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Title: An Abridgment of the Architecture of Vitruvius - Containing a System of the Whole Works of that Author
Author: Vitruvius Pollio
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "An Abridgment of the Architecture of Vitruvius - Containing a System of the Whole Works of that Author" ***

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     | Transcriber's note:                                      |
     |                                                          |
     | The combination "vv" which occurs at some places for     |
     | "w" and the word "Jonick" used sometimes for "Ionick"    |
     | has been kept to conserve the original appearance of the |
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     | correction of obvious typos.                             |

                  [Illustration: ARCHITECTVRE 1692]

                               OF THE


                     A System of the whole WORKS
                            of that Author.

            Illustrated with divers Copper Plates, curiously
                 engraved; with a Table of Explanation,
                   To which is added in this Edition

                  The Etymology and Derivation of the
                      Terms used in _Architecture_.

           First done in _French_ by Monsr _Perrault_, of the
         Academy of _Paris_, and now _Englished_, with Additions.

           _LONDON_: Printed for _Abel Small_ and _T. Child_,
           at the _Unicorn_ in St. _Paul_'s Church-yard. 1692.





The Introduction.

Article 1. _Of the great merits of_ Vitruvius, _and the
Excellencies of his Works_.                                 Page 1.

  Art. 2. _Of the method of the Works of_ Vitruvius, _with
    short Arguments of every Book_.                              9.

_A division of his whole Works into three parts, whereof 1.
treats of Building, 2. Gnomonical, 3. Mechanical. A second
division into three parts, 1. of Solidity, 2. of
Convenience, and 3. of Beauty. The Arguments of the Ten
Books._ 11, 12, &c.


Of the Architecture that is common to us
with the Ancients.

  _Chap. I._ Of Architecture in general.

  Art. 1. _Of the Original of Architecture_,                    17.

_The first occasion of Architecture; the Models of the
first_ _Architects_, 19. _The Inventers of the four Orders
of Architecture_, 20.

  Art. 2. _What Architecture is_,                               23.

_Definition of it; an Architect ought to have the knowledge
of eleven things_, viz. _Writing_, _Designing_, _Geometry_,
_Arithmetick_, _History_, 24. _Philosophy, moral and
natural_, 25. _Physick_, _Law_, _Astronomy_, and _Musick_.

  Art. 3. _What the parts of Architecture are_,                 27.

_There are eight parts in Architecture_, viz. 1. _Solidity_,
27. 2. _Convenience_, 3. _Beauty_, 4. _Order_, 5.
_Disposition_, 28. 6. _Proportion_, 7. _Decorum_, 8.
_Oeconomy_, 32.

_Chap._ II. Of the Solidity of Buildings.

  Art. 1. _Of the choice of Materials_,                         33.

Vitruvius _speaks of five sorts of Materials_, 1. _Stone_,
33. 2. _Bricks_, 34. 3. _Wood, whereof divers sorts are
used, as Oak, Fir, Poplar, Alder_, 35. _Pine, Cypress,
Juniper, Cedar, Larch_, 36. _and Olive_; 4. _Lime_; 5. _Sand
and Gravel_, 37. _of which several sorts, Pit, River, and
Pozzalane_, 38.

  Art. 2. _Of the use of Materials_,                            39.

_Of the Preparation of Stone_, 39. _Of Wood_, 40. _Of
Bricks_, 41. _Lime and Sand_, 43.

  Art. 3. _Of the Foundation_,                                  45.

_In Foundations, to take care that the Earth be solid_, 45.
_Of the Masonry_, 46.

  Art. 4. _Of the Walls_,                                       47.

_Six sorts of Masonry_, 48, 49. _Precautions to be used in
binding the Walls, to strengthen them with Wood_, 50. _That
they be exact perpendicular_, 51. _to ease them of their own
weight, by Timber or Arches over doors and windows, and by
Butresses in the earth_, 53.

  Art. 5. _Of Flooring and Ceiling_,                            54.

_Of Flooring upon the Ground_, 54. _between Stories_, 55.
_Open to the Air as Terrass, &c._ 57. _the Roof_, 58.
_Cornice_, 59.

  Art. 6. _Of Plaistering_,                                     59.

_For great Walls, For Fresco_, 60. _for Partitions_, 61.
_For moist places_, 61.

  _Chap. III._ Of the Convenience of Fabricks.

  Art. 1. _Of convenient Scituation_,                           63.

_That a place be convenient, it ought to be fertile,
accessible, in a wholsom Air, not on low Ground or marshy_,
64. _How to know a wholsom Climate_, 65.

  Art. 2. _Of the Form and Scituation of the Building_,         65.

_The Streets and Houses of a City to be the most
advantagiously expos'd in respect to the Heavens and Wind_,
65, 66. _The scituation of each Room to be according to the
use of it; of Dining-rooms, Libraries, Closets, &c._ 67, 68.

  Art. 3. _Of the Dispositions of Fabricks_,                    68.

_The Dispositions of Buildings to be according to the use of
the House, either publick or private; of Merchants Houses;
of Country Houses; Of the several Apartments_, 70. _Of
Lights_, 71.

  Art. 4. _Of the convenient form of Buildings_,                71.

_Of the Walls of Cities; Form of publick places_, 72. _which
were different among the_ Greeks _and_ Romans; _of Stairs
and Halls_, 72.

  _Chap. IV._ Of the Beauty of Buildings.

  Art. 1. _In what the beauty of Buildings consists_,           74.

_Two sorts of beauty in Buildings; 1st, Positive, which
consists in the Symmetry, Materials, and Performance_, 75.
_2d. Arbitrary, which is of two sorts; 1. Prudence, 2.
Regularity; which consist in the proper providing against
Inconveniences, and observing the Laws of Proportion_, 76.
_The beauty is most seen in the proportion of these
principal parts_, viz. _Pillars, Piedments, and
Chambrantes_, 78. _From these things result two other,
Gender and Order_, 79.

  Art. 2. _Of the five Genders, or sorts of Fabricks_,          80.

_The five sorts are Pycnostyle, Systile_, 80. _Diastyle,
Areostyle, Eustyle_, 81. _The Genders to be always agreable
to the Orders of Architecture_, 82.

  Art. 3. _Of the five Orders of Architecture_,                 84.

_The distinction and difference in the several Orders;
consists in the Strength and Ornament_; Vitruvius _speaks
but of three Orders_, 85.

  Art. 4. _Of things that are common to several Orders_,        85.

_There are seven things common to all Orders_, viz. _Steps_,
85. _Pedastals_, 86. _the diminution of Pillars, the
Channelings of Pillars, which is of three sorts_, 89. _the
Piedemont_, 90. _Cornices, and Acroteres_, 93.

  Art. 5. _Of the_ Tuscane _Order_,                             93.

_The_ Tuscane _Order consists in the Proportion of Columns,
in which there are three parts, the Base, the Shaft, and the
Capital_, 94. _Of Chambrantes; and of the Piedement_, 95.

  Art. 6. _Of the_ Dorick _Order_,                              96.

_The_ Dorick _Order consists in the proportion; of the
Columns, which have been different at diverse times, and in
diverse Works_, 96, 97. _The parts of the Column are the
Shaft; the Base which it anciently wanted, but hath since
borrowed from the Attic; the proportion of the Base_, 97.
_and the Captial_, 98. _the Archiatrave, which hath two
parts, the Platbands and the Gouttes_, 98. _the Frise, in_
_which are the Triglyphs and the Metops_, 98. _the
Proportion of them_, 99. _Of the Cornice, its proportion_,

  Art. 7. _Of the_ Ionick _Order_,                             101.

_The preportion of Pillars of this Order_, 101. _The Pillars
set upon the Bases two ways, perpendicular, and not so_,
101. _Proportion of the Base, divided into its parts the
Plinthus, the Thorus, the Scotia upper and lower, with the
Astragals_, 102. _Of the Capital, its proportion and parts_,
103. _Of the Architrave, wherein to be considered, the
proportion it must have to the Pedestals, and to the heighth
of the Column_, 105. _to the breadth at the bottom_, 106.
_and to the jetting of the Cymatium_, 106. _Of the Frise and
Cornice_, 107.

  Art. 8. _Of the_ Corinthian _Order_,                         108.

_This Order different from the_ Ionick _in nothing but in
the Capitals of Pillars, being otherwise composed of the_
Dorick _and_ Ionick; _the proportion of the Capital_, 109.
_in which are to be consider'd its heighth, its breadth at
the bottom, the Leafs, Stalks, the Volutes, and the Roses_,
109. _Of the Ornaments_, 110.

  Art. 9. _Of the Compound Order_,                             110.

_The Compound is not described by_ Vitruvius, _it being a
general Design, and borrows the parts of the Capital (which
is the only distinction it has) from the_ Corinthian,
Ionick, _and_ Dorick _Orders_, 111.


Containing the Architecture that was particular
to the Ancients.

  _Chap. I._ Of publick Buildings.

  Art. 1. _Of Fortresses_,                                     113.

_In Fortification four things are consider'd; the
disposition of the Ramparts; the Figure of the whole place_,
114. _the building of the Walls; thickness, materials, and
terrass; the figure and disposition of the Towers_, 115,

  Art. 2. _Of Temples_,                                        116.

_Temples divided in the_ Greek _and_ Tuscan _Fashion; of
the_ Greek _some were round, and some square; in the square
Temples of the Greeks three things are to be considered; 1.
the_ Parts, _which are five, the Porch, the Posticum_, 117.
_the Middle, the Portico, and the Gates, which were of three
sorts_, viz. Dorick, 118. Jonick, 120. _and_ Attick, 120.
_2. The_ Proportion, 121. _and 3. The_ Aspect, _in respect
to the Heavens_, 122. _and to its own parts, which were
different in Temples with Pillars, and those without
Pillars; of Temples with Pillars there are eight sorts_,
122, 123, 124. Round Temples _were of two sorts, Monoptere_,
125. _Periptere_, 126. _Temples of the_ Tuscane Fashion,
126. _The Ancients had fourteen sorts of Temples_, 127.

  Art. 3. _Of publick Places, Basilica's, Theatres,
    Gates, Baths, and Academies_,                              127.

_The Fabricks for publick Convenience were of six sorts, I.
Market-places of the_ Greeks _of the_ Romans, 128. _their
Proportions; II. Basilica's, their Proportions, Columns,_
_Galleries, and Chalcediques_, 128. _III. Theatres composed
of three parts; the Steps or Degrees which enclosed the
Orchestra_, 125. _the Scene which had three parts, the
Pulpit, the Proscenium_, 130. _and the Palascenium_, 131.
_And the Walking-places_, 131. _IV. Gates, which were either
natural or artificial, built three ways_, 132. _V. Baths,
consisting of many Chambers, their Description_, 133, 134.
_VI. Academies composed of three parts, the Peristyle_, 134.
_the Xystile_, 135. _and the Stadium_, 136.

_Chap. II._ Of Private Buildings.

  Art. 1. _Of the Courts of Houses_,                           137.

_The Courts of Houses were of five sorts, four whereof were
made with jettings out, or Pent-houses of four sorts. the_
Tuscan, 137. _the_ Corinthian, _the Tetrastyle, the
Vaulted_, 138. _the fifth sort uncoverted_, 138.

  Art. 2. _Of the Vestibulum or Entry_,                        139.

_The proportion of the Vestibulum was taken three ways, for
the length, breadth, and heighth_, 139. _Of the Alley in the
middle_, 140.

  Art. 3. _Of Halls_,                                          140.

_Three sorts of Halls, the_ Corinthian, _the_ Ægyptian, _and
the_ Cyzican, 141.

  Art. 4. _Of the Distribution of the Apartments among
    the Ancients_,                                             142.

_The Distribution of the Apartments different among the_
Greeks _and_ Romans; _what the Difference was_, 141.

  _Chap. III._ Of things that equally appertain to Publick
     and Private Buildings.

  Art. 1. _Of Aqueducts_,                                      143.

_The manner the Ancients used to take the Level exactly_,
143 _The Water was brought by Aqueducts, or by Pipes of
Lead, or Potters Work_, 144.

  Art. 2. _Of Wells and Cisterns_,                             145.

_The Precautions the Ancients used in digging their Wells,
to discover bad Water, and in making their Cisterns_, 145.

  Art. 3. _Of Machines for carrying and lifting up great
    Stones and Burthens_,                                      146.

_Machines for drawing Pillars_, 147. _Architraves_, 147.
_for raising great Weights, three sorts; first, with a
Handmill; second, with a Windlas_, 147. _third, with several
Ropes, to be drawn by Mens Hands_, 148.

  Art. 4. _Of Machines for elevating Waters_,                  149.

_Five sorts; I. The Tympan_, 149. _II. A Wheel with Boxes.
III. A Chain with Buckets. IV. The Vice of Archimedes. V.
The Pomp of_ Cresibius, 151.

  Art. 5. _Of Water-mills for grinding Corn_,                  152.

_The Water-mills of the Ancients were like ours._

  Art. 6. _Of other Hydraulick Machines_,                      153.

_Three sorts of Water-Machines; first, for shewing the
hour_, 153. _Second, Organs_, 154. _Third, for measuring the
Way by Water_, 154. _by Land_, 155.

  Art. 7. _Of Machines of War_,                                155.

_Three kinds; I. To dart Arrows, &c._ 155. _II. To batter
down Walls_, 157. _III. To cover them in their Approaches to
the Walls of the Besieged_, 158.

                               OF THE
                              TEN BOOKS
                               OF THE



  _Of the great Merits of_ Vitruvius, _and the Excellencies
    of his Works_.

There are so many things in the Works of _Vitruvius_ that do not
directly appertain to Architecture, that one would think they were less
fitted to Instruct those that have a design to learn the Precepts of
this Art, than to perswade the World that the Author was the most
knowing Architect that ever was, and a Person of the greatest Merit: He
had the Honour to serve _Julius Cæsar_ and _Augustus_, the two Greatest
and most Magnificent Princes of the World, in an Age when all things
were come to the highest degree of Perfection.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Preface._]

For one may see in reading his Works, which are full of a wonderful
variety of Matters, which he treats of with a singular Erudition, that
this great Man had acquired that Profound Knowledge which is necessary
for his Profession by more excellent Methods, and more capable of
producing something excellent, than the bare exercise and ordinary
practice of a Mechanical Art could possibly do; being compleat in all
the Liberal Arts and Sciences, and his great Wit being accustomed, even
from his Cradle, to understand the most difficult Matters: He had
acquired a certain Facility which meer Artizans have not, of penetrating
the deepest Secrets, and all the difficulties of so vast an Art, as that
of Architecture.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 2. Pref._]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Pref._]

Now as it's true that in the Practice and Exercise of Arts, one does not
always easily distinguish the Abilities of those that work in them. The
great Capacity of _Vitruvius_ before the publishing of his Book, which
he Composed when he was in Years, had not all the Esteem it deserved;
which he complains of in his Preface, and in the Age he lived; though it
was full of the most refined Wits, yet he had the fortune of others, to
find few to defend him from the Surprizes and Attacks of false
Reasoning, and from the injustice that prejudice creates, to those who
apply themselves more to cultivate the Talents they possess, than to
make parade of them.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 2. Pref._]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Pref._]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. pref_.]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Pref_.]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Pref_.]

_Vitruvius_ was a Man, who, as to the exteriour, made a small Figure,
and who had not heaped up great Riches by the practice of his
Profession; and having, as it were, buried himself in study, and wholly
given himself over to the Contemplation of Sciences, understood little
of the Arts of the Court, or the Crafty Slights of pushing on his
Fortune and making himself considerable; for though he was bestowed
upon, and recommended to _Augustus_, by the Princess _Octavia_ his
Sister, we cannot find that he was employed in any Works of great
Importance. The Noblest Edifice that we can learn that _Augustus_ caused
to be built, was, the Theatre of _Marcellus_; and this was done by
another Architect: And the only Fabrick we can find he was employed in
was not at _Rome_, but at _Fano_, a very little City; insomuch, that the
greatest part of the Architects of that Age, who had gained the general
Vogue, being so ignorant, that they did not know even (as himself is
forced to declare) the first Principles of their Art: The Quality of a
mere Architect was become so Contemptible, that if his Books had not
carried all the Marks of an extraordinary Knowledge, and rare abilities,
and undeceived the World by taking away the prejudice that his small
employ created him, the Precepts he has left us would have wanted that
Authority that was necessary to support them.

For Architecture being an Art that has scarce any other Rule to walk by,
in performing all those Excellencies her Works are capable of, than what
we call a Good Fancy, which truly distinguishes that which is Beautiful
and Good from that which is not so; it's absolutely necessary that one
be perswaded that the Fancy he follows is better than any other; to the
end, that this Perswasion insinuating it self into them that study this
Art, it may form in them a Correct and Regular Idea, which without this
Perswasion, would be always floating and uncertain; so that to establish
this Good Fancy, it's necessary to have one to whom we give great
deference, and who has merited great Credit by the Learning that is
found in his Writings; and is believed to have had sufficient abilities
of chusing well among all Antiquity, that which is most solid and
capable of founding the Precepts of Architecture.

The Veneration we have for the first Inventers of Arts, is not only
Natural, but it's founded upon Reason; which makes us judge, that he
that had the first Thought, and first invented any Thing, must needs
have had a fitter Genius, and a better Capacity for it, than all those
that afterwards laboured to bring it to its utmost Perfection. The
_Greeks_, who were the Inventers of Architecture, as well as of other
Sciences, having left many Works behind them as well in Building as in
Books, which were looked upon in the time of _Vitruvius_, as the Models
of what was perfect and accomplished in this Art, _Vitruvius_ chiefly
followed and imitated them; and in the Composition of his Book, gathered
from them all that was to be found Excellent and Rare in all their
Works; which makes us believe, that he has omitted nothing that was
necessary, to form the General Idea of Good and Beautiful, since there
is not the least probability that any thing could escape so Rare a Wit,
Illuminated with so many different Lights.

But because at present the Reputation of _Vitruvius_ is so generally
established, that all Ages have placed him in the first Rank of great
Wits, and that there is nothing necessary to recommend the Precepts of
Architecture, but to prove they were drawn out of his Works: We having
here designed to make only an Abridgment of his Works, we thought it
would be necessary to cut off many things that this Famous Author has
drawn out of an infinity of Writers, whose Works are now lost, and only
gives a short Account of the Contents of every Book, in the beginning of
this Abridgment; handling only in this Book, those Things that directly
belong to Architecture; disposing the Matter in a different Method from
that of _Vitruvius_, who often leaves off the Matter he is treating of,
and takes it up again in another place.

The Order we have proposed to our selves in this Abstract, is, That
after having given an Account in few words of what is contained in the
whole Book; we Explain more particularly what we judge may be
serviceable to those that study Architecture. This Treatise is divided
into Two Parts; The First contains the Maxims and Precepts that may be
accommodated to _Modern_ Architecture; the Second contains all that
appertains to the _Ancient_ and _Antique_ Architectures; which, though
often affected, have little that's now made use of, may yet nevertheless
serve to form the Judgment, and regulate the Fancy, and serve for
Examples of things that may be useful.

I make a Distinction between the _Ancient_ Architecture, and the
_Antique_ Architecture, and the _Modern_; for we call that Architecture
_Ancient_ of which _Vitruvius_ has writ, and of which we may as yet see
many Examples in the Fabricks that remain in _Greece_. The Architecture
which we call _Antique_, is that which may be found in the Famous
Edifices, which, since the Time of _Vitruvius_, were built at _Rome_,
_Constantinople_, and many other places. The _Modern_, is that which
being more accommodated to the present use, or for other Reasons, has
changed some of the Dispositions and Proportions which were observed by
the _Ancient_ and _Antique_ Architects.


  _The Method of the Works of_ Vitruvius, _with short
     Arguments of every Book._

[Sidenote: _Lib. 1. Chap. 3._]

All his Works are divided into Three Parts: The First Treats of
Building; The Second is Gnomonical, and treats at large of Astronomical
and Geometrical Affairs. The Third gives Rules and Examples for making
Machines or Engines serviceable, either in War or Building. The First
Part is treated of in the Eight first Books: The Second in the Ninth:
The Third in the Last.

The First Part which relates to Building is twofold, for they are either
publick or private. He speaks of private Buildings in the Sixth Book;
and as to that which relates to publick Buildings, it's likewise divided
into Three Parts, _viz._ That which has Relation to Security, which
consists in Fortifications, described in the Third Chapter of the First
Book; That which appertains to Religion, of which he treats in the Third
and Fourth Books, and that which relates to publick Conveniencies, as
_Town-Houses_, _Theatres_, _Baths_, _Academies_, _Market-places_,
_Gates_; of which he treats in the Fifth Book.

The Gnomonical part is treated of in the Ninth Book.

The Third Part which treats of Machines, is treated of in the Tenth and
Last Book.

Besides these particular Matters of Architecture, there are Three things
that appertain to all sort of Edifices, which are, Solidity,
Convenience, and Beauty. He speaks of Solidity in the Eleventh Chapter
of the Sixth Book; of Convenience, in the Seventh Chapter of the same
Book; and of Beauty through the whole Chapter of the Seventh Book; which
contains all the Ornaments that Painting and Sculpture are capable of
giving to all sorts of Fabricks; and as to Proportion, which ought to be
esteemed one of the principal Foundations of Beauty, it's treated of
throughout all his Works.

But to make it better understood, in what Method every Book explains
those things, we must tell you, That in the First Book, after having
treated of those things that belong to Architecture in General, by the
Enumeration of the Parts that compose it, and of those that are required
in an Architect, the Author explains in particular what choice ought to
be made of the Seat where we ought to Build, as to Health and
Convenience; after he speaks of the Foundations and of the Building of
Fortifications, and the Form of Towers and Walls of Cities, he dilates
himself upon the Air and Healthiness of the Situation.

In the Second Book, he speaks of the Original of Architecture, and what
were the first Habitations of Mankind; after he treats of the Materials,
_viz._ of Brick, Sand, Lime, Stones, and Timber: After which he treats
of the different Methods of laying, binding, and Masonry of Stones. He
Philosophizes upon their Principles, and upon the Nature of Lime, upon
the choice of Sand, and the time of cutting of Wood.

The Third Book treats of the Proportion of the Temples, and of seven
sorts of them which are those called _Antes_, _Prostyle_,
_Amphiprostyle_, _Periptere_, _Pseudiptere_, _Diptere_ and _Hypæthre_.
After he speaks of the Different spaces that ought to be betwxit every
Pillar, to which he gives the Five Names following, (which in the latter
Part of this Book shall be more fully explained, as well as divers Terms
of Art) _viz._ _Pycnostyle_, _Systyle_, _Diastyle_, _Aræostyle_ and
_Eustyle_. After that, he gives in particular the Proportions of the
_Ionick_ Order, and demonstrates that it has a Proportion with Humane

The Fourth gives the Proportion of the _Corinthian_ and _Dorick_ Orders
for Temples, with the Proportions of all the Parts that compose them.

The Fifth treats of Publick Fabricks, _viz._ of _Market-places_,
_Theatres_, _Palaces_, _Baths_, _Schools_ for Sciences, and _Academies_
for Exercises, and in Conclusion, of _Sea-Ports_; and after occasionally
discourses at large upon Musick, because, speaking of Theatres, he gives
an account how the Ancient Architects, were in some places of the
Theatre wont to place Vessels of Brass to serve for several sorts of
tunable Echo's, and augmenting the Voice of the Comedians.

In the Sixth he teaches what were the Proportions and Forms of private
Houses among the Greeks and Romans, as well in the City as Country; and
describes all the parts of the House, _viz._ the Courts, Porches,
Halls, Dining Rooms, Chambers, Cabinets and Libraries.

In the Seventh he treats of the manner of making use of Mortar for
Plaster and Floors; how Lime and the Powder of Marble ought to be
prepared to make Stuck. He speaks likewise of the Ornaments that are
common to all sorts of Buildings, as Painting; and all sorts of Colours,
as well Natural as Artificial, that the Ancients made use of.

In the Eighth he speaks of Waters, and Rivers, and Fountains; _viz._ of
their Springs, of their Nature, and Properties; how they are to be
sought; and of the Conduits that are to bring them to Cities and

The Ninth is wholly Gnomonical, and teaches the manner of making
Sun-Dials, and gives an account of the Rules of Geometry, how to measure
solid Bodies. He discourses at large of the Course of the Stars, and the
particular Description of those that are called Fixed Stars.

The Last is taken up wholly in the Description of making Machines to
lift up great Weights, and others for several uses; _viz._ for the
Elevation of Water for Corn-Mills, Water-Organs and Measuring the Way as
well by Sea as by Land; but it chiefly treats of Machines fit for the
use of Building and War.

                               OF THE
                              TEN BOOKS
                        Written by VITRUVIUS.


  _Of Architecture that is common to us with the Ancients._


  _Of Architecture in General._


  _Of the Original of Architecture._

[Sidenote: _Lib. 2. Chap. 1._]

It's related by Historians, That Men, who in former times inhabited
Woods and Caverns like wild Beasts, first assembled themselves to make
Houses and Cities, which was occasioned by a Forest that was set on
fire, which drew all the Inhabitants together by its novelty and
surprizing effects; so that many Men meeting together in the same place,
they found out means, by helping one another, to harbour themselves more
conveniently, than in Caves and under Trees; so that it is pretended,
that Architecture was the Beginning and Original of all other Arts. For
Men seeing that they had success in Building, which necessity made them
invent, they had the Thoughts and Courage of seeking out other Arts, and
applying themselves to them.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 2._]

Now even as they took Trees, Rocks and other Things that Nature her self
furnished Beasts to harbour themselves under, which were made use of as
Models for the first Houses, which at first were only made of green Turf
and broken Branches of Trees, they made use of them afterwards, in the
same manner, to arrive at something more perfect. For passing from the
Imitation of the Natural to that of Artificial, they invented all the
Ornaments of Edifices that were most curiously wrought, in giving them
the Form and Shape of those things that are simply necessary to the most
natural Buildings: And the Pieces of Timber of which the Roofs and
Floors of Houses are made, were the Original of _Pillars_,
_Architraves_, _Frises_, _Triglyphs_, _Mutils_, _Brackets_, _Corniches_,
_Frontons_ or _Piediments_, which are made of Stone or Marble.

The Pillars which are to be smaller at top than at bottom, were made in
Imitation of the Boles or Trunks of Trees, and their use was taken from
the Carpenters' Posts that are made to support the Building. The
_Architraves_ which are laid across many _Pillars_, represent _Summers_
that join many _Posts_ together. The _Frises_ imitate the _Muring_ that
is raised upon the _Summers_ betwixt the ends of the Beams that are laid
directly upon the _Pillars_. The _Triglyphs_ represent the Ceiling or
Joyner's work which was made upon the ends of the Beams to conserve
them. The _Corniches_ are as it were the extream parts of the _Joists_.
The _Modillions_ represent the ends of the Sheers, and the _Dentels_
represent the ends of the principal _Rafter_. The _Frontons_ are made in
imitation of the _Firms_ or _Girders_, upon which is laid the Roof of
the House.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 2._]

There is likewise another Original of Architecture, which is taken from
the Inventers of the several Orders, and those that added the Ornaments
to embellish them. For it's the common Opinion, that the first Fabrick
that was made, according to any of the Orders, was the Temple that King
_Dorus_ built in Honour of _Juno_ in the City _Argos_. And it obtained
the name of the _Dorick_ Order, when _Ion_ the Conducter of a Colony,
which he established in _Asia_, made many Temples be built according to
the Model of the Temple built by _Dorus_ in _Greece_.

But the _Ionians_ having changed some of the Proportions and Ornaments
of the _Dorick_ Order, were the Authors of another Order, which was
called the _Ionick_, according to which, they built a Temple in Honour
of _Diana_. The reason of this change was, that this Temple being
dedicated to a Divinity, which they represented under the Shape of a
Young Lady, they thought it was proper to make their Pillars more
tapering, the better to represent the airy Stature of this Goddess, and
for this reason they adorned it more delicately, adding Bases which
represent the Buskin'd Ornaments of the Legs and Feet, according to the
Mode of that time; and Made the _Channellings_ deeper to represent the
Foldings and Plaits of a fine light Garment. They put likewise _Volutes_
or _Scrowls_ upon the _Capital_, pretending that they imitated the
Head-Dress of a Young Lady, whose Hair Beautifully descending from the
top of her Head, was folded up under each Ear.

Afterwards _Calimachus_ an _Athenian_, embellished the Capitals of the
Pillars, adding to them more Beautiful _Volutes_ or _Scrowls_, and more
in number, enriching them with the Leaves of _Brank Ursine_ and Roses.
It's said, That this Capital, which, according to _Vitruvius_, makes all
the Distinction betwixt the _Corinthian_ and _Ionick_ Order, was
invented by this ingenious Artisan upon this occasion. Having seen the
Leaves of the above-mentioned Plant grow round about a Basket which was
set upon the Tomb of a Young _Corinthian_ Lady, and which, as it
happened, was set upon the middle of the Plant. He represented the
Basket by the _Tambour_ or _Vase_ of the Capital, to which he made an
_Abacus_ to imitate the Tile with which the Basket was covered, and that
he represented the Stalks of the Herb by the _Volutes_ or _Scrowls_,
which were ever after placed upon the _Corinthian_ Capital. See Table
the IXth.

This great Artist likewise invented other Ornaments, as those we call
_Eggs_, because of the _Ovals_ in the _Relief_ which are in the
Mouldings of the _Corniches_ and are like _Eggs_. The Ancients called
this Ornament _Echinus_, which signifies the sharp prickly shell of
Chestnuts, because they found these Ovals represented a Chestnut half
open, as it is when it's ripe.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Chap. 2._]

He likewise makes mention of another Famous Author, who found out the
proportion of all the Parts of a Fabrick, which was _Hermogenes_; to
whom he attributes the Invention of the _Eustyle_, _Pseudodiptere_, and
of all that is beautiful and excellent in Architecture.


_What Architecture is._

[Sidenote: _Lib. 1. Chap. 1._]

Architecture is a Science which ought to be accompanied with the
Knowledge of a great many other Arts and Sciences, by which means it
forms a correct Judgment of all the Works of other Arts that appertain
to it. This Science is acquired by _Theory_ and _Practice_. The _Theory_
of _Architecture_ is that Knowledge of this Art which is acquired by
study, travelling and discourse. The Practick is that knowledge that is
acquired by the Actual Building of great Fabricks. These Two Parts are
so necessary, that never any came to any great Perfection without them
both. The one being lame and imperfect without the other, so they must
walk hand in hand.

Besides, the Knowledge of things that particularly belong to
Architecture, there are infinite other things that are necessary to be
known by an Architect.

For, First, it's necessary that he be able to couch in writing his
intended Building, and to design the Plan, and make an excellent Model
of it.

Geometry likewise is very necessary for him in many occasions.

He must also know Arithmetick to make a true Calculation.

He must be knowing in History, and be able to give a reason for the
greatest part of the Ornaments of Architecture which are founded upon
History. For Example, if instead of Pillars he support the Floors of the
House with the figures of Women, which are called _Cariatides_, he ought
to know that the _Greeks_ invented these Figures to let Posterity know
the Victories they obtained over the _Cariens_, whose Wives they made
Captives, and put their Images in their Buildings.

It's necessary likewise, that he be instructed in the Precepts of Moral
Philosophy; for he ought to have a great Soul, and be bold without
Arrogance, just, faithful, and totally exempt from Avarice.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 1. Chap. 11._]

The Architect also ought to have a great Docility which may hinder him
from neglecting the advice that is given him, not only by the meanest
Artist, but also by those that understand nothing of Architecture; for
not only Architects, but all the World must judge of his Works.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 1. Chap. 2._]

Natural Philosophy is likewise necessary for him for to discover what
are the Causes of many things which he must put a remedy to.

He ought also to know something of _Physick_, to know the qualities of
the Air, which makes Places Healthful and Habitable, or the quite

He should not be ignorant of the Laws and the Customs of Places for the
Building of Partition Walls, for prospect and for the conveying of
Waters and Sewers.

He ought to know _Astronomy_, that he may be able to make all sorts of

It was necessary among the Ancients, that an Architect should have skill
in _Musick_ to make and order _Catapults_ and other Machines of War,
which were strung with strings made of Guts, whose sound they were to
observe, that they might judge of the strength and stiffness of the
Beams which were bended with those Strings. _Musick_ was also necessary
in those days for the placing musically Vessels of Brass in the
Theatres, as we have said before.


  _What are the Parts of Architecture._

There are Three Things which ought to meet in every Fabrick, _viz._
_Solidity_, _Convenience_ and _Beauty_, which Architecture gives them;
by the due ordering and disposition of all the Parts that compose the
Edifice, and which she rules by a just Proportion, having regard to a
true _Decorum_, and well regulated _Oeconomy_; from whence it follows,
that Architecture has Eight Parts, _viz._ _Solidity_, _Convenience_,
_Beauty_, _Order_, _Disposition_, _Decorum_, _Oeconomy_.

_Solidity_ depends upon the goodness of the Foundation, choice of
Materials, and the right use of them; which ought to be with a due
order, disposition and convenient Proportion of all Parts together, and
of one in respect of another.

_Convenience_ likewise consists in the ordering and disposition, which
is so good that nothing hinders the use of any part of the Edifice.

_Beauty_ consists in the excellent and agreeable form, and the just
proportion of all its parts.

_Order_ is that which makes, that all the parts of an Edifice have a
convenient bigness, whether we consider them apart or with Relation to
the whole.

_Disposition_ is the orderly Ranging and agreeable Union of all the
parts that compose the Work; so that as Order respects the Greatness,
Disposition respects Form and Situation, which are Two Things compriz'd
under the word _Quality_, which _Vitruvius_ attributes to Disposition,
and opposes to Quantity, which appertains to Order. There are three ways
by which the Architect may take a view beforehand of the Fabrick he is
to build, _viz._ First, _Ichnography_, which is the _Geometrical_ Plan;
_Orthography_, which is the _Geometrical Elevation_, and _Scenography_,
which is _Perspective Elevation_.

_Proportion_, which is also call'd _Eurythmy_, is that which makes the
Union of all parts of the Work, and which renders the Prospect
agreeable, when the Height answers the Breadth, and the Breadth the
Length; every one having its just measure. It is defin'd, the Relation
that all the Work has with its Parts, and which every one of them has
separately to the Idea of the whole, according to the measure of any
Part. For as in Humane Bodies there is a Relation between the Foot,
Hand, Finger and other Parts; so amongst Works that are Perfect, from
any particular Part, we may make a certain Judgment of the Greatness of
the whole Work: For Example, the Diameter of a Pillar, or the Length of
a _Triglyph_, creates in us a right Judgment of the Greatness of the
whole Temple.

And here we must remark, that to express the Relation that many things
have one to another, as to their Greatness or different Number of Parts,
_Vitruvius_ indifferently makes use of three words, which are
_Proportion_, _Eurythmy_ and _Symmetry_. But we have thought it proper
only to make use of the word Proportion, because _Eurythmy_ is a Greek
word, which signifies nothing else but Proportion; and Symmetry,
although a word commonly used, does not signifie in the Vulgar Languages
what _Vitruvius_ understands by Proportion; for he understands by
Proportion, a Relation according to Reason; and Symmetry, in the vulgar
Languages, signifies only, a Relation of Parity and Equality. For the
word _Simmetria_ signifies in Latin and Greek _Relation_ only. As for
Example, as the Relation that Windows of Eight Foot high, have with
other Windows of Six Foot, when the one are Four Foot broad, and the
other Three: and Symmetry, in the Vulgar Languages, signifies the
Relation, for Example, That Windows have one to another, when they are
all of an equal height and equal breadth; and that their Number and
Distances are equal to the Right and the Left; so that if the distances
be unequal of one side, the like inequality is to be found in the other.

Decorum or Decency, is that which makes the Aspect of the Fabrick so
correct, that there is nothing that is not approv'd of, and founded upon
some Authority. It teaches us to have regard to three things, which are,
_Design_, _Custom_ and _Nature_.

The Regard to Design makes us chuse for Example, other Dispositions and
Propertions for a Palace than for a Church.

The Respect we have to Custom, is the Reason, for Example, That the
Porches and Entries of Houses are adorned, when the Inner Parts are Rich
and Magnificent.

The Regard we have to the Nature of Places, makes us chuse different
Prospects for different Parts of the Fabrick, to make them the wholsomer
and the more convenient: For Example, the Bed-Chambers and the Libraries
are exposed to the Morning Sun; the Winter Apartments, to the West; the
Closets or Pictures and other Curiosities, which should always have
equal Light, to the North.

Oeconomy teaches the Architect to have regard to the Expences that are
to be made, and to the Quality of the Materials, near the Places where
he Builds, and to take his Measures rightly for the Order and
Disposition; _viz._ to give the Fabrick a convenient Form and Magnitude.

These Eight Parts, as we have said, have a Relation to the Three first,
_viz._ _Solidity_, _Convenience_, _Beauty_, which suppose, _Order,
Disposition_, _Proportion_, _Decorum_ and _Oeconomy_. This is the reason
that we divide this first Part only into Three Chapters; the first is of
the Solidity; the second of the Convenience; the third of the Beauty of
the Fabrick.


  _Of the Solidity of Buildings._


  _Of the Choice of Materials._

The Materials of which _Vitruvius_ speaks are, Stone, Brick, Wood, Lime,
and Sand.

All the Stones are not of one sort, for some are soft, some harder, and
some extreamly hard.

Those that are not hard are easily cut, and are good for the Inner Parts
of the Buildings, where they are cover'd from Rain and Frost which
brings them to Powder, and if they be made use of in Buildings near the
Sea, the Salt Particles of the Air and Heat destroys them.

Those that are indifferently hard, are fit to bear Weight; but there are
some sorts of them, that easily crack with the heat of the Fire.

There is likewise another sort of Stone, which is a kind of Free-Stone;
some are Red, some Black, and some White, which are as easily cut with a
Saw as Wood.

The best Bricks are those which are only dry'd and not baked in the
Fire; but there are many Years required to dry them well: and for this
Reason, at _Utica_, a City of _Africa_, they made a Law, That none
should make use of Bricks which had not been made five Years: For these
sort of Bricks, so dry'd, had their Pores so close in their Superficies,
that they would swim upon Water like a Pumice-Stone; and they had a
particular Lightness, which made them very fit for all sorts of

The Earth of which these Bricks were usually made was very Fat, and a
sort of White Chalky Clay without Gravel or Sand, which made them
Lighter and more Durable; they mixed Straw with them to make them better
bound and firmer.

The Woods which were made use of in all Buildings, are Oak, Poplar,
Beech, Elm, Cypress, Firr; but some of them are not so proper for
Building as others.

The Firr, because it has great plenty of Air, and Fire, and but little
Earth and Water, is light, and does not easily bend; but is very subject
to Worms and Fire.

The Oak which is more Earthy lasts for ever under Ground; but above
Ground is apt to cleave.

The Beech which has little of Earthiness, Humidity and Fire, but great
plenty of Air, is not very solid and easily breaks.

The Poplar and the Linden Trees are only good for light Work, they are
easily cut and so finest for Carving.

The Alder is good to make Piles of in Marshy Places.

The Elm and the Ash have this property, that they do not easily cleave,
and that they are pliable.

The Yoke-Elm is likewise pliable, and yet very strong; this is the
Reason that they made Yokes for their Oxen of them in Old Time.

The Pine and the Cypress have this defect, that they easily bend under
any Weight, because of their great Humidity; but they have this
Advantage, that their Humidity does not engender Worms, because of their
Bitterness which kills them.

The Juniper and the Cedar have the same Vertue of hindering Corruption:
the Juniper by its Gum, which is call'd _Sandarax_, and the Cedar by its
Oil call'd _Cedrium_.

The Larch-Tree has likewise the same Vertue, but its particular property
is, that it will not burn. There is a remarkable Story of this Wood,
which is, That when _Julius Cæsar_ besieg'd a Castle at the Foot of the
_Alpes_, there was a Tower built of this Wood, which prov'd the
Principal Defence of the Place. He thought to take it easily by making
a great Fire at the Foot of the Tower, but for all this great Fire, the
Tower did not suffer the least Damage.

The Olive-Tree is likewise very serviceable, if it be put in the
Foundations, and Walls of Cities; for after it has been singed a little,
and interlaced among the Stones, it lasts for ever, and is out of all
danger of Corruption.

Lime is made of White Stones or Flinty Pebbles, the harder the Stones
are which 'tis made of, the better it is for Building. That which is
made of soft Spongy Stones, is proper for Plastring.

There are five sorts of Sand; _viz._ Sand that is dug out of the Ground,
River Sand, Gravel, Sea-Sand, and Pozzolana, which is a Sand peculiar to
some Parts of _Italy_.

The best Sand is that which being rubb'd between the Hands makes a
little Noise, which that Sand does not, which is Earthy, because it is
not rough. Another Mark of good Sand is, that when 'tis put upon any
Thing that is White and shak'd off, it leaves no Mark behind.

The Sand which is dug out of the Earth has all these Qualities, and is
esteem'd the best. _Vitruvius_ makes four sorts of it; _viz._ White,
Black, Red, and Bright like a Carbuncle.

If it happen that there be no good Place to dig Sand in, we may make use
of Sea-Sand, or River-Sand, which is likewise better for Plastering than
the Sand which is digged, which is excellent for Building, because it
drys quickly. Gravel likewise is very good, provided the grosser Parts
be taken away. Sea-Sand is worst of all, because 'tis long adrying; and
for this Reason, where 'tis made use of in Building, they are forc'd to
desist sometimes till it dry.

The Sand which is found near _Naples_ call'd _Pozzolana_ is so proper to
make good Mortar, if it be mixed with Lime, that not only in the
ordinary Fabricks, but even in the very bottom of the Sea it grows into
a wonderful hard Body. In Old Times they made use of it for Moles or
Ports of the Sea, for after having made with Piles and Boards a
Partition, they fill'd up the whole Compass of the Partition with this
Mortar, which dry'd of it self in the middle of the Water and became a
solid Body.


  _Of the Use of the Materials._

The first thing we should have a Care of before we begin to build, is,
to have the Stones dug out of the Quarry before they be used, and to
expose them in some open Place, to the end that those which are
endamaged by the Air, during this Time, may be put in the Foundation,
and those that prove Durable and Good may be kept for the Walls above

We must likewise have a great care of the Wood which we make use of;
That it be cut in a seasonable Time, which is in Autumn and Winter; for
then it is not full of that superfluous Humidity which weakened it in
dilating its Fibers, but it is firm and well closed by the Cold. This is
so true, that the Wood of Trees which grow and become very great in a
little Time, by reason of their great Humidity, is tender and apt to
break, and very unfit for Building. Which Experience shows us
particularly in those Firrs call'd _Supernates_, which grow in _Italy_,
on that side the _Apennine_, towards the _Adriatick_-Sea, for they are
great and beautiful, but their Wood is not good for Building; whereas
those on the other side of the Mountain, which are exposed to Heat and
Dryness, call'd _Infernates_, are very good for Building.

This superfluous Humidity endamages Trees so much, that we are sometimes
constrain'd to make a hole at the foot of the Tree and let it run out,
which is the occasion of the Practice which is observ'd in cutting of
Wood for Building, to Tap that Tree at the Foot, cutting not only the
Bark, but even some part of the Wood it self, and so leave it for some
time before it be Fell'd.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 1. Chap. 5._]

It is likewise easie to judge of what great Importance the draining of
this superfluous Humidity is for strengthning the Timber, and hindring
Corruption, from this, That those Piles which are interlaced among the
Stones in the Walls and Fortifications of Towns endure for ever without
Corrupting, when they have been burnt a little on the outside.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 1. Chap. 11._]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 2. Chap. 8._]

Bricks ought not to be made use of but in very thick Walls; for this
reason they did not build with Brick in _Rome_, for to save Ground; they
were not permitted to make the Walls of their Houses above a Foot and a
Half thick, which Makes about 16 Inches and a half of our Foot.

They likewise never made the top of their Walls with Brick; for the
Brick of the Ancients not being baked, this part of the Wall would have
been easily endamaged; for this reason they built it with Tiles, a foot
and a half high, comprizing the Cornish or Entablature which was made
likewise of Tiles to cast off the Water and defend the rest of the Wall.
They likewise chose for these Cornishes the best Tiles, _viz._ those
that had been long on the top of the Houses, and given sufficient Proof
that they were well baked and made of good Matter.

The Walling with Brick was so much esteem'd among the Ancients, that all
their Fabricks, as well publick as private, and their most beautiful
Palaces were built with them. But that which principally made this sort
of Building be esteem'd, was its great Duration; for when expert
Architects were called to make an Estimate of Buildings, they always
deducted an 80th. part of what they judged the Building cost for every
Year that the Wall had been standing, for they supposed that the Walls
could not ordinarily endure more than Fourscore Years; but when they
valued Buildings of Brick, they always valued them at what they cost at
first, supposing them to be of an Eternal Duration.

To make the right use of Lime and Sand, and to make good Mortar of them,
it is necessary that the Lime be first well Quench'd, and that it be
kept a long time, to the end that if there be any Piece of it that is
not well burnt in the Kiln, it may, being extinguished at leasure,
soften as well as the rest. This is of Great Importance particularly in
Plastering and Works of _Stuck_, which is a Composition of Marble finely
beaten with Lime. For if any little Pieces remain that are not well
baked, when they come to be made use of, they crack and break the Work.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 7. Chap. 3._]

The way to know whether the Lime be well Quench'd, is thus: You may
thrust a Chip of Wood into it or a Knife, and if the Chip of Wood meet
with any Stones, or that the Knife comes out clean without any sticking
to it, it signifies the Lime was not will burnt; for when 'tis well
Quench'd, it is Fat and will stick to the Knife; but the quite contrary
happens to Mortar, for it is neither well prepar'd, nor well mix'd, if
it stick to the Trowel.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 2. Chap. 4._]

For to make the right use of Sand, you must first consider what it is to
be employ'd in; for if it be Mortar for Plastring, you must not make use
of Sand that was lately dug out, for it drys the Mortar too fast, which
cracks the Plastring; but quite contrary if it be to be employ'd in
Masonry, it must not have been a long time expos'd to the Air, for the
Sun and the Moon do so alter it, that the Rain dissolves it, and turns
it almost all into Earth.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 2. Chap. 5._]

The Proportion that Sand and Lime ought to have to make good Mortar,
should be three parts of Sand that is dug, or two parts of River-Sand or
Sea-Sand against one of Lime, and 'twill be yet much better, if you add
to the Sand of the Sea and the River a third part of Tiles well beaten.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 7. Chap. 3._]

One of the Principal Things that is to be observ'd in making Mortar, is,
to mix it well. The Grecian Workmen were so careful of this, that they
Tewed it a great while, putting Ten Men to every Vessel wherein they
wrought it, which gave so great a hardness to the Mortar, that when any
big pieces of Plaster fell off the Old Walls, they made Tables of it.


  _Of the Foundation._

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Chap. 11._]

The Foundation is the most important part of the Fabrick; for the Faults
committed in it cannot be so easily remedied as in other parts.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 1. Chap. 5._]

To lay the Foundation well, you must dig till you come to solid Ground,
and even into the solid as much as is necessary to support the Weight of
the Walls; it must be larger below than above the Superficies of the

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Chap. 3._]

When you have found firm Earth to make it more solid, you must beat it
with a Rammer; but if you cannot arrive at solid Earth, but find it
still soft and spungy, you must dig as far as you can, and drive in
Piles of Alder, Olive, or Oak, a little singed, near together, and fill
up the void Places between the Piles with Coal.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 1. Chap. 5._]

In short, you must make all Masonry with the most solid Stone that can
be found for this use.

To make the Binding of the Stones the stronger in the Foundation of
great Fabricks, you must put Piles of Olive a little singed and placed
very thick from one Parement or Course to another, which serves, as it
were, for Keys and Braces; for this Wood so prepar'd, is not subject to
Worms, and will endure for ever, either in the Earth or in the Water,
without the least Damage.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Chap. 11._]

When you would make Cellars, the Foundations must be much larger; for
the Wall that is to support the Earth requires a greater thickness to
resist the strong Efforts that the Earth makes against it in Winter, at
which time it swells and becomes more heavy by reason of the Water it
has drunk up.


  _Of the Walls._

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 2._]

The right ordering of Stones joined with Mortar, which is call'd
Masonry, is sevenfold; there are three of them which are of hewed Stone;
_viz._ that which is in Form of a _Net_, that which is in _Binding_,
that which is call'd the _Greek Masonry_. There are likewise three sorts
of Masonry of unhewed Stones; _viz._ that which is of an _equal Course_;
and that which is of an unequal, and that which is fill'd up in the
middle; the seventh is compounded of all the rest.

The _Net-Masonry_ is that which is made of Stones perfectly squar'd in
their Courses, and are laid so, that the Joints go obliquely, and the
Diagonals are the one Perpendicular, and the other Level. This is the
most pleasing Masonry to the Sight, but it is apt to crack. See the
Figure A. Table I.

The Masonry call'd the _Bound-Masonry_, is that, as _Vitruvius_ explains
it, in which the Stones are plac'd one upon another like Tiles; that is
to say, where the Joints of the Beds are Level, and the Mounters are
Perpendicular; so that the Joint that mounts and separates two Stones
falls directly upon the middle of the Stone which is below.

Some Authors call this sort of Masonry _Incertain_, but they are
mistaken; for they read _Incerta_ instead of_Inserta_; it is not so
Beautiful as the Net-work, but it is more solid and durable. See the
Figure BB. Table I.

The Masonry which _Vitruvius_ says is particular to the _Greeks_, is
that, where after we have laid two Stones, each of which make a Parement
or _Course_, another is laid at the end, which makes two Parements or
_Courses_, and all the Building through observe this Order. This may be
call'd _Double-Binding_; for the Binding is not only of Stones of the
same _Course_ one with another, but likewise of one _Course_ with
another _Course_. See Figure CC. Table I.

The manner of Walling by unequal Courses call'd _Isodomum_ by the
Ancients, differs in nothing from the Masonry call'd _Bound-Masonry_,
but only in this, that the Stones are not hewed. See Figure D. Table I.

The other manner by unequal Courses call'd _Pseudisodomum_ is also made
of unhewed Stone, and laid in _Bound-Work_, but they are not of the same
thickness, and there is no equality observ'd, but only in the several
Courses, the Courses themselves being unequal one to another. See Figure
A. Table I.

The Masonry which is fill'd up in the middle, call'd by the Ancients
_Emplecton_, is likewise made of unhewed Stone and by Courses, but the
Stones are only set in order as to the _Parements_ or _Courses_, but the
middle is fill'd up with Stones thrown in carelesly among the Mortar.
See Fig. FF, GG, H. Table I.

Among all these sorts of Masonry, that will always be best which is made
of Stones of an indifferent size, rather lesser than greater; to the end
that the Mortar penetrating them in more parts may bind them faster, and
the strength of the Mortar does not so soon decay. For we see that the
Mortar which is laid in the Joints or Seams of the greater Stones with
time decays and turns to Dust, which never happens to the most Ancient
Fabricks which have been built of little Stones. From thence we may
conclude, that it is ill Husbandry to be sparing of Mortar.

For this reason _Vitruvius_ proposes another sort of Masonry, which may
be call'd the _Compound Masonry_, for it is all the former together, of
Stones hewed and unhewed, and fastned together with Cramp-Irons. The
Structure is as follows: The _Courses_ being made of hew'd Stone, the
middle place which was left void is fill'd up with Mortar and Pebbles
thrown in together; after this they bind the Stones of one _Parement_
or _Course_ to those of another with Cramp-Irons fasten'd with melted
Lead. This is done to the end, that the abundance of Mortar which is in
the middle may furnish and communicate a sufficient Humidity to the
Joints of the great Stones which make the _Parements_. See the Figure K.
Table I.

There are many Precautions to be given to make the Masonry more firm and
durable, and these Precautions are common to all the different sorts of

[Sidenote: _Lib. 1. Chap. 5._]

When you would have the Walls very thick, for great and heavy Buildings,
you must strengthen the inner part of the Wall with long Piles of singed
Olive, which serves for Keys and Braces, for this Wood being so prepar'd
never corrupts.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Chap. 11._]

[Sidenote: _Vide Index._]

It is likewise of great Importance for the strength of Walls, that all
be directly Perpendicular, and that the _Chains_, the _Pillars_ and
_Pieds-droits_ or _Piers_ be so situated, that _solid_ always answer'd
to the _solid_; for if there be any part of the Wall or any Pillar that
carrys false, it is impossible the Work should continue long.

There are also two ways of strengthning the Walls, which are either to
ease them of their own weight, or of that of the Earth which they are to

The first way of easing is in those Places where there are void spaces,
as above Doors or Windows. These easements may be made two different
ways; the first is to put over the Lintel which supports the Wall, which
is over the void space of the Gates and Windows, two Beams, which lying
or resting below directly upon _Pieds-droits_ or _Piers_ meet together

The other way is, to make directly over the void spaces Vaulted Arches
with Stones cut corner-ways and tending to one Center. For the Walls be
so strengthned by the means of these easements, that part of the Wall
which is below will not sink at all being easied of the load of the part
that is above, and if some defect should happen by tract of time, it
may be mended without propping that which is above.

The second way of easing, is, for Walls that are made to support the
Earth; for, besides the extraordinary thickness which they ought to
have, they should have likewise Buttresses on that side next the Earth,
so far distant one from another as is the breadth of the Wall; they
ought likewise to have an _Emparement_ or large Foundation which must be
equal to the height of the Wall, so that they go diminishing by degrees
from the bottom to the top, where they come to equal the height of the

[Sidenote: _Lib. 1. Chap. 5._]

The effect of these _Buttresses_ is not only to support the Earth by
their Resistance, but likewise to lessen its Efforts when it swells, in
dividing it into many parts.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Chap. 11._]

And if it be judg'd that these _Buttresses_ be not sufficient, the Wall
also which supports the Earth must be strengthned with other
_Buttresses_ within.


  _Of Flooring and Ceiling._

There are four sorts of Flooring, some are upon the _Superficies_ of the
Ground, others between two Stories, others make the Roof of the House in
Plat-form, and the last is _Plat-Fond_.

To make those Floors that are upon the Ground, you must first make the
Earth smooth and plain, if it be firm and solid, if not, it must be
beaten with a Rammer with which they ram down their Piles; and after
having cover'd the Earth with the first _Lay_ or _Bed_, call'd
_Statumen_ by the Ancients, which was of Flinty Stones about the bigness
of ones Fist, among which was mixed Mortar made of Lime and Sand. Then
they laid the second _Bed_, which they call'd _Rudus_, which was made of
lesser Stones, of which there were three Parts for one of Stone if they
were new, for if they were taken out of old Buildings, five parts of
Stones or Pibbles would be required for two of Lime.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 7. Cap. 4._]

The _Greeks_ had a way of making their Floors in those low places where
cold and humidity ordinarily reign, which freed them from these
Inconveniences. They digged the Earth two Foot deep, and after having
beaten it well, they laid a Bed of Mortar or Cement a little sloping
from either side to the Channel, which convey'd the Water under Ground;
they laid a Bed of Coal upon the first Mortar, and having beaten them
well, they cover'd them with another Cement or Mortar made of Lime, Sand
and Ashes, which they made smooth when it was dry with a
Polishing-Stone. These Floors presently drank up the Water that fell
upon them, that one might walk barefoot without being incommoded by the

For the Floors which are between two Stories, there must be a particular
care taken, that if there be any Partition below it, that it may not
touch the Flooring for fear lest if the Flooring came to sink a little,
it might be broke upon the Partition which remains firm.

[Sidenote: _Vide Index._]

To make these Floorings, the Boards must be nailed at each end upon
every Joist, to the end they may not warp; these Boards or Planks being
cover'd with Straw, to hinder the Lime from wasting the Timber, the
first Bed must be laid, made of a mixture of Mortar and little Stones a
hand breadth, which must be beaten a long time with Iron-Levers, and so
it must make a solid Crust which must be nine Inches thick; upon it
shall be laid the _Noyau_ or _Ame_, which must be at least six inches
thick: It must be made of Cement, with which must be mix'd one part Lime
for two parts of Cement. Upon the _Ame_ or _Noyau_ is placed the
_Parement_ made with the Rule, afterwards it must be scrap'd and all the
Eminences and Inequality taken away: After that must be laid a
Composition of Lime, Sand and beaten Marble, to fill equally all the
Seams or Joints.

If a Flooring be to be made in the open Air, as upon _Terrasses_, that
may endure Rain or Frost without any Damage; you must nail upon the
Joists two Ranks of Boards across, one above the other; and having laid
the first Bed, as is said before, it must be Paved with great Square
Bricks two Foot Square, which must be hollow'd in the Ends in the Form
of a half-Channel, the breadth of an Inch, which must be fill'd with
Lime mixed with Oil. These Square Bricks must be higher in the middle,
sloping two Inches for every six Foot; that is to say, a Forty-eighth
Part. Upon these Square Bricks must be laid the _Ame_; upon which, after
it has been well beaten, as well as the rest, must be put great Square
Stones; and to hinder the Moisture from hurting the Boards, it is good
to pour as much of the Lees of Oil as they will soak up.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 5. Chap. 10._]

The under part of the Flooring, and the _Plat-Fonds_, must be made also
with great Care. To make the _Plat-Fonds_ or _Flat-roofs_, in the Form
of a Vault, you must nail to the Joists of the Boards, or to the Rafters
of the Roof, from two Foot to two Foot pieces of crooked Timber, and
Choice must be made of Timber that is not apt to rot; such as, _viz._
_Cypress_, _Box_, _Juniper_, and _Olive_; no _Oke_ must be made use of,
because it will warp and crack the Work. The Joists being fastened to
the _Summers_, you must fix to them _Spanish-Broom_ with _Greek-Reeds_
well beaten. These Reeds are in stead of Laths, which at present are
made use of to make the Eaves of Houses; over these Reeds must be laid a
Plaster of Mortar, made of Sand, to hinder the Drops of Water which may
fall from above from endamaging these _Plat-Fonds_. After which, the
under part must be Plaster'd pretty thick, making all Places equal with
Mortar made of Lime and Sand, that it may be afterwards Polished with
Mortar made with Lime and Marble.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 5. Chap. 10._]

The Ancients sometimes made double Vaults, when they were afraid that
the Humidity which is engender'd, by the Vapours which mount up might
rot the Wood which is upon the Vaults. This Method they principally made
use of in their Baths.

The _Corniches_ which are made use of under the _Plat-Fonds_, ought to
be little, lest their great Jetting out, or Projecture should make them
heavy, and apt to fall. For this Reason they ought to be made of pure
Stuck of Marble, without any Plaster, that all the Work drying at the
same time, may be less apt to break.


  _Of Plastering_.

To make Plaster that it may continue a long time, and not crack; you
must take Care to lay it on Walls that are very Dry; for if the Walls be
Moist, the Plastering being expos'd to the Air, and drying faster than
the Walls, will crack.

To do this Methodically, it must be laid, Bed after Bed, or Lay after
Lay, having a great Care not to lay one Bed till the other be almost
dry. The Ancients put six Lays, three of Mortar made of Lime and Sand,
and three of Stuck. The first Lays or Beds were always thicker than the
last, and they were very careful to make use of no Mortar made either of
Sand or Stuck in their Plastring, that had not been a long time beaten
and mix'd together; especially the Stuck, which must be beaten and mix'd
till it will not stick to the Trowel.

They took likewise a great deal of Pains to run several times over and
beat the Plaster, which gave it a Hardness, a Whiteness, and Polish'd it
so well, that it shin'd like a Mirror.

These Plasterings so made, serve to Paint in _Fresco_ upon; for the
Colours being laid upon the Mortar before it was dry, pierced it, and
Embodied with it; so that the Painting could not be defaced though it
were wash'd; which would easily be wash'd off if the Mortar were dry.

They likewise laid these Plasterings upon Partitions of Wood filled with
fat Earth, nailing Reeds to them, as we do Laths, and daubing it over
with Clay, and then putting on another row of Reeds across upon the
former, and another Bed of fat Earth or Clay, upon which they laid Beds
of Mortar and Stuck, as we have said before.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 7. Chap. 4._]

For the Plastering of low and moist places, they had a great many other
Precautions, especially within the House; for as what belonged to the
Out-part of the House, they contented themselves to Plaster from the
Bottom of the Wall to the height of three Feet, with Cement.

But as to the Inward-parts of the House, when the Ground without was
higher than the lowermost Flooring; they run up a little narrow Wall
against the great one, leaving betwixt the two Walls only the distance
of a Channel or Sewer, which they made lower than the Flooring, to
receive the Water which might be gather'd against the Walls, and let it
run out; and to the End they might hinder the gathering of much Water,
by the Vapours which might be enclosed between these two Walls, they
made towards the top of the little Wall Vents to let it out, and this
little Wall was Plastered on the Out-side with Mortar and Stuck, as we
have said before.

When the Place was too narrow to permit those Counter-Walls to be made
within, they put hollow Tiles one upon another against the Wall, and
placed and plaster'd them over with Mortar and Stuck. These Tiles which
were Pitch'd over within, and were Demi-Channels, let the Water fall
down into the Sewer, which sweat from the great Wall, and so let all the
Vapours, which were engendred by Humidity, go out at the Vents.


_Of the Convenience of Fabricks_.


[Sidenote: _Lib. 2. Præs._]

One of the Principal Things the Architect ought to consider, is the
Convenience of the place where he would Build the Fabrick. This is the
reason that _Dinocrates_ was blamed by _Alexander_, for having propos'd
him an Excellent Design for Building a City in a Barren place, and
incapable of Nourishing those who were to Inhabit it.

We must then choose a place that is fertile, and hath abundance of every
thing; and which hath likewise Rivers and Ports capable of furnishing
it with all the Product and Commodities of the adjacent Countries.

The Third thing to be considered is, whether the Air be wholesome; and
for this End, we must choose a high situated place, that it may be less
Subject to Fogs and Mists; it must be likewise far from all Morasses,
because the Corruption that may be caused by the infectious Breath of
Venomous Beasts which commonly are ingendred there, makes the place very
unwholsom, unless these Morasses be near the Sea, and situated high,
that the Water may fall easily from them into the Sea, and that the Sea
may likewise sometimes overflow them, and by its Saltness kill all the
Venomous Beasts.

It is likewise to be remark'd, That a City situated upon the Sea, must
needs have an unwholsom Air, if it be towards the South or the West; for
generally the Heat weakens Bodies, and the Cold strengthens them; and so
we see by Experience, that those who go out of a Cold Country into an
Hot, have great difficulty to keep themselves in Health; whereas on the
contrary, the Inhabitants of Hot Countries who go into Colder, have
generally good Health.

The Ancients were accustomed to judge of the Quality of the Air, Water
and Fruits, which might render a place wholsome by the Constitution of
the Bodies of those Beasts which were nourished there, and to this End
they consulted their Entrails; for if the Liver was Corrupted, they
conjectured that the same thing must happen to Men that should Inhabit
in that place.


  _Of the Form and Situation of the Building._

[Sidenote: _Lib. 1. Chap. 6._]

After having chosen a wholsome place, the Streets must be laid out
according to the most Advantageous Aspect of the Heavens, and the best
way will be to lay the Streets out so, that the Wind may not come
directly into them, especially where the Winds are great and cold.

The Prospect of Private Mens Houses is made more or less Commodious, by
the Openings which are differently made, to receive the Air and the
Light according to the Quality of the Parts that are in the Fabrick.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Chap. 9._]

For the Cellars, Granaries, and generally all places that we wou'd Lock
up, or keep any thing in, should be exposed to the North, and receive
very few Rays of the Sun.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Chap. 7._]

The different Use of the Parts which Compose the Buildings, do likewise
require different Situations; for the Dining-Rooms in Winter, and the
Baths among the Ancients, were always turned to the West, for that
Situation made them warmer, because the Sun then shone upon them, about
the time they were wont to make use of those Apartments.

The Libraries ought to be turned to the rising Sun, because they are
generally made use of in the Morning; besides, the Books are not so
much damnified in Libraries so situated, as in those which are turned to
the South and West, which are subject to Worms and a certain Humidity
which engenders Moldiness, and consequently destroys the Books.

The Dining-Rooms for the Spring and Autumn, should be turned towards the
East, to the end, that being covered from the great force the Sun hath
when it is near Setting, they may be cooler about the time they are to
be made use of.

The Summer Apartments must be turned to the North, that they may be
fresher and cooler.

This Situation is likewise very proper for Closets, which are adorn'd
with Pictures for the Light which is always equal, represents the
Colours always alike.

There must likewise great respect be had to the difference of Climates,
for the Excess of Heat and Cold, require different Situations and
Structures; for the Houses in the Northern parts of the World, ought to
be Vaulted, and have few Openings, and turn'd to the South; On the
contrary in Hot Countries there must be great Openings and turn to the
North; to the End that Art and Industry may remedy the Defects of the


  _Of the Disposition of Fabricks_.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Chap. 6._]

The Disposition or Distribution of Fabricks contributes much to their
Convenience, when each thing is so plac'd, that it is in a Proper place
for the Use for which the Fabrick is Design'd; and for this reason the
Town-House and the Market-Place ought to be in the Middle of the City,
unless it happen that there be a Port or a River; for the Market ought
not to be far distant from those places where the Merchandize is.

The Houses of Private Men, ought to be differently disposed, according
to the divers Conditions of those that Dwell in them: For in the Houses
of Great Men, the Apartments of the Lord, must not be at the Entry,
where ought to be nothing but _Portico's_, _Courts_, _Peristyles_,
_Halls_, and _Gardens_ to receive the great Number of those who have
Business with them, and make their Court to them.

The Houses of Merchants ought to have at the Entry their _Shops_ and
_Magazines_, and all other places where Strangers are to come about
their Business.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Chap. 9._]

The Country Houses ought to have a different Order and Disposition from
those of the City.

For the Kitchen ought to be near the Ox-house, so that from their
Cratches they may see the Chimney and the rising Sun; for this makes the
Oxen more Beautiful, and makes their Hair lie better.

The Baths ought likewise to be near the Kitchen, that the Water may be
more conveniently heated.

The Press ought not to be far from the Kitchen, for that will much
facilitate the Service that is necessary for the Preparation of Olives.
If the Press be made of Wooden Beams, it ought to have at least for 16
Foot Breadth, 40 Foot of Length, if there be but one; or 24, if there be

Not far from the Press, must the Cellar be plac'd, whose Windows must be
turned to the North, because the heat spoils the Wine.

On the contrary, the Place where the Oil is kept, ought to be turned to
the South; to the End, the gentle heat of the Sun may keep the Oil from

The Houses for Sheep and Goats ought to be so large, that each of them
may at least have 4 Foot for his place.

The Stables must likewise be Built near the House in a warm place, but
not turned towards the Chimney; for Horses that often see the Fire, are
generally ill Coated.

The Barns and Granaries, as likewise the Mills, ought to be at a pretty
distance from the House, because of the Danger of Fire.

In all sorts of Fabricks, a particular Care must be taken that they be
well lighted; but the Light is principally necessary in the
_Stair-Cases_, _Passages_, and _Dining-Rooms_.


  _Of the Convenient Form of Buildings._

When we are assur'd of the Convenience of the place where the City is to
be Built, by the Knowledge we have of the goodness of the Air, of its
Fertility, Rivers and Ports, care must be taken to make Fortifications,
which do not only consist in the Solidity of the Walls and Ramparts, but
principally in their Form.

The Figure or Form of a place ought neither to be Square, nor Composed
of Angles too far advanc'd, but it must have a great number of Corners,
to the end the Enemy may be seen from all Parts; for the Angles that
are so far advanc'd, are ill to be defended, and more favourable to the
Besiegers than the Besieged. The Approach to the Walls must be made as
difficult as possible.

The most Convenient Form of Publick Places, is to have in their Breadth
2 Thirds of their Length; The _Greeks_ made about their Publick places
_Double Portico's_, with Pillars near together, which Supported the
Galleries above.

But the _Romans_ finding this great number of Pillars to be
inconvenient, placed them at a greater distance one from another, that
they might have Shops well lighted.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 5. Chap. 3._]

The Stair-Cases of all Publick Buildings, ought to be large and
streight, and to have many Entrances, to the End the People may come in
and out conveniently; but we shall speak of this more largely in another

[Sidenote: _Lib. 5. Chap. 2._]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Chap. 6._]

The Halls where great Assemblies are to meet, ought to have their
_Ceiling_ very high, and to give them their true Proportion, we must
unite the Length and Breadth, and give the half of the whole for the
height of the _Ceiling_. The Halls where the _Ceiling_ is not so high,
must have only their breadth, and half of their length for their height.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 5. Chap. 2._]

In vast and high places, to remedy the Inconvenience of the noisy Echo,
about the middle of the height of the Wall, must be made a _Cornish_
round about to break the course of the Voice; which without that,
beating against the Walls, would beat a Second time against the
_Ceiling_, and cause a troublesom double Echo.


  _Of the Beauty of Buildings._


  _In what the Beauty of Building Consists._

_Buildings_ may have two sorts of Beauty, the one _Positive_, and the
other _Arbitrary_. _Positive Beauty_, is that which necessarily pleaseth
of her self; _Arbitrary_, is that which doth not necessarily please of
her self, but her agreeableness depends upon the Circumstances that
accompany her.

_Positive Beauty_, consists in Three principal Things; _viz._ In the
Equality of the Relation that the Parts have one to another, which is
called _Symmetry_, in the Richness of the Materials, in the Properness,
Neatness, and Exactness of the Performance.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 2. Chap. 8._]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 1. Chap. 2._]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Chap. 11._]

As to what regards the Relation of the Parts of the Fabrick one to
another, _Vitruvius_ hath not spoke of it, but only where he prefers the
_Netway_ of Walling before all other sorts of _Masonry_, because of the
Uniformity that is in that Figure, and the laying of the Stones; As to
the Richness of the Materials, he leaves the Disposition to him that is
at the Expences of the Building; and he acknowledges that the Beauty of
the Performance depends wholly upon the Dexterousness and Industry of
the Workmen.

The second sort of _Beauty_, which only pleases by the Circumstances
that accompany it, is of two sorts; The one is called _Wisdom_, and the
other _Regularity_. _Wisdom_ consists in the reasonable use of _Positive
Beauties_, which result from the use and convenient ranking of the
Parts; for the Perfection of which, to a rich and precious Material, is
given an Equal and Uniform Figure, with all the Property and Correctness

_Vitruvius_ gives us two Examples of this sort of _Beauty_; The first
is, When _Bosses_ or _Relievo's_ are made to hide the Joynts, putting
them directly under the _Bosses_ which hide them by their jetting or
projecture, for this gives them great Beauty and an agreeable Aspect.

The second is, When we consider the Winter-Appartments, that we have a
care, that upon the Ceiling there be little or no Carving, and that the
Ornaments be not made of Stuck, because it hath a shining whiteness,
which will not endure the least nastiness; for it is impossible to
hinder the smoak of the Fire and Candles which are lighted in the
Winter, from tarnishing the beautiful Colour of the Work to which the
Filth will stick, and enter into the Crevises of the Carving, which
cannot be wiped out.

The _Regularity_ depends upon the Observation of the Laws which are
Established for the Proportions of all the Parts of _Architecture_, the
Observation of these Laws extreamly pleases those that understand
_Architecture_, who love these Proportions for two Reasons.

The First is, That they are for the most part founded upon Reason; which
requires, for example, that the parts that support and are under, be
stronger than those above; as we see in _Pedestalls_, which are broader
than the Pillars they support, and they are broader at the bottom than
the top.

The other Motive is _Prevention_, which is one of the most usual
Foundations of the _Beauty_ of all things, for even as we love the
Fashion of the Cloaths which the Courtiers wear, although this mode have
no _Positive Beauty_, but only for the Positive Merit of the Persons
that wear them; so we are accustomed to love the Proportions of the
Members of _Architecture_, rather because of the great Opinion that we
have of them that Invented them, than for any _Positive Beauty_ which
is found in the Works of the Ancients, where these Proportions are
observ'd; for often these Proportions are against Reason; as we may see
in the _Thorus_ of the _Ionick Base_, in the _Faces_ of _Architraves_
and _Chambranles_, or _Door-Cases_, with their _Mouldings_, where the
Strong is supported by the Weak, and many other things, which Custom
only hath made supportable.

These Proportions appertain to Three principal Members, which are
_Pillars_, _Piedements_, _Chambranles_; the _Pillars_ taken Generically,
and as opposite to _Piedements_, and _Chambranles_ or _Door-Cases_, have
Three parts, _viz._ The _Pedestal_, the _Pillar_, and the _Ornaments_.
Every one of these Parts is likewise divided into Three other Parts, for
the _Pedestal_ is composed of the _Basis_, its _Die_ and its _Cornish_;
the _Pillar_ Comprehends its _Base_, _Shaft_ and _Capital_. The
_Ornaments_ consist in the _Architrave_, _Frise_, and _Corniche_.

The _Piedement_ or _Fronton_, has likewise Three Parts, _viz._ The
_Tympan_, the _Corniches_, and the _Acroteres_. The _Chambranle_ or
_Door-Case_ is composed of two _Pieds-droits_, or _Piers_, and the
_Lintel_ which also supports a _Frise_, which has likewise its

The Disposition, Form, and different Proportions of all the Parts make
two things, to which all that is Beautiful in Building hath a Relation,
which is _Gender_ and _Order_.

_Gender_ depends of the Proportion, which is between the thickness of
the _Pillars_ and the space betwixt them.

_Order_, doth likewise depend in part upon the Proportion which is
between the thickness of the _Pillars_, and their height; but we must
likewise joyn to this Proportion many other things that appertain to the
principal Parts of the _Pillars_, and other Parts which accompany it,
such as are the _Gates_, the _Chambranles_, or _Door-Cases_; and other
things which are different in different _Orders_.


_Of the Five sorts of Fabricks_.

There are Five sorts of Fabricks; The First is called _Pycnostyle_, viz.
where the Pillars are very close one to another, in such a Proportion
that there is but from one Pillar to another, the space of a Diameter
and half of the Pillar. See the _Fig._ AA. _Tab._ 2.

The Second is called _Systile_, viz. where the Pillars seem to be joyned
together, are notwithstanding a little more distant one from another
than in the _Pycnostile_; for the intercolumniation is two Diameters of
the Pillars.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 2. Chap. 3._]

The Defect that is observ'd in the _Systile_ as well as in the
_Pycnostile_ is, that the Entrance of the Fabricks which are placed in
that distance are very narrow: So that _Vitruvius_ remarks that the
Ladies as they walk to the Temple hand in hand, were forced when they
came thither to quit one another, because they could not go two a Breast
between the Pillars. See the Figure BB. Tab. II.

The Third is called _Diastyle_; _viz._ where the Pillars are further
distant, the space of the Intercolumniation being three Diameters, and
the Inconvenience is, that the space is so great, that the _Architraves_
which lie upon the two Pillars are in danger of breaking; because the
Ancients made them of one Stone. See Figure CC. Tab. II.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Chap. 8._]

The Fourth is called _Areostyle_; _viz._ where the Pillars are set very
thin, there is no certain Proportion, but the distance of one Pillar
from another, is much greater than that of _Diastyle_; and for this
reason it can have no _Architrave_ but of Wood. See the Figure DD. Tab.

The Fifth is called _Eustyle_; _viz._ where the Pillars are distant from
one another by a more convenient Proportion than in any of the other
kind. The distance consists of two Diameters of the Pillars, and one
Fourth part of the Diameter: It has also this in particular, That the
Intercolumniation in the middle is larger than the rest, having three
Diameters of the Pillars; for this reason it surpasseth all others in
Beauty, Solidity, and Convenience. See Tab. III.

Although the Essentials of these five Kinds, consist in the Proportion
that is between the Diameter of the Pillar, and its Intercolumniation,
they are also different by the Proportion which is between the Diameter
of the Pillar and its height for the _Genders_ or sorts, in which the
Pillars are close one to another, ought to have the lesser Pillars; and
in that kind, where the Pillars are in a greater distance one from
another, they ought to be greater.

[Sidenote: _Lib._ 4. _Cap._ 7.]

But it's true, notwithstanding that these Proportions are not always
observ'd, and that very often, to the _Ionick_ and _Corinthian_ Pillars,
which are the smallest of all, Intercolumniations are given, which are
proper to those of the _Thuscan Order_, where the Pillars are the

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Chap. 2._]

But the Ordinary Practice is, to give to the Pillars of the _Areostyle_
kind, the Magnitude of the 8th part of their height.

As to the _Diastyle_ and _Eustyle_, the height is divided into Eight
parts and an half, to give one to the breadth.

In the _Systyle_ Kind, the Height is divided into Nine parts and an
half, and one is given to the thickness.

In the _Picnostyle_, the thickness of the Pillar is the 10th part of the
height, the reason of these different Proportions is founded upon this,
that these Pillars do seem to lose of their thickness according as they
are in Proportion great or long; and it's likewise for this Reason, that
it is thought convenient to have the Pillars in the Corners thicker by a
50th part. See Tab. II. and Tab. III.


  _Of the Five Orders of Architecture_.

The Five Orders of Architecture are, the _Thuscan_, the _Dorick_, the
_Ionick_, the _Corinthian_, and the _Compound_.

These Orders were Invented to satisfie the Design that might be had of
making Fabricks more or less Massy, and more or less adorn'd, for the
Distinction of these Orders consists in two things, that as the
_Thuscan_ and _Dorick_ Order are more massy and less adorn'd, so the
_Corinthian_ and _Compound_ are Slenderer and Richer, the _Ionick_ holds
the Middle, as well in its Proportions, as its Ornaments, being less
massy and more adorn'd than the _Thuscan_ and the _Dorick_, and more
massy and less adorn'd than the _Compound_ and the _Corinthian_.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 1. Præf. 4.]

[Sidenote: Lib. 4. Chap. 7._]

Though _Vitruvius_ hath only divided Architecture into Three Orders;
_viz._ The _Dorick_, the _Ionick_ and the _Corinthian_; he doth not for
all that forget to give the Proportions of the _Thuscan_, and speak of
the _Compound_.


  _Of Things that are Common to several Orders._

Before we treat of the Differences of these Five Orders, it would be
proper to speak of those Things that are common to several Orders; as
are the _Steps_, _Pedestals_, the _Diminution of Pillars_, their
_Channelling_, _Piedements_, _Cornices_, and _Acroteres_.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Chap. 3._]

The _Steps_ which are before the Temple, ought always to be of an
unequal Number, to the end, that having put the right Foot in mounting
the first _Step_, it may likewise be upon the last.

They ought not to be more than 6 Inches 10 Lines high, nor less than 6

[Sidenote: _Lib. 9. Chap. 2._]

Their breadth ought to be proportion'd to their height, and this
Proportion ought to be of 3 to 4; so that if the _Steps_ be 6 parts
high, which is 3 times 2, they must be 8 broad, which is 4 times 2;
following the Proportion of a Triangular Rectangle invented by

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Chap. 3._]

The Landing-places ought not to be narrower than 16 Inches and an half,
nor broader than 22 Inches, and all the _Steps_ that are round about a
Fabrick should be all of the same breadth.

The _Pedestals_ which support many Pillars of the same Rank, will be
much handsomer if one make them jet out before every Pillar like a
Joynt-Stool; for otherwise, if the _Bases_ were all of one size, they
would resemble a Channel.

If Leaning-places, or Elbow-places are to be betwixt the _Pedestals_,
it's necessary that they be as high as the _Pedestals_, and that the
_Cornices_ of the _Pedestals_, and of the Leaning or Elbow-places be
equal, and have a true Proportion one to another.

[Sidenote: _Lib._ 5. _Chap._ 1.]

[Sidenote: _Lib._ 3. _Chap._ 2.]

All the Pillars ought to go diminishing towards the top, to augment
their Strength, and render them more Beautiful, imitating the Bodies of
Trees, which are greater at the Bottom than at the Top. But this
_Diminution_ must be lesser in the great Pillars which have their
highest part further from the Sight, and which by Consequence makes them
at the top seem lesser, according to the ordinary Effect of Perspective;
which always diminisheth Objects according to the measure that they are
distant from the Eye.

The Rule of this different _Diminution_ is, that a Pillar that is 15
Foot high, ought to have in the upper part 5 parts of 6 in the which the
Diameter of the _Base_ of the Pillar is divided; that which is from 15
to 20 Foot, ought to have 5 and an half of the 6 and an half of the
Diameter; that which is from 20 to 30, ought to have 6 of the 7 parts of
the Diameter; that which is from 30 to 40, must have 6 and an half of 7
and an half of the Diameter; that which is from 40 to 50, must have 7
of 8 of the Diameter. These _Diminutions_ do not belong to the _Thuscan
Order_, whose Pillars are much more diminished; as we shall show

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Chap. 3._]

Besides this _Diminution_ which is made towards the top of the Pillar,
there is another below, which makes the Pillar about the middle swell
like a Belly; the measure of this swelling is taken from the magnitude
which makes up the Distance between the _Channels_.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Chap. 2._]

There is another sort of _Diminution of Pillars_, which is made of one
Pillar in respect of another; It is of 2 sorts, _viz._ when a second
rank is placed upon the first, for then the second Pillar must be lesser
a fourth part than those below, or when _Portico's_ are made that have
Pillars in the Corners, for those in the middle must be less than those
in the Corners, a 50th part.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 1._]

The _Channellings_ are so called, because they are as it were
_Demi-Channels_, which descend from the top of the Pillar to the bottom;
they represented the Plaites of the Garments of Women, which the Pillars

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 3._]

There are three sorts of _Channellings_, the two first are particular
and proper to the _Dorick Order_; the third is common to the _Ionick_,
_Corinthian_ and _Compound_: The two first are more plain and simple,
and fewer in number than the others.

The most Simple is that which is not hollowed at all, and which hath
only _Pans_ and flat Fronts or Faces.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Chap. 3._]

The other is a little hollowed; to make this hollowness, a Square must
be made, whose Side must be equal to the _Pan_, in which the
_Channelling_ is to be made, and having put one foot of the Compass in
the middle of the Square, make a crooked Line from one Angle of the
_Channelling_ to the other, both these _Channellings_ are made up to the
number of Twenty.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 1._]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 4._]

The other Orders have 24, and sometimes 32, when it is design'd to make
the Pillars seem greater than they are; for the Eye judgeth that all
things are greater when they have more and different Marks, which lead
as it were the Sight to more Objects at once.

These _Channellings_ are deeper than those of the _Dorick Order_, and
the depth ought to be just so much, that a Carpenter's Rule being put
into the Cavity, touch with its Angle the bottom, and with its sides the
two Corners of the _Channelling_. _Vitruvius_ hath not taught us what
the Proportions of the _Channelling_ should be, in respect of the
_Fillet_ which makes up the space between the _Channellings_, nor what
the breadth of the _Fillet_ should be, which he hath establish'd for the
rule of the swelling Belly of the Pillar.

The _Piedement_ is composed of a _Tympan_ and _Cornices_; to have the
true height of the _Tympan_, we must divide the breadth which is between
the two ends of the _Cymatium_ of the _Larmier_, or _Drip_ which
supports the _Piedement_, into 9 parts, and give one to the _Tympan_.

The thickness of the _Cornice_ being added to this 9th part, makes up
the height of the whole _Piedement_ or _Fronton_.

The _Tympan_ ought to be Perpendicular upon the _Gorge_ of the Pillar,
the things that are common to all _Cornices_ are, that the _Cornice_ of
the _Piedement_ must be equal to that below, excepting the last great
_Cymatium_, which ought not to be upon the _Cornice_ below the
_Piedement_, but it ought to go over the _Cornices_ which are sloping
upon the _Piedement_ or _Fronton_.

This great _Cymatium_ ought to have of height an 8th part more than the
_Crown_, or _Drip_, or _Larmier_.

In places where there are no _Piedements_, in the great _Cymatiums_ of
the _Cornices_, must be cut the Heads of Lions, at such a distance, that
there must be one directly upon every Pillar, and that the other answer
directly upon the great _Dalles_, that cover the House. These Heads of
Lions are pierced through to convey the Water which falls from the Roof
upon the _Cornice_: The Heads of the Lions which are not directly upon
the Pillars, ought not to be pierced, to the end the Water may flow with
the greater impetuosity through those which are directly upon the
Pillars, and that it may not fall between the Pillars upon those who are
to go into the _Portico's_.

The _Greeks_ in their great Buildings never put any _Dentels_ under the
_Modillons_, because the _Rafters_ could not be under the _Forces_, or
_Sheers_, and it is a great fault that That, which according to the true
Rules of Building ought to be placed above, should be placed under in
the Representation.

For this Reason, the Ancients never approved of _Modillons_ in the
_Piedements_, nor of _Dentels_, but only simple _Cornices_; for neither
the _Forces_, _Sheers_, nor the _Rafters_ can be represented in the
_Piedements_, out of which they cannot jet but only directly out of the
Eaves of the House upon which they lie sloping.

The _Acroteres_ are three _Pedestals_, which are upon the Corners and
Middle of the _Piedement_ to support Statues; those of the Corner ought
to be as high as the Middle of the _Tympan_; but the _Acrotere_ in the
middle ought to be higher by an 8th part than the other.

All the Members or Parts which shall be placed upon the Capitals of
Pillars, _viz. Architraves_, _Frises_, _Cornices_, _Tympans_, and
_Acroteres_, should encline forward the 12th part of their height.

There is likewise another General Rule; which is, that all the parts
that jet out, should have their Projecture equal to their Height.


  _Of the_ Thuscan _Order._

It hath been said that all Buildings have three Parts, which may be
different according to the divers Order, _viz._ The _Pillars_, the
_Piedements_, and the _Chambranles_, or _Door-Cases_; and that the
_Pillars_ had three Parts, which are the _Pedestal_, the _Shaft_, and
its Ornaments, _viz._ The _Architrave_, the _Frise_ and the _Cornice_.

Neither the Proportion of the _Pedestals_, nor of the _Gates_ and
_Chambranles_ of the _Thuscan Order_ are to be found in _Vitruvius_.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 7._]

The Proportion of the Pillar is this, that its thickness below is the
7th part of its height, it's Diminution is the 4th part of the Diameter
of the Pillar, its _Base_ has half of the Diameter of the Pillar for its
height, the _Plinthus_ being round, makes one half of the _Base_; the
other half is for the _Thorus_, and for the _Conge_ or _Apophygis_, Vid.
_Conge_ explained.

The height of the Capital is half the Diameter of the Pillar, the
breadth of the _Abacus_ is equal to the whole Diameter of the Pillar at
the bottom, the height of the Capital is divided into three Parts; one
of them is allowed the _Plinthus_, which serves instead of an _Abacus_;
the _Echine_ hath another; and a third Part is for the _Gorge_ of the
Capital comprehending the _Astragal_, the _Conge_, or _Apophygis_, which
are immediately under the _Echine_.

Upon the Pillars must be laid the _Sabliers_, or _Wooden Architrave_,
joyned together by _Tenons_, in the form of a Swallows Tail.

These _Sabliers_ ought to be distant one from another about an Inch; for
if they should touch one another, the Timber would heat and corrupt.

Upon these _Sabliers_ which serve for an _Architrave_, must be built a
little Wall, which will serve instead of a _Frise_.

The _Cornice_ which is laid upon this little Wall or _Frise_, has
_Mutal's_ which jet out.

All the Crowning should have the 4th part of the height of the Pillar.
The little Walls that are built between the ends of the Beams which rest
upon the Pillars, must be garnished and covered with Boards, which must
be nailed upon the ends of the Beams.

The _Piedement_, which may be either of Stone or Wood, and which must
support the _Faistag_ or _Top_, the _Forces_, and the _Pans_, has a
particular Proportion; for it must be much raised to give it a
sufficient sloping for the running of the Water. See Tab. V.


  _Of the_ Dorick _Order._

[Sidenote: _Lib._ 4. _Chap._ 1.]

The _Dorick_ Pillar has had in divers times, and in different Buildings,
different Proportions; for at first it had only for its height 6 times
its Diameter; this Proportion imitating that of Humane Bodies, in which
the length of the Foot is the 6th part of all the Body, afterwards they
allowed 7 times its Diameter.

[Sidenote: _Lib._ 5. _Chap._ 9.]

But this Proportion that the Pillars of the Temples had at the
Beginning, was afterwards changed in that of the Theaters, where they
were higher by half a Diameter; for they made them 15 Modules high, for
in the _Dorick Order_ the Semi-Diameter of the Pillar at the bottom is
the Module, which in other Orders is a whole Diameter.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 1._]

The _Dorick_ Pillar is composed as well as the rest of a _Shaft_, _Base_
and _Capital_, though _Vitruvius_ makes no mention of the _Base_; and
it's easie to conclude, that in the Ancient Buildings this _Order_ had
none; for it is said, That when they would make the _Ionick Order_ more
Beautiful than the _Dorick_, they added a _Base_ to it; and there is yet
to be seen in Ancient Buildings of this Order, Pillars without a _Base_;
but when a _Base_ is added to it, it must be _Attick Base_, whose
Proportion is as follows.

The whole _Base_ ought to have a _Module_ for its height; that is to
say, half the Diameter of the Pillar; this _Module_ being divided into
three parts; one is for the _Plinthus_; the other two parts are divided
into four, of which one is allowed for the upper _Torus_, the three
which remain, are divided into two: The half below is for the lower
_Torus_, the other is for the _Scotiæ_, comprising the two little
Squares or Filets. The breadth of the _Basis_ in General is a 4th of the
Diameter of the Pillar at the bottom, added on every side; but this
jetting is excessive, and without any Example, and _Vitruvius_ himself
makes it lesser in the _Ionick Base_.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 3._]

The height of the _Capital_ as well as the _Base_ is one _Module_, the
breadth is two _Modules_ and an half, the height of the _Capital_ being
divided into three parts, one must be allowed for the _Plinthus_ or
_Abacus_, with its _Cymatium_; the other is for the _Echine_, with its
_Anulets_; the third appertains to the _Gorge_ of the _Capital_.

_The Architrave_ which comprehends its _Platte-Band_ with the _Gouttes_
or _Pendant Drops_, which are under the _Triglyphs_, is as well as the
_Capital_ of one only _Module_; the _Gouttes_ or _Drops_ with their
little _Tringle_, ought to have the 6th part of a _Module_, the breadth
under the _Architrave_ ought to be equal to that above the Pillar.

Upon the _Architrave_ in the _Friese_ ought to be the _Triglyphs_ and
the _Metops_. The _Triglyphs_ have a _Module_ and a half for their
height, and a _Module_ for their breadth; the _Metops_ are as high as
broad; One _Triglyph_ must be placed directly upon every Pillar, and
the Intercolumniation ought to have three; towards the Corners must be
placed the _Demi-Metops_.

The breadth of the _Triglyph_ being divided into six parts, five of them
must be left in the middle, and the two halfs which remain on the right
and the left, must be for _Demi-Graveurs_; The part in the middle, and
the two last of the five, must be for the three Feet, and the two which
are betwixt the three Feet, must be for the _Graveurs_ or _Channels_,
which must be hollowed, following the Corner of the _Mason_'s Rule. The
_Capital_ of the _Triglyph_ ought to have the 6th. part of a _Module_.

Upon the _Capital_ of the _Triglyph_ is placed the great _Cornice_, its
Jetting or Projecture, is half a _Module_ and the 6th. part of a
_Module_, its height is half a _Module_, comprising the _Dorick
Cymatium_, which is under it.

On the _Plat Fonds_ of the _Cornice_, must be hollowed little strait
ways, which must answer perpendicularly to the sides of the
_Triglyphs_, and the middle of the _Metops_.

Streight upon the _Triglyphs_ must be cut 9 _Goutes_ or _Drops_, which
must be so distributed, that there may be six length-wise, and three
broad-wise; in the Spaces which are betwixt the _Metops_, because they
are greater than those between the _Triglyphs_: nothing must be cut
unless it be _Foudres_. Moreover towards the border of the Crown must be
Carved a _Scotia_.

Some advance perpendicularly above the _Triglyphs_, the Ends of the
_Forces_ or _Principals_ to frame the _Mutils_ which support the
_Cornices_; so that as the Disposition of _Beams_ hath caused the
Invention of _Triglyphs_, so the jetting of the _Forces_ hath caused the
Disposition of the _Mutils_, which support the _Cornices_. See Tab. VI.


  _Of the_ Ionick _Order_.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 1._]

The Proportion of the Pillars of the _Ionick Order_ in the beginning had
Eight _Modules_ or Diameters for their height, but the Ancients quickly
added half a Diameter, when to make this Pillar more Beautiful than the
_Dorick_, not only for its height, but also for its Ornaments, they
added a _Base_ to it, which was not used in the _Dorick Order_.

The Pillars must be set upon their _Bases_ two ways; for sometimes they
were perpendicularly set, and sometimes not, _viz._ The outward rows of
Pillars; when there were more Ranks than one; for that part of the
Pillar which is towards the Wall of the Fabrick must necessarily be
perpendicular, and the outward part must have all the Diminution, and
must lean towards the Wall.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Chap. 3._]

The Pillars that are within the porch, and are betwixt the Wall and the
outward Pillar must stand perpendicularly.

The breadth of the _Ionick Base_ is the Diameter of the Pillar, to which
is added a 4th. and an 8th. part; its height is half the Diameter; its
height being divided into three parts, one is allowed for the
_Plinthus_, the rest being divided into seven parts, three are allowed
to the _Torus_ above, after equally dividing the four which remain, the
two above are for the upper _Scotia_, with its _Astragal_: The two below
are for the lower _Scotia_, which will appear greater than the upper,
because it extends to the edge of the _Plinthus_, the _Astragals_ must
have the 8th. part of the _Scotia_, whose Jetting or Projecture must be
the 8th. part of the whole _Base_ joyned to the 6th. part of the
Diameter of the Pillar. See Tab. VII.

As to the _Capital_, the _Abacus_ must have in its Square the Diameter
of the bottom of the Pillar, adding to it an 18th. part; half of the
_Abacus_ ought to be the height of the _Capital_, comprizing the Round
of the _Volute_ or _Scroll_, but there must be substracted from the
corner of the _Abacus_ a 12th. part and an half of the height of the
_Capital_, and after the whole thickness of the _Capital_ must be
divided into nine parts and an half, and one and an half must be left
for the thickness of the _Abacus_, that the _Volutes_ or _Scrolls_ may
be made of the eight which remain; then having left under the _Abacus_
four parts and an half of these eight, a Line must be drawn in the place
which cuts the two a-cross and the Points of the Section shall be
_Eyes_, which shall have eight parts for their Diameter; in half the
space of the _Eye_ shall be placed the Centers through which shall be
drawn with a Compass the Spiral-Line of the _Volute_, beginning the
height under the _Abacus_, and going into the four Quarters of the
Division, diminishing till we come directly to the first Quarter, and
giving to every Quarter a particular Center.

Then the thickness of the whole _Capital_ must be so divided that of
nine parts which it contains, the _Volute_ has the breadth of three
under the _Astragal_, on the top of the Pillar, which must be directly
upon the _Eye_ of the _Volute_, that which remains above the _Astragal_,
must be allowed for the _Abacus_, _Channel_, and the _Echine_ or _Egge_,
whose jetting beyond the Square of the _Abacus_ must be of the same
bigness of the _Echine_ or _Egge_.

The _Channel_ must be hollowed the 12th. part of its breadth.

The _Girdle_ or _Cincture_, or the lateral part of the _Capital_, ought
to advance out of the _Tailhoir Abacus_, as much as it is from the
Center of the _Eye_ to the height of the _Echine_.

The thickness of the _Axis_ of the _Volutes_, which is the thickness of
the _Volute_, seen sideway, and which makes up the extreme parts of that
which is called commonly _Balisters_, ought not to exceed the magnitude
of the _Eye_. See Tab. VIII.

These Proportions of the _Ionick Capital_, are only for Pillars of 15
Foot, those that are greater require other, and generally the greater
Proportions are required for the Pillars that are greater; and for this
reason we have said, that the higher the Pillars are, the less
Diminution they must have; so when the Pillars are above 15 Foot, we
must add a 9th. part to the Diameter of the Pillar for to give the
breadth to the _Abacus_; to which is never added more than an 18th. part
to Pillars of 15 Foot.

The _Architraves_ shall be laid upon the Pillars with Jettings equal to
the _Pedestals_, in case they be not all of one size, but in form of
Joint-Stools, to the end Symmetry may be observ'd.

The height ought to be different, according to the proportion of the
height of the Pillar; for if the Pillar be from 12 to 15 Foot, we must
allow the _Architrave_ the height of half a Diameter of the bottom of
the Pillar, if it be from 15 to 20, we must divide the height of the
Pillar into 15 parts, to the end we may allow one to the _Architrave_;
so if it be from 20 to 25, the height must be divided into 12 parts and
an half, that the _Architrave_ may have one; and so proportionably.

The _Architrave_ ought to have at the bottom which lies upon the
_Capital_, the same breadth that the top of the Pillar hath under the

The Jetting of the _Cymatium_ of the _Architrave_ ought to answer the
bottom of the Pillar, the height of the _Cymatium_ ought to be the 7th.
part of the whole _Architrave_.

The rest being divided into 12 parts; three must be allowed to the first
_Face_, four to the second, and five to that above, upon which is the

The _Frise_ ought not to be so high as the _Architrave_ by a 4th. part,
unless something be carved there, for then that the Carving may be more
graceful, the _Frise_ ought to be bigger than the _Architrave_ by a 4th.

Upon the _Frise_ must be made a _Cymatium_ of height the 7th. part of
the _Frise_, with a Jetting equal to its height.

The _Dentil_ which is upon the _Cymatium_, shall have the height of the
_Face_ of the middle of the _Architrave_, with a Jetting or Projecture
equal to its height; the cutting of the _Dentils_ ought to be so made,
that the breadth of every _Dentil_ may be the half of its height, and
the Cavity of the cut which is between every _Dentil_ may have two parts
of three, which maketh the breadth of the _Dentil_.

The _Cymatium_ which is upon the _Dentil_, must have the 3d. part of the
height of the _Dentil_.

The Crown with its little _Cymatium_ must have the same height with the
_Face_ of the middle of the _Architrave_.

The great _Cymatium_ ought to have the height of an 8th. part more than
the _Crown_ or _Drip_.

The Jetting or Projecture of the whole _Cornice_ comprehending the
_Dentil_ ought to be equal to the space that there is from the _Frise_,
just to the top of the great _Cymatium_, and generally speaking all the
Jettings or Projectures shall have the better grace when they are equal
to the height of the Jetting Members. See Table VII.


_Of the_ Corinthian _Order_.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 2._]

The Pillars of the _Corinthian Order_ have no other Proportions than the
_Ionick_, except in the _Capital_, whose height make them appear
slenderer and higher. The other parts or Members, as the _Architrave_,
_Frise_, and _Cornice_, borrow their Proportions from the _Dorick_ and
_Ionick Order_, having nothing particular, for the _Corinthian
Modillons_ are imitated by the _Mutils_ of the _Dorick Order_, and the
_Dentils_ are the same with the _Ionick_; this being so, we have nothing
to do but to give the Proportions of the _Capital_, which are these; The
_Capital_ comprizing the _Abacus_, hath for its height, the breadth of
the bottom of the Pillar.

To have the true breadth of the _Abacus_, we must have a care that its
_Diagonal_ be double the height of the _Capital_, the bending that the
sides of the _Abacus_ have inward, is a 9th. part of a side, the bottom
of the _Capital_ is equal to the Neck of the Pillar. The thickness of
the _Abacus_ is a 7th. part of the whole _Capital_.

Two of these seven parts must be taken for the height of every Leaf, of
which there are two Ranks, each of which has four Leaves.

The Stalks or little Branches are likewise composed of other Leaves, and
which grow between the Leaves of the Rank above, ought to have two of
these seven parts comprising the _Volutes_.

These _Volutes_ begin within the Stalks, of which, those that are the
greatest extend to the Extreme parts of the _Angles_ of the _Abacus_;
the other are below the _Roses_.

These _Roses_ which are in the middle of every _Face_ of the _Abacus_,
ought to be as great as the _Abacus_ is thick.

The _Ornaments_ of the _Corinthian Order_, viz. The _Architrave_, the
_Frise_, and the _Cornice_, do not in the least differ from those of the
_Ionick Order_. See Tab. IX.


_Of the_ Compound _Order._

[Sidenote: _Lib._ 4. _Chap._ 1.]

_Vitruvius_ hath not spoke of the _Compound Order_, as of an _Order_
distinct from the _Corinthian_, the _Ionick_ and the _Dorick_; He only
tells us, that sometimes upon the _Corinthian Pillar_ was placed a
_Capital_ composed of several parts, which were taken from the
_Corinthian_, the _Ionick_ and _Dorick Orders_.

But a Consequence may be drawn from thence, that the _Order_ at present
called the _Compound_, might have been in use in the time of
_Vitruvius_, although they then did not make a distinct _Order_ of it;
Since that, our _Compound Order_ is not essentially different from the
_Corinthian_, but by its _Capital_; and so one may say, that this sole
difference of the _Capital_ ought to make it a distinct _Order_ from the
_Corinthian_, since according to _Vitruvius_, the _Corinthian Capital_
alone, made the _Corinthian Order_.

The parts that our _Compound Order_ borrow from the _Corinthian Order_,
are the _Abacus_, and the two Ranks of the Leaves of _Branch-Ursin_,
which it has retained, although the _Corinthian_ have quitted them for
the Leaves of the _Olive_.

The other part that it takes from the _Ionick_, are the _Volutes_; which
it forms in some manner according to the Model of the _Volutes_ of the
_Corinthian Order_, in bending them even as the _Abacus_; for they are
direct upon the _Ionick Capital_, as well as the _Abacus_.

The _Echine_, or Quarter Round, which it has under the _Abacus_, it
borrows rather from the _Dorick Order_, than from the _Ionick_; because
this _Echine_ is immediately under the _Abacus_, as it is in the _Dorick
Order_, which is not in the _Ionick_, which between the _Echine_ and
the _Abacus_, places the _Channel_ which makes the _Volute_; it may
notwithstanding be said, that it imitates the _Echine_ of the _Ionick
Order_, in that it is cut with _Oves_ or _Eggs_, which is rarely found
in the _Dorick Capital_, but are always in the _Ionick_.



                               OF THE

                              TEN BOOKS




  _Containing the Architecture peculiar to the Ancients._


  _Of Publick Buildings._


  _Of Fortresses._

[Sidenote: _Lib._ 1. _Cap._ 3.]

Buildings are either _Publick_, or _Private_; Those that are Publick,
appertain either to Security, or Religion, or Publick Convenience. The
Fortifications of Cities are for _Security_, the Temples for _Religion_,
the Market-places, Town-Houses, Theatres, Academies are for the _Publick

The Disposition and Figures of the Ramparts were so ordered, that the
Towers advanced out of the Walls to the end, that when the Enemy
approached them, the Besieged which were in the Towers, might fall upon
their Flank, both on the Right and the Left.

They took likewise great Care to make the Approaches to the Walls
difficult, ordering their Ways so, that they came not directly, but to
the Left of the Gate. For by this means, the Besiegers were constrained
to present to them that were upon the Walls the Right side, which was
not covered with a Buckler.

The Figure of a _strong_ place ought neither to be Square, nor composed
of Angles that advance too far. But the Ancients made them with many
Sinuosities or Corners, for Angles that are too far advanc'd, are more
advantageous for the Besiegers, than the Besieged.

The thickness of the Wall was so ordered, that two Armed Men might walk
by one another upon the Wall without justling.

They made their Walls strong and durable, with sindged Beams of Olive,
which bound them and kept them up.

Although there be nothing that makes the Ramparts so strong as Earth,
they had not for all that the Custom of making Terrasses, unless it were
in some place where some Eminency was so near the Wall, that the
Besiegers might easily enter.

To make the Terrasses strong, and to hinder the Earth from pushing down
the two Walls that supported it, they made Buttresses or Counter-forts
which went from one Wall to another, to the end, that the Earth being
divided into many parts, might not have that weight to push the Walls.

Their Towers were round, for those that are square are easily ruin'd by
their War-like Engines, and their Battering easily broke down the

Directly against the Tower, the Wall was cut off within the breadth of
the Tower, and the Walls so interrupted were only joyned with Joyces,
which were not nailed down; to the end, that if the Enemy made
themselves Masters of some part of the Wall, the Besieged might take up
this Bridge made of Joists, and hinder their further advance.


  _Of Temples._

[Sidenote: _Lib._ 4. _Chap._ 4.]

The second Sort of Publick Fabricks, which are those that belong to
Religion are the _Temples_, which among the Ancients were of two Sorts;
some were after the _Greek_, and some after the _Tuscan_ Fashion.

The _Temples_ after the _Tuscan_ Fashion were Square, the _Greeks_ made
them sometimes Round, sometimes Square; in the Square _Temples_ of the
_Greeks_, there are three Things to be considered, _viz._ The Parts
that compose it, the Proportion of the _Temple_, and its _Aspect_.

The Parts of the Square _Temples_, were for the most part Five; for they
had almost every one of them a Porch before the Temple called _Pronaos_,
and another Porch behind the _Temple_, called _Posticum_, or
_Opisthedomos_, the middle of the _Temple_, called _Cella_, or _Sacos_;
the _Portico's_ or _Isles_, and the _Gate_.

The Porch was a place covered at the Entrance at the greatest part of
_Temples_, being as broad as the whole _Temple_. There were three sorts
of them. Some were surrounded with Pillars on three Sides; Others had
only Pillars in the Front, the Sides of the Porch being made up by the
continuation of the Side-Walls of the _Temple_; Others were made up at
the Sides, partly by Pillars, and partly by the Continuation of the
Side-Walls of the _Temple_.

The _Posticum_ of the _Temple_ was equal to the Porch, having likewise a
Gate, but all Temples had not _Posticums_, though almost every _Temple_
had its _Pronaos_, or Porch.

The Middle of the _Temple_, called _Cella_, was a place inclosed with
four Walls, having no Light but at the Gate, unless it were uncovered,
as we shall shew hereafter.

The _Portico's_ which make the Isles, were ranks of Pillars, sometimes
single, sometimes double, which stood along the Sides of the _Temple_ on
the out-side: some _Temples_ wanted this part.

The Gates of the _Temples_ were different according to the difference of
the Order of the Architecture, according to which the _Temple_ was
built: there was the _Dorick_, the _Ionick_, and the _Attick_.

The height of the _Dorick_ Gate was taken by dividing into 3 parts and
an half, the space which is from below to the bottom of the _Plat-fond_
of the _Portico_, which _Platfond_ was called _Lacunar_: they allow'd 2
to the height of the Gate under the _Lintel_: this height was divided
into 12 parts; 5 and an half were taken for the breadth of the Gate
below, for above it was straiter by a 3d. part. A 4th. part, and even an
8th. part of the _Chambranle_ or _Door-Case_, according to the height of
the Gate, which was to be less straitened above, the higher it was. The
breadth of the _Chambranle_ or _Door-Case_, was the 12th. part of the
height of the Opening of the Gate.

The _Chambranle_ or _Door-Case_ grew straiter and straiter towards the
top, _viz._ the 4th. part of its breadth: it was only edged with a
_Cymatium_, with an _Astragal_.

Upon the _Cymatium_ above the _Chambranle_ or _Door-Case_, was a _Frise_
called _Hyperthyron_, which had the same breadth with the _Chambranle_
or _Door-Case_. Upon this _Frise_ was placed a _Dorick Cymatium_, with a
_Lesbian Astragal_; both of them jetting out very little.

Upon the _Moulures_ the _Flat-Crown_ was placed, with its little
_Cymatium_, which jetted out the whole breadth above of the _Chambranle_
or _Door-Case_, with its Mould.

The height of the _Ionick_ Gates was taken as those of the _Dorick_; but
to have the right breadth, they divided the height into 2 parts and an
half: To allow them one and an half below, it was straitned at the top,
as the _Dorick_ Gate was; the breadth of the _Chambranle_ was the 14th.
part of the height of the Opening of the Gate; this breadth of the
_Chambranle_, or _Door-Case_, being divided into 6, one was allowed for
the _Cymatium_, the rest being divided into 12, 3 were allowed to the
1st. Face comprising its _Astragal_, 4 to the 2d. and 5 to the 3d.

The _Frise_ which is called _Hyperthyron_, was made with the same
Proportions that are in the _Dorick Order_. The _Consoles_ or
_Shouldering-Pieces_, descended directly to the bottom of the
_Chambranle_ or _Door-Case_, without comprizing the _Foliage_ or
_Leaf-work_ that they had at the bottom: The breadth above was the 3d.
part of that of the _Chambranle_ or _Door-Case_, and at the bottom they
grew straiter by a 4th. part.

The _Attick_ were like the _Dorick_, but their _Chambranles_ or
_Door-Cases_ had only a _Plat-band_ under the _Cymatium_, and this
_Plat-band_ or _Face_, had only the breadth of 2 parts in 7, into which
was divided all the rest of the _Chambranle_ or _Door-Case_ with its

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Chap. 3._]

The Proportion of the _Temples_ was so ordered, that they were twice as
long as broad, but it is not to be understood precisely, but only of
_Temples_ that were without _Pillars_, whose length was divided into 8,
and 4 were allowed for the breadth.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 4._]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Chap. 3._]

The _Temples_ which had _Pillars_ round about, could not have this
double Proportion; for as much as the length had only the double of the
intercolumniations, and by consequence a _Pillar_ less than the double
of the _Pillars_ before and behind.

The _Aspect_ of the _Temples_ signifies two things in _Vitruvius_,
_viz._ The Disposition of the parts of the _Temple_, in respect of one
another, and the Disposition in respect of the Heavens.

As to what regards the Disposition of the _Temple_ in respect of the
Heavens, the Ancients always observed to turn them toward the
Sun-rising, if the place were not ill-disposed for it, and that some
great Street obliged them to turn it otherwise.

As to what belongs to the Disposition of the parts, _viz._ of the
_Porch_, _Porticum_, _Isles_ or _Oiles_ within the _Temple_ and the
_Gates_, it was different in the _Temples_ which were without _Pillars_,
and in those which had _Pillars_.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 4. Chap. 4._]

The _Temples_ without _Pillars_, were those that were not 20 Foot broad,
the length of these _Temples_ being divided into 8, 4 were allowed for
the breadth, 5 for the length of the _Temple_ within, and 3 for the

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Chap. 1._]

The _Temples_ which had _Pillars_ were of 8 sorts; The 1st. and the most
Simple, was that which was called _Ad Antes_, because in this sort of
_Temples_, there were only 2 _Pillars_ in the Face or Front before,
betwixt 2 _Antes_. There was 3 sorts of these _Temples_.

The First and the most Simple, had 2 _Pillars_ before the Face of the
_Temple_, at whose Corners there were 2 _Antes_, and the 2 _Pillars_
supported a _Piedement_ or _Fronton_.

The Second Sort had likewise but 2 _Pillars_, but they were between 2
_Antes_ upon the same Line with the _Antes_; and these _Antes_ with the
2 _Pillars_, made up the _Face_ of the _Porch_ of the _Temple_.

The Third Sort was, when betwixt 2 _Pillars_ which were at the _Face_
before, which made up the _Porch_, there were likewise 2 others within
the _Porch_; these _Pillars_ within, were not so thick as those without,
although they were of an equal height; but to the end they might seem as
thick as those without, they made more _Channellings_, for the most part
28 or 32, supposing those without had 24; this was done to get more room
within the _Porch_. These _Temples_ had also this particular to
themselves, that the Front of the _Porch_ was closed with Partitions of
_Marble_ or _Joyner's-Work_, which ran from the _Ante_ of one of the
Corners to its neighbouring _Pillar_, and from this _Ante_ to the other
_Pillar_, and from this _Pillar_ to the other _Ante_.

The second Sort of _Temples_, with _Pillars_, was called _Prostyle_;
which differ'd not from the first, but in this, that besides the 2
_Pillars_ of the _Temple_, _Ad Antes_, there were two others directly on
the Angular _Antes_.

The Third Sort was called _Amphiprostyle_; because it had _Pillars_ as
well behind as before.

The Fourth Sort was the _Periptere_, which in the Front, as well as
behind, had 6 _Pillars_, and 12 on every side, counting those of the
Corners: the distance which was between the _Pillars_ and the _Walls_,
was equal to that which was between the _Pillars_.

The Fifth, the _Pseud-diptere_, viz. _False Diptere_, it had 8 _Pillars_
in the _Front_, and as many behind, and 15 on every side, counting those
of the Corners: the _Pillars_ were distant from the Wall, the space of 2
Intercolumniations, and the thickness of a _Pillar_.

The Sixth Sort was the _Diptere_, which had 8 _Pillars_ before and
behind, and 2 rows round about.

The Seventh Sort was called _Hypethre_, because the inner part of the
_Temple_ was uncovered, it had 10 _Pillars_ before and behind; and as to
the rest, it was like the _Diptere_, but in this particular to it self,
that all about it had two Orders of _Pillars_, at a little distance from
the Wall, to make _Portico's_, as in the _Peristyles_.

The Eighth was called _Pseudo-Periptere_, or _False Periptere_; for the
Disposition of the _Pillars_ was equal to that of the _Pillars_ of the
_Periptere_: This _Temple_ having 6 _Pillars_ in the _Front_, and
behind, and 11 in the _Isles_ or _Wings_; but the Disposition of the
Walls of the _Temple_ was different in this, that they extended even to
the _Pillars_, which made no _Portico_, for they were joyned to the
Walls, except those of the _Porch_ which were insulated, or stood alone
like Islands.

The Round _Temples_ were of 2 sorts; The first were called _Monopteres_,
because they had no Walls, having only an _Isle_ or _Wing_; viz.
_Pillars_ which supported a _Coupe_. Their Proportion was, that
dividing the whole _Temple_ into three, one part was allowed for the
_Steps_ upon which the _Pillars_ were placed, which had their height
equal to the distance that there was from one _Pillar_, to that which
was Diametrically opposite to it.

The Second Sort which was called _Periptere_, had _Pillars_ upon their
_Basis_ round about the _Temple_, the space that was between the _Basis_
and the _Wall_ was the 5th. part of the whole _Temple_, and the Diameter
of the _Temple_ within, was equal to the height of the _Pillar_.

The _Temples_ after the _Tuscan_ fashion were square, having 5 parts in
length and 4 in breadth; the _Porch_ which was as great as the rest of
the _Temple_, had 4 _Pillars_ in the _Front_; the Sides were closed half
by the Continuation of the Walls of the _Temple_, half by 2 _Angular
Pillars_; and there were likewise 2 _Pillars_ in the middle of the
_Porch_: The _Temple_ had 2 _Chappels_ within on each Side.

We find that the Ancients had 14 Sorts of _Temples_, viz. 1. The Temple
without _Pillars_. 2. The Temple _ad antes_ Simply. 3. The Temple _ad
Antes_, with 2 _Pillars_ upon the same Line with the _Antes_. 4. The
Temple _ad antes_, with _Pillars_ of an unequal Magnitude. 5. The
_Prostyle_. 6. The _Amphiprostyle_. 7. The _Periptere_. 8. The
_Pseudo-diptere_. 9. The _Diptere_. 10. The _Hypethre_. 11. The
_Pseudo-Periptere_. 12. The _Monoptere_. 13. The _Round Periptere_. 14.
The _Tuscan_. See the Tab. 2, 3, 4.


  _Of Publick Places_, Basilica's, Theatres, Gates, Baths
    _and_ Academies.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 5. Chap. 1._]

The Third Sort of _Publick Fabricks_ are those which are Built for the
Convenience and Use of all People; and there are Six Sorts of them, viz.
_Market-Places_, _Basilica's_, _Theatres_, _Gates_, _Baths_ and

The _Market-Places_ among the _Greeks_ were surrounded with Pillars
close one against another. Among the _Romans_, the Pillars which
environed the _Market-Places_, had larger Intercolumniations, for they
made _Peristyles_, under which were Shops.

The Proportion of the _Market-Places_ was so ordered, that having
divided the length into three parts, they allowed two for the breadth;
the _Basilica's_ had never less breadth than the third part of their
length, nor more than the half.

The Pillars were as high as the Isles or Wings were broad, and these
Isles or Wings had a third part of the great Vault in the middle.

There was likewise a Second rank of Pillars upon the Wings, which made
high Galleries, and these Second rank of Pillars were placed upon a
_Pedestal_ in the form of a Partition, high enough to hinder those that
were in the high Galleries from being seen by those that were below.

At the End of every _Basilica_, there was a high and great Hall called
_Chalcidiques_, which were joyned one to another by high Galleries:
they served the Spectators while Justice was distributed.

The _Theaters_ were composed of three parts, _viz._ The Steps or
Degrees, which were instead of Seats for the Spectators: they were
disposed in a Semi-circle, and they closed a void space in the middle
and at the bottom of the whole _Theater_, which was called the

[Sidenote: _Lib. 5. Chap. 6._]

The _Orchestra_ was made in the _Græcian Theatre_, to Dance the Ballets.
The Senators were placed in that of the _Romans_, because the Ballets
were Danced upon the Scene.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 5. Chap. 6._]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 5. Chap. 6._]

Above and quite round the Steps or Degrees was a _Portico_ of Pillars,
the Steps being separated by divers _Palliers_ or Landing and Resting
places which went round, and by streight passages which went ascending
from one _Palliere_ or Landing place to another; so that the ways which
led from the second _Palliere_ to the third, parted betwixt those of the
first, and ended betwixt those of the third. The Steps or Degrees were
14 or 15 Inches high, and from 28 to 30 broad.

Under the Degrees, above every _Palliere_, there were in the great
_Theaters_ 13 _Chambers_, in which were Vessels of Brass, set to several
Tunes, or Tones; which by their Echo augmented the Voice of the Players.
The Scene or Stage, was composed of the _Pulpit_, the _Proscenium_ and
the _Parascenium_. The _Pulpit_ was the place where the Actors played:
it was raised not above five Foot at the most above the _Orchestra_, or

The _Proscenium_ was the Front of the Stage, which was adorned with
Pillars of several sorts one above another. These Orders were so
proportioned, that the second was a fourth part lesser than the first.
The third diminishing according to the same Proportion.

The Front had three Gates, that in the middle which was the greatest was
called the _Royal Gate_, the two others were called the _Gates of

[Sidenote: _Lib. 5._]

These three Gates were closed with Machines, made in a Triangle, and
composed of three Fronts or Faces well Painted, to represent Buildings
in Perspective; they served for the changing of the Scenes, when these
Machines were turned. And the Paintings represented three sorts of
Buildings, which made three sorts of Scenes, _viz._ The _Tragick_ by
_Magnificent Pallaces_, the _Comick_ by _Private Houses_, the
_Satyrical_ (_i. e._ the _Pastoral_) by _Fields_ and _Groves_.

The _Parascenium_ or _Postscenium_ was the hinder part of the _Theater_,
and the place whither the Actors retired and dressed themselves, and had
their Rehearsals, and where the Machines were kept. Near the _Theaters_,
were Publick Walks, in length a _Stadium_, which is about 90 _Perches_.
There were Trees planted, and round about it were double _Porticos_,
which were every one as broad as the Pillars on the out-side were high;
for those within were higher by a fifth part, than those without, and
they were likewise of a different _Order_; for those without were of the
_Dorick Order_, and those within of the _Ionick_ or _Corinthian_.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 5. Chap. 13._]

The Ancients built their _Ports_ in two manners; at those which were
_Natural_, they only made _Portico's_ round about with _Magazines_ and
_Towers_ at the Ends, for to shut the _Port_ with a Chain.

Those which were _Artificial_, were built three several ways: The first
was to make Partitions of Wood only, without emptying the Water which
was within the Partitions, and they cast into the Partitions, Stone and
Mortar made with _Pozzolana_, thrown in hand over head; for they were
certain that this Mortar wou'd grow dry in the bottom of the Water. The
second Way was by making Partitions with ordinary Clay, or fat Earth at
the bottom of the Sea, after the Water had been emptied out by Pumps.
The third Way was to build a Mole upon the Sea-Coast, and to cast it in
when the _Mason's_ Work was sufficiently dry, which only required two
Months time. That they might the better throw these Moles into the Sea,
they built them half upon the Sea-Coast, and half upon an heap of Sand
which they made close to the Sea-Coast; to the end, that this Sand which
was stopped by nothing but by the Walls, built only to support it during
the time that the Mole was a drying, might let it fall when the Sea came
to carry away the Sand after that the Walls were beaten down.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 5. Chap. 10._]

The _Bathes_ of the Ancients consisted of many Chambers; some for Men,
and some for Women.

Some of the Chambers had a moderate Heat, to warm their Bodies
insensibly, and prepare them for a stronger Heat to make them Sweat.

The Chamber they were to Sweat in, was called _Laconicum_, and was
round, and Vaulted like the ends of an Oven, pierced at the top with a
round Opening, which was opened and shut with a Buckler of Brass, which
hung at a Chain, by which means they augmented or diminished the Heat
according to the Proportion that they pull'd up, or let down the

One and the same Furnace heated both the Air and the Water, according to
the Disposition of the places which were nearer or further from the
Furnace, whose heat was communicated to the Chambers from under the
Flooring, which was made full of little holes.

The Water was likewise diversly tempered by the different situation of
three great Vessels of Brass, whose Water went from one into another,
and there were Pipes that conveyed these three sorts of Water into the

The _Academies_ of the Ancients, which they called _Palæstra_, was a
place where the Youth learned Letters and their Exercises. They were
composed of three parts, _viz._ Of a _Peristyle_, a _Xyste_, and a
_Stadium_; the _Peristyle_ was a Court surrounded with _Portico's_,
which were of two sorts; three of them were Simple, and one Double.

The Simple stood in a row against three Bodies of Lodgings, composed of
many great Halls, where the Philosophers had their Disputes and

The Bodies of the Lodgings, which was the length of the double
_Portico_, and one part of the Bodies of Lodgings which turned in, were
distributed into several parts, for the Studies and Exercises of Youth;
for there they had their _Classes_, their _Baths_, their _Stoves_, and
their _Tenis-Court_.

The _Xyste_ was a place planted with Trees, and surrounded with
_Portico's_ on every side: These _Portico's_ were of two sorts.

There was one double which was set against the Bodies of the Lodgings,
to which the double _Portico_ of the _Peristyle_ was joyned.

The _Simple Portico's_ had two Wings, under these _Simple Portico's_
there were hollow Ways, where they performed their Exercises; the rest
of the _Portico_ was raised to the right and the left, for those that
had a mind to Walk while the rest performed their Exercises, in the
hollow ways.

The Place which was compassed with these three _Portico's_, was planted
with Trees, which made Allies, where the Wrestlers exercised in Winter,
when it was fair Weather.

The _Stadium_ was on the Side of the _Peristyle_ and the _Xyste_. It was
an Alley of 90 Perches; on each Side it had many Steps or Degrees, which
made a sort of a long _Theater_ bending in at both ends; these Steps or
Degrees were made for the convenience of seeing them that Run.


_Of Private Buildings._


  _Of the Courts of Houses._

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Chap. 3._]

The Houses of the Ancients had five sorts of Courts, of which the
greatest part were covered round about by the Jettings which supported
the Water-Channel or Gutter, in which all the Water that fell from the
Roof met together.

These Courts made with Jettings, were of four sorts; The first was
called the _Tuscan_, this Court was surrounded with a Jetting _en
auvent_, which was laid upon four Beams, supported by other standing
Beams placed in the Corners.

The second Sort was called _Corinthian_; it had likewise Beams, but they
were further from the Walls than in the _Tuscan_ Court, and they were
laid upon Pillars.

The third Sort was called _Tetrastyle_, because the Beams were supported
with four Pillars which were in the place of the standing Beams that
were made use of in the _Tuscan Court_.

The fourth Sort was called the _Vaulted_; because the Jetting that it
had round about, was supported by Vaults.

The fifth Sort of _Court_ that had no Jetting, and which was called the
_Uncovered_, had the _Water-Gutter_ directly upon the Wall, and was only
covered with the Entablature.


  _Of the_ Vestibulum _or_ Entry.

The Houses of the Ancients had _Great_ and _Magnificent Entries_, they
were sometimes 15 Perches long and 9 broad, and they were supported upon
two ranks of Pillars, which made a Wing on each Side, the Proportion of
their breadth and length was taken three Ways. The first was, when
having divided the length into 5, 3 were allowed for the breadth. The
second was, when having divided it into 3, 2 were allowed for the
breadth. The third was, when having made an Equilateral Square, the
Diagonal of this Square was taken for the length, and the Side for the

The height was equal to the length, taken from the Pavement below, to
the bottom of the _Plat-Fonds_ or _Flat-Roof_, which was hollowed on
the other side the Beams, the seventh part of the whole height.

The Proportion that the _Alley_ which was in the middle between the
Pillars, had with the Wings, was different according to the Magnitude of
the _Vestibule_ or _Entry_, for the greater they were or the lesser, the
Wings had a proportionable breadth with the _Alley_ in the middle; So
that if the _Vestibule_ or _Entry_ was 100 Foot long, the Wings had only
for their breadth the 50th. part of the length; and when it was but 30
Foot long, they had only the 3d. part.


  _Of_ Halls.

The Ancients had three Sorts of _Halls_; _Viz._ The _Corinthian_, the
_Ægyptian_, and the _Cyzican_.

The _Corinthian_ had Pillars round about against the Wall, and these
Pillars supported the Floor made in form of a Vault. _Surbaissee_.

The _Ægyptian Halls_ had their Pillars distant from the Wall in the
manner of the _Peristyle_, and they supported only an _Architrave_
without a _Frise_ and without a _Cornice_; upon this _Architrave_ there
was another row of Pillars, between which were the Windows. The Floor
which reached from the Pillars to the Wall, served for a _Terrasse_

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Chap. 6._]

The _Cyzican Halls_ had this in particular, that they were turned to the
North, and had a Prospect of the Gardens; they were principally made use
of by the _Greeks_; the Proportion of these _Halls_ was as follows,
Their length was double their breadth, and as to their height, this Rule
was observed to have the height of all Sorts of Apartments that are not
so broad as long, they added their length to their breadth, and took
half of the sum for their height. The Apartments which were no longer
than broad, had in height their breadth, and half their breadth.


  _Of the Distribution of the Apartments among the Ancients._

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Chap. 10._]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. Chap. 3, 4._]

The _Romans_ and the _Greeks_ ordered and distributed differently their
_Apartments_; for the _Romans_ had their _Courts_ and _Entries_
magnificent: but the _Greeks_ had only a narrow Entrance, through which
they passed into a _Peristyle_; this _Entry_ had of one Side a Porter's
Lodge, on the other Side the Stables.

The _Apartments_ of these two Nations differed in this, the _Apartments_
of the Women were separate from the _Apartments_ of the Men among the
_Greeks_; insomuch that they Dined apart. They had likewise particular
_Rooms_ reserved for Strangers apart, where they only gave them Lodging,
and never treated them above one Day.


_Of things that equally appertain to Publick and Private Buildings._


  _Of_ Aqueducts.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 8. Chap. 6._]

In Order to the bringing of Waters to Towns and Cities, the Level must
be exactly taken; to the end, it may be known whether the Waters can be
brought thither or no. The Ancients to this end made use of an
Instrument called _Corobates_, which was directed by a Lead, and by
Water, when the Wind hindered them from making use of the Lead.

They brought their Water three several ways; _viz._ by _Aqueducts_, by
Pipes of Lead, and Pipes baked in a _Potter's_ Furnace. They allowed for
the _Channels_ or _Sewers_ of the _Aqueducts_, for every 100 Foot, half
a Foot of Declination or Sloping; and if any Hills were in their way,
they dug through them, making Vents to give Air at convenient Distances.

The Pipes of Lead were at least 9 Foot long; they made them of bended
Sheets or Plates, and of different thicknesses, according to the
Proportion of the greatness of the Pipes; these Pipes had likewise their
necessary Declination or Sloping, and if any Valley was in the way, they
made it equal to the Level with a Wall; they likewise made many Vents,
to give the Water Air, and to know where to mend the Pipes.

The Pipes of _Potter's-Work_, were two Inches thick; they were joyned
together with Mortar mixed with Oil, and when they had _Conde_ or
_Joynt_ to make, they made use of a red Free Stone which they pierced
through, to receive the two Ends of the Pipes.


  _Of Wells and Cisterns._

It being remarkt oftentimes that the Water which is under the Earth hath
many bad Qualities, and exhales vapours, which often stifles those which
work in the _Wells_, after that they are dug, & the Water begins to
gather together. The Ancients had this Precaution, to let a Lamp gently
down into it, and if it extinguished it, they took it for an Infallible
sign that the Water was bad.

The _Cisterns_ were made to receive Rain Water in great Conservatories
under Ground, whose Walls on all Sides, and at the bottom were built
with Mortar of strong Lime, and Sand, and Pebbles, all well beaten
together. They made several Conservatories, and the Water passed from
one to another, to the end it might leave all the Dirt in the first and
second; They likewise put Salt in their _Cistern-Water_ to make it more


_Of_ Machines _for carrying and lifting
up great Stones and Burthens._

[Sidenote: _Lib. 10. Chap. 6._]

_Ctesiphon_ and his Son _Metagenes_, Architects of the Temple of
_Ephesus_, invented _Machines_ to carry _great Stones_, out of which
_Pillars_ and _Architraves_ were to be made. That which was made to draw
the _Pillars_, was but a sort of a Frame as long as the _Pillars_, in
the end of which were fastned Pins of Iron, which entred into the ends
of the Frame, and served instead of an Axle-tree, the _Pillar_ it self
serving for a Wheel: And this had the desired Effect, because of the
disposition of the place through which these _Stones_ were to be drawn,
which was a flat and level Country.

The other _Machine_ for drawing of _Architraves_, was the same Frame
which had two Wheels at each end, which supported the _Architrave_;
which served instead of an Axle-tree.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 10. Chap. 2._]

For the raising of great Weights, they had three sorts of _Machines_.
The first was composed of three pieces of Wood, which were joyned
together at top by a Pin which went through them all; so that there were
two of these pieces which were on one side, a little distance one from
the other, and the third was opposite to them; The two which were
together on the one side, had a Hand-Mill which drew a Rope, which
passed within a Truckle with three Pullies, of which that part which had
the two Pullies was fastned to the top of the _Machine_, and that which
had but one, was fastned to the Weight to be drawn up.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 10. Chap. 2._]

The second _Machine_ was stronger than the first, because the _Moulin_
had more Pullies, and instead of a _Moulin_ or Hand-Mill, it had a great
Wheel, whose Axle-tree drew a Rope which passed through these Pullies,
and upon the Wheel there was another Rope twisted, which was drawn by a
Wind-glass; sometimes the great Wheel was hollow, so that Men could walk
within it, and so turn it.

The third had but one long and strong piece of Wood, which was kept up
and stayed by Shrowds, as the Mast of a Ship is. By the help of these
Shrowds, they bended and turned this piece of Wood where they pleased,
drawing the Shrowds fast on the one side, and loosening them on the
other. The _Moufl's_ Crane as well those which were fastned to this
piece of Wood, as those which were fastned to the VVeight which was to
be drawn up, had each of them three ranks of Pullies, which had three in
every rank, that three Ropes might go through them, which were not drawn
by Hand-Mills, nor by VVheels, but by Men who pulled several at one time
at the same Rope: And that this might be done with the more ease, the
three Ropes or Cables after having passed the last Pullies of that part
of the _Moufle_ which was at the top of the _Machine_; they descended
down below, each upon one Pully, which vvas but the height of the Men:
this _Machine_ quickly povverfully lifted up the greatest VVeights.


  _Of_ Machines _for Elevating of Waters._

These _Machines_ were of four sorts.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 10._]

The first was the _Tympan_, of which there were two sorts; The first
elevated a great deal of Water, but not very high, for it only mounted
to the Axle-tree of the _Tympan_, which was a great Wheel made of Planks
which made two bottoms divided into eight from the Center to the
Circumference, each Separation, having an opening half a Foot wide near
the Circumference to draw the Water, which being elevated upon the
Axle-tree, ran through the Cavities which were hollowed in each

The Second _Machine_, was a Wheel which elevated the Water as high as
its Circumference, by the help of several Boxes which were fastned round
about, and which poured out the Water into a Reeve as the Wheel, having
mounted, began to descend.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 10. Chap. 2._]

The Third _Machine_ was a Chain with Buckets, as the one mounted, the
other descended, being drawn by the Axle-tree.

The Fourth _Machine_ was the Vice or _Skrew_, which is attributed to
_Archimedes_, though _Vitruvius_ makes no mention of the Inventor. This
Vice was made of a piece of VVood, long sixteen times its Diameter: about
this piece of Wood was put Obliquely a Hoop of Willow VVood besmeared
with Pitch, and it was Conducted by turning from one end of the piece of
the Wood to the other: Upon this Hoop others were put so that they were
like the Vaulting of a Stair-Case whose ascent goes turning. This being
done, this Vice was fastned and strengthned with Planks, which were
pitched within, and covered with Iron Rings and Plates without: At the
two ends of the piece of Wood, were Pins, which entring into the
Suckets, made the _Machine_ capable of Motion. This Vice or Skrew was
placed according to the bent or sloping of the Triangle Rectangle of
_Pythagoras_. This _Machine_ elevated easily a great quantity of Water,
but it could not carry it high.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 10. Chap. 2._]

The Fifth _Machine_, was the Pump of _Ctesibius_; it was composed of two
Bodies of Pumps, in which the Suckets having drawn the VVater when they
were pulled up, they both pressed it violently into a Pipe which was
fastned at the bottom of the Body of the Pump when they went down. For
the VVater by the Impulsion of the Sucket, was forced to enter into
these Pipes, because it could not go out by the Openings by which it
entred, because of the Suckets which stopped them, these two Pipes were
joyned together in a _Tambour_, which had likewise its Suckets, which
hindred the VVater from descending into the Bodies of the Pumps, after
it had been pressed into the _Tambour_, or _Vase_, which had another
Pipe, through which the VVater was forced as high as they pleased, by
Impulsion of the Suckets.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 10. Chap. 10._]

All these _Machines_ were either _moved_ by Strength of Men, or by
VVater-Mills, according to the convenience of the place.


  _Of Water-Mills for Grinding of Corn._

[Sidenote: _Lib. 10. Chap. 10._]

_Water-Mills_ were moved by the help of a great VVheel which had many
VVings, which were forced by the Current. The Axle-tree of this great
VVheel, traversed another VVheel which had Cogs, which made the
_Lanterne_ or _Trundle-head_ go, which was placed Horizontally, which
was traversed by a Beam of Iron, which entred through above, into an
Iron in form of a VVedge, which helped to fasten the Beam in the
Mill-stone, above which was the Mill-Hopper, in form of a Funnel.


 _Of other Hydraulick Machines._

There were many other _Machines_ which moved by the help of the VVater,
as _Hour-Glasses_, _Organs_, _Machines_ for Measuring the VVays, and
knowing the swiftness or slowness of Sailing.

The _Hour-Glasses_ marked the Hours by the help of VVater, which passing
slowly, a little hole made at the bottom of a Vessel, and falling into
another, in elevating it self insensibly in the Vessel which it filled,
raised a piece of Cork, which hanging at one of the ends of a Chain
wrapped about an Axle-tree, and which had at the other end a little Bag
full of Sand, and a little lighter than the Cork: for this Chain
turning, the Axle-tree likewise turned a Pin or Hand, which marked the
Hours upon a Dial.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 10. Chap. 12._]

The _Organs_ played by help of two Suckets, which were pulled up or let
down in the Bodies of the Pump. The Suckets pushed the Air with violence
into a Funnel reversed in a Copper Coffer half full of VVater, and
pressed the Water, and constrained it to ascend round about within the
Coffer, which made that its weight in making it re-enter into the
Funnel, pushed the Air into the Pipes, and made them Play, producing the
same Effects that the Bellows did.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 10. Chap. 14._]

They measured the way that the Ships make by the help of a little Mill,
which was fastned to the Ship, and which turned by the resistance that
its VVings found in the VVater when the Ship went forward and the
Axle-tree of this Mill had a little Rong or Tooth, which every round
pushed forwards one of the Teeth of the great VVheel, which turned
another, and that another which turned a Pin or Handle, which marked the
number of turnings, that the Mill made, by which means it was easie to
take an account of the Perches, and Leagues that the Ship sailed.

They made use of the same _Machine_ on the Land, fixing to the Nave of
the VVheel of a Coach, a Tooth which made many VVheels be turned as in
the above-mentioned _Machine_, at the last of which, was fastned a Pin
or Handle, which marked the number of Perches and Leagues. This
_Machine_ had likewise a sort of a Counting VVheel, which at every Mile
that the Coach went, let a Pibble fall into a Vessel of Brass, to give
notice that they had gone a Mile.


  _Of Machines of War_.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 10. Chap. 15._]

The _Machines_ of VVar of the Ancients were of three Sorts, for they
were made either to Lance, Arrows, such as were the _Scorpions_ or
_Javelins_, such as were the _Catapulta's_, or Stones, such as were
_Ballista's_ or fiery Darts, such as were the _Pyroboli_, or they were
made to beat down the VValls, such as were the battering Rams, and the
_Terebra_, or to come covered to the VValls, and so safely Mount the
Ramparts, such as were the _Tortoises_ or _Testudo's_, and the Towers of

[Sidenote: _Lib. 10. Chap. 18._]

The _Scorpions_ were a sort of great Crossbows, which were made use of
to defend the VValls, and which likewise the Assailants made use of in
the wooden Towers, to annoy those that defended the VValls.

The _Catapulta_, lanced Javelins or Javelots, from 12 to 15 Foot in
length, they were made of two Trees, set one against another, like the
Masts of a Ship, which were bended in drawing them with a Hand-Mill.
These Trees being on a suddain unbent, furiously struck together, and
forced violently the Javelin. They were bent the one after the other by
the same Cord, which was made of Guts, to the end, that the Master who
managed the Engine, might be assured, that the two Trees or Beams were
equally bent. He knew it by sounding the Cord when both the Beams were
bent, and when the End above was drawn even to the Capital of the
_Machine_, where they were stayed by a Pin of Iron, which was driven out
by a quick stroke of a Hammer when they unbent it. There was a Cylinder
which traversed an excentrical piece, by the help of which they
heightned, or let down the End of one of the Beams below, according as
the Master of the _Machine_ judged it necessary, for the augmenting or
diminishing their bent, which was known by the sound of the Cord, which
was alike in both, when they were equally bent. See Table XI.

The _Ballista's_ were bended and strung as the _Catapulta's_, but
instead of Javelins, they cast great Stones.

[Sidenote: _Lib._ 10. _Chap._ 22.]

The _Pyroboli_ were _Machines_, which lanced or cast Darts, to vvhich
vvas fixed combustible Matter, vvhich vvas kindled vvhen they darted it
against _Machines_ of VVar or Shipping.

The Ram vvas to beat dovvn Walls and make breaches. It vvas a great Beam
headed with Iron; it vvas hung by the middle, and pushed by the
Soldiery vvith great violence against the Walls.

The _Terebra_ vvas something like the Ram, being a strong Beam pointed
vvith Iron, but it vvas sharp pointed, and it made vvay for the Ram,
splitting the Stones.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 10. Chap. 20._]

The _Testudo_ or _Tortoise_, vvere great large and low Towers of Wood,
which were rowled upon six or eight Wheels, they were covered with raw
Hides to defend them from fire. Their use was to cover them that
approached the Walls to undermine them, or beat them with the battering

The Towers of Wood were made to raise the Assailants as high as the
Walls, to chace the Besieged away with Arrows and Scorpions, and to lay
Bridges from the Towers to the Wall; they were sometimes Thirty Fathoms
high, having Twenty Stages. They were covered, as the _Tortoises_ with
raw Hides; they had each of them a Hundred Men, which were employed as
well to move them, as to annoy the Besieged.



_The Figures inserted here are those only which are chiefly necessary to
the understanding of_ Vitruvius, _that is to say, those which serve for
the comprehending the Rules that Architecture gives for Buildings, now
in use. The Figures of other things, of which_ Vitruvius _treats, are
omitted, it being enough to give One only, to serve as an Example of
each kind_, viz. _one for all Temples, one for all Theatres, and one for
all Machines._


This Table contains the seven several sorts of Masonry; A is the first,
which was called _Reticulatum_, because it was like the Mashes of Nets;
BB is the second, it's called _Insertum_, that is to say, _bound
Masonry_, because the Stones are one bound within another, every one
being bound with four, two below, and two above: CC is the third sort,
which was particular to the _Greeks_; it may be called double binding,
for it's not only of Stones of the same course, but of two courses III.
D is the fourth, called _Isodomum_, because the Beds or Lays are equal
in height. E is the fifth, called _Pseudisodomum_, because they are of
an equal heighth. FF, GG, H is the sixth, called _Emplecton_, because it
was filled up any way in the middle. FF are the Stones which make the
Courses. K is the seventh, which may be called _Compound_, because its
Courses are of hewn Stone, and the middle filled up with Rubbish; and
these Courses are fasten'd together with Cramp-irons.

This Table refers to _pag._ 47.

[Illustration: _Plate I._]


This Table contains the five sorts of Edifices: AA is the _Pycnostyle_;
that is to say, where the Pillars are very close, the Intercolumniation
being but of one Diameter, and a half of the Column: BB is the
_Systyle_, _viz._ where the Pillars have two Diameters of
Intercolumniation: CC is the _Diastyle_, _viz._ where the Pillars are at
that distance, that they have for the Intercolumniation three Diameters:
DD is the _Areostyle_, where the Pillars are far asunder. There is no
certain Proportion; we have given in this Figure four Diameters of
Intercolumniation, it may have more: The fifth sort called _Eustyle_, is
in the third Table.

This Table refers to _pag._ 80.

[Illustration: _Plate. II._]


This Table contains the Plan and Elevation of the fifth sort of
Edifices, called _Eustyle_, _viz._ where the Pillars are distant one
from another by more convenient Proportion: Its Intercolumniations have
all two Diameters and a quarter, except the Intercolumniations in the
middle of the _Face_ before and behind, which have three Diameters.

This plan shews the different parts of the ancient Temples: AA, AA, are
the Isles or Wings which are _Portico's_, having a rang of Pillars on
the one side, and the Wall of the Temple on the other. B is the part
called the _Pronaos_ or Porch. C is the part called _Posticum_, _viz._
the hinder part of the Temple. D is that Part called _Cella_, or the
Nave or Body of the Temple.

This Table relates to _p._ 81, & 117.

[Illustration: _Plate III_]


This Table contains the Plan and perspective Elevation of a Temple,
called _Hexastyle_ and _Pseudodyptere_, _viz._ Which has six Columns in
the _Faces_, before and behind, and which has simple _Portico's_, but
which are as large as the two _Portico's_ of the Temples which have them
double. This Plan and this Elevation may serve for other Temples, which
as to what concerns the essential parts explained in the precedent
Table, are like to this here, as are the _Periptere_, the _Diptere_, and
the _Hypethre_, which only differ in the number of Columns, or such-like

[Illustration: _Plate IV._]


This contains the Proportions of the _Tuscan_ Order. AA is the Base of
the Column, which has for its height the first Semidiameter of the
Column: It's divided into two equal parts; that below is for the Plinth,
marked I; that above, marked K, is for the _Thorus_, and for the _Congè_
or _Apophygis_. BB is the Capital, which height is equal to its Base:
It's divided into three; the first marked L, is for the Gorge, with the
Congè and the Astragal; the second, marked M, is for the _Echinus_ or
_quarter-round_; the third, marked N, is for the _Plinthus_ or _Abacus_,
called by the French _Tallor_. C is one of the _Faces_ of the _Sabliers_
which serve instead of an Architrave. EE is the under part of the
_Sabliers_, which answers to the Diameter on the top of the Column,
marked D. F is a Tenon shaped like a Swallows Tayl, which joyns the two
_Sabliers_ together. G is the little Wall which serves for a Frize. H is
the Cornice.

This Table relates to _pag._ 93.

[Illustration: _Plate V._]


This contains the Proportion of the _Dorick_ Order; AB is the top of the
Shaft of the Column; this top shews the Plan of the two sorts of
Channelling or Fluting, which are particular to the _Dorick_ Order. The
one half has Channelling or Fluting that is not hollowed, and make only
_Flat Faces_ or _Pans_. B is the other half, which has Channelings a
little hollowed, _viz._ one quarter of the Circle: They are formed by
the help of a Square C, whose sides are equal to every one of the Pans.
D E F is the Capital divided into three equal parts. D is for the Gorge;
E is for the Echinus, and for the Anulets or Rings; F is for the Abacus;
G is the Architrave; H is the Triglyph; I is the Metop; K is the
Demi-metop; L is the Cornice; M are the six pendant Drops which are
under the Triglyph; N, O are the Pendant Drops which are in the
Platfond of the Cornice.

This relates to _pag._ 96.

[Illustration: _Plate VI._]


This contains the Proportions of the _Jonick_ Order and the _Attick_
Base: A is the Plinth of the _Attick_ Base, which is the third part of
the whole Base, of which the upper part is the fourth part of what
remains after the Plinth is taken; the inferiour part is half of what
remains, and the other half is the _Scotia_. C D is the Plinth of the
Jonick Base, which is the third part of the height of the whole Base. E
is the Thorus which contains three parts of seven, into which is divided
what remains, the other four being for the two _Scotia's_, and the two
Astragals, which are betwixt the Thorns and the Plinth. F is the
Capital, whose Proportion is explained in the eighth Table. G, H, I, K
is the Architrave, which has four parts, _viz._ the Face marked G; the
second marked H; the third marked I, and the _Cymatium_ or _Simaise_,
marked K; L is the Frise. M, N, O, P, Q is the Cornice. M is the first
_Cymatium_; N is the Dentil; O is the second _Cymatium_; P is the Crown
with its little _Cymatium_ or _Simaise_.

This Table relates to _pag._ 101.

[Illustration: _Plate VII_]


This contains the Proportions of the Ionick Capital, of which only half
is seen here: A B is the half of the breadth of the Abacus, which is
regulated according to the breadth of the bottom of the Column, of which
one half is marked B 18; for the bottom of the Column being divided into
18, 19 are allowed to the Abacus: A C is the _Retreat_ which must be
made of the Corner A, of the Abacus inwardly, to draw the Line C D,
which must regulate the _Eye_ of the _Volute_ over which it must cross
as it passes. To make this _Retreat_ we must take one part and a half of
twelve, into which is divided the height or thickness, E F, of the whole
Capital, which height is equal to half the breadth of the Abacus. This
height, marked C D, is divided into nine parts and a half, of which one
and a half is given to the _Abacus_, and four and a half from the Abacus
to the middle of the _Eye_, which is traversed by the line G H; the
Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, mark the four Centers of the first four quarters of
the Volute; the four second quarters, and the four third (for the
Volutte has twelve) are taken in the Diagonal 1, 3, and 2, 4. H, I, is
the Astragal at the top of the Pillar which answers the _Eye_ of the
Volute. K K is the Egg or _Echinus_; L is the Axis of the Volutes; M M
is the ceinture of the lateral part of the Volutes. This relates to
_pag._ 103.

[Illustration: _Plate VIII._]


This contains the Proportions of the _Corinthian_ Capital, which makes
all the distinction betwixt _Jonick_ and the _Corinthian Order_, all
other Members, according to _Vitruvius_, being the same. A is the
_Corinthian_ Capital, which has for its height only the Diameter of the
bottom of the Column; B is the Capital of the Pantheon, which is higher
by a seventh part, _viz._ the thickness of the Abacus; C D is the height
of the Capital divided into seven, of which the Abacus has one, the
Voluta's and Foliages and Stalks two, the Foliage in the Range above
two, and that in the Range below two. To have the breadth of the Abacus,
we must give to its Diagonal E F the double of its height C D. To have
the greatness and just Proportion of its bending H, we must divide the
breadth of the Abacus E G into nine parts, and give it one.

At the bottom of this Table is represented the Herb _Branbursine_, which
grows round about the Basket, which is covered with a Tile, from which
_Vitruvius_ says the Sculptor _Callimachus_ took the first Model of the
_Corinthian_ Capital.

This Table relates to _p._ 108.

[Illustration: _Plate IX._]


This contains the Plan and Elevation of the Theatre of the _Romans_. AA
is the Portico which went round the Theatre below. BB are the Entries
through which they parted from the Portico's into the _Orchestra_ C.
KDEDK the Pulpitum or Stage; MM the landing-place which separated the
Degrees above from those below: LM the Stairs which are between the
degrees. NN the Portico above in the Theatre. PP the Passage under the
degrees. TT the Stairs by which they mount to the Portico's above. KIHIK
the Scene. H the royal Gate. II the Gates of Strangers. KK the Gates in
returning. OOO the Machines used in changing the Scenes. GG the part of
the Theatre behind.

This Table relates to _p._ 125.

[Illustration: _Plate X._]


This contains the Explication of the Catapulta, which was a Machine of
War used by the Ancients to dart Javelins of an extraordinary bigness. A
are the two Beams one against the other, and joyn'd, which after having
been drawn, pushed the Javelin with great force when they were unbent.
There is one of these Beams, which is represented as being joyned to the
Capital of the Machine by an Iron Pin, the other ready to be joyned when
the Master of the Machine sounds the Cord with his right Hand, shall
have it heightned or let down, the end marked C, as much as is
necessary, to give it an equal Bent to the other. This is done by the
help of an excentrical piece, which is traversed by a Cylinder, which
the Master turns with a Laver, which he holds in his left Hand. D, E E
is the Capital of the Catapulta. EE are the holes through which the Rope
passeth to draw the Beams. F is the end of one of the Beams represented
in great. G is one of the Pins which travers'd a round Eye, by the help
of which the Beam is joyned to the Capital. H is the Cylinder which
traverses the excentrical piece I. This Plate relates to _pag._ 155.

[Illustration: Plate XI.]

_Explication of the Hardest Terms in_ Architecture.


  _Abacus_, from [Greek: abax]; which signifies a square
     Trencher: In French it's called _Talloir_; it's that
     quadrangular Piece commonly accompanied with a
     _Cymatium_, and serves instead of a _Drip_ or _Corona_ to
     the Capital. It supports the nether _Face_ of the
     _Architrave_ and whole _Trabeation_. In the _Corinthian_
     and the _Compound_ Orders, its Corners are called the
     _Horns_, the intermediate _Sweep_ and _Curvature_; the
     Arch, which has commonly a _Rose_ carved in the middle.

  _Acroteria_ or _Acroter's_ from [Greek: akron], _Summa
     pars_; they may be properly called _Pinnacles_, for
     _Pins_ and _Battlements_ were made sometimes more
     towring; but when they stood in _Ranges_ with _Rails_ and
     _Balisters_: Upon flat Building they still retained their
     Name, with this only difference, that such as were placed
     between the _Angular_ Points, were stiled the _Median_,
     or middle _Acroteria_.

  _Annulets_, are little square Parts turned round in the
     _Corinthian Capital_, under the _Quarter-Round_, called

  _Ante_, is a square Pillaster, which the Ancients placed at
     the corners of the Walls of the Temples.

  _Amphiprostyle_ from [Greek: amphi], _Circa_, and [Greek:
     stylos]; _Columna_ was a sort of a Temple which had four
     Columns in the Front of the Temple, and four in the Face

  _Architrave_, from a Mungril Compound of two Languages,
     [Greek: archê] _Principalis_, and _Trabs_; it's the first
     Member of that which we call _Entablature_; in Chimnies
     the _Architrave_ is the _mantle_; over the _Jambs_ of the
     Doors and Lintels of Windows, it's called the
     _Hyperthron_, from the Greek [Greek: hyper], _super_ and
     [Greek: thyra], _Janua_ or _Ostium_.

  _Astragal_, from the Greek word [Greek: astragalos] which
     signifies the _Vertebræ_, or little Joints in the Neck or
     Heel; hence the French call it _Talon_, or the Heel
     itself: It's a Member of _Architecture_ joyned to
     _Bases_, _Cornices_, _Architraves_, _&c._ it's round like
     a Ring, and therefore it's called by the Italians

  _Attiq;_ signifies after the manner of the City of _Athens_.
     In _Vitruvius_ it's the Name of the _Basis_ which the
     Moderns have given to the _Dorick_ Pillar. We call
     _Attiq;_ in our Buildings, a little Order placed upon
     another much greater; for instead of Pillars, this little
     Order has commonly nothing but Pillasters of a particular
     Fashion and Order, which we call _Attiq;_

  _Apophyges_, vide _Congé_.


  _Basilica_, from the Greek word [Greek: Basileus] _Rex_ or
     King among the Ancients. It was a great Hall which had
     two Ranges of Pillars, and had two Isles or Wings, upon
     which were Galleries: These Halls, which at first were
     made for the Palaces of Kings, were afterwards turned
     into Courts of Justice, and after that into Churches;
     which Form has always been observed.

  _Ballustre_ is the lateral part of the _Jonick_ Capital. Our
     Workmen have given it that name, because it somewhat
     resembles a _Balluster_.


  _Chanel_, in the _Ionick_ Capital, is that part which is
     under the _Abacus_, and lies upon _Echinus_ or Egg, and
     which has its _Contours_ or Turnings on every side to
     make the Voluta's.

  _Cariatides_ are Statues of Women, which serve instead of

  _Cincture_ is that part which makes the middle of the
     _Ballustre_ of the _Ionick Voluta_.

  _Congé_ in French, in Latin _Apophyges_, from the Greek word
     [Greek: apophygê] because that part of the Pillar taking
     as it were a rise, seems to emerge and fly from the
     _Basis_ like the _Proceltus_ of a Bone in a mans Leg, In
     short, it's no more than the _Rings_ or _Ferils_
     heretofore used at the Extremities of wooden Pillars, to
     preserve them from splitting, afterwards imitated in

  _Corona_ is properly that part of the Cornice which the
     French call _Larmer_ or _Drip_, because it defends the
     rest of the Work from Wind and Weather: It is often taken
     by _Vitruvius_ for all the Cornice.

  _Corona_, called the _Plat_ or _flat Crown_, is a particular
     Member in the _Dorick_ Gate; it's made by so
     extraordinary enlargement of the _Face_ of the _Corona_
     or _Drip_, that it has six times more Breadth than
     Projecture. This sort of _Corona_ is no where found among
     the Ancients, but only in the Writings of _Vitruvius_.

  _Cymatium_, from [Greek: kymaton], which signifies a rouling
     _Wave_; is a Member of Architecture, of which the one
     half is _Convex_ and the other _Concave_, the one being
     hollow above, and the other below. There are two sorts of
     them, the one called the _Gola_ or _Throats_, or the
     _Doucine_, whose advanced part is _Concave_; and the
     other is called by the French the _Talon_ or Heel, whose
     advanced part is hollow below, as the first is above.


  _Die_ is the middle of the Pedestals, _viz._ that which is
     between their _Basis_ and their _Cornice_. It's so
     called, because it's for the most part of a Cubit form,
     as _Die's_ are that are used in play.

  _Dentils_, or Teeth, is a Member of the _Jonick_ Cornice,
     which is square, and cut out at convenient distances,
     which gives it the form of a Set or Gang of Teeth.

  _Diastyle_, from [Greek: dia] and [Greek: stylos]: _Columna_
     is a sort of Edifice where the Pillars are distanced one
     from another the breadth of 3 Diameters of the Pillar.

  _Diptere_, from [Greek: dis] and [Greek: pteron]: _Ala_
     signifies that which has a double Isle or Wing; the
     Ancients called so the Temples, which were surrounded
     with two Ranges of Pillars, for there two _Ranges_ made
     two _Portico's_, which they called _Wings_, we _Isles_,
     from the French word _Ailes_, which signifies _Wings_,
     because as Wings are on the sides of Birds, so these of


  _Echinus_, from [Greek: apo tou echinou] a _Hedg-hog_; it is
     a Member of Architecture, which we call a
     _Quarter-round_; it has its name from the roughness of
     its Carving, resembling the prickly Rhind of the Chesnut,
     and not unlike the Hedg-hog; it's commonly next to the
     _Abacus_, and carved with Ovals and Darts, sometimes
     called Eggs and Anchors, because these pretended Chesnuts
     are cut in an Oval form.

  _Entablature_ signifies properly the Flooring or Lofting
     with Boards; it comes from the Latin word _Tabulatum_. In
     Architecture it's that part which is composed of the
     _Architrave_, _Frise_, and _Cornice_, for in effect this
     part is the extream part of the Flooring, which is
     supported by Pillars, or by a Wall if it have no Pillars.

  _Eye_ is the middle of the _Jonick_ Volute, which is cut in
     the form of a little Rose.

  _Eurythmie_, from [Greek: eu] _bene_, and [Greek: arithmos]
     _numera_: it signifies Proportion; it's taken in its
     general signification in _Architecture_; for in its
     particular signification it signifies the true measure
     that is observed in Dancing after Musick.

  _Eustyle_, from [Greek: _eu_] _bene_, and [Greek: stylos] a
     _Pillar_; its the Order where Pillars are rightly
     placed, the Intercolumniations being two Diameters and a


  _Face_ is a Member of Architecture, which has a great
     Breadth and a small Projecture; it's in _Architraves_.

  _Filet_ is a little square streight Member.

  _Fresco_, and to paint in _Fresco_ or _Freth_, is an Italian
     Phrase, and it signifies the Painting which is made upon
     the Plaistering before it be dry.

  _Frise_ is that part which is between the _Architrave_ and
     the _Cornice_.


  _Gnomonick_ is the Art of making Sun-dials; it's derived
     from the Greek [Greek: gnômôn], which signifies that
     which shews a thing, as the Cock or Pin of the Dyal shews
     what a clock it is.

  _Gorge_, or the _Gule_ or _Neck_, is the narrowest part of
  the _Dorick Capital_, which is between the _Astragal_, above
  the Shaft of the Pillar and the Annulets.

  _Gutte_, or _Drops_, are little parts, which to the number
     of six are put below every _Triglyph_ in the _Architrave_
     of the _Dorick Order_.


  _Hydraulick_, from the Greek [Greek: hydôr]; which signifies
     Water, is an Engine that plays by the help of Water,
     especially where there are Pipes and Flutes.

  _Hypethre_, from [Greek: hyposuo], and [Greek: aithêr]
     æther; signifies a Building whose inside is exposed to
     the Rain and open Air. The Ancients called so all Temples
     that had no Roof.

  _Hyperthyron_, for [Greek: hyper] _super_, and [Greek:
     thyra] _Janua_, a Gate or Door: It signifies that which
     is above the Gate; it's a large Table, which is upon the
     _Dorick_ Gates in the manner of a _Frise_.


  _Ichnographie_, from [Greek: iknos] _vestigium_, and [Greek:
     grapha] _Scribo_, or _Insculpo_; which properly
     signifies the Figure that the Plane of the Foot
     impresses upon the Earth. By it in Architecture is
     understood that which is commonly called the _Plan_ of
     the _Edifice_.


  _Lacuner_, or Platfond, is the _Flooring_ or _Planching_
     above the _Portico's_.

  _Laconicum_ was a dry Stove to sweat in: It was so called,
     because it was much used by the _Lacedemonians_.

  _Larmier_ or _Drip_, vide _Corona_.


  _Metope_, from [Greek: meti] and [Greek: hopê], _foramen_,
     _intervallum_. Signifies the Front; it's the Name of the
     empty spaces in _Freeze_ of the _Dorick Order_, between
     the Triglyphs.

  _Modillion_ signifies in _Italian_ a little Model, a little
     Measure: It's that part which is so often repeated in the
     _Corinthian_ and _Compound Cornice_, which supports the
     Projecture of the _Larmier_ or _Drip_. This part is
     called the little _Model_ in respect of the great Model,
     which is the Diameter of the Pillar; for as the
     Proportion of an Edifice depends on the _Diameter_ of the
     _Pillar_, so the greatness of the Modellians, their
     number, and their space or distances, must have a just
     Proportion or true Relation to the whole Fabrick.

  _Module_ or _Model_ is a measure that is made use of to
     regulate all the Proportion of the _Fabrick_: In the
     _Dorick Order_ it's half the _Diameter_ of the Pillar; in
     other Orders the Module is the whole _Diameter_.

  _Monoptere_, from [Greek: monos] _solus_, and [Greek:
     pteron] _ala_; is that which has but one Wing or Isle; it
     was a sort of a round Temple, whose Roof was supported by
     Pillars only.

  _Mutuli_, from [Greek: mytilos], which signifies defect, as
     being made thinner, and more abated above than below.
     It's a sort of a Modellion in the Cornice of the _Dorick_


  _Noyan_ is the middle part of the Flooring of the Ancients.
     They made it with Ciment, which they put betwixt a Lay or
     Bed of Pibbles, cimented with Mortar made of Lime and Sand.


  _Orchestra_, from [Greek: orcheomai] _salto_; signified the
     place where they danced; it was the lowest place in the
     Theatre, which was between the _scene_, _viz._ the place
     where the Players acted, and the Seats where the Spectators
     sate. It was in this place where the Greek Comedians were
     wont to dance.

  _Order_, those Fabricks are said to be of different Orders,
     when the Proportion which is between the thickness of the
     _Pillars_ and their height, with all other things which are
     required to this Proportion, are different.

  _Ornaments_, _Vitruvius_ so calls the _Architrave_, _Frise_,
     and _Cornice_.

  _Oval_, vide _Echinus_.


  _Parascenium_, from [Greek: para] and [Greek: skenê]
     _tentonum_, is the back part of the Theatre or Scene.

  _Periptere_, from [Greek: peri] _circum_, and [Greek:
     pteron] _ala_, which has a Wing round about. This was a sort
     of a Temple, which had Pillars on all the four Parts, which
     was different from the _Prostyle_, which had only Pillars
     before, or In the _Front_, and from the _Amphiprostyle_,
     which had only Pillars before and behind, and none on the

  _Peristyle_, from [Greek: peri] _circum_, and [Greek:
     stylos] _columna_; signifies that which has Pillars round
     about: It differs from the _Periptere_ in this, that the
     Pillars of the _Peristyle_ are within, as it were round
     about a Court, and those of the _Periptere_ are without, as
     in the Temples of the Ancients.

  _Pedestal_, is that part which supports the Pillar.

  _Pied-droit_ is a square Pillar, which is in part within the

  _Pillaster_ is the same, with this Difference; that the
     Pillaster has a _Base_ and a _Capital_, as a _Pillar_ hath,
     which the _Pied-droit_ has not.

  _Platt-band_ is a square Member, which terminates the
     _Architrave_ of the _Dorick Order_, and passes immediately
     under the Triglyphs.

  _Plinthus_ signifies a Brick or square Tile. It's in
     Architecture taken for that square Member which makes the
     Foundation of the Base of the Pillar.

  _Posticum_ is the back Gate of a Fabrick.

  _Portico_ is a long place covered with a Floor or Flatfond,
     supported by Pillars.

  _Proscenium_, from [Greek: pro] and [Greek: skeninê]
     _tentorium_; it signifies the forepart of the Scene; it was
     an Edifice as high as the last Portico of the Theatre, whose
     Face or Front was adorned with many Ranges of Pillars.

  _Prostyle_ from [Greek: pro] and [Greek: stylos], signifies
     that which has Pillars before only. This was one sort of the
     Temples of the Ancients.

  _Pseudodiptere_, [Greek: pseudês] _mendax_, [Greek: dis]
     _bis_, and [Greek: pteron] _ala_; signifies a _false
     Diptere_. This was a kind of a Temple among the Ancients,
     which had _Porticoes_ round about, which were every one as
     large as the double _Portico_ of the _Diptere_.

  _Pseudoperiptere_, from [Greek: pseudês] _mendax_, and
     [Greek: peri], and [Greek: pteron] _ala_, was a sort of a
     Temple, where the Side-Pillars were part in the Wall of the
     inner side of the Temple, which was enlarged sufficiently to
     enclose within the space which was allowed the Porticoes of
     the Periptere.

  _Pulpit_ was the place upon which the Comedians acted, which
     we now call the Stage.

  _Picnostyle_, from [Greek: pyknos] _dentus_, and [Greek:
     stylos] _columna_; signifies a Building where the Pillars
     were very close one to another; so that the
     _Intercolumniation_ had but a _Diameter_ and a half of the


  _Rudus_ was a sort of gross Mortar, which was made use of
     for smoothing, and equally filling and levelling the
     Superfices of the Walls, before the fine Plaister was laid
     on: It was likewise made use of for the second _Bed_ or
     _Lay_ of the Flooring.


  _Scene_ signifies a Tabernacle, Tent, or Pavillion, from the
     Greek [Greek: skenê]. It was in the Theatre of the
     Ancients a great _Face_ or Front of Building, adjoyned
     with Pillars and Statues, which had three great Openings,
     in which were Pictures in Perspective, which represented
     the Lodgings where the Tragedians and Comedians dwelt.

  _Sabliere_ is a piece of Wood as long as a Beam, but not so

  _Scotia_, from [Greek: skotos] _tenebræ_, _Darkness_, is a
     Member of Architecture, hollowed as a Demi-channel: It's
     particularly affected in the Bases where it's placed,
     between the Torus and the Astragals; it's sometimes put
     under the _Drip_, in the Cornice of the _Dorick_ Order.

  _Statumen_ signifies generally whatsoever is made use of to
     support any thing in Architecture; it is Mortar mixt with
     Pibbles, which served for the first Lay or Bed in

  _Systyle_, from [Greek: syn] _con_, and [Greek: stylos]
     _columna_; signifies building where the Pillars seem to
     be joyned together, for the _Intercolumniation_ is but of
     two Diameters of the Pillars.


  _Torus_ is a Member in the Base which is round, in the form
     of a great Ring; it comes from the Latin word _Torus_,
     which signifies a Bed.

  _Tringle_ is a little square Member, which is directly upon
     every _Triglyph_, under the Platt-band of the
     _Architrave_, from whence hang down the _Guttæ_, or
     pendant Drops in the _Dorick Order_.

  _Triglyph_, from [Greek: tris] _ter_, and [Greek: glyphos]
     _sculptura_; because it's divided into three parts, and
     engraved, it is a Member in the Freeze of the Dorick
     Order, directly upon every Pillar, and in certain spaces
     in the _Intercolumniations_.

  _Tympan_ signifies a Drum; it's that part of the bottom of
     the Frontons which answers the naked of the Freeze; it is
     triangular, and placed upon the Cornice of the
     Entablature, and covered over again with two other
     Cornices which slope a little.


  _Volute_ signifies wreathed, and turned about from
     _Volvendo_; it's a part of the Capitals of the _Ionick_,
     _Corinthian_, and _Compound Orders_, which represents the
     bark of a Tree twisted and turned into a Spiral line.


  _Xyste_, from the Greek [Greek: zytos], which signifies
     scraped; it was the place where the Wrestlers exercised;
     it was so called because they made their skins be scraped
     and rubbed smooth, to make the Sweat fall, and to make
     their Bodies more slippery, that their Adversaries might
     have the less hold of them when they closed.

  To the Reader.

  _Abridgments of_ Vitruvius _have been formerly printed, but
  none of them have followed the design which_ Philebert de
  l'Orme _has given in his Third Book: He desires that in
  abridging_ Vitruvius _the matters which this Author treats
  of confusedly should be put into order, and that the things
  belonging to the same Subject, which are found dispersed in
  divers places, should be collected together into one
  Chapter. This Method, which the most part of the eminent
  Writers have neglected, has been carefully observed in this
  Treatise, it serving very much to the better apprehending
  and retaining the things treated of. We have been exact to
  put in nothing that is not taken out of_ Vitruvius, _to
  which end the_ Book _and_ Chapter _of his Works_ are _all
  along quoted in the Margin; nothing being added, but some
  few lines here and there, to continue the Discourse, and
  render it more clear: Notwithstanding which precautions,
  some things may possibly still remain obscure, in which case
  the Reader must have Recourse to the whole Works of_
  Vitruvius, _where he will find all necessary Explanation._

  _This little Treatise is not only necessary for those who
  begin the study of Architecture, but will be also of great
  use to even Masters themselves; for it is not to be doubted,
  that_ Vitruvius _being so great a Master in this Art, his
  Authority, together with that of all the Ancients, which is
  included in his Works, must be capable of instructing the_
  Apprentices, _and confirming the Masters, and thereby
  establish the good Maxims and certain Rules of

  _Advertisement concerning this Translation._

  This Abridgment having been very well received in French, we
  have ventured to put it in English, and doubt not but it
  will be as acceptable to our Nation, who are allowed to be
  as competent Judges of this Art as any. The Translation is
  very exact; the Cutts altogether as well, if not better,
  than in the French; and in the Table of the Explication of
  the Terms used in Architecture, we have added the Etymology
  and Derivation of them, which is not in the French.

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