides of this upper box or apartment, are moveable,
being attached to the bottom or platform by hinge joints, so that they
may be let down to a horizontal position, thus giving the workmen the
advantage of light and convenience. The "dry dock" in the Navy Yard at
Charlestown, Mass., is constructed awkwardly enough; but as the
vessels at that place are not _raised_, it does not come under this
head. The massive stones which were used in the construction of some
of the ancient edifices, were evidently raised by inclined planes. A
huge mound of earth was built up round the building, completely
enclosing it; and the elevation of the mound kept pace with that of
the edifice: thus giving the laborers a chance to roll up the stones
to their places. They used no other mechanical power than the simple
windlass and lever; and no other carriage than a drag, under which was
placed rollers. When the building was completed, the earth was taken
away, and levelled about the vicinity. The modern method of raising
stones for building, and which is now used in the building of heavy
stone edifices, is by the use of a set of stout tackle blocks, the
_fall rope_ of which is taken up by a geered windlass, operated by a
steam engine; the upper block being of course attached to an elevated
_shears_ or derick. Vessels, and other bodies, which have been sunk in
the ocean, have been sometimes raised by means of airtight sacks,
attached to different parts of the object by means of diving bells,
been inflated with air, forced down through hollow tubes by pumps,
till they thus acquired a buoyancy sufficient for the purpose. The
power of buoyancy has also been applied for elevating vessels above
water, by placing hollow trunks, filled with water, under the keel of
the vessel, and then pumping them out. One of the best methods that
has ever yet been proposed for raising vessels to repair, is to place
under the keel a horizontal platform, to which is attached four large
hollow trunks under its four corners: the trunks to be filled with
water, and to have open apertures in the bottom of each. Then by
allowing a stream of atmospheric air, to rush by its own expansive
force from the reservoirs in which it had been previously compressed,
through suitable pipes or hose, into each trunk, the water is expelled
through the apertures in the bottom, and the vessel is elevated
immediately, and without loss of time. In this case, the reservoirs
(iron cylinders) of compressed air, may be recharged by steam or other
power, during the process of repairing one vessel, and be thus in
readiness for another. A patent has been granted for this invention,
but it has not yet been put in operation on a scale of practical use,
though the patentee would willingly give the right of the patent to
any person or company who should be disposed to construct the
apparatus on a large scale. We have recently given a description of
Mr. Spencer's plan for elevating vessels, and some other modes have
been recently projected, which we may describe in a future number.

       *       *       *       *       *



INFORMATION TO PERSONS HAVING BUSINESS TO
TRANSACT AT THE PATENT OFFICE.


SEC. 1. The existing laws relating to patents are those approved July
4, 1836, March 3, 1837, and March 3, 1839; all former acts having been
repealed by the act of 1836.

SEC. 2. "Patents are granted for any new and useful art, machine,
manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful
improvement on any art, machine, manufacture, or composition of
matter, not known or used by others before his or their discovery or
invention thereof, and not, at the time of his application for a
patent, in public use, or on sale, with his or their consent, or
allowance, as the inventor or discoverer." Act of 1836, section 6. "No
patent shall be held to be invalid by reason of the purchase, sale, or
use [of the invention,] prior to the application for a patent as
aforesaid, except on proof of abandonment of such invention to the
public, or that such purchase, sale or public use, has been for more
than two years prior to such application for a patent."--Act of March
3, 1839.

SEC. 3. The term for which a patent is granted, is fourteen years; but
it may, under certain circumstances, be renewed for seven years, as
hereinafter mentioned.

SEC. 4. Patents are granted to citizens of the United States, to
aliens who shall have been resident in the United States one year
preceding, and shall have made oath of their intention to become
citizens thereof, and also to foreigners who are inventors or
discoverers.

SEC. 5. A patent may be taken out by the inventor in a foreign
country, without affecting his right to a patent in the United States,
provided the invention has not been introduced into public and common
use in the United States prior to the application for such patent. In
every such case the patent is limited to fourteen years from the date
of the foreign letter patent. A patent is not granted upon
introduction of a new invention from a foreign country, unless the
person who introduced it be the inventor or discoverer. If an alien
neglects to put and continue on sale the invention in the United
States, to the public, on reasonable terms, for eighteen months, the
patentee Uses all benefit of the patent.

SEC. 6. Joint inventors are entitled to a joint patent, but neither
can claim one separately.

SEC. 7. An invention can assign his right before a patent is obtained,
so as to enable the assignee to take out a patent in his own name; but
the assignment must be first entered on record; and the application
therefor must be duly made, and the specification signed, and sworn to
by the inventor. And in the case of an assignment by a foreigner, the
same fee will be required as if the patent issued to the inventor.

SEC. 8. The assignment of a patent may be to the whole or to an
undivided part, "by any instrument in writing." All assignments, and
also the grant or conveyance of the use of the patent in any town,
comity, State, or specified district, must be recorded in the Patent
Office, within three months from date of the same.--But assignments,
if recorded after three months have expired, will be on record as
notice to protect against subsequent purchases. No fee is now charged
for recording assignments. Patents, grants, and assignments, recorded
prior to the 15th of December, 1836, must be recorded anew before they
can be valid as evidence of any title. This is also free of expense.

SEC. 9. In case of the decease of an inventor, before he had obtained
a patent for his invention, "the right of applying for and obtaining
such patent shall devolve on the administrator or executor of such
person, in trust for the heirs of law of the deceased, if he shall
have died intestate; but if otherwise, then in trust for his devisees,
in as full and ample manner, and under the same conditions,
limitations, and restrictions, as the same was held, or might have
been claimed or enjoyed, by such person in his or her lifetime; and
when application for a patent shall be made by such legal
representatives, the oath or affirmation shall be so varied as to be
applicable to them."--Act of 1836, sec. 10.

SEC. 10, The Patent Office will be open for examination during office
hours, and applicants can personally, or by attorney, satisfy
themselves on inspection of models and specifications, of the
expediency of filing an application for a patent.

SEC. 11. All fees received are paid into the Treasury, and the law has
required the payment of the patent fee before the application is
considered; two-thirds of which fee is refunded on withdrawing the
application. But no money is refunded on the withdrawal of an
application, after an appeal has been taken from the decision of the
Commissioner of Patents. And no part of the fee paid for caveats, and
on applications for the addition of improvements re-issues, and
appeals, can be withdrawn.

SEC. 12. It is a frequent practice for inventors to send a description
of their inventions to the office, and inquire whether there exists
any thing like it, and whether a patent can be had therefor. _As the
law does not provide for the examination of descriptions of new
inventions, except upon application for a Patent, no answer can be
given to such inquiries_.

       *       *       *       *       *


A sentimental writer says it is astonishing how much light a man may
radiate upon the world around him, especially when the body he admires
is beside him.

       *       *       *       *       *


Among the persons who recently laid in the Boston jail over Sunday,
and were fined Monday morning for intemperance or rowdyism, were a
member of the bar and a clergy man.

       *       *       *       *       *


Said a bishop to a rough wagoner, "you seem better fed than taught."
"Of course," replied the fellow, "for we _feed_ ourselves, but for
teaching we depend on _you._"

       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: The Reg(ulator?)]


The use of a pair of conical drums in reversed position, and connected
by a band, as shown in the cut, has been known for several years to a
few, but yet are not extensively known, and but a few of them have
been seen in operation in this country. It will be seen that if the
band be removed laterally, either to the right or left, the relative
motion of drums will be materially varied. These drums being arranged
to constitute a connection of motion between the driving power and
driven machine, may be made to render the motion of the latter either
regular or irregular at the option of the operator. If the band
connecting the drums, is governed by a shifting lever connected with a
_governor_, it may be so adjusted as to keep the motion of the machine
regular, although the driving power should be irregular in its motion,
as is the case with a wind-wheel. But if the operator is engaged,
requires a move rapid motion at one time than at another, he can
accommodate himself by shifting the position of the cone-band, to the
right or left, as occasion may require. This is very convenient for
turners, whose business requires at some times a rapid speed of the
mandrill, and at other times a slow or gentle motion. These drums, as
represented, must be swelled in the centre, that the band may be kept
uniformly straight.

       *       *       *       *       *



A REMARKABLE MINERAL SPRING.


It may not perhaps be generally known even to our own citizens that
there is in the town of Riga, N.Y., one mile east of Churchville, on
the farm of Linus Pierson, a Mineral Spring, the gases from which are
sufficiently combustible to burn as clear and brightly as a lamp, at
all times of the day and night, and which is never exhausted. The
spring is located near the bathing-house on the farm, and a tube has
been constructed, leading from the spring to the rooms, by means of
which the house is made sufficiently light without the use of lamps.
Some time ago the State Geological Surveyors paid this spring a visit,
and analyzed the gas, which was found to be composed of sulphurated
and carbonated hydrogen. The water is strongly impregnated with iron.

       *       *       *       *       *



COOL FORETHOUGHT.


One of the most admirable instances of prudential forethought we have
ever heard of, occurred in Boston a few days since. Three Irishmen
were engaged in taking down a wall in Mount Vernon street. The wall
fell upon and buried them. A lady from the opposite side of the street
rushed out, and calling to those who were rescuing the poor fellows,
said, "Bring them in here. Bring them in here. I have been expecting
this all day." The men were carried into her house, and, true enough,
she had "every thing ready," bandages, lint, laudanum, and all. If
this be not an instance of _cool forethought_, we know not what is.

       *       *       *       *       *



IT MAY BE SO.


It is stated in a Cincinnati paper, that the body of a drowned child
has been discovered by means of a loaf of bread in which was deposited
a quantity of quicksilver. The loaf was sent afloat in the canal, and
after floating some distance, remained stationary, and beneath the
spot thus indicated, the child was found. That mercury may have a
natural attraction towards a human body, is possible; but the use of
the loaf of bread in combination, indicate a superstitious faith
rather than real science.

       *       *       *       *       *


Several rich lead mines have recently been discovered on the
Mississippi River, a few miles above Bellevue. The unusual low state
of the river lead to the discovery.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW INVENTIONS.


HOWE'S SEWING MACHINE.


We have heretofore noticed the extraordinary invention by Mr. Elias
Howe, Jr., of Cambridge, Mass.--a machine that sews beautiful and
strong seams in cloth as rapid as nine tailors. We are not yet
prepared to furnish a full description of this machine, but the
following claims, in the words of the patentee, may give some idea of
the various parts in combination. This machine was patented September
10th.

"I claim the lifting of the thread that passes through the needle eye
by the lifting rod, for the purpose of forming a loop of loose thread
that is to be subsequently drawn in by the passage of the shuttle;
said lifting rod being furnished with a lifting pin, and governed in
its motions by the guide pieces and other devices.

"I claim the holding of the thread that is given out by the shuttle,
so as to prevent its unwinding from the shuttle bobbin, after the
shuttle has passed through the loop, said thread being held by means
of the lever, or clipping piece.

"I claim the manner of arranging and combining the small lever, with
the sliding box in combination with the spring piece, for the purpose
of tightening the stitch as the needle is retracted.

"I claim the holding of the cloth to be sewn, by the use of a baster
plate, furnished with points for that purpose, and with holes enabling
it to operate as a rack, thereby carrying the cloth forward, and
dispensing altogether with the necessity of basting the parts
together."

       *       *       *       *       *



STEERING APPARATUS.


Mr. R. C. Holmes, says the United States Gazette, has invented a new
application of the tiller rope to the wheel for steering vessels, and
has prepared a model of the whole application, tiller-frame, wheel,
and rope, so that the properties of the invention can be easily
discovered. The advantages are that there is no slack made; and,
consequently, there is no chafing, and a single hand at the wheel will
do the ordinary work of two men.

       *       *       *       *       *



ELECTRO-MAGNETIC BOAT.


It is stated in some of our exchanges, that Dr. Page, of Washington,
has perfected a boat to be propelled by the electro-magnetic power. We
know of no man better qualified to produce and introduce successfully
such an invention, and we feel assured that whatever enterprise Dr.
Page undertakes in that line, will be very apt to go ahead. We hope
soon to obtain further intelligence on the subject.

       *       *       *       *       *


It is reported that the British government has granted $100,000 per
annum to the royal company of Atlantic steamers, for the establishment
of a post route to the Pacific, across the Isthmus of Panama.

       *       *       *       *       *



IMPROVEMENT IN BOATS.


There is a model of a steamboat to be seen on the Chesapeake, invented
and constructed by Cyrus Williams, Esq., which is exciting
considerable interest among steamboat men. It is in the usual form of
a boat, but more flat-bottomed, and much longer in proportion to its
width, than the boats now in use, giving it a greater surface to the
water, and of course a lighter draught. The improvement is in applying
the bridge principle of bearers in supporting length of boats. It
looks perfectly feasible. Mr. Williams thinks it will be a great
saving of expense, as it takes much less timber, and all of it can be
sawed in a mill, being straight stuff. He offers to build a boat on
this model, furnishing one third of the stock, and if it does not make
25 miles to the hour, he will forfeit his share.

       *       *       *       *       *



CASTING IRON CANNON BY A GALVANIC PROCESS.


A hoaxical looking article, under the above caption, is going the
rounds, and represents that successful experiments on this subject
have been recently made at Berlin. As no description or illustration
of the process or principle is given, we leave the subject for those
who are ever ready to swallow whatever appears in a newspaper, without
regard to probability.

       *       *       *       *       *



NEW SHINGLE MACHINE.


Among the patents particularly noticed in the Commissioner's report,
is one for a shingle machine, which cuts the shingles in a peculiar
form. The shingles cut by this machine does not taper from one
extremity to the other, but the taper is confined to about half the
length of it at one end, the faces of the remaining half being
parallel to each other. This shape of the shingle avoids the bending
which is incidental to those of the ordinary form, when nailed upon
the roof--an object well worthy of attainment.

       *       *       *       *       *



IMPROVEMENT IN BLACKSMITHS FORGES.


This invention was entered at the Patent Office on the 15th instant,
by James K. Hobbs. The improvement consists in the placing of
grate-bars at the bottom of the fire chamber, below which is an open
air chamber into which the cinders and ashes fall through the grate,
instead of accumulating and clogging the fire chamber. The cinders may
be drawn out of the air chamber by an opening at the side of the
forge. The blast is admitted above the grate, and the mouth of the air
chamber being ordinarily closed, the blast is not affected by the
grate. We think it must prove a useful invention.

       *       *       *       *       *



IMPROVED FIRE ENGINE.


This improvement consists in part, in the arrangement of two sets of
levers and hand poles on each side, in such a manner that "when force
is applied to the hand-poles of the outside levers, in a reverse
direction to that which is applied to the hand poles of the inside
levers, both powers will agree in forcing the pistons of the pumps in
one and the same direction, while the reverse motion of the levers
will prevent the engine from rocking". Entered at the Patent Office, on
the 10th instant, by Barton & Button.

       *       *       *       *       *



A SIMPLE CHEESE-PRESS.

[Illustration]


An ingenious mechanic, not long since, hearing some persons conversing
on the ordinary cost of cheese-presses, which is generally from three
to six dollars, boldly averred that he could build a cheese-press in
one hour, which would answer a good purpose as such, and which might
be afforded for fifty cents. Being bantered on the subject, he went to
work, and by means of a good lathe and boring machine, he actually
produced his cheese-press within the hour; though not very smoothly
finished. We give a sketch of it at the head of this article,--too
plain to require explanation. Subsequently, several others were made
on the same plan.

       *       *       *       *       *



CAST IRON ROOFING.


A specimen of cast-iron plates for roofing of buildings, says the
Philadelphia Ledger, has been exhibited at the Exchange, in
Philadelphia, by the inventor and patentee, Mr. Wm. Beach. The plates
are about a foot square, and are made to fit one into another so as to
render the roof perfectly water-tight, with the application of white
lead to the joints. In every respect this material for roofing is
preferable to any other description now in use. As to its durability,
there can be no doubt that it would remain perfectly whole for ages,
if covered occasionally with a coat of paint, and even without that
preservative, rust would not affect it materially for a period of
fifty years at least. As compared with copper, the cost would be
nearly one half, as it is expected the iron can be furnished at 16
cents per square foot, while copper would at the most moderate
estimate cost 28 cents. As regards the weight of an iron roof, which
at first sight would appear an objection, it is far less than one
formed of slate, and does not much exceed one of copper. The iron
plates weigh three and a half pounds per square foot. A slate roof
would cost about eight cents per square foot, but for durability, and
the ease with which it can be put on and made water tight, the iron
roofing would appear to be far preferable. The plates exhibited were
cast at Troy, New York, and are of the very best quality. The patent
for the eastern States is now owned by Mr. Hiram Hemmistone, of Troy,
in which neighborhood the adaptation of such a durable material for
roofing is rapidly attracting public attention there. Starbuck's
machine shop and foundry at Troy has been covered on this plan, and it
has also been adopted for the roofing of an arsenal at West Point.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE NEW AND WONDERFUL PAVEMENT.


We presented in a late number, a brief extract from an article on this
subject from the "Eureka," and should have thought no more of it, had
we not observed the following notice editorial in the N, Y. Farmer and
Mechanic. We copy the article entire, that our readers may judge for
themselves whether the style and statements savor most of reality or
humbug.

"NEW PAVEMENTS.--A new system of making streets has been made known to
us;--but as it will be the subject of Patents, here and in Europe, we
can only give some of its most prominent features. A material or
composition, of a very cheap character, has been invented, as hard,
strong and compact as flint. It is formed into any desirable shape in
the course of manufacture. From this, streets of any grade may be
formed, and in such a way as to entirely secure a permanent and level
surface to its proper arch; it can be taken up in five minutes, so as
to get at the water pipes, and on being replaced will, from necessity,
resume its first position. In durability, it will last ten times as
long as granite, and twenty times as long as the common paving,
without liability to require repair. It is so laid that frost and
storms cannot affect it. But we shall have occasion to refer to it
again".--Persons wishing information may inquire of Kingsley & Pirsson,
No. 5 Wall street.

       *       *       *       *       *



TO RENDER SHINGLES DURABLE.


One of our exchanges mentions an experiment which was made
twenty-seven years ago, of dipping shingles into hot linseed oil prior
to nailing them on the roof: and although they have not been painted,
they are said to continue perfectly sound as when first put on. They
were of the common pine, and as much exposed as roofs in general. This
instance may be sufficient to establish the fact that shingles thus
prepared, will last longer without painting than they could possibly
be preserved by painting in the usual way. As a security against fire,
however, we should recommend that they be first dipped in a hot
solution of common salt; and afterward, when dry, be dipped in the hot
oil. The expense will be trifling, and there can be no doubt of their
durability, and there will be no danger of their taking fire from
sparks or cinders.

       *       *       *       *       *



BEST PLAN OF A BARN.


Perhaps no building on the farm in the Northern States is of more
importance than the barn. Those who have had the charge of cattle
during our long winters, can at once see that much time and hard labor
could be saved by a judicious arrangement of stalls, and bay or bay
lots, granaries, &c, so that every creature could be fed by taking as
few steps as possible. One very important thing to be considered, is
the best mode of preserving as well as collecting manure, so that it
shall retain all its valuable properties in the spring, and be easily
got out. We like the plan of having a barn on the side of a hill, and
so arranged that you may drive your cart load in pretty near the ridge
pole, and thus pitch most of your hay down instead of up. Having your
stalls under the hay, you can continue to pitch the hay down, and if
you have a cellar beneath, you can throw the manure down also, and
thus make the attraction of gravitation perform much of the labor of
transportation from the mow to the manure cart.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Westfield, Mass., News-Letter states that there are between 25 and
30 manufacturers of whips in that town, who employ not less than 1000
braiders, beside their shop hands.

       *       *       *       *       *



ROBERT FULTON.


Robert Fulton, a celebrated engineer, whose name is connected with
steamboat navigation, was born in the town of Little Britain, in the
state of Pennsylvania, in 1765. His genius disclosed itself at an
early period. He was attracted to the shops of mechanics; and at the
age of seven he painted landscapes and portraits in Philadelphia. Thus
he was enabled in part to purchase a small farm for his widowed
mother. At the age of twenty-one, he by the advice of his friends
repaired to London, to place himself under guidance of Mr. West, the
painter, and by him was kindly received, and admitted as an inmate of
his house for several years. Prosecuting his business as painter, he
spent two years in Devonshire, where he became acquainted with the
duke of Bridgewater and with lord Stanhope, well known for his
attachment to the mechanic arts. In 1793, he engaged in the project of
improving inland navigation, and in 1796, obtained patents for a
double inclined plane, and for machines for spinning flax and making
ropes. The subject of canals now chiefly occupied his attention, and
at this period, in 1796, his work on canals was published. In his
profession of civil engineer he was greatly benefitted by his skill in
drawing and painting. He went to Paris in 1797, and being received
into the family of Joel Barlow, he there spent seven years, studying
chemistry, physics and mathematics, and acquiring a knowledge of the
French, Italian, and German languages. In Dec. 1797, he made his first
experiment on sub-marine explosion in the Seine, but without success.
His plan for a sub-marine boat was afterwards perfected.--In 1801,
while he was residing with his friend, Mr. Barlow, he met in Paris
Chancellor Livingston, the American minister, who explained to him the
importance in America of navigating boats by steam. Mr. Fulton had
already conceived the project as early as 1793, as appears by his
letter to lord Stanhope. He now engaged anew in the affair, and at the
common expense of himself and Mr. Livingston built a boat on the
Seine, in 1803, and successfully navigated the river. The principles
of the steam engine he did not invent; he claimed only the application
of that machine to water wheel, for propelling vessels. In 1806 he
returned to America; he and Mr. Livingston built, in 1807, the first
boat, the Clermont, 130 feet in length, which navigated the Hudson at
the rate of five miles an hour. Nothing could exceed the surprise and
admiration of all who witnessed the experiment. The minds of the most
incredulous were, changed in a few minutes. Before the boat had made
the progress of a quarter of a mile, the greatest unbeliever must have
been converted. The man who, while he looked on the expensive machine,
thanked his stars that he had more wisdom than to waste his money on
such idle schemes, changed the expression of his features as the boat
moved from the wharf and gained her speed, and his complacent
expression gradually softened into one of wonder. The jeers of the
ignorant, who had neither sense nor feeling to suppress their
contemptuous ridicule and rude jokes, were silenced for a moment by a
vulgar astonishment, which deprived them of the power of utterance,
till the triumph of genius extorted from the incredulous multitude
which crowded the shores, shouts and acclamations of congratulation
and applause. In February, 1809, he took out his first patent. In 1811
and 1812, he built two steam ferry boats for crossing the Hudson; he
contrived also a very ingenious floating dock for the reception of
those boats. In 1813, he obtained a patent for a sub-marine battery.
Conceiving the plan of a steam man-of-war, the government, in March
1814, appropriated $320,000 for constructing it, and appointed him the
engineer. In about four months, she was launched with the name of
Fulton the First; but before this frigate was finished, Fulton had
paid the debt of nature.

       *       *       *       *       *


The population of Great Britain for the last ten years shows an
average annual increase of 230,000. The population of London has
increased 27 per cent. within fifteen years.

       *       *       *       *       *


Within the last 16 years, 612 steamboats have been built in
Pittsburg--besides 31 the present year.

       *       *       *       *       *



INTRODUCTION TO VOLUME II.


With our best bow, we present ourselves before our friends and the
public, in a new dress, from head to foot, and though conscious of
appearing rather plain and quaker-like, we can assure our friends that
in this, we conform to the newest fashion, and have no doubt of being
treated civilly by as large a portion of the public, as if we had
appeared with more gay feathers in our cap, with starched ruffles and
gilt buttons and trimmings. In this, however, we would not be
understood to boast, of any peculiar evidence of taste of our own, as
we have been induced in this instance, to submit wholly to that of our
tailors, who it must be conceded, understand these things much better;
while we have only to regard alertness and independence of movement,
with a little vivacity, and intelligence of conversation.--Our general
principles, and rules of self-government will continue according to
our original pledge, and the policy pursued in our first volume: we
shall endeavor to encourage and excite a spirit of enterprise and
emulation in artists, manufactures and mechanics, while we present
such instruction and useful intelligence in arts and trades, practical
science and new discoveries, inventions and improvements, as will add
to the facilities of enterprise, and conduce to the prosperity and
independence of the working class in particular. And that we may
furnish an acceptable family newspaper, we shall continue to give in a
brief and condensed form, the most useful and interesting intelligence
of passing events,--not omitting a small portion of serious matter,
suitable for Sunday reading, but avoiding the disgusting and
pernicious details of crime, with which too many of our public
journals abound, and which evidently produces a deleterious effect on
the morals of the community. With regard to political and sectarian
subjects, however, we feel much inclined to change our style of
neutrality so far as to advocate all parties, sects and denominations,
each in its turn, which course may be more in accordance with our own
maxim of "enlightening and pleasing," than either growling policy, or
the affected indifference and cold inattention which tends to produce
a reciprocity of coldness, and pleases none. On the subject of policy
and rules, we might say more; but having already said twice as much as
we at first intended, and finding ourselves near the bottom of the
scrap on which we scribble, we have only to find some suitable form of
sentence wherewith to round off this subject; and for this purpose,
without wishing to be suspected of any motives of interest, we would
gently and respectfully suggest to our readers the propriety of
advancing the intelligence, enterprise and consequent prosperity of
the community, by introducing and recommending to the patronage of
all, this same SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.

       *       *       *       *       *



ADVANTAGE OF LOW FARES.


During the month of July, 1845, when the fare between New York and
Boston was reduced to the "ruinous rates" of only two dollars, the
receipts on the different routes were $45,208; but during the
corresponding month of the present year, with the fare up to four
dollars, the receipts have been only $35,963: being _nine thousand two
hundred and forty-five dollars_ less for a single month, than when the
fares were at half-price.

       *       *       *       *       *



AVALON RAILROAD IRON.


The Covington Manufacturing Co. at their Avalon works, near
Baltimore, are now delivering, under their contract, the iron for the
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. This iron is made exclusively of the best
quality of Baltimore charcoal pig iron. The fixtures by which it is
manufactured are of the most approved description, and embrace several
original improvements, by means of which nearly every bar is made
perfect.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE MAGNETIC TELEGRAPH.


LINE TO BURLINGTON, VT.--A movement appears to be in progress in
Vermont for establishing a line of telegraphic communication from
Springfield or Albany to Burlington. Much confidence is expressed by
some of the Vermont papers that the enterprise will be carried
through.

It is stated that the Magnetic Telegraph will extended from Washington
city to Richmond, and completed before the middle of December next.

TELEGRAPH TO CANADA.--It affords us great satisfaction, says the
Montreal Herald, to learn that there is a great probability of the
"lightning lines"--the Electric Telegraph--being extended from the
great cities of the United States to Montreal and Quebec. A gentleman
is now in town, and has submitted proposals to the Board of Trade for
making an immediate commencement with this most, important public
work. This line is expected to be extended to Montreal from Saratoga,
to which place a line is already in operation.

The line between New York and Buffalo having been recently completed,
the following is reported to have been the first telegraphic
conversation on the occasion.

GENERAL CHAT BY LIGHTNING.--At one o'clock, P. M., precisely, the
Telegraph Line connected through the whole distance from New York to
Buffalo, 507 miles.

Upon turning the adjusting screw of the magnet by Prof. Morse, all
things were found right, and Prof. Morse sent his compliments to all
the operators on the line.

The first to answer was Albany.

"The compliments of the _Albany_ Office to Prof. Morse and Mr. Wood."

"_Utica_ Office wishes to be remembered to Prof. Morse and Mr. Wood."

"_Auburn_ Office sends compliments to Prof. Morse and Mr. Wood."

"_Buffalo_ sends compliments to Prof. Morse and Mr. Wood, and presents
_Lake Erie_ to _Old Ocean_."

"_Rochester_ Office sends compliments to Prof. Morse and Mr. Wood, and
presents _Erie Canal_ to _Croton Aqueduct_."

"_Auburn_ presents _State Prison_ to the _Tombs_."

"_Syracuse_ sends compliments to Prof. Morse, and asks how are the
Yorkers."

"_Troy_ says, Now give me a chance. Compliments to Prof. Morse and Mr.
Wood; and now for business, if there is any."

"_Utica_ asks, Need we keep dark any longer?"

"_Troy_ answers, No. Announce it to the four winds that Buffalo and
New York _are no longer separated--they talk to each other by
lightning._"

This entire dialogue occupied somewhat less than _five minutes_!

       *       *       *       *       *


Setts of thirty-six numbers of the last volume of this paper, may be
had for one dollar--very cheap. Any one desiring them may enclose the
amount to the publishers.

       *       *       *       *       *



ADVERTISING IN LONDON.


A new and "improved" mode of advertising has been introduced in
London; which is to furnish laborers, carmen, &e. with while frocks or
jackets, on the backs of which are printed in large characters, the
advertisements of hotels, tradesmen, &c. The wearers of the bills are
generally allowed a small compensation.

       *       *       *       *       *



DEERFIELD BRIDGE.


The railroad bridge at Deerfield, Mass., is said to be a splendid
affair. It is fifty feet above the traveled stage road bridge, and
nearly eighty feet above the waters of the river. The piers are
already erected, and nearly ready for the superstructure.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Artesian well at South Boston has been sunk to the depth of nearly
400 feet. The boring machine is worked by steam power, and progresses
about 12 feet per day.

       *       *       *       *       *


Some impudent doctor says that tight lacing is a public benefit; for
it kills off the foolish girls, and leaves the wise ones for good
wives and mothers.

       *       *       *       *       *


An exchange remarks--"When we see a man kick a horse, we say at
once, that he never need come to court our daughter, for he should not
have her if he was worth a million."

       *       *       *       *       *



INFORMATION WANTED.


Mr. Editor,--I have a saw-mill which draws thirty-six square inches of
water, under thirty feet head. I wish to build another below with only
twenty feet head of water. How many square inches aperture will be
required to discharge the same quantity in the same time? If some of
your correspondents will give me an answer, they will much oblige me.
R. C. Navarino, Sept. 7, 1846.

We shall have no occasion to depend on correspondents for the
intelligence above required. Thirty-six inches of aperture under
thirty feet head, will admit the discharge of 660 cubic feet of water
per minute; the velocity of the water being forty-four feet per
second. Under twenty feet head the velocity is only thirty-six feet
per second, and consequently forty-four inches aperture is required to
discharge an equal quantity.

_Rule in Hydraulics_: (never before published.) To ascertain the
velocity of water issuing through an aperture under a given head:
Multiply the head in feet by 62, and the square root of the product
will show the velocity in feet per second.

       *       *       *       *       *



RAILROAD INTELLIGENCE.


Old Colony Railroad, from Boston to Plymouth, Mass., has for some time
past been in full operation, and is doing a fair business.

The whole amount of the stock of the Michigan Central
Railroad--$2,000,000--has been taken up, and of course the enterprise
will go forward.

On the first day of the opening of the subscription books for the
stock of the New York and Boston Railroad, the people of Middletown
took shares to the amount of $350,000; and they expect to go up to
half a million.

The Cheshire N. H. Railroad is going ahead rapidly, the grading and
bridging on every part of the line being in progress. This road is to
be carried over the Connecticut River at or near Bellows' Falls.

The stock of the Wilton N. H. Branch Railroad is said to be all taken
up.

A General Meeting of the proprietors of the St. Lawrence and Atlantic
Railway was recently held at Montreal. It appears by the report of the
board of directors, that 5,364 shares had been taken up, amounting to
about £1,200,000. All parties appear to be confident that this road
will be constructed and in operation at an early day.

The Little Miami Railroad having been opened to Springfield, is doing
a fair business, and adds important facilities to trade in that
section.

The directors of the New York and Erie Railroad are said to be "going
on with it in the right way to accomplish the great object of the
undertaking." Contracts are already made for the construction of the
road as far as the valley of the Delaware. Proposals for grading 133
miles more are advertised for, which will carry the road to
Binghampton, 270 miles from New York.

       *       *       *       *       *


It is asserted that of all single marriageable ladies who reached
Oregon last season, two-thirds were married before the first of March.

       *       *       *       *       *


Alexandria has decided on re-annexation to Virginia, by a vote of 633
to 197. Probably some of her citizens want to be Governors and
Representatives.

       *       *       *       *       *


The arrival of the new steamship Southerner in Charleston, 57 hours
from New York, excited much admiration. She brought 125 passengers;
and was pronounced decidedly the handsomest vessel seen in those
waters.

       *       *       *       *       *


The price of flour at Buffalo, on the 18th inst., was $3.70 per
barrel. Corn, 49 cents per bushel.

       *       *       *       *       *


Mr. J. B. Gough, who has been for some time seriously indisposed, has
nearly recovered his health, and returned north.

       *       *       *       *       *


Gold is imported from St. Petersburgh to London, at the rate of
$500,000 per month.--The mining business in Russia is increasing.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Boston Common Council charge $600 per annum for the licenses of
the Howard and National Theatres, with the condition that spirituous
liquors shall not be sold, and no female admitted unless in company
with a male.

       *       *       *       *       *



LATEST NEWS:

[Illustration: Latest News]

ARRIVAL OF THE CAMBRIA.


The steamship Cambria arrived at Boston on Friday, the 18th inst.,
thirteen days from Liverpool. From the news by this arrival, we select
the following brief items:--not very interesting, but better than
none.

       *       *       *       *       *


The man Henry, who lately attempted to shoot the King of France, has
been tried and condemned to work in the galleys for life.--During his
trial, he expressed a wish to be condemned to death, but the request
was not granted.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Bank of England has reduced its rate of interest to 3 per cent.,
whereby greater facilities are given to trade to counteract the
depression likely to proceed from other causes.

       *       *       *       *       *


The British ship America recently arrived from the coast of Mexico and
Peru, liberally laden with specie, the amount whereof is stated at
_six millions of dollars_, which, in silver, would make nearly two
hundred and fifty tons.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Queen of Spain, Isabella, has decided to marry her cousin, the
Duke de Cadiz; thus putting to rest a subject which has long agitated
the circles of royalty in Europe.

       *       *       *       *       *


Late news from the east furnishes the report that robberies and
piracies are of hourly occurrence in the immediate vicinity of Hong
Kong. An ordinance had been promulgated in China for the relief of
debtors.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Cambria brought 133 passengers, among whom were Hon. Washington
Irving, our late minister to Spain, and the celebrated "Cruikshanks,"
the caricaturist.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE MEXICAN WAR.


The latest news from Mexico, and from our army, represent affairs in a
most quaint and ludicrous light, with regard to the policy and
movements of all parties. The average progress of the army of invasion
appears to be about three miles a day, with no opposition, nor
prospect of any; while the Mexicans are tame as bullfrogs, showing no
disposition to either fight or run. Gen. Parades having got sick of
his job, has suffered himself to be imprisoned at the approach of
Santa Anna, who has returned and resumed the government without
opposition. Mr. Polk having sent an embassy, virtually asking
permission to "give it up," has been refused a hearing, unless he will
first withdraw our troops from the Mexican territory; while the
Mexican army appointed to combat and conquer Gen. Taylor, remains at
ease and content at Mexico, calculating, probably, that the longer
they wait, the less distance they will have to travel to encounter the
Yankees. Whether our President will call off Gen. Taylor with the
American troops, before they reach anywhere in particular, remains to
be decided.

       *       *       *       *       *



TRADE TO SANTA FE.


The trade to Santa Fe is said to be much greater this year than ever
before. Thirty-nine companies of traders have gone out this season,
taking with them four hundred and thirteen wagons, which are in the
charge of about eighteen hundred men. The value of the goods carried
out by these traders, is estimated at nearly a million of dollars.

       *       *       *       *       *


A large mastiff dog picked up a favorite lap dog in the upper part of
the city last week, and ran off with it. He was pursued by a mob, and
after a severe chase, the terrified pet was recovered and brought back
rejoicing.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.


Persons wishing to subscribe for this paper, have only to enclose the
amount in a letter directed (post paid) to

            MUNN & COMPANY,
Publishers of the Scientific American, New York City.

TERMS.--$2 a year; ONE DOLLAR IN ADVANCE--the remainder in 6 months.

_Postmasters_ are respectfully requested to receive subscriptions for
this paper, to whom a discount of 25 per cent will be allowed.

Any person sending us 4 subscribers for 6 months, shall receive a copy
of the paper for the same length of time, gratis.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE HARBOR OF HAVANA


[Illustration: Havana Harbor]


Our engraving represents a view of the harbor of Havana, which is one
of the most commodious in the world, communicating with the sea by a
channel little more than half a mile in length, and from 300 to 350
yards wide; its depth varying from eight to ten fathoms. The harbor
itself is an oblong basin, surrounded by heights which usually shelter
it from the wind.

Havana is a place of considerable strength, and, besides the walls and
ditches which surround it, the city is defended by six strongholds,
called the Moro, the Cobanas, No. 4, the Atares, the Principie and the
Putna. The first and last serve to protect the entrance of the harbor,
the second is a sort of citadel and the others are so placed as to
cover the approaches by land. The line of fortification, embraces a
sort of irregular polygon of an eliptical form, the greatest diameter
of which is 2,100 yards, and the smallest 1,200 yards in extent. The
entrance between the Moro and Putna, castles is about 1,500 yards
long, and in its narrowest part 350 yards wide. In the arsenal of the
Havana, there have been built 49 ships of the line, 22 frigates, 7
packet ships, 9 brigs of war, and 15 schooners of war.

The town is built on the western side of the basin, near the channel,
on a kind of promontory. The suburbs, or _barrios esta muros_, cover
more ground and contain a larger population than the city itself, and
yet they are so intimately connected with it, that the first of the
houses in the suburban street, stands on the very edge of the
_glacis_.

The streets are narrow, crooked, and generally unpaved, but they
contain some well-built houses. There are, too, several good buildings
among the churches, one of which contains the remains of Christopher
Columbus. The other large edifices, as the Palace of the Government
(shown to the right of the engraving,) that of the commandant of the
marine, the arsenal, the post-office, and the building used for the
manufacture of tobacco, are less remarkable for their architecture
than for their solidity. Besides these, the city contains nine parish
churches; six other churches, connected with hospitals and military
orders; five chapels or hermitages; the Caza Cuna, a foundling
hospital; and eleven convents, four for women, and seven for men. The
other public establishments are the University, the colleges of San
Carlos and San Francisco de Soles, the Botanic Garden, the Anatomical
Museum and lecture rooms, the Academy of Painting and Design, a school
of Navigation, and seventy-eight common schools for both sexes. These
places of education are all under the protection of the Patriotic
Society and the municipal authorities. The charitable institutions
consist of the _Caza de Beneficiencia_, for both sexes, a
penitentiary, a Magdalen Asylum, and seven hospitals--one of them
contains a lunatic asylum. There are, besides, three theatres, an
amphitheatre for bull fights, _plaza de toros_, and several public
promenades, such as the Alameda and the Paseo Nuevo; In Turnbull's
"Travels in Cuba," published by Longman & Co., London, 1840, the city
is said to contain 3,671 houses within the walls, all built of stone;
and in the suburbs, 7,968, of various materials. The number of private
carriages for hire amounted, in 1827, to 2,651, and they are certainly
now more numerous. In the same year, the population was 122,023--the
whites were 46,621; the free negroes, 15,347; the free mulattoes,
8,215; the negro slaves, 22,830, and the mulatto slaves 1,010.

Turnbull, speaking of the _Real Caza de Beneficencia_, says: "Girls
are not admitted to the institution after 10 years of age; and, being
entirely supported there, they are completely separated from their
parents and their families, until the time of their final removal from
the establishment has arrived. They are taught the various branches of
needle-work and dress-making, and receive such other instruction as
may sufficiently qualify them for becoming domestic servants,
housemaids, cooks or washerwomen. They are not suffered, by the
regulations, to remain in the house after the age of twenty-one: but,
before that time, it is the duty of the _junta_, or committee of
management, to endeavor to procure employment for them earlier in a
private family or in some house of business. Should the circumstances
of the parents have improved during the stay of their daughter at the
institution, they are not suffered to take her away until they have
paid her previous board and education at the rate of fifteen dollars a
month; but if the girl herself has acquired property by inheritance,
or is able to improve her condition by marriage or otherwise,
independent of her parents, she is suffered to leave the house without
any payment; and, in the event of her marriage to the satisfaction of
the junta, a little dowry is provided for her, amounting to $500, from
a fund created from prizes in the lottery, the produce of tickets
presented to the institution. Six such marriages had taken place, and
dowries bestowed from this fond in the course of a single year." This
lottery business shows the spirit of gambling so largely developed in
nations of Spanish descent. The Mexicans are noted for it, and Santa
Ana, who spent his exile in Cuba, and recently sailed from Havana for
Vera Cruz, indulged in the propensity to a great extent. But he had
two strings to his bow, and whilst playing his fighting cocks was also
playing for an empire, and has won the game. How long he will hold it
remains to be seen.

       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: HUMOUROUS]


HUMOROUS.

A VERY LONG NOSE.


A gentleman having put out a candle by accident one night, ordered his
waiting man (who was a simple being) to light it again in the kitchen,
adding--"But take care, James, that you do not hit yourself against
anything in the dark." Mindful of the caution, James stretched out
both arms at length before him, but unluckily, a door that stood half
open, passed between his hands and struck him a woful blow upon the
nose. "Golly gracious!" muttered he, when he recovered his senses a
little, "I always heard that I had a very long nose, but I never
thought it was longer than my arm!"

       *       *       *       *       *



SOL. SMITH.


The American Sentinel, speaking of "Sol. Smith, the Lawyer, Actor,
Preacher," &c,. remarks--"We want a few more of such men," To which a
Dayton (Ala.) paper replies--"You'll not get them. There are none
others like him. He is the first and last of his genus, a _sol_itary
specimen of a strange combination of character. Even in the physical
way Sol. will be hard to match, for he is tall as a May-pole, and
crooked as a pump-handle".

       *       *       *       *       *


The True American says that when John C. Calhoun takes snuff, every
man in South Carolina sneezes.

       *       *       *       *       *



A PROFITABLE HOAX.


Recently at the Copper Mines on Lake Superior, a "greenhorn" asked
some miners to show him where to dig; they offered to do it, provided
he would treat to a quart of "_prairie dew_," which he did, and they
set him to work under a shady tree, in mere sport. Before night he
struck a "_Lead_," and the next sold out for $4000.

       *       *       *       *       *



REFORMING.


"Well, how are you this morning?" said one old rowdy to another.

"Well, sir, quite well--never was better; I'm another man, sir."

"Ah! Then who pays those old accounts of yourself that was?"

"Don't remind me of my sins, I'm reformed man. I was sinful in
contracting such debts, and I must now atone for my error by not
paying for them."

       *       *       *       *       *


Yankee Hill is most outrageously puffed by some of the Albany papers.
It is even insinuated that he is employed in part by a combination of
tailors to cause the citizens to split their coats and other garments
with laughing,--for the benefit of the trade.

       *       *       *       *       *


Isaac Hill of the N. H. Patriot, concludes that the new tariff law is
not seriously affecting the manufacturing interests, because he lately
saw two loads of machinery going into the country. He must be a sage.

       *       *       *       *       *


Some scoundrel has run away with the wife, children and furniture of a
Mr. Reynold, residing in Allegany county, leaving nothing but an empty
house with the rent unpaid. Really too bad.

       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: Wrong Side Up]


The appearance of many things and circumstances, like the above cut,
depends on the view we take of them: and be it remembered that when a
man's head is inverted, to him all appear _wrong side up_. Hence
arises most of the complaints, grumbling and murmurings, about the
times, the weather, the government, the people, &c. To one who
possesses, or is possessed of a malignant, peevish disposition himself,
most of the conduct of others, and the times and circumstances in
general, will to him appear _wrong side up_, and he will not
infrequently find his own calculations _up side down_. Could we at
once, view each circumstance in all its different bearings, we should
generally see some things that would paliate others, and thus render
the whole at least tolerable: and most of the jarring and clashing in
the world would thus be avoided. But by far the better way is to take
of each and every thing a view the most favorable. This course is
evidently peaceable, else politicians and sectarians could not so
uniformly applaud every act of their favorite sect or party, and as
uniformly oppose and deprecate those of their opponents. Every man who
habituates himself to viewing things in the most favourable light,
will find this course the most conducive to his own happiness, while
it contributes much to that of his neighbors and associates. Look at
the bright side of every thing, and hold every picture _right side
up_.

       *       *       *       *       *



IMPORTANCE OF HUMILITY.


Dr. Franklin once received a very useful lesson from the excellent Dr.
Cotton Mather, which he thus relates in a letter to his son:--"The
last time I saw your father was in 1724. On taking my leave, he showed
me a shorter way out of the house, by a narrow passage, which was
crossed by a beam over head. We were still talking, and as I withdrew,
he accompanying me behind, and I turning towards him, he said hastily,
"Stoop, stoop!" I did not understand him till I felt my head hit
against the beam. He was a man who never missed an opportunity of
giving instruction; and upon this he said to me: 'You are young and
have the world before you. _Learn to stoop_ as you go through it, and
you will miss many hard thumps.' This advice, thus beat into my head,
has frequently been of use to me.

And I often think of it when I see pride mortified, and misfortune
brought upon people by their carrying their heads too high."

       *       *       *       *       *


"An ambassador" is defined as a man sent abroad to lie for the good of
his country. To compensate them for the wear and tear of conscience,
the country allows him a larger salary than any other subordinate they
employ.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Communicated_



THE EUREKA: OR JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL
ASSOCIATION OF INVENTORS.


(We had not intended to say any thing on the subject of the "Eureka"
in this number, nor until the second number of the work should have
been issued: but finding that a great degree of dissatisfaction exists
in the minds even of those who are represented in that paper to be the
supporters and conductors thereof; and having received an implied
request for the insertion of the following communication, we would not
refuse it, although we doubt whether the Eureka will ever reach its
third number, whether its contents are subjected to public criticism
or not.)

_Mr. Editor:_ I had a little curiosity to hear what the press said of
this periodical; but as yet I have not seen any notice, except the
brief one in your columns. As a general rule, it is inexpedient for an
association to publish a periodical. Instead of being an expression of
the society, it almost unavoidably becomes the organ of a clique, and
renders the patronage of an otherwise liberal organization subservient
to private interest. In the columns of the "N. York Farmer" was first
advocated the formation of the N. Y. State Agricultural Society. Among
the first acts of this society was the issuing of an agricultural
paper at _twenty-five cents_ per annum. This was scattered over the
whole country to the injury of those who had been pioneers in
publishing agricultural papers. The Society could not sustain it
without loss. It was sold to an individual on condition that he would
publish the proceedings of the Society. The price was quadrupled. It
was soon found that a periodical having a general circulation, could
not devote much space to a local society, however noble and
prosperous. Necessity led to the columns of the daily press, and to
the issuing of a yearly volume of Transactions. This will be the
result of every prosperous association. If the proceedings are worth
publishing, the press will spread them over the whole face of the
civilized world. A collection of the most important and well-digested
papers in a yearly volume, is more in accordance with the dignity and
usefulness of a national association. Besides the injustice done to
other periodicals previously in existence, the association adds
nothing to its reputation by the undertaking. There are three or four
individuals at the American Institute who have a hankering for the
control of a paper. It is very easy to see that the publishing of a
weekly paper by the Institute would be a suicidal act. All the
Institute has to do is to make its proceedings interesting, and the
widest publicity will be given as a matter of course.

It was natural to suppose that with such an array of editors,
editorial committee, and of associate professors, the "Eureka" would
have done credit to the age, and claimed a rank, in point of
literature, with other monthlies. But candor leads me to say, I do not
recollect of having read a select journal with so many violations of
correct writing. With the exception of two or three articles, the
whole number abounds with school-boy violations of the English
language. Redundancy and the want of appropriateness in the use of
words are the most common errors. Circumlocution and want of precision
are common; and in many sentences all these and other violations
occur, rendering it almost impossible to guess at the meaning.
Independent of "_inflexibly_ in advance" on the cover, the first
sentence in the announcement on the first page is an instance of
ambiguity and careless construction. In the first article, on the same
page, are several sentences indicating the same carelessness. The
article describing Hoe's cylinder press is a collection of
badly-constructed sentences. If your limits permitted I would give a
whole column of illustrations. The following sentences have so many
faults I cannot Italicise. They may serve to exercise your juvenile
readers.

"We intend to pursue the publication of the list hereafter, future and
past; that is in our next number will appear those of August 20, and
follow for one month; also the list for one month prior to the 21st of
June."

"A material or composition, of a very cheap character, has been
invented, and hard, strong and compact as flint." "From this, streets
of any grade may be formed, and in such a way as to entirely to secure
a permanent and level surface to its proper grade and arch".

Three fourths of the sentences forming the article on Dr. Lewis'
Railroad are very faulty.

"Hutching's Propeller. It consists of forming a set of oars, and by
cams upon themselves, and a foundation-plate with cams to match, cause
the oars to revolve of themselves, when the main wheel, composed of
these oars, revolves."

"A patent is pending for the invention of a wheel, in which Mr. Wm.
Hulme, of Paterson, N. J, has made an invention."

"Russ's Pavement, There is no doubt it will make a good road in
comparison with our present streets, as far as surface goes; but we
must confess our incredulity of the entire success of this plan. We do
not like the ideal method of getting at the water-pipes, &c. of the
city."

The Report on Rider's Iron Bridge is by another and different pen. I
will pass by "_protracted_ from beneath upwards," &c., and give a few
more quotations.

"Inventors scarcely ever receive the compensation due their however
distinguished merit, either pecuniary or laudatory. The originators or
first conceivers of the most momentous plans of utility and comfort
are oftenest the most grossly neglected and overlooked."

"Shortly after these details reached the U. States, by Professor S. F.
B. Morse, of New York, who was at the time of the discovery residing
in Paris."

"This committee give their services for the promotion of good to the
cause of Invention and Science, without any consideration other than
this."

"Almost all other branches of knowledge have their magazines and
journals, and other means of diffusing information, so that in their
departments hardly a desideratum is left to be supplied; while the
Inventor, as such, has almost no channel through which he may
legitimately appear before the public." "An editorial committee was
accordingly appointed for the supervision of this department, and to
whose inspection all matter of the journal, previous to publication,
will be submitted."

All the previous articles have been descriptive. We now come to our
argumentative, on Novelty in Inventions. The reasoning powers of the
writer may be learned from the following:

"Thus we conclude that the _novelty_ of _an invention_ consists in
making something 'useful to society,' and that in an original and
novel way, so as to embody the great principle of invention." Or, as
far as the writer has informed us, the novelty is the useful, the
useful is the original and novel, and the original and novel are the
great principle, and the great principle is the novelty or something
else.

"We offer an explanation, not an apology for the want of a more full
variety of scientific matter."

"Fisher's Magazine publishes a complete list, comprising the Railroads
of the U. States, as far as they are completed, and as far as
particulars are known."

"The French government has patronized an exploration of the island of
Cyprus, for the purpose of exploring its architectural remains."

Under the head of "Editors' Table," I subjoin the principal and most
important sentence:

"In this department we have but little room, and in this case it is,
perhaps, well we have little, as it is seldom much in the way of
articles for notice, are placed before an editorial corps before the
appearance of the first number."

With the exception of three or four articles, the whole number is
discreditable to The National Association of Inventors. A second
number should not appear until the editors have had the benefit of at
least one term in the preparatory school of Columbia College.

    Sept. 15, 1846.                                      S. F.

       *       *       *       *       *


A heron measuring over six feet from tip to tip of his wings, and
nearly four feet from beak to toe, was lately captured in Whately,
Mass. His beak was six inches in length.

       *       *       *       *       *


The print works of East Greenwich, R. I. engaged in printing
mousseline-de-laines, are preparing to close business and shut up.

       *       *       *       *       *


WORTHY OF ATTENTION.--"We wonder at the foolish practice of the
Chinese, in the uncomfortable form and pressure of their shoes, while
at the time, the construction of our own is often but little better.
If shoes were made in the shape of our feet so as to exert an equal
pressure on every part, corns and bunions would never exist."--[N. Y.
Organ, Sept. 19, 1846.

[Symbol: right Index] The above truthful and judicious remarks
emanating from the able editors of the above valuable Journal, should
strongly present itself to the minds of every person having an eye to
the comforts of life. To those who have given a trial of the Superior
Boots and Shoes manufactured with DICK'S Patent Elastic Metallic
Shanks, information would be needless; for they could not be induced
to purchase elsewhere. But we would respectfully ask attention of the
entire Boot and Shoe wearing community, to call at 109 Nassau street,
being assured that it gives the proprietors great pleasure to impart
every information for the ease and comfort of the UNDERSTANDING, and
also with regard to their entirely new mode of taking the measurement
of the foot, to give an equal pressure on every part.

       *       *       *       *       *



ADVERTISEMENTS.

[Symbol: right Index] THIS paper circulates in every State in the
Union, and is seen principally by mechanics and manufacturers. Hence,
it may be considered the best medium of advertising, for those who
import or manufacture machinery, mechanics tools, or such wares and
materials as are generally used by those classes. The few
advertisements in this paper are regarded with much more attention
than those in closely printed dailies.

Advertisements are inserted in this paper at the following rates:

One square, of eight lines one insertion,          $ 0.50
 "    "     "    "     "   two        do.,            .75
 "    "     "    "     "   three      do.,           1.00
 "    "     "    "     "   one      month,           1.25
 "    "     "    "     "   three      do.,           3.75
 "    "     "    "     "   six        do.,           7.50
 "    "     "    "     "   twelve     do.,          15.00

TERMS:--CASH IN ADVANCE.

GENERAL AGENTS

FOR THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN.
New York City,                 GEO. DEXTER.
 "   "    "                    WM. TAYLOR & CO.
Boston,                        Messrs. HOTCHKISS & CO.
Philadelphia,                  Messrs. COLON & ADRIANCE.

LOCAL AGENTS

Albany,                        PETER COOK.
Baltimore, Md.,                S. SANDS.
Cabotville, Mass.,             E. F. BROWN.
Hartford, Ct.,                 WM. WOODWARD.
Lynn, Mass.,                   J. E. F. MARSH.
Middletown, Ct.,               WM. WOODWARD.
Norwich, Ct.,                  SAFFORD & PARKS.
New Haven, Ct.,                E. DOWNES.
New Bedford, Mass.,            WM. ROBINSON & CO.
Newark, N.J.,                  J. L. AGENS.
Patterson, N.J.,               L. GARSIDE.
Providence, R. I.,             H. & J.S. ROWE.
Springfield, Mass.,            WM. B. BROCKET.
Salem, Mass.,                  S. CHANDLER.
Troy, N.Y.,                    W. SMITH.
Taunton, Mass.,                W. P. SEAVER.
Worcester, Mass.,              S. THOMPSON.

TRAVELLING AGENTS

V. D. DAVID, JOHN STOUGHTON, JOHN MURRAY, SYLVESTER DIERFENORF.

CITY CARRIERS

CLARK SELLECK, SQUIRE SELLECK, NATHAN SELLECK.

Persons residing in the city or Brooklyn, can have the paper left at
their residences regularly, by sending their address to the office,
128 Fulton st., 2nd floor.

       *       *       *       *       *


GOLD PENS!!--In consequence of the increased facility afforded by
machinery for the manufacture of my GOLD PENS, I am enabled to furnish
them to the Trade, at a much less price than they have heretofore
obtained them through my Agent.

Those purchasing direct of the manufacturer will have the double
advantage of the lowest market price, and the privilege of returning
those that are imperfect. In connection with the above, I am
manufacturing the usual style of PENHOLDER, together with PENCIL. All
orders thankfully received, and punctually attended to.

                                                    A. G. BAGLEY.

sept 25.  1*                                    189 Broadway. N. Y.

       *       *       *       *       *


SHERWOOD'S MAGNETIC MACHINE,--Is warranted to be greatly superior to
every other manufactured, by whatever imitations or pretensions
foisted upon the public. No premium has ever been obtained over this
machine at the American or any other Institute, as has been falsely
represented. It imparts the magnetic forces more continuously, with
less violence to the sensations of the patient, and with more
permanent efficacy, than any other invented, while the cures it has
actually effected are incomparably more numerous. It is compactly
fitted, together withs it batteries, wires and other appliances in
neat cases, of several sizes, and powers, at $10, $12, $14, and $16
each. Each case is accompanied with a Manual, (eighth edition, pp.
234, 8vo.) in the English or French language, according to order,
containing specific direction for the new method of using the
instrument, and which alone can render it effectual.
                           H. H. SHERWOOD, M.D.
                              102 Chambers st.
sept. 8                                                       to2*

       *       *       *       *       *


GENERAL PATENT AGENCY.--The subscriber has established an agency at
his warehouse, 12 Platt street, New York, for the protection and
general advancement of the rights and interests of Inventors and
Patentees.

The objects of this agency are more particularly to aid and assist
Inventors and Patentees in effecting sales of their inventions and of
goods and wares made therewith--and also for the sale and transfer of
Patent Rights.

Arrangements have been made with a lawyer familiar with the Patent
Laws, who will attend to the legal branch of the business upon
reasonable terms. Satisfactory references will be given. Applications
may be made to the undersigned personally, or by letter, post paid.
                              SAMUEL C. HILLS
   45-2dv6*                                     General Patent Agent.

       *       *       *       *       *


ENGRAVING ON WOOD.


NEATLY AND PROMPTLY EXECUTED AT the OFFICE OF THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN,
128 Fulton st, three doors from the Sun Office. Designs, DRAWINGS of
all kinds for PATENTS, &c., also made, as above, at very low charges.

       *       *       *       *       *


COPPER SMITH!--The subscriber takes this method of informing the
public that he is manufacturing Copper Work of every description.
Particular attention is given to making and repairing LOCOMOTIVE
tubes. Those at a distance, can have any kind of work made to
drawings, and may ascertain costs, &c., by addressing

                                L. R. Bailey
              cor. of West and Franklin sts., N. Y.
   N. B.--Work shipped to any part of the country.
   45to2dv18*

       *       *       *       *       *


BLACK LEAD POTS!--The subscriber offers for sale, in lots to suit
purchasers, a superior article of BLACK LEAD POTS, that can be used
without annealing. The price is low, and founders are requested
to make a trial.                                  SAMUEL C. HILLS,
   45to2ndv6                        Patent Agent, 12 Platt street.

       *       *       *       *       *



ELECTRICITY.


SMITH'S CELEBRATED TORPEDO, OR VIBRATING ELECTRO MAGNETIC MACHINE--This
instrument differs from those in ordinary use, by having a third
connection with the battery, rendering them much more powerful and
beneficial. As a CURIOUS ELECTRICAL MACHINE, they should be in the
possession of every one, while their wonderful efficacy as a medical
agent, renders them invaluable. They are used with extraordinary
success, for the following maladies.

RHEUMATISM--Palsy, curvature of the Spine, Chronic Diseases,
Tic-doloureaux, Paralysis, Tubercula of the brain, heart, liver,
spleen, kidneys, sick-headache.

TOOTHACHE--St Vitus dance, Epilepsy, Fevers, diseases of the eye,
nose, antrum, throat, muscles, cholera, all diseases of the skin,
face, &c.

DEAFNESS--Loss of voice, Bronchitis, Hooping cough.

These machines are perfectly simple and conveniently managed. The
whole apparatus is contained in a little box 8 inches long, by 4 wide
and deep. They may easily be sent to any part of the United States. To
be had at the office of the Scientific Americcan, 128 Fulton st, 2nd
floor, (Sun building) where they may be seen IN OPERATION, at all
times of the day and evening.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE BALL OF THE BEARS.


As Stanilaus Augustus, the last king of Poland, was a tool of Russia,
and did not enjoy any consideration, the Polish grandees played him
many tricks. Prince Radziwill came to court in a carriage drawn by six
wild bears;--the horses of course, were extremely frightened; in
consequence of which, some accidents happened. The king pointed out to
the prince the impropriety of his conduct. Radziwill added, that the
bears were not cross, as whip, gold, and patience can put in order
every thing; He added also, that, sometimes the ace beats the king at
cards, and paid liberally the damages. After some time, he gave a
splendid party, to which he invited all the ambassadors, and all the
leading personages in Poland, and displayed extraordinary luxury. The
dancing was kept up in several drawing rooms. After the supper, he
conducted a select parly to a separate apartment--where, to their
astonishment, they found four girls of uncommon beauty, richly
dressed, in company not with four gentlemen, but with four enormous
bears!--which, after the first outbreak of music, began to dance with
the girls all the figures of French quadrilles, with the utmost
accuracy, and with as much ease as if they were highly educated
gentlemen. At first the guests were alarmed; but, seeing the extra
ordinary tameness of the beasts, struck with amazement, they seemed to
have been pleased with this extraordinary sight. After the dance was
over, their bear-ships conducted themselves with the utmost propriety,
and, at a sign from the keeper, each of them made a bow to his lady,
and withdrew to another room. For some time, nothing was talked of at
Warsaw but that singular ball.

       *       *       *       *       *



ALL IS NOT GOLD THAT GLITTERS.


A lady, at a ball lately given in Calcutta, attracted the attention of
all, and excited the jealousy of many, in consequence of the splendor
and brilliancy which her diamonds shed upon her person and all around
her. At length that curiosity which is the moving spring of woman's
actions, could be no longer resisted by her female admirers, who at
the close of the ball, instituted a rigid examination of the nature of
those incomparable brilliants, when, to their astonishment, they found
that they were no more or less than so many fire flies, which the envy
of the ball-room had secured in gauze bags, and which as she moved
about, fluttered, and thus threw out their varied brilliant hues.

       *       *       *       *       *


The Odd Fellows procession to the dedication of their new Hall at
Philadelphia, says our exchanges "_came off_ on Thursday". We suppose
the procession "came off" this way, as we saw a part of it passing
through this city.

       *       *       *       *       *


A young lady by the name of Emma D. Tower, sixteen years of age, has
been missing from her parents and home in Providence, R. I., since the
11th. Her parents are distressed with anxiety to find or hear of her.

       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: Curious Arts]


PAINTING IN IMITATION OF ROSE-WOOD.


(By the particular request of a "Mechanic" in Cherryfield, Me.)--In
this art the process is various according to the circumstances, and
the ground on subjects to which it is applied. In painting common
chairs, the ground is prepared by a coat of paint composed of ivory
black and rose-pink,--equal quantities, ground in a mixture of equal
parts of linseed oil, drying japan and spirits of turpentine.--When
this is dry, the graining color, consisting of three parts of
rose-pink with one of vermillion, ground in a mixture of oil, japan
and spirits of turpentine, is applied with a common flat graining
brush. Fancy boxes and cabinet furniture are painted by a different
process, by which a better imitation is produced. The ground is
prepared by one or more coats of white lead changed two or three
shades with yellow ochre. When dry, a thin staining of burnt
terra-de-sienna ground in water, containing a very little sugar or
gumarabic is laid on the work, and while this continues moist and
flowing, the graining is applied. The graining should consist of a
mixture of black and rose pink, ground in the staining compound. This
must be varnished when dry, with copal varnish. Some prefer, however,
to grind the staining and graining in oil, diluted with spirits of
turpentine. The learner must have some sample pieces of varnished
rosewood before him when graining.

       *       *       *       *       *



INDIA RUBBER.


The substance called India Rubber, or Caoutchouc, was not known in
Europe until the beginning of the eighteenth century. It was
originally brought as a great curiosity from South America. Europeans
continued ignorant of its origin until a deputation of the French
Academicians undertook a voyage to South America in 1735, for the
purpose of obtaining the correct admeasurement of a degree of the
meridian. These philosophers did not confine their attention to the
one great object of their pursuit, but among other interesting
discoveries made themselves acquainted with that peculiar
substance--caoutchouc. These Academicians discovered at Emeralds, in
Brazil, trees called by the natives _heve_, whence flowed a juice,
which, when dried, proved to be what is called India Rubber. The
_heve_ was also found growing in Cayenne, and on the banks of the
Amazon river. It has since been discovered that caoutchouc may be
obtained from another species of tree growing in South America, called
_jatropha elastica_. If these trees are punctured, a milky juice flows
out, which, on exposure to the air, thickens into a substance of a
pure white color, having neither taste nor smell. The hue of the
caoutchouc of commerce is black in consequence of the method employed
in drying it. The usual manner of performing this operation is to
spread a thin coating of the milky juice upon the moulds made of clay,
and fashioned into a variety of figures. These are then dried by
exposure to the heat of a smoke-fire: another layer is then spread
over the first, and dried by the same means; and thus layer after
layer is put on, until the whole is of the required thickness. While
yet soft it will receive and retain any impression that may be given
to if on the outside. When perfectly dry the clay within is broken
into small fragments by percussion, and the pieces are drawn out
through the aperture which is always left fur the purpose. The common
bottle of India Rubber, therefore, consists of numerous layers of pure
caoutchouc, alternating with as many layers of soot.

The natives of those parts of South America to which these trees are
indigenous, convert the juice to a variety of purposes. They collect
it chiefly in the rainy season, because, though it will exude at all
times, it flows then most abundantly. Boots are made of it by the
Indians, through which water cannot penetrate; and the inhabitants of
Quito prepare a kind of cloth with it, which they apply to the same
purposes as those for which oil-cloth or tarpaulin, it used here.
This, no doubt, is similar to the cloth now prepared with this
substance in America, the use of which yields so many important
advantages.--_Youths' Gazette_.

       *       *       *       *       *



COMMUNICATION ON ATMOSPHERIC RESISTANCE.


The following letter has been on hand several weeks, but deferred on
account of a constant press of matter by which the limited space in
our former small sheet was crowded. Our respected correspondent has
consented to excuse the delay.

                                          Providence, ---- 1846.

_Friend Porter_: In January last, I addressed a few lines to you,
asking information in regard to an article entitled Atmospheric
Resistance, in the New York Mechanic, of December 11, 1841. In your
answer, you say if the full surface is 30,000 square feet to each
wing, (which makes 60,000 square feet,) only about half of one horse
power would be required to sustain this weight, and I understand you,
virtually to say, that they must be ten times as large, in order that
the strength of one man be sufficient to work this and elevate himself
together with the apparatus, if it were not too heavy. Now, this makes
600,000 square feet. This is rather more than 774 feet square: rather
large sized wings. One would suppose that they might lift rather
heavy, if they were very light, being 387 by 774 feet each. Now, to me
this is entirely incomprehensible, and I should like an explanation,
if this calculation is correct, how it is that an eagle which
sometimes weighs nearly thirty pounds, can elevate himself, with so
much ease, and even carry with him nearly his own weight, using a pair
of wings, which if they were five feet long and two feet wide each,
would make but twenty feet of surface. Thus, you will see, is no where
in proportion to the weight even of the eagle alone, (which we will
suppose to weigh twenty pounds,) that the wings bears to the 150
pounds, while on the other hand, it is near in proportion to the
surface of the wings of a pidgeon and its weight. Nor can I comprehend
why it would require so much power, the eagle though he exerts himself
considerable in rising, no doubt, does not seem to use power any where
in the proportion that you have thought would be required supposing
the wings to be made in the same proportion to the 150 pounds that his
wings are to his weight, his beats are not so quick but what they can
be very easily counted.

  By answering, you will much oblige,

                          your friend,
                              YANKEE.

In answer to the foregoing, we would remind our correspondent, that in
his former communication, he proposed a limited weight of apparatus,
and in our answer, it was far from our intention to allow an
additional weight on account of the requisite extent of surface. With
regard to the philosophy of the flight of the eagle, it must be borne
in mind that atmospheric resistance is as the square of the velocity
_downward_ and the only way in which the phenomenon of the flight
of the eagle can be reconciled with the laws of mechanical science as
established by experiment, is by supposing the velocity of the wing
downward to be equal to 70 feet per second, whereby a resistance would
be encountered equal to 12 pounds per square foot of surface to the
wings. It is a fact, however, that kites, and hawks are often seen to
continue suspended in the air several minutes without any apparent
motion of the wings; but by what law or theory the feat is
accomplished, natural philosophy has ventured no other conjecture than
that the bird is endowed with the faculty of suspending occasionally
its ordinary subjection to the laws of gravity. If any observing
theorist will give any more rational conjecture on the subject, we
should be glad to have him examine it.

       *       *       *       *       *


It is proposed and urged by the papers in several States, to have a
thanksgiving day throughout the Union, on the 26th of November.

       *       *       *       *       *


"As dull as a hoe," is a very common phrase, and implies that hoes are
necessarily or ordinarily dull. But it is advisible for farmers to
keep their hoes sharp, as they regard a saving of labor.

       *       *       *       *       *



[Illustration: the conical windlass]


THE CONICAL WINDLASS.


Various methods have been heretofore described, for raising heavy
bodies, or producing for other purposes, a great force,--usually
miscalled power--by the application of a comparatively small force:
but no method is known, more unlimited in its effect, or more simple
in construction; than the conical windlass. It consists of a simple
horizontal windlass, with a crank at one end, as shown in the
engraving. The windlass is made in a conical form, being a little
larger at one end, than at the other; and if the friction of its
bearings be relieved by the ordinary friction rollers, it will so far
multiply the force applied, as to break a double inch-rope, by the
power of one man at the crank. An endless rope, or one of which the
two ends are spliced together, is passed five or six times round the
small end of the windlass, and down under a single pulley below: then,
as the windlass is turned by the crank, the rope is constantly given
off from one part, while the circumference is greater. Now it is
plain, that if the windlass is one-fifth of an inch larger in
circumference, at the point at which the rope is taken up, than at the
place where it is given off to the pulley, that whatever may be
appended thereto, will be raised one tenth of an inch by each
revolution Then, if we suppose the crank lever to be fifteen inches,
the handle will travel about 100 inches, in each revolution, which
gives a power, or increase of force, of 1000 to one. Therefore, if 100
pounds of power be applied to the crank handle, it will be
sufficient--minus friction--to raise a weight of 100,000 lbs. The only
inconvenience in this apparatus, and which prevents its coming into
more general use, is, that it is too limited in the extent of its
motion, in consequence of the travelling of the rope from one end of
the windlass to the other. Thus, if the windlass be but twenty-five
inches long, and the rope one inch in diameter, it will admit only
twenty revolutions, without renewing. Yet, in many cases, in which an
article in required to be raised, or moved but a few inches, the
conical windlass will be found preferable to any other method.

       *       *       *       *       *



REQUISITE STRENGTH OF STEAM BOILERS.


Our correspondent S. B. cannot comprehend that the strength of iron
for a cylindrical boiler should Be in direct proportion to the
diameter thereof, in order to sustain an equal pressure per square
inch; wherefore, we must reason with him on the long scale. The
cohesive strength of good iron is 64,000 lbs. per square inch; and of
course, a strip of boiler-iron plate 1/8th inch thick will sustain
8000 lbs. If a boiler made of thin iron is 14 inches in diameter, or
44 inches in circumference, each inch of its length will contain 44
square inches, and either half thereof will contain 22 inches, and as
the pressure on this portion is sustained by at least two inches of
width of plate,--one inch on each side,--it follows that it will
sustain a pressure of at least 700 lbs. per square inch, in the
direction of circumference. If the diameter is double, the number of
square inches will be double, and will require double the thickness to
sustain equal pressure. With regard to the pressure endwise, the area
of a cylinder head 14 inches in diameter is 154 inches, and the
strength of the 44 inches of circumference would be sufficient to
sustain 352,000 lbs., which, divided by the area, is 2,275 lbs. per
square inch. If the diameter is 56 inches, the circumference being
172, would sustain a pressure endwise of 555 lbs. per inch. Thus it
will be seen that if the cylinder were even 20 feet in diameter, the
iron would better sustain the pressure on the head that on the
periphery. With regard to the requisite strength of the cylinder's
head, if they are made in a semi-spherical convex form, they will
require no more thickness of plate than the cylinder: but if they
consist of plane disks, the thickness thereof should bear the same
proportion to that of the periphery that the area in square inches
does to three times the circumference. But in general, no other rule
is observed for the thickness of the heads, than to make them
extravagantly heavy, without much regard to theoretic calculation.

       *       *       *       *       *



BAGLEY'S GOLD PENS.


Do our readers wish to hear any thing more about them? If so, they
have only to inquire of any one of the many thousands of writers who
have used these pens six months or more, and can hear the fact
attested, that these are decidedly the cheapest pens (at $4) that can
be any where found. Mr. Bagley has recently patented a neat, elegant,
and excellent improvement in the pen-holder, which "takes the shine
off" all precedents. Should our readers find a real good article in
this paper, they may know it was written with one of Bagley's pens.
Nuf ced.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE HUMMING BIRD.


A gentleman who resided some time on one of the West India Islands
informs us that while he was once travelling along the bed of a deep
ravine overhung with thick vines, he was actually startled by the
immense numbers of humming birds which hovered over and about him.
They hovered about him as if actuated by curiosity alone. They were of
various kinds and colors, some of them being nearly as large as
sparrows, while others were but little larger than a bee. Some were of
a dingy green, or a light brown, while others seemed gaudily arrayed
in plumage as brilliant and variegated as the rainbow. They would
approach within arms length of his face, and pausing in their flight,
with their little wings, in rapid motion, would stare at him as if
they wondered what possible business he could have in those remote
wilds; but they exhibited no symptoms of terror, not having been
taught by experience to fear the cruelty of man.

       *       *       *       *       *



THE NEW YORK
SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN:

_Published Weekly at_ 128 _Fulton Street_., (_Sun Building_,) _New York_.

BY MUNN & COMPANY.

The SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN is the Advocate of Industry and Journal of
Mechanical and other Improvements: as such its contents are probably
more varied and interesting, than those of any other weekly newspaper in
the United States, and certainly more useful. It contains as much
interesting Intelligence as six ordinary daily papers, while for _real
benefit_, it is unequalled by any thing yet published. Each number
regularly contains from THREE to SIX ORIGINAL ENGRAVINGS, illustrated
by NEW INVENTIONS, American and Foreign,--SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES and
CURIOSITIES,--Notices of the progress of Mechanical and other
Scientific Improvements, Scientific Essays on the principles of the
Sciences of MECHANICS, CHEMISTRY and ARCHITECTURE,--Catalogues of
American Patents,--INSTRUCTION in various ARTS and TRADES, _with
engravings_,--Curious Philosophical Experiments,--the latest RAIL ROAD
INTELLIGENCE in EUROPE and AMERICA,--Valuable information on the Art
of GARDENING, &c. &c.

This paper is especially entitled to the patronage of MECHANICS and
MANUFACTURERS, being devoted to the interests of those classes. It is
particularly useful to FARMERS, as it will not only apprise them of
IMPROVEMENTS in AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS, but INSTRUCT them in various
MECHANICAL TRADES, and guard against impositions. As a FAMILY
NEWSPAPER, it will convey more USEFUL Intelligence to children and
young people, than five times its cost in school instruction.

Being published in QUARTO FORM, it is conveniently adapted to
PRESERVATION and BINDING.

TERMS.--The Scientific American is sent to subscribers in the country
at the rate of $2 a year, ONE DOLLAR IN ADVANCE, the remainder in 6
months. Persons desiring to subscribe, have only to enclose the amount
in a letter, directed to

                    MUNN & COMPANY,

Publishers of the Scientific American, New York.

[Symbol: right Index] Specimen copies sent when desired. All letters
must be POST PAID.



TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES:

[Symbol: right Index] is used where the text had a picture of a hand
with the index finger pointing right.

Obvious typographical errors have been corrected without comment,
except in those articles where they were intentionally presented.





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