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Title: The Economist - Volume 1, No. 3
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Economist - Volume 1, No. 3" ***

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Transcriber's Note

The punctuation and spelling from the original text have been faithfully
preserved. Only obvious typographical errors have been corrected.



The Economist:

OR

THE POLITICAL, COMMERCIAL, AGRICULTURAL, AND FREE-TRADE JOURNAL.


     "If we make ourselves too little for the sphere of our duty; if, on
     the contrary, we do not stretch and expand our minds to the compass
     of their object; be well assured that everything about us will
     dwindle by degrees, until at length our concerns are shrunk to the
     dimensions of our minds. _It is not a predilection to mean, sordid,
     home-bred cares that will avert the consequences of a false
     estimation of our interest, or prevent the shameful dilapidation
     into which a great empire must fall by mean reparation upon mighty
     ruins._"--BURKE.

  No. 3.   SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 16, 1843.   PRICE 6_d._



CONTENTS.


  Our Brazilian Trade and the Anti-Slavery Party      33

  The Fallacy of Protection                           34

  Agriculture (No. 2.)                                35

  Court and Aristocracy                               36

  Music and Musicales                                 36

  The Metropolis                                      37

  The Provinces                                       37

  Ireland                                             37

  Scotland                                            38

  Wales                                               38

  Foreign:
    France                                            38
    Spain                                             38
    Austria and Italy                                 38
    Turkey                                            38
    Egypt                                             39
    United States                                     39
    Canada                                            39

  Colonies and Emigration:
    Emigration during the last Seventeen Years        39
    New South Wales                                   39
    Australia                                         39
    Cape of Good Hope                                 39
    New Zealand                                       39

  Political                                           39

  Correspondence and Answers to Inquiries             40

  Postscript                                          41

  Free Trade Movements:
    Messrs Cobden and Bright at Oxford                42
    Public Dinner to R. Walker, Esq.                  42
    Dr Bowring's Visit to his Constituents            42
    Anti-Corn-law Meeting at Hampstead                43
    Mr Ewart and his Constituents                     43

  Miscellanies of Trade                               43

  Police                                              43

  Accidents, Offences, and Occurrences                43

  Sporting Intelligence                               43

  Agricultural Varieties:
    The best Home Markets                             44
    Curious Agricultural Experiment                   44
    Cultivation of Waste Lands                        44

  Our Library Table                                   44

  Miscellanea                                         45

  Commerce and Commercial Markets                     46

  Prices Current                                      46

  Corn Markets                                        46

  Smithfield Markets                                  46

  Borough Hop Market                                  47

  Liverpool Cotton Market                             47

  The Gazette                                         47

  Births, Marriages, and Deaths                       47

  Advertisements                                      47


     "If a writer be conscious that to gain a reception for his
     favourite doctrine he must combat with certain elements of
     opposition, in the taste, or the pride, or the indolence of those
     whom he is addressing, this will only serve to make him the more
     importunate. _There is a difference between such truths as are
     merely of a speculative nature and such as are allied with practice
     and moral feeling. With the former all repetition may be often
     superfluous; with the latter it may just be by earnest repetition,
     that their influence comes to be thoroughly established over the
     mind of an inquirer._"--CHALMERS.



OUR BRAZILIAN TRADE AND THE ANTI-SLAVERY PARTY.


Since the publication of our article on the Brazilian Treaty, we have
received several letters from individuals who, agreeing with us entirely
in the free-trade view of the question, nevertheless are at variance
with us as to the commercial policy which we should pursue towards that
country, in order to coerce them into our views regarding slavery. We
are glad to feel called upon to express our views on this subject, to
which we think full justice has not yet been done.

We must, however, in doing so, make a great distinction between the two
classes of persons who are now found to be joined in an alliance against
this application of free-trade principles; two classes who have always
hitherto been so much opposed to each other, that it would have been
very difficult ten years since to have conceived any possible
combinations of circumstances that could have brought them to act in
concert: we mean the West India interest, who so violently opposed every
step of amelioration to the slave from first to last; and that body of
_truly great philanthropists_ who have been unceasing in their efforts
to abolish slavery wherever and in whatever form it was to be found. To
the latter alone we shall address our remarks.

As far as it can be collected, the argument relied upon by this party
appears to be, that having once abolished slavery in our own dominions
we ought to interdict the importation of articles produced by slave
labour in other countries, in order to coerce them, for the sake of
their trade with us, to follow our example.

We trust we shall be among the last who will ever be found advocating
the continuance of slavery, or opposing any _legitimate_ means for its
extinction; but we feel well assured that those who have adopted the
opinion quoted above, have little considered either the consequences or
the tendencies of the policy they support.

The first consideration is, that if this policy is to be acted upon, on
principle, it must extend to the exclusion of _all_ articles produced in
whatever country by slaves. It must apply with equal force to the
_gold_, _silver_, and _copper_ of Brazil, as it does to the _sugar_ and
_coffee_ produced in that country;--it must apply with equal force to
the _cotton_, the _rice_, the _indigo_, the _cochineal_, and the
_tobacco_ of the Southern States of America, and Mexico, as it does to
the _sugar_ and _coffee_ of Cuba. To be in any way consistent in
carrying out this principle, we must exclude the great material on which
the millions of Lancashire, the West of Yorkshire, and Lanarkshire
depend for their daily subsistence; we must equally exclude tobacco,
which gives revenue to the extent of 3,500,000_l._ annually; we must
refuse any use of the precious metals, whether for coin, ornament, or
other purposes. But even these form only one class of the obligations
which the affirming of this principle would impose upon us. If we would
coerce the Brazilians by not buying from them, it necessarily involves
the duty of not selling to them; for if we sell, we supply them with all
the means of conducting their slave labour; we supply the implements of
labour, or the materials from which they are made; we supply clothing
for themselves and their slaves; we supply part of their foods and most
of their luxuries; the wines and the spirits in which the slave-owner
indulges; and we even supply the very materials of which the implements
of slave punishment or coercion are made;--and thus participate much
more directly in the profits of slavery than by admitting their produce
into this country. But if we supply them with all these articles, which
we do to the extent of nearly 3,000,000_l._ a year, and are not to
receive some of their slave-tainted produce, it must follow that we are
to give them without an equivalent, than which no greater encouragement
could be given for a perseverance in slave-holding. But the truth
is--whatever pretensions we make on this subject--we do, in exchange for
our goods, buy their polluted produce; we employ our ships to convey it
from their shores, and ourselves find a market for it among other
countries already well supplied with cheap sugar, where it is not
required, and where it only tends the more to depress the price in
markets already abundantly supplied. Nay, we do more; we admit it into
our ports, we land it on our shores, we place it in our bonded
warehouses, and our busy merchants and brokers deal as freely on our
exchanges in this slave produce as in any other, only with this
difference--that this cheap sugar is not permitted to be consumed by our
own starving population, but can only be sold to be refined in bond for
the consumption of the free labourers in our West India colonies and
others, or to be re-exported, as it is, for the use of "our less
scrupulous but more consistent" neighbours on the continent.

Consistency, therefore, requires equally the abandonment of all export
trade to slave-producing countries, as it does of the import of their
produce; and the effect will carry us even further. We know it is a
favourite feeling with Mr Joseph Sturge and others of that truly
benevolent class, that in eschewing any connexion with slave-producing
countries, we have the better reason to urge free-trading intercourse
with such countries as use only free labour,--with the Northern States
of America, with Java, and other countries similarly circumstanced. Now
of what does our trade to these countries, in common with others,
chiefly consist? Of the 51,400,000_l._ of British manufactures and
produce which we exported in 1840, upwards of 24,500,000_l._ consisted
of cotton goods, nearly the whole of which were manufactured from
slave-grown cotton, and partly dyed and printed with the cochineal and
indigo of Guatamala and Mexico. Consistency would therefore further
require that we abandon at least one-half of our present foreign trade
even with free-labour countries, instead of opening any opportunity for
its increase.

When men are prepared and conceive it a duty to urge the accomplishment
of all these results, they may then consistently oppose the introduction
of Brazilian sugar and coffee, and support the present West India
monopoly; but not till then.

But now, what effect must this argument have upon slave-producing
states, in inducing them to abandon slavery? Has it not long been one of
the chief arguments of the anti-slavery party everywhere, that free
labour is actually cheaper than slave labour? Now, will the Brazilians
give credit to this proposition, so strongly insisted upon, when they
see that the anti-slavery party conceive it needful to give support to a
system which affirms the necessity of protecting free labour against
slave labour, by imposing a prohibitory duty of upwards of 100 per cent.
on the produce of the latter? Will their opinion of the relative
cheapness of the two kinds of labour not rather be determined by our
actions than our professions?

We firmly believe that free labour, properly exercised, is cheaper than
slave labour; but there is no pretence to say that it is so at this
moment in our West India colonies; and we undertake to show, in an early
number, in connexion with this fact, that _the existence of the high
protecting duties on our West India produce has done more than anything
else to endanger the whole experiment of emancipation_.

But, moreover, our West India monopoly,--the existence of the high
prohibitory differential duty on sugar, is the greatest, strongest, and
least answerable argument at present used by slave-holding countries
against emancipation. The following was put strongly to ourselves in
Amsterdam a short time since by a large slave owner in Dutch
Guiana:--"We should be glad," said he, "to follow your example, and
emancipate our slaves, if it were possible; but as long as your
differential duties on sugar are maintained, it will be impossible. Here
is an account sale of sugar produced in our colony, netting a return of
11_l._ per hogshead to the planter in Surinam; and here is an account
sale of similar sugar sold in London, netting a return of 33_l._ to the
planter in Demerara: the difference ascribable only to your differential
duty. The fields of these two classes of planters are separated only by
a few ditches. Now such is the effort made by the planter in Demerara to
extend his cultivation to secure the high price of 33_l._, that he is
importing free labourers from the hills of Hindostan, and from the coast
of Africa, at great cost, and is willing to pay higher wages than labour
will command even in Europe. Let us, then, emancipate our slaves, which,
if it had any effect, would confer the privilege of a choice of
employer, and Dutch Guiana would be depopulated in a day,--an easy means
of increasing the supply of labour to the planters of Demerara, at the
cost of entire annihilation of the cultivation of the estates in
Surinam. But abandon your differential duties, give us the same price
for our produce, and thus enable us to pay the same rate of wages, and
I, for one, will not object to liberate my slaves to-morrow."

Whatever amount of credence people may be disposed to place in this
willingness to abandon slavery, nothing can be more clear than that the
higher rate of wages paid in our colonies, attributable solely to the
high and extravagant price which, by our differential duties, their
produce commands, must ever form a strong and conclusive reason with
these slave-holding countries against their entertaining the question of
emancipation.

We believe most sincerely that an equalization of these duties--that an
entire free trade would do more than any other act to encourage an
adoption of our example everywhere: while the maintenance of monopoly
and high prices _as an essential to the carrying out of the experiment
of free labour successfully_--must be the strongest reason against its
adoption with all those countries who have no means of commanding this
accompanying confessed essential.

But now were it otherwise:--have the professors of these opinions ever
considered the huge responsibility which they arrogate to themselves by
such a course? Let these men remember that, by seeking to coerce the
_slave-labour producer_ in distant countries, they inflict a severe
punishment on the millions of hard-working, ill-fed _consumers_ among
their fellow countrymen; but they seem always to overlook the fact, that
there is a _consumer_ to consider as well as a _producer_;--and that
this consumer is their own countryman, their own neighbour, whose
condition it is their _first_ duty to consult and watch;--duty as well
as charity ought to be first exercised at home. That is a very doubtful
humanity which exercises itself on the uncertain result of influence
indirectly produced upon governments in the other hemisphere of the
globe, and neglects, nay sacrifices, the interests of the poor and
helpless around our own doors,--not only by placing the necessaries of
life beyond their reach, but at the same time destroying the demand for
their labour by which alone they can obtain them.

If _individuals_ entertain conscientious scruples against the use of
slave produce--let them, if they please, act upon them themselves, but
do not let them seek to inflict _certain_ punishment, and the whole
train of vice and misery consequent on starvation and want of
employment, upon their poorer neighbours, for the purpose of conferring
some _speculative_ advantage on the slaves of the Brazils or elsewhere:
no man can be called upon as a duty to do so great a present evil, in
order to accomplish some distant good, however great--or however
certain.



THE FALLACY OF PROTECTION.


All laws made for the purpose of protecting the interests of individuals
or classes must mean, if they mean anything, to render the articles
which such classes deal in or produce dearer than they would otherwise
be if the public was left at liberty to supply itself with such
commodities in the manner which their own interests and choice would
dictate. In order to make them dearer it is absolutely necessary to make
them scarcer; for quantity being large or small in proportion to demand,
alone can regulate the price;--protection, therefore, to any commodity
simply means that the quantity supplied to the community shall be less
than circumstances would naturally provide, but that for the smaller
quantity supplied under the restriction of law the same sum shall be
paid as the larger quantity would command without such restriction.

Time was when the Sovereigns of England relied chiefly on the granting
of patents to individuals for the exclusive exercise of certain trades
or occupations in particular places, as the means of rewarding the
services of some, and as a provision for others of their adherents,
followers, and favourites, who either held the exclusive supply in their
own hands on their own terms, or who again granted to others under them
that privilege, receiving from them a portion of the gains. In the
course of time, however, the public began to discover that these
monopolies acted upon them directly as a tax of a most odious
description; that the privileged person found it needful always to keep
the supply short to obtain his high price (for as soon as he admitted
plenty he had no command of price)--that, in short, the sovereign, in
conferring a mark of regard on a favourite, gave not that which he
himself possessed, but only invested him with the power of imposing a
contribution on the public.

The public once awake to the true operation of such privileges, and
severely suffering under the injuries which they inflicted,
perseveringly struggled against these odious monopolies, until the
system was entirely abandoned, and the crown was deprived of the power
of granting patents of this class. But though the public saw clearly
enough that these privileges granted by the sovereign to individuals
operated thus prejudicially on the community, they did not see with
equal clearness that the same power transferred to, and exercised by,
Parliament, to confer similar privileges on classes; to do for a number
of men what the sovereign had before done for single men, would, to the
remaining portion of the community, be just as prejudicial as the abuses
against which they had struggled. That like the sovereign, the
Parliament, in protecting or giving privileges to a class, gave nothing
which they possessed themselves, but granted only the power to such
classes of raising a contribution from the remaining portion of the
community, by levying a higher price for their commodity than it would
otherwise command. As with individuals, it was equally necessary to make
scarcity to secure price, and that could only be done by restricting the
sources of supply by prohibiting, or by imposing high duties on, foreign
importations. Many circumstances, however, combined to render the use of
this power by Parliament less obvious than it had been when exercised by
the sovereign, but chiefly the fact that protection was usually granted
by imposing high duties, often in their effect quite prohibitory, under
the plea of providing revenue for the state. Many other more modern
excuses have been urged, such as those of encouraging native industry,
and countervailing peculiar burthens, in order to reconcile public
opinion to the exactions arising out of the system, all of which we
shall, on future occasions, carefully consider separately. But, above
all, the great reason why these evils have been so long endured has
been, that the public have believed that all classes and interests,
though perhaps not exactly to the same extent, have shared in
protection. We propose at present to confine our consideration to the
effects of protection,--first, on the community generally; and secondly,
on the individual classes protected.

As it is admitted that protection ought, if granted at all, to be given
to all alike, it would follow that the whole produce of the country
would be raised to an artificial price; and if this were the case, as
far as regarded the exchange or transactions among members of the same
community, the effect would be merely nominal, of no advantage to any
one, and of little disadvantage beyond the enormous public expense
needed to prevent people cheating each other by smuggling and bringing
in the cheaper foreign article;--but such a community must forego all
notion or idea of a foreign trade;--they must have no desires to be
gratified beyond themselves, and they must have within themselves the
independent means of supplying every want. For even if the law be strong
enough to maintain an artificial high price at home, it has no power of
making other countries pay that price; and if everything we possessed
commanded a higher price at home than other countries could supply the
same for, we should have nothing which we could exchange for the produce
of other countries, and thus no more foreign trade could exist, than in
a poor country which had no surplus produce. It is therefore essential
that every country should bear in mind, in adopting a system of
protection to manufactures or other produce, that they thereby
effectually debar themselves from all foreign trade to neutral countries
in such articles; for if they require high duties at home to protect
them from the produce of other countries, which could only come at
considerable expense to compete with them at home, how can they
withstand that competition when they meet on the same terms in every
respect in a neutral market? How effectually has France stayed her
export linen trade by raising the duties and the price of linen yarn,
and by that act, intended as a blow to English trade, given the linen
manufacturers of this country a greater advantage over France in the
markets of the world than ever. How idle are the efforts of the Belgian
government to establish depôts and factories for the sale of their
manufactures in St Thomas add other places, while the manufacturers in
Ghent are only able to maintain their home trade, by high protective
duties, against English, French, and German goods, and still cry out for
greater protection!

It is, however, abundantly plain, that the state of a country above
described could not long exist, when industry and intelligence were in
the course of producing wealth; for if there be one law in nature more
distinct than another, it is, that while the productions of every
country are less or more limited to particular things, the wants of man
extend to every possible variety of products over the whole world, as
soon as his means can command them. As a country advances in wealth, it
will have more and more surplus produce, which under wise laws would
always consist of such things as it could produce with greatest facility
and profit, whether from the loom or the soil. This surplus produce
would be exchanged for the productions of other climates, but it must be
quite clear, as soon as we arrive at this stage, that the power of the
law to protect price altogether ceases. The surplus exported must sell
in the markets of the world, in competition with the same article
produced under the cheapest circumstances, and that article in the home
market can command only the same price.

Thus the whole attempt to protect all interests equally would
immediately fail; every article produced in excess, and exported, would
command only the lowest prices of open markets, and the fancied
protection of the law would be void; while everything produced in
deficiency, and of which we required to import a portion to make up the
needful supply, would continue to be protected above the natural price
of the world to any extent of import duty that the law imposed upon the
quantity required to make up the deficiency.

Thus, for example, we export a large portion of the woollen, and the
largest portion of the cotton goods which we manufacture, to all parts
of the world, which we must sell at least as cheap as they can be bought
in any other country. The same articles can only command the same price
in the home market, and though the law imposed an import duty, by way of
pretended protection, to any extent, upon similar foreign goods, it
would not have the effect of raising the price one fraction. On the
other hand, we do not produce as much wool or food as we consume, and
have every year to import large quantities of each to make up the
deficiency. Whatever duty, therefore, is put on the import of the
quantity thus required, will enable the producers at home to maintain
their price so much above the natural level of the world. By this state
of things the country at large is injured in two distinct and prominent
ways:--first,--those articles which we can make in excess, and export,
must ever be the chief means of absorbing the increasing capital and
labour of the country; and the impediment thrown in our way, of
importing those things which we have in deficiency, must necessarily
check our power of extending the demand for the produce of such
increasing labour and capital; and, secondly,--the price of such
articles as we produce in deficiency, will always be maintained much
above the level of the world, to the great disadvantage of the other
great class of producers, the price of whose labour, and whose profits,
will be regulated by competition with those who have food, &c., at the
lowest price.

So much as to the effect on the community at large. We will now shortly
consider the effect on individual interests, which are thought to enjoy
protection, and we believe we can show that there never was a condition
so fraught with mischief and disappointment, with such unmitigated
delusion, deception, and exposure to ruin, than is to be found in every
case where protection operates. We think it can be clearly shown _that
such occupations can never be more profitable; that they must usually be
less profitable; and that they are always more exposed to vicissitudes
than any other class_.

They never can be more profitable, because capital and enterprise will
always be attracted to any occupation which offers a larger profit than
the usual rate, till it is reduced to a level with others; they will
usually be less profitable, indeed always in a community of increasing
numbers, because the price being maintained by restriction above the
price of the world, prevents an extension of such trades in the same
proportion as those who naturally belong to them, and look to them for
occupation, increase in numbers: they will be exposed to greater
vicissitudes, because, being confined to the supply of only one market,
any accidental circumstance, which either increases the usual supply, or
diminishes the usual demand, will cause an infinitely greater depression
than if they were in a condition to avail themselves of the markets of
the whole world, over which they could spread an accidental and unusual
surplus.

Thus, previous to 1824, the silk manufacturers of this country were
protected to a greater extent than any other trade, and the price of
silk goods was maintained much above the rate of other countries; our
silk trade was therefore necessarily confined almost exclusively to the
home market and our colonies, and though they had a monopoly of those
markets, it was at the cost of exclusion (on account of higher price)
from all other markets.

Notwithstanding this monopoly, the silk manufacturers could never
command at any time larger _profits_ than other trades; for had they
done so, competition would have increased until the rate was reduced to
the common level of the country: on the contrary, the tendency was for
profits and rates of wages to be smaller than in other great
manufacturing branches, requiring equal capital and skill; because, with
the increasing numbers who belonged to the silk trade,--the sons of
manufacturers and of weavers, who naturally, in the first instance, look
to the trade of their parents for their occupation,--the trade did not
proportionably increase, from the fact of our being unable to extend our
exports; and, lastly, it was exposed to much greater vicissitudes than
other trades; for when, either from a temporary change of fashion or
taste, or from a temporary stagnation of trade in this country, the
accustomed demand was lessened, the silk manufacturers were unable to
obtain any relief by extending their trade in the great neutral markets
of the world, being excluded by price, and the whole surplus quantity
remained a dead weight on this market only; whereas other branches of
manufactures, practically enjoying no protection, in the case of
depressed trade at home, had an opportunity of immediate relief, by
spreading the surplus thereby created, at a very trifling sacrifice,
over the wide markets which they supplied.

In this way the extent and duration of the vicissitudes and depressions
in the silk trade were without parallel in any other; but since 1824,
since this trade has been placed in a natural position by the removal of
monopoly, the whole aspect of it has changed, and these peculiar evils
have all disappeared.

Then again with regard to the products of land, which the law attempts
to protect more highly than any other. Here again, though the price to
the community is maintained much above the prices of other countries, no
one person connected with raising the produce can command a higher rate
of profit, or higher wages for labour, than other trades having no
protection whatever; for if they did, competition would soon reduce them
to the same level; but, on the contrary, the wages, of agricultural
labourers, and the profits of farmers, are always rather below than
above the common rate, and simply from this fact, that the children of
farm labourers, and of farmers, who first naturally look to the pursuits
of their parents for a trade or occupation, increase in numbers without
any corresponding extension of the means of employment, and the
competition among them is therefore always greater than in other trades
which have the power of extension; and the vicissitudes to which the
farmer is exposed are notoriously greater than any other trade. His rent
and expenses throughout are fixed by an artificial price of produce,
which price can only be maintained as long as a certain scarcity exists;
but the moment the markets are plentifully supplied, either from a want
of demand owing to a depression of trade, or from the result of a good
harvest, he finds that plenty takes out of his hand all control of
price, which quickly sinks to the natural rate.

With a free trade the farmer would never be exposed to such reverses. In
that state, if the demand and price increased, it would be checked by an
increase of imports from other countries; if the demand and price
diminished, that would also be checked by a reduction or cessation of
the usual imports, and, if necessary, by an export of any surplus which
pressed upon the market;--and, if our space allowed, it would not be
difficult to show that, with prices at the natural rate, all parties
connected with land would not only be in a safer but a much better
condition.

No cautious man who well understands the subject will ever hazard his
capital in any trade exposed to so many evils and to so much uncertainty
as restriction and protection infallibly introduce into it:--but the
great error which misleads all men in cherishing such trades is, that
they mistake _high prices_ for _high profits_, which usually, instead of
being synonymous terms, are quite the reverse.



AGRICULTURE.

No. II.

ON THE INDICATIONS WHICH ARE GUIDES IN JUDGING OF THE FERTILITY OR
BARRENNESS OF THE SOIL.

BY THE REV. WILLIAM THORP.

(_Continued from No. 2._)


These three signs, viz., colour, consistence, and vegetation, are named
by the Royal Agricultural Society as being pre-eminently indications of
the value of lands; yet there are others of equal if not of greater
consequence. For example:--

_A knowledge of the geology of the land_ is of the first importance;
that is, not only a knowledge of the range and extent of each formation
and its subdivisions, which may be called geographical geology, but also
how far and to what extent the various lands do depend upon the
substratum for their soil, and the local variations in the chemical or
mineralogical character of the substrata themselves, and which may be
called the differential geology of soils. For not only do the qualities
of land vary from one formation to another, but upon the same formation
there is frequently considerable difference in the quality of land
depending upon chemical difference in the substratum, or upon an
intermixture of foreign debris derived from other strata.

_A chemical investigation_ of the soil and subsoil will frequently
afford most useful indications respecting the value of land. It may be
laid down as an axiom that a soil to be fertile must contain all the
chemical ingredients which a plant can only obtain from the soil, and
chemistry ought to be able to inform us in unproductive soils what
ingredients are wanting. It also is able to inform us if any poisonous
substance exists in the soil, and how it may be neutralized; when lime,
marl, and chalk are to be used, &c.[1]

The Royal Agricultural Society say that chemistry is unable to explain
the productiveness of soils. But why is it unable? One reason is, that
supposing everything required by the plant to be present in the soil,
yet if the soil be either too wet, or too dry, too cohesive, or loose,
the plant will not flourish; and chemical analysis does not declare
this, for it affords no information respecting the mechanical division
in which substances exist in the soil. Again, the chemical analysis of
soils, to be worth anything, must be conducted with more rigid accuracy
than those published by English writers. To detect one cwt. of gypsum in
an acre there would be only one quarter of a grain in a pound of soil,
or in 100 grains only three and a half thousandth of a grain (35/10000
or,00035 grs.), or to discover if sufficient alumina existed in a field
for the production of red clover there must be ascertained if it
contained (one hundred thousandth),00001 per cent. The analyses even by
Sprengel do not afford us the quantity of nitrogen in each soil, or the
capacity of the soil for this substance; while it is well known that
most manures, as well as the different kinds of food, are valuable in
proportion to the quantity contained by them, and it is highly probable,
_ceteris paribus_, that the quantity of nitrogen found existing in soil,
and the soil's capacity for containing that substance, would afford an
easy indication of its immediate fertility, and also of its requiring
great or small quantities of nitrogenous manures in its future
cultivation.[2]

Chemistry, however, outsteps her province when it is attempted to
explain how vegetable productions are formed in the plants by chemical
forces; for the recent discoveries of Schwann, Henle, and Schleiden,
prove that all the functions of the plant are performed by the means of
simple vesicles and cells--that absorption, assimilation, fixation of
carbon from the atmosphere, respiration, exhalation, secretion, and
reproduction are all effected by single cells, of which the lower plants
almost entirely consist--that the cell absorbs alimentary matters
through the spongioles of the root, and that the fluid received thus
undergoes the first steps of the organizing process--that the inorganic
elements are changed into the simplest proximate principles by cells--so
also are the further changes into the regular secretions of the plant,
the result of cell-life--that gum and sugar are converted into the
organizable portion of the nutritious sap by the cells of the leaves.
The starchy fluid in the grains of corn is rendered capable of nutrition
to the embryo by the development of successive generations of cells,
which exert upon it their peculiar vitalizing influence. Albumen is
converted into fibrine by the vital agency of cell life--_i.e._, cells
are produced which do not form an integral part of any permanent
structure in the plant, but which, after attaining a certain maturity,
reproduce themselves and disappear; hence it may be stated that all the
vegetable productions which are formed in the plant are effected by a
series of vital actions through the agency of cells.

From the different transformations which these undergo all the different
tissues in vegetables are formed; for instance, the spiral and dotted
ducts, woody fibre, and so on. Schwann showed that the formation of
tissues in animals went through exactly the same progress, a fact which
has been confirmed by the microscopic observations of Valentin and
Barry. Thus vessels, glands, the brain, nerves, muscles, and even bones
and teeth are all formed from metamorphosed cells. Dr Bennett says--"If
this be true, and there can be little doubt, it obliges us to modify our
notions of organization and life. It compels us to confess that
vegetables and animals are not simple beings, but composed of a greater
or less number of individuals, of which thousands may exist in a mass
not larger than a grain of sand, each having a vital centre and separate
life, independent of those around it. Each of these individuals, or
organized cells, should be regarded as a living being, which has its
particular vital centre of absorption, assimilation, and growth, and
which continues to vegetate, to increase, and undergo transformations as
if it were an isolated individual. At all events, a knowledge of the
existence of the cell-life of plants will explain several phenomena
respecting the vegetation, growth, and ripening of corn, and may
hereafter lead to some valuable practical results."

_The climate, elevation, and exposure_ are not to be neglected. Upon the
higher portions of the Wolds crops suffer, much from elevation and
exposure, while in the western portion of Yorkshire, upon the moor
edges, the harvest is usually a month later than in the central parts of
the island.

_A moderate depth_ of soil in general is a favourable sign, although
some of shallow soils on the new red sandstone and on the Wolds are very
good; to these signs are to be added locality, as respects markets,
facilities of obtaining a supply of lime, or other tillage, the rates
and outpayments peculiar to the district, &c. &c., all of which are to
be taken into account when considering the value of any particular farm.

I shall now briefly apply these indications of fertility over the
different geological formations of Yorkshire, and it will be found that
each lends aid to the other, and that a person will be able to ascertain
the value of land in proportion as he is able to appreciate the
collective evidence afforded by them.

(_To be continued._)


[1] Mr Brakenridge, of Bretton Lodge, who has extensive practice in land
valuing, informs me that a mechanical analysis of the soil affords him
much assistance; and he has found that in soils, whenever free from
stagnant water, that in a mechanical analysis the larger the proportion
which remains suspended in the water, the greater its powers of
production will be found, and the less manure it will require. That the
best soils are those which, when diffused and well stirred in water and
allowed to stand for three minutes, from 20 to 30, say 25, per cent. is
carried off with the water of decantation. When 30 per cent. and upwards
is decanted off, the soil becomes retentive of water and consequently
wet. When less than 20 per cent., say only 16 per cent. and under, is
carried off, it becomes too porous; water passes through it too rapidly;
its soluble matter is washed off into the substratum, and it has a
strong tendency to become thin and sterile.

[2] The celebrated black earth of Russia contains 2,45 per cent. of
nitrogen.



COURT AND ARISTOCRACY.


The Queen and Prince Albert, on their return on Thursday week from the
Chateau d'Eu, were accompanied by the Prince de Joinville, who remained
to dine with the Royal party, and then returned in the evening on board
his yacht, for the coast of France. After a few days' repose, her
Majesty and the Prince started on another marine excursion. They sailed
from Brighton on Tuesday morning, passed Dover, and arrived off Deal
about three o'clock, where the Royal yacht anchored, in order to receive
the Duke of Wellington, who came from Walmer Castle, and dined with her
Majesty on board, a large number of vessels, gaily decked with flags, as
well as crowds on shore, giving animation to the scene. The Duke
remained with her Majesty and Prince Albert upwards of two hours, and
during the time he was on board, the wind, which throughout the day had
been blowing rather fresh from the northward and eastward, had
considerably increased, and her Majesty, upon the Duke's taking his
leave, evinced very great anxiety respecting the safe landing of his
Grace. Everybody who knows this coast is aware that when the wind is
blowing at all from the eastward that there is a very heavy surf on the
beach, and consequently great difficulty in landing. His Grace, however,
on thanking her Majesty for the concern she evinced on his account, made
light of the matter, and returned on board the _Ariel_, which brought
him as near the shore as possible; here he got into the barge and rowed
towards the beach. The swell was too great to admit of his landing at
the pier, from which he had started, and the boat was pulled towards the
naval yard, where the surf was not so great as at any other part of the
shore. Here the Duke landed, but not without a thorough drenching, for
no sooner had the bows of the boat touched the shore than a heavy sea
broke right over her stern, and completely saturated his Grace's
apparel. The Duke, upon landing, all wet as he was, immediately mounted
his horse, and rode off to Walmer Castle. A numerous assemblage of
persons had congregated on the beach when the Duke came on shore, and
loudly and enthusiastically cheered him.

At an early hour on Wednesday morning the squadron got their steam up,
and made preparations for taking their departure. The weather had
moderated, and the day was fine. About seven o'clock the Royal yacht got
under way, and stood out to sea, and was followed by the other steamers,
and also by the _Penelope_, which had been ordered to form one of the
Royal squadron.

About two o'clock on Wednesday the Royal yacht entered the port of
Ostend, taking the authorities somewhat by surprise, who did not expect
it quite so soon. The King and Queen of Belgium, and the official
personages of Ostend, were, however, on the pier to await the landing;
and the populace displayed the most lively enthusiasm. In the evening
there was a grand banquet at the Hotel de Ville, and Ostend was
brilliantly illuminated, in a style far surpassing ordinary occasions.

THE KING OF HANOVER.--A correspondent writes that his Majesty, while in
conversation with a noble friend, expressed the determination, should
Divine Providence spare him health, to visit this country again next
summer, and he purposed then to come earlier in the season.

VISIT OF THE REGENT OF SPAIN TO GREENWICH HOSPITAL.--On Wednesday, about
twelve o'clock, General Espartero paid a visit to the Royal Hospital at
Greenwich.

Sir Robert Peel arrived in town by the London and Birmingham Railway on
Saturday afternoon, from his seat, Drayton Manor, Staffordshire, and
immediately proceeded from the Euston-square terminus to the residence
of the Earl of Aberdeen, in Argyll street, to pay a visit to his
lordship. Soon, after the arrival of the Right Hon. Baronet, Sir James
Graham arrived in Argyll street from the Home office, and had an
interview with Sir Robert Peel.

Sir R. Peel left his colleagues at a quarter-past four o'clock for the
terminus at London bridge, and travelled by the London and Brighton
Railway to Brighton, to dine with her Majesty and Prince Albert,
remaining at the Pavilion, on a visit to her Majesty.



MUSIC AND MUSICALES.


MANCHESTER MUSICAL FESTIVAL.--This great festival--one of the greatest
and finest musical events that ever occurred in Manchester--was held in
the magnificent hall of the Anti-Corn-law League, the length of which is
135 feet, the breadth 102 feet, inclosing an area of about 14,000 square
feet. The services of all our principal vocal artists were secured. The
_soprani_ were Miss Clara Novello and Miss Rainforth; the _alto_ or
_mezzo soprano_, Mrs Alfred Shaw; the _tenori_, Mr Braham and Mr James
Bennett; and the _basso_, Mr Henry Phillips. The choir was the most
complete and efficient one ever collected in Manchester, and consisted
of nearly the whole of the vocal members of the Manchester Choral
Society and the Hargreaves Choral Society, with some valuable additions
from the choirs of Bury and other neighbouring towns, and from gentlemen
amateurs, conversant with Handel. The _Messiah_ was the performance of
Monday night; and, on the whole, was executed in a style worthy of that
great work of art, the conductor being Sir Henry Bishop, who wore his
robes as a musical bachelor of the University of Oxford. On Tuesday
there was a grand miscellaneous concert, the hall being even more
numerously attended than on the preceding evening, there not being fewer
than 3,500 persons present. This went off with very great satisfaction
to the very numerous auditory; and the _Manchester Guardian_ says, "As
to the general impression produced by this festival, we believe we do
not err in saying that there is but one opinion,--that it has been
throughout an eminently successful experiment. Sir Henry Bishop, we
understand, said that he never heard choruses sung with better effect in
his life; and that he considered the festival, as a musical performance,
most creditable to every one connected with it. As to the capabilities
of the hall for singing, we are informed that Miss Clara Novello has
declared that she never sang with more ease in any place in her life;
and we think the ease with which she did sing was obvious to all who
could see her countenance. We have asked many persons who sat in
different parts of the hall, especially in distant corners, and all
concur in saying that they heard most distinctly Miss Novello's softest
and faintest notes."

MUSICAL INTELLIGENCE.--Rubini is about to establish an opera at St
Petersburg, and has engaged his old colleague, Tamburini, to assist him
in the enterprize. He has also engaged Signor Pisani, a young tenor of
great promise. Lablache will not appear at the opening of the Italian
Opera in Paris. He has gone to Naples, where he will remain for two
months, and where he is to be joined by his son-in-law, Thalberg. A
grand musical festival, which was to have taken place in Paris on
Thursday next, has been postponed till the beginning of October. It is
said that this festival will rival those of Germany in splendour.

The Hereford Musical Festival, which was held on Tuesday, Wednesday, and
Thursday, in All Saints Church, in consequence of the repairs going on
at the cathedral, was on a much smaller scale than of late years has
been usual with the three choirs, and the attendances at the various
performances were by no means so numerous as had been generally
expected; still, as the expenses had been studiously kept down, it is to
be hoped the receipts may cover them, or nearly so. The collections
after the three services amounted to 865_l._, being 200_l._ less than in
1840, but 50_l._ more than in 1837.--_Cheltenham Looker-on._

Rossini has just left Paris without its having been possible to procure
a note from him. Every effort has been fruitless. Unwilling to hear one
word said of music, Rossini has not even been to the Opera. He is
returning to Bologna, cured of a painful disease by Doctor Civiale, who,
with reason, seemed to him a far more important personage than Duprez.
It is said that Rossini replied to the great tenor, who asked him for a
part, "I have come too early, and you too late."--_French print._



THE METROPOLIS.


THE ALDERMANIC GOWN OF BREAD-STREET WARD.--It is supposed that there
will be a hard contest for the Aldermanic Gown of Bread street, vacant
by the resignation of Alderman Lainson, who on Thursday last addressed a
letter to the Lord Mayor, announcing his determination to retire, in
consequence of ill health.

METROPOLITAN IMPROVEMENTS.--The works are now about to commence in good
earnest for forming Victoria Park. Great progress is being made by the
Commissioners of the Metropolis Improvements in the formation of the new
street at the West-end. The new street leading from Oxford street to
Holborn has been marked out by the erection of poles along the line.
Last week several houses were disposed of by auction, for the purpose of
being taken down. Some delay has arisen in respect to the purchase of
the houses which have formed the locality known as Little Ireland. Among
the buildings to be removed is the chapel situated at the top of
Plumtree street. In this street the whole of the houses on the west side
will be shortly removed, for the new street which will lead from
Waterloo bridge. In Belton street, in the line for this intended street,
the inmates of several houses received notice to quit yesterday. The
occupiers of the several houses forming the clump at the end of Monmouth
street, in Holborn, have also received similar notices. Similar progress
has been made with the new street communicating between Coventry street
and Long acre. The line has been cleared from Castle street to Long Acre
on the east. On the west side the inmates of the houses, it is expected,
will in a few days have notice to quit. Improvements will also be made
between Long acre and St Giles's; and in Upper St Martin's lane the
whole of the houses on the west side will be removed, the greater part
of which are already taken down.

REPORT ON THE MODEL PRISON.--The commissioners appointed to superintend
the management of the Pentonville Prison have just presented their
report for the approval of the Secretary of State. The report states,
that it is the intention of the Secretary of State to appropriate the
prison to the reception of convicts between eighteen and thirty-five
years, under sentence of transportation not exceeding fifteen years; and
that the convicts so selected shall undergo a term of probationary
discipline for eighteen months in the prison, when they will be removed
to Van Diemen's land under their original sentences.

RETURNS OF THE ROYAL MINT.--The Master of the Mint has issued his annual
return of the work done in the refinery of the Mint, and of the assays
made during the past year on other accounts than those of Government,
and of public and private bodies, in conformity with an order of the
house on a motion made by Mr Hume. The return estimates the amount of
bullion refined in the year 1842, under this head, at 940 lbs 0 oz. 19
dwts. of gold, and 24,376 lbs. 11 oz. of silver, the amount received by
the refiner being about 600_l._ The number of assays made in the same
period is put down at 2,158, at a rate of charge of 2s. for each assay.

POST-OFFICE LAW.--It may be interesting at this season, when so many
persons who are out of town have their letters forwarded to them in the
country, to see the answer to an inquiry whether a letter forwarded
after delivery at one address to another in the country is liable to
second postage:--"General Post office, Sept. 7, 1843.--Sir,--I am
commanded by the Postmaster-General to inform you, in reply to your
communication of the 29th ultimo, that a letter re-directed from one
place to another is legally liable to additional postage for the further
service. I am, Sir, &c. &c."

SINGULAR EMPLOYMENT OF THE POLICE.--Under an order recently issued by
the commissioners of the metropolitan police, a number of the officers
of each division have been actively engaged in collecting information
and making out a return of all new houses completed since the year 1830,
in which year the police force was established; all new houses commenced
but not finished; all new churches, new chapels, new schools, and other
public buildings; all new streets and squares formed since that period,
with their names and the name of the neighbourhood.



THE PROVINCES.


SANITARY STATE OF LIVERPOOL.--A Mr Henry Laxton has published a very
thin pamphlet, in the shape of a letter to Dr Lyon Playfair, who has
been appointed, under the commission of inquiry, to examine and report
upon the unhealthy state of Liverpool. But though Mr Laxton's pamphlet
is very small, it exposes evils too complicated and large to be remedied
without vigorous, continuous, steadily-applied exertion. Groups of
houses packed together, with scarcely room for the inhabitants to stir;
open cesspools continually sending up their poisonous exhalations, and
in hot or wet weather so infesting the air as to render it almost
insupportable; smoke from the factories and steam-vessels, which, when
the wind is westerly, covers the town, blackening the buildings, soiling
goods, and, mixing with the other gases already generated, forming one
general conglomeration of deleterious vapours; the state of the
inhabited cellars; the neighbourhood of which exhibits scenes of
barbarism disgraceful for any civilised state to allow; an inefficient
supply of that great necessity of life--water; inefficient drainage,
which is only adapted to carry off the surface water;--these are but a
sample of the general state of Liverpool, and at the same time very
distinct and efficient causes of its excessive mortality.

SHEFFIELD.--It is now understood that there will be no immediate vacancy
for Sheffield, and that both Mr Ward and Mr Parker will retain their
seats.

HENRY DAMAR, ESQ.--The _Dorset Chronicle_ publishes a long account of
the festivities which took place at Milton Abbey, in Dorsetshire, on the
5th instant, on the occasion of the coming of age of the proprietor,
Henry Damar, Esq.

PROPOSED PUBLIC MEETING IN BIRMINGHAM.--On Monday a deputation waited on
the Mayor of Birmingham, with the requisition requesting him to call a
public meeting to petition the Queen to dismiss her present ministers.
The requisition was signed by nearly one thousand merchants,
manufacturers, and shopkeepers of the town. There was not the name of a
working man attached to it. The mayor, however, declined calling the
meeting, observing, that although he might not act in accordance with
the wishes of many most respectable individuals in the town, he had made
up his mind not to call the meeting.

ATTENDANCE OF THE LANCASHIRE MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS IN THE
SESSION OF 1843.--The total number of divisions in the House of Commons,
during the session of 1843, was 220, in which there voted--

                                                      Times.
  1. Joseph Brotherton                   Salford           191
  2. Dr Bowring                          Bolton            153
  3. Lord Stanley                        N. Lancashire     129
  4. William Sharman Crawford            Rochdale          120
  5. Thomas Greene                       Lancaster         102
  6. Charles Hindley                     Ashton             92
  7. Sir Howard Douglas                  Liverpool          88
  8. John Wilson Patten                  N. Lancashire      82
  9. John Ireland Blackburne             Warrington         75
  10. Viscount Sandon                    Liverpool          69
  11. John Fielden                       Oldham             61
  12. John Hornby                        Blackburn          61
  13. Peter Greenal                      Wigan              60
  14. Thomas Milner Gibson               Manchester         56
  15. Sir George Strickland              Preston            53
  16. Hon. Richard Bootle Wilbraham      S. Lancashire      50
  17. Edward Cardwell                    Clitheroe          47
  18. William Fielden                    Blackburn          47
  19. Peter Ainsworth                    Bolton             34
  20. General Johnson                    Oldham             32
  21. George Marton                      Lancaster          31
  22. Mark Philips                       Manchester         26
  23. Sir Peter Hesketh Fleetwood        Preston            19
  24. Richard Walker                     Bury               16
  25. Lord Francis Egerton               S. Lancashire       9
  26. Charles Standish                   Wigan               9

DESTRUCTIVE FIRE AT HALIFAX.--We regret to learn that a fire broke out
early on Saturday morning, in the warehouse of Messrs James Acroyd and
Son, worsted manufacturers, Bowling Dyke, near Halifax, when the
building, together with a large quantity of goods, was entirely
destroyed. We understand that Messrs Acroyd were insured to the extent
of six or seven thousand pounds, but that the loss considerably exceeds
that amount.

CHESTER CHEESE FAIR.--At this fair on Wednesday last, the first of the
season for this year's make, about 200 tons of new cheese were piled for
sale. Early in the morning several dairies went off briskly, but as the
day advanced sales became heavy. Prices ranged from 40s. to 50s. per
cwt., according to quality. We hear that the make this season has been
above an average one.

NEW COLLEGE, NEAR OXFORD.--A correspondent states that it is intended to
establish at Littlemore, near Oxford, a college, in which young men
holding Tractarian views may be trained for missionary labour in
connexion with the established church. The Right Rev. Dr Coleridge,
formerly Bishop of Barbadoes, will be the principal of the institution.

CHATHAM.--A general Court-martial was held on Wednesday, the 6th inst.,
in the General Court-martial-room, Chatham Barracks, for the purpose of
trying Lieutenant J. Piper, of the 26th Cameronian Regiment. The trial
lasted four days, terminating on Saturday, the 9th inst. The charges
alleged ungentlemanly and improper conduct. The prisoner's defence being
closed, the Court broke up. The sentence of the Court will not be known
until the evidence has been laid before the Commander-in-Chief at the
Horse Guards. The prisoner is about 26 years of age. The trial excited
the greatest interest throughout the garrison.

It is said that there are at present upwards of 2,000 visitors
congregated at Harrogate; and all the other watering places in the north
of England, Scarborough, Seaton, Carew, Redcar, Tynemouth, Shotley
bridge, Gilsland, as well as the lakes, are teeming with gay and
respectable company.



IRELAND.


REPEAL ASSOCIATION.--On Monday the usual weekly meeting of the Repeal
Association was held at the Corn Exchange, Dublin. The week's "rent"
amounted to 735_l._, of which 1_l._ was from Mr Baldwin, a paper
manufacturer of Birmingham, who is of opinion that Ireland would be of
greater benefit to England with a domestic legislature than she was at
present.

REPEAL MEETINGS.--A repeal meeting was held on Sunday last at Loughrea,
a town in the county of Galway, about ninety miles from Dublin. It was
attended by Mr O'Connell, who as it was raining in torrents, addressed
the people from under the shelter of an umbrella. Amongst other things
in his speech, he said,--"Believe me, my friends, that if you follow my
advice, the day is not far distant when you shall have your Parliament
restored in Ireland. I am working the plan out. I have it in detail. I
will have this protective society of 300 sitting before Christmas, and I
hope to be able to give you, as a new year's gift, a Parliament in
College green. (Cheers.) People of Ireland, you deserve it. Brave,
noble-minded people of Ireland, you deserve it. Faithful, religious,
moral, temperate people of Ireland, you deserve to be a nation, and you
shall be a nation. (Much cheering.) The Saxon stranger shall not rule
you. Ireland shall belong to the Irish, and the Irish shall have
Ireland." (Hurrah.) There was a dinner in the evening, at which about
400 persons were present.

BRANDING OF ARMS IN IRELAND.--Government has entered into a contract
with Mr Grubb, the scientific and very able mechanist of the Bank of
Ireland, for the construction of the machine intended to be used in
marking the arms under the new law--they are not to be subjected to the
operation of punching, still less, as some strangely supposed, to the
notion of fire. The letters, or figures, will be marked by cutting; and,
so simple and ingenious is the method employed, that the most unskilful
workman, even an ordinary person unpractised in any trade, can effect
the process with the most perfect ease. Four figures and two letters are
expected to suffice for designating the county or riding of a county,
and the number of the piece; the time occupied in the engraving will be
one minute. The expense will be extremely moderate; the cost of each
machine being, we understand, only twenty-five guineas, one-half of
which, by law, will be defrayed out of the consolidated fund, the other
half by the county.--_Evening Mail._

SCENE AT THE PHOENIX PARK.--An extraordinary scene took place on
Saturday, at the Viceregal Lodge, between the military on duty and a
person named Thomas Campbell, who is, it would appear, insane. Thomas
Campbell, it appears, is a very powerful young man, about thirty years
of age, and a native of the North road, Drogheda. At the lodge, in the
Phoenix Park, he asked to see the Lord Lieutenant; but, being armed
with a pitchfork and a hammer, he was not considered an eligible
visitor, and after a desperate struggle with the guard, whom he kept at
bay, he was knocked down and secured by a police constable.

The meeting of Tuesday of the Repeal Association, adjourned over from
Monday, was enlivened by the presence of Mr O'Connell, without whom all
its proceedings would be "stale, flat, and unprofitable." It again
adjourned till Wednesday; and, on that day, Mr O'Connell read an address
to the people of Great Britain, setting forth the grievances of the
people of Ireland. After the reading of this document, which is long,
and certainly ably drawn up, the association adjourned till Monday.

MILITARY DEFENCES.--Before the winter sets in every barrack in Ireland
will be in a state of defence, fit to hold out against an insurgent
assault. In fact, everything will be prepared, excepting the
insurrectionary force; and certainly there does not at present appear to
be much chance that the strength of the fortifications will be tested.

       *       *       *       *       *

REPEAL DEMONSTRATION IN LIVERPOOL.--Some days ago public announcements
were made that two days' "demonstration" would be made in this town, in
favour of the repeal of the union, and that Mr Daniel O'Connell, jun.,
youngest son of the Liberator, and one or two others of inferior note
would attend. The meeting took place on Tuesday night last, in the
Amphitheatre, which was crowded, by not less than between 3,000 and
4,000 persons. Shortly after the doors were opened it appeared evident
that a considerable body of Orangemen were dispersed in different parts,
from partial sounds of the "Kentish fire," and other circumstances. Mr
O'Connell, and the gentlemen accompanying him, arrived about half-past
seven, and the chair was taken by Mr James Lennon, who was described as
an "Inspector of Repeal Wardens in Liverpool." He delivered a short
speech in favour of repeal, during which he was repeatedly interrupted
by the Orangemen, and some confusion followed.--Mr Fitzgerald moved the
first resolution, which was supported by Mr Daniel O'Connell, jun. His
retirement was the signal for the commencement of an uproar which almost
defies description. There appeared an evident determination that the
proceedings should be stopped; for fights commenced in different parts,
many of the benches were torn up, and a sort of attack was made upon the
stage by a few Orangemen who were in the pit. The police were very
active in endeavouring to secure the assailants, several of whom were
seriously hurt; and a few of them having been removed from the building,
order was eventually restored, and, with a few trifling exceptions, it
was preserved to the end of the proceedings.


SCOTLAND.

The working of the measure of the past session, denominated the Church
of Scotland Benefices Act, will soon be tested, and is now undergoing
the ordeal of proof, in consequence of objections lodged by the
parishioners of Banff, with the presbytery of Fordyce, against the
presentation, induction, and translation of the Rev. George Henderson,
now incumbent of the church and parish of Cullen, to the cure and
pastoral charge of the church and parish of Banff.

The Rev. Mr Grant, formerly parochial minister of Banff, ceased to hold
his _status_ in the Established Church of Scotland, having signed the
famous deed of secession, and voluntarily resigned his living with his
brethren of the non-intrusion clergy. A large portion of his
congregation left the establishment along with him, and a free church is
now in course of being built for their accommodation. The patronage of
the vacant benefice is in the gift of the Earl of Seafield. The Rev. Mr
Henderson, of Cullen, has accepted the presentation to the parish church
of Banff.

On the day appointed for "moderating on the call," very few names were
given in, in favour of the presentee, and the presbytery having fixed a
day for receiving objections, a series of reasons and objections was
lodged in the hands of that reverend body, and published at length in
the _Aberdeen Herald_, against proceeding with the collation of Mr
Henderson. The objections are set forth under no less than fourteen
different heads. "The approaches and manners" of the reverend gentleman
are not considered such "as to attach and endear his congregation to
him." He is reported to be subject "to an occasional exuberance of
animal spirits, and at times to display a liveliness of manner and
conversation which would be repugnant to the feelings of a large portion
of the congregation of Banff." Others of the objections assert, that his
illustrations in the pulpit do not bear upon his text--that his subjects
are incoherent and ill deduced; and the reverend gentleman is also
charged with being subject to a natural defect of utterance--a defect
which it is said increases as he "extends his voice," which is of a
"very harsh and grating description," and renders it difficult to hear
or follow what he says in the church of Banff, which we are informed "is
very large, and peculiarly constructed, with an unusually high pulpit,
to suit the high galleries;" and moreover, "the said Rev. George
Henderson is considered to be destitute of a musical ear, which prevents
the correct modulation of his voice!"

ARGYLLSHIRE ELECTION.--- The election of a member of Parliament for the
county of Argyll, in the room of Alexander Campbell, Esq., of Monzie,
who has accepted the Chiltern Hundreds, took place at Inverary on Friday
week. The Lord Advocate (Mr Duncan M'Neill), the only candidate in the
field, was accompanied to the hustings by a great number of the county
gentlemen; and no other candidate having been brought forward, a show of
hands was consequently taken, which being perfectly unanimous, he was,
of course, declared duly elected.--_Glasgow Saturday Post._

The Speaker of the House of Commons, Mr Shaw Lefevre, has been on a
visit at Glenquoich, the shooting quarters of Edward Ellice, Esq., M.P.,
in this county. The Right Hon. Edward Ellice, M.P. for Coventry, the
Baron James de Rothschild, and other members of the Rothschild family,
were also at Glenquoich.--_Inverness Courrier._


WALES.

The disturbances in Wales still continue, though the apprehension of
some of the rioters who destroyed the Pontardulais gate has had some
effect. The following distressing scene is reported in the _Times_:--

"OUTRAGE IN SOUTH WALES.--On the road from Llanelly to Pontardulais, and
within five hundred yards of the latter place, is a turnpike-gate called
Hendy gate. This gate was kept by an old woman upwards of seventy years
of age, who has received frequent notices that if she did not leave the
gate, her house should be burnt down. About three o'clock on Sunday
morning, a party of ruffians set fire to the thatch of the toll-house.
The old woman, on being awakened, ran into the road and to a
neighbouring cottage within twenty yards of the toll-house, shouting to
the people who lived in it, 'For God's sake to come out and help her to
put out the fire; there was not much.' The occupier of this cottage, a
stout able man, was afraid to go out, and begged the old woman to come
into his cottage, which she refused, and went back to try and save some
of her furniture. It appears her exclamation had been overheard, for the
villains returned and set fire to the thatch again. The old woman then
ran across the road, and shouted out, 'She knew them;' when the brutes
fired at her, and shot her dead."

An inquest was held on the body of the unfortunate woman, and the jury
returned the following astounding verdict:--"That the deceased died from
the effusion of blood into the chest, which occasioned suffocation, but
from what cause is to this jury unknown."

Meetings of the magistrates, in relation to the turnpike trusts, have
been held, and measures taken to mitigate the heaviest tolls.



FOREIGN.


FRANCE.

Louis Philippe has had a remarkable history; but it has been
distinguished to an extraordinary degree by its vicissitudes, amongst
which we must not forget his involuntary exile, and his residence in
this country, where he lived for many years as Duke of Orleans. A worse
man than his father it would be difficult to imagine. He was a vain,
ambitious, and cowardly voluptuary, who gratified his personal passions
at the expense of his sovereign and his country; but his son was reared
in a different school, and to that accident, conjoined with a better
nature, he probably owes the high position which he now occupies as a
European monarch. Misfortune is a stern teacher, and its effects on
Louis Philippe may be exemplified by a little story that was told of him
and Lord Brougham some years ago:--"I am the most independent crowned
head in Europe," said he, "and the best fitted for my office of all my
brethren." The praise might be deserved, but it seemed strange to the
_ex_-Chancellor that it should come from his own mouth--he, therefore,
bowed assent, and muttered some complimentary phrases about his
Majesty's judgment, firmness, and the like. "Pooh, pooh, my lord," he
observed, laughing heartily, "I do not mean that--I do not mean that,
but that I can--brush my own boots!" This was practical philosophy, and
indicated a clear perception of the constitution of modern society,
particularly on the part of one who is known to be by no means
indifferent to the fortunes of his race. We believe, also, that Louis
Philippe has been happy beyond most men of regal rank in the possession
of an admirable woman for a wife, the present Queen of the French being,
in all respects, a lady of superior intelligence and virtue; properties
which are luckily confined to no condition of life, and to no country or
creed. She has shared in all her husband's troubles during the last
eventful forty years, and now adorns that throne which the exigencies of
the times demanded that he should fill if the French monarchy was to be
preserved. Her attention to her children has been unremitting, and the
result is, that high though their position be, a more united household
nowhere exists.


SPAIN.

The Ministry has been on the point of dissolution. General Serrano,
angered at the contempt shown to his denunciations and lists of
conspirators, by the Home Minister, Caballero, gave in his resignation.
General Serrano demanded the dismissal from Madrid of more suspected
persons. Senors Olozaga and Cortina intervened, however, and made up the
quarrel, ordering the _Gazette_ to declare that the most perfect harmony
reigned in the Cabinet. This the _Gazette_ did. Mr Aston has demanded
his audience of leave, and quits Madrid on the 15th.

Grenada has blotted the name of Martinez de la Rosa from its lists of
candidates, though he had formerly been elected for that place. M.
Toreno is expected at Madrid. Senor Olozaga sets out for Paris, to try
and persuade Christina to be patient, for that her presence previous to
the elections would rather militate against her party.

At Madrid the anniversary of the revolution of 1840, which drove Queen
Christina from the Regency, was celebrated by a _Te Deum_, chanted in
the church of San Isidro, on the 1st, and at which assisted the
Ayuntamiento and provincial deputation.

Barcelona has been in open insurrection, and a sanguinary conflict
commenced on the evening of the 3rd, which continued with intermissions
till the 6th. Later intelligence stated that the town still held out. On
the 8th the state of things at Barcelona was nearly the same.

One of the great accusations of MM. Prim, Olozaga, and the French party,
against the Regent was, that instead of carrying Barcelona and other
towns by storm, he fired upon them with muskets and with cannon.
Generals Arbuthnot and Prim have pursued precisely the same course, and
we see Montjuich again throwing bullets upon Barcelona, and with all
this making no progress in its reduction.

Accounts from Barcelona of the 8th, mention that several mansions were
damaged. Three cannon shots had traversed the apartments of the British
Consul. Prim's own Volunteers of Reus had taken part against him, and
many of the towns had declared for the Central Junta. A rural Junta of
Prim's had been surprised at Sarria, and several of its members slain.

A Central Junta had been formed at Girona.

Madrid letters of the 5th state that Government were about to dismiss a
great many superior officers and functionaries opposed to them. The
partisans of Don Francisco have decidedly joined the Esparterists.


AUSTRIA AND ITALY.

The _Siècle_ says that Austria was much alarmed at the state of Italy.
"The necessity which Austria finds to defend her Italian possessions by
arms is highly favourable to the projects of Russia against the Danubian
Provinces of the Ottoman empire."

The _National German Gazette_ of the 8th instant states, that the
fortifications of Verona are being considerably strengthened. The
heights surrounding the town are to be crowned with towers _à la
Montalembert_, so that the city will become one of the strongest
fortresses in Italy. The Hungarian infantry, of which the greater part
are cantoned in Upper Italy, are actively employed in the construction
of the fortifications.


TURKEY.

CONSTANTINOPLE, August 23.--Petroniewitch and Wulchitch have at length
consented to leave Servia, and are probably at this time in Widin, on
their way, it is said, to Constantinople. The province has been confided
to the care of Baron Lieven and M. Vashenko, who are the actual
governors. But the most important feature in the question is a note
which the ex-Prince Michael has addressed to the Porte. He declares that
the election of Alexander Kara Georgewitch was brought about by violence
and intimidation, and that he and his ministers are the only faithful
servants of the Porte, and, consequently, the only persons fit to govern
Servia. It is generally believed that the Russians have been privy to
this step, and that it is their intention to put forward Michael a
second time in opposition to Alexander.

A daughter was born to the Sultan on the 17th. She has been named
_Jamileh_, or the Beautiful. The event has been celebrated by the usual
illuminations and rejoicings. The Sultan has been the father of nine
children, seven of whom, two sons and five daughters, are now living.


EGYPT.

It is said that a misunderstanding exists between Mehemet Pacha and his
son Ibrahim, relative to the succession to the throne of Egypt; Mehemet
proposing that Abbas Pacha, his grandson, should succeed after the death
of Ibrahim, whilst the latter would wish his own son to succeed him.


UNITED STATES.

ARRIVAL OF THE "HIBERNIA" AT LIVERPOOL, ON WEDNESDAY.--Great interest
has been excited here for some days past respecting the voyage of the
_Great Western_ and the _Hibernia_, the former leaving New York on the
31st ult., and the latter, Boston on the 1st. The betting has been in
favour of the _Hibernia_, and she has again beaten her great rival. On
Tuesday, at midnight, her lights were seen off the port, and at one
o'clock she entered the river, after another rapid passage of nine days
from Halifax, and eleven from Boston. The news by this arrival is from
New York to the 31st, Boston to the 1st, and Halifax to the 3rd; sixteen
days later than previously received by the New York packet ship,
_Liverpool_.

The _New York American_, in its summary for the packet, says:--Our
commercial and money markets continue without sensible change, both
abounding in supply without any corresponding demand. The trade of the
interior is prosecuted cautiously, and for money in hand.

Political affairs are exceedingly dull and uninteresting; even the Irish
repeal speakers are quiet.

The progress of the pacification between Mexico and Texas, and Mexico
and Yucatan, is slow and somewhat uncertain. The president of Texas,
General Houston, has dismissed Commodore Moore and Captain Sothorp from
the naval service for disobedience of orders. Indeed, the Texan navy may
be said to have been disbanded. The people of Galveston thereupon gave
Moore a public dinner, and burnt their president in effigy! The Mexican
government has formally complained to the United States minister at
Mexico, of the inroads of certain citizens of Illinois, Missouri, and
Arkansas, into the Mexican territory. Advices from Buenos Ayres to the
end of June, describe Monte Video as still holding out; and it was
reported in Buenos Ayres that the British commodore would at length
allow Commodore Brown, the Buenos Ayrean commander, to prosecute the
siege of Monte Video by sea, in conjunction with Oribe by land.

A new constitution has been agreed upon by the republic of Ecuador,
establishing the Roman Catholic religion as the state religion, "to the
_exclusion_ of all other worship," and the Bishop of Quito, in an
address to which the people responded favourably, proposed that
"ecclesiastics should be henceforth made sole judges in all questions of
faith; and be invested with all the powers of the extinct tribunal of
the Inquisition!" The bishop then published a "Pastoral Lecter," to
"make known the glad tidings." And yet the people of Ecuador, without
religious freedom, call their country a free republic!

PHILADELPHIA.--The President has returned from his country seat to
Washington, and although some alterations in the cabinet are spoken of,
still the results of the August elections, showing that a majority in
the United States Senate will be Whig, have produced a pause in the
contemplated changes. Indeed, people are beginning to complain, and not
without reason, of such frequent changes in important offices. For
example, within three years there have been three Secretaries of State,
three of War, three of the Treasury, three of the Navy, three
Attorneys-General, and three Postmasters-General. Some of them have
really not had time to learn their duties, and they have been succeeded
by others who knew still less of the duties and responsibilities of
office.


CANADA.

Sir C. Metcalfe has returned to the seat of his government at Montreal.
The emigrants from Great Britain arrived this season at Quebec, up to
the 19th ult., were 18,131; same time last year, 38,159. A few days ago,
a party of Irish labourers, who had received, as they supposed, some
offence from a few Canadians, at Beauharnois, attacked and nearly killed
two respectable old inhabitants, who had nothing to do with the affair.
Another great fire at Toronto has burnt about twenty houses; and the
Methodist meeting at Waterloo has been burnt down by some incendiary.
The crops in both the Canadas are abundant. American coarse cottons are
sold there in great quantities, at a lower price than European goods of
the same class.

       *       *       *       *       *

ARRIVAL OF THE EMPEROR OF RUSSIA AT BERLIN.--The Emperor of Russia
arrived on the 6th instant at Berlin.

THE DISTURBANCES AT BOLOGNA.--A letter from Bologna, September 2, in the
_Debats_, says:--"Notwithstanding the nomination of a military
commission, and the display of numerous forces, some armed bands have
again appeared, as is reported, in our province. One was commanded by a
priest at Castel-Bolognese (district of Ravenna). This state of things
does injury to trade and business of every description. The greatest
number of depositors have withdrawn their funds from the savings' banks.
A circular has been sent round to all the mayors of the province, giving
a description of eight persons, for the arrest of each of whom a sum of
300 crowns (1,700f.) is offered."



COLONIES AND EMIGRATION.


EMIGRATION DURING THE LAST SEVENTEEN YEARS.--From a return furnished by
the Emigration Board, it appears that the number of emigrants from
England and Wales, in the seven years from 1825 to 1831, were 103,218,
or an average of 14,745 yearly; in the ten years from 1832 to 1841,
429,775, or 42,977 per annum. Total number in the last seventeen years,
532,993; or an average for that period of 31,352. But the rate of
emigration has greatly increased of late years, as is shown by the fact,
that while the emigration of the seven years ending 1831 averaged only
14,745 per annum, that of the last ten years (ending 1841) averaged
nearly 43,000 per annum.

NEW SOUTH WALES.--The monetary and commercial disasters which have
afflicted this important colony are most serious, and they are thus
alluded to by the colonial press:--"Our next mail to England will carry
home the tidings of fresh disasters to this once flourishing colony. The
fast growing embarrassments of 1841, and the 600 insolvencies of 1842,
have been crowned in the first third of the year 1843, by the explosion
of the Bank of Australia, then by the minor explosion of the Sydney
Bank, and, last of all, by the run on the Savings Bank. These three
latter calamities have come in such rapid succession, that before men's
minds recovered from the stunning effect of one shock, they were
astounded by the sudden burst of another; and we are convinced that at
the present moment there is a deeper despondency and a more harrowing
anticipation of ruin to the colony than ever existed before since the
landing of Governor Philip, in 1788."--The run upon the Savings Bank at
Sydney originated, it is said, from malice against Mr George Miller, the
accountant, whose exertions had been very useful in exposing the
mismanagement of the Bank of Australasia. Reports were circulated that
the Governor had gone suddenly down to the Savings Bank and demanded a
sight of all the bills under discount and mortgages, and that his
Excellency declared that he would not give three straws for all the
securities put together; but this statement regarding his Excellency is
flatly contradicted. Many of the largest holders of land and stock in
the colony are said to be so irretrievably embarrassed, by reason
chiefly of the high prices at which their investments were made, that
their property must go to the hammer without reserve. The present time
is, therefore, held out as a favourable opportunity for emigrants, with
moderate capital, to make their purchases. It is broadly declared that
500_l._ would go as far now in New South Wales, in the purchase of land
and live stock, as would 5,000_l._ four or five years ago.

Australia has been, in some respects, unlucky in its colonization. New
South Wales has hitherto flourished from its abundant supply of convict
labour, at the expense of those higher interests which constitute the
true strength and security of a state. Western Australia was planted
with a sound of trumpets and drums, as if another _El Dorado_ were
expected. But the sudden disaster and discredit into which it fell,
linked the name of Swan River with associations as obnoxious as those
which were once inspired by the South Sea or Missisippi. South
Australia, again, planned on principles which are universally recognised
as containing the elements of sound and successful colonization, has
also proved a failure. One of the newest and most enterprising of our
Australian settlements, that of Port Philip has been sharing with Sydney
in the recent commercial distress and calamity; and though it is already
getting over its troubles, it must undergo a painful process before it
can lay an unquestioned claim to its title--Australia Felix. Land
jobbing; banking facilities at one time freely afforded, and at another
suddenly withdrawn; ventures beyond the means of those engaged in them;
imprudent speculations, in which useful capital was either rashly risked
or hopelessly sunk--these unquestionably have been amongst the causes
which have brought on the commercial disasters of New South Wales. It is
seldom advantageous for an emigrant, newly arrived, to become a
proprietor of land in any part of Australia, unless his capital be
considerable; but the eager desire to become possessed of the soil
overcame all prudential considerations; land at Port Philip was eagerly
bought, at prices varying from 12_s._ to 500_l._ In 1840 the influx of
moneyed immigrants from England and Van Diemen's Land, to a
newly-discovered and extensive territory, produced a land fund exceeding
the sum of 300,000_l._, and engagements were entered into by the
colonial Government, on the faith that the land fund would produce
annually a large amount, but in 1841 it fell down to 81,000_l._; and
though in 1842 as much as 343_l._ 10_s._ per acre was given for building
ground in the town of Brisbane, district of Moreton Bay, it was
impossible for this to continue; and even for valuable lands in the
neighbourhood of Sydney, in the very same year, wholly inadequate prices
were obtained. The colonial Government became embarrassed by the
expenditure exceeding the revenue; and in 1842, Sir George Gipps, in an
official despatch, says, "Pecuniary distress, I regret to state, still
exists to a very great, and even perhaps an increased, degree in the
colony, though it at present shows itself more among the settlers
(agriculturists or graziers) than the merchants of Sydney. When,
however, I consider the vast extent to which persons of the former class
are paying interest, at the rate of from 10 to 15 per cent., on borrowed
money, I can neither wonder at their embarrassments, nor hope to see an
end to them, except by the transfer of a large portion of the property
in the colony from the present nominal holders of it to other hands,
that is to say, into the hands of their mortgagees or creditors, who, in
great part, are resident in England." This official prophecy is now in
the act of fulfilment; and when the storm has spent itself, the colony
may be prosperous again.

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.--The want of Government protection which is felt by
the British resident at the Cape of Good Hope is well illustrated by the
following extract from a letter addressed by the writer to his family at
home:--"I am sure I shall be able to get on well in this country if the
Caffres are only prevented from doing mischief, but if they go on in the
present way, I shall not be able to keep a horse or an ox, both of which
are indispensable to a farmer. Now I can never assure myself that when I
let my horses go I shall see them again. It is a disgrace to our
Government that we are not protected. As it is, all our profits may be
swept away in one night by the marauders."

NEW ZEALAND.--We understand a box of specie was placed on board the
_Thomas Sparkes_, in charge of the captain, for Mr Chetham. On the owner
opening the box, he discovered to his great surprise that, by some
unaccountable process on the voyage, the money--gold, had been turned
into one of the baser metals--iron. It is stated that the steward left
at Plymouth, and the first and second mates whilst the vessel was
detained at the Cape, but whether they had any agency in the
transmogrification of gold into iron remains to be proved.--_New Zealand
Gazette_, Feb. 4, 1843.



POLITICAL.


THE ABORTIVE COMMERCIAL NEGOTIATIONS WITH SPAIN.--Senor Sanchez Silva,
known for his speeches in the Cortes, as deputy for Cadiz, has
published, in an address to his constituents, an account of the
negotiations between the Spanish and British Governments relative to a
treaty of commerce. The effect of this publication will be to undeceive
the minds of Spaniards from the idea that the Regent's Government was
about to sacrifice the interests of Spain, or even of Catalonia, to
England. The terms proposed by the Spanish commissioner were, indeed,
those rather of hard bargainers than of men eager and anxious for a
commercial arrangement. Senor Silva says that England, in its first
proposals, demanded that its cottons should be admitted into Spain on
paying a duty of 20 per cent., England offering in return to diminish
its duties on Spanish wines, brandies, and dried fruits. But England,
which offered in 1838 to reduce by one-third its duty on French wines,
did not make such advantageous offers to Spain; and the Spanish
negotiators demanded that 20 per cent. _ad valorem_ should be the limit
of the import duty of Spanish wines and brandies into England, as it was
to be the limit of the duty on English cottons into Spain. This demand
nearly broke off the negotiation, when Spain made new proposals; these
were to admit English cottons at from 20 to 25 per cent. _ad valorem_
duty, if England would admit Spanish brandies at 50 per cent. _ad
valorem_ duty, sherry wines at 40 per cent., and other wines at 30 per
cent., exclusive of the excise. Moreover, that tobacco should be
prohibited from coming to Gibraltar, except what was necessary for the
wants of the garrison. The English Government, in a note dated last
month, declared the Spanish proposals inadmissible. If the Spanish
Government did not admit the other articles of English produce, the duty
on Spanish wines could not be reduced. English cottons were an object of
necessity for the Spanish people, and came in by contraband; whereas
Spanish wines were but an article of luxury for the English. Senor
Sanchez Silva concludes, that it is quite useless to renew the
negotiations, the English note being couched in the terms of an
_ultimatum_.



CORRESPONDENCE AND ANSWERS TO INQUIRIES.


  London, September 13, 1843.

Sir,--I have read your preliminary number and prospectus, and the first
number of your new periodical, the ECONOMIST, and it gives me pleasure
to see the appearance of so able an advocate of free trade, the carrying
out the principles of which is so necessary for the future welfare and
prosperity of the country, and the relief of the distress which is more
or less felt in all the different departments of industry.

I belong to the class who have their sole dependence in the land, and
have no direct interest in trade or manufactures; and feel as strong a
wish for the prosperity of agriculture as the Duke of Buckingham, or any
other of the farmer's friends; but I consider the interests of all
classes of the community so intimately connected, and so mutually
dependent on one another, that no one can rise or prosper upon the ruins
of the others. Like your Northumberland correspondent I am fully
convinced of the impolicy and inefficiency of "restrictive corn laws,"
and of the benefit of "the free-trade system" for the relief of the
agricultural, as well as of the manufacturing, the shipping, or any
other interest in the country; and I should also be glad if I could in
any way assist "in dispelling the errors respecting the corn trade that
have done so much harm for the last twenty (eight) years."

The intention of the corn law of 1815 was to prevent the price of wheat
from falling below 80s. per quarter; and it was the opinion of farmers
who were examined on the subject, that less than 80s. or 90s. would not
remunerate the grower, and that if the price fell under these rates, the
wheat soils would be thrown out of cultivation. Prices, however, fell,
and though they have fallen to one half, land has not been thrown out of
cultivation. Various modifications have since been made in the scale of
duties, but always with a view to arrest the falling prices in their
downward course; but all these legislative attempts have been in vain;
and so far as the farmer trusted to them, they have only misled him by
holding out expectations that have not been realized.

But though the corn laws failed in keeping up the price of corn as high
as their framers and supporters wished, they succeeded so far as to
enhance the price of this first necessary of life, and make it perhaps
20 or 30 per cent. dearer than it otherwise would have been to all the
consumers, even the poorest tradesman or labourer in the country.

If the difference which the agriculturists were enabled, by this
monopoly, to obtain at the expense of the other classes, had all been
pure gain, without any drawback, they must have been in a comparatively
flourishing condition; but we find this is not the case, and what is the
reason? Let us hear Sir Robert Peel's answer to the question. In his
speech in parliament on Mr Villiers's motion, when replying to the
accusations that had been made by Mr Blackstone and other members on his
own side of the house, that he had deceived the agriculturists, as the
Government measures, instead of affording them the protection that was
promised, had brought down prices and rendered their situation worse
than before, Sir Robert says, it was not the Government measures that
had brought down prices and occasioned the agricultural distress, but
that this arose from the _condition of the manufacturing districts, and
the general distress from bad trade and want of employment, which
rendered the people unable to consume_.

If this, then, is the true cause of the agricultural distress,--if the
corn, sugar, and other monopolies are so injurious to the manufacturing
and commercial classes, who are the agriculturists' best, and, indeed,
their only customers, as to render them unable to consume, it is not to
class legislation that we can look for relief. In order to relieve the
agricultural distress there is no other way than to relieve the distress
of those on whom they depend for a market for their productions.

Were the farmer (or rather the landed proprietor) to gain all that the
consumer loses by the corn monopoly,--if it were only taking from one,
and giving to another--without any national loss; though this of itself
would be bad enough,--it is perhaps the smallest part of the loss which
the manufacturer sustains; for the same law which hinders him from going
to the best and cheapest market to purchase his food, at the same time
necessarily excludes him from a market for the produce of his industry;
and by diminishing the demand for his labour, lowers his wages or throws
him out of employment.

But one abuse leads to another. Those who are interested in the corn
monopoly, or think themselves so, cannot well oppose the sugar monopoly
while they require the aid of the West India planters to enable them to
obtain this advantage at their country's expense; and so it is with all
the other monopolists, they naturally unite together, and it requires
their mutual aid and all their combined power and influence to preserve
a system which they know stands upon rather an insecure foundation, and
if once broken in upon would soon fall to pieces; and thus it is that we
are subjected to the sugar monopoly, and though it is manifestly our
interest to buy this important necessary of life (as well as every
other) in any quarter of the globe where we can find it best and
cheapest, we are restricted to a small portion of the earth's surface,
and have to pay a third part more than we might obtain the article for
without any loss to the revenue. By this narrow-minded system of buying,
we deprive ourselves of valuable markets for our manufactures, as you
have shown is likely to be the case with the Brazils on the expiry of
the commercial treaty with that country if the matter is left in the
hands of Ministers, "and no effort made to avert so great an evil." The
agriculturists have to pay directly for this monopoly in common with all
the other classes in the addition to the price of the sugar they
consume; but the manufacturers suffer the still greater disadvantage of
having the market for the produce of their labour narrowed, and thus the
agriculturist will also suffer indirectly by their customers being
thereby still farther disabled to consume.

But these and all other monopolies and restrictions in trade not only
lessen the demand for our manufactures abroad, but they diminish the
consumption at home, to an extent greater perhaps than we are aware of;
for there can be no doubt that the more the consumer has to pay for his
bread, sugar, and other articles of food, the less he will have to spare
for cottons, woollens, and other manufactured commodities. The demand
for his labour is thus lessened both at home and abroad. The weaver of
cloth may be unable to obtain a coat even of his own manufacture,
however necessary it may be for his health and comfort; he must have
food, in the first place, being more indispensibly necessary to his
existence,--no doubt he may have to content himself with a less quantity
than he could have wished, and have to substitute oatmeal and potatoes,
or some other inferior food for wheaten bread and butchers meat; still,
it is less in his power to curtail the consumption of agricultural
produce than of manufactures, so that the manufacturing classes suffer
from the general distress which renders the people unable to consume in
a greater degree than the agriculturist.

  R.T.F.

       *       *       *       *       *

TO THE EDITOR OF THE ECONOMIST.

Darlaston, September 8, 1843.

Sir,--Twelve months ago the editor of the _Morning Chronicle_ allowed a
letter of mine, referring to the distress then prevailing in this town,
to appear in that journal; in it I stated that for our annual wake only
twenty-four cows had been killed, when but a few years previously
ninety-four had been slaughtered on a similar occasion. Perhaps you will
permit me to state in your columns that this year the festival, in this
particular, has afforded as melancholy and unquestionable proof of
distress as the last, while it bore other evidence, which though
trivial in itself, is not unworthy of notice. Last year two theatrical
shows visited us, displaying their "Red Barn" tragedies, and illuminated
ghosts, at threepence per head, at which they did well; as also did a
tremendous giantess, a monstrously fat boy, and several other "wonderful
works of nature:" this year only one show of any description attended,
and that, with kings and queens, and clowns, as well dressed and
efficient, and ghosts, as white and awe-inspiring as ever paraded before
an audience, has reaped but an indifferent harvest at the "low charge of
one penny each;" while the swing boats and wood horses, patronized with
such glee by the miniature men and women attending and enjoying wakes
and fairs, only worked half time. The physical-force majority in the
House, and their aiders and abettors, were they to see this, would
perhaps laugh at the petty details, but their doing so would not in the
least detract from their truth, or render questionable for a moment the
deductions I make from them,--that poverty is so wide spread and bitter
that the poor are compelled to make a stern sacrifice of innocent
amusements; that the parent cannot exercise the holiest affections of
his nature, by adding to the pleasures of his lisping little ones; that
the landowners' corn law, by its paralyzing influence, is rapidly
withering the great mass of the industry of the country into idle,
dispiriting pauperism.

From inquiries I have made I learn that through the country generally
the wakes, and fairs, and races, have presented similar features to
those I have described above, so far as money goes. And in face of the
distress, of which these things bear glaring witness, the Prime Minister
says "that the distress has been produced by over-production." Can Sir
Robert be serious when he talks of "over-production?" If he be, and will
condescend to honour me with a visit during his stay at Drayton Manor,
which is only a short drive of sixteen miles from here, I will show him
that the opinion is fallacious. He shall dispense with his carriage for
a short time, and I will walk him through all the streets of Darlaston,
Wednesbury, Willenhall, Bilstow, &c., and, forsaking the thoroughfares
frequented by the gay and well-to-do, he shall visit the back
streets--in which carriage passengers never deign to go--of Birmingham,
Wolverhampton, and Walsall, and what he will witness in the course of
the short ramble will "change the spirit of his dream." In Darlaston, as
a sample of what he would see, there are hundreds of men and women whose
clothes, made of the coarsest materials, are patched, and threadbare,
and valueless; hundreds of houses without anything in them deserving the
name of furniture; hundreds of beds without clothing, and hundreds of
children whose excuses for clothes are barely sufficient, with every
contrivance decent poverty can suggest, to cover the body as civilized
society demands. In the towns I have enumerated, in fact, if the least
reliance may be placed in newspaper reports, in every town and village
in the country the same want prevails to a much greater extent than can
be conceived by such as Sir Robert, "who fare sumptuously every
day,"--aye, even to a much greater extent than is generally supposed by
the above-want dwellers in large towns whom business may frequently
bring in contact with those who toil. With the millions, then, who in
this country must be next to naked, without furniture in their houses,
without clothes to cover their straw beds, is it not the nonsense of
nonsense to talk of "over-production." Enable these men to satisfy the
wants of themselves and families, enable them to make their homes
comfortable, and that alone would find employment for a goodly number,
while those so employed would also be enabled to purchase the articles
others are engaged in manufacturing. To produce so desirable a result,
nothing is wanted but FREE TRADE repeal the corn and provision laws, and
the shadow of "over production" could not exist: in three months there
is not a man in the kingdom who would not have full work. And when we
had supplied the physical wants of our population (a greater task than
it appears at the first view), we should have introduced from every
corner of the world the luxuries which refine civilization; the artisan
building himself a house would then make it more comfortable and
healthy, with wood floors, carpets, better furniture, &c.; and the
master manufacturer erecting a house would have marble stairs and floor
in his entrance hall, doors, &c. of mahogany, furniture, of rarer woods,
and ornaments of marble, paintings, plate glass, &c.; and when all these
things were procured, "over-production" would be still as far behind us
as during their acquisition, as we would then work but three days a week
instead of six, as with so much labour we should be able to procure the
necessaries and luxuries of life.

And all nations would be compelled to minister to our real and created
wants, for England is the only nation in the world incapable of
internally supplying its inhabitants with food, and therefore, under
Free Trade, has the command of the markets of the whole world. Then the
English merchant going to, say America, to dispose of manufactures need
not fear the merchant of France, Belgium, Germany, &c., he may meet
there with similar goods; for the American asking each what he requires
for the articles offered, is told by the former, "I will take your
surplus corn in exchange, we want every year from six to ten millions of
quarters;" and this latter answers, "We have more corn at home of our
own growth than we can consume, I must have cash;" the American,
preferring barter, will turn on his heel and trade with the Englishman;
the unsuccessful applicant takes back his goods, or visits the market no
more, and confines his future operations to the home supply of his own
country, which in a short time, from competition and want of a foreign
outlet, fail to realise a remunerating profit; trade is gradually
relinquished; the people turn again to the more extensive cultivation of
the land, and England obtains another customer. This is no "castle
building," if there be the least affinity between the results of great
things and small ones. If a grocer want a coat he will have it from the
tailor who will take sugar and tea in payment, in preference to
patronising one who requires pounds shillings and pence, and the owners
of land in all countries will take right good care that they derive some
sort of revenue from their possessions. I say, I think my premises are
no "castle buildings;" neither do I think I am indulging in aerial
erections when I predict that, under Free Trade, England, with her
capital, and energy, and enterprise, would shortly become the world's
granary, profitably supplying from her accumulated stores the
deficiencies resulting from bad harvests, or other casualties of her
continental neighbours.

  Your obedient Servant,
  G.W.G.

       *       *       *       *       *

_We are much obliged to J. Livesay, of Preston, for his suggestion,
which, however, if he compare the_ ECONOMIST _with other weekly papers
he will perceive to be unnecessary. We presume we are indebted to Mr
Livesay for copies forwarded of his excellent little paper the_
Struggle.

       *       *       *       *       *

     R.B., Bristol.--_From the great press of room last week we were
     obliged to omit everything that did not appear of very pressing
     haste. In the Preliminary Number we have used no statistics but
     such as we have derived from official sources, and we shall always
     be glad to give the authority on which any statistical statement is
     made. The statement of the quantity of sugar exported from Java and
     Madeira, page 10 of the Preliminary Number, will be found in Part
     VIII, 1838, page 408, of the_ Tables of Population, Revenue,
     Commerce, &c., _presented by the Board of Trade to both Houses of
     Parliament, from 1826 to 1837;--and the quantities, from 1837 to
     1841, are derived from the Dutch official accounts._

     H.H., S---- court, London.--_The returns showing the quantity of
     flax imported up to the 5th of August, viz., 774,659 cwts., are
     official, but do not distinguish the ports from which it was
     shipped. The latest year for which such distinction has been made
     to this time is for the year 1841; for which, or any preceding year
     back to 1832, we shall be glad to furnish the particulars: for
     example, in 1840 the imports of flax and tow were--from_

                                   Cwts.
  Russia                            870,401
  Denmark                             1,094
  Prussia                           135,590
  Germany                             8,105
  Holland                           113,108
  Belgium                            80,748
  France                             43,295
  Gibraltar                              19
  Italy and the Italian Islands         746
  The Morea                               3
  Turkey                                107
  Egypt                                  12
  United States                           1
  Guernsey, &c.                          11
                                  ---------
                          Total - 1,253,240

     C.D.F.----, near Rochdale.--_The question connected with the New
     Customs Amendment Bill has engaged our best attention, but its
     investigation has raised two or three very nice points of
     international law, on which we are now taking the best opinion
     which can be obtained, and before our next number we shall be able
     to give a reply as satisfactory as can possibly be obtained from
     any quarter on this important but very nice question. We have now
     before us the whole of the particulars of the treaties in question,
     but we wish to make our reply valuable by giving the best legal
     construction on some disputable points. This, however, is only
     another of those daily evidences which we have of the absurdity and
     inconvenience of a great commercial country like this attempting to
     regulate its laws and transactions by treaties, which, however
     convenient they may be when made, may, by the ordinary course of
     events, be rapidly changed._



POSTSCRIPT.

LONDON, _Saturday Morning, September 16, 1843_.


  STOCK EXCHANGE, HALF-PAST ELEVEN O'CLOCK.

There is little or no variation in English Stock: Mexican, which left
off yesterday at 35-5/8 to 7/8, is now 33-3/4 to 34. Brazilian, which
left at 73 to 75, is now 74 to 76. In other Foreign Stocks there is no
alteration worth notice.

  LIVERPOOL, FRIDAY EVENING, SEPTEMBER 15, 1843.

An active demand has been constantly kept up all the week, and a large
business has been done daily. So far, however, it has been freely met by
the holders; and the speculators and spinners have had an abundant
choice of all qualities.

In American descriptions there is but little change in prices; the
tendency, has been and still is in favour of holders; and it has been
thought necessary to raise the quotations of "fair" Uplands and Mobile
to 4-7/8d.; but there is so little actual change, that for the most
part, the quotations remain as before. Brazils, Egyptian, and long
stapled generally, have been more in demand, and may be considered 1/8d.
higher. Sea Islands also within the fortnight are 1/2d. higher, making
an advance in the ordinary to fair qualities from the very lowest point
of 1-1/2d. to 2d. per lb.

A considerable part of the speculative business of this week has been
prompted by the accounts from the United States, brought by the
_Hibernia_ and _Great Western_, the tenor of which is to confirm the
previous impression as to short crops.

19,800 American, 100 Egyptian, and 300 Surat have been taken on
speculation; and 1,000 American, 300 Pernam, and 200 Surat for export.

The following is the Statistical Review of our Cotton Market:--

  Taken for Consumption:          for Export:

  from 1st Jan. to 15th Sept.

     1842.         1843.      1842.      1843.
  794,500 bales. 946,500 bls. 66,500 bls. 65,900 bls.

               whole Import:
           1842.         1843.
        1,024,141 bls. 1,401,278 bls.

       Computed Stock.             Average weekly consumption.
          15th Sept.                 1st Jan. to 15th Sept.
     1842.          1843.             1842.          1843.
  593,000 bls.   834,000 bls.       21,556 bls.    25,689 bls.

For SUGAR there is rather more inquiry, at steady prices.--COFFEE; the
sales of plantation trivial without change of price.--INDIGO, price firm
at the advance of 3d. to 4d., established at public sale
yesterday.--TEA; the market remains rather firm, and a moderate business
has been done at previous rates. In other articles of produce a fair
amount of business has been done, without any particular features to
remark.

GRAIN.--There has been rather more demand for old WHEAT, and prices for
this and all other articles in the trade are supported. Duty has been
paid on nearly the whole of the bonded stock, and the rate is now on the
advance.

       *       *       *       *       *

The papers of this morning do not contain any intelligence of the
slightest novelty or interest. Her Majesty and Prince Albert are
enjoying themselves at Ostend in the society of their august relatives,
the King and Queen of the Belgians. To-day (Saturday) the Royal party go
to Bruges; on Monday to Brussels; on Tuesday to Antwerp; and on
Wednesday return to England.

Barcelona is still in a state of insurrection; and though Madrid is
tranquil, the state of Spain, as the _Times_ remarks, is one of "simple
confusion."

The Malta correspondent of the _Morning Chronicle_ says that a report
had been current at Bombay that it was the intention to order the next
steamer for the overland mail to keep her direct course, in spite of the
monsoon. The monsoon had, no doubt, driven her back.

Wales continues in a distracted state, and acts of incendiarism are
common. The extraordinary verdict given by the inquest jury on the body
of the unfortunate old woman who was shot, is the subject of general
remark, as strikingly evincing the terrorism which prevails. There is
even talk of the necessity of putting the country under martial law!

The very remarkable meeting held by Messrs Cobden and Bright, at Oxford,
on Wednesday last, is the theme of general conversation in society. It
is, indeed, a very striking evidence of the progress of free-trade
principles amongst the agriculturists.

The _Leeds Mercury_ of this morning, and other provincial organs of
public opinion, in the great seats of our commerce and manufactures, all
speak in cheerful terms of the decidly-improving prospects of trade.



THE LATEST FROM THE AMERICAN PRESS ON FREE TRADE--AUG. 24TH.


THE CORN-LAW CONTROVERSY.--A friend has placed in our hands numbers of
the tracts which the corn-law reformers of England circulate among the
people. They are about the size and length of the religious tracts of
this country, and are put up in an envelope, which is stamped with neat
and appropriate devices. These little publications comprise essays on
all the topics involved in the corn-law controversy, sometimes in the
form of dialogues, sometimes of tales, and sometimes of extracts from
famous books and speeches. The arguments are arranged so as to be easily
comprehended by the meanest capacities.

The friend to whom we are indebted for these is well informed on the
subject, and says that a more advanced state of opinion prevails among
the people of England, in relation to the operation of tariffs, than in
this nation generally so much more enlightened. It is a singular
spectacle which is thus presented to the eyes of the civilized world.
While the tendency of opinion, under an aristocratic monarchy, is
towards the loosening of the restraints under which the labour of the
people has long suffered, a large and powerful party in a nation, whose
theory of government is nearly a century in advance of the world, is
clamouring for their continuance and confirmation. Monarchical England
is struggling to break the chains that an unwise legislation has forged
for the limbs of its trade; but democratic America is urged to put on
the fetters which older but less liberal nations are throwing off. The
nations of Europe are seeking to extend their commercial relations, to
expand the sphere of their mutual intercourse, to rivet the market for
the various products of their soil and skill, while the "model republic"
of the new world is urged to stick to the silly and odious policy of a
semi-barbarous age.

We look upon the attempt which is making in Great Britain to procure a
revision of the tariff laws, as one of the most important political
movements of the age. It is a reform that contemplates benefits, whose
effects would not be confined to any single nation, or any period of
time. Should it be successful, it would be the beginning of a grand and
universal scheme of commercial emancipation. Let England--that nation so
extensive in her relations, and so powerful in her influences--let
England adopt a more liberal policy, and it would remove the only
obstacles now in the way of a complete freedom of industry throughout
the globe. It is the apparent unwillingness of nations to reciprocate
the advantages of mutual trade, that has kept back this desirable reform
so long. The standing argument of the friends of exclusiveness--their
defence under all assaults, their shelter in every emergency--has been
that one nation cannot pursue a free system until all others do, or, in
other words, that restriction is to be met by restriction. It is a
flimsy pretence, but such as it is, has answered the purposes of those
who have used it, for many centuries.

The practice of confining trade by the invisible, but potent chains of
law, has been a curse wherever it has prevailed. In England, more
dependent than other nations on the extent of its commercial
intercourse, it may be said to have operated as a scourge. The most
terrible inflictions of natural evil, storms, famine, and pestilence,
have not produced an equal amount of suffering. Indeed, it has combined
the characteristics of the worst of those evils. It has devastated, like
the storm, the busy hives of industry; it has exhausted, like famine,
the life and vital principle of trade; and, like the pestilence, it has
"walked in the darkness and wasted at noon-day." When we read of
thousands of miserable wretches, in all the cities and towns of a great
nation, huddled together like so many swine in a pen; in rags, squalor,
and want; without work, bread, or hope; dragging out from day to day, by
begging, or the petty artifices of theft, an existence which is
worthless and a burden; and when, at the same time, we see a system of
laws, that has carefully drawn a band of iron around every mode of human
exertion; which with lynx-eyed and omniscient vigilance, has dragged
every product of industry from its retreat to become the subject of a
tax, can we fail in ascribing the effect to its cause, or suppress the
utterance of our indignation at a policy so heartless and destructive?

Yet, this is the very policy that a certain class of politicians in this
country would have us imitate. Misled by the selfish and paltry
arguments of British statesmen, but unawed by the terrible experience of
the British people, they would fasten upon us a system whose only
recommendation, in its best form, is that it enriches a few, at the cost
of the lives and happiness of many. They would assist a constrictor in
wrapping his folds around us, until our industry shall be completely
crushed.

       *       *       *       *       *

ST OLAVE'S CHURCH.--The rebuilding of this church in the early part of
the last century cost the parishioners a less sum than the organ. The
old church having fallen down, the new one (that recently destroyed by
fire) was erected by raising an annuity of 700_l_., and the granter died
after receiving the first half year's payment of 350_l_. The organ was
the most ancient instrument in the metropolis.



FREE-TRADE MOVEMENTS.

MESSRS COBDEN AND BRIGHT AT OXFORD.--IMPORTANT MEETING OF FREEHOLDERS
AND FARMERS OF THAT COUNTY.


As we stated last week, announcing the intention, Mr Cobden and Mr
Bright visited Oxford on Wednesday, for the purpose of addressing the
freeholders and farmers of the county on the subject of the corn laws.

Very considerable excitement had prevailed in the city and the
surrounding districts in consequence of the proposed visit of Mr Cobden,
but it does not appear that the landowners on the present occasion,
through the medium of the farmers' clubs and agricultural associations,
thought fit to get up an organised opposition, similar to that at
Colchester, or interfere to prevent their tenants from attending, as at
Reading. The consequence was a very large number of farmers were present
at the meeting, although it is well known that the harvest is not in
such a state of forwardness as to allow them to absent themselves from
their ordinary occupations without considerable inconvenience.

It is a circumstance worthy of notice, and strongly indicative of the
present state of public feeling upon the subject, that in a purely
agricultural district, at a county meeting regularly convened by the
High Sheriff, the whole of the county members being present, two of whom
spoke in favour of protection, supported by many influential men of
their own party, no person ventured to propose a resolution in favour of
the present corn law, and that even the resolution for a low fixed duty
made by two of the most popular men and largest landed proprietors in
Oxfordshire, Lord Camoys and Mr Langston, was supported by only three or
four individuals out of a meeting of nearly 3,000 persons.

Early in the morning, a protectionist champion presented himself, not in
the guise either of a freeholder or farmer of the county, but in the
person of a good-humoured, though somewhat eccentric printer, named
Sparkhall, who had come from the celebrated _locale_ of John
Gilpin--Cheapside, and who having armed himself with a large blue bag
fitted with elaborate treatises upon the corn laws, and among other
pamphlets a recent number of _Punch_, forthwith travelled to Oxford, and
by the kind permission of the meeting was permitted to essay a speech,
about what nobody could divine, and in a manner truly original. It is,
however, due to the monopolists of Oxfordshire to state that they did
not accredit their volunteer champion, and even went so far as to
request that he would "bottle up" his eloquence for some future
opportunity.

At two o'clock, the hour appointed for the proceedings to commence, the
County hall, which is capable of containing 1,800 persons, was nearly
filled.

Mr Cobden and Mr Bright, who had been dining at the farmers' ordinary,
held at the Roebuck hotel, arrived shortly after two, and were
accompanied to the place of meeting by a large number of influential
farmers and leading agriculturists, who had met the honourable members
at the market table. They at once proceeded to the gallery, where, among
others at this time, were Lord Camoys, of Stonor hall, Oxon; the three
members for the county, Lord Norreys, Mr Harcourt, and Mr Henley; Mr
Langston, M.P. for the city of Oxford; Mr Thomas Robinson, banker; Mr
Charles Cottrell Dormer, Mr J.S. Browning, Mr W. Dry, Mr W. Parker,
Captain Matcham, Rev. Dr Godwin, Rev. W. Slatter, Mr Richard Goddard, Mr
H. Venables, Messrs Grubb, Sadler, Towle, Weaving, Harvey, &c.

On the motion of Lord Cambys, seconded by Mr Langston, M.P., Mr Samuel
Cooper, of Henley-on-Thames, under-sheriff for the county, was, in the
absence of the high sheriff, called to the chair.

The Chairman said he regretted very much that the high sheriff was
prevented from attending the meeting, which had been convened in
consequence of a requisition presented to the sheriff by several
freeholders of the county. Having read the requisition, he introduced

Mr Cobden, who proceeded for some time to address the meeting on the
fallacy of the present corn law as a protection to the farmer, amid
frequent cries for adjournment, in consequence of the crowded state of
the hall, and

Mr Sadler having intimated that several hundred persons were waiting at
the Castle green, at which place it had been generally expected the
meeting would ultimately be held, moved its adjournment to that spot,
which was immediately agreed to.

Several waggons had been brought to the green, for the purpose of
forming a temporary platform, and the meeting being again formed,

Mr Cobden resumed, and, in his usual powerful manner, explained the
influence of the corn law upon the tenant, farmer, and farm-labourer,
urging the necessity of free trade as the only remedy for agricultural
as well as manufacturing distress. The honourable member was loudly
cheered during the delivery of his address, which evidently made a deep
impression on the large proportion of his auditory.

Mr Sparkhall then came forward. Mr Cobden having kindly interceded to
obtain him a hearing, and having duly arranged his books and papers, he
at once commanded the serious attention of the meeting, by stating
broadly as the proposition he was about to prove--that the repeal of the
corn laws would plunge the nation into such a state of depression as
must ultimately terminate in a national bankruptcy. After quoting from
the Honourable and Reverend Baptist Noel, Mr Gregg, and other passages,
the relevancy of which to his proposition no one could discover, he
bewildered himself in a calculation, and gladly availed himself of a
slight interruption to make his bow and retire.

Lord Camoys next addressed the meeting. He said Mr Cobden came among
them either as a friend or an enemy. If he came as a friend, it was the
duty of all to receive him as such; but if as an enemy, then it behoved
the farmers of Oxfordshire to meet him boldly, and expose the fallacy of
his arguments. For himself he (Lord Camoys) believed Mr Cobden came as a
friend. He was not one of those who were afraid of the Anti-Corn-law
League; but he was afraid of that class who designated themselves the
farmers' friends. He thought if they were to give the Anti-Corn-law
League 50,000_l_. a year for fifty years, it would never do half the
mischief to agriculture that the farmers' friends themselves had done.
(Hear, hear.) It was this impression that had induced him to sign the
requisition that had been laid before him, for he was anxious that the
farmers of Oxfordshire should have the benefit of any information that
could be given to them on the subject. There were three courses open for
discussion. The first was the sliding scale (cries of "no, no"); the
second a low fixed duty; and the third, a total and immediate repeal of
the corn law. (Hear, hear.) He believed the sliding scale was already on
its last legs; indeed, it was only defended by a few country gentlemen
and fortunate speculators, who had by a lucky chance contrived to
realise large fortunes. He was himself for a low fixed duty, and Mr
Cobden advocated free trade. There was not so much difference, after
all, between them; but he considered that to apply the principles of
free trade to England, would be to apply the principles of common sense
to a deranged country, suffering under the pressure of an enormous debt.
He thought the English farmer should be placed on a level with the
continental corn-grower; but he did not think the mere expense of
transit would have the effect of securing this as argued by Mr. Cobden.
With this view he should propose to the meeting the following
resolution:--"That the agricultural interest being the paramount
interest in this country, to depress that interest would be injurious to
the entire community; that suddenly to adopt free trade in corn must
produce that effect, and that, therefore, it is the opinion of this
meeting that a moderate fixed duty upon the importation of foreign grain
is the one best adapted to the present position of the agricultural
interest and the welfare of the country."

This resolution was seconded by Mr Langston, M.P., but this gentleman
gave way for

Mr Bright, who, upon presenting himself, was received with load
cheering. In an eloquent address he clearly demonstrated that the only
way in which the corn laws could benefit the farmer was by making food
dearer, which could only be done by making it more scarce. That the
advantage of such high prices invariably went to the landlord in the
shape of rent, in consequence of the immense competition for farms,
arising from the increase in the agricultural population, and the
difficulty of providing for them in commerce and manufactures, owing to
the depressed condition to which they had been reduced by the operation
of the corn laws. High prices could only be obtained by the farmer from
the prosperity of his customers. In reply to the resolution of Lord
Camoys, the honourable gentleman stated, that with regard to agriculture
being the paramount interest of the country, there could be no doubt in
every country there must be land for the people to live on, and so far
it was the paramount interest; but he denied that anything like half the
population of England were engaged in agricultural pursuits. The
agricultural interest would not be depressed, nor would the community be
injured by free trade. He would put it to the meeting whether they would
have a low duty or no duty at all. (Loud cries of "no duty.") A fixed
duty of 6s. would raise the price that amount, and the whole would go
into the pockets of the landlord. The honourable gentleman concluded his
address amid loud cheers.

Lord Norreys next spoke in favour of the existing corn laws, attributing
the distress under which all classes at present laboured to the
over-production of the manufacturers.

Mr Langston, M.P., having replied to his lordship,

Mr Henley, M.P., addressed the meeting at some length, in favour of the
present restrictive duties on the importation corn. The honourable
member concluded by observing that he had attended the meeting because
it had been convened by the high sheriff; and he thanked them for the
patience with which they had listened to his observations, though
neither he nor his colleagues considered it to be properly designated as
a farmers' meeting, the majority present being composed of other
classes.

Mr Cobden briefly replied; and

Mr Towle (a tenant farmer) moved the following amendment, "That in the
opinion of this meeting the principles of free trade are in accordance
with the laws of nature and conducive to the welfare of mankind, and
that all laws which interfere with the free intercourse of nations,
under the pretence of protection to the agricultural, colonial, or
manufacturing interests, ought to be forthwith abolished."

The motion having been seconded, was put, and declared to be carried,
with only three dissentients.

Mr Henley then proposed, and Mr Cobden seconded, a vote of thanks to the
chairman, who briefly acknowledged the compliment, and three cheers
having been given for free trade the meeting separated, having lasted
nearly five hours.

       *       *       *       *       *

PUBLIC DINNER TO R. WALKER, ESQ., M.P., BURY.--On Wednesday week a
public dinner was given, in the Free-Trade Pavilion, Paradise street,
Bury, by the electors of Bury, to the above-named gentleman, for his
constant advocacy of Liberal principles in the House of Commons. The
meeting, though called to do honour to the worthy representative of
Bury, was emphatically a gathering of the friends of free trade, Mr
Bright, Dr Bowring, Mr Brotherton, &c., being present.

DR BOWRING'S VISIT TO HIS CONSTITUENTS.--Dr Bowring arrived in Bolton,
on his annual visit, on Thursday week. In the course of the afternoon he
called upon several of the leading reformers and free-traders of the
borough; and in the evening, according to public announcement, he
attended at the Temperance hall, Little Bolton, to address the
inhabitants generally. The doors of the hall were opened at seven
o'clock, and hundreds immediately flocked in. At half-past seven, the
hall was crowded to excess in every part. On Dr Bowring's entrance, he
was greeted with loud cheers. The chief portion of the proceedings
consisted in the speech of the learned and honourable member, who, as
might be expected, dwelt with great power on the question of
questions--free trade. We have only room for the following eloquent
passage: "The more I see of England, the prouder I am to recognise her
superiority--not alone in arms--about that I care little, but in
manufacturing arts, the peaceful arts, which really reflect glory on her
people. (Cheers.) Give us fair play and no favour, and we need not fear
the strength of the whole world. (Hear.) Let us start in an honest
rivalry--let us get rid of the drawbacks and impediments which are in
the way of our progress, and sure I am that the virtues, the energies,
the industry, the adventurous spirit of the manufacturers and merchants
of England, which have planted their language in every climate and in
every region, would make them known as benefactors through the wide
world. They are recognised by the black man as giving him many sources
of enjoyment which he had not before; by the red man as having reached
his fields and forests, and brought to him in his daily life enjoyments
of which his ancestors had no notion; by all tribes and tongues
throughout the wide expanse of the earth, as the allies of improvement,
and the promoters of happiness. Sure I am that England--emancipated
England--the labourers--the artisans of England, may do more for the
honour and reputation of our country than was ever done by all the
Nelsons and Wellingtons of the day. (Loud cheers.) I was struck very
much, the other day, by the remark of one of the wisest and best men of
our times, from the other side of the Atlantic, who said, 'I am not
dazzled by the great names which I see recorded in high places; I am not
attracted by the statues which are raised to the men whom you call
illustrious, but what _does_ strike me, what _does_ delight me, what
_does_ fascinate me, is to trace the working man of England to his home;
to see him there labouring at his loom unnoticed and unknown, toiling
before the sun rises, nor ceasing to toil when the sun has descended
beneath the mountain. It is _that_ man, the missionary of peace, who
forms the true link of alliance between nation and nation, making all
men of one kindred and of one blood,--that man upon whose brow the sweat
is falling,--that man whose hands are hardened by labour,--that is the
man of whom England has a right to be proud--(hear)--that is the man
whom the world ought to recognise as its benefactor.' (Cheers.) And,
gentlemen, in such sentiments I cordially agree, and the time will come
when the names of men who are called illustrious, at whose feet we have
been rolling out torrents of wealth, whom we have been crowning with
dazzling honours--those men will pass away into the realms of
forgetfulness, while the poor and industrious labourer, who has been
through the world a herald and apostle of good, will be respected and
honoured, and upon him future times will look as the real patriot, the
real philanthropist, the real honour of his country and of his
countrymen." The proceedings were closed by the unanimous thanks of the
meeting being given to Dr Bowring.

FREE TRADE.--We are glad to learn, from a correspondence in the
_Liverpool Albion_, that W. Brown, Esq., the head of the eminent house
of Brown, Shipley, and Co., of Liverpool, has declared his adherence to
the cause of perfect freedom of trade, contributing, at the same time,
50_l._ to the funds of the Liverpool Anti-Monopoly Association.

CORN TRADE OF FRANCE.--The _Moniteur_ publishes the return of the corn
trade in France during the month of July, from which it appears that the
imports were--wheat, 45,896 metrical quintels; other grain, 23,389; and
flour, 613. The exports--wheat, 14,318; other grain, 11,506; and flour,
2,435. The quantities lying in the government bonding stores on the
first of August were--wheat, 28,405 metrical quintals; other grain,
9,378; and flour, 11,051.

ANTI-CORN-LAW MEETING AT HAMPSTEAD.--The opponents of the corn laws
resident at Hampstead assembled on Tuesday night, in crowded meeting, at
the Temperance hall of that locality, to hear Mr Sidney Smith deliver an
address on the evils of the corn laws. The meeting was the first of the
kind since the formation of the new association, and there were several
of the respectable inhabitants of the neighbourhood present. Mr Smith
entered at length into the whole question of the monopolies from which
the people of this country suffer. He showed, conclusively, and by a
reference to facts and comparisons with other countries, that
"protective" duties were injurious to the best interests of the
community, as they were productive of abridgment of the people's
comfort, and of taxation on everything that they could see or touch. He
illustrated the advantages that would arise from free trade, by a
reference to the great increase of consumption of the article of coffee
since the reduction of the duty of half a crown on the pound weight to
ninepence; the consumption at that period (1824) having been but eight
millions of pounds weight, while at present, it was twenty-eight
millions. The learned gentleman, who spoke for upwards of two hours,
concluded amid loud cheers. Three cheers which were proposed for the
Charter proved a decided failure; while, on the other hand, three were
proposed for a repeal of the corn laws, which were responded to by
nearly the whole of the crowded meeting.

MR EWART AND HIS CONSTITUENTS.--William Ewart, Esq., the indefatigable
member for the Dumfries District of Burghs, is at present paying his
respects to his constituents, after the recess of what has been to him a
laborious session of parliament, however little may have been effected
during its course by the government and the legislature. On Thursday
evening he addressed a large meeting in this town. On Friday he visited
Lochmaben, and on Saturday Sanquhar, and addressed the inhabitants of
both these burghs.--_Dumfries Courier_.



MISCELLANIES OF TRADE.


STATE OF TRADE.--Owing to the continued absence of the Overland Mail,
the demand for manufactured goods, and especially for shirtings, has
been limited; but, as stocks are low, prices remain tolerably steady.
For yarn the demand continues good, and prices very firm, but the
spinners are so generally engaged, that no great amount of business has
been done.--_Manchester Guardian_ of Wednesday.

COMMERCIAL INTERCOURSE BETWEEN ENGLAND AND THE UNITED STATES.--The
circumstances of America are such as to require, for the furtherance of
its own interests, a large and extended commercial relationship with
England. There is nothing wanting but a movement on our part for the
speedy establishment of an unbounded trade. Both countries are so
situated that they need never become rivals, provided they consent to
co-operate with each other. It is because they have not been permitted
hitherto so to do that we now hear of an embryo manufacturing system in
America. We have already built Lowell in New England, and Pittsburg in
Western Pennsylvania; and will yet, unless we change our system, drive
the enterprising republican to efforts which may be more generally and
more permanently successful.--_Morning Chronicle_.

TRAVELLING BETWEEN ENGLAND AND FRANCE.--The number of persons who passed
from England to France, by Boulogne, in the week from 1st to 7th
September inclusive, was 2,409, and by Calais, 838. It appears that the
opening of the Southern and Eastern Railway as far as Folkestone has
increased the number of travellers between England and France by nearly
one-half. The number in August, 1842, was 7,436, while during the past
month it has been no less than 10,579, showing an increase of 3,143.

STEAM V. WATER.--Owing to the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway Company
having reduced their charge for all kinds of goods to 6s. per ton
between Gloucester and Cheltenham; most of the carriers in this city
will be compelled to avail themselves of this mode of conveyance, it
being impossible for them to compete with the Railway Company. The
consequence will be that some thirty or forty boats will speedily be
"laid up in ordinary," to the sorrow of three or four times the number
of boatmen, who will of course be thrown out of employ.--_Worcester
Chronicle_.

THE NEW TARIFF.--"The imports of foreign beasts since Monday last (one
week) have been confined to twenty-five into London by the _Batavier_
steamer from Rotterdam." (London Markets Report, September 11.) Can any
clever master of fractions calculate the effect of this importation on
the Smithfield market, and the benefit thence accruing to the citizens
of London as a set-off to the payment of their income-tax?

IMPROVEMENT OF TRADE--ROCHDALE.--The piece market has been uncommonly
brisk to-day, and all the goods on hand have been cleared off. At
present all the workmen are in full employment, though at very low
wages; but a few markets of this kind will have a tendency to get up
wages. The ready sale of goods has given a buoyancy to the wool market,
and the dealers in the raw material have not been so eager to sell at
former prices.

STATE OF TRADE--PAISLEY.--So far as ample employment to all engaged in
the staple manufactures of the town is concerned, trade still continues
favourable for the workman, but the manufacturers generally complain
that, for the season, sales are late of commencing, and many of them are
already rather slackening their operations to keep their stocks down.
The unexpected procrastination in the commencement of the fall trade is
reasonably accounted for by the fineness of the weather.

"A Merchant of twenty-five years' standing, and an Old Subscriber,"
calls attention to the unusual state of things now so long existing in
the Money Market, by the fall in the rate of interest to 1-3/4 and 2 per
cent. upon the first class commercial bills. He states that a friend of
his has lately lent 100,000_l._ at 1-1/2 to 2 per cent., being the
highest rate he could obtain. This condition of the Money Market he
attributes to the large amount of paper money in circulation, compared
with the demands of commerce. Our correspondent favours us with some
figures, illustrative of his views, from November, 1841, to the present
month, taken from the _Gazette_ returns, and observing that there has
been a serious fall in the value of merchandise equal to one-fifth or
one-sixth, with some exceptions during the last year and a half, he
accounts by the juxtaposition of his figures, denoting the amount of
paper in circulation, and this assumed fall in the price of merchandise
for the present anomalous condition of the Money Market, and for the
apparent worthlessness of capital. We cannot agree, however, with our
correspondent to the full extent, because the very low prices of
commodities, with a _minimum_ rate of interest for money, proves that
there is no fictitious or inflated excess of paper money. The anomalous
state of the Money Market proceeds, we believe, from a redundancy, not
of mere paper, but of capital which cannot find investment, superinduced
by stagnation of trade, and the want of commercial enterprise,
occasioned by the restrictive nature of our duties on imports.--_Morning
Chronicle._

The accounts from the United States mention that the greatest activity
prevails among the manufacturers in their purchases of the raw material
for the year's consumption.



POLICE.


EXTRAORDINARY CHARGE.--_Captain, William Tune_, the Commander of a steam
packet called the _City of Boulogne_, the property of the New Commercial
Steam-Packet Company, on Monday appeared at the Mansion House to answer
the complaint of the directors of that company, by whom he was charged
with being privy to the abstraction of four packages, each containing
gold, checks on bankers, bank-notes, and bills of exchange, which had
been previously booked at the company's office in Boulogne, and paid for
according to the rates agreed upon by the company, and which, with
others, had been entrusted to his care. After evidence had been adduced,
Mr Wire requested that Captain Tune should be remanded for a week, and
stated that the directors being anxious that he should receive as much
accommodation as might be consistent with the respectability of his
character and the nature of the difficulty in which he was at present
involved, were desirous that bail should be taken for his appearance on
the next day of investigation.--Alderman Gibbs: I shall require two
respectable securities for 500_l._ each, and Captain Tune to be bound
himself in the sum of 1,000_l._--The captain was then remanded for a
week. A curious fact came out on the inquiry as to the value of each
package. They were all, it appeared, entered and paid for as containing
a sum of money much inferior to what each package really contained.

MATRIMONIAL ADVERTISEMENTS.--An unlucky man, who, in order to get a
family by a deceased wife taken care of, had been induced to marry a
worthless drunken woman, through the medium of a matrimonial
advertisement, applied at Union Hall for advice, but, of course, nothing
could be done for him.

AWKWARD PREDICAMENT.--A man advanced in years, named _David Simms_, who
was claimed by two wives, and nearly torn in pieces by them, was
committed from Union Hall, on a charge of bigamy.

       *       *       *       *       *

SINGULAR DETECTION OF AN EXTENSIVE SWINDLER.--A man named _William
Cairnes_, alias _Thomas Sissons_, with a host of other _aliases_, was
placed before the magistrates at the Borough Court, Manchester, charged
with one of the most singular attempts at fraud we ever remember to have
heard. The prisoner, who was a respectable-looking old man, gave his
name _William Carnes_. Under the pretence of giving employment to a
labouring man, on getting specimens of his handwriting, he got him to
write his name across two blank bills, in the form of acceptance. He has
been remanded for further inquiry.

EMBEZZLEMENT.--_Theodore Grumbrecht_, a confidential clerk in the
extensive India house of Messrs Huth and Co., was arrested on board the
_Bucephalus_, bound for New Zealand, whither he was going. The charge
against him is extensive embezzlement.



ACCIDENTS, OCCURRENCES, AND OFFENCES.


SINGULAR ACCIDENT.--An accident occurred at Outwell on the 29th ult. A
child, three years old, went to play in a donkey cart, in which a rope
coiled and knotted had been placed to dry. The rope was doubled the
greater part of the way; and, being knotted, was full of steps or
meshes; in one of these the child got his head and unfortunately falling
at the same time from the cart, which was propped up as if the donkey
were between the shafts, the rope caught on the hook in front of the
cart, and held the child suspended a short distance from the ground. He
was found quite dead. An inquest was held on the body of the child, and
the jury returned a verdict of accidental death.--_Bury Post._

AFFRAY WITH SOLDIERS.--On Tuesday the greatest excitement prevailed
throughout Westminster in consequence of repeated outbreaks between the
military and the lower, or perhaps we might with propriety say the
lowest order of inhabitants of this populous district. The tumult having
continued during the whole of the day it was anticipated, and justly,
that when night came on, it would increase rather than diminish,
although during the whole of the afternoon various parties of the
military were seen searching for and escorting to the barracks, the
delinquent and disorderly soldiers engaged in the affray.

FIRES IN THE METROPOLIS.--On Saturday night the greater portion of the
extensive premises of Messrs Cleaseley, floor-cloth manufacturers, Grove
street, Walworth common, were destroyed by fire.--On Monday morning the
shop of Mr Crawcour, a tobacconist, Surrey place, Old Kent road, was
burnt to the ground.--On Tuesday morning, about a quarter to four
o'clock, a city police constable discovered fire in the lower part of
the extensive premises, nearly rebuilt, of the Religious Tract Society,
Paternoster row, through some unslacked lime having been left by the
workmen among some timber the previous night. To the vigilance of the
officer may justly be attributed the saving of much valuable property
from destruction.

FIRE AT BRISTOL.--The old Castle Tavern, Bristol, was burned on
Thursday, the 7th inst., and the landlord, who was an invalid, perished
in the flames. The fire was caused by the carelessness of a niece, in
attendance on the invalid, who set fire to the bed furniture
accidentally with a candle. The little girl Lydia Groves, who so
courageously attempted to extinguish the bed curtains, has sunk under
the shock she then experienced.



SPORTING INTELLIGENCE.


DONCASTER MEETING.--This much-talked-of meeting commenced on Monday,
Sept. 11, at two o'clock precisely. The regulations, in every minor
detail, answered the purposes for which they were respectively intended;
particularly the one affecting those persons who have proved themselves
"defaulters," as such were refused admission to the stands, the ring,
the betting-rooms, and every other place under the jurisdiction of of
the stewards. Many improvements and alterations have been made, and no
expense spared towards securing the comfort of all. The different stands
have undergone a complete renovation, and present a very striking and
handsome appearance, very unlike their neglected condition in former
years. On Sunday evening a tremendous storm came on, accompanied with
hail and extraordinarily vivid lightning; in fact, it was truly awful to
witness--the rain literally pouring down in torrents, and the flashes of
lightning following each other in rapid succession. Happily the storm
was not of very long continuance, commencing about half-past six, and
terminating about seven o'clock; but, during that short period, it was
sufficient nearly to drown the "unfortunates," who were travelling
outside per coach from Sheffield, York, Leeds, &c., and who, on
alighting, presented a most wretched appearance. The morning of Monday
was dark and lowering, but towards eleven or twelve o'clock the weather
cleared up and remained very fine. The course, notwithstanding the rain,
was in the very best possible order, the attendance large, beyond any
former example on the first day, punctuality as to the time of starting
was very strictly observed, and the sport was first rate. The great
event of these races is the St Leger stakes, which on this occasion were
run for in three minutes and twenty seconds. Mr Bowes's "Cotherstone,"
the winner of the Derby, was the favourite, and was confidently expected
to gain the St Leger. But it only came in second, being beaten by Mr
Wrather's Nutwith, and only gained by a neck on Lord Chesterfield's
Prizefighter, which was third.

WOOLWICH GARRISON RACES.--The officers of the garrison at Woolwich
having resolved on testing the value and quality of their horses by
races, the first day's sport came off on Wednesday; and owing to the
great number of spectators, of whom there were upwards of 10,000, on the
ground, and the fineness of the weather, the scene was more animated
than on any former occasion. A spacious booth was erected on the ground
and was well filled throughout the day. Upwards of 100 carriages,
containing families, were drawn up along both sides of the course, and
hundreds of gentlemen on horseback occupied various parts of the Common
where the races took place; presenting altogether an enlivening and
interesting spectacle. The band of the Royal Artillery attended in front
of the booth, and played, with very little intermission, some of the
finest airs from one o'clock to seven o'clock, p.m.

On Thursday, the second day, a slight shower of rain, about one o'clock,
p.m. prevented the races from being so well attended by spectators as
they were yesterdy, yet the attendance was numerous in the afternoon,
and great interest existed amongst the officers of the garrison, and
many sporting gentlemen, to witness the result.



AGRICULTURAL VARIETIES.


THE BEST HOME MARKET.--The _Norwich Mercury_ of last Saturday contains
no less than seventy advertisements relating to the sale of farming
stock; and a majority of these are cases in which the tenant of the farm
on which a sale is announced is described as one "quitting the
occupation," or "retiring from business." We should like to know how
many of those parties have managed to amass a fortune, or even to
acquire a moderate competency, under that protective system which, as
they have always been taught to believe, was devised for their especial
benefit. From the ominous newspaper paragraphs, announcing the
liberality of landlords to their tenants, which have lately become so
numerous, we rather suspect that most of those farmers who are retiring
from business do so to avoid greater evils. It is worthy of remark,
however, that, amidst all this agricultural depression, which has now
lasted some twelve months at least, the "home trade"--which the
advocates of the corn law always describe as entirely dependent on the
farmers obtaining high prices for their grain--is in a healthier state
than it has been for several years past. The _Standard_ lately stated,
on the authority of a Mr Spackman, that the United Kingdom contained
20,500,000 individuals dependent on agriculture, and only 6,500,000
individuals dependent on manufactures; and, as we have frequently seen
the same absurd statement brought forward at farmers' clubs as
"agricultural statistics," it is possible enough that many persons may
have been led to believe it. Those who do so, however, would find it
rather difficult to explain, under such a division of the population,
the fact, that during four or five years of high prices, which the Duke
of Buckingham designated "agricultural prosperity," the 20,500,000 souls
should have been unable to create a brisk demand for manufactures; while
a single year of cheap provisions has done so much to improve trade, and
relieve the pressure from the shoulders of the labouring classes. Who
that looks at these two facts can have the slightest doubt in his mind
as to what it is that makes the best home market?--_Manchester
Guardian._

CURIOUS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT.--The following novel and interesting
experiment has lately been successfully made by Mr A. Palmer, of Cheam,
Surrey:--In July, 1842, he put one grain of wheat in a common
garden-pot. In August the same was divided into four plants, which in
three weeks were again divided into twelve plants. In September these
twelve plants were divided into thirty-two, which in November were
divided into fifty plants, and then placed in open ground. In July,
1843, twelve of the plants failed, but the remaining thirty-eight were
healthy. On the 19th August they were cut down, and counted 1,972 stems,
with an average of fifty grains to a stem, giving an increase of 98,600.
Now, if this be a practicable measure of planting wheat, it follows that
most of the grain now used for seed may be saved, and will infinitely
more than cover the extra expense of sowing, as the wheat plants can be
raised by the labourer in his garden, his wife and children being
employed in dividing and transplanting them. One of the stems was rather
more than six feet long, and stout in proportion.

CULTIVATION OF WASTE LANDS.--EMPLOYMENT OF LABOURERS.--A paper was
recently laid before the Council of the Royal Agricultural Society of
England, by Lord Portman, which we think deserves a much greater degree
of attention than we believe it has yet received, in that it shows to
what a considerable extent waste lands may, without any very heavy
expenditure of money, be brought into profitable cultivation, and at the
same time, under a well-regulated system of spade husbandry, yield
abundant employment to agricultural labourers and their families. The
following is the substance of the document referred to:--His lordship,
who has large estates in Dorsetshire, found that a tract of land, called
Shepherd's Corner, about 200 acres in extent, was wholly unproductive,
yielding a nominal rent of 2s. 6d. per acre. About fifteen years ago his
lordship resolved to make an experiment with this land. He accordingly
gave directions to his steward that it should be laid out in six
divisions, representing so many small farms, in the cultivation of which
such of the labourers as could not obtain full work from the
neighbouring farmers were occasionally employed. For the three first
years there were no returns, the ground having been merely broken up
with the spade, and the surface soil exposed. In subsequent years this
land was sown chiefly with turnips, fed off by sheep, until it was found
in sufficient heart for the reception of grass and corn seeds, the
crops from which were at first scanty and indifferent, but sufficient,
however, to pay for cultivation. At the expiration of fifteen years the
expenditure upon the whole, inclusive of allowance for rent, at the
original rate of 2s. 6d. per acre, together with all charges on account
of tithes and taxes, amounted to a little more than 10,000_l._; the
returns by crops sold and sheep fed exceeding that sum by 88_l._,
independent of the crops now in the ground, which will come to the
landlord in September. This may appear to be an inadequate return for
the fifteen years' experiment; but, as Lord Portman justly observes, "as
a farmer he has lost nothing, whilst as landlord he is a considerable
gainer, the land being now fully equal to any of the neighbouring
farms." Two objects, both of great importance, have thus been obtained.
These 200 acres have been fertilized, which would otherwise have been of
no present or prospective value; and in the process of cultivation
employment has, during that long period, been provided for several
hundreds of labourers who, but for that resource, must, at some seasons
at least, have become a burden to the parish.



OUR LIBRARY TABLE.

FREE TRADE, RECIPROCITY, AND COLONIZATION.


     _The Budget; a Series of Letters, published at intervals, addressed
     to Lord John Russell, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Stanley, and Lord
     Eliot, on Import Duties, Commercial Reform, Colonization, and the
     Condition of England._ By R. Torrens, Esq., F.R.S.

     _The Edinburgh Review._ No. CLVII. Article, Free Trade and
     Retaliation.

     _The Westminster Review._ No. LXXVIII. Article, Colonel Torrens on
     Free Trade.

Our readers are not, in general, unacquainted with the public character
and literary reputation of Colonel Torrens. He is, we believe, a
self-taught political economist; and, like Colonel Thompson, early
achieved distinction in a branch of moral science not considered
particularly akin to military pursuits. But in his recent labours, he
has very seriously damaged his reputation, by attempting to bolster up a
policy whose influence on the welfare of the nation has been of the most
deadly and pernicious kind; and we therefore advert to the letters
called the _Budget_, more with the view of showing that they have been
analysed, and their mischievous principles thoroughly refuted, than with
any intention of entering at large into the discussion.

It was, we believe, in the autumn of 1841, immediately following the
accession of the present Government to office, that Colonel Torrens
commenced the publication of his letters called the _Budget_. The two
first were addressed to Lord John Russell, and professed to show that
the commercial propositions of the late Whig Government would, if
adopted, have altered the value of money, increased the pressure of
taxation, and aggravated the distress of the people. The third letter
was on commercial reform, addressed to Sir Robert Peel. The remainder of
the series were on colonization and taxation, on the expediency of
adopting differential duties, &c.; concluding with one on the condition
of England, and on the means of removing the causes of distress; which
was afterwards followed by a _Postscript_, in which the author,
addressing Sir Robert Peel, said--

     "I would beg to submit to your consideration what appears to me to
     amount to a mathematical demonstration, that a reduction of the
     duties upon foreign production, unaccompanied by a corresponding
     mitigation of the duties imposed by foreign countries upon British
     goods, would cause a further decline of prices, of profits, and of
     wages, and would render it doubtful whether the taxes could be
     collected, and faith with the public credit or maintained."

Opinions like these, coming from a man considered to be of some little
authority in economical science, were certainly important. The time was
serious--the crisis really alarming. A new Government had come into
power, and it was thought and expected were about to effect great
changes. Even the _Quarterly Review_, alarmed by the aspect of affairs,
came round, in the winter of 1841, to advocate commercial reform. At
this critical period Colonel Torrens stepped forward. What his motives
were we do not know; though we know that men neither harsh nor
uncharitable, and with some opportunities of judging, considered that
Colonel Torrens, soured by political disappointments and personal
feeling, had permitted himself to be biassed by hopes of patronage from
the new Government. The pamphlets composing the _Budget_ only appeared
at intervals: but so far as they were then published, did attract
considerable attention; the mere supporters of pure monopoly did not, of
course, understand them: but that body who may be appropriately enough
termed _middle men_, were not unaware of the value of such support as
that afforded by Colonel Torrens, in staring off changes which seemed
inevitable. Sir Robert Peel, too, was then in the very midst of his
lesson-taking; and as he deeply studied Mr Hume's Import Duties Report,
before he brought out his new Tariff, we need not consider it to be very
discreditable to him, that he read the pamphlets of Colonel Torrens
before he tried his diplomatic commercial policy.

At all events, one of the chief arguments with which Sir Robert Peel and
Mr Gladstone justified the great omissions of the new Tariff, was the
fact that the Government was engaged in negotiations with other
countries in order to obtain treaties of reciprocity. The utter failure
of these efforts Sir Robert Peel has repeatedly confessed, accompanied
with a sigh over the inutility of the attempt; and the last time that he
adverted, in the House of Commons, to the authority of Colonel Torrens
(he was citing the _Postscript_ to the _Letter_ addressed to himself) it
was with the kind of manner which indicated want of confidence in the
guide who had misled him. Whether or no, however, he had relied on that
authority in his negotiations with other countries during his futile
attempts to obtain commercial treaties, this much is certain enough,
that Colonel Torrens did what he could to strengthen the old notion,
that it was of no use for us to enlarge our markets unless other
countries did so also at the same time and in the same way; and in
condemning all reduction of import duties that was not based on
"reciprocity," he certainly added all the weight of his authority to
prop up a system whose injurious influence has affected the very
vitality of our social state, and whose overthrow will yet require no
small amount of moral force to effect.

We are far indeed, from undervaluing treaties of reciprocity; but to
make them a _sine qua non_ in the policy of a country whose condition is
that of an overflowing population, a deficient supply of the first
necessaries of life, and a contracted market for its artificial
productions, is an error of the first magnitude. Therefore, though not
attaching primary importance to the _Budget_ of Colonel Torrens, or
believing that it could ultimately have any great effect in retarding
the effectual settlement of the great question, it was not without some
feeling of satisfaction that we perused the able article in the last
_Edinburgh Review_, in which his delusions are completely set at rest.
We quite agree with the writer (Mr Senior, it is said) that "if the
_Budget_ were to remain unanswered, it would be proclaimed in all the
strongholds of monopoly to which British literature penetrates--in
Parliament, in Congress, in the _Algemeine Zeitung_, and in the councils
of the Zollverein--that Adam Smith and the modern economists had been
refuted by Colonel Torrens; that free trade is good only where
reciprocity is perfect; that a nation can augment its wealth by
restraining a trade that was previously free; can protect itself against
such conduct on the part of its neighbours only by retaliation: and if
it neglect this retaliatory policy, that it will be punished for its
liberality by a progressive decrease of prices, of wages, and of
profits, and an increase of taxation."

The identity of Colonel Torrens's propositions with the exploded
"Mercantile Theory" is very satisfactorily established by the Edinburgh
reviewer; and it is certainly humbling to see a man of his ability
coming forward to revive doctrines which had well nigh gone down to
oblivion. On the subject where Colonel Torrens conceives himself
strongest, the distribution of the precious metals, the reviewer has
given a very able reply, though some points are left for future
amplification and discussion; and, as a whole, if there be any young
political economist whose head the _Budget_ has puzzled, the article in
the _Edinburgh Review_ will be found a very sufficient antidote. With
this, and another able article on the same subject in the last
_Westminster Review_ (in fact, two articles of the _Westminster_ relate
to the subject--one is on Colonel Torrens, the other on Free Trade and
Colonization), we may very safely leave the _Budget_ to the oblivion
into which it has sunk; and, meantime, the novice will not go far astray
who adheres to the "golden rule" of political economy, propounded by the
London merchants in 1820, and re-echoed by Sir Robert Peel in 1842: "The
maxim of buying in the cheapest market, and selling in the dearest,
which regulates every merchant in his individual dealings, is strictly
applicable as the best rule for every nation. As a matter of mere
diplomacy, it may sometimes answer to hold out the removal of particular
prohibitions or high duties as depending on corresponding concessions;
but it does not follow that we should maintain our restrictions where
the desired concessions cannot be obtained; for our restrictions would
not be the less prejudicial to our capital and industry, because other
governments persisted in preserving impolitic regulations."



MISCELLANEA.

CAPTAIN JAMES CLARKE ROSS AND THE ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION.


All the newspapers have quoted an account from the _Literary Gazette_ of
the Antarctic Expedition, under the command of Captain James Ross. It
was composed of two vessels, the _Erebus_, Captain Ross, and the
_Terror_, Captain Crozier, and left England on the 29th of September,
1839. During the outward voyage to Australia, scientific observation was
daily and sedulously attended to; experiments were made on the
temperature and specific gravity of the sea; geological and geographical
investigations were made at all available points, especially at
Kerguelen's Land; and both here, as well as during the expedition,
magnetic observation and experiment formed a specific subject of
attention. This was a main object during 1840, the expedition remaining
at the Auckland Islands for this purpose; and it was not till the 1st of
January, 1841, that it entered the antarctic circle. Their subsequent
adventures, deeply interesting as they are from the perils which they
encountered, and the spirit and perseverance with which they were met,
come hardly within our sphere to report. After an absence of four years,
the expedition, as mentioned in last week's ECONOMIST, has returned to
England, and the acquisitions to natural history, geology, geography,
but above all towards the elucidation of the grand mystery of
terrestrial magnetism, raise this voyage to a pre-eminent rank among the
greatest achievements of British courage, intelligence, and enterprise.

RELIGIOUS WORSHIP.--CHURCH PROPERTY.--The following Parliamentary Return
has just been printed, entitled, "A Return of the amount applied by
Parliament during each year since 1800, in aid of the religious worship
of the Church of England, of the Church of Scotland, of the Church of
Rome, and of the Protestant Dissenters in England, Scotland, and
Ireland, respectively, whether by way of augmentation of the income of
the ministers of each religious persuasion, or for the erection and
endowment of churches and chapels, or for any other purposes connected
with the religious instruction of each such section of the population of
the United Kingdom, with a summary of the whole amount applied during
the above period in aid of the religions worship of each of the above
classes." The abstract of sums paid to the Established Church shows that
the total was 5,207,546_l._ which is divided in the following
manner:--Church of England, 2,935,646_l._; Church of Scotland,
522,082_l._; Church of Ireland, 1,749,818_l._ Church of Rome.--The total
sum paid to the Church of Rome is set forth at 365,607_l._ 1s. 2d.
comprised in the following two items;--Augmentation of incomes
(including Maynooth College), 362,893_l._ 8s. 1d.; erection and repairs
of chapels, 2,113_l._ 13s. 1d. Protestant Dissenters.--The total sum is
1,019,647_l._ 13s. 11d. in England and Ireland. The recapitulation shows
the following three sums:--Established Church, 5,207,546_l._; Church of
Rome, 365,607_l._; and Protestant Dissenters, 1,019,647_l._ The sums
were advanced from 1800 to 1842.

IMPERISHABLE BREAD.--On Wednesday, in the mayor's private room, at the
Town hall, Liverpool, a box of bread was opened which was packed at Rio
Janeiro nearly two years ago, and proved as sound, sweet, and in all
respects as good, as on the day when it was enclosed. This bread is
manufactured of a mixture in certain proportions of rice, meal, and
wheat flour.

ST GEORGE'S CHAPEL, WINDSOR.--The extensive alterations and
embellishments which have been in progress since the early part of May
last (from which period the chapel has been closed), at an outlay of
several thousands of pounds, throughout the interior of this sacred
edifice, having been brought to a close, it was reopened for Divine
service on Thursday.

FATHER MATHEW.--Father Mathew, after finishing his labours in the
metropolis, went to Norwich, where he met the Bishop, who, in an earnest
and eloquent speech, in St Andrew's hall, on Thursday week, introduced
the reverend gentleman to that locality, and very warmly eulogized his
conduct. Mr Gurney, the well-known Norwich banker, occupied the chair on
this occasion, and seconded the Bishop in his patronage and approbation
of the great temperance movement. After remaining at Norwich two or
three days, Father Mathew started for Ireland, taking Birmingham and
Liverpool in his way.

IMPORTATION OF FRUIT FROM ANTWERP.--On Thursday, the steam-packet
_Antwerpen_, Captain Jackson, arrived at the St Katherine's Steam Packet
Wharf, after an expeditious passage, from Antwerp. The continental
orchards continue to supply our fruit markets with large supplies, the
_Antwerpen_ having brought 4,000 packages, or nearly 2,800 bushels of
pears, apples, plums, and filberts. Advices were received by the
_Antwerpen_ that another extensive importation of fruit from Antwerp may
be expected at the St Katherine's Steam Packet Wharf this day
(Saturday), by the steam-packet _Princess Victoria_, Capt. Pierce.

LIEUT. HOLMAN, THE BLIND TRAVELLER.--This celebrated tourist and writer
took his departure from Malta, on the 3rd of September, for Naples. He
will afterwards proceed to the Roman States, and then to Trieste. During
the few days of his residence in this island the greatest hospitality
has been shown him. The veteran traveller had the honour of dining with
his excellency the Governor, and with Admiral Sir E. Owen. Amidst all
the vicissitudes of his perilous life and increasing age, he still
maintains the same unabated thirst for travel, and his mental and bodily
faculties appear to grow in activity and strength in the inverse ratio
of his declining life and honoured grey hairs.

RAILWAY FROM WORCESTER TO CARDIFF.--It is proposed, by means of this new
line, to connect the population of the north of England and the midland
counties with the districts of South Wales and the south of Ireland. It
will commence at the Taff Vale Railway, pass through Wales, cross the
Severn, and unite with the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway at
Worcester. The cost will be 1,500,000_l._

FRENCH OPINIONS ON SPANISH EVENTS.--The French journals are loud in
condemning the poor Barcelonese for the very same acts which drew down
the applause of these same journals a week ago. The following remarks
from the _National_ render any of our own useless:--"It must be admitted
that the French journals appreciate in a strange way the deplorable
events in Spain. Some soldiers revolt at Madrid, without going any
length of insurrection, or at all endangering the Government. General
Narvaez comes, and without consulting Government or any one else, shoots
eight non-commissioned officers. Straight our Ministerial journals
exclaim, What an act of vigour! Vigour if you will; but where is the
humanity, the wisdom, the justice? Then behold Barcelona, of which the
people some weeks ago rose against the established and constitutional
Government. What heroes! exclaimed the French Ministerial papers. Now
they do the same thing, rising against a provisional and
extra-constitutional Government. What brigands! exclaim the Ministerial
writers. A few weeks back a Spanish Government defended itself with
violence against those who attacked it. Regiments fired rounds of
musketry, and the cannons of forts bombarded the rebellious towns. The
French Ministerialists forthwith pronounced the Spanish Regent as a
malefactor, and devoted him to the execration of the civilized world.
Now, another Government, without the same right, follows precisely the
same course as the one overthrown. It defends itself, fires, bombards,
and pours forth grape from behind walls upon insurgent bands in the
street. This same conduct is glorified as firm, as legitimate, as what
not. The system of political morality changes, it seems, with men and
with seasons. What was infamy in Espartero and Zurbano, is heroism and
glory in Narvaez and Prim. What is more infamous than all this is the
press, that thus displays itself in the light of a moral weathercock,
shifting round to every wind."

STATISTICS OF THE METROPOLITAN POLICE.--By a return just issued in
compliance with an order of the House of Commons relative to the City
and Metropolitan Police Force, it appears that there are 20
superintendents in the metropolitan division, receiving from 200_l._ to
600_l._ per annum; 110 inspectors, whose salaries vary from 80_l._ to
200_l._ per annum; 465 sergeants, with incomes ranging from 60_l._ to
80_l._ per annum; and 3,790 constables, receiving from 44_l._ to 81_l._
per annum, including clothing and 40 pounds of coal weekly throughout
the year. The amount paid on this account during the past year,
including 3,620_l._ for superannuation and retiring allowances to
officers and constables late of Bow-street horse patrol, and Thames
police, amounted to 295,754_l._ In this is likewise included a sum of
9,721_l._ received from theatres, fairs, and races. The number of
district surgeons is 60, and the amount paid for books, &c., is 757_l._
The total rate received during the past year from the various wards in
the City of London and its liberties, for the maintenance of the City
Police Force, is put down at 41,714_l._, and the expenditure at
41,315_l._, the gross pay, irrespective of other charges to the force,
amounting to 29,800_l._

LOSS OF THE UNITED STATES STEAM FRIGATE "MISSOURI," AT GIBRALTAR, BY
FIRE.--The superb American steam frigate _Missouri_, which was conveying
the Hon. Caleb Cushing, American minister at China, to Alexandra, whilst
at anchor in Gibraltar bay, on the 26th ult., was entirely consumed by
fire. The fire broke out in the night, and raged with such determined
fury as to baffle all the efforts of the crew, as well as that of the
assistance sent from her Majesty's ship _Malabar_, and from the
garrison. The magazines were flooded soon after the commencement of the
fire; and, although a great many shells burst, yet, very fortunately, no
accident happened to any of the crew. This splendid steamer was 2,600
tons and 600 horse power, and is said to have cost 600,000 dollars.

THE ALLEGED ARREST OF THE MURDERER OF MR DADD.--The following are the
remarks of _Galignani's Messenger_ on the report in the English papers
that Dadd was arrested at Fontainbleau:--"The above statement has been
partially rumoured in town for the last two days, but not in a shape to
warrant our publishing it in the _Messenger_. The police have been
everywhere active in their researches for the fugitive; and we perceive,
by the _Courrier de Lyons_, that, on Thursday night, all the hotels in
that city were visited by their agents, in pursuit of two Englishmen,
one of them supposed to be the unfortunate lunatic. These individuals
had, however, quitted the town on their way to Geneva, previously to the
visit of the police."

THE CARTOONS.--We understand that several of the prize cartoons, and a
selection of some of the most interesting of the works of the
unsuccessful competitors, have been removed from Westminster hall to the
gallery of the Pantechnicon, Belgrave square, for further exhibition.

MACKEREL.--The Halifax papers state that the coast of Nova Scotia is now
visited by mackerel and herrings in larger quantities than ever were
known at this season. In the straits of Canso the people are taking them
with seines, a circumstance without a parralel for the last 30 years.

The _Journal des Chemins de Fer_ says:--"An inventor announces that he
has found a composition which will reduce to a mere trifle the price of
rails for railroads. He replaces the iron by a combination of Kaolin
clay (that used for making pottery and china) with a certain metallic
substance, which gives a body so hard as to wear out iron, without being
injured by it in turn."



COMMERCE AND COMMERCIAL MARKETS.

DOMESTIC.


FRIDAY NIGHT.--We are still without the arrival of the Indian Mail, nor
has any explanation of its detention transpired, except that which we
mentioned last week. No serious apprehension exists for its safety, as
similar detentions, of even much greater duration, have been experienced
in the arrival of the September Mail in former years, as a consequence
of the monsoon.

In Manchester, during the week, the market has been somewhat flatter in
goods suited for the Eastern markets, in consequence of merchants being
anxious to receive their advices by the Indian Mail before extending
their transactions materially at present prices. In the Yorkshire
woollen markets a fair trade continues to be done; and in Bradford a
very active demand has arisen for the goods peculiar to that
neighbourhood. In the Scotch seats of manufactures, both woollen and
cotton, the trade has considerably improved, especially in the demand
for tartans of all kinds, in which there is a very active and brisk
trade. In the iron districts, the trade continues without change since
our last: most of the works are full of orders, at low prices. In the
coal districts, in Northumberland and Durham, trade is without any
improvement whatever, and this trade, as well as their shipping, is in
the most depressed condition.

_INDIGO._--The transactions in this article have not been on a more
extensive scale in our market than last week, but a good demand
continues for the home trade, and occasionally a small advance upon the
last July rates is paid on such sorts suitable for that branch, but
there is almost no demand for export, the consumption of the article in
foreign countries being this year unusually slack. The shipments to
Russia, since the opening of the season, amount to only 2,209 chests,
against 3,439 chests during the same time last year. A public sale was
held yesterday, in Liverpool, of about 400 chests of East India, and 120
serons of Caracas. Of the former about 100 chests were withdrawn by the
poprietors, but the remainder, together with the serons, sold briskly
for the home trade, at prices about 3d. to 4d. per lb. higher than the
previous nominal value, and rather above that of the London market.
There are now 6,070 chests declared for the quarterly sale on the 10th
of October; a great portion of it consists of good shipping sorts. It is
supposed that several thousand chests more will be declared upon arrival
of the Indian Mail, now due.

_COCHINEAL._--Only two small public sales were held this week, together
of 97 serons. The first consisted of 30 serons Mexican, mostly silver,
which sold at prices from 2d. to 3d. per lb. higher than those of last
week. The lowest price for ordinary foxy silver was 4s. 4d. per lb. The
second sale was held at higher prices still, in consequence of which the
whole quantity was bought in.

_COTTON._--The purchases at Liverpool, for this week, will again reach
the large quantity of about 40,000 bales, of which a considerable
proportion is on speculation. Prices have been extremely firm, without
any decided advance, however, there not being much importance attached,
or faith given, to the statements that the American crop has suffered,
which have been received by the Halifax and New York steamers, up to 1st
inst. from the latter place.

In this market, business by private contract is again trifling. At
public sales there have been offered 714 bales American, and 3,796 bales
Surat; the former were held considerably above the value, and only 30
bales good fair were sold at 4-3/4d. in bond. Of the Surat about 2,300
bales found buyers, from 2-7/8d. to 3-1/8d. for middling, to 3-3/8d. to
3-1/2d. for fair; a few lots superior went at 3-5/8d. for good fair, and
4d. per lb. for good. The prices paid show an advance of 1/8d. to 1/4d.
a lb. upon the last public sales of 24th August, and sustain the
previous market rates, though the highest advance was conceded
reluctantly, and not in many instances; there are buyers for low-priced
cotton of every description, but there is little of it offering.

_SUGAR._--The purchases for home consumption have been upon a limited
scale, and prices barely maintained. The same remark applies to foreign
sugar. Only one cargo of Porto Rico sugar has been sold afloat, for a
near port, at 18s., with conditions favourable to the buyer. At public
sale 630 chests Bahia, and 120 chests, and 240 barrels Pernambuco, were
almost entirely bought in at extreme rates: since when only about 170
chests of the brown Bahia have been placed at an average of 17s. 6d.,
and with 50 chests of the lowest white at 21s. to 21s. 6d.; by private
contract 300 chests old yellow Havannah, of good quality, sold at 20s.

_COFFEE._--The home demand remains good; good and fine Jamaica fetched
previous rates; a parcel of Ceylon, of somewhat better quality than the
common run, sold at 51s. to 52s., which is rather dearer: very good
Singapore Java sold at 36s. to 40s. In foreign Coffee a cargo of St
Domingo has been sold afloat for Flanders at 26s. 6d. Two others being
held above that price without finding a buyer, they have been sent on
unsold. On the spot the transactions in coffee for export by private
contract are quite insignificant, and of 650 bags old St Domingo _via_
Cape, only a small proportion sold at 28s. to 30s. for pale bold good
ordinary.

_RICE._--About 4,000 bags of Bengal offered at public sale sold from
10s. to 11s. per cwt., establishing a decline of 3d. per cwt.

_SALTPETRE._--The market is sparingly supplied, and importers do not
sell except upon extreme rates, which have been paid for about 3,000
bags, viz. from 23s. 6d. for very ordinary, to 25s. 6d. for good
middling.

_CASSIA LIGNEA._--For small parcels offering in public sale full prices
have been paid; fine by private contract as high as 70s.

_PIMENTO._--Fair quality has been sold 2-1/2d. to 2-5/8d., which is
rather dearer.

_TALLOW._--The demand on the spot is not improved and the price
unaltered, 41s. 9d. to 42s.; for forward delivery there is rather more
disposition to purchase.

_RUM._--The demand is very limited, except for the finest qualities of
Jamaica, and common are rather cheaper.


FOREIGN.

The accounts received from the United States up to the first of this
month by the _Hibernia_ and _Great Western_ are favourable as regards
commerce. The manufactories in the Union are reported to be in a state
of considerable prosperity, notwithstanding which the demand for imports
was increasing. The reports about the cotton crops were various; it was
admitted that the weather had latterly been favourable. Large arrivals
of wheat and flour were expected in the ports from the West.

The commercial reports received this week from the continent of Europe
do not show any great activity in foreign markets, though the prices of
Colonial produce are well maintained. Sugar was somewhat more in demand
both at Antwerp and Hamburg. In Coffee there was rather less doing at
both places.

       *       *       *       *       *

  PRICES CURRENT, SEPT. 16, 1843.

  ------------------------------------------+-----------
  ENGLISH FUNDS.                            |  PRICES
                                            | THIS DAY.
  ------------------------------------------+-----------
  India Stock                               |  266
  3 per Cent. Red                           |  Shut
  3 per Cent. Consols Money                 |  94-3/4
  3-1/2 per Cent. Annuity, 1818             |  --
  3-1/2 per Cent. Red.                      |  Shut
  New 3-1/2 per Cent. Annuity               |  102
  Long Annuities                            |  Shut
  Annuities, terminable July, 1859          |  --
  India Bonds 3 per Cent.                   |  69s pm
  Exchequer Bills 1-3/4d.                   |  69s pm
  3 per Cent. Consols for Account           |  91-1/8
  Bank Stock for Account                    |  Shut
  ------------------------------------------+-----------

  ------------------------------------------+-----------
  FOREIGN FUNDS.                            |  PRICES
                                            | THIS DAY.
  ------------------------------------------+-----------
  Belgium Bonds                             |  105
  Brazilian Bonds                           |  74-1/2
  Chilian Bonds, 6 per Cent.                |  --
  Columbian Bonds, 6 per Cent. 1824         |  25-3/8
  Dutch, 5 per Cent.                        |  --
  Ditto, 2-1/2 per Cent. Exchange 12 Guil.  |  52-1/8
  Mexican Bonds, 1837, 5 per Cent.          |  34
  Peruvian Bonds, 6 per Cent.               |  --
  Portuguese 5 per Cent. Converted          |  44-1/4
  Ditto 3 per Cent. Ditto                   |  --
  Russian Bonds, 1822, 5 per Cent.          |  114-1/2
  Spanish Bonds, 5 per Cent. 1821           |  18-1/8
    1822                                    |  --
  Ditto, Deferred                           |  11
  Ditto, Passive                            |  4-1/8
  ------------------------------------------+-----------


CORN MARKETS.

_(From Messrs Gillies and Horne's Circular.)_

CORN EXCHANGE, MONDAY, SEPT. 11.--The weather continued most beautiful
here until yesterday, when we had some heavy thunder showers, and to-day
is gloomy, damp and close. The wind, what little there is of it, is
north. The arrivals during last week were moderate except of Foreign
Wheat and Barley, of which of course there is yet some quantity to
arrive. The new English Wheat coming soft in hand, is slow sale at 1s.
to 2s. reduction--free Foreign finds buyers for mixing at last week's
currency. Barley is dull sale at last week's rates. Oats are 6d. to 1s.
lower. Some new Irish have appeared of fine quality. There is no change
in Beans and Peas. Flour is the same as last week.

  ----------------------------------------------+-------------
  BRITISH.                                      | PER QR.
                                                |
  Wheat, Essex, Kent, Suffolk, white            | 59s to 61s
  ---- Lothian, Fife, Angus, do.                | 52s to 57s
  ---- Inverness, Murray, &c.                   | 52s to 57s
  ---- Essex, Kent, Suffolk, red                | 54s to 57s
  ---- Cambridge, Lincoln, red                  | 54s to 57s
  Barley, English Malting, and Chevalier        |  --     --
  ---- Distiller's, English & Scotch            |  --     --
  ---- Coarse, for grinding, &c.                | 28s to 30s
  Oats, Northumberland & Berwick                | 21s to 23s
  ---- Lothian, Fife, Angus                     | 21s to 23s
  ---- Murray, Ross                             | 21s to 23s
  ---- Aberdeen and Banff                       | 21s to 23s
  ---- Caithness                                | 21s to 23s
  ---- Cambridge, Lincoln, &c.                  | 20s to 23s
  ---- Irish                                    | 17s to 19s
  ---- English, black                           | 18s to 21s
  ---- Irish      "                             | 17s to 21s
  ---- Potato, Scotch                           | 23s to 26s
  ----   "     Irish                            | 19s to 22s
  ---- Poland, Lincoln, &c.                     | 21s to 24s
  Beans, Ticks                                  | 30s to 31s
  ---- Harrow                                   | 31s to 34s
  ---- Small                                    | 32s to 34s
  Peas, White                                   | 36s to 38s
  ---- Boilers                                  | --     --
  Flour, Town made Households                   | 50s to 53s
  ---- Norfolk and Suffolk                      | 40s to 42s
  ----------------------------------------------+-------------

  ----------------------------------------------+-------------
  FOREIGN AND COLONIAL.                         | PER QR.
                                                |
  Wheat, White, Spanish, Tuscan                 | 52s to 59s
  ---- High mixed Danzig                        | 58s to 61s
  ---- Mixed  do.                               | 52s to 58s
  ---- Rostock, new                             | 57s to 60s
  ---- Red Hamburg                              | 52s to 55s
  ---- Polish Odessa                            | 48s to 52s
  ---- Hard                                     | --     --
  ---- Egyptian                                 | 32s to 37s
  Barley, Malting, &c.                          | --     --
  ---- Distiller's, &c.                         | 28s    --
  ---- Grinding, &c.                            | 28s to 29s
  Oats, Brew, &c.                               | 21s to --
  ---- Polands, &c.                             | 22s to --
  ---- Feed, &c.                                | 18s to --
  ---- Do, dried, Riga, &c.                     | --     21s
  Rye, Dried                                    | --     --
  ---- Undried                                  | --     --
  Beans, Horse                                  | 30s to 34s
  ---- Mediterranean                            | 26s to 29s
  Peas, White                                   | 34s to --
  ---- Yellow                                   | --     35s
  Flour, French, per 280 lbs. nett weight       | --     --
  ---- American, per Bar. 196 lbs. nett weight  | --     --
  ---- Danzig, &c. do. do.                      | --     --
  ---- Canada,     do. do.                      | 29s to 29s
  ---- Sour,       do. do.                      | --     --
  ----------------------------------------------+-------------

CORN EXCHANGE, FRIDAY, SEPT. 15.--The weather threatened to be stormy
yesterday, the barometer fell, and we had some heavy drops of rain, but
it has since cleared up, and to-day is 10 degrees warmer and beautifully
clear, with the wind south east. In Ireland and Scotland there was a
good deal of rain on Sunday and Monday, which (we understand) stopped
the harvest work for the time, but we hope by this time they have it
fine again. The new English Wheat comes to hand softer and lighter than
at first; as usual after being stacked, the yield is much complained of,
besides that many of the stacks got so soaked by the heavy rains of the
21st and 23rd of August, that the condition of the Wheat is sadly
spoiled. The arrivals are moderate this week, except of Irish Oats,
several small parcels of which are of the new crop; there is also a
small parcel of new Scotch Barley in fine condition, and new Scotch
Oats, also good. Almost all the Wheat has been entered at the 14s. duty;
we believe it is over 300,000 qrs. New English Wheat is dull sale:
Foreign, on the other hand, is more inquired for, and not to be
purchased in any quantity except at 1s. advance. Barley is saleable in
retail at Monday's prices. Oats are again 6d. cheaper than on Monday,
except for very fine samples. The averages lead us to suppose that on
the 21st instant the duty on Foreign Wheat will rise to 16s. per qr.; on
Barley it will remain 6s.; on Oats 6s.; on Rye it will rise to 9s. 6d.;
on Beans it will remain 10s. 6d.; and on Peas, 9s. 6d.

LONDON AVERAGES.

For the week ending September 12.

  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  Wheat.        Barley.   Oats.         Rye.       Beans.     Peas.
  -----------+----------+-------------+----------+----------+----------
  4.113 qrs. | 345 qrs. | 25,600 qrs. | 50 qrs.  | 147 qrs. | 132 qrs.
   51s. 6d.  | 32s. 2d. |  18s. 9d.   | 30s. 2d. | 30s. 2d. | 42s. 1d.
  -----------+----------+-------------+----------+----------+----------

IMPERIAL AVERAGES.

--------------------+--------+---------+--------+--------+--------+--------
                    | Wheat. | Barley. | Oats.  |  Rye.  | Beans. | Peas.
--------------------+--------+---------+--------+--------+--------+--------
Weeks ending        |  s. d. |  s. d.  | s.  d. |  s. d. | s.  d. | s.  d.
  Aug. 10th         | 60  9  | 32  4   | 21  5  | 37  1  | 31  9  | 31  4
   -- 17th          | 61  2  | 32 11   | 21  9  | 38  7  | 32  1  | 33  7
   -- 24th          | 59  9  | 33 11   | 21  5  | 37  1  | 32  6  | 34  9
   -- 31st          | 56  8  | 32 11   | 20  7  | 31  8  | 31 10  | 33  9
  Sept. 7th         | 54  2  | 31 11   | 20  5  | 31  1  | 32  4  | 32  1
   -- 14th          | 53  0  | 31 11   | 19  7  | 31  3  | 31  9  | 33  8
                    +--------+---------+--------+--------+--------+--------
Aggregate of six    |        |         |        |        |        |
 weeks              | 57  7  | 32  8   | 20 10  | 34  6  | 32  0  | 33  8
--------------------+--------+---------+--------+--------+--------+--------
Duties till Sept.   |        |         |        |        |        |
 20th inclu.        | 15  0  |  6  0   |  6  0  |  8  6  | 10  6  |  9  6
On Grain from B.    |        |         |        |        |        |
   Possession out   |        |         |        |        |        |
   of Europe        |  2  0  |  0  6   |  2  0  |  0  6  |  1  6  |  1  0
--------------------+--------+---------+--------+--------+--------+--------

Flour--Foreign, 9s. 0d. per 196lbs.--British possession, 1s. 2d. ditto.


PRICE OF SUGAR.

The average price of brown or Muscovado sugar for the week ending
September 12, 1843, is 34s. 1-3/4d. per cwt., exclusive of the duties of
Customs paid or payable thereon on the importation thereof into Great
Britain.


SMITHFIELD MARKET.

MONDAY.--There was a considerable and beneficial improvement in trade
to-day for everything, but not, however, permanent; at least, the causes
which produced the change this morning would not authorise a different
conclusion, and the salesmen of the market, although looking forward to
a very fair state of things next Monday, do not anticipate that the
improvement will last the next succeeding Monday. It appears that London
is clear of meat, the which, with small supplies of everything to-day,
is the sole immediate cause of the improvement, for, notwithstanding
that the market was well attended by both town and country butchers and
stock-takers, they, nevertheless, at the opening of the market, appeared
disposed to purchase briskly, on the supposition, according to the
returns of over-night, that the supplies were large, but when this
statement was discovered to be erroneous they then bought freely, and
higher prices were more readily given.

FRIDAY.--In consequence of the supply of beasts on sale being large for
the time of year, we have to report a very heavy demand for beef, and in
some instances the quotations declined 2d. per 8 lbs. From Scotland
nearly 200 lots were received fresh up. Prime old downs maintained their
previous value; but that of all other kinds of sheep had a downward
tendency. In lambs very little was doing, at barely Monday's
quotations. Calves moved off heavily, at a reduction of 2d. per 8 lbs.
The pork trade was unusually dull, at previous currencies. Milch cows
sold slowly at from 16_l._ to 20_l._ each.

-----------------------------------------+---------------------------------
             Prices per Stone.           |           At Market.
-----------------------------------------+---------------------------------
           Monday.           Friday.     |                 Monday.  Friday.
Beef    3s 0d to 4s 2d  2s  8d to 4s  0d | Beasts           2,840      800
Mutton  3s 2d to 4s 4d  2s 10d to 4s  4d | Calves             149      373
Veal    3s 6d to 4s 8d  3s  6d to 4s  6d | Sheep and Lambs 32,840    9,210
Pork    3s 6d to 4s 8d  3s  0d to 3s 10d | Pigs               410      326
Lamb    4s 0d to 5s 0d  3s  4d to 4s  8d |
-----------------------------------------+---------------------------------

  Prices of Hay and Straw, per load of 36 trusses.

  Hay,     3_l._  5s. 0d. to  4_l._ 8s. 0d.
  Clover,  4_l._  4s. 0d. to  5_l._ 8s. 0d.
  Straw,   1_l._ 18s. 0d. to  2_l._ 4s. 0d.


BOROUGH HOP-MARKET.

MONDAY.--There was no business whatever transacted during last week, and
even the duty remains without fluctuation. In this state of inactivity
the effects of the Metropolitan Total Abstinence movement was a topic of
interest to the trade. As it appears that nearly 70,000 persons took the
pledge, the consumption of malt liquor must seriously diminished, and
the demand for Hops will consequently be very considerably decreased. It
is fortunate, therefore, for the planters that this year's growth is not
large, otherwise the prices would have been seriously low, and although
that crop is not only about an average, yet from this diminished
consumption, which is likely to progress, the value of the new will not
be more than last year, and possibly even less. There have been a few
small lots of 1843's at market, which go off very slowly.

FRIDAY.--About ten pockets of new hops have been disposed of this week
at from 7_l._ to 8_l._ per cwt. We are now almost daily expecting large
supplied from Kent and Sussex, as picking is now going on rapidly. In
old hops scarcely any business is doing, while the duty is called
150,000_l._


LIVERPOOL COTTON MARKET.

SEPT. 14.--A large amount of business has been transacted in cotton at
this day's market. The sales, inclusive of 5,000 American bought on
speculation, have consisted of 10,000 bales.

SEPT. 15.--We have a fair inquiry for Cotton this morning, and there is
no change whatever in the general temper of the market.


COAL MARKET.

Buddle's West Hartley, 15s.; Davison's West Hartley, 15s. 6d.; Fenham,
13s. 6d.; Hastings Hartley, 15s.; Holywell Main, 15s. 6d.; New Tanfield,
14s.; Ord's Redheugh, 12s. 6d.; Pontop Windsor, 12s. 6d.; Tanfield Moor,
16s. 6d.; West Pelton, 12s. 9d,; West Hartley, 15s. 6d.; West Wylam,
14s. 6d.; Wylam, 14s. 6d. Wall's End:--Clennell, 14s. 6d.; Clarke and
Co, 14s.; Hilda, 15s. 6d.; Riddell's, 16s. 9d.; Braddyll's Hetton, l8s.
9d.; Haswell, 19s.; Hetton, 18s. 6d.; Lambton, 18s. 3d.; Morrison, 16s.;
Russell's Hetton, 18s,; Stewart's, 18s. 6d.; Whitwell, 17s.; Cassop,
18s.; Hartlepool, 16s. 6d.; Heselden, 16s, 6d.; Quarrington, 17s.;
Trimdon, 17s. 6d.; Adelaide, 18s.; Barrett, 16s. 9d.; Bowburn, 15s. 6d.;
South Durham, 17s.; Tees, 17s. 9d.; Cowpen Hartley, 15s. 6d.; Lewis's
Merthyr, 19s. 6d.; Killingworth, 16s. Fifty-nine ships arrived since
last day.



THE GAZETTE.

_Tuesday, September 12._


DECLARATIONS OF INSOLVENCY.

J. Halls, Wilkes street, Spitalfields, braid manufacturer.--J. Brooke,
Liverpool, cupper.--J. Thorburn, Hillhouse, Yorkshire, warehouseman.--J.
Allwright, Basingstoke, Hampshire, boot maker.--J. Bland, Leeds,
eatinghouse keeper.--W.S. Lawrence, Essex place, Grange-road, Dalston,
out of business.--T. Leete, Finedon, Northamptonshire, butcher.--W,
Simpson, Elland Upper Edge, Yorkshire, woollen spinner.--D. M'George,
Huddersfield, tea dealer.--W. Hall, Cockhill, Wiltshire, out of
business.--T. Mercer, Wansdon house, Fulham, out of business.--W.
Elliott, Berners street, Oxford street, waiter at an hotel.--C.T. Jones,
Charles street, Berkeley square, out of business.--T. Price, Cardiff
road, Monmouthshire, coal dealer.--W. Williams, Newport, Monmouthshire,
out of business.--W.G. Still, High street, Poplar, hair dresser.--T.
Cook, Giltspur street, City, tailor.--J. Mayson, Marlborough road, Old
Kent road, commission agent.--D. Taylor, Meltham, Yorkshire, licensed
tea dealer.--W.W. Greaves, Newark-upon-Trent, Nottinghamshire, corn
dealer.--C.H. Balls, Beccles, Suffolk, chemist.--J. Chapman (commonly
known as J. Fitzjames), Bridges street, Covent garden, comedian.


BANKRUPTCY ANNULLED.

JONES, T., Liverpool, coal dealer.


BANKRUPTS.

SHARP, R., jun., Faversham, Kent, draper. [Reed and Shaw, Friday street,
Cheapside.

PEARSALL, C., Anderton, Cheshire, boiler maker. [Sharp and Co., Bedford
row.

JOHNSON, T., late of Great Bridge, Staffordshire, draper. [Messrs
Nicolls and Pardoe, Bewdley.

HOLT, W.J.; Grantham, Lincolnshire, tea dealer. [Messrs Hill and
Matthews, St Mary Axe.


DECLARATIONS OF DIVIDENDS.

J.O. Palmer, Liverpool, music seller--first dividend of 6s. in the
pound, any Wednesday after December 1, payable at 31 Basinghall street,
City.--D. Ellis, Haverhill, Suffolk, draper--first dividend of 5s. 10d.
in the pound, any Wednesday after December 1, payable at 31 Basinghall
street.--P.J. Papillon, Leeds, wine merchant--first dividend of 2s. in
the pound, on any Monday or Wednesday after October 4, payable at 15
Benson's buildings, Basinghall street, Leeds.--E. Cragg, Kendal,
Westmoreland, innkeeper--first dividend of 2s. in the pound, on October
7, or on any succeeding Saturday, payable at 57 Grey street,
Newcastle-upon-Tyne.


DIVIDENDS.

October 5, T. and J. Parker, J. Rawlinson, W. Abbott, J. Hanson, J.
Bell, T. Chadwick, A. Emsley, R. Kershaw, J. Musgrave, J. Wooller, T.
Pullan, J. Shaw, G. Eastburn, and D. Dixon, Leeds, dyers.--October 10,
T. Bell, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, tea dealer.--October 10, J.G. Pallister
and J.M.B. Newrick, Sunderland, Durham, grocers.--October 4, J.
Fletcher, Maryport, Cumberland, boiler manufacturer.--October 11, J.
Todd. Hylton ferry, Durham, ship builder.--October 3, J. Parke,
Liverpool, druggist.--October 4, S. Boult and T. Addison, Liverpool,
stock brokers.--October 7, T. Bourne, Liverpool, cotton broker.--October
14, H. Merridew, Coventry, ribbon manufacturer.


CERTIFICATES.

October 5, F. Robert, New Bond street, and Gower street North, coal
merchant.--October 5, J. Bowie, Shoe lane, City, grocer.--October 14, J.
Barnes, 14 Commercial place. Commercial road, engineer.--October 4, J.
Davies, Westminster road, Lambeth, linendraper.--October 11, M. Jackson,
East Thickley Steam mill, Durham, miller.--October 10, J. Todd, Hylton
ferry, Durham, ship builder.--October 3, J. Gallop, jun., Bedminster,
Bristol, painter.--October 12, G.B. Worboys, Bristol, perfumer.--October
4, R. Crosbie, Sutton, Cheshire, tea dealer.--October 7, C. Holebrook,
Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, plumber.--October 17, J. Hedderly, Nottingham,
druggist.--October 5, J. Oates, Glossop, Derbyshire, innkeeper.


CERTIFICATES, OCTOBER 3.

W. Pugh, Gloucester, auctioneer.--J. Lockwood, Wakefield, Yorkshire, and
St. John's, New Brunswick, linendraper.--H. Francis, Feoek, Cornwall,
agent.--G. Chapman, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, grocer.--E. Wheeler,
Birmingham, corn dealer.--J. A. Boden, Sheffield, razor
manufacturer.--W. Woodward, Birmingham, tailor.--S. J. Manning, 28
Camomile street, City, and Halleford, near Shepperton, manufacturer of
bitters.


PARTNERSHIPS DISSOLVED.

Elizabeth O'Connor and Mary Rossiter, Brighton, Sussex, milliners.--C.
Weatherley and H. O'Neil, Wilkes street, Spitalfields, and Ferdinand
street, Camden town, fancy trimming manufacturers.--H.I. Isaacs and D.
Israel, Duke street, Aldgate, City, poulterers.--J. Davis and A.
Mottram, Warrington, Lancashire, timber merchants,--M. Fortier and Emile
and Anna Levilly, Bruton street, Berkeley square, milliners.--T. and G.
Stevenson, Dudley, Worcestershire, tailors.--D. Israel and J. Lyons, St
Mary-axe, City, trunk makers.--W. Fairbairn, J. Hetherington, and J.
Lee, Manchester, machine makers.--E. Archer, H. Ewbank, jun., and A.P.W.
Philip, Gravel lane, Southwark, Surrey.--J.M. Pott and J. Midworth,
Newark-upon-Trent, auctioneers.--T.P. Holden, T. Parker, and W. Burrow,
Liverpool, upholsterers (as regards W. Burrow).--W.L. Springett, T.
Beale, and E. Kine, Southwark, Surrey, hop merchants (as regards W.L.
Springett).


SCOTCH SEQUESTRATIONS.

A. Dunn, Keithock Mills, near Coupar-Angus, farmer.--D. M'Intyre, jun.,
Fort William, merchant.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Friday, September 15._

BANKRUPTS.

GREENSLADE, W., Gray's inn lane, builder. [Oldershaw, King's Arms yard.
BONE, G.B., Camberwell, builder. [Meymott and Sons, Blackfriars road.
LEWIS, R.W., Shenfield, Essex, farmer. [Watson and Co., Falcon square.
PHILLIPS, S., Brook street, Hanover square, carpet warehousman. [Reed
and Shaw, Friday street, Cheapside. PINO, T.P., Liverpool, ship
chandler. [Chester and Toulmin, Staple inn. HOOLE, W., Sheffield,
leather dresser. [Branson, Sheffield. CAMBRIDGE, R.J., Cheltenham, wine
merchant. [Packwood, Cheltenham. METCALF, E., Middlesbrough, Yorkshire,
currier. [Blackburn, Leeds. DUFFIELD, C., Bath, grocer [Jay, Serjeants'
inn. POPPLETON, C., York, linen manufacturer. [Blackburn, Leeds. LISTER,
J.C., Wolverhampton, wine merchant. [Phillips and Bolton, Wolverhampton.


DECLARATIONS OF INSOLVENCY.

J. Brooke, Liverpool, cupper.--J. Thorburn, Hillhouse, Yorkshire,
warehouseman.--J. Bland, Leeds, eating house keeper.--W.S. Lawrence,
Essex place, Hackney, bank clerk.--T. Leete, Finedon, Northamptonshire,
butcher.--W. Simpson, Elland Upper Edge, Yorkshire, woollen-spinner.--W.
Hall, Cockhill, Wiltshire.--D. M'George, Huddersfield, tea dealer.--T.
Mercer, Wansdown house, Fulham--W. Elliott, Berner's street, Oxford
street, waiter.--C.T. Jones, Charles street, Berkeley square.--T. Price,
Cardiffmouth, coal dealer.--W. Williams, George street, Newport.--W. G.
Still, High street, Poplar, tobacconist.--T. Cook, Giltspur street,
City, tailor,--J. Mayson, Marlborough road, Old Kent road, commission
agent.--D. Taylor, Aldmondbury, Yorkshire, tea dealer.--W.W. Greaves,
Newark-upon-Trent, corn dealer.--C. H. Balls, Ringsfield, Suffolk,
chemist.--J. Chapman, Bridges street, Covent garden, comedian.--J.
Robinson, Edmonton, butcher.--G. Dickinson, Chenies mews, Bedford
square, coach painter.--J. Murphy, Gloucestershire, coachman.--J.
Burnham, Harrold, Bedfordshire, chemist.--W.L. Phillips, Kennington
green, omnibus proprietor.--J.D. Lockhart, Poplar, tobacconist.--J.
Wilkinson, Cheltenham, licensed victualler.--J.D. Hubbarde, Wakefield,
printer.--J. Ames, Holywell, Flintshire, licensed victualler.--S. Bone,
Greenwich, cabinet maker.--J. Davis, Great Bolton, Lancashire,
sawyer.--J. Pollard, Batley, Yorkshire, blanket manufacturer.--S.
M'Millan, Llangollen, Denbighshire, tea dealer.--S. Brook, Birstal,
Yorkshire, grocer.--F. Wormald, Birstal, Yorkshire, blacksmith.--W.
Barnes, Knightsbridge, shopkeeper.--H. Manley, Belvidere buildings, St
George the Martyr, Surrey, coach builder.--W. Jeffery, Queen street,
Brompton, horse dealer.--R.W. Webb, Saville row, Walworth road,
attorney.

       *       *       *       *       *

BIRTHS.

On the 10th inst., in Milman street, Bedford row, the wife of S.S.
Teulon, Esq. of a son.

On the 13th inst., at Nottingham place, the wife of Thomas A.H. Dickson,
Esq., of a son.


MARRIAGES.

At St George's Church, Hanover square, Miss Louisa Georgina Augusta Anne
Murray, only daughter of General the Right Honourable Sir George Murray,
G.C.B., Master-General of the Ordnance, to Henry George Boyce, Esq., of
the 2nd Life Guards, eldest son of Mr and the late Lady Amelia Boyce.

On the 13th inst., at Kintbury, Berks, Lieutenant-Colonel J.A. Butler,
to Martha, daughter of the late William Bruce Smith, Esq., of
Starborough Castle, Surrey.

On the 13th inst., at Rickmansworth Church, John, second son of Thomas
Weall, Esq., of Woodcote Lodge, Beddington, to Susanna, eldest daughter
of W. White, Esq., of Chorleywood.


DEATHS.

On the 7th inst., aged 69 years, the Rev. William Porter, who was for 44
years minister of the Presbyterian congregation of Newtownlimavady; for
fourteen years clerk to the General Synod of Ulster; the first moderator
of the Remonstrant Synod, and clerk to the same reverend body since its
formation.

At Bath, General W. Brooke. The deceased general, who had served with
distinction throughout the Peninsular war, had been upwards of fifty
years in the army.

On Sunday, the 10th instant, after a lengthened illness, at the family
residence in Great George street, Mr John Crocker Bulteel. He married,
May 13, 1826, Lady Elizabeth Grey, second daughter of Earl Grey, by whom
he leaves a youthful family. Lady Elizabeth Bulteel, who is inconsolable
at her bereavement, has gone to Viscount Howick's residence, near
Datchet.



ADVERTISEMENTS.


  YORK and LONDON LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY,
  King William-street, London. Empowered by Act of Parliament.

  GEORGE FREDERICK YOUNG, Esq., Chairman.
  MATHEW FORSTER, Esq. M.P. Deputy Chairman.

The superiority of the system of Assurance adopted by this Company, will
be found in the fact that the premium required by a bonus office to
assure 1,000_l._ on the life of a person in the 20th year of his age
would in this office insure 1,291_l._ 7s. 6d.

Assurances at other ages are effected on equally favourable terms, and
thus the assured has an immediate bonus instead of a chance dependent
upon longevity and the profits of an office. In cases of assurance for a
limited number of years, the advantage offered by this Company is still
greater, no part of the profits of a bonus office being ever allotted to
such assurances.

Prospectuses, containing tables framed to meet the circumstances of all
who desire to provide for themselves or those who may survive them by
assurance, either of fixed sums or annuities, may be had at the office
as above, or of the agents.

JOHN REDDISH, Sec.

       *       *       *       *       *

H. WALKER'S NEEDLES (by authority the "Queen's own"), in the illustrated
Chinese boxes, are now in course of delivery to the trade. The needles
have large eyes, easily threaded (even by blind persons), and improved
points, temper, and finish. Each paper is labelled with a likeness of
her Majesty or his Royal Highness Prince Albert, in relief on coloured
grounds. Every quality of needles, fish hooks, hooks and eyes, steel
pens, &c. for shipping. These needles or pens for the home trade are
sent, free by post, by any respectable dealer, on receipt of 13 penny
stamps for every shilling value.--H. Walker, manufacturer to the Queen,
20 Maiden lane, Wood street, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

ONE HUNDRED FOREIGN MARBLE CHIMNEY-PIECES ON VIEW.

THE WESTMINSTER MARBLE COMPANY have now completed their Machinery, which
will enable them in future to supply every variety of Marble Work at a
considerable reduction in price.

A neat Box Belgium Marble Chimney-piece, with Moulded Caps, 3 feet high,
can be supplied from 1_l._ to 2_l._

A Best Vein Marble Chimney-piece, from 2_l._ to 3_l._

A liberal commission for all orders will be allowed to the Trade; and
those persons wishing to act as Agents, can have a Book of Designs
forwarded by enclosing Twenty Postage Stamps.

Direct, "The Westminster Marble Company, Earl street, Horseferry road."

       *       *       *       *       *

CARRIAGES.--The attention of Gentlemen about purchasing, or having
carriages to dispose of, is invited to MARKS and Co.'s London Carriage
Repository, Langham place. An immense stock, new and second hand, by
eminent builders, is always on sale, and a candid opinion of each
carriage will be given as to its quality and condition. Invalid
carriages for any journey. Carriages to be let on yearly job.

       *       *       *       *       *

WONDERFUL CURE!--Read the following interesting facts, communicated by
Mr Brown, bookseller, Gainsborough:--

"To Messrs T. Roberts and Co. Crane court, Fleet street, London,
Proprietors of Parr's Life Pills.

  "Gentlemen,      "West Stockwith, Aug. 11, 1843.

"I, James Jackson Easton, do hereby testify, that, by taking your
excellent Parr's Life Pills, I have derived greater benefit than in
using all the other medicines I have tried since 1841; about which time
I was attacked with severe illness, accompanied with excruciating pain
and trembling, with large rupture. For the last six months I have had no
return of this illness, nor the least appearance of the last-mentioned
symptom. Through the mercy of God, I do at present feel perfectly
recovered from it. I still continue the occasional use of your excellent
Pills.--I am gentlemen, respectfully yours,

  J.J. EASTON."

Sold by all respectable medicine venders, in boxes at 1s. 1-1/2d. 2s.
9d. and 11s.--See the words "Parr's Life Pills," in white letters on a
red ground, engraved on the Government stamp.

EUROPEAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, No. 10 Chatham place, Blackfriars,
London.

  Established, January, 1819.

  PRESIDENT.
  Sir James Rivett Carnac, Bart.

  VICE-PRESIDENT.
  George Forbes, Esq. No. 9 Fitzroy square.

  With Twelve Directors.

Facilities are offered by this long-established Society to suit the
views and the means of every class of insurers. Premiums are received
yearly, half-yearly, or quarterly, or upon an increasing or decreasing
scale. An insurance of 100_l._ may be effected on the ascending scale by
an annual premium for the first five years of 1_l._ 9s. at the age of
25; 1_l._ 12s. 6d. at 30; 1_l._ 17s. at 35; 2_l._ 2s 5d. at 40; and
2_l._ 9s. 6d. at 45; or, one-half only of the usual rate, with interest
on the remainder, will be received for five or seven years, the other
half to be paid at the convenience of the assured.

The insured for life participate septennially; in the profits realised.

A liberal commission is allowed to Solicitors and Agents.

  DAVID FOGGO, Secretary.

N.B. Agents are wanted in towns where none have yet been appointed.

       *       *       *       *       *

BRITANNIA LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY, 1 Princes street, Bank, London.

Empowered by Special Act of Parliament, IV Vict. cap. IX.

DIRECTORS.

  William Bardgett, Esq.
  Samuel Bevington, Esq.
  Wm. Fechney Black, Esq.
  John Brightman, Esq.
  George Cohen, Esq.
  Millis Coventry, Esq.
  John Drewett, Esq.
  Robert Eglinton, Esq.
  Erasmus Rt. Foster, Esq.
  Alex. Robert Irvine, Esq.
  Peter Morison, Esq.
  Henry Lewis Smale, Esq.
  Thomas Teed, Esq.

AUDITORS.

J.B. Bevington, Esq.; F.P. Cockerill, Esq.; J.D. Dow, Esq.

MEDICAL OFFICER.

John Clendinning, M.D. F.R.S. 16 Wimpolestreet, Cavendish square.

STANDING COUNSEL.

  The Hon. John Ashley, New square, Lincoln's inn.
  Mr Serjeant Murphy, M.P. Temple.

SOLICITOR.

William Bevan, Esq. Old Jewry.

BANKERS.

Messrs Drewett and Fowler, Princes street, Bank.

This Institution is empowered by a special Act of Parliament, and is so
constituted as to afford the benefits of Life Assurance in their fullest
extent to Policy-holders, and to present greater facilities and
accommodation than are usually offered by other Companies.

Assurances may either be effected by Parties on their own Lives, or by
Parties interested therein on the Lives of Others.

The effect of an Assurance on a person's own life is to create at once a
Property in Reversion, which can by no other means be realized. Take,
for instance, the case of a person at the age of Thirty, who, by the
payment of 5_l._ 3s. 4d. to the Britannia Life Assurance Company, can
become at once possessed of a bequeathable property, amounting to
1,000_l._, subject only to the condition of his continuing the same
payment quarterly during the remainder of his life--a condition which
may be fulfilled by the mere saving of Eight Shillings weekly in his
expenditure. Thus, by the exertion of a very slight degree of
economy--such indeed, as can scarcely be felt as an inconvenience, he
may at once realise a capital of 1,000_l._, which he can bequeath or
dispose of in any way he may think proper.

A Table of Decreasing Rates of Premium on a novel and remarkable plan;
the Policy-holder having the option of discontinuing the payment of all
further Premiums after Twenty, Fifteen, Ten, and even Five years; and
the Policy still remaining in force--in the first case, for the full
amount originally assured; and in either of the three other cases, for a
portion of the same according to a fixed and equitable scale endorsed
upon the Policy.

Increasing Rates of Premium on a new and remarkable plan for securing
Loans or Debts; a less immediate payment being required on a Policy for
the whole term of Life than in any other Office.

Age of the Assured in every case admitted in the Policy.

All claims payable within one Month after proof of death.

Medical Attendants remunerated in all cases for their reports.

     Extract from Increasing Rates of Premium, for an Assurance of
     100_l._ for Whole Term of Life.

  -----+-----------------------------------------------------------+
       |            Annual Premiums payable during                 |
       +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
       | 1st  Five | 2nd  Five | 3rd  Five | 4th  Five | Remainder |
   Age |  Years.   |  Years.   |  Years.   |  Years.   |  of Life. |
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
       | £.  s.  d.| £.  s.  d.| £.  s.  d.| £.  s.  d.| £.  s.  d.|
    20 | 1   1   4 | 1   5  10 | 1  10  11 | 1  16   9 | 2   3   8 |
    30 | 1   6   4 | 1  12   2 | 1  19   1 | 2   7   4 | 2  17   6 |
    40 | 1  16   1 | 2   4   4 | 2  14   6 | 3   7   3 | 4   3   4 |
    50 | 2  16   7 | 3   9   4 | 4   5   5 | 5   6   3 | 6  13   7 |
  -----+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

Detailed Prospectuses, and every requisite information as to the mode of
effecting Assurances, may be obtained at the Office.

  PETER MORRISON, Resident Director.

*** A Board of Directors attend daily at Two o'clock, for the
despatch of Business.

       *       *       *       *       *

PANCLIBANON IRON WORKS, BAZAAR, No. 58 BAKER STREET, PORTMAN SQUARE.
LONDON.--Gentlemen about to furnish, or going abroad, will find it worth
their attention to look into the above Establishment, where they will
find the largest assortment of General Furnishing Ironmongery ever
offered to the Public, consisting of tin, copper, and iron cooking
utensils, table cutlery, best Shffield plate, German silver wares,
papier machee tea trays, tea and coffee urns, stove grates, kitchen
ranges, fenders and fire-irons, baths of all kinds, shower, hot, cold,
vapour, plunging, &c. Ornamental iron and wire works for conservatories,
lawns, &c. and garden engines. All articles are selected of the very
best description, and offered at exceedingly low prices, for cash only;
the price of each article being made in plain figures.

       *       *       *       *       *

LIMBIRD'S MAGNUM BONUM PENS.--One dozen highly-finished Steel Pens, with
Holder, in a box, for 6d.; name-plate engraved for 2s. 6d.; 100 cards
printed for 2s. 6d,; crest and name engraved on visiting card for 6s.;
arms and crests for book plates on the most reasonable terms; travelling
writing-desks at 9s. 6d. 10s. 6d. 12s. 6d. and 14s 6d. each;
dressing-cases from 6s. 6d. each; blotting-books in great variety, from
9d.; with locks, 2s. each; royal writing-papers--diamond, five quires
for 1s. 2d.; the Queen's and Prince Albert's size, five quires for 1s.
6d.; envelopes, 6d. 9d. and 1s. the 100; and every article in
stationery, of the best quality and lowest prices, at Limbird's, 143
Strand, facing Catherine street.

       *       *       *       *       *

PIANOFORTES.--Messrs MOORE and CO. Makers of the Improved Pianofortes,
are now selling their delightful Instruments as follows:--A Mahogany
Piccolo, the best that can be made, in a plain but fashionable case,
only 28_l._; a 6-1/2 Octave ditto, only 32_l._; a Cottage ditto, only
32_l._; a 6-1/2 Octave Cottage ditto, only 38_l._ Cabinets of all
descriptions. All warranted of the very best quality, packed free of
expense, and forwarded to any part of the world. Some returned from hire
at reduced prices.

Moore and Co. 138 Bishopsgate street Without, near Sun steet.

Just Published, Two thick Volumes, 8vo. illustrated with Six large
important Maps, 4_l._ cloth,

A DICTIONARY, GEOGRAPHICAL, STATISTICAL, and HISTORICAL, of the various
Countries, Places and principal Natural Objects in the WORLD. By J.R.
M'Culloch, Esq.

"The extent of information this Dictionary affords on the subjects
referred to in its title is truly surprising. It cannot fail to prove a
vade-mecum to the student, whose inquiries will be guided by its light,
and satisfied by its clear and frequently elaborated communications.
Every public room in which commerce, politics, or literature, forms the
subject of discussion, ought to be furnished with these
volumes."--Globe.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans.

       *       *       *       *       *

Just published in 8vo. price 2s. 6d.

RAILWAY REFORM--Its Expediency, Practicability, and Importance
Considered, with a copious Appendix, containing an account of all the
Railways in Great Britain and Ireland, Parliamentary Returns, &c.

"An excellent pamphlet."--Morning Herald.

"The subject is very fully, earnestly, and ably investigated."--Morning
Advertiser.

"Remarkable for originality of design, boldness of execution, and
minuteness in statistical detail."--Sun.

"We would recommend all who have an interest in Railways to purchase
this work."--Sentinel.

Pelham Richardson, Cornhill.

       *       *       *       *       *

LA'MERT ON NERVOUS DEBILITY, GENERAL AND LOCAL WEAKNESS, &c.

Just published, Seventh Edition, price 2s. 6d. or free by post for 3s.
6d.

SELF-PRESERVATION; a popular Essay on the Concealed Causes of Nervous
Debility, Local and General Weakness, Indigestion, Lowness of Spirits,
Mental Irritability, and Insanity; with Practical Observations on their
Treatment and Cure. By SAMUEL LA'MERT, Consulting Surgeon, 9 Bedford
street, Bedford square, London; Matriculated Member of the University of
Edinburgh; Honorary Member of the London Hospital Medical Society;
Licentiate of Apothecaries' Hall, London, &c.

Published by the Author; and sold in London by S. Gilbert, 51 and 52
Paternoster row; Field, 65 Quadrant; Gordon, 146 Leadenhall street;
Noble, 109 Chancery lane; and by all Booksellers.

"The design of this work will be tolerably obvious from its title, and
we cordially recommend the author and his book to all who are suffering
from nervous debility and general weakness. Mr La'Mert has treated the
subject in a very scientific and intelligible manner."--Wakefield
Journal.

At home every day till Three, and from Five till Eight.

       *       *       *       *       *

THE FOURTEENTH THOUSAND.

Just Published, in a Sealed Envelope, Price 3s.; and sent free, on
receiving a Post office Order for 3s. 6d.

MANHOOD; the CAUSES of its PREMATURE DECLINE, with Plain Directions for
its PERFECT RESTORATION; followed by Observations on Marriage, and the
Treatment of Mental and Nervous Debility, Incapacity, Warm Climate, and
Cure of the Class of Diseases resulting therefrom. Illustrated with
Cases, &c. By J.L. Curtis and Co. Consulting Surgeons, London.
Fourteenth Edition.

Published by the Authors; and Sold by Burgess, Medical Bookseller, 28
Coventry street, Haymarket; Mann, 39 Cornhill; Strange, 21 Paternoster
row, London; Guest, 51 Bull street, Birmingham; Hickling, Coventry;
Robinson, Leamington; Journal office, Leicester; Cook, Chronicle office,
Oxford; Sowler, 4 St Anne's square, Manchester; Philip, South Castle
street, Liverpool; and sold, in a Sealed Envelope, by all Booksellers.

OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.

"This work, a Tenth Edition of which is now presented to the public--ten
thousand copies have been exhausted since its first appearance--has been
very much improved and enlarged by the addition of a more extended and
clear detail of general principles, as also by the insertion of several
new and highly interesting cases. The numberless instances daily
occurring, wherein affections of the lungs, putting on all the outer
appearances of consumption, which, however, when traced to their source,
are found to result from certain baneful habits, fully proves that the
principle of the division of labour is nowhere more applicable than in
medical practice. We feel no hesitation in saying, that there is no
member of society by whom the book will not be found useful, whether
such person holds the relation of a parent, a preceptor, or a
clergyman."--SUN, Evening Paper.

"Messrs Curtis's work, called 'Manhood,' is one of the few books now
coming before the public on such a subject which can lay claim to the
character of being strictly professional, at the same time that it is
fully intelligible to all who read it. The moral and medical precepts
given in it render it invaluable."--MAGNET.

Messrs Curtis and Co. are to be consulted daily at their residence, 7
Frith street, Soho square, London.

Country Patients are requested to be as minute as possible in the
details of their cases. The communication must be accompanied by the
usual Consultation Fee of 1_l._; and in all cases the most inviolable
secrecy may be relied on.

       *       *       *       *       *

FOREIGN NEWSPAPER AND COMMISSION OFFICE, 18 CORNHILL, LONDON.

P.L. SIMMONDS, Advertising Agent, receives regularly files of all the
NEWSPAPERS published in the British Colonies and possessions beyond the
seas, which are preserved for the facility of reference and inspection,
and sent when requested to parties for perusal.

Also various German, French, Italian, American, and other Foreign
Journals.

Orders and Advertisements received for every Foreign and European
Publication.

       *       *       *       *       *

PHOTOGRAPHY.--Great Improvements having been recently effected in this
interesting and extraordinary science by Mr BEARD, the patentee, in the
process of TAKING and COLOURING LIKENESSES, the public are particularly
invited to an inspection of varieties, at the establishment, 85 King
William street, City; Royal Polytechnic Institution; and 34 Parliament
street, where exchanges for new in lieu of old portraits may be had, on
payment of 5s. Colouring small busts, 5s.

       *       *       *       *       *

GUARANTEE SOCIETY.

ESTABLISHED BY ACT OF PARLIAMENT.

Capital, £100,000.

TRUSTEES.

  Charge Hugge Price, Esq.
  James Francis Maubert, Esq.
  Thomas Fowler, Esq.
  Major-General Parlby, C.B.

TO Officers of her Majesty's service (both civil and military),
secretaries, clerks, and all others holding, or about to hold,
confidential and responsible situations, this Society presents immediate
facilities for obtaining surety, or integrity, upon payment of a small
annual premium, and by which relatives and friends are relieved from the
various pecuniary responsibilities attendant on private suretiships.

The surety of this Society is accepted by the War Office (for payment of
regiments and of pensioners), the Ordnance, East India Company, the
Customs, the Bank of England, and numerous banking, mercantile, and
commercial firms, both in London and in the country.

Forms of application and every information may be obtained at the
Offices, 28 Poultry, London.

  THOMAS DODGSON, Sec.

NATURAL MINERAL WATERS.--E. H. DUHAMEL and Co. 7 Duke street, Grosvenor
square, have constantly on sale the undernamed Natural Mineral Waters,
which they can supply fresh and genuine at a very reasonable price.

  Barèges       Cheltenham     Malvern      Schwalbach
  Bath          Ems            Marienbad    Sedlitz
  Bonnes        Fachingen      Pullna       Selters
  Bristol       Harrogate      Pyrmont      Spa
  Cauterets     Kissengen      Saidschutz   Vichy, &c.

Genuine Eau de Cologne, digestive Pastilles de Vichy, and various
foreign articles of Pharmacy. E.H.D. and Co. are the only agents for the
Copahine-Mège, and for J. Jourdain, Mège and Co.'s Dragées Minérales and
Dragées Carboniques for effervescing lemonade, and also for their
Pilules Carboniques, preventive of sea sickness and vomitings of every
description.

The Dragées Minérales, with which a tumbler of mineral water can be
instantaneously produced, are considered as the best substitute to the
genuine waters, when these cannot be procured and have the advantage of
being much cheaper.

       *       *       *       *       *

NOTICE.

WOOD PAVING.--The Letters Patent granted to me, DAVID STEAD, for paving
with Wooden Blocks being the first Patent obtained on the subject, and
rendering all subsequent Patents for the same object void, have, after a
long investigation at Liverpool, been declared valid, notwithstanding
the most resolute opposition against me by the real defendants in the
case--the Metropolitan Wood Paving Company.

I therefore warn all Public Authorities and persons using, or assisting
in using Wooden Blocks for Paving, that such infringement upon my Patent
will be suppressed; but I am prepared (as is my Licencee, Mr Blackie),
to execute any extent of Wood Paving of any description upon contract,
and also to grant licenses for the adoption and promotion of the great
advantage and benefits of Wood Paving in London, and all parts of
England, Scotland, and Ireland.

For terms, parties may apply to me, or to my solicitor, Mr John Duncan,
72 Lombard street, London, or to Mr A.B. Blackie, No. 250 Strand.

  (Signed) DAVID STEAD

250 Strand, London, Sept. 4, 1843.

       *       *       *       *       *

WOOD PAVEMENT.--STEAD v. WILLIAMS AND OTHERS.

(Abridged from the Liverpool Albion.)

This was an action for an infringement of a patent for the paving of
roads, streets, &c. with timber or wooden blocks. Mr Martin and Mr
Webster were for the plaintiff; Mr Warren and Mr Hoggins for the
defendants; Mr John Duncan, of 72 Lombard street, was the solicitor for
the plaintiff.

The plaintiff is Mr David Stead, formerly a merchant of the City of
London; the defendants are, nominally, Mr Lewis Williams, and several
others, who are the surveyors of streets and paving at Manchester; but
the action was really against the Metropolitan Wood Paving Company.

About the year 1836 or 1837 Mr Nystrom, a Russian merchant, with whom Mr
Stead had had transactions in business came to England, having whilst in
Russia devoted his attention to the mode of pavement in that country,
which was done in a great measure by wood. He communicated with Mr
Stead, who paid a great deal of attention to the matter, and materially
improved the scheme; and it was the intention of Mr Nystrom and Mr
Stead, in 1835 or 1837, to take out a patent, but Mr Nystrom found it
necessary to return to Russia, and thus frustrated that intention.

On the 19th of May, 1838, the plaintiff, however, took out a patent, and
this was the one to which attention was directed. Four months were
allowed for inrolment, but as six months was the usual period, the
plaintiff imagined that that would be the period allowed to him, and
inadvertently allowed the four months to elapse before he discovered his
mistake.

On the 21st of June, 1841, however, an Act of Parliament was passed,
confirming the patent to Mr Stead, as though it had been regularly filed
within the prescribed period. A second patent was afterwards obtained,
but that related more particularly to the form of blocks. The first
patent, which had been infringed, was for an invention consisting of a
mode of paving with blocks of similar sizes and dimensions, of either a
sexagonal, triangular, or square form, so as to make a level road or
surface.

The defendants pleaded, amongst other things, that the patent was not an
original invention; that it was not useful; and that it was in use prior
to the granting of the patent.

The Jury retired to consult at a quarter past four, and returned at
twenty minutes to six o'clock with a verdict for the plaintiff.

       *       *       *       *       *

PARSONS'S ALEPPO OFFICE WRITING INK.--This very superior Ink, being made
with pure Aleppo Galls, is equally adapted for Quills and Steel Pens,
and combines the requisite qualities of Incorrodibility and Permanency
of Colour with an easy flow from the Pen. It is therefore strongly
recommended to Merchants, Bankers, Solicitors, Accountants, and others.

*** Warranted not to be affected either by time or climate.

Sold in Quart, Pint, Half-pint, and Sixpenny Bottles, by John Parsons,
Manufacturer of Printing and Writing Inks, 35 Orange street, Gravel
lane, Southwark; and 9 Ave Maria lane, London.

       *       *       *       *       *

UNDER THE SPECIAL PATRONAGE OF

HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY,

H.R.H. PRINCE ALBERT, THE ROYAL FAMILY AND THE SEVERAL COURTS OF EUROPE.


ROWLAND'S MACASSAR OIL, For the Growth, and for _Preserving_ and
Beautifying the Human Hair.

*** To ensure the real article, see that the words _Rowland's
Macassar Oil_ are engraven on the back of the label nearly 1,500 times,
containing 29,028 letters. Without this _None are Genuine_.

ROWLAND'S KALYDOR, For _Improving and Beautifying_ the Skin and
Complexion.

  ROWLAND'S ODONTO,
  or PEARL DENTIFRICE,

Renders the Teeth beautifully white, and preserves the Gums.

       *       *       *       *       *

CAUTION.

Numerous _pernicious Compounds_ are universally offered for sale as the
real "MACASSAR OIL" and "KALYDOR," (some under the _implied_ sanction of
Royalty), the labels and bills of the original articles are copied, and
either a FICTITIOUS NAME or the word "GENUINE" is used in the place of
"ROWLAND'S."

It is therefore necessary on purchasing either Article to see that the
word "ROWLAND'S" is on the Envelope. For the protection of the Public
from fraud and imposition, the _Honourable Commissioners of Her
Majesty's Stamps_ have authorized the Proprietors to have their Names
engraven on the Government Stamp, which is affixed to the _KALYDOR_ and
_ODONTO_, thus--

  A. ROWLAND & SON,
  No. 20, HATTON GARDEN.

*** All others are SPURIOUS IMITATIONS.

       *       *       *       *       *

     Printed by CHARLES REYNELL, 16 Little Pulteney street, in the
     Parish of St James, Westminster; and Published by him at the Office
     of the Journal, No. 6 Wellington street, Strand,--September 16,
     1843.





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