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Title: Wild Birds in City Parks - Being hints on identifying 145 birds, prepared primarily - for the spring migration in Lincoln Park, Chicago
Author: Walter, Herbert Eugene, Walter, Alice Hall
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                        Wild Birds in City Parks


                 Being hints on identifying 145 birds,
                   prepared primarily for the spring
                   migration in Lincoln Park, Chicago

                                   BY
                         Herbert Eugene Walter
                                  AND
                           Alice Hall Walter

                     _REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION
                          WITH CHART AND KEY_

                                Chicago
                  A. W. Mumford & Company, Publishers
                           378 Wabash Avenue
                                  1906

                     Copyright 1901, 1902 and 1904
                          by Alice Hall Walter



                         Note to Third Edition.


With the continued success of this little booklet the authors have been
led to revise and enlarge the present issue in the hope that it will
prove more helpful and complete to those beginning the outdoor study of
birds.

The new features of this edition are the addition of forty-five
birds--the majority of which are shore and water birds--and a simple
field key. The number of each bird as given in the check-list of the
American Ornithologist's Union has also been inserted after its
scientific name as an aid in referring to larger bird-books. The subject
matter has been carefully rewritten and the order of the birds rearranged
in accordance with data covering observations during the last seven
years, as well as the charts which show the relative abundance of the
birds and the height of the migration in Lincoln Park.

We wish to thank our friends for their kind support in furthering our
efforts to enlarge the circle of admirers which the wild birds so richly
deserve.

"All nature is so full that that district produces the greatest variety
which is most examined."

                        --_Gilbert White, 1768._



                                Preface.


The object of this little book is to furnish those who may be interested
in making the acquaintance of wild birds with a simple letter of
introduction to 145 birds, the majority of which are commonly seen during
the spring migration.

Complete descriptions have been avoided, in the belief that the student
should rely upon his own observation for the discovery of minor details.
_The living bird_ is the one important fact which will make the brief
hints offered of value.

Anyone caring to make use of these hints may be assured that during the
migrations of the birds city dwellers have one of the keenest delights of
country life brought to their very doors, because many birds, migrating
largely at night, are attracted by the lights of the city and stop off in
their long journey to feed, so that a city park often contains a greater
variety of feathered visitors than an equal area in the country.

We wish to remind those of our friends who have asked for pictures in a
future edition that this book actually is _copiously illustrated_ by
hundreds of living birds every springtime in our parks and around our
homes, illustrations that are all life size, absolutely accurate in
detail and colored true to nature.

"As for the birds * * * they add immeasurably to the wholesome beauty of
life."

         --_Theodore Roosevelt, in Bird Lore, Vol. II, p. 98._



                             General Hints.


"A good observer is quick to take a hint and follow it up."--_John
Burroughs._

The identification of birds depends quite as much upon accurate
observation of their size, motions, flight, characteristic attitudes,
manner of feeding, company, song, call-notes and haunts, as upon details
of form and color. Especial care is necessary to insure correct estimates
of size for the reason that living birds often appear smaller to the
unpracticed eye than they actually are. The familiar _English Sparrow_ is
a convenient standard of size because it is usually at hand in our city
parks for instant reference. Remembering that it is _6 inches long_ a
practical though rough division of wild birds may be made as follows:--


  1. Birds smaller than the _English Sparrow_.
  2. Birds about the size of the _English Sparrow_.
  3. Birds decidedly larger than the _English Sparrow_.


If a few general characteristics of the principal bird-families be kept
in mind, and these are quickly and almost unconsciously learned, the
identity of a strange bird may usually be narrowed down to a few
possibilities. For example:

*Woodpeckers climb up and down the trunks of trees bracing with their
          tails and tapping the bark vigorously;

*Nuthatches are smaller than woodpeckers and have much the same habit of
          climbing up and down tree-trunks but with a freer wig-wagging
          motion, often descending head downward;

*Flycatchers sit erect with drooping tails, watching alertly for insect
          prey upon which they pounce in mid-air, afterwards returning to
          their perch;

*Swallows skim through the air in graceful and long sustained flights;

*Sparrows have stout seed-cracking bills, feed upon the ground, seldom
          fly high or far at a time and are for the most part fine
          songsters;

*Warblers are tiny, tireless, gaily-colored explorers of the twigs of
          trees and bushes;

*Kinglets are smaller than warblers and quite as restless in their
          motions, but arrive earlier in the migration;

*Wrens, with tails erect, slip mouse-like about brush heaps, crevices and
          bushes, though often perching in sight while singing;

*Thrushes, who with the exception of the _Robin_ and _Bluebird_ are very
          plainly dressed, run about on the ground stopping suddenly in a
          listening attitude. When singing they fly up to some perch,
          although many of the unrivaled singers of this family are
          silent during their brief sojourn in city parks;

*Vireos are most at home on the boughs of trees and sing freely as they
          glide in and out among the leaves to feed.

Female birds can usually be identified after the adult males have been
seen, although the females and young of many species are obscurely marked
or quite different from the adult males, a fact especially true of the
warblers. Immature birds are not considered in the present scheme of
study since they are a source of confusion to the beginner and occur in
any considerable number only during the fall migration.

The time of arrival, that is, when a bird may be expected during the
migration, is a point worthy of particular attention. Many wild guesses
may be avoided by simply noticing the dates when a bird has been known to
arrive in any given locality from year to year.

As a rule birds are identified by the method of elimination. Suppose, for
example, a small bird of lively motions is seen feeding among the twigs
of a tree late in March. It is, of course, neither a warbler nor a vireo
for these birds, although active and frequenting trees, arrive much later
in the spring. Provided it does not brace its tail and climb up and
around the trunk of the tree it is not likely to be a woodpecker, because
the motions of woodpeckers are too characteristic to be mistaken. In
similar manner, although sparrows and juncos may have arrived, it is
probably neither of these since it does not feed upon the ground, while
its size precludes the possibility of its being any bird larger than the
_English Sparrow_. There are only a few birds therefore, which it might
be and close observation together with the aid of a few leading hints,
will usually settle the question. In any case _watch the bird_ for it is
better to look at the bird than at a printed description of it.

The safest way, however, is to make careful notes about a stranger on the
spot. Memory is never more treacherous than in the case of the
description of a doubtful bird when one appeals to some book of
reference, a museum collection or the judgment of others. It is not
advisable to attempt extensive "field-notes" at first but it is essential
to keep a daily, dated list of all identified birds. A blank chart for
this purpose is inserted in the back part of the book.

Never _chase_ birds. Have patience, stand still a great deal and use your
common sense all the time.

Do not make yourself believe that you see a certain bird because it has
been reported by others. Do your own looking and listening and do it
well.

If you cannot go birding alone take along as few friends as possible
because birds are suspicious of human beings in flocks, especially when
they talk much.

A pair of field or opera-glasses is an invaluable aid, although practice
is necessary in learning to adjust them rapidly and to fix them instantly
upon the bird. Do not feel obliged to use the glasses when you are near
enough to see well without them.

Keep the sun at your back, otherwise colors will deceive you.

Remember that birds do not stay "indoors" on account of rain, clouds or
unfavorable weather. Warm spring rains literally fill the parks with
feathered travelers who often tarry but a day.



                           Particular Hints.


Note:--The following one hundred and fourteen birds are arranged in the
order of their _average first appearance in Lincoln Park_, based upon
observations made during the last seven years.

For the convenience of those desiring access to reliable sources of
information, the scientific name of each bird is placed in parenthesis
below its common name, followed by its number in the official list of the
American Ornithologist's Union.

Following the hints given about each bird are the names (in *black faced
type) of any bird or birds for which it might easily be mistaken.


                        1. BLUE JAY. 11-1/2 in.
                      (Cyanocitta cristata. 477.)

Black collar; _crested_; wings and tail deep blue, white-tipped and
black-barred; bold; harsh, noisy call-note; stays the year around in
Lincoln Park. *Loggerhead Shrike. *Kingfisher. *Bluebird.


                      2. LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE. 9 in.
                      (Lanius ludovicianus. 622.)

Slaty-gray; commonly white beneath, _not marked with dark transverse
lines_; wings and tail black, marked with white; _hooked_ bill; bar
through the eye and _over forehead_, black; imitates notes of other
birds. *Blue Jay.


                            3. ROBIN. 10 in.
                       (Merula migratoria. 761.)

Dark slate color; black head; yellow bill; throat white streaked with
black; underparts bright chestnut red; sings "cheer-i-ly, cheer-i-ly,
cheer-up;" nests in Lincoln Park. *Towhee.


                          4. JUNCO. 6-1/4 in.
                         (Junco hiemalis. 567.)

Slate color; blackish bib (female brownish) over a white belly; _ivory
bill_, _two white tail-feathers_; feeds in flocks on ground, often in
company with other birds; "sucks its teeth" for a call-note; song, a
melodious trill.


                       5. MEADOWLARK. 10-1/2 in.
                        (Sturnella magna. 501.)

Streaked; black crescent on a _bright yellow_ breast; _outer
tail-feathers white_; flies straight, _hovering_ as it reaches the
ground; noteworthy song. *Flicker. *Dickcissel.


                            6. CROW. 19 in.
                       (Corvus americanus. 488.)

Entirely black, including bill and feet; often seen in flocks; wings
appear frayed and ragged in flight; note, a lusty "caw." *Bronzed
Grackle.


                         7. BLUEBIRD. 6-1/2 in.
                         (Sialia sialis. 766.)

Sky-blue; brownish-red below; usually in pairs; sometimes nests in
Lincoln Park; call, "pu-ri-ty, pu-ri-ty;" often heard before seen. *Blue
Jay.


                     8. SAVANNA SPARROW. 5-1/4 in.
               (Passerculus sandwichensis savanna. 542a.)

Much streaked above and below; line over eye and edge of wing, yellowish;
cheek sometimes suffused with yellow tinge; _tail short_, feathers
pointed; movements stealthy; song, a weak trill. *Henslow Sparrow.


                       9. BRONZED GRACKLE. 13 in.
                   (Quiscalus quiscula æneus. 511b.)

Iridescent black; _body_ distinctly bronzy; often carries its tail
rudderwise in flight; pompous walk; rusty, grating call; nests in Lincoln
Park. *Crow.


                      10. SONG SPARROW. 6-1/2 in.
                   (Melospiza cinerea melodia. 581.)

Reddish-brown, showing black streaks; _ashy_ line over eye; whitish below
with dark-brown streaks which form a _spot in the middle of the breast_;
noteworthy song. *Swamp Sparrow. *Lincoln Sparrow.


                           11. COWBIRD. 8 in.
                         (Molothrus ater. 495.)

Male black with glossy brown head and neck; sparrow-like bill; female
brownish; fly in large flocks, uttering a greasy, squeaking note.
*Bronzed Grackle. *Rusty Blackbird.


                      12. TREE SPARROW. 6-1/4 in.
                       (Spizella monticola. 559.)

Streaked; shows much grayish; two _showy white wing-bars_; chestnut-brown
cap; breast whitish, _shading to a dark spot in the middle_; in flocks,
often with _Juncos_; returns north early in the season; noteworthy song.
*Chipping Sparrow. *Field Sparrow.


                       13. FOX SPARROW. 7-1/2 in.
                       (Passarella iliaca. 585.)

Fox-red back and tail; ashy about neck and head; white breast _thickly_
streaked with dark spots; scratches like a hen; alert; noteworthy song.
*Brown Thrasher. *Hermit Thrush.


                           14. PHOEBE. 7 in.
                        (Sayornis phoebe. 456.)

Dull olive-brown; darker on head and tail; whitish below; _bill_ and feet
black; tail drooping but jerking constantly; note, "phoe´be." *Wood
Pewee. *Least Flycatcher.


                         15. TOWHEE. 8-3/4 in.
                    (Pipilo erythrophthalmus. 587.)

Black above and black bib (female rich brown); reddish-brown sides; white
underneath; _outer tail-feathers white_; scratches about under bushes;
brilliant notes, "tow-hee´" and "che-wink´." *Robin.


                    16. DOWNY WOODPECKER. 6-1/4 in.
                 (Dryobates pubescens medianus. 394c.)

Bill small; closely resembles the _Hairy Woodpecker_ but is _scarcely
larger_ than the _English Sparrow_ and has the outer tail-feathers
_barred with black_. *Hairy Woodpecker. *Yellow-bellied Sapsucker.


                   17. GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET. 4 in.
                        (Regulus satrapa. 748.)

Olivaceous; two whitish wing-bars; _orange-yellow stripe edged with black
on crown_; restless and fearless; often seen feeding in evergreens; note,
rapid "tzee, tzee, tzee." *Ruby-Crowned Kinglet.


                        18. FLICKER. 12-1/2 in.
                    (Colaptes auratus luteus. 412a.)

Brown, barred with black; head grayish; back of neck marked with bright
red; black crescent on cinnamon-brown spotted breast; in flight shows
_white rump_ and yellow lining of wings and tail; feeds much on ground,
unlike other woodpeckers; call-note, "flee´-ker." *Meadowlark.


                     19. BROWN CREEPER.  5-1/2 in.
                  (Certhia familiaris americana. 726.)

Brown finely streaked with white; silky white below; long curved bill;
_flies to the base of tree-trunks and works up in spirals_ bracing with
its long pointed tail-feathers; calls softly, "screep, screep."
*Nuthatches.


                        20. CHICKADEE. 5-1/4 in.
                       (Parus atricapillus. 735.)

Ashy-gray; black throat and _cap_; white cheeks; frowsy; lively; often
swings head downward from the tips of twigs; song, "chick-a-dee-dee";
call-note musical, "pewee," sometimes confused with note of _Phoebe_.


                 21. WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH. 5-3/4 in.
                       (Sitta carolinensis. 727.)

Ashy-blue; cap and back of the neck, black; white below; constantly
exploring the bark of trees but does not brace, woodpecker fashion, with
its tail-feathers; note, nasal "yank, yank, yank." *Red-breasted
Nuthatch. *Brown Creeper.


                     22. BELTED KINGFISHER. 14 in.
                         (Ceryle alcyon. 390.)

Blue-gray; white collar; _big, crested head_; sits erect watching for
fish and flies near the surface of the water, uttering a _rattling_ call;
summers in Lincoln Park.


                23. YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER. 8-1/4 in.
                       (Sphyrapicus varius. 402.)

Mixed black and white; _yellowish-white underneath_; streaked on sides;
white bar _lengthwise_ the wing; scarlet patch, bordered with black on
crown _and throat_ (female with throat white); harsh, squealing note.
*Downy Woodpecker. *Hairy Woodpecker.


                     24. RUSTY BLACKBIRD. 9-1/2 in.
                    (Scolecophagus carolinus. 509.)

Black, uniformly iridescent and more or less rusty; tail almost even;
female smaller and rustier with pale line over eye. *Bronzed Grackle.
*Red-winged Blackbird.


                      25. FIELD SPARROW. 5-3/4 in.
                        (Spizella pusilla. 563.)

Streaked; crown and _bill_ reddish-brown; neck ashy; brownish-white
_unspotted_ breast; two indistinct white wing bars; song, "fe-u, fe-u,
fu, fee, fee, fee," beginning slowly and ending almost in a trill.
*Chipping Sparrow. *Tree Sparrow.


                      26. HERMIT THRUSH. 7-1/4 in.
                  (Hylocichla guttata pallasii. 759b.)

Olive-brown; _tail reddish-brown_; below dull white tinged with buff and
thickly spotted across the breast; shy, hiding in bushes; famous for its
song but silent during migration. *Other Thrushes.


                  27. RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD. 9-1/4 in.
                      (Agelaius phoeniceus. 498.)

Black; scarlet shoulder-straps edged with yellow; female much streaked,
marked with rusty; likes marshy places; note, "quonk-a-ree´." *Cowbird.
*Rusty Blackbird.


                  28. RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET. 4-1/4 in.
                       (Regulus calendula. 749.)

Dark greenish-olive; light underneath; ring about eye and wing-bars
white; male shows at will a brilliant ruby crown-patch; remarkable song.
*Golden-crowned Kinglet. *Warblers.


                      29. HAIRY WOODPECKER. 9 in.
                       (Dryobates villosus. 393.)

White band down the middle of black back; wings black spotted with white;
beneath white; outer tail-feathers white _not barred_; red band on neck
of male; large bill; note, sharp resonant "plick." *Downy Woodpecker.
*Yellow-bellied Sapsucker.


                      30. TREE SWALLOW. 6-1/4 in.
                      (Iridoprocne bicolor. 614.)

Metallic blue-green; _shining white below_; tail appears nearly square at
end in flight; often seen skimming near the surface of still water. *Barn
Swallow. *Purple Martin.


                        31. CARDINAL. 8-1/2 in.
                     (Cardinalis cardinalis. 593.)

Bright red, including large blunt bill; _crested_; black markings on face
and throat; female olive-gray, tinged lightly with red and obscurely
marked; fine songster. *Tanagers.


                   32. WHITE-THROATED SPARROW. 7 in.
                     (Zonotrichia albicollis. 558.)

_White throat_; unmarked ashy breast; whitish on belly; crown striped
with black and white; broad white stripe over the eye shading to yellow
in front; in flocks about shrubbery; clear, sweet whistle,
"pee-bod-dee-dee-dee." *White-crowned Sparrow.


                         33. MARSH HAWK. 22 in.
                        (Circus hudsonius. 331.)

Bluish gray, showing light streaks; gray below, belly white marked with
brown; tail barred; _white rump patch_; female brown, barred and streaked
more heavily; note shrill.


                    34. CHIPPING SPARROW. 5-3/4 in.
                       (Spizella socialis. 560.)

Streaked; _plain ashy breast_; two faint white wing-bars; _chestnut-brown
cap_; whitish line over eye; song, a strong clear trill. *Field Sparrow.
*Tree Sparrow.


                       35. MOURNING DOVE. 12 in.
                       (Zenaidura macroura. 316.)

Gray-blue, tinged with brownish; tail broadly tipped with white,
_tapering to a narrow point_; sides of neck iridescent; marked with black
on wings and sides of head; rapid whistling flight; note, "coo-oo."
*Pigeon. *Cuckoos.


                       36. WINTER WREN. 4-1/4 in.
                     (Olbiorchiles hiemalis. 722.)

Dark tawny-brown, barred on wings and tail; lighter below, barred
posteriorly; pale line over eye; _stub tail, carried erect_; very fine
song. *Other Wrens.


                     37. VESPER SPARROW. 6-1/4 in.
                       (Poæcetes gramineus. 540.)

Streaked above and below; underparts whitish, tinged with buff across
breast and on sides; shows _two conspicuous white tail feathers in
flight_; noteworthy song. *Female Purple Finch.


                     38. MYRTLE WARBLER. 5-1/2 in.
                       (Dendroica coronata. 655.)

Blue-gray, streaked; crown, _rump_ and spot on each side of breast,
_yellow_; white below, marked on breast and sides with black; usually in
small flocks. *Magnolia Warbler.


                      39. SWAMP SPARROW. 5-3/4 in.
                      (Melospiza georgiana. 584.)

Very darkly colored and heavily streaked; chestnut cap, sometimes
indistinctly streaked; _black forehead_; plain ashy breast; shy;
frequents bushes along the water's edge. *Song Sparrow. *Lincoln Sparrow.


                      40. PURPLE FINCH. 6-1/4 in.
                      (Carpodacus purpureus. 517.)

Not "purple," but faded crimson-red, somewhat streaky; belly whitish;
_large, heavy bill_; female mottled olive-brown, resembling sparrows;
noteworthy song.


                        41. CEDAR WAXWING. 7 in.
                        (Ampelis cedrorum. 619.)

Smooth snuff-brown; _crested_; chin and line from bill to crest, black;
end of tail banded with yellow; in flocks; "monotonous lisping note."


                      42. WILSON THRUSH. 7-1/4 in.
                     (Hylocichla fuscescens. 756.)

_Uniform tawny brown_; no ring about the eye; below white, faintly tinged
and lightly spotted; shy, about bushes; sometimes sings in Lincoln Park.
*Other Thrushes.


                 43. AMERICAN SPARROW HAWK. 10-1/2 in.
                        (Falco sparverius. 360.)

Reddish-brown, usually barred or spotted with black; head bluish, _marked
on sides with black_; tail white-tipped with one broad black bar; below
white, more or less spotted; narrow pointed wings; female, much more
barred, darker and _streaked_ below. _The smallest hawk._


                        44. BARN SWALLOW. 7 in.
                     (Hirundo erythrogastra. 613.)

Blue-back; chestnut shading to white below; _deeply forked tail_. *Tree
Swallow.


                     45. BROWN THRASHER. 11-1/4 in.
                        (Toxostoma rufum. 705.)

Bright rusty red; white below, much streaked; long bill and _long,
sweeping tail_; song, loud, bold and varied; about bushes. *Fox Sparrow.


                         46. HOUSE WREN. 5 in.
                       (Troglodytes aedon. 721.)

Brown, barred with darker; below grayish, tinged with brown, also barred;
rusty-colored tail, _two inches long_; remarkable song. *Other Wrens.


                    47. BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER. 5 in.
                       (Polioptila cærulea. 751.)

Blue-gray; white beneath; _long tail_ edged with white; male has a black
line over eye; fidgety, never long in a place; wheezy song.
*Black-throated Blue Warbler. *Cerulean Warbler.


                    48. WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW. 7 in.
                     (Zonotrichia leucophrys. 554.)

Ashy-gray; rump, tail and wings, brown, streaked with black; _crown
conspicuously striped_ with black and white; no yellow; two white
wing-bars; in flocks, often with _White-throated Sparrows_; scratches
with both feet; notice the song. *White-throated Sparrow.


                        49. PALM WARBLER. 5 in.
                       (Dendroica palmarum. 672.)

Streaky olive-gray; _chestnut cap_; yellow line over eye; beneath
yellowish (brightest on throat and under tail) streaked with brown; feeds
on ground in flocks; constantly _tilts its tail_ up and down.
*Water-Thrushes.


                       50. HENSLOW SPARROW. 5 in.
                     (Coterniculus henslowii. 547.)

Back conspicuously marked and streaked, showing much chestnut; head and
neck a peculiar greenish tinge, _finely_ lined with black; below tinged
with buff and finely streaked; dark stripes and spots on sides of head;
_sharp tail_; hides in the grass and can be carefully observed only with
patience.


                  51. GRINNELL WATER-THRUSH. 5-3/4 in.
               (Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis. 675a.)

Very dark olive-brown; below yellowish white, thickly streaked; _pale
stripe_ over the eye; skulks along the very edge of the water; _tilts its
tail_; brilliant song. *Louisiana Water-Thrush. *Ovenbird. *Palm Warbler.


                         52. CATBIRD. 8-3/4 in.
                   (Galeoscoptes carolinensis. 704.)

Slate-gray; bill, crown and tail, black; chestnut patch under tail; about
shrubbery; willing to be looked at; calls like a cat; song, greatly
varied.


                      53. PINE WARBLER. 5-3/4 in.
                       (Dendroica vigorsii. 671.)

Olive-green; yellow breast; sides of head suffused with
yellowish--sometimes forming a _yellow line over eye_; two dull white
wing-bars; song, a loud, penetrating trill. *Yellow-bellied Flycatcher.
*Female Western Yellow-throat. *Female Wilson Black-cap.


                  54. RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH. 4-3/4 in.
                        (Sitta canadensis. 728.)

Bluish-gray; crown and _stripe through eye, black_, with a white line
over the eye; _below rusty-red_, throat white; climbs up and down and
around trees; note, "cark, cark, cark." *White-breasted Nuthatch.


                 55. BLACK AND WHITE CREEPER. 5-1/4 in.
                        (Mniotilta varia. 636.)

Black and white, _striped_; white belly; female shows more white below;
creeps up and down trees like the _Nuthatches_; song rapid and rasping,
"he´-ho, he´-ho, he´-ho." *Black-poll Warbler.


              56. BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER. 5-1/4 in.
                        (Dendroica virens. 667.)

Olive-green; _bright yellow cheeks_; _throat and upper part of breast,
black_; white wing-bars; song, repeated often and rapidly, "chee, chee,
chee, chee, char, chee." *Cape May Warbler. *Hooded Warbler.


                  57. RED-HEADED WOODPECKER. 9-1/2 in.
                   (Melanerpes erythrocephalus. 406)

Black and white, not streaked; _entire head, neck and upper part of
breast, crimson_; pure white belly; note, a loud "kr-r-r-r r."
*Red-bellied Woodpecker.


                        58. MOCKINGBIRD. 10 in.
                       (Mimus polyglottus. 703.)

Ashy-gray, wings and tail darker; whitish below; wing shows white patch;
outer tail-feathers white; famous for its song. *Loggerhead Shrike.
*Cuckoos. *Catbird.


                      59. CHIMNEY SWIFT. 5-1/4 in.
                        (Chætura pelagica. 423.)

Dark sooty-gray; _bob-tail_; long, pointed wings, which often vibrate
rapidly in flight; twittering note; never seen perching like other birds.
*Swallows.


                   60. OLIVE-BACKED THRUSH. 7-1/4 in.
                      (Hylocichla ustulata. 758a.)

_Uniform dark olive_; below white, darker on sides; cheeks, throat,
breast and ring about eye, buff; spotted on breast; noteworthy song.
*Gray-cheeked Thrush. *Hermit Thrush. *Wilson Thrush.


                  61. GREAT-CRESTED FLYCATCHER. 9 in.
                       (Myiarchus crinitus. 452.)

Olive, showing rusty brown on wings and tail; _crested head_; throat and
breast, ashy-gray; wing-bars; belly sulphur-yellow; usually perches high;
note, "loud whistle." *Blue Jay.


                 62. LOUISIANA WATER-THRUSH. 6-1/4 in.
                       (Seiurus motacilla. 676.)

Olive; white below, buff-tinged posteriorly and streaked, but not
thickly, with dusky; _throat and middle of belly, unmarked_; _white_ line
over eye; loud, ringing song. *Grinnell Water-Thrush. *Ovenbird. *Palm
Warbler.


                    63. LEAST FLYCATCHER. 5-1/4 in.
                       (Empidonax minimus. 467.)

Olive-gray; wings, tail and head, darker; two narrow wing-bars; decidedly
grayish below, whiter on throat; _jerks its tail_ and utters a sharp,
energetic call, "che-bec´." *Wood Pewee. *Phoebe.


                       64. WOOD THRUSH. 7-3/4 in.
                      (Hylocichla mustelina. 755.)

_Bright brown on head_ shading to olive-brown on rump and tail; white
beneath, with conspicuous _round_ spots except on throat and middle of
belly; remarkable song. *Other Thrushes. *Fox Sparrow.


                  65. WESTERN YELLOW-THROAT. 5-1/4 in.
                (Geothlypis trichas occidentalis. 681a.)

Olive-green, showing brownish tinge; _broad, black stripe across forehead
and through eye_; bordered broadly with white; yellow beneath; _female_
duller and without black stripe and easily confused with female
_Mourning_, _Connecticut_ and _Pine Warblers_; in low bushes; song,
"witch-i-ty, witch-i-ty, witch-i-ty."


                      66. MAGNOLIA WARBLER. 5 in.
                       (Dendroica maculosa. 657.)

Back and tail, black; crown blue-gray; yellow rump; _yellow_ below,
streaked with black on breast and sides; white patch on wings; broad
white band across tail, seen from below. *Myrtle Warbler. *Cape May
Warbler.


                   67. AMERICAN GOLDFINCH. 5-1/4 in.
                      (Astragalinus tristis. 529.)

Canary-yellow, with black crown, tail and wings; white wing-bars; female
olive-tinged, without pure black or yellow; in flocks; canary-like song;
also sings in its undulating flight, "per-_chic_-o-ree,
per-_chic_-o-ree." *Yellow Warbler.


                       68. YELLOW WARBLER. 5 in.
                        (Dendroica æstiva. 652.)

_Yellow all over_ shading to olive on back; orange-brown streaks on
breast; female not so yellow and less streaked; song, penetrating and
unceasing; nests in Lincoln Park. *American Goldfinch.


                        69. KINGBIRD. 8-1/2 in.
                       (Tyrannus tyrannus. 644.)

Dusky black; below white; _tail tipped with broad band of white_;
fire-red patch on crown, usually concealed; spreads its tail like a fan
when about to alight.


                    70. BALTIMORE ORIOLE. 7-1/2 in.
                        (Icterus galbula. 507.)

_Bright orange_, with black head, throat, back and wings; two white
wing-bars; female smaller, brownish-yellow and showing little black; loud
call, "co-weet´, co-weet´, co-weet´;" song noteworthy. *Orchard Oriole.
*Scarlet Tanager.


                     71. SUMMER TANAGER. 7-1/2 in.
                         (Piranga rubra. 610.)

_Vermillion all over_; _no black_; female yellowish-olive and usually
near the male; very rare. *Cardinal.


                72. YELLOW-BELLIED FLYCATCHER. 5-1/2 in.
                     (Empidonax flaviventris. 463.)

Bright olive-green, with dark-brown tail and wings; yellowish wing-bars;
sulphur-yellow below, _brightest between legs_ and tinged elsewhere with
pale olive; yellow eye-ring; call, a soft, slow whistle, "pe´-a."
*Yellow-throated Vireo. *Least Flycatcher. *Pine Warbler.


                  73. BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER. 5-1/4 in.
                     (Dendroica blackburniæ. 662.)

Black streaked with white; middle of crown, throat and sides of head,
_flaming orange_; black patch behind eye; white wing-bars; female duller;
usually high up among the leaves. *Prothonotary Warbler.


                        74. OVENBIRD. 6-1/4 in.
                      (Seiurus aurocapillus. 674.)

Olive-green showing yellow tinge; below pure white, thickly spotted;
_orange-brown cap_ bordered with black stripes; scratches like a hen;
tilts tail up and down; under shrubbery; note, "teacher" repeated rapidly
with increasing emphasis. *Water-Thrushes.


                       75. RED-EYED VIREO. 6 in.
                        (Vireo olivaceus. 624.)

Olive-green; crown, slaty; white below, lightly tinged on sides; _dark
line above a white one over eye_; clear, persistent song; nests in
Lincoln Park. *Warbling Vireo.


                    76. AMERICAN REDSTART. 5-1/4 in.
                      (Setophaga ruticilla. 687.)

Male black, with _six flame-colored spots_; female olive, with _six
yellow spots_; spreads its tail like a fan; song, "chee, chee, chee,
chew."


                    77. CAPE MAY WARBLER. 5-1/4 in.
                       (Dendroica tigrina. 650.)

Yellowish-olive spotted with black on back; crown very dark; cheeks
yellow with an _orange-brown ear patch_; yellow below, black streaks on
breast; wing-bars; song all on one note. *Black-throated Green Warbler.
*Magnolia Warbler.


                     78. SCARLET TANAGER. 7-1/4 in.
                      (Piranga erythromelas. 608.)

_Scarlet, with black wings and tail_; female olive-green, usually near
by; rather sluggish; note, "chip, chree;" song noteworthy. *Cardinal.
*Summer Tanager.


                  79. YELLOW-THROATED VIREO. 5-1/2 in.
                        (Vireo flavifrons. 628.)

Bright olive-green, shading to ashy-blue on rump; _yellow throat_ and
breast, sharply defined against white belly; line around eye and to the
bill, yellow; two white wing-bars; fine song. *Yellow-bellied Flycatcher.
*Blue-headed Vireo.


                 80. ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK. 8-1/4 in.
                     (Zamelodia ludoviciana. 595.)

Black, including throat, with white rump and wing-patches; breast white
with a brilliant rose-red blotch; lining of wings also rose-red; _large
beak_; female yellowish-brown, darkly mottled, no red; sluggish;
remarkable song.


                      81. PURPLE MARTIN. 7-1/2 in.
                          (Progne subis. 611.)

Blue-black all over; female lighter and streaked with grayish-white
below; often nests in bird houses; twittering song. *Tree Swallow.
*Chimney Swift.


                  82. YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT. 7-1/4 in.
                         (Icteria virens. 683.)

Olive-green; bright yellow below, belly _white_; region about eye black,
marked with a white line above eye; white spot and shorter line below
eye; the largest warbler; remarkable song. *Dickcissel. *Western
Yellow-Throat. *Yellow-Throated Vireo.


               83. BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER. 5-1/4 in.
                     (Dendroica cærulescens. 654.)

Slaty-blue; below white, with black throat and sides; _conspicuous white
patch on wing_; female grayish, no black, but may be recognized by _wing
patch_; _hoarse_ note, "kree, kree." *Blue-gray Gnatcatcher.


                    84. NASHVILLE WARBLER. 4-3/4 in.
                  (Helminthophila rubricapilla. 645.)

Olive-green; head and neck bluish gray; indistinct brown patch on crown;
_bright yellow below_; no wing bars; _white eye ring_; song, not loud,
"wee´-see, wee´-see, wit´-a-wit´-a-wit´." *Tennessee Warbler.


                     85. WARBLING VIREO. 5-1/4 in.
                          (Vireo gilvus. 627.)

Mouse gray, with olive rump; white below, tinged with greenish yellow;
creamy-white around the eye; song, rippling warble. *Red-eyed Vireo.
*Least Flycatcher.


                    86. BLUE-HEADED VIREO. 5-1/2 in.
                        (Vireo solitarius. 629.)

Olive-green; _ashy-blue head_; pure white below, sides yellowish; line
around the eye and to the bill, white; two white wing-bars; song,
noteworthy. *Yellow-throated Vireo.


                       87. ORCHARD ORIOLE. 7 in.
                        (Icterus spurius. 506.)

Male, rich _chestnut-brown_ with black head, wings and tail, narrow white
wing-bar; female olivaceous above and greenish-yellow below with two
white wing-bars; young male like female but with black throat; high
trees; loud, clear song. *Baltimore Oriole.


                 88. LONG-BILLED MARSH WREN.  5-1/4 in.
                     (Telmatodytes palustris. 725.)

Brown, almost black on head, tail and between shoulders, the latter
streaked with white; barred only on wings and tail; _line over eye_ and
middle of breast white; _long bill_; spluttering song. *Other Wrens.


                  89. BAY-BREASTED WARBLER. 5-1/2 in.
                       (Dendroica castanea. 660.)

Ashy-brown, black-streaked; black cheeks and forehead; throat, upper part
of breast, sides and crown, _rich chestnut brown_; white wing-bars.
*Chestnut-sided Warbler.


                     90. PARULA WARBLER. 4-1/2 in.
                    (Compsothlypis americana. 648.)

Grayish-blue, _yellowish across the back_; throat and breast yellow,
latter crossed by brownish band; wing-bars; peculiar song. *Blue
Golden-winged Warbler.


                       91. WOOD PEWEE.  6-1/4 in.
                        (Contopus virens. 461.)

Dark olive-brown; brownish black on wings and tail; frowsy head; below
white, showing olive tinge on sides; two narrow white wing-bars;
plaintive note repeated slowly and often, "pee´to-way´, pee´-to-way´,
hee´-rue."  *Phoebe. *Least Flycatcher.


                        92. BOBOLINK. 7-1/2 in.
                     (Dolichonyx orizivorus. 494.)

Male black with light back, creamy buff on neck; female, sparrow colored,
streaked above; long merry musical song; open fields; in Lincoln Park
usually seen in flocks flying overhead, singing on the wing.


                 93. BLUE GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER. 5 in.
                   (Helminthophila chrysoptera. 642.)

Blue-gray; crown and _patch on wing_, golden yellow; _throat_, and stripe
through eye, _black_; white below; song, drawling "zee, zee, zee, zee."
*Parula Warbler.


                     94. INDIGO BUNTING. 5-3/4. in.
                       (Cyanospiza cyanea. 598.)

_Indigo blue_; wings and tail blackish; female brown; in flocks; often
feeds in the grass; noteworthy song. *Bluebird.


                  95. PROTHONOTARY WARBLER. 5-1/4 in.
                      (Prothonotaria citrea. 637.)

Entire head, neck and breast, _bright orange yellow_; blue-gray wings,
rump and tail; female duller; prefers shrubbery near water. *Blackburnian
Warbler. *Yellow Warbler.


                    96. TENNESSEE WARBLER. 4-1/2 in.
                    (Helminthophila peregrina. 647.)

Olive-green, brightest on rump; head and neck, blue gray; _dull white
below_; faint white line over eye; no wing-bars; song, shrill and feeble.
*Nashville Warbler.


                    97. MOURNING WARBLER. 5-1/2 in.
                    (Geothlypis philadelphia. 679.)

Bright olive-green; head, neck, throat and upper part of breast, _bluish
ash_; yellow belly; black band on breast; about bushes and in the grass;
noteworthy song. *Connecticut Warbler.


                   98. CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER. 5 in.
                    (Dendroica pennsylvanica. 659.)

Back shows black streaks mixed with olive-green; yellow cap; white below
with dainty _chestnut markings on sides of breast_; song, "chee, chee,
chee, chee´ar." *Bay-breasted Warbler.


                     99. WHIP-POOR-WILL. 9-3/4 in.
                     (Antrostomus vociferus. 417.)

Mottled, strongly resembling the bark of certain trees; narrow white band
across upper part of breast; big head; in daytime lies _motionless_,
_lengthwise a branch_. *Nighthawk.


                    100. CERULEAN WARBLER. 4-1/2 in.
                       (Dendroica cærulea. 658.)

_Azure-blue_, marked with black on back and sides of head; white below,
streaked with blue; two white wing-bars; frequents tree-tops; song
resembles that of _Parula_. *Blue-gray Gnatcatcher.


                     101. HOODED WARBLER. 5-1/2 in.
                        (Wilsonia mitrata. 684.)

Olive-green; yellow below; head, neck and upper breast, black; _yellow
"mask" across forehead and cheeks_; white spots on tail; female less
black. *Western Yellow-throat. *Wilson Black-cap Warbler. *Canadian
Warbler.


                   102. BLACK-POLL WARBLER. 5-1/2 in.
                       (Dendroica striata. 661.)

Streaked black and white; _black crown_; white cheeks; below white with
line of black spots down sides; tree-tops; song, a staccato musical
"chink" repeated rapidly. *Black and White Creeper.


                 103. YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO. 12-1/4 in.
                      (Coccyzus americanus. 387.)

Bronzy olive-gray; white below; _lower half of curved bill yellow_ tipped
with black; outer tail-feathers black tipped _broadly_ with white; wings
show a _reddish-brown tinge in flight_; glides stealthily from tree to
tree and keeps concealed among the leaves; slowly droops and raises its
tail when perching; song, loud "kuk-kuk, kuk-kuk." *Black-billed Cuckoo.
*Mourning Dove.


                   104. CANADIAN WARBLER.  5-1/2 in.
                      (Wilsonia canadensis. 686.)

Bluish-lead color; yellow below with a necklace of black spots; no
wing-bars; noteworthy song. *Magnolia Warbler.


                105. WILSON BLACK-CAP WARBLER. 4-3/4 in.
                        (Wilsonia pusilla. 685.)

Bright olive-green; yellow below; _black cap_; in low bushes. *Pine
Warbler. *Female Western Yellow-throat.


                    106. LINCOLN SPARROW. 5-3/4 in.
                       (Melospiza lincolni. 583.)

_Finely_ streaked with black and brown; white beneath, with *broad buff
band across the breast and down the sides; narrow streaks on throat,
upper breast and sides; dark stripe on each side of throat from corner of
mouth; very shy. *Song *and *Swamp Sparrows.


               107. RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD. 3-1/4 in.
                       (Trochilus colubris. 428.)

Iridescent green and purple; male has ruby-red throat; frequents
flowering shrubs and plants; darts here and there and poises in mid air
with wings vibrating so rapidly that they make a humming noise; "squeaky
note."


                       108. NIGHTHAWK. 9-1/2 in.
                     (Chordeiles virginianus. 420.)

On the wing overhead after insects just before or at dusk; long, pointed
wings _showing a white patch_; flight resembles that of _Chimney Swift_;
sharp note, "skeep;" often nests on the flat roofs of city buildings.
*Whip-poor-will.


                    109. BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO. 12 in.
                    (Coccyzus erythropthalmus. 388.)

Bronzy olive-gray; white below; bill _entirely_ black; _only a little
white_ on tail; movements like those of _Yellow-billed Cuckoo_; song,
soft "coo-coo, coo-coo." *Yellow-billed Cuckoo. *Mourning Dove.


                  110. GRAY-CHEEKED THRUSH. 7-1/2 in.
                       (Hylocichla aliciae. 757.)

Uniform olive; below white, _very palely_ suffused with buff; cheeks
_gray tinged_; breast and sides of throat, spotted; usually silent in
Lincoln Park. *Olive-backed and *other Thrushes.


                111. YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD. 10-1/4 in.
                 (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus. 497.)

Black; head, throat and breast, _yellow_; white wing patch; female dark
brown, yellow markings duller, no wing patch; female smaller than male.


                         112. DICKCISSEL. 6 in.
                        (Spiza americana. 604.)

Streaked; ashy on head and neck; white chin; _black throat patch_;
_yellow breast_; white belly; _line over eye, yellow_; wings show
chestnut brown; female has less yellow and no throat patch.
*Yellow-breasted Chat. *Meadowlark.


                  113. CONNECTICUT WARBLER. 5-1/2 in.
                       (Geothlypis agilis. 678.)

Olive-green; head ashy with throat darker; _white ring_ around eye; belly
yellow; wings long and pointed; low bushes and swampy places; penetrating
call-note. *Mourning Warbler.


                 114. RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER. 9-1/2 in.
                       (Centurus carolinus. 409.)

Black and white, back, wings and tail _barred transversely_ and very
evenly; below grayish-white, _tinged with red_; top of head and back of
neck crimson; female, crown gray; rare. *Red-headed Woodpecker. *Hairy
Woodpecker.



                          Table of Occurrence.


In this table the birds are arranged according to the order of their
comparative frequency or rarity, based upon personal observations in
_Lincoln Park_. The abundance of the birds--that is, the number of
individual birds of different species--is in no wise shown, but simply
the relative representation of each species. For instance, out of a total
of 454 mornings, covering observations during six years, the _Robin_ was
seen on 383 different mornings.

The record for 1902, during the absence of the authors, is that of Mr. H.
V. Bozell.


                                  NUMBER OF MORNINGS SEEN IN LINCOLN PARK.
                                  1898  1899  1900  1901  1902  1903 Total
1 Robin                             62    52    57    69    61    82   383
2 Bronzed Grackle                   57    58    57    60    57    72   361
3 Blue Jay                          49    58    61    65    40    51   324
4 Cowbird                           41    34    44    44    39    54   256
5 Junco                             33    35    32    32    51    42   225
6 Towhee                            35    18    24    44    45    48   214
7 Song Sparrow                      27    33    19    38    37    36   190
8 Flicker                           29    18    21    33    37    46   184
9 Ruby-crowned Kinglet              31    28    23    30    22    39   173
10 White-throated Sparrow           30    23    23    31    26    35   168
11 Bluebird                         26     1     7    31    35    50   150
12 Wilson Thrush                    34    35    23    21    11    20   144
13 Yellow-bellied Sapsucker         23    12    15    30    27    34   141
14 Yellow Warbler                   27    30    24    18    13    27   139
15 Belted Kingfisher                25    21    24    27    21    19   137
16 Red-headed Woodpecker            23    23    16    26    16    26   130
17 Myrtle Warbler                   19    25    11    21    22    31   129
18 Brown Thrasher                   27     8    20    21    16    29   121
19 Brown Creeper                    18    15    19    14    28    27   121
20 Catbird                          22    27    16    17    10    17   109
21 Golden-crowned Kinglet           18    14    13    26    15    23   109
22 Chipping Sparrow                 25    11    11    12    17    32   108
23 American Goldfinch               21    19    12    20     5    18    95
24 Tree Swallow                     13    11    16    19    13    22    94
25 American Redstart                18    16    19     8    10    20    91
26 Barn Swallow                     15    14    10    19    14    19    91
27 Fox Sparrow                      11     9    14     9    27    21    91
28 Chimney Swift                    16    11    14    15    11    22    89
29 Blue-gray Gnatcatcher            18    16    11    10    16    17    88
30 White-crowned Sparrow             9     5    18    22    16    17    87
31 Palm Warbler                      8    21     7    11    19    20    86
32 Hermit Thrush                    13     9    10    18     9    27    86
33 Black and White Creeper          15    15    11    13    12    18    84
34 Least Flycatcher                 18    18     8    14     7    18    83
35 Magnolia Warbler                 13    13    13     5    16    20    80
36 Black-throated Blue Warbler      12    14     9    13    12    16    76
37 Olive-backed Thrush               8     4    14    16    11    23    76
38 Phoebe                           15     4     5    16    15    19    74
39 Baltimore Oriole                 18     6    10    15    11    13    73
40 Grinnell Water-Thrush            17     6     9    14     8    17    71
41 Field Sparrow                    ..     2    12    17    23    17    71
42 Swamp Sparrow                     4     4    14    12    17    17    68
43 Crow                              4    11     7    11    16    18    67
44 Chestnut-sided Warbler           11     6    11    13     9    16    66
45 Ovenbird                          9    11    11    12    11    11    65
46 White-breasted Nuthatch          12     6    17    21     6     2    64
47 Western Yellow-throat            18    17    10     8     3    15    61
48 Wood Pewee                       12    14     9     6     7    13    61
49 Downy Woodpecker                 14     7     4     8    17    10    60
50 House Wren                        1    ..    10    11    13    24    59
51 Red-eyed Vireo                   13    10     5     6     6    16    56
52 Loggerhead Shrike                 5     1    16    13     7    13    55
53 Indigo Bunting                   12    17     2     6     5    11    53
54 Black-throated Green Warbler      4     9     4     9     6    12    44
55 Blackburnian Warbler             11     4     9     7     5     6    42
56 Black-poll Warbler                6     7     8     3     3    15    42
57 Kingbird                          8     1     5     3     6    17    40
58 Scarlet Tanager                   7     3     7     4     3    10    34
59 Ruby-throated Hummingbird         7     9     4     3     1    10    34
60 Mourning Dove                     5     3     6    10     2     8    34
61 Rose-breasted Grosbeak            5     2     6     8     6     6    33
62 Tree Sparrow                     ..    ..    10     3    12     8    33
63 Winter Wren                       3     5    11    ..     3    10    32
64 Meadowlark                        3    ..     7    13     5     4    32
65 Purple Martin                     1    ..    ..     6     4    20    31
66 Cape May Warbler                  3     2     9     2     6     7    29
67 Warbling Vireo                    7     1     4     3     4    10    29
68 Mourning Warbler                  5     8     2     4     4     5    28
69 Wilson Black-cap Warbler          9     1     3     2     5     8    28
70 Yellow-billed Cuckoo              8     7     1     3     1     7    27
71 Great-crested Flycatcher          5     2    ..     1    10     9    27
72 Bobolink                          2    ..     9    10     1     4    26
73 Canadian Warbler                  8     3     6     4     1     4    26
74 Red-winged Blackbird              4    ..     2     8     3     7    24
75 Wood Thrush                       8     3    ..     5     3     3    22
76 Orchard Oriole                    4     3     5     1     1     6    20
77 Red-breasted Nuthatch            ..    ..    10    ..     3     7    20
78 Marsh Hawk                       ..     2     1     8     5     4    20
79 Hairy Woodpecker                  3     1     4    ..     4     7    19
80 Bay-breasted Warbler              1     1     2     1     4    10    19
81 Parula Warbler                    6    ..    ..     2     9     2    19
82 Chickadee                         3    ..     7     8    ..    ..    18
83 Pine Warbler                     ..    ..     3     1     5     9    18
84 Henslow Sparrow                   3     2     1     2     3     6    17
85 Nashville Warbler                 1     1     4     1    ..     9    16
86 Yellow-throated Vireo             2    ..     2     2     3     7    16
87 Cedar Waxwing                     6     5    ..     1     2     1    15
88 Purple Finch                      4    ..     4    ..     1     5    14
89 Vesper Sparrow                   ..    ..     6    ..     4     3    13
90 Blue-headed Vireo                ..    ..     2     1     6     4    13
91 Gray-cheeked Thrush              ..    ..    ..    ..     3    10    13
92 American Sparrow Hawk             1     1    ..     4     2     4    12
93 Yellow-bellied Flycatcher        ..    ..     5    ..     2     4    11
94 Nighthawk                        ..     2     1     1    ..     7    11
95 Lincoln Sparrow                  ..    ..     1    ..     1     8    10
96 Black-billed Cuckoo              ..     1     2     2     2     2     9
97 Rusty Blackbird                  ..     2    ..     3    ..     2     7
98 Yellow-breasted Chat             ..    ..    ..    ..     1     6     7
99 Long-billed Marsh Wren            1     2    ..    ..    ..     3     6
100 Louisiana Water-Thrush          ..    ..     1    ..     3     2     6
101 Prothonotary Warbler            ..     1    ..    ..     3     1     5
102 Savanna Sparrow                 ..    ..    ..    ..    ..     5     5
103 Blue Golden-winged Warbler       1    ..     1     1     1    ..     4
104 Whip-poor-will                   1     1    ..     1    ..     1     4
105 Connecticut Warbler             ..    ..    ..    ..    ..     3     3
106 Dickcissel                      ..    ..    ..     1     2    ..     3
107 Tennessee Warbler                2    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..     2
108 Mockingbird                     ..    ..    ..     2    ..    ..     2
109 Cerulean Warbler                ..    ..     1    ..     1    ..     2
110 Summer Tanager                  ..     1    ..    ..    ..    ..     1
111 Cardinal                        ..    ..     1    ..    ..    ..     1
112 Red-bellied Woodpecker           1    ..    ..    ..    ..    ..     1
113 Hooded Warbler                  ..    ..    ..    ..    ..     1     1
114 Yellow-headed Blackbird         ..    ..    ..     1    ..    ..     1
     Total number of days           66    77    74    78    72    87   454
Av'ge number of kinds seen daily 18.83 12.75 14.59 16.23 16.45 19.53 16.34



                           Table of Arrival.


Note.--The following table gives the dates of the first arrival of each
bird mentioned in the preceding list of one hundred and fourteen for the
seven years from 1897 to 1903 inclusive, _as observed in Lincoln Park_.
The birds are arranged in their respective families, and space is left
for recording their first appearance in any succeeding year.

The record for 1902, in the absence of the authors, was kept by Mr.
Harold V. Bozell.

Attention is called to the fact that many birds which are common summer
residents in the neighboring country are rare migrants in the Park. Among
these may be mentioned the _Red-winged Blackbird_, _Bobolink_ _and_
_Warbling Vireo_. Some fine singers also, for example, the _Vesper
Sparrow_, _Yellow-throated Vireo_ and _Hermit Thrush_, are usually silent
in the Park.


                                 |1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 _____|
       Family COLUMBIDAE         |                                        |
 35 Mourning Dove                | ..   5/9 3/25  4/6 4/10 4/26  4/1 _____|
       Family FALCONIDAE         |                                        |
 33 Marsh Hawk                   | ..   ..  4/25 4/19 3/25 4/21  4/1 _____|
 43 Sparrow Hawk                 | ..  5/18 4/25 4/18 3/24 3/21 4/30 _____|
       Family CUCULIDAE          |                                        |
103 Yellow-billed Cuckoo         | ..  5/19  5/1 5/16 5/17 5/17 5/12 _____|
109 Black-billed Cuckoo          | ..   ..  5/27 5/12 5/15 5/16 5/12 _____|
       Family ALCEDINIDAE        |                                        |
 22 Belted Kingfisher            |3/28 3/25 3/22 4/10 3/26 4/11 4/10 _____|
       Family PICIDAE            |                                        |
 29 Hairy Woodpecker             | ..  4/11 5/24 4/19  ..  3/25  3/6 _____|
 16 Downy Woodpecker             | 4/7  4/8 3/27 4/25  4/5 3/10  3/6 _____|
 23 Yellow-bellied Sapsucker     |4/25 3/30  4/8  4/6 3/19 3/27  4/1 _____|
114 Red-bellied Woodpecker       | ..  5/22  ..   ..   ..   ..   ..  _____|
 57 Red-headed Woodpecker        |4/26 4/29 4/28  5/6 4/27 4/27 4/28 _____|
 18 Flicker                      |4/15 3/25 4/11  4/7 3/23 3/24 3/18 _____|
       Family CAPRIMULGIDAE      |                                        |
 99 Whip-poor-will               | ..  5/21 4/30  ..   5/9  ..  5/17 _____|
108 Nighthawk                    | ..   ..  5/10 5/13 5/18 5/18 5/18 _____|
       Family MICROPODIDAE       |                                        |
 59 Chimney Swift                | 5/1 4/30 5/11 4/30 4/17 4/22  5/5 _____|
       Family TROCHILIDAE        |                                        |
107 Ruby-throated Hummingbird    | ..  5/19  5/9 5/13 5/16 5/17 5/13 _____|
       Family TYRANNIDAE         |                                        |
 69 Kingbird                     |4/29 4/30 5/10  5/6 5/10 4/21  5/5 _____|
 61 Great-crested Flycatcher     | ..   5/3 4/30  ..  5/11 4/21 4/29 _____|
 14 Phoebe                       | 4/7 3/20 4/17  4/1 3/18 3/15 3/17 _____|
 91 Wood Pewee                   |4/27 5/19 5/10 5/11 5/16 4/28 5/12 _____|
 72 Yellow-bellied Flycatcher    | ..   ..   ..  4/29  ..   5/1 5/12 _____|
 63 Least Flycatcher             |5/12 4/30 4/20 4/30  5/6 4/21  5/9 _____|
       Family CORVIDAE           |                                        |
  1 Blue Jay                     | ..   ..   ..   ..   ..   ..   ..  _____|
  6 Crow                         | ..   3/9 3/26 3/12  3/3  3/6  3/8 _____|
       Family ICTERIDAE          |                                        |
 92 Bobolink                     | ..  5/14  ..   5/8  5/4 5/12  5/8 _____|
 11 Cowbird                      | 4/4 3/16 4/10  4/1 3/19  3/1 3/14 _____|
111 Yellow-headed Blackbird      | ..   ..   ..   ..  5/17  ..   ..  _____|
 27 Red-winged Blackbird         | ..   5/7  ..  4/18 3/22 3/26 3/17 _____|
  5 Meadowlark                   | ..  3/14  ..  3/27 3/19 3/10 3/13 _____|
 87 Orchard Oriole               | ..  5/15  5/6 5/11 5/10  5/2  5/5 _____|
 70 Baltimore Oriole             | ..  4/30  5/2  5/6  5/4  5/2  5/5 _____|
 24 Rusty Blackbird              | ..   ..   ..  4/19  4/5  ..  3/17 _____|
  9 Bronzed Grackle              |3/29 3/14 3/20 3/24 3/23 3/10 3/14 _____|
       Family FRINGILLIDAE       |                                        |
 40 Purple Finch                 | ..  4/24  ..  4/15  ..  4/11 4/15 _____|
 67 American Goldfinch           |4/25  5/6 4/28  5/7 4/30  5/2  5/7 _____|
 37 Vesper Sparrow               | ..   ..   ..  4/22  ..  4/18  4/1 _____|
  8 Savanna Sparrow              | ..   ..   ..   ..   ..   ..  3/19 _____|
 50 Henslow Sparrow              | ..  4/29 4/26 4/21 4/30 4/24 4/15 _____|
 48 White-crowned Sparrow        | 5/5  5/9 4/29  5/2 4/20 3/11 4/29 _____|
 32 White-throated Sparrow       |4/26 4/13 4/19 4/21 4/17 3/24 3/21 _____|
 12 Tree Sparrow                 | ..   ..   ..   4/6  4/5  3/7 3/13 _____|
 34 Chipping Sparrow             |4/15 4/13 4/18  4/8  4/8 4/13 4/12 _____|
 25 Field Sparrow                | ..   ..  4/23 4/17  4/5 3/11 3/19 _____|
  4 Junco                        |3/28  3/9 3/14 3/23 3/18  3/8 3/13 _____|
 10 Song Sparrow                 | 4/8 3/15 3/19 3/27 3/18  3/8 3/12 _____|
106 Lincoln Sparrow              | ..   ..   ..  5/10 5/23 5/12 5/10 _____|
 39 Swamp Sparrow                | ..   5/7 4/20 4/21 4/18 3/11 4/12 _____|
 13 Fox Sparrow                  | 4/8 3/30 3/14  4/5 3/18 3/10 3/17 _____|
 15 Towhee                       | 4/7 3/17 4/11  4/7 3/25 3/10 3/18 _____|
 31 Cardinal                     |3/28  ..   ..  4/25  ..   ..   ..  _____|
 80 Rose-breasted Grosbeak       | ..   ..  5/10 5/11  5/4 4/28  5/9 _____|
 94 Indigo Bunting               | ..  5/14 5/10 5/21 5/10  5/2  5/6 _____|
112 Dickcissel                   | ..   ..   ..   ..  5/16 5/18  ..  _____|
       Family TANAGRIDAE         |                                        |
 78 Scarlet Tanager              | ..  5/14  5/4  5/2  5/5  5/3  5/5 _____|
 71 Summer Tanager               | ..   ..   5/4  ..   ..   ..   ..  _____|
       Family HIRUNDINIDAE       |                                        |
 81 Purple Martin                | ..  5/25 5/30  ..  4/27 4/23 4/17 _____|
 44 Barn Swallow                 |4/18  5/1 4/23 4/26 4/10 4/18 4/24 _____|
 30 Tree Swallow                 | ..  5/11 4/12 4/18 4/12 3/11  4/1 _____|
       Family AMPELIDAE          |                                        |
 41 Cedar Waxwing                | ..  4/11 3/27  ..  5/16 4/24  4/5 _____|
       Family LANIIDAE           |                                        |
  2 Loggerhead Shrike            | ..  3/14 4/11  3/9  3/3  3/9  3/1 _____|
       Family VIREONIDAE         |                                        |
 75 Red-eyed Vireo               | ..  5/10 4/29 5/12  5/4  5/2  5/4 _____|
 85 Warbling Vireo               |4/27 5/15 5/12  5/6 5/11  5/7  5/5 _____|
 79 Yellow-throated Vireo        | ..   5/1  ..  5/12  5/5 4/28 5/12 _____|
 86 Blue-headed Vireo            | ..   ..   ..  5/17  5/5  5/2  5/8 _____|
       Family MNIOTILTIDAE       |                                        |
 55 Black and White Creeper      |4/28 4/30 4/21 4/26  5/4 4/28 4/27 _____|
 95 Prothonotary Warbler         | ..   ..  5/16  ..   ..  4/27 5/19 _____|
 93 Blue Golden-winged Warbler   | ..  5/14  ..  5/12 5/12  5/2  ..  _____|
 84 Nashville Warbler            | ..  5/10  5/4  5/9 5/19  5/2  5/1 _____|
 96 Tennessee Warbler            | ..  5/11  ..   ..   ..   ..   ..  _____|
 90 Parula Warbler               | ..  5/11  ..   ..  5/12  5/3  5/9 _____|
 77 Cape May Warbler             | ..  5/13  5/1  5/2  5/5  5/2  5/9 _____|
 68 Yellow Warbler               |5/11 4/30 4/29 4/30  5/6  5/2 4/29 _____|
 83 Black-throated Blue Warbler  |5/11 5/11  5/4  5/8  5/5  5/2  5/5 _____|
 38 Myrtle Warbler               |4/14 4/16 4/14 4/19 4/14 4/17  4/8 _____|
 66 Magnolia Warbler             |4/26 5/11 4/27  5/8  5/6 4/21  5/5 _____|
100 Cerulean Warbler             | ..   ..   ..  5/12  ..   ..   ..  _____|
 98 Chestnut-sided Warbler       |5/21 5/10 5/30  5/3  5/7  5/2  5/9 _____|
 89 Bay-breasted Warbler         | ..  5/20  5/4 5/11 5/15 4/22  5/9 _____|
102 Black-poll Warbler           | ..  5/19 5/10 5/13 5/16 5/12  5/6 _____|
 73 Blackburnian Warbler         |5/12 5/10  5/3 4/28 5/10 4/28 4/30 _____|
 56 Black-throated Green Warbler |4/18 5/17 4/23 4/27 4/26 4/28  5/2 _____|
 53 Pine Warbler                 | ..   ..   ..  4/26 4/30 4/21 4/22 _____|
 49 Palm Warbler                 | ..  4/29 4/20 4/27 4/26 4/21 4/22 _____|
 74 Ovenbird                     |5/11  5/1  5/3  5/5  5/5  5/1  5/6 _____|
 51 Grinnell Water-Thrush        | ..  4/30 4/28 4/23 4/17 4/21 4/29 _____|
 62 Louisiana Water-Thrush       | ..   ..   ..   ..   ..  4/27  5/5 _____|
113 Connecticut Warbler          | ..   ..   ..   ..   ..   ..  5/20 _____|
 97 Mourning Warbler             | ..  5/20 5/13  5/6 5/16  5/2 5/11 _____|
 65 Western Yellow-throat        |4/26  5/1 4/28  5/5  5/5  5/2  5/1 _____|
 82 Yellow-breasted Chat         | ..   ..   ..   ..   ..   5/2 5/11 _____|
101 Hooded Warbler               | ..   ..   ..   ..   ..   ..  5/12 _____|
105 Wilson Black-cap Warbler     |5/21  5/6 5/22 5/10 5/16  5/3 5/17 _____|
104 Canadian Warbler             | ..  5/19 5/16 5/12 5/16  5/6 5/12 _____|
 76 American Redstart            |5/11  5/1 4/28 5/11  5/6  5/2  5/5 _____|
       Family TROGLODYTIDAE      |                                        |
 58 Mockingbird                  | ..   ..   ..   ..  4/29  ..   ..  _____|
 52 Catbird                      |4/26  5/1 4/28 4/30 4/28 3/26  5/5 _____|
 45 Brown Thrasher               |4/26 4/24 4/27 4/16 4/24 4/22 4/12 _____|
 46 House Wren                   |4/14  5/4 4/30  ..  4/21 4/23 4/12 _____|
 36 Winter Wren                  | 4/8 4/25 4/30  ..  3/22 4/19  4/8 _____|
 88 Long-billed Marsh Wren       | ..  4/14  ..  4/12  ..   ..  3/29 _____|
       Family CERTHIIDAE         |                                        |
 19 Brown Creeper                | 4/7  4/7  4/6  4/2  4/4 3/21 3/18 _____|
       Family PARIDAE            |                                        |
 21 White-breasted Nuthatch      | 4/7 3/29 4/11  4/2 3/18 3/31  4/2 _____|
 54 Red-breasted Nuthatch        | ..   ..   ..   5/3  ..  4/22 4/28 _____|
 20 Chickadee                    | ..   4/1  ..  3/19 4/13  ..   ..  _____|
       Family SYLVIIDAE          |                                        |
 17 Golden-crowned Kinglet       | 4/7 3/14 4/11  4/6  4/5 3/28 3/19 _____|
 28 Ruby-crowned Kinglet         |4/14  4/1 4/13  4/7 4/17 4/13 3/19 _____|
 47 Blue-gray Gnatcatcher        | ..  4/25 4/22 4/18 4/28 4/22 4/25 _____|
       Family TURDIDAE           |                                        |
 64 Wood Thrush                  |4/18  5/3  5/1  ..   5/4 4/29 5/12 _____|
 42 Wilson Thrush                |5/11 4/10 4/12  4/7 4/11 4/26  4/8 _____|
110 Gray-cheeked Thrush          | ..   ..   ..   ..   ..  5/21 5/11 _____|
 60 Olive-backed Thrush          | ..   5/1  5/4  5/8 4/30 4/22 4/29 _____|
 26 Hermit Thrush                | ..  3/31 4/11  4/7  4/5 4/13 3/19 _____|
  3 Robin                        |3/28  3/9  3/4 3/24 3/14 3/10  3/7 _____|
  7 Bluebird                     |3/28  3/8  4/4 3/31 3/17  3/7  3/7 _____|



                         WATER AND SHORE BIRDS.



                             General Hints.


The _Loon_ and _Grebes_ are common representatives of the order of Diving
Birds. Their legs are set far back on the body, making it difficult for
them to walk at all.

*Grebes look like small, tailless ducks. They have long, slender necks,
          short wings, smooth glossy plumage and flat, lobed feet. They
          rarely leave the water and can dive or sink out of sight
          instantly when disturbed, swimming to a distance with only the
          tip of the bill out of water.

*Loons are very large, with flat, heavy bodies, short tails and long,
          tapering bills. They are never crested, but are conspicuously
          marked, and are equally expert with the grebes in diving and
          sinking.

_Gulls_ and _Terns_ belong to the order of the _Long-winged Swimmers_,
but are better described by the name of _Skimmers_.

*Terns are much slenderer and usually smaller than gulls, have very
          pointed bills and wings, and forked tails. They rarely if ever
          swim, but skim swallow-like over the water, bill downward,
          plunging into the water for their prey.

*Gulls are plumper than terns, with heavier bills and tails usually even.
          They do not dive or plunge suddenly into the water, but fly and
          soar or float about on the surface, sitting well up out of the
          water.

_Ducks_, _Geese and Swans_ have webbed feet and short legs, and in
walking carry themselves almost horizontal. As a rule they have very
strong wings, enabling them to fly long distances at great speed. Our
ducks are most easily remembered in three groups:--

*1. The fish-eating Mergansers, whose plumage is largely black and white
          and which have saw-edged bills and, usually, conspicuous
          crests.

*2. The Sea Ducks, which are conspicuously marked but plainly colored,
          frequent open water or the sea coast, diving, often to great
          depths, for their food. Descriptions are given of the _Lesser
          Scaup_, _Redhead_, _Canvas-back_, _American Golden-eye_,
          _Old-squaw_ _and_ _Buffle-head_.

*3. The River Ducks, which have broad, rounded bills, are much variegated
          in color and markings, and have a peculiar habit of feeding
          head downwards, as though standing on their heads with the body
          tipped up. The _Teals_, _Mallard_, _Wood Duck_ and _Pintail_
          belong to this group. The females of these ducks, though
          differing noticeably in size, may easily be confused.

*Geese are larger than ducks, feed mostly on land and are usually seen
          during migration flying at a height in regular ranks after a
          leader.

_Herons_ and _Bitterns_ belong among the _Wading Birds_. They have long,
pointed bills, long legs, loose, baggy plumage, broad wings and long
necks, curved s shaped in flight.

*Herons are tall, crested birds, with very long legs, bills and necks and
          small tails. Their notes are harsh and squawking. Large numbers
          sometimes nest together.

*Bitterns have shorter legs, necks and bills than herons and are very
          rarely crested. They utter hoarse, resounding calls, and are
          ordinarily solitary in habit.

_Rails and Coots_ are known as _Marsh Birds_, although the latter are
fine swimmers.

*Rails as a rule are smaller than bitterns and frequent grassy marshes
          where they steal stealthily about, effectively concealed by
          their dull streaky plumage. Short turned-up tails, short wings
          and long legs are noticeable characteristics of these rapid
          runners.

*Coots are ducklike in appearance and smoothly plumaged. Lobed feet
          enable them to swim easily. Their bills spread out at the base
          in the form of a plate or shield which extends up on to the
          forehead.

_Plover_, _Sandpipers_ and the _Woodcock_ are strikingly different
representatives of the great order of _Shore Birds_. The plover family
have stout, short bills, while the sandpipers and woodcock belong to a
family which have soft probing bills of greatly varying length, for
obtaining their food in soft mud.

*Sandpipers have pointed wings, are dull-colored, and are usually found
          slipping gracefully along the water's edge in search of food.
          They skim rapidly over the water on outspread wings, and their
          clear, reed-like notes are distinctly musical.

*Plovers are small and plump, with long pointed wings, short necks and
          rather flat heads. They run and fly very rapidly, generally in
          flocks piping loudly but sweetly. They frequent the inland as
          well as the shore.

_Shore_ and _Water Birds_ are often extremely shy and they can detect the
presence of an observer at a distance. The caution is therefore
emphasized to approach them slowly and quietly.



                           Particular Hints.


*Note:--Owing to a lack of sufficient data the following _Shore_ and
_Water Birds_ are arranged according to the American Ornithologist's
Union order instead of their average first appearance. They have all been
seen, however, in Lincoln Park by the authors.


                       115. HORNED GREBE. 14 in.
                         (Colymbus auritus. 3.)

Brownish, sooty black, extending in narrow line up _back of neck_; rest
of neck, sides and upper breast rich chestnut-brown; _silky_ white below;
head and chin deep black, set off by buffy "horns" or crests, which slant
abruptly backwards from the eyes; black bill, tipped with yellow; eye,
red. Winter Plumage: Black parts sooty; brown replaced by white; grayer
below; crests and ruff less conspicuous. *Pied-billed Grebe.


                   116. PIED-BILLED GREBE. 13-1/2 in.
                       (Podilymbus podiceps. 6.)

Brownish-black, showing gray on head and neck; belly, dusky white,
otherwise brownish below; black throat-patch and a conspicuous black band
across bill. Winter Plumage: Throat whitish; browner below; no band on
bill. *Horned Grebe.


                           117. LOON. 33 in.
                           (Gavia imber. 7.)

Black, showing greenish on head and neck, spotted with square or oval
patches of white on back and wings and striped with white in front of
wings; white below; two conspicuous white-striped bars across the black
neck give the effect of a _broad black collar_; tail, very short; eye,
red; large black bill, long and pointed; dives and sinks like the
_Grebes_; note, an eerie, prolonged cry.


                   118. AMERICAN HERRING GULL. 24 in.
                 (Larus argentatus smithsonianus. 51a.)

White; wings and back, pearly blue-gray; bill yellow, showing a small
vermillion spot on either side; the longest wing feathers are partly
black, marked and _tipped with white_; the closed wing therefore shows
black towards the end, marked with a regular line of white spots and
tipped with white at the extreme point; eyelids, bright yellow; looks
large and heavy in flight. Winter Plumage: Streaked on head and neck with
gray. Immature Plumage: Dark and much streaked with brownish; bill
darker.  *Ring-billed Gull.


                     119. RING-BILLED GULL. 19 in.
                       (Larus delawarensis. 54.)

Similar to the _American Herring Gull_, but _smaller_; bill,
greenish-yellow, bright at tip, _banded with black around the middle_;
wing tipped at extreme point with black; feet greenish-yellow; eyelids
vermillion-red.  *American Herring Gull.


                      120. BONAPARTE GULL. 13 in.
                       (Larus philadelphia. 60.)

Back and wings, light pearl-gray; head and throat, dark slate color; back
of head, neck, underparts and square tail, white; wings tipped, and
_bordered narrowly on the outside edge with black_; feet and legs, red;
bill black. Winter Plumage: Hood, grayish white. Large flocks seen in
Lincoln Park. *Common Tern.


                        121. COMMON TERN. 15 in.
                         (Sterna hirundo. 70.)

Pearly gray back and wings, whiter on rump; _top of head, shining black_;
pure white on throat; dusky-white below; tail forked, _outer edge
darkest_; bill long and red, blackening towards tip; feet reddish. Winter
Plumage: Front of head and under-parts, white; bill nearly black.
*Bonaparte Gull.


                    122. AMERICAN MERGANSER. 25 in.
                      (Merganser americanus. 129.)

Black; rump and tail, ashy gray; head, throat and upper part of neck,
greenish black; wing, _largely white_, edged with black and crossed by a
black bar; white below, extending around the neck in a narrow collar;
long red bill tipped with black; eye, red; shows salmon tinge below in
flight. Female: Ashy-gray, with sharply defined brown head and neck and a
pale salmon or brownish tinge across upper breast; _throat_, _white_;
wings largely dark with a white patch; small crest on back of neck; feet
orange; eye yellow; rare; "pursues and catches food under water."
*American Golden-eye. *Red-breasted Merganser.


                  123. RED-BREASTED MERGANSER. 22 in.
                       (Merganser serrator. 130.)

Long ragged crest; head and neck black; broad white collar; broad
cinnamon band streaked with black across the breast, otherwise white
below, showing salmon tinge in flight; wing largely white, edged and
barred twice with black; eye and bill, red. Female: Back and wings dark
gray turning to brown on head and neck; much paler on sides of neck and
throat and gray across breast; crest, less prominent; white wing-patch;
common. *American Merganser.


                     124. HOODED MERGANSER. 18 in.
                     (Lophodytes cucullatus. 131.)

Black, including throat and neck; large, circular crest, white, bordered
with black; white below running up in front of the wings in two points;
sides brownish, finely lined with black; white wing-patch, crossed by
black bar; also lengthwise white streaks on end of wings; _short_ black
bill; eye yellow. Female: Grayish-brown; throat white; crest small; sides
unmarked. *Buffle-head.


                          125. MALLARD. 23 in.
                          (Anas boschas. 132.)

Head, throat and neck glossy green; _narrow_ white collar; breast, rich
brown; back, dark brownish; underparts, silver-gray; tail white, set off
by black feathers which curl up from either side of the black rump;
wing-patch purple, bordered on either side with a black and then a white
bar. Female: Buffy-brown and black; much streaked and speckled; lighter
on throat; shows wing-patch as in male; common.


                   126. GREEN-WINGED TEAL. 14-1/2 in.
                      (Nettion carolinensis. 139.)

Gray, finely lined on sides and shoulders with black; _white bar in front
of wing_; head, including throat, brown with a broad green stripe from
eye to back of head, ending in a small tuft; wings, gray-brown with
brilliant green and black wing-patch, bordered by buffy bars; breast very
pale reddish-brown, speckled with round black spots; buffy patches on
sides of tail; white belly. Female: Mottled brown; top of head and back
of neck dark brown; sides of head and neck buff-colored and finely
streaked; throat buff, unmarked; no green on head nor white bar in front
of wings; wing-patch as in male, but smaller. *Blue-winged Teal.


                     127. BLUE-WINGED TEAL. 15 in.
                      (Querquedula discors. 140.)

Back and underparts thickly mottled brownish and black, lightest below;
head slaty, showing purplish gloss; a conspicuous crescent-shaped white
stripe in front of eye; _shows blue_ on bend of wing, followed by a white
bar and a bright green wing-patch; white patch on sides of tail; bill
black. Female: Dusky-brown; black on top of head; streaked and whitish on
neck and sides of head; throat and about base of bill, _white_; back and
underparts, mottled and spotted; wing shows blue but no green; white bars
on head are wanting. *Green-winged Teal.


                          128. PINTAIL. 27 in.
                          (Dafila acuta. 143.)

Head, including throat, brown, darkest on top; long, swan-like neck,
black above, finely waved white and dusky on back and sides; _long middle
tail feathers_, black; white below with a conspicuous curved white stripe
running up sides of neck to head and ending in a point; bronzy patch on
wings. Female: Tail much shorter but pointed; dusky, everywhere streaked;
no white stripe on neck; whitish wing-bars; smaller than male.
*Old-squaw.


                         129. WOOD DUCK. 18 in.
                           (Aix sponsa. 144.)

Highly variegated; long, smooth, glossy crest, showing green and purple
iridescence and marked by two very narrow white parallel lines, curving
from bill and behind eye almost to end of crest; throat white, extending
irregularly in two stripes, one up behind eye, the other nearly around
neck; breast, glossy brown, spotted with white and set off on either side
by a conspicuous white stripe bordered with black; wings highly
iridescent, marked by green patch bordered with white. Female: Much
duller and less conspicuously marked; head brownish-gray, slightly
crested showing greenish tints; throat and line extending from it around
base of bill, with space about eye, white.


                          130. REDHEAD. 20 in.
                        (Aythya americana. 146.)

Puffy head and _upper_ part of neck and throat, bright reddish brown;
breast and upper part of back with rump, _black_; belly white; middle
back and _sides_ evenly and finely waved black and white, _which shows
gray at a distance_. Female: Grayish-brown, almost white on throat; brown
on head, light brown on neck. *Canvas-back.


                     131. LESSER SCAUP DUCK. 16 in.
                         (Aythya affinis. 149.)

Head, neck and breast black, showing _purple_ reflections on head; back
black and white, very narrowly barred; upper parts of wings dark, finely
mottled with white; lower part of wing brownish-black, showing a small
white patch; lower breast and belly white; bill, bluish, tipped with
black.  Female: Black replaced by brown, lighter on head; region around
bill white. *Female Redhead, easily confused with female Lesser Scaup.


                    132. AMERICAN GOLDEN-EYE. 19 in.
                       (Clangula americana. 151.)

Black, glossed with green; white below, extending around the neck in a
collar; head bunchy, slightly crested and marked _below eye_ and just
back of eye by a nearly oval _white spot_; wings largely white; short
bill. Female: Brown, snuff-colored on head; white collar; white wing
patch; band of bluish gray across breast and down sides. *American
Merganser.


                        133. BUFFLE-HEAD. 15 in.
                      (Charitonetta albeola. 153.)

Head, throat and upper neck, iridescent black; conspicuous black crest
broadly banded with white over head from eye to eye; back black, ashy on
tail; wings black with a very large white patch; _collar and entire under
parts, white_. Female: Smaller; brownish, lighter below with no crest and
only a white patch on cheeks and a small white wing patch. *Hooded
Merganser.


                         134. OLD-SQUAW. 21 in.
                        (Harelda hiemalis. 154.)

Winter Plumage: Back, long tail-feathers and breast with conspicuous
_patch on sides of neck_, black; throat and upper breast, top of head,
neck and belly, white; cheeks grayish-brown; wings black and gray; bill
crossed by yellowish band. Female: Dark brown, lighter on head, grayish
on tail; throat, breast and region about the eye, gray-white; below
white, brown on lower part of throat; no long tail-feathers; smaller than
male. Summer Plumage: Head and neck, dusky black; grayish-white on sides
of head, and female shows more brown. *Pintail.


                       135. CANADA GOOSE. 40 in.
                       (Branta canadensis. 172.)

Head and neck, black with white throat-patch extending up to and just
behind eye; brownish-gray marked with lighter, darkest on back; rump and
tail, black above and white below; fly after a leader in harrow-shaped
ranks, often high up, crying, "honk, honk, honk."


                     136. AMERICAN BITTERN. 30 in.
                     (Botaurus lentiginosus. 190.)

Streaky tawny- and dark-brown; tawny-yellowish below, mixed with white
and streaked with dark brown; conspicuous black streak on sides of neck;
short brown tail; breast feathers loose and baggy; yellow eye; call, loud
resounding squawk or booming notes which have given it the common name of
"stake-driver."


                       137. LEAST BITTERN. 13 in.
                         (Ardetta exilis. 191.)

Crown, with back, tail and upper half of wings, shining greenish-black;
rest of wing shows buff and bright chestnut; throat and baggy breast,
whitish, shading into yellowish-brown on sides of neck, and chestnut on
back of neck; buffy white below; tufts of dark feathers on either side of
breast; yellow eye. *Green Heron.


                        138. GREEN HERON. 17 in.
                      (Butorides virescens. 201.)

Wings and back dark green, latter tinged with blue-gray; crown,
greenish-black; neck and breast, rich reddish brown; throat and line down
middle of neck to breast whitish, ending in light streaks on breast; the
smallest heron; carries neck curved in flight; squawking note, "scow."
*Least Bittern.


                          139. SORA. 8-1/2 in.
                        (Porzana carolina. 214.)

Olive-brown with lengthwise markings of black and some white; short tail
turned up, showing buffy white underside; sides _barred_ posteriorily
with white; front of head and _throat, black_; slaty line over eye; sides
of neck and breast, grayish slate; bill _short and yellowish_; legs long.
Young: No black; throat whitish and brown on breast; very stealthy;
skulks and crouches in grass.


                       140. AMERICAN COOT. 15 in.
                        (Fulica americana. 221.)

Smooth blackish slate color, lighter below and black on head and neck;
white bill shows _dark marks near the tip_; turned up tail; white
underneath; wing edged with white; eye red; young show white below and no
marks on bill; toes with scalloped edges. May be mistaken for a small
duck.


                   141. AMERICAN WOODCOCK. 10-1/2 in.
                        (Philohela minor. 228.)

Black, mixed black and rusty slate; below reddish-brown, no markings;
_large_ head with short neck and _very long straight bill_; eye set _high
up and far back_; crown barred crosswise with black and rusty; short
tail; burrows in soft mud for earthworms; nocturnal.


                  142. SEMI-PALMATED SANDPIPER. 6 in.
                       (Ereunetes pusillus. 246.)

Grayish-brown, marked with black and buffy; rump very dark; tail
tapering; underparts _pure white_, slightly tinged and streaked across
breast; white line over eye and dusky line beneath; note, "peep-peep."
*Other Sandpipers.


                   143. SOLITARY SANDPIPER. 8-1/2 in.
                     (Helodromas solitarius. 256.)

Back, dusky olive-brown, _finely spotted with white_; crown and back of
neck showing dark streaks; white below, throat unmarked; sides of head
and neck with breast slightly buffy and _distinctly streaked_; sides
lightly barred; wings dark brown with one narrow white wing-bar; middle
of tail very dark; outer feathers _white, barred with black_; note, a
soft whistle. *Spotted Sandpiper.


                   144. SPOTTED SANDPIPER. 7-1/2 in.
                       (Actitis macularia. 263.)

Greenish-ash marked lightly with black; _long white line over eye_; pure
white below everywhere with dark round spots; wings brownish, marked
broadly with white bar; flies close to the water with wings full-spread,
showing white wing-bar; note, penetrating "pee-weet, weet;" walks with
tilting motion. *Solitary Sandpiper.


                         145. KILLDEER. 10 in.
                       (Oxyechus vociferus. 273.)

Gray-brown; rump rusty-brown; tail rather long; white below; white collar
followed by a black collar, and a _black band across breast_; forehead,
line over eye and wing-bar, white; bill black; runs very swiftly; note,
loud and persistent "kill-dee" often heard high overhead.



                         Explanation of Chart.


The "height of the migration" usually comes during the second or third
week in May. This chart makes a comparison of the observations of six
years graphic.

For instance, the largest number of different species seen on any one
morning in 1903 was 68 (May 12), while in 1901 it was 48 (May 16).

The sudden rise or fall in the migration may also be seen at a glance.
May 9, 1899, for example, only 16 different species were observed and May
10 the record was 40. Similarly, in 1901, the number of species seen May
17 dropped from 45 to 15 in three days.


         A chart showing the number of different kinds of birds
                   seen in _LINCOLN PARK_ during the
                       _HEIGHT OF THE MIGRATION_



                              Note to Key.


In response to many demands, the following simple field-key has been
devised, to the end that the beginner may be aided in learning to observe
correctly those points about a bird that appear most conspicuous in the
field or which are particularly distinctive.

Technical analyses and measurements have not been employed, but instead,
the birds are roughly placed in three groups according to size, the Robin
and English Sparrow marking respectively the 10-inch and 6-inch lines of
division.

The first part of the key deals with _general_ differences in color and
markings, while the second seeks to emphasize the most noteworthy
_special_ points which distinguish the different species. Incidentally a
few striking peculiarities of bill, wings and tail have been included.

It will readily be seen that a key embracing so little cannot do more
than reduce wild guessing to a few reasonable chances in identifying a
strange bird. Some practice is of course necessary to enable the student
to use the key readily. Its helpfulness will largely depend upon accuracy
of observation and a careful application of the points which it suggests.

Shore and water birds have been omitted--first, in order to keep the key
as simple as possible; second, because quite full descriptions of these
birds are given in the "Particular Hints;" and, third, for the reason
that beginners, as a rule, meet with far better success by becoming
familiar with the common land birds before attempting the study of water
and shore birds.



                             EXPLANATIONS.


1. The heading, "Dull Colors," includes all shades of gray or olive, very
dull dark-brown and black not showing conspicuous iridescence. Birds in
this group are very rarely streaked or spotted, never barred and seldom
show any trace of bright colors.

2. To make the key compact and to avoid referring to the index the birds
are indicated by their respective numbers as given under "Particular
Hints."

3. Females differing greatly _in coloration_ from the males are denoted
by heavy figures. Differences in markings are taken into account only
when the female is particularly obscure or liable to be mistaken for
another species.

4. Every bird appears once under the first six general headings, and a
few twice, some of which come under apparently contradictory headings in
order to cover incomplete as well as complete observations. For example,
the _Robin_ has a streaked throat and the _Fox Sparrow_ an indistinctly
streaked back, both inconspicuous points, often overlooked in the field,
yet useful if complete observations have been made. Again, the
_Yellow-bellied Flycatcher_, though brighter colored than most of its
kind, would scarcely be described as having either brilliant or very dull
plumage, and is therefore difficult to tabulate exclusively in one place.



                          HOW TO USE THE KEY.


Two illustrations will most briefly indicate the easiest method of using
the key--

_Observation:_ A dull-colored bird of medium size, nearer six inches than
ten, much streaked all over, showing nothing distinctive unless a kind of
spot on the breast. Turning to the key, pass by "_Bright Colors_,"
"_Iridescent_" and "_Dull Colors_," choosing "_Streaked, Barred or
Spotted._" Not being sure of the size, it may be necessary to try all the
birds between "6 and 10 inches," as well as those "less than 6 inches."
Before going to so much trouble, however, pass on to "_Under Parts_" and
see whether an easier approach can be made there. The sub-heading "Spot
or patch on throat, sides, breast or sides of neck" looks comprehensive
enough to apply, while in this case it contains fewer examples. Comparing
the numbers there given with those under the first heading selected, it
is found that only 10 and 23 appear in both places. On looking up 10 and
23 it is found that they refer to the _Song Sparrow_ and _Sapsucker_, two
species so widely different in coloration, habits and movements that it
ought not to be necessary to study the key further in order to be sure of
the bird in question--namely, the _Song Sparrow_.

_Observation:_ A bird in flight, pure white below, without doubt over 10
inches on account of its long tail. Not having seen the general color
with any certainty, but being fairly sure of the white breast and long
tail, try "Under Parts" first. Only two birds over 10 inches are given
under the sub-heading "Pure white or ashy," and these are 103 and 109.
Turning to "Tail," both numbers appear under "very long, sometimes keeled
or forked," but only 103, the _Yellow-billed Cuckoo_, comes under "Outer
tail-feathers conspicuously white or spotted." _If conspicuous tail spots
had been seen_ the key would have helped to identify the bird, but the
key alone cannot make up for lack of observations.

The second illustration may give force to the suggestion that certain
birds can be satisfactorily identified only after very careful
observation and some further study.



     BRIGHT COLORS
        Streaked Barred Spotted
  A1       Showing Blue, blue-gray or bluish-ash
  A2       Showing Red, chestnut, light or reddish-brown
  A3       Showing Yellow, orange or buff
  A4       Showing conspicuous Black markings
        _NEVER_ Streaked Barred Spotted
  A5       Showing Blue, blue-gray or bluish-ash
  A6       Showing Red, chestnut, light or reddish-brown
  A7       Showing Yellow, orange or buff
  A8       Showing much Black
     IRIDESCENT
  B1    Showing iridescent black, blue, green or brownish
     DULL COLORS
        Few Markings
  C1       Sharply defined
  C2       Obscure
  D1 NO MARKINGS
     STREAKED BARRED OR SPOTTED ON BREAST BACK OR BOTH
  E1    Above and Below, rarely bright colors
        Plain Above
  E2       Heavily streaked or spotted below
  E3       Lightly streaked or spotted below
  E4    Plain Below, rarely with one conspicuous spot on breast
  E5    Highly Variegated
  F1 HOOD
     UNDER PARTS
        No Markings
  G1       Pure white or ashy
  G2       Dull colors, indistinctly shaded
        Few, if any, Markings
  G3       Distinctive red, yellow or brown Breast
  G4       Belly white or yellow, sharply contrasting with breast
        Distinctive Markings
  G5       A line of streaks down sides or across breast
  G6       Spotted, finely streaked, or throat and middle of belly plain
  G7       Bib, collar, or band across breast
  G8       Spot or patch on throat, sides, breast, or sides of neck
  G9    Noticeably tinged with red, yellow, buff or brownish
     BILL
  H1    Hooked, or noticeably long and sometimes curved
  H2    Large and stout, or noticeably short and thick
  H3    Used for hammering
     HEAD
        Top
  I1       Crested, or red crown-patch displayed at will
  I2       Crown conspicuously Striped
  I3       Distinct Cap, no line over eye
  I4       Distinct Cap or crown-patch, with line over, through or back of eye
  I5       Forehead showing black, sometimes with bar through eye
        Sides
  I6       Conspicuous line over or through eye
  I7       Inconspicuous but distinctive line over eye
  I8       Conspicuous eye-ring, or black or yellow mask
  I9       Distinctively marked or colored on cheeks or sides of head
     WINGS
  J1    Long and pointed
  J2    One or two conspicuous WING-BARS, white or yellowish
  J3    Spots, patches or bright markings
     BACK
        Streaked
  K1       Entirely streaked or mottled, no distinct cap
  K2       Rump plain, cap or striped crown
  K3       Gray or ashy about head or neck
        Barred and Spotted
  K4       Barred, including wings
  K5       Black and white, wings barred or spotted
  K6    No Markings, back and wings alike
        Distinctive Markings or Colors
  K7       Rump patch, white, yellow or brown
  K8       On back of neck, between shoulders, or middle of back
     TAIL
        Color
  L1       Outer feathers conspicuously white or spotted
  L2       Reddish-brown, or tipped with white or yellow
  L3    Markings: Barred or banded with black or white
        Size
  L4       Very long, sometimes keeled or forked
  L5       Very short
  L6       Narrow and pointed
  L7    Movements: Used for bracing, or, jerking or tilting motions.


   10 Inches or more           Between 6 and 10 Inches                       Less than 6 Inches
  BRIGHT COLORS
  A1 1, 22.                ...                                  38, 66, 100, 104.
  A2 3, 43, 45.            13, 40, 80.                          76, 89, 98.
  A3 5.                    112.                                 49, 56, 66, 68, 73, 77, 104.
  A4 1, 5, 43.             112.                                 38, 56, 66, 73, 76, 77, 89, 98, 104.
  A5 ...                   7, 44.                               21, 47, 54, 83, 84, 86, 90, 93, 94,
                                                                95, 97, 113.
  A6 3.                    7, 15, 27, 31, 41, 57, 71, 78, 87.   ...
  A7 111.                  27, 41, 61, 70, 82, 92.              53, 65, 67, 79, 84, 90, 93, 95, 97,
                                                                101, 105, 113.
  A8 111.                  15, 27, 57, 70, 78, 87, 92.          67, 83, 101.
  IRIDESCENT
  B1 9, 35.                11, 24, 30, 44, 81.                  107.
  DULL COLORS
  C1 35, 58.               2, 4, 52, 69, *87.                   17, 20, 28, 72, 83.
  C2 103, 109, *111.       *11, 14, *24, *31, 75, *78, *81, 91. 28, 59, 63, *67, 85, *94, 96
  NO MARKINGS
  D1 6.                    *11, 14, *24, *71, 81.               59, *65, 85, *94.
  STREAKED BARRED OR SPOTTED ON BREAST BACK OR BOTH
  E1 18, *33, 43.          10, 13, 23, *27, 37, *40,
                           *80, *92, 99, 108.                   8, 36, 46, 50, 55, 77, 102, 106.
  E2 *43, 45.              13, 26, 60, 62, 64, 74, 110.         51, 104.
  E3 33.                   42, *81.                             49, 68, *104.
  E4 5.                    12, 16, 29, 32, 48, 112, 114.        19, 25, 34, 39, 88.
  E5 ...                   80.                                  38, 56, 66, 73, 76, 77, 89, 98, 100.
  HOOD
  F1 111.                  11, 57, 70, 87.                      95, 101.
  UNDER PARTS
  G1 103, 109.             16, 29, 30, 48, 69, 75.              19, 21, 34, 85.
  G2 1, 58.                2, 14, *24, *70, *87, 91.            17, 20, 25, 28, 39, 47, 63, 88, 96.
  G3 3, 5.                 7, 44, 82, 112.                      53, 65, 79, 84, 95, 101, 105.
  G4 ...                   4, 15, 61, 82.                       79, 83, 97, 113.
  G5 ...                   23.                                  38, 66, 73, 98, 100, 102, 104.
  G6 43.                   62, 64.                              50.
  G7 22.                   4, 15, 99, 108.                      56, 83, 89, 90, 100, 101, 106.
  G8 5, 18.                10, 12, 23, 32, 80, 112.             76, 93, 97, 107.
  G9 ...                   23, 40, 60, 114.                     25, 36, 49, *53, 54, 72, 86, 106.
  BILL
  H1 33, 43, 45, 103, 109. 2.                                   19, 88, 107
  H2 ...                   11, 31, 40, 80.                      67.
  H3 18.                   16, 23, 29, *57, 114.                ...
  HEAD
  I1 1, 22.                31, 41, 61, 69.                      28.
  I2 ...                   32, 48, 74.                          17, 55.
  I3 ...                   52, 114.                             20, 21, 67, 89, 102, 105.
  I4 ...                   12.                                  25, 34, 38, 49, 54, 93, 98.
  I5 ...                   31, 41.                              39, 47, 65, 89.
  I6 5.                    2, 16, 29, 32, 62, 82, 112.          47, 51, 53, 56, 66, *77, 79, 88.
  I7 *111.                 24, 75.                              8, 96, *100.
  I8 ...                   60.                                  20, 65, 72, 79, 84, 86, 101, 113.
  I9 35, 43.               110, 114.                            20, 49, 50, 73, 77, 89, 93, 100, 102.
  WINGS
  J1 ...                   30, 44, 81, 99, 108.                 59.
  J2 45.                   12, 48, 70, *87, 91.                 19, 28, 53, 56, 63, 67, 72, 79, 86,
                                                                89, 90, 98, 100, 102.
  J3 58, 111.              2, 15, 27, 57, 80, 108.              66, 76, 83, 93.
  BACK
  K1 *5.                   10, 37, *40, *80, *92, 99, 108.      8, 50, 55, 106.
  K2 ...                   32.                                  19, 54, 58, 73, 77, 102.
  K3 ...                   12, 48, 112.                         25, 39.
  K4 18, *43.              114.                                 36, 46.
  K5 ...                   16, 23, 29.                          ...
  K6 3, 6, 9, 35, 109.     4, 7, 11, 14, 26, 42, 60, 62,        20, 51, 54, 59, 65, 84, 85, 96, 97,
                           64, 74, 75, 81, 82, 110.             101, 104, 105, 113.
  K7 18, 33.               80.                                  38, 66, 77, 88.
  K8 18.                   16, 23, 29, 114.                     50, 88, 90.
  TAIL
  L1 3, 5, 22, 58, 103.    2, 4, 15, 29, 37.                    38, 47, 49, 53, 56, 76, 89, 100.
  L2 1, 35.                13, 26, 41, 61, 69.                  ...
  L3 1, 33, 43.            16, 23, 114.                         36, 46, 66, 88.
  L4 9, 35, 45, 103, 109.  44.                                  19, 47.
  L5 ...                   ...                                  21, 36, 54, 59, 107.
  L6 35.              ...                                       8, 50.
  L7 18.                   16, 23, 29, 57, 62, 74, 114.         19, 49, 51.



                               Glossary.


  *Barred--Marked with transverse lines.
  *Bib--Whole throat, with upper breast of same color, sharply defined.
  *Cap--Entire top of head defined by an oval patch of distinct and
          contrasting color.
  *Crest--A tuft of feathers carried erect on top or back of head.
  *Crown-patch--Smaller and less sharply defined than cap.
  *Hood--Whole head and neck all around of same color.
  *Mask--Forehead, together with broad stripe through eye, of same color.
  *Mottled--Colors and markings blended in no distinct patterns.
  *Patch--An oddly-shaped and conspicuous mark, never round.
  *Rump--The extreme lower portion of the back next the tail (easily seen
          in flight).
  *Spotted--Marked with nearly round spots or one irregular spot.
  *Streaked--Marked with _longitudinal_ lines or streaks.
  *Variegated--Showing a variety of colors and markings.
  *Wing-Bar--A line, usually white, running obliquely across wing.



                          Supplementary List.


Note.--Owing to the impossibility of determining what additional species
are most likely to stray into a city park, the following list has been
made to include certain species known to occur in Cook County, Illinois,
some of which are of common occurrence in the vicinity of Chicago but
have not yet been seen in Lincoln Park by the authors:


  Red-throated Loon (Gavin lumme. 11.)
  Glaucous Gull. (Larus glaucus. 42.)
  Franklin Gull. (Larus franklinii. 59.)
  Forster Tern. (Sterna forsteri. 69.)
  Black Tern. (Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis. 77.)
  Shoveller. (Spatula clypeata. 142.)
  American Scaup Duck. (Aythya marila. 148.)
  Ring-necked Duck. (Aythya collaris. 150.)
  Great Blue Heron. (Ardea herodias. 194.)
  Black-crowned Night Heron. (Nycticorax nycticorax nævius. 202.)
  King Rail (Rallus elegans. 208.)
  Virginia Rail. (Rallus virginianus. 212.)
  Wilson Snipe. (Gallinago delicata. 230.)
  Pectoral Sandpiper. (Actrodramas maculata. 239.)
  Least Sandpiper. (Actrodramas minutilla. 242.)
  Greater Yellow-legs. (Totanus melanoleucus. 254.)
  Yellow-legs. (Totanus flavipes. 255.)
  Bartramian Sandpiper. (Bartramia longicauda. 261.)
  Black-bellied Plover. (Squatarola squatarola. 270.)
  American Golden Plover. (Charadrius dominicus. 272.)
  Sharp-shinned Hawk. (Accipiter velox. 332.)
  Cooper Hawk. (Accipiter cooperi. 333.)
  Red-tailed Hawk. (Buteo borealis. 337.)
  Red-shouldered Hawk. (Buteo lineatus. 339.)
  Broad-winged Hawk. (Buteo platypterus. 343.)
  American Rough-legged Hawk. (Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis. 347a.)
  Pigeon Hawk. (Falco columbarius. 357.)
  Short-eared Owl. (Asio accipitrinus. 367.)
  Barred Owl. (Syrnium varium. 368.)
  Saw-whet Owl. (Nyctala acadia. 372.)
  Screech Owl. (Megascops asio. 373.)
  Acadian Flycatcher. (Empidonax virescens. 465.)
  Traill Flycatcher. (Empidonax traillii. 466.)
  Prairie Horned Lark. (Otocoris alpestris praticola. 474b.)
  Evening Grosbeak. (Hesperiphona vespertina. 514.)
  Redpoll. (Acanthis linaria. 528.)
  Snowflake. (Passerina nivalis. 534.)
  Lapland Longspur. (Calcarius lapponicus. 536.)
  Grasshopper Sparrow. (Coturniculus savannarum passerinus. 546.)
  Eave Swallow. (Petrochelidon lunifrons. 612.)
  Bank Swallow. (Riparia riparia. 616.)
  Northern Shrike. (Lanius borealis. 621.)
  White-rumped Shrike. (Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides. 622a.)
  Philadelphia Vireo. (Vireo philadelphicus. 626.)
  White-eyed Vireo. (Vireo noveboracensis. 631.)
  Blue-winged Warbler. (Helminthophila pinus. 641.)
  Orange-crowned Warbler. (Helminthophila celata. 646.)
  Water-Thrush. (Seiurus noveboracensis. 675.)
  American Pipit. (Anthus pensilvanicus. 697.)
  Short-billed Marsh Wren. (Cistothorus stellaris. 724.)
  Tufted Titmouse. (Bæolophus bicolor. 731.)



                         Index of Common Names.


                                                                     Page
  Bittern, American,                                                   50
      Least,                                                           50
  Blackbird, Red-winged,                                               16
      Rusty,                                                           15
      Yellow-headed,                                                   31
  Bluebird,                                                            12
  Bobolink,                                                            27
  Buffle-head,                                                         49
  Bunting, Indigo,                                                     28
  Cardinal,                                                            16
  Catbird,                                                             20
  Chat, Yellow-breasted,                                               26
  Chickadee,                                                           14
  Coot, American,                                                      51
  Cowbird,                                                             13
  Creeper, Black and White,                                            21
      Brown,                                                           14
  Crow,                                                                12
  Cuckoo, Black-billed,                                                30
      Yellow-billed,                                                   29
  Dickcissel,                                                          31
  Dove, Mourning,                                                      17
  Duck, Lesser Scaup,                                                  49
      Wood,                                                            48
  Finch, Purple,                                                       18
  Flicker,                                                             14
  Flycatcher, Great-crested,                                           22
      Least,                                                           22
      Yellow-bellied,                                                  24
  Gnatcatcher, Blue-gray,                                              19
  Golden-eye, American,                                                49
  Goldfinch, American,                                                 23
  Goose, Canada,                                                       50
  Grackle, Bronzed,                                                    12
  Grebe, Horned,                                                       44
      Pied-billed,                                                     44
  Grosbeak, Rose-breasted,                                             25
  Gull, American Herring,                                              45
      Bonaparte,                                                       45
      Ring-billed,                                                     45
  Hawk, American Sparrow,                                              18
      Marsh,                                                           17
  Heron, Green,                                                        50
  Hummingbird, Ruby-throated,                                          30
  Jay, Blue,                                                           11
  Junco,                                                               12
  Killdeer,                                                            52
  Kingbird,                                                            23
  Kingfisher, Belted,                                                  15
  Kinglet, Golden-crowned,                                             14
      Ruby-crowned,                                                    16
  Loon,                                                                44
  Mallard,                                                             47
  Martin, Purple,                                                      25
  Meadowlark,                                                          12
  Merganser, American,                                                 46
      Hooded,                                                          46
      Red-breasted,                                                    46
  Mockingbird,                                                         21
  Nighthawk,                                                           30
  Nuthatch, Red-breasted,                                              20
      White-breasted,                                                  15
  Old-squaw,                                                           49
  Oriole, Baltimore,                                                   23
      Orchard,                                                         27
  Ovenbird,                                                            24
  Pewee, Wood,                                                         27
  Phoebe,                                                              13
  Pintail,                                                             48
  Redhead,                                                             48
  Redstart, American,                                                  24
  Robin,                                                               11
  Sandpiper, Semi-palmated,                                            51
      Solitary,                                                        52
      Spotted,                                                         52
  Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied,                                           15
  Shrike, Loggerhead,                                                  11
  Sora,                                                                51
  Sparrow, Chipping,                                                   17
      Field,                                                           15
      Fox,                                                             13
      Henslow,                                                         20
      Lincoln,                                                         30
      Savanna,                                                         12
      Song,                                                            13
      Swamp,                                                           18
      Tree,                                                            13
      Vesper,                                                          17
      White-crowned,                                                   19
      White-throated,                                                  16
  Swallow, Barn,                                                       18
      Tree,                                                            16
  Swift, Chimney,                                                      21
  Tanager, Scarlet,                                                    25
      Summer,                                                          23
  Teal, Blue-winged,                                                   47
      Green-winged,                                                    47
  Tern, Common,                                                        45
  Thrasher, Brown,                                                     19
  Thrush, Gray-cheeked,                                                31
      Hermit,                                                          15
      Olive-backed,                                                    21
      Wilson,                                                          18
      Wood,                                                            22
  Towhee,                                                              13
  Vireo, Blue-headed,                                                  26
      Red-eyed,                                                        24
      Warbling,                                                        26
      Yellow-throated,                                                 25
  Warbler, Bay-breasted,                                               27
      Blackburnian,                                                    24
      Black-poll,                                                      29
      Black-throated Blue,                                             26
      Black-throated Green,                                            21
      Blue Golden-winged,                                              28
      Canadian,                                                        30
      Cape May,                                                        25
      Cerulean,                                                        29
      Chestnut-sided,                                                  28
      Connecticut,                                                     31
      Hooded,                                                          29
      Magnolia,                                                        23
      Mourning,                                                        28
      Myrtle,                                                          17
      Nashville,                                                       26
      Palm,                                                            19
      Parula,                                                          27
      Pine,                                                            20
      Prothonotary,                                                    28
      Tennessee,                                                       28
      Wilson Black-cap,                                                30
      Yellow,                                                          23
  Water-Thrush, Grinnell,                                              20
      Louisiana,                                                       22
  Waxwing, Cedar,                                                      18
  Whip-poor-will,                                                      29
  Woodcock, American,                                                  51
  Woodpecker, Downy,                                                   14
      Hairy,                                                           16
      Red-bellied,                                                     31
      Red-headed,                                                      21
  Wren, House,                                                         19
      Long-billed Marsh,                                               27
      Winter,                                                          17
  Yellow-throat, Western,                                              22

  Colored plates, 7-1/2 x 9-1/2 inches in size, of all the birds
mentioned in this little book, except numbers 50, 53, 61, 63, 105, 106,
113, 115, 122, 142 and 143, will be sent by the publishers at 2 cents
each, or a portfolio of 134 pictures for $2.00. Both book and pictures,
if ordered together, $2.25.

                  A. W. Mumford & Company, Publishers
                           378 Wabash Avenue
                             Chicago, Ill.



             Transcriber's notes to the Electronic Edition


--Spelling, capitalization, and punctuation of bird names was made
  consistent (_e.g._, "Redhead" _vs._ "Red-head" _vs._ "Redheaded"). All
  spelling changes were justified by usage elsewhere in the text.
  Unambiguous abbreviated names ("American Sparrow Hawk" _vs._ "Sparrow
  Hawk") were not changed.

--Note that the "Yellow Warbler" is also once called "Summer Warbler".

--The "Canvas-back Duck" was, apparently unintentionally,  omitted from
  the bird list, but is referenced several times in the text.

--Two tables, the "Identification Key" and "Tables of Arrival", were
  reformatted for vertical scrolling.

--In the ASCII text file, an * (asterisk) indicates that the following
  bird name or number was printed in *bold font.





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