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Title: Movement of the International Literary Exchanges, between France and North America from January 1845 to May, 1846 - With Instructions for Collecting, Preparing, and Forwarding - Objects of Natural History Written by The Professors - Administrators of The Museum Of Natural History At Paris. - And Instructions Relative to Anthropology and Zoology
Author: Vattemare, Alexandre, 1796-1864 [Commentator], Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore, 1805-1861 [Editor]
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Movement of the International Literary Exchanges, between France and North America from January 1845 to May, 1846 - With Instructions for Collecting, Preparing, and Forwarding - Objects of Natural History Written by The Professors - Administrators of The Museum Of Natural History At Paris. - And Instructions Relative to Anthropology and Zoology" ***

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Note de transcription: La ponctuation et les erreurs clairement
introduites par le typographe ont été corrigées. Cependant, le texte
anglais a été écrit par des personnes dont la langue maternelle était
le français et leurs erreurs d'orthographe--et il y en a beaucoup--ont
été conservées.

Transcriber's note: Punctuation and obvious printer errors have been
repaired. However, the English text was written by people whose native
language was French and their spelling mistakes--and there are a great
many--have been preserved.



MOVEMENT

OF THE

INTERNATIONAL LITTERARY EXCHANGES,

BETWEEN

FRANCE AND NORTH AMERICA,

From January, 1845, to May, 1846.

WITH INSTRUCTIONS FOR

COLLECTING, PREPARING, AND FORWARDING

OBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY

Written by the Professors Administrators of the Museum of natural
History at Paris.

AND INSTRUCTIONS RELATIVE TO

ANTHROPOLOGY AND ZOOLOGY,

BY

M. ISIDORE GEOFFROY St-HILAIRE,

(Both series translated by an American Lady.)

PUBLISHED BY REQUEST.

PARIS:

PRINTED BY PAUL DUPONT.

1846



INTRODUCTION.


In the month of January last, I received the following letter:

   Paris, December 24th, 1845.

   MONSIEUR ALEXANDRE VATTEMARE,

   Sir,

   The undersigned young men, citizens of the United States of
   America, now in Paris, have heard so much about the successful
   realisation of your scheme of international exchanges between
   France and their native land, that they are induced to take the
   liberty of requesting from you a narration of the results of your
   indefatigable exertions in the cause of science during the past
   twelve months. They avail themselves of the occasion to testify
   their gratitude for your desinterested toil and the high respect
   with which they have the honor to subscribe themselves,

   Your very obedient and humble servants,

   BENJ. PERLEY POORE, of Massachusetts.
   W. C. ALLAn, of Kentucky.
   F. S. AINSWORTH, M. D., of Massachusetts.
   J. HUNT, of Massachusetts.
   BENJ. APTHORP GOULD, of Massachusetts.
   EDWARD MONROE, of New-York.
   JAMES M. HOPPIN, of Rhode-Island.
   GEO. H. HALL, of North-Carolina.
   BENJ. CHAMPNEY, of Massachusetts.
   HENRY WILLARD, of Massachusetts.
   W. J. PARKERSON, of Massachusetts.
   H. H. J. GIBSON, of New-York.
   SAMUEL WANSLOW, New-York.
   GEO. C. MASON, Rhode-Island.
   JNO. C. MARTIN, New-York.
   FLELCHER DERBY, New-York.
   J. SUMNER, Massachusetts.
   HENDERSON POPE, So. Carolina.
   J.-S. HARRIS, Mississipi.
   THOMAS DUSTIN, Indiana.
   E. HARTSHORN, Pennsylvania.
   JOHN S. MILLER, Pennsylvania.
   J. C. CROSS, Kentucky.
   NORWOOD PENROSE, New-Jersey.
   MORTON STILLE, Pennsylvania.
   GEO. CATLIN, New-York.

Considering myself highly honored by this kind invitation, I felt it
necessary to endeavour at once to gratify a desire expressed in such
flattering terms.

But, after mature reflection, I resolved to confine myself to the
publication of official documents; and it was again necessary to
choose from these on account of my limits. I have thus been prevented
from publishing letters of the honorable president of the Court of
accounts; the director of the King's library; the secretary of the
society for the encouragement of silk culture; the president of the
Royal academy of Rouen; the perpetual secretaries of the Royal and
central agricultural society; of the academy of science, of the
academy of moral and political science. All these letters were
accompanied by documents and books which have been faithfully
transmitted to their respective destinations in the United States.

It can be easily understood, that, obliged even to reduce the number
of documents which each testified to the positive results of the
system of exchanges, I have entirely omitted those which merely
contain promises. In the present state of things, I can only with
propriety present the public with accomplished facts.

Why should I add any reflection to these authentic documents
which I publish? It does not become me to tell the care and anxiety
which the already acquired results have cost me. As for the kindness
and liberality of which so many proofs have been given me both in
France and America, it is visible enough through this publication. If,
on this occasion, I express my unbounded gratitude, I cannot
nevertheless forget that these favors have been granted less to my
exertions than in consequence of the hopes thereby created, and the
ends foreseen.

I hope that this pamphlet will not be without fruit. From what has
been done, we can judge of what may be done, and inspired by the
confidence imparted by the success of the three past years, I
confidently trust that these facts will give the system of exchange a
new impulse.

For this reason, I have determined to conclude the publication by the
instructions prepared by the administrative professors of the Museum
of natural history. Our American Brethren will be kind enough to
follow the advice of these literati in prosecuting their researches,
and sending their fruits.

I beg leave to recommend them to the particular attention of those
societies and gentlemen in the new world who make natural history a
special study.

The French and English languages being so familiar to the two nations,
I thought it better to keep the following Documents in the language
they were writt, fearing they might lose their originalety by being
translated.

  Paris, may 1846.
  A. VATTEMARE.



PRESENT STATE

OF THE

SYSTEM OF INTERNATIONAL LITERARY EXCHANGES

BETWEEN

FRANCE AND NORTH AMERICA.

EXTRACT _from the_ JOURNAL DE L'INSTRUCTION PUBLIQUE (March 4. 1846.)
(_Published under the auspices of the Department of public
instruction_).


   Nos lecteurs savent que M. le Ministre de l'instruction publique
   a porté au budget soumis en ce moment à l'examen de la Chambre,
   une somme de 3,000 francs destinée à acquitter les frais auxquels
   donnera lieu le système d'échange de livres commencé par
   l'entremise de M. Vattemare entre la France et les pays
   étrangers.

   La lettre suivante, adressée par M. Alexandre Vattemare à M. le
   Ministre, est une histoire abrégée mais complète du système
   d'échange de livres, d'objets d'art et d'histoire naturelle entre
   les nations jusqu'au 7 août 1845. Nous livrons les faits qu'elle
   révèle à l'appréciation de nos lecteurs. Nous devons ajouter
   seulement que, depuis cette époque, les États de New-York, de la
   Virginie, de l'Indiana, de l'Illinois, de Rhode-Island, le
   gouvernement du Canada ont fait à M. Vattemare des envois qui ont
   été répartis entre les diverses administrations et les
   établissements scientifiques de Paris; en sorte qu'il faut
   aujourd'hui porter le mouvement des échanges à plus de 7,000
   volumes.

   Nous savons de plus qu'un savant américain, M. Jewett, récemment
   arrivé d'Allemagne, a affirmé à M. Vattemare qu'il a vu tout
   préparé pour les échanges à Dresde, à Munich, à Berlin et à
   Vienne; que les bibliothécaires de ces villes lui ont parlé des
   promesses du système dont ils attendent impatiemment la
   réalisation.

        *       *       *       *       *

   _A Son Excellence M. le comte de Salvandy, Ministre de
   l'instruction publique._

   En 1694, on échangea les livres doubles de la Bibliothèque royale
   contre les livres nouveaux qui s'imprimaient dans les pays
   étrangers. Cette sorte de commerce autorisé par les ordres exprès
   du roi, et qui dura quelques années, ne laissa pas que de fournir
   une assez grande quantité de bons livres, surtout d'Angleterre et
   d'Allemagne.

   En 1697, le P. Bouvet apporta 149 livres chinois en échange
   desquels le roi donna le recueil de toutes ses estampes.

     (_Essai historique sur la Biblioth. du Roi, p. 67._)

   Colbert fit faire des copies de manuscrits pour les échanges.
   C'est aussi par les ordres de Colbert qu'on fit un état des
   livres doubles susceptibles d'être échangés contre d'autres qu'on
   ne possédait pas.

     (PAULIN, PARIS, _les Manuscrits franç. de la Bibl. du Roi_, p. 1.)

   Monsieur le Ministre,

   Autorisé par les exemples que je viens de citer, dans mes
   démarches pour établir entre la France et les nations civilisées
   des deux mondes des relations régulières et permanentes d'échange
   de livres, d'objets d'arts et d'histoire naturelle, je
   n'entreprendrai pas de développer ce que j'appellerai la théorie
   de mon système. Je parlerai seulement des faits. Vous n'avez pas
   besoin d'un commentaire des actes de Colbert et de Louis XIV, et
   je n'ai pas besoin auprès de vous d'apologie. Ce que j'aurais
   l'honneur de vous dire, vous le savez déjà; vous l'avez vu dans
   les textes des _Manuscrits français_ et de l'_Essai historique_.
   Je veux être ménager d'un temps que vous employez si utilement
   pour l'éducation de la jeunesse et pour l'avancement des lettres.

   Permettez-moi, Monsieur le Ministre, de vous donner d'abord un
   aperçu des doubles qui existent dans quelques bibliothèques de
   l'étranger et de la France. C'est un essai de statistique qui fera
   comprendre, mieux que tous les raisonnements, les profits que l'on
   doit attendre des échanges. La bibliothèque de Munich a 200,000
   doubles; celle d'Iéna, 12,000; celle de Saint-Pétersbourg, 54,000;
   à Vienne, plus de 30,000 doubles, parmi lesquels un grand nombre
   d'incunables, sont enfouis dans des magasins. A Vienne encore,
   25,000 doubles encombrent la section d'entomologie du musée
   brésilien. Breslau possède l'un des plus précieux manuscrits de
   Froissart. On trouve à Munich le cinquième volume du roman des
   _Quatre Fils Aymon_ dont les quatre premiers sont à la
   bibliothèque de l'Arsenal; et à Bruxelles, dans la bibliothèque
   de Bourgogne, des doubles de manuscrits précieux pour notre
   histoire. En France, la bibliothèque de Metz contient plus de 500
   doubles; celle de Douai, 250; celle de Colmar, 100; des matériaux
   importants pour l'histoire de diverses villes sont réunis dans la
   bibliothèque d'Aix, assez indigente sur sa propre histoire: et
   ainsi Lyon, Arles, Nantes sont privés de documents précieux pour
   leurs anciennes annales. Les archives de la préfecture de Dijon
   renferment des titres et des chartes du duché de Savoie, en
   échange desquels le roi de Sardaigne nous donnerait tout ce que
   nous voudrions.

   J'avais reconnu cet état de choses pour l'Allemagne, pendant les
   divers voyages que j'ai faits dans ce pays. J'en avais entretenu
   des savants, des hommes d'État, les rois eux-mêmes. Voici ce que
   m'écrivait à cette occasion M. P. Lichtenthaler, directeur de la
   bibliothèque de Munich, le 22 janvier 1833.

   «Vous vous souviendrez que dans nos entretiens je vous ai aussi
   parlé de nos doubles dont nous gardons une immense quantité. Ne
   vous serait-il pas possible, par vos relations à Paris, d'engager
   l'administrateur des beaux-arts à entrer en échange avec notre
   bibliothèque?»

   Le 6 décembre de la même année, M. le comte Maurice de
   Dietrichstein, directeur général du musée à Vienne, m'adressait
   une lettre dont j'extrais le passage suivant:

   «Soyez sûr que je ne négligerai ni le catalogue des doubles ni
   celui des ouvrages dépareillés de la grande bibliothèque
   impériale.»

   «Le plan que vous m'avez communiqué de créer un système d'échange
   de doubles, entre les différents cabinets de l'Europe mérite la
   plus grande attention,» m'écrivait le 20 janvier 1834 M. le comte
   de Brühl, intendant général des musées du royaume de Prusse,
   «Soyez assuré de l'empressement que je mettrai à entrer dans vos
   vues à cet égard aussitôt que l'établissement des médailles du
   musée sera assez avancé pour permettre de reconnaître l'effectif
   des doubles existant dans les différentes parties de l'Institut.»

   D'autres lettres d'adhésions et d'encouragements m'ont été
   écrites, le 1er août 1834, par M. le comte de Benkendorff, au
   nom de l'empereur de Russie; en 1834 encore, par M. de Hauh, au
   nom du roi de Danemark; le 13 janvier 1837, par M. le comte
   d'Appony, ambassadeur d'Autriche; les 16 et 19 mai 1838, par MM.
   Spring Rice et Poulett Thompson, ministres d'Angleterre; le 9
   mars 1839, par M. le comte de Lowenhielm, ambassadeur de Suède.

   Il résulte de cette correspondance, dont je serais heureux de
   mettre les originaux sous les yeux de Votre Excellence, Monsieur
   le Ministre, que partout mes ouvertures ont été accueillies avec
   empressement; qu'en Bavière et en Autriche il a été donné à mon
   plan un commencement d'exécution, c'est-à-dire qu'on s'est
   préparé à entrer en échange aussitôt qu'il conviendra à la France
   de consentir à ces relations de mutuelle bienveillance.

   Je ne vous ai parlé que des assurances officielles de concours
   qui m'ont été adressées. J'aurais pu y ajouter les nombreux
   témoignages de sympathie que j'ai reçus de la part des écrivains,
   des savants, des artistes les plus illustres; mais j'aurais été
   trop long. Je suis prêt à vous soumettre à cet égard toutes les
   justifications que vous pourrez désirer.

   Dès 1835, j'étais revenu en France une première fois, et je
   m'étais empressé d'écrire à M. le duc de Broglie, alors ministre
   des affaires étrangères, au nom duquel il me fut répondu le 12
   juin:

   «L'utilité des travaux entrepris par M. Vattemare pour faciliter
   les échanges ne paraît point contestable; et le ministre des
   affaires étrangères saisira la plus prochaine occasion pour
   entretenir son collègue le Ministre de l'instruction publique du
   plan formé par M. Vattemare.»

   M. Pelet de la Lozère, ministre de l'instruction publique en
   1836, m'écrivait:

   «En ce qui concerne ce projet, il est impossible que le
   gouvernement n'en approuve entièrement la conception et qu'il ne
   fasse en même temps tout ce qui dépendra de lui pour en favoriser
   l'exécution. L'intérêt avec lequel les deux chambres et
   l'administration se sont empressés de l'accueillir et de s'en
   occuper ne saurait vous laisser de doute à cet égard. Il est un
   sûr garant de l'importance que le gouvernement lui attribue et
   des résultats qu'il en attend.»

   L'intérêt des deux chambres, dont il est parlé dans cette lettre
   de M. Pelet de la Lozère, s'était manifesté par une double
   décision prise le 6 mars par la chambre des députés, par la
   chambre des pairs, le 26. J'avais, au mois de novembre 1836,
   adressé aux chambres une pétition dont les rapporteurs furent, à
   la chambre des députés, M. de Guizard, au Luxembourg, M. le duc
   de Fezensac. M. de Guizard avait dit dans son rapport que «la
   commission ne pouvait méconnaître les résultats importants qu'on
   devait raisonnablement se promettre de l'application du système
   proposé; qu'elle y voyait l'avantage immense pour nos
   bibliothèques, si pauvres en ouvrages étrangers, de se compléter
   sous ce rapport au moyen de leurs doubles; et que, se bornât-on à
   faire l'application de ces idées aux établissements nationaux, il
   y aurait encore la promesse certaine d'une vie nouvelle pour nos
   bibliothèques.» Le rapport de M. le duc de Fezensac n'avait pas
   été moins favorable. «On peut compter, avait dit le noble
   rapporteur, sur le concours loyal et éclairé des gouvernements
   étrangers. M. Vattemare en a reçu plus d'une assurance; et déjà
   des offres particulières d'échanges sont arrivées à la
   Bibliothèque du roi. Le moment paraît favorable pour s'occuper
   sérieusement de ce travail. On doit en espérer d'heureux
   résultats auxquels M. Vattemare aura eu la gloire d'attacher son
   nom.»

   Et les deux chambres avaient, à l'unanimité de leurs membres
   présents, renvoyé ma pétition à M. le Ministre de l'instruction
   publique.

   Cependant les affaires de l'État, les événements de la politique
   détournèrent de la question des échanges l'attention du
   gouvernement. Après trois ans de nouveaux travaux et de nouvelles
   sollicitations, je me décidai à provoquer encore une fois le
   concours des chambres législatives. Je présentai une seconde
   pétition qui, comme la première, fut renvoyée au Ministre de
   l'instruction publique avec l'assentiment du parlement tout
   entier. Je ne citerai ici, pour abréger, aucun extrait ni des
   rapports faits au nom de la commission des deux chambres, ni de
   la lettre de M. Villemain en date du 31 août 1839, ni de celle de
   M. Duchâtel en date du 14 août de la même année. Qu'il me suffise
   de dire à Votre Excellence que c'étaient les mêmes félicitations,
   les mêmes encouragements, les mêmes promesses.

   C'est alors qu'un honorable député, que j'avais eu l'honneur
   d'entretenir quelquefois de mes idées, de mes travaux, de mes
   espérances, me conseilla d'aller aux États-Unis pour y préparer
   le terrain, comme je l'avais fait en Allemagne, en Angleterre, en
   Russie. La tâche était laborieuse, difficile; je ne me le
   dissimulai pas; mais les résultats devaient être féconds. Si
   l'Amérique a peu de livres à nous donner, elle peut nous fournir
   un très-grand nombre d'admirables échantillons pour nos
   collections de minéralogie, d'entomologie, de botanique, etc.
   Elle s'est d'ailleurs occupée avec succès de l'application des
   sciences et des arts à l'industrie. C'est, en un mot, une nature
   et une civilisation différentes des nôtres. Je partis.

   Embarqué au Havre le 20 octobre 1839, j'arrivai à New-York le 29
   novembre. En Europe j'avais recueilli le suffrage des savants,
   des publicistes, des hommes d'État, un à un, dans la solitude et
   la paix du cabinet. Je m'adressais à des esprits éclairés, à des
   intelligences exercées à méditer sur les avantages de l'étude et
   sur les voies de la civilisation. En Amérique j'ai eu affaire à
   des corps législatifs, à des assemblées populaires. J'ai
   développé mon système dans l'agitation contenue des meetings.

   Je ne veux vous exposer, Monsieur le Ministre, que les résultats
   dont j'ai entre les mains les preuves authentiques, officielles.
   Je n'essaierai donc pas de vous montrer la jeunesse de New-York,
   de Boston, de Baltimore, du Canada, s'associant puissamment à mes
   efforts par des résolutions délibérées en assemblée publique;
   pourtant vous seriez touché, j'en suis certain, de la voir à
   Montréal voter une messe solennelle avec _Te Deum_ d'actions de
   grâces. Je ne vous dirai pas davantage que toutes les opinions,
   tous les cultes se sont réunis pour m'entendre, pour me seconder,
   pour me soutenir; que des associations ont été formées dans
   l'unique but d'appliquer mes idées; que des établissements
   scientifiques ont été créés. Plus tard vous voudrez peut-être
   vous faire rendre compte des faits que j'ai négligés pour être
   plus bref. Je serai toujours à vos ordres, Monsieur le Ministre.

   C'est l'État de la Louisiane qui, le premier, a consacré mon
   système par une mesure législative. Le 26 mars 1840, le sénat
   décidait «qu'une somme de 3,000 piastres serait mise à la
   disposition du gouverneur, du secrétaire d'État et de trois
   personnes nommées annuellement par le gouverneur et le sénat,
   afin d'être employée par eux ou par une majorité d'entre eux à
   procurer les curiosités que renferme la Louisiane, tant en objets
   d'art que de science ou autres, pour établir avec les musées et
   les bibliothèques de l'Europe les premières communications et les
   premières opérations d'échange.»

   Quelques mois après, à l'autre extrémité de l'Union, l'État du
   Maine suivait l'exemple donné par la Louisiane. La législature
   votait cinquante exemplaires de chaque volume des lois,
   résolutions et documents publics, et 1,000 dollars (5,000 fr.)
   qui devaient être employés à recueillir des spécimens d'histoire
   naturelle et des productions des arts utiles pour les échanger,
   sous la direction du gouverneur.

   Le bill du congrès américain a été rendu les 10 et 17 juillet
   1840. Le voici textuellement: 1º Le bibliothécaire, avec
   l'autorisation du comité de la bibliothèque, pourra échanger tous
   les doubles qui se trouvent dans la bibliothèque; 2º il est
   autorisé également à échanger les documents; 3º à compter de ce
   jour, cinquante exemplaires de chaque volume des documents,
   publiés par ordre des deux chambres, seront imprimés et reliés
   pour être échangés avec les puissances étrangères.

   Au Canada, par une loi du conseil spécial, approuvée par le
   gouverneur général, le 6 février 1841, 50,000 livres sterling
   (1,250,000 fr.) ont été votées pour subvenir aux frais de
   construction d'un édifice dans lequel se trouveraient réunis un
   musée, une bibliothèque, un cabinet d'histoire naturelle, une
   grande salle pour les réunions publiques, et dans laquelle se
   tiendraient les séances des Sociétés scientifiques, formant ainsi
   un Institut, d'après les plans suggérés par M. Alexandre
   Vattemare.

   Avec ces bills et ces résolutions, dont des copies authentiques
   m'ont été remises officiellement, j'ai rapporté en France plus de
   1,200 volumes, des cartes géographiques, des herbiers, et un
   morceau de fer oxydulé des montagnes du Missouri, que j'ai
   distribués entre les divers ministères, les bibliothèques des
   deux chambres, de la ville de Paris, de l'Académie des sciences,
   etc. M. Dufrénoy m'a fait l'honneur de m'écrire au sujet du
   morceau de fer que j'avais offert à l'École des mines: «Je vous
   remercie au nom de l'École de ce magnifique échantillon. Malgré
   ses dimensions presque gigantesques, plus de 0,66 de diamètre, il
   est pur dans toutes ses parties.... Outre son intérêt sous le
   rapport minéralogique, l'envoi de M. le sénateur Lynn est
   précieux pour nous parce qu'il commence le système d'échange que
   vous avez cherché à établir entre toutes les nations de l'ancien
   et du nouveau continent, et qui peut seul permettre aux
   collections d'histoire naturelle de se compléter.»

   De ce moment, en effet, Monsieur le Ministre, le système
   d'échange était établi. L'Amérique était venue au-devant de la
   France; et la France l'avait accueillie avec empressement.
   Quoique abandonné à mes propres forces, j'ai entretenu avec
   quelques succès les relations que j'avais eu le bonheur de nouer
   entre les deux nations. De l'époque de mon retour à Paris jusqu'à
   présent, il y a eu un mouvement d'échange qui peut se calculer de
   la manière suivante:

   6,000 volumes,
     316 cartes géographiques,
     240 gravures,
     150 médailles,
       2 plans en relief,
       5 caisses de minéraux,
         Des herbiers.

   Une personne, que sa position m'autorise à croire bien informée,
   m'a affirmé que le commerce de la librairie avait ressenti
   utilement l'influence de ces échanges, qu'il s'en était accru
   d'une manière notable. Je n'en sais rien; mais il m'a semblé que
   je devais vous soumettre cette observation dont je n'ai pas eu le
   temps de chercher la preuve, et qu'ainsi je ne puis garantir.
   Toutefois, j'ajouterai qu'elle a pour moi un grand caractère de
   probabilité, et que je l'avais depuis longtemps pressentie.

   Les ministères et les administrations publiques sont entrés pour
   la plus grande part dans ce mouvement; mais il est de mon devoir
   de dire que ni écrivain, ni publiciste, ni artiste ne m'ont
   refusé leur concours; et parmi ceux qui m'ont encouragé par leurs
   présents, je compte les membres les plus illustres des deux
   chambres législatives.

   Dans la séance du 21 mai 1842, la chambre des députés, sur la
   proposition de son bibliothécaire, a ajouté à son budget une
   somme de 3,000 fr. pour les échanges; et le 14 novembre de la
   même année, M. Carrey, bibliothécaire de la chambre des pairs,
   m'a annoncé que M. le grand référendaire lui avait ordonné de
   tenir à ma disposition 120 volumes de documents émanés de la
   pairie pour le sénat des États-Unis. Par plusieurs délibérations,
   dont la première est du 21 décembre 1842, le conseil municipal de
   la ville de Paris est entré en relation d'échanges avec les
   principales villes de l'Union américaine, New-York, Boston,
   Baltimore, Washington, etc.

   De leur côté les États du Maine et du Massachusetts ont, par des
   bills en date du 22 mars 1844 et 7 février 1845, voté chacun une
   somme de 300 dollars (1,500 fr.) pour les frais des échanges; et
   un acte de la législature du Michigan (12 mars 1844) ordonne que
   l'ingénieur en chef de l'État recherche les doubles qui existent
   dans les collections d'histoire naturelle de l'Université, qui
   sont sous sa direction, et qu'il en fasse un rapport dans la plus
   prochaine session de la législature.

   Ce ne sont là, Monsieur le Ministre, que les faits les plus
   saillants qui se sont produits dans ces dernières années et
   depuis mon retour d'Amérique. Je pourrais en soumettre beaucoup
   d'autres à l'appréciation de Votre Excellence; mais j'en ai dit
   assez pour justifier votre bienveillant intérêt si vous daignez
   me l'accorder, et je craindrais d'abuser du temps que vous voulez
   bien me donner si j'insistais davantage.

   Vous voyez, Monsieur le Ministre, que l'impulsion est donnée; que
   le mouvement des échanges est accepté, encouragé par le zèle des
   particuliers et par le concours de la puissance publique; que le
   système d'échange tend à devenir ce qu'il doit être, un lien
   intellectuel entre les nations, un instrument de civilisation et
   de progrès. C'est aujourd'hui plus qu'une idée, une théorie;
   c'est un fait. On peut en mesurer dès à présent la portée pour
   l'instruction des peuples, pour l'avancement des sciences, pour
   le bien de l'humanité. Croyez, Monsieur le Ministre, que si tant
   de personnages éminents, tant de pouvoirs publics se sont montrés
   accessibles à mes sollicitations, c'est qu'il y a une sorte de
   conscience universelle qui s'attache à l'accomplissement de mon
   oeuvre comme à une espérance de grandeur et de gloire pour les
   nations.

   J'ai l'honneur d'être avec le plus profond respect,
   Monsieur le Ministre,
   De Votre Excellence,
   Le très-humble et très-obéissant serviteur,

   ALEXANDRE VATTEMARE.

       *       *       *       *       *

   _Pièces jointes à la pétition de M. Vattemare._

   Traduction du Document officiel qui accompagnait les 64 volumes
   présentés le 19 février à S. E. M. le Ministre de l'instruction
   publique au nom de l'État de l'Indiana.

   _Résolution adoptée par les deux chambres législatives de l'État
   d'Indiana, relative aux échanges internationaux._

   Attendu qu'un système d'échange scientifique et littéraire entre
   les nations a été conçu par Alexandre Vattemare, citoyen
   distingué en France, et réalisé avec succès par des échanges de
   précieux ouvrages, cartes, objets d'histoire naturelle, etc.,
   faits entre la France et les États-Unis;

   Attendu qu'un tel système de bon vouloir et de courtoisie entre
   les nations ne peut que servir les intérêts de la religion, de la
   morale, de la littérature et des arts, et qu'il tend à faire de
   toutes les nations civilisées un corps de travailleurs attentifs
   à leur avancement mutuel; pour ces causes:

   Il est résolu par l'assemblée générale de l'État d'Indiana que le
   secrétaire d'État est par les présentes autorisé et invité à
   faire rechercher dans les archives publiques et relier d'une
   manière convenable et durable, huit collections de toutes les
   lois publiques et particulières, résolutions et documents
   législatifs, publiés par ordre de l'État, ainsi que des
   exemplaires des rapports de Blackfort, du rapport de l'ingénieur
   des mines de l'État et de l'histoire d'Indiana et de les
   transmettre audit sieur Alexandre Vattemare pour être distribués
   par lui ainsi qu'il suit: 1º aux chambres législatives de France;
   2º au ministère de l'instruction publique; 3º au ministère de la
   justice; 4º au ministère de l'intérieur; 5º au ministère de la
   marine; 6º au ministère de l'agriculture et du commerce; 7º au
   conseil municipal de la ville de Paris; 8º à l'Académie des
   sciences morales et politiques. Chacune desquelles collections
   devra être accompagnée d'une copie, dûment certifiée, de cette
   résolution.

   Le secrétaire d'État est, en outre, invité par les présentes à
   transmettre annuellement, ainsi qu'il a été ordonné ci-dessus,
   toutes les lois publiques et particulières, documents, etc.,
   jusqu'à ce qu'il en soit ordonné autrement par la législature; et
   les frais nécessaires pour la réalisation des échanges seront
   pris sur le contingent et ordonnancés par l'autorité légale.

   A.-L. ROBINSON,
   _Président de la chambre des représentants._

   JESSE D. BRIGHT,
   _Président du sénat._

   Approuvé
   15 janvier 1844,
   JAMES WHITE.

   Je soussigné, John H. Thompson, secrétaire d'État, certifie que
   cette copie de la résolution ci-dessus est en tout conforme à
   l'original inscrit sur le registre conservé dans ce bureau. En
   foi de quoi je l'ai signé et y ai fait apposer le sceau de
   l'État.

   Fait à Indianopolis, le premier jour d'août de l'an de Notre
   Seigneur 1844, la trentième année de l'État et de l'indépendance
   des États-Unis la soixante-dixième.

   JOHN H. THOMPSON,
   _Secrétaire d'État._

   _Lettre de lord Sydenham (Poulett Thomson), ministre du commerce
   d'Angleterre et gouverneur général du Canada._

   Maison du gouvernement, 13 décembre 1840.

   Monsieur,

   Ayant déjà eu l'occasion, en Europe, de vous témoigner
   l'admiration que j'éprouvais, tant pour votre système d'échange
   que pour le zèle que vous mettez à son perfectionnement, il est
   presque superflu de vous le répéter; mais je ne puis me refuser
   le plaisir de vous en renouveler l'assurance depuis que j'ai vu
   l'extension que vous lui avez donnée en Amérique, et surtout au
   Canada.

   Je ne voyais autrefois dans vos travaux qu'un moyen puissant
   d'augmenter les richesses littéraires des divers pays, par
   l'échange de leur superflu; mais je reconnais maintenant un but
   encore plus noble et plus utile: vous servir du terrain neutre
   des sciences et des arts pour faire taire les haines de race ou
   de parti, et unir, par un lien commun, les hommes estimables que
   des différences politiques ou personnelles ont trop longtemps
   séparés.

   Veuillez croire, Monsieur, que mes voeux les plus sincères
   accompagnent vos efforts, et que je serais flatté de pouvoir leur
   prêter mon faible appui. Votre triomphe sera celui de l'humanité.

   Agréez l'assurance de mon sincère dévouement,

   SYDENHAM.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _Traduction d'une lettre de M. T. W. Murdoch, secrétaire en chef
   du gouvernement du Canada à M. Vattemare._

   Montréal, 19 décembre 1840.

   Monsieur,

   Je reçois l'ordre du gouverneur général de vous informer que,
   dans le but de favoriser le projet pour l'accomplissement duquel
   vous êtes venu dans ce pays, c'est-à-dire l'échange, parmi toutes
   les nations, des publications d'un intérêt général, Son
   Excellence a ordonné au greffier du conseil spécial de mettre à
   votre disposition un exemplaire complet des journaux du conseil
   législatif et de la chambre d'assemblée de cette province, de
   même que tout autre document public dont il aurait le double. Ces
   documents, destinés par son Excellence à être présentés à la
   chambre des députés et des pairs de France, vous seront adressés
   où vous le désirerez, et au moment que vous jugerez le plus
   convenable; et Son Excellence espère qu'en échange vous pourrez
   obtenir pour ce pays un exemplaire des documents publiés par le
   gouvernement français. _La commune origine des lois de ce pays et
   du Bas-Canada, ainsi que la similitude de langage existant entre
   les Français et une grande partie des habitants de cette
   province, rendront un tel échange intéressant et avantageux._

          *       *       *       *       *

   _Traduction d'une lettre de M. A. T. Holmes, président de la
   Société d'histoire naturelle de Montréal._

   22 janvier 1841.

   Monsieur,

   Officiellement constitué comme Président de la Société d'histoire
   naturelle, l'organe de la partie scientifique de notre
   population, je ne puis vous laisser partir pour les pays où votre
   présence se fait désirer, sans vous exprimer notre reconnaissance
   pour les bienfaits immenses dont vous sont redevables cette ville
   et ce pays. Vous êtes venu parmi nous étranger, dont le nom était
   connu, il est vrai, lié qu'il était à cette grande idée
   d'échanges internationaux, système de peu d'intérêt pour nous,
   qui étions trop insignifiants pour y participer. La surprise et
   l'incrédulité, quant au succès, furent donc les premières
   émotions soulevées par votre proposition de rendre le Canada
   partie intégrante de cette grande union nationale que vous avez
   en partie établie dans l'ancien monde, et dans laquelle vous vous
   efforcez, avec un zèle philanthropique et désintéressé, de faire
   entrer le nouveau. Ces sentiments ont fait place à l'admiration,
   lorsque, après avoir fait connaître vos plans, vous avez commencé
   avec énergie et persévérance à engager la coopération des corps
   publics et des individus, et à combattre les obstacles que les
   circonstances malheureuses dans lesquelles se trouve ce pays ont
   semés sur votre route. Vous avez enfin réussi, et, en nous
   quittant, vous emportez la preuve de l'utilité de votre visite et
   de votre résidence prolongée. Vos ardents désirs pour notre bien
   vont être satisfaits, et nous espérons voir bientôt s'élever dans
   notre ville un monument qui, sans porter le nom de Vattemare,
   sera désigné comme son oeuvre aux générations futures. Vous aurez
   ainsi créé les moyens d'unir le Canada avec les autres nations
   dans le magnifique et bienveillant système d'échanges
   internationaux, plan qui ne doit pas seulement être considéré
   sous le point de vue commercial, mais comme un grand levier moral
   qui resserrera les liens qui unissent les différentes nations de
   la terre en une seule famille. _Le Canada_ ne manque, sous aucun
   rapport, des richesses nécessaires pour venir au-devant des
   offres de nos frères transatlantiques; car, quoiqu'il ne possède
   aucun des trésors fruits d'une longue civilisation, comme des
   antiquités, des ouvrages de littérature et d'arts, _les
   productions naturelles de nos pays_, estimées comme elles le sont
   en Europe, et qui ne demandent que de l'industrie pour être
   rassemblées, seraient cependant tout à fait dignes d'être
   échangées contre les livres, modèles et spécimens qui ne
   manqueraient pas de nous être envoyés des plus anciennes
   contrées. Je suis, etc.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _Lettre de monseigneur l'évêque de Montréal, Bas-Canada._

   Montréal, 23 novembre.

   Monsieur,

   J'ai toujours considéré le genre humain comme ne formant qu'un
   même corps, qui a pour membres toutes les nations du globe, et
   pour âme la divine Providence qui préside à tous les événements
   d'ici-bas. Un des grands bienfaits du christianisme est d'unir
   intimement tous ces membres dispersés par toute la terre; et si
   les passions humaines ne venaient pas rompre ces liens sacrés que
   la religion tend sans cesse à former, tous les peuples ne
   formeraient plus qu'un même peuple, ne seraient plus qu'une seule
   et même famille dont Dieu serait le père.

   Toute institution qui tendra à cimenter une union aussi parfaite
   sera donc à mes yeux une oeuvre éminemment utile; voilà pourquoi
   je ne puis m'empêcher de donner toute mon admiration à ce plan
   par lequel vous travaillez à unir toutes les nations dans une
   immense association de science, de lumière et d'industrie.

   Par vos efforts, toutes ces richesses deviendront un trésor
   commun où les plus pauvres pourront puiser avec abondance. Aussi,
   nul doute que vous ne rencontriez de toutes parts la sympathie et
   le concours le plus empressé; ce sont, du moins, les sentiments
   qui animent à votre égard l'évêque de Montréal et son clergé.

   Je prie Dieu, qui vous a déjà donné tant de succès, de vouloir
   bien couronner par vous cette oeuvre excellente, dont toute la
   gloire sera à lui et le profit au genre humain. Ce sera sans
   doute pour vous une récompense telle que vous ne pouvez en
   espérer une plus grande ici bas.

   J'ai l'honneur d'être, etc.

   IG., év. de Montréal.


In 1844, I addressed a memorial to the several members of the French
cabinet, requesting their support; this memorial, somewhat similar to
the above, to His Excellency count Salvandy, minister of public
instruction, was supported by the following postscripts, from peers
and deputies belonging to the several political parties.

   PEERS.

   Le zèle désintéressé de M. Vattemare, l'idée généreuse et grande
   qu'il a conçue d'établir, entre les différents États de l'Europe
   et de l'Amérique, un échange de livres et d'objets d'art, ont
   mérité et obtenu à plusieurs reprises l'intérêt de la Chambre des
   pairs, qui, dans sa dernière session, avait émis le voeu qu'une
   Commission permanente fût instituée dans le but de régulariser et
   de faciliter ces échanges.

   Ces témoignages de haute sympathie ont été jusqu'à présent
   stériles. Persuadés qu'il est digne de la France d'établir ainsi
   la première un lien intellectuel entre les peuples des deux
   continents, les soussignés recommandent avec la plus vive
   instance la pétition de M. Vattemare.

   Paris, le 25 février 1844.

   MM.
   Le comte DARU,
   Le comte DE GRAMMONT,
   C. DE VANDEUL,
   M. BÉRENGER (de la Drôme),
   H. PASSY,
   Le baron DE MAREUIL,
   C. PERRIER,
   F. FAURE,
   V. COUSIN,
   Le lieutenant général baron DARIULE,
   Le lieutenant général baron GOURGAUD,
   Le duc DE FEZENSAC,
   PERSIL,
   Le vicomte SÉGUR-LAMOIGNON,
   Le baron DE SAINT-DIDIER,
   KÉRATRY,
   Le général BAUDRAN,
   Le comte BEUGNOT,
   Le comte TASCHER,
   Le lieutenant général DE CUBIÈRES,
   LE BRUN,
   Le comte DE PORTALIS,
   Le baron DE BUSSIÈRE,
   Le baron DE BARANTE,
   Le marquis BARTHÉLEMY,
   Le marquis D'AUDIFFRET,
   Le général comte DE MONTESQUIOU,
   Le baron DE VANDEUVRE,
   A. prince de WAGRAM,
   Le comte DUROSNEL,
   Le lieutenant général baron PELET,
   J.-E. GAUTIER,
   Le duc de PLAISANCE.

   DÉPUTIES.

   Les soussignés, bien pénétrés de l'avantage de consolider et
   d'étendre, au point de vue de la science, de la littérature, des
   arts, et aussi au profit de la civilisation, le système
   d'échanges établi par M. Alexandre Vattemare entre la France et
   les États-Unis, avec une intelligence, une persévérance et un
   désintéressement dignes des plus grands éloges, prennent la
   confiance de recommander de la manière la plus vive et la plus
   instante la requête ci-jointe.

   Les soussignés, en prêtant leur appui à cette demande,
   s'associent, autant qu'il est en eux, à une grande pensée, à une
   belle et noble tâche dans laquelle M. Vattemare a besoin d'être
   encouragé et soutenu pour qu'il puisse la continuer et
   entreprendre, avec les divers États de l'Europe, ce qu'il a si
   heureusement tenté avec l'Amérique du nord.

   Paris, le 28 février 1844.

   MM.
   BIGNON,
   Le comte D'ANGEVILLE,
   ARMEZ,
   Le général BELLONET,
   Le lieutenant général baron DE BERTHOIS,
   Le baron BOISSY-D'ANGLAS,
   DE CARNÉ,
   CRÉMIEUX,
   DALLOS,
   A. DENIS,
   DUGABÉ,
   DUVERGIER DE HAURANNE,
   DE L'ESPÉE,
   DE LAFARELLE,
   G. LAFAYETTE,
   LE PRÉVOST,
   J. DE LASTEYRIE,
   LEDRU-ROLLIN,
   CHAPUYS DE MONTLAVILLE,
   F. BARROT,
   G. DE BEAUMONT,
   BILLAULT,
   AD. CHASLES,
   C. CLÉMENT,
   DE CORMENIN,
   VIVIEN,
   ESTANCELIN,
   Le comte D'ETCHEGOYEN,
   ETIENNE,
   FULCHIRON,
   Le comte DE GASPARIN,
   E. DE GIRARDIN,
   DE GOLBÉRY,
   A. GOUIN,
   V. GRANDIN,
   Le comte D'HAUTERIVE,
   Le général comte D'HOUDETOT,
   LACROSSE,
   Le baron LADOUCETTE,
   Le vicomte DARU,
   Le vicomte N. DE MONTESQUIOU,
   ODILON BARROT,
   C. DE RÉMUSAT,
   Le comte ROGER,
   SAINT-MARC-GIRARDIN,
   DE SAINT-PRIEST,
   L. TALABOT,
   A. DE TOCQUEVILLE,
   DE TRACY,
   TUEUX,
   J. VATOUT,
   VITET,
   SAINT-ALBIN.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _Extract from the report on the Budget for 1847, presented april
   15th 1846 to the chamber of deputies, by M. Bignon, chairman of
   the committee of the budget. Read and passed May 26._

   CHAMBRE DES DEPUTÉS (Session 1846.)

   CHAPITRE XIX.

   _Service des bibliothèques publiques_, 170,223 francs.

   Une dépense nouvelle de 3,000 fr. est introduite dans ce
   chapitre; elle couvre, sous un faible chiffre, une question
   importante, celle des échanges de publications littéraires,
   scientifiques et artistiques avec l'étranger. Quel que soit le
   bénéfice que nous attendions du développement de cette pensée,
   nous ne vous exprimerions pas la nôtre si elle devait engager
   l'État dans des dépenses de quelque importance; mais,
   heureusement, votre commission n'éprouve aucun embarras à cet
   égard, car il ne peut être question que de quelques frais
   d'emballage et de transport. Nous ne pouvons que féliciter M. le
   ministre de l'instruction publique d'avoir compris tout
   l'avantage que pouvait recueillir le pays d'un vaste système
   d'échange et de chercher à en réaliser le bienfait en plaçant
   cette opération sous son patronage. Que d'ouvrages restent
   enfouis dans les dépôts publics, dans les divers ministères, aux
   archives des chambres législatives, qui proviennent des
   publications et des souscriptions, qui n'ont aucune valeur pour
   la France, parce que toutes les bibliothèques les possèdent, et
   que les collections étrangères accepteraient avec empressement et
   recueilleraient avec soin et réciproquement. Si nous devons en
   juger par quelques essais tentés avec les États-Unis, ces
   propositions d'échanges, étendues à tous les États civilisés, se
   trouvent bien accueillies, car, presque partout l'Union
   américaine a témoigné, par son empressement à répondre à cet
   appel et par sa libéralité, et nous dirons presque par sa
   magnificence, de l'intérêt qu'elle portait à ces communications
   de la pensée, qui ne peuvent que fortifier les bons rapports qui
   existent entre eux et nous.

   Nous vous proposons d'accorder le crédit de 3,000 fr. qui vous
   est demandé, et d'inviter M. le ministre à donner à sa pensée
   tout le développement qu'elle comporte.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _From the minister of public works._

   27 juin 1844.

   Monsieur,

   J'ai reçu votre lettre, en date du mois dernier, par laquelle
   vous demandez, pour l'Institut national, et pour les États du
   Maine et du Massachusetts, en retour de divers dons faits à
   l'École des mines, trois exemplaires de la carte géologique de la
   France.

   Je me fais un plaisir de vous annoncer que je viens d'inviter M.
   l'ingénieur en chef des mines Dufrénoy à faire préparer et à vous
   adresser, pour la destination indiquée dans votre lettre, trois
   exemplaires de la carte et du premier volume de texte, le seul
   qui ait paru jusqu'ici.

   Recevez, etc.,

   _Le ministre secrétaire d'État des travaux publics_,
   S. DUMON.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _From the same._

   18 décembre 1844.

   Monsieur,

   En réponse à votre lettre du 3 de ce mois, je vous adresse, pour
   l'Institut national des États-Unis d'Amérique, un exemplaire de
   la médaille frappée en commémoration de la loi du 11 juin 1842,
   qui a classé les grandes lignes des chemins de fer du royaume.

   Recevez, etc.

   _Le ministre des travaux publics_,
   S. DUMON.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _From the minister of agriculture and commerce._

   25 décembre 1844.

   Monsieur,

   J'ai reçu, par votre intermédiaire, les lettres de MM. les
   secrétaires d'État de la Pensylvanie et du Massachusetts,
   m'accusant réception des collections de la Statistique générale
   de France, que je leur ai adressées à votre demande.

   Je m'empresse de leur envoyer deux nouveaux volumes de ce grand
   ouvrage; et je vous prie de prendre les précautions nécessaires
   pour qu'ils leur parviennent; car le petit nombre d'exemplaires
   de cette continuation du travail général en fait des livres rares
   qu'on ne pourrait remplacer.

   Je suis bien aise d'apprendre, Monsieur, que les États-Unis
   apprécient, ainsi qu'on le fait ici, les soins nombreux et
   persévérants, que vous prenez pour l'échange, entre les deux
   pays, des travaux qui peuvent étendre le domaine des
   connaissances utiles à l'amélioration de la société.

   Recevez, etc.

   _Le ministre de l'agriculture et du commerce._

   Pour le ministre:
   _Le conseiller d'État secrétaire général_,
   CAMILLE PAGANEL.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _From H. E. the keeper of the seals, minister of justice and
   religious worship._

   Paris, janvier 1845.

   Monsieur,

   J'ai l'honneur de vous adresser, suivant la demande que vous m'en
   avez faite, cinq exemplaires de chacun des comptes généraux de
   l'administration de la justice criminelle et de la justice civile
   et commerciale en France pendant l'année 1843.

   Ces exemplaires sont destinés l'un au congrès des États-Unis, les
   autres aux États de New-York, de Pensylvanie, de la Louisiane et
   du Missouri.

   Je vous serai infiniment obligé de vouloir bien, en transmettant
   ces comptes, interposer vos bons offices pour me procurer les
   documents de même nature qui seraient recueillis et publiés dans
   les États de l'Union.

   Recevez, etc.,

   _Le garde des sceaux ministre de la justice et des cultes._

   Par autorisation:
   _Le maître des requêtes directeur_,
   MEILHEURAT.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _From the honorable count de Rambuteau, prefect of the Seine._

   Paris, le 20 février 1845.

   Monsieur,

   J'ai reçu avec la lettre que vous m'avez fait l'honneur de
   m'adresser le 17 janvier dernier, les ouvrages dont la ville de
   Baltimore a bien voulu faire hommage à la ville de Paris.

   Suivant votre désir, j'ai mis sous les yeux du conseil municipal
   le présent qui lui est offert ainsi que la lettre de M. le maire
   de Baltimore. Les sentiments qui y sont exprimés ont été
   dignement appréciés et je me fais un plaisir de vous rappeler
   tout l'intérêt que j'attache aux témoignages de sympathie que
   reçoit la ville de Paris.

   Recevez, etc.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _From H. E. the minister of marine and the colonies._

   Paris, le 22 février 1845.

   Monsieur,

   J'ai l'honneur de vous donner avis que, pour vous procurer des
   facilités dans les échanges de livres, entre les États-Unis et la
   France, et conformément à la demande que vous m'en avez faite,
   j'ai prévenu M. le commissaire général, chef de la marine au
   Havre, que je vous autorisais à lui adresser les ballots de
   livres que vous auriez à faire passer de France aux États-Unis.

   M. le commissaire général m'a répondu qu'il a donné des ordres
   pour que ces ballots soient reçus et emmagasinés au Havre; et il
   s'entendra avec vous pour les expédier vers leur destination, à
   mesure que les occasions viendront à se présenter.

   Recevez, etc.

   _Le vice-amiral, pair de France, secrétaire d'État de la marine
   et des colonies_,
   Baron DE MACKAU.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _From the professors, administrators of the Museum of natural
   history._

   Paris, le 28 février 1845.

   Monsieur,

   L'administration du muséum vous remercie des soins que vous avez
   bien voulu donner à la réception de deux caisses de géologie et
   minéralogie et d'un exemplaire de la géologie de Jackson offert
   au muséum par l'État du Maine.

   Vous savez que trois exemplaires des archives du muséum, que M.
   le ministre de l'instruction publique avait bien voulu, sur notre
   demande, accorder à plusieurs états de l'union américaine, ont
   été adressés par lui immédiatement, et, à ce qu'il paraît, à
   d'autres établissements que ceux que nous avions indiqués. Déjà
   nous avons signalé cette erreur à M. le ministre et nous avons
   demandé qu'elle fût rectifiée, s'il était encore possible,
   d'après l'état des exemplaires en disponibilité au ministère.
   Nous n'avons pas encore reçu de réponse et nous comptons faire de
   nouvelles démarches à ce sujet.

   On achève en ce moment l'impression des nouvelles instructions
   pour la récolte et la préparation des objets d'histoire
   naturelle. Dès qu'elle sera achevée, nous vous en adresserons
   quelques exemplaires pour les transmettre à vos correspondants
   d'Amérique.

   Recevez, etc.

   _Les professeurs administrateurs du muséum._

   _Le directeur_,
   E. CHEVREUL.

   _Le secrétaire_,
   B. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire.

   _Le trésorier_,
   De Jussieu.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _From the department of war._

   4 avril 1845.

   Monsieur,

   Je me suis empressé de donner des ordres pour que la carte des
   limites du Canada fût jointe à celle que le dépôt général de la
   guerre a déjà reçue. Veuillez agréer mes remercîments de la
   remise de cette carte qui m'a doublement intéressé en raison de
   son origine et des localités qu'elle représente.

   Vous trouverez ci-joint une collection complète de toutes les
   cartes publiées à la fin de 1844 sur le nord de l'Afrique, qui
   comprend la régence de Tunis, l'Algérie et l'empire du Maroc. Je
   vous adresse également une de nos plus belles cartes
   autographiées, celle du département de la Seine-Inférieure. Vous
   voudrez bien envoyer ces cartes aux États-Unis d'Amérique, en les
   répartissant comme vous le jugerez convenable.

   Recevez, etc.

   _Le pair de France, lieutenant général, directeur_,
   PELET.

       *       *       *       *       *

   _From M. Dufrénoy, chief engineer, inspector of the
   royal school of mines._

   10 août 1845.

   Monsieur,

   J'ai l'honneur de vous remercier des trois caisses de roches que
   vous avez adressées à l'École des mines de la part de l'État du
   Maine. Je vous prierai, en accusant réception de cet envoi, qui
   fait connaître la constitution géologique de cet État, de
   demander que les échantillons soient emballés avec plus de soin;
   car une partie d'entre eux s'étaient frottés les uns contre les
   autres et avaient perdu cette fraîcheur qui est utile pour
   l'examen de leur caractère extérieur; dans la circonstance
   présente, le dommage n'est pas considérable, attendu que ce ne
   sont que des roches que l'on peut retailler; mais pour des
   minéraux, le mal serait irréparable.

   Je vous remercie aussi du rapport de M. Jackson; cet ouvrage,
   accompagné de son atlas, a été déposé dans la Bibliothèque de
   l'École des mines.

   Je profiterai de cette lettre pour vous demander si vous pourriez
   nous procurer quelques échantillons des minéraux décrits
   récemment par M. Schepard, notamment le Warwickle et l'Edwarszte;
   dans le cas où vous pourriez le faire, je vous demanderai la
   permission de vous en adresser une liste.

   L'École des mines est fort reconnaissante des ouvrages que vous
   lui avez déjà procurés; elle regarde que, grâce à votre
   persévérance, le système d'échange qui peut enrichir les
   établissements publics sans de grandes dépenses, prendra une
   grande extension; et vous pourrez alors vous féliciter d'avoir
   rendu un service important aux pays qui l'auront adopté.

   Recevez, etc.

   _L'inspecteur de l'École_,
   DUFRÉNOY.

       *       *       *       *       *

   _From the secretary of state from the department of the
   interior._

   27 octobre 1845.

   Monsieur,

   J'ai reçu avec votre lettre du 7 de ce mois, celle qui m'a été
   adressée par M. le secrétaire d'État du Massachusetts pour
   m'accuser réception de médailles et documents émanés de mon
   ministère, que je vous avais remis pour cet État; j'ai reçu en
   même temps les publications suivantes:

   1º Trois volumes contenant les rapports officiels et les lois
   votées par la législature du Massachusetts pendant la session de
   1845.

   2º Rapports scientifiques sur la géologie et l'histoire
   naturelle de cet État, 4 volumes in-8º et 1 volume in-4º avec
   cartes et planches.

   3º Une carte générale du même État.

   J'ai l'honneur de vous remercier de l'envoi de ces documents,
   ainsi que de l'avis que vous me donnez de la décision prise par
   l'État de Massachusetts de me faire adresser régulièrement chaque
   année tous ceux qui pourraient intéresser mon département. Je
   continuerai, de mon côté, à disposer en faveur de ce gouvernement
   des documents publiés par mon ministère qui seront de nature à
   présenter un intérêt général d'administration.

   Pour le ministre de l'intérieur,
   _Le sous-secrétaire d'État_,
   A. PASSY.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _From the minister of the navy and colonies._

   Paris, 3 février 1846.

   Monsieur,

   Vous m'avez prié de mettre à votre disposition quelques
   exemplaires des documents publiés par la direction des colonies,
   afin de les distribuer entre plusieurs États de l'Union
   américaine que vous me désignez comme étant entrés dans la voie
   du système général d'échange de livres que vous vous efforcez
   d'introduire et de faire prévaloir parmi les nations civilisées.

   Dans le désir de ne laisser échapper aucune occasion d'augmenter
   les bonnes relations qui existent entre la France et les
   États-Unis et de concourir au progrès des sciences et des
   lumières, j'ai l'honneur de vous annoncer que j'ai accueilli
   votre demande.

   Je donne en conséquence l'ordre de vous envoyer six exemplaires
   de chacune des publications suivantes: (_Suit la liste._)

   Recevez, Monsieur, l'assurance de ma considération distinguée.

   Pour le vice-amiral, pair de France, ministre secrétaire d'État
   de la marine et des colonies,

   _Le sous-secrétaire d'État_,
   JUBELIN.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _From the minister of the interior._

   Paris, le 11 février 1846.

   Monsieur,

    J'ai reçu la collection des documents publiés par la législature
   de l'Indiana (États-Unis d'Amérique), en 64 volumes reliés, que
   vous m'avez adressés pour la bibliothèque de mon département, en
   même temps que votre lettre du 28 janvier dernier.

   Je vous remercie de l'envoi de ces publications intéressantes
   dans lesquelles mon administration pourra trouver des
   renseignements utiles. J'ai fait placer ces volumes conformément
   à vos intentions, dans la bibliothèque administrative de mon
   ministère.

   Je vous prie de transmettre mes remercîments à M. le Secrétaire
   d'État du gouvernement de l'Indiana, et de lui faire connaître
   que je saisirai toutes les occasions qui me permettront de mettre
   à la disposition de la législature de cet État les publications
   administratives émanées de mon ministère et qui seront de nature
   à l'intéresser.

   J'ai pris en considération la demande que vous m'adressez dans le
   but d'obtenir, pour les autres États de l'Amérique du nord,
   quelques-uns des ouvrages auxquels mon département souscrit; et
   je me ferai un véritable plaisir d'y donner suite.

   En accueillant cette demande avec la faveur qu'elle mérite, je
   serai heureux de pouvoir coopérer à l'échange international des
   productions de l'esprit humain dans les deux hémisphères, et de
   contribuer ainsi au progrès général de la civilisation.

   Recevez, etc.,

   _Le ministre de l'intérieur._

   Pour le ministre:
   _Le sous-secrétaire d'État_,
   A. PASSY.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _From His. Ex. the minister of public works._

   Paris, 26 février 1846.

   Monsieur,

   J'ai reçu, avec la lettre que vous m'avez fait l'honneur de
   m'écrire le 10 février, divers documents relatifs aux travaux
   publics.

   Je vous remercie de l'envoi de ces documents, que je viens de
   faire déposer au bureau central de statistique du ministère des
   travaux publics.

   Il m'est agréable, Monsieur, de pouvoir vous adresser, pour
   contribuer à la réalisation de votre projet d'échanges
   internationaux, un certain nombre d'ouvrages, documents, cartes
   et médailles; vous en trouverez le bordereau ci-joint.

   Recevez, Monsieur, l'assurance de ma considération distinguée.

   _Le ministre des travaux publics,_
   S. DUMON.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _From the prefect of the Seine._

   Paris, le 26 mars 1846.

   Monsieur,

   J'ai reçu avec une vive satisfaction les divers ouvrages qui, par
   votre intermédiaire, ont été adressés à la ville de Paris par les
   États du Maine, du Massachusetts, de l'Indiana et des villes de
   New-York et de Baltimore, ainsi que du Canada.

   J'ai mis ces ouvrages sous les yeux du conseil municipal, qui
   s'est montré extrêmement sensible à cet hommage, ainsi qu'aux
   témoignages de sympathie exprimés par les résolutions dont vous
   avez bien voulu me transmettre une copie.

   Je lui ai soumis en même temps des propositions pour l'envoi par
   la ville de Paris de nouveaux documents administratifs, en
   échange de ceux qui lui étaient si gracieusement offerts.

   Le conseil n'a pu encore délibérer sur ces propositions; mais
   j'espère qu'il lui sera possible de s'en occuper incessamment.

   Les États et villes d'Amérique qui entretiennent ces relations
   amicales avec la ville de Paris peuvent être assurés de tout
   l'intérêt que j'attache à cet échange de sentiments mutuels
   d'estime et de sympathie.

   Agréez, Monsieur, l'assurance de ma considération
   très-distinguée.

   _Le pair de France, préfet,_
   Comte DE RAMBUTEAU.

          *       *       *       *       *

   _From His Ex. the minister of the interior._

   Paris, le 22 avril 1846.

   Monsieur,

   J'ai l'honneur de vous annoncer que, par ordonnance du 5 avril,
   le roi a bien voulu, sur ma proposition, accorder à l'Institut
   national des États-Unis d'Amérique, un exemplaire, papier fin, du
   grand ouvrage sur l'Expédition d'Égypte.

   M. Jomard, conservateur de la Bibliothèque royale, tient dès ce
   moment cet exemplaire à votre disposition.

   Je me félicite, Monsieur, d'avoir pu faire en cette circonstance
   une chose qui soit agréable à l'Institut national des États-Unis.

   Recevez, Monsieur, l'assurance de ma considération distinguée.

   _Le ministre secrétaire d'État de l'intérieur,_
   DUCHATEL.

   A M. Vattemare.

          *       *       *       *       *

   LOUIS-PHILIPPE, ROI DES FRANÇAIS,

   A tous présents et à venir, salut:

   Sur le rapport de notre ministre secrétaire d'État au département
   de l'intérieur;

   NOUS AVONS ORDONNÉ ET ORDONNONS CE QUI SUIT:

   ART. 1er.

   Un exemplaire papier fin du grand ouvrage de l'Égypte est donné à
   l'Institut national des États-Unis d'Amérique.

   ART. 2.

   Notre ministre secrétaire d'État au département de l'intérieur
   est chargé de l'exécution de la présente ordonnance.

   Au palais des Tuileries, le 5 avril 1846.

   Signé: LOUIS-PHILIPPE.

   Par le roi:
   _Le ministre secrétaire d'État au département de l'intérieur_,
   Signé T. DUCHATEL.

   Pour ampliation:
   _Le sous-secrétaire d'État au département de l'intérieur_,
   A. PASSY.

       *       *       *       *       *

Such are the feelings towards the establishment of the system of
international literary exchanges in France; as for those of your own
country, although each one of you is already acquainted with the warm
sympathy with which my proposals were received, while in the U.S., yet
I thought it well to publish the following documents showing not only
the continuation but the increased favor bestowed upon my humble
efforts in the consolidation of this additional link so well adapted
to strengthen more and more our fraternal union, but as a stimulus for
those states who have not yet entered into this enlightened and
peaceful confederacy, and to bring forth the true character of this
generous nation, whose love for the propagation of knowledge would
prevent her from shrinking from any sacrifices calculated for the
improvement of the human race.



STATE OF MARYLAND.

   RESOLUTIONS

   Adopted by the first and second branches of the city council of
   Baltimore and submitted for the approval of the Mayor, February
   26th, 1844.

   _Resolved by the mayor and city council of Baltimore_, That the
   thanks of the city of Baltimore be, and are hereby presented to
   the city of Paris for the splendid donation of books which have
   been presented by the said city to the city of Baltimore. She
   cordially reciprocates the sentiment that such testimonials
   presented by _the cities of France_ to those of the _United
   States_, have a favorable effect on litterature and science and
   on the fine arts, and on the sympathy and ancient friendship so
   happily existing between the United States and France.

   _Resolved_, That the following books and maps be presented in the
   name of the city of Baltimore to the city of Paris, as a
   testimonial of the sense entertained of the friendship of the
   said city in presenting sundry valuable books to the city of
   Baltimore.

   And be it resolved that the chairman of the committee be
   authorised by and with the approbation of the mayor, to draw on
   the Register for the sum necessary to carry the foregoing
   resolution into effect.

   T. YATES WALSH, president, first branch.

   ROBERT HOWARD, president, second branch.



STATE OF MAINE.

   RESOLVE to promote Mutual Literary and Scientific Exchanges with
   Foreign Countries.

   _Resolved_, That there be hereafter fifty additional copies of
   each volume of laws, resolves, and public documents printed by
   order of the Legislature, be printed and bound for the purpose of
   exchange in foreign countries[1].

   _Resolved_, That the Governor be authorized to transmit any of
   the above extra copies to the agents of foreign countries in the
   United States, authorized to receive the same for the above
   purpose, and that he be further authorized to make exchange of
   the same.

   _Resolved_, That a sum not exceeding one thousand dollars be
   appropriated from the Treasury, for the collection and exchange
   of original specimens of natural history and productions of
   useful art, to be expended under the direction of the Governor
   for the purpose aforesaid.

   In the House of Representatives, March 19, 1841. Read and passed,

   JOSIAH S. LITTLE, Speaker.
   In Senate March 20, 1841.
   R. H. VOSE, President.

   March 20, Approved,
   EDWARD KENT.

     [1] About two hundred volumes, bound three maps and four cases of
     minerals were transmitted.

       *       *       *       *       *

   RESOLVES authorizing the appointment of an agent of international
   exchanges with foreign countries.

   _Resolved_, That the Governor, with the advice and consent of the
   council, is hereby authorized to appoint some suitable person,
   residing in the city of Paris, France, to be the agent of the
   state of Maine, for the purpose of receiving and transmitting to
   and from the secretary of state, all such books, documents and
   other objects of international exchange as may be directed to his
   care in pursuance of certain «resolves to promote mutual literary
   and scientific exchanges with foreign countries» approved March
   twentieth, eighteen hundred and forty one. «Resolves in favor of
   the American Athenæum» at Paris, approved March twenty second,
   eighteen hundred and forty three.

   _Resolved_, That the Governor and council are hereby authorized
   to audit and allow all necessary charges of such agent for
   receiving, packing up, carriage and exportation of said objects
   of international exchange; provided the sum shall not exceed
   three hundred dollars; and the Governor is hereby authorized to
   draw his warrant upon the treasurer, for the payment of such
   charges, out of any moneys not otherwise appropriated.

   In the House of Representatives, March 22, 1844. Read and passed.

   DAVID DUNN, Speaker,

   In the Senate, March 22, 1844. Read and passed.

   JOHN W. DANA, President.

   March 22, 1844. Approved, H. J. ANDERSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

   To Alexander Vattemare, of the city of Paris, kingdom of France,
   greeting.

   In conformity with the provisions of a Resolve of the Legislature
   of this state, entitled «Resolve authorizing the appointment of
   an Agent of international exchanges with foreign countries»
   Approved March twenty second, one thousand eight hundred and
   forty four, I have, with the advice and consent of the executive
   council of Maine, appointed you an Agent to execute any and all
   of the duties required by said Resolve, and as contemplated in
   your communication to the executive of this state, under date of
   October tenth, eighteen hundred and forty three.

   H. J. ANDERSON.

      [L. S.] By the Governor,

   WITNESS, HUGH J. ANDERSON our Governor, and the seal of the state
   hereunto affixed this twenty sixth day of March in the year of
   our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty four, and of the
   independence of the United States the sixty eighth.


   PHILIP C. JOHNSON,
   Secretary of state.



STATE OF MICHIGAN.

   Preamble and joint resolutions relative to Mons. Vattemare's
   system of international literary exchanges.

   WHEREAS Mons. Alexandre Vattemare, a citizen of France, has with
   an unexampled zeal devoted his time, his energies and his fortune
   to the philanthropic effort of establishing an intellectual
   confederacy among the nations of the earth;

   AND WHEREAS his system of international literary exchanges is not
   only promotive of science and the improvement of literature and
   the arts, but is also conducive to the fraternization of
   governments and the diffusion of civilization through out the
   globe;

   AND WHEREAS the project has been approved by the chambers and
   ministers of France, by the congress of the United States and the
   legislatures of several of the States, and by the statesmen and
   literati of both nations,

   Be it therefore _resolved_ the senate and house of
   representatives of the state of Michigan that in greatful
   acknowledgment of his desinterested labors in the cause of
   humanity and for the valuable works presented by him to the
   state, the thanks of the people of Michigan are respectfully
   tendered to Mons. Alexandre Vattemare by the representatives of
   the people in legislature convened.

   _Resolved_ that his excellency the governor be and he hereby is
   authorized and requested to receive the parcel of books
   transmitted by Mons. Vattemare through Lewis Cass Jr. Esqr. to
   the state of Michigan and also the parcel consigned to E. Thayer
   and Co., forwarding merchants in the city of New-York, and to
   place the same in the state library.

   _Resolved_ that his excellency be and he hereby is further
   authorized and requested to transmit to Mons. Vattemare a copy of
   the revised statutes and session laws of the state of Michigan
   together with the journals and documents of both houses of the
   legislature and such maps of the several counties as are now
   completed.

   _Resolved_ that the state geologist be and he hereby is
   authorized and requested to examine and report to the next
   legislature what duplicate specimens of the natural history of
   Michigan are in his department of the University.

   _Resolved_ that our senators in congress be instructed, and our
   representatives be requested to use their best efforts to obtain
   the appointment of Mons. Alexandre Vattemare as an agent of the
   general government to act in behalf of this state, with power to
   conduct literary exchanges between France and the United States.

   _Resolved_ that his excellency be and he is hereby requested to
   transmit a copy of these resolutions and the report of the
   committee on education to Mons. Alexandre Vattemare and to each
   of our senators and representatives in congress.

   EDWIN N. LOTHROP,
   Speaker of the house of representatives.

   EDWIN M. CURT,
   President of the senate, (_pro tem_).

   Approved, March 12, 1844.

   JNO. S. BARRY.



STATE OF ILLINOIS'S.

   Historical Society, Upper Alton III, August 15th, 1844.

   To A. VATTEMARE, esqr.

   Dear sir,

   ..........On the 24 July your letter and communication for the governor
   of the state were both read and afforded much gratification.
   Thanks were voted to the liberal donor the marquis de Pastoret
   for his present of books, "Histoire de la législation des
   peuples". The society feel greatly indebted to you for the
   interest you have exhibited in its prosperity and advancement.

   _Mr. senator Brease delivered an address of three hours length
   before the society, describing Lasalle's discoveries and the
   labors of the French missionaries among the Indians in this state
   150 years ago._ He was directed to transmit your communication to
   the governor and urge its importance upon the legislature. A
   strong impulse was given us by your zeal and our hopes greatly
   encouraged.

   We shall soon make up a box for you of minerals--lead ore from
   Galena and the South part of the state--Coal--specimens of rocks
   and boulders found on our large praries, and if possible, a
   prarie hen or grouse as the English call it, etc., etc.

   Respectfully,

   ADIEL SHERWOOD.
   Corresponding Secretary.



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.

   War Department, Washington, December 30th, 1844.

   Sir,

   I had the honor on the 1st of november to acknowledge the receipt
   of your letter of the 7th of September last, presenting to this
   department in the name of M. Dumon, minister of public works,
   the beautiful and interesting geological map of France, and at
   the same time I desired you to convey to M. Dumon the thanks of
   the department for so valuable an acquisition to its library.

   Your desinterested and persevering efforts to establish a system
   of international exchanges of works of science and art are duly
   appreciated in our country. The results of those efforts we have
   all witnessed with great admiration in the fine engravings and
   rare books and medals, the contribution and donations of some of
   the highest and most meritorious men of France to the library and
   museum of the National Institute.

   Allow me, in the name of this department to send to your care a
   complete series of an illustrated history of the Indian tribes of
   North-America exhibiting likenesses of their most distinguished
   leaders, which you will please to present to the minister of
   public works with the assurance of my distinguished consideration
   and regard.

   Your obedient servant,

   WM. WILKINS,
   Secretary of War.

   Alexandre VATTEMARE, Esq.;
   Paris.

       *       *       *       *       *

   _From the Honorable Reverdy Johnson, U.S. senator from Maryland._


   Senate chamber, February 18, 1846.

   My dear Sir,

   I have just had the gratification of receiving your letter of the
   28th of January. From the manifestation already evinced by this
   body, I am sure that they will liberally meet all your wishes
   about the exchanges.

   Just before I got your letter they passed unanimously a
   resolution providing that the librarian of Congress transmit to
   the Minister of Justice of France "a _complete series of the
   reports of all the decisions of the supreme court of the U.S.,
   and of the circuit and district courts thereof, and a complete
   copy of the public statutes of the United States_," and making an
   ample provision for executing it. This resolution will no doubt
   receive the sanction of the House of representatives.

   Your presents to the National Institute I received and delivered,
   paying all the charges. Any other gift which you may wish to
   forward to me will be gratefully received.

   I hope that the day is now come when your spirit will animate the
   enlightened men of both Nations and Sciences, and the Arts be
   found the leading objects of all.

   Not despairing of having again the pleasure of seeing you, I am
   truly your friend,

   REVERDY JOHNSON.

       *       *       *       *       *

   _From the Hon. R. B. Taney, Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme
   Court._


   March 21 st 1846.

   Sir,

   I have at length the pleasure of announcing to you that congress
   have passed a resolution authorising the transmission and
   presentation to the minister of justice of France of the reports
   of the decisions in all of the different courts of the United
   States as far as they have been published since the foundation of
   the Government; together with a copy of the laws passed by
   congress. Inclosed I send you a copy of the resolution, wich was
   passed unanimously.

   There is now preparing under the authority of congress, a new
   edition of the laws of the United States much more complete and
   satisfactory than any heretofore published, which is not yet
   quite ready for delivery. And as I wish to send all of the books
   at the same time I shall delay the transmission of the reports,
   until I can send with them this new edition of the acts of
   congress. They will however I hope be ready in a month or two;
   and I shall take much pleasure in transmitting them with the
   reports as early as practicable.

   You know how much I have regretted the delay in acknowledging the
   courtesy of the minister of Justice of France, by a suitable
   return. But feel assured that he as well as yourself will impute
   it to accidental causes wich I have heretofore explained.

   With great respect, I am, Sir,

   Your obedient servant,

   R. B. TANEY.

   Mr. ALEXANDRE VATTEMARE, Paris.

       *       *       *       *       *

   TWENTY-NINTHE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES,

   At the First session, begun and held at the city of Washington,
   on monday the first day of December, one thousand eight hundred
   and forty-five.

   A RESOLUTION, to authorise the transmission and presentation of
   books to the minister of justice of France, in exchange for books
   received from him.

   _Resolved_, by the senate and house of Representatives of the
   United States of America, in congress assembled, that the
   librarian of congress be, and he hereby is, authorised and
   directed to procure a complete series of reports of all the
   decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States, and of the
   circuit and district courts thereof, wich have been heretofore
   published; as also a complete copy of the Public Statutes at
   Large of the United States, now being edited by Richard Peters,
   esq, by authority of congress, the whole to be uniformly bound
   and lettered, and to cause the same under the direction of the
   chief justice of the said Supreme Court, to be transmitted and
   presented to the minister of justice of France, in return and
   exchange for works of French Law heretofore presented by the
   minister to the Supreme Court aforesaid.

   SECTION 2. _And be it further Resolved_, that for the purpose
   aforesaid, there be appropriated, out of any money in the
   treasury not otherwise appropriated, a sum not exceeding five
   hundred dollars.

   JOHN W. DAVIS,
   Speaker of the house of Representatives.

   G. M. DALLAS,
   Vice President of the U.S. and President of the Senate.

   _Approved_, March 4 th, 1846.
   JAMES K. POLK.

          *       *       *       *       *

   THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE. _From an article in the New-York Review
   of September, 1845, by the Hon. Joseph Ingersoll, Senator from
   Pennsylvania._

   In the beginning of the year 1842, an intercourse was opened
   which has been already productive of rich results, and may in the
   future confer immense advantages. Dr. Linn, of the United States
   Senate, sent to the _School of Mines_, of Paris, a specimen of
   oxide of iron taken from the iron mountain of Missouri. It was
   done at the request of Mr. Alexandre Vattemare, of that city, who
   had not a great while before visited Washington, and communicated
   to Dr. Linn, and through him to the "National Institution," the
   letter of Mons. Dufresnoy, "Chief Engineer and Director of the
   Royal School of Mines." It is declared to be the ornament of
   their collections. In the name of the Council of the School he
   returns thanks "for this magnificent specimen," which he
   pronounces, notwithstanding its almost gigantic dimensions,
   (sixty-six millimetres in diameter,) complete in all its parts.
   Besides its interest in a mineralogical point of view, he adds
   that the present of Mr. Linn is highly esteemed by them, because
   it commences the system of exchange which Mr. Vattemare had
   sought to establish between all the nations of the new and the
   old continents, and which he says alone can secure the completion
   of their collections. From the period when this correspondence
   took place, Mr. Vattemare seems to have devoted his intelligent
   and active mind to this object. He has been the means of
   procuring and forwarding to Washington a perpetual supply of
   splendid and valuable productions. His countrymen are always on
   the march of improvement in the various departments of the
   elegant arts. Every description of magnificent engraving has been
   communicated. Box after box of books has come from him in
   unmeasured profusion. It would be endless to recapitulate the
   objects of his friendly contribution. They are referred to
   emphatically because they have especially served to set in motion
   that system of exchange, without which nothing can be completely
   deserving of the name of a collection. That Mr. Vattemare does
   not weary in his efforts needed no new proof. As lately as the
   9th of June, 1845, he announces that he has received for the
   National Institute, from M. Le Brun, Peer of France, Director of
   the Royal Printing-office, etc., the complete collection of the
   Journal des Savans, from 1816 to 1845, twenty-nine quarto
   volumes, bound. "This most interesting and valuable collection,"
   he says, "was last year granted to the National Institute at the
   request of M. Le Brun, by the Minister of Justice, etc. M. Le
   Brun has also sent to me a copy of his works, to be presented to
   the Institute as a token of his friendship and good wishes. From
   the War department of France, a complete collection of all the
   documents and works, illustrated with a great number of maps,
   etc., of the French possessions in North Africa, including the
   neighboring States, viz., the Empires of Morocco, Tunis, etc.,
   published by order and under the superintendence of the Minister
   of War--sixteen volumes, folio, quarto, and octavo. From the
   Minister of Agriculture and Commerce, twenty-five works on
   Agriculture and Commerce. From the Minister of the Interior, a
   beautiful collection of _bronze medals_, commemorative of
   national events, from 1830 to 1844 inclusive. From M. M.
   Flourens, Perpetual Secretary of the Academy of Sciences, Member
   of the Académie Française, etc., his last two works. From M. M.
   Barre and Danton, sculptors, two beautiful little statues, one of
   the late Duc d'Orleans, the other of Miss Adélaide Kemble as
   Norma. From M. Picot, Member of the Academy of Fine Arts, etc.,
   two fine engravings, taken from two of his pictures. From the
   Société Séricicole, (founded in 1838, for the encouragement and
   promotion of silk manufacturing in France,) the complete
   collection of its annals from its foundation to the present
   year--nine volumes, octavo." "All the above works, with many
   others, are heaped up, and occupy so much room in my office, that
   I can scarcely move about in it, and this number is daily
   increasing." One is impressed with mingled feelings of pleasure
   and mortification at reading this letter, for while it thus
   exhibits a prolific interest in the Institute, it unfolds in the
   following paragraph how little is the encouragement or gratitude
   for his substantial friendship and zeal:

   "It is a matter of great distress to me not to have it in my
   power to defray all the expenses of packing, of custom-house
   dues, commissions, and transportation from Paris to Washington,
   but I really cannot do it. Recollect that since 1839 to the
   present time, I have devoted all my time, industry and fortune,
   to the exclusive object of establishing an intellectual union
   between Europe and America; that _I have never received the
   slightest pecuniary assistance from my own country_; and that the
   first and only encouragement of that character ever vouchsafed to
   me was the amount of _two hundred dollars_, so generously
   subscribed last year by the members of the National Institute,
   and two hundred and fifty dollars (out of three hundred) voted by
   the State of Maine. For the maintenance of an agency in Paris for
   national literary interchanges, the State of Massachusetts,
   stimulated by an enlightened and patriotic spirit, voted, during
   the last session of its Legislature, a like most generous
   allocation. Were all her sister States to follow so noble an
   example, by voting a small sum, according to their population and
   their intellectual wants, a fund might easily be established,
   amply sufficient to cover all the expenses incurred in
   maintaining an United States scientific and literary agency in
   Paris, the benefits of which would be incalculable."

   On this vital point (of exchanges) a report was made in February,
   1842, by Mr. Markoe, the accomplished and indefatigable
   Corresponding Secretary. It exhibits the very great importance of
   them, as entering essentially into the plan of every society
   constituted like this and having like objects in view, and it
   shows that no occasion has been omitted to acquaint societies and
   individuals, whose correspondence has been sought or offered,
   that a system of general exchanges would be entered upon as soon
   as a plan should be matured. Under that assurance, and
   independently of it also, (it is added) valuable collections of
   various kinds have already been received, which render it
   incumbent on the directors to redeem the pledge that has been
   given. For this object the members are informed that they have
   already in hands the most abundant materials, which were
   increasing, and would continue to increase every day.



STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA.

   Secretary's office. Harisburg Oct. 25th 1844.

   To Alexandre Vattemare esq.

   Sir,

   I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 6th september
   last, addressed to the Honorable A. V. Parsons secretary of this
   Commonwealth, informing him that in November 1842 and January
   1843, you had transmitted to his Excellency David R. Porter for
   the library of this State certain valuable books obtained from
   the ministers of the several departments of the French
   government, and desiring an Acknowledgement of their receipt.

   It is a cause of sincere regret that your Kind attention and that
   of the heads of the departments of the government of France has
   not since received the acknowledgement which it so highly merits.
   This has not been owing to an improper appreciation of its value,
   but to circumstances which I trust are sufficient to exculpate
   the government of this state from the charge of wilful neglect.

   The books transmitted in 1842 arrived here at the time that Mr
   Persons was about to retire from the office of secretary of
   state. They were placed in the state's library and upon my
   assuming the duties or the office in february 1843 their receipt
   did not come under my observation. Those sent in January et
   February 1843 _remained in the custom house_ at New-York until a
   short time ago when they were forwarded by the collector of
   Customs at Philadelphia, who had received information that they
   were remaining in New-York. When these arrived they were
   immediatly placed in the state's library, there was not any
   letter accompanying them stating by whom they had been forwarded.

   I request that you will receive this explanation and if you deem
   it necessary, communicate it to the ministers of the departments
   of France interested in it. It is desired that the ministers may
   not entertain the belief that their attention is improperly
   understood by the authorities of this state.

   It is hoped that our legislature stimulated by a sense of your
   very valuable efforts will adopt measures to reciprocate the
   kindness and aid in your laudable exertion to promote the
   friendship at present happily existing between the people of
   France and those of the United States.

   Annexed is a list of the books received from Paris and in the
   library of the state.

   Agreeable to your request I send herewith letters of
   acknowledgement, addressed to the ministers of finances, war,
   navy, justice and commerce.

   I have the honor to be, with profound regard your obedient
   servant.

   CHAS. MC CLURE,
   _Secretary of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania_.



COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS,

   In the year one thousand eight Hundred and forty Five.

   _Resolves_ to promote mutual literary and scientific exchanges
   with foreign countries.


   _Resolved_ that the secretary of the commonwealth, under the
   direction of his Excellency the Governor, be authorized to
   exchange copies of the state map of Massachusetts, not exceeding
   twenty in number, and bound copies of the laws and legislative
   documents of the commonwealth for the current political year, not
   exceeding fifty volumes of each for books and other works of
   science and art from foreign countries, to be deposited in the
   library of the general Court. And the secretary is hereby
   authorized to cause fifty copies of each of the said documents
   for every future year to be printed over and above the number to
   be bound in volumes and set aside for the purpose of effecting
   therefore said exchanges hereafter[2].

   _Resolved_ that his Excellency the Governor be authorized to
   appoint some suitable person, residing in the city of Paris,
   France, to be the agent of the commonwealth, in transmitting to,
   and receiving from the secretary's office all such books and
   other works of science and art, as may be addressed to his care,
   in pursuance of the object of the preceding resolve, and to audit
   and allow all reasonable charges of said agent, for the
   receiving, packing carriage and exportation of said objects of
   exchange; provided, that the total sum so expended, shall not
   exceed three hundred dollars.

   House of Representatives, February 26, 1845. Passed.
   SAML H. WALLEY JR., Speaker.

   In Senate, February 27, 1845. Passed.
   LEVI LINCOLN, President.

   February 27, 1845.
   Approved.
   GEO. N. BRIGGS.
   Secretary's office, March 15, 1845.

   A true copy.
   Attest.

   JOHN G. PALFREY,
   Secretary.

     [2] According to this resolve 150 volumes of legislative
     documents, 13 copies of the geological reports, 52 scientific
     reports, 20 maps, have been transmitted.

       *       *       *       *       *

   My dear Sir,

   I send you herewith a copy of Resolves passed by our legislature
   at its present session.

   I have it in charge from his excellence the Governor to say that
   he requests you to accept the appointment of agent under the
   second of the resolves, and that he has no doubt that this
   commonwealth will derive important benefits from your enlightened
   and liberal exertions.

   I am, dear sir, with the highest regard Your friend and servant,

   JOHN G. PALFREY,
   Secretary of the commonwealth.

   To A. VATTEMARE, Esq.
   Paris,
   France.



STATE OF VIRGINIA.

   Executive Department, Richmond Virginia, August 19, 1845.

   Sir,

   Your letter of the 28th December last to the Governor of Virginia
   has been placed in my hands and will be submitted to the
   committee of the Legislature on the state library at its annual
   meeting in December next.

   This Institution, founded by the state for the use of several
   departments of the government comprises the departments of Law,
   literature, science and arts. It is under the direction of the
   Legislature through a committee of both houses, and possesses the
   following works which have been published by the state, and which
   are occasionally interchanged with other states, and public
   institutions, viz:

   The statutes at large being a collection of all the laws of
   Virginia from the year 1619 to 1808, in 16 volumes;

   Laws of a later date;

   Reports of the state convention in 1776;

   Journals of the legislature from 1776 to 1790 and from 1831 to
   the present time, a map of Virginia published in 1826, and
   consequently at this day incomplete, yet probably valuable for
   your purpose.

   The geological survey of the state has been completed and will
   probably be published in the course of another year.

   If any of or all these publications would be acceptable to you,
   authority will be given for exchanging them upon the terms
   indicated in your letter, and I shall be happy to be the organ of
   communication in this interchange should you think proper to
   transmit any publications equivalent: so far at least as the
   before stated collections of the library institution will supply
   it.

   At any event I shall be gratified by having it in my power to lay
   before the committee any communication you may think proper to
   address to me.

   I am, sir, with high respect, your obedient servant,

   WM H. RICHARDSON,
   Secretary of the com. of Virginia, and ex officio librarian.



STATE OF NEW-YORK.

   _From the Regents of the university of the state, trustees of the
   State Library._

   Albany, June 21, 1845.

   M. ALEX. VATTEMARE,

   Dear sir,

   I had the honor to receive your letter of the 10th April on the
   1st of June and two days since I received the books mentioned in
   it. I have replied as directed by the regents to M. the Count de
   Salvandy and must ask you to present the letter to him.

   The legislature of this state adjourned about the middle of May,
   the laws, journals and documents of the two houses which are now
   directed by an act passed this session, to be sent to the
   government of France (duplicate copy), have not yet come from the
   hands of the printers and binders--probably it may be two months,
   before they are completed, as indexes are to be compiled for
   each; but as soon as I receive them (and it is my duty by law to
   forward them), they shall be sent.

   Meanwhile I have collected from the various departments a few
   publications which I trust may be interesting. They are, as you
   are probably aware, not for sale and of course cannot readily be
   obtained out of this city. I send parcels for the minsters of
   _public instruction_, of _finances_, of _agriculture and
   commerce_, of _justice_ and of the _marine_.

   There is a law of the state directing the presentation of the
   volumes of the natural history of the state of New-York, to
   foreign governments and bodies and persons making donations to
   the state library. The governor and secretary of state are
   charged with this duty. I had an interview with these gentlemen
   during the present week and they assured me that they would in a
   few weeks at most, give the necessary directions for their
   transmission. Of course, a copy will be sent to his majesty and
   another to the royal library of France. And I have reason to
   suppose that copies will be sent to several of the ministers who
   have made donations through you. Certainly, to count de Salvandy.
   I have no doubt but every thing will be done in a manneer
   acceptable to you[3].

   I am extremely happy to learn that you have for us a copy of the
   judicial statistics of France. This is a most valuable donation.
   That of the Count de Salvandy is a splendid one and will be duly
   noticed to the Legislature, when they meet in 1846.

   The regents of the University deeply feel their indebtedness to
   you for your kindness in forwarding.

   I have honour to remain with respect, your truly,

   J. ROMEYN BECK,
   Secretary.

     [3] About two hundred volumes of legislative documents, and 10
     copies of the natural History, of New-York, with 10 Geologic
     maps, destined to the king, the chamber of peers, the chamber of
     deputies, the royal library, the ministers of justice, of public
     instructions, of commerce, of finances and to A. Vattemare, were
     transmitted.

       *       *       *       *       *

   Mercantile Library Association, Clinton Hall.
   New-York, November 24th, 1845.

   DEAR SIR,

   I am greatly pleased at being able to state that the books for
   the city of Paris have at length been forwarded by our city
   council through M. Edward Bossange, and I trust they may reach
   their destination in safety.

   They have been bound in uniform style and form a handsome
   collection. The survey of this state, which forms a part of it,
   is a fine work. I trust that the delay which has ocurred may
   leave no unfavorable impression in the minds of the gentlemen
   composing the council of the city of Paris.

   I have urged forward the sending as much as proper and M.
   Valentine, the clerk of our city council, has taken an active
   interest in the matter. All have desired to make the collection
   worthy of the distinguished body for whom it is designed, and it
   has been found necessary to delay some time until certain books
   could be procured not readily met with.

   A communication from the mayor of the city accompanies the books.

   I have taken the liberty of sending with them two copies of the
   catalogue of our library, one for yourself and one for the city
   council of Paris, and also a small packet addressed to yourself
   containing a number of letters of acknowledgement for the works
   you kindly forwarded to our association.

   With sentiments of the highest respect I remain,
   Your most obedient servant,

   H. K. BULL,
   Corresponding secretary.



STATE OF RHODE-ISLAND.

   Brown University, Providence, January, 29th, 1846.

   DEAR SIR,

   ....Your letter to the Governor has been received, presented to
   the legislature and referred to the committee on education. The
   chairman of the committee, M. Goddard, formerly a professor in
   our college, presented a report with resolutions thanking you for
   your generous exertions, and particularly for your handsome
   presents, and voting several extra copies of all reports and
   documents published by the state and authorising the governor to
   pay all charges that may occur for the packing up and
   transportation of said books and any others to be sent to us from
   Paris, through your agency. This was carried through the House
   and the senate unanimously and it is I believe the only question
   which has been decided unanimously in our legislature for a long
   time....

   You will probably receive the report and the votes, by this
   steamer or the next.

   The Rhode Island-Historical Society have also passed votes of
   thanks and resolutions in favor of your project which you will
   receive soon.

   As to the books I shall make up a box and forward it to you as
   soon as I can.

   I write in great haste at the last moment before closing of the
   mail thinking it better to write an unfinished account of the
   affairs than to keep you longer in suspense.

   I beg your to believe me with the greatest respect, Your obedient
   servant,

   C. C. JEWETT.

   MR. A. VATTEMARE.



COMPARATIVE

_Of the Scientific Exchange between France and America_


SENT FROM FRANCE TO AMERICA.

   From His Majesty Louis Philippe I                    20 _volumes_.
    --  Her Royal Highness Madame Adelaide               5 _medals_.
    -- The Chamber of Peers                            150 _volumes_.
    -- The Chamber of Deputies                         200    --
    -- His Excellency the Minister of Justice and
            Divine Worship                             250    --
    --  --               --       --  War               50    --
    --  --               --       --  --                60  _maps_.
    --  --               --           the Navy and
            Colonies                                   150 _volumes_.
    --  --               --             --             334 _maps_.
    --  --               --           Interior         200 _volumes_.
    --  --               --             --              50 _medals_.
    --  --               --           Commerce and
            Agriculture                                259 _volumes_.
    --  --               --           Public
            Instruction                                 60    --
    --  --               --           Public Works     534    --
    --  --               --             --              33 _maps_.
    --  --               --             --               2 _medals_.
    --  --               --           Finances         128 _volumes_.
    -- the City of Paris                               200   --
    --  -- Director General of Customs                  69   --
    --  -- Royal Library                                10   --
    --  --  --    --                                    36 _engravings_.
    --  --  --    --                                    40 _maps_.
    --  --  --   Academy of Sciences                    50 _volumes_.
    --  --  --    --     -- Moral and Political
                             Sciences                   12   --
    -- --   --    --     -- Medecine                     6     --
    -- --   --    --     -- Sciences and fine Arts
                              at Rouen                  46   --
    -- --   --   Museum of Natural History (specimens of
                   minerals)                             2 _cases_.
    -- --   --   And Central Agricultural Society      156 _volumes_.
    -- --   --   Geological Society of France           13   --
    -- M. Edward Alletz, Consul general at Genoa        18   --
    -- the Sericicle Society                            27   --
    M. Barre, sculptor                                   2 _statuettes_.
    -- M. Bovy                                           1 _medal_.
    -- The Viscount de Cormenin, Deputy                  5 _volumes_.
    -- M. de Chaucheprat                                 2    --
    -- Lieut. General de Cubières                        1    --
    -- M. Dantan                                         1 _statuette_.
    -- Count Daru, Peer                                 10 _volumes_.
    -- M. A. Denis, deputy                              10   --
    -- M. A. Deville, President of the R. A. de Rouen   16   --
    -- Baron Charles Dupin, Peer                        17   --
    -- M. Durat La Salle                                 3   --
    -- M. Duvergier de Hautranne, Deputy                 4   --
    -- M. Dubufe                                         1 _engraving_.
    -- M. Milne Edwards                                  4 _volumes_.
    -- M. Elie de Baumont                                1   --
    -- M. Estancelin, Deputy                             6   --
    -- Faugère                                           2   --
    -- Count de Gasparin, Peer                           2   --
    -- M. Gayrard                                        1 _statue_.
    -- M. Jubinal                                       10 _volumes_.
    -- Count d'Hauterive, Deputy                        10   --
    -- Viscount Hericart de Thury                       10   --
    -- M. Jomard                                         6   --
    -- M. Jal                                            6 _portraits_.
    -- M. Laurentie                                     10 _volumes_.
    -- Count de Las Casas, Deputy                        3   --
    -- Count Leon de Laborde                            12   --
    -- M. Le Brun, Peer                                  4   --
    -- M. Ledru-Rollin, Deputy                           4   --
    -- M. L'Herbette, deputy                            25   --
    -- Count de Marcellus                                1   --
    -- M. Guerin Melville                                6   --
    -- M. Nisard, Deputy                                 2   --
    -- M. D'Orbigny                                      2   --
    --       --                                         10 _maps_.
    -- M. Hippolyte Passy, Peer                          4 _volumes_.
    -- The Marquis de Pastoret, Deputy                  60   --
    --             --                                    4 _engravings_.
    --             --                                    6 _medals_.
    -- M. de Remusat, Deputy                             2 _volumes_.
    -- Baron de Schauenburg, Deputy                      4   --
    -- M. Amedee Thierry                                 6   --
    -- M. Thomas                                         6   --
    -- M. Ravaisson                                      2   --
    -- M. Alexandre Vattemarre                          16   --
    -- M. Vitet, Deputy                                  5   --
    -- M. Champollon Figeac                              6   --
    -- M. Faustin Hélie                                  2   --
    -- M. Michel Chevalier, Deputy                       2   --
    -- M. Wolowski                                           --
                                                     ================
                                                     3,488 _objects_.
                                                     ================

   RECAPITULATION.

   Volumes.                 2,894
   Maps.                      477
   Engravings.                 48
   Pieces of Sculpture.         3
   Medals.                     64
   Cases of Minerals.           2



TABLE

_From February_ 1845, _to May_ 15th, 1846.


SENT FROM AMERICA TO FRANCE.

   From the Federal Government (War Department)         15 _volumes_.
    --              --            --                    12 _maps_.
    --  --  National Institute, Washington              25 _volumes_.
    --  --  Legislature of the State of Maine           94   --
    --           --          --                          3 _maps_.
    --           --          --                          1 _herbal_.
    --           --          -- (specimens of minerals)  4 _cases_.
    --           --          --         Massachusetts  195 _volumes_.
    --           --          --               --        20 _maps_.
    -- --  Hon. John G. Palfrey                         23 _volumes_.
    -- --  Mercantile Library Ass'n                      1   --
    -- --  Hon. Josiah Quincy                            2   --
    -- M.  Bowen                                        20   --
    -- M.  B. P. Poore                                  10   --
    -- the Legislature of the State of New-York        200   --
    -- --       --                     --               10 _maps_.
    -- --  Corporation of the City of New-York          18 _volumes_.
    -- --       --                     --                2 _maps_.
    -- --  N. Y. Mercantile Library association          2 _volumes_.
    -- --  Corporation of the city of Baltimore         16   --
    -- --       --                     --                3 _maps_.
    -- --  Brantz Mayer, Esq                             1 _volume_.
    -- --  Legislature of the State of Indiana         512   --
    -- --  Hon. Henry Ledyard, Esq., of Michigan         1 _maps_.
    -- --  Professer James C. Cross, of Kentucky         1 _volume_.
    -- --  Government of Texas                          10   --
    -- --  Hon. Ashbel Smith                             3   --
    -- --  Prof. S. F. B. Morse of New-York              1   --
    -- M.  Alfred Vail of Philadelphia                   1   --
    -- M.  Hermann E. Ludwig of New-York                 1   --
    -- M.  Vauzand                                      10   --

   (I do not mention books which I have been
   officially informed, are on their way here from
   Congress, and the states of Maine, Massachusetts,
   Rhode Island, Virginia, Michigan, Illinois,
   Indiana, etc., in accordance with recent laws and
   resolutions, as the number of volumes is in no
   instance given.)

   From the Government of Canada                        60 _volumes_.
                                                     =================
                                                     1,267 _objects_.
                                                     =================

   RECAPITULATION.

   1,211                  Volumes.
      51                  Maps.
       4                  Cases of Minerals.
       1                  Herbal.

   Making a total amount of 4,749 objects exchanged through the
   Agency in the course of the past sixteen months between France
   and North America.--The Hon. _Secretary of war_, the states of
   _Maine_, _Massachusetts_, _New-York_, and _Indiana_ with the
   cities of _Baltimore_ and _New-York_, being the only respondents
   to my call, by transmitting important works and voting generous
   allocations to pay the necessory expenses. From these facts, all
   can see what the operations of the scheme have been, and judge
   what important results may be confidently relied upon, if the
   other states, corporations and institutions of the flourishing
   and happy Republic would but enter fully and seriously in this
   peaceful _Intellectual Union_ of the two Hemispheres.

   ALEXANDRE VATTEMARE.

   NOTA. It may perhaps be well to mention that the greater part of
   the books I have received here for the United States have been
   merely stitched, be cause no appropriations are made for binding
   public documents. The usefulness of the scheme of international
   exchanges is however becoming so apparent, that I hope generous
   appropriations will be made this year to enable several
   ministerial departments and the chambers to have their documents
   which are destined for exchange, properly bound and lettered. I
   would also express an hope that means may be provided to enable
   me to publish a quarterly account of the movements of the scheme,
   giving all the transactions effected, and also serving as an
   organ announcing all the superfluities of intellectual riches
   possessed by different countries and the Legislative, scientific
   and useful works published by their governments and scientific
   bodies, which could only be procured by exchange. Such a
   publication would be, and I may say is the only means of securing
   the permanency of the system of exchanges, and remove the
   apprehensions of those who see its existence limited by the
   perseverance of my efforts.



INSTRUCTIONS

ON THE BEST MODE OF

COLLECTING, PRESERVING AND TRANSPORTING

OBJECTS OF

NATURAL HISTORY.


It is the actual state of our collections and of our Knowledge of
Natural History of which we are about to speak. But as this memoir,
though specially destined for our Museum and for our countrymen, may
be consulted by foreign naturalists for the sake of our collections as
well as for their own, we would invite the attention of collectors to
any point that may seem defective or capable of improvement, and we
invite all travellers to make known to us the results of their
experience that we, and the whole learned world, may profit by them.

It is not simply a series of instructions which we make here, it is an
appeal to all who interest themselves in the cause of science and of
their country. We will point out to them the means of enriching this
great national establishment, which, open to public curiosity and
study, can only be rendered perfect by the aid of many hands. It
cannot itself support travellers except upon a few limited points, and
even there, such is the inexhaustible fecundity of nature, much
remains to be done.

As for amateurs, who can give but few moments to the study of Natural
History, who have not hitherto occupied themselves with it, but who
have, notwithstanding the desire to render their sojourn in certain
points little explored, profitable to our object, we have thought that
instead of collecting a great number of objects, they would do well to
limit themselves to such as are signalized as curious and indicated in
the list of our _desirata_. They could thus economise time, and employ
it more usefully, not only in collecting the objects which we
recommend but also in bestowing upon them that care which would insure
their preservation.

These instructions are devided naturally into three chapters,
corresponding to the three kingdoms of nature; each part has been
prepared by such of the professors as it especially concerns.

The instructions will make known:

1º The manner of collecting and preparing objects of Natural History.

2º The choice and form of the notes which should accompany them.

3º An indication of those which are more particulary wished for.

It remains for us before proceeding to the special details of this
memoir, to give general instructions upon the packing of objects of
Nat. His. and upon the modes proper to be employed to prevent any
damage to them during their voyage.

As soon as the objects prepared as before directed, have been placed
in case these cases must be closed in the best possible manner and
covered with pitch or tar on their whole surface; so that neither air
nor moisture can penetrate.

After this, they must be envelopped in oil cloth, and then put on
board ship in such place as will be likely not to be disturbed till
their arrival, and as far from the heat and vermin as possible.

Glass bottles should be packed in wooden boxes well filled with tow
and sea-weed; and arranged so that they will run no risk of breaking;
objects which may be spoiled by liquids in the glass bottles, should
they happen to break, should not be placed with them.

When a package has been sent, information should be given directly
with the statement of the number and weight of the boxes, of the ship
by which they are sent, the time of sailing, and the port to which
they are bound. These statements should be made in time so that boxes
may be sealed at the Custom House and not be opened until they arrive
at Paris.

It is evident that if living animals or vegetables are sent, the time
necessary for the voyage should be calculated and the speediest and
safest conveyance chosen.



CHAPTER I

MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY.


Minerals are found either in regular and geometrical forms when they
are called cristals, or in more or less irregular masses.

Among cristals there are some so situated that they can be separated
without injury from the matter that envelopes them. Others compose
salient groups; others are imbedded in rock.

Specimens of each of these three States should, if possible be
procured; with regard to cristals enveloped in surrounding matter,
particles of this matter should be detached with them (varying from 8
to 10 centimetres) so that the different minerals which accompany them
may be observed.

Also portions of the masses composed of needles and fibres, or
granulous or compact, having care to choose them fresh and free from
those alterations that take place in these at the surface. The
metallic mines should call the attention of travellers. They will
observe if they are in parallel beds with the surrounding rocks or in
clefts called veins which cross the bed. In detaching pieces from
these mines care should be taken to leave around the principal metal
portions of other metals which may be associated with them or stony
substances which often accompany cristals.

It is to be desired for the progress of historic and technical
mineralogy that pieces of stone should be selected which are most
commonly used in the construction of public monuments and houses; and
the most authentic samples should be procured of all the mineral
substances employed in the useful and ornamental arts; such as
sharpening stones, stones for ovens, stones to polish with and stones
for potteries; having care to indicate the kinds of earth and stones
which enter into the composition of each kind of pottery; whether
minerals are indigenous or exotic, it must be particulary mentioned
from whence they come.

If organic remains should be found in these earths, such as the bones
of animals, shells, impressions of fish or vegetables, samples should
be taken with care from these different bodies, leaving around them a
portion of the earth or stone in which they are imbedded.

In case these earths should offer traces of volcanic origin, pieces
will be taken of each substance ejected by the explosions, some of a
stony nature, some as basalts, some as glass, some as obsidiennes,
some as scaries, etc. For those which are prisms, care must be taken
to remark the form of these prisms and the extent they occupy in the
earth.

To each sample should be attached a ticket indicating the name of the
country where they were found, the particular spot from which they
were taken, the distance and situation of some neighbouring known
town from it, the nature and appearance of the country and its
elevation above the sea.

Wherever mineral waters shall be found care will be taken to fill a
bottle, to cork and cement it closely.

Since those systems have been abandoned which restrained the
observation of facts and comparison of those observations; since
guessing of the origin of things has been renounced for studying their
actual state; geology has advanced like other correct sciences. This
advance has not only extended our acquaintance on the formation of the
globe, but has also produced useful results for the arts.
Notwithstanding we are far from knowing the various countries of the
earth as we know Europe.

It is easy for those who visit these distant countries, above all the
tropics, to procure us important ideas, and to send us productions,
the examination of which can alone enlighten and furnish us
informations on the nature of the soil in those countries and the
general arrangement of the rocks which constitute the outside of the
globe.

On all coasts and islands where vessels stop, travellers can land and
procure objects with little trouble, which having little value in
themselves, become instructive and interesting by the simple
annotations which accompany them.

They can pick up on the borders of torrents pebbles which indicate the
nature of the rochs from which they proceed. They will choose the
largest and note their size, and also break some pieces,--also the
small pebbles, having care to choose those of different appearances.

Wherever a rock is seen to rise, should it be in the water or land, it
should be observed if it is all of the same substance or homogeneous
or composed, or formed of different beds. In the first case a fragment
must be detached, in the second case, they will observe the relative
position of the beds, their inclination and thickness; and take a
sample of each of the beds, and put the same mark on all the pieces
coming from the same mountain, and a number on each to indicate the
order of their position or reciprocal situation. If the person who
procures these samples could make a simple sketch, to show the form of
the mountain, the thickness and inclination of its layers, he would
render an essential service.

In case the rock is an isolated one, it is useful to examine and
sketch on both sides to be more certain of the inclinations of the
beds.

It would be well to gather some sand from the bottoms of rivers; above
all those which wash metallic dusts; but this sand must be taken as
far from the mouth of the river as possible.

In some countries are found isolated masses to which the people
attribute a singular origin; pieces must be taken; perhaps they are
aerolithes; other may be transported by the revolutions of the globe.

In gathering fragments of rocks, mines, volcanic products and
organised fossil bodies, the most essential thing is to mark well
their latitude, that is to say the nature of the earth where they are
found and their relative position to the substances which encircle
them.

Basalt beds merit a particular attention, both as regards themselves
and the kind of earth which surrounds or covers them. It must be
noticed if they are divided in irregular masses, tables or prisms, and
what is their arrangement. It be must remarked if they contain the
remains of organised bodies, and care must be taken to take samples in
their different states, also of the matter on which the basalt rests.
It must be certain above all that there is no intervention of
scorified matter, or beds of an earthy appareance, to which the
Germans give the name of Wakke, and which are proved to be of volcanic
origin. The rocks named trachytes by M. Haüy merit the same attention.
They are distinguished above all by primitive porphyries, intermediate
or secondary, by the absence of quartz and the presence of pyroxène or
titanimmed iron.

Whatever may be the nature or age of the soil one sees, it is most
important to collect samples of rocks the most common and most
abundant which constitute the bulk of the soil: the study of the
varieties of subordinate beds and accidental matters of all kind,
should be secondary. In general the appearance of the constitution of
the locality must be considered if one would proceed usfully to
choose the samples destined to represent them; the choice would be
easy if one would establish a rule never to quit a declivity, a
mountain, a country even, without having made the section
(geologically). We should add that these sections should be the
principal object in the labours of the geological traveller.

Too large samples must not be taken, samples of 10 to 8 centimètres,
by 3 or 4 of thickness, are sufficient. Larger samples must not be
taken unless they contain the remains of organic fossils, such as
animal skeletons. To pack these samples, they must be covered with
fine paper; above this paper they will put the ticket or note of
bearing or latitude, then a second fine paper that will be surrounded
with tow, and all will be enveloped in grey paper. These samples will
then be put in a box, placing them upright and in successive beds, as
close together as possible, and filling the interstices with cut paper
or tow, in a way to form a mass that nothing can derange. No space
must be left between the last bed and the cover. The box must be
tarred to avoid humidity.

The merit of geological collections being principally in the knowledge
of local circumstances in which each sample is taken, it is
indispensable to join to these collections well-arranged catalogues.
They will repeat the numbers of the samples and directions written on
the labels; all details should be inserted which may give a complete
idea of the strata which have been observed, and sketches and drawings
taken on the spot should be placed either in the margin or the body of
the books. It would be well to have duplicates of the catalogues. One
of them pressed between two pieces of board well tied, should be
placed on the top of one of the boxes, the other should be adressed
directly to M. Vattemare.



CHAPTER II.

BOTANY.


The botanical riches of the museum are composed--1º Of living
vegetables cultivated in the garden--2º of the collection of dry
plants or herbals, of the different parts of plants dried and in
alchool, such at woods, fruits, etc. And of all the produits of the
vegetable kingdom that are capable of preservation--3º of the
collection of fossil plants.


_Living plants._

To promote the progress of science, agriculture and horticulture, it
is important to collect in a central garden, like that of Paris, the
greatest number of living plants possible.

To attain this end, either living plants must be sent, or their seeds.
Both of these ways are attended with difficulties, according to the
nature of the plants, and the length of the voyage they have to
endure.

We shall only treat the parcels sent from countries out of Europe that
must endure a voyage of from one to four or five months, because
packages which are on the road but 15 or 20 days, only require those
ways of putting up employed in all the nurseries of Europe.

In the transportation of living plants, distinction should be made of
the ligneous plants, young trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, which
are neither pulpy plants, tubercles or roots, from that of these last
vegetables.

The transportation of the roots, underground bulbs and tubercles, such
as those of the lily tribe, irides, dioscarea, land archides,
aroidees, gesneria, of many of the Oxalis, Trospoculum, etc., is
easily effected by packing these parts carefully in dry moss, or very
dry sand, with wich the box should be filled up; the parasitic
orchides or epyphites, with green bulbs, can be sent in wooden boxes,
pierced with little holes, and kept dry; all the old leaves should be
taken off, as, in their decay, they cause dampness, and the roots
wrapped in dry moss or cloth. The same means may be used for the pulpy
plants, such as the cactus: any dry flexible substance, not subject to
dampnes, as hairwool etc. may be used to pack them. These pulpy
plants, if large, should be separated from the others, so that they
may not be tainted by their decay.

They should be packed with great care, because their tissue, more
watery than that of the tubercles and roots, may be crushed under
their weight, often considerable.

For the transportation of living plants, neither pulpy or tuberculous,
it is necessary to place them in glazed boxes, of a peculiar
construction, first invented and used in England by M. N. Ward.

These boxes vary in form and size but not to take up too much room on
the decks of ships, where they should always remain; they should not
exceed the following dimensions:

[Illustration: boxes.

9 to 11 decimetres long, 5 wide, 7 to 40 high.]

The bottom should not touch the deck, but must be raised some
centimetres by the feet on the four corners, so that sea water may not
damp the box.

The two smal sides of the oblong chest cut in the upper part in
pointed shape, have two glassed frames, and form a two-sided roof.

The sides and bottom should be made of oak or hard wood from 25 to 30
millimetres thick, dry and joined with groves, so that there may be no
fissure.

The glassed frames are divided by cross pieces from 4 to 5 centimetre
wide, extending from the upper to the lower edge, from 7 to 8
centimètres apart. These grooved cross pieces receive the glasses
which should be thick, covering one another like the tiles of a roof,
and well cemented. One of the frames is fixed on one of the sides of
the chest; the other is fixed on the other sides, and on the upper
frame opposite, with screws well oiled to prevent rust. These boxes
should be well puttied and painted.

Two strong iron handles should be fixed on each end of the box; and a
solid grate made of iron wire, propped above the glasses by several
iron rods, will prevend their fracture.

A bed of 4 or 5 centimetres of clayey earth moist enough to stick to
the bottom, is first put in the box; then a layer of earth, mined if
possible with vegetable decay of 15 or 20 centimetres; the plants are
embedded in this earth either in pots or wicker baskets.

To prevent accidents on a long voyage and especially from the port to
Paris, straw and rushes may be used, with wooden cross pieces nailed
to the partitions of the chest.

A box of the size described contains from 15 to 25 or 30 plants
according to their size.

Seeds, especially of the kinds that preserve with difficulty their
germinating power, may be sown among these plants, such as those of
the palms, laurels, oaks, several conifers, roses, etc.

Plants put in these boxes should have good roots, and not taken
directly from the country. In case they are, time should be given them
to take root, before closing the box.

Before closing the box, care should be taken to water the earth well,
but not too much.

It should then be hermetically sealed, and not opened during the
voyage. It should be kept on the open deck, and if the glasses are
broken, they should be immediatly replaced; if there are holes in the
wood, they should be puttied.

The box should never be put below except it contains tropic plants and
the cold extreme. For light frosts, a cloth is sufficient, and they
should have all the sun possible.

The best time for sending plants to France is betwen April and
october.

Seeds should also be sent.

A great number of seeds keep for a year and more, if gathered ripe and
kept dry. Seeds are ripe when they fall off, or when the fruits, that
inclose them, open. But seeds apparently dry, often contain a great
quantity of water which would mould them, if put up in that state.
They should be dried by the sun in the open air several days before
packing, especially berries and pulpy fruits. They should be pressed
and dried in the sun or in brown paper, like plants prepared for
herbals.

The best way of keeping them, in a long voyage, is to dry them
perfectly, wrap them in thick paper, and put them in thick bags hung
in a dry and airy place.

There are seeds, especially those that contain oily matter, that must
be germinated on the voyage. Such are, among exotics, the seeds of our
climate, cocorus, chesnust, beechnuts; and among exoctics, the seeds
of the Laurel, many of the Palms, several Conifers, Arancarias, tea
and coffee seeds, goyaviers, and other myrtinees.

The best way of sending these seeds is to sow them in the glass cases
described above, either among other plants, or in special boxes of
smaller size; but common boxes or barrels will do, if there are no
glass boxes, well filled with earth. The seeds should be put in light
earth a little damp, or in dust of decayed wood. Five or 6 centimetres
of earth are put at the bottom of a box, and the seeds sown in this
earth at distances, equal to the size of the seed. Then another layer
of earth of three centimetres, then a bed of seeds, and so on up to 3
or 4 decimetres in height. Care should be taken to fill the box so
that the seeds may not be injured.

Care should be taken to keep the box dry, and beyond the reach of salt
water, which always kills plants and seeds.

All the plants should be labelled--The numbers should correspond with
a catalogue which should declare for each plant: 1º The country from
which it comes--2º The kind of soil where it grows, such as woods,
rocks, meadows, marshes, etc.--3º An approximation to the height of
the place, if it comes from a mountainous country, so as to
distinguish the plants of the tropics and the temperate and frigid
zones--4º The common name of the plant, either among the Europeans
established in the country or the natives--5º Its uses, its
characteristics, and the color of its flowers.

This information should be marked in the catalogue of seeds sent
stratified or sown in the glass cases; for seeds preserved dry in
bags, it is best to write these notes upon the bags.

We cannot particularise all the plants we desire, because our wants
vary every year by new acquisitions and losses; but the administration
will endeavour to give them to the inhabitants of distant countries
who are willing to lists of supply our deficiencies.

We will specify some families and kinds whose absence in our
collection of living plants we regret.

These are:

1º Those which grow alike in the tropical regions of the old and new
continent:

The Rhizophorees (mangliers and paletuviers) chailletices,
connaracies, burmaniacees, xyridee, Eriocolons, Podostemees, the
loranthus parasites, lardizabalees, Pistias.

Among the Fern, Gleichenias, Trochomanes, Hymenophyllum, schizea,
Danaea, Angiopteris, Salvinia and Azolla.

2º In Asia:

Dipterocarpiees, aquilarinees (aloes or eagle-wood), Apostasiees,
Guetrum (guemon of Molucca), the nipa, a kind of Palm-tree.


_Dry vegetables or vegetables preserved in alcohol_.

These collections contains:

1º Herbals or plants dried in leaves of paper;

2º Fruits and preserved seeds, either dry or in alcohol;

3º Pulpy flowers also preserved in liquor;

4º Portions of roots, trunks and samples of wood;

5º Different products of the vegetable kingdom, such as flax, starch,
gums, resins, dyestuffs, substances employed in the medicine or the
arts;

6º Samples relative to anatomy and vegetable physiology.

The care necessary to enrich these collections are generally less than
those required for zoology.

Herbals and collections of fruits and flowers--Samples in buds,
flowers and fruits of plants intended for herbals should be collected
when the plant is small, and generally when it is of a size to be kept
in a leaf of paper by folding. It should be taken with the root; when
it is larger, it should be cut in pieces of 40 or 50 centimetres (16
to 18 inches). Or the great herbaceous plants, whose leaves vary often
at different heights on the trunk, the base of the stalk with the
leaves that support it should be preserved,--and branches with flowers
and leaves. A layer of several leaves of brown paper is placed
alternatively with a sample of a plant, or several, if they are small
and can be spread on the paper without touching. Then a new layer of
paper, then a new sample, and so on. When the packet has a certain
thickness (2 to 3 decimetres at most) it should be pressed between two
pieces of paste board by means of cords or girths and a buckle. The
pressure should be moderate, enough to prevent the plants from
wrinkling, but not enough to change their shapes, or crush their
tissue by flattening them too much. The parcels, to dry well, should
be placed on a dry board; or, better, hung up, so that the boards be
in a vertical position. It is well to change several time the layers
of paper; first, soon after the drying has commenced.

The drying of plants may be much quickened by dividing them into
packets of 8 or 10 packets only, with very little paper between, and
pressing them between two frames furnished with a wire grate tied up
by strings; a layer of four or five leaves of paper should be placed
on each side, immediately under the grate, to render the pressure more
uniform and keep the plants from crisping; if these small packets are
exposed to the sun or a current of air, the plants dry rapidly, often
before the paper is changed that contains them; but unless there is a
great number of these frames, it is impossible to dry but a small
number of plants, and this process would be especially useful for
those persons to whom the formation of an herbal is but an accessory
occupation.

Botanists who wish to dry many plants without using much paper should
place packets of 15 or 20 plants, arranged as we have just pointed
out, in a stove with a current of air, heated up to 50 centigrades by
a lamp placed below, and separated from the plants by a cross
partition of punctured plate.

In twelve or twenty four hours the specimens are perfectly dry. This
process, first successfully employed in Paris by M. Doyère, is most
useful in warm and damp climates, and for plants difficult to dry; it
is easily employed in scientific voyages.

Bamboo frames, found everywhere in tropical climates, replace
excellently frames and bars of iron.

There is another more speedy process which requires much less paper,
but preserves less perfectly the dried specimens. It only needs a dry
and spacious room. The flowers are placed in a simple sheet of paper
and pressed; then the sheets are spread out, for the night, on the
floor, and, when dry, pressed again. This process it not so good as
the former, and should be made use of only when there is a lack of
paper.

This is all the art of making herbals; and every intelligent traveller
knows how to suit his process to circumstances.

In damp times and regions, it is well to quicken the process of
drying. Paper perfectly dry should only be used, and changed often.
The paper should be dried in a warm oven, where bread has just been
baked.

Watery plants, such as bulbs, orchides, etc., continue green in
herbals several months after they are placed in them. It is well to
plunge them in boiling water for one minute, or, still better, to put
them in alcohol for a couple of hours; then they should be taken out
and placed between two leaves of brown paper, where it dries easily,
as the action of boiling water or alcohol has destroyed the life of
the plant.

There are plants whose leaves or flowers easily break after drying; in
such cases, all the parts should be sent separately.

There are families of plants that require peculiar processes of
preservation. Palms, on account of their size, cannot be preserved in
common herbals. Yet, it is important to complete the history of this
remarquable family. For this, must be preserved:--1º The dried leaves
in paper spread out, when they are not too large; folded like a fan,
dried in the air and wrapped in brown paper well tied, when they are
large.--2º Clusters of flowers or carymbs with the common envelope,
taking care to preserve equally the male and female flowers, when they
are separate; they should be dried quickly in the open air and wrapped
in paper or cloth, taking care to collect the flowers that fall of.
When these clusters are not large, it would be well to preserve them
in weak alcohol, and, in all cases, it should be used for branches to
be put in the same jar with ripe fruits of the same plant.--3º
Clusters of ripe fruits dried in the air and other fruits in alcohol.

Those great marine plants, commonly known by the name of sea-weed,
should be dried by hanging them in the shade, in the open air, without
pressing them in paper; they should, afterwards, be put in paper bags,
with a label of the place where they were collected and their color
when fresh.

They can be better prepared in Paris than in travelling, as they often
require much care, unless the traveller is skilled in the art. Samples
preserved in alcohol would be useful for anatomical researches.

Before drying the small kind in the same manner in the open air, all
the sea water should be pressed out, by squeezing them gently, and
absorbing it with brown paper.

The most of the other criptogamous plants, such as the fern, mosses,
lichens, mushrooms large and small, are prepared in herbals as other
vegetables.

The only proper way to preserve the pulpy mushroom is alcohol, or
wrapping them in flax or cotton; but a note or sketch should be made
of their colors, for only their form and structure are thus preserved.
Young specimens of these plants are preferable.

However the collections we have spoken of are made, a label should be
attached to each of the specimens indicating:

1º The place where the plant was found, and if the place is little
known, its position with relation to one that is;

2º The time of the gathering of the specimens, whether in flower or
fruit;

3º The name the plant bears, taking care to have it repeated several
times, and its meaning should be added, whenever it is known;

4º The uses of the plant in domestic economy, the arts or medicine;

5º The color of the different parts and particulary that of the
flower, its odor, the consistence of the fruit, and the manner it
opens, when ripe; in fine, all the phenomena relative to the plant;

6º The size, direction and consistence of the plant. If it is a tree
of some size, and if the traveller can sketch, it would be well to
give a drawing of its form, especially for palms and other
monocotyledons; common trees, if there is no sketch made or them, they
may be compared to some of the best known trees in Europe;

7º Numbers should be written on the separate samples of the fruits,
seeds, flowers, or wood of the same plant, which form the parcel the
traveller sends, as well as on the samples of the same plant that he
keeps and on his catalogue or journal, so that he can afterwards give
accurate information of the plants he sends. These numbers should not
be repeated during the same tour, but should form a series, to avoid
confusion.

If the traveller can measure, or knows the height above the sea of the
regions he travels over, he should add to the note relative to each
plant a statement of the height where it was found; the exact height
is not necessary. If he does not know the height, the omission can be
partially remedied by the most remarkable and abundant vegetables that
grow around[4].

     [4] On mountains, each species of plants only grows to a
     determined hight, trawellers can therefore notice the most
     remarkable of them either by their shape, size or their
     abundance, indicating them by their names or by figure; and
     point-out by lines where these species cease growing adding a
     certain number of zones and indicating the zone in which each
     plant grows.

Dry fruits should be sent in boxes with a label and number
corresponding to that of the branch of the plant, in the herbal, to
which they belong. All the dry fruits of too large size to be well
preserved in herbals, should be collected separately, the ripest
chosen, dried carefully and wrapped in paper. Those of palms,
pandanus, zamia, conifers, proteacees, lecythidees, cucurbitacees, the
leguminous family, the bignonias, bombacees, sterculiacees, especially
deserve to be collected separately.

Pulpous fruits should be sent in weak alcohol at 18° in acetic or
pyro-liqueous acid dissolved in water, or in water saturated in marine
salt, if these two first liquids can not be had, for the preservation
of objects is much less certain and less perfect in this fluid. Each
kind should be put in a separate jar and envelopped in cloth, flax or
cotton, or if several kinds are put in the same jar, each kind should
be put in separate bags with special labels.

Among the pulpy fruits that deserve to be collected, we shall
particulary point out those of several palms, many of the
Bromiliacees, resembling the ananas, aroidees, sapotees, and
Diospyrees; several annonacees, the pulpy-fruited Capparidees,
Papayers, the soft-fruited Cucurbitacees, Guthifers, Aurantiees.

It is desirable that flowers too delicate or too pulpy to be easily
analysed when dry should be, also, sent in flasks of weak alcohol or
acetic acid much weakened with water; such are those of the Orchides,
Balisiers, Aroïdes, Asclepiades, and all other plants difficult to
preserve in herbals. It is important to tie on the flask a label
marked with the name of the plant, or at least, a number corresponding
to that which bears in the herbal the sample of the plant to which the
sample belongs. Labels on jars frequently falling off, it would be
best to mark these jars with paint, or to put in each jar a bit of
wood or parchment bearing the number, or a label written with crayon
or ink, if the objects are in alcohol, or on thin pieces of lead
marked with a knife. When several plants are put in the same jar, a
label, thus marked, should be attached to each. Without this
precaution, the collection is useless. Flowers of the different
species should not be put in the same viol. If it is ever necessary, a
label should be attached to each. Or they should be put in paper
pasted together, with the necessary specifications on the envelope.

If there is neither viol nor alcohol, the flowers may be dried in the
air without pressing, and then folded in paper and labelled; care
should be taken to put them up, so that there may be no danger of
pressure.

Entire specimens in flower and fruit of parasites with their roots and
the root in which they are imbedded should be preserved in alcohol, or
vinegar, or salt-water. Males and females of these plants, in which
the sexes are generally separated, should be collected. These plants
are generally remarkable for the absence of leaves, for their pulpy
consistence and creeping character.

Herbals and fruits, when perfectly dry, should be put in tin, or, at
least, well painted boxes so as to be beyond the reach of mice or
insects.

Leaves of paper containing plants, should be well pressed together in
packets and placed between two sheets of plain paper, before being put
in boxes.

In packing up, several samples may be placed between each leaf of
paper, and the number of leaves placed between be lessened, if
necessary; the packets should always be well pressed together. Any
kind of paper is good for packing; bananas or any large-leafed plant
can replace it; it is only necessary that the plants should be
arranged with care, so as to give an equal thickness to the packets in
all their parts.

If there is time the specimens should be preserved by plunging the dry
plant in an alcoholic solution of corrosive sublimate (15 to 20
grammes for a litre of alcohol at 36°), or to rub it with a pencil,
then to dry it in a leaf of paper, which requires but a few instants.
With this precaution, all the specimens sent may be preserved; and for
not making use of it, several parcels of plants have arrived damaged
by insects.

If the plants are fumigated with sulphur, they will be preserved from
insects for a long time.

Among those sent, there will be many we have received before; but they
will not be useless.

Plants preserved in herbals, which we already possess, will be
employed in forming special herbals for different countries, very
useful for the study of botanical geography and to facilitate the
researches of travellers, either by making exchanges, with foreign
museums, or to enrich the principal museum of the departments.

Besides, there are always objects that corrupt by time, which it is
useful to renew.

Collections of plants, from whatever country they come, have always a
certain number of plants which the museum does not possess, or offers
them in a different state from those we possess and so are always
interesting, when well made; but there are countries little known,
from which we desire to receive all that can be collected.

The North-America: the Floridas and southern parts of Louisiana,
Arkanzas and Texas, a great part of Mexico, particulary the northen
part, as well as California, the southern part of Mexico, and the
countries comprehended between that state and the isthmus of Panama;
the great iles of the Antilles, Haïti, Cuba and Jamaïca, though
formerly explored, are now scarcely represented in our herbals.

Botany is already cultivated with success in many countries.
Travellers can, sometimes, find herbals already collected; it would be
useful to procure them, especially if they have but a short time to
stay or even a single season, after assuring themselves that these
herbals are made with care. This would be important, especially in
countries where the flora has been treated by some resident botanist,
and the kinds and species proper to these local floras should, if
possible, be obtained.


_Collections of wooden stalks or trunks of trees_.

This collection should be made in a different manner, for the trunks
of the _monocotyledons_ and ferns, and for those of the
_dicotyledons_. For the first, such as the palms, vaquois or pandamas,
the dracoena or dragoniers and the ferns in trees, etc. whose
structure varies in height according to the age of the trees, it would
be desirable to obtain grown and entire trunks, from the root to the
top of the tree, when transportation can be affected without
difficulty or expense. But when the size of the trunks and
difficulties of transportation are so great that it can not be
conveyed entire, it should be sent in three pieces of 50 centimetres
each in length, taken, the first at the base with the roots, the
second in the middle, and the third from the top with the first
clusters of leaves. When the trunks are very large, damp and hard to
dry, it is well, to quicken their drying, to split them lengthwise
through the middle, but the two halves should always be sent and round
pieces cut cross wise from 6 to 10 centimetres thick.

For the dycotelodons vegetables one of the principal trunks or a
perfectly healthy branch should be taken, and a portion of it 40 or 50
centimetres long preserved; the size best suited for samples is from
10 to 20 centimetres in diameter. Generally the age of the trunk or
branch should be such as to have at the same time perfect wood and
pulp; for the kinds of wood used for building, it is necessary that
the samples should be taken from trunks large enough to give an idea
of the physical qualities of the woods. The samples should be sent
with the bark entire. If there is danger that they do not dry well and
shrink, they should be sawed lengthwise, at some distance from the
pith, so that it may remain perfect on one of the pieces, and even in
that case, it is well to send, besides the two halves of wood sawed
lengthwise, an entire round of from 5 to 6 centimetres thick.

All these samples of trunks whether monocotyledons or dicotyledons,
should not be boxed or sent off before they are perfectly dry. They
should until then be kept as much as possible far from insects. It is
indispensable to give interest to these samples of wood, to label them
with numbers corresponding with samples of branches with leaves and
flowers or fruits dried botanically, so that they can be determined
with precision.

These numbers should be written on the edge wood cut very plain,
either with ink or black crayon, or, better, with paint. When the
samples are few, they can be notched or marked with Roman characters
cut deep in the wood. It is very important either in the catalogues or
in the labels of the samples in the herbals to write the common names
which the trees bear, in the country where the samples were gathered,
as these names are more generally known for the great vegetables than
for the little plants; and by this precaution new information can be
more easily obtained concerning the trees.

After having indicated the manner of making collections we shall now
go on to particularise the vegetables whose trunks we especially
desire to obtain.

The collection of the museum is already rich in trunks of arborescent
fern. Yet it possesses but very few of those which do not belong to
the tribe of Cyathees, such as the Diplazium, Dicksonia, Lomaria,
Angiopteris.

Among the woods of the dicotyledonous trees, we shall place, in the
first rank all the woods employed in the arts and particularly in
cabinet-making and dying; woods which we receive only in the state in
which commerce brings them to us and which it would be very
interesting to have complete with their pith and bark and especially
with a branch in flower or fruit preserved in herbal which facilitates
the determination of their scientific appellation. With the exception
of a small number of woods of Brazil, which we have received in this
manner, we have every thing to ask in this respect from Brazil as well
as from Guyana and the Antilles, and samples suited to clear up the
history different sorts of cabinet woods, fron woods, pallissander,
yellow woods, etc. would be of great interest. We shall cite, besides,
the wood of the fig-tree sycomore of Egypt, employed by the ancient
Egyptians, those of the Meliacees or Cedrelacees of India, that of the
Flindersia of New Holland.

Under the point of view of vegetable anatomy, the other trees, which
do not furnish woods employed in the arts, are not less interesting,
and all should be collected; but the branches need not be so large,
say from 8 to 10 centimetres in diameter. The countries which have not
yet added anything to the collection, and in which are to be found the
objects that we want, are in the ancient continent, Arabia, Persia,
but, above all, China, Cochinchina and the great isles of Asia; New
Holland and Van Diemen's Land, whose vegetation is peculiar and from
which we have as yet scarce a single sample of wood; Senegal, the Cape
of Good Hope, Madagascar and Abyssinia: in the New Continent, Mexico
and California, Peru, Colombia and the Magellan. In these different
localities, should be procured not only specimens of wood from large
trees, but the principal stalks of shrubs and of the great ligneous
plants which never obtain the same size in our climate. But among the
dicotyledonous vegetables there is none that merit the attention of
naturalists as the creeping ligneous plants known as so much lianes.
Almost all these plants present a remarkable structure, more or less
anomalous, which may throw a light on the mode of increase and
nourishment of vegetables. Samples of these fruits, collected by MM.
Gaudichaud, Perrottet, Guillemin, Melinon, have already suggested
valuable ideas. But there are yet many gaps to fill up, and persons
living in warm countries could supply us with important documents, by
collecting not only portions of all these plants but by sending pieces
if the stalks of sufficient size taken from the foot of the oldest
trees with the roots of younger trunks; young branches of from one to
two years old and branches with leaves and flowers dried botanically.
The essential point would be for each kind to have the succession of
its different ages from the branches of the first year with their
leaves, flowers and fruits up to the oldest trunks; and the samples
should be easily gathered when the great trees are cut down in the
forest, round which twine these parasites. The common names which they
bear in their country should be marked with care both for the creepers
and the trees as well as the virtues ascribed to them, and the uses to
which they are applied. It is essential for most of the parasites,
even when they are not of large size, and especially of those which
contain much water, like the trunks of the Cissus, to cut directly
pieces some centimetres thick, as their organisation is better
preserved than that of the larger trunks.

All the different pieces coming from one trunk should be labelled with
the same number.


_Production of vegetables._

We comprehend under this designation all the parts of vegetables or
products of the vegetable kingdom, which are of sufficient interest to
merit collection; such as vegetable fibre employed in the fabrication
of tissues or cordages; natural tissues coming from the preparation of
the bark of trees; paper, made directly from certain plants; starches,
with the starch prepared at the place where the plant grows, tubercles
root, branches and seeds from which it is extracted; gums, sugars,
resins, vegetable wax, and other concrete sugars elaborated by
vegetables; dye stuffs; besides, roots, barks, leaves or fruit, used
either in medicine or the industrial arts.

It is essential, as much as possible, to join to these objects, with a
label of the same number, a sample in a herbal of the plants which
produce them; and to give the common name both of the plant and the
stuff used, and the uses to which it is applied.

Samples gathered with these precautions in the countries where these
products are developed would be interesting even for the objects which
generally arrive in Europe through commerce; for, in great number of
cases, the origin of these stuffs is obscure, the distinction of their
kind and different qualifies very difficult, and many of them are
adulterated by falsifications or secondary preparations.

It would be well to send a sufficient quantity of each of these stuffs
for certain experiments which may be judged interesting; from one to
two kilogrammes would generally be a suitable quantity.

The stuffs that are liable to be attacked by insects should by placed,
well dried, in boxes, bottles or earthern jars perfectly sealed.

_Specimens relating to vegetable anatomy and physiology._--Many
objects useful for extending the study of these branches of botany are
comprehended in the collections of trunks, fruits and dried plants
which we have already particularised; we recommend here, under this
special tittle, the collection of samples which would show the
deviation from the usual structure of vegetables, or those which must
be preserved in a particular manner in order to be submitted to
observation. Such are:

1º The results of experiments tried, frequently, for a different end,
on vegetables which do not grow in Europe--

Thus trunks of the palm trees on which are made notches or
perforations to extract the sweet sap that oozes from them.

The trunks of Dragoniers (Drocoena) on which should have been
practised these punctures for a time more or less remote.

Examples of punctures more or less entirely grown over on the trees
whose wood is very different from that of indigenous trees, such as
the very soft woods of Baobab, the Papayers, and on the very hard
woods as iron wood, ebon, etc.

2º The excrescences and other anomalies of the developement of these
woods, by knowing exactly the tree on which they have been observed or
gathered.

3º The parasitical plants inserted on the trunks or roots, which bear
them, such as the loranthus, viscum, and other parasites on the
branches, the Rafflesia hyduora, balanophara on the roots; these
samples, showing the parasitical plants still fixed on a portion of
the plant which nourishes them, ought to be preserved dry for the
ligneous species, in alcohol, for the herbaceous or pulpy species.

4º Monstruosities or anomalies of structure of flowers or exotic
fruits, preserved in alcohol.

_Fossil vegetables._--The collections of this kind at the museum (for
several years) have greatly increased, and the researches of
travellers and correspondents of the establishments will soon give
them still more importance. Up to this present time, these collections
comprehend, almost entirely, the fossil vegetables of Europe; yet it
is known that the soils that produce them are found in the most remote
parts of the world, and the comparison of fossils coming from great
distance would be of great interest for geological theories. Thus,
coal-land, so rich in fossil plants in Europe, is excavated at a great
number of points in North America, in the East Indies, in China, and
New-Holland, and is found, without doubt, in other places; the mines
of the United States have been worked with care for the fossils which
they contain, and have already supplied our galleries with numerous
specimens.

It must not be forgotten that to classify exactly these fossils
considerable number of specimens is frequently necessary and that a
collection of the varieties found together in the same soil is often
one of the most important results; that consequently, especially in
distant localities, the greatest number of specimens possible should
be collected and sent.

Specimens should especially be procured which present the stamps of
leaves entire and perfectly marked, the trunks which show still the
carbonised bark which covered them, and the impression of the
insertions of the leaves that it bore, besides characterised fruits,
such as those analogous to the cones of the pines, the fruits of the
palm trees, etc.

Coal-land, although more rich, in general, than any other in vegetable
fossils, is not the only one which contains them; the secondary
formation, and the tertiary present also numerous impressions of
leaves, of branches, of flowers even and of fruits, whose succession
at different epochs of formation, and comparative structure in various
countries of the world is not less interesting. Their acquisitions
cannot be too strongly recommended; but it is necessary, as much as
possible, to join to these fossils, the animal fossils which may
accompany them, which will better tend to determine the epoch of the
formation of the deposit which contains them.

There is still another class of vegetable fossils which, in later
times, has acquired more importance than has been given to them
before; they are petrified woods which by a new process of
preparation, permit to study their interior organisation, and to
compare them to living woods; these woods are found in the deposits of
every epoch, and in countries the farthest separated. They belong to
families and classes very different; thus their examination is very
important. It should be recommended to persons, who encounter them, to
collect them with great care, in choosing pieces which appear to
differ, not so much by their exterior form as by their interior
structure.

It is not necessary to send large samples of the characteristics which
distinguish them as regards their interior structure and especially
for the dicotyledonous woods with concentric layers; it is best, on
the contrary, to break them neatly with the hammer and to reduce them
about 1 decimetre cube. The only large pieces which ought to be
preserved are those of the monocotyledons, which as the woods of palms
and the woods which would be analogous to the trunks of the tree
ferns, for there it is necessary, as much as possible, to have the
trunk entire from the centre to the surface and in length of 2 to 3
decimetres. Among places where the most remarkable and varied fossil
woods have been found, we would cite the little Antilles, above all
Antigua, Saint-Lucy and the Martinique. The museum possesses but few
specimens from these places.

All the specimens of fossil plants, which may be addressed to the
museum, should be wrapped with care, in two or three papers; those
which have delicate impressions should be covered in their face with
cotton or lint, above all if the rock or stone is tender; if the
samples are thin and fragile, as often arrives with impressions upon
slates, they should be placed in separate boxes. The boxes should be
proportionate to the size of the samples, so as to be filled compactly
that they may not be shaken in transportation; fossil should not be
put in the same case whith dried plants or glass cases. Without these
precautions the samples would rub and the impressions be effaced.



CHAPTER III.

ZOOLOGY.


_Zoophytes, Worms and Moluscs._--The sea is peopled by an infinity of
animals soft or gelatinous grouped as moluscs, worms or zoophytes, of
which some live isolated, others in society. The greatest part of
these animals are unknown, and their study is very important, as they
give us general notions on the organisation of beings and on the
diversity of forms under which living nature shows herself.

Surgeons and amateurs of natural history travelling on board ships
might procure us a great number of these curious animals.

It is sufficient to take them with a net, to wash them well in warm
water, to put them in alcohol with the precautions that we shall point
out, and to prepare a note which indicates the latitude of the place
where they are taken, if they live solitary or in society, if they are
phosphorescent, if they inhabit a certain depth or the surface of the
sea. The colors of gelatinous animals not keeping well in liquor, it
is very important to mention them.

Rocks, sea weed, the bottom of the sea are covered with shells of a
gelatinous or flesh-look aspect of very bright colors, that may be
mistaken for lifeless bodies; yet they are formed by the aggregation
of a crowd of little microscopic animals, whose organisation is very
varied; care should be taken to remove them with the blade of a knife,
and these beds, not generally very thick, should be plunged in spirits
of wine, taking care to note their color, which quickly disappears.

It would be useful to collect numerous sponges, and to preserve them
in alcohol.

There exist, in the depths of the sea, a multitude of animals which do
not appear on the surface, and which are entirely unknown. They are
obtained with the drag; frequent use should be made of the drag from
several fathoms up to the greatest depths; that is as far as 150
fathoms.

Not less care should be taken to collect the land shells as those of
the sea. Fossil shells are likewise of great interest.

Very frail shells, oursins, sea-stars, etc., should be wrapped in
cotton and placed, each one apart in a box. It would be well to wash
in chalk water oursins and sea-stars; the greatest number possible of
these animals should be preserved in spirits of wine, taking care to
surround them with thread, or even fine linen or cotton, and,
afterwards, wound with thicker linen or several turns of thread, so as
to hinder the points or spines from falling. The madrepores of a
certain volume should be fixed by wire to the bottom of the box in
which they are placed, but these frail substances would arrive in
better order, if each specimen was placed in a box apart.

The shell-fish should be placed in alcohol. The outer shell, when it
is spiral, should be broken at the upper part, and at several points
of the spire, to let the liquor run in, so that the whole animal may
be preserved; it is possible, following this indication, to have
shell-fish in such order, that they may be dissected, even after being
a very long time in the collections.

In calm or gentle breezes, it is well to have ready a gauze net to
seize the sea molluscs, whose number is considerable. They should be
watched and drawn several times a night, for it is probable that the
spirule will be found at the surface of the water. Fishes should be
opened to find this same spirule which is doubtless caught by them;
the other Cephalopodes are not less numerous or less curious to study.

There is a class of being called marine worms or Annelides, of which
but a few kinds are known, because little pains have been taken to
collect them; these animals frequent generally the shores of the sea,
a great number live in the interstices of madrepores, several make
deep holes in the sand or in the mud. With spades and hammers they
could be easily procured; it would be necessary to preserve them in
alcohol, as the greatest part of these kinds make themselves sheaths,
it would be well to collect them and put them in spirits of wine.
Ordinarily these animals quickly change color; it would be well to
note their color; it would be always well to do this for the leeches,
whose colors disappear as soon as they are dead. The attention of
naturalists should be directed towards the lombrics or earth-worms.
These animals could be sent us alive as well as all the land molluscs,
by sending them in closed boxes containing a little earth or damp
moss.

It would be well to look for the entozoaires or helminthes of
different animals and send them, declaring at the same time the animal
and viscera whence the worm is extracted.

_Articulated animals._--Articulated animals (viz. insects, spiders,
crustacees, etc.), compose the principal family of the animal kingdom;
collections made in distant countries include generally a considerable
proportion of new-varieties and the capture, preservation and
transport of these little beings offer no serious difficulties. We
recommend in a special manner to the attention of travellers
enthomological researches; undertaken with zeal and intelligence, even
by a person who is not a naturalist, they can not fail of being useful
to science and important for the museum. In this, as in the other
branches of zoology, it is not only the large and brilliant kinds
which are more valued by the naturalist; generally it is, on the
contrary, among the small insects or those of plain colors that the
more novel forms are found; for collectors have ordinarily neglected
them, and even in the best explored regions (in the environs of Paris,
for example) are discovered varieties which, till now, have escaped
attention. As for the manner of forming these collections and the
particular indications relative to the classes into which is divided
this vast division of the animal kingdom, and, consequently, we shall
give to each of these groups a separate article.

_Insects._--What we have said of articulated animals in general, is
particularly applicable to insects, whose number is immense, and whose
forms vary beyond all imagination. The kinds differ extremely from one
country to another, often even from one locality to another, and it is
rare to find perfect identity between insects which inhabit different
regions, though often, at the first glance, no difference can be
detected between them; besides, there is no point on the globe, where
the enthomologic Faun is completly known, and although our museum has
about eighty thousand kinds, our galleries do not include half that
are seen in looking through the different collections of Europe. It
results that, in all countries, travellers who occupy themselves with
enthomology, can render themselves useful to the museum, and, in
distant countries, they should not neglect collecting all the insects
they find, even when the kinds do not appear to differ in anything
from those found every day at home. There are some parts of the globe,
which, enthomologically, deserve to fix the attention of the
collecter, either by reason of their extraordinary richness or on
account of the small number of parcels yet sent to the museum. Such
are: the west part of Africa, from the gulf of Beninso the cape of
good Hope; the Birman Empire, Assan, and even the interior of India,
whence the English enthomologist receive so many remarkable varieties;
Borneo, the Phillipines and the neighbouring isles; the western and
northern part of Australia; the west coast of North America, from
Mexico to Behring's strait, and the great basins of the Amazon.

In general entomologists content themselves with collecting insects
without studying the manners and mode of life of these animals; yet
they thus fulfill but a part of their duty, for it is necessary for
the progress of science to have exact notions on this subject. Thus,
it is well to indicate, whenever it is possible, not only the locality
where the insect is found, but, besides, the nature of the locality,
the names of the plants on which the variety is found, and all the
particulars relative to its manner of life. It would be interesting to
have samples of the products of the industry of these little beings,
the nest of bees and ants, the combs of wild bees, cocoons, etc. The
stuffs supplied by insects and used in the arts, are equally important
to collect and study with regard to their mode of production. Besides,
we shall call the attention of travellers to the alteration made by
insects in the plants they inhabit, the manner many of them pierce the
bark of trees or even the wood, eat or roll the leaves, or cause in
them, by their stings escrescences, etc. Specimens of these
alterations would be of great interest to enthomology, especially when
united with the insect that occasions them.

We urge travellers, likewise, to look for cheniles and the other
larvæ, and to preserve some of them alive, in order to obtain a
perfect insect, or, at least, a crysalis. Larvæ whose origin is
unknown would be of scarce any interest to the museum, while a
collection in which each larvæ is united whith the perfect insect
would be of great interest.

Besides the insects that live as parasites on other animals should not
be neglected.

Insects are easily caught and need few instruments. The best way to
take a great number of these animals at a time is to throw quickly on
the plants of the meadows and lawns a cloth sack whose mouth is
attached to a circle of iron, fixed at the end of a stick. By
directing this instrument alternatively right and left, even the
fleetest insect cannot get out, and all those that are caught by its
movement, are driven to the bottom of the sack; they should be taken
out one by one, either with the hand or pincers, and pierced
immediately with a pin proportioned to the size of the animal. The
coleopters should be pierced on the right wing (clytze), the
hymenopters, dipters and lepidopters in the middle of the waist, the
orthopters and nevropters a little behind, between the base of the
wings.

For the small kinds, it is better not to fix them in this manner, and
to preserve those whose shell is hard enough, the coleopters and the
most part of hemipters, for example, it is sufficient to place them in
little bottles or in flacks full of rolls of paper (or even cotton, if
paper is wanting). This way is even applicable to the great kinds and
should be employed when there is not time to impale with care the
insects that are caught. The small kinds with soft shells should be
preserved in alcohol for drying frequently deforms them to such a
degree that they cannot be recognised. It is, also, in this liquor
that the caterpillars should be preserved, as well as other larvæ, and
it would be well to place with them a certain number of dried insects
so that a part might be taken for anatomical researches.

Butterflies are taken by the aid of a gauze net or pocket. The insects
are found chiefly in fields whose flowrs abound and on the leaves of
trees; but they must be sought too in dark places, for, during the
day, the night kinds are here asleep upon walls or the bark of trees.
With a little skill, they can be pierced without seizing them before
hand, and if there is fear of missing them thus, they should be
covered whith the gauze pinews, through which the pin can be passed.
When the air is calm and the night obscure, they can be easily taken
by means of torches, for it is sufficient to place a light in a low
and open place to attract a multitude of phalenes and other nocturnal
insects. But to have handsome lepidopters, it is best to obtain
caterpillars, feed them with the leaves of the plant on which they are
found, and pierce the butterfly as soon as he has undergone his
change, for the specimens caught in their flight are rarely fresh.

For the coleopters, it is not sufficient to beat the bushes and
herbaceous plants, these insects should, also, be sought under the
bark of trees, in the interior of mushrooms, under the stones and even
in the soil: for this, it is well to be provided with a paring-knife,
an instrument which is much like a carpenter's chisel, but which is
slightly curved, and ends in a kind of pointed spatula.

Aquatic insects are taken by the help of a net like that used for
insects of the air, but whose bag should be of canvass instead of
cloth. In fine, to catch the hymenopters, whose sting is often
formidable, it is necessary to have a pincers whose prongs are
disposed like rackets and armed with coarse lace.

The preservation of insects that have been pierced requires some care;
to prevent the lepidopters from injuring their wings in struggling, it
is well, directly they are caught, to press the throat down; but,
generally, it is necessary, on returning from the chase to kill
quickly all the insects that have been caught, and, to attain this
end, the best way is to place them dry in a tumbler surrounded with
boiling water, for a high temperature kills them in a few minutes. The
boxes designed for the reception of entomologic specimens should be of
light wood, and, at least, two inches and a half deep; the bottom
should be lined with cork or some other very soft vegetable substance
and the pins should be pressed in as much as possible. When the
insects are large, it is necessary, besides, to fix them by means of
several pins placed around; for if one of them gets loose, he not only
injures humself, but likewise damages all those whom he jostles. As
soon as a box is full, and the insects dry enough, it should be shut
and pasted with bands of paper on all the joints; but in warm
countries, where destructive insects abound, this precaution is not
sufficient; the boxes should, besides, be placed in a tin chest
soldered on all sides.

_Arachnides._--Animal of this class are less numerous than insects,
but they merit the attention of travellers; certain kinds live in the
water, but the greatest part are land animals, and live in shrubs or
in holes, either in old walls, or in the ground. The industry that
many spiders display in the construction of their dwelling or the
snares designed to catch their prey, is very remarkable: the nests of
the mygales, for example, is very curious. It would be interesting to
have a collection of threads spun by exotic spiders, and the
preservation of these delicate tissues is easy enough, if they are
spread out on a leaf of paper dipped in gum-water. It is perhaps
superfluous to add that those specimens would have little value,
unless each one is accompanied by the spider that belongs to it. In
fine, we will point out to travellers the kinds reputed venemous, and
those which live as parasites on other animals.

The preservation of the arachnides offer some difficulties; in drying,
those animals lose their shape, and in alcohol, their colors; so it is
necessary, as much as possible, to preserve specimens of the same kind
by both these processes, and to take care to number them so that they
may be easily identified.

_Crustacees._--These animals are almost all aquatic and the greatest
part in the seas. Crabs are found generally near the shore in the
hollows of the rocks and under the stones; but there are kinds which
hide in the sand or which live at great depths; some live entirely in
the sea. It is the same for the decapodes macroures, such as the
langoustes and the salicoes; and it is generally by the aid of drags
and nets that they are taken; but a more successful way of fishing is
to sink to the bottom an open case, a kind of basket whose mouth is in
the form of a reversed cone; some carrion placed in the interior of
this snare attracts the crabs, and when once in they cannot get out.

The small kinds of crevettines are found, in great abundance, in the
midst of the sea-weed; and to catch them, it is necessary to place a
certain quantity of marine plants in a vase full of sea-water: the
little animals that are in it quickly exhaust the oxygen dissolved in
this liquid and they rise to the surface where it is easy to take them
with a spoon.

Other crustacees of small size are found in the deep sea and are taken
in nets like the sea mollusques. Besides, there exist a great number
of these animals, who live as parasits on fish (about the gills
especially), and by a collection of them science would be enriched by
a multitude of new and curious specific form. Until now travellers
have almost entirely neglected the little crustacees of the order of
the entomostracees, which are found in fresh water; and it is
desirable that they should be collected in all localities.

The best means of preservation of the crustaces is to plunge them in
alcohol from 20 to 25°, after having wrapped them in linen or leaves.
The large kinds shall be dried, by taking care first to take out the
viscera that are under the shell; but the crustacees preserved in this
manner are extremely fragile and it is rare to preserve them entire.

_Fish and reptiles._--Although among sea fish there are several kinds
which are found in different coasts, the greatest number inhabit
particular shores and gulfs. It would be useful then to send those
that are found in countries not yet visited by naturalists and even
the common market fish.

As for the fresh-water fish, they differ, not only according to the
country, but according to the rivers and lakes where they live. It
would be well to send all that can be found.

Generally, any fish brought from a foreign market, with the name that
it bears in the country, would be an acquisition interesting for
science.

They should be put in alcohol, or, if too large, only the skin well
dried, taking care to preserve the head, teeth and fins. It is
essential that the fins should be stretched out in order to dry them
well. For this they should be glued on paper.

Reptiles should also be put in alcohol, even if their great size only
permits thus to preserve the skin, which is much better than to send
it dried. In skinning snakes, it is necessary to leave the head, and
to take care not to injure the scales. Great care should be taken too
not to break the tails of lizards.

It should be desirable to send the skeletons of fish and reptiles too
large to be sent in spirits.

These skeletons need not be perfect. It is sufficient to take of the
flesh, and, afterwards, to dry perfectly, without taking them to
pieces. The whole skeleton should be placed in a box with cotton or
with very dry and fine sand. If it is too long, it could be separated
into two or three parts.

The following indications will point out the reptiles which, in the
present state of science, would offer the greatest interest for the
collections of the museum.

   _North America_--_Testudo polyphemus_ or Gopher.
   _Cistudo Blandingii_, Holbrook.
   _Emys rubridentris_, Leconte.
   _Emys floridaua_,     id.
   _Emys mobylensis_, Holbrook.
   _Emys insculpta_, Leconte.
   _Emys aregoniensis_, Halbrook.
   _Emys hyeroglyphiea_, Holbrook.
   _Emys cumberlandensis_, id.
   _Emys conciuna_, Leconte.
   _Emys troostii_, Holbrook.
   _Emysaura serpentina_, Dum. Bib. (large ones).
   _Chlonura temminckii_, Holbrook (young and grown).
   _Trionyx muticus_, (large ones).
   _Trionyx spiniferus_, (large ones).

As much as possible some living specimens of each of these kinds, as
well as of all the other chelonians; these reptiles, whose flesh is
eaten, abound in the markets of the United States.

_Rana mugiens_ or Bull-frog; (living subjects).

All the small kinds of lizards and serpents and all the batraciens
urodeles, with persisting gills.

Rattle snakes from the south which differ from those of the north (in
alcohol).

We have nothing or almost nothing in reptile from the Californio,
Yutacan and Guatemala; _boas_, the _crested basilic_ and the _horrible
heloderme_, a great lizard with tuberculiform scales, should be sent
us.

_Antilles._--Cuba nourrishes a prodigious quantity of reptiles which
are entirely unknown to us.

The museum possesses only some kinds of this class of vertebres from
Jamaïca.

_Birds and mammiferes._--The study of zoology in the Museum of natural
history is not confined to the observation of the forms of animals, to
the description of their organs; it proposes, besides, to examine
their habits, their development, their instinct, and to see if they
can be of any use. Formerly, nothing could be learnt of these
essential objects but by the relations of travellers. Establishments
formed at great expense by princes or rich amateurs to collect and
take care of rare animals, were rather objects of luxury and curiosity
than an object of study. But since we have had a menagerie at the
museum, a new career of observation is open to naturalists. There,
animals can be followed in all degrees of their developments, and
their manner of living can be compared with their organisation, that
anatomy discovers after death; positive knowledge, acquired on the so
important phenomena of copulation, gestation, birth; the varieties
which depend on age distinguished from those which are produced by
climate, nourishment, by crossing races, and the difference determined
which really exists between species. If these animals are of a nature
to render services to domestic economy or agriculture, and if they
breed there are the means to raise and domesticate them, and, so, to
procure new resources. The Vigogne, the Lama, the Alpaca, the Tapir,
the kanguroo, the Casoar and many others, will pershaps one day be
very useful.

Considered with relation to science, there are few animals strangers
to Europe which are not useful as a study. The history of the greatest
part of them is yet very incomplete. That of the lion was not well
known until after the lionness of the menagerie had whelps; it is also
since two elephants have died ad the menagerie of the museum that an
exact knowledge of the anatomy of this great quadruped has been
acquired.

Travellers cannot be too strongly recommended to neglect nothing in
order to send animals to us when they have it in their power to find
them living.

The small quadrupeds, chiefly those that burrow and hide themselves in
the ground are the least known. The bat tribe are still less so, and
merit not less the attention and care of travellers.

Animals can easily be procured by applying to the natives of the
country who know where they are to be found and frequently meet them.
They can take them in snares and bring them in alive. It will not be
more difficult for them to take in their early youth the quadrupeds
whose lurking-places they know, and birds whose nets they have seen.

The younger the animals are, the easier it is to accustom them to live
in cages. They will require, at first, particular care; it will be
well to feed them for some weeks on shore before shipment, and too
much pain cannot be taken to tame them. An animal that is not
frightened at the sight of those who take care of him, is always in
better health and resists more easily the fatigues of a sea-voyage
than one who remains wild, and there is scarce any animal that does
not yield to kind treatment.

Nourishment in excess, when they are shut up, and without the power of
taking exercise, would be injurious. The surest way of keeping them is
merely to give them what is necessary.

After a suitable nourishment, cleanliness is most necessary to them.
Often, on shipboard, some one would be found who will take care of
them, either for amusement or a slight remuneration. It is essential
to take precautions to prevent the animals being teased and irritated
by passengers.

As there are always difficulties in the transportation of living
animals, there is an easier way whose results are more extended; that
is the spoils of dead animals.

Quadrupeds can be procured either by sending hunters in the interior
of the country, or by applying to the natives of the country.

They will content themselves with bringing the skin, the bony head and
feet of the great animals that they have killed in places too remote
to be preserved or transported entire.

The mammifers of a size small enough to be enclosed in a jar or cask,
should be put in alcohol. Those that are too large to preserve in this
manner should be skinned, and care should be taken to send with the
skin the feet and head, with the brain taken out, or if that cannot be
done, the jaws, at least, should be sent. In preparing the head, care
should be taken not to damage the skull. The brain can be extracted
with care without increasing the occipital hole.

We shall speak, further on, of the means to be employed and the
precautions to be taken for the preservation of the skins and for that
of animals placed in alchool.

When the skeleton of the animals can be joined to the skin, a great
service will be rendered to science. The officers can entrust with
this care the surgeons of the ships, for whom this operation will be
easy.

It is not necessary that the skeletons should be set up. After having
boiled the bones, taken of the flesh and dried them well, all those of
the same animal should be put in a cloth-sack with moss, sea-weed,
rolls of paper, or some other soft and dry matter that they may not
rub one agains the other. Those that are very frail should be
enveloped with paper and care should be taken not to lose any.

Hunters ought to take care to proportion their shot to the size of the
birds, so as not to injure them. As soon as a bird is killed, the
blood should be staunched as soon as possible, and a little cotton
placed in the bill and nostrils of the bird, so that the blood that
comes out may not injure the feathers, especially those of the head.
If blood has been spilt on the feathers, dust should be put on them
and renewed until they are dry; they can be made bright by rubbing
them lightly between the fingers. After the bird is cold and the blood
coagulated, it should be taken by the claws and tail, to place it in a
bein of paper; these beins are arranged in a box, so that the feathers
may not rub.

Birds should be skinned like quadrupeds, and care should be taken to
preserve with the same precautions the bills and heads. Birds should
be skinned more promptly than quadrupeds, because as soon as
putrefactions begins, the feathers fall off. In opening the skin on
the belly, care should be taken to separate the feathers _so that they
be not injured_. Plaster or dust should always be put on the skin, in
order to thoroughly absorb the moisture. The coccygis should be left
with the skin; without this, the feathers of the tail are in danger of
falling off. It will be the same with the bones of the extremities of
the wings. If the bird has a fleshy crest, the head should be
preserved in alcohol. When there are several specimens of the same
class, it will always be useful to send one in this liquor.

It is desirable to procure, at the same time, the male and female, and
specimens of the same kind, some young, others old, birds differing
much according to their age. It is well to have also the eggs and
nests. To preserve the eggs, a little hole is made at both ends, they
are emptied and packed in bran or very fine dust. Care should be taken
to indicate by numbers corresponding to those of the skin that laid
them. Without this, these sorts of collections are useless. The same
precaution should be taken with the nests, which should always be
packed in a different box from the eggs.

The skeleton of birds too large to be put in liquor should be sent, if
possible.

It is useless to stuff birds. They take up too much room; and this
operation, which can only be well done by experienced persons, it is
better to postpone till they arrive at the place of their destination.
It is enough that the skins be prepared and well preserved.

After having pointed out, in a general manner, what would enrich our
collections, we think it necessary to specify the animals, whose
existence is known, which the museum is without, or has not in good
order, or desires to procure.

_North America_.--All the mammiferes which resemble our mole preserved
in alcohol.

   The grizzly bear of the mountains; grown and young.
   The empetra and all the marmots, especially the small kinds.
   The different kinds of condylures.
   The saccomys.
   The kinds _pseudostoma_ and _diplostoma_ of American naturalists.
   The bearich porcupine, hedge-hog.
   The lemming of Hudson's bay.
   The wolf and carnivorous animals of the same region.
   The antelope of the rocky mountains.
   The mountain sheep.
   The different kinds of foxes.
   The ovibos or musk ox, an animal yet scarcely known in Europe.


Labelling and packing collections.

It is desirable that each one of the animals sent as skin, skeleton,
or in alcohol, should be accompanied by a note which indicates with
precision:

   The country where the animals is found;
   Upon what it lives;
   Its habits, if they are known;
   Its common name;
   If it is useful or otherwise;
   The uses of its skins, flesh, grease, etc.;
   Popular and superstitions opinions concerning it among the native of
   the country;
   Its sex and age, if these are known;
   The season in which it has been taken.

These notes written in a little note-book should have each a number
corresponding to that attached to the objects to which they relate.

That there may be no confusion with regard to the place where the
objects and notes are deposited, it would be for the person who sends
them to verify all the numbers and arrange them in such a manner that
they form a series, so that it may be certain that such a butterfly
belongs to such a crysalis, such a shell-fish to such a shell. These
numbers shoul be written on parchment or squares of lead, attached
with strong thread, either to skins inclosed in boxes or to jars or
casks containing animals. It is easy to have the numbers distinctly
marked on bits of lead; then they will be no uncertainly about the
characters.

Thin pieces of tin can also be used with the numbers engraved with a
steel-point and these can be attached to animals immersed in alcohol.

A little cord with knots should be attached to objects thus preserved
and to those which are in bones and very dry. These knots form two
series separated by an interval; the first series marks the 10th, the
second, the units; by this means any number can be specified. We even
know by experience that the same of an object written with ink on a
piece of parchment can be attached with a thread; alcohol does not
alter it.

We have now to speak of the means of packing the objects of zoology,
so that they may arrive in France in a better state of preservation.

Objects sent are either parts of animals, or entire animals preserved
in alchool.

The skins of animals and birds may be attacked by Dermestes and other
analogous insects, in warm countries especially, unless great care is
taken to prevent it.

The surest means is to use the arsenic preservative known by the name
of Becoeur's soap.

This is the preservative employed in the museum and its success is
certain. It is well to use it especially for rare and precious
specimens, about whose preservation there is any cause of anxiety. It
is wise to plaster the skins of birds with it, especially the claws
and bill.

It is well, likewise, to plaster the naked parts of quadrupeds, such
as the face and hands of apes.

Each bird or quadruped of small or middling size, thus prepared, and
in the inside of which a little cotton is put, not to give it a form,
but that the different parts of the skin need not touch, should be
placed in a sack or enveloped in paper well closed, and these sacks
should be ranged in a box, which should be well pointed, so that not
only dampness but even air may be excluded.

The skins of large animals, too thick to be preserved by means of
arsenical soap, should be rubbed whith salt. The skin of the animal
should be stretched, covered carefully with salt within and without,
and when, after several days it is sufficiently saturated, it should
be folded with the epiderm inside, and put in a box, or simply wrapped
in cloth, straw or any other dry substance, and keept as much as
possible beyond the reach of dampness.

The means that we have pointed out are simple, easy and require little
time.

We come now to the way of preserving animals in alcohol.

If they are quadrupeds, birds, reptiles or fish of considerable size,
each specimen should be wrapped in linen tied round the body with
thread; if the animals are very small like mice, small vipers,
shell-fish or worms, the linen should be large; a certain number of
these animals are placed upon it so that they do not touch; then the
linen is rolled upon it self, so as to make a doll sowed with thread,
that it may not unwind; afterwards, place the bundles side by side in
a cask. When the cask is full, so that the bundles are packed close,
it should be filled with brandy, rum or whiskey; generally some strong
liquor; afterwards it should be pitched with care, so that the liquor
may not escape. This method has two advantages: 1º animals wrapped in
linen cannot tear each other with their nails or spines; 2º the linen
having imbibed the alcohol, if the cask leakes, the animal will not be
entirely dry; and when the casks are opened, as they should be several
times on a long voyage, there be an opportunity of filling them again
with alcohol.

The spirituous liquor be from 16 to 22° of the areometer of Baumé;
stronger, it destroys the colors of animals; it is used at 22° only
for mammifers. All spirituous liquor are equally good. The color less
are preferable.

Before wrapping vertebrated animals in cloth, an incision should be
made in the breast and abdomen, to let the liquor run in the inside of
the body. The opening should be very small, in the side, and not in
the middle. If the mammifers are large, it is well to pour the alchool
in the intestinal canal, either by the mouth or anus.

It is well to renew the liquor, after the animal has remained in it
some time: this precaution is absolutely necessary, when there is
several animals in the cask; if it is neglected, they may corrupt.

It is well to arrange the animals so that they may not touch the
bottom of the cask.



INSTRUCTION

RELATIVE

TO ZOOLOGY AN ANTHROPOLOGY

By M. ISIDORE GEOFFROY SAINT-HILAIRE.


_Generation of the Pouch-Animals._--Mexico and expecially Brazil
produce, as it is known, several varieties of the Marsupial Mammifers,
all the family of the Didelphides, but some, such as the Didelphes,
provided with a true pouch, other, such as the Micoures and the
Hermiures, without pouch properly so called, doubtless it will be
possible to procure live specimens of both sexes. We cannot too
strongly urge the naturalist to neglect nothing to clear up the
mystery, yet but partially penetrated, of the manner these mammifers
reproduce kind. We are far indeed, from the period, when it was
believed that the animals were formed at the dugs of their dams. The
labors of Hunter, Home, Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire de Blainville and other
observers, have long since removed from science this inadmissible
anomaly; some years ago, M. Owen, having the fortunate opportunity of
examining the uterus of a female Kanguroo, that died in bringing
forth, and of dissecting the embryo it contained has developped
several facts of great interest.

But the intra-uterine gestation of the marsupials, and the second
singular gestation peculiar to them, still remain new and important
subjects of study for anatomy and comparative physiology. Animals or
parts of animals sent in alcohol from America, the Indian Archipelago,
or New-Holland, some cases of reproduction occuring in Paris and
London, such are the imperfect elements which the French and English
physiologists possess; their efforts to procure a certain number of
specimens have always been unsuccessful. This determined Geoffroy
Saint-Hilaire to draw up in 1824, and the administration of the museum
to send to all the countries where the Marsupials are found, detailed
information on the state of the question at that time, and of the
researches imperiously required by the wants of science from observers
in those regions.

1º If learned naturalists could send a series, so that the evolution
of the ovula, the embryo, and the egg could be studied from its
fecundation to its discharge from the uterus, they would thus supply
Zootomists with all the elements of the great work we have just
pointed out.

2º To observe with care the circumstances of the passage of the foetus
to the vagina of the pouch.

3º To describe in the most accurate manner the way the foetus clings
to the teat. They should determine this by observations of several
specimens of different ages, and repeat, if possible, on the
Didelphides, the curious experiments made by Collie and Morgan on the
mammary foetus of a Marsurpial of an entirely different family.

4º To determine exactly and analyse the liquids contained in the
breasts of the dam, and the digestive organs of the mammary foetus.

5º To examine in the living subjects the remarkable arrangement of the
respiratory organs, discovered by Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, which
establish a connexion between the posterior nostrils and the cavity of
the larynx.

We are entirely without notions concerning the abdominal folds, which,
in this kind, take the place of the pouch, in a certain degree, and
know nothing of the modifications these folds pass through in the
different epochs of gestation.

_Anthropology_.--The countries to which these instructions are
adressed to are doubtless among those where naturalists can collect
the greatest number of interesting facts for this branch of natural
history, formerly neglected and to which has been given, for some
years past, an impulse worthy of its high importance. In Mexico and in
the United States three of the principal human races are found
together; the race peculiar to America, the Caucasian race from
different countries of Europe, and the Ethiopian carried over in its
train. All these races cross-breed, and from the crossing of the
half-breeds with them and each other, result many curious
combinations, whose scientific study is of the highest interest.

It has unhappily been, for a longtime, as difficult as it is
important. If the plain and marked characteristics of the two animal
species often disappear; if a skilful analysis, enlightened by direct
comparison with analogous objects, can alone discover them, how can
the anthropologist size between two neighbouring types, express and
transmit by description, light, fleeting distinctions, some times
invisible for him, who has not the habit of observing them?

Three inventions or new application, made almost simultaneously, have
happily removed part of the great difficulties, and opened a new era
in the natural history of man; the daguerreotype, which fixes and
engraves with geometrical precision, the general shape of the body and
the features of the face; the Cephalometer of Antelme M. D. which
measures and sketches with a process almost as exact, the dimensions
and forms of the head, and enables one to determine, as nearly as
possible, the mean dimensions and typical form of the head of a people
the sex and age: in fine, the perfection and happy application to
anthropology of the process of moulding, performed directly, or by the
aid of the ingenious physonotype of M. Sauvage; a process by which the
whole head and, if necessary, the members of the body are preserved
and placed before our eys.

We have the hope that, with the aid of the Daguerreotype and
physionotype, the american naturalists will enrich anthropology with
results of great interest. By photographic portraits, such as those
presented to the Academy by M. Thiesson; by mouldings to be added to
the fine collection made by M. Dumoutier, now in the museum; by
colored drawnings, by descriptions and measures, they would transmit
us information of extreme precision, true scientific elements, to
which the committee would attach the greatest importance.

We think it our duty to direct the researches of the american
naturalists, not only to the different varieties of the American race,
but also to the half-breeds, yet so little known, of both, and, also,
to the offspring of the crossing of the first with the Caucasian race.
We request them, as soon as they shall have determined exactly the
physical characteristics of these difficult varieties, to neglect no
information that may enlighten us as to their intellectual capacity.

We would, likewise, entreat these gentlemen to specify exactly and
express by colored drawnings done with care, the different states of
the hues of the American races and half-breeds, from the moment of
their birth up to the period that they arrive at the normal color of
their kind.

We would desire them, besides, to collect, of these same races, their
half-breeds, and the white race, more minute particulars than as yet
obtained, on the duration and difficult phases and epoch of puberty.

_Chemistry and agriculture._--These are the principal forms that allow
the use of Caoutchouc without dissolving it and without altering the
heat.

1º Straight tubes; elbowed tubes; tubes in T of different thickness
and diameter;

2º Full cylinders, to be cut in France as wanted;

3º Rectangular plates, cut in France;

4º Caps to cork bottles and flasks.

It would be desirable to examine, in an economical point of view, the
question of the preparation of preserved sugar, transportable to
France, and giving, by a simple preparation, elastic caoutchouc.

_Dye woods and other vegetable products_.--Details on the working of
dye woods, their qualities, uses, marks, would be interesting for
technology.

It would not be less useful to send samples, branches, leaves and
flowers of the usual plants, whose products are or may be applied to
tanning; the extraction of oils, etc.

_Remains of animals._--It is known that domestic animals, transported
by Europeans to America, have multiplied and spread. It results from
this that products which in Europe and particulary in France, are
needed by agriculture and the different acts, are in great part lost
in Brazil and several countries of south America. To send them to
France or our colonies should be prepared:

1º For manure, blood coagulated by heat or lime, and dried;

2º For nourishment or manure, dried flesh;

3º Intestines prepared and dried which, blown up, might be employed to
hold and preserve aliments which might be utilised as primary matters
for different fabrications, such as for harmonic chords, whip cords,
rattles, machines, gold beaters skin and cartridge paper; applications
which one of the committee, M. Payen, discovered, by and which would
employ all the remains of intestines useless for the usage we have
described;

4º Tendons for glue factories.

There are other animal remains whose use has been long appreciated,
horns, and feet, and skins. But the transportation of the first might
be rendered less expensive by first pressing them down, and the last
are, as it is known, often attacked on shipboard by insects. To
prevent these injuries so hurtful to commerce the employment of
different substances should be tried such as pyroligneous acid, the
chloride of lime, the bichloride of mercury.

If naturalists wish to try these different processes, we doubt not
that merchants, for whom this question is one of great interest, will
assist their experiments by all the means in their power.

An appeal is likewise made to agriculturits for seed of north American
forest trees.



FINIS.



Note de transcription:
La Table des Matières au début de ce livre électronique a été ajoutée
pour faciliter la navigation. Les tables, dont l'une se trouvait sur
les pages 46 et 48 et l'autre sur les pages 47 et 49, ont été
reconstituées.

Transcriber's note:
The table of content at the beginning of this e-book was added for the
reader's convenience. The table originally printed on pages 46 and 48,
and the table originally printed on pages 47 and 49 have been
reassembled into their proper order.





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